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Sample records for vocal pitch height

  1. Facial expression and vocal pitch height: Evidence of an intermodal association

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huron, David; Dahl, Sofia; Johnson, Randolph

    2009-01-01

    Forty-four participants were asked to sing moderate, high, and low  pitches while their faces were photographed. In a two-alternative forced choice task,  independent judges selected the high-pitch faces as more friendly than the low-pitch  faces. When photographs were cropped to show only the ey...... eyebrow position and sung pitch—consistent with the role of eyebrows in signaling aggression and appeasement. Overall, the results are consistent with an inter-modal linkage between vocal and facial expressions....... region, judges still rated the high-pitch faces friendlier than the low-pitch faces. These results are consistent with prior research showing that vocal pitch height is used to signal aggression (low pitch) or appeasement (high pitch). An analysis of the facial features shows a strong correlation between...

  2. Influence of Pitch Height on the Perception of Submissiveness and Threat in Musical Passages

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    David Huron

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Bolinger, Ohala, Morton and others have established that vocal pitch height is perceived to be associated with social signals of dominance and submissiveness: higher vocal pitch is associated with submissiveness, whereas lower vocal pitch is associated with social dominance. An experiment was carried out to test this relationship in the perception of non-vocal melodies. Results show a parallel situation in music: higher-pitched melodies sound more submissive (less threatening than lower-pitched melodies.

  3. Vocal Pitch Shift in Congenital Amusia (Pitch Deafness)

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    Hutchins, Sean; Peretz, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether congenital amusics, who exhibit pitch perception deficits, nevertheless adjust the pitch of their voice in response to a sudden pitch shift applied to vocal feedback. Nine amusics and matched controls imitated their own previously-recorded speech or singing, while the online feedback they received was shifted mid-utterance by 25…

  4. Octave Bias in Pitch Perception: The Influence of Pitch Height on Pitch Class Identification.

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    Prpic, Valter; Murgia, Mauro; De Tommaso, Matteo; Boschetti, Giulia; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2016-09-01

    Pitch height and pitch class are different, but strictly related, percepts of music tones. To investigate the influence of pitch height in a pitch class identification task, we systematically analyzed the errors-in terms of direction and amount-committed by a group of musicians. The aim of our study was to verify the existence of constant errors in the identification of pitch classes across consecutive octaves. Stimuli were single piano tones from the C major scale executed in two consecutive octaves. Participants showed different response patterns in the two octaves. The direction of errors revealed a constant tendency to underestimate pitch classes in the lowest octave and to overestimate pitch classes in the highest octave. Thus, pitch height showed to influence pitch class identification. We called this bias "pitch class polarization", since the same pitch class was judged to be respectively lower and higher, depending on relatively low or high pitch height. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. The mental space of pitch height.

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    Rusconi, Elena; Kwan, Bonnie; Giordano, Bruno; Umiltà, Carlo; Butterworth, Brian

    2005-12-01

    Through stimulus-response compatibility we tested whether sound frequency (pitch height) elicits a mental spatial representation. Musically untrained and, mostly, trained participants were shown a stimulus-response compatibility effect (Spatial-Musical Association of Response Codes or SMARC effect). When response alternatives were either vertically or horizontally aligned, performance was better when the lower (or leftward) button had to be pressed in response to a low sound and the upper (or rightward) button had to be pressed in response to a high sound, even when pitch height was irrelevant to the task.

  6. Vocal perfection in yodelling--pitch stabilities and transition times.

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    Echternach, Matthias; Richter, Bernhard

    2010-04-01

    Yodelling is a special kind of vocal performance in traditional music which consists of rapid and repeated changes in pitch. It is assumed that these pitch changes are accompanied by register changes. We analysed, using the laryngograph, yodelling on different vowels by four professional yodelling teachers (two male, two female), four professional classically trained singers, and four untrained voices. Results reveal that pitch changes in yodelling are associated with decrease of electroglottograpgic (EGG) contact quotient for the upper pitch, indicating a register shift. Furthermore, in contrast to untrained voices, for the yodellers lower and upper pitches were more stable with respect to fundamental frequency and perturbation values, and the pitch transitions were faster.

  7. Spatial Representation of Pitch Height: The SMARC Effect

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    Rusconi, Elena; Kwan, Bonnie; Giordano, Bruno L.; Umilta, Carlo; Butterworth, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Through the preferential pairing of response positions to pitch, here we show that the internal representation of pitch height is spatial in nature and affects performance, especially in musically trained participants, when response alternatives are either vertically or horizontally aligned. The finding that our cognitive system maps pitch height…

  8. Sensorimotor control of vocal pitch production in Parkinson's disease.

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    Chen, Xi; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Wang, Emily Q; Chen, Ling; Li, Weifeng; Chen, Zhaocong; Liu, Hanjun

    2013-08-21

    The present study was designed to investigate the sensorimotor control of voice fundamental frequency (F0) in individuals with Parkinson's diseases (PD). Fifteen Cantonese individuals with PD, and fifteen age- and sex-matched healthy Cantonese individuals participated in the experiment. Participants were asked to vocalize a vowel sound while hearing their voice auditory feedback unexpectedly pitch-shifted upwards or downwards through headphones. The size of pitch shifts varied from 50, 100, to 200 cents. One novel averaging method was used to categorize the individual trials such that only those trials that opposed the perturbation direction were averaged to generate an overall response. The results showed that Cantonese individuals with PD produced significantly larger magnitudes of vocal compensation for pitch perturbations than healthy participants. Both groups showed systematic changes in compensation magnitude as a function of perturbation size and direction: larger perturbation size or upward direction elicited greater compensation magnitude. Moreover, pitch variability indexed by the standard deviations of the baseline F0 was significantly correlated with the magnitude of vocal compensation in individuals with PD, whereas this correlation failed to reach significance for healthy participants. This study presents the first data demonstrating the abnormal processing of auditory feedback in the sensorimotor control of voice F0 for Cantonese individuals with PD. It is suggested that the abnormal sensorimotor integration of voice F0 control in PD may be caused by the increased weighting of auditory feedback control resulting from dysfunction of feedforward control and somatosensory feedback caused by the impairment of the basal ganglia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Left-hemisphere activation is associated with enhanced vocal pitch error detection in musicians with absolute pitch.

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    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Ibrahim, Nadine; Korzyukov, Oleg; Robin, Donald A; Larson, Charles R

    2014-02-01

    The ability to process auditory feedback for vocal pitch control is crucial during speaking and singing. Previous studies have suggested that musicians with absolute pitch (AP) develop specialized left-hemisphere mechanisms for pitch processing. The present study adopted an auditory feedback pitch perturbation paradigm combined with ERP recordings to test the hypothesis whether the neural mechanisms of the left-hemisphere enhance vocal pitch error detection and control in AP musicians compared with relative pitch (RP) musicians and non-musicians (NM). Results showed a stronger N1 response to pitch-shifted voice feedback in the right-hemisphere for both AP and RP musicians compared with the NM group. However, the left-hemisphere P2 component activation was greater in AP and RP musicians compared with NMs and also for the AP compared with RP musicians. The NM group was slower in generating compensatory vocal reactions to feedback pitch perturbation compared with musicians, and they failed to re-adjust their vocal pitch after the feedback perturbation was removed. These findings suggest that in the earlier stages of cortical neural processing, the right hemisphere is more active in musicians for detecting pitch changes in voice feedback. In the later stages, the left-hemisphere is more active during the processing of auditory feedback for vocal motor control and seems to involve specialized mechanisms that facilitate pitch processing in the AP compared with RP musicians. These findings indicate that the left hemisphere mechanisms of AP ability are associated with improved auditory feedback pitch processing during vocal pitch control in tasks such as speaking or singing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pitch height modulates visual and haptic bisection performance in musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta eLega

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Consistent evidence suggests that pitch height may be represented in a spatial format, having both a vertical and an horizontal representation. The spatial representation of pitch height results into response compatibility effects for which high pitch tones are preferentially associated to up-right responses, and low pitch tones are preferentially associated to down-left responses (i.e., the SMARC effect, with the strength of these associations depending on individuals’ musical skills. In this study we investigated whether listening to tones of different pitch affects the representation of external space, as assessed in a visual and haptic line bisection paradigm, in musicians and non musicians. Low and high pitch tones affected the bisection performance in musicians differently, both when pitch was relevant and irrelevant for the task, and in both the visual and the haptic modality. No effect of pitch height was observed on the bisection performance of non musicians. Moreover, our data also show that musicians present a (supramodal rightward bisection bias in both the visual and the haptic modality, extending previous findings limited to the visual modality, and consistent with the idea that intense practice with musical notation and bimanual instrument training affects hemispheric lateralization.

  11. Vocal Attack Time of Different Pitch Levels and Vowels in Mandarin.

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    Zhang, Ruifeng; Baken, R J; Kong, Jiangping

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how vocal attack time (VAT) varies when young adults articulate the three vertex vowels in Mandarin Chinese at five linguistically unconstrained pitch levels. Sound pressure and electroglottographic signals were recorded simultaneously from 53 male and 53 female subjects saying sustained /A/, /i/, and /u/ at five equally spaced pitch heights, each being higher than the preceding one. Then analyses of means, variance, and correlation were performed to explore the relationships of VAT/pitch levels and VAT/vowels. Findings were As mean STs (semitone) increase linearly from levels 1 to 5, mean VATs decrease nonlinearly in a big group of subjects but increase nonlinearly in a small group of them. Based on the body-cover model of F0 control, data here lead to the guess that different people incline to use different strategies in increasing pitch height. When males, females, and males plus females are considered as a whole, average STs and VATs tend to be positively correlated among the three vertex vowels. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Singing ability is rooted in vocal-motor control of pitch.

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    Hutchins, Sean; Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline; Peretz, Isabelle

    2014-11-01

    The inability to vocally match a pitch can be caused by poor pitch perception or by poor vocal-motor control. Although previous studies have tried to examine the relationship between pitch perception and vocal production, they have failed to control for the timbre of the target to be matched. In the present study, we compare pitch-matching accuracy with an unfamiliar instrument (the slider) and with the voice, designed such that the slider plays back recordings of the participant's own voice. We also measured pitch accuracy in singing a familiar melody ("Happy Birthday") to assess the relationship between single-pitch-matching tasks and melodic singing. Our results showed that participants (all nonmusicians) were significantly better at matching recordings of their own voices with the slider than with their voice, indicating that vocal-motor control is an important limiting factor on singing ability. We also found significant correlations between the ability to sing a melody in tune and vocal pitch matching, but not pitch matching on the slider. Better melodic singers also tended to have higher quality voices (as measured by acoustic variables). These results provide important evidence about the role of vocal-motor control in poor singing ability and demonstrate that single-pitch-matching tasks can be useful in measuring general singing abilities.

  13. Vocal Responses in Heighted States of Arousal.

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    van Mersbergen, Miriam; Lyons, Patricia; Riegler, Danielle

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate electroglottography (EGG) contact quotient modulation with emotional state in the presence of increased arousal. A within-subject reversal paradigm using multiple experimental conditions. A total of 11 healthy undergraduate students underwent emotion induction with intermittent startles to increase physiologic arousal. During emotion induction, they vocalized on the vowel /u/ while EGG was recorded. EGG contact quotient was significantly greater for negative emotions compared with positive emotions with increased arousal commensurate with past research. In addition, overall EGG contact quotient was greater with elevated arousal. However, the effect sizes were small. EGG contact quotient appears to increase with elevated arousal and be greater for negative mood states than positive mood states confirming that emotion states directly influence vocal functioning. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Vocal Pitch and Intensity Effects on Vowel Spectral Noise Level in Condition of Vocal Fatigue

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    Fisher, Kimberly Vogt

    The proliferation of quick methods for analyzing vocal signals has made acoustic voice measurement more practical for clinical application. One measure of interest is the acoustic vowel spectral noise level (SNL). For vowel SNL measurements to be clinically meaningful, however, it is necessary to understand what variables may affect them. For this study, vocal fundamental frequency (f _{rm o}) and phonation intensity effects on vowel /a/^ectral noise level (SNL) for adult females with (N = 10) and without (N = 8) formal singing training were studied. The effects of loud, high-pitched oral reading on SNL were also investigated. Results showed that mean SNL diminished as phonation intensity increased from low to high for both subject groups' phonations at controlled low f_{rm o}. At controlled high f_ {rm o}, however, significant SNL differences across intensities were revealed within the non-singer group only. Here it appeared that the mean SNL diminished as the non-singer group increased phonation intensity, but remained unchanged for the singer-group. For both subject groups' controlled low f _{rm o} phonations, mean SNL increased following 15 minutes of loud, high-pitched oral reading but decreased to pre-reading level following a 1-hour vocal rest period. No SNL differences before -reading, after-reading or after-rest reached significance when subjects phonated at controlled high f_ {rm o}. Results also showed an inverse relationship between f_{rm o} and vowel SNL, although the differences were not statistically tested. The observed trend for decreased SNL to accompany increased vocal f_{rm o}, however, confirms previous findings.

  15. Body height, immunity, facial and vocal attractiveness in young men

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    Skrinda, Ilona; Krama, Tatjana; Kecko, Sanita; Moore, Fhionna R.; Kaasik, Ants; Meija, Laila; Lietuvietis, Vilnis; Rantala, Markus J.; Krams, Indrikis

    2014-12-01

    Health, facial and vocal attributes and body height of men may affect a diverse range of social outcomes such as attractiveness to potential mates and competition for resources. Despite evidence that each parameter plays a role in mate choice, the relative role of each and inter-relationships between them, is still poorly understood. In this study, we tested relationships both between these parameters and with testosterone and immune function. We report positive relationships between testosterone with facial masculinity and attractiveness, and we found that facial masculinity predicted facial attractiveness and antibody response to a vaccine. Moreover, the relationship between antibody response to a hepatitis B vaccine and body height was found to be non-linear, with a positive relationship up to a height of 188 cm, but an inverse relationship in taller men. We found that vocal attractiveness was dependent upon vocal masculinity. The relationship between vocal attractiveness and body height was also non-linear, with a positive relationship of up to 178 cm, which then decreased in taller men. We did not find a significant relationship between body height and the fundamental frequency of vowel sounds provided by young men, while body height negatively correlated with the frequency of second formant. However, formant frequency was not associated with the strength of immune response. Our results demonstrate the potential of vaccination research to reveal costly traits that govern evolution of mate choice in humans and the importance of trade-offs among these traits.

  16. Body height, immunity, facial and vocal attractiveness in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrinda, Ilona; Krama, Tatjana; Kecko, Sanita; Moore, Fhionna R; Kaasik, Ants; Meija, Laila; Lietuvietis, Vilnis; Rantala, Markus J; Krams, Indrikis

    2014-12-01

    Health, facial and vocal attributes and body height of men may affect a diverse range of social outcomes such as attractiveness to potential mates and competition for resources. Despite evidence that each parameter plays a role in mate choice, the relative role of each and inter-relationships between them, is still poorly understood. In this study, we tested relationships both between these parameters and with testosterone and immune function. We report positive relationships between testosterone with facial masculinity and attractiveness, and we found that facial masculinity predicted facial attractiveness and antibody response to a vaccine. Moreover, the relationship between antibody response to a hepatitis B vaccine and body height was found to be non-linear, with a positive relationship up to a height of 188 cm, but an inverse relationship in taller men. We found that vocal attractiveness was dependent upon vocal masculinity. The relationship between vocal attractiveness and body height was also non-linear, with a positive relationship of up to 178 cm, which then decreased in taller men. We did not find a significant relationship between body height and the fundamental frequency of vowel sounds provided by young men, while body height negatively correlated with the frequency of second formant. However, formant frequency was not associated with the strength of immune response. Our results demonstrate the potential of vaccination research to reveal costly traits that govern evolution of mate choice in humans and the importance of trade-offs among these traits.

  17. A Bayesian Account of Vocal Adaptation to Pitch-Shifted Auditory Feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard H R Hahnloser

    Full Text Available Motor systems are highly adaptive. Both birds and humans compensate for synthetically induced shifts in the pitch (fundamental frequency of auditory feedback stemming from their vocalizations. Pitch-shift compensation is partial in the sense that large shifts lead to smaller relative compensatory adjustments of vocal pitch than small shifts. Also, compensation is larger in subjects with high motor variability. To formulate a mechanistic description of these findings, we adapt a Bayesian model of error relevance. We assume that vocal-auditory feedback loops in the brain cope optimally with known sensory and motor variability. Based on measurements of motor variability, optimal compensatory responses in our model provide accurate fits to published experimental data. Optimal compensation correctly predicts sensory acuity, which has been estimated in psychophysical experiments as just-noticeable pitch differences. Our model extends the utility of Bayesian approaches to adaptive vocal behaviors.

  18. Auditory feedback control of vocal pitch during sustained vocalization: a cross-sectional study of adult aging.

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    Peng Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Auditory feedback has been demonstrated to play an important role in the control of voice fundamental frequency (F(0, but the mechanisms underlying the processing of auditory feedback remain poorly understood. It has been well documented that young adults can use auditory feedback to stabilize their voice F(0 by making compensatory responses to perturbations they hear in their vocal pitch feedback. However, little is known about the effects of aging on the processing of audio-vocal feedback during vocalization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we recruited adults who were between 19 and 75 years of age and divided them into five age groups. Using a pitch-shift paradigm, the pitch of their vocal feedback was unexpectedly shifted ±50 or ±100 cents during sustained vocalization of the vowel sound/u/. Compensatory vocal F(0 response magnitudes and latencies to pitch feedback perturbations were examined. A significant effect of age was found such that response magnitudes increased with increasing age until maximal values were reached for adults 51-60 years of age and then decreased for adults 61-75 years of age. Adults 51-60 years of age were also more sensitive to the direction and magnitude of the pitch feedback perturbations compared to younger adults. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that the pitch-shift reflex systematically changes across the adult lifespan. Understanding aging-related changes to the role of auditory feedback is critically important for our theoretical understanding of speech production and the clinical applications of that knowledge.

  19. ERP Correlates of Language-Specific Processing of Auditory Pitch Feedback during Self-Vocalization

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    Chen, Zhaocong; Liu, Peng; Wang, Emily Q.; Larson, Charles R.; Huang, Dongfeng; Liu, Hanjun

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the neural correlates for auditory feedback control of vocal pitch can be shaped by tone language experience. Event-related potentials (P2/N1) were recorded from adult native speakers of Mandarin and Cantonese who heard their voice auditory feedback shifted in pitch by -50, -100, -200, or -500 cents when they…

  20. Sensory-motor interactions for vocal pitch monitoring in non-primary human auditory cortex.

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    Jeremy D W Greenlee

    Full Text Available The neural mechanisms underlying processing of auditory feedback during self-vocalization are poorly understood. One technique used to study the role of auditory feedback involves shifting the pitch of the feedback that a speaker receives, known as pitch-shifted feedback. We utilized a pitch shift self-vocalization and playback paradigm to investigate the underlying neural mechanisms of audio-vocal interaction. High-resolution electrocorticography (ECoG signals were recorded directly from auditory cortex of 10 human subjects while they vocalized and received brief downward (-100 cents pitch perturbations in their voice auditory feedback (speaking task. ECoG was also recorded when subjects passively listened to playback of their own pitch-shifted vocalizations. Feedback pitch perturbations elicited average evoked potential (AEP and event-related band power (ERBP responses, primarily in the high gamma (70-150 Hz range, in focal areas of non-primary auditory cortex on superior temporal gyrus (STG. The AEPs and high gamma responses were both modulated by speaking compared with playback in a subset of STG contacts. From these contacts, a majority showed significant enhancement of high gamma power and AEP responses during speaking while the remaining contacts showed attenuated response amplitudes. The speaking-induced enhancement effect suggests that engaging the vocal motor system can modulate auditory cortical processing of self-produced sounds in such a way as to increase neural sensitivity for feedback pitch error detection. It is likely that mechanisms such as efference copies may be involved in this process, and modulation of AEP and high gamma responses imply that such modulatory effects may affect different cortical generators within distinctive functional networks that drive voice production and control.

  1. The impact of vocal intensity and pitch modulation on nasalance scores: a pilot study.

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    Van Lierde, Kristiane M; Van Borsel, John; Cardinael, An; Reeckmans, Stephanie; Bonte, Katrien

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of pitch and intensity modulation on nasalance scores. A single-group pretest-posttest design was used in which subjects produced reading passages at different pitch and intensity levels. The Nasometer was used for the registration of nasalance scores in subjects with and without cleft palate. An increase in intensity in the non-cleft group resulted in a small but significant decrease in nasalance. Lowering the pitch level resulted in a small but significant decrease in nasalance scores for both the non-cleft and cleft palate subjects. The nasalance changes after vocal modulations during connected speech are reliable and not biased but the impact of these vocal changes on speech intelligibility and daily communication and the usefulness of these vocal modulations as part of a behavioral management program is not yet proven. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Selective and divided attention modulates auditory-vocal integration in the processing of pitch feedback errors.

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    Liu, Ying; Hu, Huijing; Jones, Jeffery A; Guo, Zhiqiang; Li, Weifeng; Chen, Xi; Liu, Peng; Liu, Hanjun

    2015-08-01

    Speakers rapidly adjust their ongoing vocal productions to compensate for errors they hear in their auditory feedback. It is currently unclear what role attention plays in these vocal compensations. This event-related potential (ERP) study examined the influence of selective and divided attention on the vocal and cortical responses to pitch errors heard in auditory feedback regarding ongoing vocalisations. During the production of a sustained vowel, participants briefly heard their vocal pitch shifted up two semitones while they actively attended to auditory or visual events (selective attention), or both auditory and visual events (divided attention), or were not told to attend to either modality (control condition). The behavioral results showed that attending to the pitch perturbations elicited larger vocal compensations than attending to the visual stimuli. Moreover, ERPs were likewise sensitive to the attentional manipulations: P2 responses to pitch perturbations were larger when participants attended to the auditory stimuli compared to when they attended to the visual stimuli, and compared to when they were not explicitly told to attend to either the visual or auditory stimuli. By contrast, dividing attention between the auditory and visual modalities caused suppressed P2 responses relative to all the other conditions and caused enhanced N1 responses relative to the control condition. These findings provide strong evidence for the influence of attention on the mechanisms underlying the auditory-vocal integration in the processing of pitch feedback errors. In addition, selective attention and divided attention appear to modulate the neurobehavioral processing of pitch feedback errors in different ways. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Sensitivity of the cortical pitch onset response to height, time-variance, and directionality of dynamic pitch.

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    Bidelman, Gavin M

    2015-08-31

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) demonstrate that human auditory cortical responses are sensitive to changes in static pitch as indexed by the pitch onset response (POR), a negativity generated at the initiation of acoustic periodicity. Yet, it is still unclear if this brain signature is sensitive to dynamic, time-varying properties of pitch more characteristic of those found in naturalistic speech and music. Neuroelectric PORs were recorded in response to contrastive pitch patterns differing in their pitch height, time-variance, and directionality (i.e., rise vs. fall). Broadband noise followed by contiguous iterated rippled noise (producing salient pitch sweeps) was used to temporally separate neural activity coding the onset of acoustic energy from the onset of time-varying pitch. Analysis of PORs revealed distinct modulations in response latency that distinguished static from time-varying pitch contours (steady-statepitch height (highpitch sweeps (rise=fall). Our findings suggest that the POR signature provides a useful neural index of auditory cortical pitch processing for some, but not all pitch-evoking stimuli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The influence of pitch and loudness changes on the acoustics of vocal tremor.

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    Dromey, Christopher; Warrick, Paul; Irish, Jonathan

    2002-10-01

    The effect of tremor on phonation is to modulate an otherwise steady sound source in its amplitude, fundamental frequency, or both. The severity of untreated vocal tremor has been reported to change under certain conditions that may be related to muscle tension. In order to better understand the phenomenon of vocal tremor, its acoustic properties were examined as individuals volitionally altered their pitch and loudness. These voice conditions were anticipated to alter the tension of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles. The voices of 10 individuals with a diagnosis of vocal tremor were recorded before participating in a longitudinal treatment study. They produced vowels at low and high pitch and loudness levels as well as in a comfortable voice condition. Acoustic analyses quantified the amplitude and frequency modulations of the speakers' voices across the various conditions. Individual speakers varied in the way the pitch and loudness changes affected their tremor, but the following statistically significant effects for the speakers as a group were observed: Higher pitch phonation was associated with a more rapid rate for both amplitude and frequency modulations. Amplitude modulation become faster for louder phonation. Low-pitched phonotion led to decreases in the extent of amplitude tremor. Varying pitch led to dramatic changes in the phase relationship between amplitude and frequency modulation in some of the speakers, whereas this effect was not apparent in other speakers.

  5. On drawing a line through the spectrogram: How do we understand deficits of vocal pitch imitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter ePfordresher

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a remarkable increase in research focusing on deficits of pitch production in singing. A critical concern has been the identification of poor pitch singers, which we refer to more generally as individuals having a vocal pitch imitation deficit (VPID. The present paper includes a critical assessment of the assumption that vocal pitch imitation abilities can be treated as a dichotomy. Though this practice may be useful for data analysis and may be necessary within educational practice, we argue that this approach is complicated by a series of problems. Moreover, we argue that a more informative (and less problematic approach comes from analyzing vocal pitch imitation abilities on a continuum, referred to as effect magnitude regression, and offer examples concerning how researchers may analyze data using this approach. We also argue that the understanding of this deficit may be better served by focusing on the effects of experimental manipulations on different individuals, rather than attempt to treat values of individual measures, and isolated tasks, as absolute measures of ability.

  6. On drawing a line through the spectrogram: how do we understand deficits of vocal pitch imitation?

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    Pfordresher, Peter Q; Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a remarkable increase in research focusing on deficits of pitch production in singing. A critical concern has been the identification of "poor pitch singers," which we refer to more generally as individuals having a "vocal pitch imitation deficit." The present paper includes a critical assessment of the assumption that vocal pitch imitation abilities can be treated as a dichotomy. Though this practice may be useful for data analysis and may be necessary within educational practice, we argue that this approach is complicated by a series of problems. Moreover, we argue that a more informative (and less problematic) approach comes from analyzing vocal pitch imitation abilities on a continuum, referred to as effect magnitude regression, and offer examples concerning how researchers may analyze data using this approach. We also argue that the understanding of this deficit may be better served by focusing on the effects of experimental manipulations on different individuals, rather than attempt to treat values of individual measures, and isolated tasks, as absolute measures of ability.

  7. On drawing a line through the spectrogram: how do we understand deficits of vocal pitch imitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a remarkable increase in research focusing on deficits of pitch production in singing. A critical concern has been the identification of “poor pitch singers,” which we refer to more generally as individuals having a “vocal pitch imitation deficit.” The present paper includes a critical assessment of the assumption that vocal pitch imitation abilities can be treated as a dichotomy. Though this practice may be useful for data analysis and may be necessary within educational practice, we argue that this approach is complicated by a series of problems. Moreover, we argue that a more informative (and less problematic) approach comes from analyzing vocal pitch imitation abilities on a continuum, referred to as effect magnitude regression, and offer examples concerning how researchers may analyze data using this approach. We also argue that the understanding of this deficit may be better served by focusing on the effects of experimental manipulations on different individuals, rather than attempt to treat values of individual measures, and isolated tasks, as absolute measures of ability. PMID:26029088

  8. Low Vocal Pitch Preference Drives First Impressions Irrespective of Context in Male Voices but Not in Female Voices.

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    Tsantani, Maria S; Belin, Pascal; Paterson, Helena M; McAleer, Phil

    2016-08-01

    Vocal pitch has been found to influence judgments of perceived trustworthiness and dominance from a novel voice. However, the majority of findings arise from using only male voices and in context-specific scenarios. In two experiments, we first explore the influence of average vocal pitch on first-impression judgments of perceived trustworthiness and dominance, before establishing the existence of an overall preference for high or low pitch across genders. In Experiment 1, pairs of high- and low-pitched temporally reversed recordings of male and female vocal utterances were presented in a two-alternative forced-choice task. Results revealed a tendency to select the low-pitched voice over the high-pitched voice as more trustworthy, for both genders, and more dominant, for male voices only. Experiment 2 tested an overall preference for low-pitched voices, and whether judgments were modulated by speech content, using forward and reversed speech to manipulate context. Results revealed an overall preference for low pitch, irrespective of direction of speech, in male voices only. No such overall preference was found for female voices. We propose that an overall preference for low pitch is a default prior in male voices irrespective of context, whereas pitch preferences in female voices are more context- and situation-dependent. The present study confirms the important role of vocal pitch in the formation of first-impression personality judgments and advances understanding of the impact of context on pitch preferences across genders.

  9. Attentional demands influence vocal compensations to pitch errors heard in auditory feedback.

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    Tumber, Anupreet K; Scheerer, Nichole E; Jones, Jeffery A

    2014-01-01

    Auditory feedback is required to maintain fluent speech. At present, it is unclear how attention modulates auditory feedback processing during ongoing speech. In this event-related potential (ERP) study, participants vocalized/a/, while they heard their vocal pitch suddenly shifted downward a ½ semitone in both single and dual-task conditions. During the single-task condition participants passively viewed a visual stream for cues to start and stop vocalizing. In the dual-task condition, participants vocalized while they identified target stimuli in a visual stream of letters. The presentation rate of the visual stimuli was manipulated in the dual-task condition in order to produce a low, intermediate, and high attentional load. Visual target identification accuracy was lowest in the high attentional load condition, indicating that attentional load was successfully manipulated. Results further showed that participants who were exposed to the single-task condition, prior to the dual-task condition, produced larger vocal compensations during the single-task condition. Thus, when participants' attention was divided, less attention was available for the monitoring of their auditory feedback, resulting in smaller compensatory vocal responses. However, P1-N1-P2 ERP responses were not affected by divided attention, suggesting that the effect of attentional load was not on the auditory processing of pitch altered feedback, but instead it interfered with the integration of auditory and motor information, or motor control itself.

  10. Opposing and following vocal responses to pitch-shifted auditory feedback: evidence for different mechanisms of voice pitch control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Korzyukov, Oleg; Sattler, Lindsey; Larson, Charles R

    2012-10-01

    The present study describes a technique for analysis of vocal responses to auditory feedback pitch perturbations in which individual trials are first sorted according to response direction and then separately averaged in groups of upward or downward responses. In experiment 1, the stimulus direction was predictable (all upward) but magnitude was randomized between +100, +200, or +500 cents (unpredictable). Results showed that pitch-shift stimuli (PSS) of +100 and +200 cents elicited significantly larger opposing (compensatory) responses than +500 cent stimuli, but no such effect was observed for "following" responses. In experiment 2, subjects were tested in three blocks of trials where for the first two, PSS magnitude and direction were predictable (block 1+100 and block 2-100 cents), and in block 3, the magnitude was predictable (±100 cents) but direction was randomized (upward or downward). Results showed there were slightly more opposing than following responses for predictable PSS direction, but randomized directions led to significantly more opposing than following responses. Results suggest that predictability of stimulus direction and magnitude can modulate vocal responses to feedback pitch perturbations. The function and causes of the opposing and following responses are unknown, but there may be two different neural mechanisms involved in their production.

  11. Effect of performance time of the high-pitched blowing vocal exercise in the voice of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Fabíola Santos; Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes

    2017-02-16

    To analyze the results of the runtimes of one, three, five, and seven minutes of the high-pitched blowing vocal exercise in women without voice complaints and with dysphonia and vocal nodules. This is an experimental study with a consecutive and convenience sample of 60 women divided into two groups: 30 participants with dysphonia caused by vocal fold nodules (study group - SG) and 30 participants without vocal complaints (control group - CG). All participants performed the high-pitched blowing vocal exercise for one, three, five, and seven minutes. Sustained vowels /a/ and counting from one to ten were recorded before and after each exercise runtime. The recordings were randomized and evaluated by comparison task by four speech-language pathologists using the parameters grade of vocal deviation, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, strain and instability (GRBASI). The acoustic parameters analyzed were fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, period perturbation quotient, amplitude perturbation quotient, and harmonics-to-noise ratio. After each vocal exercise runtime, the participants responded whether they had felt vocal discomfort using a visual analogue scale. Auditory-perceptual analysis in the SG showed improved overall severity of dysphonia and breathiness after three minutes and worsening of these acoustic parameters after seven minutes of exercise performance. Participants in the SG reported self-perception of vocal discomfort after seven minutes of exercise performance. The ideal prescription time for the high-pitched blowing vocal exercise in dysphonic women is three minutes; worsening of voice quality and perception of vocal discomfort occurs after seven minutes.

  12. In situ vocal fold properties and pitch prediction by dynamic actuation of the songbird syrinx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Düring, Daniel N; Knörlein, Benjamin J; Elemans, Coen P H

    2017-01-01

    , forces and torques exerted on, and motion of the syringeal skeleton during song. Here, we present a novel marker-based 3D stereoscopic imaging technique to reconstruct 3D motion of servo-controlled actuation of syringeal muscle insertions sites in vitro and focus on two muscles controlling sound pitch...... motion and forces, acoustic effects of muscle recruitment, and calibration of computational birdsong models, enabling experimental access to the entire neuromechanical control loop of vocal motor control....

  13. Vocal and Neural Responses to Unexpected Changes in Voice Pitch Auditory Feedback During Register Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sona; Lodhavia, Anjli; Frankford, Saul; Korzyukov, Oleg; Larson, Charles R

    2016-11-01

    It is known that singers are able to control their voice to maintain a relatively constant vocal quality while transitioning between vocal registers; however, the neural mechanisms underlying this effect are not understood. It was hypothesized that greater attention to the acoustical feedback of the voice and increased control of the vocal musculature during register transitions compared with singing within a register would be represented as neurological differences in event-related potentials. Nine singers sang musical notes at the high end of the modal register (the boundary between the modal and the head/falsetto registers) and at the low end (the boundary between the modal and the fry/pulse registers). While singing, the pitch of the voice auditory feedback was unexpectedly shifted either into the adjacent register ("toward" the register boundary) or within the modal register ("away from" the boundary). Singers were instructed to maintain a constant pitch and ignore any changes to their voice feedback. Vocal response latencies and magnitude of the accompanying N1 and P2 event-related potentials were greatest at the lower (modal-to-fry) boundary when the pitch shift carried the subjects' voices into the fry register as opposed to remaining within the modal register. These findings suggest that when a singer lowers the pitch of his or her voice such that it enters the fry register from the modal register, there is increased sensory-motor control of the voice, reflected as increased magnitude of the neural potentials to help minimize qualitative changes in the voice. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Vocal and neural responses to unexpected changes in voice pitch auditory feedback during register transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sona; Lodhavia, Anjli; Frankford, Saul; Korzyukov, Oleg; Larson, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective/Hypothesis It is known that singers are able to control their voice to maintain a relatively constant vocal quality while transitioning between vocal registers; however, the neural mechanisms underlying this effect are not understood. It was hypothesized that greater attention to the acoustical feedback of the voice and increased control of the vocal musculature during register transitions compared to singing within a register would be represented as neurological differences in event-related potentials (ERPs). Study Design/Methods Nine singers sang musical notes at the high end of the modal register (the boundary between the modal and head/falsetto registers) and at the low end (the boundary between the modal and fry/pulse registers). While singing, the pitch of the voice auditory feedback was unexpectedly shifted either into the adjacent register (“toward” the register boundary) or within the modal register (“away from” the boundary). Singers were instructed to maintain a constant pitch and ignore any changes to their voice feedback. Results Vocal response latencies and magnitude of the accompanying N1 and P2 ERPs were greatest at the lower (modal-fry) boundary when the pitch shift carried the subjects’ voices into the fry register as opposed to remaining within the modal register. Conclusions These findings suggest that when a singer lowers the pitch of their voice such that it enters the fry register from the modal register, there is increased sensory-motor control of the voice, reflected as increased magnitude of the neural potentials to help minimize qualitative changes in the voice. PMID:26739860

  15. Functional role of delta and theta band oscillations for auditory feedback processing during vocal pitch motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Ibrahim, Nadine; Korzyukov, Oleg; Robin, Donald A; Larson, Charles R

    2015-01-01

    The answer to the question of how the brain incorporates sensory feedback and links it with motor function to achieve goal-directed movement during vocalization remains unclear. We investigated the mechanisms of voice pitch motor control by examining the spectro-temporal dynamics of EEG signals when non-musicians (NM), relative pitch (RP), and absolute pitch (AP) musicians maintained vocalizations of a vowel sound and received randomized ± 100 cents pitch-shift stimuli in their auditory feedback. We identified a phase-synchronized (evoked) fronto-central activation within the theta band (5-8 Hz) that temporally overlapped with compensatory vocal responses to pitch-shifted auditory feedback and was significantly stronger in RP and AP musicians compared with non-musicians. A second component involved a non-phase-synchronized (induced) frontal activation within the delta band (1-4 Hz) that emerged at approximately 1 s after the stimulus onset. The delta activation was significantly stronger in the NM compared with RP and AP groups and correlated with the pitch rebound error (PRE), indicating the degree to which subjects failed to re-adjust their voice pitch to baseline after the stimulus offset. We propose that the evoked theta is a neurophysiological marker of enhanced pitch processing in musicians and reflects mechanisms by which humans incorporate auditory feedback to control their voice pitch. We also suggest that the delta activation reflects adaptive neural processes by which vocal production errors are monitored and used to update the state of sensory-motor networks for driving subsequent vocal behaviors. This notion is corroborated by our findings showing that larger PREs were associated with greater delta band activity in the NM compared with RP and AP groups. These findings provide new insights into the neural mechanisms of auditory feedback processing for vocal pitch motor control.

  16. Functional role of delta and theta band oscillations for auditory feedback processing during vocal pitch motor control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roozbeh eBehroozmand

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The answer to the question of how the brain incorporates sensory feedback and links it with motor function to achieve goal-directed movement during vocalization remains unclear. We investigated the mechanisms of voice pitch motor control by examining the spectro-temporal dynamics of EEG signals when non-musicians (NM, relative pitch (RP and absolute pitch (AP musicians maintained vocalizations of a vowel sound and received randomized ±100 cents pitch-shift stimuli in their auditory feedback. We identified a phase-synchronized (evoked fronto-central activation within the theta band (5-8 Hz that temporally overlapped with compensatory vocal responses to pitch-shifted auditory feedback and was significantly stronger in RP and AP musicians compared with non-musicians. A second component involved a non-phase-synchronized (induced frontal activation within the delta band (1-4 Hz that emerged at approximately 1 second after the stimulus onset. The delta activation was significantly stronger in the NM compared with RP and AP groups and correlated with the pitch rebound error (PRE, indicating the degree to which subjects failed to re-adjust their voice pitch to baseline after the stimulus offset. We propose that the evoked theta is a neurophysiological marker of enhanced pitch processing in musicians and reflects mechanisms by which humans incorporate auditory feedback to control their voice pitch. We also suggest that the delta activation reflects adaptive neural processes by which vocal production errors are monitored and used to update the state of sensory-motor networks for driving subsequent vocal behaviors. This notion is corroborated by our findings showing that larger PREs were associated with greater delta band activity in the NM compared with RP and AP groups. These findings provide new insights into the neural mechanisms of auditory feedback processing for vocal pitch motor control.

  17. A lover or a fighter? Opposing sexual selection pressures on men's vocal pitch and facial hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, Tamsin K; Mackey, Lauren L; McCarty, Kristofor; Neave, Nick

    2016-01-01

    The traditional assumption within the research literature on human sexually dimorphic traits has been that many sex differences have arisen from intersexual selection. More recently, however, there has been a shift toward the idea that many male features, including male lower-pitched voices and male beard growth, might have arisen predominantly through intrasexual selection: that is, to serve the purpose of male-male competition instead of mate attraction. In this study, using a unique set of video stimuli, we measured people's perceptions of the dominance and attractiveness of men who differ both in terms of voice pitch (4 levels from lower to higher pitched) and beard growth (4 levels from clean shaven to a month's hair growth). We found a nonlinear relationship between lower pitch and increased attractiveness; men's vocal attractiveness peaked at around 96 Hz. Beard growth had equivocal effects on attractiveness judgments. In contrast, perceptions of men's dominance simply increased with increasing masculinity (i.e., with lower-pitched voices and greater beard growth). Together, these results suggest that the optimal level of physical masculinity might differ depending on whether the outcome is social dominance or mate attraction. These dual selection pressures might maintain some of the documented variability in male physical and behavioral masculinity that we see today.

  18. Absence of modulatory action on haptic height perception with musical pitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eGeronazzo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although acoustic frequency is not a spatial property of physical objects, in common language, pitch, i.e., the psychological correlated of frequency, is often labeled spatially (i.e., high in pitch or low in pitch. Pitch-height is known to modulate (and interact with the response of participants when they are asked to judge spatial properties of non-auditory stimuli (e.g., visual in a variety of behavioral tasks. In the current study we investigated whether the modulatory action of pitch-height extended to the haptic estimation of height of a virtual step.We implemented a HW/SW setup which is able to render virtual 3D objects (stair-steps haptically through a PHANTOM device, and to provide real-time continuous auditory feedback depending on the user interaction with the object. The haptic exploration was associated with a sinusoidal tone whose pitch varied as a function of the interaction point’s height within (i a narrower and (ii a wider pitch range, or (iii a random pitch variation acting as a control audio condition. Explorations were also performed with no sound (haptic only. Participants were instructed to explore the virtual step freely, and to communicate height estimation by opening their thumb and index finger to mimic the step riser height, or verbally by reporting the height in centimeters of the step riser. We analyzed the role of musical expertise by dividing participants into non musicians and musicians. Results showed no effects of musical pitch on high-realistic haptic feedback. Overall there is no difference between the two groups in the proposed multimodal conditions. Additionally, we observed a different haptic response distribution between musicians and non musicians when estimations of the auditory conditions are matched with estimations in the no sound condition.

  19. An Improved Manufacturing Approach for Discrete Silicon Microneedle Arrays with Tunable Height-Pitch Ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Renxin Wang; Wei Wang(College of William and Mary); Zhihong Li

    2016-01-01

    Silicon microneedle arrays (MNAs) have been widely studied due to their potential in various transdermal applications. However, discrete MNAs, as a preferred choice to fabricate flexible penetrating devices that could adapt curved and elastic tissue, are rarely reported. Furthermore, the reported discrete MNAs have disadvantages lying in uniformity and height-pitch ratio. Therefore, an improved technique is developed to manufacture discrete MNA with tunable height-pitch ratio, which involves ...

  20. The Effect of Timbre and Vibrato on Vocal Pitch Matching Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvvuru, Sirisha

    Research has shown that singers are better able to match pitch when the target stimulus has a timbre close to their own voice. This study seeks to answer the following questions: (1) Do classically trained female singers more accurately match pitch when the target stimulus is more similar to their own timbre? (2) Does the ability to match pitch vary with increasing pitch? (3) Does the ability to match pitch differ depending on whether the target stimulus is produced with or without vibrato? (4) Are mezzo sopranos less accurate than sopranos? Stimuli. Source signals were synthesized with a source slope of -12dB/octave using vibrato and without vibrato at each of the frequencies, C4, B4 and F5. These source signals were filtered using 5 formant patterns (A-E) of vowel /a/ constituting a total of 30 stimuli (5 formant patterns*3pitches*2 vibrato conditions). Procedure. Ten sopranos and 10 mezzo-sopranos with at least 3 years of individual voice training were recruited from the University Of Tennessee School Of Music and the Knoxville Opera Company. Each singer attempted to vocally match the pitch of all 30 stimuli presented twice in a random order. Analysis and results. Pitch matching accuracy was measured in terms of the difference in cents between the target and the experimental productions at two locations, (1) pre-phonatory set (2) mid-point of the vowel. Accuracy of pitch matching was compared across vibrato and non-vibrato conditions. Results indicated that there was no significant effect of formant pattern on pitch matching accuracy. With increasing pitch from C4 to F5, pitch matching accuracy increased in mid-point of the vowel condition but not in pre-phonatory set condition. Mezzo-sopranos moved towards being in tune from pre-phonatory to mid-point of the vowel. However, sopranos at C4, sang closer to being in tune at pre-phonatory, but lowered the pitch at the mid-point of the vowel. Presence or absence of vibrato did not affect the pitch matching accuracy

  1. Changes in pitch height elicit both language-universal and language-dependent changes in neural representation of pitch in the brainstem and auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Suresh, Chandan H; Gandour, Jackson T

    2017-03-27

    Language experience shapes encoding of pitch-relevant information at both brainstem and cortical levels of processing. Pitch height is a salient dimension that orders pitch from low to high. Herein we investigate the effects of language experience (Chinese, English) in the brainstem and cortex on (i) neural responses to variations in pitch height, (ii) presence of asymmetry in cortical pitch representation, and (iii) patterns of relative changes in magnitude of pitch height between these two levels of brain structure. Stimuli were three nonspeech homologs of Mandarin Tone 2 varying in pitch height only. The frequency-following response (FFR) and the cortical pitch-specific response (CPR) were recorded concurrently. At the Fz-linked T7/T8 site, peak latency of Na, Pb, and Nb decreased with increasing pitch height for both groups. Peak-to-peak amplitude of Na-Pb and Pb-Nb increased with increasing pitch height across groups. A language-dependent effect was restricted to Na-Pb; the Chinese had larger amplitude than the English group. At temporal sites (T7/T8), the Chinese group had larger amplitude, as compared to English, across stimuli, but also limited to the Na-Pb component and right temporal site. In the brainstem, F0 magnitude decreased with increasing pitch height; Chinese had larger magnitude across stimuli. A comparison of CPR and FFR responses revealed distinct patterns of relative changes in magnitude common to both groups. CPR amplitude increased and FFR amplitude decreased with increasing pitch height. Experience-dependent effects on CPR components vary as a function of neural sensitivity to pitch height within a particular temporal window (Na-Pb). Differences between the auditory brainstem and cortex imply distinct neural mechanisms for pitch extraction at both levels of brain structure. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Discrimination of Voice Pitch and Vocal-Tract Length in Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudrain, Etienne; Başkent, Deniz

    2017-08-09

    When listening to two competing speakers, normal-hearing (NH) listeners can take advantage of voice differences between the speakers. Users of cochlear implants (CIs) have difficulty in perceiving speech on speech. Previous literature has indicated sensitivity to voice pitch (related to fundamental frequency, F0) to be poor among implant users, while sensitivity to vocal-tract length (VTL; related to the height of the speaker and formant frequencies), the other principal voice characteristic, has not been directly investigated in CIs. A few recent studies evaluated F0 and VTL perception indirectly, through voice gender categorization, which relies on perception of both voice cues. These studies revealed that, contrary to prior literature, CI users seem to rely exclusively on F0 while not utilizing VTL to perform this task. The objective of the present study was to directly and systematically assess raw sensitivity to F0 and VTL differences in CI users to define the extent of the deficit in voice perception. The just-noticeable differences (JNDs) for F0 and VTL were measured in 11 CI listeners using triplets of consonant-vowel syllables in an adaptive three-alternative forced choice method. The results showed that while NH listeners had average JNDs of 1.95 and 1.73 semitones (st) for F0 and VTL, respectively, CI listeners showed JNDs of 9.19 and 7.19 st. These JNDs correspond to differences of 70% in F0 and 52% in VTL. For comparison to the natural range of voices in the population, the F0 JND in CIs remains smaller than the typical male-female F0 difference. However, the average VTL JND in CIs is about twice as large as the typical male-female VTL difference. These findings, thus, directly confirm that CI listeners do not seem to have sufficient access to VTL cues, likely as a result of limited spectral resolution, and, hence, that CI listeners' voice perception deficit goes beyond poor perception of F0. These results provide a potential common explanation not

  3. Are Vocal Pitch Changes in Response to Facial Expressions of Emotions Potential Cues of Empathy? A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Sethu; Ramachandra, Vijayachandra

    2017-04-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that even brief exposures to facial expressions of emotions elicit facial mimicry in receivers in the form of corresponding facial muscle movements. As well, vocal and verbal patterns of speakers converge in conversations, a type of vocal mimicry. There is also evidence of cross-modal mimicry in which emotional vocalizations elicit corresponding facial muscle activity. Further, empathic capacity has been associated with enhanced tendency towards facial mimicry as well as verbal synchrony. We investigated a type of potential cross-modal mimicry in a simulated dyadic situation. Specifically, we examined the influence of facial expressions of happy, sad, and neutral emotions on the vocal pitch of receivers, and its potential association with empathy. Results indicated that whereas both mean pitch and variability of pitch varied somewhat in the predicted directions, empathy was correlated with the difference in the variability of pitch while speaking to the sad and neutral faces. Discussion of results considers the dimensional nature of emotional vocalizations and possible future directions.

  4. Transfer Effect of Speech-sound Learning on Auditory-motor Processing of Perceived Vocal Pitch Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaocong; Wong, Francis C K; Jones, Jeffery A; Li, Weifeng; Liu, Peng; Chen, Xi; Liu, Hanjun

    2015-08-17

    Speech perception and production are intimately linked. There is evidence that speech motor learning results in changes to auditory processing of speech. Whether speech motor control benefits from perceptual learning in speech, however, remains unclear. This event-related potential study investigated whether speech-sound learning can modulate the processing of feedback errors during vocal pitch regulation. Mandarin speakers were trained to perceive five Thai lexical tones while learning to associate pictures with spoken words over 5 days. Before and after training, participants produced sustained vowel sounds while they heard their vocal pitch feedback unexpectedly perturbed. As compared to the pre-training session, the magnitude of vocal compensation significantly decreased for the control group, but remained consistent for the trained group at the post-training session. However, the trained group had smaller and faster N1 responses to pitch perturbations and exhibited enhanced P2 responses that correlated significantly with their learning performance. These findings indicate that the cortical processing of vocal pitch regulation can be shaped by learning new speech-sound associations, suggesting that perceptual learning in speech can produce transfer effects to facilitating the neural mechanisms underlying the online monitoring of auditory feedback regarding vocal production.

  5. An Improved Manufacturing Approach for Discrete Silicon Microneedle Arrays with Tunable Height-Pitch Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Renxin; Wang, Wei; Li, Zhihong

    2016-10-09

    Silicon microneedle arrays (MNAs) have been widely studied due to their potential in various transdermal applications. However, discrete MNAs, as a preferred choice to fabricate flexible penetrating devices that could adapt curved and elastic tissue, are rarely reported. Furthermore, the reported discrete MNAs have disadvantages lying in uniformity and height-pitch ratio. Therefore, an improved technique is developed to manufacture discrete MNA with tunable height-pitch ratio, which involves KOH-dicing-KOH process. The detailed process is sketched and simulated to illustrate the formation of microneedles. Furthermore, the undercutting of convex mask in two KOH etching steps are mathematically analyzed, in order to reveal the relationship between etching depth and mask dimension. Subsequently, fabrication results demonstrate KOH-dicing-KOH process. {321} facet is figured out as the surface of octagonal pyramid microneedle. MNAs with diverse height and pitch are also presented to identify the versatility of this approach. At last, the metallization is realized via successive electroplating.

  6. Sensorimotor control of vocal pitch and formant frequencies in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollaei, Fatemeh; Shiller, Douglas M; Baum, Shari R; Gracco, Vincent L

    2016-09-01

    Auditory feedback reflects information on multiple speech parameters including fundamental frequency (pitch) and formant properties. Inducing auditory errors in these acoustic parameters during speech production has been used to examine the manner in which auditory feedback is integrated with ongoing speech motor processes. This integration has been shown to be impaired in disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD), in which individuals exhibit difficulty adjusting to altered sensory-motor relationships. The current investigation examines whether such sensorimotor impairments affect fundamental frequency and formant parameters of speech differentially. We employed a sensorimotor compensation paradigm to investigate the mechanisms underlying the control of vocal pitch and formant parameters. Individuals with PD and age-matched controls prolonged a speech vowel in the context of a word while the fundamental or first formant frequency of their auditory feedback was altered unexpectedly on random trials, using two magnitudes of perturbation. Compared with age-matched controls, individuals with PD exhibited a larger compensatory response to fundamental frequency perturbations, in particular in response to the smaller magnitude alteration. In contrast, the group with PD showed reduced compensation to first formant frequency perturbations. The results demonstrate that the neural processing impairment of PD differentially affects the processing of auditory feedback for the control of fundamental and formant frequency. The heightened modulation of fundamental frequency in response to auditory perturbations may reflect a change in sensory weighting due to somatosensory deficits associated with the larynx, while the reduced ability to modulate vowel formants may result from impaired activation of the oral articulatory musculature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. An Improved Manufacturing Approach for Discrete Silicon Microneedle Arrays with Tunable Height-Pitch Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renxin Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Silicon microneedle arrays (MNAs have been widely studied due to their potential in various transdermal applications. However, discrete MNAs, as a preferred choice to fabricate flexible penetrating devices that could adapt curved and elastic tissue, are rarely reported. Furthermore, the reported discrete MNAs have disadvantages lying in uniformity and height-pitch ratio. Therefore, an improved technique is developed to manufacture discrete MNA with tunable height-pitch ratio, which involves KOH-dicing-KOH process. The detailed process is sketched and simulated to illustrate the formation of microneedles. Furthermore, the undercutting of convex mask in two KOH etching steps are mathematically analyzed, in order to reveal the relationship between etching depth and mask dimension. Subsequently, fabrication results demonstrate KOH-dicing-KOH process. {321} facet is figured out as the surface of octagonal pyramid microneedle. MNAs with diverse height and pitch are also presented to identify the versatility of this approach. At last, the metallization is realized via successive electroplating.

  8. Functional Voice Testing Detects Early Changes in Vocal Pitch in Women During Testosterone Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Grace; Pencina, Karol M; Coady, Jeffry A; Beleva, Yusnie M; Bhasin, Shalender; Basaria, Shehzad

    2015-06-01

    To determine dose-dependent effects of T administration on voice changes in women with low T levels. Seventy-one women who have undergone a hysterectomy with or without oophorectomy with total T Voice handicap was measured by self-report using a validated voice handicap index questionnaire at baseline and 24 weeks after intervention. Functional voice testing was performed using the Kay Elemetrics-Computer Speech Lab to determine voice frequency, volume, and harmonics. Forty-six women with evaluable voice data at baseline and after intervention were included in the analysis. The five groups were similar at baseline. Mean on-treatment nadir total T concentrations were 13, 83, 106, 122, and 250 ng/dL in the placebo, 3-, 6.25-, 12.5-, and 25-mg groups, respectively. Analyses of acoustic voice parameters revealed significant lowering of average pitch in the 12.5- and 25-mg dose groups compared to placebo (P pitch were significantly related to increases in T concentrations. No significant dose- or concentration-dependent changes in self-reported voice handicap index scores were observed. Testosterone administration in women with low T levels over 24 weeks was associated with dose- and concentration-dependent decreases in average pitch in the higher dose groups. These changes were seen despite the lack of self-reported changes in voice.

  9. Functional Voice Testing Detects Early Changes in Vocal Pitch in Women During Testosterone Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencina, Karol M.; Coady, Jeffry A.; Beleva, Yusnie M.; Bhasin, Shalender; Basaria, Shehzad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine dose-dependent effects of T administration on voice changes in women with low T levels. Methods: Seventy-one women who have undergone a hysterectomy with or without oophorectomy with total T Voice handicap was measured by self-report using a validated voice handicap index questionnaire at baseline and 24 weeks after intervention. Functional voice testing was performed using the Kay Elemetrics-Computer Speech Lab to determine voice frequency, volume, and harmonics. Results: Forty-six women with evaluable voice data at baseline and after intervention were included in the analysis. The five groups were similar at baseline. Mean on-treatment nadir total T concentrations were 13, 83, 106, 122, and 250 ng/dL in the placebo, 3-, 6.25-, 12.5-, and 25-mg groups, respectively. Analyses of acoustic voice parameters revealed significant lowering of average pitch in the 12.5- and 25-mg dose groups compared to placebo (P pitch were significantly related to increases in T concentrations. No significant dose- or concentration-dependent changes in self-reported voice handicap index scores were observed. Conclusion: Testosterone administration in women with low T levels over 24 weeks was associated with dose- and concentration-dependent decreases in average pitch in the higher dose groups. These changes were seen despite the lack of self-reported changes in voice. PMID:25875779

  10. Effect of Two Isolated Vocal-facilitating Techniques Chant Talk and Pitch Inflections on the Phonation of Female Speech-language Pathology Students: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerschman, Iris; Bettens, Kim; Dejagere, Stefanie; Tetaert, Lieselot; D'haeseleer, Evelien; Claeys, Sofie; Van Lierde, Kristiane

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the isolated vocal-facilitating techniques Chant Talk and Pitch Inflections on the phonation of healthy female speech-language pathology (SLP) students. A multigroup pretest-posttest design was used. A homogenous group of 40 healthy female SLP students with a mean age of 18.7 years were randomly assigned into 3 groups: a Chant Talk group (practicing Chant Talk across 18 weeks), a Pitch Inflections group (practicing Pitch Inflections across 18 weeks), and a control group (practicing no facilitating techniques). To compare vocal measures before and after this time span, an identical objective voice assessment protocol (aerodynamic measurement, acoustic analysis, voice range profile, and Dysphonia Severity Index) was performed in the 3 groups. Both Chant Talk and Pitch Inflections groups resulted in a significant decrease of the acoustic measure noise-to-harmonics ratio compared with the control group. The Chant Talk group resulted in a significant increase in the acoustic measure fundamental frequency compared with the control group. The results of this pilot study suggest that the facilitating techniques Chant Talk and Pitch Inflections may improve the objective measure of breathiness (noise-to-harmonics ratio) in healthy female SLP students. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of laterality and pitch height of an auditory accessory stimulus on horizontal response selection: the Simon effect and the SMARC effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Akio; Yokosawa, Kazuhiko

    2009-08-01

    In the present article, we investigated the effects of pitch height and the presented ear (laterality) of an auditory stimulus, irrelevant to the ongoing visual task, on horizontal response selection. Performance was better when the response and the stimulated ear spatially corresponded (Simon effect), and when the spatial-musical association of response codes (SMARC) correspondence was maintained-that is, right (left) response with a high-pitched (low-pitched) tone. These findings reveal an automatic activation of spatially and musically associated responses by task-irrelevant auditory accessory stimuli. Pitch height is strong enough to influence the horizontal responses despite modality differences with task target.

  12. Effectiveness of radio spokesperson's gender, vocal pitch and accent and the use of music in radio advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa D. Martín-Santana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze how certain voice features of radio spokespersons and background music influence the advertising effectiveness of a radio spot from the cognitive, affective and conative perspectives. We used a 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 experimental design in 16 different radio programs in which an ad hoc radio spot was inserted during advertising block. This ad changed according to combinations of spokesperson's gender (male–female, vocal pitch (low–high and accent (local–standard. In addition to these independent factors, the effect of background music in advertisements was also tested and compared with those that only had words. 987 regular radio listeners comprised the sample that was exposed to the radio program we created. Based on the differences in the levels of effectiveness in the tested voice features, our results suggest that the choice of the voice in radio advertising is one of the most important decisions an advertiser faces. Furthermore, the findings show that the inclusion of music does not always imply greater effectiveness.

  13. A Comparison of Average Pitch Height and Interval Size in Major- and Minor-key Themes: Evidence Consistent with Affect-related Pitch Prosody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Huron

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of 9,788 instrumental themes shows that minor-key themes are, on average, slightly lower in pitch than major-key themes. The lower pitch is not merely an artifact of structural differences in the scales. In addition, instrumental themes in minor keys show a weak though significant tendency to use smaller pitch intervals. Both results are consistent with observations in speech prosody, where sad speakers exhibit a lower F0 and narrower pitch fluctuation compared with normal or happy speakers.

  14. Cirurgia para diminuir a freqüência fundamental da voz - tireoplastia tipo III de Isshiki Surgery to lower vocal pitch - Isshiki type III thyroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos H. Tsuji

    Full Text Available A voz aguda em excesso pode constituir verdadeiro problema social e profissional, principalmente quando peculiar a indivíduos do sexo masculino. Suas causas, em geral, são orgânicas e/ou funcionais. A causa funcional mais freqüentemente encontrada é o distúrbio conhecido como falsete mutacional, cuja terapia de primeira escolha é a vocal. Entretanto, quando seus resultados não são satisfatórios, o tratamento cirúrgico é uma opção muito conveniente e eficaz. Apresentamos dois casos de pacientes do sexo masculino, de 34 e 35 anos de idade, com voz demasiadamente aguda, resistentes à fonoterapia, que foram tratados com sucesso pela tireoplastia tipo III de Isshiki. A técnica cirúrgica, assim como a história clínica e os achados vocais pré e pós-operatórios são apresentados com detalhes neste trabalho. Expomos e discutimos, também, dados pertinentes ao tema encontrados na literatura. Concluímos que a tireoplastia tipo III de Isshiki é um procedimento eficaz, simples e com baixo índice de complicações, que pode ser utilizado para reduzir o pitch vocal em casos selecionados. Este estudo demonstrou dados que podem subsidiar educadores da área médica quando da reformulação do currículo de ORL para o curso de graduação em medicina.High-pitched voice may cause social and professional embarrassment, particularly if it occurs in men. This disorder may be organic and/or functional. Mutational falsetto (puberphonia is the most common functional cause and is primarily treated with phonotherapy. However, when results of this therapy are limited, surgery may turn to be a convenient and effective alternative to treat these patients. In this study, we present 2 male patients (34 and 35 years old with high-pitched voices, who failed phonotherapy and who were successfully treated with Isshiki type III thyroplasty. Medical history of the patients, surgical techniques, pre and post-operative laringostroboscopies and outcomes are

  15. Pitch- and spectral-based dynamic time warping methods for comparing field recordings of harmonic avian vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Meliza, C; Keen, Sara C.; Rubenstein, Dustin R.

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative measures of acoustic similarity can reveal patterns of shared vocal behavior in social species. Many methods for computing similarity have been developed, but their performance has not been extensively characterized in noisy environments and with vocalizations characterized by complex frequency modulations. This paper describes methods of bioacoustic comparison based on dynamic time warping (DTW) of the fundamental frequency or spectrogram. Fundamental frequency is estimated using a Bayesian particle filter adaptation of harmonic template matching. The methods were tested on field recordings of flight calls from superb starlings, Lamprotornis superbus, for how well they could separate distinct categories of call elements (motifs). The fundamental-frequency-based method performed best, but the spectrogram-based method was less sensitive to noise. Both DTW methods provided better separation of categories than spectrographic cross correlation, likely due to substantial variability in the duration of superb starling flight call motifs. PMID:23927136

  16. A lover or a fighter? Opposing sexual selection pressures on men?s vocal pitch and facial hair

    OpenAIRE

    Saxton, Tamsin; Mackey, Lauren; McCarty, Kristofor; Neave, Nick

    2015-01-01

    The traditional assumption within the research literature on human sexually dimorphic traits has been that many sex differences have arisen from intersexual selection. More recently however, there has been a shift towards the idea that many male features, including for example male lower-pitched voices, and male beard growth, might have arisen predominantly through intrasexual selection: that is, to serve the purpose of male-male competition instead of mate attraction. In this study, using a ...

  17. Effect of Aspect Ratio, Channel Orientation, Rib Pitch-to-Height Ratio, and Number of Ribbed Walls on Pressure Drop Characteristics in a Rotating Channel with Detached Ribs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Arun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work involves experimental investigation of the effects of aspect ratio, channel orientation angle, rib pitch-to-height ratio (P/e, and number of ribbed walls on friction factor in orthogonally rotating channel with detached ribs. The ribs are separated from the base wall to provide a small region of flow between the base wall and the ribs. Experiments have been conducted at Reynolds number ranging from 10000–17000 with rotation numbers varying from 0–0.38. Pitch-to-rib height ratios (P/e of 5 and 10 at constant rib height-to-hydraulic diameter ratio (e/D of 0.1 and a clearance ratio (C/e of 0.38 are considered. The rib angle of attack with respect to mainstream flow is 90∘. The channel orientation at which the ribbed wall becomes trailing surface (pressure side on which the Coriolis force acts is considered as the 0∘ orientation angle. For one-wall ribbed case, channel is oriented from 0∘ to 180∘ about its axis in steps of 30∘ to change the orientation angle. For two-wall ribbed case, the orientation angle is changed from 0∘ to 90∘ in steps of 30∘. Friction factors for the detached ribbed channels are compared with the corresponding attached ribbed channel. It is found that in one-wall detached ribbed channel, increase in the friction factor ratio with the orientation angle is lower for rectangular channel compared to that of square channel for both the pitch-to-rib height ratios of 5 and 10 at a given Reynolds number and rotation number. Friction factor ratios of two-wall detached ribbed rectangular channel are comparable with corresponding two-wall detached ribbed square channel both under stationary and rotating conditions.

  18. Effect of Channel Orientation and Rib Pitch-to-Height Ratio on Pressure Drop in a Rotating Square Channel with Ribs on Two Opposite Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhu S. V.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of channel orientation and rib pitch-to-height ratio on the pressure drop distribution in a rib-roughened channel is an important issue in turbine blade cooling. The present investigation is a study of the overall pressure drop distribution in a square cross-sectioned channel, with rib turbulators, rotating about an axis normal to the free stream. The ribs are configured in a symmetric arrangement on two opposite surfaces with a rib angle of 90 ∘ to the mainstream flow. The study has been conducted for three Reynolds numbers, namely, 13 000, 17 000, and 22 000 with the rotation number varying from 0– 0.38 . Experiments have been carried out for various rib pitch-to-height ratios ( P/e with a constant rib height-to-hydraulic diameter ratio ( e/D of 0.1 . The test section in which the ribs are placed on the leading and trailing surfaces is considered as the base case ( orientation angle= 0 ∘ , Coriolis force vector normal to the ribbed surfaces. The channel is turned about its axis in steps of 15 ∘ to vary the orientation angle from 0 ∘ to 90 ∘ . The overall pressure drop does not change considerably under conditions of rotation for the base case. However, for the other cases tested, it is observed that the overall pressure drop increases with an increase in the rotation number for a given orientation angle and also increases with an increase in the orientation angle for a given rotation number. This change is attributed to the variation in the separation zone downstream of the ribs due to the presence of the Coriolis force—local pressure drop data is presented which supports this idea. At an orientation angle of 90 ∘ (ribs on the top and bottom surfaces, Coriolis force vector normal to the smooth surfaces, the overall pressure drop is observed to be maximum during rotation. The overall pressure drop for a case with a rib pitch-to-height ratio of 5 on both surfaces is found to be the highest

  19. Return to Oz: voice pitch facilitates assessments of men's body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanski, Katarzyna; Fraccaro, Paul J; Tigue, Cara C; O'Connor, Jillian J M; Feinberg, David R

    2014-08-01

    Listeners associate low voice pitch (fundamental frequency and/or harmonics) and formants (vocal-tract resonances) with large body size. Although formants reliably predict size within sexes, pitch does not reliably predict size in groups of same-sex adults. Voice pitch has therefore long been hypothesized to confound within-sex size assessment. Here we performed a knockout test of this hypothesis using whispered and 3-formant sine-wave speech devoid of pitch. Listeners estimated the relative size of men with above-chance accuracy from voiced, whispered, and sine-wave speech. Critically, although men's pitch and physical height were unrelated, the accuracy of listeners' size assessments increased in the presence rather than absence of pitch. Size assessments based on relatively low pitch yielded particularly high accuracy (70%-80%). Results of Experiment 2 revealed that amplitude, noise, and signal degradation of unvoiced speech could not explain this effect; listeners readily perceived formant shifts in manipulated whispered speech. Rather, in Experiment 3, we show that the denser harmonic spectrum provided by low pitch allowed for better resolution of formants, aiding formant-based size assessment. These findings demonstrate that pitch does not confuse body size assessment as has been previously suggested, but instead facilitates accurate size assessment by providing a carrier signal for vocal-tract resonances.

  20. Effects of Age, Sex, and Melodic/Harmonic Patterns on Vocal Pitch-Matching Skills of Talented 8-11-Year-Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Randall S.

    1994-01-01

    Reports on a study of 128 talented singers, ages 8-11, to determine the effects of age, sex and melodic/harmonic patterns on pitch-matching skills of children. Finds no significant differences between age and sex groups and significant differences among pitch-matching tasks. Suggests a task hierarchy for children's part-singing. (CFR)

  1. Voice training and changing weight--are they reflected in speaking fundamental frequency, voice range, and pitch breaks of 13-year-old girls? A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Elizabeth C; Kenny, Dianna T

    2011-09-01

    Assessment of the voice-change progress of 20 girls (12-13 years) over 1 year by observing changes in speaking fundamental frequency (SFo), voice range, and register pitch breaks in the context of weight, height, voice training, and self-perception. One-year longitudinal collective case study. Twenty girls were recorded at the beginning and end of a year; nine girls were recorded another three times. SFo, vocal range, and characteristics were analyzed and interactions between these data assessed against weight and height to indicate pubertal development, and to test the hypothesis that changes in weight, height, SFo, and pitch breaks were related. Effects of training and the girls' self-perception of their voice use were also assessed. Vocal characteristics changed as the girls passed through different weight ranges. During 47.5-52.4 kg (called band 2) and 52.4-57.5 kg (band 3), there was progressive contraction of vocal range and in some girls a slight rise in SFo between recording times 1 and 5. Both high- and low-pitch breaks were present in 45% of girls' voices. Girls in band 4 (pitch breaks in vocal-range areas that indicated the development of adult vocal registers. In this study, voice-trained girls were heavier, had higher SFo, used wider speech-range inflection, had a higher vocal range, and greater voice-use confidence; all girls lost confidence in their voice use over the year. In this longitudinal study of twenty 13-year-old girls, voice changes in SFo, vocal range, and pitch-break frequency were synchronous with certain weight ranges. Girls with training registered higher maximum phonational frequency and were more confident in their voice use than girls without training. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prediction of acute and late responses to light therapy from vocal (pitch) and self-rated activation in seasonal affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boenink, A D; Bouhuys, A L; Beersma, D G; Meesters, Y

    1997-02-01

    It was hypothesized that pre-treatment activation plays a role in the response to light therapy in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). In 55 SAD patients (DSMIII-R) energetic and tense activation was assessed before light therapy via self-rating (AD-ACL) and voice sound characteristics (mean pitch and variation in pitch). These variables were studied in relation to the "acute" response to 4 days of light therapy (30 min, 10000 lux) and to a "late" response (11 (10) days after light therapy had stopped). Acute response was defined as the percent change in 3 times daily self-rated depressed mood (AMS) with respect to the average of 4 baseline days. "Late" response was defined as the percent change in HRSD or AMS scores between baseline and 11 (10) days after light therapy. It was found that patients having high pitched voices with small variation in this pitch benefitted more from light therapy than the patients with low pitch and large variation in pitch levels. This effect was only significant after the first day of light exposure. No other significant relations were found between baseline activation and acute or late responses to light therapy. Hence, light therapy seems to give extra comfort in "tense" patients, who become rapid responders to light therapy.

  3. The effect of vocal tract impedance on the vocal folds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Selamtzis, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The importance of the interaction between the acoustic impedance of the vocal tract with the flow across the vocal cords is well established. In this paper we are investigating the changes in vocal tract impedance when using the different modes of phonation according to Sadolin [1], going from......) . The results show changes in the resonance frequencies of the vocal tract with increasing pitch, whereas the changes between the modes are less clear due to the measurement signal being weak in comparison to the louder modes, especially at high pitches. The electroglottograph shows a very different waveform...... to different density and speed of sound in Helium. The electroglottograph shows a change in waveform when the singer inhales helium. The percentage of the glottal cycle when the vocal cords are open, the so-called open quotient, increases from 40 to 55%. When inhaling helium the male singer was able reach Eb5...

  4. Vocal Features of Song and Speech: Insights from Schoenberg's Pierrot Lunaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Merrill

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Similarities and differences between speech and song are often examined. However, the perceptual definition of these two types of vocalization is challenging. Indeed, the prototypical characteristics of speech or song support top-down processes, which influence listeners' perception of acoustic information. In order to examine vocal features associated with speaking and singing, we propose an innovative approach designed to facilitate bottom-up mechanisms in perceiving vocalizations by using material situated between speech and song: Speechsong. 25 participants were asked to evaluate 20 performances of a speechsong composition by Arnold Schoenberg, “Pierrot lunaire” op. 21 from 1912, evaluating 20 features of vocal-articulatory expression. Raters provided reliable judgments concerning the vocal features used by the performers and did not show strong appeal or specific expectations in reference to Schoenberg's piece. By examining the relationship between the vocal features and the impression of song or speech, the results confirm the importance of pitch (height, contour, range, but also point to the relevance of register, timbre, tension and faucal distance. Besides highlighting vocal features associated with speech and song, this study supports the relevance of the present approach of focusing on a theoretical middle category in order to better understand vocal expression in song and speech.

  5. Prediction of acute and late responses to light therapy from vocal (pitch) and self-rated activation in seasonal affective disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boenink, AD; Bouhuys, AL; Beersma, DGM; Meesters, Y

    It was hypothesized that pre-treatment activation plays a role in the response to light therapy in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). In 55 SAD patients (DSMIII-R) energetic and tense activation was assessed before light therapy via self-rating (AD-ACL) and voice sound characteristics (mean pitch

  6. When high pitches sound low: Children’s acquisition of space-pitch metaphors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolscheid, S.J.; Hunnius, S.; Majid, A.; Noelle, D.C.; Dale, R.; Warlaumont, A.S.; Yoshimi, J.; Matlock, T.; Jennings, C.D.; Maglio, P.P.

    2015-01-01

    Some languages describe musical pitch in terms of spatial height; others in terms of thickness. Differences in pitch metaphors also shape adults’ nonlinguistic space-pitch representations. At the same time, 4-month-old infants have both types of space-pitch mappings available. This tension between

  7. Commentary on "The Influence of Pitch Height on the Perception of Submissiveness and Threat in Musical Passages" by David Huron, Daryl Kinney, and Kristin Precoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene S. Morton

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, the Arts and Humanities and Science fields are finding common ground, as illustrated in Huron et al.’s fine paper. My commentary discusses the origin of the idea that pitch and motivation have an evolved relationship. Their finding that loudness and aggression are related has been little studied in animals and I suggest an explanation from the biological literature.

  8. Vocal cord paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundfast, K M; Harley, E

    1989-06-01

    The information presented in this article demonstrates that unilateral or bilateral vocal cord paresis or paralysis in infants and children is difficult to diagnose and difficult to manage. In an attempt to provide the otolaryngologist with a concise set of relevant guidelines, the following rules for management are presented here. 1. Suspect bilateral abductor vocal cord paralysis (BAVP) when a neonate or infant presents with high-pitched inspiratory stridor and evidence of airway compromise. Factors that should increase the suspicion of BAVP include associated Arnold-Chiari malformation; congenital anatomic abnormality involving the mediastinum (for example, tracheoesophageal fistula, vascular ring, other vascular anomalies); dysmorphic syndromes, especially those involving brainstem dysfunction; and manifest findings indicative of neuromuscular disorder. The neonate or infant with Arnold-Chiari malformation and inspiratory stridor has bilateral abductor vocal cord paralysis until proven otherwise. 2. Suspect unilateral vocal cord paresis or paralysis in an infant or child with hoarse voice, low-pitched cry, or breathy cry or voice. The infant who develops mild stridor and hoarse cry following surgical repair of a patent ductus arteriosus or tracheoesophageal fistula has a unilateral vocal cord paralysis until proven otherwise. 3. Direct laryngoscopy with the flexible fiberoptic nasopharyngolaryngoscope and photodocumentation using a videocassette recorder offers the best method for diagnosis of vocal cord paresis or paralysis. Additional diagnostic studies that may be helpful include radiographic studies, CT scan, MRI scan, electromyography of the larynx, and, in older children, stroboscopy. 4. In using a flexible direct laryngoscope be careful not to interpret all motions of the vocal cords or arytenoids as evidence to preclude the diagnosis of vocal cord paralysis or paresis and be careful not to mistake the anterior intraluminal portion of a normal cricoid

  9. Effects of increasing time delays on pitch-matching accuracy in trained singers and untrained individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estis, Julie M; Coblentz, Joana K; Moore, Robert E

    2009-07-01

    Trained singers (TS) generally demonstrate accurate pitch matching, but this ability varies within the general population. Pitch-matching accuracy, given increasing silence intervals of 5, 15, and 25 seconds between target tones and vocal matches, was investigated in TS and untrained individuals. A relationship between pitch discrimination and pitch matching was also examined. Thirty-two females (20-30 years) were grouped based on individual vocal training and performance in an immediate pitch-matching task. Participants matched target pitches following time delays, and completed a pitch discrimination task, which required the classification of two tones as same or different. TS and untrained accurate participants performed comparably on all pitch-matching tasks, while untrained inaccurate participants performed significantly less accurately than the other two groups. Performances declined across groups as intervals of silence increased, suggesting degradation of pitch matching as pitch memory was taxed. A significant relationship between pitch discrimination and pitch matching was revealed across participants.

  10. [Contribution of the study of singing in tune in musically non-expert subjects: importance of short term memory of the pitch (19 to 28 year-old subjects)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belin, S; Peuvergne, A; Sarfati, J

    2005-01-01

    In the singing, which requires precise knowledge of the relevant musical code in use, accuracy of intonation plays a central role. Singing in tune requires to perceive pitch precisely and to memorize it before planning and executing the accurate vocal motion, which allows the exact emission of the correct pitch. Our work investigated the role of short term memory of pitch on singing accuracy. For that purpose, the experimental protocol of Deutsch (1970) was adapted for a perception and a production task. Participants were selected for their singing accuracy and separated into two groups of ten singing in tune and ten out-of-tune. All participants perceived pitch height exactly and were musically non-experts. For the perception and the production tasks, participants had to either compare or reproduce single pitches or two-pitch-sets. For the perception task, participants had to compare either single pitches or two-pitch patterns, all separated by a five seconds delay. For the production task, participants had to reproduce either single pitches or two-pitch patterns after a five seconds delay. The five seconds delay was either filled with intervening numbers, or with intervening tones, or without any disturbing sound. In perception and production task, the presence of intervening tones disturbs deeply the success of the subjects for every trial. Performance of the in-tune singing group is better for all the exercises while the other group had difficulties on single pitches and two-pitch patterns and was more disturbed by the effect of the intervening material. The outcome suggests that short term memory of pitch and accuracy of intonation would be closely linked. Further research needs to specify if that would mean that troubles in singing in tune are a consequence of a low-efficient short term memory of pitch, or if that troubles would hold up the right construction of the short term memory of pitch.

  11. Sensorimotor Mismapping in Poor-pitch Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hao; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2017-09-01

    This study proposes that there are two types of sensorimotor mismapping in poor-pitch singing: erroneous mapping and no mapping. We created operational definitions for the two types of mismapping based on the precision of pitch-matching and predicted that in the two types of mismapping, phonation differs in terms of accuracy and the dependence on the articulation consistency between the target and the intended vocal action. The study aimed to test this hypothesis by examining the reliability and criterion-related validity of the operational definitions. A within-subject design was used in this study. Thirty-two participants identified as poor-pitch singers were instructed to vocally imitate pure tones and to imitate their own vocal recordings with the same articulation as self-targets and with different articulation from self-targets. Definitions of the types of mismapping were demonstrated to be reliable with the split-half approach and to have good criterion-related validity with findings that pitch-matching with no mapping was less accurate and more dependent on the articulation consistency between the target and the intended vocal action than pitch-matching with erroneous mapping was. Furthermore, the precision of pitch-matching was positively associated with its accuracy and its dependence on articulation consistency when mismapping was analyzed on a continuum. Additionally, the data indicated that the self-imitation advantage was a function of articulation consistency. Types of sensorimotor mismapping lead to pitch-matching that differs in accuracy and its dependence on the articulation consistency between the target and the intended vocal action. Additionally, articulation consistency produces the self-advantage. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Modal locking between vocal fold and vocal tract oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Aalto, Atte; Malinen, Jarmo; Vainio, Martti

    2012-01-01

    The human vocal folds are known to interact with the vocal tract acoustics during voiced speech production; namely a nonlinear source-filter coupling has been observed both by using models and in \\emph{in vivo} phonation. These phenomena are approached from two directions in this article. We first present a computational dynamical model of the speech apparatus that contains an explicit filter-source feedback mechanism from the vocal tract acoustics back to the vocal folds oscillations. The model was used to simulate vocal pitch glideswhere the trajectory was forced to cross the lowest vocal tract resonance, i.e., the lowest formant $F_1$. Similar patterns produced by human participants were then studied. Both the simulations and the experimental results reveal an effect when the glides cross the first formant (as may happen in \\textipa{[i]}). Conversely, this effect is not observed if there is no formant within the glide range (as is the case in \\textipa{[\\textscripta]}). The experiments show smaller effect c...

  13. Pitch Alterations in British Motherese: Some Preliminary Acoustic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shute, Brenda; Wheldall, Kevin

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of speech samples from British female adults (N=8) revealed that the subjects increased vocal pitch when addressing young children, but not as much as previously studied North American subjects did. Pitch increases were more commonly observed in free speech than in reading-aloud conditions. (23 references) (Author/CB)

  14. Spiral model of pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James D.

    2003-10-01

    A spiral model of pitch interrelates tone chroma, tone height, equal temperament scales, and a cochlear map. Donkin suggested in 1870 that the pitch of tones could be well represented by an equiangular spiral. More recently, the cylindrical helix has been popular for representing tone chroma and tone height. Here it is shown that tone chroma, tone height, and cochlear position can be conveniently related to tone frequency via a planar spiral. For this ``equal-temperament spiral,'' (ET Spiral) tone chroma is conceived as a circular array with semitones at 30° intervals. The frequency of sound on the cent scale (re 16.351 Hz) is represented by the radius of the spiral defined by r=(1200/2π)θr, where θr is in radians. By these definitions, one revolution represents one octave, 1200 cents, 30° represents a semitone, the radius relates θ to cents in accordance with equal temperament (ET) tuning, and the arclength of the spiral matches the mapping of sound frequency to the basilar membrane. Thus, the ET Spiral gives tone chroma as θ, tone height as the cent scale, and the cochlear map as the arclength. The possible implications and directions for further work are discussed.

  15. Vocal Cord Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapy can sometimes be an option. Symptoms Vocal cords open and closed Vocal cords open and closed Your vocal cords are two ... Cardiovascular and Thoracic Research. 2014;6:47. Vocal cord paralysis Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Doctors & departments Advertisement ...

  16. Prelinguistic Infants Are Sensitive to Space-Pitch Associations Found Across Cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolscheid, S.J.; Hunnius, S.; Casasanto, D.; Majid, A.

    2014-01-01

    People often talk about musical pitch using spatial metaphors. In English, for instance, pitches can be "high" or "low" (i.e., height-pitch association), whereas in other languages, pitches are described as "thin" or "thick" (i.e., thickness-pitch association). According to results from

  17. Effects of voice harmonic complexity on ERP responses to pitch-shifted auditory feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Korzyukov, Oleg; Larson, Charles R

    2011-12-01

    The present study investigated the neural mechanisms of voice pitch control for different levels of harmonic complexity in the auditory feedback. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in response to+200 cents pitch perturbations in the auditory feedback of self-produced natural human vocalizations, complex and pure tone stimuli during active vocalization and passive listening conditions. During active vocal production, ERP amplitudes were largest in response to pitch shifts in the natural voice, moderately large for non-voice complex stimuli and smallest for the pure tones. However, during passive listening, neural responses were equally large for pitch shifts in voice and non-voice complex stimuli but still larger than that for pure tones. These findings suggest that pitch change detection is facilitated for spectrally rich sounds such as natural human voice and non-voice complex stimuli compared with pure tones. Vocalization-induced increase in neural responses for voice feedback suggests that sensory processing of naturally-produced complex sounds such as human voice is enhanced by means of motor-driven mechanisms (e.g. efference copies) during vocal production. This enhancement may enable the audio-vocal system to more effectively detect and correct for vocal errors in the feedback of natural human vocalizations to maintain an intended vocal output for speaking. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pitch Fork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Peter Leslie; Overholt, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Pitch Fork is a prototype of an alternate, actuated digital musical instrument (DMI). It uses 5 infra-red and 4 piezoelectric sensors to control an additive synthesis engine. Iron bars are used as the physical point of contact in interaction with the aim of using this materials natural acoustic p...... properties as a control signal for aspects of the digitally produced sound. This choice of material was also chosen to affect player experience. Sensor readings are relayed to a Macbook via an Arduino Mega. Mappings and audio output signal is carried out with Pure Data Extended....

  19. Voice pitch predicts reproductive success in male hunter-gatherers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apicella, C L; Feinberg, D R; Marlowe, F W

    2007-12-22

    The validity of evolutionary explanations of vocal sexual dimorphism hinges upon whether or not individuals with more sexually dimorphic voices have higher reproductive success than individuals with less dimorphic voices. However, due to modern birth control methods, these data are rarely described, and mating success is often used as a second-rate proxy. Here, we test whether voice pitch predicts reproductive success, number of children born and child mortality in an evolutionarily relevant population of hunter-gatherers. While we find that voice pitch is not related to reproductive outcomes in women, we find that men with low voice pitch have higher reproductive success and more children born to them. However, voice pitch in men does not predict child mortality. These findings suggest that the association between voice pitch and reproductive success in men is mediated by differential access to fecund women. Furthermore, they show that there is currently selection pressure for low-pitch voices in men.

  20. Relationship between voice quality and vocal nodule size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rahul K; Engel, Samuel H; Choi, Sukgi S

    2008-11-01

    To determine the effect of vocal nodule size on voice in pediatric patients. Vocal nodules were graded according to a validated grading scale by three pediatric otolaryngologists. Patients evaluated from 2003 to 2007 with a diagnosis of vocal nodules were included. Forty patients (21 female) with a mean age of 7.5 years were identified. Vocal nodules were rated as grade 1 (17 patients), grade 2 (15 patients), and grade 3 (8 patients). Pitch range was reduced in patients with larger nodules (P = 0.001). There was no statistical association between nodule grade and fundamental frequency abnormality, perturbation, shimmer, decreased respiratory support, air loss, or significant muscle tension. Voice characteristics in patients with vocal nodules were evaluated. Other than pitch reduction, objective and subjective voice measurements are not statistically different in varying vocal nodule sizes; however, many of the measures did show a trend towards significance. Vocal rehabilitation is complex in children with nodules and may not directly correlate with vocal nodule size.

  1. Enhanced neural responses to self-triggered voice pitch feedback perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanjun; Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Larson, Charles R

    2010-05-12

    This study investigated the effect of self-triggered voice fundamental frequency (F0) feedback perturbation on auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) during vocalization and listening. Auditory ERPs were examined in response to self-triggered and computer-triggered -200 cents pitch-shift stimuli while participants vocalized or listened to the playback of their self-vocalizations. The stimuli were either presented with a delay of 500-1000 ms after the participants pressed a button or delivered by a computer with an interstimulus interval of 500-1000 ms. Results showed that self-triggered stimuli elicited larger ERPs compared with computer-triggered stimuli during both vocalization and listening conditions. These findings suggest that self-triggered perturbation of self-vocalization auditory feedback may enhance auditory responses to voice feedback pitch perturbation during vocalization and listening.

  2. Vocal tract resonances in singing: The soprano voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joliveau, Elodie; Smith, John; Wolfe, Joe

    2004-10-01

    The vocal tract resonances of trained soprano singers were measured while they sang a range of vowels softly at different pitches. The measurements were made by broad band acoustic excitation at the mouth, which allowed the resonances of the tract to be measured simultaneously with and independently from the harmonics of the voice. At low pitch, when the lowest resonance frequency R1 exceeded f0, the values of the first two resonances R1 and R2 varied little with frequency and had values consistent with normal speech. At higher pitches, however, when f0 exceeded the value of R1 observed at low pitch, R1 increased with f0 so that R1 was approximately equal to f0. R2 also increased over this high pitch range, probably as an incidental consequence of the tuning of R1. R3 increased slightly but systematically, across the whole pitch range measured. There was no evidence that any resonances are tuned close to harmonics of the pitch frequency except for R1 at high pitch. The variations in R1 and R2 at high pitch mean that vowels move, converge, and overlap their positions on the vocal plane (R2,R1) to an extent that implies loss of intelligibility. .

  3. Effects of Vocal Fold Nodules on Glottal Cycle Measurements Derived from High-Speed Videoendoscopy in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Rita R.; Harikrishnan Unnikrishnan; Donohue, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to quantify the effects of vocal fold nodules on vibratory motion in children using high-speed videoendoscopy. Differences in vibratory motion were evaluated in 20 children with vocal fold nodules (5-11 years) and 20 age and gender matched typically developing children (5-11 years) during sustained phonation at typical pitch and loudness. Normalized kinematic features of vocal fold displacements from the mid-membranous vocal fold point were extracted from the steady-...

  4. Phonetic characteristics of vocalizations during pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver; Lautenbacher, Stefan; Salinas-Ranneberg, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives: There have, yet, been only few attempts to phonetically characterize the vocalizations of pain, although there is wide agreement that moaning, groaning, or other nonverbal utterance can be indicative of pain. We studied the production of vowels “u,” “a,” “i”, and “schwa...... (no-stimulation). The phonetic parameters extracted were pitch (mean F0), phonatory fluctuations (range F0) and loudness (acoustic energy level). Results: Only for the vowels “u” and “schwa,” which might be considered best approximations to moaning and groaning, did pitch and loudness increase during...... and comprehensive phonetic analyses will surely help to provide an even more precise characterization of vocalizations because of pain....

  5. Normal-Hearing Listeners’ and Cochlear Implant Users’ Perception of Pitch Cues in Emotional Speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbers, Steven; Fuller, Christina; Gilbers, Dicky; Broersma, M.; Goudbeek, Martijn; Free, Rolien; Başkent, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    In cochlear implants (CIs), acoustic speech cues, especially for pitch, are delivered in a degraded form. This study’s aim is to assess whether due to degraded pitch cues, normal-hearing listeners and CI users employ different perceptual strategies to recognize vocal emotions, and, if so, how these

  6. Neural Correlates of Vocal Production and Motor Control in Human Heschl's Gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Oya, Hiroyuki; Nourski, Kirill V; Kawasaki, Hiroto; Larson, Charles R; Brugge, John F; Howard, Matthew A; Greenlee, Jeremy D W

    2016-02-17

    The present study investigated how pitch frequency, a perceptually relevant aspect of periodicity in natural human vocalizations, is encoded in Heschl's gyrus (HG), and how this information may be used to influence vocal pitch motor control. We recorded local field potentials from multicontact depth electrodes implanted in HG of 14 neurosurgical epilepsy patients as they vocalized vowel sounds and received brief (200 ms) pitch perturbations at 100 Cents in their auditory feedback. Event-related band power responses to vocalizations showed sustained frequency following responses that tracked voice fundamental frequency (F0) and were significantly enhanced in posteromedial HG during speaking compared with when subjects listened to the playback of their own voice. In addition to frequency following responses, a transient response component within the high gamma frequency band (75-150 Hz) was identified. When this response followed the onset of vocalization, the magnitude of the response was the same for the speaking and playback conditions. In contrast, when this response followed a pitch shift, its magnitude was significantly enhanced during speaking compared with playback. We also observed that, in anterolateral HG, the power of high gamma responses to pitch shifts correlated with the magnitude of compensatory vocal responses. These findings demonstrate a functional parcellation of HG with neural activity that encodes pitch in natural human voice, distinguishes between self-generated and passively heard vocalizations, detects discrepancies between the intended and heard vocalization, and contains information about the resulting behavioral vocal compensations in response to auditory feedback pitch perturbations. The present study is a significant contribution to our understanding of sensor-motor mechanisms of vocal production and motor control. The findings demonstrate distinct functional parcellation of core and noncore areas within human auditory cortex on Heschl

  7. Perceptual Grouping Affects Pitch Judgments across Time and Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, Elizabeth M. O.; Micheyl, Christophe; Oxenham, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Pitch, the perceptual correlate of fundamental frequency (F0), plays an important role in speech, music, and animal vocalizations. Changes in F0 over time help define musical melodies and speech prosody, while comparisons of simultaneous F0 are important for musical harmony, and for segregating competing sound sources. This study compared…

  8. Vocal Imitations of Non-Vocal Sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Lemaitre

    Full Text Available Imitative behaviors are widespread in humans, in particular whenever two persons communicate and interact. Several tokens of spoken languages (onomatopoeias, ideophones, and phonesthemes also display different degrees of iconicity between the sound of a word and what it refers to. Thus, it probably comes at no surprise that human speakers use a lot of imitative vocalizations and gestures when they communicate about sounds, as sounds are notably difficult to describe. What is more surprising is that vocal imitations of non-vocal everyday sounds (e.g. the sound of a car passing by are in practice very effective: listeners identify sounds better with vocal imitations than with verbal descriptions, despite the fact that vocal imitations are inaccurate reproductions of a sound created by a particular mechanical system (e.g. a car driving by through a different system (the voice apparatus. The present study investigated the semantic representations evoked by vocal imitations of sounds by experimentally quantifying how well listeners could match sounds to category labels. The experiment used three different types of sounds: recordings of easily identifiable sounds (sounds of human actions and manufactured products, human vocal imitations, and computational "auditory sketches" (created by algorithmic computations. The results show that performance with the best vocal imitations was similar to the best auditory sketches for most categories of sounds, and even to the referent sounds themselves in some cases. More detailed analyses showed that the acoustic distance between a vocal imitation and a referent sound is not sufficient to account for such performance. Analyses suggested that instead of trying to reproduce the referent sound as accurately as vocally possible, vocal imitations focus on a few important features, which depend on each particular sound category. These results offer perspectives for understanding how human listeners store and access

  9. Vocal Imitations of Non-Vocal Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houix, Olivier; Voisin, Frédéric; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Imitative behaviors are widespread in humans, in particular whenever two persons communicate and interact. Several tokens of spoken languages (onomatopoeias, ideophones, and phonesthemes) also display different degrees of iconicity between the sound of a word and what it refers to. Thus, it probably comes at no surprise that human speakers use a lot of imitative vocalizations and gestures when they communicate about sounds, as sounds are notably difficult to describe. What is more surprising is that vocal imitations of non-vocal everyday sounds (e.g. the sound of a car passing by) are in practice very effective: listeners identify sounds better with vocal imitations than with verbal descriptions, despite the fact that vocal imitations are inaccurate reproductions of a sound created by a particular mechanical system (e.g. a car driving by) through a different system (the voice apparatus). The present study investigated the semantic representations evoked by vocal imitations of sounds by experimentally quantifying how well listeners could match sounds to category labels. The experiment used three different types of sounds: recordings of easily identifiable sounds (sounds of human actions and manufactured products), human vocal imitations, and computational “auditory sketches” (created by algorithmic computations). The results show that performance with the best vocal imitations was similar to the best auditory sketches for most categories of sounds, and even to the referent sounds themselves in some cases. More detailed analyses showed that the acoustic distance between a vocal imitation and a referent sound is not sufficient to account for such performance. Analyses suggested that instead of trying to reproduce the referent sound as accurately as vocally possible, vocal imitations focus on a few important features, which depend on each particular sound category. These results offer perspectives for understanding how human listeners store and access long

  10. Automatic Transcription of Polyphonic Vocal Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McLeod

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for automatic music transcription applied to audio recordings of a cappella performances with multiple singers. We propose a system for multi-pitch detection and voice assignment that integrates an acoustic and a music language model. The acoustic model performs spectrogram decomposition, extending probabilistic latent component analysis (PLCA using a six-dimensional dictionary with pre-extracted log-spectral templates. The music language model performs voice separation and assignment using hidden Markov models that apply musicological assumptions. By integrating the two models, the system is able to detect multiple concurrent pitches in polyphonic vocal music and assign each detected pitch to a specific voice type such as soprano, alto, tenor or bass (SATB. We compare our system against multiple baselines, achieving state-of-the-art results for both multi-pitch detection and voice assignment on a dataset of Bach chorales and another of barbershop quartets. We also present an additional evaluation of our system using varied pitch tolerance levels to investigate its performance at 20-cent pitch resolution.

  11. The program complex for vocal recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konev, Anton; Kostyuchenko, Evgeny; Yakimuk, Alexey

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the possibility of applying the algorithm of determining the pitch frequency for the note recognition problems. Preliminary study of programs-analogues were carried out for programs with function “recognition of the music”. The software package based on the algorithm for pitch frequency calculation was implemented and tested. It was shown that the algorithm allows recognizing the notes in the vocal performance of the user. A single musical instrument, a set of musical instruments, and a human voice humming a tune can be the sound source. The input file is initially presented in the .wav format or is recorded in this format from a microphone. Processing is performed by sequentially determining the pitch frequency and conversion of its values to the note. According to test results, modification of algorithms used in the complex was planned.

  12. Accuracy of pitch matching significantly improved by live voice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, Roni Y; Israel-Kolatt, Rona; Gilboa, Avi; Kolatt, Tsafrir

    2013-05-01

    Singing is, undoubtedly, the most fundamental expression of our musical capacity, yet an estimated 10-15% of Western population sings "out-of-tune (OOT)." Previous research in children and adults suggests, albeit inconsistently, that imitating a human voice can improve pitch matching. In the present study, we focus on the potentially beneficial effects of the human voice and especially the live human voice. Eighteen participants varying in their singing abilities were required to imitate in singing a set of nine ascending and descending intervals presented to them in five different randomized blocked conditions: live piano, recorded piano, live voice using optimal voice production, recorded voice using optimal voice production, and recorded voice using artificial forced voice production. Pitch and interval matching in singing were much more accurate when participants repeated sung intervals as compared with intervals played to them on the piano. The advantage of the vocal over the piano stimuli was robust and emerged clearly regardless of whether piano tones were played live and in full view or were presented via recording. Live vocal stimuli elicited higher accuracy than recorded vocal stimuli, especially when the recorded vocal stimuli were produced in a forced vocal production. Remarkably, even those who would be considered OOT singers on the basis of their performance when repeating piano tones were able to pitch match live vocal sounds, with deviations well within the range of what is considered accurate singing (M=46.0, standard deviation=39.2 cents). In fact, those participants who were most OOT gained the most from the live voice model. Results are discussed in light of the dual auditory-motor encoding of pitch analogous to that found in speech. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Preferences for very low and very high voice pitch in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Re

    Full Text Available Manipulations of voice pitch have been shown to alter attractiveness ratings, but whether preferences extend to very low or very high voice pitch is unknown. Here, we manipulated voice pitch in averaged men's and women's voices by 2 Hz intervals to create a range of male and female voices speaking monopthong vowel sounds and spanning a range of frequencies from normal to very low and very high pitch. With these voices, we used the method of constant stimuli to measure preferences for voice. Nineteen university students (ages: 20-25 participated in three experiments. On average, men preferred high-pitched women's voices to low-pitched women's voices across all frequencies tested. On average, women preferred men's voices lowered in pitch, but did not prefer very low men's voices. The results of this study may reflect selection pressures for men's and women's voices, and shed light on a perceptual link between voice pitch and vocal attractiveness.

  14. Preferences for very low and very high voice pitch in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Daniel E; O'Connor, Jillian J M; Bennett, Patrick J; Feinberg, David R

    2012-01-01

    Manipulations of voice pitch have been shown to alter attractiveness ratings, but whether preferences extend to very low or very high voice pitch is unknown. Here, we manipulated voice pitch in averaged men's and women's voices by 2 Hz intervals to create a range of male and female voices speaking monopthong vowel sounds and spanning a range of frequencies from normal to very low and very high pitch. With these voices, we used the method of constant stimuli to measure preferences for voice. Nineteen university students (ages: 20-25) participated in three experiments. On average, men preferred high-pitched women's voices to low-pitched women's voices across all frequencies tested. On average, women preferred men's voices lowered in pitch, but did not prefer very low men's voices. The results of this study may reflect selection pressures for men's and women's voices, and shed light on a perceptual link between voice pitch and vocal attractiveness.

  15. Pitch elevation in trangendered patients: anterior glottic web formation assisted by temporary injection augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jennifer A

    2014-11-01

    Pitch elevation surgery is most often indicated to assist male-to-female transgendered individuals seeking a more feminine voice quality. Behavioral therapy is primary management but if the desired voice quality is not achieved, surgery is offered. Procedures described that raise vocal pitch alter one or more of the main parameters known to physiologically control pitch; vocal fold tension, length, and mass. Web formation with injection augmentation significantly raises vocal pitch in male-to-female transgendered individuals. Retrospective cohort study. This report describes the voice results after anterior web formation with injection augmentation to reduce vocal fold length in a series of 10 transgendered patients. Retrospective review of male-to-female transgendered patients referred to St. Michaels Hospital Voice Clinic, Toronto, Canada for pitch elevation was carried out including demographic data, preoperative and postoperative acoustic data and videostroboscopic evaluation. Comparison between preoperative to postoperative acoustic measures demonstrated a mean increase in fundamental frequency of 110 Hz after web formation. Perturbation measures and pitch range were unchanged from before surgery to after surgery. This novel modification for endoscopic anterior web formation has been shown to be a successful procedure for permanent elevation of pitch with little or no morbidity. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Human vocal attractiveness as signaled by body size projection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Xu

    Full Text Available Voice, as a secondary sexual characteristic, is known to affect the perceived attractiveness of human individuals. But the underlying mechanism of vocal attractiveness has remained unclear. Here, we presented human listeners with acoustically altered natural sentences and fully synthetic sentences with systematically manipulated pitch, formants and voice quality based on a principle of body size projection reported for animal calls and emotional human vocal expressions. The results show that male listeners preferred a female voice that signals a small body size, with relatively high pitch, wide formant dispersion and breathy voice, while female listeners preferred a male voice that signals a large body size with low pitch and narrow formant dispersion. Interestingly, however, male vocal attractiveness was also enhanced by breathiness, which presumably softened the aggressiveness associated with a large body size. These results, together with the additional finding that the same vocal dimensions also affect emotion judgment, indicate that humans still employ a vocal interaction strategy used in animal calls despite the development of complex language.

  17. Human Vocal Attractiveness as Signaled by Body Size Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Lee, Albert; Wu, Wing-Li; Liu, Xuan; Birkholz, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Voice, as a secondary sexual characteristic, is known to affect the perceived attractiveness of human individuals. But the underlying mechanism of vocal attractiveness has remained unclear. Here, we presented human listeners with acoustically altered natural sentences and fully synthetic sentences with systematically manipulated pitch, formants and voice quality based on a principle of body size projection reported for animal calls and emotional human vocal expressions. The results show that male listeners preferred a female voice that signals a small body size, with relatively high pitch, wide formant dispersion and breathy voice, while female listeners preferred a male voice that signals a large body size with low pitch and narrow formant dispersion. Interestingly, however, male vocal attractiveness was also enhanced by breathiness, which presumably softened the aggressiveness associated with a large body size. These results, together with the additional finding that the same vocal dimensions also affect emotion judgment, indicate that humans still employ a vocal interaction strategy used in animal calls despite the development of complex language. PMID:23638065

  18. Vocal fry may undermine the success of young women in the labor market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rindy C; Klofstad, Casey A; Mayew, William J; Venkatachalam, Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Vocal fry is speech that is low pitched and creaky sounding, and is increasingly common among young American females. Some argue that vocal fry enhances speaker labor market perceptions while others argue that vocal fry is perceived negatively and can damage job prospects. In a large national sample of American adults we find that vocal fry is interpreted negatively. Relative to a normal speaking voice, young adult female voices exhibiting vocal fry are perceived as less competent, less educated, less trustworthy, less attractive, and less hirable. The negative perceptions of vocal fry are stronger for female voices relative to male voices. These results suggest that young American females should avoid using vocal fry speech in order to maximize labor market opportunities.

  19. Vocal fry may undermine the success of young women in the labor market.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rindy C Anderson

    Full Text Available Vocal fry is speech that is low pitched and creaky sounding, and is increasingly common among young American females. Some argue that vocal fry enhances speaker labor market perceptions while others argue that vocal fry is perceived negatively and can damage job prospects. In a large national sample of American adults we find that vocal fry is interpreted negatively. Relative to a normal speaking voice, young adult female voices exhibiting vocal fry are perceived as less competent, less educated, less trustworthy, less attractive, and less hirable. The negative perceptions of vocal fry are stronger for female voices relative to male voices. These results suggest that young American females should avoid using vocal fry speech in order to maximize labor market opportunities.

  20. The Anatomy of Vocal Divergence in North American Elk and European Red Deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Roland; Riede, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Loud and frequent vocalizations play an important role in courtship behavior in Cervus species. European red deer (Cervus elaphus) produce low-pitched calls, whereas North American elk (Cervus canadensis) produce high-pitched calls, which is remarkable for one of the biggest land mammals. Both species engage their vocal organs in elaborate maneuvers but the precise mechanism is unknown. Vocal organs were compared by macroscopic and microscopic dissection. The larynx is sexually dimorphic in red deer but not in elk. The laryngeal lumen is more constricted in elk, and narrows further during ontogeny. Several elements of the hyoid skeleton and two of four vocal tract segments are longer in red deer than in elk allowing greater vocal tract expansion and elongation. We conclude that elk submit the larynx and vocal tract to much higher tension than red deer, whereby, enormously stressed vocal folds of reduced effective length create a high resistance glottal source. The narrow, high impedance laryngeal vestibulum matches glottal and vocal tract impedance allowing maximum power transfer. In red deer longer and relaxed vocal folds create a less resistant glottal source and a wider vestibulum matches the low glottal impedance to the vocal tract, thereby also ensuring maximum power transfer. PMID:23225193

  1. Bioelectrical brain effects of one's own voice identification in pitch of voice auditory feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzyukov, Oleg; Bronder, Alexander; Lee, Yunseon; Patel, Sona; Larson, Charles R

    2017-07-01

    Control of voice fundamental frequency (F0) relies in part on comparison of the intended F0 level and auditory feedback. This comparison impacts "sense of agency", or SoA, commonly defined as being the agent of one's own actions and plays a key role for self-awareness and social interactions. SoA is aberrant in several psychiatric disorders. Knowledge about brain activity reflecting SoA can be used in clinical practice for these disorders. It was shown that perception of voice feedback as one's own voice, reflecting the recognition of SoA, alters auditory sensory processing. Using a voice perturbation paradigm we contrasted vocal and bioelectrical brain responses to auditory stimuli that differed in magnitude: 100 and 400 cents. Results suggest the different magnitudes were perceived as a pitch error in self-vocalization (100 cents) or as a pitch shift generated externally (400 cents). Vocalizations and neural responses to changes in pitch of self-vocalization were defined as those made to small magnitude pitch-shifts (100 cents) and which did not show differential neural responses to upward versus downward changes in voice pitch auditory feedback. Vocal responses to large magnitude pitch shifts (400 cents) were smaller than those made to small pitch shifts, and neural responses differed according to upwards versus downward changes in pitch. Our results suggest that the presence of SoA for self-produced sounds may modify bioelectrical brain responses reflecting differences in auditory processing of the direction of a pitch shift. We suggest that this modification of bioelectrical response can be used as a biological index of SoA. Possible neuronal mechanisms of this modification of bioelectrical brain response are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pitch and pitch variation in lesbian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Borsel, John; Vandaele, Jana; Corthals, Paul

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate to what extent lesbian women demonstrate pitch and pitch variation that is different from that of heterosexual women. Static group comparison. The average pitch and pitch variation of a group of 34 self-identified lesbian women and an age-matched group of 68 heterosexual women were compared. The speech sample consisted of read speech. Acoustic analysis was performed by means of PRAAT. Mean fundamental frequency in the group of lesbian women was significantly lower than that of the group of heterosexual women. The lesbian woman also showed significantly less pitch variation. Lesbian women tend to demonstrate a lower average pitch and less pitch variation than heterosexual women, but this does not mean a confirmation of the popular stereotype that lesbian women are masculine women. In their assessment of clients with voice disorders, clinicians should reckon with the sociophonetic variation that is associated with sexual orientation. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sensory Processing: Advances in Understanding Structure and Function of Pitch-Shifted Auditory Feedback in Voice Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R Larson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The pitch-shift paradigm has become a widely used method for studying the role of voice pitch auditory feedback in voice control. This paradigm introduces small, brief pitch shifts in voice auditory feedback to vocalizing subjects. The perturbations trigger a reflexive mechanism that counteracts the change in pitch. The underlying mechanisms of the vocal responses are thought to reflect a negative feedback control system that is similar to constructs developed to explain other forms of motor control. Another use of this technique requires subjects to voluntarily change the pitch of their voice when they hear a pitch shift stimulus. Under these conditions, short latency responses are produced that change voice pitch to match that of the stimulus. The pitch-shift technique has been used with magnetoencephalography (MEG and electroencephalography (EEG recordings, and has shown that at vocal onset there is normally a suppression of neural activity related to vocalization. However, if a pitch-shift is also presented at voice onset, there is a cancellation of this suppression, which has been interpreted to mean that one way in which a person distinguishes self-vocalization from vocalization of others is by a comparison of the intended voice and the actual voice. Studies of the pitch shift reflex in the fMRI environment show that the superior temporal gyrus (STG plays an important role in the process of controlling voice F0 based on auditory feedback. Additional studies using fMRI for effective connectivity modeling show that the left and right STG play critical roles in correcting for an error in voice production. While both the left and right STG are involved in this process, a feedback loop develops between left and right STG during perturbations, in which the left to right connection becomes stronger, and a new negative right to left connection emerges along with the emergence of other feedback loops within the cortical network tested.

  4. Text Painting, or Coincidence? Treatment of Height-Related Imagery in the Madrigals of Luca Marenzio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek R. Strykowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Text painting is a defining characteristic of the sixteenth-century madrigal style, especially in association with references to height. Whereas composers cannot have given musical illustration to every such reference contained within the text of a madrigal, the question of whether or not the music that accompanies a particular reference to height constitutes an actual example of text painting is sometimes unclear. To explore this problem empirically, the frequency with which musical excerpts from a corpus of 201 madrigals composed by the Italian composer Luca Marenzio satisfied three proposed definitions of height-related text painting was measured. The three definitions required a vocal part to contain either a large leap, stepwise motion, or an extreme of pitch. Positive correlations were observed between the appearance of music conforming to each of the respective definitions and the presence of height-related imagery in the text, yet only in passages that satisfied more than one definition. The research suggests that no single definition is a reliable indicator of height-related text painting, and that most legitimate examples rely on multiple compositional devices.

  5. Vocally mediated social recognition in anurans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Mark A.

    2005-09-01

    Anuran amphibians (frogs and toads) are among the most vocal of vertebrates and have long served as model systems for investigating the mechanisms and evolution of acoustic communication. Compared to higher vertebrates, however, the role of cognition in anuran communication has received less attention, at least in part due to the lack of evidence that juvenile anurans learn to produce signals or associate them with particular social contexts. Recent studies of social recognition in two anuran families indicate that territorial male frogs in some species are able to learn about and recognize the individually distinctive properties of the calls of nearby neighbors. For example, male bullfrogs (ranidae) learn about the pitch of a neighbor's vocalizations (an individually distinct voice property) and associate a familiar pitch with the location of the neighbor's territory. As in songbirds, this form of vocally mediated social recognition allows territory holders to direct low levels of aggression toward well-established neighbors, while maintaining a readiness to respond aggressively to more threatening strangers that may attempt a territory takeover. A brief review of currently available data will be used to illustrate how anurans can serve as model systems for investigating the role of cognition in acoustic communication.

  6. Rapid pitch correction in choir singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grell, Anke; Sundberg, Johan; Ternström, Sten; Ptok, Martin; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2009-07-01

    Highly and moderately skilled choral singers listened to a perfect fifth reference, with the instruction to complement the fifth such that a major triad resulted. The fifth was suddenly and unexpectedly shifted in pitch, and the singers' task was to shift the fundamental frequency of the sung tone accordingly. The F0 curves during the transitions often showed two phases, an initial quick and large change followed by a slower and smaller change, apparently intended to fine-tune voice F0 to complement the fifth. Anesthetizing the vocal folds of moderately skilled singers tended to delay the reaction. The means of the response times varied in the range 197- 259 ms depending on direction and size of the pitch shifts, as well as on skill and anesthetization.

  7. Modal locking between vocal fold and vocal tract oscillations: Simulations in time domain

    CERN Document Server

    Aalto, Atte; Malinen, Jarmo; Aalto, Daniel; Vainio, Martti

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that during voiced speech, the human vocal folds interact with the vocal tract acoustics. The resulting source-filter coupling has been observed using mathematical and physical models as well as in in vivo phonation. We propose a computational time-domain model of the full speech apparatus that, in particular, contains a feedback mechanism from the vocal tract acoustics to the vocal fold oscillations. It is based on numerical solution of ordinary and partial differential equations defined on vocal tract geometries that have been obtained by Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The model is used to simulate rising and falling pitch glides of [a, i] in the fundamental frequency (f_0) interval [180 Hz, 360 Hz]. The interval contains the first formant F1 of [i] as well as the subformants F1/4 and F1/3 of [a]. The simulations reveal a locking pattern of the f_0-trajectory at F1 of [i] in falling and rising glides. The subformants of [a] produce perturbations in the waveforms of glottal signals but no locki...

  8. Pitch Strength as an Outcome Measure for Treatment of Dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, Lisa M; Jackson-Menaldi, Cristina; Rubin, Adam D; Skeffington, Jean; Hunter, Eric J; Skowronski, Mark D; Shrivastav, Rahul

    2017-03-16

    Measurement of treatment outcomes is critical for the spectrum of voice treatments (ie, surgical, behavioral, or pharmacological). Outcome measures typically include visual (eg, stroboscopic data), auditory (eg, Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice; Grade, Roughness, Breathiness, Asthenia, Strain), and objective correlates of vocal fold vibratory characteristics, such as acoustic signals (eg, harmonics-to-noise ratio, cepstral peak prominence) or patient self-reported questionnaires (eg, Voice Handicap Index, Voice-Related Quality of Life). Subjective measures often show high variability, whereas most acoustic measures of voice are only valid for signals where some degree of periodicity can be assumed. However, this assumption is often invalid for dysphonic voices where signal periodicity is suspect. Furthermore, many of these measures are not useful in isolation for diagnostic purposes. We evaluated a recently developed algorithm (Auditory Sawtooth Waveform Inspired Pitch Estimator-Prime [Auditory-SWIPE']) for estimating pitch and pitch strength for dysphonic voices. Whereas fundamental frequency is a physical attribute of a signal, pitch is its psychophysical correlate. As such, the perception of pitch can extend to most signals irrespective of their periodicity. Post hoc analyses were conducted for three groups of patients evaluated and treated for voice problems at a major voice center: (1) muscle tension dysphonia/functional dysphonia, (2) vocal fold mass(es), and (3) presbyphonia. All patients were recorded before and after surgical/behavioral treatment for voice disorders. Pitch and pitch strength for each speaker were computed with the Auditory-SWIPE' algorithm. Comparison of pre- and posttreatment data provides support for pitch strength as a measure of treatment outcomes for dysphonic voices. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The impact of phonation mode and vocal technique on vocal fold closure in young females with normal voice quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bodt, Marc S; Clement, Gregory; Wuyts, Floris L; Borghs, Cindy; Van Lierde, Kristiane M

    2012-11-01

    Because voice quality depends substantially on vocal fold closure (VFC), voice therapists try to modify VFC by specific voice techniques or adjustments in phonation mode. This study demonstrates the impact of six different phonation modes on VFC in healthy subjects. For this study, 21 female subjects with normal voice quality were selected. The impact of different phonation modes and voice techniques was examined by fiberoptic laryngovideoendoscopy during different modes of phonation: habitual phonation, high pitch, low pitch, resonance on /m/, Coblenzer's "abspannen," and chant talk. The video recordings were judged by three experienced professionals (two Speech and Language Pathologist and one laryngologist) by means of a visual analog scale. Statistical analysis showed that only resonance on /m/ significantly improved VFC compared with habitual phonation. All other phonation modes and techniques, except low-pitched phonation, led to a significant worse closure in comparison with the closure at normal pitch. The glottic closure observed by low-pitched phonation was not significantly different than the closure at habitual pitch. Interrater agreement was moderate to very good, depending on the mode of phonation. The results of this study allow a better understanding of the impact of phonation mode and vocal therapy techniques on VFC in healthy subjects and give an indication about the impact of these methods to influence VFC. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Vocal process granuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Dousary, S

    1997-06-01

    Vocal process granuloma or contact ulcer is uncommon disease in which there is chronic irritation and granulation tissue formation at the posterior third of the vocal folds. Thirteen patients (11 men and two women) with vocal process granuloma were enrolled in this study; cases of intubation granuloma were excluded. The most frequent complaints were throat irritation, frequent throat clearing and voice change. Forty-seven percent of patients had a recurrence two to four months after surgery. Computed tomography (CT) of the larynx in four patients showed arytenoid sclerosis on the involved side and disclosed moderate enhancement of the vocal fold granuloma after contrast injection in one. Three patients had hyperacidity and four had hyperfunctioning granulomas: two used their voices excessively and the other two had bilateral sulcus vocalis. To our knowledge this is the first report of sulcus vocalis with vocal process granuloma, and of enhanced vocal process granuloma.

  11. Multivariate Analysis of Risk Factors in the Development of a Lower-Pitched Voice After Thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun-Ook; Bae, Ja-Sung; Lee, So-Hee; Shim, Mi-Ran; Hwang, Yeon-Shin; Joo, Young-Hoon; Park, Young Hak; Sun, Dong-Il

    2017-02-01

    Thyroid surgeons frequently encounter outpatients with mobile vocal cords complaining of lower-pitched voices following thyroidectomy. This study investigated the clinical and pathological parameters affecting voice pitch following thyroid surgery. We analyzed the data of 393 patients with mobile vocal cords and who also underwent thyroid surgery. Speaking fundamental frequency (SFF) and fundamental frequency (F0) were compared before and after surgery. Approximately 26.7% of patients had significantly lowered SFFs (ΔSFF ≥ 12 Hz), and 30.2% exhibited significantly lower sustained vowel F0s (ΔF0 ≥ 12 Hz) following thyroid surgery. On multivariate analysis, only gender: female remained a significant predictor of a clinically significant change in SFF following thyroid surgery ( P pitched voice and related vocal symptoms early after thyroid surgery. Such problems develop more frequently in females who underwent total thyroidectomy.

  12. Perceiving pitch absolutely: Comparing absolute and relative pitch possessors in a pitch memory task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlaug Gottfried

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The perceptual-cognitive mechanisms and neural correlates of Absolute Pitch (AP are not fully understood. The aim of this fMRI study was to examine the neural network underlying AP using a pitch memory experiment and contrasting two groups of musicians with each other, those that have AP and those that do not. Results We found a common activation pattern for both groups that included the superior temporal gyrus (STG extending into the adjacent superior temporal sulcus (STS, the inferior parietal lobule (IPL extending into the adjacent intraparietal sulcus (IPS, the posterior part of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA, and superior lateral cerebellar regions. Significant between-group differences were seen in the left STS during the early encoding phase of the pitch memory task (more activation in AP musicians and in the right superior parietal lobule (SPL/intraparietal sulcus (IPS during the early perceptual phase (ITP 0–3 and later working memory/multimodal encoding phase of the pitch memory task (more activation in non-AP musicians. Non-significant between-group trends were seen in the posterior IFG (more in AP musicians and the IPL (more anterior activations in the non-AP group and more posterior activations in the AP group. Conclusion Since the increased activation of the left STS in AP musicians was observed during the early perceptual encoding phase and since the STS has been shown to be involved in categorization tasks, its activation might suggest that AP musicians involve categorization regions in tonal tasks. The increased activation of the right SPL/IPS in non-AP musicians indicates either an increased use of regions that are part of a tonal working memory (WM network, or the use of a multimodal encoding strategy such as the utilization of a visual-spatial mapping scheme (i.e., imagining notes on a staff or using a spatial coding for their relative pitch height for pitch

  13. Modeling of Breathy Voice Quality Using Pitch-strength Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddins, David A; Anand, Supraja; Camacho, Arturo; Shrivastav, Rahul

    2016-11-01

    The characteristic voice quality of a speaker conveys important linguistic, paralinguistic, and vocal health-related information. Pitch strength refers to the salience of pitch sensation in a sound and was recently reported to be strongly correlated with the magnitude of perceived breathiness based on a small number of voice stimuli. The current study examined the relationship between perceptual judgments of breathiness and computational estimates of pitch strength based on the Aud-SWIPE (P-NP) algorithm for a large number of voice stimuli (330 synthetic and 57 natural). Similar to the earlier study, the current results confirm a strong relationship between estimated pitch strength and listener judgments of breathiness such that low pitch-strength values are associated with voices that have high perceived breathiness. Based on this result, a model was developed for the perception of breathy voice quality using a pitch-strength estimator. Regression functions derived between the pitch-strength estimates and perceptual judgments of breathiness obtained from matching task revealed a linear relationship for a subset of the natural stimuli. We then used this function to obtain predicted breathiness values for the synthetic and the remaining natural stimuli. Predicted breathiness values from our model were highly correlated with the perceptual data for both types of stimuli. Systematic differences between the breathiness of natural and synthetic stimuli are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Jinsangsanjie capsule for treating vocal fold polyps and vocal nodules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sulin; Li, Yuncheng; Wang, Yanjun; Kong, Weijia

    2012-08-01

    To investigate therapeutic effects of Jinsangsanjie capsule on vocal fold polyps and vocal nodules. Seventy-five patients with vocal fold polyps and vocal nodules were treated by taking Jinsangsanjie capsule orally. After the therapeutic course, they were all followed up for 1 month. The effective rate of vocal nodule group was 93.8%, the effective rate of vocal fold polyp group was 89.7%, the effective rate of vocal nodule with acute congestion group was 100%, the effective rate of vocal fold polyp with acute congestion group was 100%, and the effective rate of hypertrophy of vocal cords with chronic congestion group was 66.7%. Jinsangsanjie capsule has definite efficacy for treatment of vocal fold polyps and vocal nodules and deserved to be recommended.

  15. Dial A440 for absolute pitch: absolute pitch memory by non-absolute pitch possessors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicholas A; Schmuckler, Mark A

    2008-04-01

    Listeners without absolute (or "perfect") pitch have difficulty identifying or producing isolated musical pitches from memory. Instead, they process the relative pattern of pitches, which remains invariant across pitch transposition. Musically untrained non-absolute pitch possessors demonstrated absolute pitch memory for the telephone dial tone, a stimulus that is always heard at the same absolute frequency. Listeners accurately classified pitch-shifted versions of the dial tone as "normal," "higher than normal" or "lower than normal." However, the role of relative pitch processing was also evident, in that listeners' pitch judgments were also sensitive to the frequency range of stimuli.

  16. Perfect pitch reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Calum

    2014-10-01

    Perfect pitch, or absolute pitch (AP), is defined as the ability to identify or produce the pitch of a sound without need for a reference pitch, and is generally regarded as a valuable asset to the musician. However, there has been no recent review of the literature examining its aetiology and its utility taking into account emerging scientific advances in AP research, notably in functional imaging. This review analyses the key empirical research on AP, focusing on genetic and neuroimaging studies. The review concludes that: AP probably has a genetic predisposition, although this is based on limited evidence; early musical training is almost certainly essential for AP acquisition; and, although there is evidence that it may be relevant to speech processing, AP can interfere with relative pitch, an ability on which humans rely to communicate effectively. The review calls into question the value of AP to musicians and non-musicians alike. © 2014 Royal College of Physicians.

  17. Humans rely on the same rules to assess emotional valence and intensity in conspecific and dog vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faragó, Tamás; Andics, Attila; Devecseri, Viktor; Kis, Anna; Gácsi, Márta; Miklósi, Adám

    2014-01-01

    Humans excel at assessing conspecific emotional valence and intensity, based solely on non-verbal vocal bursts that are also common in other mammals. It is not known, however, whether human listeners rely on similar acoustic cues to assess emotional content in conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations, and which acoustical parameters affect their performance. Here, for the first time, we directly compared the emotional valence and intensity perception of dog and human non-verbal vocalizations. We revealed similar relationships between acoustic features and emotional valence and intensity ratings of human and dog vocalizations: those with shorter call lengths were rated as more positive, whereas those with a higher pitch were rated as more intense. Our findings demonstrate that humans rate conspecific emotional vocalizations along basic acoustic rules, and that they apply similar rules when processing dog vocal expressions. This suggests that humans may utilize similar mental mechanisms for recognizing human and heterospecific vocal emotions.

  18. Vocal Qualities in Music Theater Voice: Perceptions of Expert Pedagogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Tracy; Kenny, Dianna

    2016-01-01

    To gather qualitative descriptions of music theater vocal qualities including belt, legit, and mix from expert pedagogues to better define this voice type. This is a prospective, semistructured interview. Twelve expert teachers from United States, United Kingdom, Asia, and Australia were interviewed by Skype and asked to identify characteristics of music theater vocal qualities including vocal production, physiology, esthetics, pitch range, and pedagogical techniques. Responses were compared with published studies on music theater voice. Belt and legit were generally described as distinct sounds with differing physiological and technical requirements. Teachers were concerned that belt should be taught "safely" to minimize vocal health risks. There was consensus between teachers and published research on the physiology of the glottis and vocal tract; however, teachers were not in agreement about breathing techniques. Neither were teachers in agreement about the meaning of "mix." Most participants described belt as heavily weighted, thick folds, thyroarytenoid-dominant, or chest register; however, there was no consensus on an appropriate term. Belt substyles were named and generally categorized by weightedness or tone color. Descriptions of male belt were less clear than for female belt. This survey provides an overview of expert pedagogical perspectives on the characteristics of belt, legit, and mix qualities in the music theater voice. Although teacher responses are generally in agreement with published research, there are still many controversial issues and gaps in knowledge and understanding of this vocal technique. Breathing techniques, vocal range, mix, male belt, and vocal registers require continuing investigation so that we can learn more about efficient and healthy vocal function in music theater singing. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. ERP correlates of pitch error detection in complex tone and voice auditory feedback with missing fundamental.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Korzyukov, Oleg; Larson, Charles R

    2012-04-11

    Previous studies have shown that the pitch of a sound is perceived in the absence of its fundamental frequency (F0), suggesting that a distinct mechanism may resolve pitch based on a pattern that exists between harmonic frequencies. The present study investigated whether such a mechanism is active during voice pitch control. ERPs were recorded in response to +200 cents pitch shifts in the auditory feedback of self-vocalizations and complex tones with and without the F0. The absence of the fundamental induced no difference in ERP latencies. However, a right-hemisphere difference was found in the N1 amplitudes with larger responses to complex tones that included the fundamental compared to when it was missing. The P1 and N1 latencies were shorter in the left hemisphere, and the N1 and P2 amplitudes were larger bilaterally for pitch shifts in voice and complex tones compared with pure tones. These findings suggest hemispheric differences in neural encoding of pitch in sounds with missing fundamental. Data from the present study suggest that the right cortical auditory areas, thought to be specialized for spectral processing, may utilize different mechanisms to resolve pitch in sounds with missing fundamental. The left hemisphere seems to perform faster processing to resolve pitch based on the rate of temporal variations in complex sounds compared with pure tones. These effects indicate that the differential neural processing of pitch in the left and right hemispheres may enable the audio-vocal system to detect temporal and spectral variations in the auditory feedback for vocal pitch control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [A vocal treatment plan for voice disorders after phonosurgery--a preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N M; Huang, T S

    1994-06-01

    In this study, twenty-five subjects have received phonosurgery of benign vocal pathology but persistent voice disorders postoperatively, characterized by a hoarse, low-pitched, soft voice or efforted phonation. Each subject had filled out a self-evaluation questionnaire of vocal behaviors before surgery and his vocal cords examined by ENT doctor with indirect laryngoscope or direct fiberscope. Voice evaluations was done based on perceptual and acoustic parameters preoperatively and postoperatively. Twenty-five subjects were grouped into three post-operative vocal rehabilitation programs: voice rest group, vocal hygiene group, and direct voice therapy group. The criteria in grouping were according to the subjects' amount of vocal use, environmental pressures, vocal abuse or misuse behaviors and time flexibility. The therapy strategies included reducing amount of vocal use, changing life style, analyzing environmental pressures and treating voice problems with established facilitating techniques. The post-surgical vocal rehabilitation program lasted three to six months. Each subject's voice parameters were reevaluated six months after surgery. The results of three vocal rehabilitation groups were compared with those before rehabilitation. The implication of this study is to provide a holistic voice treatment plan and obtain better surgical intervention results.

  1. Reinforcement of Infant Vocalizations through Contingent Vocal Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Gewirtz, Jacob L.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations is highly prevalent during face-to-face interactions of infants and their caregivers. Although maternal vocal imitation has been associated with later verbal development, its potentially reinforcing effect on infant vocalizations has not been explored experimentally. This study examined the…

  2. Dissociation of procedural and semantic memory in absolute-pitch processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, I-Hui; Saberi, Kourosh

    2008-06-01

    We describe two memory-retrieval systems in absolute-pitch (AP) processing and propose existence of a universal internal pitch template to which subpopulations of musicians selectively gain access through the two systems. In Experiment I, AP and control musicians adjusted the frequency of a pure tone to match the pitch of a visually displayed randomly selected musical note. In Experiment II the same subjects vocally produced within 2s the pitch associated with a randomly selected musical note label. AP musicians, but not controls, were highly accurate in frequency matching. Surprisingly, both AP and non-AP groups were extremely accurate in voicing the target pitch as determined from an FFT of the recorded voiced notes (i.e., sigma=0.97, 0.90 semitones, respectively). Spectrogram analysis showed that notes voiced by non-AP musicians are accurate from onset of voicing suggesting that pitch accuracy does not result from an auditory-motor feedback loop. Findings support existence of two memory-retrieval systems for musical pitch: a semantic associative form of memory used by AP musicians, and a more widespread form of procedural memory which allows precise access to internal pitch representations through the vocal-motor system.

  3. Differential effects of perturbation direction and magnitude on the neural processing of voice pitch feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanjun; Meshman, Michelle; Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Larson, Charles R

    2011-05-01

    The present study examined the differential effects of voice auditory feedback perturbation direction and magnitude on voice fundamental frequency (F(0)) responses and event-related potentials (ERPs) from EEG electrodes on the scalp. The voice F(0) responses and N1 and P2 components of ERPs were examined from 12 right-handed speakers when they sustained a vowel phonation and their mid-utterance voice pitch feedback was shifted ±100, ±200, and ±500 cents with 200 ms duration. Downward voice pitch feedback perturbations led to larger voice F(0) responses than upward perturbations. The amplitudes of N1 and P2 components were larger for downward compared with upward pitch-shifts for 200 and 500 cents stimulus magnitudes. Shorter N1 and P2 latencies were also associated with larger magnitudes of pitch feedback perturbations. Corresponding changes in vocal and neural responses to upward and downward voice pitch feedback perturbations suggest that the N1 and P2 components of ERPs reflect neural concomitants of the vocal responses. The findings of interactive effects between the magnitude and direction of voice feedback pitch perturbation on N1 and P2 ERP components indicate that the neural mechanisms underlying error detection and correction in voice pitch auditory feedback are differentially sensitive to both the magnitude and direction of pitch perturbations. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Associations between auditory pitch and visual elevation do not depend on language: evidence from a remote population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Carolyn; Kohler, Peter Jes; Sievers, Beau; Wheatley, Thalia

    2012-01-01

    Associations between auditory pitch and visual elevation are widespread in many languages, and behavioral associations have been extensively documented between height and pitch among speakers of those languages. However, it remains unclear whether perceptual correspondences between auditory pitch and visual elevation inform these linguistic associations, or merely reflect them. We probed this cross-modal mapping in members of a remote Kreung hill tribe in northeastern Cambodia who do not use spatial language to describe pitch. Participants viewed shapes rising or falling in space while hearing sounds either rising or falling in pitch, and reported on the auditory change. Associations between pitch and vertical position in the Kreung were similar to those demonstrated in populations where pitch is described in terms of spatial height. These results suggest that associations between visual elevation and auditory pitch can arise independently of language. Thus, widespread linguistic associations between pitch and elevation may reflect universally predisposed perceptual correspondences.

  5. Lower extremity muscle activation during baseball pitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Brian M; Stodden, David F; Nixon, Megan K

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation levels of select lower extremity muscles during the pitching motion. Bilateral surface electromyography data on 5 lower extremity muscles (biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gluteus maximus, vastus medialis, and gastrocnemius) were collected on 11 highly skilled baseball pitchers and compared with individual maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) data. The pitching motion was divided into 4 distinct phases: phase 1, initiation of pitching motion to maximum stride leg knee height; phase 2, maximum stride leg knee height to stride foot contact (SFC); phase 3, SFC to ball release; and phase 4, ball release to 0.5 seconds after ball release (follow-through). Results indicated that trail leg musculature elicited moderate to high activity levels during phases 2 and 3 (38-172% of MVIC). Muscle activity levels of the stride leg were moderate to high during phases 2-4 (23-170% of MVIC). These data indicate a high demand for lower extremity strength and endurance. Specifically, coaches should incorporate unilateral and bilateral lower extremity exercises for strength improvement or maintenance and to facilitate dynamic stabilization of the lower extremities during the pitching motion.

  6. Integrating cues of social interest and voice pitch in men's preferences for women's voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benedict C; Feinberg, David R; Debruine, Lisa M; Little, Anthony C; Vukovic, Jovana

    2008-04-23

    Most previous studies of vocal attractiveness have focused on preferences for physical characteristics of voices such as pitch. Here we examine the content of vocalizations in interaction with such physical traits, finding that vocal cues of social interest modulate the strength of men's preferences for raised pitch in women's voices. Men showed stronger preferences for raised pitch when judging the voices of women who appeared interested in the listener than when judging the voices of women who appeared relatively disinterested in the listener. These findings show that voice preferences are not determined solely by physical properties of voices and that men integrate information about voice pitch and the degree of social interest expressed by women when forming voice preferences. Women's preferences for raised pitch in women's voices were not modulated by cues of social interest, suggesting that the integration of cues of social interest and voice pitch when men judge the attractiveness of women's voices may reflect adaptations that promote efficient allocation of men's mating effort.

  7. Consonance and pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Neil; Marco, David; Light, Maria; Wilson, Sarah

    2013-11-01

    To date, no consensus exists in the literature as to theories of consonance and dissonance. Experimental data collected over the last century have raised questions about the dominant theories that are based on frequency relationships between the harmonics of music chords. This study provides experimental evidence that strongly challenges these theories and suggests a new theory of dissonance based on relationships between pitch perception and recognition. Experiment 1 shows that dissonance does not increase with increasing numbers of harmonics in chords as predicted by Helmholtz's (1863/1954) roughness theory, nor does it increase with fewer pitch-matching errors as predicted by Stumpf's (1898) tonal fusion theory. Dissonance was strongly correlated with pitch-matching error for chords, which in turn was reduced by chord familiarity and greater music training. This led to the proposition that long-term memory templates for common chords assist the perception of pitches in chords by providing an estimate of the chord intervals from spectral information. When recognition mechanisms based on these templates fail, the spectral pitch estimate is inconsistent with the period of the waveform, leading to cognitive incongruence and the negative affect of dissonance. The cognitive incongruence theory of dissonance was rigorously tested in Experiment 2, in which nonmusicians were trained to match the pitches of a random selection of 2-pitch chords. After 10 training sessions, they rated the chords they had learned to pitch match as less dissonant than the unlearned chords, irrespective of their tuning, providing strong support for a cognitive mechanism of dissonance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Native experience with a tone language enhances pitch discrimination and the timing of neural responses to pitch change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Ryan J; Pfordresher, Peter Q; Stanley, Emily M; Narayana, Shalini; Wicha, Nicole Y Y

    2011-01-01

    Native tone language experience has been linked with alterations in the production and perception of pitch in language, as well as with the brain response to linguistic and non-linguistic tones. Here we use two experiments to address whether these changes apply to the discrimination of simple pitch changes and pitch intervals. Event related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from native Mandarin speakers and a control group during a same/different task with pairs of pure tones differing only in pitch height, and with pure tone pairs differing only in interval distance. Behaviorally, Mandarin speakers were more accurate than controls at detecting both pitch and interval changes, showing a sensitivity to small pitch changes and interval distances that was absent in the control group. Converging evidence from ERPs obtained during the same tasks revealed an earlier response to change relative to no-change trials in Mandarin speakers, as well as earlier differentiation of trials by change direction relative to controls. These findings illustrate the cross-domain influence of language experience on the perception of pitch, suggesting that the native use of tonal pitch contours in language leads to a general enhancement in the acuity of pitch representations.

  9. Morphometric Study of Vocal Folds in Indian Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawal J.D.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: -The larynx is an air passage and a sphincteric device used in respiration and phonation. The larynx, from inside outwards has a framework of mucosa surrounded by fibro-elastic membrane which in turn is surrounded by cartilages and then a layer of muscles. Vocal folds are intrinsic ligament of larynx covered by mucosal folds. Larynx generates sound through rhythmic opening and closing of the vocal folds. The perceived pitch of human voice mainly depends upon fundamental frequency of sound generated by larynx. Aim: - The aim of present study is to measure various dimensions of vocal folds in Indian cadavers. Material & Methods: - 50 larynx were obtained from embalmed cadavers, of which 10 larynx were of females. Vocal cords were dissected from the larynx and morphometric analysis was done. Results and Conclusions: - The average total length of the vocal folds was found to be 16.11 mm. ± 2.62 mm. in male and 14.10 mm. ± 1.54 mm. in female cadavers. The average width of the vocal folds was found to be 4.38 mm. ± 0.74 mm. in male and 3.60 mm. ± 0.64 mm. in female cadavers. The average total length of the membranous part of the vocal folds was found to be 11.90 mm. ± 1.86 mm. in male and 10.45 mm. ± 1.81 mm. in female cadavers. The average ratio of the length of the membranous and the cartilaginous parts of the vocal folds was calculated to be 3.10 ± 0.96in male and 2.85 ± 0.73in female cadavers.

  10. Vocal accuracy and neural plasticity following micromelody-discrimination training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Mary Zarate

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent behavioral studies report correlational evidence to suggest that non-musicians with good pitch discrimination sing more accurately than those with poorer auditory skills. However, other studies have reported a dissociation between perceptual and vocal production skills. In order to elucidate the relationship between auditory discrimination skills and vocal accuracy, we administered an auditory-discrimination training paradigm to a group of non-musicians to determine whether training-enhanced auditory discrimination would specifically result in improved vocal accuracy.We utilized micromelodies (i.e., melodies with seven different interval scales, each smaller than a semitone as the main stimuli for auditory discrimination training and testing, and we used single-note and melodic singing tasks to assess vocal accuracy in two groups of non-musicians (experimental and control. To determine if any training-induced improvements in vocal accuracy would be accompanied by related modulations in cortical activity during singing, the experimental group of non-musicians also performed the singing tasks while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Following training, the experimental group exhibited significant enhancements in micromelody discrimination compared to controls. However, we did not observe a correlated improvement in vocal accuracy during single-note or melodic singing, nor did we detect any training-induced changes in activity within brain regions associated with singing.Given the observations from our auditory training regimen, we therefore conclude that perceptual discrimination training alone is not sufficient to improve vocal accuracy in non-musicians, supporting the suggested dissociation between auditory perception and vocal production.

  11. Navicula height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten Møller; Olesen Gammelgaard, Christian; Nielsen, R. G.

    , it was hypothesized that the single leg standing also would be an indicator of navicula drop, and the minimal height of tuberositas navicula during walking. Another test was suggested by Brody, it was named Navicula Drop Test (NDT) and was defined as the difference of navicula height with subtalar joint in neutral...... position and relaxed standing posture. Excessive movement of the navicula is considered a predisposing factor in the development of shin splits. No single direct static measurement of navicula height has yet shown to predict a high degree of mid foot movement. The purpose of this study was to investigate...... the relationship between static measurements, using Navicual Drop Test and One Leg Standing (OLS) and the dynamic measurements of minimal navicula height loaded (NHL) and navicula drop (ΔNH)...

  12. Sounds like a winner: voice pitch influences perception of leadership capacity in both men and women

    OpenAIRE

    Klofstad, Casey A.; Anderson, Rindy C.; Peters, Susan

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that non-human animals respond to information encoded in vocal signals, and the same can be said of humans. Specifically, human voice pitch affects how speakers are perceived. As such, does voice pitch affect how we perceive and select our leaders? To answer this question, we recorded men and women saying ‘I urge you to vote for me this November’. Each recording was manipulated digitally to yield a higher- and lower-pitched version of the original. We then asked men and women...

  13. Normal-Hearing Listeners’ and Cochlear Implant Users’ Perception of Pitch Cues in Emotional Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Gilbers

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In cochlear implants (CIs, acoustic speech cues, especially for pitch, are delivered in a degraded form. This study’s aim is to assess whether due to degraded pitch cues, normal-hearing listeners and CI users employ different perceptual strategies to recognize vocal emotions, and, if so, how these differ. Voice actors were recorded pronouncing a nonce word in four different emotions: anger, sadness, joy, and relief. These recordings’ pitch cues were phonetically analyzed. The recordings were used to test 20 normal-hearing listeners’ and 20 CI users’ emotion recognition. In congruence with previous studies, high-arousal emotions had a higher mean pitch, wider pitch range, and more dominant pitches than low-arousal emotions. Regarding pitch, speakers did not differentiate emotions based on valence but on arousal. Normal-hearing listeners outperformed CI users in emotion recognition, even when presented with CI simulated stimuli. However, only normal-hearing listeners recognized one particular actor’s emotions worse than the other actors’. The groups behaved differently when presented with similar input, showing that they had to employ differing strategies. Considering the respective speaker’s deviating pronunciation, it appears that for normal-hearing listeners, mean pitch is a more salient cue than pitch range, whereas CI users are biased toward pitch range cues.

  14. Impacto vocal de professores Teachers' vocal impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ricarte

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar o impacto vocal nas atividades diárias em professores do ensino médio. Correlacionar os achado da auto-percepção do problema vocal com os aspectos: efeitos no trabalho, na comunicação diária, na comunicação social e na sua emoção. MÉTODOS: a amostra foi constituída por 107 professores, sendo 86 com queixa e 21 sem queixa, selecionados em escolas da rede particular de ensino de Maceió-AL. Cada professor respondeu individualmente o protocolo Perfil Participação em Atividades Vocais na presença da pesquisadora, assinalando suas respostas em uma escala visual que varia de 0 a 10. O protocolo é composto por 28 questões com a presença integrada em cinco aspectos englobados para avaliar a qualidade de vida e o resultado de tratamentos vocais. O protocolo oferece, ainda, dois escores adicionais: pontuação de limitação nas atividades (PLA e de restrição de participação (PRP. RESULTADOS: na comparação dos grupos com e sem queixa vocal foram verificados que todos os resultados foram estatisticamente significantes (pPURPOSE: to analyze the vocal impact in the daily activities on high-school teachers. Correlate the finding of the auto-perception on the vocal problem with the following aspects: effects in the work, daily communication, social communication and, its emotion METHODS: the sample consisted of 107 teachers, 86 with and 21 with no complaint, selected from private teaching schools in Maceió-AL. Each teacher answered individually the Protocol for Voice Activity Participation Profile in the presence of the researcher, noting their responses on a visual scale ranging from 0 to 10. The protocol is composed of 28 questions with the presence integrated in five aspects to evaluate the quality of life and the result of vocal treatments. The protocol offers, still, two additional scores: punctuation of limitation in the activities (PLA and restriction of participation (PRP. RESULTS: comparing the groups with

  15. [Phonosurgery of chronic vocal cord edema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, A

    1997-01-01

    Chronic (Reinke's) oedema of the vocal folds is a frequent and declicate objective of phonosurgery. It is characterized by a marked bilateral subepithelial oedema, which develops by degrees, as a non-specific reaction of the vocal folds to various irritative noxious agents (especially smoking), in patients with some predisposition. It is found, by the light and electron microscopes and immunohistochemistry, that oedema is characterized by subepithelial fissure-like spaces, which accumulate a protein-rich fluid, and develops like neobursae. Therefore, mechanical factors and functional influences may also contribute to the development of Reinke's oedema. The voice is low pitched and with various degrees of hoarseness. Reinke's oedema alters the mechanical properties of the cover, which becomes very pliable and with reduced stiffness, incapacitating the vocal fold for production of high tones. Hoarseness is induced in subject with associated laryngitis, or disbalance in mechanical properties of the vocal folds. Hyperkinetic pattern of voice production can often be seen in patients with Reinke's oedema, which is a compensatory results of reduced functional capability of the vocal folds. Stroboscopy reveals a prolonged closed phase of the vibratory cycles and strikingly marked mucosal waves. A series of 371 patients with Reinke's oedema was operated by direct microlaryngoscopy, under the general anaesthesia. The "excessive" mucosa was removed by bimanual micro-procedure, while the care was not taken to severe layers deeper than a superficial part of the intermediate layer of the vocal fold (Reinke's space). In this procedure we used the micro-forceps and scissors, to detach oedema parallel to the free edge of the vocal fold, at its upper and lower demarcation lines, beginning from the posterior part of oedema. Another 27 patients were operated by indirect procedures. Microstroboscopy (IMS) was used in subjects, while videostroboscopy (IVS) was carried out in another 18

  16. Voice responses to changes in pitch of voice or tone auditory feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Bauer, Jay J; Babu, Tara; Larson, Charles R

    2005-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine if a subject's voice F0 responded not only to perturbations in pitch of voice feedback but also to changes in pitch of a side tone presented congruent with voice feedback. Small magnitude brief duration perturbations in pitch of voice or tone auditory feedback were randomly introduced during sustained vowel phonations. Results demonstrated a higher rate and larger magnitude of voice F0 responses to changes in pitch of the voice compared with a triangular-shaped tone (experiment 1) or a pure tone (experiment 2). However, response latencies did not differ across voice or tone conditions. Data suggest that subjects responded to the change in F0 rather than harmonic frequencies of auditory feedback because voice F0 response prevalence, magnitude, or latency did not statistically differ across triangular-shaped tone or pure-tone feedback. Results indicate the audio-vocal system is sensitive to the change in pitch of a variety of sounds, which may represent a flexible system capable of adapting to changes in the subject's voice. However, lower prevalence and smaller responses to tone pitch-shifted signals suggest that the audio-vocal system may resist changes to the pitch of other environmental sounds when voice feedback is present.

  17. Investigation of habitual pitch during free play activities for preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Kimelman, Mikael D Z; Micco, Katie

    2009-01-01

    This study is designed to compare the habitual pitch measured in two different speech activities (free play activity and traditionally used structured speech activity) for normally developing preschool-aged children to explore to what extent preschoolers vary their vocal pitch among different speech environments. Habitual pitch measurements were conducted for 10 normally developing children (2 boys, 8 girls) between the ages of 31 months and 71 months during two different activities: (1) free play; and (2) structured speech. Speech samples were recorded using a throat microphone connected with a wireless transmitter in both activities. The habitual pitch (in Hz) was measured for all collected speech samples by using voice analysis software (Real-Time Pitch). Significantly higher habitual pitch is found during free play in contrast to structured speech activities. In addition, there is no showing of significant difference of habitual pitch elicited across a variety of structured speech activities. Findings suggest that the vocal usage of preschoolers appears to be more effortful during free play than during structured activities. It is recommended that a comprehensive evaluation for young children's voice needs to be based on the speech/voice samples collected from both free play and structured activities.

  18. Vocal learning is constrained by the statistics of sensorimotor experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sober, Samuel J; Brainard, Michael S

    2012-12-18

    The brain uses sensory feedback to correct behavioral errors. Larger errors by definition require greater corrections, and many models of learning assume that larger sensory feedback errors drive larger motor changes. However, an alternative perspective is that larger errors drive learning less effectively because such errors fall outside the range of errors normally experienced and are therefore unlikely to reflect accurate feedback. This is especially crucial in vocal control because auditory feedback can be contaminated by environmental noise or sensory processing errors. A successful control strategy must therefore rely on feedback to correct errors while disregarding aberrant auditory signals that would lead to maladaptive vocal corrections. We hypothesized that these constraints result in compensation that is greatest for smaller imposed errors and least for larger errors. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated the pitch of auditory feedback in singing Bengalese finches. We found that learning driven by larger sensory errors was both slower than that resulting from smaller errors and showed less complete compensation for the imposed error. Additionally, we found that a simple principle could account for these data: the amount of compensation was proportional to the overlap between the baseline distribution of pitch production and the distribution experienced during the shift. Correspondingly, the fraction of compensation approached zero when pitch was shifted outside of the song's baseline pitch distribution. Our data demonstrate that sensory errors drive learning best when they fall within the range of production variability, suggesting that learning is constrained by the statistics of sensorimotor experience.

  19. Vocal Cord Nodules, Polyps, and Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in three forms; nodules, polyps, and cysts. Vocal Cord Nodules (also called Singer's Nodes, Screamer's Nodes) Vocal ... when overuse of the area is stopped. Vocal Cord Polyp A vocal cord polyp typically occurs only ...

  20. Pitch change in male-to-female transsexuals: has phonosurgery a role to play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M; Perry, A; Cheesman, A D; Pring, T

    2000-01-01

    Male-to-female transsexuals, who have undergone gender reassignment surgery, may continue to have low pitched voices. Voice therapy may assist them to use their voice in a manner more likely to be perceived as female but, if this approach is unsuccessful, a laryngeal framework operation may be necessary to raise vocal pitch. This study assessed the effects of crico-thyroid approximation surgery in 14 transsexuals. Modal pitch was significantly increased by surgery but with substantial variation across speakers. Modal pitch was significantly correlated with judgements of gender by speech and language therapists who listened to tapes of the subjects. The results suggest that crico-thyroid approximation may be used to raise the pitch of voices of male-to-female transsexuals. Further research is needed to clarify the reasons for the variability in outcome, to monitor the longer-term changes in voice and the impact for clients of their modified voice in real life situations.

  1. Pitch Based Sound Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kjems, U

    2006-01-01

    -max output function. Both linear and quadratic inputs are used. The model is trained on 2 hours of sound and tested on publicly available data. A test classification error below 0.05 with 1 s classification windows is achieved. Further more it is shown that linear input performs as well as a quadratic......A sound classification model is presented that can classify signals into music, noise and speech. The model extracts the pitch of the signal using the harmonic product spectrum. Based on the pitch estimate and a pitch error measure, features are created and used in a probabilistic model with soft......, and that even though classification gets marginally better, not much is achieved by increasing the window size beyond 1 s....

  2. Wind turbine pitch optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Juelsgaard, Morten; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    We consider a static wind model for a three-bladed, horizontal-axis, pitch-controlled wind turbine. When placed in a wind field, the turbine experiences several mechanical loads, which generate power but also create structural fatigue. We address the problem of finding blade pitch profiles......% compared to any constant pitch profile while sacrificing at most 7% of the maximum attainable output power. Using iterative learning, we show that very similar performance can be achieved by using only load measurements, with no knowledge of the wind field or wind turbine model....... for maximizing power production while simultaneously minimizing fatigue loads. In this paper, we show how this problem can be approximately solved using convex optimization. When there is full knowledge of the wind field, numerical simulations show that force and torque RMS variation can be reduced by over 96...

  3. Effects of perturbation magnitude and voice F0 level on the pitch-shift reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanjun; Larson, Charles R

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the responsiveness of the pitch-shift reflex to small magnitude stimuli and voice fundamental frequency (F(0)) level. English speakers received pitch-shifted voice feedback (+/-10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 cents, 200 ms duration) during vowel phonations at a high and a low F(0) level. Mean pitch-shift response magnitude increased as a function of pitch-shift stimulus magnitude, but when expressed as a percent of stimulus magnitude, declined from 100% with +/-10 cents to 37% with +/-50 cents stimuli. Response magnitudes were larger and latencies were shorter with a high F(0) level (16 cents;130 ms) compared to a low F(0) level (13 cents;152 ms). Data from the present study demonstrate that vocal response magnitudes are equal to small perturbation magnitudes, and they are larger and faster with a high F(0) voice. These results suggest that the audio-vocal system is optimally suited for compensating for small pitch rather than larger perturbations. Data also suggest the sensitivity of the audio-vocal system to voice perturbation may vary with F(0) level.

  4. [Patient Satisfaction after Pitch Elevation and Development of a Therapy Algorithm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, J; Kuehn, H; Shehata-Dieler, W; Kraus, F; Hagen, R; Kleinsasser, N

    2016-11-01

    Objective: Voice feminization is an important step in the therapy of male-to-female transsexualism. Approaches are conservative voice therapy and surgical interventions. The most powerful parameter of gender perception is the fundamental frequency. Besides the vocal pitch, there are other parameters influencing gender perception of a voice, e. g. intonation, prosody or formant frequencies. Material and methods: In 21 male to female transgender persons after surgical elevation of the vocal pitch the Voice Handicap Index (VHI), the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (FLZ) and a new addendum were used. A new algorithm for voice feminization in male-to-female transsexualism was deduced. Results: After elevation of the vocal pitch, the self-confidence of the male-to-female transgender persons has increased. Despite of an elevated pitch some persons were not satisfied with their voice. Conclusion: Surgical intervention changes only the pitch of a voice. To change other parameters, conservative voice therapy is necessary. If the transgender persons are able to reach a satisfying female voice with conservative voice therapy alone, surgical intervention is not indicated. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Effect of Vocal Fry on Voice and on Velopharyngeal Sphincter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias, Vanessa Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction It is known that the basal sound promotes shortening and adduction of the vocal folds and leaves the mucosa looser. However there are few studies that address the supralaryngeal physiological findings obtained using the technique. Objective To check the effectiveness of using vocal fry on the voice and velopharingeal port closure of five adult subjects, whose cleft palate has been corrected with surgery. Methods Case study with five subjects who underwent otolaryngology examination by means of nasopharyngoscopy for imaging and measurement of the region of velopharyngeal port closure before and after using the vocal fry technique for three minutes. During the exam, the subjects sustained the isolated vowel /a:/ in their usual pitch and loudness. The emission of the vowel /a:/ was also used for perceptual analysis and spectrographic evaluation of their voices. Results Four subjects had an improvement in the region of velopharyngeal port closure; the results of the spectrographic evaluation were indicative of decreased hypernasality, and the results of the auditory-perceptual analysis suggested improved overall vocal quality, adequacy of loudness, decreased hypernasality, improvement of type of voice and decreased hoarseness. Conclusion This study showed a positive effect of vocal fry on voice and greater velopharyngeal port closure.

  6. An investigation of spatial representation of pitch in individuals with congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuejing; Sun, Yanan; Thompson, William Forde

    2017-09-01

    Spatial representation of pitch plays a central role in auditory processing. However, it is unknown whether impaired auditory processing is associated with impaired pitch-space mapping. Experiment 1 examined spatial representation of pitch in individuals with congenital amusia using a stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) task. For amusic and non-amusic participants, pitch classification was faster and more accurate when correct responses involved a physical action that was spatially congruent with the pitch height of the stimulus than when it was incongruent. However, this spatial representation of pitch was not as stable in amusic individuals, revealed by slower response times when compared with control individuals. One explanation is that the SRC effect in amusics reflects a linguistic association, requiring additional time to link pitch height and spatial location. To test this possibility, Experiment 2 employed a colour-classification task. Participants judged colour while ignoring a concurrent pitch by pressing one of two response keys positioned vertically to be congruent or incongruent with the pitch. The association between pitch and space was found in both groups, with comparable response times in the two groups, suggesting that amusic individuals are only slower to respond to tasks involving explicit judgments of pitch.

  7. Absolute Pitch in Oral Transmission of Folk Tunes as Constrained Random Walks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Frieler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this commentary, I would like to add a few of our own, still unpublished, empirical observations concerning the possible role of absolute pitch memory (APM in the oral transmission of folksongs. This empirical data poses some questions about the likelihood of the observed inter-recording tonic pitch consistency of Olthof, Janssen & Honing (2015 and how these observations could come about. Based on simulations of absolute pitch class of tonics during oral transmission of folk songs, I argue that the interplay of melodic range and vocal range might actually be the main reason for the observed non-uniformity, in contrast to the conclusions presented in Olthof et al. (2015. However, this does not invalidate the therein-presented evidence, but makes the case more puzzling, consequently calling for more empirical research on the interaction of melodic and vocal range and latent APM as well as for more detailed modeling of oral transmission of folk songs.

  8. Effective Connectivity Associated With Auditory Error Detection In Musicians With Absolute Pitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Parkinson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It is advantageous to study a wide range of vocal abilities in order to fully understand how vocal control measures vary across the full spectrum. Individuals with absolute pitch (AP are able to assign a verbal label to musical notes and have enhanced abilities in pitch identification without reliance on an external referent. In this study we used dynamic causal modeling (DCM to model effective connectivity of ERP responses to pitch perturbation in voice auditory feedback in musicians with relative pitch (RP, absolute pitch and non-musician controls. We identified a network compromising left and right hemisphere superior temporal gyrus (STG, primary motor cortex (M1 and premotor cortex (PM. We specified nine models and compared two main factors examining various combinations of STG involvement in feedback pitch error detection/correction process. Our results suggest that modulation of left to right STG connections are important in the identification of self-voice error and sensory motor integration in AP musicians. We also identify reduced connectivity of left hemisphere PM to STG connections in AP and RP groups during the error detection and corrections process relative to non-musicians. We suggest that this suppression may allow for enhanced connectivity relating to pitch identification in the right hemisphere in those with more precise pitch matching abilities. Musicians with enhanced pitch identification abilities likely have an improved auditory error detection and correction system involving connectivity of STG regions. Our findings here also suggest that individuals with AP are more adept at using feedback related to pitch from the right hemisphere.

  9. A Vowel-Based Method for Vocal Tract Control in Clarinet Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Darleny; Payri, Blas

    2017-01-01

    Our review of scientific literature shows that the activity inside the clarinetist's vocal tract (VT) affects pitch and timbre, while also facilitating technical exercises. Clarinetists adapt their VT intuitively and, in some cases, may compensate an inadequate VT configuration through unnecessary pressure, resulting in technical blockage,…

  10. Vocal Stereotypy in Children with Autism: Structural Characteristics, Variability, and Effects of Auditory Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanovaz, Marc J.; Sladeczek, Ingrid E.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine (a) the relationship between the structural characteristics (i.e., bout duration, inter-response time [IRT], pitch, and energy) and overall duration of vocal stereotypy, and (b) the effects of auditory stimulation on the duration and temporal structure of the behavior. In the first experiment, we measured…

  11. Pitch memory and exposure effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Haim, Moshe Shay; Eitan, Zohar; Chajut, Eran

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies indicate that the ability to represent absolute pitch values in long-term memory, long believed to be the possession of a small minority of trained musicians endowed with "absolute pitch," is in fact shared to some extent by a considerable proportion of the population. The current study examined whether this newly discovered ability affects aspects of music and auditory cognition, particularly pitch learning and evaluation. Our starting points are two well-established premises: (1) frequency of occurrence has an influence on the way we process stimuli; (2) in Western music, some pitches and musical keys are much more frequent than others. Based on these premises, we hypothesize that if absolute pitch values are indeed represented in long-term memory, pitch frequency of occurrence in music would significantly affect cognitive processes, in particular pitch learning and evaluation. Two experiments were designed to test this hypothesis in participants with no absolute pitch, most with little or no musical training. Experiment 1 demonstrated a faster response and a learning advantage for frequent pitches over infrequent pitches in an identification task. In Experiment 2, participants evaluated infrequent pitches as more pleasing than frequent pitches when presented in isolation. These results suggest that absolute pitch representation in memory may play a substantial, hitherto unacknowledged role in auditory (and specifically musical) cognition. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Error-dependent modulation of speech-induced auditory suppression for pitch-shifted voice feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Larson, Charles R

    2011-06-06

    The motor-driven predictions about expected sensory feedback (efference copies) have been proposed to play an important role in recognition of sensory consequences of self-produced motor actions. In the auditory system, this effect was suggested to result in suppression of sensory neural responses to self-produced voices that are predicted by the efference copies during vocal production in comparison with passive listening to the playback of the identical self-vocalizations. In the present study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in response to upward pitch shift stimuli (PSS) with five different magnitudes (0, +50, +100, +200 and +400 cents) at voice onset during active vocal production and passive listening to the playback. Results indicated that the suppression of the N1 component during vocal production was largest for unaltered voice feedback (PSS: 0 cents), became smaller as the magnitude of PSS increased to 200 cents, and was almost completely eliminated in response to 400 cents stimuli. Findings of the present study suggest that the brain utilizes the motor predictions (efference copies) to determine the source of incoming stimuli and maximally suppresses the auditory responses to unaltered feedback of self-vocalizations. The reduction of suppression for 50, 100 and 200 cents and its elimination for 400 cents pitch-shifted voice auditory feedback support the idea that motor-driven suppression of voice feedback leads to distinctly different sensory neural processing of self vs. non-self vocalizations. This characteristic may enable the audio-vocal system to more effectively detect and correct for unexpected errors in the feedback of self-produced voice pitch compared with externally-generated sounds.

  13. Absolute pitch: effects of timbre on note-naming ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Vanzella

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Absolute pitch (AP is the ability to identify or produce isolated musical tones. It is evident primarily among individuals who started music lessons in early childhood. Because AP requires memory for specific pitches as well as learned associations with verbal labels (i.e., note names, it represents a unique opportunity to study interactions in memory between linguistic and nonlinguistic information. One untested hypothesis is that the pitch of voices may be difficult for AP possessors to identify. A musician's first instrument may also affect performance and extend the sensitive period for acquiring accurate AP. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A large sample of AP possessors was recruited on-line. Participants were required to identity test tones presented in four different timbres: piano, pure tone, natural (sung voice, and synthesized voice. Note-naming accuracy was better for non-vocal (piano and pure tones than for vocal (natural and synthesized voices test tones. This difference could not be attributed solely to vibrato (pitch variation, which was more pronounced in the natural voice than in the synthesized voice. Although starting music lessons by age 7 was associated with enhanced note-naming accuracy, equivalent abilities were evident among listeners who started music lessons on piano at a later age. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because the human voice is inextricably linked to language and meaning, it may be processed automatically by voice-specific mechanisms that interfere with note naming among AP possessors. Lessons on piano or other fixed-pitch instruments appear to enhance AP abilities and to extend the sensitive period for exposure to music in order to develop accurate AP.

  14. Norwegian Pitched Roof Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Gullbrekken

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The building constructions investigated in this work are pitched wooden roofs with exterior vertical drainpipes and wooden load-bearing system. The aim of this research is to further investigate the building defects of pitched wooden roofs and obtain an overview of typical roof defects. The work involves an analysis of the building defect archive from the research institute SINTEF Building and Infrastructure. The findings from the SINTEF archive show that moisture is a dominant exposure factor, especially in roof constructions. In pitched wooden roofs, more than half of the defects are caused by deficiencies in design, materials, or workmanship, where these deficiencies allow moisture from precipitation or indoor moisture into the structure. Hence, it is important to increase the focus on robust and durable solutions to avoid defects both from exterior and interior moisture sources in pitched wooden roofs. Proper design of interior ventilation and vapour retarders seem to be the main ways to control entry from interior moisture sources into attic and roof spaces.

  15. [Environmental factors and vocal habits regarding pre-school teachers and functionaries suffering voice disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrreto-Munévar, Deisy P; Cháux-Ramos, Oriana M; Estrada-Rangel, Mónica A; Sánchez-Morales, Jenifer; Moreno-Angarita, Marisol; Camargo-Mendoza, Maryluz

    2011-06-01

    Determining the relationship between vocal habits and environmental/ occupational conditions with the presence of vocal disturbance (dysphonia) in teachers and functionaries working at community-based, initial childhood education centres (kindergartens). This was a descriptive study which adopted across-sectional approach using 198 participants which was developed in three phases. Phase 1: consisted of identifying participants having the highest risk of presenting vocal disturbance. Phase 2consisted of observation-analysis concerning the voice use and vocal habits of participants who had been identified in phase 1. Phase 3consisted of perceptual and computational assessment of participants' voices using Wilson's vocal profile and the multidimensional voice program. Individuals having pitch breaks, throat clearing, increased voice intensity, and gastro-oesophageal reflux were found to present below standard fundamental frequency (FF). Subjects having altered breathing and increased voice intensity were identified as having above standard shimmer and jitter acoustic values. A high rate of inability to work was found due to vocal disturbance. It is thus suggested that there is a correlation between vocal habits and vocal disorders presented by preschool teachers in kindergarten settings.

  16. Nonlinear model predictive control of floating wind turbines with individual pitch control

    OpenAIRE

    Raach, Steffen; Schlipf, David; Sandner, Frank; Matha, Denis; Cheng, Po Wen

    2014-01-01

    In this work a nonlinear model predictive controller with individual pitch control for a floating offshore wind turbine is presented. An aerodynamic model of the collective pitch control approach is extended by describing pitching and yawing moments based on rotor disk theory. This extension is implemented in a reduced nonlinear model of the floating wind turbine including disturbance preview of wind speed, linear vertical and horizontal wind shear, and wave height to compute optimal input tr...

  17. Laryngeal muscle activity and vocal fold adduction during chest, chestmix, headmix, and head registers in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochis-Jennings, Karen Ann; Finnegan, Eileen M; Hoffman, Henry T; Jaiswal, Sanyukta

    2012-03-01

    Commercial singers produce chestmix register by maintaining or increasing adduction of the vocal processes (VPs) and by engaging the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle to a greater degree than they would to produce head register. Prospective cohort study. Simultaneous recordings of TA and cricothyroid (CT) muscle activity, videonasendoscopy, and audio were obtained from seven female singers during production of a variety of midrange pitches in chest, chestmix, headmix, and head registers. Fast Fourier transforms were performed to measure the energy in the fundamental frequency and in mid and upper frequency harmonics to determine if the productions that were judged as perceptually distinct registers also showed distinctive acoustic characteristics. Then, measures of TA and CT muscle activity and vocal fold adduction ratings were obtained to determine how these varied as a function of pitch and register. Spectral tilt increased as subjects shifted from chest to chestmix to headmix and finally into head register. For same pitch phonation, subjects increased TA muscle activity and vocal fold adduction as they shifted register from head to headmix to chestmix to chest, particularly during production of higher frequencies. CT activity appeared to be more related to pitch rather than register control. Nonclassically trained singers were able to produce pitches at the high end of the midrange in chestmix register by increasing TA muscle activity and adduction of the VPs. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Correlation of vocal fold nodule size in children and perceptual assessment of voice quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Roger C; Ward, Jessica; Huang, Lin; Volk, Mark; Woodnorth, Geralyn Harvey

    2010-10-01

    We examined the relationship between the size of vocal fold nodules and perceptual rating of voice quality in children. We carried out an Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective study in a voice clinic within a tertiary-care pediatric medical center. We studied children seen between 2000 and 2009 with a primary diagnosis of vocal fold nodules as the cause of their voice disturbance. Pediatric vocal fold nodule size was rated with a published validated scale, and voice quality was rated on the Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice scale. One hundred forty-five patients met the inclusion criteria. Small nodules were noted in 23% of patients, medium nodules in 39%, and large nodules in 37%. Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated a statistically significant relationship (p vocal fold nodule size and rated perceptual qualities of overall severity of voice disturbance, roughness, strain, pitch, and loudness. With the exception of loudness, as vocal fold nodule size increased, the mean value of perceptual characteristics became larger. The age of the patient was a significant factor associated with the overall severity of the voice disturbance and roughness. The overall severity of a child's voice disturbance and qualities of roughness, strain, pitch, and loudness have a strong correlational relationship with pediatric vocal fold nodule size, which is suggestive of causality.

  19. The neurocognitive components of pitch processing: insights from absolute pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah J; Lusher, Dean; Wan, Catherine Y; Dudgeon, Paul; Reutens, David C

    2009-03-01

    The natural variability of pitch naming ability in the population (known as absolute pitch or AP) provides an ideal method for investigating individual differences in pitch processing and auditory knowledge formation and representation. We have demonstrated the involvement of different cognitive processes in AP ability that reflects varying skill expertise in the presence of similar early age of onset of music tuition. These processes were related to different regions of brain activity, including those involved in pitch working memory (right prefrontal cortex) and the long-term representation of pitch (superior temporal gyrus). They reflected expertise through the use of context dependent pitch cues and the level of automaticity of pitch naming. They impart functional significance to structural asymmetry differences in the planum temporale of musicians and establish a neurobiological basis for an AP template. More generally, they indicate variability of knowledge representation in the presence of environmental fostering of early cognitive development that translates to differences in cognitive ability.

  20. Caracterização vocal de pacientes com hipertireoidismo e hipotireoidismo Vocal characterization of patients with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Werlang Isolan-Cury

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar a qualidade vocal, por meio de análise computadorizada e perceptivo-auditiva, de pacientes com hipertireoidismo (grupo A e hipotireoidismo (grupo B. MÉTODOS: Vinte mulheres não fumantes, com idades entre 18 e 55 anos, atendidas no Ambulatório de Endocrinologia da instituição, foram avaliadas após o diagnóstico clínico e laboratorial de hipertireoidismo ou hipotireoidismo. Os parâmetros investigados foram: tempo da doença, presença de queixa vocal, tempos máximos de fonação /a/, /s/ e /z/, freqüência fundamental (F0, ruído glótico (GNE. Os aspectos avaliados na análise perceptivo-auditiva, foram: coordenação pneumo-fonoarticulatória (coordenada ou incoordenada, pitch, loudness, ataque vocal, ressonância, velocidade de fala e qualidade vocal, que poderia ter até duas das seguintes classificações: neutra, rouca, soprosa, áspera ou tensa, e grau: leve, moderado ou severo. Os dados foram tabulados e analisados estatisticamente através do programa EPI-INFO 6.04b, método qualitativo Fisher, com nível de significância menor do que 0.05. RESULTADOS: A análise perceptivo-auditiva mostrou que sete pacientes hipotireoideos e nove pacientes hipertireoideos apresentaram alteração na qualidade vocal. Oito pacientes em ambos os grupos apresentaram incoordenação pneumo-fonoarticulatória. Oito pacientes do grupo A e seis pacientes do grupo B referiam queixas vocais como rouquidão e voz grossa, respectivamente. Na análise acústica, nove pacientes apresentaram o ruído glótico alterado. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados evidenciaram grande incidência de alteração vocal nos grupos estudados (grupos dos pacientes com hipertireoidismo e com hipotireoidismo, o que demonstra a relação entre disfonia e disfunções tireoideanas.PURPOSE: To characterize the vocal quality of subjects with hyperthyroidism (group A, and hypothyroidism (group B through a computer-aided and auditory-perceptive analysis. METHODS

  1. Vocal Fold Collision Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granados, Alba; Brunskog, Jonas; Misztal, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    When vocal folds vibrate at normal speaking frequencies, collisions occurs. The numerics and formulations behind a position-based continuum model of contact is an active field of research in the contact mechanics community. In this paper, a frictionless three-dimensional finite element model of t...

  2. Effective connectivity associated with auditory error detection in musicians with absolute pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Amy L.; Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Ibrahim, Nadine; Korzyukov, Oleg; Larson, Charles R.; Robin, Donald A.

    2014-01-01

    It is advantageous to study a wide range of vocal abilities in order to fully understand how vocal control measures vary across the full spectrum. Individuals with absolute pitch (AP) are able to assign a verbal label to musical notes and have enhanced abilities in pitch identification without reliance on an external referent. In this study we used dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to model effective connectivity of ERP responses to pitch perturbation in voice auditory feedback in musicians with relative pitch (RP), AP, and non-musician controls. We identified a network compromising left and right hemisphere superior temporal gyrus (STG), primary motor cortex (M1), and premotor cortex (PM). We specified nine models and compared two main factors examining various combinations of STG involvement in feedback pitch error detection/correction process. Our results suggest that modulation of left to right STG connections are important in the identification of self-voice error and sensory motor integration in AP musicians. We also identify reduced connectivity of left hemisphere PM to STG connections in AP and RP groups during the error detection and corrections process relative to non-musicians. We suggest that this suppression may allow for enhanced connectivity relating to pitch identification in the right hemisphere in those with more precise pitch matching abilities. Musicians with enhanced pitch identification abilities likely have an improved auditory error detection and correction system involving connectivity of STG regions. Our findings here also suggest that individuals with AP are more adept at using feedback related to pitch from the right hemisphere. PMID:24634644

  3. A temporal predictive code for voice motor control: Evidence from ERP and behavioral responses to pitch-shifted auditory feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Sangtian, Stacey; Korzyukov, Oleg; Larson, Charles R

    2016-04-01

    The predictive coding model suggests that voice motor control is regulated by a process in which the mismatch (error) between feedforward predictions and sensory feedback is detected and used to correct vocal motor behavior. In this study, we investigated how predictions about timing of pitch perturbations in voice auditory feedback would modulate ERP and behavioral responses during vocal production. We designed six counterbalanced blocks in which a +100 cents pitch-shift stimulus perturbed voice auditory feedback during vowel sound vocalizations. In three blocks, there was a fixed delay (500, 750 or 1000 ms) between voice and pitch-shift stimulus onset (predictable), whereas in the other three blocks, stimulus onset delay was randomized between 500, 750 and 1000 ms (unpredictable). We found that subjects produced compensatory (opposing) vocal responses that started at 80 ms after the onset of the unpredictable stimuli. However, for predictable stimuli, subjects initiated vocal responses at 20 ms before and followed the direction of pitch shifts in voice feedback. Analysis of ERPs showed that the amplitudes of the N1 and P2 components were significantly reduced in response to predictable compared with unpredictable stimuli. These findings indicate that predictions about temporal features of sensory feedback can modulate vocal motor behavior. In the context of the predictive coding model, temporally-predictable stimuli are learned and reinforced by the internal feedforward system, and as indexed by the ERP suppression, the sensory feedback contribution is reduced for their processing. These findings provide new insights into the neural mechanisms of vocal production and motor control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Modulation of effective connectivity during vocalization with perturbed auditory feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Amy L.; Korzyukov, Oleg; Larson, Charles R.; Litvak, Vladimir; Robin, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    The integration of auditory feedback with vocal motor output is important for the control of voice fundamental frequency (F0). We used a pitch-shift paradigm where subjects respond to an alteration, or shift, of voice pitch auditory feedback with a reflexive change in F0. We presented varying magnitudes of pitch shifted auditory feedback to subjects during vocalization and passive listening and measured event related potentials (ERP’s) to the feedback shifts. Shifts were delivered at +100 and +400 cents (200 ms duration). The ERP data were modeled with Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) techniques where the effective connectivity between the superior temporal gyrus (STG), inferior frontal gyrus and premotor areas were tested. We compared three main factors; the effect of intrinsic STG connectivity, STG modulation across hemispheres and the specific effect of hemisphere. A Bayesian model selection procedure was used to make inference about model families. Results suggest that both intrinsic STG and left to right STG connections are important in the identification of self-voice error and sensory motor integration. We identified differences in left to right STG connections between 100 cent and 400 cent shift conditions suggesting that self and non-self voice error are processed differently in the left and right hemisphere. These results also highlight the potential of DCM modeling of ERP responses to characterize specific network properties of forward models of voice control. PMID:23665378

  5. Vowel identity between note labels confuses pitch identification in non-absolute pitch possessors.

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    Alfredo Brancucci

    Full Text Available The simplest and likeliest assumption concerning the cognitive bases of absolute pitch (AP is that at its origin there is a particularly skilled function which matches the height of the perceived pitch to the verbal label of the musical tone. Since there is no difference in sound frequency resolution between AP and non-AP (NAP musicians, the hypothesis of the present study is that the failure of NAP musicians in pitch identification relies mainly in an inability to retrieve the correct verbal label to be assigned to the perceived musical note. The primary hypothesis is that, when asked to identify tones, NAP musicians confuse the verbal labels to be attached to the stimulus on the basis of their phonetic content. Data from two AP tests are reported, in which subjects had to respond in the presence or in the absence of visually presented verbal note labels (fixed Do solmization. Results show that NAP musicians confuse more frequently notes having a similar vowel in the note label. They tend to confuse e.g. a 261 Hz tone (Do more often with Sol than, e.g., with La. As a second goal, we wondered whether this effect is lateralized, i.e. whether one hemisphere is more responsible than the other in the confusion of notes with similar labels. This question was addressed by observing pitch identification during dichotic listening. Results showed that there is a right hemispheric disadvantage, in NAP but not AP musicians, in the retrieval of the verbal label to be assigned to the perceived pitch. The present results indicate that absolute pitch has strong verbal bases, at least from a cognitive point of view.

  6. Attention modulates cortical processing of pitch feedback errors in voice control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huijing; Liu, Ying; Guo, Zhiqiang; Li, Weifeng; Liu, Peng; Chen, Shaozhen; Liu, Hanjun

    2015-01-15

    Considerable evidence has shown that unexpected alterations in auditory feedback elicit fast compensatory adjustments in vocal production. Although generally thought to be involuntary in nature, whether these adjustments can be influenced by attention remains unknown. The present event-related potential (ERP) study aimed to examine whether neurobehavioral processing of auditory-vocal integration can be affected by attention. While sustaining a vowel phonation and hearing pitch-shifted feedback, participants were required to either ignore the pitch perturbations, or attend to them with low (counting the number of perturbations) or high attentional load (counting the type of perturbations). Behavioral results revealed no systematic change of vocal response to pitch perturbations irrespective of whether they were attended or not. At the level of cortex, there was an enhancement of P2 response to attended pitch perturbations in the low-load condition as compared to when they were ignored. In the high-load condition, however, P2 response did not differ from that in the ignored condition. These findings provide the first neurophysiological evidence that auditory-motor integration in voice control can be modulated as a function of attention at the level of cortex. Furthermore, this modulatory effect does not lead to a general enhancement but is subject to attentional load.

  7. Difficulties with pitch discrimination influences pitch memory performance: evidence from congenital amusia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jiang, Cunmei; Lim, Vanessa K; Wang, Hang; Hamm, Jeff P

    2013-01-01

    Music processing is influenced by pitch perception and memory. Additionally these features interact, with pitch memory performance decreasing as the perceived distance between two pitches decreases...

  8. Replacing orthometric heights with ellipsoidal heights in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In engineering practice, orthometric heights (height above sea level) are always used. The orthometric heights are determined by spirit or geodetic leveling. In transforming the GNSS-derived ellipsoidal heights to orthometric heights, it is important to know the separation between the ellipsoidal and the geoid surface.

  9. Vocally disruptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M K; Kaas, M J; Richie, M F

    1996-11-01

    Vocally disruptive behavior (VDB) is intelligible or unintelligible noise making that may be goal-directed or purposeless. VDB can be conceptualized as a cyclic phenomenon. VDB has been linked to cognitive impairment, poor sleep, requiring assistance with ADLs, and being at high risk for falling. General nursing interventions for VDB include remaining calm, using gentle touch, creating a familiar, home-like environment, and using diversions during ADLs.

  10. Heroes and Villains: The Relationship between Pitch Tessitura and Sociability of Operatic Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Shanahan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in speech prosody and ethology suggests that pitch height indexes positive and negative social affects, in the sense that higher pitched voices are used to convey friendliness, whereas lower pitched voices are used to convey aggression (Bolinger, 1964. Research concerning animal calls suggests that this association generalizes to many species. In a study of the calls for 56 species, Morton (1977, 1994 proposed a sound-size model in which large size (and low pitch is associated with aggression, whereas small size (and high pitch is associated with friendliness, fear, or appeasement. We examine whether this association can be observed in music. Specifically, the results of three studies are reported in which the pitch-height of various voices is related to estimates of the sociability of the corresponding operatic characters. Results indeed indicate an association between lower-pitched voices and less sociable characters, in contrast to higher-pitched voices being associated with more sociable characters. In addition, older male characters tend to exhibit lower-pitched voices, consistent with known physiological changes (Linville, 2004; Reubold, Harrington & Kleber, 2010.

  11. Vocal Body, Gender and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Dordete Steckert Jacobs

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The text discusses scientific and artistic discourses from the perspective of vocalities gendering, which assigns specific and binary gender marks to bodies. For this, it contextualizes the territory of Feminist Critique and Gender Theories, mainly based on the thoughts of the feminist philosopher Judith Butler, who approaches sex and gender as naturalized cultural constructions. It points, in this context, to a view of biological determinism implied in these discourses concerning the voice, which naturalizes vocal production from physiological aspects of vocal bodies, limiting the understanding of training and vocal creation in the arts.

  12. Dynamics of vocalization-induced modulation of auditory cortical activity at mid-utterance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaocong Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent research has addressed the suppression of cortical sensory responses to altered auditory feedback that occurs at utterance onset regarding speech. However, there is reason to assume that the mechanisms underlying sensorimotor processing at mid-utterance are different than those involved in sensorimotor control at utterance onset. The present study attempted to examine the dynamics of event-related potentials (ERPs to different acoustic versions of auditory feedback at mid-utterance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects produced a vowel sound while hearing their pitch-shifted voice (100 cents, a sum of their vocalization and pure tones, or a sum of their vocalization and white noise at mid-utterance via headphones. Subjects also passively listened to playback of what they heard during active vocalization. Cortical ERPs were recorded in response to different acoustic versions of feedback changes during both active vocalization and passive listening. The results showed that, relative to passive listening, active vocalization yielded enhanced P2 responses to the 100 cents pitch shifts, whereas suppression effects of P2 responses were observed when voice auditory feedback was distorted by pure tones or white noise. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The present findings, for the first time, demonstrate a dynamic modulation of cortical activity as a function of the quality of acoustic feedback at mid-utterance, suggesting that auditory cortical responses can be enhanced or suppressed to distinguish self-produced speech from externally-produced sounds.

  13. [Voice classification in professional singers: the influence of vocal fold length, vocal tract length and body measurements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mürbe, D; Roers, F; Sundberg, J

    2011-06-01

    Professional voice performance is strongly affected by the functional adjustments of the structures involved in voice production. Generally, these functional skills are required by means of intensive training. On the other hand, the individual morphology of the larynx and vocal tract limits this functional variability. Thus, to neglect morphological conditions might result in voice problems. The present paper summarizes investigations on the influence of morphological measurements on the voice classification of professional singers. Vocal fold length, vocal tract length and body height have been found to differ systematically between sopranos, mezzosopranos, altos, tenors, baritones and basses. Although the knowledge of morphological measures does not permit a definite assignment or prediction of the individual voice classification, the data are valuable for counseling by voice teachers and phoniatricians. This might contribute to the prevention of voice disorders.

  14. Vocal amusia in a professional tango singer due to a right superior temporal cortex infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Yasuo; Mizuno, Tomoyuki; Shindoh, Mitsuko; Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Nagai, Chiyoko; Furubayashi, Toshiaki; Arai, Noritoshi; Okabe, Shingo; Mochizuki, Hitoshi; Hanajima, Ritsuko; Tsuji, Shouji

    2006-01-01

    We describe the psychophysical features of vocal amusia in a professional tango singer caused by an infarction mainly involving the superior temporal cortex of the right hemisphere. The lesion also extended to the supramarginal gyrus, the posterior aspect of the postcentral gyrus and the posterior insula. She presented with impairment of musical perception that was especially pronounced in discriminating timbre and loudness but also in discriminating pitch, and a severely impaired ability to reproduce the pitch just presented. In contrast, language and motor disturbances were almost entirely absent. By comparing her pre- and post-stroke singing, we were able to show that her singing after the stroke lacked the fine control of the subtle stress and pitch changes that characterized her pre-stroke singing. Such impairment could not be explained by the impairment of pitch perception. The findings suggest that damage to the right temporoparietal cortex is enough to produce both perceptive and expressive deficits in music.

  15. Vocal fatigue and dysphonia in the professional voice user: Bogart-Bacall syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koufman, J A; Blalock, P D

    1988-05-01

    Over the past 5 years, the authors have treated 67 adult professional voice users with a musculoskeletal tension disorder involving the larynx and supporting structures and leading to vocal dysfunction. Common clinical features in both sexes were muscle tension in the neck, poor control of the breath stream, and an abnormally low-pitched speaking voice. Most of the men sounded like Humphrey Bogart and the women like Lauren Bacall. These cases represent a discrete clinical vocal fatigue syndrome, the treatment of which is patient education and voice therapy.

  16. Sounds like a winner: voice pitch influences perception of leadership capacity in both men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klofstad, Casey A; Anderson, Rindy C; Peters, Susan

    2012-07-07

    It is well known that non-human animals respond to information encoded in vocal signals, and the same can be said of humans. Specifically, human voice pitch affects how speakers are perceived. As such, does voice pitch affect how we perceive and select our leaders? To answer this question, we recorded men and women saying 'I urge you to vote for me this November'. Each recording was manipulated digitally to yield a higher- and lower-pitched version of the original. We then asked men and women to vote for either the lower- or higher-pitched version of each voice. Our results show that both men and women select male and female leaders with lower voices. These findings suggest that men and women with lower-pitched voices may be more successful in obtaining positions of leadership. This might also suggest that because women, on average, have higher-pitched voices than men, voice pitch could be a factor that contributes to fewer women holding leadership roles than men. Additionally, while people are free to choose their leaders, these results clearly demonstrate that these choices cannot be understood in isolation from biological influences.

  17. Envelhecimento vocal em idosos instucionalizados Vocal aging of institutionalized elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Neiva de Menezes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar de forma perceptivo-auditiva as características vocais de idosos institucionalizados, identificar se essas características interferem no processo de comunicação e correlacioná-las com a avaliação das estruturas do sistema estomatognático e do padrão de fala. MÉTODOS: estudo clínico do tipo transversal, no qual foram realizadas anamneses e avaliações fonoaudiológicas em uma amostra aleatória de 48 indivíduos idosos, residentes na Casa do Ancião Francisco Azevedo - Belo Horizonte/MG, que não apresentavam nenhum tipo de alteração neurológica, uma vez que, buscou-se traçar as manifestações fonoaudiológicas de idosos em processo de envelhecimento sadio. Utilizou-se protocolos específicos, desenvolvidos pelas autoras, de acordo com os aspectos pertinentes aos objetivos do presente estudo. RESULTADOS: na avaliação perceptivo-auditiva da qualidade vocal, constatou-se predominantemente qualidade vocal rouca (70,8%, em grau moderado (33,3%, loudness reduzida (56,2%, pitch grave (62,5% e tempos máximos de fonação reduzidos (81,2%. Dos 48 participantes, 85,4% relataram que a voz não interfere no processo de comunicação. Em relação aos padrões de fala, predominaram inteligibilidade preservada (83,3%, articulação preservada (72,9% e precisão articulatória preservada (83,3%. CONCLUSÕES: existem alterações nos parâmetros referentes à voz decorrentes da idade, sendo que elas não interferem na comunicação e mantêm relação diversa com outras mudanças nas estruturas do sistema estomatognático. Este estudo veio complementar as pesquisas na área de voz envolvendo indivíduos da terceira idade, sob processo de envelhecimento sadio e residentes em instituições de longa permanência.PURPOSES: to investigate vocal aspects related to healthy aging in the institutionalized elderly people, and to identify if these aspects interfer with communication and correlate vocal changes with motor oral system

  18. Ethnicity effects in relative pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hove, Michael J; Sutherland, Mary Elizabeth; Krumhansl, Carol L

    2010-06-01

    Absolute pitch (AP), the rare ability to identify a musical pitch, occurs at a higher rate among East Asian musicians. This has stimulated considerable research on the comparative contributions of genetic and environmental factors. Two studies examined whether a similar ethnicity effect is found for relative pitch (RP), identifying the distance or interval between two tones. Nonmusicians (n = 103) were trained to label musical intervals and were subsequently tested on interval identification. We establish similar ethnicity effects: Chinese and Korean participants consistently outperformed other participants in RP tasks, but not in a "relative rhythm" control task. This effect is not driven by previous musical or tone-language experience. The parallel with the East Asian advantage for AP suggests that enhanced perceptual-cognitive processing of pitch is more general and is not limited to highly trained musicians. This effect opens up many research questions concerning the environmental and genetic contributions related to this more general pitch-based ability.

  19. Perturbation-free measurement of the harmonics-to-noise ratio in voice signals using pitch synchronous harmonic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, P J

    1999-05-01

    The measurement of the harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR) in speech signals gives an indication of the aperiodicity of the speech waveform. This may be due to the presence of jitter, shimmer, additive noise, waveshape change, or some unknown combination of these factors. In order to estimate the HNR as a measure of the additive noise component only, the contaminating effects of the other contributory components must first be removed. A pitch synchronous harmonic analysis is proposed to overcome this problem. The procedure takes advantage of the time scale compression-frequency expansion property of the Fourier series in order to eliminate jitter and shimmer. Successive spectra are added by harmonic number as opposed to frequency location, and perturbation is removed due to the fact that the relative heights of the harmonic components remain the same for scaled signals. The technique is examined on synthetically generated voice signals. A discussion of the results is given in terms of human voice signals, characterization of jitter, vocal tract filtering effects, perturbation mechanisms, nonlinear dynamics, and the possibility of developing the method for use with inverse filtering strategies.

  20. Descrição da qualidade vocal de personagens idosos dos filmes de Hollywood Vocal quality description of senile characters from Hollywood movies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: descrever a qualidade vocal de personagens idosos dos filmes de Hollywood. MÉTODOS: foram colhidas 50 amostras de fala de personagens idosos, 11 do sexo feminino e 39 do masculino, de 38 filmes hollywoodianos dos anos de 1993 a 2001. Através da análise perceptivo-auditiva das amostras de fala, 20 fonoaudiólogos treinados classificaram cada personagem em idoso e não idoso, além de avaliarem as vozes quanto aos seguintes parâmetros citados pela literatura como mais alterados: rouquidão, crepitação, soprosidade, tensão, aspereza, astenia, nasalidade, tremor, modulação, pitch e estabilidade da frequência fundamental. RESULTADOS: após a análise perceptivo-auditiva, foi observado que a grande maioria dos atores (82% utilizou voz de idoso para representar seus papéis. O marcador mais evidente nas vozes foi alteração na qualidade vocal (92%, demonstrada por crepitação (80%, soprosidade (54%, tensão (38%, rouquidão (30% e astenia (28%. O segundo marcador mais utilizado pelos atores nas suas representações foi a modulação vocal ampla e variada (44%. Também foram observadas alterações no controle da voz (36% e instabilidade da frequência fundamental (38%. CONCLUSÃO: a partir dos resultados obtidos pode-se concluir que os filmes de Hollywood caracterizam o idoso através de desvios evidentes na qualidade e modulação da voz, utilizando tipos de vozes alteradas e modulação vocal ampla e instável.PURPOSE: to describe the vocal quality of Hollywood movies characters playing elderly people roles. METHODS: a total of 50 aged character voice samples were used, 11 female and 39 male, from 38 Hollywood movies from the period between 1993 and 2001. Twenty speech therapists performed a perceptual auditory analysis. The listener's task required classifying each character either as elderly or as adult by their speech features, and also assessing their voices following the parameters that are most frequently addressed in the

  1. Not pitch perfect: sensory contributions to affective communication impairment in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitman, David I; Wolf, Daniel H; Laukka, Petri; Ragland, J Daniel; Valdez, Jeffrey N; Turetsky, Bruce I; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C

    2011-10-01

    Schizophrenia patients have vocal affect (prosody) deficits that are treatment resistant and associated with negative symptoms and poor outcome. The neural correlates of this dysfunction are unclear. Prior study has suggested that schizophrenia vocal affect perception deficits stem from an inability to use acoustic cues, notably pitch, in decoding emotion. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 24 schizophrenia patients and 28 healthy control subjects, during the performance of a four-choice (happiness, fear, anger, neutral) vocal affect identification task in which items for each emotion varied parametrically in affective salient acoustic cue levels. We observed that parametric increases in cue levels in schizophrenia failed to produce the same identification rate increases as in control subjects. These deficits correlated with diminished reciprocal activation changes in superior temporal and inferior frontal gyri and reduced temporo-frontal connectivity. Task activation also correlated with independent measures of pitch perception and negative symptom severity. These findings illustrate the interplay between sensory and higher-order cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. Sensory contributions to vocal affect deficits also suggest that this neurobehavioral marker could be targeted by pharmacological or behavioral remediation of acoustic feature discrimination. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reduced Maximum Pitch Elevation Predicts Silent Aspiration of Small Liquid Volumes in Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akila Theyyar Rajappa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and purposePreliminary evidence has shown that reduced ability to maximally raise vocal pitch correlates with the occurrence of aspiration (i.e., airway invasion by food or liquid. However, it is unclear if this simple task can be used as a reliable predictor of aspiration in stroke patients. Our aim was to examine whether maximum vocal pitch elevation predicted airway invasion and dysphagia in stroke.MethodsForty-five consecutive stroke patients (<1 month poststroke at a rehabilitation setting participated in a videofluoroscopic swallow study and two maximum vocal pitch elevation tasks. Maximum pitch was evaluated acoustically [maximum fundamental frequency (max F0] and perceptually. Swallowing safety was rated using the Penetration/Aspiration Scale and swallowing performance was assessed using components of the Modified Barium Swallow Impairment Profile (MBSImPTM©. Data were analyzed using simple regression and receiver operating characteristics curves to test the sensitivity and specificity of max F0 in predicting aspiration. Correlations between max F0 and MBSImP variables were also examined.ResultsMax F0 predicted silent aspiration of small liquid volumes with 80% sensitivity and 65% specificity (p = 0.023; area under the curve: 0.815; cutoff value of 359.03 Hz. Max F0 did not predict non-silent aspiration or penetration in this sample and did not significantly correlate with MBSImP variables. Furthermore, all participants who aspirated silently on small liquid volumes (11% of sample had suffered cortical or subcortical lesions.ConclusionIn stroke patients (<1 month poststroke, reduced maximum pitch elevation predicts silent aspiration of small liquid volumes with high sensitivity and moderate specificity. Future large-scale studies focusing on further validating this finding and exploring the value of this simple and non-invasive tool as part of a dysphagia screening are warranted.

  3. Effects of vocal training in a musicophile with congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbiks, Jonathan M P; Vuvan, Dominique T; Girard, Pier-Yves; Peretz, Isabelle; Russo, Frank A

    2016-12-01

    Congenital amusia is a condition in which an individual suffers from a deficit of musical pitch perception and production. Individuals suffering from congenital amusia generally tend to abstain from musical activities. Here, we present the unique case of Tim Falconer, a self-described musicophile who also suffers from congenital amusia. We describe and assess Tim's attempts to train himself out of amusia through a self-imposed 18-month program of formal vocal training and practice. We tested Tim with respect to music perception and vocal production across seven sessions including pre- and post-training assessments. We also obtained diffusion-weighted images of his brain to assess connectivity between auditory and motor planning areas via the arcuate fasciculus (AF). Tim's behavioral and brain data were compared to that of normal and amusic controls. While Tim showed temporary gains in his singing ability, he did not reach normal levels, and these gains faded when he was not engaged in regular lessons and practice. Tim did show some sustained gains with respect to the perception of musical rhythm and meter. We propose that Tim's lack of improvement in pitch perception and production tasks is due to long-standing and likely irreversible reduction in connectivity along the AF fiber tract.

  4. Pitch Perfect: How Fruit Flies Control their Body Pitch Angle

    CERN Document Server

    Whitehead, Samuel C; Canale, Luca; Cohen, Itai

    2015-01-01

    Flapping insect flight is a complex and beautiful phenomenon that relies on fast, active control mechanisms to counter aerodynamic instability. To directly investigate how freely-flying D. melanogaster control their body pitch angle against such instability, we perturb them using impulsive mechanical torques and film their corrective maneuvers with high-speed video. Combining experimental observations and numerical simulation, we find that flies correct for pitch deflections of up to 40 degrees in 29 +/- 8 ms by bilaterally modulating their wings' front-most stroke angle in a manner well-described by a linear proportional-integral (PI) controller. Flies initiate this corrective process after only 10 +/- 2 ms, indicating that pitch stabilization involves a fast reflex response. Remarkably, flies can also correct for very large-amplitude pitch perturbations--greater than 150 degrees--providing a regime in which to probe the limits of the linear-response framework. Together with previous studies regarding yaw an...

  5. Pitch perception beyond the traditional existence region of pitch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenham, Andrew J.; Micheyl, Christophe; Keebler, Michael V.

    2011-01-01

    Humans’ ability to recognize musical melodies is generally limited to pure-tone frequencies below 4 or 5 kHz. This limit coincides with the highest notes on modern musical instruments and is widely believed to reflect the upper limit of precise stimulusdriven spike timing in the auditory nerve. We...... tested the upper limits of pitch and melody perception in humans using pure and harmonic complex tones, such as those produced by the human voice and musical instruments, in melody recognition and pitchmatching tasks. We found that robust pitch perception can be elicited by harmonic complex tones...... with fundamental frequencies below 2 kHz, even when all of the individual harmonics are above 6 kHz—well above the currently accepted existence region of pitch and above the currently accepted limits of neural phase locking. The results suggest that the perception of musical pitch at high frequencies...

  6. The Effects of Three Physical and Vocal Warm-Up Procedures on Acoustic and Perceptual Measures of Choral Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Cunningham, Sheri L; Grady, Melissa L

    2017-05-05

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effects of three warm-up procedures (vocal-only, physical-only, physical/vocal combination) on acoustic and perceptual measures of choir sound. The researchers tested three videotaped, 5-minute, choral warm-up procedures on three university choirs. After participating in a warm-up procedure, each choir was recorded singing a folk song for long-term average spectra and pitch analysis. Singer participants responded to a questionnaire about preferences after each warm-up procedure. Warm-up procedures and recording sessions occurred during each choir's regular rehearsal time and in each choir's regular rehearsal space during three consecutive rehearsals. Long-term average spectra results demonstrated more resonant singing after the physical/vocal warm-up for two of the three choirs. Pitch analysis results indicate that all three choirs sang "in-tune" or with the least pitch deviation after participating in the physical/vocal warm-up. Singer questionnaire responses showed general preference for the physical/vocal combination warm-up, and singer ranking of the three procedures indicated the physical/vocal warm-up as the most favored for readiness to sing. In the context of this study with these three university choir participants, it seems that a combination choral warm-up that includes physical and vocal aspects is preferred by singers, enables more resonant singing, and more in-tune singing. Findings from this study could provide teachers and choral directors with important information as they structure and experiment with their choral warm-up procedures. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Vocal therapy of hyperkinetic dysphonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumović Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hyperkinetic (hyperfunctional dysphonia is a common pathology. The disorder is often found in vocal professionals faced with high vocal requirements. Objective. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vocal therapy on voice condition characterized by hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. Methods. The study included 100 adult patients and 27 children aged 4-16 years with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. A subjective acoustic analysis using the GIRBAS scale was performed prior to and after vocal therapy. Twenty adult patients and 10 children underwent objective acoustic analysis including several acoustic parameters. Pathological vocal qualities (hoarse, harsh and breathy voice were also obtained by computer analysis. Results. The subjective acoustic analysis revealed a significant (p<0.01 reduction in all dysphonia parameters after vocal treatment in adults and children. After treatment, all levels of dysphonia were lowered in 85% (85/100 of adult patients and 29% (29/100 had a normal voice. Before vocal therapy 9 children had severe, 13 had moderate and 8 slight dysphonia. After vocal therapy only 1 child had severe dysphonia, 7 had moderate, 10 had slight levels of dysphonia and 9 were without voice disorder. The objective acoustic analysis in adults revealed a significant improvement (p≤0.025 in all dysphonia parameters except SD F0 and jitter %. In children, the acoustic parameters SD F0, jitter % and NNE (normal noise energy were significantly improved (p=0.003-0.03. Pathological voice qualities were also improved in adults and children (p<0.05. Conclusion. Vocal therapy effectively improves the voice in hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules in both adults and children, affecting diverse acoustic parameters.

  8. Glenohumeral rotational motion and strength and baseball pitching biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Wendy J; Kaufman, Kenton R

    2012-01-01

    Addressing loss of shoulder range of motion and rotator cuff weakness in injury-prevention programs might be an effective strategy for preventing throwing arm injuries in baseball pitchers. However, the influence of these clinical measures on pitching biomechanics is unclear. To evaluate the relationships among clinical measures of shoulder rotational motion and strength and 3-dimensional pitching biomechanics and to evaluate the presence of coupling between the shoulder and the elbow during pitching to provide insight into the influence of clinical shoulder characteristics on elbow biomechanics. Cross-sectional study. Biomechanics laboratory. A total of 27 uninjured male high school baseball pitchers (age = 16 ± 1.1 years, height = 183 ± 7 cm, mass = 83 ± 12 kg). Clinical measures included shoulder internal- and external-rotation range of motion and peak isometric internal- and external-rotator strength. Three-dimensional upper extremity biomechanics were assessed as participants threw from an indoor pitching mound to a target at regulation distance. Linear regressions were used to assess the influence of clinical measures on the peak shoulder internal and external rotation moments and the peak elbow-adduction moment. We found a positive relationship between clinically measured internal-rotator strength and shoulder external-rotation moment (R(2) = 0.181, P = .04) during pitching. We also noted an inverse relationship between clinically measured external-rotation motion and the elbow-adduction moment (R(2) = 0.160, P = .04) and shoulder internal-rotation moment (R(2) = 0.250, P = .008) during pitching. We found a positive relationship between peak shoulder internal-rotation moment and the peak elbow-adduction moment (R(2) = 0.815, P biomechanics and how these clinical measures might contribute to throwing arm injuries in the baseball pitcher. A relationship also was identified between peak shoulder and elbow moments in the throwing arm during pitching

  9. Physiologically driven avian vocal synthesizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitt, Jacobo D.; Arneodo, Ezequiel M.; Goller, Franz; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2010-03-01

    In this work, we build an electronic syrinx, i.e., a programmable electronic device capable of integrating biomechanical model equations for the avian vocal organ in order to synthesize song. This vocal prosthesis is controlled by the bird’s neural instructions to respiratory and the syringeal motor systems, thus opening great potential for studying motor control and its modification by sensory feedback mechanisms. Furthermore, a well-functioning subject-controlled vocal prosthesis can lay the foundation for similar devices in humans and thus provide directly health-related data and procedures.

  10. Covariation between voice quality and pitch: Revisiting the case of Mandarin creaky voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Jianjing

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates the interaction between voice quality and pitch by revisiting the well-known case of Mandarin creaky voice. This study first provides several pieces of experimental data to assess whether the mechanism behind allophonic creaky voice in Mandarin is tied to tonal categories or is driven by phonetic pitch ranges. The results show that the presence of creak is not exclusively limited to tone 3, but can accompany any of the low pitch targets in the Mandarin tones; further, tone 3 is less creaky when the overall pitch range is raised, but more creaky when the overall pitch range is lowered. More importantly, tone 3 is not unique in this regard, and other tones such as tone 1 are also subject to similar variations. In sum, voice quality is quite systematically tied to F0 in Mandarin. Results from a pitch glide experiment further suggest that voice quality overall covaries with pitch height in a wedge-shaped function. Non-modal voice tends to occur when pitch production exceeds certain limits. Voice quality, thus, has the potential to enhance the perceptual distinctiveness of extreme pitch targets.

  11. The Linked Dual Representation model of vocal perception and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Sean; Moreno, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    The voice is one of the most important media for communication, yet there is a wide range of abilities in both the perception and production of the voice. In this article, we review this range of abilities, focusing on pitch accuracy as a particularly informative case, and look at the factors underlying these abilities. Several classes of models have been posited describing the relationship between vocal perception and production, and we review the evidence for and against each class of model. We look at how the voice is different from other musical instruments and review evidence about both the association and the dissociation between vocal perception and production abilities. Finally, we introduce the Linked Dual Representation (LDR) model, a new approach which can account for the broad patterns in prior findings, including trends in the data which might seem to be countervailing. We discuss how this model interacts with higher-order cognition and examine its predictions about several aspects of vocal perception and production.

  12. The Linked Dual Representation model of vocal perception and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean eHutchins

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The voice is one of the most important media for communication, yet there is a wide range of abilities in both the perception and production of the voice. In this article, we review this range of abilities, focusing on pitch accuracy as a particularly informative case, and look at the factors underlying these abilities. Several classes of models have been posited describing the relationship between vocal perception and production, and we review the evidence for and against each class of model. We look at how the voice is different from other musical instruments and review evidence about both the association and the dissociation between vocal perception and production abilities. Finally, we introduce the Linked Dual Representation model, a new approach which can account for the broad patterns in prior findings, including trends in the data which might seem to be countervailing. We discuss how this model interacts with higher-order cognition and examine its predictions about several aspects of vocal perception and production.

  13. Nonlinguistic vocalizations from online amateur videos for emotion research: A validated corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikin, Andrey; Persson, Tomas

    2017-04-01

    This study introduces a corpus of 260 naturalistic human nonlinguistic vocalizations representing nine emotions: amusement, anger, disgust, effort, fear, joy, pain, pleasure, and sadness. The recognition accuracy in a rating task varied greatly per emotion, from 70% for amusement, pleasure, fear, and sadness. In contrast, the raters' linguistic-cultural group had no effect on recognition accuracy: The predominantly English-language corpus was classified with similar accuracies by participants from Brazil, Russia, Sweden, and the UK/USA. Supervised random forest models classified the sounds as accurately as the human raters. The best acoustic predictors of emotion were pitch, harmonicity, and the spacing and regularity of syllables. This corpus of ecologically valid emotional vocalizations can be filtered to include only sounds with high recognition rates, in order to study reactions to emotional stimuli of known perceptual types (reception side), or can be used in its entirety to study the association between affective states and vocal expressions (production side).

  14. Emotions in freely varying and mono-pitched vowels, acoustic and EGG analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waaramaa, Teija; Palo, Pertti; Kankare, Elina

    2015-12-01

    Vocal emotions are expressed either by speech or singing. The difference is that in singing the pitch is predetermined while in speech it may vary freely. It was of interest to study whether there were voice quality differences between freely varying and mono-pitched vowels expressed by professional actors. Given their profession, actors have to be able to express emotions both by speech and singing. Electroglottogram and acoustic analyses of emotional utterances embedded in expressions of freely varying vowels [a:], [i:], [u:] (96 samples) and mono-pitched protracted vowels (96 samples) were studied. Contact quotient (CQEGG) was calculated using 35%, 55%, and 80% threshold levels. Three different threshold levels were used in order to evaluate their effects on emotions. Genders were studied separately. The results suggested significant gender differences for CQEGG 80% threshold level. SPL, CQEGG, and F4 were used to convey emotions, but to a lesser degree, when F0 was predetermined. Moreover, females showed fewer significant variations than males. Both genders used more hypofunctional phonation type in mono-pitched utterances than in the expressions with freely varying pitch. The present material warrants further study of the interplay between CQEGG threshold levels and formant frequencies, and listening tests to investigate the perceptual value of the mono-pitched vowels in the communication of emotions.

  15. Relating pitch awareness to phonemic awareness in children: implications for tone-deafness and dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loui, Psyche; Kroog, Kenneth; Zuk, Jennifer; Winner, Ellen; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2011-01-01

    Language and music are complex cognitive and neural functions that rely on awareness of one's own sound productions. Information on the awareness of vocal pitch, and its relation to phonemic awareness which is crucial for learning to read, will be important for understanding the relationship between tone-deafness and developmental language disorders such as dyslexia. Here we show that phonemic awareness skills are positively correlated with pitch perception-production skills in children. Children between the ages of seven and nine were tested on pitch perception and production, phonemic awareness, and IQ. Results showed a significant positive correlation between pitch perception-production and phonemic awareness, suggesting that the relationship between musical and linguistic sound processing is intimately linked to awareness at the level of pitch and phonemes. Since tone-deafness is a pitch-related impairment and dyslexia is a deficit of phonemic awareness, we suggest that dyslexia and tone-deafness may have a shared and/or common neural basis.

  16. Relating Pitch Awareness to Phonemic Awareness in Children: Implications for Tone-Deafness and Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psyche eLoui

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Language and music are complex cognitive and neural functions that rely on awareness of one’s own sound productions. Information on the awareness of vocal pitch, and its relation to phonemic awareness which is crucial for learning to read, will be important for understanding the relationship between tone-deafness and developmental language disorders such as dyslexia. Here we show that phonemic awareness skills are positively correlated with pitch perception-production skills in children. Children between the ages of 7 and 9 were tested on pitch perception and production, phonemic awareness, and IQ. Results showed a significant positive correlation between pitch perception-production and phonemic awareness, suggesting that the relationship between musical and linguistic sound processing is intimately linked to awareness at the level of pitch and phonemes. Since tone-deafness is a pitch-related impairment and dyslexia is a deficit of phonemic awareness, we suggest that dyslexia and tone-deafness may have a shared and/or common neural basis.

  17. The neural changes in connectivity of the voice network during voice pitch perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flagmeier, Sabina G; Ray, Kimberly L; Parkinson, Amy L; Li, Karl; Vargas, Robert; Price, Larry R; Laird, Angela R; Larson, Charles R; Robin, Donald A

    2014-05-01

    Voice control is critical to communication. To date, studies have used behavioral, electrophysiological and functional data to investigate the neural correlates of voice control using perturbation tasks, but have yet to examine the interactions of these neural regions. The goal of this study was to use structural equation modeling of functional neuroimaging data to examine network properties of voice with and without perturbation. Results showed that the presence of a pitch shift, which was processed as an error in vocalization, altered connections between right STG and left STG. Other regions that revealed differences in connectivity during error detection and correction included bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, and the primary and pre motor cortices. Results indicated that STG plays a critical role in voice control, specifically, during error detection and correction. Additionally, pitch perturbation elicits changes in the voice network that suggest the right hemisphere is critical to pitch modulation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. High-frequency complex pitch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Harmonics in a complex tone are typically considered unresolved when they interact with neighboring harmonics in the cochlea and cannot be heard out separately. Recent studies have suggested that the low pitch evoked by unresolved high-frequency harmonics may be coded via temporal fine-structure ......Harmonics in a complex tone are typically considered unresolved when they interact with neighboring harmonics in the cochlea and cannot be heard out separately. Recent studies have suggested that the low pitch evoked by unresolved high-frequency harmonics may be coded via temporal fine......-structure cues. However, these conclusions rely on the assumptions that combination tones were properly masked and that the ability of listeners to hear out individual partials provides an adequate measure of resolvability. Those assumptions were tested by measuring the audibility of combination tones...... and their effects on pitch matches, the effects of relative component phases and of dichotic presentation, and listeners' ability to hear out individual partials. The results confirmed that combination tones affected pitch, but pitch remained salient when they were masked. The lack of dependence of pitch...

  19. Nonlinear acoustics in the pant-hoot vocalization of common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Tobias; Arcadi, Adam Clark; Owren, Michael J.

    2003-04-01

    Pant-hoots produced by chimpanzees are multi-call vocalizations. While predominantly harmonically structured, pant-hoots can exhibit acoustic complexity that has recently been found to result from inherent nonlinearity in the vocal-fold dynamics. This complexity reflects abrupt shifts between qualitatively distinct vibration patterns (known as modes), which include but are not limited to simple, synchronous movements by the two vocal folds. Studies with humans in particular have shown that as the amplitude and vibration rate increase, vocal-fold action becomes increasingly susceptible to higher-order synchronizations, desynchronized movements, and irregular behavior. We examined the occurrence of these sorts of nonlinear phenomena in pant-hoots, contrasting quieter and lower-pitched introduction components with loud and high-pitched climax calls in the same sounds. Spectrographic evidence revealed four classic kinds of nonlinear phenomena, including discrete frequency jumps, subharmonics, biphonation, and deterministic chaos. While these events were virtually never found in the introduction, they occurred in more than half of the climax calls. Biphonation was by far the most common. Individual callers varied in the degree to which their climax calls exhibited nonlinear phenomena, but we are consistent in showing more biphonation than any of the other forms. These outcomes demonstrate that understanding these calls requisitely requires an understanding of such events.

  20. [Use of YAG laser combined with mucosal suturing for the treatment of polypoid vocal cord].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Kouichirou; Hirose, Hajime; Iguchi, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Masaki, Takashi; Kamijo, Takahiro; Ino, Takeshi; Yamanaka, Jun; Yao, Kazuo; Okamoto, Makito

    2003-03-01

    To improve low-pitched voices in cases with polypoid vocal cords, YAG laser irradiation combined with a mucosal suturing technique was attempted in 9 female cases with severe polypoid changes in their vocal cords. A YAG laser beam (5 to 10 W) was used to irradiate the upper surface of the polypoid vocal cord. The polypoid content of the cord was gradually coagulated, and the free edge of the cord appeared to slide up toward the burned area. The polypoid content was then removed and squeezed through an open wound made in the burned area using a conventional method. Bleeding was successfully controlled using the laser. After the excessive mucosal margin was trimmed and the contour of the vocal cord was adjusted, the wound was closed by 7-0 monofilament absorbable suture. Suturing was relatively easy because the mucosal edge was also coagulated. Postoperative evaluations of voice quality revealed an improvement in the GRBAS scale of voice quality as well as an elevation in voice pitch and an upwards shift in the voice range in all cases.

  1. Impaired memory for pitch in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Nathalie; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Peretz, Isabelle

    2009-07-01

    We examined memory for pitch in congenital amusia in two tasks. In one task, we varied the pitch distance between the target and comparison tone from 4 to 9 semitones and inserted either a silence or 6 interpolated tones between the tones to be compared. In a second task, we manipulated the number of pitches to be retained in sequences of length 1, 3, or 5. Amusics' sensitivity to pitch distance was exacerbated by the presence of interpolated tones, and amusics' performance was more strongly affected by the number of pitches to maintain in memory than controls. A pitch perception deficit could not account for the pitch memory deficit of amusics.

  2. Window anterior commissure relaxation laryngoplasty in the management of high-pitched voice disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocak, Ismail; Dogan, Muzeyyen; Tadihan, Elcin; Alkan Cakir, Zeynep; Bengisu, Serkan; Akpinar, Meltem

    2008-12-01

    To present the success rate of a less invasive modification of Isshiki type III anterior commissure relaxation laryngoplasty technique in patients with high-pitched voice disorders. Prospective case series. KBB Major Private Clinic of Istanbul Surgery Hospital and the University of Yeditepe Hospital. Twenty-one adult patients who believed that their high-pitched voices conflicted with their body image and/or gender identity. Type III thyroplasty for pitch alteration. Comparison of preoperative and postoperative (>6 months) fundamental frequency levels, diplophonia, perception of body image and pitch, and subjective ratings of comfort during vocalization. The patients were mostly male (mean age, 30.5 years). The most frequent cause of high-pitched voice was sulcus vocalis (n = 14), followed by constitutional causes (n = 5), mutational falsetto (n = 1), and severe glottic scarring secondary to childhood diphtheria (n = 1). After surgery, the fundamental frequency dropped significantly from a mean of 213.81 Hz to 149.86 Hz (P < .001), equaling a mean postoperative semitone drop of 6.23. Misperception leading to an abnormal body image was reduced by 86%. Fourteen patients who originally had feelings of tension and fatigue during phonation and vocalization gained comfort postoperatively. Diplophonia with subharmonic signals observed in 11 cases preoperatively was reduced or disappeared in 6 cases. No complications or failures were observed during the follow-up period. Window anterior commissure relaxation laryngoplasty is an efficient, easy, less invasive, and safe procedure in the surgical management of organic and functional high-pitched voice disorders.

  3. Vocal therapy of hyperkinetic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumović, Gordana; Veselinović, Mila; Arbutina, Tanja; Škrbić, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Hyperkinetic (hyperfunctional) dysphonia is a common pathology. The disorder is often found in vocal professionals faced with high vocal requirements. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vocal therapy on voice condition characterized by hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. The study included 100 adult patients and 27 children aged 4-16 years with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. A subjective acoustic analysis using the GIRBAS scale was performed prior to and after vocal therapy. Twenty adult patients and 10 children underwent objective acoustic analysis including several acoustic parameters. Pathological vocal qualities (hoarse, harsh and breathy voice) were also obtained by computer analysis. The subjective acoustic analysis revealed a significant (pvocal treatment in adults and children. After treatment, all levels of dysphonia were lowered in 85% (85/100) of adult patients and 29% (29/100) had a normal voice. Before vocal therapy 9 children had severe, 13 had moderate and 8 slight dysphonia. After vocal therapy only 1 child had severe dysphonia, 7 had moderate, 10 had slight levels of dysphonia and 9 were without voice disorder. The objective acoustic analysis in adults revealed a significant improvement (p≤0.025) in all dysphonia parameters except SD FO and jitter %. In children, the acoustic parameters SD FO, jitter % and NNE (normal noise energy) were significantly improved (p=0.003-0.03). Pathological voice qualities were also improved in adults and children (pVocal therapy effectively improves the voice in hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules in both adults and children, affectinq diverse acoustic parameters.

  4. Perceiving pitch absolutely: comparing absolute and relative pitch possessors in a pitch memory task

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schulze, Katrin; Gaab, Nadine; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2009-01-01

    .... The aim of this fMRI study was to examine the neural network underlying AP using a pitch memory experiment and contrasting two groups of musicians with each other, those that have AP and those that do...

  5. Characterization of coal- and petroleum-derived binder pitches and the interaction of pitch/coke mixtures in pre-baked carbon anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn

    study. Pitch itself is a very complex material. Studying the binding between pitch and the porous coke even adds another level of complexity to this subject. The high-temperature 1H NMR has been shown to be a promising technique to study the molecular interaction between different materials. The fraction of the mobile protons in the sample and their mobility as measured by the spin-spin relaxation time ( T*2 ), which is inversely proportional to the peak width at half maximum height (DeltaH1/2), seem to have a potential to probe the extent of the interaction between pitch and coke. Understanding of the interaction between coke and some simple compounds which are commonly found in pitch, i.e. model compounds, should help identify the binding efficiency between pitch and coke. The knowledge of (1) pitch chemistry and structure, (2) interaction between model compounds and filler cokes would lead to an understanding of the binding efficiency between pitch and coke. The mass distribution by MALDI analysis showed that the majority of the compounds in these pitches is in the range of 200-700 Da. The hexane-soluble (HS) fractions of all of the pitch samples in this study mainly consist of four-ring polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) as observed by GC/MS and Pyrolysis-GC/MS techniques. Coal-derived pitches contained mainly cata- and peri-condensed PACs and a few alkyl- and heteroatomic-substituted PACs, whereas those peteroleum-derived pitches consisted of a number of alkyl-substituted PACs with high sulfur substitution. Solid-state NMR results show that SCTP-2 and PP-1 contain six and five fused rings on average, respectively, whereas GP-115 and WVU-5 contain two and three fused rings on average, respectively. The latter two pitches contained mostly methyl substituents with a few ethyls. WVU-5 contains a higher degree of naphthenic substituents as compared to other pitches as confirmed by the GC/MS analysis. HTCCP and OXCCP contained three peri-condensed fused rings on

  6. Pitch perfect: how fruit flies control their body pitch angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Samuel C; Beatus, Tsevi; Canale, Luca; Cohen, Itai

    2015-11-01

    Flapping insect flight is a complex and beautiful phenomenon that relies on fast, active control mechanisms to counter aerodynamic instability. To directly investigate how freely flying Drosophila melanogaster control their body pitch angle against such instability, we perturbed them using impulsive mechanical torques and filmed their corrective maneuvers with high-speed video. Combining experimental observations and numerical simulation, we found that flies correct for pitch deflections of up to 40 deg in 29±8 ms by bilaterally modulating their wings' front-most stroke angle in a manner well described by a linear proportional-integral (PI) controller. Flies initiate this corrective process only 10±2 ms after the perturbation onset, indicating that pitch stabilization involves a fast reflex response. Remarkably, flies can also correct for very large-amplitude pitch perturbations--greater than 150 deg--providing a regime in which to probe the limits of the linear-response framework. Together with previous studies regarding yaw and roll control, our results on pitch show that flies' stabilization of each of these body angles is consistent with PI control. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Pitch strength of normal and dysphonic voices

    OpenAIRE

    Shrivastav, Rahul; Eddins, David A.; Anand, Supraja

    2012-01-01

    Two sounds with the same pitch may vary from each other based on saliency of their pitch sensation. This perceptual attribute is called “pitch strength.” The study of voice pitch strength may be important in quantifying of normal and pathological qualities. The present study investigated how pitch strength varies across normal and dysphonic voices. A set of voices (vowel /a/) selected from the Kay Elemetrics Disordered Voice Database served as the stimuli. These stimuli demonstrated a wide ra...

  8. Morphometric Differences of Vocal Tract Articulators in Different Loudness Conditions in Singing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Echternach

    Full Text Available Dynamic MRI analysis of phonation has gathered interest in voice and speech physiology. However, there are limited data addressing the extent to which articulation is dependent on loudness.12 professional singer subjects of different voice classifications were analysed concerning the vocal tract profiles recorded with dynamic real-time MRI with 25fps in different pitch and loudness conditions. The subjects were asked to sing ascending scales on the vowel /a/ in three loudness conditions (comfortable=mf, very soft=pp, very loud=ff, respectively. Furthermore, fundamental frequency and sound pressure level were analysed from the simultaneously recorded optical audio signal after noise cancellation.The data show articulatory differences with respect to changes of both pitch and loudness. Here, lip opening and pharynx width were increased. While the vertical larynx position was rising with pitch it was lower for greater loudness. Especially, the lip opening and pharynx width were more strongly correlated with the sound pressure level than with pitch.For the vowel /a/ loudness has an effect on articulation during singing which should be considered when articulatory vocal tract data are interpreted.

  9. Morphometric Differences of Vocal Tract Articulators in Different Loudness Conditions in Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echternach, Matthias; Burk, Fabian; Burdumy, Michael; Traser, Louisa; Richter, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dynamic MRI analysis of phonation has gathered interest in voice and speech physiology. However, there are limited data addressing the extent to which articulation is dependent on loudness. Material and Methods 12 professional singer subjects of different voice classifications were analysed concerning the vocal tract profiles recorded with dynamic real-time MRI with 25fps in different pitch and loudness conditions. The subjects were asked to sing ascending scales on the vowel /a/ in three loudness conditions (comfortable = mf, very soft = pp, very loud = ff, respectively). Furthermore, fundamental frequency and sound pressure level were analysed from the simultaneously recorded optical audio signal after noise cancellation. Results The data show articulatory differences with respect to changes of both pitch and loudness. Here, lip opening and pharynx width were increased. While the vertical larynx position was rising with pitch it was lower for greater loudness. Especially, the lip opening and pharynx width were more strongly correlated with the sound pressure level than with pitch. Conclusion For the vowel /a/ loudness has an effect on articulation during singing which should be considered when articulatory vocal tract data are interpreted. PMID:27096935

  10. [Temperament of children with vocal fold nodules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Youhua; Wang, Zhinan; Xu, Zhongqiang; Chen, Ping; Hao, Lili

    2009-11-01

    To examine the temperament of children with vocal fold nodules. To compare the temperament dimension and temperamental types of 42 children with vocal fold nodules with 46 vocally normal children, using Chinese children's Temperament Problem Screening system (CCTPSs). The children with vocal fold nodules differed significantly from the comparison group in their temperament dimension's adaptability, intensity of reaction, mood value, persistency and temperamental types. There are more difficult and slow-to-warm-up children in patients with vocal fold nodules than vocally normal children.

  11. Considerações sobre modificações vocais e laríngeas ocasionadas pelo som basal em mulheres sem queixa vocal Considerations regarding vocal and laryngeal modifications caused by vocal fry in women without voice complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Meurer Brum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar as mudanças vocais e laríngeas ocasionadas pelo som basal em cinco indivíduos adultos do sexo feminino sem alterações vocais e laríngeas. Para isso, realizou-se gravação digital da emissão da vogal /a/ e do exame videolaringoestroboscópico. Em seguida, os sujeitos realizaram o som basal durante três séries de 15 repetições, com intervalo de 30 segundos entre cada série, e realizaram-se novamente o exame laríngeo e a gravação da vogal /a/ sustentada. Os dados laríngeos e vocais pré e pós-realização da técnica foram submetidos às análises acústica, perceptivo-auditiva e videolaringoestroboscópica. A análise acústica foi gerada pelo programa Multi Speech. Constatou-se, após o som basal: aumento da vibração da mucosa das pregas vocais; alteração ou manutenção do tipo de voz e do pitch; diminuição ou manutenção das medidas relacionadas ao jitter e shimmer e do índice que sugere ruído glótico; diminuição do índice de fonação suave; manutenção ou alteração da qualidade vocal e do foco ressonantal, com predomínio laringofaríngeo; diminuição da frequência fundamental; e aumento da variação da frequência e da amplitude. Concluiu-se que, nesta sequência de casos, o som basal promoveu efeito positivo sobre a vibração da mucosa das pregas vocais e sobre o ruído da voz, e efeito negativo sobre a ressonância e a estabilidade da voz.The aim of this study was to verify vocal and laryngeal modifications caused by vocal fry in five female subjects without vocal or laryngeal complaints. For this purpose, the sustained emission of the vowel /a/ was digitally recorded, as well as the recording of a videostroboscopic examination of the larynx. Subsequently, the subjects performed the vocal fry in three series of 15 repetitions, with a 30-second interval of passive rest between series, and carried out a second evaluation (recording of the sustained emission of the

  12. Uncovering phenotypes of poor-pitch singing: The Sung Performance Battery (SPB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena eBerkowska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Singing is as natural as speaking for humans. Increasing evidence shows that the layman can carry a tune (e.g., when asked to sing a well-known song or to imitate single pitches, intervals and short melodies. Yet, important individual differences exist in the general population with regard to singing proficiency. Some individuals are particularly inaccurate or imprecise in producing or imitating pitch information (poor-pitch singers, thus showing a variety of singing phenotypes. Unfortunately, so far there is not a standard set of tasks for assessing singing proficiency in the general population, allowing to uncover and characterize individual profiles of poor-pitch singing. Different tasks and analysis methods are typically used in various experiments, making the comparison of the results across studies arduous. To fill this gap we propose here a new tool for assessing singing proficiency (the Sung Performance Battery, SPB. The SPB starts from the assessment of participants’ vocal range followed by five tasks: 1 single-pitch matching, 2 pitch-interval matching, 3 novel-melody matching, 4 singing from memory of familiar melodies (with lyrics and on a syllable, and 5 singing of familiar melodies (with lyrics and on a syllable at a slow tempo indicated by a metronome. Data analysis via acoustical methods provides objective measures of pitch accuracy and precision in terms of absolute and relative pitch. The SPB has been tested in a group of 50 occasional singers. The results indicate that the battery is useful for characterizing proficient singing and for detecting cases of inaccurate and/or imprecise singing.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Mesophase Pitch via Co-Carbonization of Waste Polyethylene]Petroleum Pitch

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Youliang Cheng Lu Yang Tao Luo Changqing Fang Jian Su Jian Hui

    2015-01-01

    The low-cost petroleum pitch and waste polyethylene (WPE) were used as raw materials to prepare the mesophase pitch by co-carbonization method and the forming mechanization of mesophase pitch was also investigated...

  14. Reverse Engineering Tone-Deafness: Disrupting Pitch-Matching by Creating Temporary Dysfunctions in the Auditory-Motor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Hohmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Perceiving and producing vocal sounds are important functions of the auditory-motor system and are fundamental to communication. Prior studies have identified a network of brain regions involved in pitch production, specifically pitch matching. Here we reverse engineer the function of the auditory perception-production network by targeting specific cortical regions (e.g., right and left posterior superior temporal (pSTG and posterior inferior frontal gyri (pIFG with cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS—commonly found to decrease excitability in the underlying cortical region—allowing us to causally test the role of particular nodes in this network. Performance on a pitch-matching task was determined before and after 20 min of cathodal stimulation. Acoustic analyses of pitch productions showed impaired accuracy after cathodal stimulation to the left pIFG and the right pSTG in comparison to sham stimulation. Both regions share particular roles in the feedback and feedforward motor control of pitched vocal production with a differential hemispheric dominance.

  15. Effects of vocal training on singing and speaking voice characteristics in vocally healthy adults and children based on choral and nonchoral data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siupsinskiene, Nora; Lycke, Hugo

    2011-07-01

    This prospective cross-sectional study examines the effects of voice training on vocal capabilities in vocally healthy age and gender differentiated groups measured by voice range profile (VRP) and speech range profile (SRP). Frequency and intensity measurements of the VRP and SRP using standard singing and speaking voice protocols were derived from 161 trained choir singers (21 males, 59 females, and 81 prepubescent children) and from 188 nonsingers (38 males, 89 females, and 61 children). When compared with nonsingers, both genders of trained adult and child singers exhibited increased mean pitch range, highest frequency, and VRP area in high frequencies (PVRP area. The logistic regression analysis showed that VRP pitch range, highest frequency, maximum voice intensity, and maximum-minimum intensity range, and SRP slope of speaking curve were the key predictors of voice training. Age, gender, and voice training differentiated norms of VRP and SRP parameters are presented. Significant positive effect of voice training on vocal capabilities, mostly singing voice, was confirmed. The presented norms for trained singers, with key parameters differentiated by gender and age, are suggested for clinical practice of otolaryngologists and speech-language pathologists. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Disorders of pitch production in tone deafness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eDalla Bella

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Singing is as natural as speaking for the majority of people. Yet some individuals (i.e., 10-15% are inaccurate singers, typically performing or imitating pitches and melodies inaccurately. This condition, commonly referred to as tone deafness, has been observed both in the presence and absence of deficient pitch perception. In this article we review the existing literature concerning normal singing, poor-pitch singing, and, briefly, the sources of this condition. Considering that pitch plays a prominent role in the structure of both music and speech we also focus on the possibility that pitch production (or imitation is similarly impaired in poor-pitch singers. Preliminary evidence from our laboratory on poor-pitch singing suggests that pitch imitation may be selectively inaccurate in the music domain without being affected in speech. This finding points to separability of mechanisms subserving pitch production in music and language.

  17. Musical Activity Tunes Up Absolute Pitch Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard

    2014-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce pitches of musical tones without an external reference. Active AP (i.e., pitch production or pitch adjustment) and passive AP (i.e., pitch identification) are considered to not necessarily coincide, although no study has properly compared...... these abilities. Using a novel computerized pitch adjustment test, we investigated active AP ability in musicians with and without AP (ages 18-43). We found a significant correlation between active and passive AP indicating that AP possessors (APs) identify and produce pitch equally well. Furthermore, we found...... that APs generally undershoot when adjusting musical pitch, a tendency that decreases when musical activity increases. Finally, APs are less accurate when adjusting the pitch to black key targets than to white key targets. Hence, AP ability may be partly practice-dependent and we speculate that APs may...

  18. Efetividade de um programa de aprimoramento vocal para professores Effectiveness of a vocal improvement program for teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Fontes Luchesi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar parâmetros fonoarticulatórios de professores, pré e pós-programa de aprimoramento vocal. MÉTODO: um programa de aprimoramento vocal foi oferecido numa escola estadual do município de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil. Treze professores aceitaram participar do programa. Devido ao critério de exclusão, apenas cinco foram selecionados para as análises. Os sujeitos foram previamente submetidos à avaliação laringológica. Foram realizados 12 encontros semanais de 1 hora e 30 minutos na própria escola. No primeiro e no último encontro os sujeitos gravaram três "frases-veículo". As gravações foram submetidas à análise perceptivo-auditiva (para avaliação do pitch, da modulação e da articulação e acústica (para avaliação da freqüência fundamental, da extensão de freqüência e dos dois primeiros formantes. Os dados foram submetidos à análise estatística. RESULTADOS: mesmo com o pequeno número de sujeitos, os resultados do presente estudo, revelaram ampliação significante da extensão de freqüência, indicando maior uso deste recurso expressivo pós-aprimoramento, além do aumento estatisticamente significante de F1 nas vogais /i/ e /u/ pós-intervenção, sugerindo melhora no ajuste articulatório. CONCLUSÕES: não foram observadas modificações no pitch, modulação e articulação avaliados por meio da análise perceptivo-auditiva, bem como da freqüência fundamental pós-intervenção.PURPOSE: to analyze and correlate teachers' vocal and articulation parameters in a pre and post vocal improvement program. METHOD: a vocal improvement program was offered to a fundamental education state school, located in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. Thirteen teachers agreed to take part in the program, however, due to the exclusion criterion, only five "subjects" were selected for the analysis. Teachers were previously submitted to a laryngologist evaluation. Twelve weekly meetings of one and a half hour each

  19. Recognition of transposed melodies: Effects of pitch distance and harmonic distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsmith, Abigail L; Neill, W Trammell

    2017-11-27

    People easily recognize a familiar melody in a previously unheard key, but they also retain some key-specific information. Does the recognition of a transposed melody depend on either pitch distance or harmonic distance from the initially learned instances? Previous research has shown a stronger effect of pitch closeness than of harmonic similarity, but did not directly test for an additional effect of the latter variable. In the present experiment, we familiarized participants with a simple eight-note melody in two different keys (C and D) and then tested their ability to discriminate the target melody from foils in other keys. The transpositions included were to the keys of C# (close in pitch height, but harmonically distant), G (more distant in pitch, but harmonically close), and F# (more distant in pitch and harmonically distant). Across participants, the transpositions to F# and G were either higher or lower than the initially trained melodies, so that their average pitch distances from C and D were equated. A signal detection theory analysis confirmed that discriminability (d') was better for targets and foils that were close in pitch distance to the studied exemplars. Harmonic similarity had no effect on discriminability, but it did affect response bias (c), in that harmonic similarity to the studied exemplars increased both hits and false alarms. Thus, both pitch distance and harmonic distance affect the recognition of transposed melodies, but with dissociable effects on discrimination and response bias.

  20. Automatic Detection of Pitching and Throwing Events in Baseball With Inertial Measurement Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Nick B; Black, Georgia M; Whiteley, Rod J; Gahan, Peter; Cole, Michael H; Utting, Andy; Gabbett, Tim J

    2017-04-01

    Throwing loads are known to be closely related to injury risk. However, for logistic reasons, typically only pitchers have their throws counted, and then only during innings. Accordingly, all other throws made are not counted, so estimates of throws made by players may be inaccurately recorded and underreported. A potential solution to this is the use of wearable microtechnology to automatically detect, quantify, and report pitch counts in baseball. This study investigated the accuracy of detection of baseball pitching and throwing in both practice and competition using a commercially available wearable microtechnology unit. Seventeen elite youth baseball players (mean ± SD age 16.5 ± 0.8 y, height 184.1 ± 5.5 cm, mass 78.3 ± 7.7 kg) participated in this study. Participants performed pitching, fielding, and throwing during practice and competition while wearing a microtechnology unit. Sensitivity and specificity of a pitching and throwing algorithm were determined by comparing automatic measures (ie, microtechnology unit) with direct measures (ie, manually recorded pitching counts). The pitching and throwing algorithm was sensitive during both practice (100%) and competition (100%). Specificity was poorer during both practice (79.8%) and competition (74.4%). These findings demonstrate that the microtechnology unit is sensitive to detect pitching and throwing events, but further development of the pitching algorithm is required to accurately and consistently quantify throwing loads using microtechnology.

  1. Articulation and vocal tract acoustics at soprano subject's high fundamental frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echternach, Matthias; Birkholz, Peter; Traser, Louisa; Flügge, Tabea V; Kamberger, Robert; Burk, Fabian; Burdumy, Michael; Richter, Bernhard

    2015-05-01

    The role of the vocal tract for phonation at very high soprano fundamental frequencies (F0s) is not yet understood in detail. In this investigation, two experiments were carried out with a single professional high soprano subject. First, using two dimensional (2D) dynamic real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (24 fps) midsagittal and coronal vocal tract shapes were analyzed while the subject sang a scale from Bb5 (932 Hz) to G6 (1568 Hz). In a second experiment, volumetric vocal tract MRI data were recorded from sustained phonations (13 s) for the pitches C6 (1047 Hz) and G6 (1568 Hz). Formant frequencies were measured in physical models created by 3D printing, and calculated from area functions obtained from the 3D vocal tract shapes. The data showed that there were only minor modifications of the vocal tract shape. These changes involved a decrease of the piriform sinus as well as small changes of tongue position. Formant frequencies did not exhibit major differences between C6 and G6 for F1 and F3, respectively. Only F2 was slightly raised for G6. For G6, however, F2 is not excited by any voice source partial. Therefore, this investigation was not able to confirm that the analyzed professional soprano subject adjusted formants to voice source partials for the analyzed F0s.

  2. The vocal monotony of monogamy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jeanette

    2003-04-01

    There are four phocids in waters around Antarctica: Weddell, leopard, crabeater, and Ross seals. These four species provide a unique opportunity to examine underwater vocal behavior in species sharing the same ecosystem. Some species live in pack ice, others in factice, but all are restricted to the Antarctic or sub-Antarctic islands. All breed and produce vocalizations under water. Social systems range from polygyny in large breeding colonies, to serial monogamy, to solitary species. The type of mating system influences the number of underwater vocalizations in the repertoire, with monogamous seals producing only a single call, polygynous species producing up to 35 calls, and solitary species an intermediate number of about 10 calls. Breeding occurs during the austral spring and each species carves-out an acoustic niche for communicating, with species using different frequency ranges, temporal patterns, and amplitude changes to convey their species-specific calls and presumably reduce acoustic competition. Some species exhibit geographic variations in their vocalizations around the continent, which may reflect discrete breeding populations. Some seals become silent during a vulnerable time of predation by killer whales, perhaps to avoid detection. Overall, vocalizations of these seals exhibit adaptive characteristics that reflect the co-evolution among species in the same ecosystem.

  3. Vocal Frequency Measures in Normal Speaking Children and Children with Vocal Deviations. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeper, Herbert A., Jr.; Iverson, Rachel L.

    The report examines vocal frequency differences between normal speaking children and 65 children (mean age 9-years) with vocal nodules and accompanying vocal quality disturbances. In part I of the study children were screened by a physician and their voices were recorded and analyzed by a digitizer-computer system for mean vocal frequency,…

  4. University Vocal Training and Vocal Health of Music Educators and Music Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Vicki D.; Cohen, Nicki

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the university vocal training and vocal health of music educators and music therapists. The participants (N = 426), music educators (n = 351) and music therapists (n = 75), completed a survey addressing demographics, vocal training, voice usage, and vocal health. Both groups reported singing at least 50%…

  5. Disabled Vocal Cords: An Occupational Hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Norma B.

    1987-01-01

    A teacher points out the occupational hazard that can result from the misuse of the voice and ensuing vocal cord damage. Presents discussion of ways to avoid misusing the voice and prevent vocal cord damage. (MD)

  6. Processing pitch in a non-human mammal (Chinchilla laniger)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofner, William P.; Chaney, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Whether the mechanisms giving rise to pitch reflect spectral or temporal processing has long been debated. Generally, sounds having strong harmonic structures in their spectra have strong periodicities in their temporal structures. We found that when a wideband harmonic tone complex is passed through a noise vocoder, the resulting sound can have a harmonic structure with a large peak-to-valley ratio, but with little or no periodicity in the temporal structure. To test the role of harmonic structure in pitch perception for a non-human mammal, we measured behavioral responses to noise-vocoded tone complexes in chinchillas using a stimulus generalization paradigm. Animals discriminated either a harmonic tone complex or an iterated rippled noise from a 1-channel vocoded version of the tone complex. When tested with vocoded versions generated with 8, 16, 32, 64 and 128 channels, responses were similar to those of the 1-channel version. Behavioral responses could not be accounted for based on harmonic peak-to-valley ratio as the acoustic cue, but could be accounted for based on temporal properties of the autocorrelation functions such as periodicity strength or the height of the first peak. The results suggest that pitch perception does not arise through spectral processing in non-human mammals, but rather through temporal processing. The conclusion that spectral processing contributes little to pitch in non-human mammals may reflect broader cochlear tuning than that described in humans. PMID:22985274

  7. Processing pitch in a nonhuman mammal (Chinchilla laniger).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofner, William P; Chaney, Megan

    2013-05-01

    Whether the mechanisms giving rise to pitch reflect spectral or temporal processing has long been debated. Generally, sounds having strong harmonic structures in their spectra have strong periodicities in their temporal structures. We found that when a wideband harmonic tone complex is passed through a noise vocoder, the resulting sound can have a harmonic structure with a large peak-to-valley ratio, but with little or no periodicity in the temporal structure. To test the role of harmonic structure in pitch perception for a nonhuman mammal, we measured behavioral responses to noise-vocoded tone complexes in chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger) using a stimulus generalization paradigm. Chinchillas discriminated either a harmonic tone complex or an iterated rippled noise from a 1-channel vocoded version of the tone complex. When tested with vocoded versions generated with 8, 16, 32, 64, and 128 channels, responses were similar to those of the 1-channel version. Behavioral responses could not be accounted for based on harmonic peak-to-valley ratio as the acoustic cue, but could be accounted for based on temporal properties of the autocorrelation functions such as periodicity strength or the height of the first peak. The results suggest that pitch perception does not arise through spectral processing in nonhuman mammals but rather through temporal processing. The conclusion that spectral processing contributes little to pitch in nonhuman mammals may reflect broader cochlear tuning than that described in humans.

  8. Vocal power and pressure-flow relationships in excised tiger larynges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titze, Ingo R; Fitch, W Tecumseh; Hunter, Eric J; Alipour, Fariborz; Montequin, Douglas; Armstrong, Douglas L; McGee, Joann; Walsh, Edward J

    2010-11-15

    Despite the functional importance of loud, low-pitched vocalizations in big cats of the genus Panthera, little is known about the physics and physiology of the mechanisms producing such calls. We investigated laryngeal sound production in the laboratory using an excised-larynx setup combined with sound-level measurements and pressure-flow instrumentation. The larynges of five tigers (three Siberian or Amur, one generic non-pedigreed tiger with Bengal ancestry and one Sumatran), which had died of natural causes, were provided by Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo over a five-year period. Anatomical investigation indicated the presence of both a rigid cartilaginous plate in the arytenoid portion of the glottis, and a vocal fold fused with a ventricular fold. Both of these features have been confusingly termed 'vocal pads' in the previous literature. We successfully induced phonation in all of these larynges. Our results showed that aerodynamic power in the glottis was of the order of 1.0 W for all specimens, acoustic power radiated (without a vocal tract) was of the order of 0.1 mW, and fundamental frequency ranged between 20 and 100 Hz when a lung pressure in the range of 0-2.0 kPa was applied. The mean glottal airflow increased to the order of 1.0 l s(-1) per 1.0 kPa of pressure, which is predictable from scaling human and canine larynges by glottal length and vibrational amplitude. Phonation threshold pressure was remarkably low, on the order of 0.3 kPa, which is lower than for human and canine larynges phonated without a vocal tract. Our results indicate that a vocal fold length approximately three times greater than that of humans is predictive of the low fundamental frequency, and the extraordinarily flat and broad medial surface of the vocal folds is predictive of the low phonation threshold pressure.

  9. Vocal power and pressure–flow relationships in excised tiger larynges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titze, Ingo R.; Fitch, W. Tecumseh; Hunter, Eric J.; Alipour, Fariborz; Montequin, Douglas; Armstrong, Douglas L.; McGee, JoAnn; Walsh, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the functional importance of loud, low-pitched vocalizations in big cats of the genus Panthera, little is known about the physics and physiology of the mechanisms producing such calls. We investigated laryngeal sound production in the laboratory using an excised-larynx setup combined with sound-level measurements and pressure–flow instrumentation. The larynges of five tigers (three Siberian or Amur, one generic non-pedigreed tiger with Bengal ancestry and one Sumatran), which had died of natural causes, were provided by Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo over a five-year period. Anatomical investigation indicated the presence of both a rigid cartilaginous plate in the arytenoid portion of the glottis, and a vocal fold fused with a ventricular fold. Both of these features have been confusingly termed ‘vocal pads’ in the previous literature. We successfully induced phonation in all of these larynges. Our results showed that aerodynamic power in the glottis was of the order of 1.0 W for all specimens, acoustic power radiated (without a vocal tract) was of the order of 0.1 mW, and fundamental frequency ranged between 20 and 100 Hz when a lung pressure in the range of 0–2.0 kPa was applied. The mean glottal airflow increased to the order of 1.0 l s–1 per 1.0 kPa of pressure, which is predictable from scaling human and canine larynges by glottal length and vibrational amplitude. Phonation threshold pressure was remarkably low, on the order of 0.3 kPa, which is lower than for human and canine larynges phonated without a vocal tract. Our results indicate that a vocal fold length approximately three times greater than that of humans is predictive of the low fundamental frequency, and the extraordinarily flat and broad medial surface of the vocal folds is predictive of the low phonation threshold pressure. PMID:21037066

  10. Clinical practice: vocal nodules in dysphonic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Regina Helena Garcia; Branco, Anete; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes; Gramuglia, Andrea Cristina Jóia

    2013-09-01

    Common among children, vocal symptoms are a cause of concern for parents who seek elucidation of their diagnosis and treatment. Vocal nodules are the major cause of dysphonias in children and are related to vocal abuse. We conducted a literature review considering clinical, physiopathological, epidemiological, and histological aspects of vocal nodules, as well as diagnostic methods, highlighting the main studies addressing this issue. The controversial points of treatments were also discussed.

  11. [The difference of phonation patterns in vocal fold polyps and vocal nodules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Biru; Zheng, Yiqing; Gong, Jian; Chen, Yongming

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the difference of phonation patterns by dividing patients with vocal fold polyps and vocal nodules into two groups according to muscle tension patterns (MTP). Fifty-six patients with vocal fold polyps and vocal nodules were divided into two groups according to phonation with MTP or not by video strobolaryngoscopy. MTP could be found in 85% patients with vocal nodules and in 55.56% patients with vocal fold polyps. Significant difference was found in patients with/without MTP, and difference was also found in every type of MTP. MTP lies in most patients with vocal nodules while only part of patients with vocal fold polyps, which indicated that vocal fold polyps and vocal nodules may demonstrate different phona

  12. Radiophonosurgery of vocal fold nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragab, Sameh M

    2009-12-01

    To describe the current support in the literature for radiophonosurgery in cases of vocal fold nodules. Radiophonosurgery is a recent innovation in the field of laryngeal surgery. It is emerging as a reliable and practical method for treating benign superficial vocal fold lesions that is increasingly becoming popular. It induces an excellent subjective and objective improvement in voice parameters. Histologically, it produces unremarkable lateral thermal damage and char penetration, which is quite crucial in a functional surgery such as in phonosurgery. Well designed probes are still lacking in the market. Radiophonosurgery provides a new approach for patients with vocal fold nodules. It combines the advantages of both cold knife and laser phonosurgery and is easy, well tolerated, precise and effective with excellent tactile and hemostatic properties.

  13. Effects of Vocal Fold Nodules on Glottal Cycle Measurements Derived from High-Speed Videoendoscopy in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita R Patel

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to quantify the effects of vocal fold nodules on vibratory motion in children using high-speed videoendoscopy. Differences in vibratory motion were evaluated in 20 children with vocal fold nodules (5-11 years and 20 age and gender matched typically developing children (5-11 years during sustained phonation at typical pitch and loudness. Normalized kinematic features of vocal fold displacements from the mid-membranous vocal fold point were extracted from the steady-state high-speed video. A total of 12 kinematic features representing spatial and temporal characteristics of vibratory motion were calculated. Average values and standard deviations (cycle-to-cycle variability of the following kinematic features were computed: normalized peak displacement, normalized average opening velocity, normalized average closing velocity, normalized peak closing velocity, speed quotient, and open quotient. Group differences between children with and without vocal fold nodules were statistically investigated. While a moderate effect size was observed for the spatial feature of speed quotient, and the temporal feature of normalized average closing velocity in children with nodules compared to vocally normal children, none of the features were statistically significant between the groups after Bonferroni correction. The kinematic analysis of the mid-membranous vocal fold displacement revealed that children with nodules primarily differ from typically developing children in closing phase kinematics of the glottal cycle, whereas the opening phase kinematics are similar. Higher speed quotients and similar opening phase velocities suggest greater relative forces are acting on vocal fold in the closing phase. These findings suggest that future large-scale studies should focus on spatial and temporal features related to the closing phase of the glottal cycle for differentiating the kinematics of children with and without vocal fold nodules.

  14. Effects of Vocal Fold Nodules on Glottal Cycle Measurements Derived from High-Speed Videoendoscopy in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rita R; Unnikrishnan, Harikrishnan; Donohue, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to quantify the effects of vocal fold nodules on vibratory motion in children using high-speed videoendoscopy. Differences in vibratory motion were evaluated in 20 children with vocal fold nodules (5-11 years) and 20 age and gender matched typically developing children (5-11 years) during sustained phonation at typical pitch and loudness. Normalized kinematic features of vocal fold displacements from the mid-membranous vocal fold point were extracted from the steady-state high-speed video. A total of 12 kinematic features representing spatial and temporal characteristics of vibratory motion were calculated. Average values and standard deviations (cycle-to-cycle variability) of the following kinematic features were computed: normalized peak displacement, normalized average opening velocity, normalized average closing velocity, normalized peak closing velocity, speed quotient, and open quotient. Group differences between children with and without vocal fold nodules were statistically investigated. While a moderate effect size was observed for the spatial feature of speed quotient, and the temporal feature of normalized average closing velocity in children with nodules compared to vocally normal children, none of the features were statistically significant between the groups after Bonferroni correction. The kinematic analysis of the mid-membranous vocal fold displacement revealed that children with nodules primarily differ from typically developing children in closing phase kinematics of the glottal cycle, whereas the opening phase kinematics are similar. Higher speed quotients and similar opening phase velocities suggest greater relative forces are acting on vocal fold in the closing phase. These findings suggest that future large-scale studies should focus on spatial and temporal features related to the closing phase of the glottal cycle for differentiating the kinematics of children with and without vocal fold nodules.

  15. Vocal Nodules: Their Cause and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, Darrel L.

    1977-01-01

    Provides knowledge about the workings of the vocal apparatus, the scientific basis of certain vocal problems, and what to do to overcome those problems. Specifically discusses the occurrence of nodules on the vocal cords and how to treat them, a subject of interest to both singers and nonsingers. (Editor/RK)

  16. Effects of Social Games on Infant Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Chin; Iyer, Suneeti Nathani; Fogel, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the contextual effects of social games on prelinguistic vocalizations. The two main goals were to (1) investigate the functions of vocalizations as symptoms of affective arousal and symbols of social understanding, and (2) explore form-function (de)coupling relations between vocalization types and game…

  17. An Investigation of Extinction-Induced Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Amber L.; Shillingsburg, M. Alice; Call, Nathan A.; Burton, Britney; Bowen, Crystal N.

    2011-01-01

    Children with autism have significant communication delays. Although some children develop vocalizations through shaping and differential reinforcement, others rarely exhibit vocalizations, and alternative methods are targeted in intervention. However, vocal language often remains a goal for caregivers and clinicians. Thus, strategies to increase…

  18. Reliable Fluid Power Pitch Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liniger, Jesper; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Soltani, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    The key objectives of wind turbine manufactures and buyers are to reduce the Total Cost of Ownership and Total Cost of Energy. Among others, low downtime of a wind turbine is important to increase the amount of energy produced during its lifetime. Historical data indicate that pitch systems accou...

  19. Pitch Elevation in Male-to-female Transgender Persons-the Würzburg Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Jonas; Hagen, Rudolf; Shehata-Dieler, Wafaa; Kühn, Heike; Kraus, Fabian; Kleinsasser, Norbert

    2017-03-01

    The present study reports objective and subjective voice results of Wendler's glottoplasty modified by Hagen. This is an outcomes research study. A total of 21 patients underwent Wendler's glottoplasty modified by Hagen. Parameters in the follow-up session were laryngoscopy, voice range profile, Voice Handicap Index, Life Satisfaction Questionnaire, and a visual analog scale for individual satisfaction with the voice. The fundamental frequency was elevated into the typical female fundamental frequency range. Furthermore, an elevation of the lower frequency limit was shown without a reduction of the frequency range. About one third of the population feels affected by the restricted dynamic range. This change of the vocal pitch is seen as part of the voice feminization by some of the patients. The Dysphonia Severity Index as a marker for voice quality was unchanged. Subjective satisfaction with the voice showed a strong correlation with the individual elevation of the pitch. Wendler's glottoplasty modified by Hagen is an effective and low-risk method of raising the vocal pitch of male-to-female transgender persons. However, elevated Scores of the Voice Handicap Index indicated that in everyday life, transgender persons continue to feel handicapped because of their voice. Another indicator for the lack of social acceptance and integration is the reduced general life satisfaction in the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire especially in the domain "friends, acquaintances, relatives." Therefore, a better multidisciplinary therapy concept for voice feminization is necessary. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Absolute Pitch Twin Study and Segregation Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Theusch, Elizabeth; Gitschier, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Absolute pitch is a rare pitch-naming ability with unknown etiology. Some scientists maintain that its manifestation depends solely on environmental factors, while others suggest that genetic factors contribute...

  1. Comparison of benign lesion regression following vocal fold steroid injection and vocal hygiene education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chi-Te; Liao, Li-Jen; Lai, Mei-Shu; Cheng, Po-Wen

    2014-02-01

    This study intends to objectively quantify and compare the regression rates of vocal lesions in patients receiving either vocal fold steroid injection (VFSI) or vocal hygiene education (VHE). Potential influence of occupational vocal demands on the treatment outcome was also investigated. Retrospective case series. This study enrolled 176 patients of vocal nodules and vocal polyps. Ninety-two patients received VFSI, while 84 patients received VHE. We measured the lesion area with correction by the length of vocal fold, according to videolaryngoscopic examinations before treatment and 1 and 2 months after treatment. VFSI was associated with a higher lesion reduction rate than VHE at 1 and 2 months (P vocal nodules and patients with ordinary occupational vocal demands, VFSI achieved a higher lesion regression rate than VHE at 1 month (P 0.05). In vocal polyps, the lesion reduction rate after VFSI was higher than that following VHE at 1 and 2 months (P vocal demands, the lesion sizes decreased significantly at 1 and 2 months following VFSI (P 0.05). VHE remains the fundamental strategy for all dysphonic patients, while VFSI can be applied alternatively. Both VFSI and VHE are effective for vocal nodules and patients with ordinary occupational vocal demands, but VFSI achieves lesion regression earlier than VHE. VFSI is preferred over VHE for vocal polyps and patients with high occupational vocal demands. 4. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Transformasi Pitch Suara Manusia Menggunakan Metode PSOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSETYO BAGAS BHASKORO

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Kemampuan pengubahan suara yang dilakukan Dubber untuk beragam bentuk suara menjadi perhatian khusus dengan melakukan rekayasa suara, di dalam perkembangan teknologi di kenal sebuah teknikpitch shifting yang digunakan untuk mengubah suara manusia di bagian timbre dan pitch. Penelitian ini menggunakan metodepitch shifting PSOLA (Pitch Synchronous Overlap Add untuk merubah pitch sekaligus timbre suara. Proses yang dilakukan meliputi perekaman suara sehingga didapatkan sinyal suara. Sinyal hasil perekaman kemudian diolah untuk menemukan posisi pitch dari sinyal pada domain waktu. Setelah posisi pitch diketahui, jarak antar pitch akan dikalikan dengan bilangan skala pergeseran yang sudah ditentukan. Hasil dari perkalian tersebut adalah perubahan pada pitch suara, sehingga menghasilkan suara yang lebih tinggi atau lebih rendah. Perubahan juga terjadi pada timbre sehingga menghasilkan karakter suara yang berbeda dengan suara aselinya.Hasil pengujian pitch dan timbre dengan menggunakan metode PSOLA menunjukkan keberhasilan mencapai 98% berdasarkan sinyal sinus. Kata kunci: Pitch, Timbre,Pitch Shifting, PSOLA. Abstract The ability of converts sound done in various forms of a dubber sound, becomes a special attention in doing an engineering design sound. In the development of technology the pitch of shifting know a technique that is used to turn the human voice in the timbre and  pitch. This study using methods  pitch  shifting psola (pitch synchronous overlap add to change the pitch as well as the timbre sound. The process was about recording a sound so obtained up a noise. Recording signals then processed the results to find the position of the pitch signals on the domain of time. After the position of the pitch known, the distance between the pitch will be multiplied by the number of the scale of a shift that had been determined. The result of the multiplication of the sound is a change in pitch , so producing a higher or lower, Also

  3. High Source Levels and Small Active Space of High-Pitched Song in Bowhead Whales (Balaena mysticetus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tervo, Outi M.; Christoffersen, Mads F.; Simon, Malene

    2012-01-01

    The low frequency, powerful vocalizations of blue and fin whales may potentially be detected by conspecifics across entire ocean basins. In contrast, humpback and bowhead whales produce equally loud, but more complex broadband vocalizations composed of higher frequencies that suffer from higher...... attenuation. Here we evaluate the active space of high-pitched song notes of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) in Western Greenland using measurements of song source levels and ambient noise. Four independent GPS-synchronized hydrophones were deployed through holes in the ice to localize vocalizing bowhead...... whales, estimate source levels and measure ambient noise. The song had a mean apparent source level of 185 ± 2 dB rms re 1µPa and a high mean centroid frequency of 444 ± 48 Hz. Using measured ambient noise levels in the area and Arctic sound spreading models, the estimated active space of these song...

  4. Encoding pitch contours using current steering

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Xin; Landsberger, David M.; Padilla, Monica; Srinivasan, Arthi G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated cochlear implant (CI) users’ ability to perceive pitch cues from time-varying virtual channels (VCs) to identify pitch contours. Seven CI users were tested on apical, medial, and basal electrode pairs with stimulus durations from 100 to 1000 ms. In one stimulus set, 9 pitch contours were created by steering current between the component electrodes and the VC halfway between the electrodes. Another stimulus set only contained 3 pitch contours (flat, falling, and rising)...

  5. From tone to pitch in Sepedi

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barnard, E

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available " or "low". Automatic pitch extraction was then used to estimate the fundamental frequencies of the voiced segments of each of these syllables. Statistical analysis of the resulting pitch contours confirms that the mean pitch frequencies of the syllabic...

  6. Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Pitch Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehub, Sandra E.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Nakata, Takayuki

    2008-01-01

    We examined effects of age and culture on children's memory for the pitch level of familiar music. Canadian 9- and 10-year-olds distinguished the original pitch level of familiar television theme songs from foils that were pitch-shifted by one semitone, whereas 5- to 8-year-olds failed to do so (Experiment 1). In contrast, Japanese 5- and…

  7. Pitch representations in the auditory nerve: two concurrent complex tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Erik; Cedolin, Leonardo; Delgutte, Bertrand

    2008-09-01

    Pitch differences between concurrent sounds are important cues used in auditory scene analysis and also play a major role in music perception. To investigate the neural codes underlying these perceptual abilities, we recorded from single fibers in the cat auditory nerve in response to two concurrent harmonic complex tones with missing fundamentals and equal-amplitude harmonics. We investigated the efficacy of rate-place and interspike-interval codes to represent both pitches of the two tones, which had fundamental frequency (F0) ratios of 15/14 or 11/9. We relied on the principle of scaling invariance in cochlear mechanics to infer the spatiotemporal response patterns to a given stimulus from a series of measurements made in a single fiber as a function of F0. Templates created by a peripheral auditory model were used to estimate the F0s of double complex tones from the inferred distribution of firing rate along the tonotopic axis. This rate-place representation was accurate for F0s greater, similar900 Hz. Surprisingly, rate-based F0 estimates were accurate even when the two-tone mixture contained no resolved harmonics, so long as some harmonics were resolved prior to mixing. We also extended methods used previously for single complex tones to estimate the F0s of concurrent complex tones from interspike-interval distributions pooled over the tonotopic axis. The interval-based representation was accurate for F0s less, similar900 Hz, where the two-tone mixture contained no resolved harmonics. Together, the rate-place and interval-based representations allow accurate pitch perception for concurrent sounds over the entire range of human voice and cat vocalizations.

  8. Vocal Health for Physical Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Josh; McColl, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Evidence suggests that teachers are often at risk for vocal disease and are more likely to change occupations because of their voice problems compared to non-teachers. Physical educators are especially at risk for voice problems due to the intense daily demands of voice projection. Chronic abuse can cause swelling and inflammation of the…

  9. Pitch and Plasticity: Insights from the Pitch Matching of Chords by Musicians with Absolute and Relative Pitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil M. McLachlan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Absolute pitch (AP is a form of sound recognition in which musical note names are associated with discrete musical pitch categories. The accuracy of pitch matching by non-AP musicians for chords has recently been shown to depend on stimulus familiarity, pointing to a role of spectral recognition mechanisms in the early stages of pitch processing. Here we show that pitch matching accuracy by AP musicians was also dependent on their familiarity with the chord stimulus. This suggests that the pitch matching abilities of both AP and non-AP musicians for concurrently presented pitches are dependent on initial recognition of the chord. The dual mechanism model of pitch perception previously proposed by the authors suggests that spectral processing associated with sound recognition primes waveform processing to extract stimulus periodicity and refine pitch perception. The findings presented in this paper are consistent with the dual mechanism model of pitch, and in the case of AP musicians, the formation of nominal pitch categories based on both spectral and periodicity information.

  10. Vocal analysis of suicidal movie characters Análise vocal de personagens suicidas de filmes de cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Palinkas-Sanches

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the auditory-perceptive evaluation and the psychodynamic aspects of voice samples among suicidal movie characters. METHOD: Voice samples of 48 characters (27 male, 21 female, extracted from 36 movies produced between 1968 and 2006, were analyzed. The samples were evaluated through a specific protocol focusing on the auditory-perceptive evaluation (voice quality, resonance, pitch, loudness, modulation, pauses, articulation and rhythm and the psychodynamic aspects of voice. RESULTS: 85.5% of the samples exhibited abnormal findings in at least five parameters of the auditory-perceptive analysis, such as breathiness (n = 42; 87.5% of the samples, hoarseness (n = 39; 81.2% and strain (n = 29; 60.4%, as well as laryngopharingeal resonance (n = 39; 81.2%, either high pitch (n = 14; 29.2%, or decreased loudness (n = 31; 64.6%. With respect to the psychodynamic aspects, dismay was detected in 50% (n = 24 of the samples, hopelessness in 47.9% (n = 23, resignation in 37.5% (n = 18, and sadness in 33.3% (n = 16. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest the existence of specific patterns used by actors during the interpretation of suicidal characters. The replication of these findings among real patients may contribute to improvement in the evaluation of potential suicidal patients, as well as the implementation of preventive measures.OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente estudo foi descrever a análise perceptivo-auditiva e de psicodinâmica vocal de amostras de fala de personagens suicidas em filmes de cinema. MÉTODO: Foram analisadas amostras de fala de 48 personagens suicidas (27 homens, 21 mulheres, extraídas de 36 filmes produzidos no período de 1968 a 2006. As amostras foram analisadas utilizando-se um protocolo especificamente produzido para o registro das características da voz por meio da análise perceptivo-auditiva (qualidade vocal, ressonância, pitch, loudness, modulação, pausas, articulação e ritmo

  11. The influence of vocal training and acting experience on measures of voice quality and emotional genuineness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Robert Livingstone

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vocal training through singing and acting lessons is known to modify acoustic parameters of the voice. While the effects of singing training have been well documented, the role of acting experience on the singing voice remains unclear. In two experiments, we used linear mixed models to examine the relationships between the relative amounts of acting and singing experience on the acoustics and perception of the male singing voice. In Experiment 1, twelve male vocalists were recorded while singing with five different emotions, each with two intensities. Acoustic measures of pitch accuracy, jitter, and harmonics-to-noise (HNR ratio were examined. Decreased pitch accuracy and increased jitter, indicative of a lower ‘voice quality’, were associated with more years of acting experience, while increased pitch accuracy was associated with more years of singing lessons. We hypothesized that the acoustic deviations exhibited by more experienced actors was an intentional technique to increase the genuineness or truthfulness of their emotional expressions. In Experiment 2, listeners rated vocalists’ emotional genuineness. Vocalists with more years of acting experience were rated as more genuine than vocalists with less acting experience. No relationship was reported for singing training. Increased genuineness was associated with decreased pitch accuracy, increased jitter, and a higher harmonics-to-noise ratio. These effects may represent a shifting of priorities by male vocalists with acting experience to emphasize emotional genuineness over pitch accuracy or voice quality in their singing performances.

  12. The influence of vocal training and acting experience on measures of voice quality and emotional genuineness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Steven R.; Choi, Deanna H.; Russo, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    Vocal training through singing and acting lessons is known to modify acoustic parameters of the voice. While the effects of singing training have been well documented, the role of acting experience on the singing voice remains unclear. In two experiments, we used linear mixed models to examine the relationships between the relative amounts of acting and singing experience on the acoustics and perception of the male singing voice. In Experiment 1, 12 male vocalists were recorded while singing with five different emotions, each with two intensities. Acoustic measures of pitch accuracy, jitter, and harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR) were examined. Decreased pitch accuracy and increased jitter, indicative of a lower “voice quality,” were associated with more years of acting experience, while increased pitch accuracy was associated with more years of singing lessons. We hypothesized that the acoustic deviations exhibited by more experienced actors was an intentional technique to increase the genuineness or truthfulness of their emotional expressions. In Experiment 2, listeners rated vocalists’ emotional genuineness. Vocalists with more years of acting experience were rated as more genuine than vocalists with less acting experience. No relationship was reported for singing training. Increased genuineness was associated with decreased pitch accuracy, increased jitter, and a higher HNR. These effects may represent a shifting of priorities by male vocalists with acting experience to emphasize emotional genuineness over pitch accuracy or voice quality in their singing performances. PMID:24639659

  13. Producing song: the vocal apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthers, Roderick A; Zollinger, Sue Anne

    2004-06-01

    In order to achieve the goal of understanding the neurobiology of birdsong, it is necessary to understand the peripheral mechanisms by which song is produced. This paper reviews recent advances in the understanding of syringeal and respiratory motor control and how birds utilize these systems to create their species-typical sounds. Songbirds have a relatively homogeneous duplex vocal organ in which sound is generated by oscillation of a pair of thickened labia on either side of the syrinx. Multiple pairs of syringeal muscles provide flexible, independent control of sound frequency and amplitude, and each side of the syrinx exhibits a degree of acoustic specialization. This is in contrast to many non-songbirds, including vocal learners such as parrots, which have fewer syringeal muscles and use syringeal membranes to generate sound. In doves, at least, these membranes generate a harmonic signal in which the fundamental frequency is regulated by respiratory pressure in the air sac surrounding the syrinx and the overtones are filtered out by the vocal tract. The songs of adult songbirds are generally accompanied by precisely coordinated respiratory and syringeal motor patterns that, despite their relative stereotypy, are modulated in real time by somatosensory feedback. Comparative studies indicate songbirds have evolved species-specific motor patterns that utilize the two sides of the syrinx in specific ways and enhance the particular acoustic effects characterizing the species song. A vocal mimic tutored with heterospecific song uses the same motor pattern as the tutor species when he accurately copies the song, suggesting that physical or physiological constraints on sound production have had a prominent role in the evolution of species-specific motor patterns. An understanding of the relationship between the central processing and peripheral performance of song motor programs is essential for an understanding of the development, function, and evolution of these

  14. Examining pitch and numerical magnitude processing in congenital amusia: A quasi-experimental pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes-Silva, Marilia; Moura, Ricardo; Lopes-Silva, Júlia Beatriz; Haase, Vitor Geraldi

    2016-08-01

    Congenital amusia is a developmental disorder associated with deficits in pitch height discrimination or in integrating pitch sequences into melodies. This quasi-experimental pilot study investigated whether there is an association between pitch and numerical processing deficits in congenital amusia. Since pitch height discrimination is considered a form of magnitude processing, we investigated whether individuals with amusia present an impairment in numerical magnitude processing, which would reflect damage to a generalized magnitude system. Alternatively, we investigated whether the numerical processing deficit would reflect a disconnection between nonsymbolic and symbolic number representations. This study was conducted with 11 adult individuals with congenital amusia and a control comparison group of 6 typically developing individuals. Participants performed nonsymbolic and symbolic magnitude comparisons and number line tasks. Results were available from previous testing using the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA) and a pitch change detection task (PCD). Compared to the controls, individuals with amusia exhibited no significant differences in their performance on both the number line and the nonsymbolic magnitude tasks. Nevertheless, they showed significantly worse performance on the symbolic magnitude task. Moreover, individuals with congenital amusia, who presented worse performance in the Meter subtest, also presented less precise nonsymbolic numerical representation. The relationship between meter and nonsymbolic numerical discrimination could indicate a general ratio processing deficit. The finding of preserved nonsymbolic numerical magnitude discrimination and mental number line representations, with impaired symbolic number processing, in individuals with congenital amusia indicates that (a) pitch height and numerical magnitude processing may not share common neural representations, and (b) in addition to pitch processing, individuals with

  15. Vocal responses to perturbations in voice auditory feedback in individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanjun Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One of the most common symptoms of speech deficits in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD is significantly reduced vocal loudness and pitch range. The present study investigated whether abnormal vocalizations in individuals with PD are related to sensory processing of voice auditory feedback. Perturbations in loudness or pitch of voice auditory feedback are known to elicit short latency, compensatory responses in voice amplitude or fundamental frequency. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twelve individuals with Parkinson's disease and 13 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects sustained a vowel sound (/α/ and received unexpected, brief (200 ms perturbations in voice loudness (±3 or 6 dB or pitch (±100 cents auditory feedback. Results showed that, while all subjects produced compensatory responses in their voice amplitude or fundamental frequency, individuals with PD exhibited larger response magnitudes than the control subjects. Furthermore, for loudness-shifted feedback, upward stimuli resulted in shorter response latencies than downward stimuli in the control subjects but not in individuals with PD. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The larger response magnitudes in individuals with PD compared with the control subjects suggest that processing of voice auditory feedback is abnormal in PD. Although the precise mechanisms of the voice feedback processing are unknown, results of this study suggest that abnormal voice control in individuals with PD may be related to dysfunctional mechanisms of error detection or correction in sensory feedback processing.

  16. Tone language fluency impairs pitch discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle ePeretz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Here we present evidence that native speakers of a tone language, in which pitch contributes to word meaning, are impaired in the discrimination of falling pitches in tone sequences, as compared to speakers of a non-tone language. Both groups were presented with monotonic and isochronous sequences of five tones (i.e., constant pitch and intertone interval. They were required to detect when the fourth tone was displaced in pitch or time. While speakers of a tone language performed more poorly in the detection of downward pitch changes, they did not differ from non-tone language speakers in their perception of upward pitch changes or in their perception of subtle time changes. Moreover, this impairment cannot be attributed to low musical aptitude since the impairment remains unchanged when individual differences in musical pitch-based processing is taken into account. Thus, the impairment appears highly specific and may reflect the influence of statistical regularities of tone languages.

  17. Aerodynamic control with passively pitching wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravish, Nick; Wood, Robert

    Flapping wings may pitch passively under aerodynamic and inertial loads. Such passive pitching is observed in flapping wing insect and robot flight. The effect of passive wing pitch on the control dynamics of flapping wing flight are unexplored. Here we demonstrate in simulation and experiment the critical role wing pitching plays in yaw control of a flapping wing robot. We study yaw torque generation by a flapping wing allowed to passively rotate in the pitch axis through a rotational spring. Yaw torque is generated through alternating fast and slow upstroke and and downstroke. Yaw torque sensitively depends on both the rotational spring force law and spring stiffness, and at a critical spring stiffness a bifurcation in the yaw torque control relationship occurs. Simulation and experiment reveal the dynamics of this bifurcation and demonstrate that anomalous yaw torque from passively pitching wings is the result of aerodynamic and inertial coupling between the pitching and stroke-plane dynamics.

  18. Variable Pitch Darrieus Water Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirke, Brian; Lazauskas, Leo

    In recent years the Darrieus wind turbine concept has been adapted for use in water, either as a hydrokinetic turbine converting the kinetic energy of a moving fluid in open flow like an underwater wind turbine, or in a low head or ducted arrangement where flow is confined, streamtube expansion is controlled and efficiency is not subject to the Betz limit. Conventional fixed pitch Darrieus turbines suffer from two drawbacks, (i) low starting torque and (ii) shaking due to cyclical variations in blade angle of attack. Ventilation and cavitation can also cause problems in water turbines when blade velocities are high. Shaking can be largely overcome by the use of helical blades, but these do not produce large starting torque. Variable pitch can produce high starting torque and high efficiency, and by suitable choice of pitch regime, shaking can be minimized but not entirely eliminated. Ventilation can be prevented by avoiding operation close to a free surface, and cavitation can be prevented by limiting blade velocities. This paper summarizes recent developments in Darrieus water turbines, some problems and some possible solutions.

  19. A cervid vocal fold model suggests greater glottal efficiency in calling at high frequencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo R Titze

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Male Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni produce loud and high fundamental frequency bugles during the mating season, in contrast to the male European Red Deer (Cervus elaphus scoticus who produces loud and low fundamental frequency roaring calls. A critical step in understanding vocal communication is to relate sound complexity to anatomy and physiology in a causal manner. Experimentation at the sound source, often difficult in vivo in mammals, is simulated here by a finite element model of the larynx and a wave propagation model of the vocal tract, both based on the morphology and biomechanics of the elk. The model can produce a wide range of fundamental frequencies. Low fundamental frequencies require low vocal fold strain, but large lung pressure and large glottal flow if sound intensity level is to exceed 70 dB at 10 m distance. A high-frequency bugle requires both large muscular effort (to strain the vocal ligament and high lung pressure (to overcome phonation threshold pressure, but at least 10 dB more intensity level can be achieved. Glottal efficiency, the ration of radiated sound power to aerodynamic power at the glottis, is higher in elk, suggesting an advantage of high-pitched signaling. This advantage is based on two aspects; first, the lower airflow required for aerodynamic power and, second, an acoustic radiation advantage at higher frequencies. Both signal types are used by the respective males during the mating season and probably serve as honest signals. The two signal types relate differently to physical qualities of the sender. The low-frequency sound (Red Deer call relates to overall body size via a strong relationship between acoustic parameters and the size of vocal organs and body size. The high-frequency bugle may signal muscular strength and endurance, via a 'vocalizing at the edge' mechanism, for which efficiency is critical.

  20. Comportamento vocal de cantores populares Vocal behavior of popular singers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria Zimmer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar aspectos do histórico, hábitos e comportamentos vocais de cantores populares, conforme o sexo e as categorias profissional e amador. MÉTODO: entrevista com 47 cantores, 25 homens e 22 mulheres. RESULTADOS: significância estatística nos seguintes achados: MASCULINO - microfone nos ensaios, ausência de problemas vocais diagnosticados, ausência de orientações sobre higiene vocal, dor ou desconforto após cantar, ausência de alergias e problemas respiratórios; FEMININO - aulas de canto e conhecimento sobre postura; AMADOR - não cantar dançando, não imitar vozes, ausência de avaliação otorrinolaringológica, ausência de problemas vocais diagnosticados, ausência de terapia fonoaudiológica, ausência de orientações de anatomofisiologia vocal e não utilização de álcool nos ensaios; PROFISSIONAL - rouquidão, conhecimento sobre articulação, álcool durante os shows, "garganta suja" ou pigarro, dor após cantar. CONCLUSÕES: a comparação entre os sexos evidenciou que os homens utilizavam microfone no ensaio, não apresentavam problemas alérgicos ou respiratórios, nem problemas vocais diagnosticados, mas apresentavam sensação de dor ou desconforto após o canto e não possuíam noções sobre higiene vocal; e que as mulheres realizavam aulas de canto e possuíam orientações de postura. A comparação entre amadores e profissionais mostrou que os amadores não cantavam dançando, não imitavam vozes, não utilizavam álcool nos ensaios, e não apresentavam problemas vocais diagnosticados, mas não possuíam avaliação otorrinolaringológica, não realizavam terapia fonoaudiológica, e não possuíam conhecimento sobre anatomofisiologia vocal; e os profissionais apresentavam queixa de rouquidão, de "garganta suja" ou pigarro e de dor após cantar, e usavam álcool durante os shows, apesar de possuir conhecimento sobre articulação.PURPOSE: to investigate aspects of vocal history, vocal habits and

  1. Condition of Vocal Production-Teacher questionnaire: comparison of responses on Likert scale and visual analog scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Susana Pimentel Pinto; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Ferreira, Léslie Piccolotto

    2016-01-01

    To compare the responses related to vocal symptoms in two versions of the Vocal Production Condition - Teacher (CPV-T) questionnaire, with responses on a Likert scale and a Visual Analog Scale (VAS), in order to evaluate which is the best measurement method. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted with teachers with voice disorders during the period from July 2011 to July 2012. All teachers answered the CPV-T in two versions: with answers on a 4-point Likert scale and on a 50-mm VAS. The answers related to vocal symptoms dimension were analyzed. Most of the symptoms showed good (hoarseness, high-pitched voice, unstable voice, weak voice, effort when speaking, throat clearing, burning throat, and pain when speaking) or regular concordance (loss of voice, failing voice, low-pitched voice, vocal fatigue, dry throat, lump in the throat, secretion in the throat, pain when swallowing, difficulty swallowing, and dry cough). The CPV-T questionnaire with answers on Likert scale proved to be more suitable than the VAS owing to the ease of understanding and interpretation, in addition to facilitating the input of answers for the researcher. Therefore, the Likert scale was chosen for the CPV-T, considering it to be validated as the method to measure the answers. The dimension of vocal aspects evaluated in the present study, the Voice Disorder Screening Index (ITDV), can be used in epidemiological studies to estimate the prevalence of vocal symptoms and in the Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology clinic routine or in monitoring teachers throughout their careers.

  2. Politeness, emotion, and gender: A sociophonetic study of voice pitch modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Ikuko

    The present dissertation is a cross-gender and cross-cultural sociophonetic exploration of voice pitch characteristics utilizing speech data derived from Japanese and American speakers in natural conversations. The roles of voice pitch modulation in terms of the concepts of politeness and emotion as they pertain to culture and gender will be investigated herein. The research interprets the significance of my findings based on the acoustic measurements of speech data as they are presented in the ERB-rate scale (the most appropriate scale for human speech perception). The investigation reveals that pitch range modulation displayed by Japanese informants in two types of conversations is closely linked to types of politeness adopted by those informants. The degree of the informants' emotional involvement and expressions reflected in differing pitch range widths plays an important role in determining the relationship between pitch range modulation and politeness. The study further correlates the Japanese cultural concept of enryo ("self-restraint") with this phenomenon. When median values were examined, male and female pitch ranges across cultures did not conspicuously differ. However, sporadically occurring women's pitch characteristics which culturally differ in width and height of pitch ranges may create an 'emotional' perception of women's speech style. The salience of these pitch characteristics appears to be the source of the stereotypically linked sound of women's speech being identified as 'swoopy' or 'shrill' and thus 'emotional'. Such women's salient voice characteristics are interpreted in light of camaraderie/positive politeness. Women's use of conspicuous paralinguistic features helps to create an atmosphere of camaraderie. These voice pitch characteristics promote the establishment of a sense of camaraderie since they act to emphasize such feelings as concern, support, and comfort towards addressees, Moreover, men's wide pitch ranges are discussed in view

  3. The effect of sleep deprivation on vocal expression of emotion in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlinchey, Eleanor L; Talbot, Lisa S; Chang, Keng-Hao; Kaplan, Katherine A; Dahl, Ronald E; Harvey, Allison G

    2011-09-01

    Investigate the impact of sleep deprivation on vocal expression of emotion. Within-group repeated measures analysis involving sleep deprivation and rested conditions. Experimental laboratory setting. Fifty-five healthy participants (24 females), including 38 adolescents aged 11-15 y and 17 adults aged 30-60 y. A multimethod approach was used to examine vocal expression of emotion in interviews conducted at 22:30 and 06:30. On that night, participants slept a maximum of 2 h. Interviews were analyzed for vocal expression of emotion via computerized text analysis, human rater judgments, and computerized acoustic properties. Computerized text analysis and human rater judgments indicated decreases in positive emotion in all participants at 06:30 relative to 22:30, and adolescents displayed a significantly greater decrease in positive emotion via computerized text analysis relative to adults. Increases in negative emotion were observed among all participants using human rater judgments. Results for the computerized acoustic properties indicated decreases in pitch, bark energy (intensity) in certain high frequency bands, and vocal sharpness (reduction in high frequency bands > 1000 Hz). These findings support the importance of sleep for healthy emotional functioning in adults, and further suggest that adolescents are differentially vulnerable to the emotional consequences of sleep deprivation.

  4. Two-dimensional model of vocal fold vibration for sound synthesis of voice and soprano singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Seiji; Yu, Jason

    2005-05-01

    Voiced sounds were simulated with a computer model of the vocal fold composed of a single mass vibrating both parallel and perpendicular to the airflow. Similarities with the two-mass model are found in the amplitudes of the glottal area and the glottal volume flow velocity, the variation in the volume flow waveform with the vocal tract shape, and the dependence of the oscillation amplitude upon the average opening area of the glottis, among other similar features. A few dissimilarities are also found in the more symmetric glottal and volume flow waveforms in the rising and falling phases. The major improvement of the present model over the two-mass model is that it yields a smooth transition between oscillations with an inductive load and a capacitive load of the vocal tract with no sudden jumps in the vibration frequency. Self-excitation is possible both below and above the first formant frequency of the vocal tract. By taking advantage of the wider continuous frequency range, the two-dimensional model can successfully be applied to the sound synthesis of a high-pitched soprano singing, where the fundamental frequency sometimes exceeds the first formant frequency. .

  5. Postlaryngectomy vocal rehabilitation in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boci, B; Isufi, R; Thomai, K

    2012-01-01

    To assess short and midterm results with consistent use of indwelling voice prostheses (Provox 1 and Provox 2 valves) for vocal rehabilitation after total laryngectomy. From May 2008 to June 2010 106 patients (104 men, 2 women, median age 62.32 years) with total laryngectomy underwent vocal prosthesis insertion and replacement procedures as needed. Patients were prosthesized primarily or secondarily and follow-up was performed monthly. Median patient-device follow-up was 279 days (range 184-995). Leakage through the prosthesis, mainly caused by Candida deposits on the valve, was the most common cause of failure of the Provox valves. Compared to other European countries, like the Netherlands (100 days) and France (150 days) Albania has the longest device half life. This relatively long prosthesis' lifetime in our country is perhaps related with the use of spicy food (a common custom in our country), and the use of antifungal and antacid agents.

  6. Recording vocalizations with Bluetooth technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaona-González, Andrés; Santillán-Doherty, Ana María; Arenas-Rosas, Rita Virginia; Muñoz-Delgado, Jairo; Aguillón-Pantaleón, Miguel Angel; Ordoñez-Gómez, José Domingo; Márquez-Arias, Alejandra

    2011-06-01

    We propose a method for capturing vocalizations that is designed to avoid some of the limiting factors found in traditional bioacoustical methods, such as the impossibility of obtaining continuous long-term registers or analyzing amplitude due to the continuous change of distance between the subject and the position of the recording system. Using Bluetooth technology, vocalizations are captured and transmitted wirelessly into a receiving system without affecting the quality of the signal. The recordings of the proposed system were compared to those obtained as a reference, which were based on the coding of the signal with the so-called pulse-code modulation technique in WAV audio format without any compressing process. The evaluation showed p < .05 for the measured quantitative and qualitative parameters. We also describe how the transmitting system is encapsulated and fixed on the animal and a way to video record a spider monkey's behavior simultaneously with the audio recordings.

  7. Vocal communication of wild parrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Jack

    2004-05-01

    Field studies of four sympatric parrot species in Costa Rica are revealing several possible functions for the well-known ability of parrots to mimic new sounds throughout life. Despite earlier suggestions that this might facilitate exchanges of environmental information, all data so far suggest that vocal mimicry in the wild is associated with mediation of the fission/fusion of groups of parrots and/or of conflicts between mated pairs. Recent results using array recording and interactive playback will be summarized, and several technical problems created by the mechanisms of parrot vocal signal production discussed. [Research supported by NSF Grant IBN-022927 and by continued encouragement and logistics provided by the staff of the Area Conservacion Guanacaste (Costa Rica).

  8. The musician effect: Does it persist under degraded pitch conditions of cochlear implant simulations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina eFuller

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cochlear implants (CIs are auditory prostheses that restore hearing via electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. Compared to normal acoustic hearing, sounds transmitted through the CI are spectro-temporally degraded, causing difficulties in challenging listening tasks such as speech intelligibility in noise and perception of music. In normal hearing (NH, musicians have been shown to better perform than non-musicians in auditory processing and perception, especially for challenging listening tasks. This ‘musician effect’ was attributed to better processing of pitch cues, as well as better overall auditory cognitive functioning in musicians. Does the musician effect persist when pitch cues are degraded, as it would be in signals transmitted through a CI? To answer this question, NH musicians and non-musicians were tested while listening to unprocessed signals or to signals processed by an acoustic CI simulation. The task increasingly depended on pitch perception: 1 speech intelligibility (words and sentences in quiet or in noise, 2 vocal emotion identification, and 3 melodic contour identification. For speech perception, there was no musician effect with the unprocessed stimuli, and a small musician effect only for word identification in one noise condition, in the CI simulation. For emotion identification, there was a small musician effect for both. For melodic contour identification, there was a large musician effect for both. Overall, the effect was stronger as the importance of pitch in the listening task increased. This suggests that the musician effect may be more rooted in pitch perception, rather than in a global advantage in cognitive processing (in which musicians would have performed better in all tasks. The results further suggest that musical training before (and possibly after implantation might offer some advantage in pitch processing that could partially benefit speech perception, and more strongly emotion and music

  9. The musician effect: does it persist under degraded pitch conditions of cochlear implant simulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Christina D; Galvin, John J; Maat, Bert; Free, Rolien H; Başkent, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are auditory prostheses that restore hearing via electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. Compared to normal acoustic hearing, sounds transmitted through the CI are spectro-temporally degraded, causing difficulties in challenging listening tasks such as speech intelligibility in noise and perception of music. In normal hearing (NH), musicians have been shown to better perform than non-musicians in auditory processing and perception, especially for challenging listening tasks. This "musician effect" was attributed to better processing of pitch cues, as well as better overall auditory cognitive functioning in musicians. Does the musician effect persist when pitch cues are degraded, as it would be in signals transmitted through a CI? To answer this question, NH musicians and non-musicians were tested while listening to unprocessed signals or to signals processed by an acoustic CI simulation. The task increasingly depended on pitch perception: (1) speech intelligibility (words and sentences) in quiet or in noise, (2) vocal emotion identification, and (3) melodic contour identification (MCI). For speech perception, there was no musician effect with the unprocessed stimuli, and a small musician effect only for word identification in one noise condition, in the CI simulation. For emotion identification, there was a small musician effect for both. For MCI, there was a large musician effect for both. Overall, the effect was stronger as the importance of pitch in the listening task increased. This suggests that the musician effect may be more rooted in pitch perception, rather than in a global advantage in cognitive processing (in which musicians would have performed better in all tasks). The results further suggest that musical training before (and possibly after) implantation might offer some advantage in pitch processing that could partially benefit speech perception, and more strongly emotion and music perception.

  10. Universal vocal signals of emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Sauter, D.; Eisner, F; Ekman, P.; Scott, S

    2009-01-01

    Emotional signals allow for the sharing of important information with conspecifics, for example to warn them of danger. Humans use a range of different cues to communicate to others how they feel, including facial, vocal, and gestural signals. Although much is known about facial expressions of emotion, less research has focused on affect in the voice. We compare British listeners to individuals from remote Namibian villages who have had no exposure to Western culture, and examine recognition ...

  11. Voice F0 responses to pitch-shifted voice feedback during English speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephanie H; Liu, Hanjun; Xu, Yi; Larson, Charles R

    2007-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that motor control of segmental features of speech rely to some extent on sensory feedback. Control of voice fundamental frequency (F0) has been shown to be modulated by perturbations in voice pitch feedback during various phonatory tasks and in Mandarin speech. The present study was designed to determine if voice Fo is modulated in a task-dependent manner during production of suprasegmental features of English speech. English speakers received pitch-modulated voice feedback (+/-50, 100, and 200 cents, 200 ms duration) during a sustained vowel task and a speech task. Response magnitudes during speech (mean 31.5 cents) were larger than during the vowels (mean 21.6 cents), response magnitudes increased as a function of stimulus magnitude during speech but not vowels, and responses to downward pitch-shift stimuli were larger than those to upward stimuli. Response latencies were shorter in speech (mean 122 ms) compared to vowels (mean 154 ms). These findings support previous research suggesting the audio vocal system is involved in the control of suprasegmental features of English speech by correcting for errors between voice pitch feedback and the desired F0.

  12. Nonlinear phenomena in contemporary vocal music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Jürgen; Edgerton, Michael; Herzel, Hanspeter

    2004-03-01

    Complex and multiphonic voice signals of vocal improvisors are analyzed within the framework of nonlinear dynamics. Evidence is given that nonlinear phenomena are extensively used by performers associated with contemporary music. Narrow-band spectrograms of complex vocalizations are used to visualize the appearance of nonlinear phenomena (spectral bifurcation diagrams). Possible production mechanisms are discussed in connection with previous research, personal performance and pedagogical experience. Examples for period doubling, biphonation and irregular aperiodic phonation in vocal sonorities of contemporary vocal improvisors are given, and glottal whistle production encompassed with biphonation and triphonation is shown. Furthermore, coincidences of harmonics-formant matching associated with abrupt transitions to subharmonics and biphonation in the vocal output are provided. This also shows the recurrent use of nonlinear phenomena by performers. It is argued that mechanisms such as source-tract coupling or vocal fold desynchronization due to asymmetry are used in a reproducible way for musical tasks.

  13. Integrating perspectives on vocal performance and consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Sakata, Jon T.; Vehrencamp, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent experiments in divergent fields of birdsong have revealed that vocal performance is important for reproductive success and under active control by distinct neural circuits. Vocal consistency, the degree to which the spectral properties (e.g. dominant or fundamental frequency) of song elements are produced consistently from rendition to rendition, has been highlighted as a biologically important aspect of vocal performance. Here, we synthesize functional, developmental and mechanistic (...

  14. Transmasculine people's vocal situations: a critical review of gender-related discourses and empirical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azul, David

    2015-01-01

    Transmasculine people assigned female sex at birth but who do not identify with this classification have traditionally received little consideration in the voice literature. Some voice researchers and clinicians suggest that transmasculine people do not need attention because testosterone treatment leads to a satisfactory masculinization of their voice organs and voices. Others, however, argue that transmasculine people are a heterogeneous group whose members might not share the same body type, gender identity or desire for medical approaches to gender transitioning. Therefore, testosterone-induced voice changes may not necessarily meet the needs and expectations of all transmasculine people. To evaluate the gender-related discursive and empirical data about transmasculine people's vocal situations to identify gaps in the current state of knowledge and to make suggestions for future voice research and clinical practice. A comprehensive review of peer-reviewed academic and clinical literature was conducted. Publications were identified by searching seven electronic databases and bibliographies of relevant articles. Thirty-one publications met inclusion criteria. Discourses and empirical data were analysed thematically. Potential problem areas that transmasculine people may experience were identified and the quality of evidence appraised. The extent and quality of voice research conducted with transmasculine people so far was found to be limited. There was mixed evidence to suggest that transmasculine people's vocal situations could be regarded as problematic. The diversity that characterizes the transmasculine population received little attention and the complexity of the factors that contribute to a successful or unsuccessful vocal communication of gender in this group appeared to be under-researched. While most transmasculine people treated with testosterone can expect a lowering of their pitch, it remains unclear whether the extent of the pitch change is enough

  15. Difficulties with pitch discrimination influences pitch memory performance: evidence from congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cunmei; Lim, Vanessa K; Wang, Hang; Hamm, Jeff P

    2013-01-01

    Music processing is influenced by pitch perception and memory. Additionally these features interact, with pitch memory performance decreasing as the perceived distance between two pitches decreases. This study examined whether or not the difficulty of pitch discrimination influences pitch retention by testing individuals with congenital amusia. Pitch discrimination difficulty was equated by determining an individual's threshold with a two down one up staircase procedure and using this to create conditions where two pitches (the standard and the comparison tones) differed by 1x, 2x, and 3x the threshold setting. For comparison with the literature a condition that employed a constant pitch difference of four semitones was also included. The results showed that pitch memory performance improved as the discrimination between the standard and the comparison tones was made easier for both amusic and control groups, and more importantly, that amusics did not show any pitch retention deficits when the discrimination difficulty was equated. In contrast, consistent with previous literature, amusics performed worse than controls when the physical pitch distance was held constant at four semitones. This impaired performance has been interpreted as evidence for pitch memory impairment in the past. However, employing a constant pitch distance always makes the difference closer to the discrimination threshold for the amusic group than for the control group. Therefore, reduced performance in this condition may simply reflect differences in the perceptual difficulty of the discrimination. The findings indicate the importance of equating the discrimination difficulty when investigating memory.

  16. Difficulties with pitch discrimination influences pitch memory performance: evidence from congenital amusia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunmei Jiang

    Full Text Available Music processing is influenced by pitch perception and memory. Additionally these features interact, with pitch memory performance decreasing as the perceived distance between two pitches decreases. This study examined whether or not the difficulty of pitch discrimination influences pitch retention by testing individuals with congenital amusia. Pitch discrimination difficulty was equated by determining an individual's threshold with a two down one up staircase procedure and using this to create conditions where two pitches (the standard and the comparison tones differed by 1x, 2x, and 3x the threshold setting. For comparison with the literature a condition that employed a constant pitch difference of four semitones was also included. The results showed that pitch memory performance improved as the discrimination between the standard and the comparison tones was made easier for both amusic and control groups, and more importantly, that amusics did not show any pitch retention deficits when the discrimination difficulty was equated. In contrast, consistent with previous literature, amusics performed worse than controls when the physical pitch distance was held constant at four semitones. This impaired performance has been interpreted as evidence for pitch memory impairment in the past. However, employing a constant pitch distance always makes the difference closer to the discrimination threshold for the amusic group than for the control group. Therefore, reduced performance in this condition may simply reflect differences in the perceptual difficulty of the discrimination. The findings indicate the importance of equating the discrimination difficulty when investigating memory.

  17. Nozzle designs with pitch precursor ablatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, H. R.; Bedard, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Recent developments in carbon phenolic ablatives for solid rocket motor nozzles have yielded a pitch precursor carbon fiber offering significant raw material availability and cost saving advantages as compared to conventional rayon precursor material. This paper discusses the results of an experimental program conducted to assess the thermal performance and characterize the thermal properties of pitch precursor carbon phenolic ablatives. The end result of this program is the complete thermal characterization of pitch fabric, pitch mat, hybrid pitch/rayon fabric and pitch mat molding compound. With these properties determined an analytic capability now exists for predicting the thermal performance of these materials in rocket nozzle liner applications. Further planned efforts to verify material performance and analytical prediction procedures through actual rocket motor firings are also discussed.

  18. Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bänziger, Tanja; Hosoya, Georg; Scherer, Klaus R

    2015-01-01

    We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition...

  19. Vocal fold dynamics for frequency change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollien, Harry

    2014-07-01

    This article provides a review of data drawn from a series of related experiments to demonstrate how frequency change (Δf0) is accomplished in the modal register. The research cited involves studies of (1) laryngeal size, (2) vocal fold length, (3) vocal fold thickness, and (4) subglottic pressure; new data describe their effect on vocal fold mass. It was found that changes in these dimensions (1) explain how the shifts in frequency are accomplished, (2) establish the way vocal fold mass can be measured, and (3) strongly support the aerodynamic-myoelastic theory of phonation. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Heavy vehicle pitch dynamics and suspension tuning

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Dongpu; Rakheja, Subhash; Su, Chun-Yi

    2008-01-01

    The influence of suspension tuning of passenger cars on bounce and pitch ride performance has been explored in a number of studies, while only minimal efforts have been made for establishing similar rules for heavy vehicles. This study aims to explore pitch dynamics and suspension tunings of a two-axle heavy vehicle with unconnected suspension, which could also provide valuable information for heavy vehicles with coupled suspensions. Based on a generalised pitch-plane model of a two-axle heav...

  1. The effect of intensity on relative pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William Forde; Peter, Varghese; Olsen, Kirk N; Stevens, Catherine J

    2012-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined the effect of intensity and intensity change on judgements of pitch differences or interval size. In Experiment 1, 39 musically untrained participants rated the size of the interval spanned by two pitches within individual gliding tones. Tones were presented at high intensity, low intensity, looming intensity (up-ramp), and fading intensity (down-ramp) and glided between two pitches spanning either 6 or 7 semitones (a tritone or a perfect fifth interval). The pitch shift occurred in either ascending or descending directions. Experiment 2 repeated the conditions of Experiment 1 but the shifts in pitch and intensity occurred across two discrete tones (i.e., a melodic interval). Results indicated that participants were sensitive to the differences in interval size presented: Ratings were significantly higher when two pitches differed by 7 semitones than when they differed by 6 semitones. However, ratings were also dependent on whether the interval was high or low in intensity, whether it increased or decreased in intensity across the two pitches, and whether the interval was ascending or descending in pitch. Such influences illustrate that the perception of pitch relations does not always adhere to a logarithmic function as implied by their musical labels, but that identical intervals are perceived as substantially different in size depending on other attributes of the sound source.

  2. The Role of Absolute Pitch Memory in the Oral Transmission of Folksongs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merwin Olthof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Absolute Pitch (AP is the ability to identify or produce isolated tones in the absence of contextual cues or reference pitches. While AP is thought to differ from other human abilities in its bimodal distribution (Takeuchi & Hulse, 1993 – either you have it or you do not – recent evidence suggests that memory for absolute pitch in a melody is actually widespread (Schellenberg & Trehub, 2003. In the current project the Dutch collection of historic audio recordings, Onder de Groene Linde (Grijp, 2008, is used as a source to explore the potential role of AP in the memory of songs transmitted in oral traditions. Since the melodies in this database are grouped by tune family and are available as sound files, they can serve as empirical support for the Absolute Pitch Memory (APM hypothesis, predicting that these tunes are memorized and transmitted over time and geographical location based on their absolute pitch height. To this end, between- and within-tune family analyses were performed. In the between-tune family analysis, two tune families showed significant inter-recording tonic pitch consistency. The within-tune family analysis further substantialized that effect, while controlling for possible factors of variance such as gender, geographical origin, and lyrics. Together, the results are taken as empirical support that APM plays a significant role in the oral transmission of folksongs.

  3. Cortical pitch response components index stimulus onset/offset and dynamic features of pitch contours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T.; Ananthakrishnan, Saradha; Vijayaraghavan, Venkatakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Voice pitch is an important information-bearing component of language that is subject to experience dependent plasticity at both early cortical and subcortical stages of processing. We’ve already demonstrated that pitch onset component (Na) of the cortical pitch response (CPR) is sensitive to flat pitch and its salience. In regards to dynamic pitch, we do not yet know whether the multiple pitch-related transient components of the CPR reflect specific temporal attributes of such stimuli. Here we examine the sensitivity of the multiple transient components of CPR to changes in pitch acceleration associated with the Mandarin high rising lexical tone. CPR responses from Chinese listeners were elicited by three citation forms varying in pitch acceleration and duration. Results showed that the pitch onset component (Na) was invariant to changes in acceleration. In contrast, Na-Pb and Pb-Nb showed a systematic increase in the interpeak latency and decrease in amplitude with increase in pitch acceleration that followed the time course of pitch change across the three stimuli. A strong correlation with pitch acceleration was observed for these two components only – a putative index of pitch-relevant neural activity associated with the more rapidly-changing portions of the pitch contour. Pc-Nc marks unambiguously the stimulus offset. We therefore propose that in the early stages of cortical sensory processing, a series of neural markers flag different temporal attributes of a dynamic pitch contour: onset of temporal regularity (Na); changes in temporal regularity between onset and offset (Na-Pb, Pb-Nb); and offset of temporal regularity (Pc-Nc). At the temporal electrode sites, the stimulus with the most gradual change in pitch acceleration evoked a rightward asymmetry. Yet within the left hemisphere, stimuli with more gradual change were indistinguishable. These findings highlight the emergence of early hemispheric preferences and their functional roles as related to

  4. Parasites pitched against nature: Pitch Lake water protects guppies (Poecilia reticulata) from microbial and gyrodactylid infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelkle, Bettina; Mohammed, Ryan S; Coogan, Michael P; McMullan, Mark; Gillingham, Emma L; VAN Oosterhout, Cock; Cable, Joanne

    2012-11-01

    SUMMARY The enemy release hypothesis proposes that in parasite depleted habitats, populations will experience relaxed selection and become more susceptible (or less tolerant) to pathogenic infections. Here, we focus on a population of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) that are found in an extreme environment (the Pitch Lake, Trinidad) and examine whether this habitat represents a refuge from parasites. We investigated the efficacy of pitch in preventing microbial infections in Pitch Lake guppies, by exposing them to dechlorinated water, and reducing gyrodactylid infections on non-Pitch Lake guppies by transferring them to Pitch Lake water. We show that (i) natural prevalence of ectoparasites in the Pitch Lake is low compared to reference populations, (ii) Pitch Lake guppies transferred into aquarium water develop microbial infections, and (iii) experimentally infected guppies are cured of their gyrodactylid infections both by natural Pitch Lake water and by dechlorinated water containing solid pitch. These results indicate a role for Pitch Lake water in the defence of guppies from their parasites and suggest that Pitch Lake guppies might have undergone enemy release in this extreme environment. The Pitch Lake provides an ideal ecosystem for studies on immune gene evolution in the absence of parasites and long-term evolutionary implications of hydrocarbon pollution for vertebrates.

  5. Favorite Children's Books for Vocal Exploration and Pitch-Matching Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the author shares favorite children's books and stories for integrating language and music during shared-book experiences. The music activities described are aimed to contribute to the overall singing development for children in preschool and primary grades. Music and reading teachers will enjoy sharing these books with early…

  6. Musicians are more consistent: Gestural cross-modal mappings of pitch, loudness and tempo in real-time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats B. Küssner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cross-modal mappings of auditory stimuli reveal valuable insights into how humans make sense of sound and music. Whereas researchers have investigated cross-modal mappings of sound features varied in isolation within paradigms such as speeded classification and forced-choice matching tasks, investigations of representations of concurrently varied sound features (e.g., pitch, loudness and tempo with overt gestures—accounting for the intrinsic link between movement and sound—are scant. To explore the role of bodily gestures in cross-modal mappings of auditory stimuli we asked sixty-four musically trained and untrained participants to represent pure tones—continually sounding and concurrently varied in pitch, loudness and tempo—with gestures while the sound stimuli were played. We hypothesised musical training to lead to more consistent mappings between pitch and height, loudness and distance/height, and tempo and speed of hand movement and muscular energy.Our results corroborate previously reported pitch vs. height (higher pitch leading to higher elevation in space and tempo vs. speed (increasing tempo leading to increasing speed of hand movement associations, but also reveal novel findings pertaining to musical training which influenced consistency of pitch mappings, annulling a commonly observed bias for convex (i.e. rising-falling pitch contours. Moreover, we reveal effects of interactions between musical parameters on cross-modal mappings (e.g., pitch and loudness on speed of hand movement, highlighting the importance of studying auditory stimuli concurrently varied in different musical parameters. Results are discussed in light of cross-modal cognition, with particular emphasis on studies within (embodied music cognition. Implications for theoretical refinements and potential clinical applications are provided.

  7. The acoustic and perceptual differences to the non-singer's singing voice before and after a singing vocal warm-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRosa, Angela

    The present study analyzed the acoustic and perceptual differences in non-singer's singing voice before and after a vocal warm-up. Experiments were conducted with 12 females who had no singing experience and considered themselves to be non-singers. Participants were recorded performing 3 tasks: a musical scale stretching to their most comfortable high and low pitches, sustained productions of the vowels /a/ and /i/, and singing performance of the "Star Spangled Banner." Participants were recorded performing these three tasks before a vocal warm-up, after a vocal warm-up, and then again 2-3 weeks later after 2-3 weeks of practice. Acoustical analysis consisted of formant frequency analysis, singer's formant/singing power ratio analysis, maximum phonation frequency range analysis, and an analysis of jitter, noise to harmonic ratio (NHR), relative average perturbation (RAP), and voice turbulence index (VTI). A perceptual analysis was also conducted with 12 listeners rating comparison performances of before vs. after the vocal warm-up, before vs. after the second vocal warm-up, and after both vocal warm-ups. There were no significant findings for the formant frequency analysis of the vowel /a/, but there was significance for the 1st formant frequency analysis of the vowel /i/. Singer's formant analyzed via Singing Power Ratio analysis showed significance only for the vowel /i/. Maximum phonation frequency range analysis showed a significant increase after the vocal warm-ups. There were no significant findings for the acoustic measures of jitter, NHR, RAP, and VTI. Perceptual analysis showed a significant difference after a vocal warm-up. The results indicate that a singing vocal warm-up can have a significant positive influence on the singing voice of non-singers.

  8. Objective correlates of pitch salience using pupillometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica; Santurette, Sébastien; Wendt, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Although objective correlates of pitch salience have been investigated in several neuroimaging studies, the results remain controversial. In the present study, a novel approach to objectively estimate pitch salience was used. Pupil dilation was measured as an indicator of the required effort in p...

  9. Individual Pitch Control Using LIDAR Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood; Henriksen, Lars Christian; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2012-01-01

    In this work the problem of individual pitch control of a variable-speed variable-pitch wind turbine in the full load region is considered. Model predictive control (MPC) is used to solve the problem. However as the plant is nonlinear and time varying, a new approach is proposed to simplify...

  10. Learning Novel Musical Pitch via Distributional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Jia Hoong; Burnham, Denis; Stevens, Catherine J.

    2017-01-01

    Because different musical scales use different sets of intervals and, hence, different musical pitches, how do music listeners learn those that are in their native musical system? One possibility is that musical pitches are acquired in the same way as phonemes, that is, via distributional learning, in which learners infer knowledge from the…

  11. Avian vocal production beyond low dimensional models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2017-02-01

    Birdsong is an active field of research in neuroscience, since songbirds learn their songs through a process similar to that followed by humans during vocal learning. Moreover, many of the vocalizations produced by birds are quite complex. Since the avian vocal organ is nonlinear, it is sensible to explore how much of that complexity is due to the neural instructions controlling the vocal organ, and how much to its nonlinear nature. In this work we first review some of the work carried out in the last years to address this problem, and then we discuss the existence of noisy sound sources in the avian vocal organ. We show that some spectral features of the song produced by the Zebra finch (one of the most widely studied species) can only be explained when vortex sound is taken into account.

  12. Form and function of long-range vocalizations in a Neotropical fossorial rodent: the Anillaco Tuco-Tuco (Ctenomys sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Amaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The underground environment poses particular communication challenges for subterranean rodents. Some loud and low-pitched acoustic signals that can travel long distances are appropriate for long-range underground communication and have been suggested to be territorial signals. Long-range vocalizations (LRVs are important in long-distance communication in Ctenomys tuco-tucos. We characterized the LRV of the Anillaco Tuco-Tuco (Ctenomys sp. using recordings from free-living individuals and described the behavioral context in which this vocalization was produced during laboratory staged encounters between individuals of both sexes. Long-range calls of Anillaco tuco-tucos are low-frequency, broad-band, loud, and long sounds composed by the repetition of two syllable types: series (formed by notes and soft-notes and individual notes. All vocalizations were initiated with series, but not all had individual notes. Males were heavier than females and gave significantly lower-pitched vocalizations, but acoustic features were independent of body mass in males. The pronounced variation among individuals in the arrangement and number of syllables and the existence of three types of series (dyads, triads, and tetrads, created a diverse collection of syntactic patterns in vocalizations that would provide the opportunity to encode multiple types of information. The existence of complex syntactic patterns and the description of soft-notes represent new aspects of the vocal communication of Ctenomys. Long-distance vocalizations by Anillaco Tuco-Tucos appear to be territorial signals used mostly in male-male interactions. First, emission of LRVs resulted in de-escalation or space-keeping in male-male and male-female encounters in laboratory experiments. Second, these vocalizations were produced most frequently (in the field and in the lab by males in our study population. Third, males produced LRVs with greater frequency during male-male encounters compared to

  13. Height, Health, and Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Angus Deaton

    2007-01-01

    Adult height is determined by genetic potential and by net nutrition, the balance between food intake and the demands on it, including the demands of disease, most importantly during early childhood...

  14. Is there a correlation of sonographic measurements of true vocal cords with gender or body mass indices in normal healthy volunteers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Leah; Secko, Michael; Mehta, Ninfa; Paladino, Lorenzo; Sinert, Richard

    2014-04-01

    Ultrasound is a readily available, non-invasive technique to visualize airway dimensions at the patient's bedside and possibly predict difficult airways before invasively looking; however, it has rarely been used for emergency investigation of the larynx. There is limited literature on the sonographic measurements of true vocal cords in adults and normal parameters must be established before abnormal parameters can be accurately identified. The primary objective of the following study is to identify the normal sonographic values of human true vocal cords in an adult population. A secondary objective is to determine if there is a difference in true vocal cord measurements in people with different body mass indices (BMIs). The third objective was to determine if there was a statistical difference in the measurements for both genders. True vocal cord measurements were obtained in healthy volunteers by ultrasound fellowship trained emergency medicine physicians using a high frequency linear transducer orientated transversely across the anterior surface of the neck at the level of the thyroid cartilage. The width of the true vocal cord was measured perpendicularly to the length of the cord at its mid-portion. This method was duplicated from a previous study to create a standard of measurement acquisition. A total of 38 subjects were enrolled. The study demonstrated no correlation between vocal cord measurements and patient's characteristics of height, weight, or BMI's. When accounting for vocal cord measurements by gender, males had larger BMI's and larger vocal cord measurements compared with females subjects with a statistically significant different in right vocal cord measurements for females compared with male subjects. No correlation was seen between vocal cord measurements and person's BMIs. In the study group of normal volunteers, there was a difference in size between the male and female vocal cord size.

  15. Vowel category dependence of the relationship between palate height, tongue height, and oral area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark; Pizza, Shamala; Alwan, Abeer; Cha, Jul Setsu; Haker, Katherine

    2003-06-01

    This article evaluates intertalker variance of oral area, logarithm of the oral area, tongue height, and formant frequencies as a function of vowel category. The data consist of coronal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences and acoustic recordings of 5 talkers, each producing 11 different vowels. Tongue height (left, right, and midsagittal), palate height, and oral area were measured in 3 coronal sections anterior to the oropharyngeal bend and were subjected to multivariate analysis of variance, variance ratio analysis, and regression analysis. The primary finding of this article is that oral area (between palate and tongue) showed less intertalker variance during production of vowels with an oral place of articulation (palatal and velar vowels) than during production of vowels with a uvular or pharyngeal place of articulation. Although oral area variance is place dependent, percentage variance (log area variance) is not place dependent. Midsagittal tongue height in the molar region was positively correlated with palate height during production of palatal vowels, but not during production of nonpalatal vowels. Taken together, these results suggest that small oral areas are characterized by relatively talker-independent vowel targets and that meeting these talker-independent targets is important enough that each talker adjusts his or her own tongue height to compensate for talker-dependent differences in constriction anatomy. Computer simulation results are presented to demonstrate that these results may be explained by an acoustic control strategy: When talkers with very different anatomical characteristics try to match talker-independent formant targets, the resulting area variances are minimized near the primary vocal tract constriction.

  16. Convolutional Pitch Target Approximation Model for Speech Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Na, Xingyu; Garner, Philip N.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate pitch contour modelling in speech synthesis based on segmental units. A convolutional pitch target approximation model is proposed. This model allows jointly stochastic modelling of framewise pitch and pitch contour of longer units, of which the intuitive relations are revealed by a convolutional target approximation filter. The pitch contour is stylized by a linear representation called pitch target. In synthesis stage, the likelihood of the framewise model and ...

  17. A Rat Excised Larynx Model of Vocal Fold Scar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welham, Nathan V.; Montequin, Douglas W.; Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Choi, Seong Hee; Bless, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a rat excised larynx model for the measurement of acoustic, aerodynamic, and vocal fold vibratory changes resulting from vocal fold scar. Method: Twenty-four 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: chronic vocal fold scar, chronic vocal fold scar treated with 100-ng basic…

  18. Pianists exhibit enhanced memory for vocal melodies but not piano melodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Michael W; Vanzella, Patrícia; Schellenberg, E Glenn; Trehub, Sandra E

    2015-01-01

    Nonmusicians remember vocal melodies (i.e., sung to la la) better than instrumental melodies. If greater exposure to the voice contributes to those effects, then long-term experience with instrumental timbres should elicit instrument-specific advantages. Here we evaluate this hypothesis by comparing pianists with other musicians and nonmusicians. We also evaluate the possibility that absolute pitch (AP), which involves exceptional memory for isolated pitches, influences melodic memory. Participants heard 24 melodies played in four timbres (voice, piano, banjo, marimba) and were subsequently required to distinguish the melodies heard previously from 24 novel melodies presented in the same timbres. Musicians performed better than nonmusicians, but both groups showed a comparable memory advantage for vocal melodies. Moreover, pianists performed no better on melodies played on piano than on other instruments, and AP musicians performed no differently than non-AP musicians. The findings confirm the robust nature of the voice advantage and rule out explanations based on familiarity, practice, and motor representations.

  19. Voice therapy and vocal nodules in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Rebecca

    2009-12-01

    This review considers recent and significant information pertinent to voice therapy for vocal nodules. Available evidence suggests that voice therapy directed to excessive, hyperfunctional and maladaptive vocal practices can be effective in improving voice quality and reducing size/extent of pathology. However, there is also a growing literature suggesting that behavioral approaches may not be sufficient to permanently heal tissue changes in some patients, regardless of compliance with treatment aims, due to lasting structural damage in the vocal fold cover. This evidence underscores the need for early identification and education in individuals at risk for nodules. The relationship between vocal nodules and excessive, phonotraumatic voice use is well established. Voice therapy typically consists of education regarding vocal fold mechanics and etiological factors, as well as modification of specific vocal practices that either cause, exacerbate or result from inappropriate voice production. Therapy can be effective in improving voice quality and tissue health but does not necessarily result in complete resolution of pathology. It should always be considered as a part of the treatment regimen for patients with vocal nodules.

  20. Detecting Depression Severity from Vocal Prosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Fairbairn, Catherine; Cohn, Jeffrey F

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relation between vocal prosody and change in depression severity over time, 57 participants from a clinical trial for treatment of depression were evaluated at seven-week intervals using a semi-structured clinical interview for depression severity (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression: HRSD). All participants met criteria for Major Depressive Disorder at week 1. Using both perceptual judgments by naive listeners and quantitative analyses of vocal timing and fundamental frequency, three hypotheses were tested: 1) Naive listeners can perceive the severity of depression from vocal recordings of depressed participants and interviewers. 2) Quantitative features of vocal prosody in depressed participants reveal change in symptom severity over the course of depression. And 3) Interpersonal effects occur as well; such that vocal prosody in interviewers shows corresponding effects. These hypotheses were strongly supported. Together, participants' and interviewers' vocal prosody accounted for about 60% of variation in depression scores, and detected ordinal range of depression severity (low, mild, and moderate-to-severe) in 69% of cases (kappa = 0.53). These findings suggest that analysis of vocal prosody could be a powerful tool to assist in depression screening and monitoring over the course of depressive disorder and recovery.

  1. Vocal Loading in Speaking a Foreign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Kati; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether speaking a foreign language affects the subjective notions of vocal fatigue, and whether acoustic measurements reveal a higher vocal loading. The speech samples of 20 native Finnish-speaking and 23 native English-speaking subjects were recorded in Finnish and in English. From the speech samples, fundamental frequency, equivalent sound level, total duration of voiced speech, speech rate, alpha ratio and L1-L0 level difference were analyzed. Vocal doses were calculated. According to subjective notions, the voice gets tired more quickly when speaking a foreign language. The mean fundamental frequency increased but the speech rate and total duration of voiced speech decreased significantly when speaking a foreign language. Thus, the vocal doses decreased. The subjective sensations of increased vocal fatigue may be due to increased mental stress rather than to higher vocal loading. However, a trend that speaking a foreign language may involve more loading was found in L1-L0 level difference and in the doses normalized to time dose. Longer speech samples should be studied. Voice quality-based indicators of vocal loading are worth testing in addition to the measures based on the amount of voicing in speech. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Aerodynamic and acoustic features of vocal effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Allison L; Lowell, Soren Y; Colton, Raymond H

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the aerodynamic and acoustic features of speech produced at comfortable, maximal and minimal levels of vocal effort. Prospective, quasi-experimental research design. Eighteen healthy participants with normal voice were included in this study. After task training, participants produced repeated syllable combinations at comfortable, maximal and minimal levels of vocal effort. A pneumotachometer and vented (Rothenberg) mask were used to record aerodynamic data, with simultaneous recording of the acoustic signal for subsequent analysis. Aerodynamic measures of subglottal pressure, translaryngeal airflow, maximum flow declination rate (MFDR), and laryngeal resistance were analyzed, along with acoustic measures of cepstral peak prominence (CPP) and its standard deviation (SD). Participants produced significantly greater subglottal pressure, translaryngeal airflow, and MFDR during maximal effort speech as compared with comfortable vocal effort. When producing speech at minimal vocal effort, participants lowered subglottal pressure, MFDR, and laryngeal resistance. Acoustic changes associated with changes in vocal effort included significantly higher CPP during maximal effort speech and significantly lower CPP SD during minimal effort speech, when each was compared with comfortable effort. For healthy speakers without voice disorders, subglottal pressure, translaryngeal airflow, and MFDR may be important factors that contribute to an increased sense of vocal effort. Changes in the cepstral signal also occur under conditions of increased or decreased vocal effort relative to comfortable effort. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Encoding pitch contours using current steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Landsberger, David M; Padilla, Monica; Srinivasan, Arthi G

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated cochlear implant (CI) users' ability to perceive pitch cues from time-varying virtual channels (VCs) to identify pitch contours. Seven CI users were tested on apical, medial, and basal electrode pairs with stimulus durations from 100 to 1000 ms. In one stimulus set, 9 pitch contours were created by steering current between the component electrodes and the VC halfway between the electrodes. Another stimulus set only contained 3 pitch contours (flat, falling, and rising). VC discrimination was also tested on the same electrodes. The total current level of dual-electrode stimuli was linearly interpolated between those of single-electrode stimuli to minimize loudness changes. The results showed that pitch contour identification (PCI) scores were similar across electrode locations, and significantly improved at longer durations. For durations longer than 300 ms, 2 subjects had nearly perfect 9-contour identification, and 5 subjects perfectly identified the 3 basic contours. Both PCI and VC discrimination varied greatly across subjects. Cumulative d(') values for VC discrimination were significantly correlated with 100-, 200-, and 500-ms PCI scores. These results verify the feasibility of encoding pitch contours using current steering, and suggest that identification of such pitch contours strongly relies on CI users' sensitivity to VCs.

  4. Coordination between posture and phonation in vocal effort behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagier, Aude; Vaugoyeau, Marianne; Ghio, Alain; Legou, Thierry; Giovanni, Antoine; Assaiante, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Postural correlates of vocal effort are rarely described in the literature, while they are extensively dealt with in speech therapy. This study aims at determining whether body movement is a side effect of vocal effort or an integral part of communication effort behavior. The answer to this question is mainly based on correlations between posture and phonation. Twenty healthy subjects participated in this study. They had to communicate with a listener under 3 conditions requiring different levels of vocal effort. The vocal parameters increased and confirmed that the subjects had made a vocal effort. The kinematic parameters (amplitude and duration of body movement) increased with vocal effort. Lastly, vocal and kinematic characteristics were significantly correlated. The close correlation of posture with vocal production shows that movement is not a mere consequence of vocal effort. Posture and voice are coordinated in communication behavior, and each body segment plays its specific role in the vocal effort behavior. (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Vocal ontogeny in neotropical singing mice (Scotinomys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polly Campbell

    Full Text Available Isolation calls produced by dependent young are a fundamental form of communication. For species in which vocal signals remain important to adult communication, the function and social context of vocal behavior changes dramatically with the onset of sexual maturity. The ontogenetic relationship between these distinct forms of acoustic communication is surprisingly under-studied. We conducted a detailed analysis of vocal development in sister species of Neotropical singing mice, Scotinomys teguina and S. xerampelinus. Adult singing mice are remarkable for their advertisement songs, rapidly articulated trills used in long-distance communication; the vocal behavior of pups was previously undescribed. We recorded 30 S. teguina and 15 S. xerampelinus pups daily, from birth to weaning; 23 S. teguina and 11 S. xerampelinus were recorded until sexual maturity. Like other rodent species with poikilothermic young, singing mice were highly vocal during the first weeks of life and stopped vocalizing before weaning. Production of first advertisement songs coincided with the onset of sexual maturity after a silent period of ≧2 weeks. Species differences in vocal behavior emerged early in ontogeny and notes that comprise adult song were produced from birth. However, the organization and relative abundance of distinct note types was very different between pups and adults. Notably, the structure, note repetition rate, and intra-individual repeatability of pup vocalizations did not become more adult-like with age; the highly stereotyped structure of adult song appeared de novo in the first songs of young adults. We conclude that, while the basic elements of adult song are available from birth, distinct selection pressures during maternal dependency, dispersal, and territorial establishment favor major shifts in the structure and prevalence of acoustic signals. This study provides insight into how an evolutionarily conserved form of acoustic signaling provides

  6. Timing matters: the processing of pitch relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Annekathrin; Grimm, Sabine; Trujillo-Barreto, Nelson J.; Schröger, Erich

    2014-01-01

    The human central auditory system can automatically extract abstract regularities from a variant auditory input. To this end, temporarily separated events need to be related. This study tested whether the timing between events, falling either within or outside the temporal window of integration (~350 ms), impacts the extraction of abstract feature relations. We utilized tone pairs for which tones within but not across pairs revealed a constant pitch relation (e.g., pitch of second tone of a pair higher than pitch of first tone, while absolute pitch values varied across pairs). We measured the mismatch negativity (MMN; the brain’s error signal to auditory regularity violations) to second tones that rarely violated the pitch relation (e.g., pitch of second tone lower). A Short condition in which tone duration (90 ms) and stimulus onset asynchrony between the tones of a pair were short (110 ms) was compared to two conditions, where this onset asynchrony was long (510 ms). In the Long Gap condition, the tone durations were identical to Short (90 ms), but the silent interval was prolonged by 400 ms. In Long Tone, the duration of the first tone was prolonged by 400 ms, while the silent interval was comparable to Short (20 ms). Results show a frontocentral MMN of comparable amplitude in all conditions. Thus, abstract pitch relations can be extracted even when the within-pair timing exceeds the integration period. Source analyses indicate MMN generators in the supratemporal cortex. Interestingly, they were located more anterior in Long Gap than in Short and Long Tone. Moreover, frontal generator activity was found for Long Gap and Long Tone. Thus, the way in which the system automatically registers irregular abstract pitch relations depends on the timing of the events to be linked. Pending that the current MMN data mirror established abstract rule representations coding the regular pitch relation, neural processes building these templates vary with timing. PMID:24966823

  7. Timing matters: The processing of pitch relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annekathrin eWeise

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The human central auditory system can automatically extract abstract regularities from a variant auditory input. To this end, temporarily separated events need to be related. This study tested whether the timing between events, falling either within or outside the temporal window of integration (~350 ms, impacts the extraction of abstract feature relations. We utilized tone pairs for which tones within but not across pairs revealed a constant pitch relation (e.g. pitch of 2nd tone of a pair higher than pitch of 1st tone, while absolute pitch values varied across pairs. We measured the Mismatch Negativity (MMN; the brain’s error signal to auditory regularity violations to 2nd tones that rarely violated the pitch relation (e.g. pitch of 2nd tone lower. A Short condition in which tone duration (90 ms and stimulus onset asynchrony between the tones of a pair were short (110 ms was compared to two conditions, where this onset asynchrony was long (510 ms. In the Long Gap condition the tone durations were identical to Short (90 ms, but the silent interval was prolonged by 400 ms. In Long Tone the duration of the first tone was prolonged by 400 ms, while the silent interval was comparable to Short (20 ms. Results show a frontocentral MMN of comparable amplitude in all conditions. Thus, abstract pitch relations can be extracted even when the within-pair timing exceeds the integration period. Source analyses indicate MMN generators in the supratemporal cortex. Interestingly, they were located more anterior in Long Gap than in Short and Long Tone. Moreover, frontal generator activity was found for Long Gap and Long Tone. Thus, the way in which the system automatically registers irregular abstract pitch relations depends on the timing of the events to be linked. Pending that the current MMN data mirror established abstract rule representations coding the regular pitch relation, neural processes building these templates vary with timing.

  8. Vocal learning beyond imitation: mechanisms of adaptive vocal development in songbirds and human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchernichovski, Ofer; Marcus, Gary

    2014-10-01

    Studies of vocal learning in songbirds typically focus on the acquisition of sensory templates for song imitation and on the consequent process of matching song production to templates. However, functional vocal development also requires the capacity to adaptively diverge from sensory templates, and to flexibly assemble vocal units. Examples of adaptive divergence include the corrective imitation of abnormal songs, and the decreased tendency to copy over-abundant syllables. Such frequency-dependent effects might mirror tradeoffs between the assimilation of group identity (culture) while establishing individual and flexibly expressive songs. Intriguingly, although the requirements for vocal plasticity vary across songbirds, and more so between birdsong and language, the capacity to flexibly assemble vocal sounds develops in a similar, stepwise manner across species. Therefore, universal features of vocal learning go well beyond the capacity to imitate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Speech versus song: multiple pitch-sensitive areas revealed by a naturally occurring musical illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Adam; Dick, Fred; Deutsch, Diana; Sereno, Marty

    2013-02-01

    It is normally obvious to listeners whether a human vocalization is intended to be heard as speech or song. However, the 2 signals are remarkably similar acoustically. A naturally occurring boundary case between speech and song has been discovered where a spoken phrase sounds as if it were sung when isolated and repeated. In the present study, an extensive search of audiobooks uncovered additional similar examples, which were contrasted with samples from the same corpus that do not sound like song, despite containing clear prosodic pitch contours. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that hearing these 2 closely matched stimuli is not associated with differences in response of early auditory areas. Rather, we find that a network of 8 regions, including the anterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) just anterior to Heschl's gyrus and the right midposterior STG, respond more strongly to speech perceived as song than to mere speech. This network overlaps a number of areas previously associated with pitch extraction and song production, confirming that phrases originally intended to be heard as speech can, under certain circumstances, be heard as song. Our results suggest that song processing compared with speech processing makes increased demands on pitch processing and auditory-motor integration.

  10. Vocal Cord Actinomycosis Mimicking a Laryngeal Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Yoshihama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal carcinoma and laryngeal papilloma are the most commonly encountered tumorous lesions in the larynx. Herein, we report a case of the mass arising from the left vocal cord in a 49-year-old Japanese man. Endoscopic examination suggested that the mass is a tumor such as carcinoma and papilloma. Pathological examination showed that the specimen demonstrated actinomycosis in the left vocal cord. Although vocal cord actinomycosis is extremely rare, the otolaryngologist should recognize this condition during the inspection of the larynx.

  11. Vocal Cord Actinomycosis Mimicking a Laryngeal Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihama, Keisuke; Kato, Yasumasa; Baba, Yuh

    2013-01-01

    Laryngeal carcinoma and laryngeal papilloma are the most commonly encountered tumorous lesions in the larynx. Herein, we report a case of the mass arising from the left vocal cord in a 49-year-old Japanese man. Endoscopic examination suggested that the mass is a tumor such as carcinoma and papilloma. Pathological examination showed that the specimen demonstrated actinomycosis in the left vocal cord. Although vocal cord actinomycosis is extremely rare, the otolaryngologist should recognize this condition during the inspection of the larynx. PMID:23573444

  12. Effects of harmonic roving on pitch discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; de Kérangal, Mathilde le Gal; Joshi, Suyash Narendra

    2015-01-01

    external noise in the physical stimulus (Lu and Dosher, 2008). The present study used this approach to attempt to quantify the “internal noise” involved in pitch coding of harmonic complex tones by estimating the amount of harmonic roving required to impair pitch discrimination performance. It remains...... performance may help clarify pitch coding mechanisms. As training on frequency discrimination tasks has been found to result in a reduction of internal noise (Jones et al., 2013), it was also investigated whether the effect of harmonic roving varied with musical training...

  13. Multidimensional assessment of voice quality of future elite vocal performers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muresan RODICA-ELENA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: This study correlates the Singing Voice Handicap Index (SVHI scores with videostrobolaryngoscopy and acoustic analysis in healthy professional singers, as a measure of self-perceived vocal health, versus actual pathology diagnosed during examination by stroboscopy, or by modification at the acoustic voice evaluation. The objectives of the study were to measure the strength of self-assessment among professional singers and to determine whether there is a benefit of combining SVHI, acoustic analysis and videostrobolaryngoscopy for the routine assessment of singers who have no obvious singing voice problem. Method: Prospective cross-sectional study. The voice quality of 40 students of the Music Academy, Cluj-Napoca, was assessed by means of a multidimensional test battery containing a singing voice handicap index (SVHI, as well as SVHI-10, videolaryngostroboscopy, maximum phonation time on vowel /a/, S/Z ratio, Jitter, Shimmer and NHR (Harmonic Noise Ratio, at lowest, highest and conversational frequency. Additionally, in a questionnaire on daily habits has been recorded for the participants, covering the prevalence of smoking, eating habits, and vocal abuse. The correlation between SVHI scores, acoustic analysis and pathologic findings seen on videostrobolaryngoscopy was analyzed using linear regression and serial t tests to draw the conclusions of this study. Results: Both SVHI and SVHI-10 scores showed, as previously expected, normal values for healthy singers (SVHI-10 being the singers preferred metric. However, although all participants self-identified as healthy, laryngeal abnormalities were relatively common. Acoustic analysis of students voices identified relative instability of pitches, problems with F0 variation, TMF (Maximum Phonation Time and S/Z ratio. No Significant correlation (P = 0.9501 between SVHI scores, acoustic analysis and videostrobolaryngoscopy findings were shown by the linear regression

  14. Vocal Cord Paralysis and its Etiologies: A Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Javad Seyed Toutounchi; Mahmood Eydi; Samad EJ Golzari; Mohammad Reza Ghaffari; Nashmil Parvizian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Vocal cord paralysis is a common symptom of numerous diseases and it may be due to neurogenic or mechanical fixation of the cords. Paralysis of the vocal cords is just a symptom of underlying disease in some cases; so, clinical diagnosis of the underlying cause leading to paralysis of the vocal cords is important. This study evaluates the causes of vocal cord paralysis. Methods: In a prospective study, 45 patients with paralyzed vocal cord diagnosis were examined by tests such a...

  15. Measurements of the Acoustic Speaking Voice After Vocal Warm-up and Cooldown in Choir Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onofre, Fernanda; Prado, Yuka de Almeida; Rojas, Gleidy Vannesa E; Garcia, Denny Marco; Aguiar-Ricz, Lílian

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the acoustic measurements of the vowel /a/ in modal recording before and after a singing voice resistance test and after 30 minutes of absolute rest in female choir singers. This is a prospective cohort study. A total of 13 soprano choir singers with experience in choir singing were evaluated through analysis of acoustic voice parameters at three points in time: before continuous use of the voice, after vocal warm-up and a singing test 60 minutes in duration respecting the pauses for breathing, and after vocal cooldown and an absolute voice rest for 30 minutes. The fundamental frequency increased after the voice resistance test (P = 0.012) and remained elevated after the 30 minutes of voice rest (P = 0.01). The jitter decreased after the voice resistance test (P = 0.02) and after the 30 minutes of voice rest. A significant difference was detected for the acoustic voice parameters relative average perturbation (RAP), (P = 0.05), and pitch perturbation quotient (PPQ), (P = 0.04), compared with the initial time point. The fundamental frequency increased after 60 minutes of singing and remained elevated after vocal cooldown and absolute rest for 30 minutes, proving an efficient parameter for identifying the changes inherent to voice demand during singing. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Relationship between Voice Complaints and Subjective and Objective Measures of Vocal Function in Iranian Female Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faham, Maryam; Jalilevand, Nahid; Torabinezhad, Farhad; Silverman, Erin Pearson; Ahmadi, Akram; Anaraki, Zahra Ghayoumi; Jafari, Narges

    2017-07-01

    Teachers are at high risk of developing voice problems because of the excessive vocal demands necessitated by their profession. Teachers' self-assessment of vocal complaints, combined with subjective and objective measures of voice, may enable better therapeutic decision-making. This investigation compared audio-perceptual assessment and acoustic variables in teachers with and without voice complaints. Ninety-nine teachers completed this cross-sectional study and were assigned to one of two groups: those "with voice complaint (VC)" and those "without voice complaint (W-VC)." Voice samples were collected during reading, counting, and vowel prolongation tasks. Teachers were also asked to document any voice symptoms they experienced. Voice samples were analyzed using Dr. Speech program (4th version; Tiger Ltd., USA), and labeled "normal" or "abnormal" according to the "grade" dimension "G" from GRBAS scale. Twenty-one teachers were assigned to the VC group based on self-assessment data. There were statistically significant differences between the two groups with regard to self-reported voice symptoms of hoarseness, breathiness, pitch breaks, and vocal fatigue (P Teachers with and without voice complaints differed in the incidence, but not type of voice symptoms. Teachers' voice complaints did not correspond to perceptual and acoustic measures. This suggests a potential unmet need for teachers to receive further education on voice disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  17. Cognitive bias in rats evoked by ultrasonic vocalizations suggests emotional contagion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yumi; Yuki, Shoko; Seki, Yoshimasa; Kagawa, Hiroko; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2016-11-01

    Emotional contagion occurs when an individual acquires the emotional state of another via social cues, and is an important component of empathy. Empathic responses seen in rodents are often explained by emotional contagion. Rats emit 50kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in positive contexts, and emit 22kHz USVs in negative contexts. We tested whether rats show positive or negative emotional contagion after hearing conspecific USVs via a cognitive bias task. We hypothesized that animals in positive emotional states would perceive an ambiguous cue as being good (optimistic bias) whereas animals in negative states would perceive the same cue as being bad (pessimistic bias). Rats were trained to respond differently to two sounds with distinct pitches, each of which signaled either a positive or a negative outcome. An ambiguous cue with a frequency falling between the two stimuli tested whether rats interpreted it as positive or negative. Results showed that rats responded to ambiguous cues as positive when they heard the 50kHz USV (positive vocalizations) and negative when they heard the 22kHz USV (negative vocalizations). This suggests that conspecific USVs can evoke emotional contagion, both for positive and negative emotions, to change the affective states in receivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Muscle activation patterns of the upper and lower extremity during the windmill softball pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Plummer, Hillary A; Keeley, David W

    2011-06-01

    Fast-pitch softball has become an increasingly popular sport for female athletes. There has been little research examining the windmill softball pitch in the literature. The purpose of this study was to describe the muscle activation patterns of 3 upper extremity muscles (biceps, triceps, and rhomboids [scapular stabilizers]) and 2 lower extremity muscles (gluteus maximus and medius) during the 5 phases of the windmill softball pitch. Data describing muscle activation were collected on 7 postpubescent softball pitchers (age 17.7 ± 2.6 years; height 169 ± 5.4 cm; mass 69.1 ± 5.4 kg). Surface electromyographic data were collected using a Myopac Jr 10-channel amplifier (RUN Technologies Scientific Systems, Laguna Hills, CA, USA) synchronized with The MotionMonitor™ motion capture system (Innovative Sports Training Inc, Chicago IL, USA) and presented as a percent of maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Gluteus maximus activity reached (196.3% maximum voluntary isometric contraction [MVIC]), whereas gluteus medius activity was consistent during the single leg support of phase 3 (101.2% MVIC). Biceps brachii activity was greatest during phase 4 of the pitching motion. Triceps brachii activation was consistently >150% MVIC throughout the entire pitching motion, whereas the scapular stabilizers were most active during phase 2 (170.1% MVIC). The results of this study indicate the extent to which muscles are activated during the windmill softball pitch, and this knowledge can lead to the development of proper preventative and rehabilitative muscle strengthening programs. In addition, clinicians will be able to incorporate strengthening exercises that mimic the timing of maximal muscle activation most used during the windmill pitching phases.

  19. Achievement report for fiscal 1998. Esophageal vocalization aid system; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Shokudo hassei hojo sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Development has been made on element technologies for an esophageal vocalization aid system. With regard to the speaker, selection and trial production were performed on a speaker used for a phono-coupler to be used in coupling with a telephone transmitter. Performance not differing from that in the currently used telephone set was obtained in the overall characteristics evaluation using a dummy telephone circuitry. For the microphone, two kinds of hands-free microphones were fabricated on a trial basis. In order to develop pitch extraction and amplitude pitch conversion systems, pitch extraction performances were compared and discussed on the following five methods: the auto-correlation method, the Cepstram method, the average magnitude difference function (AMDF) method, the simplified inverse filter tracking (SIFT) method, and the time-domain excitation extractor using minimum perturbation operator (TEMPO) method. The hauling phenomenon, having come up as a problem in an auxiliary digital device, was analyzed to discuss methods for prevention thereof. In developing a voice/unvoiced distinction judgment method, a method using low domain power and high domain power was discussed. Development has been made on exclusive ICs, a voice analyzer, and the using feeling enhancing technology. In developing a total system, a digital unit incorporated esophageal vocalization aid system was developed and improved. (NEDO)

  20. Biomechanics of windmill softball pitching with implications about injury mechanisms at the shoulder and elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrentine, S W; Fleisig, G S; Whiteside, J A; Escamilla, R F; Andrews, J R

    1998-12-01

    Underhand pitching has received minimal attention in the sports medicine literature. This may be due to the perception that, compared with overhead pitching, the underhand motion creates less stress on the arm, which results in fewer injuries. The purpose of this study was to calculate kinematic and kinetic parameters for the pitching motion used in fast pitch softball. Eight female fast pitch softball pitchers were recorded with a four-camera system (200 Hz). The results indicated that high forces and torques were experienced at the shoulder and elbow during the delivery phase. Peak compressive forces at the elbow and shoulder equal to 70-98% of body weight were produced. Shoulder extension and abduction torques equal to 9-10% of body weight x height were calculated. Elbow flexion torque was exerted to control elbow extension and initiate elbow flexion. The demand on the biceps labrum complex to simultaneously resist glenohumeral distraction and produce elbow flexion makes this structure susceptible to overuse injury.

  1. Actions in vocal health: a proposal for improving the vocal profile of teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverio, Kelly Cristina Alves; Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Penteado, Regina Zanella; Vieira, Tais Pichirilli Guilherme; Libardi, Aline; Rossi, Daniele

    2008-01-01

    several authors have pointed to the urgent need of researches and actions involving teachers, in the school environment, that have a preventive and vocal health promotion character with the purpose of improving work conditions. to analyze the vocal complaints, laryngeal symptoms, vocal habits and vocal profile of teachers of a public school before and after their participation in voice workshops. the study was divided in different steps: 1st step - closed interview, larynx and perceptive-auditory assessment in which 42 teachers were evaluated; 2nd step - voice workshops; 3rd step - perceptive-auditory reassessment in which 13 teachers were evaluated. 73% of the subjects presented vocal complaints; 57.14% presented mild to moderate hoarseness, 78.57% presented breathiness and 52.38% vocal tension. Evaluation of the larynx indicated that 75.86% of the subjects presented glottal gaps and 34.48% mucous thickening. After the voice workshops a significant difference was observed in the level of vocal tension, both in the analysis of the /e/ vowel and in the analysis of Spontaneous Speech (p = 0.0277 for p > 0.05 for both). Improvement was observed in vocal care and in the understanding of intervening and determinant factors for vocal alterations, which are present in the teaching environment. health actions, such as voice workshops, are important to trigger changes in the work environment as well as in the health of teachers.

  2. Nocturnal "humming" vocalizations: adding a piece to the puzzle of giraffe vocal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baotic, Anton; Sicks, Florian; Stoeger, Angela S

    2015-09-09

    Recent research reveals that giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis sp.) exhibit a socially structured, fission-fusion system. In other species possessing this kind of society, information exchange is important and vocal communication is usually well developed. But is this true for giraffes? Giraffes are known to produce sounds, but there is no evidence that they use vocalizations for communication. Reports on giraffe vocalizations are mainly anecdotal and the missing acoustic descriptions make it difficult to establish a call nomenclature. Despite inconclusive evidence to date, it is widely assumed that giraffes produce infrasonic vocalizations similar to elephants. In order to initiate a more detailed investigation of the vocal communication in giraffes, we collected data of captive individuals during day and night. We particularly focussed on detecting tonal, infrasonic or sustained vocalizations. We collected over 947 h of audio material in three European zoos and quantified the spectral and temporal components of acoustic signals to obtain an accurate set of acoustic parameters. Besides the known burst, snorts and grunts, we detected harmonic, sustained and frequency-modulated "humming" vocalizations during night recordings. None of the recorded vocalizations were within the infrasonic range. These results show that giraffes do produce vocalizations, which, based on their acoustic structure, might have the potential to function as communicative signals to convey information about the physical and motivational attributes of the caller. The data further reveal that the assumption of infrasonic communication in giraffes needs to be considered with caution and requires further investigations in future studies.

  3. Fastball Pitch Velocity Helps Predict Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major League Baseball Pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Peter N; Erickson, Brandon J; Ball, Brian; Romeo, Anthony A; Verma, Nikhil N

    2016-08-01

    Ulnar collateral ligament injury and its subsequent surgical reconstruction are some of the most common issues among Major League Baseball (MLB) players. The purpose of this study was to determine factors predictive of ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) among MLB pitchers. The hypothesis was that pitchers who underwent UCLR would have higher preinjury peak fastball pitch velocity. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Data on pitch velocity, number, and type (fastball, curveball, etc) for every pitcher and game within MLB from April 2, 2007 to April 14, 2015 were gathered from the publically available PitchFx database. Pitcher demographic information was also recorded. Data from after 2012 were excluded to avoid lead-time bias. Using publically available information, the names and approximate dates of surgery for every MLB pitcher who ever underwent UCLR, including those before 2007 and after 2012, were collected. Each pitcher-game was then classified as "control," "preinjury," or "postoperative." Control and preinjury pitchers were then compared to determine risk factors for UCLR. Overall, 1327 pitchers were included, of whom 309 (26.8%) had undergone UCLR. Of these, 145 had preinjury velocity data. Peak pitch velocity was significantly higher among preinjury pitchers than control pitchers (mean [95% CI], 93.3 mph [92.8-93.8] vs 92.1 mph [91.9-92.3]; P < .001), as was mean pitch velocity (87.8 mph [87.3-88.3] vs 86.9 mph [86.7-87.1]; P = .001). Both demonstrated a dose-response relationship. Although height did not differ (P = .934), weight was significantly higher for preinjury pitchers than controls (P = .005). Pitch counts per year were significantly lower for preinjury pitchers compared with control pitchers, although preinjury pitchers threw more breaking pitches (P = .003). On multivariate regression, peak pitch velocity was the primary independent predictor of whether a pitcher underwent UCLR (P < .001), with mean velocity (P = .013), body

  4. Voice Pitch Influences Perceptions of Sexual Infidelity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Connor, Jillian J.M; Re, Daniel E; Feinberg, David R

    2011-01-01

    .... Among men, testosterone is inversely related to voice pitch, relationship and offspring investment, and is positively related to the pursuit of short-term relationships, including extra-pair sex...

  5. Predicted singers' vocal fold lengths and voice classification-a study of x-ray morphological measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roers, Friederike; Mürbe, Dirk; Sundberg, Johan

    2009-07-01

    Students admitted to the solo singing education at the University of Music Dresden, Germany have been submitted to a detailed physical examination of a variety of factors with relevance to voice function since 1959. In the years 1959-1991, this scheme of examinations included X-ray profiles of the singers' vocal tracts. This material of 132 X-rays of voice professionals was used to investigate different laryngeal morphological measures and their relation to vocal fold length. Further, the study aimed to investigate if there are consistent anatomical differences between singers of different voice classifications. The study design used was a retrospective analysis. Vocal fold length could be measured in 29 of these singer subjects directly. These data showed a strong correlation with the anterior-posterior diameter of the subglottis and the trachea as well as with the distance from the anterior contour of the thyroid cartilage to the anterior contour of the spine. These relations were used in an attempt to predict the 132 singers' vocal fold lengths. The results revealed a clear covariation between predicted vocal fold length and voice classification. Anterior-posterior subglottic-tracheal diameter yielded mean vocal fold lengths of 14.9, 16.0, 16.6, 18.4, 19.5, and 20.9mm for sopranos, mezzo-sopranos, altos, tenors, baritones, and basses, respectively. The data support the assumption that there are consistent anatomical laryngeal differences between singers of different voice classifications, which are of relevance to pitch range and timbre of the voice.

  6. Fatiga laríngea: mediciones objetivas y subjetivas de la producción vocal en dos grupos de sujetos siguiendo el uso prolongado de la voz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeth Hernández J.

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe laryngeal and acoustic voice hanges associated with laryngeal fatigue (LF in a prolonged loud reading task. LF may be a symptom caused by factors affecting vocal function such as voice overuse, misuse or abuse. LF affects the pitch, intensity and quality of voice and vibratory patterns of vocal folds. Data were collected from 20 subjects in two groups -nonsingers and trained singers who did not have history of voice disorders- prior to and following experimentally induced LF. ResuIts from this compara tive analysis are presented. Findings about individual variations revealeda trend to maintain or increase vocal pitch in post-test measures. Greater hiatus in glottic closure were observed at the end of the task. However, resuIts from this study failed to show statistically significant differences between groups and moments as a result of the prolonged reading task. Relationships between acoustic and videostroboscopic measures and self-reports provided by the participants could not be clearly established. It was concluded that a twohour loud reading task at a comfortable vocalintensity,as used in this investigation, is not enough to induce vocal abuse states conducive to LF. Other possible reasons associated with the resuIts obtained are discussed.

  7. Major League Baseball pitch velocity and pitch type associated with risk of ulnar collateral ligament injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Robert A; Marshall, Nathan E; Guest, John-Michael; Okoroha, Kelechi R; Jung, Edward K; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2016-04-01

    The number of Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers requiring ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstructions is increasing. Recent literature has attempted to correlate specific stresses placed on the throwing arm to risk for UCL injury, with limited results. Eighty-three MLB pitchers who underwent primary UCL reconstruction were evaluated. Pitching velocity and percent of pitch type thrown (fastball, curve ball, slider, and change-up) were evaluated 2 years before and after surgery. Data were compared with control pitchers matched for age, position, size, innings pitched, and experience. The evaluation of pitch velocity compared with matched controls found no differences in pre-UCL reconstruction pitch velocities for fastballs (91.5 vs. 91.2 miles per hour [mph], P = .69), curveballs (78.2 vs. 77.9 mph, P = .92), sliders (83.3 vs. 83.5 mph, P = .88), or change-ups (83.9 vs. 83.8 mph, P = .96). When the percentage of pitches thrown was evaluated, UCL reconstructed pitchers pitch significantly more fastballs than controls (46.7% vs. 39.4%, P = .035). This correlated to a 2% increase in risk for UCL injury for every 1% increase in fastballs thrown. Pitching more than 48% fastballs was a significant predictor of UCL injury, because pitchers over this threshold required reconstruction (P = .006). MLB pitchers requiring UCL reconstruction do not pitch at higher velocities than matched controls, and pitch velocity does not appear to be a risk factor for UCL reconstruction. However, MLB pitchers who pitch a high percentage of fastballs may be at increased risk for UCL injury because pitching a higher percent of fastballs appears to be a risk factor for UCL reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pitch matching psychometrics in electric acoustic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Uwe; Rader, Tobias; Helbig, Silke; Bahmer, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Combined electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS) is a therapeutic option for patients with severe to profound mid- and high-frequency hearing loss while low-frequency hearing is mostly unaffected. The present study investigates bimodal pitch matching in EAS users as a function of the angular placement of electrodes. Results are compared with data obtained from previous pitch matching studies. Knowledge of electric and acoustic pitch mapping may be important for effective fitting to control the frequency range of acoustic and electric processing. Pitch adjustment experiments were conducted in eight subjects with residual hearing in the opposite ear as well as in the implanted ear. Four subjects received a standard 31.5-mm electrode array and four subjects received the shorter, more flexible 24-mm FLEX electrode array (PULSARCI100 or SONATATI100 stimulator, MED-EL, Innsbruck, Austria). The subjects' task was to listen to single-electrode stimuli presented at a fixed rate (800 pulses per second) via the cochlear implant and to adjust the frequency of the acoustic stimulus until the perceived pitch matched the perception of the electrically conveyed stimulus. Two to four of the most apical electrodes were tested depending on the range of the individual's residual hearing. Postoperative x rays (modified Stenver's view) were analyzed to compare individual pitch matching data in terms of the electrode arrays' insertion angle. The average mean frequency match for the most apical electrode 1 in EAS subjects implanted with the FLEX array was 583 Hz, while for the two subjects with a deep insertion of the 31.5-mm standard electrode array, the matches were 128 and 223 Hz. Because the residual hearing in the EAS subgroup was rather limited in the high-frequency range, a limited number of basal electrodes were assessed to determine the slope of the electric place/pitch function. A considerable variation in terms of the individual pitch function was observed. The slope of the pitch

  9. Improvement of a Vocal Fold Imaging System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauter, K. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Medical professionals can better serve their patients through continual update of their imaging tools. A wide range of pathologies and disease may afflict human vocal cords or, as they’re also known, vocal folds. These diseases can affect human speech hampering the ability of the patient to communicate. Vocal folds must be opened for breathing and the closed to produce speech. Currently methodologies to image markers of potential pathologies are difficult to use and often fail to detect early signs of disease. These current methodologies rely on a strobe light and slower frame rate camera in an attempt to obtain images as the vocal folds travel over the full extent of their motion.

  10. Functional flexibility in wild bonobo vocal behaviour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clay, Zanna; Archbold, Jahmaira; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    ... independently of context and biological function. Functional flexibility has recently been demonstrated in the vocalisations of pre-linguistic human infants, which has been contrasted to the functionally fixed vocal behaviour of non-human primates...

  11. Pitch synchronous transform warping in voice conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Vích, R. (Robert); Vondra, M. (Martin)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a new voice conversion algorithm is presented, which transforms the utterance of a source speaker into the utterance of a target speaker. The voice conversion approach is based on pitch synchronous speech analysis, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), nonlinear spectral warping with spectrum interpolation and pitch synchronous speech synthesis with overlapping using the speech production model. The DCT speech model contains also information about the phase properties of the modeled ...

  12. Effects of culture on musical pitch perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Patrick C M; Ciocca, Valter; Chan, Alice H D; Ha, Louisa Y Y; Tan, Li-Hai; Peretz, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The strong association between music and speech has been supported by recent research focusing on musicians' superior abilities in second language learning and neural encoding of foreign speech sounds. However, evidence for a double association--the influence of linguistic background on music pitch processing and disorders--remains elusive. Because languages differ in their usage of elements (e.g., pitch) that are also essential for music, a unique opportunity for examining such language-to-music associations comes from a cross-cultural (linguistic) comparison of congenital amusia, a neurogenetic disorder affecting the music (pitch and rhythm) processing of about 5% of the Western population. In the present study, two populations (Hong Kong and Canada) were compared. One spoke a tone language in which differences in voice pitch correspond to differences in word meaning (in Hong Kong Cantonese, /si/ means 'teacher' and 'to try' when spoken in a high and mid pitch pattern, respectively). Using the On-line Identification Test of Congenital Amusia, we found Cantonese speakers as a group tend to show enhanced pitch perception ability compared to speakers of Canadian French and English (non-tone languages). This enhanced ability occurs in the absence of differences in rhythmic perception and persists even after relevant factors such as musical background and age were controlled. Following a common definition of amusia (5% of the population), we found Hong Kong pitch amusics also show enhanced pitch abilities relative to their Canadian counterparts. These findings not only provide critical evidence for a double association of music and speech, but also argue for the reconceptualization of communicative disorders within a cultural framework. Along with recent studies documenting cultural differences in visual perception, our auditory evidence challenges the common assumption of universality of basic mental processes and speaks to the domain generality of culture

  13. Effects of culture on musical pitch perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick C M Wong

    Full Text Available The strong association between music and speech has been supported by recent research focusing on musicians' superior abilities in second language learning and neural encoding of foreign speech sounds. However, evidence for a double association--the influence of linguistic background on music pitch processing and disorders--remains elusive. Because languages differ in their usage of elements (e.g., pitch that are also essential for music, a unique opportunity for examining such language-to-music associations comes from a cross-cultural (linguistic comparison of congenital amusia, a neurogenetic disorder affecting the music (pitch and rhythm processing of about 5% of the Western population. In the present study, two populations (Hong Kong and Canada were compared. One spoke a tone language in which differences in voice pitch correspond to differences in word meaning (in Hong Kong Cantonese, /si/ means 'teacher' and 'to try' when spoken in a high and mid pitch pattern, respectively. Using the On-line Identification Test of Congenital Amusia, we found Cantonese speakers as a group tend to show enhanced pitch perception ability compared to speakers of Canadian French and English (non-tone languages. This enhanced ability occurs in the absence of differences in rhythmic perception and persists even after relevant factors such as musical background and age were controlled. Following a common definition of amusia (5% of the population, we found Hong Kong pitch amusics also show enhanced pitch abilities relative to their Canadian counterparts. These findings not only provide critical evidence for a double association of music and speech, but also argue for the reconceptualization of communicative disorders within a cultural framework. Along with recent studies documenting cultural differences in visual perception, our auditory evidence challenges the common assumption of universality of basic mental processes and speaks to the domain generality of

  14. Coping strategies in teachers with vocal complaint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, Fabiana; Moreti, Felipe; Behlau, Mara

    2014-05-01

    To understand the coping strategies used by teachers with vocal complaints, compare the differences between those who seek and those who do not seek voice therapy, and investigate the relationships among coping and voice perceptual analysis, coping and signs and symptoms of voice, and coping and participation restrictions and limitations in vocal activities. Cross-sectional nonrandomized prospective study with control group. Ninety female teachers participated in the study, of similar ages, divided into three groups: group 1 (G1) comprised 30 teachers with vocal complaints who sought voice therapy, group 2 (G2) comprised 30 teachers with vocal complaints who never sought voice therapy, and group 3 (G3) comprised 30 teachers without vocal complaints. The following analysis were conducted: identification and characterization questionnaire, addressing personal and occupational description, recording speech material for voice perceptual analysis, Voice Signs and Symptoms Questionnaire, Voice Activity and Participation Profile (VAPP), and Voice Disability Coping Questionnaire (VDCQ)-Brazilian Version. In relation to the voice perceptual analysis, there was statistically significant difference between the groups with vocal complaint (G1+G2), which had showed voices with mild-to-moderate deviation, and the group without vocal complaint (G1), which showed voices within the normal variability of voice quality (mean for G1 = 49.9, G2 = 43.7, and G3 = 32.3, P vocal complaints who looked for voice therapy (G1) tended to use more problem-focused strategies and had higher scores in VDCQ (G1 = 45.4, G2 = 38.5, and G3 = 9.5, P vocal deviation, VAPP total score, VAPP partial scores of self-perceived severity of voice problem, effect on daily communication, effect on emotion, and participation restriction for G1; VAPP total score and partial score of effect on daily communication for G2; and all VAPP scores for G3. No correlation was found between voice signs and

  15. Determination of football pitch locations from video footage and official pitch markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Alison; Hunter, Adam; Brown, Nicholas

    2009-06-01

    The ability to determine a specific location on a football (soccer) pitch from television footage would provide a cost-effective method of obtaining competition-specific information on many professional and international teams. This study presents the accuracy and reliability of a new method of calculating ball location from simulated television coverage and known pitch markings. The coordinates of 99 markers of known location on a football pitch were digitized from video. An intersection point was determined from the equations of two lines that form pitch markings and the relationship from this point to other known pitch coordinates was calculated using a curve-fitting based method. Average error between known and reconstructed measures was 0.21 m for pitch width and 0.11 m for pitch length from a view simulating television coverage. Inter- and intra-rater reliability analyses showed researchers could consistently reconstruct pitch locations to within less than half a metre. The accuracy and reliability of this method will be sufficient for most practical uses in an applied sport environment, although the level of accuracy required will depend on the specific application. This method could be applied to other sports to determine specific locations on a pitch or court or to improve current competition analysis systems.

  16. Perceptual Pitch Deficits Coexist with Pitch Production Difficulties in Music but Not Mandarin Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-xia eYang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital amusia is a musical disorder that mainly affects pitch perception. Among Mandarin speakers, some amusics also have difficulties in processing lexical tones (tone agnosics. To examine to what extent these perceptual deficits may be related to pitch production impairments in music and Mandarin speech, 8 amusics, 8 tone agnosics, and 12 age- and IQ-matched normal native Mandarin speakers were asked to imitate music note sequences and Mandarin words of comparable lengths. The results indicated that both the amusics and tone agnosics underperformed the controls on musical pitch production. However, tone agnosics performed no worse than the amusics, suggesting that lexical tone perception deficits may not aggravate musical pitch production difficulties. Moreover, these three groups were all able to imitate lexical tones with perfect intelligibility. Taken together, the current study shows that perceptual musical pitch and lexical tone deficits might coexist with musical pitch production difficulties. But at the same time these perceptual pitch deficits might not affect lexical tone production or the intelligibility of the speech words that were produced. The perception-production relationship for pitch among individuals with perceptual pitch deficits may be, therefore, domain-dependent.

  17. Perceptual pitch deficits coexist with pitch production difficulties in music but not Mandarin speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wu-Xia; Feng, Jie; Huang, Wan-Ting; Zhang, Cheng-Xiang; Nan, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a musical disorder that mainly affects pitch perception. Among Mandarin speakers, some amusics also have difficulties in processing lexical tones (tone agnosics). To examine to what extent these perceptual deficits may be related to pitch production impairments in music and Mandarin speech, eight amusics, eight tone agnosics, and 12 age- and IQ-matched normal native Mandarin speakers were asked to imitate music note sequences and Mandarin words of comparable lengths. The results indicated that both the amusics and tone agnosics underperformed the controls on musical pitch production. However, tone agnosics performed no worse than the amusics, suggesting that lexical tone perception deficits may not aggravate musical pitch production difficulties. Moreover, these three groups were all able to imitate lexical tones with perfect intelligibility. Taken together, the current study shows that perceptual musical pitch and lexical tone deficits might coexist with musical pitch production difficulties. But at the same time these perceptual pitch deficits might not affect lexical tone production or the intelligibility of the speech words that were produced. The perception-production relationship for pitch among individuals with perceptual pitch deficits may be, therefore, domain-dependent.

  18. Benign Lesions of The Vocal Fold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Surmelioglu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Benign lesions of vocal folds are common disorders. Fifty percent of patients who have sound complaints are found to have these lesions after endoscopic and stroboscopic examinations. Benign vocal fold diseases are primarily caused by vibratory trauma. However they may also occur as a result of viral infections and congenital causes. These lesions are often presented with the complaints of dysphonia. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 86-95

  19. Laryngeal and vocal alterations after thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyomasa, Renata Mizusaki; Tagliarini, José Vicente; Rodrigues, Sérgio Augusto; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes; Martins, Regina Helena Garcia

    2017-09-21

    Dysphonia is a common symptom after thyroidectomy. To analyze the vocal symptoms, auditory-perceptual and acoustic vocal, videolaryngoscopy, the surgical procedures and histopathological findings in patients undergoing thyroidectomy. Prospective study. Patients submitted to thyroidectomy were evaluated as follows: anamnesis, laryngoscopy, and acoustic vocal assessments. Moments: pre-operative, 1st post (15 days), 2nd post (1 month), 3rd post (3 months), and 4th post (6 months). Among the 151 patients (130 women; 21 men). Type of surgery: lobectomy+isthmectomy n=40, total thyroidectomy n=88, thyroidectomy+lymph node dissection n=23. Vocal symptoms were reported by 42 patients in the 1st post (27.8%) decreasing to 7.2% after 6 months. In the acoustic analysis, f0 and APQ were decreased in women. Videolaryngoscopies showed that 144 patients (95.3%) had normal exams in the preoperative moment. Vocal fold palsies were diagnosed in 34 paralyzes at the 1st post, 32 recurrent laryngeal nerve (lobectomy+isthmectomy n=6; total thyroidectomy n=17; thyroidectomy+lymph node dissection n=9) and 2 superior laryngeal nerve (lobectomy+isthmectomy n=1; Total thyroidectomy+lymph node dissection n=1). After 6 months, 10 patients persisted with paralysis of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (6.6%). Histopathology and correlation with vocal fold palsy: colloid nodular goiter (n=76; palsy n=13), thyroiditis (n=8; palsy n=0), and carcinoma (n=67; palsy n=21). Vocal symptoms, reported by 27.8% of the patients on the 1st post decreased to 7% in 6 months. In the acoustic analysis, f0 and APQ were decreased. Transient paralysis of the vocal folds secondary to recurrent and superior laryngeal nerve injury occurred in, respectively, 21% and 1.3% of the patients, decreasing to 6.6% and 0% after 6 months. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Childhood height, adult height, and the risk of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lise Geisler; Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    through linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. Direct and total effects of childhood height on prostate cancer risk were estimated from Cox regressions. RESULTS: From 1996 to 2012, 429 prostate cancers occurred. Child and adult heights were positively and significantly associated with prostate cancer risk.......15 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.32]. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of height at 13 years on the risk of prostate cancer was not entirely mediated through adult height, suggesting that child height and adult height may be associated with prostate cancer through different pathways.......PURPOSE: We previously showed that childhood height is positively associated with prostate cancer risk. It is, however, unknown whether childhood height exerts its effects independently of or through adult height. We investigated whether and to what extent childhood height has a direct effect...

  1. Multi-pitch Estimation using Semidefinite Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Vandenberghe, Lieven

    2017-01-01

    Multi-pitch estimation concerns the problem of estimating the fundamental frequencies (pitches) and amplitudes/phases of multiple superimposed harmonic signals with application in music, speech, vibration analysis etc. In this paper we formulate a complex-valued multi-pitch estimator via a semide......Multi-pitch estimation concerns the problem of estimating the fundamental frequencies (pitches) and amplitudes/phases of multiple superimposed harmonic signals with application in music, speech, vibration analysis etc. In this paper we formulate a complex-valued multi-pitch estimator via...... a semidefinite programming representation of an atomic decomposition over a continuous dictionary of complex exponentials and extend this to real-valued data via a real semidefinite pro-ram with the same dimensions (i.e. half the size). We further impose a continuous frequency constraint naturally occurring from...... assuming a Nyquist sampled signal by adding an additional semidefinite constraint. We show that the proposed estimator has superior performance compared to state- of-the-art methods for separating two closely spaced fundamentals and approximately achieves the asymptotic Cramér-Rao lower bound....

  2. On the Perceptual Subprocess of Absolute Pitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Goo Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Absolute pitch (AP is the rare ability of musicians to identify the pitch of tonal sound without external reference. While there have been behavioral and neuroimaging studies on the characteristics of AP, how the AP is implemented in human brains remains largely unknown. AP can be viewed as comprising of two subprocesses: perceptual (processing auditory input to extract a pitch chroma and associative (linking an auditory representation of pitch chroma with a verbal/non-verbal label. In this review, we focus on the nature of the perceptual subprocess of AP. Two different models on how the perceptual subprocess works have been proposed: either via absolute pitch categorization (APC or based on absolute pitch memory (APM. A major distinction between the two views is that whether the AP uses unique auditory processing (i.e., APC that exists only in musicians with AP or it is rooted in a common phenomenon (i.e., APM, only with heightened efficiency. We review relevant behavioral and neuroimaging evidence that supports each notion. Lastly, we list open questions and potential ideas to address them.

  3. Vocal efficiency measurements in subjects with vocal polyps and nodules: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jack; Stern, Jennifer; Chen, Hui-Jun; Solomon, Nancy Pearl

    2004-04-01

    Vocal efficiency is a quantitative measure of the ability of the larynx to convert subglottal power to acoustic power. On the basis of the scant previous literature and clinical intuition, we tested the hypothesis that vocal efficiency, as an indicator of the functional status of the larynx, is abnormally reduced in persons with vocal nodules and polyps. Because the most difficult aspect of obtaining measures of vocal efficiency has been the determination of subglottal pressure, we applied a noninvasive airflow interruption technique for this purpose. Subjects with normal voices (n = 22), vocal polyps (n = 14), and vocal nodules (n = 16) phonated at different intensities into a mask connected by way of piping to a flow meter, a pressure transducer, and an acoustic microphone. Inflation of a balloon-type valve located within the piping provided interruption of phonation. The intraoral pressure plateau occurring during flow interruption was used to estimate subglottal pressure. Subglottal power and acoustic power were determined, and their quotient provided a measure of vocal efficiency. The vocal efficiency in the normal subjects averaged 1.15 x 10(-5) at 70 dB, 3.17 x 10(-5) at 75 dB, 7.52 x 10(-5) at 80 dB, and 1.41 x 10(-4) at 85 dB. The vocal efficiency in the patients with vocal polyps averaged 3.62 x 10(-6) at 70 dB, 8.34 x 10(-6) at 75 dB, 2.10 x 10(-5) at 80 dB, and 4.26 x 10(-5) at 85 dB. The vocal efficiency in the patients with vocal nodules averaged 4.32 x 10(-6) at 70 dB, 1.57 x 10(-5) at 75 dB, 4.26 x 10(-5) at 80 dB, and 8.34 x 10(-5) at 85 dB. As compared to the normal subjects, the patients with laryngeal polyps or vocal nodules had significantly reduced vocal efficiency. These results provide quantitative verification of the clinical impression of inefficient phonation in patients with mass lesions of the vocal folds.

  4. Vocal health fitness to different music styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cláudia Mendes Caminha Muniz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present genres and styles currently running on western music scene, focusing on the practice of singing voice. Methods: An observational and documental study for which were selected sound sources presenting musical genres and styles that are part of the experience of the researchers, which were analyzed considering origins, formative elements and vocal features. Alongside we carried out a review of literature grounded in databases research and free review of websites and classical books of the area. Results: The selected styles (Rock and Roll, Heavy Metal, Trash Metal, Grunge, Gothic Metal, Rap, Funk, Blues, R&B – Rhythm and Blues, Soul, Gospel, MPB, Samba, Forro, Sertanejo, Bossa Nova, Opera and Chamber Music were described, pointing the reasons for the speech therapist to be informed about them and about singing voice aspects. His guidance may minimize possible vocal damage caused by each style, since each of them carries its own patterns to which the interpreter must submit. Conclusions: We conclude that the singer will use a specific vocal pattern that resembles the musical style he intends to sing, regardless of any harm it may or may not cause to vocal health. When choosing a musical style, it is important that the singer has the knowledge and understanding of how the use of his vocal apparatus will cause or not cause injury to his voice. Also be aware that the technique in singing is necessary for vocal longevity.

  5. Vowel harmonic amplitude differences in persons with vocal nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radish Kumar, B; Bhat, Jayashree S; Mukhi, Payal

    2011-09-01

    Spectrum is a fast Fourier transform-generated power spectrum extracted from the speech sample. It is reported to provide a quantitative acoustic index of the degree of glottal abduction and adduction in voices perceived to be breathy or pressed. In the present study, it was hypothesized that there would be abnormal reduction of higher harmonic amplitudes relative to the amplitude of the first harmonics in the subjects with vocal nodules and hence the present study was carried out. One hundred twenty participants were divided into clinical group and control group. They were instructed to phonate /a/ at their most comfortable pitch and loudness. Fourier transformation of the recorded acoustic signal was first performed to create a spectrum. Amplitudes were measured for the first and second harmonics (H1 and H2) as well as the harmonics at the first, second, and third formants (A1, A2, and A3) using the Computerized Speech Science Lab (Kay Pentax, Lincoln, NJ). There was a significant difference between the means of two groups for all the parameters, such as H1-H2, H1-A1, H1-A2, and H1-A3 at PVoice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermal Reactivity and Structure of Carbonized Binder Pitches

    OpenAIRE

    Madshus, Stian

    2005-01-01

    Pitches are used on a large scale in the manufacture of carbon anodes for the production of primary aluminium. The role of the pitch is to act as a binder between the petroleum coke grains. The structure of the carbonized pitch binder (pitch coke) has an important impact on the overall performance of the anode. Even though the binder pitch is the minor constituent in an anode, it is impossible to make a good quality anode without a good quality binder pitch. Pitch is an extremely complex ...

  7. Verification of two minimally invasive methods for the estimation of the contact pressure in human vocal folds during phonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Jen; Mongeau, Luc

    2011-09-01

    The contact pressure on the vocal fold surface during high pitch or amplitude voice production is believed to be one major source of phonotrauma. Models for the quantitative estimate of the contact pressure may be valuable for prevention and treatment. Various indirect and minimally invasive approaches have been purported to estimate contact pressure. But the accuracy of these methods has not yet been objectively verified in controlled laboratory settings. In the present study, two indirect approaches for the estimation of the contact pressure were investigated. One is based on a Hertzian impact model, and the other on a finite element model. A probe microphone was used for direct measurements of the contact pressure and verifications of the indirect approaches. A silicone replica of human vocal folds was used as a test bed. Consistent contact pressure estimations were obtained using all three methods. The advantages and disadvantages of each approach for eventual clinical applications are described. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  8. Afferents from vocal motor and respiratory effectors are recruited during vocal production in juvenile songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottjer, Sarah W; To, Michelle

    2012-08-08

    Learned behaviors require coordination of diverse sensory inputs with motivational and motor systems. Although mechanisms underlying vocal learning in songbirds have focused primarily on auditory inputs, it is likely that sensory inputs from vocal effectors also provide essential feedback. We investigated the role of somatosensory and respiratory inputs from vocal effectors of juvenile zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) during the stage of sensorimotor integration when they are learning to imitate a previously memorized tutor song. We report that song production induced expression of the immediate early gene product Fos in trigeminal regions that receive hypoglossal afferents from the tongue and syrinx (the main vocal organ). Furthermore, unilateral lesion of hypoglossal afferents greatly diminished singing-induced Fos expression on the side ipsilateral to the lesion, but not on the intact control side. In addition, unilateral lesion of the vagus reduced Fos expression in the ipsilateral nucleus of the solitary tract in singing birds. Lesion of the hypoglossal nerve to the syrinx greatly disrupted vocal behavior, whereas lesion of the hypoglossal nerve to the tongue exerted no obvious disruption and lesions of the vagus caused some alterations to song behavior. These results provide the first functional evidence that somatosensory and respiratory feedback from peripheral effectors is activated during vocal production and conveyed to brainstem regions. Such feedback is likely to play an important role in vocal learning during sensorimotor integration in juvenile birds and in maintaining stereotyped vocal behavior in adults.

  9. Stuttering: A novel bullfrog vocalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Andrea; Suggs, Dianne

    2004-05-01

    The advertisement call of male bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) consists of a series of individual croaks, each of which contains multiple harmonics with a missing or attenuated fundamental frequency of approximately 100 Hz. The envelope of individual croaks has typically been represented in the literature as smooth and unmodulated. From an analysis of 5251 advertisement calls from 17 different choruses over two mating seasons, we show that males add an extra modulation (around 4 Hz) to the envelope of individual croaks, following specific rules. We term these extra modulations stutters. Neither single croak calls nor the first croak in multiple croak calls contains stutters. When stuttering begins, it does so with a croak containing a single stutter, and the number of stutters increases linearly (plus or minus 1 stutter, up to 4 stutters) with the number of croaks. This pattern is stable across individual males (N=10). Playback experiments reveal that vocal responses to stuttered and nonstuttered calls vary with proximity to the stimulus. Close males respond with nonstuttered calls, while far males respond with stuttered calls. The data suggest that nonstuttered calls are used for aggressive or territorial purposes, while stuttered calls are used to attract females.

  10. Memory for pitch in congenital amusia: beyond a fine-grained pitch discrimination problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Victoria Jane; Stewart, Lauren

    2010-08-01

    Congenital amusia is a disorder that affects the perception and production of music. While amusia has been associated with deficits in pitch discrimination, several reports suggest that memory deficits also play a role. The present study investigated short-term memory span for pitch-based and verbal information in 14 individuals with amusia and matched controls. Analogous adaptive-tracking procedures were used to generate tone and digit spans using stimuli that exceeded psychophysically measured pitch perception thresholds. Individuals with amusia had significantly smaller tone spans, whereas their digits spans were a similar size to those of controls. An automated operation span task was used to determine working memory capacity. Working memory deficits were seen in only a small subgroup of individuals with amusia. These findings support the existence of a pitch-specific component within short-term memory and suggest that congenital amusia is more than a disorder of fine-grained pitch discrimination.

  11. Pitch perception deficits in nonverbal learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Prieto, I; Caprile, C; Tinoco-González, D; Ristol-Orriols, B; López-Sala, A; Póo-Argüelles, P; Pons, F; Navarra, J

    2016-12-01

    The nonverbal learning disability (NLD) is a neurological dysfunction that affects cognitive functions predominantly related to the right hemisphere such as spatial and abstract reasoning. Previous evidence in healthy adults suggests that acoustic pitch (i.e., the relative difference in frequency between sounds) is, under certain conditions, encoded in specific areas of the right hemisphere that also encode the spatial elevation of external objects (e.g., high vs. low position). Taking this evidence into account, we explored the perception of pitch in preadolescents and adolescents with NLD and in a group of healthy participants matched by age, gender, musical knowledge and handedness. Participants performed four speeded tests: a stimulus detection test and three perceptual categorization tests based on colour, spatial position and pitch. Results revealed that both groups were equally fast at detecting visual targets and categorizing visual stimuli according to their colour. In contrast, the NLD group showed slower responses than the control group when categorizing space (direction of a visual object) and pitch (direction of a change in sound frequency). This pattern of results suggests the presence of a subtle deficit at judging pitch in NLD along with the traditionally-described difficulties in spatial processing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Vocal effort and voice handicap among teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Márcio Cardoso; dos Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Porto, Lauro Antonio; Araújo, Tânia Maria

    2012-11-01

    The relationship between voice handicap and professional vocal effort was investigated among teachers in a cross-sectional study of census nature on 4496 teachers within the public elementary education network in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Voice handicap (the outcome of interest) was evaluated using the Voice Handicap Index 10. The main exposure, the lifetime vocal effort index, was obtained as the product of the number of years working as a teacher multiplied by the mean weekly working hours. The prevalence of voice handicap was 28.8% among teachers with high professional vocal effort and 21.3% among those with acceptable vocal effort, thus yielding a crude prevalence ratio (PR) of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.14-1.61). In the final logistic model, the prevalence of voice handicap was statistically associated with the professional vocal effort index (PR=1.47; 95% CI=1.19-1.82), adjusted according to sex, microphone availability in the classroom, excessive noise, pressure from the school management, heartburn, and rhinitis. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Phonosurgery of vocal fold polyps, cysts and nodules is beneficial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jane Bjerg; Rasmussen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    This study reports our experience with microscopic phonosurgery (PS) of benign lesions of the vocal folds.......This study reports our experience with microscopic phonosurgery (PS) of benign lesions of the vocal folds....

  14. Fundamental frequency, phonation maximum time and vocal complaints in morbidly obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    de SOUZA, Lourdes Bernadete Rocha; PEREIRA, Rayane Medeiros; dos SANTOS, Marquiony Marques; GODOY, Cynthia Meida de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Background Obese people have abnormal deposition of fat in the vocal tract that can interfere with the acoustic voice. Aim To relate the fundamental frequency, the maximum phonation time and voice complaints from a group of morbidly obese women. Methods Observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study that included 44 morbidly obese women, mean age of 42.45 (±10.31) years old, observational group and 30 women without obesity, control group, with 33.79 (±4.51)years old. The voice recording was done in a quiet environment, on a laptop using the program ANAGRAF acoustic analysis of speech sounds. To extract the values ​​of fundamental frequency the subjects were asked to produce vowel [a] at usual intensity for a period in average of three seconds. After the voice recording, participants were prompted to produce sustained vowel [ a] , [ i] and [ u] at usual intensity and height, using a stopwatch to measure the time that each participant could hold each vowel. Results The majority, 31(70.5%), had vocal complaints, with a higher percentage for complaints of vocal fatigue 20(64.51%) and voice failures 19(61.29%) followed by dryness of the throat in 15 (48.38%) and effort to speak 13(41.93%). There was no statistically significant difference regarding the mean fundamental frequency of the voice in both groups, but there was significance between the two groups regarding maximum phonation. Conclusion Increased adipose tissue in the vocal tract interfered in the vocal parameters. PMID:24676298

  15. Effects of speech style, room acoustics, and vocal fatigue on vocal effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottalico, Pasquale; Graetzer, Simone; Hunter, Eric J

    2016-05-01

    Vocal effort is a physiological measure that accounts for changes in voice production as vocal loading increases. It has been quantified in terms of sound pressure level (SPL). This study investigates how vocal effort is affected by speaking style, room acoustics, and short-term vocal fatigue. Twenty subjects were recorded while reading a text at normal and loud volumes in anechoic, semi-reverberant, and reverberant rooms in the presence of classroom babble noise. The acoustics in each environment were modified by creating a strong first reflection in the talker position. After each task, the subjects answered questions addressing their perception of the vocal effort, comfort, control, and clarity of their own voice. Variation in SPL for each subject was measured per task. It was found that SPL and self-reported effort increased in the loud style and decreased when the reflective panels were present and when reverberation time increased. Self-reported comfort and control decreased in the loud style, while self-reported clarity increased when panels were present. The lowest magnitude of vocal fatigue was experienced in the semi-reverberant room. The results indicate that early reflections may be used to reduce vocal effort without modifying reverberation time.

  16. A virtual trajectory model predicts differences in vocal fold kinematics in individuals with vocal hyperfunction1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Cara E.; Hillman, Robert E.; Heaton, James T.

    2010-01-01

    A simple, one degree of freedom virtual trajectory model of vocal fold kinematics was developed to investigate whether kinematic features of vocal fold movement confirm increased muscle stiffness. Model simulations verified that increases in stiffness were associated with changes in kinematic parameters, suggesting that increases in gesture rate would affect kinematic features to a lesser degree in vocal hyperfunction patients given the increased levels of muscle tension they typically employ to phonate. This hypothesis was tested experimentally in individuals with muscle tension dysphonia (MTD; N=10) and vocal nodules (N=10) relative to controls with healthy normal voice (N=10) who were examined with trans-nasal endoscopy during a simple vocal fold abductory-adductory task. Kinematic measures in MTD patients were less affected by increased gesture rate, consistent with the hypothesis that these individuals have elevated typical laryngeal muscle tension. Group comparisons of the difference between medium and fast gesture rates (Mann–Whitney, one-tailed) showed statistically significant differences between the control and MTD individuals on the two kinematic features examined (pnodules participants were mixed and are discussed independently. The findings support the potential use of vocal fold kinematics as an objective clinical assay of vocal hyperfunction. PMID:21117765

  17. Effects of Voice Therapy on Vocal Acoustic Characteristics in Patients With Vocal Cord Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunos Amiri Shavaki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Vocal cord nodule is one of the voice disorders causes hoarseness and breathy voice. Voice therapy is one of the treatment approaches. We aimed to find out the effects of voice therapy on vocal acoustic characteristics in these patients.Methods: In this case series, five women with vocal nodule (14 to 45-year-old participated in a 9-week voice therapy program developed by Boone. Vocal hygiene and voice practices were measured every day using a questionnaire. Moreover, structure and movements of vocal folds were examined using videolaryngostroboscope by a laryngologist before and after voice therapy to evaluate the effectiveness of program. For collecting voice samples we used sustained /æ/ in comfortable loudness for all patients and data were analyzed using Speech Studio.Results: After voice therapy, fundamental frequency in four of five subjects were decreased but it was not significant (p=0.225. However, jitter in all of five subjects was significantly decreased (p=0.043. After voice therapy, shimmer in three of five subjects were decreased that was not significant (p=0.345.Conclusion: Voice therapy can be used for the remedy of acoustic vocal characteristics and elimination or contraction of vocal cord nodule.

  18. An investigation into vocal expressions of emotions: the roles of valence, culture, and acoustic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Disa

    This PhD is an investigation of vocal expressions of emotions, mainly focusing on non-verbal sounds such as laughter, cries and sighs. The research examines the roles of categorical and dimensional factors, the contributions of a number of acoustic cues, and the influence of culture. A series of studies established that naive listeners can reliably identify non-verbal vocalisations of positive and negative emotions in forced-choice and rating tasks. Some evidence for underlying dimensions of arousal and valence is found, although each emotion had a discrete expression. The role of acoustic characteristics of the sounds is investigated experimentally and analytically. This work shows that the cues used to identify different emotions vary, although pitch and pitch variation play a central role. The cues used to identify emotions in non-verbal vocalisations differ from the cues used when comprehending speech. An additional set of studies using stimuli consisting of emotional speech demonstrates that these sounds can also be reliably identified, and rely on similar acoustic cues. A series of studies with a pre-literate Namibian tribe shows that non-verbal vocalisations can be recognized across cultures. An fMRI study carried out to investigate the neural processing of non-verbal vocalisations of emotions is presented. The results show activation in pre-motor regions arising from passive listening to non-verbal emotional vocalisations, suggesting neural auditory-motor interactions in the perception of these sounds. In sum, this thesis demonstrates that non-verbal vocalisations of emotions are reliably identifiable tokens of information that belong to discrete categories. These vocalisations are recognisable across vastly different cultures and thus seem to, like facial expressions of emotions, comprise human universals. Listeners rely mainly on pitch and pitch variation to identify emotions in non verbal vocalisations, which differs with the cues used to comprehend

  19. Automatic Classification of Cetacean Vocalizations Using an Aural Classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    the Gulf of Mexico . A set of pre-recorded bowhead and humpback whale vocalizations and a set of synthetic bowhead and humpback vocalizations were...vocalizations primarily from four1 cetacean species – the sperm whale , northern right whale , the bowhead whale and the humpback whale . These species...with the classifier as time permits. For example, Minke whale vocalizations, available on the Mobysound website, were the focal topic for the 5th

  20. Vocal Hygiene Habits and Vocal Handicap Among Conservatory Students of Classical Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achey, Meredith A; He, Mike Z; Akst, Lee M

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to assess classical singing students' compliance with vocal hygiene practices identified in the literature and to explore the relationship between self-reported vocal hygiene practice and self-reported singing voice handicap in this population. The primary hypothesis was that increased attention to commonly recommended vocal hygiene practices would correlate with reduced singing voice handicap. This is a cross-sectional, survey-based study. An anonymous survey assessing demographics, attention to 11 common vocal hygiene recommendations in both performance and nonperformance periods, and the Singing Voice Handicap Index 10 (SVHI-10) was distributed to classical singing teachers to be administered to their students at two major schools of music. Of the 215 surveys distributed, 108 were returned (50.2%), of which 4 were incomplete and discarded from analysis. Conservatory students of classical singing reported a moderate degree of vocal handicap (mean SVHI-10, 12; range, 0-29). Singers reported considering all 11 vocal hygiene factors more frequently when preparing for performances than when not preparing for performances. Of these, significant correlations with increased handicap were identified for consideration of stress reduction in nonperformance (P = 0.01) and performance periods (P = 0.02) and with decreased handicap for consideration of singing voice use in performance periods alone (P = 0.02). Conservatory students of classical singing report more assiduous attention to vocal hygiene practices when preparing for performances and report moderate degrees of vocal handicap overall. These students may have elevated risk for dysphonia and voice disorders which is not effectively addressed through common vocal hygiene recommendations alone. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Vocal Health Education and Medical Resources for Graduate-Level Vocal Performance Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Katherine; Messing, Barbara; Bidlack, Melissa; Merritt, Samantha; Zhou, Xian; Akst, Lee M

    2017-03-01

    Most agree that education about vocal health and physiology can help singers avoid the development of vocal disorders. However, little is known about how this kind of education is provided to singers as part of their formal training. This study describes the amount of instruction in these topics provided through graduate-level curricula, who provides this instruction, and the kinds of affiliations such graduate singing programs have with medical professionals. This is an online survey of music schools with graduate singing programs. Survey questions addressed demographics of the programs, general attitudes about vocal health instruction for singers, the amount of vocal health instruction provided and by whom it was taught, perceived barriers to including more vocal health instruction, and any affiliations the voice program might have with medical personnel. Eighty-one survey responses were received. Instruction on vocal health was provided in 95% of the schools. In 55% of the schools, none of this instruction was given by a medical professional. Limited time in the curriculum, lack of financial support, and lack of availability of medical professional were the most frequently reported barriers to providing more instruction. When programs offered more hours of instruction, they were more likely to have some of that instruction given by a medical professional (P = 0.008) and to assess the amount of instruction provided positively (P = 0.001). There are several perceived barriers to incorporating vocal health education into graduate singing programs. Opportunity exists for more collaboration between vocal pedagogues and medical professionals in the education of singers about vocal health. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Absolute pitch in Costa Rica: Distribution of pitch identification ability and implications for its genetic basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarria-Soley, Gabriela

    2016-08-01

    Absolute pitch is the unusual ability to recognize a pitch without an external reference. The current view is that both environmental and genetic factors are involved in the acquisition of the trait. In the present study, 127 adult musicians were subjected to a musical tone identification test. Subjects were university music students and volunteers who responded to a newspaper article. The test consisted of the identification of 40 piano and 40 pure tones. Subjects were classified in three categories according to their pitch naming ability: absolute pitch (AP), high accuracy of tone identification (HA), and non-absolute pitch (non-AP). Both the percentage of correct responses and the mean absolute deviation showed a statistically significant variation between categories. A very clear pattern of higher accuracy for white than for black key notes was observed for the HA and the non-AP groups. Meanwhile, the AP group had an almost perfect pitch naming accuracy for both kinds of tones. Each category presented a very different pattern of deviation around the correct response. The age at the beginning of musical training did not differ between categories. The distribution of pitch identification ability in this study suggests a complex inheritance of the trait.

  3. ETIOLOGICAL FACTORS FOR VOCAL FOLD POLYP FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAŠA GLUVAJIĆ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vocal fold polyp is one of the most common causes for hoarseness. Many different etiological factors contribute to vocal fold polyp formation. The aim of the study was to find out whether the etiological factors for polyp formation have changed in the last 30 years.Methods: Eighty-one patients with unilateral vocal fold polyp were included in the study. A control group was composed of 50 volunteers without voice problems who matched the patients by age and gender. The data about etiological factors and the findings of phoniatric examination were obtained from the patients' medical documentation and from the questionnaires for the control group. The incidence of etiological factors was compared between the two groups. The program SPSS, Version 18 was used for statistical analysis.Results: The most frequent etiological factors were occupational voice load, GER, allergy and smoking. In 79% of patients 2 – 6 contemporary acting risk factors were found. Occupational voice load (p=0,018 and GER (p=0,004 were significantly more frequent in the patients than in the controls. The other factors did not significantly influence the polyp formation.Conclusions: There are several factors involved simultaneously in the formation of vocal fold polyps both nowadays and 30 years ago. Some of the most common factors remain the same (voice load, smoking, others are new (GER, allergy, which is probably due to the different lifestyle and working conditions than 30 years ago. Occupational voice load and GER were significantly more frequently present in the patients with polyp than in the control group. Regarding the given results it is important to instruct workers with professional vocal load about etiological factors for vocal fold polyp formation.

  4. Check Vocal: A program to facilitate checking the accuracy and response time of vocal responses from DMDX

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Protopapas, Athanassios

    2007-01-01

    CheckVocal is a Windows application that facilitates checking the accuracy and response time of recorded vocal responses in naming and other experimental tasks using the DMDX display and response collection software...

  5. CheckVocal: a program to facilitate checking the accuracy and response time of vocal responses from DMDX

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Protopapas, Athanassios

    2007-01-01

    CheckVocal is a Windows application that facilitates checking the accuracy and response time of recorded vocal responses in naming and other experimental tasks using the DMDX display and response collection software...

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTROLLED PITCH NANO ARRAYS FOR APPLICATION IN NANO SCALE BASED PROPORTIONAL COUNTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sexton, L.; Serkiz, S.; Siegfried, M.

    2010-06-07

    Proportional counters (PCs) are a type of gas-filled radiation detection device capable of distinguishing between a wide range of radiation types and energies. In this application, however, these devices are limited by high power consumption and high bias potentials required to operate in the proportional detection regime. Previous work performed with a single carbon nanotube (CNT) anode has shown that nanoscale-based PCs can operate at bias potentials of 10V rather than the 1000V range required for PCs. ''Proof of concept'' experiments with a single CNT as the anode exhibit a small detection volume and consequently required long count times (24 hrs). To make this a practical detector technology (i.e., decrease the count time), the effective detection volume has to be increased. Experimental data and electric field modeling show that if the pitch (spacing between individual nanotubes) of the arrays is too small, the electric field of the individual nanostructure will collapse and the nanoscale array will behaved as a single macro-scale field with the associated high bias potential required to reach the proportional region. Electric-field modeling of the affect of nanostructure pitch on the electric field distribution of these arrays predicted that a pitch of about two-and-a-times the height of the nanostructure was required to retain the nanoscale electric field. In this work, we report on the fabrication and electrical property testing of nanoscale arrays with a range of controlled pitches.

  7. Automated Assessment of Child Vocalization Development Using LENA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jeffrey A.; Xu, Dongxin; Gilkerson, Jill; Yapanel, Umit; Gray, Sharmistha; Paul, Terrance

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To produce a novel, efficient measure of children's expressive vocal development on the basis of automatic vocalization assessment (AVA), child vocalizations were automatically identified and extracted from audio recordings using Language Environment Analysis (LENA) System technology. Method: Assessment was based on full-day audio…

  8. Angyomatous vocal polypus: a complete spontaneous regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmir Américo Lourenço

    Full Text Available The authors describe a male patient who had malignant lymphoma seven years ago which remitted with chemotherapy.Two years ago he developed dysphonia. An unilateral, pediculate smooth red lesion on the right vocal fold was later discovered. Even without benefit of medicamentosus treatment, the patient refused surgery. In a reevaluation using rigid telescopy of the larynx two years later, the lesion had disappeared, completely and spontaneously. As there are no existing publications on this topic, this case report is an alert that surgery should be recommended with extreme caution in this type of vocal disease.

  9. The Importance of Vocal Parameters Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Ghisa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To analyze communication we need to study the main parameters that describe the vocal sounds from the point of view of information content transfer efficiency. In this paper we analyze the physical quality of the “on air" information transfer, according to the audio streaming parameters and from the particular phonetic nature of the human factor. Applying this statistical analysis we aim to identify and record the correlation level of the acoustical parameters with the vocal ones and the impact which the presence of this cross-correlation can have on communication structures’ improvement.

  10. VOCAL SEGMENT CLASSIFICATION IN POPULAR MUSIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling; Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the vocal and non-vocal music classification problem within popular songs. A newly built labeled database covering 147 popular songs is announced. It is designed for classifying signals from 1sec time windows. Features are selected for this particular task, in order to capture...... both the temporal correlations and the dependencies among the feature dimensions. We systematically study the performance of a set of classifiers, including linear regression, generalized linear model, Gaussian mixture model, reduced kernel orthonormalized partial least squares and {K-}means on cross...

  11. MARATHON DESPITE UNILATERAL VOCAL FOLD PARALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Echternach

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The principal symptoms of unilateral vocal fold paralysis are hoarseness and difficulty in swallowing. Dyspnea is comparatively rare (Laccourreye et al., 2003. The extent to which unilateral vocal fold paralysis may lead to respiratory problems at all - in contrast to bilateral vocal fold paralysis- has not yet well been determined. On the one hand, inspiration is impaired with unilateral vocal fold paralysis; on the other hand, neither the position of the vocal fold paralysis nor the degree of breathiness correlates with respiratory parameters (Cantarella et al., 2003; 2005. The question of what respiratory stress a patient with a vocal fold paresis can endure has not yet been dealt with.A 43 year-old female patient was suffering from recurrent unspecific respiratory complaints for four months after physical activity. During training for a marathon, she experienced no difficulty in breathing. These unspecific respiratory complaints occurred only after athletic activity and persisted for hours. The patient observed neither an increased coughing nor a stridor. Her voice remained unaltered during the attacks, nor were there any signs of a symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux or infectious disease. A cardio-pulmonary and a radiological examination by means of an X-ray of the thorax also revealed no pathological phenomena. As antiallergic and antiobstructive therapy remained unsuccessful, a laryngological examination was performed in order to exclude a vocal cord dysfunction.Surprisingly enough, the laryngostroboscopy showed, as an initial description, a vocal fold paralysis of the left vocal fold in median position (Figure 1. The anamnestic background for the cause was unclear. The only clue was a thoracotomy on the left side due to a pleuritis in childhood. A subsequent laryngoscopic examination had never been performed. Good mucosa waves and amplitudes were shown bilateral with complete glottal closure. Neither in the acoustic analysis, nor in the

  12. Meaning and emotion in animal vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfarth, Robert M; Cheney, Dorothy L

    2003-12-01

    Historically, a dichotomy has been drawn between the semantic communication of human language and the apparently emotional calls of animals. Current research paints a more complicated picture. Just as scientists have identified elements of human speech that reflect a speaker's emotions, field experiments have shown that the calls of many animals provide listeners with information about objects and events in the environment. Like human speech, therefore, animal vocalizations simultaneously provide others with information that is both semantic and emotional. In support of this conclusion, we review the results of field experiments on the natural vocalizations of African vervet monkeys, diana monkeys, baboons, and suricates (a South African mongoose). Vervet and diana monkeys give acoustically distinct alarm calls in response to the presence of leopards, eagles, and snakes. Each alarm call type elicits a different, adaptive response from others nearby. Field experiments demonstrate that listeners compare these vocalizations not just according to their acoustic properties but also according to the information they convey. Like monkeys, suricates give acoustically distinct alarm calls in response to different predators. Within each predator class, the calls also differ acoustically according to the signaler's perception of urgency. Like speech, therefore, suricate alarm calls convey both semantic and emotional information. The vocalizations of baboons, like those of many birds and mammals, are individually distinctive. As a result, when one baboon hears a sequence of calls exchanged between two or more individuals, the listener acquires information about social events in its group. Baboons, moreover, are skilled "eavesdroppers:" their response to different call sequences provides evidence of the sophisticated information they acquire from other individuals' vocalizations. Baboon males give loud "wahoo" calls during competitive displays. Like other vocalizations, these

  13. [Discrimination of musical pitch with cochlear implants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haumann, S; Mühler, R; Ziese, M; von Specht, H

    2007-08-01

    Numerous people with cochlear implants (CI) report difficulties in listening to music even though they understand speech quite well. One reason for this is a limited perception of pitch and timbre. In this study ability of adult CI subjects to discriminate musical pitch is investigated. In two psychoacoustic experiments, each conducted in 10 adult CI subjects provided with MED-EL Combi 40+ cochlear implant devices and a control group of subjects with normal hearing, individual discrimination abilities for musical pitch perception were determined. To investigate the influence of the group of instruments on discrimination ability, stimuli representing four different groups of instruments were used: woodwind (clarinet), brass (trumpet), strings (violin) and keyboard instruments (piano). The discrimination thresholds determined varied between individual CI subjects, and on average they were significantly higher for the piano than for the other three instruments. The results show that in subjects with CI pitch perception differs from instrument to instrument and is in general worse than in persons with normal hearing.

  14. Individual blade pitch for yaw control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navalkar, S.T.; Van Wingerden, J.W.; Van Kuik, G.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Individual pitch control (IPC) for reducing blade loads has been investigated and proven successful in recent literature. For IPC, the multi-blade co-ordinate (MBC) transformation is used to process the blade load signals from the rotating to a stationary frame of reference. In the stationary frame

  15. Multi-Channel Maximum Likelihood Pitch Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a method for multi-channel pitch estimation is proposed. The method is a maximum likelihood estimator and is based on a parametric model where the signals in the various channels share the same fundamental frequency but can have different amplitudes, phases, and noise characteristi...

  16. Silvical characteristics of pitch pine (Pinus rigida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little

    1959-01-01

    Pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) grows over a wide geographical range - from central Maine to New York and extreme southeastern Ontario, south to Virginia and southern Ohio, and in the mountains to eastern Tennessee, northern Georgia, and western South Carolina. Because it grows mostly on the poorer soils, its distribution is spotty.

  17. Discrimination of ultrasonic vocalizations by CBA/CaJ mice (Mus musculus is related to spectrotemporal dissimilarity of vocalizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erikson G Neilans

    Full Text Available The function of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs produced by mice (Mus musculus is a topic of broad interest to many researchers. These USVs differ widely in spectrotemporal characteristics, suggesting different categories of vocalizations, although this has never been behaviorally demonstrated. Although electrophysiological studies indicate that neurons can discriminate among vocalizations at the level of the auditory midbrain, perceptual acuity for vocalizations has yet to be determined. Here, we trained CBA/CaJ mice using operant conditioning to discriminate between different vocalizations and between a spectrotemporally modified vocalization and its original version. Mice were able to discriminate between vocalization types and between manipulated vocalizations, with performance negatively correlating with spectrotemporal similarity. That is, discrimination performance was higher for dissimilar vocalizations and much lower for similar vocalizations. The behavioral data match previous neurophysiological results in the inferior colliculus (IC, using the same stimuli. These findings suggest that the different vocalizations could carry different meanings for the mice. Furthermore, the finding that behavioral discrimination matched neural discrimination in the IC suggests that the IC plays an important role in the perceptual discrimination of vocalizations.

  18. Establishment of expanded and streamlined pipeline of PITCh knock-in - a web-based design tool for MMEJ-mediated gene knock-in, PITCh designer, and the variations of PITCh, PITCh-TG and PITCh-KIKO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamae, Kazuki; Nishimura, Yuki; Takenaga, Mitsumasa; Nakade, Shota; Sakamoto, Naoaki; Ide, Hiroshi; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2017-05-04

    The emerging genome editing technology has enabled the creation of gene knock-in cells easily, efficiently, and rapidly, which has dramatically accelerated research in the field of mammalian functional genomics, including in humans. We recently developed a microhomology-mediated end-joining-based gene knock-in method, termed the PITCh system, and presented various examples of its application. Since the PITCh system only requires very short microhomologies (up to 40 bp) and single-guide RNA target sites on the donor vector, the targeting construct can be rapidly prepared compared with the conventional targeting vector for homologous recombination-based knock-in. Here, we established a streamlined pipeline to design and perform PITCh knock-in to further expand the availability of this method by creating web-based design software, PITCh designer ( http://www.mls.sci.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/smg/PITChdesigner/index.html ), as well as presenting an experimental example of versatile gene cassette knock-in. PITCh designer can automatically design not only the appropriate microhomologies but also the primers to construct locus-specific donor vectors for PITCh knock-in. By using our newly established pipeline, a reporter cell line for monitoring endogenous gene expression, and transgenesis (TG) or knock-in/knockout (KIKO) cell line can be produced systematically. Using these new variations of PITCh, an exogenous promoter-driven gene cassette expressing fluorescent protein gene and drug resistance gene can be integrated into a safe harbor or a specific gene locus to create transgenic reporter cells (PITCh-TG) or knockout cells with reporter knock-in (PITCh-KIKO), respectively.

  19. Two LQRI based Blade Pitch Controls for Wind Turbines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Park, Sungsu; Nam, Yoonsu

    2012-01-01

    ..., we present a separate set of collective and individual pitch control algorithms. Both pitch control algorithms use the LQR control technique with integral action (LQRI), and utilize Kalman filters t...

  20. Gray- and white-matter anatomy of absolute pitch possessors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Hansen, Mads; Lerch, Jason P; Vuust, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP), the ability to identify a musical pitch without a reference, has been examined behaviorally in numerous studies for more than a century, yet only a few studies have examined the neuroanatomical correlates of AP...

  1. Female-pitched sound-producing voice prostheses--initial experimental and clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Torn, M; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I M; Festen, J M; de Vries, M P; Mahieu, H F

    2001-10-01

    In order to improve voice quality in female laryngectomees and/or laryngectomees with a hypotonic pharyngo-oesophageal segment, a sound-producing voice prosthesis was designed. The new source of voice consists of either one or two bent silicone lips which perform an oscillatory movement driven by the expired pulmonary air that flows along the outward-striking lips through the tracheo-oesophageal shunt valve. Four different prototypes of this pneumatic sound source were evaluated in vitro and in two female laryngectomees, testing the feasibility and characteristics of this new mechanism for alternative alaryngeal voice production. In vivo evaluation included acoustic analyses of both sustained vowels and read-aloud prose, videofluoroscopy, speech rate, and registration of tracheal phonatory pressure and vocal intensity. The mechanism proved feasible and did not result in unacceptable airflow resistance. The average pitch of voice increased and clarity improved in female laryngectomees. Pitch regulation of this prosthetic voice is possible with sufficient modulation to avoid monotony. The quality of voice attained through the sound-producing voice prostheses depends on a patient's ability to let pulmonary air flow easily through the pharyngo-oesophageal segment without evoking the low-frequency mucosal vibrations that form the regular tracheo-oesophageal shunt voice. These initial experimental and clinical results provide directions for the future development of sound-producing voice prostheses. A single relatively long lip in a container with a rectangular lumen that hardly protrudes from the voice prosthesis may have the most promising characteristics.

  2. Pitch-verticality and pitch-size cross-modal interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonetti, Leonardo; Costa, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Two studies were conducted on cross-modal matching between pitch and sound source localization on the vertical axis, and pitch and size. In the first study 100 Hz, 200 Hz, 600 Hz, and 800 Hz tones were emitted by a loudspeaker positioned 60 cm above or below to the participant’s ear level. Using...... a speeded classification task, 30 participants had to indicate the sound source, in 160 trials. Both reaction times and errors were analyzed. The results showed that in the congruent condition of high-pitched tones emitted from the upper loudspeaker, reaction times were significantly faster and the number...... of errors was significantly lower. Pitch is mapped on the vertical axis for sound localization. A main effect for sound source direction was also found. Tones coming from the upper loudspeaker were recognized faster and more accurately. Males were faster than females in identifying sound source direction...

  3. Risk factors for the appearance of minimal pathologic lesions on vocal folds in vocal professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Jasmina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. An excessive use or misuse of voice by vocal professionals may result in symptoms such are husky voice, hoarse voice, total loss of voice, or even organic changes taking place on vocal folds - minimal pathological lesions - MAPLs. The purpose of this study was to identify the type of MAPLs which affects vocal professionals, as well as to identify the risk factors that bring about these changes. Methods. There were 94 vocal professionals who were examined altogether, out of whom 46 were affected by MAPLs, whereas 48 of them were diagnosed with no MAPLs, so that they served as the control group. All these patients were clinically examined (anamnesis, clinical examination, bacteoriological examination of nose and pharynx, radiography of paranasal cavities, allergological processing, phoniatric examination, endo-video-stroboscopic examination, as well as gastroenterologic examination, and finally endocrinological and pulmological analyses. Results. The changes that occurred most often were identified as nodules (50%; n = 23/46 and polyps (24%; n = 11/46. Risk factors causing MAPLs in vocal professionals were as follows: age, which reduced the risk by 23.9% [OR 0.861 (0.786-0.942] whereas the years of career increase the risk [OR 1.114 (1.000-1.241], as well as the presence of a chronic respiratory disease [OR 7.310 (1.712- 31.218], and the presence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease [OR 4.542 (1.263-16.334]. The following factors did not contribute to development of MAPLs in vocal professionals: sex, a place of residence, irritation, smoking, endocrinologic disease and the presence of poly-sinusitis. Conclusion. It is necessary to introduce comprehensive procedures for prevention of MAPLs, particularly in high-risk groups. Identification of the risk factors for MAPLs and prevention of their influence on vocal professionals (given that their income depends on their vocal ability is of the highest importance.

  4. [A case of vocal cord contact granuloma after vocal cord polyp surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhili; Jiang, Xiaoping; Yuan, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    The vocal cord polyp is easy to relapse after surgery, but if the patient has recurrence in a short term, it is necessary to consider it as postoperative vocal cord contact granuloma. If the patients with contact granuloma after surgical treatment had severe impact on the pronunciation, it is necessary to be operated and confirmed by pathology and given the treatment of acid suppression, in order to avoid postoperative recurrence.

  5. Perceptual pitch deficits coexist with pitch production difficulties in music but not Mandarin speech

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Wu-xia; Feng, Jie; Huang, Wan-ting; Zhang, Cheng-xiang; Nan, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a musical disorder that mainly affects pitch perception. Among Mandarin speakers, some amusics also have difficulties in processing lexical tones (tone agnosics). To examine to what extent these perceptual deficits may be related to pitch production impairments in music and Mandarin speech, eight amusics, eight tone agnosics, and 12 age- and IQ-matched normal native Mandarin speakers were asked to imitate music note sequences and Mandarin words of comparable lengths. The ...

  6. Octave bias in an absolute pitch identification task

    OpenAIRE

    Boschetti, Giulia; Prpic, Valter; De Tommaso, Matteo; Murgia, Mauro; Agostini, Tiziano

    2014-01-01

    Octave errors are common within musicians, even among absolute pitch possessors. Overall, evidence shows pitch class and octave to be perceived in a different way, even if they are highly connected. We investigated whether pitch class perception, in an absolute pitch identification task, can be influenced by the octave context, examined among two consecutive octaves. Participants, all musicians with formal musical education, showed different response patterns in the tw...

  7. Contour identification with pitch and loudness cues using cochlear implants

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Xin; Masterson, Megan E.; Wu, Ching-Chih

    2013-01-01

    Different from speech, pitch and loudness cues may or may not co-vary in music. Cochlear implant (CI) users with poor pitch perception may use loudness contour cues more than normal-hearing (NH) listeners. Contour identification was tested in CI users and NH listeners; the five-note contours contained either pitch cues alone, loudness cues alone, or both. Results showed that NH listeners' contour identification was better with pitch cues than with loudness cues; CI users performed similarly w...

  8. Hydraulic Motor Driving Variable-Pitch System for Wind Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Ye HUANG; JiBao QI

    2013-01-01

    The present hydraulic variable-pitch mechanism of wind turbine uses three hydraulic cylinders to drive three crank and connecting rod mechanisms respectively; the blades are moved with the cranks. The hydraulic variable-pitch mechanism has complex structure, occupies a lot of space and its maintenance is trouble. In order to make up for the shortcomings of hydraulic cylinder variable-pitch system, the present hydraulic variable-pitch mechanism should be changed as follows: hydraulic motors ar...

  9. Impaired pitch identification as a potential marker for depression

    OpenAIRE

    Schwenzer Michael; Zattarin Eva; Grözinger Michael; Mathiak Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Impaired auditory performance has been considered as marker for depression. The present study tested whether pitch perception is affected in depression and whether the impairment is task-specific or reflects global dysfunction. Methods Twelve depressive in-patients and 12 non-depressive participants, half of the sample women, volunteered. The participants performed pitch identification using a four-choice reaction task, pitch contour perception, and pitch discrimination. R...

  10. Effects of an artificially lengthened vocal tract on the glottal closed quotient in untrained male voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Christopher Somers

    The use of hard-walled narrow tubes, often called resonance tubes, for the purpose of voice therapy and voice training has a historical precedent and some theoretical support, but the mechanism of any potential benefit from the application of this technique has remained poorly understood. Fifteen vocally untrained male participants produced a series of spoken /a / vowels at a modal pitch and constant loudness, followed by a minute of repeated phonation into a hard-walled glass tube at the same pitch and loudness targets. The tube parameters and tube phonation task criteria were selected according to theoretical calculations predicting an increase in the acoustic load such that phonation would occur under conditions of near-maximum inertive reactance. Following tube phonation, each participant repeated a similar series of spoken /a/ vowels. Electroglottography (EGG) was used to measure the glottal closed quotient (CQ) during each phase of the experiment. A single-subject, multiple-baseline design with direct replication across subjects was used to identify any changes in CQ across the phases of the experiment. Single-subject analysis using the method of Statistical Process Control (SPC) revealed statistically significant changes in CQ during tube phonation, but with no discernable pattern across the 15 participants. These results indicate that the use of resonance tubes can have a distinct effect on glottal closure, but the mechanism behind this change remains unclear. The implication is that vocal loading techniques such as this need to be studied further with specific attention paid to the underlying mechanism of any measured changes in glottal behavior, and especially to the role of instruction and feedback in the therapeutic and pedagogical application of these techniques.

  11. The Tufts Non-Vocal Communication Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, Richard A.; And Others

    Described are the efforts of the Biomedical Engineering Center in developing devices, particularly the Tufts Interactive Communicator (TIC) for the non-vocal severely physically disabled individual. It is noted that research has been conducted in the following areas: dictionary development, anticipatory communication, symbol communication, symbol…

  12. Vocal cord hemangioma in an adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Kanlıkama

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hemangioma is one of the most common benign tumors in the head and neck region. Laryngeal hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors of unknown etiology that arise from subglottic region with stridor in infants. This type also known as congenital laryngeal hemangioma, is the more common. Congenital hemangiomas occur usually in subglottic region and more frequent in girls. Laryngeal hemangioma in adults is a very rare condition and main symptom is hoarseness and breathing difficulties. Adult hemangiomas can be seen in different locations such as the epiglottis, aryepiglottic folds, arytenoids and false and true vocal cords. They are more often of cavernous form and cause hoarseness. In this report we present an adult patient with hemangioma of the left vocal fold and review the literature. Diagnostic investigation revealed a pink-purple mass which was extended from the anterior comissure to the posterior part of true vocal cord and false vocal cord, filling the ventricule and extending to supraglottic region. Direct laryngoscopy was performed, but the lesion was not excised because of its widespread extension in the larynx. J Clin Exp Invest 2010; 2(3: 323-326.

  13. Vocal fold nodules: morphological and immunohistochemical investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Regina Helena Garcia; Defaveri, Julio; Custódio Domingues, Maria Aparecida; de Albuquerque E Silva, Rafael; Fabro, Alexandre

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of vocal fold nodules. The study design was prospective and retrospective. For the histological study, we reviewed 15 slides from the surgical cases of vocal fold nodules, in which we analyzed epithelium, basal membrane (bm), and lamina propria. For the transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM) studies, five new cases on vocal fold nodules were included. Immunohistochemistry study was carried out in the 15 specimens, using antifibronectin, antilaminin, and anticollagen IV antibodies. The main histological alterations were epithelial hyperplasia (73.33%), basement membrane thickening (86.66%), edema, and fibrosis (93.33%). SEM--reduction in mucous lacing and increase in the desquamating cells, without epithelial erosion. TEM--hyperplasia of the epithelium, enlargement of the intercellular junctions, which was filled by fluid, subepithelial thickening of the lamina reticularis, and break points in the basal membrane. Immunohistochemistry--we identified greater immunoexpression of fibronectin on the basal membrane, on the lamina propria, and around the vessels. Antilaminin and anticollagen IV antibodies showed higher pigmentation on the endothelium of the vessels than that on the basal membrane. In vocal fold nodules, combined assessment using light microscopy, electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry can reveal important morphological details useful in characterizing these lesions. 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Music Education Intervention Improves Vocal Emotion Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mualem, Orit; Lavidor, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The current study is an interdisciplinary examination of the interplay among music, language, and emotions. It consisted of two experiments designed to investigate the relationship between musical abilities and vocal emotional recognition. In experiment 1 (N = 24), we compared the influence of two short-term intervention programs--music and…

  15. Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Bänziger

    Full Text Available We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition. The utility of the approach is demonstrated for two data sets from two different cultures and languages, based on corpora of vocal emotion enactment by professional actors and emotion inference by naïve listeners. Lens model equations, hierarchical regression, and multivariate path analysis are used to compare the relative contributions of objectively measured acoustic cues in the enacted expressions and subjective voice cues as perceived by listeners to the variance in emotion inference from vocal expressions for four emotion families (fear, anger, happiness, and sadness. While the results confirm the central role of arousal in vocal emotion communication, the utility of applying an extended path modeling framework is demonstrated by the identification of unique combinations of distal cues and proximal percepts carrying information about specific emotion families, independent of arousal. The statistical models generated show that more sophisticated acoustic parameters need to be developed to explain the distal underpinnings of subjective voice quality percepts that account for much of the variance in emotion inference, in particular voice instability and roughness. The general approach advocated here, as well as the specific results, open up new research strategies for work in psychology (specifically emotion and social perception research and engineering and computer science (specifically research and development in the domain of affective computing, particularly on automatic emotion detection and synthetic emotion expression in avatars.

  16. Patterns of Vocalization and Impression Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Donald P.; Bouma, Gary D.

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses the interactive behavior that accompanies verbal exchange. It specifically describes a set of experiments designed to isolate an important subset of interactive behavior, the vocal (as opposed to the verbal) and to relate this information to a wide range of social impressions resulting from verbal exchange. (Available from…

  17. Modelling vocal anatomy's significant effect on speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of larynx position on the articulatory abilities of a humanlike vocal tract. Previous work has investigated models that were built to resemble the anatomy of existing species or fossil ancestors. This has led to conflicting conclusions about the relation between

  18. Enhanced Processing of Vocal Melodies in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Michael W.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Trehub, Sandra E.; Dawber, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    Music cognition is typically studied with instrumental stimuli. Adults remember melodies better, however, when they are presented in a biologically significant timbre (i.e., the human voice) than in various instrumental timbres (Weiss, Trehub, & Schellenberg, 2012). We examined the impact of vocal timbre on children's processing of melodies.…

  19. Functional flexibility in wild bonobo vocal behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanna Clay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A shared principle in the evolution of language and the development of speech is the emergence of functional flexibility, the capacity of vocal signals to express a range of emotional states independently of context and biological function. Functional flexibility has recently been demonstrated in the vocalisations of pre-linguistic human infants, which has been contrasted to the functionally fixed vocal behaviour of non-human primates. Here, we revisited the presumed chasm in functional flexibility between human and non-human primate vocal behaviour, with a study on our closest living primate relatives, the bonobo (Pan paniscus. We found that wild bonobos use a specific call type (the “peep” across a range of contexts that cover the full valence range (positive-neutral-negative in much of their daily activities, including feeding, travel, rest, aggression, alarm, nesting and grooming. Peeps were produced in functionally flexible ways in some contexts, but not others. Crucially, calls did not vary acoustically between neutral and positive contexts, suggesting that recipients take pragmatic information into account to make inferences about call meaning. In comparison, peeps during negative contexts were acoustically distinct. Our data suggest that the capacity for functional flexibility has evolutionary roots that predate the evolution of human speech. We interpret this evidence as an example of an evolutionary early transition away from fixed vocal signalling towards functional flexibility.

  20. Assessment of thyroplasty for vocal fold paralysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Ågot Møller; Faber, Christian; Jakobsen, John

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Thyroplasty with silicone rubber implantation is a surgical procedure for treatment of patients with vocal fold paralysis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the outcome of the operation and to monitor which of the analyses were the more beneficial. MATERIAL AND METHODS...

  1. Production, Usage, and Comprehension in Animal Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we place equal emphasis on production, usage, and comprehension because these components of communication may exhibit different developmental trajectories and be affected by different neural mechanisms. In the animal kingdom generally, learned, flexible vocal production is rare, appearing in only a few orders of birds and few…

  2. Audiovisual vocal outburst classification in noisy conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eyben, Florian; Petridis, Stavros; Schuller, Björn; Pantic, Maja

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate an audiovisual approach for classification of vocal outbursts (non-linguistic vocalisations) in noisy conditions using Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines. Fusion of geometric shape features and acoustic low-level

  3. Phonetic characteristics of vocalizations during pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver; Lautenbacher, Stefan; Salinas-Ranneberg, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    ” (central vowel, sounding like a darker “e” as in hesitations like “ehm”)—as experimental approximations to natural vocalizations. Methods: In 50 students vowel production and self-report ratings were assessed during painful and nonpainful heat stimulation (hot water immersion) as well as during baseline...

  4. Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bänziger, Tanja; Hosoya, Georg; Scherer, Klaus R.

    2015-01-01

    We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition. The utility of the approach is demonstrated for two data sets from two different cultures and languages, based on corpora of vocal emotion enactment by professional actors and emotion inference by naïve listeners. Lens model equations, hierarchical regression, and multivariate path analysis are used to compare the relative contributions of objectively measured acoustic cues in the enacted expressions and subjective voice cues as perceived by listeners to the variance in emotion inference from vocal expressions for four emotion families (fear, anger, happiness, and sadness). While the results confirm the central role of arousal in vocal emotion communication, the utility of applying an extended path modeling framework is demonstrated by the identification of unique combinations of distal cues and proximal percepts carrying information about specific emotion families, independent of arousal. The statistical models generated show that more sophisticated acoustic parameters need to be developed to explain the distal underpinnings of subjective voice quality percepts that account for much of the variance in emotion inference, in particular voice instability and roughness. The general approach advocated here, as well as the specific results, open up new research strategies for work in psychology (specifically emotion and social perception research) and engineering and computer science (specifically research and development in the domain of affective computing, particularly on automatic emotion detection and synthetic emotion expression in avatars). PMID:26325076

  5. Vocal tract analysis in patients with vocal fold nodules, clefts and cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Raquel Buzelin; Souza, Andrea Moreira Veiga de; Duprat, Andre de Campos; Silva, Marta Assumpção de Andrade E; Costa, Rejane Cardoso; Paulino, Juliana Gomes

    2009-01-01

    The supraglottic plan represents an important dimension in vocal production, and its characterization is very important in the evaluation and treatment approach of dysphonic individuals. To check if certain glottic configurations are related to specific adjustments in the vocal tract. To use nasal and laryngeal fibroscopy to assess the frequency of supraglottic vocal tract adjustments in dysphonic women with nodules, clefts and cysts. We assessed 31 dysphonic women, with age ranging between 18 and 45 years, with vocal alteration and a diagnosis of nodules, middle-posterior cleft and cyst, and we carried out a summarized evaluation of the sensory-motor and oral systems and the patients were submitted to video-laryngostroboscopy and nasal and laryngeal fibroscopy. Three distinct groups were selected: patients with bilateral nodules, clefts and cysts, with similar glottic configuration. Their vocal tracts were visually analyzed through exams of nasal and laryngeal fibroscopy, by speech and hearing therapists and otorhinolaryngologists, checking the following parameters: supraglottic constriction, larynx vertical mobility, pharyngeal constriction and tongue mobility. The data was statistically described and treated. During visual analysis we did not find statistically significant differences which would separate the glottic alterations groups. There was no correlation between supraglottic tract adjustments with any particular type of glottic alteration. These are individual behaviors that generate adjustments and justify the different vocal qualities in patients with the same type of laryngeal alteration.

  6. Brown meagre vocalization rate increases during repetitive boat noise exposures: a possible case of vocal compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciulin, Marta; Sebastianutto, Linda; Codarin, Antonio; Calcagno, Giuliana; Ferrero, Enrico A

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated whether or not boat noise causes variations in brown meagre (Sciaena umbra) vocalizations recorded in a nearshore Mediterranean marine reserve. Six nocturnal experimental sessions were carried out from June to September 2009. In each of them, a recreational boat passed over vocalizing fish 6 times with 1 boat passage every 10 min. For this purpose three different boats were used in random order: an 8.5-m cabin-cruiser (CC), a 5-m fiberglass boat (FB), and a 7-m inflatable boat (INF). In situ continuous acoustic recordings were collected using a self-standing sonobuoy. Because boat noise levels largely exceeded both background noise and S. umbra vocalizations in the species' hearing frequency range, masking of acoustic communication was assumed. Although no immediate effect was observed during a single boat passage, the S. umbra mean pulse rate increased over multiple boat passages in the experimental condition but not in the control condition, excluding that the observed effect was due to a natural rise in fish vocalizations. The observed vocal enhancement may result either from an increased density of callers or from an increased number of pulses/sounds produced by already acoustically active individuals, as a form of vocal compensation. These two explanations are discussed.

  7. Predicting Achievable Fundamental Frequency Ranges in Vocalization Across Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Titze

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vocal folds are used as sound sources in various species, but it is unknown how vocal fold morphologies are optimized for different acoustic objectives. Here we identify two main variables affecting range of vocal fold vibration frequency, namely vocal fold elongation and tissue fiber stress. A simple vibrating string model is used to predict fundamental frequency ranges across species of different vocal fold sizes. While average fundamental frequency is predominantly determined by vocal fold length (larynx size, range of fundamental frequency is facilitated by (1 laryngeal muscles that control elongation and by (2 nonlinearity in tissue fiber tension. One adaptation that would increase fundamental frequency range is greater freedom in joint rotation or gliding of two cartilages (thyroid and cricoid, so that vocal fold length change is maximized. Alternatively, tissue layers can develop to bear a disproportionate fiber tension (i.e., a ligament with high density collagen fibers, increasing the fundamental frequency range and thereby vocal versatility. The range of fundamental frequency across species is thus not simply one-dimensional, but can be conceptualized as the dependent variable in a multi-dimensional morphospace. In humans, this could allow for variations that could be clinically important for voice therapy and vocal fold repair. Alternative solutions could also have importance in vocal training for singing and other highly-skilled vocalizations.

  8. Gastroesophageal reflux disease and vocal disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Coelho de Arruda Henry

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a chronic disease in which gastroduodenal contents reflux into the esophagus. The clinical picture of gastroesophageal reflux disease is usually composed by heartburn and regurgitation (typical manifestations. Atypical manifestations (vocal disturbances and asthma may also be complaint. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the clinical, endoscopic, manometric and pHmetric aspects of patients suffering from gastroesophageal reflux disease associated with vocal disturbances. METHODS: Fifty patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease were studied, including 25 with vocal disturbances (group 1 - G1 and 25 without these symptoms (group 2 - G2. All patients were submitted to endoscopy, manometry and esophageal pHmetry (2 probes. The group 1 patients were submitted to videolaryngoscopy. RESULTS: Endoscopic findings: non-erosive reflux disease was observed in 95% of G1 patients and 88% of G2. Videolaryngoscopy: vocal fold congestion, asymmetry, nodules and polyps were observed in G1 patients. Manometric findings: pressure in the lower esophageal sphincter (mm Hg: 11.6 ± 5.2 in G1 and 14.0 ± 6.2 in G2 (P = 0.14; pressure in the upper esophageal sphincter (mm Hg: 58.4 ± 15.9 in G1 and 69.5 ± 30.7 in the controls. pHmetric findings: De Meester index: 34.0 ± 20.9 in G1 and 15.4 ± 9.4 in G2 (P<0.001; number of reflux episodes in distal probe: 43.0 ± 20.4 in G1 and 26.4 ± 17.2 in G2 (P = 0.003; percentage of time with esophageal pH value lower than 4 units (distal sensor: 9.0% ± 6.4% in G1 and 3.4% ± 2.1% in G2 (P<0.001; number of reflux episodes in proximal probe: 7.5 ± 10.9 in G1 and 5.3 ± 5.7 in G2 (P = 0.38; percentage of time with esophageal pH values lower than 4 units (Proximal probe: 1.2 ± 2.7 in G1 and 0.5 ± 0.7 in G2 (P = 0.21. CONCLUSIONS: 1 The clinical, endoscopic, and manometric findings observed in patients with vocal disturbance do not differ from those without these symptoms; 2 gastroesophageal

  9. Commentary on William Thomson's "Pitch Frames as Melodic Archetypes"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Temperley

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available While the concept of the perceptual “pitch frame” resembles leading theories of pitch structure in music in some respects, it contains some innovative elements that are discussed in this commentary. Additionally, the commentary focuses on the question of whether the “pitch frame” is a temporal or atemporal construct.

  10. Acquisition of pitch in Chinese by Danish learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloos, Marjoleine; Liang, Jie; Yan, Mengzhu; Zhang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Native speakers recognize a second language accent mainly by prosodic features. Pitch, pitch range, and pitch variability are language-specific and have to be acquired in L2 acquisition (usually without explicit teaching). Until now, results remain inconclusive as to whether L2 speakers are able to

  11. Memory for Melody: Infants Use a Relative Pitch Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantinga, Judy; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2005-01-01

    Pitch perception is fundamental to melody in music and prosody in speech. Unlike many animals, the vast majority of human adults store melodic information primarily in terms of relative not absolute pitch, and readily recognize a melody whether rendered in a high or a low pitch range. We show that at 6 months infants are also primarily relative…

  12. Size matters : Pitch dimensions constrain interactive team behaviour in soccer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, W.; Van der Plaats, J.; Visscher, C.; Lemmink, K.

    2013-01-01

    Pitch size varies in official soccer matches and differently sized pitches are adopted for tactical purposes in small-sided training games. Since interactive team behaviour emerges under constraints, the authors evaluate the effect of pitch size (task) manipulations on interactive team behaviour in

  13. Size matters : Pitch dimensions constrain interactive team behaviour in soccer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, Wouter; Van der Plaats, Jorrit; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen

    Pitch size varies in official soccer matches and differently sized pitches are adopted for tactical purposes in small-sided training games. Since interactive team behaviour emerges under constraints, the authors evaluate the effect of pitch size (task) manipulations on interactive team behaviour in

  14. Relating binaural pitch perception to the individual listener's auditory profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2012-04-01

    The ability of eight normal-hearing listeners and fourteen listeners with sensorineural hearing loss to detect and identify pitch contours was measured for binaural-pitch stimuli and salience-matched monaurally detectable pitches. In an effort to determine whether impaired binaural pitch perception was linked to a specific deficit, the auditory profiles of the individual listeners were characterized using measures of loudness perception, cognitive ability, binaural processing, temporal fine structure processing, and frequency selectivity, in addition to common audiometric measures. Two of the listeners were found not to perceive binaural pitch at all, despite a clear detection of monaural pitch. While both binaural and monaural pitches were detectable by all other listeners, identification scores were significantly lower for binaural than for monaural pitch. A total absence of binaural pitch sensation coexisted with a loss of a binaural signal-detection advantage in noise, without implying reduced cognitive function. Auditory filter bandwidths did not correlate with the difference in pitch identification scores between binaural and monaural pitches. However, subjects with impaired binaural pitch perception showed deficits in temporal fine structure processing. Whether the observed deficits stemmed from peripheral or central mechanisms could not be resolved here, but the present findings may be useful for hearing loss characterization.

  15. Passive cyclic pitch control for horizontal axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottrell, G. W.

    1981-01-01

    A flexible rotor concept, called the balanced pitch rotor, is described. The system provides passive adjustment of cyclic pitch in response to unbalanced pitching moments across the rotor disk. Various applications are described and performance predictions are made for wind shear and cross wind operating conditions. Comparisons with the teetered hub are made and significant cost savings are predicted.

  16. Impaired pitch identification as a potential marker for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenzer, Michael; Zattarin, Eva; Grözinger, Michael; Mathiak, Klaus

    2012-04-19

    Impaired auditory performance has been considered as marker for depression. The present study tested whether pitch perception is affected in depression and whether the impairment is task-specific or reflects global dysfunction. Twelve depressive in-patients and 12 non-depressive participants, half of the sample women, volunteered. The participants performed pitch identification using a four-choice reaction task, pitch contour perception, and pitch discrimination. During pitch identification but not during pitch contour perception or pitch discrimination, depressive patients responded less accurate than non-depressive participants (F = 3.3, p = 0.047). An analysis of covariates revealed that only female but not male depressive patients identified pitches poorly (Z = -2.2, p = 0.025) and inaccurate pitch identification correlated with high scores in the Beck Depression Inventory in women (r = -0.8, p = 0.001) but not in men (r = -0.1, p = 0.745). Patients did not differ from controls in reaction time or responsiveness. Impaired pitch perception in depression is task-specific. Therefore, cognitive deficits in depression are circumscribed and not global. Reduced pitch identification in depression was associated with female sex. We suggest that impaired pitch identification merits attention as a potential marker for depression in women.

  17. Impaired pitch identification as a potential marker for depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwenzer Michael

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impaired auditory performance has been considered as marker for depression. The present study tested whether pitch perception is affected in depression and whether the impairment is task-specific or reflects global dysfunction. Methods Twelve depressive in-patients and 12 non-depressive participants, half of the sample women, volunteered. The participants performed pitch identification using a four-choice reaction task, pitch contour perception, and pitch discrimination. Results During pitch identification but not during pitch contour perception or pitch discrimination, depressive patients responded less accurate than non-depressive participants (F = 3.3, p = 0.047. An analysis of covariates revealed that only female but not male depressive patients identified pitches poorly (Z = −2.2, p = 0.025 and inaccurate pitch identification correlated with high scores in the Beck Depression Inventory in women (r = −0.8, p = 0.001 but not in men (r = −0.1, p = 0.745. Patients did not differ from controls in reaction time or responsiveness. Conclusions Impaired pitch perception in depression is task-specific. Therefore, cognitive deficits in depression are circumscribed and not global. Reduced pitch identification in depression was associated with female sex. We suggest that impaired pitch identification merits attention as a potential marker for depression in women.

  18. Analysis of pitch system data for condition monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Sønderkær; van de Pieterman, René P.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    at a constant pitch velocity, but the 10 min maximum values are only approximately proportional, because the maximum values occur during acceleration and not simultaneously. These findings are important to consider, if using the pitch motor current or torque as an indicator for the pitch system health...

  19. Auditory lateralization of conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; Laddago, Serena; Quaranta, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Auditory lateralization in response to both conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations (dog vocalizations) was observed in 16 tabby cats (Felis catus). Six different vocalizations were used: cat "purring," "meowing" and "growling" and dog typical vocalizations of "disturbance," "isolation" and "play." The head-orienting paradigm showed that cats turned their head with the right ear leading (left hemisphere activation) in response to their typical-species vocalization ("meow" and "purring"); on the other hand, a clear bias in the use of the left ear (right hemisphere activation) was observed in response to vocalizations eliciting intense emotion (dogs' vocalizations of "disturbance" and "isolation"). Overall these findings suggest that auditory sensory domain seems to be lateralized also in cat species, stressing the role of the left hemisphere for intraspecific communication and of the right hemisphere in processing threatening and alarming stimuli.

  20. Vocal learning in elephants: neural bases and adaptive context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeger, Angela S; Manger, Paul

    2014-10-01

    In the last decade clear evidence has accumulated that elephants are capable of vocal production learning. Examples of vocal imitation are documented in African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants, but little is known about the function of vocal learning within the natural communication systems of either species. We are also just starting to identify the neural basis of elephant vocalizations. The African elephant diencephalon and brainstem possess specializations related to aspects of neural information processing in the motor system (affecting the timing and learning of trunk movements) and the auditory and vocalization system. Comparative interdisciplinary (from behavioral to neuroanatomical) studies are strongly warranted to increase our understanding of both vocal learning and vocal behavior in elephants. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Laryngeal ultrasound and pediatric vocal fold nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongkasuwan, Julina; Devore, Danielle; Hollas, Sarah; Jones, Jeremy; Tran, Brandon

    2017-03-01

    The term vocal fold nodules refers to bilateral thickening of the membranous folds with minimal impairment of the vibratory properties of the mucosa. Nodules are thought to be related to repetitive mechanical stress, associated with voice use patterns. Diagnosis is typically made in the office via either rigid or flexible laryngeal stroboscopy. Depending on the individual child, obtaining an optimal view of the larynx can be difficult if not impossible. Recent advances in high-frequency ultrasonography allows for transcervical examination of laryngeal structures. The goal of this project was to determine if laryngeal ultrasound (LUS) can be used to identify vocal fold nodules in dysphonic children. Prospective case-control study in which the patient acted as his or her own control. Forty-six pediatric patients were recruited for participation in this study; the mean age was 4.8 years. Twenty-three did not have any vocal fold lesions and 23 had a diagnosis of vocal fold nodules on laryngeal stroboscopy. Recorded LUSs were reviewed by two pediatric radiologists who were blinded to the nodule status. There was substantial inter-rater agreement (κ = 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50-0.89) between the two radiologists regarding the presence of nodules. There was also substantial agreement (κ = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.72-1) between LUS and laryngeal stroboscopy. Sensitivity of LUS was 100% (95% CI: 85%-100%) and specificity was 87% (95% CI: 66%-97%). LUS can be used to identify vocal fold nodules in children with substantial agreement with laryngeal stroboscopy. 3b Laryngoscope, 127:676-678, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Analysis of the vocal profiles of male seduction: from exhibition to self-disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anolli, Luigi; Ciceri, Rita

    2002-04-01

    The authors analyzed the suprasegmental (temporary) vocal profiles of 19 young men (not married) during their seductive interaction with 19 young women (not married) whom they had not known previously. The aim of the research was to verify the specificity, the sequential temporal stream, and the efficacy of the acoustical features of the seducer's voice during seductive interaction. In an ecological laboratory situation, the male participants were asked to meet their female partners. Participant-by-participant analysis showed that the male seductive voice is characterized by strong variations during the course of the seductive sequence. At the beginning of the sequence it had a higher pitch and an elevated intensity, as well as a faster rate of articulation than it did during normal speech (the exhibition voice). In the following phases it became gradually lower, weaker, and warmer (the self-disclosure voice). The modulation and variability of the vocal profiles during the seductive interaction were significantly stressed in the 9 successful seducers (those who succeeded in arranging a subsequent meeting with the partner), compared with the 10 unsuccessful seducers. The results have been interpreted as an ability to perform an effective local management of seductive communication.

  3. Effects on the glottal voice source of vocal loudness variation in untrained female and male voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Johan; Fahlstedt, Ellinor; Morell, Anja

    2005-02-01

    Subglottal pressure is one of the main voice control factors, controlling vocal loudness. In this investigation the effects of subglottal pressure variation on the voice source in untrained female and male voices phonating at a low, a middle, and a high fundamental frequency are analyzed. The subjects produced a series of /pae/ syllables at varied degrees of vocal loudness, attempting to keep pitch constant. Subglottal pressure was estimated from the oral pressure during the /p/ occlusion. Ten subglottal pressure values, approximately equidistantly spaced within the pressure range used, were identified, and the voice source of the vowels following these pressure values was analyzed by inverse filtering the airflow signal as captured by a Rothenberg mask. The maximum flow declination rate (MFDR) was found to increase linearly with subglottal pressure, but a given subglottal pressure produced lower values for female than for male voices. The closed quotient increased quickly with subglottal pressure at low pressures and slowly at high pressures, such that the relationship can be approximated by a power function. For a given subglottal pressure value, female voices reached lower values of closed quotient than male voices. .

  4. Learning to detect vocal hyperfunction from ambulatory neck-surface acceleration features: initial results for vocal fold nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Marzyeh; Van Stan, Jarrad H; Mehta, Daryush D; Zañartu, Matías; Cheyne, Harold A; Hillman, Robert E; Guttag, John V

    2014-06-01

    Voice disorders are medical conditions that often result from vocal abuse/misuse which is referred to generically as vocal hyperfunction. Standard voice assessment approaches cannot accurately determine the actual nature, prevalence, and pathological impact of hyperfunctional vocal behaviors because such behaviors can vary greatly across the course of an individual's typical day and may not be clearly demonstrated during a brief clinical encounter. Thus, it would be clinically valuable to develop noninvasive ambulatory measures that can reliably differentiate vocal hyperfunction from normal patterns of vocal behavior. As an initial step toward this goal we used an accelerometer taped to the neck surface to provide a continuous, noninvasive acceleration signal designed to capture some aspects of vocal behavior related to vocal cord nodules, a common manifestation of vocal hyperfunction. We gathered data from 12 female adult patients diagnosed with vocal fold nodules and 12 control speakers matched for age and occupation. We derived features from weeklong neck-surface acceleration recordings by using distributions of sound pressure level and fundamental frequency over 5-min windows of the acceleration signal and normalized these features so that intersubject comparisons were meaningful. We then used supervised machine learning to show that the two groups exhibit distinct vocal behaviors that can be detected using the acceleration signal. We were able to correctly classify 22 of the 24 subjects, suggesting that in the future measures of the acceleration signal could be used to detect patients with the types of aberrant vocal behaviors that are associated with hyperfunctional voice disorders.

  5. The Identification of High-pitched Sung Vowels in Sense and Nonsense Words by Professional Singers and Untrained Listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deme, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    High-pitched sung vowels may be considered phonetically "underspecified" because of (i) the tuning of the F 1 to the f 0 accompanying pitch raising and (ii) the wide harmonic spacing of the voice source resulting in the undersampling of the vocal tract transfer function. Therefore, sung vowel intelligibility is expected to decrease as the f 0 increases. Based on the literature of speech perception, it is often suggested that sung vowels are better perceived if uttered in consonantal (CVC) context than in isolation even at high f 0 . The results for singing, however, are contradictory. In the present study, we further investigate this question. We compare vowel identification in sense and nonsense CVC sequences and show that the positive effect of the context disappears if the number of legal choices in a perception test is similar in both conditions, meaning that any positive effect of the CVC context may only stem from the smaller number of possible responses, i.e., from higher probabilities. Additionally, it is also tested whether the training in production (i.e., singing training) may also lead to a perceptual advantage of the singers over nonsingers in the identification of high-pitched sung vowels. The results show no advantage of this kind. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Acoustic and perceptual characteristics of the voice in patients with vocal polyps after surgery and voice therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic-Lazic, Mirjana; Jovanovic, Nadica; Kulic, Milan; Babac, Snezana; Jurisic, Vladimir

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of endolaryngeal phonomicrosurgery (EPM) and voice therapy in patients with vocal fold polyps using perceptual and acoustic analysis before and after both therapies. The acoustic tests and perceptual evaluation of voice were carried out on 41 female patients with vocal fold polyp before and after EPM and voice therapy. Both therapy strategies were performed. Used acoustic parameters were Jitter percent (Jitt), pitch perturbation quotient (PPQ), shimmer percent (Shim), amplitude perturbation quotient (APQ), fundamental frequency variation (vF0), noise-to-harmonic ratio (NHR), Voice Turbulence Index (VTI). For perceptual evaluation, GRB scale was used. Results indicated higher values of investigated parameters in patients' group than in the control group (P voice parameters were observed. All analyzed acoustic parameters improved after the phonomicrosurgery and voice therapy and tend to approach to values of the control group. For Jitt percent, Shim percent, vF0, VTI, and NHR, there were statistically significant differences. Perceptual voice evaluation revealed statistically significantly (P voice therapy. Our data indicated that both acoustic and perceptual characteristic of voice in patients with vocal polyps significantly improved after phonomicrosurgical and voice treatment. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Translational analysis of effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on human infant cries and rat pup ultrasonic vocalizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Sanford Zeskind

    Full Text Available Spectral and temporal features of human infant crying may detect neurobehavioral effects of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE. Finding comparable measures of rodent ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs would promote translational analyses by controlling the effects of correlated variables that confound human studies. To this end, two studies examined the sensitivity of similar acoustic structures in human infant and rat pup vocalizations to effects of PCE. In Study 1, cry sounds of 107 one month-old infants were spectrum analyzed to create a novel set of measures and to detect the presence of hyperphonation - a qualitative shift to an atypically high fundamental frequency (basic pitch associated with neurobehavioral insult. Infants with PCE were compared to infants with prenatal polydrug-exposure (PPE without cocaine and with infants in a standard comparison (SC group with no prenatal drug exposure. In Study 2, USVs of 118 five day-old rat pups with either PCE, prenatal saline exposure or no prenatal exposures were spectrum analyzed to detect the presence of frequency shifts - acoustic features that have a frequency waveform similar to that of hyperphonation. Results of study 1 showed PCE had two sets of sex-dependent effects on human infants: PCE males had higher pitched cries with more dysphonation (turbulence; PCE females had longer pauses between fewer cry sounds that were of lower amplitude than comparison groups. PCE and PPE infants had more cries with hyperphonation than SC infants. In study 2, PCE pups had a greater percentage of USVs with shift in the acoustic structure than pups in the two control groups. As such, the novel measures of human infant crying and rat pup USVs were sensitive to effects of PCE. These studies provide the first known translational analysis of similar acoustic structures of vocalizations in two species to detect adverse effects of prenatal drug exposure.

  8. More practical critical height sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas B. Lynch; Jeffrey H. Gove

    2015-01-01

    Critical Height Sampling (CHS) (Kitamura 1964) can be used to predict cubic volumes per acre without using volume tables or equations. The critical height is defined as the height at which the tree stem appears to be in borderline condition using the point-sampling angle gauge (e.g. prism). An estimate of cubic volume per acre can be obtained from multiplication of the...

  9. Interrelationships Among Men’s Threat Potential, Facial Dominance, and Vocal Dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyang Han

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of minimizing the costs of engaging in violent conflict are thought to have shaped adaptations for the rapid assessment of others’ capacity to inflict physical harm. Although studies have suggested that men’s faces and voices both contain information about their threat potential, one recent study suggested that men’s faces are a more valid cue of their threat potential than their voices are. Consequently, the current study investigated the interrelationships among a composite measure of men’s actual threat potential (derived from the measures of their upper-body strength, height, and weight and composite measures of these men’s perceived facial and vocal threat potential (derived from dominance, strength, and weight ratings of their faces and voices, respectively. Although men’s perceived facial and vocal threat potential were positively correlated, men’s actual threat potential was related to their perceived facial, but not vocal, threat potential. These results present new evidence that men’s faces may be a more valid cue of these aspects of threat potential than their voices are.

  10. Height-Deterministic Pushdown Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowotka, Dirk; Srba, Jiri

    2007-01-01

    We define the notion of height-deterministic pushdown automata, a model where for any given input string the stack heights during any (nondeterministic) computation on the input are a priori fixed. Different subclasses of height-deterministic pushdown automata, strictly containing the class...... of regular languages and still closed under boolean language operations, are considered. Several of such language classes have been described in the literature. Here, we suggest a natural and intuitive model that subsumes all the formalisms proposed so far by employing height-deterministic pushdown automata...

  11. Agreement between measured height, and height predicted from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Universal Screening Tool (MUST) equations, in adult patients admitted to government hospitals in Bloemfontein, South Africa. .... Agreement between measured height, and height predicted from ulna length, in adult patients in Bloemfontein, South Africa. 129 .... normal growth and development and to control sources of bias.

  12. Derivation of Orthometric Heights from GPS Measured Heights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, geometric technique of deriving orthometric height from GPS survey along a profile and the use of EGM 96 geoid model for deriving orthometric height from GPS data (using GNSS solution software) are discussed. The main focus of the research is to critically examine the potentials of these methods with a view ...

  13. Pitch contour impairment in congenital amusia: New insights from the Self-paced Audio-visual Contour Task (SACT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuejing; Sun, Yanan; Ho, Hao Tam; Thompson, William Forde

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with congenital amusia usually exhibit impairments in melodic contour processing when asked to compare pairs of melodies that may or may not be identical to one another. However, it is unclear whether the impairment observed in contour processing is caused by an impairment of pitch discrimination, or is a consequence of poor pitch memory. To help resolve this ambiguity, we designed a novel Self-paced Audio-visual Contour Task (SACT) that evaluates sensitivity to contour while placing minimal burden on memory. In this task, participants control the pace of an auditory contour that is simultaneously accompanied by a visual contour, and they are asked to judge whether the two contours are congruent or incongruent. In Experiment 1, melodic contours varying in pitch were presented with a series of dots that varied in spatial height. Amusics exhibited reduced sensitivity to audio-visual congruency in comparison to control participants. To exclude the possibility that the impairment arises from a general deficit in cross-modal mapping, Experiment 2 examined sensitivity to cross-modal mapping for two other auditory dimensions: timbral brightness and loudness. Amusics and controls were significantly more sensitive to large than small contour changes, and to changes in loudness than changes in timbre. However, there were no group differences in cross-modal mapping, suggesting that individuals with congenital amusia can comprehend spatial representations of acoustic information. Taken together, the findings indicate that pitch contour processing in congenital amusia remains impaired even when pitch memory is relatively unburdened.

  14. Pitch contour impairment in congenital amusia: New insights from the Self-paced Audio-visual Contour Task (SACT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejing Lu

    Full Text Available Individuals with congenital amusia usually exhibit impairments in melodic contour processing when asked to compare pairs of melodies that may or may not be identical to one another. However, it is unclear whether the impairment observed in contour processing is caused by an impairment of pitch discrimination, or is a consequence of poor pitch memory. To help resolve this ambiguity, we designed a novel Self-paced Audio-visual Contour Task (SACT that evaluates sensitivity to contour while placing minimal burden on memory. In this task, participants control the pace of an auditory contour that is simultaneously accompanied by a visual contour, and they are asked to judge whether the two contours are congruent or incongruent. In Experiment 1, melodic contours varying in pitch were presented with a series of dots that varied in spatial height. Amusics exhibited reduced sensitivity to audio-visual congruency in comparison to control participants. To exclude the possibility that the impairment arises from a general deficit in cross-modal mapping, Experiment 2 examined sensitivity to cross-modal mapping for two other auditory dimensions: timbral brightness and loudness. Amusics and controls were significantly more sensitive to large than small contour changes, and to changes in loudness than changes in timbre. However, there were no group differences in cross-modal mapping, suggesting that individuals with congenital amusia can comprehend spatial representations of acoustic information. Taken together, the findings indicate that pitch contour processing in congenital amusia remains impaired even when pitch memory is relatively unburdened.

  15. A perceptual pitch boundary in a non-human primate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eJoly

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pitch is an auditory percept critical to the perception of music and speech, and for these harmonic sounds, pitch is closely related to the repetition rate of the acoustic wave. This paper reports a test of the assumption that non-human primates and especially rhesus monkeys perceive the pitch of these harmonic sounds much as humans do. A new procedure was developed to train macaques to discriminate the pitch of harmonic sounds and thereby demonstrate that the lower limit for pitch perception in macaques is close to 30 Hz, as it is in humans. Moreover, when the phases of successive harmonics are alternated to cause a pseudo-doubling of the repetition rate, the lower pitch boundary in macaques decreases substantially, as it does in humans. The results suggest that both species use neural firing times to discriminate pitch, at least for sounds with relatively low repetition rates.

  16. Relating binaural pitch perception to the individual listener's auditory profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    The ability of eight normal-hearing listeners and fourteen listeners with sensorineural hearing loss to detect and identify pitch contours was measured for binaural-pitch stimuli and salience-matched monaurally detectable pitches. In an effort to determine whether impaired binaural pitch perception...... sensation coexisted with a loss of a binaural signal-detection advantage in noise, without implying reduced cognitive function. Auditory filter bandwidths did not correlate with the difference in pitch identification scores between binaural and monaural pitches. However, subjects with impaired binaural...... pitch perception showed deficits in temporal fine structure processing. Whether the observed deficits stemmed from peripheral or central mechanisms could not be resolved here, but the present findings may be useful for hearing loss characterization. (C) 2012 Acoustical Society of America. [http...

  17. Review of the windmill pitch: biomechanics and injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Faith M

    2004-01-01

    To review the literature of the biomechanics of the windmill fast-pitch and its implications for injury. This information may be utilized in treating youth windmill pitchers. A MEDLINE search was conducted to retrieve articles regarding the windmill pitch. Key terms were then taken from the pilot search and used to conduct a systematic search and review of the literature. Articles containing information on the windmill pitch and injuries associated with the motion were reviewed. Additional information pertaining to the overhand baseball pitch and overuse injuries in youth were analyzed and synthesized into the body of information. A complex sequence of actions is required to successfully perform the windmill pitch. Overuse injuries are common in windmill pitchers. A well-designed conditioning schedule and the regulation of the frequency and volume of pitching in youth fast-pitch may assist with managing injury associated with this activity. Further investigation of specific treatment methods is needed.

  18. Improvement of vocal pathologies diagnosis using high-speed videolaryngoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Domingos Hiroshi; Hachiya, Adriana; Dajer, Maria Eugenia; Ishikawa, Camila Cristina; Takahashi, Marystella Tomoe; Montagnoli, Arlindo Neto

    2014-07-01

    Introduction The study of the dynamic properties of vocal fold vibration is important for understanding the vocal production mechanism and the impact of organic and functional changes. The advent of high-speed videolaryngoscopy (HSV) has provided the possibility of seeing the real cycle of vocal fold vibration in detail through high sampling rate of successive frames and adequate spatial resolution. Objective To describe the technique, advantages, and limitations of using HSV and digital videokymography in the diagnosis of vocal pathologies. Methods We used HSV and digital videokymography to evaluate one normophonic individual and four patients with vocal fold pathologies (nodules, unilateral paralysis of the left vocal fold, intracordal cyst, and adductor spasmodic dysphonia). The vocal fold vibration parameters (glottic closure, vibrational symmetry, periodicity, mucosal wave, amplitude, and glottal cycle phases) were assessed. Results Differences in the vocal vibration parameters were observed and correlated with the pathophysiology. Conclusion HSV is the latest diagnostic tool in visual examination of vocal behavior and has considerable potential to refine our knowledge regarding the vocal fold vibration and voice production, as well as regarding the impact of pathologic conditions have on the mechanism of phonation.

  19. Improvement of Vocal Pathologies Diagnosis Using High-Speed Videolaryngoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuji, Domingos Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The study of the dynamic properties of vocal fold vibration is important for understanding the vocal production mechanism and the impact of organic and functional changes. The advent of high-speed videolaryngoscopy (HSV has provided the possibility of seeing the real cycle of vocal fold vibration in detail through high sampling rate of successive frames and adequate spatial resolution. Objective To describe the technique, advantages, and limitations of using HSV and digital videokymography in the diagnosis of vocal pathologies. Methods We used HSV and digital videokymography to evaluate one normophonic individual and four patients with vocal fold pathologies (nodules, unilateral paralysis of the left vocal fold, intracordal cyst, and adductor spasmodic dysphonia. The vocal fold vibration parameters (glottic closure, vibrational symmetry, periodicity, mucosal wave, amplitude, and glottal cycle phases were assessed. Results Differences in the vocal vibration parameters were observed and correlated with the pathophysiology. Conclusion HSV is the latest diagnostic tool in visual examination of vocal behavior and has considerable potential to refine our knowledge regarding the vocal fold vibration and voice production, as well as regarding the impact of pathologic conditions have on the mechanism of phonation.

  20. Vocal quality in university teachers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'haeseleer, E; Claeys, S; Wuyts, F; Van Lierde, K M

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the vocal quality of 20 male and 9 female university teachers using a multi-parameter approach. Secondly, the effect of an academic lecture on the voice profiles of the university teachers was measured. All groups underwent subjective voice evaluations (perceptual evaluation, Voice Handicap Index, anamnesis of vocal complaints and vocal abuse) and objective voice evaluations (aerodynamic and acoustic parameters, vocal performance, and the Dysphonia Severity Index). The same voice assessment was performed after an academic lecture with a mean length of one and a half hours. The mean DSI score was + 2.2 for the male teachers and + 4.0 for the female teachers. The mean VHI score was 13. Perceptually, all voice parameters were rated as normal. The questionnaire revealed a relatively high amount of vocal abuse. No changes in the objective vocal parameters were found after the lecture. Perceptually, however, the voices of the university teachers were significantly less instable after the lecture. Although no negative changes in objective vocal quality were observed, 48% of the university teachers experienced subjective vocal changes. The authors concluded that university teachers are professional voice users with good vocal quality who suffer no handicapping effect from possible voice disorders. No important changes in the vocal profile after a teaching activity of one and a half hours were found, despite the high prevalence of voice complaints.

  1. Pitched Blade Turbine Efficiency at Particle Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ceres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixing suspensions is a very important hydraulic operation. The pitched six-blade turbine is a widely-used axial-flow impeller. This paper deals with effect relative impeller size and particle content on theefficiency of a pitched six-blade turbine at particle suspension. Two pitched six-blade turbines were used in model measurements of just suspension impeller speed. The ratios of the vessel to agitator diameter D/d were 3 and 4.5. The measurements were carried out in a dish-bottomed vessel 300 mm in diameter. The just suspension impeller speeds were measured using an electrochemical method, and were checked visually. A 2.5 % NaCl water solution was used as the liquid phase, and glass particles with four equivalent diameters between 0.18 and 0.89 mmand volumetric concentration from 2.5 % to 40% were usedasthesolid phase. The criterion values πs=Po√Fr'3(d/D7 were calculated from the particle suspension and power consumption measurements. The dependencies of πs on particle content cv show that larger agitators are more efficient for higher particle content.

  2. Individual blade pitch for yaw control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navalkar, S. T.; van Wingerden, J. W.; van Kuik, G. A. M.

    2014-06-01

    Individual pitch control (IPC) for reducing blade loads has been investigated and proven successful in recent literature. For IPC, the multi-blade co-ordinate (MBC) transformation is used to process the blade load signals from the rotating to a stationary frame of reference. In the stationary frame of reference, the yaw error of a turbine can be appended to generate IPC actions that are able to achieve turbine yaw control for a turbine in free yaw. In this paper, IPC for yaw control is tested on a high-fidelity numerical model of a commercially produced wind turbine in free yaw. The tests show that yaw control using IPC has the distinct advantage that the yaw system loads and support structure loading are substantially reduced. However, IPC for yaw control also shows a reduction in IPC blade load reduction potential and causes a slight increase in pitch activity. Thus, the key contribution of this paper is the concept demonstration of IPC for yaw control. Further, using IPC for yaw as a tuning parameter, it is shown how the best trade-off between blade loading, pitch activity and support structure loading can be achieved for wind turbine design.

  3. Voice Pitch Influences Perceptions of Sexual Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian J.M. O'Connor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual infidelity can be costly to members of both the extra-pair and the paired couple. Thus, detecting infidelity risk is potentially adaptive if it aids in avoiding cuckoldry or loss of parental and relationship investment. Among men, testosterone is inversely related to voice pitch, relationship and offspring investment, and is positively related to the pursuit of short-term relationships, including extra-pair sex. Among women, estrogen is positively related to voice pitch, attractiveness, and the likelihood of extra-pair involvement. Although prior work has demonstrated a positive relationship between men's testosterone levels and infidelity, this study is the first to investigate attributions of infidelity as a function of sexual dimorphism in male and female voices. We found that men attributed high infidelity risk to feminized women's voices, but not significantly more often than did women. Women attributed high infidelity risk to masculinized men's voices at significantly higher rates than did men. These data suggest that voice pitch is used as an indicator of sexual strategy in addition to underlying mate value. The aforementioned attributions may be adaptive if they prevent cuckoldry and/or loss of parental and relationship investment via avoidance of partners who may be more likely to be unfaithful.

  4. Voice pitch influences perceptions of sexual infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jillian J M; Re, Daniel E; Feinberg, David R

    2011-02-28

    Sexual infidelity can be costly to members of both the extra-pair and the paired couple. Thus, detecting infidelity risk is potentially adaptive if it aids in avoiding cuckoldry or loss of parental and relationship investment. Among men, testosterone is inversely related to voice pitch, relationship and offspring investment, and is positively related to the pursuit of short-term relationships, including extra-pair sex. Among women, estrogen is positively related to voice pitch, attractiveness, and the likelihood of extra-pair involvement. Although prior work has demonstrated a positive relationship between men's testosterone levels and infidelity, this study is the first to investigate attributions of infidelity as a function of sexual dimorphism in male and female voices. We found that men attributed high infidelity risk to feminized women's voices, but not significantly more often than did women. Women attributed high infidelity risk to masculinized men's voices at significantly higher rates than did men. These data suggest that voice pitch is used as an indicator of sexual strategy in addition to underlying mate value. The aforementioned attributions may be adaptive if they prevent cuckoldry and/or loss of parental and relationship investment via avoidance of partners who may be more likely to be unfaithful.

  5. Biomechanics of youth windmill softball pitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Sherry L; Guido, John A; McNeice, Ryan P; Richardson, Jasper L; Delude, Neil A; Stewart, Gregory W

    2005-04-01

    Limited research attention has been paid to the potentially harmful windmill softball pitch. No information is available regarding lower extremity kinetics in softball pitching. The stresses on the throwing arm of youth windmill pitchers are clinically significant and similar to those found for college softball pitchers. Descriptive laboratory study. Three-dimensional, high-speed (240-Hz) video and stride foot force plate (1200 Hz) data were collected on fastballs from 53 youth softball pitchers. Kinematic parameters related to pitching mechanics and resultant kinetics on the throwing-arm elbow and shoulder joints were calculated. Kinetic parameters were compared to those reported for baseball pitchers. Elbow and shoulder joint loads were similar to those found for baseball pitchers and college softball pitchers. Shoulder distraction stress averaged 94% body weight for the youth pitchers. Stride foot ground reaction force patterns were not similar to those reported for baseball pitchers. Vertical and braking force components under the stride foot were in excess of body weight. Excessive distraction stress and joint torques at the throwing-arm elbow and shoulder are similar to those found in baseball pitchers, which suggests that windmill softball pitchers are at risk for overuse injuries. Normative information regarding upper and lower extremity kinematics and kinetics for 12- to 19-year-old softball pitchers has been established.

  6. Vocal tract discomfort in teachers after teaching activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Amanda Corrêa do; Zambon, Fabiana; Moreti, Felipe; Behlau, Mara

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the vocal tract discomfort (VTD) reported by teachers, comparing their vocal self-assessment at three different times: before teaching, after four hours of teaching, and after eight hours of teaching. Methods The study sample was composed of 50 teachers: 42 women and eight men. The participating teachers were divided into two groups according to the cutoff value of the Voice Symptom Scale (VoiSS): Vocal Risk Group (VRG) and Vocally Healthy Group (VHG). The List of Vocal Signs and Symptoms (LVSS) was used to identify the number of vocal symptoms in each group. The groups were evaluated at three specific moments (before (BT) and after four (4HT) and eight (8HT) hours of teaching) by means of the Vocal Tract Discomfort Scale (VTD scale) and vocal self-assessment. Results The VRG presented more vocal signs and symptoms of the LVSS than the VHG (total: VHG=0.56/VRG=1.60, pBT=0.67; 4HT=0.96; 8HT=0.96, p=0.007). However, the VRG presented vocal tract discomfort after four and eight hours of teaching for both frequency (BT=1.60; 4HT=2.49; 8HT=2.95, pBT=1.79; 4HT=2.52; 8HT=3.12, pBT=2.00; 4HT=2.42; 8HT=3.00, p<0.001). Conclusion Teachers at vocal risk present worse vocal self-assessment and increased vocal tract discomfort throughout the teaching working day.

  7. Estudo do comportamento vocal no ciclo menstrual: avaliação perceptivo-auditiva, acústica e auto-perceptiva Vocal behavior during menstrual cycle: perceptual-auditory, acoustic and self-perception analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane C. de Figueiredo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante o período pré-menstrual é comum a ocorrência de disfonia, e são poucas as mulheres que se dão conta dessa variação da voz dentro do ciclo menstrual (Quinteiro, 1989. OBJETIVO: Verificar se há diferença no padrão vocal de mulheres no período de ovulação em relação ao primeiro dia do ciclo menstrual, utilizando-se da análise perceptivo-auditiva, da espectrografia, dos parâmetros acústicos e quando esta diferença está presente, se é percebida pelas mulheres. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Caso-controle. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A amostra coletada foi de 30 estudantes de Fonoaudiologia, na faixa etária de 18 a 25 anos, não-fumantes, com ciclo menstrual regular e sem o uso de contraceptivo oral. As vozes foram gravadas no primeiro dia de menstruação e no décimo-terceiro dia pós-menstruação (ovulação, para posterior comparação. RESULTADOS: Observou-se durante o período menstrual que as vozes estão rouco-soprosa de grau leve a moderado, instáveis, sem a presença de quebra de sonoridade, com pitch e loudness adequados e ressonância equilibrada. Há pior qualidade de definição dos harmônicos, maior quantidade de ruído entre eles e menor extensão dos harmônicos superiores. Encontramos uma f0 mais aguda, jitter e shimmer aumentados e PHR diminuída. CONCLUSÃO: No período menstrual há mudanças na qualidade vocal, no comportamento dos harmônicos e nos parâmetros vocais (f0,jitter, shimmer e PHR. Além disso, a maioria das estudantes de Fonoaudiologia não percebeu a variação da voz durante o ciclo menstrual.During the premenstruation period dysphonia often can be observed and only few women are aware of this voice variation (Quinteiro, 1989. AIM: To verify if there are vocal quality variations between the ovulation period and the first day of the menstrual cycle, by using perceptual-auditory and acoustic analysis, including spectrography, and the self perception of the vocal changes when it occurs. STUDY DESIGN: Case

  8. Desenhos e depoimentos: recursos para investigação da percepção e do conhecimento vocal Drawings and statements: resources for the investigation of perception and vocal recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Fabiana Agostinho Pereira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar, em desenhos e depoimentos sobre a voz, os aspectos de percepção e de conhecimento vocal em participantes de grupos de vivências de voz. MÉTODOS: análise documental de relatórios finais de quatro grupos de Vivência de Voz realizados nas disciplinas Estágio em Fonoaudiologia Comunitária I e II de um Curso de Fonoaudiologia para análise de conteúdo dos desenhos e depoimentos escritos de 53 sujeitos. RESULTADOS: as categorias identificadas pela análise dos desenhos e dos depoimentos foram: imagem vocal ou valoração atribuída à voz com freqüência da imagem/valoração positiva nos desenhos e negativa nos depoimentos. Quanto aos atributos vocais, houve freqüência do atributo auditivo-proprioceptivo, com menor ocorrência dos atributos sócio-cultural, psico-emocional e profissional. Os parâmetros vocais com maior ocorrência foram os de loudness, pitch, articulação e qualidade vocal. CONCLUSÃO: desenhos e depoimentos escritos sobre a voz se mostram como recursos que podem possibilitar a expressão da percepção e conhecimento dos sujeitos acerca da sua voz e necessitam ser melhor explorados nas ações educativas fonoaudiológicas que prezam pela troca de saberes, diálogo e participação ativa dos sujeitos, coerentes com a perspectiva da promoção da saúde.PURPOSE: to characterize the aspects of perception and vocal recognition in voice training groups through the participants' drawings and statements about voice. METHODS: documental analysis of final reports from four Voice Training groups which took place in the probationary period in Community Speech-Language-Pathology I and II of one Speech-Language-Pathology course for the analysis of content of the drawings and statements written by 53 subjects. RESULTS: the categories identified by the analysis of drawings and statements were: vocal image or value attributed to voice with a positive image/value prevailing in the drawings and negative one in

  9. Desvantagem vocal em cantores de igreja Vocal handicap of church singers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Prestes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a desvantagem vocal de cantores amadores de coros de igreja. MÉTODO: participaram 42 cantores de coros amadores de igrejas, sendo 20 homens e 22 mulheres, com idades entre 18 e 59 anos. Todos responderam a um questionário contendo perguntas sobre autopercepção vocal e práticas de canto, e ao protocolo Índice de Desvantagem para o Canto Moderno (IDCM, composto por 30 questões referentes às subescalas incapacidade, desvantagem e defeito. Foi realizada triagem perceptivo-auditiva para classificação das vozes em adaptadas ou alteradas e mensuração dos graus De alteração. RESULTADOS: a pontuação total média obtida no IDCM foi 23 pontos. Os maiores escores foram obtidos na subescala "defeito" (10,9, seguido por "incapacidade" (7,6 e "desvantagem" (4,5, com diferença entre elas (p= 0,001. Cantores que nunca realizaram aula de canto apresentaram maiores escores no domínio "desvantagem" (p=0,003. À medida que o escore total do IDCM aumentou, a nota atribuída pelo cantor em relação à própria voz diminuiu (p= 0,046. Participantes com qualidade vocal alterada apresentaram maiores escores nas subescalas incapacidade e desvantagem e no domínio total do IDCM quando comparados aos que apresentavam qualidade vocal adaptada (p=0,012, p=0,049 e p=0,015, respectivamente. Além disso, quanto maior o grau de alteração vocal, maiores foram os escores referentes à subescala incapacidade (p=0,022. CONCLUSÃO: cantores de igreja apresentam desvantagem vocal importante. Quando apresentam alterações vocais, esta desvantagem é ainda maior. Quanto maior o grau de alteração vocal, maiores as limitações referentes à voz cantada. Aulas de canto parecem minimizar a desvantagem vocal nessa população.PURPOSE: to evaluate the vocal handicap of amateur singers of church choirs. METHOD: we interviewed 42 amateur singers from church choirs, 20 men, and 22 women, between 18 and 59 year old. Everybody answered a questionnaire

  10. Heritability of adult body height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Sammalisto, Sampo; Perola, Markus

    2003-01-01

    A major component of variation in body height is due to genetic differences, but environmental factors have a substantial contributory effect. In this study we aimed to analyse whether the genetic architecture of body height varies between affluent western societies. We analysed twin data from ei...

  11. Wave Height and Horizon Dip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Werf, Siebren; Shokaryev, Igor

    2015-01-01

    A mariner who takes the height of the sun or a star to find his position at sea, must correct his observation for horizon dip. Throughout history, dip values have been tabulated based on the idealized assumption of a perfectly flat sea. Literature on wave height correction for dip is scarce,

  12. Four-dimensional CT analysis of vocal cords mobility for highly focused single vocal cord irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Sarah O S; de Boer, Hans C J; Heijmen, Ben J M; Levendag, Peter C

    2008-10-01

    To quantify respiratory motion of the vocal cords during normal respiration using 4D-CT. The final goal is to develop a technique for single vocal cord irradiation (SVCI) in early glottic carcinoma. Sparing the non-involved cord and surrounding structures has the potential to preserve voice quality and allow re-irradiation of recurrent and second primary tumors. Four-dimensional CTs of 1mm slice thickness from 10 early glottic carcinoma patients were acquired. The lateral dimensions of the air gap separating the vocal cords were measured anteriorly, at mid-level and posteriorly at each phase of the 4D-CTs. The corresponding anterior-posterior gaps were similarly measured. Cranio-caudal vocal cords movements during breathing were derived from the shifts of the arythenoids. The population-averaged mean gap size+/-the corresponding standard deviation due to breathing (SD(B)) for the lateral gaps was 5.8+/-0.7mm anteriorly, 8.7+/-0.9mm at mid-level, and 11.0+/-1.3mm posteriorly. Anterior-posterior gap values were 21.7+/-0.7mm, while cranio-caudal shift SD(B) was 0.8mm. Vocal cords breathing motions were found to be small relative to their separation. Hence, breathing motion does not seem to be a limiting factor for SVCI.

  13. The Vocal Tract Organ: A New Musical Instrument Using 3-D Printed Vocal Tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David M

    2017-10-27

    The advent and now increasingly widespread availability of 3-D printers is transforming our understanding of the natural world by enabling observations to be made in a tangible manner. This paper describes the use of 3-D printed models of the vocal tract for different vowels that are used to create an acoustic output when stimulated with an appropriate sound source in a new musical instrument: the Vocal Tract Organ. The shape of each printed vocal tract is recovered from magnetic resonance imaging. It sits atop a loudspeaker to which is provided an acoustic L-F model larynx input signal that is controlled by the notes played on a musical instrument digital interface device such as a keyboard. The larynx input is subject to vibrato with extent and frequency adjustable as desired within the ranges usually found for human singing. Polyphonic inputs for choral singing textures can be applied via a single loudspeaker and vocal tract, invoking the approximation of linearity in the voice production system, thereby making multiple vowel stops a possibility while keeping the complexity of the instrument in reasonable check. The Vocal Tract Organ offers a much more human and natural sounding result than the traditional Vox Humana stops found in larger pipe organs, offering the possibility of enhancing pipe organs of the future as well as becoming the basis for a "multi-vowel" chamber organ in its own right. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. If horses entrain, don’t entirely reject vocal learning: An experience-based vocal learning hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adena Schachner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bregman and colleagues describe methods for testing whether horses entrain their actions to an auditory beat. If horses can entrain, does this necessarily imply that there is no causal relationship between vocal learning and entrainment? I propose an alternative way in which vocal learning may relate to entrainment — one that is consistent with entrainment in some vocal non-learning species. Due to engaging in the developmental process of vocal learning, there may be early experiences common to vocal learners, but rare in vocal non-learning species. It is possible that it is these experiences that are critical for entrainment — not vocal learning itself, nor related genes. These experiences may result in critical changes in neural development, leading to the development of cognitive mechanisms necessary for both vocal learning and entrainment. This hypothesis changes the causal story from one of genetic change to one of changes in experience, and from a focus on evolution to a focus on individual ontogeny. Thus, if horses can entrain, we should not immediately reject the idea of a relationship between vocal learning and entrainment: First, we should consider whether some unusual aspect of the horses' experience effectively replicates the unusual experiences of vocal learning animals.

  15. Vocal similarity in long-distance and short-distance vocalizations in raven pairs (Corvus corax) in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luef, Eva Maria; Ter Maat, Andries; Pika, Simone

    2017-09-01

    Vocal interactions in many birds are characterized by imitation or the matching of vocalizations whereby one individual makes its vocalizations more similar to those of a conspecific. This behaviour is aided by vocal learning, which allows birds to change the vocalizations already in their repertoires, or to add new ones. The majority of studies on vocal similarity have been focussing on the songs of birds rather than their calls, with evidence for vocal similarity in calls being rather scarce. Here, we investigated whether ravens make their calls acoustically similar to one another by analysing the extent to which short- and long-distance calls of their vocal repertoires exhibited vocal similarity. Our results showed that long-distance calls, but not short-distance calls, are highly similar between pair partners. This effect may be explained by the different functions underlying short- and long-distance communication in ravens, with vocal similarity possibly being scaffolded by specific social matrices such as pair-bonds and/or strong social relationships. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Practical management: vocal cord dysfunction in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John J; Wilson, Erin M

    2006-07-01

    Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is characterized by paradoxical adduction of the vocal folds during inhalation, and occasionally upon exhalation, resulting in extrathoracic airflow obstruction. Sports medicine professionals must have a high index of suspicion for VCD when acute respiratory symptoms occur so that prompt evaluation and use of appropriate specialists results in an accurate and timely diagnosis. Many factors have been implicated in the pathophysiology of VCD, including laryngeal irritants, psychogenic and neurogenic causes. The diagnosis and management of VCD involves a variety of specialties including pulmonology, otolaryngology, speech-language pathology, allergy and immunology, and psychologic management as appropriate. The mainstay of treatment remains behavioral management guided by a medical speech-language pathologist, as well as pharmacologic management for VCD triggers.

  17. Vocal tract dynamics in an adult stutterer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Wolk

    1981-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was motivated by the clinical observation of "laryngeal spasms" during dysfluency in an adult female  stutterer. The flexible fiberoptic nasolaryngoscope was employed in an attempt to assess this phenomenon objectively. Findings from fiberscopic and spectrographic investigations provided evidence for a disturbance in laryngeal behaviour, and in turn served to determine the nature of the treatment programme. Asymmetry of the vocal folds  and partial abductory laryngeal behaviour, reflecting  a conflict between adductory and abductory forces, characterized the dysfluency  in this patient. A subjective evaluation after treatment revealed a reduction in both severity and frequency of stuttering behaviour. Furthermore, fiberscopic examination carried out after treatment revealed an absence of the laryngeal disturbances noted previously. Results are considered in terms of vocal tract dynamics in stuttering and its clinical applicability.

  18. Vocal tract dynamics in an adult stutterer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Wolk

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was motivated by the clinical observation of "laryngeal spasms" during dysfluency in an adult female  stutterer. The flexible fiberoptic nasolaryngoscope was employed in an attempt to assess this phenomenon objectively. Findings from fiberscopic and spectrographic investigations provided evidence for a disturbance in laryngeal behaviour, and in turn served to determine the nature of the treatment programme. Asymmetry of the vocal folds  and partial abductory laryngeal behaviour, reflecting  a conflict between adductory and abductory forces, characterized the dysfluency  in this patient. A subjective evaluation after treatment revealed a reduction in both severity and frequency of stuttering behaviour. Furthermore, fiberscopic examination carried out after treatment revealed an absence of the laryngeal disturbances noted previously. Results are considered in terms of vocal tract dynamics in stuttering and its clinical applicability.

  19. The role of vocal individuality in conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terry, Andrew Mark Ryder; Peake, Thomas More; McGregor, Peter Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    Identifying the individuals within a population can generate information on life history parameters, generate input data for conservation models, and highlight behavioural traits that may affect management decisions and error or bias within census methods. Individual animals can be discriminated...... and techniques for using this to count and monitor populations over time. We present case studies in birds where vocal individuality has been applied to conservation and we discuss its role in mammals....

  20. Mapping of Vocal Risk in Amateur Choir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Milka; Behlau, Mara

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate and map the existence of vocal risk in amateur singers, analyzing the contribution of general voice signs and symptoms, specific singing handicap, and generalized anxiety. This is a cross-sectional study. The sample comprised 526 volunteer amateur choristers-186 male and 340 female-(mean age of 42.07 years) from different choirs in the region of São Paulo. Three questionnaires were used: the Voice Symptom Scale (VoiSS), the Modern Singing Handicap Index (MSHI), and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale. The mean total score obtained on the VoiSS was 17.57, which is almost two points higher than the protocol's passing score (16). The choristers who scored higher or equal to 16 points (51.5%, n = 271)-considered at vocal risk-and the group who scored less than 16 points (48.5%, n = 255)-healthy group-were analyzed separately. The risk group presented a mean total score of 26.34 on the VoiSS and 20.97 on the MSHI, with higher deviation on the impairment subscale, followed by the disability and handicap subscales, along with mild anxiety. The healthy group presented a mean total score of 8.27 on the VoiSS and 6.11 on the MSHI, also with higher deviation in the impairment subscale, followed by disability and handicap, and a minimum level of anxiety. Even in leisure activities, vocal care is necessary for the correct use of the singing voice, which demands individual adaptations. The use of protocols for voice symptoms and singing handicap has revealed the possibility of amateur choristers to present vocal risk. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Vocal health fitness to different music styles

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cláudia Mendes Caminha Muniz; Marco Rodrigo Castro da Silva; Charleston Teixeira Palmeira

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To present genres and styles currently running on western music scene, focusing on the practice of singing voice. Methods: An observational and documental study for which were selected sound sources presenting musical genres and styles that are part of the experience of the researchers, which were analyzed considering origins, formative elements and vocal features. Alongside we carried out a review of literature grounded in databases research and free review of websites and classic...

  2. Botulinum toxin in the treatment of vocal fold nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jacqui E; Belafsky, Peter C

    2009-12-01

    Promising new techniques in the management of vocal fold nodules have been developed in the past 2 years. Simultaneously, the therapeutic use of botulinum toxin has rapidly expanded. This review explores the use of botulinum toxin in treatment of vocal nodules and summarizes current therapeutic concepts. New microsurgical instruments and techniques, refinements in laser technology, radiosurgical excision and steroid intralesional injections are all promising new techniques in the management of vocal nodules. Botulinum toxin-induced 'voice rest' is a new technique we have employed in patients with recalcitrant nodules. Successful resolution of nodules is possible with this technique, without the risk of vocal fold scarring inherent in dissection/excision techniques. Botulinum toxin usage is exponentially increasing, and large-scale, long-term studies demonstrate its safety profile. Targeted vocal fold temporary paralysis induced by botulinum toxin injection is a new, well tolerated and efficacious treatment in patients with persistent vocal fold nodules.

  3. The etiology of vocal fold nodules in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkos, Petros D; McCormick, Maxwell

    2009-12-01

    To review the recent literature on the etiology and pathophysiology of vocal fold nodules in adults. Research regarding the etiology of vocal nodules over the past 2 years supports previous thinking regarding the central role of voice misuse, overuse, and phonatory trauma. Advanced modeling techniques have helped elucidate mechanisms by which this may occur such as vibration-induced rise in capillary pressures and varying fluid dynamics in the layered vocal fold structure. Contributory roles of personality traits, reflux, and allergy have also been hypothesized. Current research supports long-held beliefs that phonatory trauma is a central cause of vocal fold nodule formation. Innovative basic science research has unraveled mechanisms of traumatic damage and clinical research continues to identify crucial lifestyle behavior and contributing comorbid conditions that play a role in the pathogenesis of vocal fold nodules. The multifactorial etiology of vocal fold nodules requires a comprehensive history to identify contributing factors and a multidisciplinary approach to optimize treatment outcome.

  4. Knockout of Foxp2 disrupts vocal development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellucci, Gregg A; McGinley, Matthew J; McCormick, David A

    2016-03-16

    The FOXP2 gene is important for the development of proper speech motor control in humans. However, the role of the gene in general vocal behavior in other mammals, including mice, is unclear. Here, we track the vocal development of Foxp2 heterozygous knockout (Foxp2+/-) mice and their wildtype (WT) littermates from juvenile to adult ages, and observe severe abnormalities in the courtship song of Foxp2+/- mice. In comparison to their WT littermates, Foxp2+/- mice vocalized less, produced shorter syllable sequences, and possessed an abnormal syllable inventory. In addition, Foxp2+/- song also exhibited irregular rhythmic structure, and its development did not follow the consistent trajectories observed in WT vocalizations. These results demonstrate that the Foxp2 gene is critical for normal vocal behavior in juvenile and adult mice, and that Foxp2 mutant mice may provide a tractable model system for the study of the gene's role in general vocal motor control.

  5. A case of expressive-vocal amusia in a right-handed patient with left hemispheric cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uetsuki, Shizuka; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Ryuichi; Obata, Satoshi; Kakigi, Tatsuya; Wada, Yoshiko; Yokoyama, Kazumasa

    2016-03-01

    A 53-year-old right-handed woman had an extensive lesion in the left hemisphere due to an infarction caused by vasospasm secondary to subarachnoid bleeding. She exhibited persistent expressive-vocal amusia with no symptoms of aphasia. Evaluation of the patient's musical competence using the Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusia, rhythm reproduction tests, acoustic analysis of pitch upon singing familiar music, Japanese standard language tests, and other detailed clinical examinations revealed that her amusia was more dominantly related to pitch production. The intactness of her speech provided strong evidence that the right hemisphere played a major role in her linguistic processing. Data from functional magnetic resonance imaging while she was singing a familiar song, a scale, and reciting lyrics indicated that perilesional residual activation in the left hemisphere was associated with poor pitch production, while right hemispheric activation was involved in linguistic processing. The localization of infarction more anterior to the left Sylvian fissure might be related to the dominant deficits in expressive aspects of the singing of the patient. Compromised motor programming producing a single tone may have made a major contribution to her poor singing. Imperfect auditory feedback due to borderline perceptual ability or improper audio-motor associations might also have played a role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Imaging evaluation of vocal cord paralysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo de Mattos; Magalhaes, Fabiana Pizanni; Dadalto, Gabriela Bijos; Moura, Marina Vimieiro Timponi de [Axial Centro de Imagem, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: marcelomgarcia@superig.com.br, e-mail: ce@axialmg.com.br

    2009-09-15

    Vocal cord paralysis is a common cause of hoarseness. It may be secondary to many types of lesions along the cranial nerve X pathway and its branches, particularly the laryngeal recurrent nerves. Despite the idiopathic nature of a great number of cases, imaging methods play a very significant role in the investigation of etiologic factors, such as thyroid and esophagus neoplasias with secondary invasion of the laryngeal recurrent nerves. Other conditions such as aortic and right subclavian artery aneurysms also may be found. The knowledge of local anatomy and related diseases is of great importance for the radiologist, so that he can tailor the examination properly to allow an appropriate diagnosis and therapy planning. Additionally, considering that up to 35% of patients with vocal cord paralysis are asymptomatic, the recognition of radiological findings indicative of this condition is essential for the radiologist who must warn the referring physician on the imaging findings. In the present study, the authors review the anatomy and main diseases related to vocal cord paralysis, demonstrating them through typical cases evaluated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, besides describing radiological findings of laryngeal abnormalities indicative of this condition. (author)

  7. A validated battery of vocal emotional expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Maurage

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, the exploration of emotions focused on facial expression, and vocal expression of emotion has only recently received interest. However, no validated battery of emotional vocal expressions has been published and made available to the researchers’ community. This paper aims at validating and proposing such material. 20 actors (10 men recorded sounds (words and interjections expressing six basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, neutral and sadness. These stimuli were then submitted to a double validation phase: (1 preselection by experts; (2 quantitative and qualitative validation by 70 participants. 195 stimuli were selected for the final battery, each one depicting a precise emotion. The ratings provide a complete measure of intensity and specificity for each stimulus. This paper provides, to our knowledge, the first validated, freely available and highly standardized battery of emotional vocal expressions (words and intonations. This battery could constitute an interesting tool for the exploration of prosody processing among normal and pathological populations, in neuropsychology as well as psychiatry. Further works are nevertheless needed to complement the present material.

  8. Vocal patterns in infants with autism spectrum disorder: canonical babbling status and vocalization frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Elena; Belardi, Katie; Baranek, Grace T; Watson, Linda R; Labban, Jeffrey D; Oller, D Kimbrough

    2014-10-01

    Canonical babbling is a critical milestone for speech development and is usually well in place by 10 months. The possibility that infants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show late onset of canonical babbling has so far eluded evaluation. Rate of vocalization or "volubility" has also been suggested as possibly aberrant in infants with ASD. We conducted a retrospective video study examining vocalizations of 37 infants at 9-12 and 15-18 months. Twenty-three of the 37 infants were later diagnosed with ASD and indeed produced low rates of canonical babbling and low volubility by comparison with the 14 typically developing infants. The study thus supports suggestions that very early vocal patterns may prove to be a useful component of early screening and diagnosis of ASD.

  9. EFFECTS OF MUSIC ON VOCAL STEREOTYPY IN CHILDREN WITH AUTISM

    OpenAIRE

    Lanovaz, Marc J.; Sladeczek, Ingrid E; Rapp, John T.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of manipulating the intensity (i.e., volume) of music on engagement in vocal stereotypy in 2 children with autism. Noncontingent access to music decreased immediate engagement in vocal stereotypy for each participant, but it produced only marginal effects on subsequent engagement in the behavior (i.e., after withdrawal). Manipulating the intensity of music did not produce differential effects on immediate engagement in vocal stereotypy. The implications of the results ...

  10. Vocalizing Dance Movement for Interactive Sonification of Laban Effort Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Françoise, Jules; Fdili Alaoui, Sarah; Schiphorst, Thecla; Bevilacqua, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    International audience; We investigate the use of interactive sound feedback for dance pedagogy based on the practice of vocalizing while moving. Our goal is to allow dancers to access a greater range of expressive movement qualities through vocalization. We propose a methodology for the sonification of Effort Factors, as defined in Laban Movement Analysis, based on vocalizations performed by movement experts. Based on the experiential outcomes of an exploratory workshop, we propose a set of ...

  11. A Framework for Automated Marmoset Vocalization Detection And Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-08

    killer whales [13], and marmosets [8]. Recent work on semi-automated marmoset vocalization classification [10] is primarily based on the use of...Elephant ( Loxodonta africana ) Vocalizations,” vol. 117, no. 2, pp. 956–963, 2005. [13] J. C. Brown, “Automatic classification of killer whale ... behavior assessment. Index Terms: Automated detection and classification, marmoset vocalization, primate behavioral analysis, primate welfare monitoring

  12. Acoustic Vocal Tract Model of One-year-old Children

    OpenAIRE

    M. Vojnović; I. Bogavac; L. Dobrijević

    2014-01-01

    The physical shape of vocal tract and its formant (resonant) frequencies are directly related. The study of this functional connectivity is essential in speech therapy practice with children. Most of the perceived children’s speech anomalies can be explained on a physical level: malfunctioning movement of articulation organs. The current problem is that there is no enough data on the anatomical shape of children’s vocal tract to create its acoustic model. Classical techniques for vocal tract...

  13. Computational acoustic modeling of cetacean vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, Michael Dixon

    A framework for computational acoustic modeling of hypothetical vocal production mechanisms in cetaceans is presented. As a specific example, a model of a proposed source in the larynx of odontocetes is developed. Whales and dolphins generate a broad range of vocal sounds, but the exact mechanisms they use are not conclusively understood. In the fifty years since it has become widely accepted that whales can and do make sound, how they do so has remained particularly confounding. Cetaceans' highly divergent respiratory anatomy, along with the difficulty of internal observation during vocalization have contributed to this uncertainty. A variety of acoustical, morphological, ethological and physiological evidence has led to conflicting and often disputed theories of the locations and mechanisms of cetaceans' sound sources. Computational acoustic modeling has been used to create real-time parametric models of musical instruments and the human voice. These techniques can be applied to cetacean vocalizations to help better understand the nature and function of these sounds. Extensive studies of odontocete laryngeal morphology have revealed vocal folds that are consistently similar to a known but poorly understood acoustic source, the ribbon reed. A parametric computational model of the ribbon reed is developed, based on simplified geometrical, mechanical and fluid models drawn from the human voice literature. The physical parameters of the ribbon reed model are then adapted to those of the odontocete larynx. With reasonable estimates of real physical parameters, both the ribbon reed and odontocete larynx models produce sounds that are perceptually similar to their real-world counterparts, and both respond realistically under varying control conditions. Comparisons of acoustic features of the real-world and synthetic systems show a number of consistencies. While this does not on its own prove that either model is conclusively an accurate description of the source, it

  14. VoICE: A semi-automated pipeline for standardizing vocal analysis across models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burkett, Zachary D; Day, Nancy F; Peñagarikano, Olga; Geschwind, Daniel H; White, Stephanie A

    2015-01-01

    .... Here, we present VoICE (Vocal Inventory Clustering Engine), an approach to grouping vocal elements by creating a high dimensionality dataset through scoring spectral similarity between all vocalizations within a recording session...

  15. The Influence of Noise on the Vocal Dose in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Alessandra Terra Vasconcelos; Santos, Juliana Nunes; Souza, Bárbara Oliveira; Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes; de Castro Magalhães, Max

    2017-12-28

    The objective of this study was to evaluate if noise interferes with the vocal dose in women without vocal complaints. This is an experimental and comparative study. Data were collected on 27 women between 22 and 50 years of age without vocal complaints in a university classroom. Speech-language pathology evaluation was performed employing auditory-perceptual analysis and a vocal symptom questionnaire. The acoustics of the classroom were evaluated via both observation of the characteristics of the room and the quantification of background noise and reverberation time. Two distinctive acoustic conditions were created for evaluations: condition 1, a room without acoustic treatment and without noise reproduction, and condition 2, a room without acoustic treatment with noise reproduction. Each participant was evaluated individually in both acoustic conditions. To obtain vocal dose data, a vocal dosimeter was used. Subjects were asked to perform two 10-minute readings, one in each acoustic condition. The order of conditions was randomized between subjects. Subjects were instructed to complete the reading tasks at the vocal intensity deemed appropriate to be heard by a listener in the back of the room. t Tests and the Wilcoxon test were employed to compare parameters across subjects and conditions. Fundamental frequency, vocal intensity, percentage of phonation, and cycle dose significantly increased in the background noise condition. A positive relation between vocal dose and the presence of excessive noise in the environment was observed. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fat augmentation following microsurgical removal of the vocal nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Ming-Wang; Chen, Yen-Yu; Pai, Lu; Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Kang, Bor-Hwang; Wang, Hsing-Won

    2002-08-01

    Autogenous fat augmentation has been used as a treatment for glottic insufficiency. However, no information is available on the effectiveness of fat injection in patients with vocal nodules or recurrent vocal nodules after surgery. The retrospective study reviews the efficiency of fat injection after surgery in patients with vocal nodules (n = 18) and recurrent vocal nodules (n = 5). The perceptual acoustic, phonatory function, and video laryngostroboscopic data were evaluated before and after surgery in 23 patients. Mean follow-up time was 7.5 months. Nineteen patients had excellent results. Two patients had improvement, and no change was observed in two patients. Phonatory function showed significant improvement in shimmer, harmonic-to-noiseratio (P vocal fold edge, amplitude of vocal fold vibration, and excursion of the mucosal wave (P vocal nodules than in nonrecurrent vocal nodules. Fat injection is an effective autogenous implant and may be considered as an option in management of patients with vocal nodules after surgery. Recurrence of nodules is a problem, but the procedure may be repeated.

  17. Vocal Emotion of Humanoid Robots: A Study from Brain Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youhui Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Driven by rapid ongoing advances in humanoid robot, increasing attention has been shifted into the issue of emotion intelligence of AI robots to facilitate the communication between man-machines and human beings, especially for the vocal emotion in interactive system of future humanoid robots. This paper explored the brain mechanism of vocal emotion by studying previous researches and developed an experiment to observe the brain response by fMRI, to analyze vocal emotion of human beings. Findings in this paper provided a new approach to design and evaluate the vocal emotion of humanoid robots based on brain mechanism of human beings.

  18. Automatic recognizing of vocal fold disorders from glottis images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chang-Chiun; Leu, Yi-Shing; Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Chu, Wen-Lin; Chu, Yueng-Hsiang; Wu, Han-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    The laryngeal video stroboscope is an important instrument to test glottal diseases and read vocal fold images and voice quality for physician clinical diagnosis. This study is aimed to develop a medical system with functionality of automatic intelligent recognition of dynamic images. The static images of glottis opening to the largest extent and closing to the smallest extent were screened automatically using color space transformation and image preprocessing. The glottal area was also quantized. As the tongue base movements affected the position of laryngoscope and saliva would result in unclear images, this study used the gray scale adaptive entropy value to set the threshold in order to establish an elimination system. The proposed system can improve the effect of automatically captured images of glottis and achieve an accuracy rate of 96%. In addition, the glottal area and area segmentation threshold were calculated effectively. The glottis area segmentation was corrected, and the glottal area waveform pattern was drawn automatically to assist in vocal fold diagnosis. When developing the intelligent recognition system for vocal fold disorders, this study analyzed the characteristic values of four vocal fold patterns, namely, normal vocal fold, vocal fold paralysis, vocal fold polyp, and vocal fold cyst. It also used the support vector machine classifier to identify vocal fold disorders and achieved an identification accuracy rate of 98.75%. The results can serve as a very valuable reference for diagnosis. © IMechE 2014.

  19. Animal behaviour: elephants are capable of vocal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Joyce H; Tyack, Peter L; Stoeger-Horwath, Angela S; Watwood, Stephanie

    2005-03-24

    There are a few mammalian species that can modify their vocalizations in response to auditory experience--for example, some marine mammals use vocal imitation for reproductive advertisement, as birds sometimes do. Here we describe two examples of vocal imitation by African savannah elephants, Loxodonta africana, a terrestrial mammal that lives in a complex fission-fusion society. Our findings favour a role for vocal imitation that has already been proposed for primates, birds, bats and marine mammals: it is a useful form of acoustic communication that helps to maintain individual-specific bonds within changing social groupings.

  20. Perceptual and acoustic parameters of vocal nodules in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramuglia, Andréa Cristina Joia; Tavares, Elaine L M; Rodrigues, Sérgio Augusto; Martins, Regina H G

    2014-02-01

    Vocal nodules constitute the major cause of dysphonia during childhood. Auditory-perceptual and acoustic vocal analyses have been used to differentiate vocal nodules from normal voice in children. To study the value of auditory-perceptual and acoustic vocal analyses in assessments of children with nodules. Diagnostic test study. A comparative study was carried out including 100 children with videolaryngoscopic diagnosis of vocal nodules (nodule group-NG); and 100 children without vocal symptoms and with normal videolaryngoscopic exams (control group-CG). The age range of both groups was between 4 and 11 years. All children underwent auditory-perceptual vocal analyses (GRBASI scale); maximum phonation time and s/z ratio were calculated, and acoustic vocal analysis (MDVP software) were carried out. There was no difference in the values of maximum phonation time and s/z ratio between groups. Auditory-perceptual analysis indicated greater compromising of voice parameters for NG, compared to CG: G (79 versus 24), R (53 versus 3), B (67 versus 23) and S (35 versus 1). The values of acoustic parameters jitter, PPQ, shimmer, APQ, NHR and SPI were higher for NG for CG. The parameter f0 did not differ between groups. Compromising of auditory-perceptual (G, R, B and S) and acoustic vocal parameters (jitter, PPQ, shimmer, APQ, NHR and SPI) was greater for children with nodules than for those of the control group, which makes them important methods for assessing child dysphonia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Neural activity related to discrimination and vocal production of consonant and dissonant musical intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Nadia; González, Martha A; Rendón, Pablo L

    2016-07-15

    Relationships between musical pitches are described as either consonant, when associated with a pleasant and harmonious sensation, or dissonant, when associated with an inharmonious feeling. The accurate singing of musical intervals requires communication between auditory feedback processing and vocal motor control (i.e. audio-vocal integration) to ensure that each note is produced correctly. The objective of this study is to investigate the neural mechanisms through which trained musicians produce consonant and dissonant intervals. We utilized 4 musical intervals (specifically, an octave, a major seventh, a fifth, and a tritone) as the main stimuli for auditory discrimination testing, and we used the same interval tasks to assess vocal accuracy in a group of musicians (11 subjects, all female vocal students at conservatory level). The intervals were chosen so as to test for differences in recognition and production of consonant and dissonant intervals, as well as narrow and wide intervals. The subjects were studied using fMRI during performance of the interval tasks; the control condition consisted of passive listening. Singing dissonant intervals as opposed to singing consonant intervals led to an increase in activation in several regions, most notably the primary auditory cortex, the primary somatosensory cortex, the amygdala, the left putamen, and the right insula. Singing wide intervals as opposed to singing narrow intervals resulted in the activation of the right anterior insula. Moreover, we also observed a correlation between singing in tune and brain activity in the premotor cortex, and a positive correlation between training and activation of primary somatosensory cortex, primary motor cortex, and premotor cortex during singing. When singing dissonant intervals, a higher degree of training correlated with the right thalamus and the left putamen. Our results indicate that singing dissonant intervals requires greater involvement of neural mechanisms

  2. How to pitch a brilliant idea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsbach, Kimberly D

    2003-09-01

    Coming up with creative ideas is easy; selling them to strangers is hard. Entrepreneurs, sales executives, and marketing managers often go to great lengths to demonstrate how their new concepts are practical and profitable--only to be rejected by corporate decision makers who don't seem to understand the value of the ideas. Why does this happen? Having studied Hollywood executives who assess screenplay pitches, the author says the person on the receiving end--the "catcher"--tends to gauge the pitcher's creativity as well as the proposal itself. An impression of the pitcher's ability to come up with workable ideas can quickly and permanently overshadow the catcher's feelings about an idea's worth. To determine whether these observations apply to business settings beyond Hollywood, the author attended product design, marketing, and venture-capital pitch sessions and conducted interviews with executives responsible for judging new ideas. The results in those environments were similar to her observations in Hollywood, she says. Catchers subconsciously categorize successful pitchers as showrunners (smooth and professional), artists (quirky and unpolished), or neophytes (inexperienced and naive). The research also reveals that catchers tend to respond well when they believe they are participating in an idea's development. As Oscar-winning writer, director, and producer Oliver Stone puts it, screen-writers pitching an idea should "pull back and project what he needs onto your idea in order to make the story whole for him." To become a successful pitcher, portray yourself as one of the three creative types and engage your catchers in the creative process. By finding ways to give your catchers a chance to shine, you sell yourself as a likable collaborator.

  3. Finger forces in fastball baseball pitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Obata, Satoshi; Nasu, Daiki; Kadota, Koji; Matsuo, Tomoyuki; Fleisig, Glenn S

    2017-08-01

    Forces imparted by the fingers onto a baseball are the final, critical aspects for pitching, however these forces have not been quantified previously as no biomechanical technology was available. In this study, an instrumented baseball was developed for direct measurement of ball reaction force by individual fingers and used to provide fundamental information on the forces during a fastball pitch. A tri-axial force transducer with a cable having an easily-detachable connector were installed in an official baseball. Data were collected from 11 pitchers who placed the fingertip of their index, middle, ring, or thumb on the transducer, and threw four-seam fastballs to a target cage from a flat mound. For the index and middle fingers, resultant ball reaction force exhibited a bimodal pattern with initial and second peaks at 38-39ms and 6-7ms before ball release, and their amplitudes were around 97N each. The ring finger and thumb produced single-peak forces of approximately 50 and 83N, respectively. Shear forces for the index and middle fingers formed distinct peak at 4-5ms before release, and the peaks summed to 102N; a kinetic source for backspin on the ball. An additional experiment with submaximal pitching effort showed a linear relationship of peak forces with ball velocity. The peak ball reaction force for fastballs exceeded 80% of maximum finger strength measured, suggesting that strengthening of the distal muscles is important both for enhancing performance and for avoiding injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Towards a Mental Representation of Vowel Height in SSBE Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Mendousse

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Vigorous debate in phonetics and phonology has focused on the structure and cognitive foundation of distinctive feature theory, as well as on the definition and representation of features themselves. In particular, we show in Section 1 that, although vowel height has long been the object of close scrutiny, research on the three- or more- tiered height representation of vowels in the phonology of English remains inconclusive. Section 2 reports on the rationale and methodology of a sound-symbolism experiment designed to evaluate the implicit phonological knowledge that English native speakers have of vowel height differences. In Section 3 we tabulate results and argue in Section 4 that their intuitive understanding of such differences is best accounted for in terms of a three- tiered height axis.El intenso debate en la fonética y la fonología se ha enfocado en la estructura y en la base cognitiva de la teoría de los rasgos distintivos, así como en la definición y en la representación de los rasgos mismos. En concreto, demostramos en la Sección 1 que, aunque la apertura de las vocales ha sido durante mucho tiempo objeto de riguroso análisis, la investigación en torno a la representación de las vocales mediante tres o más grados de apertura no es concluyente en la fonología del inglés. La sección 2 informa sobre el razonamiento y la metodología de un experimento de simbolismo fonético diseñado para evaluar el conocimiento fonológico implícito con que cuentan los angloparlantes de Inglaterra respecto a los distintos grados de apertura vocálica. En la Sección 3 se tabulan los resultados, y sostenemos en la Sección 4 que la comprensión intuitiva de tales diferencias se explica mejor en términos de un eje con tres grados de apertura.

  5. Learning to detect vocal hyperfunction from ambulatory neck-surface acceleration features: Initial results for vocal fold nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Ghassemi, Marzyeh; Van Stan, Jarrad H.; Mehta, Daryush D.; Zañartu, Matías; Cheyne, Harold A.; Hillman, Robert E.; Guttag, John V.

    2014-01-01

    Voice disorders are medical conditions that often result from vocal abuse/misuse which is referred to generically as vocal hyperfunction. Standard voice assessment approaches cannot accurately determine the actual nature, prevalence, and pathological impact of hyperfunctional vocal behaviors because such behaviors can vary greatly across the course of an individual's typical day and may not be clearly demonstrated during a brief clinical encounter. Thus, it would be clinically valuable to dev...

  6. Relationship between vocal symptoms in college students and their possible causes

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Léslie Piccolotto; Guerra, Juliana Ranzani; Loiola,Camila Miranda; Ghirardi,Ana Carolina de Assis Moura

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction:?Studies to understand the vocal profile of a population are important to plan collective health measures. The prevalence of vocal symptoms can be indicative of vocal disorder and must be investigated to support measures to prevent vocal diseases. Aim:?To characterize vocal symptoms in college students and their possible causes, and to analyze the association between hoarseness, vocal fatigue, phlegm, and burning in the throat with the possible causes mentioned. Method:?P...

  7. Analysis of Pitch Gear Deterioration using Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Jessen; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    . This deterioration is expected to cause larger loads, because increased play causes dynamic loads. At some point, the increased loads can be expected to cause a failure somewhere in the pitch system. If the loads increase with the size of the damage, the loads can be used as indicators of the size of the damage....... This hypothesis was supported by results from a measurement campaign where measurements were available both before and after maintenance was performed. The loads dramatically decreased after the maintenance. However, after a few more months of measurements, and by including data from the SCADA system, it became...

  8. Effects of harmonic roving on pitch discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; de Kérangal, Mathilde le Gal; Joshi, Suyash Narendra

    2015-01-01

    to impair pitch discrimination performance. Fundamental-frequency difference limens (F0DLs) were obtained in normal-hearing listeners with and without musical training for complex tones filtered between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz with F0s of 300 Hz (resolved harmonics) and 75 Hz (unresolved harmonics). The harmonicity...... of the tone complexes was varied by systematically roving the frequency of individual harmonics, which was taken from a Gaussian distribution centered on the nominal frequency in every stimulus presentation. The amount of roving was determined by the standard deviation of this distribution, which varied...

  9. [The perfect pitch. Birth, delights and death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwang, G

    1990-01-01

    The absolute pitch, AP, is the capacity of identifying and/or producing (singing) exact music notes without any prior indication. It appears in prone subjects owing to the assiduous practice of music, and is ruled by the temperament and diapason. It provides an incomparable subjective self-realization and makes it much easier to listen to, understand, write and read music. The false 415 compass, which spread widely as the baroque style became fashionable, stresses the subjects gifted with AP and prevents its appearance in children. This should be a cause of alarm for the medical, as well as administrative, authorities.

  10. Kinematics and constraints associated with swashplate blade pitch control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyland, Jane A.

    1993-01-01

    An important class of techniques to reduce helicopter vibration is based on using a Higher Harmonic controller to optimally define the Higher Harmonic blade pitch. These techniques typically require solution of a general optimization problem requiring the determination of a control vector which minimizes a performance index where functions of the control vector are subject to inequality constraints. Six possible constraint functions associated with swashplate blade pitch control were identified and defined. These functions constrain: (1) blade pitch Fourier Coefficients expressed in the Rotating System, (2) blade pitch Fourier Coefficients expressed in the Nonrotating System, (3) stroke of the individual actuators expressed in the Nonrotating System, (4) blade pitch expressed as a function of blade azimuth and actuator stroke, (5) time rate-of-change of the aforementioned parameters, and (6) required actuator power. The aforementioned constraints and the associated kinematics of swashplate blade pitch control by means of the strokes of the individual actuators are documented.

  11. A developmental study of latent absolute pitch memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Müllensiefen, Daniel; Stewart, Lauren

    2017-03-01

    The ability to recall the absolute pitch level of familiar music (latent absolute pitch memory) is widespread in adults, in contrast to the rare ability to label single pitches without a reference tone (overt absolute pitch memory). The present research investigated the developmental profile of latent absolute pitch (AP) memory and explored individual differences related to this ability. In two experiments, 288 children from 4 to12 years of age performed significantly above chance at recognizing the absolute pitch level of familiar melodies. No age-related improvement or decline, nor effects of musical training, gender, or familiarity with the stimuli were found in regard to latent AP task performance. These findings suggest that latent AP memory is a stable ability that is developed from as early as age 4 and persists into adulthood.

  12. Processing of Binaural Pitch Stimuli in Hearing-Impaired Listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    Binaural pitch is a tonal sensation produced by introducing a frequency-dependent interaural phase shift in binaurally presented white noise. As no spectral cues are present in the physical stimulus, binaural pitch perception is assumed to rely on accurate temporal fine structure coding and intact...... binaural integration mechanisms. This study investigated to what extent basic auditory measures of binaural processing as well as cognitive abilities are correlated with the ability of hearing-impaired listeners to perceive binaural pitch. Subjects from three groups (1: normal-hearing; 2: cochlear...... hearingloss; 3: retro-cochlear impairment) were asked to identify the pitch contour of series of five notes of equal duration, ranging from 523 to 784 Hz, played either with Huggins’ binaural pitch stimuli (BP) or perceptually similar, but monaurally detectable, pitches (MP). All subjects from groups 1 and 2...

  13. Target pitch angle for the microburst escape maneuver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulgund, Sandeep S.; Stengel, Robert F.

    1992-01-01

    Recovery performance of a commuter-type aircraft in a microburst encounter is studied using a constant-pitch-attitude strategy and flight path optimization. Results obtained indicate that the pitch attitude which maximized climb rate in a wind shear condition is strongly dependent on whether the aircraft is subjected to a horizontal shear or a downdraft. The pitch attitude which maximizes ground clearance depends on the altitude of the encounter, the strength of the microburst, and the initial position of the aircraft with respect to the downburst core. Best results are obtained at relatively low target pitch angles, in severe wind shear encounters at very low altitudes. A technique for maximizing ground clearance involves maintaining a low pitch attitude early in the encounter, followed by a gradual pitch-up that ceases when the wind shear has been excited.

  14. Robust Pitch Estimation Using an Optimal Filter on Frequency Estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimian-Azari, Sam; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2014-01-01

    In many scenarios, a periodic signal of interest is often contaminated by different types of noise that may render many existing pitch estimation methods suboptimal, e.g., due to an incorrect white Gaussian noise assumption. In this paper, a method is established to estimate the pitch of such sig......In many scenarios, a periodic signal of interest is often contaminated by different types of noise that may render many existing pitch estimation methods suboptimal, e.g., due to an incorrect white Gaussian noise assumption. In this paper, a method is established to estimate the pitch...... against different noise situations. The simulation results confirm that the proposed MVDR method outperforms the state-of-the-art weighted least squares (WLS) pitch estimator in colored noise and has robust pitch estimates against missing harmonics in some time-frames....

  15. Prosodic Transfer: From Chinese Lexical tone to English Pitch Accent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Ploquin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese tones are associated with a syllable to convey meaning, English pitch accents are prominence markers associated with stressed syllables.  As both are created by pitch modulation, their pitch contours can be quite similar.  The experiment reported here examines whether native speakers of Chinese produce, when speaking English, the Chinese tone whose phonetic contour most closely matches the contour of the intended English pitch accent.  Six native speakers of Chinese recorded English and Chinese sentences, all including the segment [fan].  Results show that the subjects produced a Chinese tone 2 where a rising pitch accents was required and thus that speakers of Chinese rely on their lexical tones inventory to produce English prosody. The results obtained with falling pitch accents are much less conclusive partly because of the difficulty in measuring tone 3 due to the high level of creak that accompanies it.

  16. Chatter Prediction for Variable Pitch and Variable Helix Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative chatter is a self-excited vibration that can occur during milling, which shortens the lifetime of the tool and results in unacceptable surface quality. In this paper, an improved semidiscretization method for modeling and simulation with variable pitch and variable helix milling is proposed. Because the delay between each flute varies along the axial depth of the tool in milling, the cutting tool is discrete into some axial layers to simplify calculation. A comparison of the predicted and observed performance of variable pitch and variable helix against uniform pitch and uniform helix milling is presented. It is shown that variable pitch and variable helix milling can obtain larger stable cutting area than uniform pitch and uniform helix milling. Thus, it is concluded that variable pitch and variable helix milling are an effective way for suppressing chatter.

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