WorldWideScience

Sample records for vocal music sounds

  1. Processing emotions in sounds: cross-domain aftereffects of vocal utterances and musical sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Casady; Yamauchi, Takashi

    2016-11-16

    Nonlinguistic signals in the voice and musical instruments play a critical role in communicating emotion. Although previous research suggests a common mechanism for emotion processing in music and speech, the precise relationship between the two domains is unclear due to the paucity of direct evidence. By applying the adaptation paradigm developed by Bestelmeyer, Rouger, DeBruine, and Belin [2010. Auditory adaptation in vocal affect perception. Cognition, 117(2), 217-223. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2010.08.008 ], this study shows cross-domain aftereffects from vocal to musical sounds. Participants heard an angry or fearful sound four times, followed by a test sound and judged whether the test sound was angry or fearful. Results show cross-domain aftereffects in one direction - vocal utterances to musical sounds, not vice-versa. This effect occurred primarily for angry vocal sounds. It is argued that there is a unidirectional relationship between vocal and musical sounds where emotion processing of vocal sounds encompasses musical sounds but not vice-versa.

  2. Vocal health fitness to different music styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cláudia Mendes Caminha Muniz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present genres and styles currently running on western music scene, focusing on the practice of singing voice. Methods: An observational and documental study for which were selected sound sources presenting musical genres and styles that are part of the experience of the researchers, which were analyzed considering origins, formative elements and vocal features. Alongside we carried out a review of literature grounded in databases research and free review of websites and classical books of the area. Results: The selected styles (Rock and Roll, Heavy Metal, Trash Metal, Grunge, Gothic Metal, Rap, Funk, Blues, R&B – Rhythm and Blues, Soul, Gospel, MPB, Samba, Forro, Sertanejo, Bossa Nova, Opera and Chamber Music were described, pointing the reasons for the speech therapist to be informed about them and about singing voice aspects. His guidance may minimize possible vocal damage caused by each style, since each of them carries its own patterns to which the interpreter must submit. Conclusions: We conclude that the singer will use a specific vocal pattern that resembles the musical style he intends to sing, regardless of any harm it may or may not cause to vocal health. When choosing a musical style, it is important that the singer has the knowledge and understanding of how the use of his vocal apparatus will cause or not cause injury to his voice. Also be aware that the technique in singing is necessary for vocal longevity.

  3. University Vocal Training and Vocal Health of Music Educators and Music Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Vicki D.; Cohen, Nicki

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the university vocal training and vocal health of music educators and music therapists. The participants (N = 426), music educators (n = 351) and music therapists (n = 75), completed a survey addressing demographics, vocal training, voice usage, and vocal health. Both groups reported singing at least 50%…

  4. Music Education Intervention Improves Vocal Emotion Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mualem, Orit; Lavidor, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The current study is an interdisciplinary examination of the interplay among music, language, and emotions. It consisted of two experiments designed to investigate the relationship between musical abilities and vocal emotional recognition. In experiment 1 (N = 24), we compared the influence of two short-term intervention programs--music and…

  5. Music Education Intervention Improves Vocal Emotion Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mualem, Orit; Lavidor, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The current study is an interdisciplinary examination of the interplay among music, language, and emotions. It consisted of two experiments designed to investigate the relationship between musical abilities and vocal emotional recognition. In experiment 1 (N = 24), we compared the influence of two short-term intervention programs--music and…

  6. Expression of emotion in Eastern and Western music mirrors vocalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Daniel Liu; Sundararajan, Janani; Han, Shui'er; Purves, Dale

    2012-01-01

    In Western music, the major mode is typically used to convey excited, happy, bright or martial emotions, whereas the minor mode typically conveys subdued, sad or dark emotions. Recent studies indicate that the differences between these modes parallel differences between the prosodic and spectral characteristics of voiced speech sounds uttered in corresponding emotional states. Here we ask whether tonality and emotion are similarly linked in an Eastern musical tradition. The results show that the tonal relationships used to express positive/excited and negative/subdued emotions in classical South Indian music are much the same as those used in Western music. Moreover, tonal variations in the prosody of English and Tamil speech uttered in different emotional states are parallel to the tonal trends in music. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the association between musical tonality and emotion is based on universal vocal characteristics of different affective states.

  7. Expression of emotion in Eastern and Western music mirrors vocalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Liu Bowling

    Full Text Available In Western music, the major mode is typically used to convey excited, happy, bright or martial emotions, whereas the minor mode typically conveys subdued, sad or dark emotions. Recent studies indicate that the differences between these modes parallel differences between the prosodic and spectral characteristics of voiced speech sounds uttered in corresponding emotional states. Here we ask whether tonality and emotion are similarly linked in an Eastern musical tradition. The results show that the tonal relationships used to express positive/excited and negative/subdued emotions in classical South Indian music are much the same as those used in Western music. Moreover, tonal variations in the prosody of English and Tamil speech uttered in different emotional states are parallel to the tonal trends in music. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the association between musical tonality and emotion is based on universal vocal characteristics of different affective states.

  8. VOCAL SEGMENT CLASSIFICATION IN POPULAR MUSIC

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Ling; Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the vocal and non-vocal music classification problem within popular songs. A newly built labeled database covering 147 popular songs is announced. It is designed for classifying signals from 1sec time windows. Features are selected for this particular task, in order to capture both the temporal correlations and the dependencies among the feature dimensions. We systematically study the performance of a set of classifiers, including linear regression, generalized linear mode...

  9. Monkey drumming reveals common networks for perceiving vocal and nonvocal communication sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedios, Ryan; Logothetis, Nikos K; Kayser, Christoph

    2009-10-20

    Salient sounds such as those created by drumming can serve as means of nonvocal acoustic communication in addition to vocal sounds. Despite the ubiquity of drumming across human cultures, its origins and the brain regions specialized in processing such signals remain unexplored. Here, we report that an important animal model for vocal communication, the macaque monkey, also displays drumming behavior, and we exploit this finding to show that vocal and nonvocal communication sounds are represented by overlapping networks in the brain's temporal lobe. Observing social macaque groups, we found that these animals use artificial objects to produce salient periodic sounds, similar to acoustic gestures. Behavioral tests confirmed that these drumming sounds attract the attention of listening monkeys similarly as conspecific vocalizations. Furthermore, in a preferential looking experiment, drumming sounds influenced the way monkeys viewed their conspecifics, suggesting that drumming serves as a multimodal signal of social dominance. Finally, by using high-resolution functional imaging we identified those brain regions preferentially activated by drumming sounds or by vocalizations and found that the representations of both these communication sounds overlap in caudal auditory cortex and the amygdala. The similar behavioral responses to drumming and vocal sounds, and their shared neural representation, suggest a common origin of primate vocal and nonvocal communication systems and support the notion of a gestural origin of speech and music.

  10. Evidence of sound symbolism in simple vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, Cesare V; Pavani, Francesco

    2011-10-01

    The question of the arbitrariness of language is among the oldest in cognitive sciences, and it relates to the nature of the associations between vocal sounds and their meaning. Growing evidence seems to support sound symbolism, claiming for a naturally constrained mapping of meaning into sounds. Most of such evidence, however, comes from studies based on the interpretation of pseudowords, and to date, there is little empirical evidence that sound symbolism can affect phonatory behavior. In the present study, we asked participants to utter the letter /a/ in response to visual stimuli varying in shape, luminance, and size, and we observed consistent sound symbolic effects on vocalizations. Utterances' loudness was modulated by stimulus shape and luminance. Moreover, stimulus shape consistently modulated the frequency of the third formant (F3). This finding reveals an automatic mapping of specific visual attributes into phonological features of vocalizations. Furthermore, it suggests that sound-meaning associations are reciprocal, affecting active (production) as well as passive (comprehension) linguistic behavior.

  11. VOCAL SEGMENT CLASSIFICATION IN POPULAR MUSIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling; Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the vocal and non-vocal music classification problem within popular songs. A newly built labeled database covering 147 popular songs is announced. It is designed for classifying signals from 1sec time windows. Features are selected for this particular task, in order to capture......-validated training and test setup. The database is divided in two different ways: with/without artist overlap between training and test sets, so as to study the so called ‘artist effect’. The performance and results are analyzed in depth: from error rates to sample-to-sample error correlation. A voting scheme...

  12. Effects of Music on Vocal Stereotypy in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanovaz, Marc J.; Sladeczek, Ingrid E.; Rapp, John T.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of manipulating the intensity (i.e., volume) of music on engagement in vocal stereotypy in 2 children with autism. Noncontingent access to music decreased immediate engagement in vocal stereotypy for each participant, but it produced only marginal effects on subsequent engagement in the behavior (i.e., after withdrawal).…

  13. The sound of arousal in music is context-dependent

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel T. Blumstein; Bryant, Gregory A; Kaye, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Humans, and many non-human animals, produce and respond to harsh, unpredictable, nonlinear sounds when alarmed, possibly because these are produced when acoustic production systems (vocal cords and syrinxes) are overblown in stressful, dangerous situations. Humans can simulate nonlinearities in music and soundtracks through the use of technological manipulations. Recent work found that film soundtracks from different genres differentially contain such sounds. We designed two experiments to de...

  14. Vocal health fitness to different music styles - doi:10.5020/18061230.2010.p278

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Claudia Mendes Caminha Muniz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present genres and styles currently running on western music scene, focusing on the practice of singing voice. Methods: An observational and documental study for which were selected sound sources presenting musical genres and styles that are part of the experience of the researchers, which were analyzed considering origins, formative elements and vocal features. Alongside we carried out a review of literature grounded in databases research and free review of websites and classical books of the area. Results: The selected styles (Rock and Roll, Heavy Metal, Trash Metal, Grunge, Gothic Metal, Rap, Funk, Blues, R&B – Rhythm and Blues, Soul, Gospel, MPB, Samba, Forro, Sertanejo, Bossa Nova, Opera and Chamber Music were described, pointing the reasons for the speech therapist to be informed about them and about singing voice aspects. His guidance may minimize possible vocal damage caused by each style, since each of them carries its own patterns to which the interpreter must submit. Conclusions: We conclude that the singer will use a specific vocal pattern that resembles the musical style he intends to sing, regardless of any harm it may or may not cause to vocal health. When choosing a musical style, it is important that the singer has the knowledge and understanding of how the use of his vocal apparatus will cause or not cause injury to his voice. Also be aware that the technique in singing is necessary for vocal longevity.

  15. The Utility of Assessing Musical Preference before Implementation of Noncontingent Music to Reduce Vocal Stereotypy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanovaz, Marc J.; Rapp, John T.; Ferguson, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a modified paired-choice preference assessment and used a multielement design to examine the effects of noncontingent access to high- and low-preference music on vocal stereotypy exhibited by children with autism. For 3 of the 4 participants, high-preference music (a) produced lower levels of vocal stereotypy than low-preference music…

  16. Musical Sounds, Motor Resonance, and Detectable Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Launay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the paradox that while human music making evolved and spread in an environment where it could only occur in groups, it is now often apparently an enjoyable asocial phenomenon. Here I argue that music is, by definition, sound that we believe has been in some way organized by a human agent, meaning that listening to any musical sounds can be a social experience. There are a number of distinct mechanisms by which we might associate musical sound with agency. While some of these mechanisms involve learning motor associations with that sound, it is also possible to have a more direct relationship from musical sound to agency, and the relative importance of these potentially independent mechanisms should be further explored. Overall, I conclude that the apparent paradox of solipsistic musical engagement is in fact unproblematic, because the way that we perceive and experience musical sounds is inherently social.

  17. Spontaneous motor entrainment to music in multiple vocal mimicking species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Adena; Brady, Timothy F; Pepperberg, Irene M; Hauser, Marc D

    2009-05-26

    The human capacity for music consists of certain core phenomena, including the tendency to entrain, or align movement, to an external auditory pulse [1-3]. This ability, fundamental both for music production and for coordinated dance, has been repeatedly highlighted as uniquely human [4-11]. However, it has recently been hypothesized that entrainment evolved as a by-product of vocal mimicry, generating the strong prediction that only vocal mimicking animals may be able to entrain [12, 13]. Here we provide comparative data demonstrating the existence of two proficient vocal mimicking nonhuman animals (parrots) that entrain to music, spontaneously producing synchronized movements resembling human dance. We also provide an extensive comparative data set from a global video database systematically analyzed for evidence of entrainment in hundreds of species both capable and incapable of vocal mimicry. Despite the higher representation of vocal nonmimics in the database and comparable exposure of mimics and nonmimics to humans and music, only vocal mimics showed evidence of entrainment. We conclude that entrainment is not unique to humans and that the distribution of entrainment across species supports the hypothesis that entrainment evolved as a by-product of selection for vocal mimicry.

  18. The Influence of Distracting Familiar Vocal Music on Cognitive Performance of Introverts and Extraverts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Christina; Furnham, Adrian; McClelland, Alastair

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of familiar musical distractors on the cognitive performance of introverts and extraverts. Participants completed a verbal, numerical and logic test in three music conditions: vocal music, instrumental music and silence. It was predicted that introverts would perform worse with vocal music, better with…

  19. The Influence of Distracting Familiar Vocal Music on Cognitive Performance of Introverts and Extraverts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Christina; Furnham, Adrian; McClelland, Alastair

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of familiar musical distractors on the cognitive performance of introverts and extraverts. Participants completed a verbal, numerical and logic test in three music conditions: vocal music, instrumental music and silence. It was predicted that introverts would perform worse with vocal music, better with…

  20. Vocal Characteristics and Laryngoscopic Findings in Future Musical Theater Performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'haeseleer, Evelien; Claeys, Sofie; Meerschman, Iris; Bettens, Kim; Degeest, Sofie; Dijckmans, Caroline; De Smet, Joke; Luyten, Anke; Van Lierde, Kristiane

    2017-07-01

    Musical theater performers are a special group of elite vocal performers with a high vocal load as they combine singing, acting, and physical performance. As they are absolutely depending on their voice quality and vocal capacities for their studies and their future profession, an optimal voice production is very important. The purpose of this study was to determine the voice quality of musical theater students. The voice quality of seven students was then reevaluated 1 year after the first assessment. Observational study. Thirty-one musical students (7 men and 24 women) with a mean age of 20 years participated in the study. To determine the voice quality, objective (aerodynamic measurements, voice range profile, acoustic analysis, and Dysphonia Severity Index) and subjective (videolaryngostroboscopy, Voice Handicap Indexes, and questionnaires regarding voice symptoms and risk factors) voice measurements were performed. The median Dysphonia Severity Index in male and female musical students was respectively 5.3 and 5.7, both corresponding with an overall good voice quality. The questionnaires revealed the presence of vocal fatigue, dryness of the throat, vocal tract discomfort, and harmful vocal habits in the majority of students. In 45% of the subjects, videolaryngostroboscopic evaluation of the vocal folds showed an organic lesion. The majority of these lesions are inflammatory lesions (26%). In 68% of the subjects, a certain degree of supraglottic constriction was observed. Despite the overall good voice quality, videolaryngostroboscopy showed a high presence of vocal fold lesions and supraglottic constriction during phonation. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sound and Music Computing at KTH

    OpenAIRE

    Bresin, Roberto; Askenfelt, Anders; Friberg, Anders; Hansen, Kjetil; Ternström, Sten

    2012-01-01

    The SMC Sound and Music Computing group at KTH (formerly the Music Acoustics group) is part of the Department of Speech Music and Hearing, School of Computer Science and Communication. In this short report we present the current status of the group mainly focusing on its research. tmh_import_13_01_02, tmh_id_3757 QC 20130503

  2. A vocal basis for the affective character of musical mode in melody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eBowling

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Why does major music sound happy and minor music sound sad? The idea that different musical modes are best suited to the expression of different emotions has been prescribed by composers, music theorists, and natural philosophers for millennia. However, the reason we associate musical modes with emotions remains a matter of debate. On one side there is considerable evidence that mode-emotion associations arise through exposure to the conventions of a particular musical culture, suggesting a basis in lifetime learning. On the other, cross-cultural comparisons suggest that the particular associations we make are supported by musical similarities to the prosodic characteristics of the voice in different affective states, indicating a basis in the biology of emotional expression. Here, I review developmental and cross-cultural studies on the affective character of musical modes, concluding that while learning clearly plays a role, the emotional associations we make are (1 not arbitrary, and (2 best understood by also taking into account the physical characteristics and biological purposes of vocalization.

  3. The sound of arousal in music is context-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumstein, Daniel T; Bryant, Gregory A; Kaye, Peter

    2012-10-23

    Humans, and many non-human animals, produce and respond to harsh, unpredictable, nonlinear sounds when alarmed, possibly because these are produced when acoustic production systems (vocal cords and syrinxes) are overblown in stressful, dangerous situations. Humans can simulate nonlinearities in music and soundtracks through the use of technological manipulations. Recent work found that film soundtracks from different genres differentially contain such sounds. We designed two experiments to determine specifically how simulated nonlinearities in soundtracks influence perceptions of arousal and valence. Subjects were presented with emotionally neutral musical exemplars that had neither noise nor abrupt frequency transitions, or versions of these musical exemplars that had noise or abrupt frequency upshifts or downshifts experimentally added. In a second experiment, these acoustic exemplars were paired with benign videos. Judgements of both arousal and valence were altered by the addition of these simulated nonlinearities in the first, music-only, experiment. In the second, multi-modal, experiment, valence (but not arousal) decreased with the addition of noise or frequency downshifts. Thus, the presence of a video image suppressed the ability of simulated nonlinearities to modify arousal. This is the first study examining how nonlinear simulations in music affect emotional judgements. These results demonstrate that the perception of potentially fearful or arousing sounds is influenced by the perceptual context and that the addition of a visual modality can antagonistically suppress the response to an acoustic stimulus.

  4. Vocal tract resonances in speech, singing, and playing musical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Joe; Garnier, Maëva; Smith, John

    2009-01-01

    IN BOTH THE VOICE AND MUSICAL WIND INSTRUMENTS, A VALVE (VOCAL FOLDS, LIPS, OR REED) LIES BETWEEN AN UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM DUCT: trachea and vocal tract for the voice; vocal tract and bore for the instrument. Examining the structural similarities and functional differences gives insight into their operation and the duct-valve interactions. In speech and singing, vocal tract resonances usually determine the spectral envelope and usually have a smaller influence on the operating frequency. The resonances are important not only for the phonemic information they produce, but also because of their contribution to voice timbre, loudness, and efficiency. The role of the tract resonances is usually different in brass and some woodwind instruments, where they modify and to some extent compete or collaborate with resonances of the instrument to control the vibration of a reed or the player's lips, andor the spectrum of air flow into the instrument. We give a brief overview of oscillator mechanisms and vocal tract acoustics. We discuss recent and current research on how the acoustical resonances of the vocal tract are involved in singing and the playing of musical wind instruments. Finally, we compare techniques used in determining tract resonances and suggest some future developments.

  5. Thoughts about the Songs for Vocalizing in Vocal Music Teaching%声乐教学时练声曲的框架思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴伦党

    2012-01-01

    In vocal music teaching the songs for vocalizing must be designed to conform to the scientific sound state, the macro law of musical works and correct aesthetic ideas, which can maximize the role of the songs and help the students learn how to vocalize scientifically in order to effectively improve the quality of their music. Through the reflections on ten years of his experience in vocal music teaching, the author analyzes the function and role of the songs commonly used at present and summarizes the general problems in designing the songs.%在声乐教学过程中练声曲的设计必须符合科学的发声状态,符合音乐作品的宏观规律以及正确的审美观念。这样就能最大限度地发挥声乐练声曲的作用,使学生不仅学会了如何科学的发声,更切实地提高了学生的音乐素质。笔者通过对十几年声乐教学经验的思考,分析了现阶段普遍所采用的声乐练声曲的功能和作用,并对设计练声曲时注意的一般问题进行了总结。

  6. Physics and music the science of musical sound

    CERN Document Server

    White, Harvey E

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive and accessible, this foundational text surveys general principles of sound, musical scales, characteristics of instruments, mechanical and electronic recording devices, and many other topics. More than 300 illustrations plus questions, problems, and projects.

  7. Language and music: sound, structure, and meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevc, L Robert

    2012-07-01

    Language and music are the most impressive examples of humans' capacity to process complex sound and structure. Though interest in the relationship between these two abilities has a long history, only recently has cognitive and neuroscientific research started to illuminate both what is shared and what is distinct between linguistic and musical processing. This review considers evidence for a link between language and music at three levels of analysis: sound, structure, and meaning. These links not only inform our understanding of language and music, but also add to a more basic understanding of our processing of complex auditory stimuli, structure, meaning, and emotion. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:483-492. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1186 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The Effect of Vocal Hygiene and Behavior Modification Instruction on the Self-Reported Vocal Health Habits of Public School Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackworth, Rhonda S.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of vocal hygiene and behavior modification instruction on self-reported behaviors of music teachers. Subjects (N = 76) reported daily behaviors for eight weeks: water consumption, warm-up, talking over music/noise, vocal rest, nonverbal commands, and vocal problems. Subjects were in experimental group 1 or 2, or the…

  9. The songbird as a percussionist: syntactic rules for non-vocal sound and song production in Java sparrows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayo Soma

    Full Text Available Music and dance are two remarkable human characteristics that are closely related. Communication through integrated vocal and motional signals is also common in the courtship displays of birds. The contribution of songbird studies to our understanding of vocal learning has already shed some light on the cognitive underpinnings of musical ability. Moreover, recent pioneering research has begun to show how animals can synchronize their behaviors with external stimuli, like metronome beats. However, few studies have applied such perspectives to unraveling how animals can integrate multimodal communicative signals that have natural functions. Additionally, studies have rarely asked how well these behaviors are learned. With this in mind, here we cast a spotlight on an unusual animal behavior: non-vocal sound production associated with singing in the Java sparrow (Lonchura oryzivora, a songbird. We show that male Java sparrows coordinate their bill-click sounds with the syntax of their song-note sequences, similar to percussionists. Analysis showed that they produced clicks frequently toward the beginning of songs and before/after specific song notes. We also show that bill-clicking patterns are similar between social fathers and their sons, suggesting that these behaviors might be learned from models or linked to learning-based vocalizations. Individuals untutored by conspecifics also exhibited stereotypical bill-clicking patterns in relation to song-note sequence, indicating that while the production of bill clicking itself is intrinsic, its syncopation appears to develop with songs. This paints an intriguing picture in which non-vocal sounds are integrated with vocal courtship signals in a songbird, a model that we expect will contribute to the further understanding of multimodal communication.

  10. Developmental change and cross-domain links in vocal and musical emotion recognition performance in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgood, Rebecca; Heaton, Pamela

    2015-09-01

    Although the configurations of psychoacoustic cues signalling emotions in human vocalizations and instrumental music are very similar, cross-domain links in recognition performance have yet to be studied developmentally. Two hundred and twenty 5- to 10-year-old children were asked to identify musical excerpts and vocalizations as happy, sad, or fearful. The results revealed age-related increases in overall recognition performance with significant correlations across vocal and musical conditions at all developmental stages. Recognition scores were greater for musical than vocal stimuli and were superior in females compared with males. These results confirm that recognition of emotions in vocal and musical stimuli is linked by 5 years and that sensitivity to emotions in auditory stimuli is influenced by age and gender.

  11. Analysis, Synthesis, and Perception of Musical Sounds The Sound of Music

    CERN Document Server

    Beauchamp, James W

    2007-01-01

    Analysis, Synthesis, and Perception of Musical Sounds contains a detailed treatment of basic methods for analysis and synthesis of musical sounds, including the phase vocoder method, the McAulay-Quatieri frequency-tracking method, the constant-Q transform, and methods for pitch tracking with several examples shown. Various aspects of musical sound spectra such as spectral envelope, spectral centroid, spectral flux, and spectral irregularity are defined and discussed. One chapter is devoted to the control and synthesis of spectral envelopes. Two advanced methods of analysis/synthesis are given: "Sines Plus Transients Plus Noise" and "Spectrotemporal Reassignment" are covered. Methods for timbre morphing are given. The last two chapters discuss the perception of musical sounds based on discrimination and multidimensional scaling timbre models.

  12. Imagined, Supplemental Sound in Nineteenth-Century Piano Music: Towards a Fuller Understanding of Musical Embodiment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robb, Hamish

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I argue that real sound (as made by performers), bodily engagement, and imagined, supplemental sound function in a mutually influential, tripartite relationship in musical embodiment...

  13. When speech sounds like music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Simone; Rathcke, Tamara; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2014-08-01

    Repetition can boost memory and perception. However, repeating the same stimulus several times in immediate succession also induces intriguing perceptual transformations and illusions. Here, we investigate the Speech to Song Transformation (S2ST), a massed repetition effect in the auditory modality, which crosses the boundaries between language and music. In the S2ST, a phrase repeated several times shifts to being heard as sung. To better understand this unique cross-domain transformation, we examined the perceptual determinants of the S2ST, in particular the role of acoustics. In 2 Experiments, the effects of 2 pitch properties and 3 rhythmic properties on the probability and speed of occurrence of the transformation were examined. Results showed that both pitch and rhythmic properties are key features fostering the transformation. However, some properties proved to be more conducive to the S2ST than others. Stable tonal targets that allowed for the perception of a musical melody led more often and quickly to the S2ST than scalar intervals. Recurring durational contrasts arising from segmental grouping favoring a metrical interpretation of the stimulus also facilitated the S2ST. This was, however, not the case for a regular beat structure within and across repetitions. In addition, individual perceptual abilities allowed to predict the likelihood of the S2ST. Overall, the study demonstrated that repetition enables listeners to reinterpret specific prosodic features of spoken utterances in terms of musical structures. The findings underline a tight link between language and music, but they also reveal important differences in communicative functions of prosodic structure in the 2 domains.

  14. Sound and Music Interventions in Psychiatry at Aalborg University Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Helle Nystrup; Bertelsen, Lars Rye; Bonde, Lars Ole

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the ongoing project development and research study called “A New Sound and Music Milieu at Aalborg University Hospital”. Based on a number of pilot studies in AUH Psychiatry, investigating how special playlists and sound equipment (“sound pillows” and portable players) can be used by hospital patients and administered by hospital staff supervised by music therapists, the new project aims to prepare the ground for a systematic application of sound and music in the hospi...

  15. The effects of music sound levels on restaurant customer's behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Geerdes, Margaret

    1995-01-01

    Restaurant attributes influence the perceptions and behaviors of restaurant customers. Among these attributes are music and its sound level. Sound level has been known to affect people's behaviors and judgments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of music sound level on customers in a restaurant, specifically, where they sit and how long they stay. The study took place in a restaurant where customers seat themselves and music sound levels vary across ta...

  16. Vocal Improvisation for Elementary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Keith P.

    1980-01-01

    The author describes the three-phase process of musical creativity (exploratory, invention, organizational), identifying activities in each of the creative phases. Included are vocal impression, picture sounds, chord tones, and name improvisation. Selected readings and recordings are included. (KC)

  17. Slowing down facial movements and vocal sounds enhances facial expression recognition and facial-vocal imitation in children with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Tardif, Carole; Lainé, France; Rodriguez, Mélissa; Gepner, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    International audience; This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on CD-Rom, under audio or silent conditions, and under dynamic visual conditions (slowly, very slowly, at normal speed) plus a st...

  18. Sound Seller Business is good for China's largest music retailer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MARK GODFREY

    2008-01-01

    @@ The advent of digital music seemed to sound the death knell for traditional record stores,but somehow China's leading music and DVD retailer is not nly stying competitive-it's expanding aggressively.

  19. Sound and Music Interventions in Psychiatry at Aalborg University Hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nystrup Lund, Helle; Bertelsen, Lars Rye; Bonde, Lars Ole

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the ongoing project development and research study called “A New Sound and Music Milieu at Aalborg University Hospital”. Based on a number of pilot studies in AUH Psychiatry, investigating how special playlists and sound equipment (“sound pillows” and portable players) can...... in music medicine and music therapy. A special design of software and hardware - ”The Music Star” and directional line array speakers for the patient room – has been developed and recently implemented on two wards at AUH Psychiatry. The aim of the project is to empower patients to choose music suited...

  20. 浅析声乐教学中歌唱曲目的选择%On singing music selection in the teaching of vocal music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娟

    2013-01-01

    声乐教学的最终目的是为了通过传授演唱技巧和发声的前提下,让学生能完美的演绎歌曲内容和情感,而声乐教学的主要内容是包括演唱技术和唱曲的选择。因此,如何科学地选择演唱作品,对于体现艺术是至关重要的。因此,本文就声乐教学中如何科学地选择歌唱曲目提出一些笔者个人的看法。%The ultimate goal of vocal music teaching is to teach the premise by singing skills and sound, so that students can perfect interpretation of the song content and emotion, and the main contents of the vocal music teaching is to include singing technique and singing the song selection. Therefore, how to scientifically choose the concert works, the art is to an important. Therefore, this article puts forward some opinions on vocal music teaching in how to sing songs .

  1. Sound and Music Interventions in Psychiatry at Aalborg University Hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Helle Nystrup; Bertelsen, Lars Rye; Bonde, Lars Ole

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the ongoing project development and research study called “A New Sound and Music Milieu at Aalborg University Hospital”. Based on a number of pilot studies in AUH Psychiatry, investigating how special playlists and sound equipment (“sound pillows” and portable players) can...... be used by hospital patients and administered by hospital staff supervised by music therapists, the new project aims to prepare the ground for a systematic application of sound and music in the hospital environment. A number of playlists have been developed, based on theoretical and empirical research...... in music medicine and music therapy. A special design of software and hardware - ”The Music Star” and directional line array speakers for the patient room – has been developed and recently implemented on two wards at AUH Psychiatry. The aim of the project is to empower patients to choose music suited...

  2. Thinking Sound and Body-Motion Shapes in Music: Public Peer Review of “Gesture and the Sonic Event in Karnatak Music” by Lara Pearson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolfe Inge Godøy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It seems that the majority of research on music-related body motion has so far been focused on Western music, so this paper by Lara Pearson on music-related body motion in Indian vocal music is a most welcome contribution to this field. But research on music-related body motion does present us with a number of challenges, ranging from issues of method to fundamental issues of perception and multi-modal integration in music. In such research, thinking of perceptually salient features in different modalities (sound, motion, touch, etc. as shapes seems to go well with our cognitive apparatus, and also be quite practical in representing the features in question. The research reported in this paper gives us an insight into how tracing shapes by hand motion is an integral part of teaching Indian vocal music, and the approach of this paper also holds promise for fruitful future research.

  3. Vocal tract shapes in different singing functions used in musical theater singing-a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echternach, Matthias; Popeil, Lisa; Traser, Louisa; Wienhausen, Sascha; Richter, Bernhard

    2014-09-01

    Singing styles in Musical Theater singing might differ in many ways from Western Classical singing. However, vocal tract adjustments are not understood in detail. Vocal tract shapes of a single professional Music Theater female subject were analyzed concerning different aspects of singing styles using dynamic real-time magnetic resonance imaging technology with a frame rate of 8 fps. The different tasks include register differences, belting, and vibrato strategies. Articulatory differences were found between head register, modal register, and belting. Also, some vibrato strategies ("jazzy" vibrato) do involve vocal tract adjustments, whereas others (classical vibrato) do not. Vocal tract shaping might contribute to the establishment of different singing functions in Musical Theater singing. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. THE EVOKED VOCAL RESPONSE OF THE BULLFROG; A STUDY OF COMMUNICATION BY SOUND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research attempts to bridge the existing gap between the naturalistic observations of sound communication in anurans and the anatomical and...principles by which information is processed within the intact animal. To this end, vocal behavior has been evoked from the males of laboratory colonies of...bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) in response to a restricted class of natural and synthetic sounds. The evoked vocal responses, having the signal

  5. 民族声乐发展重在师资队伍建设%Focuses on the Development of National Vocal Music Faculty Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓涛; 陈建英

    2011-01-01

    Education constitutes the precondition and momentum that promotes national vocal music development,nowadays there are a large number of problems in the fast development of national vocal music. How to construct a full-fledged national vocal music faculty team, and gradually to form a set of scientific system of teaching, is an urgent problem to tackle for present national vocal music to progress smoothly. In order to cultivate qualified music talent, and to fulfill a sound progress of our country's national vocal music, it behoove us to enhance music teacher's quality, to form modem teacher professional ethics,and also gradually to improve faculty management mechanism.%教育是推进民族声乐发展的前提和动力,目前的民族声乐在繁荣发展景象之下仍存在诸多问题。如何建设一支成熟有序的民族声乐教师队伍,逐步形成一套科学系统的教学体系,是当今民族声乐取得顺利发展所亟待解决的问题。为了培养出合格的音乐人才,实现我国民族声乐的良性发展,必须提高音乐教师的各方面素质,建立新时代的教师职业道德观,并逐步完善教师管理机制。

  6. Music Education that Resonates: An Epistemology and Pedagogy of Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramo, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Are there qualities of sound and the experience of listening that educators can extrapolate to inform the philosophy and practice of music education? In this essay, I imagine a music education where sound--how it behaves and how we experience it--serves not only as the subject of study, but generates the framework of the pedagogy. A sonic music…

  7. Physics and Psychophysics of High-Fidelity Sound. Part 1: Perception of Sound and Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    1979-01-01

    Presents the first of a series of articles that discuss the perception of sound and music. This series of articles is intended to provide an introduction to the broad subject of high-fidelity sound recording and reproduction. (HM)

  8. Augmenting the Sound Experience at Music Festivals using Mobile Phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Larsen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe experiments carried out at the Nibe music festival in Denmark involving the use of mobile phones to augment the participants' sound experience at the concerts. The experiments involved N=19 test participants that used a mobile phone with a headset playing back sound...... “in-the-wild” experiments augmenting the sound experience at two concerts at this music festival....

  9. 论声乐学习者的基本素质%A Study on the Qualities of Vocal Music Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘明霞

    2015-01-01

    Vocal music is an art consisting of sound, emotion, and performance. A good voice condition, a good command of music theoretical knowledge, and a good psychological and music quality are the basic qualities necessary for a vocal learner. This paper presents a comprehensive interpretation of the basic qualities for vocal learners. Only with a good psychological quality can a vocal learner express better the content and emotion of a music work.%声乐演唱是一门集声音、情感、表演为一体的艺术。良好的嗓音条件、扎实的音乐理论知识、良好的心理素质以及较强的文化艺术综合素质等都是声乐学习者所必须具备的基本素质。文章对声乐学习者的基本素质进行了全面的阐述,只有具备了良好的基本素质才能很好地表达声乐作品所包含的内容和所要求的情感。

  10. Imagined, Supplemental Sound in Nineteenth-Century Piano Music: Towards a Fuller Understanding of Musical Embodiment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamish J Robb

    2015-01-01

      In this article, I argue that real sound (as made by performers), bodily engagement, and imagined, supplemental sound function in a mutually influential, tripartite relationship in musical embodiment...

  11. Let the music play! A short-term but no long-term detrimental effect of vocal background music with familiar language lyrics on foreign language vocabulary learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, A.M.B.; Smedinga, H.E.

    2014-01-01

    Participants learned foreign vocabulary by means of the paired-associates learning procedure in three conditions: (a) in silence, (b) with vocal music with lyrics in a familiar language playing in the background, or (c) with vocal music with lyrics in an unfamiliar language playing in the

  12. Let the music play! A short-term but no long-term detrimental effect of vocal background music with familiar language lyrics on foreign language vocabulary learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, A.M.B.; Smedinga, H.E.

    2014-01-01

    Participants learned foreign vocabulary by means of the paired-associates learning procedure in three conditions: (a) in silence, (b) with vocal music with lyrics in a familiar language playing in the background, or (c) with vocal music with lyrics in an unfamiliar language playing in the background

  13. Reverberation negatively impacts musical sound quality for cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alexis T; Vigeant, Michelle; Munjal, Tina; Carver, Courtney; Jiradejvong, Patpong; Limb, Charles J

    2015-09-01

    Satisfactory musical sound quality remains a challenge for many cochlear implant (CI) users. In particular, questionnaires completed by CI users suggest that reverberation due to room acoustics can negatively impact their music listening experience. The objective of this study was to more specifically characterize of the effect of reverberation on musical sound quality in CI users, normal hearing (NH) non-musicians, and NH musicians using a previously designed assessment method, called Cochlear Implant-MUltiple Stimulus with Hidden Reference and Anchor (CI-MUSHRA). In this method, listeners were randomly presented with an anechoic musical segment and five-versions of this segment in which increasing amounts of reverberation were artificially added. Participants listened to the six reverberation versions and provided sound quality ratings between 0 (very poor) and 100 (excellent). Results demonstrated that on average CI users and NH non-musicians preferred the sound quality of anechoic versions to more reverberant versions. In comparison, NH musicians could be delineated into those who preferred the sound quality of anechoic pieces and those who preferred pieces with some reverberation. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to objectively compare the effects of reverberation on musical sound quality ratings in CI users. These results suggest that musical sound quality for CI users can be improved by non-reverberant listening conditions and musical stimuli in which reverberation is removed.

  14. The Effectiveness of Using Vocal Music as the Content Area of English Immersion Classes for Japanese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Steven Gene

    2012-01-01

    This study set out to determine if English can be taught effectively to Japanese children through a content-based instruction program that uses vocal music as the content area. A total of 240 children participated in the study. The treatment group at a private elementary school in Tokyo received weekly vocal music lessons taught in English for one…

  15. Auditory Signal Processing in Communication: Perception and Performance of Vocal Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Jonathan F.

    2013-01-01

    Learning and maintaining the sounds we use in vocal communication require accurate perception of the sounds we hear performed by others and feedback-dependent imitation of those sounds to produce our own vocalizations. Understanding how the central nervous system integrates auditory and vocal-motor information to enable communication is a fundamental goal of systems neuroscience, and insights into the mechanisms of those processes will profoundly enhance clinical therapies for communication disorders. Gaining the high-resolution insight necessary to define the circuits and cellular mechanisms underlying human vocal communication is presently impractical. Songbirds are the best animal model of human speech, and this review highlights recent insights into the neural basis of auditory perception and feedback-dependent imitation in those animals. Neural correlates of song perception are present in auditory areas, and those correlates are preserved in the auditory responses of downstream neurons that are also active when the bird sings. Initial tests indicate that singing-related activity in those downstream neurons is associated with vocal-motor performance as opposed to the bird simply hearing itself sing. Therefore, action potentials related to auditory perception and action potentials related to vocal performance are co-localized in individual neurons. Conceptual models of song learning involve comparison of vocal commands and the associated auditory feedback to compute an error signal that is used to guide refinement of subsequent song performances, yet the sites of that comparison remain unknown. Convergence of sensory and motor activity onto individual neurons points to a possible mechanism through which auditory and vocal-motor signals may be linked to enable learning and maintenance of the sounds used in vocal communication. PMID:23827717

  16. Fear across the senses: brain responses to music, vocalizations and facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubé, William; Angulo-Perkins, Arafat; Peretz, Isabelle; Concha, Luis; Armony, Jorge L

    2015-03-01

    Intrinsic emotional expressions such as those communicated by faces and vocalizations have been shown to engage specific brain regions, such as the amygdala. Although music constitutes another powerful means to express emotions, the neural substrates involved in its processing remain poorly understood. In particular, it is unknown whether brain regions typically associated with processing 'biologically relevant' emotional expressions are also recruited by emotional music. To address this question, we conducted an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study in 47 healthy volunteers in which we directly compared responses to basic emotions (fear, sadness and happiness, as well as neutral) expressed through faces, non-linguistic vocalizations and short novel musical excerpts. Our results confirmed the importance of fear in emotional communication, as revealed by significant blood oxygen level-dependent signal increased in a cluster within the posterior amygdala and anterior hippocampus, as well as in the posterior insula across all three domains. Moreover, subject-specific amygdala responses to fearful music and vocalizations were correlated, consistent with the proposal that the brain circuitry involved in the processing of musical emotions might be shared with the one that have evolved for vocalizations. Overall, our results show that processing of fear expressed through music, engages some of the same brain areas known to be crucial for detecting and evaluating threat-related information.

  17. Fear across the senses: brain responses to music, vocalizations and facial expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Perkins, Arafat; Peretz, Isabelle; Concha, Luis; Armony, Jorge L.

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic emotional expressions such as those communicated by faces and vocalizations have been shown to engage specific brain regions, such as the amygdala. Although music constitutes another powerful means to express emotions, the neural substrates involved in its processing remain poorly understood. In particular, it is unknown whether brain regions typically associated with processing ‘biologically relevant’ emotional expressions are also recruited by emotional music. To address this question, we conducted an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study in 47 healthy volunteers in which we directly compared responses to basic emotions (fear, sadness and happiness, as well as neutral) expressed through faces, non-linguistic vocalizations and short novel musical excerpts. Our results confirmed the importance of fear in emotional communication, as revealed by significant blood oxygen level-dependent signal increased in a cluster within the posterior amygdala and anterior hippocampus, as well as in the posterior insula across all three domains. Moreover, subject-specific amygdala responses to fearful music and vocalizations were correlated, consistent with the proposal that the brain circuitry involved in the processing of musical emotions might be shared with the one that have evolved for vocalizations. Overall, our results show that processing of fear expressed through music, engages some of the same brain areas known to be crucial for detecting and evaluating threat-related information. PMID:24795437

  18. Technology for the Sound of Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    In the early 1960s during an industry recession, Kaman Aircraft lost several defense contracts. Forced to diversify, the helicopter manufacturer began to manufacture acoustic guitars. Kaman's engineers used special vibration analysis equipment based on aerospace technology. While a helicopter's rotor system is highly susceptible to vibration, which must be reduced or "dampened," vibration enhances a guitar's sound. After two years of vibration analysis Kaman produced an instrument, which is very successful. The Ovation guitar is made of fiberglass. It is stronger than the traditional rosewood and manufactured with adapted aircraft techniques such as jigs and fixtures, reducing labor and assuring quality and cost control. Kaman Music Corporation now has annual sales of $100 million.

  19. Facial, vocal and musical emotion recognition is altered in paranoid schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisgerber, Anne; Vermeulen, Nicolas; Peretz, Isabelle; Samson, Séverine; Philippot, Pierre; Maurage, Pierre; De Graeuwe D'Aoust, Catherine; De Jaegere, Aline; Delatte, Benoît; Gillain, Benoît; De Longueville, Xavier; Constant, Eric

    2015-09-30

    Disturbed processing of emotional faces and voices is typically observed in schizophrenia. This deficit leads to impaired social cognition and interactions. In this study, we investigated whether impaired processing of emotions also affects musical stimuli, which are widely present in daily life and known for their emotional impact. Thirty schizophrenic patients and 30 matched healthy controls evaluated the emotional content of musical, vocal and facial stimuli. Schizophrenic patients are less accurate than healthy controls in recognizing emotion in music, voices and faces. Our results confirm impaired recognition of emotion in voice and face stimuli in schizophrenic patients and extend this observation to the recognition of emotion in musical stimuli.

  20. Sound Levels and Risk Perceptions of Music Students During Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Matilde A; Amorim, Marta; Silva, Manuela V; Neves, Paula; Sousa, Aida; Inácio, Octávio

    2015-01-01

    It is well recognized that professional musicians are at risk of hearing damage due to the exposure to high sound pressure levels during music playing. However, it is important to recognize that the musicians' exposure may start early in the course of their training as students in the classroom and at home. Studies regarding sound exposure of music students and their hearing disorders are scarce and do not take into account important influencing variables. Therefore, this study aimed to describe sound level exposures of music students at different music styles, classes, and according to the instrument played. Further, this investigation attempted to analyze the perceptions of students in relation to exposure to loud music and consequent health risks, as well as to characterize preventive behaviors. The results showed that music students are exposed to high sound levels in the course of their academic activity. This exposure is potentiated by practice outside the school and other external activities. Differences were found between music style, instruments, and classes. Tinnitus, hyperacusis, diplacusis, and sound distortion were reported by the students. However, students were not entirely aware of the health risks related to exposure to high sound pressure levels. These findings reflect the importance of starting intervention in relation to noise risk reduction at an early stage, when musicians are commencing their activity as students.

  1. RIJOQ: VOCAL MUSIC OF DAYAK BENUAQ FROM KUTAI, EAST KALIMANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rijoq, a Dayak Benuaq vocal music, has been passed down from generation to generation through oral tradition for hundreds of years. When and how it was founded, developed and preserved in the Dayak community remains questionable. But according to some research done by scholars, Rijoq has its origin from Dayak Bawo, a tribe living in the borderlines between Central, South, and East Kalimantan. Rijoq is normally performed during festivities, such as: initiation, reconciliation, menugal (rice planting and potong kerbau (buffalo slaughtering. Rijoq’s texts have very deep messages which are considered still relevant to today’s life context. On the one hand, it speaks about the horizontal relationship—human beings and their fellows, and human beings and its nature—; and on the other hand, the vertical relationship—human beings with their Creator. The primary concern of doing this research is to preserve Rijoq as written and recorded documents. So far, this research has been successful in notating and recording five kinds of Rijoq, that is Peket Muat Bolupm (working together to build lives, Rijoq Patuk Ajer (advice, Rijoq Natal Tautn Bayuq (Christmas and New Year, Rijoq Isiq Asekng Sookng Bawe (the expression of a man’s feeling who is falling in love with a woman, and Rijoq Lati Tana Orekng Tepa (forests and lands are disappearing and gone. But this paper is not intended to discuss these five kinds of Rijoq. Isiq Asekng Sookng Bawe is chosen as it is the oldest and the most difficult Rijoq among the rest.

  2. Vocal tract filtering and sound radiation in a songbird

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, Brian S; Beckers, Gabriël J L; Suthers, Roderick A

    2005-01-01

    .... Several studies have described the dynamics with which birds actively vary beak gape while singing and it has been hypothesized that birds vary beak gape as a mechanism for varying vocal tract resonances...

  3. The contribution of sound intensity in vocal emotion perception: behavioral and electrophysiological evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhai Chen

    Full Text Available Although its role is frequently stressed in acoustic profile for vocal emotion, sound intensity is frequently regarded as a control parameter in neurocognitive studies of vocal emotion, leaving its role and neural underpinnings unclear. To investigate these issues, we asked participants to rate the angry level of neutral and angry prosodies before and after sound intensity modification in Experiment 1, and recorded electroencephalogram (EEG for mismatching emotional prosodies with and without sound intensity modification and for matching emotional prosodies while participants performed emotional feature or sound intensity congruity judgment in Experiment 2. It was found that sound intensity modification had significant effect on the rating of angry level for angry prosodies, but not for neutral ones. Moreover, mismatching emotional prosodies, relative to matching ones, induced enhanced N2/P3 complex and theta band synchronization irrespective of sound intensity modification and task demands. However, mismatching emotional prosodies with reduced sound intensity showed prolonged peak latency and decreased amplitude in N2/P3 complex and smaller theta band synchronization. These findings suggest that though it cannot categorically affect emotionality conveyed in emotional prosodies, sound intensity contributes to emotional significance quantitatively, implying that sound intensity should not simply be taken as a control parameter and its unique role needs to be specified in vocal emotion studies.

  4. Reflections over Vocal Music Teaching Reform%声乐教学改革思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    静文佳

    2012-01-01

    In order to push forward the teaching reform, broaden school-running scale, promote school- running profit, ensure education quality and promote the overall level of the music school and stick to the sustainable development policy, the author of this article analyzes the vocal music teaching in higher normal colleges and concludes that we should improve vocal music teaching methods, improve vocal music teaching quality and enhance students' ability by using diversified vocal music examinations, improving teaching practice, enhancing artistic practice and carrying out active guidance.%为更好地推进教育教学改革、适度扩大办学规模、提升办学效益、切实保证教育教学质量、稳步提升音乐学院的整体水平,走可持续发展的道路,笔者对高师声乐教学进行分析,认为应通过多样化声乐考试、完善教育实习、增强艺术实践和积极指导就业这四方面来改进声乐教学法,提高声乐教学质量,增强学生的能力。

  5. Bimodal stimulation: benefits for music perception and sound quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucher, Catherine M; McDermott, Hugh J

    2009-01-01

    With recent expansions in cochlear implantation candidacy criteria, increasing numbers of implantees can exploit their remaining hearing by using bimodal stimulation (combining electrical stimulation via the implant with acoustic stimulation via hearing aids). This study examined the effect of bimodal stimulation on music perception and perceived sound quality. The perception of music and sound quality by nine post-lingually deafened adult implantees was examined in three conditions: implant alone, hearing aid alone and bimodal stimulation. On average, bimodal stimulation provided the best results for music perception and perceived sound quality when compared with results obtained with electrical stimulation alone. Thus, for implantees with usable acoustic hearing, bimodal stimulation may be advantageous when listening to music and other non-speech sounds.

  6. The sound of music: Differentiating musicians using a fast, musical multi-feature mismatch negativity paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuust, Peter; Brattico, Elvira; Seppänen, Miia

    2012-01-01

    to the other deviants in jazz musicians and left lateralization of the MMN to timbre in classical musicians. These findings indicate that the characteristics of the style/genre of music played by musicians influence their perceptual skills and the brain processing of sound features embedded in a musical......Musicians' skills in auditory processing depend highly on instrument, performance practice, and on level of expertise. Yet, it is not known though whether the style/genre of music might shape auditory processing in the brains of musicians. Here, we aimed at tackling the role of musical style....../genre on modulating neural and behavioral responses to changes in musical features. Using a novel, fast and musical sounding multi-feature paradigm, we measured the mismatch negativity (MMN), a pre-attentive brain response, to six types of musical feature change in musicians playing three distinct styles of music...

  7. Slowing down Presentation of Facial Movements and Vocal Sounds Enhances Facial Expression Recognition and Induces Facial-Vocal Imitation in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Carole; Laine, France; Rodriguez, Melissa; Gepner, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on…

  8. Slowing down Presentation of Facial Movements and Vocal Sounds Enhances Facial Expression Recognition and Induces Facial-Vocal Imitation in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Carole; Laine, France; Rodriguez, Melissa; Gepner, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on…

  9. The Research of Vocal Music Education as an Important Carrier of Emotional Education%声乐教育与情感教育的辩证关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓亮

    2016-01-01

    声乐教育是训练人们用声音艺术的表现人类情感。声乐教育也是音乐学中进行情感教育时具有较强实践性的专业之一,这一特点使它成为实施情感教育的绝好介质和载体。本文旨在通过对声乐教育特殊性的分析来探讨情感教育与声乐学习的密切关系以及声乐学习对情感教育的重要承载作用。阐述如何在声乐教育中实施情感教育,声乐教育中情感教育的基本方法和原则,就声乐教育中逐步实现对学生情感表达提出了可靠的理论依据。%The vocal music education is to let people express the emotion use the sound art.The vocal music education also is in the musicology carries on when the emotion education has one of strong practical specialties,this characteristic causes it to become the good medium and the carrier by implementing emotion education.This paper aims to the analysis of the particularity of vocal music education to explore the close relationship of emotional education and vocal music study,as well as the important carrier of the emotional education of vocal music study.how to implement emotional education in the vocal music education,the basic methods and principles of emotional education,and gradually achieve emotional expression of students in the vocal music education,puts forward the reliable theory basis.

  10. What Does Music Sound Like for a Cochlear Implant User?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiam, Nicole T; Caldwell, Meredith T; Limb, Charles J

    2017-09-01

    Cochlear implant research and product development over the past 40 years have been heavily focused on speech comprehension with little emphasis on music listening and enjoyment. The relatively little understanding of how music sounds in a cochlear implant user stands in stark contrast to the overall degree of importance the public places on music and quality of life. The purpose of this article is to describe what music sounds like to cochlear implant users, using a combination of existing research studies and listener descriptions. We examined the published literature on music perception in cochlear implant users, particularly postlingual cochlear implant users, with an emphasis on the primary elements of music and recorded music. Additionally, we administered an informal survey to cochlear implant users to gather first-hand descriptions of music listening experience and satisfaction from the cochlear implant population. Limitations in cochlear implant technology lead to a music listening experience that is significantly distorted compared with that of normal hearing listeners. On the basis of many studies and sources, we describe how music is frequently perceived as out-of-tune, dissonant, indistinct, emotionless, and weak in bass frequencies, especially for postlingual cochlear implant users-which may in part explain why music enjoyment and participation levels are lower after implantation. Additionally, cochlear implant users report difficulty in specific musical contexts based on factors including but not limited to genre, presence of lyrics, timbres (woodwinds, brass, instrument families), and complexity of the perceived music. Future research and cochlear implant development should target these areas as parameters for improvement in cochlear implant-mediated music perception.

  11. Music in the nursing home : hitting the right note! The provision of music to dementia patients with verbal and vocal agitation in Dutch nursing homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geer, E. R.; Vink, A. C.; Schols, J. M. G. A.; Slaets, J. P. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The study aims to provide insight into the type of music being offered in Dutch nursing homes to patients with both dementia and verbal and vocal agitation. It also investigates the degree to which the music offered corresponds to the musical preferences of the nursing home residents. Me

  12. Visualizing sound emission of elephant vocalizations: evidence for two rumble production types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela S Stoeger

    Full Text Available Recent comparative data reveal that formant frequencies are cues to body size in animals, due to a close relationship between formant frequency spacing, vocal tract length and overall body size. Accordingly, intriguing morphological adaptations to elongate the vocal tract in order to lower formants occur in several species, with the size exaggeration hypothesis being proposed to justify most of these observations. While the elephant trunk is strongly implicated to account for the low formants of elephant rumbles, it is unknown whether elephants emit these vocalizations exclusively through the trunk, or whether the mouth is also involved in rumble production. In this study we used a sound visualization method (an acoustic camera to record rumbles of five captive African elephants during spatial separation and subsequent bonding situations. Our results showed that the female elephants in our analysis produced two distinct types of rumble vocalizations based on vocal path differences: a nasally- and an orally-emitted rumble. Interestingly, nasal rumbles predominated during contact calling, whereas oral rumbles were mainly produced in bonding situations. In addition, nasal and oral rumbles varied considerably in their acoustic structure. In particular, the values of the first two formants reflected the estimated lengths of the vocal paths, corresponding to a vocal tract length of around 2 meters for nasal, and around 0.7 meters for oral rumbles. These results suggest that African elephants may be switching vocal paths to actively vary vocal tract length (with considerable variation in formants according to context, and call for further research investigating the function of formant modulation in elephant vocalizations. Furthermore, by confirming the use of the elephant trunk in long distance rumble production, our findings provide an explanation for the extremely low formants in these calls, and may also indicate that formant lowering functions to

  13. Innovative Tools for Sound Sketching Combining Vocalizations and Gesture

    OpenAIRE

    Houix, Olivier; Delle Monache, Stefano; Lachambre, Hélène; Bevilacqua, Frédéric; Rocchesso, Davide; Lemaitre, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Designers are used to produce a variety of physical and digital representations at different stages of the design process. These intermediary objects (IOs) do support the externalization of ideas and the mediation with the different stakeholders. In the same manner, sound designers deliver several intermediate sounds to their clients, through iteration and refinement. In fact, these preliminary sounds are sound sketches representing the intermediate steps of an evolvin...

  14. An Analysis of Sound Exposure in a University Music Rehearsal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joe; Thrasher, Michael; Fumo, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high sound levels may lead to a variety of hearing abnormalities, including Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL). Pre-professional university music majors may experience frequent exposure to elevated sound levels, and this may have implications on their future career prospects (Jansen, Helleman, Dreschler & de Laat, 2009). Studies…

  15. Analyzing Sound Waves Produced by Musical Notes & Chords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Michael

    This project description is designed to show how graphing calculators and calculator-based laboratories (CBL) can be used to explore topics in the physics of sound. The activities address topics such as sound waves, musical notes, and chords. Teaching notes, calculator instructions, and blackline masters are included. (MM)

  16. Predictions and the brain: how musical sounds become rewarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimpoor, Valorie N; Zald, David H; Zatorre, Robert J; Dagher, Alain; McIntosh, Anthony Randal

    2015-02-01

    Music has always played a central role in human culture. The question of how musical sounds can have such profound emotional and rewarding effects has been a topic of interest throughout generations. At a fundamental level, listening to music involves tracking a series of sound events over time. Because humans are experts in pattern recognition, temporal predictions are constantly generated, creating a sense of anticipation. We summarize how complex cognitive abilities and cortical processes integrate with fundamental subcortical reward and motivation systems in the brain to give rise to musical pleasure. This work builds on previous theoretical models that emphasize the role of prediction in music appreciation by integrating these ideas with recent neuroscientific evidence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Speech, Sound and Music Processing: Embracing Research in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , and the Department of Architecture, Design and Media Technology (ad:mt), University of Aalborg, Esbjerg, Denmark, and has taken place in France, Italy, Spain, and Denmark. Historically, CMMR offers a cross-disciplinary overview of current music information retrieval and sound modeling activities and related topics...... technologies applicable for Indian languages get an appropriate platform for their advancement. Indian music is multicategorical in nature in this country of multilingualism. It has rich classical music at one end and numerous ethnic and folk music at the other end. At FRSM, different aspects of Indian...

  18. Sound objects – Auditory objects – Musical objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The auditory system transforms patterns of sound energy into perceptual objects but the precise definition of an ‘auditory object’ is much debated. In the context of music listening, Pierre Schaeffer argued that ‘sound objects’ are the fundamental perceptual units in ‘musical objects......’. In this paper, I review recent neurocognitive research suggesting that the auditory system is sensitive to structural information about real-world objects. Instead of focusing solely on perceptual sound features as determinants of auditory objects, I propose that real-world object properties are inherent...

  19. Sound objects – Auditory objects – Musical objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The auditory system transforms patterns of sound energy into perceptual objects but the precise definition of an ‘auditory object’ is much debated. In the context of music listening, Pierre Schaeffer argued that ‘sound objects’ are the fundamental perceptual units in ‘musical objects......’. In this paper, I review recent neurocognitive research suggesting that the auditory system is sensitive to structural information about real-world objects. Instead of focusing solely on perceptual sound features as determinants of auditory objects, I propose that real-world object properties are inherent...

  20. Tracheal sounds and airflow dynamics in surgically treated unilateral vocal fold paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarinen, A; Rihkanen, H; Malmberg, L P; Pekkanen, L; Sovijärvi, A R

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in tracheal sounds and airflow dynamics in patients who underwent surgical medialization of a unilaterally paralysed vocal fold. Ten adults with unilateral vocal fold paralysis but no history of pulmonary diseases were included. Vocal fold medialization was performed by an injection of autologous fascia into the paralysed vocal fold. Recording of tracheal sounds, flow-volume spirometry and body plethysmography were carried out before and 4-14 months after the operation. The mean number of inspiratory wheezes per respiratory cycle increased from 0.02 (range 0-0.10) to 0.42 (range 0-0.86) and the mean number of expiratory wheezes per respiratory cycle from 0.03 (range 0-0.20) to 0.36 (range 0-0.89). The increment was statistically significant (P=0.03 and P=0.04, respectively). The mean expiratory sound amplitude, in terms of root mean square (RMS), increased from 31.5 dB (range 24.0-38.0) to 34.9 dB (range 25-42) (P=0.03) and the average peak inspiratory flow (PIF) decreased from 4.63 l s-1 (range 2.84-7.51) to 4.03 l s-1 (range 2.27-6.68) (P=0.01). The results indicate that when the paralysed vocal fold is brought into midline by a surgical procedure, the prevalence of inspiratory and expiratory wheezes increases and sound intensity rises. According to this preliminary data tracheal sound analysis gives additional information for the assessment of the subtle changes in the larynx.

  1. Vocalisation Repertoire of Female Bluefin Gurnard (Chelidonichthys kumu in Captivity: Sound Structure, Context and Vocal Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A Radford

    Full Text Available Fish vocalisation is often a major component of underwater soundscapes. Therefore, interpretation of these soundscapes requires an understanding of the vocalisation characteristics of common soniferous fish species. This study of captive female bluefin gurnard, Chelidonichthys kumu, aims to formally characterise their vocalisation sounds and daily pattern of sound production. Four types of sound were produced and characterised, twice as many as previously reported in this species. These sounds fit two aural categories; grunt and growl, the mean peak frequencies for which ranged between 129 to 215 Hz. This species vocalized throughout the 24 hour period at an average rate of (18.5 ± 2.0 sounds fish-1 h-1 with an increase in vocalization rate at dawn and dusk. Competitive feeding did not elevate vocalisation as has been found in other gurnard species. Bluefin gurnard are common in coastal waters of New Zealand, Australia and Japan and, given their vocalization rate, are likely to be significant contributors to ambient underwater soundscape in these areas.

  2. Vocalisation Repertoire of Female Bluefin Gurnard (Chelidonichthys kumu) in Captivity: Sound Structure, Context and Vocal Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Craig A; Ghazali, Shahriman M; Montgomery, John C; Jeffs, Andrew G

    2016-01-01

    Fish vocalisation is often a major component of underwater soundscapes. Therefore, interpretation of these soundscapes requires an understanding of the vocalisation characteristics of common soniferous fish species. This study of captive female bluefin gurnard, Chelidonichthys kumu, aims to formally characterise their vocalisation sounds and daily pattern of sound production. Four types of sound were produced and characterised, twice as many as previously reported in this species. These sounds fit two aural categories; grunt and growl, the mean peak frequencies for which ranged between 129 to 215 Hz. This species vocalized throughout the 24 hour period at an average rate of (18.5 ± 2.0 sounds fish-1 h-1) with an increase in vocalization rate at dawn and dusk. Competitive feeding did not elevate vocalisation as has been found in other gurnard species. Bluefin gurnard are common in coastal waters of New Zealand, Australia and Japan and, given their vocalization rate, are likely to be significant contributors to ambient underwater soundscape in these areas.

  3. Let the music play! A short-term but no long-term detrimental effect of vocal background music with familiar language lyrics on foreign language vocabulary learning

    OpenAIRE

    de Groot, A.M.B.; Smedinga, H.E.

    2014-01-01

    Participants learned foreign vocabulary by means of the paired-associates learning procedure in three conditions: (a) in silence, (b) with vocal music with lyrics in a familiar language playing in the background, or (c) with vocal music with lyrics in an unfamiliar language playing in the background. The vocabulary to learn varied in concreteness (concrete vs. abstract) and phonological typicality of the foreign words’ forms (typical vs. atypical). When tested during and immediately after tra...

  4. Make Use of Vivid Teaching Method in Vocal Music Teaching%论形象教学法在声乐教学中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蔚骅

    2011-01-01

    The vocal music teaching is a discipline that researches science sound production method and singing skills and has certain abstractness. Therefore, the vocal music teacher should utilize the vivid teaching method as far as possible, and guide the students to feel, understand and create vocal music beauty of art by designing the vivid teaching language, teaching aids and body acts and cause the students to produce an esthetical joy, enhance the esthetic perception and creativity.%声乐教学是一门研究科学发声方法和演唱技巧的学科,具有一定的抽象性。因此,教师在教学中应尽可能运用形象教学法,通过形象化的教学语言设计、教具辅助设计和肢体动作设计,引导学生更加直观地感受、理解和创造声乐艺术美,产生审美愉悦,从而提高其审美鉴赏力和创造力。

  5. The sounds of safety: Stress and danger in music perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eSchäfer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As with any sensory input, music might be expected to incorporate the processing of information about the safety of the environment. Little research has been done on how such processing has evolved and how different kinds of sounds may affect the experience of certain environments. In this article, we investigate if music, as a form of auditory information, can trigger the experience of safety. We hypothesized that (1 there should be an optimal, subjectively preferred degree of information density of musical sounds, at which safety-related information can be processed optimally; (2 any deviation from the optimum, that is, both higher and lower levels of information density, should elicit experiences of higher stress and danger; and (3 in general, sonic scenarios with music should reduce experiences of stress and danger more than other scenarios. In Experiment 1, the information density of short music-like rhythmic stimuli was manipulated via their tempo. In an initial session, listeners adjusted the tempo of the stimuli to what they deemed an appropriate tempo. In an ensuing session, the same listeners judged their experienced stress and danger in response to the same stimuli, as well as stimuli exhibiting tempo variants. Results are consistent with the existence of an optimum information density for a given rhythm; the preferred tempo decreased for increasingly complex rhythms. The hypothesis that any deviation from the optimum would lead to experiences of higher stress and danger was only partly fit by the data. In Experiment 2, listeners should indicate their experience of stress and danger in response to different sonic scenarios: music, natural sounds, and silence. As expected, the music scenarios were associated with lowest stress and danger whereas both natural sounds and silence resulted in higher stress and danger. Overall, the results largely fit the hypothesis that music seemingly carries safety-related information about the

  6. The sounds of safety: stress and danger in music perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Thomas; Huron, David; Shanahan, Daniel; Sedlmeier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    As with any sensory input, music might be expected to incorporate the processing of information about the safety of the environment. Little research has been done on how such processing has evolved and how different kinds of sounds may affect the experience of certain environments. In this article, we investigate if music, as a form of auditory information, can trigger the experience of safety. We hypothesized that (1) there should be an optimal, subjectively preferred degree of information density of musical sounds, at which safety-related information can be processed optimally; (2) any deviation from the optimum, that is, both higher and lower levels of information density, should elicit experiences of higher stress and danger; and (3) in general, sonic scenarios with music should reduce experiences of stress and danger more than other scenarios. In Experiment 1, the information density of short music-like rhythmic stimuli was manipulated via their tempo. In an initial session, listeners adjusted the tempo of the stimuli to what they deemed an appropriate tempo. In an ensuing session, the same listeners judged their experienced stress and danger in response to the same stimuli, as well as stimuli exhibiting tempo variants. Results are consistent with the existence of an optimum information density for a given rhythm; the preferred tempo decreased for increasingly complex rhythms. The hypothesis that any deviation from the optimum would lead to experiences of higher stress and danger was only partly fit by the data. In Experiment 2, listeners should indicate their experience of stress and danger in response to different sonic scenarios: music, natural sounds, and silence. As expected, the music scenarios were associated with lowest stress and danger whereas both natural sounds and silence resulted in higher stress and danger. Overall, the results largely fit the hypothesis that music seemingly carries safety-related information about the environment.

  7. 声乐教学中的心理学体验模式研究%The Study of Psychology Experience Mode in Vocal Music Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈春华

    2013-01-01

    声乐教学是研究塑造声音的模式和方法的。教学中的“声音”可分为“声”和“音”两部分组成,以此为视角,本文从心理学模式以及声学模式两者建立有效联系的角度展开相关的思考和讨论。%Vocal Music Teaching is to study the mode and method of shaping the sound .The"Music"consists of two parts :"the Voice"and"the Sound".This article will talk about the effective connection be-tween the psychology mode and acoustic mode .

  8. Relationship Between Subjective Preference and the Alpha-Brain Wave in Relation to the Initial Time Delay Gap with Vocal Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOURI, K.; AKIYAMA, K.; ANDO, Y.

    2000-04-01

    Previously, it was reported that the most preferred initial time delay gap [Δt1]pand subsequent reverberation time are described by the minimum value of the effective duration (τe)minof the running autocorrelation function (ACF) of music signals (2 T=2·0 s) (Y. ANDO et al. 1989 Journal of Acoustical Society of America86, 644-649). This paper shows whether this result is supported or not by use of the electro-physiological method. Experiments were performed for sound fields changing the initial time delay gapΔt1 of a single reflection with vocal music as a source signal, which has large changes in runningτe . The results at the time interval when (τe)minof the music is observed reveal that the scale value of subjective preference is closely related to the value of τeof the alpha wave obtained from the left heimsphere.

  9. Som fricativo sonoro /ℑ/: modificações vocais Fricative hearing sound /ℑ/: vocal modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena D'Avila

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar as modificações vocais após a utilização do fricativo sonoro /ž/, em dez mulheres sem alterações vocais/laríngeas. MÉTODOS: foram realizadas medidas acústicas, perceptivo-auditiva, eletroglotografia e auto-avaliação da voz pré e pós-produção da técnica. RESULTADOS: foram estatisticamente significantes: as sensações subjetivas positivas; a maior definição de harmônicos e de formantes, diminuição do ruído, e maior regularidade no traçado. CONCLUSÃO: a técnica promove estabilidade vocal, gerando menor esforço fonatório, maior conforto durante a produção vocal e maior projeção vocal no grupo estudado.PURPOSE: verify the vocal modifications that occurred after the utilization of the fricative hearing sound /ž/ in ten adult women that had no vocal laryngeal alterations. METHODS: they passed through a vocal and acoustic evaluation as well as hearing perception, and then they auto-evaluated their voices before and after the technique. RESULTS: statistically significant, namely: positive subjective feelings; spectrograms showing more definition for the harmonic and formants, noise reduction, and more regularity on the trace. CONCLUSION: the technique produced less effort in phonation, more comfort during the vocal production and a more vocal production in the studied group.

  10. The sound of music: Differentiating musicians using a fast, musical multi-feature mismatch negativity paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuust, Peter; Brattico, Elvira; Seppänen, Miia

    2012-01-01

    (classical, jazz, rock/pop) and in non-musicians. Jazz and classical musicians scored higher in the musical aptitude test than band musicians and non-musicians, especially with regards to tonal abilities. These results were extended by the MMN findings: jazz musicians had larger MMN-amplitude than all other......Musicians' skills in auditory processing depend highly on instrument, performance practice, and on level of expertise. Yet, it is not known though whether the style/genre of music might shape auditory processing in the brains of musicians. Here, we aimed at tackling the role of musical style....../genre on modulating neural and behavioral responses to changes in musical features. Using a novel, fast and musical sounding multi-feature paradigm, we measured the mismatch negativity (MMN), a pre-attentive brain response, to six types of musical feature change in musicians playing three distinct styles of music...

  11. Sight over sound in the judgment of music performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Chia-Jung

    2013-09-03

    Social judgments are made on the basis of both visual and auditory information, with consequential implications for our decisions. To examine the impact of visual information on expert judgment and its predictive validity for performance outcomes, this set of seven experiments in the domain of music offers a conservative test of the relative influence of vision versus audition. People consistently report that sound is the most important source of information in evaluating performance in music. However, the findings demonstrate that people actually depend primarily on visual information when making judgments about music performance. People reliably select the actual winners of live music competitions based on silent video recordings, but neither musical novices nor professional musicians were able to identify the winners based on sound recordings or recordings with both video and sound. The results highlight our natural, automatic, and nonconscious dependence on visual cues. The dominance of visual information emerges to the degree that it is overweighted relative to auditory information, even when sound is consciously valued as the core domain content.

  12. Can out-of-context musical sounds convey meaning? An ERP study on the processing of meaning in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Julia Grieser; Koelsch, Stefan

    2011-05-01

    There has been much debate over whether music can convey extra-musical meaning. The experiments presented here investigated whether low level musical features, specifically the timbre of a sound, have a direct access route to meaningful representations. Short musical sounds with varying timbres were investigated with regard to their ability to elicit meaningful associations, and the neural mechanisms underlying the meaningful processing of sounds were compared to those underlying the semantic processing of words. Two EEG experiments were carried out, and N400 effects were found for sound and word targets following sound and word primes in a semantic relatedness judgment task. No N400 effects were found in a memory task. The results show that even short musical sounds outside of a musical context are capable of conveying meaning information, but that sounds require more elaborate processing than other kinds of meaningful stimuli.

  13. Drum Sound Detection in Polyphonic Music with Hidden Markov Models

    OpenAIRE

    Jouni Paulus; Anssi Klapuri

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for transcribing drums from polyphonic music using a network of connected hidden Markov models (HMMs). The task is to detect the temporal locations of unpitched percussive sounds (such as bass drum or hi-hat) and recognise the instruments played. Contrary to many earlier methods, a separate sound event segmentation is not done, but connected HMMs are used to perform the segmentation and recognition jointly. Two ways of using HMMs are studied: modelling combination...

  14. 声乐作品与声乐演唱之间的深层关系%The Deep Relationship of the Vocal Music and the Vocal Music Sings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董卫华

    2012-01-01

    in the teaching of music, vocal music and singing both between having close connection, is an integral whole. Typically, the growing number of vocal music works is accompanied by vocal music level unceasing development, between the two promote each other, each other in the road of the development of mutual influence and common progress. The current between the two mutual influence, interaction is more and more obvious. This article mainly from the theoretical perspective of vocal music, and vocal music of the link between the two to carry on the deep level analysis.%在音乐教学中,声乐作品与声乐演唱两者之间有着密切的联系,是一个不可分割的整体。通常情况下,声乐作品数量的不断增长伴随的是声乐演唱水平的不断发展,二者之间相互促进,在彼此的发展道路上相互影响共同进步。当前,这两个方面的相互影响、相互作用越来越明显。

  15. Listeners discern affective variation in computer-generated musical sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailes, Freya; Dean, Roger T

    2009-01-01

    We carried out two experiments to test the relationship between real-time perception of structural change in stylistically unusual musical sounds, and perception of its affect (arousal and valence). Computer music was used because of its unfamiliarity and our capacity to control it in ecologically appropriate ways. In experiment 1, thirteen participants unselected for musical training participated in tasks to detect segmentation and changes in affect. Changes in affect occurred upon detection of segmentation; but not all algorithmically distinct segments conveyed distinct affect. Short segments followed by long segments led to greater changes in arousal and valence at the point of segmentation than vice versa. In experiment 2, intra-segment sound transitions were introduced. Sixteen musicians performed the same affect task as in experiment 1, and a novel change in sound task. Participants were slow to respond to a continuous transition, but quick to respond to instantaneous transitions. Contrary to literature on the perception of affect in more familiar music, the musician participants in experiment 2 differed more in their ratings of arousal than of valence, in spite of a strong correlation of arousal with the composition of the stimuli. These findings are discussed in relation to the positive valence attributed to the more familiar sounds in both experiments.

  16. 论声乐演唱的音乐心理研究探析%The music psychological research of vocal music singing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世文

    2012-01-01

      音乐心理是人类对客观音乐现实的反映,音乐心理活动又能调节人的音乐行为。声乐既是表演的艺术,也是情感艺术,在声乐演唱中,调控好自身的心理因素,才能使歌曲的表达更准确,演唱的效果更完美。%  Music psychology is the reflection of human to music objective reality, music psychological activity can adjust the person's music behavior. Vocal music is not only the art of performance, but also emotional art, in vocal music singing, regulation and control good own psychological factors, to make expression of songs more accurate, singing effect more perfect.

  17. Augmenting the Sound Experience at Music Festivals using Mobile Phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Larsen, Jan;

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe experiments carried out at the Nibe music festival in Denmark involving the use of mobile phones to augment the participants' sound experience at the concerts. The experiments involved N=19 test participants that used a mobile phone with a headset playing back sound...... received over FM from the PA audio mixer system. Based on the location of the participant (distance to the stage) a delay was estimated and introduced to the playback on the mobile phone in order to align the sound in the headset with that from the on-stage speakers. We report our findings from our initial...

  18. The sound of music: differentiating musicians using a fast, musical multi-feature mismatch negativity paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuust, Peter; Brattico, Elvira; Seppänen, Miia; Näätänen, Risto; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2012-06-01

    Musicians' skills in auditory processing depend highly on instrument, performance practice, and on level of expertise. Yet, it is not known though whether the style/genre of music might shape auditory processing in the brains of musicians. Here, we aimed at tackling the role of musical style/genre on modulating neural and behavioral responses to changes in musical features. Using a novel, fast and musical sounding multi-feature paradigm, we measured the mismatch negativity (MMN), a pre-attentive brain response, to six types of musical feature change in musicians playing three distinct styles of music (classical, jazz, rock/pop) and in non-musicians. Jazz and classical musicians scored higher in the musical aptitude test than band musicians and non-musicians, especially with regards to tonal abilities. These results were extended by the MMN findings: jazz musicians had larger MMN-amplitude than all other experimental groups across the six different sound features, indicating a greater overall sensitivity to auditory outliers. In particular, we found enhanced processing of pith and sliding up to pitches in jazz musicians only. Furthermore, we observed a more frontal MMN to pitch and location compared to the other deviants in jazz musicians and left lateralization of the MMN to timbre in classical musicians. These findings indicate that the characteristics of the style/genre of music played by musicians influence their perceptual skills and the brain processing of sound features embedded in a musical context. Musicians' brain is hence shaped by the type of training, musical style/genre, and listening experiences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Discrimination of musical instrument sounds resynthesized with simplified spectrotemporal parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, S; Beauchamp, J W; Meneguzzi, S

    1999-02-01

    The perceptual salience of several outstanding features of quasiharmonic, time-variant spectra was investigated in musical instrument sounds. Spectral analyses of sounds from seven musical instruments (clarinet, flute, oboe, trumpet, violin, harpsichord, and marimba) produced time-varying harmonic amplitude and frequency data. Six basic data simplifications and five combinations of them were applied to the reference tones: amplitude-variation smoothing, coherent variation of amplitudes over time, spectral-envelope smoothing, forced harmonic-frequency variation, frequency-variation smoothing, and harmonic-frequency flattening. Listeners were asked to discriminate sounds resynthesized with simplified data from reference sounds resynthesized with the full data. Averaged over the seven instruments, the discrimination was very good for spectral envelope smoothing and amplitude envelope coherence, but was moderate to poor in decreasing order for forced harmonic frequency variation, frequency variation smoothing, frequency flattening, and amplitude variation smoothing. Discrimination of combinations of simplifications was equivalent to that of the most potent constituent simplification. Objective measurements were made on the spectral data for harmonic amplitude, harmonic frequency, and spectral centroid changes resulting from simplifications. These measures were found to correlate well with discrimination results, indicating that listeners have access to a relatively fine-grained sensory representation of musical instrument sounds.

  20. Sound and music for science explorations

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Vicinanza, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    Resonances, periodicity, patterns and spectra: well-known notions that play crucial roles both in science and music. This short talk will focus on analysing data and their relations by translating measurements into audible signals and using the natural capability of the ear to distinguish, characterise and analyse waveform shapes, amplitudes and relations. This process is called data sonification.

  1. Computer Music Modeling and Retrieval. Genesis of Meaning in Sound and Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ystad, S.; Kronland-Martinet, R.; Jensen, K.

    2009-01-01

    . The field of computer music embraces a large number of research areas that span from information retrieval, programming, artificial intelligence to acous- tics, signal processing and sound modeling. In the last CMMR gatherings an increased emphasis was placed on the role of human interaction at all levels......- trieval, programming, acoustics, signal processing) and areas within the hu- manities (in particular perception, cognition, musicology, philosophy), and to globally address the notion of sound meaning and its implications in music, modeling and retrieval. As a step in this direction, NTSMB, the Network...... for their valuable paper reports and thank all the participants who made CMMR 2008 Genesis of Meaning in Sounds and Music a stimulating and unique event. Finally, we would like to thank Springer for accepting to publish the CMMR 2008 proceedings in their LNCS series. ...

  2. The effect of harmonic context on phoneme monitoring in vocal music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigand, E; Tillmann, B; Poulin, B; D'Adamo, D A; Madurell, F

    2001-08-01

    The processing of a target chord depends on the previous musical context in which it has appeared. This harmonic priming effect occurs for fine syntactic-like changes in context and is observed irrespective of the extent of participants' musical expertise (Bigand & Pineau, Perception and Psychophysics, 59 (1997) 1098). The present study investigates how the harmonic context influences the processing of phonemes in vocal music. Eight-chord sequences were presented to participants. The four notes of each chord were played with synthetic phonemes and participants were required to quickly decide whether the last chord (the target) was sung on a syllable containing the phoneme /i/ or /u/. The musical relationship of the target chord to the previous context was manipulated so that the target chord acted as a referential tonic chord or as a congruent but less structurally important subdominant chord. Phoneme monitoring was faster for the tonic chord than for the subdominant chord. This finding has several implications for music cognition and speech perception. It also suggests that musical and phonemic processing interact at some stage of processing.

  3. Psychiatry and music

    OpenAIRE

    Nizamie, Shamsul Haque; Tikka, Sai Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Vocal and/or instrumental sounds combined in such a way as to produce beauty of form, harmony and expression of emotion is music. Brain, mind and music are remarkably related to each other and music has got a strong impact on psychiatry. With the advent of music therapy, as an efficient form of alternative therapy in treating major psychiatric conditions, this impact has been further strengthened. In this review, we deliberate upon the historical aspects of the relationship between psychiatry...

  4. [Music therapy in adults with cochlear implants : Effects on music perception and subjective sound quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, E; Grapp, M; Argstatter, H

    2016-12-01

    People with severe hearing impairments and deafness can achieve good speech comprehension using a cochlear implant (CI), although music perception often remains impaired. A novel concept of music therapy for adults with CI was developed and evaluated in this study. This study included 30 adults with a unilateral CI following postlingual deafness. The subjective sound quality of the CI was rated using the hearing implant sound quality index (HISQUI) and musical tests for pitch discrimination, melody recognition and timbre identification were applied. As a control 55 normally hearing persons also completed the musical tests. In comparison to normally hearing subjects CI users showed deficits in the perception of pitch, melody and timbre. Specific effects of therapy were observed in the subjective sound quality of the CI, in pitch discrimination into a high and low pitch range and in timbre identification, while general learning effects were found in melody recognition. Music perception shows deficits in CI users compared to normally hearing persons. After individual music therapy in the rehabilitation process, improvements in this delicate area could be achieved.

  5. Instrumental and vocal music effects on EEG and EKG in neonates of depressed and non-depressed mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Diego, Miguel; Field, Tiffany

    2006-12-01

    Neonates (M age=16 days) born to depressed and non-depressed mothers were randomly assigned to hear an audiotaped lullaby of instrumental music with vocals or without vocals. Neonatal EEG and EKG were recorded for 2min (baseline) of silence and for 2min of one or the other music presentation. Neonates of non-depressed mothers showed greater relative right frontal EEG asymmetry to both types of music, suggesting a withdrawal response. Neonates of depressed mothers on the other hand showed greater relative left frontal EEG asymmetry to the instrumental without vocal segment, suggesting an approach response, and greater relative right frontal EEG asymmetry to the instrumental with vocal segment, suggesting a withdrawal response. Heart rate decelerations occurred following the music onset for both groups of infants, however, compared to infants of non-depressed mothers, infants of depressed mothers showed a delayed heart rate deceleration, suggesting slower processing and/or delayed attention. These findings suggest that neonates of depressed and non-depressed mothers show different EKG and EEG responses to instrumental music with versus without vocals.

  6. Speech, Sound and Music Processing: Embracing Research in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , and the Department of Architecture, Design and Media Technology (ad:mt), University of Aalborg, Esbjerg, Denmark, and has taken place in France, Italy, Spain, and Denmark. Historically, CMMR offers a cross-disciplinary overview of current music information retrieval and sound modeling activities and related topics...... classical music and its impact in cognitive science are the focus of discussion. Eminent scientist from the USA, Japan, Sweden, France, Poland, Taiwan, India and other European and Asian countries have delivered state-of-the-art lectures in these areas every year at different places providing an opportunity...

  7. On Vocal Music Teaching Demonstration%声乐教学示范性之见

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房思钊; 王维琴

    2012-01-01

    Vocal music teaching is a systematic and complicated education project, which possesses the universal law of teaching and specific art characteristics. In each teaching process, teacher' s demonstration presents substantial personal feature which brings vital influence on teaching result. Starting with the universal laws and personal characteristics of vocal music teaching, this paper elaborates on the demonstration in teaching process, hoping to provide vocal teaching with more precious rules of thumb.%声乐教学是一项系统而复杂的育人工程,既具有教学的一般规律,又有着自身的艺术特征。在各个教学环节中,教师的示范性呈现出了重要的个性特征,对提高教学效果有着重要的影响。本文根据声乐教学的一般规律与个性特征,着重对教学过程中的示范性进行了阐述,旨在为声乐教学提供更多的借鉴。

  8. The effect of musical practice on gesture/sound pairing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mado eProverbio

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Learning to play a musical instrument is a demanding process requiring years of intense practice. Dramatic changes in brain connectivity, volume and functionality have been shown in skilled musicians. It is thought that music learning involves the formation of novel audio visuomotor associations, but not much is known about the gradual acquisition of this ability. In the present study, we investigated whether formal music training enhances audiovisual multisensory processing. To this end, pupils at different stages of education were examined based on the hypothesis that the strength of audio/visuomotor associations would be augmented as a function of the number of years of conservatory study (expertise. The study participants were violin and clarinet students of pre-academic and academic levels and of different chronological ages, ages of acquisition and academic levels. A violinist and a clarinetist each played the same score, and each participant viewed the video corresponding to his or her instrument. Pitch, intensity, rhythm and sound duration were matched across instruments. In half of the trials, the soundtrack did not match (in pitch the corresponding musical gestures. Data analysis indicated a correlation between the number of years of formal training (expertise and the ability to detect an audiomotor incongruence in music performance (relative to the musical instrument practiced, thus suggesting a direct correlation between knowing how to play and perceptual sensitivity.

  9. The effect of musical practice on gesture/sound pairing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice M; Attardo, Lapo; Cozzi, Matteo; Zani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Learning to play a musical instrument is a demanding process requiring years of intense practice. Dramatic changes in brain connectivity, volume, and functionality have been shown in skilled musicians. It is thought that music learning involves the formation of novel audio visuomotor associations, but not much is known about the gradual acquisition of this ability. In the present study, we investigated whether formal music training enhances audiovisual multisensory processing. To this end, pupils at different stages of education were examined based on the hypothesis that the strength of audio/visuomotor associations would be augmented as a function of the number of years of conservatory study (expertise). The study participants were violin and clarinet students of pre-academic and academic levels and of different chronological ages, ages of acquisition, and academic levels. A violinist and a clarinetist each played the same score, and each participant viewed the video corresponding to his or her instrument. Pitch, intensity, rhythm, and sound duration were matched across instruments. In half of the trials, the soundtrack did not match (in pitch) the corresponding musical gestures. Data analysis indicated a correlation between the number of years of formal training (expertise) and the ability to detect an audiomotor incongruence in music performance (relative to the musical instrument practiced), thus suggesting a direct correlation between knowing how to play and perceptual sensitivity.

  10. Real estate ads in Emei music frog vocalizations: female preference for calls emanating from burrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jianguo; Tang, Yezhong; Narins, Peter M

    2012-06-23

    During female mate choice, both the male's phenotype and resources (e.g. his nest) contribute to the chooser's fitness. Animals other than humans are not known to advertise resource characteristics to potential mates through vocal communication; although in some species of anurans and birds, females do evaluate male qualities through vocal communication. Here, we demonstrate that calls of the male Emei music frog (Babina dauchina), vocalizing from male-built nests, reflect nest structure information that can be recognized by females. Inside-nest calls consisted of notes with energy concentrated at lower frequency ranges and longer note durations when compared with outside-nest calls. Centre frequencies and note durations of the inside calls positively correlate with the area of the burrow entrance and the depth of the burrow, respectively. When given a choice between outside and inside calls played back alternately, more than 70 per cent of the females (33/47) chose inside calls. These results demonstrate that males of this species faithfully advertise whether or not they possess a nest to potential mates by vocal communication, which probably facilitates optimal mate selection by females. These results revealed a novel function of advertisement calls, which is consistent with the wide variation in both call complexity and social behaviour within amphibians.

  11. Sound, music and gender in mobile games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machin, David; Van Leeuwen, T.

    2016-01-01

    In everyday life it is now common to find our actions linked to sound, especially using technology, such as when we use mobile devices, or operate more recently manufactured cars, technology in the workplace or simply in an elevator. While we may attend little to these noises, like any semiotic r...

  12. Music and language expertise influence the categorization of speech and musical sounds: behavioral and electrophysiological measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Stefan; Klein, Carina; Kühnis, Jürg; Liem, Franziskus; Meyer, Martin; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we used high-density EEG to evaluate whether speech and music expertise has an influence on the categorization of expertise-related and unrelated sounds. With this purpose in mind, we compared the categorization of speech, music, and neutral sounds between professional musicians, simultaneous interpreters (SIs), and controls in response to morphed speech-noise, music-noise, and speech-music continua. Our hypothesis was that music and language expertise will strengthen the memory representations of prototypical sounds, which act as a perceptual magnet for morphed variants. This means that the prototype would "attract" variants. This so-called magnet effect should be manifested by an increased assignment of morphed items to the trained category, by a reduced maximal slope of the psychometric function, as well as by differential event-related brain responses reflecting memory comparison processes (i.e., N400 and P600 responses). As a main result, we provide first evidence for a domain-specific behavioral bias of musicians and SIs toward the trained categories, namely music and speech. In addition, SIs showed a bias toward musical items, indicating that interpreting training has a generic influence on the cognitive representation of spectrotemporal signals with similar acoustic properties to speech sounds. Notably, EEG measurements revealed clear distinct N400 and P600 responses to both prototypical and ambiguous items between the three groups at anterior, central, and posterior scalp sites. These differential N400 and P600 responses represent synchronous activity occurring across widely distributed brain networks, and indicate a dynamical recruitment of memory processes that vary as a function of training and expertise.

  13. Musical Sound Separation Based on Binary Time-Frequency Masking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang DeLiang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of overlapping harmonics is particularly acute in musical sound separation and has not been addressed adequately. We propose a monaural system based on binary time-frequency masking with an emphasis on robust decisions in time-frequency regions, where harmonics from different sources overlap. Our computational auditory scene analysis system exploits the observation that sounds from the same source tend to have similar spectral envelopes. Quantitative results show that utilizing spectral similarity helps binary decision making in overlapped time-frequency regions and significantly improves separation performance.

  14. 论声乐教师的教学品格%On the Vocal Music Teachers' Teaching Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲永新; 曲歌

    2012-01-01

    教师的职业就是以人格再造人格,教师是人的品格的影响及塑造者。教师的教学品格与人格修养的建设与提高,是教育教学活动成功与否的关键。在声乐教学过程中,教师的人格魅力与教学品格时刻对学生产生着深刻的教育与影响。优秀的声乐教师的人格修养与教学品格,关系到声乐教师队伍的内涵建设及声乐艺术人才的目标培养。提高声乐教师教学品格修养,是现代教育对声乐教师提出的最基本要求和任务。%Teachers' occupation personality reconstruction is to personality, is the influence of character and shapers. Teacher's teaching style and personality construction and improve the education and teaching activities, is the key to success. In the process of teaching, teachers' personality charm and teaching students character moments of profound education and influence. Excellent vocal music teachers' personality and teaching character, in relation to the vocal music teachers of vocal music education connotation construction and the smooth development of the undertaking and the art of vocal music talents cultivation. With excellent teaching character for the demonstration and example, is the true sense of the teachers. The improvement of vocal music teaching character, is the modem education to the contemporary vocal music teachers in the most basic requirement and task.

  15. An introduction to the poetics of sacred sound in twentieth-century music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Antonio Irlandini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Along the twentieth century has occurred the beginning of a fusion between two very different horizons: Western musical composition and Hindu sonic theology. The essential content of this theology and the changes in Western musical language and aesthetics, society and culture which have allowed this fusion to take place are briefly outlined. Instrumental and vocal works by Karlheinz Stockhausen, Giacinto Scelsi, Michael Vetter and David Hykes provide specific examples and, in particular, raise the predicament between mysticism and rationalism, manifested in the dichotomy ècriture/inspiration. The study proceeds investigating the connections between music and meditation. In this context, overtone singing appears as a musical and meditative practice. The incorporation of this non-European or ancient vocal technique is evaluated as a dawning horizon in Western music. Overtone singing has required a practical emphasis through improvisation, suggesting a new musical praxis that does not separate composition from performance.

  16. Let the Music Play!--A Short-Term but No Long-Term Detrimental Effect of Vocal Background Music with Familiar Language Lyrics on Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Annette M. B.; Smedinga, Hilde E.

    2014-01-01

    Participants learned foreign vocabulary by means of the paired-associates learning procedure in three conditions: (a) in silence, (b) with vocal music with lyrics in a familiar language playing in the background, or (c) with vocal music with lyrics in an unfamiliar language playing in the background. The vocabulary to learn varied in concreteness…

  17. Let the Music Play!--A Short-Term but No Long-Term Detrimental Effect of Vocal Background Music with Familiar Language Lyrics on Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Annette M. B.; Smedinga, Hilde E.

    2014-01-01

    Participants learned foreign vocabulary by means of the paired-associates learning procedure in three conditions: (a) in silence, (b) with vocal music with lyrics in a familiar language playing in the background, or (c) with vocal music with lyrics in an unfamiliar language playing in the background. The vocabulary to learn varied in concreteness…

  18. 浅谈声乐教学中教师综合思考问题的能力%Teachers' comprehensive thinking ability in the teaching of vocal music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾鼎

    2013-01-01

    The vocal music is a subject of artistic skills with practice are very strong, whether in theory or in the interpretation skills of vocal music teacher, the dominant position is very important, say simply, in the vocal music class, the teacher teaching idea and teaching methods and attitudes will directly affect the teaching effects. In the process of vocal music teaching is not a simple to solve the problem of sound, but a full range of exhibit an important process of teachers to students' practice ability, to achieve the expected effect of raising students' level of vocal music for the purpose, in the process of teaching teachers should have comprehensive all aspects of the thinking ability. This article mainly narrated in the process of teaching vocal music, vocal music teacher should have the ability of comprehensive thinking about the problem.%  声乐是一门技巧性跟实践性都非常强的艺术类学科,不论是从理论的讲解方面或是在技巧的传授方面,声乐老师的主导地位都是很重要的,简单的说,在声乐课堂上,老师的教学理念以及教学方法跟态度会直接影响到教学的效果。在声乐教学的过程中不是简单的去解决声音方面的问题,而是需要全方位的展现出教师驾驭学生实践综合能力方面的一个重要过程,要想达到提高学生声乐水平的预期效果的目的,在教学过程中就需要老师具有有综合全方面的思考能力。本文主要讲述了在声乐教学过程中,声乐老师应该具备怎么样的综合思考问题的能力。

  19. Discovery of a low frequency sound source in Mysticeti (baleen whales): anatomical establishment of a vocal fold homolog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidenberg, Joy S; Laitman, Jeffrey T

    2007-06-01

    The mechanism of mysticete (baleen whale) vocalization has remained a mystery. Vocal folds (true vocal "cords"), the structures responsible for sound production in terrestrial mammals, were thought to be absent in whales. This study tests the hypothesis that the mysticete larynx possesses structures homologous to vocal folds and that they are capable of sound generation. Laryngeal anatomy was examined in 37 specimens representing 6 mysticete species. Results indicate the presence of a U-shaped fold (U-fold) in the lumen of the larynx. The U-fold is supported by arytenoid cartilages, controlled by skeletal muscles innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve, is adjacent to a diverticulum (laryngeal sac) covered with mucosa innervated by the superior laryngeal nerve, and contains a ligament-conditions that also define the vocal folds of terrestrial mammals and, therefore, supports homology. Unlike the vocal folds of terrestrial mammals, which are perpendicular to airflow, the mysticete U-fold is oriented parallel to airflow. U-fold adduction/abduction and elevation/depression may control airflow, and vibration of its edges may generate sounds. The walls of the laryngeal sac can expand and contract, may serve as a resonant space, and may also propagate vibrations generated by movements of the supporting arytenoid cartilages. The extensive musculature surrounding the laryngeal sac may enable rapid and forceful expulsion of air from the lumen of the sac into other respiratory spaces, or maintain a constant sac volume despite the effects of ambient pressure (e.g., changes during diving or ascent). The size and complexity of the mysticete larynx indicates an organ with multiple functions, including protection during breathing/swallowing, regulation of airflow and pressures in the respiratory spaces, and sound generation. The presence of a vocal fold homolog offers a new insight into both the mechanism of sound generation by mysticetes and the divergent evolution of

  20. The sound of prototyping - Investigating the effect of speed of music on prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Erik Severinsen

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the effect from music on people have been ongoing for thousands of years, and with the technology and knowledge available today it is easier to investigate the underlying reasons for why music affecting us the way it does. Music is said to be a multidimensional art form utilizing the medium of sound, and because of this multidimensional nature studies of music are easily confounded. In this thesis, an experiment has been constructed to investigate the effect from speed of music...

  1. Sound and vision: visualization of music with a soap film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaulon, C.; Derec, C.; Combriat, T.; Marmottant, P.; Elias, F.

    2017-07-01

    A vertical soap film, freely suspended at the end of a tube, is vibrated by a sound wave that propagates in the tube. If the sound wave is a piece of music, the soap film ‘comes alive’: colours, due to iridescences in the soap film, swirl, split and merge in time with the music (see the snapshots in figure 1 below). In this article, we analyse the rich physics behind these fascinating dynamical patterns: it combines the acoustic propagation in a tube, the light interferences, and the static and dynamic properties of soap films. The interaction between the acoustic wave and the liquid membrane results in capillary waves on the soap film, as well as non-linear effects leading to a non-oscillatory flow of liquid in the plane of the film, which induces several spectacular effects: generation of vortices, diphasic dynamical patterns inside the film, and swelling of the soap film under certain conditions. Each of these effects is associated with a characteristic time scale, which interacts with the characteristic time of the music play. This article shows the richness of those characteristic times that lead to dynamical patterns. Through its artistic interest, the experiments presented in this article provide a tool for popularizing and demonstrating science in the classroom or to a broader audience.

  2. Application of Hum in Vocal Music Training%哼鸣在声乐训练中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡宏志

    2015-01-01

    练声方法在声乐训练中非常重要,但是方法的多样性给广大声乐学习者带来了困惑.如何走出困惑,重拾对声乐学习的兴趣,提高演唱水平,哼鸣练习不愧为捷径之一.本文旨在通过对哼鸣在声乐中的运用的探讨和研究,使大家更清晰的了解其中的原理,以帮助广大声乐爱好者更好的学习.%Training method is very important in vocal music training, but diversity to our vocal music learners brings con-fusion. How to get out of confusion, to regain the vocal music learning interest, improve the level of singing, humming prac-tice is worthy of one of the shortcut. This paper aims to hum with vocal in the discussion and the research, to enable us to understand more clearly the principle, to help the majority of music lovers to study better.

  3. New "Field" of Vocal Music Teaching and Research: Research on the Construction of a Novel Interaction Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Donglan

    2015-01-01

    This paper, as an attempt to find a solution to the problem of "Identity Crisis" brought about by the traditional spoon-feeding Education Mode, explores to construct a new mode of vocal music teaching characterized by an interaction on an equal and democratic footing between learners and the teacher in light of Habermas' Communicative…

  4. Sound Event Detection for Music Signals Using Gaussian Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo A. Alvarado-Durán

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a new methodology for detecting sound events in music signals using Gaussian Processes. Our method firstly takes a time-frequency representation, i.e. the spectrogram, of the input audio signal. Secondly the spectrogram dimension is reduced translating the linear Hertz frequency scale into the logarithmic Mel frequency scale using a triangular filter bank. Finally every short-time spectrum, i.e. every Mel spectrogram column, is classified as “Event” or “Not Event” by a Gaussian Processes Classifier. We compare our method with other event detection techniques widely used. To do so, we use MATLAB® to program each technique and test them using two datasets of music with different levels of complexity. Results show that the new methodology outperforms the standard approaches, getting an improvement by about 1.66 % on the dataset one and 0.45 % on the dataset two in terms of F-measure.

  5. Spectral analysis of musical sounds with emphasis on the piano

    CERN Document Server

    Koenig, David M

    2014-01-01

    There are three parts to this book which addresses the analysis of musical sounds from the viewpoint of someone at the intersection between physicists, engineers, piano technicians, and musicians. The reader is introduced to a variety of waves and a variety of ways of presenting, visualizing, and analyzing them in the first part. A tutorial on the tools used throughout the book accompanies this introduction. The mathematics behind the tools is left to the appendices. Part 2 is a graphical survey of the classical areas of acoustics that pertain to musical instruments: vibrating strings, bars, membranes, and plates. Part 3 is devoted almost exclusively to the piano. Several two- and three-dimensional graphical tools are introduced to study the following characteristics of pianos: individual notes and interactions among them, the missing fundamental, inharmonicity, tuning visualization, the different distribution of harmonic power for the various zones of the piano keyboard, and potential uses for quality contro...

  6. Sound Event Detection for Music Signals Using Gaussian Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo A. Alvarado-Durán; Mauricio A. Álvarez-López; Álvaro A. Orozco-Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a new methodology for detecting sound events in music signals using Gaussian Processes. Our method firstly takes a time-frequency representation, i.e. the spectrogram, of the input audio signal. Secondly the spectrogram dimension is reduced translating the linear Hertz frequency scale into the logarithmic Mel frequency scale using a triangular filter bank. Finally every short-time spectrum, i.e. every Mel spectrogram column, is classified as “Event” or “Not Event” by ...

  7. The influence of caregiver singing and background music on vocally expressed emotions and moods in dementia care: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götell, Eva; Brown, Steven; Ekman, Sirkka-Liisa

    2009-04-01

    Music and singing are considered to have a strong impact on human emotions. Such an effect has been demonstrated in caregiving contexts with dementia patients. The aim of the study was to illuminate vocally expressed emotions and moods in the communication between caregivers and persons with severe dementia during morning care sessions. Three types of caring sessions were compared: the "usual" way, with no music; with background music playing; and with the caregiver singing to and/or with the patient. Nine persons with severe dementia living in a nursing home in Sweden and five professional caregivers participated in this study. Qualitative content analysis was used to examine videotaped recordings of morning care sessions, with a focus on vocally expressed emotions and moods during verbal communication. Compared to no music, the presence of background music and caregiver singing improved the mutuality of the communication between caregiver and patient, creating a joint sense of vitality. Positive emotions were enhanced, and aggressiveness was diminished. Whereas background music increased the sense of playfulness, caregiver singing enhanced the sense of sincerity and intimacy in the interaction. Caregiver singing and background music can help the caregiver improve the patient's ability to express positive emotions and moods, and to elicit a sense of vitality on the part of the person with severe dementia. The results further support the value of caregiver singing as a method to improve the quality of dementia care.

  8. Introducing the Oxford Vocal (OxVoc Sounds Database: A validated set of non-acted affective sounds from human infants, adults and domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eParsons

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sound moves us. Nowhere is this more apparent than in our responses to genuine emotional vocalisations, be they heartfelt distress cries or raucous laughter. Here, we present perceptual ratings and a description of a freely available, large database of natural affective vocal sounds from human infants, adults and domestic animals, the Oxford Vocal (OxVoc Sounds database. This database consists of 173 non-verbal sounds expressing a range of happy, sad and neutral emotional states. Ratings are presented for the sounds on a range of dimensions from a number of independent participant samples. Perceptions related to valence, including distress, vocaliser mood, and listener mood are presented in Study 1. Perceptions of the arousal of the sound, listener motivation to respond and valence (positive, negative are presented in Study 2. Perceptions of the emotional content of the stimuli in both Study 1 and Study 2 were consistent with the predefined categories (e.g., laugh stimuli perceived as positive. While the adult vocalisations received more extreme valence ratings, rated motivation to respond to the sounds was highest for the infant sounds. The major advantages of this database are the inclusion of vocalisations from naturalistic situations, which represent genuine expressions of emotion, and the inclusion of vocalisations from animals and infants, providing comparison stimuli for use in cross-species and developmental studies. The associated website provides a detailed description of the physical properties of the each sound stimulus along with cross-category descriptions.

  9. "Sounds of Intent in the Early Years": A Proposed Framework of Young Children's Musical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyajolu, Angela; Ockelford, Adam

    2016-01-01

    "Sounds of Intent in the Early Years" explores the musical development of children from birth to five years of age. Observational evidence has been utilised together with key literature on musical development and core concepts of zygonic theory (Ockelford, 2013) to investigate the applicability of the original "Sounds of…

  10. 37 CFR 255.8 - Public performances of sound recordings and musical works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... recordings and musical works. 255.8 Section 255.8 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE... recordings and musical works. Nothing in this part annuls or limits the exclusive right to publicly perform a sound recording or the musical work embodied therein, including by means of a digital transmission...

  11. Accustics and music: a methodological approach to explore sounds emitted by sound pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Suzana Maria; PUCRS; Machado, Gisele Ramires; Licencianda da Faculdade de Física, PUCRS

    2015-01-01

    The present article describes a workshop with Physics students, in which the assembly of a mobile was proposed, by using sound pipes to pursue sound  characterization  and  an  approach  to  the  Physic s principles involved in acoustic phenomena. The comparison between the sounds emitted  by  the  mobile  and  musical  instruments  was  possible through aural  perception  exercises.  Besides,  measurements  were  carried  out using virtual and digital tuners; such results have been compared ...

  12. 浅论声乐钢琴伴奏的艺术魅力%On art charm of vocal music piano accompaniment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛慧

    2013-01-01

    A good vocal works, in addition to the melody and the lyrics, also need to sing to the piano accompaniment coordination, the common good vocal music is playing. As a piano accompaniment, not only to in-depth understanding of the composer's creation intention with the accompaniment of singing, to perfect combination together, accurate shaping a good image of music to the audience, in the process of practice and practice, should pay attention to in the process of vocal music accompaniment of art work with standard skills. The piano is called king of the musical instrument, can human voice or a musical accompaniment, so that the piano accompaniment to render and add music mood is an important role to some extent. It sounds beautiful, has its own unique characteristics, whether in music teaching in the course of daily, and in various performances, we can feel the existence of music. This paper mainly describes the characteristics and functions of vocal piano accompaniment.%  一首好的声乐作品,除了优美的旋律跟歌词之外,还需要演唱者跟钢琴伴奏两者之间的相互配合,共同将好的声乐作品演奏出来。作为钢琴伴奏,不仅要深入的去了解曲作家的创作意图跟其伴奏作用,跟歌唱者要完美的相互结合在一起,准确的向听众塑造一个美好的音乐形象,在练习跟实践的过程中,要注重在声乐伴奏的过程中的艺术合作跟规范技巧。钢琴被称之为乐器之王,能够替人的声音或是任何一种乐器伴奏,因此说钢琴伴奏在一定程度上承担了渲染以及补充音乐情绪的一个重要作用。它所发出的声音优美动听,有着自身的独一特色,不论是在日常的音乐教学过程中,还有在各种演出活动中,我们都能够感受到音乐的存在。本文主要讲述了声乐钢琴伴奏的特点及其作用。

  13. On the expression of emotion in vocal music teaching%试论声乐教学中情感的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓娟

    2012-01-01

      The emotion is the essence of the art of singing soul. A better voice without accurate expression and expression of emotion in vocal music teaching, improve students on vocal music emotion performance is in the vocal music teaching should focus. In this paper, how to cultivate students emotional expression in the vocal music teaching.%  情感是歌唱艺术的精髓灵魂。美好的声音离不开情感准确的抒发和表达,声乐教学中提高学生对声乐作品情感的表现力无疑是声乐教学中所要关注的重点。本文就声乐教学中如何培养学生的情感表达进行探讨。

  14. 声乐教学模式改革与重定位研讨%Discussion of vocal music teaching model reform and relocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任占忠

    2014-01-01

    This paper first analyzes the present situation of vocal music teaching, and then from strengthening vocal music training, basic training of local opera, dance training this three aspects discussed the vocal music teaching mode reform, finally focuses on vocal music teaching mode of relocation.%本文首先分析了声乐教学的现状,然后从强化声乐训练、进行戏曲基本功训练、进行舞蹈训练这三个方面讨论了声乐教学模式的改革,最后重点研究了声乐教学模式的重定位。

  15. 论声乐演唱中的声情并茂%On the Excellence of Voice and Sentiments in Vocal Music Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉欣

    2015-01-01

    如何通过声情并茂的演唱,让观众直接感受到声乐内与外融合在一起的和谐美,文章从四个方面来阐述:扎实的基本功、真实的感情、鲜明的风格、健康的歌唱心理。%This article discusses how to make the audience enjoy the beauty of harmony of vocal music perform-ance through singer's excellent performance of voice and sentiments from the 4 aspects of singer:the sound re-hearsal of voice, the true sentiments, the unique characteristics of singing and the healthy singing psychology.

  16. Vocal Music Therapy for Chronic Pain Management in Inner-City African Americans: A Mixed Methods Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, Joke; Norris, Marisol; Shim, Minjung; Gracely, Edward J; Gerrity, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    To date, research on music for pain management has focused primarily on listening to prerecorded music for acute pain. Research is needed on the impact of active music therapy interventions on chronic pain management. The aim of this mixed methods research study was to determine feasibility and estimates of effect of vocal music therapy for chronic pain management. Fifty-five inner-city adults, predominantly African Americans, with chronic pain were randomized to an 8-week vocal music therapy treatment group or waitlist control group. Consent and attrition rates, treatment compliance, and instrument appropriateness/burden were tracked. Physical functioning (pain interference and general activities), self-efficacy, emotional functioning, pain intensity, pain coping, and participant perception of change were measured at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Focus groups were conducted at the 12-week follow-up. The consent rate was 77%. The attrition rate was 27% at follow-up. We established acceptability of the intervention. Large effect sizes were obtained for self-efficacy at weeks 8 and 12; a moderate effect size was found for pain interference at week 8; no improvements were found for general activities and emotional functioning. Moderate effect sizes were obtained for pain intensity and small effect sizes for coping, albeit not statistically significant. Qualitative findings suggested that the treatment resulted in enhanced self-management, motivation, empowerment, a sense of belonging, and reduced isolation. This study suggests that vocal music therapy may be effective in building essential stepping-stones for effective chronic pain management, namely enhanced self-efficacy, motivation, empowerment, and social engagement. © the American Music Therapy Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The Core of Vocal Music Teaching and Learning%试论声乐教与学的核心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦伟

    2015-01-01

    Vocal music teaching is teaching the teachers and students to participate in financial technology and art together, in the process of teaching, teachers are teaching, plays the role of knowledge, students are receiving vocal music knowledge and skills, the main body to create the performance of music art. Therefore, the two in vocal music teaching are inseparable, only mutual support and cooperation, teaching to achieve the ideal effect.%声乐教学是师生共同参与的融技术性和艺术性于一体的教学,教学过程中,教师是教学的主导,起着传授知识的作用,学生是接受声乐知识技能,创造表现音乐艺术的主体。因此,声乐教学中二者密不可分,只有相互支持与合作,教学才能达到理想的效果。

  18. Social functioning and autonomic nervous system sensitivity across vocal and musical emotion in Williams syndrome and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Anna; Ng, Rowena; Crivelli, Davide; Neumann, Dirk; Arnold, Andrew J; Woo-VonHoogenstyn, Nicholas; Lai, Philip; Trauner, Doris; Bellugi, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Both Williams syndrome (WS) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with unusual auditory phenotypes with respect to processing vocal and musical stimuli, which may be shaped by the atypical social profiles that characterize the syndromes. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity to vocal and musical emotional stimuli was examined in 12 children with WS, 17 children with ASD, and 20 typically developing (TD) children, and related to their level of social functioning. The results of this small-scale study showed that after controlling for between-group differences in cognitive ability, all groups showed similar emotion identification performance across conditions. Additionally, in ASD, lower autonomic reactivity to human voice, and in TD, to musical emotion, was related to more normal social functioning. Compared to TD, both clinical groups showed increased arousal to vocalizations. A further result highlighted uniquely increased arousal to music in WS, contrasted with a decrease in arousal in ASD and TD. The ASD and WS groups exhibited arousal patterns suggestive of diminished habituation to the auditory stimuli. The results are discussed in the context of the clinical presentation of WS and ASD.

  19. Seafloor seismicity, Antarctic ice-sounds, cetacean vocalizations and long-term ambient sound in the Indian Ocean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, J.-Y.; Chateau, R.; Dziak, R. P.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the results from the Deflo-hydroacoustic experiment in the Southern Indian Ocean using three autonomous underwater hydrophones, complemented by two permanent hydroacoustic stations. The array monitored for 14 months, from November 2006 to December 2007, a 3000 × 3000 km wide area, encompassing large segments of the three Indian spreading ridges that meet at the Indian Triple Junction. A catalogue of 11 105 acoustic events is derived from the recorded data, of which 55 per cent are located from three hydrophones, 38 per cent from 4, 6 per cent from five and less than 1 per cent by six hydrophones. From a comparison with land-based seismic catalogues, the smallest detected earthquakes are mb 2.6 in size, the range of recorded magnitudes is about twice that of land-based networks and the number of detected events is 5-16 times larger. Seismicity patterns vary between the three spreading ridges, with activity mainly focused on transform faults along the fast spreading Southeast Indian Ridge and more evenly distributed along spreading segments and transforms on the slow spreading Central and ultra-slow spreading Southwest Indian ridges; the Central Indian Ridge is the most active of the three with an average of 1.9 events/100 km/month. Along the Sunda Trench, acoustic events mostly radiate from the inner wall of the trench and show a 200-km-long seismic gap between 2 °S and the Equator. The array also detected more than 3600 cryogenic events, with different seasonal trends observed for events from the Antarctic margin, compared to those from drifting icebergs at lower (up to 50°S) latitudes. Vocalizations of five species and subspecies of large baleen whales were also observed and exhibit clear seasonal variability. On the three autonomous hydrophones, whale vocalizations dominate sound levels in the 20-30 and 100 Hz frequency bands, whereas earthquakes and ice tremor are a dominant source of ambient sound at frequencies <20 Hz.

  20. An introduction to the poetics of sacred sound in twentieth-century music

    OpenAIRE

    Luigi Antonio Irlandini

    2013-01-01

    Along the twentieth century has occurred the beginning of a fusion between two very different horizons: Western musical composition and Hindu sonic theology. The essential content of this theology and the changes in Western musical language and aesthetics, society and culture which have allowed this fusion to take place are briefly outlined. Instrumental and vocal works by Karlheinz Stockhausen, Giacinto Scelsi, Michael Vetter and David Hykes provide specific examples and, in particular, rais...

  1. A study on the mutual relationship between Sa’di’s ghazals and Iranian vocal music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolfaghar Alami

    2016-06-01

    feature in which he moves from the parts to the whole and as a result, such a trend gives an artistic dynamism to the development of the thought in ghazal couplets. Position of phonemes: Language features also play an essential part in why men of music welcome the great Sheikh’s ghazals. In the course of speech, each sentence, word and syllable involves some degrees of high and low pitched voice. In poetry, phonemes in addition to the role they play in the musical beauty of the poem, sometimes in harmonious with other parts induce meaning. It is in such a situation where the poet, using words with certain letters, creates with those letters the image he wants to present. Impressiveness of ghazal rhythm: The beauty of a word is a result of the suitable choice and collection of that word in the poem. In sa’di’s ghazals the poet’s word possibilities and his awareness of words and their different forms are so vast that they make his poetry uniform and that the sequence of its parts can be guessed. Sa’di’s ghazals enjoy uniform and rhythmic tone and they regardless of the way the poet relates the event, in musical expression follow a particular order, too. Exchange of couplets and musical melodies: The main purpose of the present paper is investigating the mutual relationship between couplets of sa’di’s ghazals, Naqarat and melodies of musical tones. This type of ghazal due to its magic tone and its suitability for the radif of music is the most famous one and has become popular among people. The tone of the lover’s call, request, submissiveness and helplessness, yearning and pain of love, the lover’s unconditional compliance and the beloved’s undeniable dominion and … in sa’di’s ghazals has been shown in such a way that they are in complete agreement with elegances of Persian vocal “Gooshes” and can be conveyed in the best way to the listener. It is all these features that have made Sa’di’s ghazals preferable in connection with Persian

  2. Musical training enhances neural processing of binaural sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Strait, Dana L; Hittner, Emily; Kraus, Nina

    2013-10-16

    While hearing in noise is a complex task, even in high levels of noise humans demonstrate remarkable hearing ability. Binaural hearing, which involves the integration and analysis of incoming sounds from both ears, is an important mechanism that promotes hearing in complex listening environments. Analyzing inter-ear differences helps differentiate between sound sources--a key mechanism that facilitates hearing in noise. Even when both ears receive the same input, known as diotic hearing, speech intelligibility in noise is improved. Although musicians have better speech-in-noise perception compared with non-musicians, we do not know to what extent binaural processing contributes to this advantage. Musicians often demonstrate enhanced neural responses to sound, however, which may undergird their speech-in-noise perceptual enhancements. Here, we recorded auditory brainstem responses in young adult musicians and non-musicians to a speech stimulus for which there was no musician advantage when presented monaurally. When presented diotically, musicians demonstrated faster neural timing and greater intertrial response consistency relative to non-musicians. Furthermore, musicians' enhancements to the diotically presented stimulus correlated with speech-in-noise perception. These data provide evidence for musical training's impact on biological processes and suggest binaural processing as a possible contributor to more proficient hearing in noise.

  3. [Spectral analysis of sounds produced by musical instruments and other sounding bodies for hearing screening of children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptok, M; Sesterhenn, G; Ptok, A; Arold, R

    1993-01-01

    Some time ago audiological screening in infants was mostly performed using musical instruments or equivalents. The use of acoustic evoked potentials and oto-acoustic emissions changed the strategies of hearing assessment in newborns and infants, however, musical instruments are still in use. An adequate interpretation of screening results obtained with musical instruments necessitates a profound knowledge of frequencies and intensities derived from these instruments. In this study spectral analyses of sounds from these instruments were performed. The results may be of value for those using musical instruments as a tool for audiological screening. In addition, the results show that with some instruments intensities able to cause inner ear damage can be generated.

  4. The electronic cry: Voice and gender in electroacoustic music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, H.M.

    2013-01-01

    The voice provides an entrance to discuss gender and related fundamental issues in electroacoustic music that are relevant as well in other musical genres and outside of music per se: the role of the female voice; the use of language versus non-verbal vocal sounds; the relation of voice, embodiment

  5. Sound production in Pituophis melanoleucus (Serpentes: Colubridae) with the first description of a vocal cord in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, B A; Sheft, S; Yost, W

    1995-12-15

    The pine, gopher, or bull snake (Pituophis melanoleucus) makes two different defensive sounds. Hisses are characterized by lack of frequency and amplitude modulation; bellows have a brief initial period of high-amplitude, broad-frequency sound followed by a longer period of lower-amplitude, constant-frequency sound. Both defensive sounds contain distinct harmonic elements. The modulation and harmonic nature of these sounds seems to be unique among snakes. The larynx of Pituophis is unusual in having an epiglottal keel, a dorsal expansion of the cricoid cartilage, previously proposed to contribute to sound production; however, this study shows that it plays only a small role in increasing the amplitude of bellows. Within the larynx of Pituophis is a "vocal cord," the laryngeal septum, which is a flexible, horizontal shelf of tissue that divides the anterior portion of the larynx. Removal of the laryngeal septum alters the defensive sounds and eliminates their harmonic elements. The laryngeal septum is unique among previously described vertebrate vocal cords or folds because it is supported by the cricoid (as opposed to arytenoid) cartilage and is a single (as opposed to bilaterally paired) structure.

  6. JIANG Ying' s Concept of Vocal Music and Methodology of Vocal Music Teaching%蒋英的声乐观及声乐教学方法论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪长明

    2012-01-01

    Jiang Ying regards that vocal music is "an art of emotions" that life -oriented, humanism, emotional factors and humanistic connotation are the core dimensions of it. Based on the above factors, Jiang Ying stresses both the practitioners' music talent and their personalities. So, in her vocal music teaching, Jiang Ying focuses both on the systematic optimization of the trainee' s vocal skills and, more importantly, on the fully development of their personalities to achieve the artistic objective that the song is the style of the singer%蒋英认为,声乐艺术以生活为创作指向,以人民为服务受众,以情感表达为支撑,以人文内涵为张力,是一种“情感的艺术”。生活导向、人本主义、情感因素和人文内涵是蒋英声乐观的核心维度。以此为依据,蒋英的声乐教学方法论既注重音乐禀赋的认定,又注重人格品质的培养;既强调声乐技巧的系统优化,又强调艺术素养的全面养成,最终达到“歌如其人”的艺术目标。

  7. Extended Nonnegative Tensor Factorisation Models for Musical Sound Source Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derry FitzGerald

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, shift-invariant tensor factorisation algorithms have been proposed for the purposes of sound source separation of pitched musical instruments. However, in practice, existing algorithms require the use of log-frequency spectrograms to allow shift invariance in frequency which causes problems when attempting to resynthesise the separated sources. Further, it is difficult to impose harmonicity constraints on the recovered basis functions. This paper proposes a new additive synthesis-based approach which allows the use of linear-frequency spectrograms as well as imposing strict harmonic constraints, resulting in an improved model. Further, these additional constraints allow the addition of a source filter model to the factorisation framework, and an extended model which is capable of separating mixtures of pitched and percussive instruments simultaneously.

  8. On Music Identification in the Process of Vocal Music Learning%声乐学习过程中的读谱问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志贤

    2012-01-01

    声乐学习过程中的读谱问题,对于拓展声乐学习的广度和深度,提高艺术表现力有着重要的意义。通过科学的读谱才能掌握音乐的表达规律,才能在尊重原作的基础上做细腻的艺术处理,并进行良好的二度创作,从而达到不同的艺术效果,揭示歌曲的丰富内涵。%Music identification in the process of vocal music learning is of great significance for expanding the depth and width of vocal music learning and for improving the artistic expressiveness. It is through scientific music identification can one grasp the rule of music expression and carry out one' s artistic creation for a second time by virtue of subtle exercise based on a strict adherence to the original piece so as to attain various artistic effects and to highlight the abundant connotation of songs involved.

  9. Effects of musical training on sound pattern processing in high-school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjung; Staffaroni, Laura; Reid, Errold; Steinschneider, Mitchell; Sussman, Elyse

    2009-05-01

    Recognizing melody in music involves detection of both the pitch intervals and the silence between sequentially presented sounds. This study tested the hypothesis that active musical training in adolescents facilitates the ability to passively detect sequential sound patterns compared to musically non-trained age-matched peers. Twenty adolescents, aged 15-18 years, were divided into groups according to their musical training and current experience. A fixed order tone pattern was presented at various stimulus rates while electroencephalogram was recorded. The influence of musical training on passive auditory processing of the sound patterns was assessed using components of event-related brain potentials (ERPs). The mismatch negativity (MMN) ERP component was elicited in different stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) conditions in non-musicians than musicians, indicating that musically active adolescents were able to detect sound patterns across longer time intervals than age-matched peers. Musical training facilitates detection of auditory patterns, allowing the ability to automatically recognize sequential sound patterns over longer time periods than non-musical counterparts.

  10. Drum Sound Detection in Polyphonic Music with Hidden Markov Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouni Paulus

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for transcribing drums from polyphonic music using a network of connected hidden Markov models (HMMs. The task is to detect the temporal locations of unpitched percussive sounds (such as bass drum or hi-hat and recognise the instruments played. Contrary to many earlier methods, a separate sound event segmentation is not done, but connected HMMs are used to perform the segmentation and recognition jointly. Two ways of using HMMs are studied: modelling combinations of the target drums and a detector-like modelling of each target drum. Acoustic feature parametrisation is done with mel-frequency cepstral coefficients and their first-order temporal derivatives. The effect of lowering the feature dimensionality with principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis is evaluated. Unsupervised acoustic model parameter adaptation with maximum likelihood linear regression is evaluated for compensating the differences between the training and target signals. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on a publicly available data set containing signals with and without accompaniment, and compared with two reference methods. The results suggest that the transcription is possible using connected HMMs, and that using detector-like models for each target drum provides a better performance than modelling drum combinations.

  11. Sound or Expression: Dilemmas in the Phenomenological Aesthetics of 20th Century Music (Sound or Expression: Dilemmas in the Phenomenological Aesthetics of 20th Century Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Stratilková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenomenology, as a philosophy of the twentieth century, is often confronted with music of the same period, which in contrast with the classical-romantic repertoire recedes from previously codified means for the organisation of musical structure (namely tonality and holds up the actual matter of the musicsound – for admiration. So musical experience dwells more at the sound and its direct appearance rather than rushing to the musical meanings intended through sensuous moments. From this aspect music in the first decades of the twentieth century complemented the other arts undergoing a similar development. Romantic art was replaced by artistic creativity relying on the objectivity of the musical material and not on the emotional quality. The paper considers circumstances under which some of the phenomenological approaches adopt a positive approach to the music of the twentieth century (those which stress the immediacy of the perceptive presence and some of which tend to reject it (those which apply the requirement of expressive intentionality.

  12. The effect of vocal and instrumental music on cardio respiratory variables, energy expenditure and exertion levels during sub maximal treadmill exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitha, D; Sejil, T V; Rao, Shwetha; Roshan, C J; Roshan, C J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of vocal and instrumental music on various physiological parameters during submaximal exercise. Each subject underwent three sessions of exercise protocol without music, with vocal music, and instrumental versions of same piece of music. The protocol consisted of 10 min treadmill exercise at 70% HR(max) and 20 min of recovery. Minute to minute heart rate and breath by breath recording of respiratory parameters, rate of energy expenditure and perceived exertion levels were measured. Music, irrespective of the presence or absence of lyrics, enabled the subjects to exercise at a significantly lower heart rate and oxygen consumption, reduced the metabolic cost and perceived exertion levels of exercise (P Music having a relaxant effect could have probably increased the parasympathetic activation leading to these effects.

  13. Melodic multi-feature paradigm reveals auditory profiles in music-sound encoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tervaniemi, Mari; Huotilainen, Minna; Brattico, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    Musical expertise modulates preattentive neural sound discrimination. However, this evidence up to great extent originates from paradigms using very simple stimulation. Here we use a novel melody paradigm (revealing the auditory profile for six sound parameters in parallel) to compare memory...... with non-musicians. This is taken to reflect their familiarity with pitch information which is in key position in Finnish folk music when compared with e.g., rhythmic information. The MMN was followed by P3a after timbre changes, rhythm changes, and melody transposition. The MMN and P3a topographies...... differentiated the groups for all sound changes. Thus, the melody paradigm offers a fast and cost-effective means for determining the auditory profile for music-sound encoding and also, importantly, for probing the effects of musical expertise on it....

  14. Exploring the effect of sound and music on health in hospital settings: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyendo, Timothy Onosahwo

    2016-11-01

    Sound in hospital space has traditionally been considered in negative terms as both intrusive and unwanted, and based mainly on sound levels. However, sound level is only one aspect of the soundscape. There is strong evidence that exploring the positive aspect of sound in a hospital context can evoke positive feelings in both patients and nurses. Music psychology studies have also shown that music intervention in health care can have a positive effect on patient's emotions and recuperating processes. In this way, hospital spaces have the potential to reduce anxiety and stress, and make patients feel comfortable and secure. This paper describes a review of the literature exploring sound perception and its effect on health care. This review sorted the literature and main issues into themes concerning sound in health care spaces; sound, stress and health; positive soundscape; psychological perspective of music and emotion; music as a complementary medicine for improving health care; contradicting arguments concerning the use of music in health care; and implications for clinical practice. Using Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest Central, MEDLINE, and Google, a literature search on sound levels, sound sources and the impression of a soundscape was conducted. The review focused on the role and use of music on health care in clinical environments. In addition, other pertinent related materials in shaping the understanding of the field were retrieved, scanned and added into this review. The result indicated that not all noises give a negative impression within healthcare soundscapes. Listening to soothing music was shown to reduce stress, blood pressure and post-operative trauma when compared to silence. Much of the sound conveys meaningful information that is positive for both patients and nurses, in terms of soft wind, bird twitter, and ocean sounds. Music perception was demonstrated to bring about positive change in patient-reported outcomes such as eliciting

  15. 声乐演唱的艺术处理%The Art Processing of Vocal Music Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亓文鹏

    2012-01-01

    声乐的美感与艺术魅力,取决于演唱者的情感表现。想要成功地演唱一首声乐作品,必须对其进行细致深入的艺术处理,理解作品内涵,分析作品音乐,把握作品意境,将情感通过声音演绎出来,才能真正地引起听众的共鸣。%Any art is through the different means to achieve the purpose of moving,the aesthetic feeling of vocal music effect and artistic charm,and also depends on the singer’s emotional performance.In order to be successful in singing a vocal music,we must carry on the detailed and profound artistic process,understand the works,analyze the music,and grasp the artistic conception.Moreover,we must be emotional,and it is with musical act that we can really cause the resonance of the audience.

  16. Affective priming effects of musical sounds on the processing of word meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeis, Nikolaus; Koelsch, Stefan

    2011-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that music is capable of conveying semantically meaningful concepts. Several questions have subsequently arisen particularly with regard to the precise mechanisms underlying the communication of musical meaning as well as the role of specific musical features. The present article reports three studies investigating the role of affect expressed by various musical features in priming subsequent word processing at the semantic level. By means of an affective priming paradigm, it was shown that both musically trained and untrained participants evaluated emotional words congruous to the affect expressed by a preceding chord faster than words incongruous to the preceding chord. This behavioral effect was accompanied by an N400, an ERP typically linked with semantic processing, which was specifically modulated by the (mis)match between the prime and the target. This finding was shown for the musical parameter of consonance/dissonance (Experiment 1) and then extended to mode (major/minor) (Experiment 2) and timbre (Experiment 3). Seeing that the N400 is taken to reflect the processing of meaning, the present findings suggest that the emotional expression of single musical features is understood by listeners as such and is probably processed on a level akin to other affective communications (i.e., prosody or vocalizations) because it interferes with subsequent semantic processing. There were no group differences, suggesting that musical expertise does not have an influence on the processing of emotional expression in music and its semantic connotations.

  17. Evolution of Courtship Songs in Xenopus : Vocal Pattern Generation and Sound Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, Elizabeth C; Kelley, Darcy B

    2015-01-01

    The extant species of African clawed frogs (Xenopus and Silurana) provide an opportunity to link the evolution of vocal characters to changes in the responsible cellular and molecular mechanisms. In this review, we integrate several robust lines of research: evolutionary trajectories of Xenopus vocalizations, cellular and circuit-level mechanisms of vocalization in selected Xenopus model species, and Xenopus evolutionary history and speciation mechanisms. Integrating recent findings allows us to generate and test specific hypotheses about the evolution of Xenopus vocal circuits. We propose that reduced vocal sex differences in some Xenopus species result from species-specific losses of sexually differentiated neural and neuromuscular features. Modification of sex-hormone-regulated developmental mechanisms is a strong candidate mechanism for reduced vocal sex differences.

  18. The current situation and reform of vocal music education in normal university%高师声乐教育现状与改革探微

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖英群

    2013-01-01

    The vocal music education plays a very important role in the training of music teachers in primary and middle schools. But there still exists a variety of problems in vocal music education, so that the students in high colleges and universities can’t qualify music education for primary and secondary school or give up music education in primary and secondary school and to walk to occupation actor. In the new social conditions, how to reform the problems in high vocal music education, train outstanding music teachers has comprehensive quality in primary and middle schools, is the problem we must solve. This article from the present situation of vocal music education, to analyze the high vocal music educational reform strategy briefly.%  高师声乐教育在培养中小学音乐教师方面发挥着十分重要的作用。但高师的声乐教育还存在有种种问题,以至于高师院校培养出来的学生无法胜任中小学音乐教育的课堂或是放弃从事中小学音乐教育的道路而改向走职业演员的道路。在新的社会条件下,如何改革高师声乐教育存在的种种问题,培养出优秀的、具有综合素质的中小学音乐教师,是我们必须要解决的问题。本文从高师声乐教育的现状入手,简要分析了高师声乐教育改革的策略。

  19. 基于协同理论下的声乐演唱教学分析%Vocal music teaching based on the collaborative theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    支慧

    2015-01-01

    基于协同理论下实施声乐演唱教学,可以将声乐演唱分成两个系统,其中分别实施生理系统及心理系统,在协同理论下可以实现这两者的协同应用,从而取得声乐演唱的最佳效果,本文通过对协同理论下的声乐演唱教学进行分析,抄书协同理论和声乐演唱教学的关系.%Vocal music teaching based on the collaborative theory, the vocal music can be classified into two systems, of which, respectively, the implementation of physical system and psychological system, under the coordination theory can achieve the coordination of the two applications, so as to achieve the best effect of vocal music singing, based on the collaborative theory of vocal music teaching is analyzed, copy books coordination theory and the relationship between the vocal music teaching.

  20. On the vocal music study of the elderly%中老年人声乐学习探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵楠

    2015-01-01

    As China stepping into the aging society,older people’ s cultural life is richer and richer and vocal music is a main form of their activity.The elderly can improve their music accomplishment,enrich their enrich the spiritual and cultural needs and raisetheir quality of life by correct vocal learning,participating in or listen to the vocal activities and enjoying classical works.%随着我国步入老龄化社会,中老年人的文化生活日益丰富。声乐艺术是中老年文化活动的主要形式之一,中老年人可以通过正确的声乐学习、多参加或是聆听声乐演唱活动、欣赏声乐经典作品来提高声乐素养,丰富精神文化需求,提升晚年生活质量。

  1. "There is Music in Every Sound": Thoreau's Modernist Understanding of Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bock, Jannika

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available What is music to Thoreau? This question is at the core of the paper at hand. Music in Thoreau's understanding appears to differ immensely from the conventional definition of music during the nineteenth century. This paper will outline Thoreau's concept of music, his idea of its effects on the listener, and the functions music can potentially fulfill.

  2. On the emotional expression in vocal music singing%试论声乐演唱中的情感表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾鼐

    2013-01-01

    Emotional expression plays a very important role in vocal music performance, it is the core and soul of vocal music. Emotional expression should also have the corresponding requirements of authenticity and conformity etc. in vocal music performance. Through profound understanding of the connotation, creation background, the musical style in vocal music, to deepen their understanding of music cognition, and better serve the work emotion understanding and grasp. Of course, at the same time, we should also pay attention to the training of the self-playing skills.%情感表达在声乐演奏中扮演者十分重要的角色,它是声乐演奏中的核心和灵魂。情感表达在声乐演奏中也要有与之相应的真实性和符合性等等要求。通过深刻地了解声乐作品的内涵,创造背景,音调风格等来加深对音乐作品的认知,进而更好地服务于作品情感的理解和把握。当然,与此同时我们也应当注重对自我演奏技能进行训练。

  3. Clustering Algorithm for Unsupervised Monaural Musical Sound Separation Based on Non-negative Matrix Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Ha; Lee, Seokjin; Sung, Koeng-Mo

    Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) is widely used for monaural musical sound source separation because of its efficiency and good performance. However, an additional clustering process is required because the musical sound mixture is separated into more signals than the number of musical tracks during NMF separation. In the conventional method, manual clustering or training-based clustering is performed with an additional learning process. Recently, a clustering algorithm based on the mel-frequency cepstrum coefficient (MFCC) was proposed for unsupervised clustering. However, MFCC clustering supplies limited information for clustering. In this paper, we propose various timbre features for unsupervised clustering and a clustering algorithm with these features. Simulation experiments are carried out using various musical sound mixtures. The results indicate that the proposed method improves clustering performance, as compared to conventional MFCC-based clustering.

  4. New sounds, new stories : narrativity in contemporary music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meelberg, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    In this dissertation, I study the relation between narrativity and contemporary composed music. The purpose of this study is twofold. Firstly, in so doing, I am able to articulate what musical narrativity is in a precise manner. Since many contemporary musical works question or problematize the noti

  5. The Sounds of Silk and Bamboo: Chinese Music, Teacher's Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Joe

    This booklet provides a two day lesson plan that may be used by teachers in conjunction with a videotape program to familiarize their students with Chinese music, musical instruments, and playing techniques. Appended are descriptions and photographs of popular Chinese instruments, a guide to Chinese music resources in the San Francisco Bay area,…

  6. New sounds, new stories : narrativity in contemporary music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meelberg, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    In this dissertation, I study the relation between narrativity and contemporary composed music. The purpose of this study is twofold. Firstly, in so doing, I am able to articulate what musical narrativity is in a precise manner. Since many contemporary musical works question or problematize the

  7. Effect of Changing the Vocal Tract Shape on the Sound Production of the Recorder: An Experimental and Theoretical Study

    CERN Document Server

    Auvray, R; Terrien, S; Fabre, B; Vergez, C

    2016-01-01

    Changing the vocal tract shape is one of the techniques which can be used by the players of wind instruments to modify the quality of the sound. It has been intensely studied in the case of reed instruments but has received only little attention in the case of air-jet instruments. This paper presents a first study focused on changes in the vocal tract shape in recorder playing techniques. Measurements carried out with recorder players allow to identify techniques involving changes of the mouth shape as well as consequences on the sound. A second experiment performed in laboratory mimics the coupling with the vocal tract on an artificial mouth. The phase of the transfer function between the instrument and the mouth of the player is identified to be the relevant parameter of the coupling. It is shown to have consequences on the spectral content in terms of energy distribution among the even and odd harmonics, as well as on the stability of the first two oscillating regimes. The results gathered from the two exp...

  8. Study on Thinking Patterns of Vocal Music Teachers%声乐教师思维方式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新惠

    2011-01-01

    There is uncertainty in vocal music teaching because the students have different body and voice conditions as well as different music feelings and learning abilities. Vocal music teachers should think how to teach efficiently and improve their teaching skills. It is the project~ main questions to improve positive thinking awareness and optimize thinking patterns.%声乐教学因为教学对象身体条件、嗓音条件的不同以及音乐感觉、接受能力等方面的差异,存在着太多的不确定性。声乐教师如何更有效地进行教学,如何更好地提高自己的教学技巧是一个非常值得思考的问题。通过调整不同思维方式提高积极思维意识和优化思维方式是本课题探讨的主要问题。

  9. Exposure to excessive sounds and hearing status in academic classical music students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlaczyk-Łuszczyńska, Małgorzata; Zamojska-Daniszewska, Małgorzata; Dudarewicz, Adam; Zaborowski, Kamil

    2017-02-21

    The aim of this study was to assess hearing of music students in relation to their exposure to excessive sounds. Standard pure-tone audiometry (PTA) was performed in 168 music students, aged 22.5±2.5 years. The control group included 67 subjects, non-music students and non-musicians, aged 22.8±3.3 years. Data on the study subjects' musical experience, instruments in use, time of weekly practice and additional risk factors for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) were identified by means of a questionnaire survey. Sound pressure levels produced by various groups of instruments during solo and group playing were also measured and analyzed. The music students' audiometric hearing threshold levels (HTLs) were compared with the theoretical predictions calculated according to the International Organization for Standardization standard ISO 1999:2013. It was estimated that the music students were exposed for 27.1±14.3 h/week to sounds at the A-weighted equivalent-continuous sound pressure level of 89.9±6.0 dB. There were no significant differences in HTLs between the music students and the control group in the frequency range of 4000-8000 Hz. Furthermore, in each group HTLs in the frequency range 1000-8000 Hz did not exceed 20 dB HL in 83% of the examined ears. Nevertheless, high frequency notched audiograms typical of the noise-induced hearing loss were found in 13.4% and 9% of the musicians and non-musicians, respectively. The odds ratio (OR) of notching in the music students increased significantly along with higher sound pressure levels (OR = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.014-1.13, p music students. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(1):55-75.

  10. The Aesthetic Characteristics of Multi-tone Folk Vocal Music%多声部民间声乐的审美特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李平

    2011-01-01

    China is a multi-national country.The nation's unique folk song form is rich and colorful.It is very important to study multi-tone folk vocal music.By exploring more voice of folk vocal music this article summarizes the aesthetic characteristics of more voice of folk vocal music.%中国是一个多民族的国家,各民族所特有的民歌形式丰富多彩,多声部民间声乐的研究有着十分重要的意义.本文通过对多声部民间声乐的探究,总结了多声部民间声乐的审美特征.

  11. Something in the way she sings: enhanced memory for vocal melodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Michael W; Trehub, Sandra E; Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2012-10-01

    Across species, there is considerable evidence of preferential processing for biologically significant signals such as conspecific vocalizations and the calls of individual conspecifics. Surprisingly, music cognition in human listeners is typically studied with stimuli that are relatively low in biological significance, such as instrumental sounds. The present study explored the possibility that melodies might be remembered better when presented vocally rather than instrumentally. Adults listened to unfamiliar folk melodies, with some presented in familiar timbres (voice and piano) and others in less familiar timbres (banjo and marimba). They were subsequently tested on recognition of previously heard melodies intermixed with novel melodies. Melodies presented vocally were remembered better than those presented instrumentally even though they were liked less. Factors underlying the advantage for vocal melodies remain to be determined. In line with its biological significance, vocal music may evoke increased vigilance or arousal, which in turn may result in greater depth of processing and enhanced memory for musical details.

  12. Music algorithm for imaging of a sound-hard arc in limited-view inverse scattering problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won-Kwang

    2017-07-01

    MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm for a non-iterative imaging of sound-hard arc in limited-view inverse scattering problem is considered. In order to discover mathematical structure of MUSIC, we derive a relationship between MUSIC and an infinite series of Bessel functions of integer order. This structure enables us to examine some properties of MUSIC in limited-view problem. Numerical simulations are performed to support the identified structure of MUSIC.

  13. Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Muddled about what makes music? Stuck on the study of harmonics? Dumbfounded by how sound gets around? Now you no longer have to struggle to teach concepts you really don t grasp yourself. Sound takes an intentionally light touch to help out all those adults science teachers, parents wanting to help with homework, home-schoolers seeking necessary scientific background to teach middle school physics with confidence. The book introduces sound waves and uses that model to explain sound-related occurrences. Starting with the basics of what causes sound and how it travels, you'll learn how musical instruments work, how sound waves add and subtract, how the human ear works, and even why you can sound like a Munchkin when you inhale helium. Sound is the fourth book in the award-winning Stop Faking It! Series, published by NSTA Press. Like the other popular volumes, it is written by irreverent educator Bill Robertson, who offers this Sound recommendation: One of the coolest activities is whacking a spinning metal rod...

  14. Auditory Profiles of Classical, Jazz, and Rock Musicians: Genre-Specific Sensitivity to Musical Sound Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervaniemi, Mari; Janhunen, Lauri; Kruck, Stefanie; Putkinen, Vesa; Huotilainen, Minna

    2015-01-01

    When compared with individuals without explicit training in music, adult musicians have facilitated neural functions in several modalities. They also display structural changes in various brain areas, these changes corresponding to the intensity and duration of their musical training. Previous studies have focused on investigating musicians with training in Western classical music. However, musicians involved in different musical genres may display highly differentiated auditory profiles according to the demands set by their genre, i.e., varying importance of different musical sound features. This hypothesis was tested in a novel melody paradigm including deviants in tuning, timbre, rhythm, melody transpositions, and melody contour. Using this paradigm while the participants were watching a silent video and instructed to ignore the sounds, we compared classical, jazz, and rock musicians' and non-musicians' accuracy of neural encoding of the melody. In all groups of participants, all deviants elicited an MMN response, which is a cortical index of deviance discrimination. The strength of the MMN and the subsequent attentional P3a responses reflected the importance of various sound features in each music genre: these automatic brain responses were selectively enhanced to deviants in tuning (classical musicians), timing (classical and jazz musicians), transposition (jazz musicians), and melody contour (jazz and rock musicians). Taken together, these results indicate that musicians with different training history have highly specialized cortical reactivity to sounds which violate the neural template for melody content.

  15. Auditory profiles of classical, jazz, and rock musicians: Genre-specific sensitivity to musical sound features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari eTervaniemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When compared with individuals without explicit training in music, adult musicians have facilitated neural functions in several modalities. They also display structural changes in various brain areas, these changes corresponding to the intensity and duration of their musical training. Previous studies have focused on investigating musicians with training in Western classical music. However, musicians involved in different musical genres may display highly differentiated auditory profiles according to the demands set by their genre, i.e. varying importance of different musical sound features. This hypothesis was tested in a novel melody paradigm including deviants in tuning, timbre, rhythm, melody transpositions, and melody contour. Using this paradigm while the participants were watching a silent video and instructed to ignore the sounds, we compared classical, jazz, and rock musicians’ and non-musicians’ accuracy of neural encoding of the melody. In all groups of participants, all deviants elicited an MMN response, which is a cortical index of deviance discrimination. The strength of the MMN and the subsequent attentional P3a responses reflected the importance of various sound features in each music genre: these automatic brain responses were selectively enhanced to deviants in tuning (classical musicians, timing (classical and jazz musicians, transposition (jazz musicians, and melody contour (jazz and rock musicians. Taken together, these results indicate that musicians with different training history have highly specialized cortical reactivity to sounds which violate the neural template for melody content.

  16. 高中音乐教学中如何指导学生声乐学习%How to Guide Students to Learn Vocal Music in High School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳

    2014-01-01

    高中音乐教学中声乐教学是其不可缺少的重要部分。声乐教学有着丰富的社会内容,现代声乐艺术的范围也是很广泛的,包括语言、旋律、声腔、动作等。因此,在高中音乐教学中我们要重视声乐教学。%The teaching of vocal music occupies the important position in the music education of high school. Vocal music teaching has a rich social content, the scope of modern vocal music also is very broad, including language, melody, spoke, movements and so on. Therefore, we should attach importance to vocal music teaching in high school music teaching.

  17. Disturbance effect of music on processing of verbal and spatial memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Makoto; Ito, Takako

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the disturbance effect of music on performances of memory tasks. Subjects performed a verbal memory task and a spatial memory task in 4 sound conditions, including the presence of vocal music, instrumental music, a natural sound (murmurings of a stream), and no music. 47 undergraduate volunteers were randomly assigned to perform tasks under each condition. Perceived disturbance was highest under the vocal music condition regardless of the type of task. A disturbance in performance by music was observed only with the verbal memory task under the vocal and the instrumental music conditions. These findings were discussed from the perspectives of the working memory hypothesis and the changing state model.

  18. 白俄罗斯声乐研究在中国%Belarus vocal music study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖越歌

    2014-01-01

    2013年中国与白俄罗斯两国首脑共同将两国关系提升至全面战略伙伴关系,开启了中白关系新纪元。两国间的文化交流更加稳固,白俄罗斯深厚的专业音乐教育为中国培养了一批优秀的歌唱家与声乐教育师资。我国对于白俄罗斯的声乐教育研究主要基于这些学成归国的博士、硕士学位获得者,他们在留学期间得益于语言、资料的优势,研究视角关注了身边的人和事,这对于推动中白音乐文化交流起到了重要的作用。%In 2013 China and belarus to relations between the two countries up to the heads of the two countries comprehensive strategic partnership, opens the white relations in new era. Cultural exchanges between the two countries, belarus profound professional music education for China to cultivate a batch of excellent singers and vocal music education of teachers. For belarus's vocal music education research in China is mainly based on these, Dr., master's degree gainer learn homecoming, they benefit from the advantages of language, and information during the study, the research perspectives focus on the people and things around, this to promote the white music played an important role in cultural communication.

  19. An Approach to Emotional Experience in Vocal Music Singing%浅谈声乐演唱中的情感体验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿如娜

    2012-01-01

    Emotional experience is inseparable from the musical interpretation. In vocal music works. " " broken dream as an example, to analyze the song creation background, musical structure, and with lyrics legend, interpretation, performance, grasp the connotation of musical works, obtain the importance of vocal emotion experience.%情感体验离不开对音乐作品的阐释。以声乐作品《断桥遗梦》为例,分析歌曲创作背景、曲式结构,并借助歌词联想等方式,阐释、把握、表现音乐作品内涵,来谈获得声乐演唱感情体验的重要性。

  20. Melodic multi-feature paradigm reveals auditory profiles in music-sound encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari eTervaniemi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Musical expertise modulates preattentive neural sound discrimination. However, this evidence up to great extent originates from paradigms using very simple stimulation. Here we use a novel melody paradigm (revealing the auditory profile for six sound parameters in parallel to compare memory-related MMN and attention-related P3a responses recorded from non-musicians and Finnish Folk musicians. MMN emerged in both groups of participants for all sound changes (except for rhythmic changes in non-musicians. In Folk musicians, the MMN was enlarged for mistuned sounds when compared with non-musicians. This is taken to reflect their familiarity with pitch information which is in key position in Finnish folk music when compared with e.g., rhythmic information. The MMN was followed by P3a after timbre changes, rhythm changes, and melody transposition. The MMN and P3a topographies differentiated the groups for all sound changes. Thus, the melody paradigm offers a fast and cost-effective means for determining the auditory profile for music-sound encoding and also, importantly, for probing the effects of musical expertise on it.

  1. Planning Curricular Proposals on Sound and Music with Prospective Secondary-School Teachers

    CERN Document Server

    Bisesi, Erica

    2008-01-01

    Sound is a preferred context to build foundations on wave phenomena, one of the most important disciplinary referents in physics. It is also one of the best-set frameworks to achieve transversality, overcoming scholastic level and activating emotional aspects which are naturally connected with every day life, as well as with music and perception. Looking at sound and music by a transversal perspective - a border-line approach between science and art, is the adopted statement for a teaching proposal using meta-cognition as a strategy in scientific education. This work analyzes curricular proposals on musical acoustics, planned by prospective secondary-school teachers in the framework of a Formative Intervention Module answering the expectation of making more effective teaching scientific subjects by improving creative capabilities, as well as leading to build logical and scientific categorizations able to consciously discipline artistic activity in music students. With this aim, a particular emphasis is given ...

  2. States and Sound: Modelling User Interactions with Musical Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Veirum; Knoche, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    Musical instruments and musical user interfaces provide rich input and feedback through mostly tangible interactions, resulting in complex behavior. However, publications of novel interfaces often lack the required detail due to the complex- ity or the focus on a specific part of the interfaces...

  3. Tracing musical tastes in Tehran: How urbanism selects its sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shaker Ardekani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Different research and theoretical approaches have been adopted in the study of music but not many have focused on the links between music and urbanism. Relying on the sociology of cultural consumption, this paper identifies different forms of urban living in Tehran by looking at the dominant Persian musical genres in urban spaces. The article categorises relationships amongst music, urban space and urbanism by employing a sociological conceptualisation at a micro level, anthropological investigations and spatial data. Generally, each major musical genre (i.e. traditional, modern/popular and fusion mostly manifests itself in a specific urban space (i.e. teahouses, streets and coffee shops within which a distinct form of urbanism (i.e. tea urbanism, everyday urbanism and coffee urbanism is being practiced.

  4. 浅析声乐演唱中的心理要素%Psychological Elements in Vocal Music Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金文

    2011-01-01

    Vocal music as a subject of art and skills , is a natural and common form to express one's feelings. Singing performance casts a singer's full of skills, and is a complex psychological activity, which is the process of the singer's physiological and the psychological coordination, and coordinating movement. The use and training of psychological elements play a very impgctant rolein vocal music performance , teaching and learning.%声乐作为一门艺术性和技能性很强的学科,是人类用以抒发情感交流的一种自然而普遍的形式。歌唱表演是演唱者的全面技能的施屎,一项复杂的心理活动,它是演唱者生理与心理相配合、协调运动的过程,心理要素的运用与培养对声乐演唱、教学和学习有很重要的作用。

  5. Pedagogical efficiency of melodic contour mapping technology as it relates to vocal timbre in singers of classical music repertoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Burroughs, Kathryn; Anderson, Edward E; Hughes, Thomas; Lan, William Y; Dent, Karl; Arnold, Sue; Dolter, Gerald; McNeil, Kathy

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to ascertain the pedagogical viability of computer-generated melodic contour mapping systems in the classical singing studio, as perceived by their resulting effect (if any) on vocal timbre when a singer's head and neck remained in a normal singing posture. The evaluation of data gathered during the course of the study indicates that the development of consistent vocal timbre produced by the classical singing student may be enhanced through visual/kinesthetic response to melodic contour inversion mapping, as it balances the singer's perception of melodic intervals in standard musical notation. Unexpectedly, it was discovered that the system, in its natural melodic contour mode, may also be useful for teaching a student to sing a consistent legato line. The results of the study also suggest that the continued development of this new technology for the general teaching studio, designed to address standard musical notation and a singer's visual/kinesthetic response to it, may indeed be useful.

  6. Research on Specialized Teaching of Vocal Music with Guizhou as the Theme%贵州题材声乐作品专业教学之考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许启雪

    2012-01-01

    以贵州文化为题材的创作作品的教学曲目主要来源于多彩贵州歌唱大赛的推荐歌曲,其教学策略主要包括美声唱法与民族唱法两种教学模式,表现为一种基于现代声乐技术手段的行为方式和技术策略,一种以现代音乐为审美想象的“他者”行为。在这种现代性音乐艺术审美取向的想象中,贵州地方文化往往仅仅作为元素或素材,运用到现代音乐艺术的形式逻辑中。%The specialized teaching of vocal music is mainly from the suggested songs of colorful Guizhou singing contest. Its teaching strategies include bel canto and nationality singing. The specialized teaching of vocal music a behavior and technical strategy based on the modem vocal music technology method and "the other" behavior taking modern music as the esthetic imagination. In this kind of esthetic imagination of modernity music, the local culture in Guizhou is often taken merely as the element or the source and is utilized in the formal logic of the modem music.

  7. Language Experience Affects Grouping of Musical Instrument Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatara, Anjali; Boll-Avetisyan, Natalie; Agus, Trevor; Höhle, Barbara; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Language experience clearly affects the perception of speech, but little is known about whether these differences in perception extend to non-speech sounds. In this study, we investigated rhythmic perception of non-linguistic sounds in speakers of French and German using a grouping task, in which complexity (variability in sounds, presence of…

  8. Language Experience Affects Grouping of Musical Instrument Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatara, Anjali; Boll-Avetisyan, Natalie; Agus, Trevor; Höhle, Barbara; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Language experience clearly affects the perception of speech, but little is known about whether these differences in perception extend to non-speech sounds. In this study, we investigated rhythmic perception of non-linguistic sounds in speakers of French and German using a grouping task, in which complexity (variability in sounds, presence of…

  9. When music is salty: The crossmodal associations between sound and taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetta, Rachel; Loui, Psyche

    2017-01-01

    Here we investigate associations between complex auditory and complex taste stimuli. A novel piece of music was composed and recorded in four different styles of musical articulation to reflect the four basic tastes groups (sweet, sour, salty, bitter). In Experiment 1, participants performed above chance at pairing the music clips with corresponding taste words. Experiment 2 uses multidimensional scaling to interpret how participants categorize these musical stimuli, and to show that auditory categories can be organized in a similar manner as taste categories. Experiment 3 introduces four different flavors of custom-made chocolate ganache and shows that participants can match music clips with the corresponding taste stimuli with above-chance accuracy. Experiment 4 demonstrates the partial role of pleasantness in crossmodal mappings between sound and taste. The present findings confirm that individuals are able to make crossmodal associations between complex auditory and gustatory stimuli, and that valence may mediate multisensory integration in the general population. PMID:28355227

  10. When music is salty: The crossmodal associations between sound and taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetta, Rachel; Loui, Psyche

    2017-01-01

    Here we investigate associations between complex auditory and complex taste stimuli. A novel piece of music was composed and recorded in four different styles of musical articulation to reflect the four basic tastes groups (sweet, sour, salty, bitter). In Experiment 1, participants performed above chance at pairing the music clips with corresponding taste words. Experiment 2 uses multidimensional scaling to interpret how participants categorize these musical stimuli, and to show that auditory categories can be organized in a similar manner as taste categories. Experiment 3 introduces four different flavors of custom-made chocolate ganache and shows that participants can match music clips with the corresponding taste stimuli with above-chance accuracy. Experiment 4 demonstrates the partial role of pleasantness in crossmodal mappings between sound and taste. The present findings confirm that individuals are able to make crossmodal associations between complex auditory and gustatory stimuli, and that valence may mediate multisensory integration in the general population.

  11. Cognitive flexibility modulates maturation and music-training-related changes in neural sound discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarikivi, Katri; Putkinen, Vesa; Tervaniemi, Mari; Huotilainen, Minna

    2016-07-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that musicians show superior neural sound discrimination when compared to non-musicians, and that these changes emerge with accumulation of training. Our aim was to investigate whether individual differences in executive functions predict training-related changes in neural sound discrimination. We measured event-related potentials induced by sound changes coupled with tests for executive functions in musically trained and non-trained children aged 9-11 years and 13-15 years. High performance in a set-shifting task, indexing cognitive flexibility, was linked to enhanced maturation of neural sound discrimination in both musically trained and non-trained children. Specifically, well-performing musically trained children already showed large mismatch negativity (MMN) responses at a young age as well as at an older age, indicating accurate sound discrimination. In contrast, the musically trained low-performing children still showed an increase in MMN amplitude with age, suggesting that they were behind their high-performing peers in the development of sound discrimination. In the non-trained group, in turn, only the high-performing children showed evidence of an age-related increase in MMN amplitude, and the low-performing children showed a small MMN with no age-related change. These latter results suggest an advantage in MMN development also for high-performing non-trained individuals. For the P3a amplitude, there was an age-related increase only in the children who performed well in the set-shifting task, irrespective of music training, indicating enhanced attention-related processes in these children. Thus, the current study provides the first evidence that, in children, cognitive flexibility may influence age-related and training-related plasticity of neural sound discrimination. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Sound design from the aspect of musical harmony; Sound-Design unter den Aspekten der Harmonielehre der Musik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, N.; Jochum, S. [FEV Motorentechnik GmbH und Co KG, Aachen (Germany)

    2003-01-01

    FEV's sound design strategy is based on proprietary vehicle interior and exterior noise simulation methods with an emphasis on achieving desired sounds with hardware solutions suitable for series production. This article discusses a new aspect of sound design: the comparison of musical harmonic theory with engine noises. From this, important new insights regarding noise characteristics that are objectively melodious in musical terms can be gained and transferred to the vehicle. The results presented here were obtained within an internal research project at FEV Motorentechnik. (orig.) [German] Die FEV-Entwicklungsstrategie zum Sound-Design basiert auf der bei FEV entwickelten Fahrzeuginnen- und Aussengeraeuschsimulation mit dem Schwerpunkt der Umsetzbarkeit von Wunschgeraeuschen in serienrelevante Hardwareloesungen. In diesem Beitrag wird ein neuer Aspekt des Sound-Design diskutiert: der Vergleich der Harmonielehre der Musik mit Fahrzeuggeraeuschen. Hieraus lassen sich wichtige neue Erkenntnisse fuer Geraeuschmerkmale, die aus musikalischer Sicht objektiv wohlklingend sind, ableiten und auf das Automobil uebertragen. Die hier vorgestellten Ergebnisse sind im Rahmen eines bei FEV Motorentechnik intern durchgefuehrten Forschungsvorhabens entstanden. (orig.)

  13. Neural responses to sounds presented on and off the beat of ecologically valid music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam eTierney

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The tracking of rhythmic structure is a vital component of speech and music perception. It is known that sequences of identical sounds can give rise to the percept of alternating strong and weak sounds, and that this percept is linked to enhanced cortical and oscillatory responses. The neural correlates of the perception of rhythm elicited by ecologically valid, complex stimuli, however, remain unexplored. Here we report the effects of a stimulus’ alignment with the beat on the brain’s processing of sound. Human subjects listened to short popular music pieces while simultaneously hearing a target sound. Cortical and brainstem electrophysiological onset responses to the sound were enhanced when it was presented on the beat of the music, as opposed to shifted away from it. Moreover, the size of the effect of alignment with the beat on the cortical response correlated strongly with the ability to tap to a beat, suggesting that the ability to synchronize to the beat of simple isochronous stimuli and the ability to track the beat of complex, ecologically valid stimuli may rely on overlapping neural resources. These results suggest that the perception of musical rhythm may have robust effects on processing throughout the auditory system.

  14. Expertise is perceived from both sound and body movement in musical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, Matthew W M; Craig, Cathy M; O'Modhrain, Sile

    2012-10-01

    Music is a rich form of nonverbal communication, in which the movements that expert musicians make during performance can influence the perception of expressive and structural features of the music. Whether the actual skill of a musician is perceivable from vision of movement was examined. In Experiment 1, musicians and non-musicians rated performances by novice, intermediate and expert clarinettists from point-light animations of their movements, sound recordings, or both. Performances by clarinettists of more advanced skill level were rated significantly higher from vision of movements, although this effect was stronger when sound was also presented. In Experiment 2, movements and sound from the novice and expert clarinettists' performances were switched for half the presentations, and were matched for the rest. Ratings of novice music were significantly higher when presented with expert movements, although the opposite was not found for expert sound presented with novice movements. No perceptual effect of raters' own level of musicianship was found in either experiment. These results suggest that expertise is perceivable from vision of musicians' body movements, although perception of skill from sound is dominant. The results from Experiment 2 further indicate a cross-modal effect of vision and audition on the perception of musical expertise. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Pursuit of Beauty of Artistic Conception in Modern National Vocal Music%对现代民族声乐意境美的追求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师晖

    2014-01-01

    民族声乐作为我国华夏文化中重要的组成部分,在其发展的过程中形成了独特的艺术魅力和民族特色,在时代不断变迁和世界各种音乐元素的冲击下,我国民族声乐的内涵越来越丰富,表现出了结合民族语言、民族音乐、中华传统文化特点的独特魅力,赋予了现代民族声乐“灵秀生动、气韵不凡”的意境美。文章通过以我国现代民族声乐传统文化为背景,对现代民族音乐独特的韵味进行相关分析。%National vocal music, as an important component of the Chinese culture, has formed unique artistic charm and national characteristics in its development, and influenced by the contin-uous change of the times and various global music elements, the connotation of China's national vocal music is richer and richer, reflecting the unique charm combining national language, nation-al music, and the characteristics of Chinese traditional culture, and endowing modern national vocal music with"vivid and out-standing" artistic conception beuty.Based on the background of the traditional culture of China's vocal music, this paper analyzed the unique charm of modern national music.

  16. [Possible mechanism of production of the musical second heart sound and its clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, N; Hosoi, K; Iuchi, A; Ogawa, S; Kageji, Y; Hayashi, M; Yoshimoto, K; Tanimoto, M; Oki, T

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the predisposing factors and the clinical significance of the musical aortic component of the second heart sound (musical S2), 18 patients with musical S2 (musical group) among the consecutive 2,000 patients with phonocardiographic examination were noninvasively studied by analyzing underlying diseases, phonocardiographic findings, organic changes of the aortic valve, severity of aortic regurgitation and left ventricular dysfunction. Organic changes of the aortic valve were assessed by two-dimensional echocardiography, and aortic regurgitation was assessed by color Doppler flow imaging. Twenty-two normal subjects (normal group) and 17 patients with essential hypertension (hypertensive group) served as controls. Mean ages were matched among the three groups. 1. Left ventricular dilatation (seven patients) and hypertension (six patients) were the dominant part of underlying disease in the musical group. 2. Musical S2 was classified in the following two types based on the phonocardiographic characteristics; musical vibrations followed immediately after the accentuated S2, and the S2 which was replaced by regular vibratory waves. 3. Frequency of the musical vibrations ranged from 120 to 200 Hz, and its duration ranged from 60 to 120 msec. Amplitude of the musical vibrations decreased by inhalation of amyl nitrite, but increased by infusion of methoxamine. In a case with mild rheumatic valve disease, methoxamine induced marked intensification of the amplitude and prolongation of the duration of the musical vibrations, finally giving a typical cooing murmur. 4. Echo intensity of the aortic valve tended to be higher in the musical group than in the other two groups. 5. Echocardiographically, aortic regurgitation appeared more frequently in the musical group (88%) than in the normal (36%) and hypertensive (41%) groups. Area of the aortic regurgitant signal was significantly larger in the musical group (4.1 +/- 1.4 cm2) than in the normal (1.2 +/- 0.8 cm2

  17. Exposure to excessive sounds and hearing status in academic classical music students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Pawlaczyk-Łuszczyńska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess hearing of music students in relation to their exposure to excessive sounds. Material and Methods: Standard pure-tone audiometry (PTA was performed in 168 music students, aged 22.5±2.5 years. The control group included 67 subjects, non-music students and non-musicians, aged 22.8±3.3 years. Data on the study subjects’ musical experience, instruments in use, time of weekly practice and additional risk factors for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL were identified by means of a questionnaire survey. Sound pressure levels produced by various groups of instruments during solo and group playing were also measured and analyzed. The music students’ audiometric hearing threshold levels (HTLs were compared with the theoretical predictions calculated according to the International Organization for Standardization standard ISO 1999:2013. Results: It was estimated that the music students were exposed for 27.1±14.3 h/week to sounds at the A-weighted equivalent-continuous sound pressure level of 89.9±6.0 dB. There were no significant differences in HTLs between the music students and the control group in the frequency range of 4000–8000 Hz. Furthermore, in each group HTLs in the frequency range 1000–8000 Hz did not exceed 20 dB HL in 83% of the examined ears. Nevertheless, high frequency notched audiograms typical of the noise-induced hearing loss were found in 13.4% and 9% of the musicians and non-musicians, respectively. The odds ratio (OR of notching in the music students increased significantly along with higher sound pressure levels (OR = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.014–1.13, p < 0.05. The students’ HTLs were worse (higher than those of a highly screened non-noise-exposed population. Moreover, their hearing loss was less severe than that expected from sound exposure for frequencies of 3000 Hz and 4000 Hz, and it was more severe in the case of frequency of 6000 Hz. Conclusions: The

  18. Musicians: Cultural Workers or Spreaders of Musical Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Londoño La Rotta

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Taking account of the object of study and of the type of musical and pedagogical practices found in the monographies written by undergraduate students from the professionalization program Creative Colombia (first cohort, it could be argued that their musical and pedagogical knowledge is not egocentrically centered in themselves, and that, on the contrary, they try to build bridges and interconnections with other arts and areas of knowledge, proving thus that the musical art is an essential part of their daily work and constitutes a vivid experience in terms of cultural transformation. There were then proposed several processes of social change in the realm of the school’s micro-universe, the classroom, the town’s Cultural House, its municipal band, etc. In those various processes, the music teacher was seen as a political person capable of using his musical knowledge to mediate in social realities, as a musicianmediator. So, it became clear that the real task was not to form mere musical trainers, but cultural mediators who may understand their artistic practice and teaching as an opportunity to acquire a deeper understanding of culture, as well as the means to transform it. Along the whole process, the students leaned on the trend and perspective of constructivism.

  19. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottrill, C.; Liverman, D.; Boykoff, M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors—such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities—have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO2e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO2e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO2e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  20. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottrill, C [Centre for Environmental Strategy, School of Engineering (D3), University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Liverman, D [Institute of the Environment, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Boykoff, M, E-mail: c.bottrill@surrey.ac.u, E-mail: liverman@u.arizona.ed, E-mail: boykoff@colorado.ed [CIRES Center for Science and Technology Policy, Environmental Studies and Geography, University of Colorado - Boulder, 1333 Grandview Ave, Campus Box 488, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors-such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities-have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  1. The Origins of Vocal Learning: New Sounds, New Circuits, New Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottebohm, Fernando; Liu, Wan-Chun

    2010-01-01

    We do not know how vocal learning came to be, but it is such a salient trait in human evolution that many have tried to imagine it. In primates this is difficult because we are the only species known to possess this skill. Songbirds provide a richer and independent set of data. I use comparative data and ask broad questions: How does vocal…

  2. The Sound of Dominance: Vocal Precursors of Perceived Dominance during Interpersonal Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusing, Kyle James; Dillard, James Price

    2000-01-01

    Determines the effects of vocal cues on judgments of dominance in an interpersonal influence context. Indicates that mean amplitude and amplitude standard deviation were positively associated with dominance judgments, whereas speech rate was negatively associated with dominance judgments. Finds that mean fundamental frequency was positively…

  3. Influence of vocal tract geometry simplifications on the numerical simulation of vowel sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnela, Marc; Dabbaghchian, Saeed; Blandin, Rémi; Guasch, Oriol; Engwall, Olov; Van Hirtum, Annemie; Pelorson, Xavier

    2016-09-01

    For many years, the vocal tract shape has been approximated by one-dimensional (1D) area functions to study the production of voice. More recently, 3D approaches allow one to deal with the complex 3D vocal tract, although area-based 3D geometries of circular cross-section are still in use. However, little is known about the influence of performing such a simplification, and some alternatives may exist between these two extreme options. To this aim, several vocal tract geometry simplifications for vowels [ɑ], [i], and [u] are investigated in this work. Six cases are considered, consisting of realistic, elliptical, and circular cross-sections interpolated through a bent or straight midline. For frequencies below 4-5 kHz, the influence of bending and cross-sectional shape has been found weak, while above these values simplified bent vocal tracts with realistic cross-sections are necessary to correctly emulate higher-order mode propagation. To perform this study, the finite element method (FEM) has been used. FEM results have also been compared to a 3D multimodal method and to a classical 1D frequency domain model.

  4. 高师声乐教学模式一体化研究%Study on the vocal music teaching mode of the integration of teachers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖金勇

    2013-01-01

      随着新课程标准的改革与制定,为满足高师音乐专业实际需求,高师声乐教学模式的改革势在必行。本文结合了近几年各高校音乐教育专业对声乐课的教学实践措施,提出了声乐教学模式一体化的概念,并具体分析了一体化的组成部分、组合依据与实施方法,期望各教学模式运用得当,提高教学效率与成果。%  With the development of reform and the new curriculum standard, in order to meet the actual demand of music major in normal universities, be imperative to reform the mode of vocal music teaching in normal universities. In this paper, combined with the recent years, the college music teaching on vocal music teaching practice, put forward the concept of integration of vocal music teaching mode, and analyzes the component, integrated portfolio basis and implementation method, hope that the teaching model is used properly, improve teaching efficiency and result.

  5. Aspectos de la práctica musical española en el siglo XVII: voces y ejecución vocal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Marín, Luis Antonio

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This article stresses again some elements of historical musical practice, and constitutes a review and a new reflection on the materials related to the conditions and conventions of the execution of vocal music in the 17th century in Spain, some of them already published.

    Este artículo incide de nuevo en algunos elementos de la práctica musical histórica, y constituye una revisión y nueva reflexión sobre materiales, algunos de ellos ya publicados, relativos a las condiciones y convenciones de la ejecución de música vocal en la España del siglo XVII.

  6. On the Reform of Vocal Music Teaching for Adults in College%普通高校成人声乐教学改革探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿丹

    2011-01-01

    The vocal music teaching is an important part of the music education for adults in college. This paper analyzes the current situation and the insufficiency of the adult vocal music education and puts forward some reform countermeasures according to its curriculum setting, teaching contents and teaching methods.%声乐教学是高校成人音乐教育中的一个重要组成部分。文章分析了成人声乐教育的现状与不足,并围绕课程设置、教学内容、教学方法等方面提出了改革的对策与措施。

  7. Neuroplasticity beyond Sounds: Neural Adaptations Following Long-Term Musical Aesthetic Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Reybrouck

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Capitalizing from neuroscience knowledge on how individuals are affected by the sound environment, we propose to adopt a cybernetic and ecological point of view on the musical aesthetic experience, which includes subprocesses, such as feature extraction and integration, early affective reactions and motor actions, style mastering and conceptualization, emotion and proprioception, evaluation and preference. In this perspective, the role of the listener/composer/performer is seen as that of an active “agent” coping in highly individual ways with the sounds. The findings concerning the neural adaptations in musicians, following long-term exposure to music, are then reviewed by keeping in mind the distinct subprocesses of a musical aesthetic experience. We conclude that these neural adaptations can be conceived of as the immediate and lifelong interactions with multisensorial stimuli (having a predominant auditory component, which result in lasting changes of the internal state of the “agent”. In a continuous loop, these changes affect, in turn, the subprocesses involved in a musical aesthetic experience, towards the final goal of achieving better perceptual, motor and proprioceptive responses to the immediate demands of the sounding environment. The resulting neural adaptations in musicians closely depend on the duration of the interactions, the starting age, the involvement of attention, the amount of motor practice and the musical genre played.

  8. Neuroplasticity beyond Sounds: Neural Adaptations Following Long-Term Musical Aesthetic Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reybrouck, Mark; Brattico, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Capitalizing from neuroscience knowledge on how individuals are affected by the sound environment, we propose to adopt a cybernetic and ecological point of view on the musical aesthetic experience, which includes subprocesses, such as feature extraction and integration, early affective reactions and motor actions, style mastering and conceptualization, emotion and proprioception, evaluation and preference. In this perspective, the role of the listener/composer/performer is seen as that of an active “agent” coping in highly individual ways with the sounds. The findings concerning the neural adaptations in musicians, following long-term exposure to music, are then reviewed by keeping in mind the distinct subprocesses of a musical aesthetic experience. We conclude that these neural adaptations can be conceived of as the immediate and lifelong interactions with multisensorial stimuli (having a predominant auditory component), which result in lasting changes of the internal state of the “agent”. In a continuous loop, these changes affect, in turn, the subprocesses involved in a musical aesthetic experience, towards the final goal of achieving better perceptual, motor and proprioceptive responses to the immediate demands of the sounding environment. The resulting neural adaptations in musicians closely depend on the duration of the interactions, the starting age, the involvement of attention, the amount of motor practice and the musical genre played. PMID:25807006

  9. The sound of cooperation: Musical influences on cooperative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniffin, Kevin M; Yan, Jubo; Wansink, Brian; Schulze, William D

    2017-03-01

    Music as an environmental aspect of professional workplaces has been closely studied with respect to consumer behavior while sparse attention has been given to its relevance for employee behavior. In this article, we focus on the influence of music upon cooperative behavior within decision-making groups. Based on results from two extended 20-round public goods experiments, we find that happy music significantly and positively influences cooperative behavior. We also find a significant positive association between mood and cooperative behavior. Consequently, while our studies provide partial support for the relevance of affect in relation to cooperation within groups, we also show an independently important function of happy music that fits with a theory of synchronous and rhythmic activity as a social lubricant. More generally, our findings indicate that music and perhaps other atmospheric variables that are designed to prime consumer behavior might have comparably important effects for employees and consequently warrant closer investigation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors Journal of Organizational Behavior Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF AUDITORY PERCEPTION OF MUSICAL SOUNDS BY CHILDREN IN THE FIRST SIX GRADES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PETZOLD, ROBERT G.

    THE AUDITORY PERCEPTION OF MUSICAL SOUNDS BY A SAMPLE OF 600 CHILDREN IN THE FIRST 6 GRADES WAS STUDIED. THREE TESTS WERE CONSTRUCTED FOR THIS STUDY. THEIR CONTENT WAS BASED UPON AN EXTENSIVE ANALYSIS OF TONAL AND RHYTHMIC CONFIGURATIONS FOUND IN THE SONGS CHILDREN SING. THE 45-ITEM AND ONE OF THE 20-ITEM TESTS WERE DESIGNED TO COLLECT DATA…

  11. Investigation of phase coupling phenomena in sustained portion of musical instruments sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnov, Shlomo; Rodet, Xavier

    2003-01-01

    This work investigates aperiodicities that occur in the sustained portion of a sound of musical instrument played by a human player, due to synchronous versus asynchronous deviations of the partial phases. By using an additive sinusoidal analysis, phases of individual partials are precisely extracted and their correlation statistics and coupling effects are analyzed. It is shown that various musical instruments exhibit different phase coupling characteristics. The effect of phase coupling is compared to analysis by means of higher order statistics and it is shown that both methods are closely mathematically related. Following a detailed analysis of phase coupling for various musical instruments it is suggested that phase coupling is an important characteristic of a sustained portion of sound of individual musical instruments, and possibly even of instrumental families. Interesting differences in phase deviations where found for the flute, trumpet and cello. For the cello, the effect of vibrato is examined by comparing the analysis of a closed string sound played with a natural vibrato to analysis of an open string sound that contains no vibrato. Following, a possible model for phase deviations in the cello is presented and a simulation of phase fluctuations for this model is performed.

  12. Full-Band Quasi-Harmonic Analysis and Synthesis of Musical Instrument Sounds with Adaptive Sinusoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Caetano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sinusoids are widely used to represent the oscillatory modes of musical instrument sounds in both analysis and synthesis. However, musical instrument sounds feature transients and instrumental noise that are poorly modeled with quasi-stationary sinusoids, requiring spectral decomposition and further dedicated modeling. In this work, we propose a full-band representation that fits sinusoids across the entire spectrum. We use the extended adaptive Quasi-Harmonic Model (eaQHM to iteratively estimate amplitude- and frequency-modulated (AM–FM sinusoids able to capture challenging features such as sharp attacks, transients, and instrumental noise. We use the signal-to-reconstruction-error ratio (SRER as the objective measure for the analysis and synthesis of 89 musical instrument sounds from different instrumental families. We compare against quasi-stationary sinusoids and exponentially damped sinusoids. First, we show that the SRER increases with adaptation in eaQHM. Then, we show that full-band modeling with eaQHM captures partials at the higher frequency end of the spectrum that are neglected by spectral decomposition. Finally, we demonstrate that a frame size equal to three periods of the fundamental frequency results in the highest SRER with AM–FM sinusoids from eaQHM. A listening test confirmed that the musical instrument sounds resynthesized from full-band analysis with eaQHM are virtually perceptually indistinguishable from the original recordings.

  13. Superior analgesic effect of an active distraction versus pleasant unfamiliar sounds and music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garza Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Brattico, Elvira; Vase, Lene

    2012-01-01

    of the relationship. Forty-eight healthy volunteers received heat stimuli during an active mental arithmetic task (PASAT), and passive listening to music (Mozart), environmental sounds (rain and water), and control (noise). The participants scored the conditions according to affective scales and filled out...

  14. Superior analgesic effect of an active distraction versus pleasant unfamiliar sounds and music: the influence of emotion and cognitive style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Eduardo A Garza; Brattico, Elvira; Vase, Lene; Østergaard, Leif; Vuust, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Listening to music has been found to reduce acute and chronic pain. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood; however, emotion and cognitive mechanisms have been suggested to influence the analgesic effect of music. In this study we investigated the influence of familiarity, emotional and cognitive features, and cognitive style on music-induced analgesia. Forty-eight healthy participants were divided into three groups (empathizers, systemizers and balanced) and received acute pain induced by heat while listening to different sounds. Participants listened to unfamiliar Mozart music rated with high valence and low arousal, unfamiliar environmental sounds with similar valence and arousal as the music, an active distraction task (mental arithmetic) and a control, and rated the pain. Data showed that the active distraction led to significantly less pain than did the music or sounds. Both unfamiliar music and sounds reduced pain significantly when compared to the control condition; however, music was no more effective than sound to reduce pain. Furthermore, we found correlations between pain and emotion ratings. Finally, systemizers reported less pain during the mental arithmetic compared with the other two groups. These findings suggest that familiarity may be key in the influence of the cognitive and emotional mechanisms of music-induced analgesia, and that cognitive styles may influence pain perception.

  15. Superior analgesic effect of an active distraction versus pleasant unfamiliar sounds and music: the influence of emotion and cognitive style.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A Garza Villarreal

    Full Text Available Listening to music has been found to reduce acute and chronic pain. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood; however, emotion and cognitive mechanisms have been suggested to influence the analgesic effect of music. In this study we investigated the influence of familiarity, emotional and cognitive features, and cognitive style on music-induced analgesia. Forty-eight healthy participants were divided into three groups (empathizers, systemizers and balanced and received acute pain induced by heat while listening to different sounds. Participants listened to unfamiliar Mozart music rated with high valence and low arousal, unfamiliar environmental sounds with similar valence and arousal as the music, an active distraction task (mental arithmetic and a control, and rated the pain. Data showed that the active distraction led to significantly less pain than did the music or sounds. Both unfamiliar music and sounds reduced pain significantly when compared to the control condition; however, music was no more effective than sound to reduce pain. Furthermore, we found correlations between pain and emotion ratings. Finally, systemizers reported less pain during the mental arithmetic compared with the other two groups. These findings suggest that familiarity may be key in the influence of the cognitive and emotional mechanisms of music-induced analgesia, and that cognitive styles may influence pain perception.

  16. Echoes in Plato's cave : ontology of sound objects in computer music and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Marsden, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The sonic aspects of Plato's analogy of the cave is taken as a starting point for thought experiments to investigate the objective nature of sound, and the idea of quasi-Platonic forms in music. Sounds are found to be objects in a way that sights or appearances are not, and it is only in the presence of technology that they become artificial. When recognition, control and communication about sound come into play, abstract concepts emerge, but there is no reason to give these the priority stat...

  17. Sound Generation by a Turbulent Flow in Musical Instruments - Multiphysics Simulation Approach -

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Taizo; Takahashi, Kin'ya; Mibu, Ryota; Aoyagi, Mutsumi

    2007-01-01

    Total computational costs of scientific simulations are analyzed between direct numerical simulations (DNS) and multiphysics simulations (MPS) for sound generation in musical instruments. In order to produce acoustic sound by a turbulent flow in a simple recorder-like instrument, compressible fluid dynamic calculations with a low Mach number are required around the edges and the resonator of the instrument in DNS, while incompressible fluid dynamic calculations coupled with dynamics of sound propagation based on the Lighthill's acoustic analogy are used in MPS. These strategies are evaluated not only from the viewpoint of computational performances but also from the theoretical points of view as tools for scientific simulations of complicated systems.

  18. What Constitutes a Phrase in Sound-Based Music? A Mixed-Methods Investigation of Perception and Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Kirk N.; Dean, Roger T.; Leung, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Phrasing facilitates the organization of auditory information and is central to speech and music. Not surprisingly, aspects of changing intensity, rhythm, and pitch are key determinants of musical phrases and their boundaries in instrumental note-based music. Different kinds of speech (such as tone- vs. stress-languages) share these features in different proportions and form an instructive comparison. However, little is known about whether or how musical phrasing is perceived in sound-based music, where the basic musical unit from which a piece is created is commonly non-instrumental continuous sounds, rather than instrumental discontinuous notes. This issue forms the target of the present paper. Twenty participants (17 untrained in music) were presented with six stimuli derived from sound-based music, note-based music, and environmental sound. Their task was to indicate each occurrence of a perceived phrase and qualitatively describe key characteristics of the stimulus associated with each phrase response. It was hypothesized that sound-based music does elicit phrase perception, and that this is primarily associated with temporal changes in intensity and timbre, rather than rhythm and pitch. Results supported this hypothesis. Qualitative analysis of participant descriptions showed that for sound-based music, the majority of perceived phrases were associated with intensity or timbral change. For the note-based piano piece, rhythm was the main theme associated with perceived musical phrasing. We modeled the occurrence in time of perceived musical phrases with recurrent event ‘hazard’ analyses using time-series data representing acoustic predictors associated with intensity, spectral flatness, and rhythmic density. Acoustic intensity and timbre (represented here by spectral flatness) were strong predictors of perceived musical phrasing in sound-based music, and rhythm was only predictive for the piano piece. A further analysis including five additional spectral

  19. What Constitutes a Phrase in Sound-Based Music? A Mixed-Methods Investigation of Perception and Acoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Kirk N; Dean, Roger T; Leung, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Phrasing facilitates the organization of auditory information and is central to speech and music. Not surprisingly, aspects of changing intensity, rhythm, and pitch are key determinants of musical phrases and their boundaries in instrumental note-based music. Different kinds of speech (such as tone- vs. stress-languages) share these features in different proportions and form an instructive comparison. However, little is known about whether or how musical phrasing is perceived in sound-based music, where the basic musical unit from which a piece is created is commonly non-instrumental continuous sounds, rather than instrumental discontinuous notes. This issue forms the target of the present paper. Twenty participants (17 untrained in music) were presented with six stimuli derived from sound-based music, note-based music, and environmental sound. Their task was to indicate each occurrence of a perceived phrase and qualitatively describe key characteristics of the stimulus associated with each phrase response. It was hypothesized that sound-based music does elicit phrase perception, and that this is primarily associated with temporal changes in intensity and timbre, rather than rhythm and pitch. Results supported this hypothesis. Qualitative analysis of participant descriptions showed that for sound-based music, the majority of perceived phrases were associated with intensity or timbral change. For the note-based piano piece, rhythm was the main theme associated with perceived musical phrasing. We modeled the occurrence in time of perceived musical phrases with recurrent event 'hazard' analyses using time-series data representing acoustic predictors associated with intensity, spectral flatness, and rhythmic density. Acoustic intensity and timbre (represented here by spectral flatness) were strong predictors of perceived musical phrasing in sound-based music, and rhythm was only predictive for the piano piece. A further analysis including five additional spectral

  20. A sonoridade vocal e a prática coral no Barroco: subsídios para a performance barroca nos dias atuais The vocal sonority and the choral practice in the Baroque period: guidelines for today's Baroque music performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo José Fernandes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho é uma pequena parte de uma ampla pesquisa sobre prática e sonoridade de diversos estilos de música coral. A partir de uma investigação bibliográfica, que inclui autores desde o período Barroco, temos como objetivos: a descrição da sonoridade vocal e coral ao longo do referido período; a abordagem dos tipos vocais da época; a análise de alguns procedimentos técnico-vocais; a descrição de características importantes da prática coral no período; e, por fim, uma apresentação de sugestões técnicas e estilísticas para a prática da música coral barroca na atualidade.This paper is a small part of a large research on practice and sonority of many choral music styles. Through bibliographical investigation of works written by authors from the Baroque period to the present, our goals are: the description of the vocal sonority throughout the Baroque period; the presentations of the vocal types in the Baroque; the analysis of some vocal techniques; the description of important aspects of the choral practice of the period; and finally, the presentation of some technical and stylistic suggestions for the practice of the Baroque choral music in the present.

  1. Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics in subjects with and without vocal training, related to gender, sound intensity, fundamental frequency, and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, AM; Wit, HP

    1996-01-01

    Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics of 224 subjects, categorized in four groups according to gender and vocal training, were determined, and their relations to sound-pressure level, fundamental frequency, intra-oral pressure, and age were analyzed. Subjects phonated at three intensity

  2. Variation in the emission rate of sounds in a captive group of false killer whales Pseudorca crassidens during feedings: possible food anticipatory vocal activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platto, Sara; Wang, Ding; Wang, Kexiong

    2016-11-01

    This study examines whether a group of captive false killer whales ( Pseudorca crassidens ) showed variations in the vocal rate around feeding times. The high level of motivation to express appetitive behaviors in captive animals may lead them to respond with changes of the behavioral activities during the time prior to food deliveries which are referred to as food anticipatory activity. False killer whales at Qingdao Polar Ocean World (Qingdao, China) showed significant variations of the rates of both the total sounds and sound classes (whistles, clicks, and burst pulses) around feedings. Precisely, from the Transition interval that recorded the lowest vocalization rate (3.40 s/m/d), the whales increased their acoustic emissions upon trainers' arrival (13.08 s/m/d). The high rate was maintained or intensified throughout the food delivery (25.12 s/m/d), and then reduced immediately after the animals were fed (9.91 s/m/d). These changes in the false killer whales sound production rates around feeding times supports the hypothesis of the presence of a food anticipatory vocal activity. Although sound rates may not give detailed information regarding referential aspects of the animal communication it might still shed light about the arousal levels of the individuals during different social or environmental conditions. Further experiments should be performed to assess if variations of the time of feeding routines may affect the vocal activity of cetaceans in captivity as well as their welfare.

  3. Residual neural processng of musical sound features in adult cochlear implant users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm, Lydia; Vuust, Peter; Brattico, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    neural skills for music processing even in CI users who have been implanted in adolescence or adulthood. HIGHLIGHTS: -Automatic brain responses to musical feature changes reflect the limitations of central auditory processing in adult Cochlear Implant users.-The brains of adult CI users automatically...... and behavioral study comparing adult CI users with normal-hearing age-matched controls (NH controls). We used a newly developed musical multi-feature paradigm, which makes it possible to test automatic auditory discrimination of six different types of sound feature changes inserted within a musical enriched...... setting lasting only 20 min. The presentation of stimuli did not require the participants' attention, allowing the study of the early automatic stage of feature processing in the auditory cortex. For the CI users, we obtained mismatch negativity (MMN) brain responses to five feature changes...

  4. DISCO: An object-oriented system for music composition and sound design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.; Wright, J. M.

    2000-09-05

    This paper describes an object-oriented approach to music composition and sound design. The approach unifies the processes of music making and instrument building by using similar logic, objects, and procedures. The composition modules use an abstract representation of musical data, which can be easily mapped onto different synthesis languages or a traditionally notated score. An abstract base class is used to derive classes on different time scales. Objects can be related to act across time scales, as well as across an entire piece, and relationships between similar objects can replicate traditional music operations or introduce new ones. The DISCO (Digital Instrument for Sonification and Composition) system is an open-ended work in progress.

  5. Music training enhances rapid plasticity of N1 and P2 source activation for unattended sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miia eSeppänen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Neurocognitive studies demonstrate that long-term musical training enhances the processing of unattended sounds. It is not clear, however, whether musical training modulates also rapid (within tens of minutes neural plasticity for sound encoding. To study this, we examined whether adult musicians display enhanced rapid neural plasticity when compared to nonmusicians. More specifically, we examined the modulation of P1, N1, and P2 responses to regular standard sounds in an oddball paradigm between unattended passive blocks which were separated by an active task. Source analysis for event-related potentials showed that N1 and P2 source activation decreased selectively in musicians already after fifteen minutes of passive exposure to sounds and that P2 source activation re-enhanced after the active task in musicians. Additionally, event-related potential (ERP analysis revealed that in both musicians and nonmusicians, P2 ERP amplitude enhanced after fifteen minutes of passive exposure but only at frontal electrodes. Furthermore, in musicians, N1 ERP enhanced after the active discrimination task but only at parietal electrodes. Musical training modulates the rapid plasticity reflected in N1 and P2 source activation for unattended regular standard sounds. Enhanced rapid plasticity of N1 and P2 might reflect the faster auditory perceptual learning in musicians when compared to nonmusicians.

  6. 论声乐教学中情感的培养与发挥%Discussion on the Cultivation and Utilization of Emotion in Vocal Music Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚慧

    2012-01-01

    声乐教学的主要目的是运用纯熟的歌唱发声技巧,将作品内包含的思想感情生动完美地表达出来,用悠扬美妙的歌声感染听众。大多数的声乐教育教学工作人员在教学中总是将歌唱的共鸣、气息等技巧视为教学的重中之重,而对情感的培养缺乏重视。当然,如果想要出色演唱一首歌,演唱技巧是必不可少的,但是歌曲演唱中若只有演唱技巧是不能够完整表达一部好作品的,更不用说能感染听众。因此,教学者在声乐教学中一定要重视学生情感的培养与发挥。%The main goal of vocal music teaching is to vividly express the emotion of certain works with skillful vocal skills, so as to arouse the audience's enthusiasm.Most vocal music tea- chers attach much importance to vocal skills rather than emotion education. Of course,vocal skill is necessary in singing a song, but its role cannot be given full scope to without emotion, so students' emotion cultivation should be paid much attention to in vocal music teaching.

  7. The effect of vocal music in the classroom interactive teaching and its implementation strategy%声乐课堂中互动教学的作用及其实现策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙树敏

    2014-01-01

    This paper first analyzes the interactive teaching in vocal music classroom research value and significance, and then discussed the role of vocal music in the classroom interaction teaching, final y focuses on vocal music classroom interactive teaching in the implementation of the strategy. The research achievements of this paper would be implemented on the teaching of vocal music in the classroom interaction is of great significance.%本文首先分析了声乐课堂中互动教学的研究价值和意义,然后讨论了声乐课堂中互动教学的作用,最后重点研究了声乐课堂中互动教学的实现策略。本文的研究成果将会对声乐课堂中互动教学的实施具有重要意义。

  8. Techniques for Vocal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiest, Lori

    1997-01-01

    Outlines a series of simple yet effective practices, techniques, and tips for improving the singing voice and minimizing stress on the vocal chords. Describes the four components for producing vocal sound: respiration, phonation, resonation, and articulation. Provides exercises for each and lists symptoms of sickness and vocal strain. (MJP)

  9. Evaluation of Interpolation Strategies for the Morphing of Musical Sound Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly Regueiro, Federico

    Audio morphing is a timbre-transformation technique that produces timbres which lie in between those of two or more given tones. It can thus be seen as the interpolation of timbre descriptors or features. Morphing is most convincing when the features are perceptually relevant and the interpolation is perceived to be smooth and linear. Our research aims at producing practical guidelines for morphing musical sound objects. We define a set of features aimed at representing timbre in a quantifiable fashion, as completely and with as little redundancies as possible. We then report the interpolation of each single feature imposed on an otherwise neutral synthetic sound, exploring strategies to obtain smooth-sounding interpolations. Chosen strategies are then evaluated by morphing recorded acoustic instrumental sounds. All of the scripts and the resulting sounds are available through the www to the reader.

  10. Drum Sound Detection in Polyphonic Music with Hidden Markov Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paulus, Jouni; Klapuri, Anssi

    2009-01-01

    ...) and recognise the instruments played. Contrary to many earlier methods, a separate sound event segmentation is not done, but connected HMMs are used to perform the segmentation and recognition jointly...

  11. Herramienta para mejorar la afinación vocal en Android

    OpenAIRE

    Menchén Martín, Ramón; Barbancho, Ana M.; Herrero Platero, M. Inés; Tardón, Lorenzo J.; Barbancho, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a tool to improve vocal tuning in Android devices is presented. This application aims to offer exercises to practice and improve singing skills. The designed tool includes two main functionalities: sound synthesis, to provide with singing sound references, and fundamental frequency analysis, to analize the sound and check if the user sings the right musical note. The well-known Yin algorithm has been selected to perform the fundamental frequency analysis. Three diff...

  12. 建国后民族声乐艺术风格流变%After the Founding of the National Vocal Music Rheological

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛滋波

    2015-01-01

    当今,我国民族声乐演唱艺术已达到相当成熟的高度,究其成因及发展的流变史,对民族声乐的发展和声乐教学都是一项有益的重要工作。根据建国后声乐艺术风格的流变特点,可将其约划分为探索阶段、发展阶段、创新阶段、繁荣阶段。其各个时期的风格各具特色,表现在演唱方法、声乐曲目、歌唱家代表。纵观民族声乐的发展历史,其风格流变有着自身的发展规律和轨迹,表现为:声乐曲目从具有浓厚的民间特色音调逐渐发展为具有特色的创作曲目;演唱方法逐渐摆脱喉咙挤、气息浅、声音尖亮、音高偏低等特点,向气息深、音域宽、音色厚、音调高等特点发展;歌唱者从单一的民间唱法逐渐向现代的多面性演唱能力方向发展,以及歌手风格的多样化。%Today China's national vocal music art has reached a very mature height. The development and ori-gin of rheology, is an important work for the benefit of national vocal music and vocal music teaching. From 1949 to today the development of vocal art in China can be divided into the exploration stage, development stage, innovation stage, and the prosperity stage, Each period of vocal music art have their own characteris-tics, and reflect the different style of the times the singer has its representative works, vocal music, vocal method etc..

  13. “情”到深处自然浓--试论声乐教学中如何引导学生用“情”%When Love Reaches Deeply, It will be Deep---Try to Discuss How to Guide Students to Express Feelings in Vocal Music Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈欢

    2014-01-01

    歌唱的目的是用科学的发声技巧,生动地表达音乐作品所传达的情感和思想感情;以优美动听的歌声去诠释作品,感动聆听者。结合教学实践,发现声乐课堂中存在着一些情感缺失问题,着重阐述如何引导学生在声乐演唱中运用情感进行一些思考与探索。%The objective is to use the scientific singing vocal skills, the vivid expression of music to convey the emotions and feelings;the beautiful sounds of singing to interpret works,touched the listener. Combining the teaching practice,revealed the presence of vocal music class in some emotion missing issues, focuses on how to guide students in vocal music using the emotion is some thinking and exploration.

  14. Early Musical Training in Bel Canto Vocal Technique: A Brief History and Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstein, Christine Wondolowski

    This paper offers a brief history and philosophy of the origins of bel canto vocal style and describes the pedagogical methods used to achieve bel canto ideals in singing. The document discusses the adoption and development of this technique and how it developed over long periods of preparation in the foregoing centuries before the Baroque era.…

  15. The production and perception of emotionally expressive walking sounds: similarities between musical performance and everyday motor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Bruno L; Egermann, Hauke; Bresin, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the encoding and perception of emotional expressivity in music performance. A relevant question concerns how the ability to communicate emotions in music performance is acquired. In accordance with recent theories on the embodiment of emotion, we suggest here that both the expression and recognition of emotion in music might at least in part rely on knowledge about the sounds of expressive body movements. We test this hypothesis by drawing parallels between musical expression of emotions and expression of emotions in sounds associated with a non-musical motor activity: walking. In a combined production-perception design, two experiments were conducted, and expressive acoustical features were compared across modalities. An initial performance experiment tested for similar feature use in walking sounds and music performance, and revealed that strong similarities exist. Features related to sound intensity, tempo and tempo regularity were identified as been used similarly in both domains. Participants in a subsequent perception experiment were able to recognize both non-emotional and emotional properties of the sound-generating walkers. An analysis of the acoustical correlates of behavioral data revealed that variations in sound intensity, tempo, and tempo regularity were likely used to recognize expressed emotions. Taken together, these results lend support the motor origin hypothesis for the musical expression of emotions.

  16. The production and perception of emotionally expressive walking sounds: similarities between musical performance and everyday motor activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno L Giordano

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated the encoding and perception of emotional expressivity in music performance. A relevant question concerns how the ability to communicate emotions in music performance is acquired. In accordance with recent theories on the embodiment of emotion, we suggest here that both the expression and recognition of emotion in music might at least in part rely on knowledge about the sounds of expressive body movements. We test this hypothesis by drawing parallels between musical expression of emotions and expression of emotions in sounds associated with a non-musical motor activity: walking. In a combined production-perception design, two experiments were conducted, and expressive acoustical features were compared across modalities. An initial performance experiment tested for similar feature use in walking sounds and music performance, and revealed that strong similarities exist. Features related to sound intensity, tempo and tempo regularity were identified as been used similarly in both domains. Participants in a subsequent perception experiment were able to recognize both non-emotional and emotional properties of the sound-generating walkers. An analysis of the acoustical correlates of behavioral data revealed that variations in sound intensity, tempo, and tempo regularity were likely used to recognize expressed emotions. Taken together, these results lend support the motor origin hypothesis for the musical expression of emotions.

  17. The Production and Perception of Emotionally Expressive Walking Sounds: Similarities between Musical Performance and Everyday Motor Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Bruno L.; Egermann, Hauke; Bresin, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the encoding and perception of emotional expressivity in music performance. A relevant question concerns how the ability to communicate emotions in music performance is acquired. In accordance with recent theories on the embodiment of emotion, we suggest here that both the expression and recognition of emotion in music might at least in part rely on knowledge about the sounds of expressive body movements. We test this hypothesis by drawing parallels between musical expression of emotions and expression of emotions in sounds associated with a non-musical motor activity: walking. In a combined production-perception design, two experiments were conducted, and expressive acoustical features were compared across modalities. An initial performance experiment tested for similar feature use in walking sounds and music performance, and revealed that strong similarities exist. Features related to sound intensity, tempo and tempo regularity were identified as been used similarly in both domains. Participants in a subsequent perception experiment were able to recognize both non-emotional and emotional properties of the sound-generating walkers. An analysis of the acoustical correlates of behavioral data revealed that variations in sound intensity, tempo, and tempo regularity were likely used to recognize expressed emotions. Taken together, these results lend support the motor origin hypothesis for the musical expression of emotions. PMID:25551392

  18. Instrument Identification in Polyphonic Music: Feature Weighting to Minimize Influence of Sound Overlaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goto Masataka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a new solution to the problem of feature variations caused by the overlapping of sounds in instrument identification in polyphonic music. When multiple instruments simultaneously play, partials (harmonic components of their sounds overlap and interfere, which makes the acoustic features different from those of monophonic sounds. To cope with this, we weight features based on how much they are affected by overlapping. First, we quantitatively evaluate the influence of overlapping on each feature as the ratio of the within-class variance to the between-class variance in the distribution of training data obtained from polyphonic sounds. Then, we generate feature axes using a weighted mixture that minimizes the influence via linear discriminant analysis. In addition, we improve instrument identification using musical context. Experimental results showed that the recognition rates using both feature weighting and musical context were 84.1 for duo, 77.6 for trio, and 72.3 for quartet; those without using either were 53.4, 49.6, and 46.5 , respectively.

  19. The visual/kinesthetic effects of melodic contour in musical notation as it affects vocal timbre in singers of classical and music theater repertoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Burroughs, Kathryn; Watts, Christopher; Brown, Oren L; Lovetri, Jeannette

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to obtain information from professional singers active in performing of both classical and music theater repertoire with regard to the visual/kinesthetic effect of melodic contour in musical notation as it affects vocal timbre. The evaluation of data gathered during the study indicates that there is reason to investigate the resulting postural shifts of the head and neck because they are guided by visual maps of melodic contour and its inversion. Significantly, it was discovered that the tone quality produced when a singer's head and neck postures followed the natural melodic contour of the melody was in no case considered to be the most pleasing of the conditions studied and that, in many cases, the tone quality produced when a singer's head and neck postures followed a map of the inversion of the melodic contour was judged to be much improved. The results of the study also indicate that the development of new technology for the general teaching studio, designed to address these effects, may be useful to these singers.

  20. My Opinions on the Current Status of Vocal Teaching with the Construction of Group of Vocal Teaching and in the Major Field of Musical Education in Wuhan Conservatory of Music%武音音教专业方向声乐教学现状及其课程群建设的构想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏艳

    2015-01-01

    That the conception of construction of group of vocal teaching in the direction of mu-sical education was based on the experience of reforming vocal program for higher normal college for 20 years, and combined the current situation of the reform in musical education direction in Wuhan Conservatory of Music. Its purpose is to break the oneness structure of vocal program, to establish curriculum structure of comprehensiveness multi-disciplinary, so that to perfect the system of vocal program on musical education.%音教方向声乐课程群建设的构想是基于高师声乐课改革20年来的经验,结合武汉音乐学院音乐教育方向声乐改革现状提出的。旨在打破声乐课单一性结构,建立综合性多学科的课程结构,使音教声乐课程体系更加完善。

  1. Music in film and animation: experimental semiotics applied to visual, sound and musical structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Roger A.

    2010-02-01

    The relationship of music to film has only recently received the attention of experimental psychologists and quantificational musicologists. This paper outlines theory, semiotical analysis, and experimental results using relations among variables of temporally organized visuals and music. 1. A comparison and contrast is developed among the ideas in semiotics and experimental research, including historical and recent developments. 2. Musicological Exploration: The resulting multidimensional structures of associative meanings, iconic meanings, and embodied meanings are applied to the analysis and interpretation of a range of film with music. 3. Experimental Verification: A series of experiments testing the perceptual fit of musical and visual patterns layered together in animations determined goodness of fit between all pattern combinations, results of which confirmed aspects of the theory. However, exceptions were found when the complexity of the stratified stimuli resulted in cognitive overload.

  2. A MISCELLANY ON INDIAN TRADITIONAL MUSIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauf Kerimov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Indian music has a very long, unbroken tradition and is an accumulated heritage of centuries. Music in India was popular among all the sections of society and intertwined in life and culture from birth to death. Indian music was formed with the evolution of ancient religious and secular music. The Indian culture absorbed all the best that was brought by other nations in the process of historical development. The Indian music is quite diverse: there are classical instrumental and vocal works and traditional singing of sacred hymns, folk songs and music of different nations. In contrast to the music scholarship, where typically image is a certain regularity, discipline and harmony, beauty of the traditional Indian music in the free improvisation, which is used by the performer. Listening carefully of this music, the man in a new world, a different sounds and explore a different idea of music for himself. The aim of the Indian music, unlike European musical culture define, explore, create and move depths to people's moods. And the Indian instruments is a miracle, that could reflect all these philosophical and aesthetic views. Along with the vocal art, this musical tradition has rich variety of melodic and rhythmic instruments.

  3. On Measures to Protect and Reform Local Minority Na-tionality Vocal Music in College Vocal Music Teaching%地方少数民族声乐在高校声乐教学中的保护与改革措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许迪迪

    2016-01-01

    随着经济全球化的发展,国内外文化的不断碰撞和交融,给我国传统的、本土的或者具有民族特色的音乐带来了巨大的冲击和挑战,尤其是一些少数民族声乐文化渐渐失去了生存土壤,原本璀璨的光芒日益黯淡。基于此,笔者通过强调发展少数民族音乐,将其融入到高校声乐教学中的重要性,剖析了现阶段我国高校在音乐教学中存在的弊端,进而有针对性地提出了相对可行的高校音乐教学改革建议,希望能够引起社会各界对少数民族声乐的关注和重视。%With the development of economic globalization and the constant integration between domestic and foreign cultures, the local traditional Chinese music with the characteristics of mi-nority nationalities is faced with great challenges, and the vocal music of some minority nationalities has even lost the foundation for its further development and gradually faded away. On this ba-sis, the writer emphasizes the importance of the development of minority nationality music and its integration into college vocal music teaching, analyzes the shortcomings existing in the current vocal music teaching in China's colleges, and then proposes tar-geted suggestions to reform college music teaching, hoping to at-tract the attention of all social sectors to minority nationality vocal music.

  4. The production and perception of emotionally expressive walking sounds : Similarities between musical performance and everyday motor activity

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno L Giordano; Egermann, Hauke; Bresin, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the encoding and perception of emotional expressivity in music performance. A relevant question concerns how the ability to communicate emotions in music performance is acquired. In accordance with recent theories on the embodiment of emotion, we suggest here that both the expression and recognition of emotion in music might at least in part rely on knowledge about the sounds of expressive body movements. We test this hypothesis by drawing parallels between m...

  5. Experiments in Area of Musical Sound in the Chamber and Instrumental Works by Rodion Shchedrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaytseva Marina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article scientifically proves the peculiarities of Rodion Shchedrin’s musical thinking. Having analysed such piano works by Rodion Shchedrin as "Imitating Albéniz", "Humoresque", arranged for violin and piano by D. M. Tsyganov, "Balalaika" for solo violin without a bow, there have been identified composer’s innovations in the field of violin sound. It has been proved that the search for new expressive violin-coloristic resources was due to the desire of the composer to discover the new worlds of sound, create an original work, which would masterfully implement the most complex creative tasks.

  6. On Emotional Expression Training in Higher Vocational Vocal Music Teaching%浅谈高职声乐教学中情感表现的训练

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于洲

    2014-01-01

    Vocal skills and emotional expression are the key links in higher vocational vocal music teaching .However ,some teachers put too much emphasis on the former and ignore the latter in prac-tical teaching process , w hich influences the improvement of vocal music expression ability of the students .Emotional expression training should be based on cultural identification ,follow the com-monality of arts and lead the students to deepen their recognition in works so as to achieve the balance of vocal skills and emotional expression .%发声技能与情感表现是高职声乐教学中的重要环节。但在实际教学过程中,部分教师过于侧重前者而忽视了后者,影响了学生声乐表现能力的提高。情感表现的训练应当基于文化认同,遵循艺术的共同性原则,引导学生深化对作品的认识,达到发声技能与情感表现的平衡。

  7. Comparison of voice-use profiles between elementary classroom and music teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Sharon L; Connor, Nadine P

    2011-05-01

    Among teachers, music teachers are roughly four times more likely than classroom teachers to develop voice-related problems. Although it has been established that music teachers use their voices at high intensities and durations in the course of their workday, voice-use profiles concerning the amount and intensity of vocal use and vocal load have neither been quantified nor has vocal load for music teachers been compared with classroom teachers using these same voice-use parameters. In this study, total phonation time, fundamental frequency (F₀), and vocal intensity (dB SPL [sound pressure level]) were measured or estimated directly using a KayPENTAX Ambulatory Phonation Monitor (KayPENTAX, Lincoln Park, NJ). Vocal load was calculated as cycle and distance dose, as defined by Švec et al (2003), which integrates total phonation time, F₀, and vocal intensity. Twelve participants (n = 7 elementary music teachers and n = 5 elementary classroom teachers) were monitored during five full teaching days of one workweek to determine average vocal load for these two groups of teachers. Statistically significant differences in all measures were found between the two groups (P music teachers are substantially higher than those experienced by classroom teachers (P benefits in vocal health in music teachers.

  8. An analysis of post-vocalic /s-ʃ/ neutralization in Augsburg German: evidence for a gradient sound change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique eBukmaier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study is concerned with a sound change in progress by which a post-vocalic, pre-consonantal /s-ʃ/ contrast in the standard variety of German (SG in words such as west/wäscht (/vɛst/~/vɛʃt/, west/washes is influencing the Augsburg German (AG variety in which they have been hitherto neutralized as /veʃt/. Two of the main issues to be considered are whether the change is necessarily categorical; and the extent to which the change affects both speech production and perception equally. For the production experiment, younger and older AG and SG speakers merged syllables of hypothetical town names to create a blend at the potential neutralization site. These results showed a trend for a progressively greater /s-ʃ/ differentiation in the order older AG, younger AG, and SG speakers. For the perception experiment, forced-choice responses were obtained from the same subjects who had participated in the production experiment to a 16-step /s-ʃ/ continuum that was embedded into two contexts: /mɪst-mɪʃt/ in which /s-ʃ/ are neutralized in AG and /vəˈmɪsə/-/vəˈmɪʃə/ in which they are not. The results from both experiments are indicative of a sound change in progress such that the neutralization is being undone under the influence of SG, but in such a way that there is a gradual shift between categories. The closer approximation of the groups on perception suggests that the sound change may be more advanced on this modality than in production. Overall, the findings are consistent with the idea that phonological contrasts are experience-based, i.e. a continuous function of the extent to which a subject is exposed to, and makes use of, the distinction and are thus compatible with exemplar models of speech.

  9. "The Sound of Fear": assessing vocal fundamental frequency as a physiological indicator of social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Justin W; Lee, Chao-Yang; Reilly, Alison R; Howell, Ashley N; France, Christopher; Kowalsky, Jennifer M; Bush, Ashley

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between vocal pitch and social anxiety disorder (SAD) has been examined with encouraging initial results, highlighting increased fundamental frequency (F0) as a physiological indicator of SAD. The present series of studies examined the relationship between F0 emitted during social threat and SAD symptoms. Two independent samples of SAD patients, and a sample of demographically-equivalent non-socially anxious controls (NSACs), completed varying social threat tasks which involved speech. Mean F0 emitted throughout the tasks was examined. Male SAD patients emitted greater F0 in comparison to NSACs across studies. For females, this relationship was significant only when examined in patients with SAD of the generalized subtype, and in response to in vivo social exposures. Furthermore, gender-specific thresholds for overall F0 emitted during social threat were identified which demonstrated excellent differentiation between patients with generalized SAD and NSACs. These results provide additional support for increased F0 as a physiological indicator of SAD.

  10. Several Problems often Neglected in the Teaching of Vocal Music%声乐教学中常被忽略的几个问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娜

    2014-01-01

    声乐教学中,教师的感染力问题、教育模式的问题、情绪影响因素、呼吸基础因素等都可能使学生在声乐学习中产生一定影响,而这些又是声乐教学中易被人们忽略的问题,教师在教学的过程中应给予注意。教师应言传身教,因人而异指导,在教学中,注意指导学生情绪,掌握正确的呼吸方式,使学生达到最佳的表演状态。%In the teaching of vocal music, the teacher appeal issues, education mode,emotional problems affecting factors, the basis of breath and other factors may make students in vocal music learning have a certain impact, and these are the teaching of vocal music in the easily neglected problems, teachers should give attention to in the process of teaching. Teachers should teach by precept and example, because of the person different guidance in teaching, pay attention to guiding students to master the correct emotion, breath way, enable the student to achieve the best performance.

  11. On emotional expression value in vocal music art%浅析情感表达在声乐艺术中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭锡颐

    2013-01-01

    The art of vocal music is the art of emotional expression, emotional expression is strong, true, the more most incisive reflects the style of the song, to convey the mood and meaning of express the song.Based on the description of emotion expression way in the art of vocal music, and further analyzes the emotional expression in vocal music art in action.%  声乐艺术是表达情感的艺术,情感表达越强烈、真实,就越能淋漓尽致的体现出歌曲的风格,传达歌曲所要表达的意境和含义。本文在阐述声乐艺术中情感表达的方式的基础上,进一步就情感表达在声乐艺术中的作用进行了分析。

  12. The content of vocal music teaching innovation and the important significance%高校声乐教学创新的内涵与重要意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童惠

    2015-01-01

    高校声乐教学,首先必须以坚实的基础知识为根据,不应当小视知识的重要作用,单凭所谓"艺术感觉",反对理性知识.尤其是在"知识经济"的21世纪,各领域无不以丰富扎实的知识为智力支撑与动力保证,声乐演唱与声乐教学也毫不例外.%Vocal music teaching in university, must first to solid foundation based on knowledge, and should not be lightly the important role of knowledge, only by the so-called "artistic feeling", opposed to rational knowledge. In the 21st century, especially in the "knowledge economy" in various fields is to enrich the solid knowledge for intellectual support and motivation that vocal music and vocal music teaching is no exception.

  13. Right hemisphere specialization for intensity discrimination of musical and speech sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancucci, Alfredo; Babiloni, Claudio; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Romani, Gian Luca

    2005-01-01

    Sound intensity is the primary and most elementary feature of auditory signals. Its discrimination plays a fundamental role in different behaviours related to auditory perception such as sound source localization, motion detection, and recognition of speech sounds. This study was aimed at investigating hemispheric asymmetries for processing intensity of complex tones and consonant-vowel syllables. Forty-four right-handed non-musicians were presented with two dichotic matching-to-sample tests with focused attention: one with complex tones of different intensities (musical test) and the other with consonant-vowel syllables of different intensities (speech test). Intensity differences (60, 70, and 80 dBA) were obtained by altering the gain of a synthesized harmonic tone (260 Hz fundamental frequency) and of a consonant-vowel syllable (/ba/) recorded from a natural voice. Dependent variables were accuracy and reaction time. Results showed a significant clear-cut left ear advantage in both tests for both dependent variables. A monaural control experiment ruled out possible attentional biases. This study provides behavioural evidence of a right hemisphere specialization for the perception of the intensity of musical and speech sounds in healthy subjects.

  14. Effects of the false vocal folds on sound generation by an unsteady glottal jet through rigid wall model of the larynx

    OpenAIRE

    Nomura, Hideyuki; Funada, Tetsuo

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper, the effects of the false vocal folds (FVFs) on sound generation induced by an unsteady glottal jet through a two-dimensional rigid wall model of the larynx are investigated by conducting numerical experiments. The glottal jets are simulated by solving the basic equations for a compressible viscous fluid based on the larynx model with and without the FVFs. The existence of the FVFs increases the amplitude of noise-like pressure fluctuation at the glottis and faraway from ...

  15. Musical ability and non-native speech-sound processing are linked through sensitivity to pitch and spectral information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Vera; Bublitz, Dennis; Brooks, Patricia J

    2015-05-01

    Is the observed link between musical ability and non-native speech-sound processing due to enhanced sensitivity to acoustic features underlying both musical and linguistic processing? To address this question, native English speakers (N = 118) discriminated Norwegian tonal contrasts and Norwegian vowels. Short tones differing in temporal, pitch, and spectral characteristics were used to measure sensitivity to the various acoustic features implicated in musical and speech processing. Musical ability was measured using Gordon's Advanced Measures of Musical Audiation. Results showed that sensitivity to specific acoustic features played a role in non-native speech-sound processing: Controlling for non-verbal intelligence, prior foreign language-learning experience, and sex, sensitivity to pitch and spectral information partially mediated the link between musical ability and discrimination of non-native vowels and lexical tones. The findings suggest that while sensitivity to certain acoustic features partially mediates the relationship between musical ability and non-native speech-sound processing, complex tests of musical ability also tap into other shared mechanisms. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Plethysmogram and EEG: Effects of Music and Voice Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Tiejun; Oyama-Higa, Mayumi; Sato, Sadaka; Kojima, Junji; Lin, Juan; Reika, Sato

    2011-06-01

    We studied a relation of chaotic dynamics of finger plethysmogram to complexity of high cerebral center in both theoretical and experimental approaches. We proposed a mathematical model to describe emergence of chaos in finger tip pulse wave, which gave a theoretical prediction indicating increased chaoticity in higher cerebral center leading to an increase of chaos dynamics in plethysmograms. We designed an experiment to observe scalp-EEG and finger plethysmogram using two mental tasks to validate the relationship. We found that scalp-EEG showed an increase of the largest Lyapunov exponents (LLE) during speaking certain voices. Topographical scalp map of LLE showed enhanced arise around occipital and right cerebral area. Whereas there was decreasing tendency during listening music, where LLE scalp map revealed a drop around center cerebral area. The same tendency was found for LLE obtained from finger plethysmograms as ones of EEG under either speaking or listening tasks. The experiment gave results that agreed well with the theoretical relation derived from our proposed model.

  17. A Joyful Noise: The Vocal Health of Worship Leaders and Contemporary Christian Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Leon; Meyer, David

    2016-08-15

    Contemporary commercial music (CCM) is a term that encompasses many styles of music. A growing subset of CCM is contemporary Christian music, a genre that has outpaced other popular styles such as Latin, jazz, and classical music. Contemporary Christian singers (CCSs) and worship leaders (WLs) are a subset of CCM musicians that face unique vocal demands and risks. They typically lack professional training and often perform in acoustically disadvantageous venues with substandard sound reinforcement systems. The vocal needs and risks of these singers are not well understood, and because of this, their training and care may be suboptimal. The aim of the present study was to investigate the vocal health of this growing population and their awareness of standard vocal hygiene principles. An online questionnaire was designed and administered to participants in the Americas, Europe, Australia, and Asia. A total of 614 participants responded to the questionnaire, which is made available in English, Portuguese, and Spanish. Many participants reported vocal symptoms such as vocal fatigue (n = 213; 34.7%), tickling or choking sensation (n = 149; 24.3%), loss of upper range (n = 172; 28%), and complete loss of voice (n = 25; 4.1%). One third of the participants (n = 210; 34%) indicated that they do not warm up their voices before performances and over half of the participants (n = 319; 52%) have no formal vocal training. Results suggest that this population demonstrates low awareness of vocal hygiene principles, frequently experience difficulty with their voices, and may face elevated risk of vocal pathology. Future studies of this population may confirm the vocal risks that our preliminary findings suggest.

  18. Auditory learning through active engagement with sound: Biological impact of community music lessons in at-risk children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina eKraus

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The young nervous system is primed for sensory learning, facilitating the acquisition of language and communication skills. Social and linguistic impoverishment can limit these learning opportunities, eventually leading to language-related challenges such as poor reading. Music training offers a promising auditory learning strategy by directing attention to meaningful acoustic elements in the soundscape. In light of evidence that music training improves auditory skills and their neural substrates, there are increasing efforts to enact community-based programs to provide music instruction to at-risk children. Harmony Project is a community foundation that has provided free music instruction to over 1,000 children from Los Angeles gang-reduction zones over the past decade. We conducted an independent evaluation of biological effects of participating in Harmony Project by following a cohort of children for one year. Here we focus on a comparison between students who actively engaged with sound through instrumental music training vs. students who took music appreciation classes. All children began with an introductory music appreciation class, but midway through the year half of the children transitioned to an instrumental training class. After the year of training, the children who actively engaged with sound through instrumental music training had faster and more robust neural processing of speech than the children who stayed in the music appreciation class, observed in neural responses to a speech sound /d/. The neurophysiological measures found to be enhanced in the instrumentally trained children have been previously linked to reading ability, suggesting a gain in neural processes important for literacy stemming from active auditory learning. These findings speak to the potential of active engagement with sound (i.e., music-making to engender experience-dependent neuroplasticity during trand may inform the development of strategies for auditory

  19. Auditory learning through active engagement with sound: biological impact of community music lessons in at-risk children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Nina; Slater, Jessica; Thompson, Elaine C; Hornickel, Jane; Strait, Dana L; Nicol, Trent; White-Schwoch, Travis

    2014-01-01

    The young nervous system is primed for sensory learning, facilitating the acquisition of language and communication skills. Social and linguistic impoverishment can limit these learning opportunities, eventually leading to language-related challenges such as poor reading. Music training offers a promising auditory learning strategy by directing attention to meaningful acoustic elements of the soundscape. In light of evidence that music training improves auditory skills and their neural substrates, there are increasing efforts to enact community-based programs to provide music instruction to at-risk children. Harmony Project is a community foundation that has provided free music instruction to over 1000 children from Los Angeles gang-reduction zones over the past decade. We conducted an independent evaluation of biological effects of participating in Harmony Project by following a cohort of children for 1 year. Here we focus on a comparison between students who actively engaged with sound through instrumental music training vs. students who took music appreciation classes. All children began with an introductory music appreciation class, but midway through the year half of the children transitioned to the instrumental training. After the year of training, the children who actively engaged with sound through instrumental music training had faster and more robust neural processing of speech than the children who stayed in the music appreciation class, observed in neural responses to a speech sound /d/. The neurophysiological measures found to be enhanced in the instrumentally-trained children have been previously linked to reading ability, suggesting a gain in neural processes important for literacy stemming from active auditory learning. Despite intrinsic constraints on our study imposed by a community setting, these findings speak to the potential of active engagement with sound (i.e., music-making) to engender experience-dependent neuroplasticity and may inform the

  20. Male Music Frogs Compete Vocally on the Basis of Temporal Sequence Rather Than Spatial Cues of Rival Calls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan JIANG; Guangzhan FANG; Fei XUE; Jianguo CUI; Steven E BRAUTH; Yezhong TANG

    2015-01-01

    Male-male vocal competition in anuran species may be influenced by cues related to the temporal sequence of male calls as well by internal temporal, spectral and spatial ones. Nevertheless, the conditions under which each type of cue is important remain unclear. Since the salience of different cues could be reflected by dynamic properties of male-male competition under certain experimental manipulation, we investigated the effects of repeating playbacks of conspecific calls on male call production in the Emei music frog (Babina daunchina). In Babina, most males produce calls from nest burrows which modify the spectral features of the cues. Females prefer calls produced from inside burrows which are defined as highly sexually attractive (HSA) while those produced outside burrows as low sexual attractiveness (LSA). In this study HSA and LSA calls were broadcasted either antiphonally or stereophonically through spatially separated speakers in which the temporal sequence and/or spatial position of the playbacks was either predictable or random. Results showed that most males consistently avoided producing advertisement calls overlapping the playback stimuli and generally produced calls competitively in advance of the playbacks. Furthermore males preferentially competed with the HSA calls when the sequence was predictable but competed equally with HSA and LSA calls if the sequence was random regardless of the availability of spatial cues, implying that males relied more on available sequence cues than spatial ones to remain competitive.

  1. Persistent responsiveness of long-latency auditory cortical activities in response to repeated stimuli of musical timbre and vowel sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriki, Shinya; Ohta, Keisuke; Koyama, Sachiko

    2007-11-01

    Long-latency auditory-evoked magnetic field and potential show strong attenuation of N1m/N1 responses when an identical stimulus is presented repeatedly due to adaptation of auditory cortical neurons. This adaptation is weak in subsequently occurring P2m/P2 responses, being weaker for piano chords than single piano notes. The adaptation of P2m is more suppressed in musicians having long-term musical training than in nonmusicians, whereas the amplitude of P2 is enhanced preferentially in musicians as the spectral complexity of musical tones increases. To address the key issues of whether such high responsiveness of P2m/P2 responses to complex sounds is intrinsic and common to nonmusical sounds, we conducted a magnetoencephalographic study on participants who had no experience of musical training, using consecutive trains of piano and vowel sounds. The dipole moment of the P2m sources located in the auditory cortex indicated significantly suppressed adaptation in the right hemisphere both to piano and vowel sounds. Thus, the persistent responsiveness of the P2m activity may be inherent, not induced by intensive training, and common to spectrally complex sounds. The right hemisphere dominance of the responsiveness to musical and speech sounds suggests analysis of acoustic features of object sounds to be a significant function of P2m activity.

  2. Residual neural processing of musical sound features in adult cochlear implant users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia eTimm

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAuditory processing in general and music perception in particular are hampered in adult Cochlear Implant (CI users. To examine the residual music perception skills and their underlying neural correlates in CI users implanted in adolescence or adulthood, we conducted an electrophysiological and behavioural study comparing adult CI users with normal-hearing age-matched controls (NH controls. We used a newly developed musical multi-feature paradigm, which makes it possible to test automatic auditory discrimination of six different types of sound feature changes inserted within a musical enriched setting lasting only 20 minutes. The presentation of stimuli did not require the participants’ attention, allowing the study of the early automatic stage of feature processing in the auditory cortex. For the CI users, we obtained mismatch negativity (MMN brain responses to five feature changes but not to changes of rhythm, whereas we obtained MMNs for all the feature changes in the NH controls. Furthermore, the MMNs to Deviants of pitch of CI users were reduced in amplitude and later than those of NH controls for changes of pitch and guitar timbre. No other group differences in MMN parameters were found to changes in intensity and saxophone timbre. Furthermore, the MMNs in CI users reflected the behavioral scores from a respective discrimination task and were correlated with patients’ age and speech intelligibility. Our results suggest that even though CI users are not performing at the same level as NH controls in neural discrimination of pitch-based features, they do possess potential neural abilities for music processing. However, CI users showed a disrupted ability to automatically discriminate rhythmic changes compared with controls. The current behavioural and MMN findings highlight the residual neural skills for music processing even in CI users who have been implanted in adolescence or adulthood.

  3. 金铁霖民族声乐教学的哲学基础与美学规范%The Philosophical Basis and Aesthetic Standard of Jin Tielin's National Vocal Music Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武江丽

    2016-01-01

    在继承中华民族优秀声乐演唱传统的同时金铁霖教授也在声乐教学中融入了必要的时代元素,这更加符合这一时期民众的审美需求,其声乐教学成就令人瞩目。其声乐学派的形成是马克思主义哲学与我国民族声乐教学的成功结合。本文针对金铁霖教授民族声乐教学的哲学基础与美学规范进行了深入分析。%As a professor, Jin Tielin not only inherited Chinese excellent tradition of vocal music performances but also integ-rated some necessary elements of the era into vocal music teaching, which agrees with people's aesthetic tastes and gains great achievements. The formation of vocal music school is a successful combination of Marxist philosophy and Chinese national vocal music teaching. In this paper, the author deeply analyzes the philosophical foundation and aesthetic norm of Prof. Jin's national vocal music teaching.

  4. Sound Hole Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Politzer, David

    2015-01-01

    The volume of air that goes in and out of a musical instrument's sound hole is related to the sound hole's contribution to the volume of the sound. Helmholtz's result for the simplest case of steady flow through an elliptical hole is reviewed. Measurements on multiple holes in sound box geometries and scales relevant to real musical instruments demonstrate the importance of a variety of effects. Electric capacitance of single flat plates is a mathematically identical problem, offering an alternate way to understand the most important of those effects. The measurements also confirm and illuminate aspects of Helmholtz's "bottle" resonator model as applied to musical instrument sound boxes and sound holes.

  5. 论声乐教学中对歌词内涵的理解%On Lyric Connotation Understanding in Vocal Music Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁柰

    2012-01-01

    声乐作品中歌词所包含的内容赋予了旋律准确的音乐形象,准确的音乐形象表达了歌词应有的情绪内涵,因此,深刻准确地理解作品内容是演唱的生命线。将歌词和旋律所要表达的内容和情绪二者进行分析和恰当融合,能使歌词拥有生命,能使旋律拥有灵魂,为作品的整体表达提供依据。%The content of vocal work endues the melodies with accurate musical images and the accurate musical images reflect the emotions of lyrics. Thus, understanding the content of vocal work in - depth and accuracy is the lifeline of singing. It is quite important to analyze the contents and emotions and mix them together so as to make the lyrics with lives and the melody with souls. All these provide ground for general expressions of the vocal work.

  6. Study of body language in the art of vocal music performance%声乐表演艺术中的肢体语言研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭维熹

    2014-01-01

    The research results show that human behavior, human body language, and the language can express many emotions in people's heart. Not only that, body movements in vocal performances can also bring certain aesthetic feeling to viewer. In this paper, the body language in vocal music performance as the research object, to analyze and discuss the principle of vocal music performance of body language and the principle body language need to comply with.%人类行为学的研究成果表明,人的形体具有语言性,且这种语言性可以表现出人们内心诸多的情感。不仅如此,声乐表演中形体动作还可以为观赏者带来一定的美感。本文以声乐表演中的肢体语言为研究对象,分析和论述了声乐表演对肢体语言的要求以及肢体语言在运用时需要遵守的原则。

  7. Music and Sound Elements in Time Estimation and Production of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Rogerio Jorgensen Carrer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ADHD involves cognitive and behavioral aspects with impairments in many environments of children and their families’ lives. Music, with its playful, spontaneous, affective, motivational, temporal and rhythmic dimensions can be of great help for studying the aspects of time processing in ADHD. In this article we studied time processing with simple sounds and music in children with ADHD with the hypothesis that children with ADHD have a different performance when compared with children with normal development in tasks of time estimation and production. The main objective was to develop sound and musical tasks to evaluate and correlate the performance of children with ADHD, with and without methylphenidate, compared to a control group with typical development. The study involved 36 participants age 6 to 14 years, recruited at NANI-Unifesp/SP, sub-divided into three groups with 12 children in each. Data was collected through a musical keyboard using Logic Audio Software 9.0 on the computer that recorded the participant's performance in the tasks. Tasks were divided into sections: spontaneous time production, time estimation with simple sounds and time estimation with music. Results: 1. Performance of ADHD groups in temporal estimation of simple sounds in short time intervals (30 ms were statistically lower than control group (p<0,05; 2. In the task comparing musical excerpts of the same duration (7s, ADHD groups considered the tracks longer when the musical notes had longer durations, while in the control group, the duration was related to the density of musical notes in the track. The positive average performance observed in the three groups in most tasks perhaps indicates the possibility that music can, in some way, positively modulate the symptoms of inattention in ADHD.

  8. Sensorimotor Control of Sound-Producing Gestures, Musical Gestures - Sound, Movement, and Meaning

    OpenAIRE

    Gibet, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter, we focus on sensorimotor models of sound-producing gestures. These models are studied from two different viewpoints, namely theories for motor control, and computer synthesis of avatars that produce human gesture. The theories aim to understand gesture on the basis of the underlying biomechanics, whereas the computer synthesis aims to understand entire gestures on the basis ofsensorimotor control models The emphasis of this chapter is on hand-arm gestures, from simple control...

  9. La interpretación musical vocal en educación secundaria obligatoria

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-González, María Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo trata de exponer una nueva forma de llevar a cabo la materia de música mediante la actividad coral dentro del marco escolar. Así mismo en la investigación se explica la importancia del canto en la educación musical Secundaria y diversas teorías sobre la muda de la voz en los adolescentes. Por otro lado, se pretende dar a conocer los resultados de un estudio de fonación realizado a los alumnos del Coro Rey Sancho de Tafalla, aplicando y basándonos en una réplica de un estudio real...

  10. Musical experience strengthens the neural representation of sounds important for communication in middle-aged adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eParbery-Clark

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Older adults frequently complain that while they can hear a person talking, they cannot understand what is being said; this difficulty is exacerbated by background noise. Peripheral hearing loss cannot fully account for this age-related decline in speech-in-noise ability, as declines in central processing also contribute to this problem. Given that musicians have enhanced speech-in-noise perception, we aimed to define the effects of musical experience on subcortical responses to speech and speech-in-noise perception in middle-aged adults. Results reveal that musicians have enhanced neural encoding of speech in quiet and noisy settings. Enhancements include faster neural response timing, higher neural response consistency, more robust encoding of speech harmonics and greater neural precision. Taken together, we suggest that musical experience provides perceptual benefits in an aging population by strengthening the underlying neural pathways necessary for accurate representation of important temporal and spectral features of sound.

  11. Musical experience strengthens the neural representation of sounds important for communication in middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Anderson, Samira; Hittner, Emily; Kraus, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Older adults frequently complain that while they can hear a person talking, they cannot understand what is being said; this difficulty is exacerbated by background noise. Peripheral hearing loss cannot fully account for this age-related decline in speech-in-noise ability, as declines in central processing also contribute to this problem. Given that musicians have enhanced speech-in-noise perception, we aimed to define the effects of musical experience on subcortical responses to speech and speech-in-noise perception in middle-aged adults. Results reveal that musicians have enhanced neural encoding of speech in quiet and noisy settings. Enhancements include faster neural response timing, higher neural response consistency, more robust encoding of speech harmonics, and greater neural precision. Taken together, we suggest that musical experience provides perceptual benefits in an aging population by strengthening the underlying neural pathways necessary for the accurate representation of important temporal and spectral features of sound.

  12. The effectiveness and influence of Vocal and Instrumental Improvisation in Music Therapy on children diagnosed with autism. Pilot Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knapik-Szweda, Sara

    2015-01-01

    .... The results indicate a positive outcome in two music therapy observing tools: Scale I Child – Therapist Relationship in Coactive Musical Experience Rating Form and Scale II Musical Communicativeness Rating Form...

  13. Timbral Sharpness and Modulations in Frequency and Amplitude: Implications for the Fusion of Musical Sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goad, Pamela Joy

    The fusion of musical voices is an important aspect of musical blend, or the mixing of individual sounds. Yet, little research has been done to explicitly determine the factors involved in fusion. In this study, the similarity of timbre and modulation were examined for their contribution to the fusion of sounds. It is hypothesized that similar timbres will fuse better than dissimilar timbres, and, voices with the same kind of modulation will fuse better than voices of different modulations. A perceptually-based measure, known as sharpness was investigated as a measure of timbre. The advantages of using sharpness are that it is based on hearing sensitivities and masking phenomena of inner ear processing. Five musical instrument families were digitally recorded in performances across a typical playing range at two extreme dynamic levels. Analyses reveal that sharpness is capable of uncovering subtle changes in timbre including those found in musical dynamics, instrument design, and performer-specific variations. While these analyses alone are insufficient to address fusion, preliminary calculations of timbral combinations indicate that sharpness has the potential to predict the fusion of sounds used in musical composition. Three experiments investigated the effects of modulation on the fusion of a harmonic major sixth interval. In the first experiment using frequency modulation, stimuli varied in deviation about a mean fundamental frequency and relative modulation phase between the two tones. Results showed smaller frequency deviations promoted fusion and relative phase differences had a minimal effect. In a second experiment using amplitude modulation, stimuli varied in deviation about a mean amplitude level and relative phase of modulation. Results showed smaller amplitude deviations promoted better fusion, but unlike frequency modulation, relative phase differences were also important. In a third experiment, frequency modulation, amplitude modulation and mixed

  14. Curriculum Reform of Vocal Music Course Based on the Action-oriented Methodology%基于行动导向的《声乐》课程改革与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖晓芬

    2014-01-01

    广州工商学院《声乐》课程坚持以声乐表演岗位能力培养为重点,着眼学生可持续发展的设计理念,重点对《声乐》课程教学如何实现基于工作过程导向的教学改革进行了探索与实践。%The Vocal Music course in Guangzhou College of Technology and Business has put a huge emphasis on the vocal music performing ability of the students. Focusing on the concept of the students’ sustainable development, the Vocal Music course has been exploring and practicing the teaching reform based on the work process-oriented methodology.

  15. Expect the Unexpected: Experimental music, or the ignorance of sound design

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Experimental music is a style of music that defines itself by opposition to other music styles. Many music lovers define their musical experience in opposition to other music styles,1 but experimental music bases its own characteristics not on rythmic or melodic patterns, or specific instruments, but on the very idea of difference. Experimental music is music that differs. And quite often, together with this idea of difference, comes the idea of surprise. The audience expects that songs or pe...

  16. Part I: Sound color in the music of Gyorgy Kurtag, Part II: "Leopard's Path," thirteen visions for chamber ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iachimciuc, Igor

    The dissertation is in two parts, a theoretical study and a musical composition. In Part I the music of Gyorgy Kurtag is analyzed from the point of view of sound color. A brief description of what is understood by the term sound color, and various ways of achieving specific coloristic effects, are presented in the Introduction. An examination of Kurtag's approaches to the domain of sound color occupies the chapters that follow. The musical examples that are analyzed are selected from Kurtag's different compositional periods, showing a certain consistency in sound color techniques, the most important of which are already present in the String Quartet, Op. 1. The compositions selected for analysis are written for different ensembles, but regardless of the instrumentation, certain principles of the formation and organization of sound color remain the same. Rather than relying on extended instrumental techniques, Kurtag creates a large variety of sound colors using traditional means such as pitch material, register, density, rhythm, timbral combinations, dynamics, texture, spatial displacement of the instruments, and the overall musical context. Each sound color unit in Kurtag's music is a separate entity, conceived as a complete microcosm. Sound color units can either be juxtaposed as contrasting elements, forming sound color variations, or superimposed, often resulting in a Klangfarbenmelodie effect. Some of the same gestural figures (objets trouves) appear in different compositions, but with significant coloristic modifications. Thus, the principle of sound color variations is not only a strong organizational tool, but also a characteristic stylistic feature of the music of Gyorgy Kurtag. Part II, Leopard's Path (2010), for flute, clarinet, violin, cello, cimbalom, and piano, is an original composition inspired by the painting of Jesse Allen, a San Francisco based artist. The composition is conceived as a cycle of thirteen short movements. Ten of these movements are

  17. Modificações vocais acústicas produzidas pelo som hiperagudo Acoustic vocal modifications produced by high-pitched sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geise Roman-Niehues

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: descrever as modificações vocais acústicas após a produção da técnica vocal do som hiperagudo em mulheres adultas jovens, sem queixas vocais e com laringe normal. MÉTODOS: participaram do estudo 23 sujeitos que assinaram o Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido, preencheram um questionário, realizaram avaliação otorrinolaringológica com laringoscopia indireta, exame dos órgãos fonoarticulatórios e funções estomatognáticas e triagem auditiva. Realizaram o som hiperagudo em três séries de 15 repetições, em tempo máximo de fonação com intervalos de 30 segundos de repouso passivo entre cada série. A análise vocal acústica foi realizada através do Multi-Dimensional Voice Program, Modelo 5105, da Kay Pentax. RESULTADOS: na avaliação acústica vocal, após o som hiperagudo, constatou-se o aumento das medidas de frequência fundamental e das medidas de perturbação da frequência fundamental, diminuição das medidas de perturbação da intensidade, ruído, quebra de voz, irregularidade da voz e tremor, mas não houve significância estatística em todas as medidas oferecidas pelo programa. CONCLUSÃO: neste grupo, os sons hiperagudos não produziram efeitos acústicos estatisticamente significantes sobre o sinal vocal.PURPOSE: to describe acoustic vocal modifications that may occur after the vocal technique production of high-pitched sound in young adult women without voice complaints and with normal larynx. METHODS: 23 subjects participated in the study and signed the Free and Clarified Consent, completed a questionnaire, the ear, nose and throat evaluation was performed with indirect laryngoscopy; stomatognathic system evaluation, and hearing screening. They produced the high-pitched sound in three series of fifteen repetitions, maximum time speech with intervals of 30-second rest between each series. Vocal acoustic analysis was carried out using the Multi-Dimensional Voice Program Model 5105, of Kay

  18. Music training enhances rapid neural plasticity of n1 and p2 source activation for unattended sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppänen, Miia; Hämäläinen, Jarmo; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2012-01-01

    Neurocognitive studies have demonstrated that long-term music training enhances the processing of unattended sounds. It is not clear, however, whether music training also modulates rapid (within tens of minutes) neural plasticity for sound encoding. To study this phenomenon, we examined whether adult musicians display enhanced rapid neural plasticity compared to non-musicians. More specifically, we compared the modulation of P1, N1, and P2 responses to standard sounds between four unattended passive blocks. Among the standard sounds, infrequently presented deviant sounds were presented (the so-called oddball paradigm). In the middle of the experiment (after two blocks), an active task was presented. Source analysis for event-related potentials (ERPs) showed that N1 and P2 source activation was selectively decreased in musicians after 15 min of passive exposure to sounds and that P2 source activation was found to be re-enhanced after the active task in musicians. Additionally, ERP analysis revealed that in both musicians and non-musicians, P2 ERP amplitude was enhanced after 15 min of passive exposure but only at the frontal electrodes. Furthermore, in musicians, the N1 ERP was enhanced after the active discrimination task but only at the parietal electrodes. Musical training modulates the rapid neural plasticity reflected in N1 and P2 source activation for unattended regular standard sounds. Enhanced rapid plasticity of N1 and P2 is likely to reflect faster auditory perceptual learning in musicians.

  19. Tragicomedy, Melodrama, and Genre in Early Sound Films: The Case of Two “Sad Clown” Musicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Garber

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This interdisciplinary study applies the theatrical theories of stage genres to examples of the early sound cinema, the 1930 Hollywood musicals Puttin’ on the Ritz (starring Harry Richman, and with songs by Irving Berlin and Free and Easy (starring Buster Keaton. The discussion focuses on the phenomenon of the sad clown as a symbol of tragicomedy. Springing from Rick Altman’s delineation of the “sad clown” sub-subgenre of the show musical subgenre, outlined in The American Film Musical, this article shows that, in these seminal movie musicals, naïve melodrama and “gag” comedy coexist with the tonalities, structures, philosophy, and images of the sophisticated genre of tragicomedy, including by incorporating the grotesque into the mise en scene of their musical production numbers.

  20. Female listeners’ autonomic responses to dramatic shifts between loud and soft music/sound passages: a study of heavy metal songs

    OpenAIRE

    Tzu-Han eCheng; Chen-Gia eTsai

    2016-01-01

    Although music and the emotion it conveys unfold over time, little is known about how listeners respond to shifts in musical emotions. A special technique in heavy metal music utilizes dramatic shifts between loud and soft passages. Loud passages are penetrated by distorted sounds conveying aggression, whereas soft passages are often characterized by a clean, calm singing voice and light accompaniment. The present study used heavy metal songs and soft sea sounds to examine how female listener...

  1. Female Listeners’ Autonomic Responses to Dramatic Shifts Between Loud and Soft Music/Sound Passages: A Study of Heavy Metal Songs

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Tzu-Han; Tsai, Chen-Gia

    2016-01-01

    Although music and the emotion it conveys unfold over time, little is known about how listeners respond to shifts in musical emotions. A special technique in heavy metal music utilizes dramatic shifts between loud and soft passages. Loud passages are penetrated by distorted sounds conveying aggression, whereas soft passages are often characterized by a clean, calm singing voice and light accompaniment. The present study used heavy metal songs and soft sea sounds to examine how female listener...

  2. Effect of the combination of music and nature sounds on pain and anxiety in cardiac surgical patients: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Brent A; Cutshall, Susanne A; Anderson, Patricia G; Prinsen, Sharon K; Wentworth, Laura J; Olney, Tammy J; Messner, Penny K; Brekke, Karen M; Li, Zhuo; Sundt, Thoralf M; Kelly, Ryan F; Bauer, Brent A

    2011-01-01

    Postoperative pain and anxiety are common in cardiac surgery patients. Studies have suggested that music can decrease anxiety in hospitalized patients. Primary Study Objective This study focused on the efficacy and feasibility of special music, which included nature sounds, for pain and anxiety. In this randomized controlled trial, postoperative cardiovascular surgery patients were randomly assigned to a music group to receive 20 minutes of standard postoperative care and music twice daily on postoperative days 2 through 4 or to a control group to receive 20 minutes of standard care with a quiet resting period twice daily on postoperative days 2 through 4. Cardiovascular surgical unit of Saint Marys Hospital, Rochester, Minnesota. One hundred patients completed the study (music group, n = 49; control group, n = 51). Intervention The music was delivered through CD players in the patients' rooms. Pain, anxiety, satisfaction, and relaxation were evaluated from visual analog scales. Data showed a significant decrease in mean (SD) pain scores after the second session of day 2 for the music group (change, ?1.4 [1.4]) compared with the control group (change, ?0.4 [1.4]) (P = .001). Mean relaxation scores improved more at the first session of day 2 for the music group (change, 1.9 [2.7]) compared with the control group (change, 0.3 [2.9]) (P = .03). The music group also showed lower anxiety and increased satisfaction overall, but these differences were not statistically significant. No major barriers to using the therapy were identified. Recorded music and nature sounds can be integrated into the postoperative care of cardiovascular surgery patients. The recordings may provide an additional means for addressing common symptoms of pain and anxiety while providing a means of relaxation for these patients.

  3. Perception and Modeling of Affective Qualities of Musical Instrument Sounds across Pitch Registers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Stephen; Douglas, Chelsea; Vempala, Naresh N.

    2017-01-01

    Composers often pick specific instruments to convey a given emotional tone in their music, partly due to their expressive possibilities, but also due to their timbres in specific registers and at given dynamic markings. Of interest to both music psychology and music informatics from a computational point of view is the relation between the acoustic properties that give rise to the timbre at a given pitch and the perceived emotional quality of the tone. Musician and nonmusician listeners were presented with 137 tones produced at a fixed dynamic marking (forte) playing tones at pitch class D# across each instrument's entire pitch range and with different playing techniques for standard orchestral instruments drawn from the brass, woodwind, string, and pitched percussion families. They rated each tone on six analogical-categorical scales in terms of emotional valence (positive/negative and pleasant/unpleasant), energy arousal (awake/tired), tension arousal (excited/calm), preference (like/dislike), and familiarity. Linear mixed models revealed interactive effects of musical training, instrument family, and pitch register, with non-linear relations between pitch register and several dependent variables. Twenty-three audio descriptors from the Timbre Toolbox were computed for each sound and analyzed in two ways: linear partial least squares regression (PLSR) and nonlinear artificial neural net modeling. These two analyses converged in terms of the importance of various spectral, temporal, and spectrotemporal audio descriptors in explaining the emotion ratings, but some differences also emerged. Different combinations of audio descriptors make major contributions to the three emotion dimensions, suggesting that they are carried by distinct acoustic properties. Valence is more positive with lower spectral slopes, a greater emergence of strong partials, and an amplitude envelope with a sharper attack and earlier decay. Higher tension arousal is carried by brighter sounds

  4. Perception and Modeling of Affective Qualities of Musical Instrument Sounds across Pitch Registers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Stephen; Douglas, Chelsea; Vempala, Naresh N

    2017-01-01

    Composers often pick specific instruments to convey a given emotional tone in their music, partly due to their expressive possibilities, but also due to their timbres in specific registers and at given dynamic markings. Of interest to both music psychology and music informatics from a computational point of view is the relation between the acoustic properties that give rise to the timbre at a given pitch and the perceived emotional quality of the tone. Musician and nonmusician listeners were presented with 137 tones produced at a fixed dynamic marking (forte) playing tones at pitch class D# across each instrument's entire pitch range and with different playing techniques for standard orchestral instruments drawn from the brass, woodwind, string, and pitched percussion families. They rated each tone on six analogical-categorical scales in terms of emotional valence (positive/negative and pleasant/unpleasant), energy arousal (awake/tired), tension arousal (excited/calm), preference (like/dislike), and familiarity. Linear mixed models revealed interactive effects of musical training, instrument family, and pitch register, with non-linear relations between pitch register and several dependent variables. Twenty-three audio descriptors from the Timbre Toolbox were computed for each sound and analyzed in two ways: linear partial least squares regression (PLSR) and nonlinear artificial neural net modeling. These two analyses converged in terms of the importance of various spectral, temporal, and spectrotemporal audio descriptors in explaining the emotion ratings, but some differences also emerged. Different combinations of audio descriptors make major contributions to the three emotion dimensions, suggesting that they are carried by distinct acoustic properties. Valence is more positive with lower spectral slopes, a greater emergence of strong partials, and an amplitude envelope with a sharper attack and earlier decay. Higher tension arousal is carried by brighter sounds

  5. Female Listeners' Autonomic Responses to Dramatic Shifts Between Loud and Soft Music/Sound Passages: A Study of Heavy Metal Songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tzu-Han; Tsai, Chen-Gia

    2016-01-01

    Although music and the emotion it conveys unfold over time, little is known about how listeners respond to shifts in musical emotions. A special technique in heavy metal music utilizes dramatic shifts between loud and soft passages. Loud passages are penetrated by distorted sounds conveying aggression, whereas soft passages are often characterized by a clean, calm singing voice and light accompaniment. The present study used heavy metal songs and soft sea sounds to examine how female listeners' respiration rates and heart rates responded to the arousal changes associated with auditory stimuli. The high-frequency power of heart rate variability (HF-HRV) was used to assess cardiac parasympathetic activity. The results showed that the soft passages of heavy metal songs and soft sea sounds expressed lower arousal and induced significantly higher HF-HRVs than the loud passages of heavy metal songs. Listeners' respiration rate was determined by the arousal level of the present music passage, whereas the heart rate was dependent on both the present and preceding passages. Compared with soft sea sounds, the loud music passage led to greater deceleration of the heart rate at the beginning of the following soft music passage. The sea sounds delayed the heart rate acceleration evoked by the following loud music passage. The data provide evidence that sound-induced parasympathetic activity affects listeners' heart rate in response to the following music passage. These findings have potential implications for future research on the temporal dynamics of musical emotions.

  6. Female Listeners’ Autonomic Responses to Dramatic Shifts Between Loud and Soft Music/Sound Passages: A Study of Heavy Metal Songs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tzu-Han; Tsai, Chen-Gia

    2016-01-01

    Although music and the emotion it conveys unfold over time, little is known about how listeners respond to shifts in musical emotions. A special technique in heavy metal music utilizes dramatic shifts between loud and soft passages. Loud passages are penetrated by distorted sounds conveying aggression, whereas soft passages are often characterized by a clean, calm singing voice and light accompaniment. The present study used heavy metal songs and soft sea sounds to examine how female listeners’ respiration rates and heart rates responded to the arousal changes associated with auditory stimuli. The high-frequency power of heart rate variability (HF-HRV) was used to assess cardiac parasympathetic activity. The results showed that the soft passages of heavy metal songs and soft sea sounds expressed lower arousal and induced significantly higher HF-HRVs than the loud passages of heavy metal songs. Listeners’ respiration rate was determined by the arousal level of the present music passage, whereas the heart rate was dependent on both the present and preceding passages. Compared with soft sea sounds, the loud music passage led to greater deceleration of the heart rate at the beginning of the following soft music passage. The sea sounds delayed the heart rate acceleration evoked by the following loud music passage. The data provide evidence that sound-induced parasympathetic activity affects listeners’ heart rate in response to the following music passage. These findings have potential implications for future research on the temporal dynamics of musical emotions. PMID:26925009

  7. Female listeners’ autonomic responses to dramatic shifts between loud and soft music/sound passages: a study of heavy metal songs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Han eCheng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although music and the emotion it conveys unfold over time, little is known about how listeners respond to shifts in musical emotions. A special technique in heavy metal music utilizes dramatic shifts between loud and soft passages. Loud passages are penetrated by distorted sounds conveying aggression, whereas soft passages are often characterized by a clean, calm singing voice and light accompaniment. The present study used heavy metal songs and soft sea sounds to examine how female listeners’ respiration rates and heart rates responded to the arousal changes associated with auditory stimuli. The high-frequency power of heart rate variability (HF-HRV was used to assess cardiac parasympathetic activity. The results showed that the soft passages of heavy metal songs and soft sea sounds expressed lower arousal and induced significantly higher HF-HRVs than the loud passages of heavy metal songs. Listeners’ respiration rate was determined by the arousal level of the present music passage, whereas the heart rate was dependent on both the present and preceding passages. Compared with soft sea sounds, the loud music passage led to greater deceleration of the heart rate at the beginning of the following soft music passage. The sea sounds delayed the heart rate acceleration evoked by the following loud music passage. The data provide evidence that sound-induced parasympathetic activity affects listener’s heart rate in response to the following music passage. These findings have potential implications for future research of the temporal dynamics of musical emotions.

  8. Theoretical Research and Case Study of Body Language in Vocal Music Teaching%声乐教学体态语初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓殷

    2016-01-01

    在声乐课堂教学中,教师的口语教学会破坏歌唱艺术的连续性、即时性和情感等,因此,使用恰当的体态语将尽可能地避免这一情况的出现。从声乐教学的形式上看,其偏向于体态类的教学,因此,声乐教学重视体态语的运用对于教学效果的提升具有重要的意义。声乐课作为一门音乐技能课,在教学中借助体态语这一辅助教学模式,将产生带动性的教学效果,不仅可以加深学生的学习印象,同时还能让教师在教学中获取大量的教学信息,为改进教学方法提供了参考依据。本文从声乐教学的体态语运用现状入手,借助体态语学理论对体态语教学进行深入地研究,从而促使体态语教学模式得到更为广泛的应用,为提升声学教学效果开辟新的途径。%In vocal music classroom teaching, the teacher ’ s oral teaching will destroy the continuity, immediacy and emotion of the art of singing, so using appropriate body language can possibly avoid such happening. In form, vocal music teaching favors the teaching of posture language, and thereby pays attention to the use of body language which has important implications for the enhancement of the teaching effect. As a music skill, the vocal music lesson, by means of assistant teaching mode — body language in teaching, will produce driving teaching effect. Students can deepen their learning impression, while teachers can get a lot of teaching information in their teaching which can serve as reference for improving teaching methods. This article starts with the use status of body language in vocal music teaching, and conducts an in-depth study of body language teaching with the body language teaching theory, so as to promote a wide application of the body language teaching model and to open up new ways of enhancing vocal music teaching effect.

  9. Mobile phone conversations, listening to music and quiet (electric) cars: Are traffic sounds important for safe cycling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelling-Konczak, A; van Wee, G P; Commandeur, J J F; Hagenzieker, M

    2017-09-01

    Listening to music or talking on the phone while cycling as well as the growing number of quiet (electric) cars on the road can make the use of auditory cues challenging for cyclists. The present study examined to what extent and in which traffic situations traffic sounds are important for safe cycling. Furthermore, the study investigated the potential safety implications of limited auditory information caused by quiet (electric) cars and by cyclists listening to music or talking on the phone. An Internet survey among 2249 cyclists in three age groups (16-18, 30-40 and 65-70year old) was carried out to collect information on the following aspects: 1) the auditory perception of traffic sounds, including the sounds of quiet (electric) cars; 2) the possible compensatory behaviours of cyclists who listen to music or talk on their mobile phones; 3) the possible contribution of listening to music and talking on the phone to cycling crashes and incidents. Age differences with respect to those three aspects were analysed. Results show that listening to music and talking on the phone negatively affects perception of sounds crucial for safe cycling. However, taking into account the influence of confounding variables, no relationship was found between the frequency of listening to music or talking on the phone and the frequency of incidents among teenage cyclists. This may be due to cyclists' compensating for the use of portable devices. Listening to music or talking on the phone whilst cycling may still pose a risk in the absence of compensatory behaviour or in a traffic environment with less extensive and less safe cycling infrastructure than the Dutch setting. With the increasing number of quiet (electric) cars on the road, cyclists in the future may also need to compensate for the limited auditory input of these cars. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The inscription of the feminine body in the field of sound: Vocal expression as a platform of feminine writing (écriture féminine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings together several theoretical issues relevant both to the fields of musicology/ethnomusicology and feminist/gender studies - above all, the issue of the status of the voice within the complexity of a body-textuality tension, and the issue of mapping the strategies of feminine writing in the contemporary vocal performance. Through the analysis of chosen case studies it highlights the possibility of making an alteration, transformation and re-signification of a firm structural linguistic/social order in the field of sound, thus creating a space for a feminine body to be heard.

  11. 复合型声乐人才培养知识体系初探%The Research on the System of Knowledge for the Training of Compound Vocal Music Talents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚丽

    2013-01-01

      高师声乐人才培养的目标是培养合格的中等学校音乐教师。当前声乐人才培养中存在诸多问题:声乐演唱的单一化已不适应市场的需求,声乐课程设置的教条化与开放化之间的矛盾,师生比例不协调与学生知识能力结构不平衡。针对于这些问题,教学需要改革:需符合社会发展的需要设置声乐人才培养模式,着重培养实用型、复合型声乐人才,加强声乐理论教学、整合教学课程体系,突出声乐人才培养的师范性,声乐人才培养中对声乐教师有综合素质的要求。%The aim of training vocal music talents in normal universities is to cultivate qualified music teachers in middle schools. This paper starts with the problems existing in the current vocal music talents training, such as the simplification of vocal music performance, dogmatism of vocal courses, the unbalanced student-teacher ratio, and unbalanced structure of students’knowledge. Then it presents some reformatory measures and means to explore the scientific and rational methods for training vocal music talents such as the new training mode, the enhancement of vocal theory teaching, the integration of teaching system, the orientation of teacher-training, and the training on comprehensive qualities.

  12. Hearing Things: Music and Sounds the Traveller Heard and Didn’t Hear on the Grand Tour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Agnew

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available For Charles Burney, as for other Enlightenment scholars engaged in historicising music, the problem was not only how to reconstruct a history of something as ephemeral as music, but the more intractable one of cultural boundaries. Non-European music could be excluded from a general history on the grounds that it was so much noise and no music. The music of Egypt and classical antiquity, on the other hand, were likely ancestors of European music and clearly had to be accorded a place within the general history. But before that place could be determined, Burney and his contemporaries were faced with a stunning silence. What was Egyptian music? What were its instruments? What its sound? The paper examines the work of scholars like Burney and James Bruce and their efforts to reconstruct past music by traveling to exotic places. Travel and a form of historical reenactment emerge as central not only to eighteenth-century historical method, but central, too, to the reconstruction of past sonic worlds. This essay argues that this method remains available to contemporary scholars as well.

  13. Prenatal complex rhythmic music sound stimulation facilitates postnatal spatial learning but transiently impairs memory in the domestic chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauser, H; Roy, S; Pal, A; Sreenivas, V; Mathur, R; Wadhwa, S; Jain, S

    2011-01-01

    Early experience has a profound influence on brain development, and the modulation of prenatal perceptual learning by external environmental stimuli has been shown in birds, rodents and mammals. In the present study, the effect of prenatal complex rhythmic music sound stimulation on postnatal spatial learning, memory and isolation stress was observed. Auditory stimulation with either music or species-specific sounds or no stimulation (control) was provided to separate sets of fertilized eggs from day 10 of incubation. Following hatching, the chicks at age 24, 72 and 120 h were tested on a T-maze for spatial learning and the memory of the learnt task was assessed 24 h after training. In the posthatch chicks at all ages, the plasma corticosterone levels were estimated following 10 min of isolation. The chicks of all ages in the three groups took less (p memory after 24 h of training, only the music-stimulated chicks at posthatch age 24 h took a significantly longer (p music sounds facilitates spatial learning, though the music stimulation transiently impairs postnatal memory. 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. On Psychological Factors Involved in Vocal Music Teaching of Colleges%高校声乐教学中应该重视的心理因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鹿凤琴

    2011-01-01

    在高校声乐专业课教学中,以和谐的师生关系和愉悦的课堂氛围为基础,引导学生建立声乐演唱的自信,并通过一定的感觉训练和歌唱情感的培养,启发学生展开联想与想象,塑造学生的个性品质,可以进一步完善其歌唱心理机制。坚持心理因素和歌唱技巧并重,是保证良好教学效果达成的科学理念。%It is of a scientific concept to conduct vocal music teaching by establishing good teacher-student relationship and a harmonious and pleasant atmosphere in the classroom,which helps to guide students to build confidence in vocal music performance and training and develop a certain feeling of singing emotionally and inspire students to expand the association and imagination,shaping students personality traits.We can further improve the psychological mechanism of their singing.By attaching equal importance to both psychological factors and singing skills,we can surely achieve better result in teaching.

  15. Ensemble Teaching of Vocal Music Course in Normal University%试论高师声乐课程中重唱教学的渗透

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶长春

    2014-01-01

    The ensemble cognition of vocal music teaching was drawn in Normal University teaching in this paper combining the specific works .It put forward the anticipated problems of the teaching and tried to re-solve them through improving student solfeggio level , fostering student cooperation spirit and cultivating student performance ability .And some ideas have been given in the ensemble teaching of vocal music course .%结合具体作品,引入了高师声乐教学中对重唱教学的一种认知,针对教学中可能出现的问题,通过提高学生视唱练耳水平、培养学生通力协作精神以及培养学生表演能力三个方面来进行分析解决,为高师声乐课程中的重唱教学提出思路。

  16. Mobile phone conversations, listening to music and quiet (electric) cars : are traffic sounds important for safe cycling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelling-Konczak, A. Wee, G.P. van Commandeur, J.J.F. & Hagenzieker, M.P.

    2017-01-01

    Listening to music or talking on the phone while cycling as well as the growing number of quiet (electric) cars on the road can make the use of auditory cues challenging for cyclists. The present study examined to what extent and in which traffic situations traffic sounds are important for safe

  17. Dicussion on the Vocal Music Teaching of Solfeggio and Ear Training of Students on the High School Music College Entrance Examination%浅谈高中音乐高考生视唱练耳的声乐教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸金飞

    2014-01-01

    阐述了视唱练耳在高中音乐高考生声乐教学中的重要性,分析了国内视唱练耳教学的现状,并探讨了视唱练耳教学应坚持的原则,从而为获得良好的视唱练耳教学效果提供一些可行的思路。%It expounds the importance of Solfeggio and ear training in high school music students in vocal music teaching, analyzed current domestic solfeggio teaching, and discusses the principle that the Solfeggio teaching should adhere to , to provide some workable ideas in order to obtain a good effect of solfeggio teaching.

  18. Sound Continuing Bonds with the Deceased: The Relevance of Music, Including Preloss Music Therapy, for Eight Bereaved Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Clare C.; McDermott, Fiona; Hudson, Peter; Zalcberg, John R.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines music's relevance, including preloss music therapy, for 8 informal caregivers of people who died from cancer. The design was informed by constructivist grounded theory and included semistructured interviews. Bereaved caregivers were supported or occasionally challenged as their musical lives enabled a connection with the…

  19. Sound Continuing Bonds with the Deceased: The Relevance of Music, Including Preloss Music Therapy, for Eight Bereaved Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Clare C.; McDermott, Fiona; Hudson, Peter; Zalcberg, John R.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines music's relevance, including preloss music therapy, for 8 informal caregivers of people who died from cancer. The design was informed by constructivist grounded theory and included semistructured interviews. Bereaved caregivers were supported or occasionally challenged as their musical lives enabled a connection with the…

  20. The Effects of Verbal, Vocally Modeled, Kinesthetic, and Audio-Visual Treatment Conditions on Male and Female Middle-School Vocal Music Students' Abilities to Expressively Sing Melodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebie, Brian D.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine whether there were significant differences in male or female middle-school students' ability to appropriately convey the emotions of happiness, sadness, anger, and fear while singing musical passages within the context of four treatment situations. Four treatment methodologies were designed to identify…

  1. Design of Phoneme MIDI Codes Using the MIDI Encoding Tool “Auto-F” and Realizing Voice Synthesizing Functions Based on Musical Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modegi, Toshio

    Using our previously developed audio to MIDI code converter tool “Auto-F”, from given vocal acoustic signals we can create MIDI data, which enable to playback the voice-like signals with a standard MIDI synthesizer. Applying this tool, we are constructing a MIDI database, which consists of previously converted simple harmonic structured MIDI codes from a set of 71 Japanese male and female syllable recorded signals. And we are developing a novel voice synthesizing system based on harmonically synthesizing musical sounds, which can generate MIDI data and playback voice signals with a MIDI synthesizer by giving Japanese plain (kana) texts, referring to the syllable MIDI code database. In this paper, we propose an improved MIDI converter tool, which can produce temporally higher-resolution MIDI codes. Then we propose an algorithm separating a set of 20 consonant and vowel phoneme MIDI codes from 71 syllable MIDI converted codes in order to construct a voice synthesizing system. And, we present the evaluation results of voice synthesizing quality between these separated phoneme MIDI codes and their original syllable MIDI codes by our developed 4-syllable word listening tests.

  2. The Use of Peking Opera in Chinese Vocal Music Works%京剧在民族声乐作品中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓娟

    2016-01-01

    With the development of globalization,national vocal music and Peking Opera are deeply affected by Western Culture.Pro-fessionals have been working to blend the elements in Peking Opera with the works in national vocal music,such as breath and the full discipline power.The way that the two different forms of arts learn from each other not only enriches their use of methods,but also pro-duces more musical material,which is helpful to promote their development.And another very special art form is formed as “Jing song”.%随着全球化时代的到来,民族声乐和京剧受到了西方文化的巨大冲击。为了解决民族声乐和京剧所处的困境,业内人士努力探索,将京剧元素比如咬字行腔、气息、风格韵味、手眼身法步等,融合在民族声乐作品中。两种艺术的相互借鉴与完美结合,丰富了各自的表现手法,拥有了更多的音乐素材,促进了二者的共同发展,形成了一种特殊的艺术形式“京歌”。

  3. Recording the sound of musical instruments with FBGs: the photonic pickup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loock, Hans-Peter; Hopkins, W Scott; Morris-Blair, Christine; Resendes, Rui; Saari, Jonathan; Trefiak, Nicholas R

    2009-05-10

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) have previously found many applications as strain and vibration sensors. Here we demonstrate that they may also be employed as pickups for musical instruments and, specifically, for acoustic guitars and solid-body electric guitars. By fixing the FBG to a vibrating part of the instrument's body, e.g., near the bridge of an acoustic guitar or on the headstock of a solid-body guitar, a number of sound recordings were made and compared to those obtained with either piezoelectric pickups or with magnetic induction pickups. The change in attenuation at the FBG's midreflection point is found to be correlated to the amplitude of vibration of the vibrating structure of the instrument. Acoustic frequency spectrum analysis supports the observation that the FBG acoustic transducer has a frequency response range that is comparable to those of commercial piezoelectric pickups. The recordings made with FBG pickups were of comparable quality to those obtained with other recording methods.

  4. On Vocal Quality Requirements%声乐演唱的内在品质要求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜

    2012-01-01

    the vocal music is music art which is to emphasize the human vocal organ as musical instruments and use the scien-tific sound method to send out beautiful singing. Different feeling has always represented with different images of the sounds and their differences have something to do with individual understanding deviation in the field of vocal music, while the individual' s a-bility to understand something has a close relationship with their growth environment, level of education and personal emotion, mood, personality, imagination and the feeling of music.%声乐是强调以人体歌唱器官为乐器,用科学的发声方法发出优美歌声的音乐艺术。在声乐领域“不同的感觉始终以声音的不同形象体现,不同的差别与个体理解的偏差有很大的关系,而个体的理解能力与其成长环境、受教育程度以及个人的情感、情绪、性格、想象力、乐感等都有着密不可分的关系。

  5. A dedicated greedy pursuit algorithm for sparse spectral representation of music sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura; Aggarwal, Gagan

    2016-10-01

    A dedicated algorithm for sparse spectral representation of music sound is presented. The goal is to enable the representation of a piece of music signal, as a linear superposition of as few spectral components as possible. A representation of this nature is said to be sparse. In the present context sparsity is accomplished by greedy selection of the spectral components, from an overcomplete set called a dictionary. The proposed algorithm is tailored to be applied with trigonometric dictionaries. Its distinctive feature being that it avoids the need for the actual construction of the whole dictionary, by implementing the required operations via the Fast Fourier Transform. The achieved sparsity is theoretically equivalent to that rendered by the Orthogonal Matching Pursuit method. The contribution of the proposed dedicated implementation is to extend the applicability of the standard Orthogonal Matching Pursuit algorithm, by reducing its storage and computational demands. The suitability of the approach for producing sparse spectral models is illustrated by comparison with the traditional method, in the line of the Short Time Fourier Transform, involving only the corresponding orthonormal trigonometric basis.

  6. The effectiveness and influence of Vocal and Instrumental Improvisation in Music Therapy on children diagnosed with autism. Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Knapik-Szweda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a developmental disorder which is difficult to recognize and diagnose. The present study examines the effectiveness of music therapy intervention based on improvisational techniques with the elements of Creative Music Therapy by Paul Nordoff and Clive Robbins and improvisational techniques by Tony Wigram (such as imitating, frameworking, dialogues, holding on developmentl of children with Autism (two boys diagnosed with autism - case 1. and case 2, especially in verbal and nonverbal communication, disturbance behavior patterns, cognitive and social-emotional areas. The results indicate a positive outcome in two music therapy observing tools: Scale I Child – Therapist Relationship in Coactive Musical Experience Rating Form and Scale II Musical Communicativeness Rating Form. The tables indicate the intensity of interaction between the therapist and the subject during the music therapy process (including communication skills, cognitive skills and behavior patterns. The results of case 1 are indicated in Scale I and Scale II and show a significant effect of improvisational music therapy. The important findings from the analysis of behavior in the sessions were Stability and confidence in interpersonal musical relationship, Activity relationship developing, (scale 1.. The results of the case 2. show small changes in musical behavior when it comes to Stability and confidence in interpersonal musical relationship, but in Activity relationship developing the indicators show a lot of changes between sessions. The results of the research indicate that music therapy intervention has a positive outcome and may be an effective method to increase functioning of children with autism

  7. The evolution of music in comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, I briefly review some comparative data that provide an empirical basis for research on the evolution of music making in humans. First, a brief comparison of music and language leads to discussion of design features of music, suggesting a deep connection between the biology of music and language. I then selectively review data on animal "music." Examining sound production in animals, we find examples of repeated convergent evolution or analogy (the evolution of vocal learning of complex songs in birds, whales, and seals). A fascinating but overlooked potential homology to instrumental music is provided by manual percussion in African apes. Such comparative behavioral data, combined with neuroscientific and developmental data, provide an important starting point for any hypothesis about how or why human music evolved. Regarding these functional and phylogenetic questions, I discuss some previously proposed functions of music, including Pinker's "cheesecake" hypothesis; Darwin's and others' sexual selection model; Dunbar's group "grooming" hypothesis; and Trehub's caregiving model. I conclude that only the last hypothesis receives strong support from currently available data. I end with a brief synopsis of Darwin's model of a songlike musical "protolanguage," concluding that Darwin's model is consistent with much of the available evidence concerning the evolution of both music and language. There is a rich future for empirical investigations of the evolution of music, both in investigations of individual differences among humans, and in interspecific investigations of musical abilities in other animals, especially those of our ape cousins, about which we know little.

  8. Computational acoustic modeling of cetacean vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, Michael Dixon

    A framework for computational acoustic modeling of hypothetical vocal production mechanisms in cetaceans is presented. As a specific example, a model of a proposed source in the larynx of odontocetes is developed. Whales and dolphins generate a broad range of vocal sounds, but the exact mechanisms they use are not conclusively understood. In the fifty years since it has become widely accepted that whales can and do make sound, how they do so has remained particularly confounding. Cetaceans' highly divergent respiratory anatomy, along with the difficulty of internal observation during vocalization have contributed to this uncertainty. A variety of acoustical, morphological, ethological and physiological evidence has led to conflicting and often disputed theories of the locations and mechanisms of cetaceans' sound sources. Computational acoustic modeling has been used to create real-time parametric models of musical instruments and the human voice. These techniques can be applied to cetacean vocalizations to help better understand the nature and function of these sounds. Extensive studies of odontocete laryngeal morphology have revealed vocal folds that are consistently similar to a known but poorly understood acoustic source, the ribbon reed. A parametric computational model of the ribbon reed is developed, based on simplified geometrical, mechanical and fluid models drawn from the human voice literature. The physical parameters of the ribbon reed model are then adapted to those of the odontocete larynx. With reasonable estimates of real physical parameters, both the ribbon reed and odontocete larynx models produce sounds that are perceptually similar to their real-world counterparts, and both respond realistically under varying control conditions. Comparisons of acoustic features of the real-world and synthetic systems show a number of consistencies. While this does not on its own prove that either model is conclusively an accurate description of the source, it

  9. Off the beaten track: Freud, sound and music. Statement of a problem and some historico-critical notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baralea, Francesco; Minazzi, Vera

    2008-10-01

    The authors note that the element of sound and music has no place in the model of mental functioning bequeathed to us by Freud, which is dominated by the visual and the representational. They consider the reasons for this exclusion and its consequences, and ask whether the simple biographical explanation offered by Freud himself is acceptable. This contribution reconstructs the historical and cultural background to that exclusion, cites some relevant emblematic passages, and discusses Freud's position on music and on the aesthetic experience in general. Particular attention is devoted to the relationship between Freud and Lipps, which is important both for the originality of Lipps's thinking in the turn-of-the-century debate and for his ideas on the musical aspects of the foundations of psychic life, at which Freud 'stopped', as he himself wrote. Moreover, the shade of Lipps accompanied Freud throughout his scientific career from 1898 to 1938. Like all foundations, that of psychoanalysis was shaped by a system of inclusions and exclusions. The exclusion of the element of sound and music is understandable in view of the cultural background to the development of the concepts of the representational unconscious and infantile sexuality. While the consequences have been far reaching, the knowledge accumulated since that exclusion enables us to resume, albeit on a different basis, the composition of the 'unfinished symphony' of the relationship between psychoanalysis and music.

  10. Análise perceptivo-auditiva de parâmetros vocais em cantores da noite do estilo musical brega da cidade do Recife Perceptual vocal pattern analysis of singers from kitschy musical style in Recife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elthon Gomes Fernandes da Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar de forma perceptivo-auditiva a voz dos cantores da noite do estilo musical Brega da cidade do Recife. MÉTODOS: pesquisa realizada na clínica-escola do curso de Fonoaudiologia da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco e na emissora de TV Rede Estação canal 14, ambos localizados na cidade do Recife. Trata-se de estudo observacional, transversal e descritivo. Com anuência de 13 cantores, maiores de 18 anos, houve gravação da voz falada na emissão sustentada de vogais e durante a música "parabéns pra você"; na voz cantada realizou-se a gravação de trecho de música pertencente ao repertório do cantor. RESULTADOS: tempos de fonação reduzidos; modificações no pitch e loudness, comparando voz falada e cantada, ambos passando de adequados para, respectivamente, agudo e elevada; mudanças na ressonância, que era laringofaríngea e tornou-se equilibrada com compensação nasal. Houve manutenção do ataque vocal brusco; mudança do registro modal misto na voz habitual para o modal cabeça na voz profissional; predominância da qualidade vocal clara na voz falada e padrões adequados para modulação, projeção e articulação na voz cantada. CONCLUSÃO: os cantores da noite do estilo musical Brega da cidade do Recife apresentaram tempos de fonação reduzidos e tiveram, da voz falada para a voz cantada, mudanças no pitch, loudness e ressonância e manutenção das características vocais para ataque e registro. A qualidade vocal clara na voz falada foi predominante, assim como a modulação adequada, boa projeção e articulação precisa estavam entre os padrões vocais mais frequentes na voz cantada.PURPOSE: to evaluate the perceptual form concerning the voice of the singers from kitschy musical style in Recife. METHODS: clinical research was carried out in the clinic-school of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences course in the Federal University of Pernambuco and Network TV Station channel 14, both located in the

  11. Not all sounds sound the same: Parkinson's disease affects differently emotion processing in music and in speech prosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, César F; Garrett, Carolina; Castro, São Luís

    2013-01-01

    Does emotion processing in music and speech prosody recruit common neurocognitive mechanisms? To examine this question, we implemented a cross-domain comparative design in Parkinson's disease (PD). Twenty-four patients and 25 controls performed emotion recognition tasks for music and spoken sentences. In music, patients had impaired recognition of happiness and peacefulness, and intact recognition of sadness and fear; this pattern was independent of general cognitive and perceptual abilities. In speech, patients had a small global impairment, which was significantly mediated by executive dysfunction. Hence, PD affected differently musical and prosodic emotions. This dissociation indicates that the mechanisms underlying the two domains are partly independent.

  12. An Exploration of the Artistry and the Performance Skills of the National Vocal MusicLevitt%民族声乐作品《高山流水》的艺术特色及演唱技巧探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽丽

    2016-01-01

    中国现代的民族声乐作品是在传统音乐的基础上继承、发展、创新而来的。较之传统音乐,其题材及体裁也更加丰富多样。《高山流水》取材于“俞伯牙碎琴谢知音”的历史典故,原系古琴曲,最早见于明代的《神奇秘谱》。现有的古筝曲《高山流水》与古琴曲《高山流水》两者同名异曲,有很多相似之处,但不能混为一谈。以《高山流水》命名的声乐体裁,目前有网络通俗歌曲和民族声乐作品两种版本。民族声乐作品《高山流水》依旧忠于原作,作品延续了古筝、古琴版《高山流水》水墨浓郁的曲风特点,曲调优美流畅,形成刚柔相济、恬静纯美的音乐特性。%On the basis of inheritance, development, innovation of the traditional music, the modern national vocal music is more diverse in subject and themes. Thus the national vocal music in the new age assumes the characteristics of familiarity and freshness to the audience. Levitt drew its theme from the historical allusion “Yu Boya broke the dulcimer and appreciated the understanding man”, once a guqin music, was first seen in Mysterious Esoterica in Ming Dynasty. The modern Guzheng musicLevitt and the ancient Guqin Levitt are identical in name but their difference shall not be ignored. The vocal music with the name of Levitt has two versions: the internet popular song and national vocal music. The national vocal musicLevitt is still faithful to the the original and is of the continuation of the tense water-ink nature inherent in the guzheng and guqin Levitt. The tune is beautiful and smooth with the music nature of integration of rigidness and softness, quietude and pureness. It is widely sung in the audience and a popularity in the college students and singers.

  13. Music and natural sounds in an auditory steady-state response based brain-computer interface to increase user acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jeong; Baek, Hyun Jae; Hong, Seunghyeok; Chang, Min Hye; Lee, Jeong Su; Park, Kwang Suk

    2017-03-18

    Patients with total locked-in syndrome are conscious; however, they cannot express themselves because most of their voluntary muscles are paralyzed, and many of these patients have lost their eyesight. To improve the quality of life of these patients, there is an increasing need for communication-supporting technologies that leverage the remaining senses of the patient along with physiological signals. The auditory steady-state response (ASSR) is an electro-physiologic response to auditory stimulation that is amplitude-modulated by a specific frequency. By leveraging the phenomenon whereby ASSR is modulated by mind concentration, a brain-computer interface paradigm was proposed to classify the selective attention of the patient. In this paper, we propose an auditory stimulation method to minimize auditory stress by replacing the monotone carrier with familiar music and natural sounds for an ergonomic system. Piano and violin instrumentals were employed in the music sessions; the sounds of water streaming and cicadas singing were used in the natural sound sessions. Six healthy subjects participated in the experiment. Electroencephalograms were recorded using four electrodes (Cz, Oz, T7 and T8). Seven sessions were performed using different stimuli. The spectral power at 38 and 42Hz and their ratio for each electrode were extracted as features. Linear discriminant analysis was utilized to classify the selections for each subject. In offline analysis, the average classification accuracies with a modulation index of 1.0 were 89.67% and 87.67% using music and natural sounds, respectively. In online experiments, the average classification accuracies were 88.3% and 80.0% using music and natural sounds, respectively. Using the proposed method, we obtained significantly higher user-acceptance scores, while maintaining a high average classification accuracy.

  14. Voice Use Among Music Theory Teachers: A Voice Dosimetry and Self-Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Isabel S; Morsomme, Dominique; Remacle, Angélique

    2017-07-25

    This study aimed (1) to investigate music theory teachers' professional and extra-professional vocal loading and background noise exposure, (2) to determine the correlation between vocal loading and background noise, and (3) to determine the correlation between vocal loading and self-evaluation data. Using voice dosimetry, 13 music theory teachers were monitored for one workweek. The parameters analyzed were voice sound pressure level (SPL), fundamental frequency (F0), phonation time, vocal loading index (VLI), and noise SPL. Spearman correlation was used to correlate vocal loading parameters (voice SPL, F0, and phonation time) and noise SPL. Each day, the subjects self-assessed their voice using visual analog scales. VLI and self-evaluation data were correlated using Spearman correlation. Vocal loading parameters and noise SPL were significantly higher in the professional than in the extra-professional environment. Voice SPL, phonation time, and female subjects' F0 correlated positively with noise SPL. VLI correlated with self-assessed voice quality, vocal fatigue, and amount of singing and speaking voice produced. Teaching music theory is a profession with high vocal demands. More background noise is associated with increased vocal loading and may indirectly increase the risk for voice disorders. Correlations between VLI and self-assessments suggest that these teachers are well aware of their vocal demands and feel their effect on voice quality and vocal fatigue. Visual analog scales seem to represent a useful tool for subjective vocal loading assessment and associated symptoms in these professional voice users. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Acoustic communication in the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) an examination into vocal sacs, sound propagation, and signal directionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzker, Marc Steven

    The thesis is an inquiry into the acoustic communication of a very unusual avian species, the Greater Sage-Grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus. One of the most outstanding features of this animal's dynamic mating display is its use of paired air sacs that emerge explosively from an esophageal pouch. My first line of inquiry into this system is a review of the form and function of similar vocal apparatuses, collectively called vocal sacs, in birds. Next, with a combination of mathematical models and field measurements, My collaborator and I investigate the acoustic environment where the Greater Sage-Grouse display. The complexities of this acoustic environment are relevant both to the birds and to the subsequent examinations of the display's properties. Finally, my collaborators and I examine a cryptic component of the acoustic display --- directionality --- which we measured simultaneously from multiple locations around free moving grouse on their mating grounds.

  16. 声谱分析技术在声乐教学中的应用%Spectrum analysis technology applied in the teaching of vocal music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晓红

    2014-01-01

    在传统的声乐教学中,多采用一对一式的面对面教学方式,也就是声乐教师对不同的学生采取“因材施教”的教学模式。在现在的教学模式中,采用了声谱分析技术,通过计算机的运用,使声音实现了可视化,实现了综合“口-耳-鼻”的教学模式。%In the traditional vocal pedagogy,the one to one face to face teaching method,is also a vocal music teacher to different students take "teach students in accordance with their aptitude"teaching mode. In the present teaching mode,using the spectrum analysis technology, the computer application,so that the voice of visualization,realize the comprehensive "mouth to ear - nose" teaching mode.

  17. Sculpture and Life. The Relation Between Form of Sculpture and Musical Character in the Sound Stone by Pinuccio Sciola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Ladogana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the most significant results that the Sardinian sculptor Pinuccio Sciola has reached in a lot of years with diligence and artistic research.From the big monoliths to the seeds of peace, until the surprising discovery of lithophones, the path reveals complex results that contemplate, with particular insistence in production of latter years, a close connection between sculpture, music and architecture. From when Sciola discovers that the large blocks of basalt and of limestone, which he always treated with the chisel or the emery disc, supervise soul music, the creative act focuses only in a researches about a perfect summary of sculptural object with a clear aesthetic value and acoustic sound-sculpting potential. The voice of matter emanates extraordinary sounds conditioned, beyond that the action of the artist, by the interaction with elements of nature, with atmospheric elements, with all reality that surrounds them.

  18. Music and Its Inductive Power: A Psychobiological and Evolutionary Approach to Musical Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reybrouck, Mark; Eerola, Tuomas

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is to broaden the concept of musical meaning from an abstract and emotionally neutral cognitive representation to an emotion-integrating description that is related to the evolutionary approach to music. Starting from the dispositional machinery for dealing with music as a temporal and sounding phenomenon, musical emotions are considered as adaptive responses to be aroused in human beings as the product of neural structures that are specialized for their processing. A theoretical and empirical background is provided in order to bring together the findings of music and emotion studies and the evolutionary approach to musical meaning. The theoretical grounding elaborates on the transition from referential to affective semantics, the distinction between expression and induction of emotions, and the tension between discrete-digital and analog-continuous processing of the sounds. The empirical background provides evidence from several findings such as infant-directed speech, referential emotive vocalizations and separation calls in lower mammals, the distinction between the acoustic and vehicle mode of sound perception, and the bodily and physiological reactions to the sounds. It is argued, finally, that early affective processing reflects the way emotions make our bodies feel, which in turn reflects on the emotions expressed and decoded. As such there is a dynamic tension between nature and nurture, which is reflected in the nature-nurture-nature cycle of musical sense-making. PMID:28421015

  19. Music and Its Inductive Power: A Psychobiological and Evolutionary Approach to Musical Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reybrouck, Mark; Eerola, Tuomas

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is to broaden the concept of musical meaning from an abstract and emotionally neutral cognitive representation to an emotion-integrating description that is related to the evolutionary approach to music. Starting from the dispositional machinery for dealing with music as a temporal and sounding phenomenon, musical emotions are considered as adaptive responses to be aroused in human beings as the product of neural structures that are specialized for their processing. A theoretical and empirical background is provided in order to bring together the findings of music and emotion studies and the evolutionary approach to musical meaning. The theoretical grounding elaborates on the transition from referential to affective semantics, the distinction between expression and induction of emotions, and the tension between discrete-digital and analog-continuous processing of the sounds. The empirical background provides evidence from several findings such as infant-directed speech, referential emotive vocalizations and separation calls in lower mammals, the distinction between the acoustic and vehicle mode of sound perception, and the bodily and physiological reactions to the sounds. It is argued, finally, that early affective processing reflects the way emotions make our bodies feel, which in turn reflects on the emotions expressed and decoded. As such there is a dynamic tension between nature and nurture, which is reflected in the nature-nurture-nature cycle of musical sense-making.

  20. A Review of Physical and Perceptual Feature Extraction Techniques for Speech, Music and Environmental Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Alías

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Endowing machines with sensing capabilities similar to those of humans is a prevalent quest in engineering and computer science. In the pursuit of making computers sense their surroundings, a huge effort has been conducted to allow machines and computers to acquire, process, analyze and understand their environment in a human-like way. Focusing on the sense of hearing, the ability of computers to sense their acoustic environment as humans do goes by the name of machine hearing. To achieve this ambitious aim, the representation of the audio signal is of paramount importance. In this paper, we present an up-to-date review of the most relevant audio feature extraction techniques developed to analyze the most usual audio signals: speech, music and environmental sounds. Besides revisiting classic approaches for completeness, we include the latest advances in the field based on new domains of analysis together with novel bio-inspired proposals. These approaches are described following a taxonomy that organizes them according to their physical or perceptual basis, being subsequently divided depending on the domain of computation (time, frequency, wavelet, image-based, cepstral, or other domains. The description of the approaches is accompanied with recent examples of their application to machine hearing related problems.

  1. A study of vocal nonlinearities in humpback whale songs: from production mechanisms to acoustic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dorian Cazau; Olivier Adam; Thierry Aubin; Laitman, Jeffrey T.; Reidenberg, Joy S.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Although mammalian vocalizations are predominantly harmonically structured, they can exhibit an acoustic complexity with nonlinear vocal sounds, including deterministic chaos and frequency jumps. Such sounds are normative events in mammalian vocalizations, and can be directly traceable to the nonlinear nature of vocal-fold dynamics underlying typical mammalian sound production. In this study, we give qualitative descriptions and quantitative analyses of nonlinearities ...

  2. Alive with the sound of music: a case series on patients presenting with musical hallucinations in a general hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinson, Rochelle Melina; Lim, Wen Phei; Rahman, Habeebul

    2015-01-01

    Musical hallucinations are a rare phenomenon that renders appropriate identification and treatment a challenge. This case series describes three women who presented with hearing complex, familiar melodies in the absence of external stimuli on a background of hearing impairment.

  3. Effects of Listening to Music versus Environmental Sounds in Passive and Active Situations on Levels of Pain and Fatigue in Fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadíe, Lolita; Mick, Gérard; Guétin, Stéphane; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2015-10-01

    In fibromyalgia, pain symptoms such as hyperalgesia and allodynia are associated with fatigue. Mechanisms underlying such symptoms can be modulated by listening to pleasant music. We expected that listening to music, because of its emotional impact, would have a greater modulating effect on the perception of pain and fatigue in patients with fibromyalgia than listening to nonmusical sounds. To investigate this hypothesis, we carried out a 4-week study in which patients with fibromyalgia listened to either preselected musical pieces or environmental sounds when they experienced pain in active (while carrying out a physical activity) or passive (at rest) situations. Concomitant changes of pain and fatigue levels were evaluated. When patients listened to music or environmental sounds at rest, pain and fatigue levels were significantly reduced after 20 minutes of listening, with no difference of effect magnitude between the two stimuli. This improvement persisted 10 minutes after the end of the listening session. In active situations, pain did not increase in presence of the two stimuli. Contrary to our expectations, music and environmental sounds produced a similar relieving effect on pain and fatigue, with no benefit gained by listening to pleasant music over environmental sounds.

  4. Emotions evoked by the sound of music: characterization, classification, and measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentner, Marcel; Grandjean, Didier; Scherer, Klaus R

    2008-08-01

    One reason for the universal appeal of music lies in the emotional rewards that music offers to its listeners. But what makes these rewards so special? The authors addressed this question by progressively characterizing music-induced emotions in 4 interrelated studies. Studies 1 and 2 (n=354) were conducted to compile a list of music-relevant emotion terms and to study the frequency of both felt and perceived emotions across 5 groups of listeners with distinct music preferences. Emotional responses varied greatly according to musical genre and type of response (felt vs. perceived). Study 3 (n=801)--a field study carried out during a music festival--examined the structure of music-induced emotions via confirmatory factor analysis of emotion ratings, resulting in a 9-factorial model of music-induced emotions. Study 4 (n=238) replicated this model and found that it accounted for music-elicited emotions better than the basic emotion and dimensional emotion models. A domain-specific device to measure musically induced emotions is introduced--the Geneva Emotional Music Scale.

  5. "Music with Her Silver Sound": An Introduction to "Romeo and Juliet."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheaffer, Lloyd E.

    1992-01-01

    Asserts that the key to incorporating music effectively into the English classroom is to provide a context for the music. Describes a teacher's introduction to Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet" that demonstrates one way to use music and which helps accomplish the goals of the literary unit. (PRA)

  6. 浅析启发式教学法在声乐教学中的应用%A Brief Analysis on the Application of Heuristic Teaching Method in Vocal Music Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈萌璇

    2014-01-01

    The content of vocal music teaching is rich and com-plicated, so different schools of thought hold different views and opinions. Heuristic teaching can improve students' learning in-terest, help students learn and master vocal music knowledge, improve their innovative ability, and help develop their divergent thinking.%声乐教学内容非常丰富且复杂,各个学派在说法上具有自己的看法与意见。启发式教学可以提高学生的学习兴趣,帮助学生熟悉并掌握声乐知识,提高学生的创新能力,有助于发散学生的思维。

  7. Teaching. Quality of Vocal Music in Colleges of China from Chorus Competition%从合唱比赛看我国高校的声乐教学质量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿耀

    2012-01-01

    分析了我国合唱比赛中存在的问题。指出在音乐教学中,为求音色统一而存在声音观念上的误区,为求新颖别致而存在强调表现的误区。提出高质量的声乐教学是合唱团员良好音乐素养的保障。%The problems existing in chorus competition of China are analyzed. The misunderstandings in concept of voice for unified timbre, and focusing on performance to be unique in teaching of vocal music are pointed out. It is proposed that, the high-quality vocal teaching is the protection of the good music literacy of the members of chorus.

  8. Reflection of Vocal Music Teaching Under the Circumstance of Popular Entertainment%从平民化娱乐节目的兴起反思声乐教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闯敏

    2014-01-01

    With the rise of the common entertainment and the pop singer , the paper reflected the problems existing in the vocal music teaching .And it put forward some strategies of the development of vocal music teaching from the aspects of personal cultiva -tion, diversity training , strengthening the artistic practice .%从平民化娱乐节目中走进观众视野,并被百姓所认可的歌手谈起,通过他们身上所具有的特质,反思现在声乐教学中存在的问题。并从个性化培养,多元化培养,加强艺术实践几方面提出今后声乐教学发展的策略。

  9. Intuitive Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2009-01-01

    Handbook for people who wish to play or teach freely improvised music and improvisation pieces. With sections on how to start with different types of groups, training of musical awareness, parameters of the musical sound, the history of improvised music and some improvisational pieces....

  10. Intuitive Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2009-01-01

    Handbook for people who wish to play or teach freely improvised music and improvisation pieces. With sections on how to start with different types of groups, training of musical awareness, parameters of the musical sound, the history of improvised music and some improvisational pieces....

  11. The Current Situation and Strategical Analysis of Vocal Music Teaching in Colleges%我国高等院校音乐教育专业声乐教学现状及对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭勇军

    2012-01-01

    长期以来我国高校音乐教育专业声乐教学一直沿用音乐院校的教学模式,重视艺术表演的专业性和学生的个体素质,这种指导目标下培养的声乐学生远离了师范性的要求。文章从解读《全国普通高等学校音乐学(教师教育)本科专业课程指导方案》的核心内涵出发,审视了我国高等院校音乐教育专业声乐教学现状,并针对这些问题提出了建议。%The vocal music teaching in music education is following the teaching modes in professional music colleges, which emphasizes the professional artistic performance and individual's quality. This kind of teaching is moving far away from the requirements for normal students. This article scans the current situation of vocal music teaching in our colleges and puts forward the solutions based on the guidance for professional music teaching (normal education) cours in our colleges

  12. What Vowels Can Tell Us about the Evolution of Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertraud Fenk-Oczlon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Whether music and language evolved independently of each other or whether both evolved from a common precursor remains a hotly debated topic. We here emphasize the role of vowels in the language-music relationship, arguing for a shared heritage of music and speech. Vowels play a decisive role in generating the sound or sonority of syllables, the main vehicles for transporting prosodic information in speech and singing. Timbre is, beyond question, the primary parameter that allows us to discriminate between different vowels, but vowels also have intrinsic pitch, intensity, and duration. There are striking correspondences between the number of vowels and the number of pitches in musical scales across cultures: an upper limit of roughly 12 elements, a lower limit of 2, and a frequency peak at 5–7 elements. Moreover, there is evidence for correspondences between vowels and scales even in specific cultures, e.g., cultures with three vowels tend to have tritonic scales. We report a match between vowel pitch and musical pitch in meaningless syllables of Alpine yodelers, and highlight the relevance of vocal timbre in the music of many non-Western cultures, in which vocal timbre/vowel timbre and musical melody are often intertwined. Studies showing the pivotal role of vowels and their musical qualities in the ontogeny of language and in infant directed speech, will be used as further arguments supporting the hypothesis that music and speech evolved from a common prosodic precursor, where the vowels exhibited both pitch and timbre variations.

  13. Vocal behavior of Crested Guineafowl (Guttera edouardi) based on visual and sound playback surveys in the Umhlanga Lagoon Nature Reserve, KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Johann H.van Niekerk

    2015-01-01

    Background:General y speaking, playbacks were often ineffective to determine the group sizes of birds since mainly males from leks responded. This limitation has not been tested properly for flocking birds such as Crested Guineafowl (Guttera edouardi) with the view to use it as a counting method. The aims of the study reported in this paper were (1) to describe the cal s of Crested Guineafowl in a social context;(2) to interpret cal s in an evolutionary context;and (3) to demonstrate that playbacks can be used to locate and count Crested Guineafowl in smal isolated forests. Methods:The vocal behavior of Crested Guineafowl was observed during a survey conducted in the Umhlanga Lagoon Nature Reserve (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) from November 2010 to June 2012. Transect line observations and sound playback methods were used. Results:The behavioral context and structure of cal s were described. The eight cal s described for Crested Guineafowl were produced mainly to unite flock members in the dense understory, where visibility was poor, and to repel intruders. When not disturbed, Crested Guineafowl were quiet and only made soft contact calls. Conclusions:The high rate of call back and the fact that flocks invariably approach the source of the call en masse, shows that field researchers are able to assess the population size of Crested Guineafowl with sound playbacks along a transect. The value of playbacks as a conservation tool is assessed.

  14. The sound of spiritual care: music interventions in a palliative care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tees, Bob; Budd, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The article describes how music has been integrated into spiritual and supportive care for palliative care patients at Brantford General Hospital (Ontario). Numerous case examples illustrate how a song or piece of music can play a vital role in the spiritual dimension of end of life care. The article expands the concept of the "living human document" by positing that a life story has an accompanying soundtrack: a musical memory and sensorial attunement that can be energized when music is offered at the bedside. The writers suggest that music provides an alternate spiritual language for patients whether or not they have a religious affiliation.

  15. Structures in Sound: Analysis of Classical Music Using the Information Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuyler Nicholson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We show that music is represented by fluctuations away from the minimum path through statistical space. Our key idea is to envision music as the evolution of a non-equilibrium system and to construct probability distribution functions (PDFs from musical instrument digital interface (MIDI files of classical compositions. Classical music is then viewed through the lens of generalized position and velocity, based on the Fisher metric. Through these statistical tools we discuss a way to quantitatively discriminate between music and noise.

  16. Music

    OpenAIRE

    Deinert, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    The musical ending [of Goethe's Novelle] recalls the fascination with "music as metaphor", "the power of music", among recent and contemporary poets from Pope and Dryden and Collins to E.T.A. Hoffmann and Kleist and, of course to Goethe himself. Music saves Faust's life on Easter morning at the end of a dreadful night, and we'll encounter a similar role of music in his Trilogie der Leidenschaft which we'll read in this context.

  17. 中国声乐文化意境表现方式探微%A Probe into the Expression of the Mood of Chinese Culture of Vocal Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦卫红

    2012-01-01

    The composition and expression of the mood of Chinese culture of vocal music is an important part of vocal music education,the theoretical basis for students to lead to a higher artistic level.The essence of the mood of vocal music culture is the emotion and scenes of songs.Its symbols are lyrics and melodies.It has different kinds of expression,which has different features in its lyrics and melodies.%中国声乐文化之意境构成及其表现方式,是声乐文化教育中的一个重要内容,是学生通向更高艺术台阶的理论基础。声乐文化意境的本质是歌曲内容之情与景,声乐文化意境的代表符号是歌词和旋律,声乐文化意境的表现有触景生情、因情生景、情景交融等方式,各种表现方式其歌词和旋律的表达各具特点。

  18. Music Sound and Picture Perception: Topography of the Human Brain Electrical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wichian Sittiprapaporn

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The functional properties and topographic distribution of eventrelated potential (ERP components elicited by simultaneously music sound and picture discrimination were investigated. Simultaneous audio-visual stimulus in the oddball paradigm was used to re-examine the MMN occurrence in auditory, visual and audiovisual modalities. This study was designed to investigate whether task-related processing of visual and auditory features was independent or task-related processing in one modality might influence the processing of the other. The grand-average deviant-related components producing deviant-related negativities (DRNs divided into and early DRN1 around 100- 200 ms and late DRN2 around 200-300 ms. Two ERP components were found: MMN associated with DRN1, and N2b associated with DRN2. MMN and N2b were more negative when a stimulus was a target, showing the selection negativity effect. Feature-specific effects on component amplitude or topography varied by component. ANOVA shows that the interaction between electrode site and modality of MMN amplitudes at 100- 200 ms was statistically significant. The difference waves with 100-200 ms latency at the anterior sites were markedly different to the posterior sites. In visual modality, there was no MMN elicitation in the posterior sites compared to the auditory and audiovisual modalities. The emergence of posterior negativity (MMN in the present study is thus not to be attributed to visual discrimination process. These data provide topographic evidence that ERP components in the 100-300 ms time domain can be differentiated on the basis to proceeding of specific stimuli features, and reflect neurophysiologically distinct auditory and visual pathways in the human cortex.

  19. High speed digital phonoscopy of selected extreme vocalization (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebski, Krzysztof; Blanco, Matthew; Di Lorenzo, Enrico; Yan, Yuling

    2017-02-01

    We used HSDP (KayPENTAX Model 9710, NJ, USA) to capture the kinematics of vocal folds in the production of extreme vocalization used by heavy metal performers. The vibrations of the VF were captured at 4000 f/s using transoral rigid scope. Growl, scream and inhalatory phonations were recoded. Results showed that these extreme sounds are produced predominantly by supraglottic tissues rather than by the true vocal folds, which explains while these sounds do not injure the mucosa of the true vocal folds. In addition, the HSDI were processed using custom software (Vocalizer®) that clearly demonstrated the contribution of each vocal fold to the generation of the sound.

  20. Individual differences in the discrimination of novel speech sounds: effects of sex, temporal processing, musical and cognitive abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Vera; Thoresen, John C; Kirk, Neil W; Schaeffler, Felix; Brooks, Patricia J

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether rapid temporal auditory processing, verbal working memory capacity, non-verbal intelligence, executive functioning, musical ability and prior foreign language experience predicted how well native English speakers (N=120) discriminated Norwegian tonal and vowel contrasts as well as a non-speech analogue of the tonal contrast and a native vowel contrast presented over noise. Results confirmed a male advantage for temporal and tonal processing, and also revealed that temporal processing was associated with both non-verbal intelligence and speech processing. In contrast, effects of musical ability on non-native speech-sound processing and of inhibitory control on vowel discrimination were not mediated by temporal processing. These results suggest that individual differences in non-native speech-sound processing are to some extent determined by temporal auditory processing ability, in which males perform better, but are also determined by a host of other abilities that are deployed flexibly depending on the characteristics of the target sounds.

  1. Individual differences in the discrimination of novel speech sounds: effects of sex, temporal processing, musical and cognitive abilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Kempe

    Full Text Available This study examined whether rapid temporal auditory processing, verbal working memory capacity, non-verbal intelligence, executive functioning, musical ability and prior foreign language experience predicted how well native English speakers (N=120 discriminated Norwegian tonal and vowel contrasts as well as a non-speech analogue of the tonal contrast and a native vowel contrast presented over noise. Results confirmed a male advantage for temporal and tonal processing, and also revealed that temporal processing was associated with both non-verbal intelligence and speech processing. In contrast, effects of musical ability on non-native speech-sound processing and of inhibitory control on vowel discrimination were not mediated by temporal processing. These results suggest that individual differences in non-native speech-sound processing are to some extent determined by temporal auditory processing ability, in which males perform better, but are also determined by a host of other abilities that are deployed flexibly depending on the characteristics of the target sounds.

  2. Complexities of learning with computer-based tools: A case of inquiry about sound and music in elementary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Shirley J.

    1996-12-01

    Computer-based technology is increasingly becoming available for students at all grade levels in schools, and its promise and power as a learning tool is being extolled by many. From a constructive perspective, if individuals actively construct meaning from their experiences, then simply having particular tools to work with via a computer doesn't ensure that desired learning will result. Thus, it is important to examine how students construct meaning while using such tools. This study examined what fourth grade students learned from the use of two computer-based tools intended to help them understand sound and music: software that emulated an oscilloscope and allowed students to view sound waves from audio input; and software that turned the computer into an electronic keyboard, which provided students with standard pitches for comparison purposes. Principles of selective attention and pior knowledge and experiences—foundational ideas of a constructivist epistemology—were useful in understanding learning outcomes from inquiry with these tools. Our findings provide critical information for future instruction with the goal of supporting learning about sound and music from such tools. They also indicate the need for more studies examining learning from computer-based tools in specific contexts, to advance our understanding of how teachers can mediate student activity with computer-based tools to support the development of conceptual understanding.

  3. "A sound track of your life": music in contemporary UK funerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Sue; Holloway, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the role that music plays in contemporary UK funerals and the meaning that the funeral music has for bereaved families. It is based on findings from a recently completed study of 46 funerals funded by the UK Arts and Humanities Research Council. Music contributes to the public ceremony and the personal existential quest of the bereaved. It is important to both the content and process of the contemporary funeral, an event of deep cultural significance in our response as individuals and communities to death and the loss of a significant relationship. There is evidence that for many people, the music chosen and used also evokes and conveys their spirituality. Spirituality may not be intrinsic to the music but spiritual experience may result from the meaning that the music has for that particular person.

  4. 3D Room Visualization on Android Based Mobile Device (with Philips™’ Surround Sound Music Player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durio Etgar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This project’s specifically purposed as a demo application, so anyone can get the experience of a surround audio room without having to physically involved to it, with a main idea of generating a 3D surround sound room scenery coupled with surround sound in a handier package, namely, a “Virtual Listen Room”. Virtual Listen Room set a foundation of an innovative visualization that later will be developed and released as one of way of portable advertisement. This application was built inside of Android environment. Android device had been chosen as the implementation target, since it leaves massive development spaces and mostly contains essential components needed on this project, including graphic processor unit (GPU.  Graphic manipulation can be done using an embedded programming interface called OpenGL ES, which is planted in all Android devices generally. Further, Android has a Accelerometer Sensor that is needed to be coupled with scene to produce a dynamic movement of the camera. Surround sound effect can be reached with a decoder from Phillips called MPEG Surround Sound Decoder. To sum the whole project, we got an application with sensor-dynamic 3D room visualization coupled with Philips’ Surround Sound Music Player. We can manipulate several room’s properties; Subwoofer location, Room light, and how many speakers inside it, the application itself works well despite facing several performance problems before, later to be solved. [Keywords : Android,Visualization,Open GL; ES; 3D; Surround Sensor

  5. 3D Room Visualization on Android Based Mobile Device (with Philips™’ Surround Sound Music Player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durio Etgar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This project’s specifically purposed as a demo application, so anyone can get the experience of a surround audio room without having to physically involved to it, with a main idea of generating a 3D surround sound room scenery coupled with surround sound in a handier package, namely, a “Virtual Listen Room”. Virtual Listen Room set a foundation of an innovative visualization that later will be developed and released as one of way of portable advertisement. This application was built inside of Android environment. Android device had been chosen as the implementation target, since it leaves massive development spaces and mostly contains essential components needed on this project, including graphic processor unit (GPU. Graphic manipulation can be done using an embedded programming interface called OpenGL ES, which is planted in all Android devices generally. Further, Android has a Accelerometer Sensor that is needed to be coupled with scene to produce a dynamic movement of the camera. Surround sound effect can be reached with a decoder from Phillips called MPEG Surround Sound Decoder. To sum the whole project, we got an application with sensor-dynamic 3D room visualization coupled with Philips’ Surround Sound Music Player. We can manipulate several room’s properties; Subwoofer location, Room light, and how many speakers inside it, the application itself works well despite facing several performance problems before, later to be solved.

  6. From Sound to Significance: Exploring the Mechanisms Underlying Emotional Reactions to Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juslin, Patrik N; Barradas, Gonçalo; Eerola, Tuomas

    2015-01-01

    A common approach to studying emotional reactions to music is to attempt to obtain direct links between musical surface features such as tempo and a listener's responses. However, such an analysis ultimately fails to explain why emotions are aroused in the listener. In this article we explore an alternative approach, which aims to account for musical emotions in terms of a set of psychological mechanisms that are activated by different types of information in a musical event. This approach was tested in 4 experiments that manipulated 4 mechanisms (brain stem reflex, contagion, episodic memory, musical expectancy) by selecting existing musical pieces that featured information relevant for each mechanism. The excerpts were played to 60 listeners, who were asked to rate their felt emotions on 15 scales. Skin conductance levels and facial expressions were measured, and listeners reported subjective impressions of relevance to specific mechanisms. Results indicated that the target mechanism conditions evoked emotions largely as predicted by a multimechanism framework and that mostly similar effects occurred across the experiments that included different pieces of music. We conclude that a satisfactory account of musical emotions requires consideration of how musical features and responses are mediated by a range of underlying mechanisms.

  7. P1-18: The Effect of Background Music on Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Hao Liu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Many studies do visual working memory research under sundry sound conditions (Alley & Greene, 2008 Current Psychology 27 277–289; Iwanaga & Ito, 2002 Perceptual Motor Skills 94 1251–1258; Pring & Walker, 1994 Current Psychology 13 165–171. In order to understand more about background music, we modified previous studies to examine how the performance of working memory is affected by four different music conditions. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups to listen to two different pop songs to see if they have the similar effect on the performance of working memory. They were required to do six trials of digit span tasks under each music condition (silence, classical music, non-vocal music, vocal music. After being shown ten digits, each for 800 ms, participants were asked to recall and write down the digits in the correct order within 20 s. The results showed that there was no significant difference between two pop songs. Therefore, data were pooled for further analysis and indicated that there are significant differences and correlations in working memory among the four music conditions. The finding that the effect of non-vocal music affects working memory is greater in this study than in that of western films (Alley & Greene, 2008; Pring & Walker, 1994, which is consistent with the previous study in Japan (Iwanaga & Ito, 2002. The application of this study will be discussed in detail.

  8. Music Publishing

    OpenAIRE

    A.Manuel B. Simoes; J.Joao Dias De Almeida

    2003-01-01

    Current music publishing in the Internet is mainly concerned with sound publishing. We claim that music publishing is not only to make sound available but also to define relations between a set of music objects like music scores, guitar chords, lyrics and their meta-data. We want an easy way to publish music in the Internet, to make high quality paper booklets and even to create Audio CD's. In this document we present a workbench for music publishing based on open formats, using open-source t...

  9. Chinese Pronunciation Rules in the Vocal Music Concert in China%汉语发音规则在中国声乐作品演唱中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琼

    2012-01-01

    Singing is music and the combination of the written language.The lyrics in Chinese vocal music plays an important role in the mood and the mood of the performance of music,the singer only to master Chinese pronunciation of "sound" and "rhyme" and "tone" rules do singing the correct pronunciation and articulation,in order to give full play to the function and role of language in the art of vocal music creation,better,more perfect expression of the ideological content of the works.%歌唱是音乐和语言的结合体。中国声乐作品中的歌词在表现音乐情绪和意境中起着十分重要的作用,演唱者只有掌握汉语中"声"、"韵"和"调"的发音规则,在歌唱时做到正确的咬字与吐字,才能充分发挥语言在声乐艺术中的创造功能与作用,更好、更完美地表达作品的思想内容。

  10. Musical Sound Quality in Cochlear Implant Users: A Comparison in Bass Frequency Perception Between Fine Structure Processing and High-Definition Continuous Interleaved Sampling Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alexis T; Carver, Courtney; Jiradejvong, Patpong; Limb, Charles J

    2015-01-01

    Med-El cochlear implant (CI) patients are typically programmed with either the fine structure processing (FSP) or high-definition continuous interleaved sampling (HDCIS) strategy. FSP is the newer-generation strategy and aims to provide more direct encoding of fine structure information compared with HDCIS. Since fine structure information is extremely important in music listening, FSP may offer improvements in musical sound quality for CI users. Despite widespread clinical use of both strategies, few studies have assessed the possible benefits in music perception for the FSP strategy. The objective of this study is to measure the differences in musical sound quality discrimination between the FSP and HDCIS strategies. Musical sound quality discrimination was measured using a previously designed evaluation, called Cochlear Implant-MUltiple Stimulus with Hidden Reference and Anchor (CI-MUSHRA). In this evaluation, participants were required to detect sound quality differences between an unaltered real-world musical stimulus and versions of the stimulus in which various amount of bass (low) frequency information was removed via a high-pass filer. Eight CI users, currently using the FSP strategy, were enrolled in this study. In the first session, participants completed the CI-MUSHRA evaluation with their FSP strategy. Patients were then programmed with the clinical-default HDCIS strategy, which they used for 2 months to allow for acclimatization. After acclimatization, each participant returned for the second session, during which they were retested with HDCIS, and then switched back to their original FSP strategy and tested acutely. Sixteen normal-hearing (NH) controls completed a CI-MUSHRA evaluation for comparison, in which NH controls listened to music samples under normal acoustic conditions, without CI stimulation. Sensitivity to high-pass filtering more closely resembled that of NH controls when CI users were programmed with the clinical-default FSP strategy

  11. Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech, Marcel Lysgaard

    2017-01-01

    Old Comedy was a musical experience of great variety. Accompanied by the piper, both choruses and actors sang frequently during the performance. Music in Old comedy reflects to some extend the importance of music in Athenian everyday life, but as Greek Comedy evolved and detached it self more...... and more from the everyday topics, music similarly lost part of its importance within the plays themselves....

  12. Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech, Marcel Lysgaard

    2017-01-01

    Old Comedy was a musical experience of great variety. Accompanied by the piper, both choruses and actors sang frequently during the performance. Music in Old comedy reflects to some extend the importance of music in Athenian everyday life, but as Greek Comedy evolved and detached it self more...

  13. Computer Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Perry R.

    This chapter covers algorithms, technologies, computer languages, and systems for computer music. Computer music involves the application of computers and other digital/electronic technologies to music composition, performance, theory, history, and the study of perception. The field combines digital signal processing, computational algorithms, computer languages, hardware and software systems, acoustics, psychoacoustics (low-level perception of sounds from the raw acoustic signal), and music cognition (higher-level perception of musical style, form, emotion, etc.).

  14. Auditory Attraction: Activation of Visual Cortex by Music and Sound in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton-Wells, Tricia A.; Cannistraci, Christopher J.; Anderson, Adam W.; Kim, Chai-Youn; Eapen, Mariam; Gore, John C.; Blake, Randolph; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    Williams syndrome is a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder with a distinctive phenotype, including cognitive-linguistic features, nonsocial anxiety, and a strong attraction to music. We performed functional MRI studies examining brain responses to musical and other types of auditory stimuli in young adults with Williams syndrome and typically…

  15. Auditory Attraction: Activation of Visual Cortex by Music and Sound in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton-Wells, Tricia A.; Cannistraci, Christopher J.; Anderson, Adam W.; Kim, Chai-Youn; Eapen, Mariam; Gore, John C.; Blake, Randolph; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    Williams syndrome is a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder with a distinctive phenotype, including cognitive-linguistic features, nonsocial anxiety, and a strong attraction to music. We performed functional MRI studies examining brain responses to musical and other types of auditory stimuli in young adults with Williams syndrome and typically…

  16. Gender Associations for Musical Instruments in Nursery Children: The Effect of Sound and Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Nigel; Shibazaki, Kagari

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of a study carried out with 105 children, aged between three and four years in three nursery units in London and Surrey, UK. The aim of this study was to explore the level of association which young children have between various musical instruments, musical styles and a particular gender. However, we also aimed to…

  17. AUDITORY PERCEPTION OF MUSICAL SOUNDS BY CHILDREN IN THE FIRST SIX GRADES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PETZOLD, ROBERT G.

    THE NATURE AND DEVELOPMENT OF CERTAIN FUNDAMENTAL MUSICAL SKILLS WERE STUDIED. THIS STUDY FOCUSED ON AURAL PERCEPTION AS AN INTEGRAL FACTOR IN THE CHILD'S MUSICAL DEVELOPMENT. TWO MAJOR ASPECTS OF THIS 5-YEAR STUDY INCLUDED (1) LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF THREE GROUPS OF CHILDREN AND (2) A SERIES OF 1-YEAR PILOT STUDIES DEALING WITH RHYTHM, TIMBRE, AND…

  18. The Cultivation of Expressional Appetition in Vocal Music Performance and Teaching%论声乐演唱及教学中表现欲望的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雅旭

    2011-01-01

    The performance of vocal music is a kind of art action.The expressional appetition is an active psychology when completing singing.The cultivation of expressional appetition will make performers understand the connotation of art,release their stress and c%声乐表演是表现性的艺术活动,表现欲望是主体心理面对歌唱活动所持有的一种积极参与心态。对表现欲望的培养利于表演者更为深入地理解艺术内涵、调节自身紧张的情绪,并且可以给声乐教学创造积极的能动作用。声乐演唱及教学过程中对表现欲望的激发和培养可以通过对审美主体素质的提高、对审美客体上的优化、对适宜教学环境的创新三个方面来实现。

  19. Rational Use and Protection of Voice in the Teaching of Vocal Music%声乐教学中嗓音的合理运用与保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶健

    2012-01-01

    It is held that voice use and protection is important for the success of vocal music teaching.It is argued that instructions and practice should be conducted rationally in this regard.%在对大学声乐专业学生的教学过程中,教师不仅要教授学生一套良好科学的发声方法还要特别注重学生嗓音的保护,要让学生懂得嗓音保护的重要意义,并用科学的态度对待声乐学习。文章结合多年的声乐教学经验分析提出嗓音的合理运用和保护必须有健康的身体、广博的教育、科学的方法以及合理的保护。

  20. Sound

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Sound has the power to soothe, excite, warn, protect, and inform. Indeed, the transmission and reception of audio signals pervade our daily lives. Readers will examine the mechanics and properties of sound and provides an overview of the "interdisciplinary science called acoustics." Also covered are functions and diseases of the human ear.

  1. The Effect of The Activities Developed Regarding Sound Knowledge and Acoustics on Concept Knowledge Levels of Physics and Music Teacher Candidates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz GÜRER YÜCEL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study; is to determine the influence of physics and music – content activities over the conceptual knowledge levels of the students studying in both physics and music teaching programs as to be used in the subject area of sound knowledge and acoustics. In the study, the pre-test - post-test design which is the static group contained within the experimental designs has been used. The research group is composed of 62 students from the music teaching program and 55 students from the physics teaching program. The students of physics and music teaching have been divided into the control and experimental groups within themselves. When the sound knowledge and acoustics was being told to both experimental groups of physics and music teaching by being supported with the technics developed, lectures were conducted in the control groups. Data have been collected by "The Subject of Sound Knowledge and Acoustics – Oriented Conceptual Knowledge Test". As a result of the analyzes carried out; it has been identified that the pre-application conceptual knowledge levels of the experimental group students of music and physics teaching were similar and post-application conceptual knowledge levels of the physics teaching students were higher.

  2. Development of auditory-vocal perceptual skills in songbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa C Miller-Sims

    Full Text Available Songbirds are one of the few groups of animals that learn the sounds used for vocal communication during development. Like humans, songbirds memorize vocal sounds based on auditory experience with vocalizations of adult "tutors", and then use auditory feedback of self-produced vocalizations to gradually match their motor output to the memory of tutor sounds. In humans, investigations of early vocal learning have focused mainly on perceptual skills of infants, whereas studies of songbirds have focused on measures of vocal production. In order to fully exploit songbirds as a model for human speech, understand the neural basis of learned vocal behavior, and investigate links between vocal perception and production, studies of songbirds must examine both behavioral measures of perception and neural measures of discrimination during development. Here we used behavioral and electrophysiological assays of the ability of songbirds to distinguish vocal calls of varying frequencies at different stages of vocal learning. The results show that neural tuning in auditory cortex mirrors behavioral improvements in the ability to make perceptual distinctions of vocal calls as birds are engaged in vocal learning. Thus, separate measures of neural discrimination and behavioral perception yielded highly similar trends during the course of vocal development. The timing of this improvement in the ability to distinguish vocal sounds correlates with our previous work showing substantial refinement of axonal connectivity in cortico-basal ganglia pathways necessary for vocal learning.

  3. Development of auditory-vocal perceptual skills in songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Sims, Vanessa C; Bottjer, Sarah W

    2012-01-01

    Songbirds are one of the few groups of animals that learn the sounds used for vocal communication during development. Like humans, songbirds memorize vocal sounds based on auditory experience with vocalizations of adult "tutors", and then use auditory feedback of self-produced vocalizations to gradually match their motor output to the memory of tutor sounds. In humans, investigations of early vocal learning have focused mainly on perceptual skills of infants, whereas studies of songbirds have focused on measures of vocal production. In order to fully exploit songbirds as a model for human speech, understand the neural basis of learned vocal behavior, and investigate links between vocal perception and production, studies of songbirds must examine both behavioral measures of perception and neural measures of discrimination during development. Here we used behavioral and electrophysiological assays of the ability of songbirds to distinguish vocal calls of varying frequencies at different stages of vocal learning. The results show that neural tuning in auditory cortex mirrors behavioral improvements in the ability to make perceptual distinctions of vocal calls as birds are engaged in vocal learning. Thus, separate measures of neural discrimination and behavioral perception yielded highly similar trends during the course of vocal development. The timing of this improvement in the ability to distinguish vocal sounds correlates with our previous work showing substantial refinement of axonal connectivity in cortico-basal ganglia pathways necessary for vocal learning.

  4. Sound and Music in A Mixed Martial Arts Gym: Exploring the Functions and Effects of Organized Noise as an Aid to Training and Fighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paul

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper has two distinct yet interrelated parts. First, it is a study into the sociology of sound and music—an exploration of how the phenomena of noise organizes and structures human behavior. Second, it is an auditory ethnographic excursion into the world of mixed martial arts (MMA fighting. Using a general qualitative approach grounded by the soundscape, participant observation and semi-structured interviews, we query MMA fighters’ experiences with sound and music, noting how these “sonic things” become key aids in bonding, training, and fighting. Lastly, we describe how participants use music to achieve various motivational and psychophysical outcomes.

  5. 理工科大学声乐的教育价值及教学方法探析%Education Value of Vocal Music and Its Teaching Exploration in the University of Science and Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南利华

    2012-01-01

    It's of special significance to develop vocal musm m tne umverslty ul ~ and technology, which could cultivate students' humanistic accomplishment and comprehen- sive quality and promote students' development of aesthetic and creative thinking. Because of the distinctiveness of learning thinking model in the students from the university of science and technology, it should employ the teaching language of vocal music correctly, arouse the singing emotion effectively, adjust the singing mood to acquire the better teaching effect of vocal music.%我国理工科大学的声乐教育,对培养学生的人文素养和综合素质、促进大学生审美及创新思维的发展,具有特殊的意义。由于理工科大学生具有学习思维模式等方面的特殊性,应正确运用声乐教学语言,有效激发歌唱情绪,注意培养良好的歌唱心态等方法,以获得更好的声乐教学效果。

  6. Animal signals and emotion in music: Coordinating affect across groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A. Bryant

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers studying the emotional impact of music have not traditionally been concerned with the principled relationship between form and function in evolved animal signals. The acoustic structure of musical forms is related in important ways to emotion perception, and thus research on nonhuman animal vocalizations is relevant for understanding emotion in music. Musical behavior occurs in cultural contexts that include many other coordinated activities which mark group identity, and can allow people to communicate within and between social alliances. The emotional impact of music might be best understood as a proximate mechanism serving an ultimately social function. Here I describe recent work that reveals intimate connections between properties of certain animal signals and evocative aspects of human music, including 1 examinations of the role of nonlinearities (e.g., broadband noise in nonhuman animal vocalizations, and the analogous production and perception of these features in human music, and 2 an analysis of group musical performances and possible relationships to nonhuman animal chorusing and emotional contagion effects. Communicative features in music are likely due primarily to evolutionary byproducts of phylogenetically older, but still intact communication systems. But in some cases, such as the coordinated rhythmic sounds produced by groups of musicians, our appreciation and emotional engagement might be due to the operation of an adaptive social signaling system. Future empirical work should examine human musical behavior through the comparative lens of behavioral ecology and an adaptationist cognitive science. By this view, particular coordinated sound combinations generated by musicians exploit evolved perceptual response biases—many shared across species—and proliferate through cultural evolutionary processes.

  7. Animal signals and emotion in music: coordinating affect across groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    Researchers studying the emotional impact of music have not traditionally been concerned with the principled relationship between form and function in evolved animal signals. The acoustic structure of musical forms is related in important ways to emotion perception, and thus research on non-human animal vocalizations is relevant for understanding emotion in music. Musical behavior occurs in cultural contexts that include many other coordinated activities which mark group identity, and can allow people to communicate within and between social alliances. The emotional impact of music might be best understood as a proximate mechanism serving an ultimately social function. Recent work reveals intimate connections between properties of certain animal signals and evocative aspects of human music, including (1) examinations of the role of nonlinearities (e.g., broadband noise) in non-human animal vocalizations, and the analogous production and perception of these features in human music, and (2) an analysis of group musical performances and possible relationships to non-human animal chorusing and emotional contagion effects. Communicative features in music are likely due primarily to evolutionary by-products of phylogenetically older, but still intact communication systems. But in some cases, such as the coordinated rhythmic sounds produced by groups of musicians, our appreciation and emotional engagement might be driven by an adaptive social signaling system. Future empirical work should examine human musical behavior through the comparative lens of behavioral ecology and an adaptationist cognitive science. By this view, particular coordinated sound combinations generated by musicians exploit evolved perceptual response biases - many shared across species - and proliferate through cultural evolutionary processes.

  8. Residual neural processing of musical sound features in adult cochlear implant users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm, Lydia; Vuust, Peter; Brattico, Evira

    2014-01-01

    neural skills for music processing even in CI users who have been implanted in adolescence or adulthood. HIGHLIGHTS: -Automatic brain responses to musical feature changes reflect the limitations of central auditory processing in adult Cochlear Implant users.-The brains of adult CI users automatically......Auditory processing in general and music perception in particular are hampered in adult cochlear implant (CI) users. To examine the residual music perception skills and their underlying neural correlates in CI users implanted in adolescence or adulthood, we conducted an electrophysiological...... setting lasting only 20 min. The presentation of stimuli did not require the participants' attention, allowing the study of the early automatic stage of feature processing in the auditory cortex. For the CI users, we obtained mismatch negativity (MMN) brain responses to five feature changes...

  9. Reviews of Neil Lerner and Joseph Straus eds., Sounding Off: Theorizing Disability in Music

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bruce Quaglia

    2007-01-01

      [...]other chapters may have followed from, or perhaps even responded to, papers given at the 2004 joint AMS/SMT meeting in Seattle where a special session on disability and music could be understood...

  10. When speech enhances Spatial Musical Association of Response Codes: Joint spatial associations of pitch and timbre in nonmusicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Tina; Estner, Barbara; Lachmann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the effect of the Spatial Musical Association of Response Codes (SMARC) depends on various features, such as task conditions (whether pitch height is implicit or explicit), response dimension (horizontal vs. vertical), presence or absence of a reference tone, and former musical training of the participants. In the present study, we investigated the effects of pitch range and timbre: in particular, how timbre (piano vs. vocal) contributes to the horizontal and vertical SMARC effect in nonmusicians under varied pitch range conditions. Nonmusicians performed a timbre judgement task in which the pitch range was either small (6 or 8 semitone steps) or large (9 or 12 semitone steps) in a horizontal and a vertical response setting. For piano sounds, SMARC effects were observed in all conditions. For the vocal sounds, in contrast, SMARC effects depended on pitch range. We concluded that the occurrence of the SMARC effect, especially in horizontal response settings, depends on the interaction of the timbre (vocal and piano) and pitch range if vocal and instrumental sounds are combined in one experiment: the human voice enhances the attention, both to the vocal and the instrumental sounds.

  11. Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Popular music ( 流行音乐, 可简作 pop) , in its widestsense, embraces ( 包含) many genres ( 类型) of music. TheAmerican, especially African American, cultures have beenvery influential( 有影响力的) on pop, Jazz( 爵士乐) and BigBand ( 爵士乐团) music benefited ( 受益于) from the im-

  12. A gray matter of taste: sound perception, music cognition, and Baumgarten's aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannese, Alessia

    2012-09-01

    Music is an ancient and ubiquitous form of human expression. One important component for which music is sought after is its aesthetic value, whose appreciation has typically been associated with largely learned, culturally determined factors, such as education, exposure, and social pressure. However, neuroscientific evidence shows that the aesthetic response to music is often associated with automatic, physically- and biologically-grounded events, such as shivers, chills, increased heart rate, and motor synchronization, suggesting the existence of an underlying biological platform upon which contextual factors may act. Drawing on philosophical notions and neuroscientific evidence, I argue that, although there is no denying that social and cultural context play a substantial role in shaping the aesthetic response to music, these act upon largely universal, biological mechanisms involved with neural processing. I propose that the simultaneous presence of culturally-influenced and biologically-determined contributions to the aesthetic response to music epitomizes Baumgarten's equation of sensory perception with taste. Taking the argument one step further, I suggest that the heavily embodied aesthetic response to music bridges the cleavage between the two discrepant meanings-the one referring to sensory perception, the other referring to judgments of taste-traditionally attributed to the word "aesthetics" in the sciences and the humanities.

  13. Effects of Three Types of Noncontingent Auditory Stimulation on Vocal Stereotypy in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Sharyn; Sidener, Tina M.; Reeve, Sharon A.; Fetherston, Anne; Progar, Patrick R.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of 3 types of noncontingent auditory stimulation (music, white noise, recordings of vocal stereotypy) on 2 children with autism who engaged in high rates of vocal stereotypy. For both participants, the music condition was the most effective in decreasing vocal stereotypy to near-zero levels, resulted in the highest parent…

  14. Sounds of lament, melancholy and wilderness: The Zenithist revolt and music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin Melita B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of writing this article is to analyze how the articles published by Zenith magazine (1921-1926 reflected the role of modern music within the framework of Zenithism - a movement relating to Dadaism and Futurism. The founder of the movement Ljubomir Micić and the Croatian composer Josip Slavenski both settled in Serbia and shared similar views concerning the Zenithist role of art. They sought to create a novel artistic expression free from Western influence, rooted in primitive and intrinsic creative forces of Eastern, and more specifically, Balkan peoples. Nevertheless, the intellectual sophistication and radicalism of their ideas differed somewhat whereas Micić was inclined towards experiment and provocation (i.e. his announcement of a Balkan "Barbarogenius", Slavenski's aim was to revise and transform the archaisms preserved in old layers of folk music (primarily that of the Balkans, thus yielding an original modernist language. When in 1924 Micić moved from Zagreb to Belgrade, Slavenski was already there, only to leave for Paris in winter of the same year and remain there until the following summer. This may explain Slavenski's single contribution to Zenith, a piece composed before he met Micić. Zenith's articles on music included a positive account of Prokofiev, whose works were seen as representative of the movement's intentions. The article was an abridged translation of Igor Glebov's (pseudonym of Boris Asafiev text printed in V'ešč (in German. Micić himself was the author of another contribution - a concert review, which served as an opportunity to express his views on contemporary music, one being an appraisal of Stravinsky whose music was felt to correspond to Zenithist aesthetics. He was labeled a musical 'Cubist', who composed music of 'paradox and simultaneity'. In the same article Antun Dobronić (a nationalist Croatian composer was criticised on the basis that his music was not 'Balkanized' enough. Micić, who

  15. Music training enhances the rapid plasticity of P3a/P3b event-related brain potentials for unattended and attended target sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppänen, Miia; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2012-04-01

    Neurocognitive studies have shown that extensive musical training enhances P3a and P3b event-related potentials for infrequent target sounds, which reflects stronger attention switching and stimulus evaluation in musicians than in nonmusicians. However, it is unknown whether the short-term plasticity of P3a and P3b responses is also enhanced in musicians. We compared the short-term plasticity of P3a and P3b responses to infrequent target sounds in musicians and nonmusicians during auditory perceptual learning tasks. Target sounds, deviating in location, pitch, and duration with three difficulty levels, were interspersed among frequently presented standard sounds in an oddball paradigm. We found that during passive exposure to sounds, musicians had habituation of the P3a, while nonmusicians showed enhancement of the P3a between blocks. Between active tasks, P3b amplitudes for duration deviants were reduced (habituated) in musicians only, and showed a more posterior scalp topography for habituation when compared to P3bs of nonmusicians. In both groups, the P3a and P3b latencies were shortened for deviating sounds. Also, musicians were better than nonmusicians at discriminating target deviants. Regardless of musical training, better discrimination was associated with higher working memory capacity. We concluded that music training enhances short-term P3a/P3b plasticity, indicating training-induced changes in attentional skills.

  16. Effects of melody and technique on acoustical and musical features of western operatic singing voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline; Magis, David; Morsomme, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    The operatic singing technique is frequently used in classical music. Several acoustical parameters of this specific technique have been studied but how these parameters combine remains unclear. This study aims to further characterize the Western operatic singing technique by observing the effects of melody and technique on acoustical and musical parameters of the singing voice. Fifty professional singers performed two contrasting melodies (popular song and romantic melody) with two vocal techniques (with and without operatic singing technique). The common quality parameters (energy distribution, vibrato rate, and extent), perturbation parameters (standard deviation of the fundamental frequency, signal-to-noise ratio, jitter, and shimmer), and musical features (fundamental frequency of the starting note, average tempo, and sound pressure level) of the 200 sung performances were analyzed. The results regarding the effect of melody and technique on the acoustical and musical parameters show that the choice of melody had a limited impact on the parameters observed, whereas a particular vocal profile appeared depending on the vocal technique used. This study confirms that vocal technique affects most of the parameters examined. In addition, the observation of quality, perturbation, and musical parameters contributes to a better understanding of the Western operatic singing technique. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 试论“PBL”教学法在声乐课堂上的操作模式%An Analysis of Operating Model for“PBL”Teaching Method in Vocal Music Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文蕾

    2016-01-01

    PBL的教学理念是以问题为起点来选择知识的依据,整个教学过程中,学生是知识探究的主体。将这一教学模式运用于声乐技能课中,是一项大胆的尝试,声乐教学的多样性,容易使学生造成困惑和思维的混乱。让学生从声乐演唱中遇到的问题出发,引导学生思考,利用多种学习手段自主学习,达到提高歌唱技能的目的,并培养学生自主学习、积极思考的学习能力。%The teaching philosophy of PBL (Problem-based Learning) is the basis that takes the prob-lem as a starting point to select knowledge. During the whole teaching process, students are the subjects to explore the knowledge. This model of teaching used in the class of vocal music skills is a bold attempt. Meanwhile, the diversity of vocal music teaching could easily make students confused with disordered think-ing. PBL is to guide the students to start from the problems they encountered at their vocal music practice and lead them to think. PBL also uses a variety of learning tools of autonomous learning to improve students' skills of singing. In this case, PBL can also nurture students' capabilities to practice autonomous learning and to think positively.

  18. Influence of water depth on the sound generated by air-bubble vibration in the water musical instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohuchi, Yoshito; Nakazono, Yoichi

    2014-06-01

    We have developed a water musical instrument that generates sound by the falling of water drops within resonance tubes. The instrument can give people who hear it the healing effect inherent in the sound of water. The sound produced by falling water drops arises from air- bubble vibrations. To investigate the impact of water depth on the air-bubble vibrations, we conducted experiments at varying values of water pressure and nozzle shape. We found that air-bubble vibration frequency does not change at a water depth of 50 mm or greater. Between 35 and 40 mm, however, the frequency decreases. At water depths of 30 mm or below, the air-bubble vibration frequency increases. In our tests, we varied the nozzle diameter from 2 to 4 mm. In addition, we discovered that the time taken for air-bubble vibration to start after the water drops start falling is constant at water depths of 40 mm or greater, but slower at depths below 40 mm.

  19. A California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) can keep the beat: motor entrainment to rhythmic auditory stimuli in a non vocal mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Peter; Rouse, Andrew; Wilson, Margaret; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2013-11-01

    Is the ability to entrain motor activity to a rhythmic auditory stimulus, that is "keep a beat," dependent on neural adaptations supporting vocal mimicry? That is the premise of the vocal learning and synchronization hypothesis, recently advanced to explain the basis of this behavior (A. Patel, 2006, Musical Rhythm, Linguistic Rhythm, and Human Evolution, Music Perception, 24, 99-104). Prior to the current study, only vocal mimics, including humans, cockatoos, and budgerigars, have been shown to be capable of motoric entrainment. Here we demonstrate that a less vocally flexible animal, a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), can learn to entrain head bobbing to an auditory rhythm meeting three criteria: a behavioral response that does not reproduce the stimulus; performance transfer to a range of novel tempos; and entrainment to complex, musical stimuli. These findings show that the capacity for entrainment of movement to rhythmic sounds does not depend on a capacity for vocal mimicry, and may be more widespread in the animal kingdom than previously hypothesized.

  20. Auditory feedback and memory for music performance: sound evidence for an encoding effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, Steven A; Palmer, Caroline

    2003-01-01

    Research on the effects of context and task on learning and memory has included approaches that emphasize processes during learning (e.g., Craik & Tulving, 1975) and approaches that emphasize a match of conditions during learning with conditions during a later test of memory (e.g., Morris, Bransford, & Franks, 1977; Proteau, 1992; Tulving & Thomson, 1973). We investigated the effects of auditory context on learning and retrieval in three experiments on memorized music performance (a form of serial recall). Auditory feedback (presence or absence) was manipulated while pianists learned musical pieces from notation and when they later played the pieces from memory. Auditory feedback during learning significantly improved later recall. However, auditory feedback at test did not significantly affect recall, nor was there an interaction between conditions at learning and test. Auditory feedback in music performance appears to be a contextual factor that affects learning but is relatively independent of retrieval conditions.

  1. Film Music. Factfile No. 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsas, Diana, Ed.; And Others

    Organizations listed here with descriptive information include film music clubs and music guilds and associations. These are followed by a representative list of schools offering film music and/or film sound courses. Sources are listed for soundtrack recordings, sound effects/production music, films on film music, and oral history programs. The…

  2. SoundScape: An Interdisciplinary Music Intervention for Adolescents and Young Adults on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greher, Gena R.; Hillier, Ashleigh; Dougherty, Margaret; Poto, Nataliya

    2010-01-01

    Service provision for adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is lacking, particularly post high school. We report on a music intervention program, outline our program model, and report some initial pilot data evaluating the program outcomes. We also discuss implications for undergraduate and graduate students who were…

  3. That note sounds wrong! Age-related effects in processing of musical expectation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Andrea R; Zioga, Ioanna; Shankleman, Martin; Lindsen, Job; Pearce, Marcus T; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2017-04-01

    Part of musical understanding and enjoyment stems from the ability to accurately predict what note (or one of a small set of notes) is likely to follow after hearing the first part of a melody. Selective violation of expectations can add to aesthetic response but radical or frequent violations are likely to be disliked or not comprehended. In this study we investigated whether a lifetime of exposure to music among untrained older adults would enhance their reaction to unexpected endings of unfamiliar melodies. Older and younger adults listened to melodies that had expected or unexpected ending notes, according to Western music theory. Ratings of goodness-of-fit were similar in the groups, as was ERP response to the note onset (N1). However, in later time windows (P200 and Late Positive Component), the amplitude of a response to unexpected and expected endings was both larger in older adults, corresponding to greater sensitivity, and more widespread in locus, consistent with a dedifferentiation pattern. Lateralization patterns also differed. We conclude that older adults refine their understanding of this important aspect of music throughout life, with the ability supported by changing patterns of neural activity.

  4. Sounds from the Mountain: How a Simple Dulcimer Can Transform Your General Music Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rebecca A.

    2009-01-01

    The mountain dulcimer is a folk instrument that children (and adults) can learn to play quickly and easily. Even more exciting than learning to play it is making one of your own. Making and playing a dulcimer allows students to explore an instrument for themselves and create a music-making environment. From an inexpensive, prepackaged kit,…

  5. The value and status of Piano accompaniment in the vocal music performing arts%钢琴伴奏在声乐表演艺术中的价值及地位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一川

    2014-01-01

    在声乐表演艺术中,钢琴伴奏作为乐曲的重要组成部分,不仅能够丰富作品的内容,表达语言和歌声无法准确传达的情感,还能帮助演唱者快速进入到乐曲所要表达的意境情绪中,帮助演唱者准确定音、定调,使演唱者在钢琴伴奏的引领和气氛烘托中准确清晰的表达主题、丰富乐思。从而帮助演唱者提高自身歌唱水平,完善歌唱技巧、提升艺术素养。本文将针对钢琴伴奏在声乐表演艺术中的价值和地位进行论述和分析。%In the vocal music performing arts, the piano music as an important part of, not only can enrich the content of work, can't accurately convey emotion expression language and song, can also help the singer's quick into the music to express the artistic mood, help the singer accurate tuning, set the tone, make the leading of the singer on the piano and atmosphere foil accurate and clear expression of the theme, rich in the vehicle. To help the singer to improve their singing level, improve the singing skills, improve artistic accomplishment. This article will focus on value and position of piano accompaniment in the vocal music performance art is discussed and analyzed.

  6. Designed sound and music environment in postanaesthesia care units--a multicentre study of patients and staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorgaard, Per; Ertmann, Ellen; Hansen, Vibeke; Noerregaard, Anni; Hansen, Vibeke; Spanggaard, Lene

    2005-08-01

    A multicentre study in five postanaesthesia care units (PACUs) was performed to investigate patient and staff opinion of a specially designed music environment (DME), related to geographical location. Patients (325) and staff (91) described their opinion by means of a questionnaire-anonymously in the case of staff. Patients were not asked beforehand for permission to play music. Amongst patients 267 (83%) found the sound environment with DME pleasant or very pleasant, 26 (6%) found it unpleasant, whereas 32 (11%) answered "no opinion". The opinion of the patients did not differ significantly with geographical location. A strong correlation (P<0.05) between a positive attitude towards DME and degree of relaxation and satisfaction with stay was found. The staff had an equally positive attitude towards the DME; but theirs varied significantly with location. The opinion of the staff was more similar concerning the beneficial effect on working conditions and distress, but varied still significantly. The opinion of the staff had no demonstrable impact on that of the patients.

  7. Nonlinear Frequency Compression: Effects on Sound Quality Ratings of Speech and Music

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parsa, Vijay; Scollie, Susan; Glista, Danielle; Seelisch, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    ...) algorithm on perceived sound quality. In the first study, the cutoff frequency and compression ratio parameters of the NFC algorithm were varied, and their effect on the speech quality was measured subjectively with 12 normal hearing...

  8. Video indexing based on image and sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faudemay, Pascal; Montacie, Claude; Caraty, Marie-Jose

    1997-10-01

    Video indexing is a major challenge for both scientific and economic reasons. Information extraction can sometimes be easier from sound channel than from image channel. We first present a multi-channel and multi-modal query interface, to query sound, image and script through 'pull' and 'push' queries. We then summarize the segmentation phase, which needs information from the image channel. Detection of critical segments is proposed. It should speed-up both automatic and manual indexing. We then present an overview of the information extraction phase. Information can be extracted from the sound channel, through speaker recognition, vocal dictation with unconstrained vocabularies, and script alignment with speech. We present experiment results for these various techniques. Speaker recognition methods were tested on the TIMIT and NTIMIT database. Vocal dictation as experimented on newspaper sentences spoken by several speakers. Script alignment was tested on part of a carton movie, 'Ivanhoe'. For good quality sound segments, error rates are low enough for use in indexing applications. Major issues are the processing of sound segments with noise or music, and performance improvement through the use of appropriate, low-cost architectures or networks of workstations.

  9. Musical experience limits the degradative effects of background noise on the neural processing of sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Skoe, Erika; Kraus, Nina

    2009-11-11

    Musicians have lifelong experience parsing melodies from background harmonies, which can be considered a process analogous to speech perception in noise. To investigate the effect of musical experience on the neural representation of speech-in-noise, we compared subcortical neurophysiological responses to speech in quiet and noise in a group of highly trained musicians and nonmusician controls. Musicians were found to have a more robust subcortical representation of the acoustic stimulus in the presence of noise. Specifically, musicians demonstrated faster neural timing, enhanced representation of speech harmonics, and less degraded response morphology in noise. Neural measures were associated with better behavioral performance on the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) for which musicians outperformed the nonmusician controls. These findings suggest that musical experience limits the negative effects of competing background noise, thereby providing the first biological evidence for musicians' perceptual advantage for speech-in-noise.

  10. TERRITORY, MUSIC AND DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION: THE SOUND CIRCUIT IN CAMPINAS-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Nunes Alves

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the formation and the thickness of the circuits of radio FM and the music production in Campinas. The circuit FM in Campinas falls in the field of cultural industry since the decade of 1970, and has been expanding in the context of urbanization and metropolis growing in Brazil. Today this circuit incorporates a bigger system, coupled with the strategies of vertical use of the territory. We noticed that in contrast to the circuit FM, some residual musical component in places involves, among others, the alternative production and free radios. These circuits involved by a technically and territorial division of labor spurred by circuits upside of information, survive to the urban division and fragmentation. It is, therefore, a study of Campinas as a place that houses technical, informational and communicational densities. We analyzed geographical conditions of contemporary life in this city, inquiring about the communication component in the use of the territory.

  11. The Sound of Genocide: Music, Memory, and Commemoration in Postwar Bosnia

    OpenAIRE

    Pitic, Badema

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on a repertoire of Western classical, neo-traditional, and religious music created in the past twenty years to commemorate the Srebrenica genocide, a massacre that occurred in July 1995 at the end of the war in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Drawing on more than seven months of fieldwork in Bosnia and the United States, I explore this commemorative repertoire as a demonstration of the interdependence of official and personal narratives of the genocide. Approaching works of comm...

  12. Musical experience strengthens the neural representation of sounds important for communication in middle-aged adults

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra eParbery-Clark; Samira eAnderson; Emily eHittner; Nina eKraus

    2012-01-01

    Older adults frequently complain that while they can hear a person talking, they cannot understand what is being said; this difficulty is exacerbated by background noise. Peripheral hearing loss cannot fully account for this age-related decline in speech-in-noise ability, as declines in central processing also contribute to this problem. Given that musicians have enhanced speech-in-noise perception, we aimed to define the effects of musical experience on subcortical responses to speech and sp...

  13. Music Therapy and Eating Disorders- A Single Case Study about the Sound of Human Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Bauer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I reflect on a music therapy intervention realized many years ago, with a young woman who had the diagnosis of Bulimia Nervosa. The concepts to which I will refer are the concept of resource orientated psychotherapy and the Bernese concept of need adapted -and motivational attunement (Grawe, 1998; Grawe and Grawe-Gerber, 1999; Stucki and Grawe, 2007. I re-viewed one of my cases, Ms. H., following some of the ideas developed by the authors.  I discovered various moments of interest, which made me think in terms of a Need Adapted Music Therapy process. Therefore, in the presentation of the case, besides talking about the patient’s eating disorder I want to point out her basic needs and how she demanded for them to be met symbolically during shared improvisational moments with the music therapist. And even if the therapist did not have the mentioned concepts in her mind at the time, it seems as if patient and therapist met quite often in this kind of “silent space of needs”.

  14. Dynamics of zebra finch and mockingbird vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimenser, Aylin

    Along with humans, whales, and bats, three groups of birds which include songbirds (oscines) such as the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata) and Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) are the only creatures known to learn sounds by imitation. Numerous similarities between human and songbird vocalizations exist and, recently, it has been shown that Zebra Finch in particular possesses a gene, FoxP2, known to be involved in human language. This thesis investigates song development in Zebra Finches, as well as the temporal dynamics of song in Mockingbirds. Zebra Finches have long been the system of choice for studying vocal development, ontogeny, and complexity in birdsong. Physicists find them intriguing because the spectrally complex vocalizations of the Zebra Finch can exhibit sudden transitions to chaotic dynamics, period doubling & mode-locking phenomena. Mockingbirds, by contrast, provide an ideal system to examine the richness of an avian repertoire, since these musically versatile songbirds typically know upwards of 200 songs. To analyse birdsong data, we have developed a novel clustering algorithm that can be applied to the bird's syllables, tracing their dynamics back to the earliest stages of vocal development. To characterize birdsong we have used Fourier techniques, based upon multitaper spectral analysis, to optimally work around the constraints imposed by (Heisenberg's) time-frequency uncertainty principle. Furthermore, estimates that provide optimal compromise between frequency and temporal resolution have beautiful connections with solutions to the Helmholtz wave equation in prolate spheroidal coordinates. We have used this connection to provide firm foundation for certain heuristics used in the literature to compute associated spectral derivatives and supply a pedagogical account here in this thesis. They are of interest because spectral derivatives emphasize sudden changes in the dynamics of the underlying phenomenon, and often provide a nice way to visualize

  15. Thank You For the Music! a Working Memory Examination of the Effect of Musical Elements on Verbal Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Esther Kang; Arun Lakshmanan

    2012-01-01

    .... We study the interactive effects of vocal versus instrumental music with other musical elements and show that under specific conditions, different music types may both inhibit or enhance verbal learning...

  16. Singers' and Nonsingers' Perception of Vocal Vibrato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, A Anita; Subramanian, Uma

    2015-09-01

    Vibrato, a small, nevertheless an important component in the singing voice is known to enrich the overall singing voice quality. However, in the perception of overall performance, it is often neglected. Singing performance is often appreciated by a mixed audience of those who love music, but not necessarily sing and other singers who may or may not be teachers of singing. The objectives of the present study were aimed at investigating singers' and nonsingers' perception of vocal vibrato and its effect on the ratings of singer's overall performance. Prerecorded audio samples of the chorus of a hymn (How Great Thou Art) as sung by 10 singers (both men and women) were played via a speaker to two groups of judges which consisted of three experienced singers and three experienced nonsingers. The singer judges (SJs) were vocal instructors in Western classical, music theater, pop, and contemporary styles. Seven parameters (presence of vibrato, rate, extent, conspicuousness, quality, periodicity, and type) related to vibrato were evaluated through auditory perception by these two groups of judges on a rating scale developed specifically for the study, and one parameter evaluated singer's overall performance. Cohen's Kappa statistical analysis was used for inter-rater reliability within groups. Nonsinger judges (NSJs) within the group showed varied ratings as did SJs, yet SJs did have higher agreement than NSJs. Chi-square analysis was used across groups. Both groups were distinct from each other in their perception of vibrato. Ratings of singer's overall performance were not affected for NSJs, but certainly affected for SJ. It could not be concluded that ratings on singer's overall performance was affected as a result of vibrato. Since vibrato is often over-ridden by the singer's voice. But a rare occasion can arise where a vibrato may not sound pleasant and can affect the listener's perception of the singer's performance. Often a feedback from listeners would help monitor

  17. Physicist's ``Sounds of Space'' Enters the Repertoire of Classical Music on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Judy

    With the support of NASA, AGU member Don Gurnett has been collecting ``sounds of space'' from the planets, and from interplanetary space. He collected these sounds over a 40-year period using plasma wave receivers on over 30 space missions, including such well-known missions as Voyagers 1 and 2, Galileo, and Cassini. A chamber work in ten movements based on some of these sounds, and written for the San Francisco-based Kronos Quartet, had its second performance at the Wortham Center in Houston, Texas, on 23 January. The composition is called Sun Rings. Terry Riley, the California-based minimalist composer selected for the project by the Kronos Quartet's artist director, compiled an assortment of melody fragments and ideas from Gurnett's recordings collected from various Earth-orbiting spacecraft and planetary flybys, and used these as the inspiration for the piece.

  18. Movement and Sound: The Musical Language of Body Rhythms in Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, Eliot D.

    1981-01-01

    The language of the central nervous system (the brain) differs from logical structures of language. Sound and movement together make up the total response patterns of the individual. In order to investigate the properties of interaction rhythms, verbal and nonverbal, the expressive and performing arts must be understood. (JN)

  19. Short-term music-induced hearing loss after sound exposure to discotheque music : The effectiveness of a break in reducing temporary threshold shift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helleman, Hiske W.; Dreschler, Wouter A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of a break in music exposure on temporary threshold shifts. Design: A cross-over design where subjects are exposed to dance music for either two hours consecutively, or exposed to two hours of dance music with a one-hour break in between. Outcome measure was the

  20. Short-term music-induced hearing loss after sound exposure to discotheque music : The effectiveness of a break in reducing temporary threshold shift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helleman, Hiske W.; Dreschler, Wouter A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of a break in music exposure on temporary threshold shifts. Design: A cross-over design where subjects are exposed to dance music for either two hours consecutively, or exposed to two hours of dance music with a one-hour break in between. Outcome measure was the

  1. 声乐作品《马铃声声响》的情感体验与体现%Emotional Experience and Embodiment in Vocal Music Work Horse Bell Ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱雅羚

    2016-01-01

    由施光南作曲、韩伟作词的歌曲《马铃声声响》是一首女中音歌曲。通过对其创作背景分析及对作曲家施光南的介绍,综合分析了歌词所表达的情境与情感,以乐曲节奏分析和旋律音调特征分析相结合,以形象性音乐特征与歌词意义结合分析了歌曲的思想内涵与情感,并结合声乐教学中对歌曲情感的处理,分析了《马铃声声响》一曲的情感表达,运用声乐演唱技巧及方法体现歌曲情感,对歌曲体现进行了阐释。%The song Horse Bell Ring composed by Shi Guangnan and written by lyricist Han Wei is a mezzo soprano song .The author of this paper comprehensively analyzes the situation and emotions expressed by the lyrics through analyzing the creation background and introducing the composer Shi Guangnan .The connotation and emotions of the song were analyzed by combining music rhythm analysis with the melody and tune feature analysis as well as combining vivid music features with the meaning of the lyrics . The author also combines the treatment of song emotions in vocal music teaching to analyze the emotional expression of song “ Horse Bell Ring” . Finally , the author uses vocal singing skills and methods to embody the emotions of the song and explains the embodiment of the song .

  2. Sounds of War: Popular Music in the United States during the Vietnam War.

    OpenAIRE

    Morán González, Emma

    2015-01-01

    The Vietnam War was the first conflict in the United States in which a large part of the population expressed its opposition to the conflict since the beginning. This massive reaction against the war, as well as the position supporting it, were reflected in the music of the period. Some of these songs hit the Top 100 chart lists and they were played in the country and on the battlefield itself. The aim of this study is to analyze a selection of songs composed by American and Canadian musician...

  3. Buhler, James. Neumeyer, David. Deemer, Rob. Hearing the Movies: Music and Sound in Film History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Silveira

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available James Buhler et David Neumeyer sont certainement les auteurs les plus importants à publier sur l’analyse de la musique de film depuis les années quatre-vingt-dix aux Etats-Unis. Entre autres contributions, ils ont édité ensemble (avec Caryl Flinn Music and Cinema, un livre consacré aux différentes perspectives de l’étude de la musique de film. Tous les deux sont professeurs de théorie musicale à l’école de musique de l’université du Texas à Austin (Neumeyer étant aussi professeur à Leslie Wa...

  4. Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Oasis《Dig Out Your Soul》类型:Western Big Brother/SonyBMG 88697362042自强中兴全碟充满信心,一气呵成,实乃充满能量之Brit—pop佳作。虽受Beatles、Stones等的影响,这次Oasis却真正跳出其影子,保存一定的Oasis sound之余,却新颖、优越。Noel的结他配合Liam的vocal,皆达十分圆熟的互相补足境界。马其发

  5. MUSIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>1.伊朗音乐(MUSIC OF IRAN):伊朗伊斯兰革命之后的一张传统音乐精选合集,双CD,为日本厂牌KING RECORDS的"世界音乐图书馆"(WORLD MUSIC LIBRARY)中的专辑之一。2.伊朗古典音乐,达斯特加赫(CLASSICAL MUSIC OF IRAN:The Dastgah Systems):1991最初于1966年推出,这是省略3支曲目后的再版。3.波斯音乐大师,呐喊(Masters Of Persian Music Faryad):2005传统音乐悠扬婉转之余有人在吟唱几位伊朗著名诗人哈菲兹(Hafez)和萨迪(Sa di’)等的诗作,而独奏辅以独唱也是传统波斯音乐惯常的表演样式之一。4.失落的丝绸之路之歌(GHAZEL:LOST SONGS OF THE SILKROAD):2005这是一张更有想象力的CD,融合了南印度和伊朗的音乐形态。

  6. 如何培养小学生在声乐教学中对视唱练耳的学习兴趣%How to Train the Students in the Teaching of Vocal Music in Solfeggio Learning Interest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶晶

    2014-01-01

    在小学,声乐教学是非常重要的,其能够更好地提高学生的综合素质,将学生的音乐潜能发掘出来,让学生能够更好地掌握音乐要素和音乐规律,提高学生表现方面的能力,让学生更好地理解音乐。但是随着改革的不断深入,在教学的时候越来越重视基础教学,在声乐教学中,视唱练耳也愈加的重要。所以,老师在进行声乐教学的时候必须真正重视视唱练耳方面的训练,将学生对视唱练耳的兴趣培养出来,提高学生演唱方面的能力和综合方面的能力,帮助学生更好的发展。%In the primary school, the vocal music teaching is very important, which can improve the comprehensive quality of students, the students’ music potential to be uncovered, so that students can better master the elements of music and music rules, improve the ability of student performance, so that students can better understand the music. But with the deepening of reform, more and more attention in the teaching of basic education, the training the students’ interest in solfeggio, enhance the capacity of students singing and all-around development, help students better.

  7. the strength of the sounding paths: the Walk and Music in Qoyllurit’i

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoila Mendoza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Here I explore the intrinsic relationship that for the people of the district of Pomacanchi (Cusco exists between walking to the sanctuary of the Lord of Qoyllurit’i and the music that accompanies them. My attention focuses on the relationship with the  chakiri wayri melody and to a lesser extent with that called alawaru. In this intrinsic relationship between music and the walk, on the one hand, the primacy of the unity of the visual and the auditory in the Andean cognitive processes reveals itself. On the other hand, in exploring this relationship in the context of the walk a third sensorial dimension key to such cognitive processes appears clearly. It is the sense of kinesthesia or sensation of movement. In other words. The unity of the visual, the auditory and the kinesthetic is what makes the participation in the fiesta of the Lord of Qoyllurit’i a unique and unforgettable experience. The obvious primacy of the unity of these three senses in the experience of pilgrimage of the people of Pomacanchi to the sanctuary of the Lord of Qoyllurit’i is not unique or exclusive of this festive context or of Pomacanchi. Simply, this experience allows us to analyze more closely a phenomenon that I believe to be spread in the Andes.

  8. Performing sound of the past: Remix in electronic dance music culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvijanović Irina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The term remix, defined as an activity of taking data from pre-existing materials to combine them into new forms according to personal taste, relates to various elements and areas of contemporary culture. Whichever model used, consideration of the remix depends on recognition of pre-existing cultural codes. Therefore, as a second layer, the remix relies on the authority of the original and it functions at the meta-level. The audience may see a trace of history with the pre-existing object and the meaning creates in the viewer(s, reader(s, listener(s or, in the contemporary world of DJs and popular electronic dance music culture - in dancer(s. With the aim of specifying modes of creating particular ambients, this paper will consider and examine the song Why Don’t You? remixed by Marko Milićević, a Serbian DJ also known as Gramophonedzie, and illuminate how material from the past can create a constructive (musical dialogue.

  9. La creación de identidades culturales a través del sonido Music Distribution in the Consumer Society: the Creation of Cultural Identities Through Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Hormigos Ruiz

    2010-03-01

    rituals of human kind. No one knows exactly how and why the man has started to make music but the music has been a means of perceiving the world, a powerful instrument of knowledge. Traditionally, creation and distribution of music has been tied to the need to communicate feelings and experiences that can not be expressed through common language. This paper describes how our society has generated a multitude of sounds that are distributed freely through the new technologies. This set of sounds is creating cultural identities that are unable to manage his current music and understand their communicative speech. To this end, the paper examines the profound changes that music is experiencing in a consumer society. These changes make it necessary to establish a new paradigm for analysis that allows structuring the diversity of sounds, analyzing their creation, distribution and consumption. Finally, the paper states that permanent contact with the music changes the way we perceive sounds. In contemporary society, music has gone from being a vital need to become an instrument of consumption. This has led to significant changes in their functions, significance and social use.

  10. 河南省高校声乐教育存在的问题及应对策略%Problems and Countermeasures of College Vocal Music Education in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新现

    2011-01-01

    河南省是声乐教育大省,却不是声乐教育强省,目前仍存在着如生源质量逐年下滑,选修课程偏少,漠视流行歌曲演唱,师生比过分悬殊和单向度教学等招生、教学内容、教学方式方法层面的诸多问题。认识问题是为了更好地解决问题,诸如收紧招生规模,调整招生层次,提高选修课比重,加强与市场需求接轨的流行音乐学科建设等应对策略的提出便是如此。%Vocal music education of Henan enjoys a large scale, but not strong advantage. Currently, there are such problems as the overall aptitude level of student base declining, inadequate selective courses, neglecting pop music performance, inadequate teacher-student proportion and single-dimensional teaching in aspects of students enrolling, teaching contents, teaching methods, etc. Recognizing the problems is meant to solve the problems, and the countermeasures include decreasing the enrolling scale, upgrading the admission threshold, increasing the proportion of selective courses, and enhancing the construction of market-oriented popular music specialties.

  11. Unsound Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the change in premise that digitally produced sound brings about and how digital technologies more generally have changed our relationship to the musical artifact, not simply in degree but in kind. It demonstrates how our acoustical conceptions are thoroughly challenged...... by the digital production of sound and, by questioning the ontological basis for digital sound, turns our understanding of the core term substance upside down....

  12. 音乐声的情感属性与听者的情绪反应%Emotional Attributes of the Musical Sound and Mood Reactions of the Listeners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨倩; 孟子厚

    2013-01-01

    以音乐声的情感为目标进行标注与分类,考察不同情感类别的音乐声对听者情绪的影响,分析听者情绪分量和音乐声情感属性之间的关联。%The musical sound was labelled and classified according to the different emotions, in the purpose of observation on the emotional influence that different types of music have on listeners, and analysis of the correlation between the mood components of the listeners and the emotional attributes of the musical sound.

  13. 《你像一朵花》教学的实践研究%Practical Research on the University Vocal Music Course Teaching Absorbed with You Like a Flower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹

    2013-01-01

    You Like a Flower is the one of classical music of the Taijiang Miao's multi-voice love song .It is a pattern and carrier to express love among the unmarried young men and women of the Miao nationality .This paper has studied the musical character and singing skills of this song and concludes the new factors for folk song theory .Then absorb it for university musical course teaching :to improve the problems of students'voice singing , to improve the musical expression inadequate while Students singing a song ,to enhance the accumulation of students'music literacy and cultural heritage . In the end ,Make students bid farewell to boring Vocal practical training ,and both felt the profound of folk music culture and improve the musical concert with its own level of cultural enrichment , all this played a complementary effect .%《你像一朵花》是台江苗族多声部情歌中最经典的民歌之一,是苗族的未婚青年男女互倾思恋和爱慕之情的表达方式和载体。研究这首歌的音乐特点与演唱方法,提炼和总结出里面的新元素来丰富和拓展民族声乐理论,引入高校声乐课程教学,改进发声缺陷,改进学生演唱时音乐表现力不足、表演不到位的问题,加强学生的音乐素养与文化底蕴的积累,使声乐学习不再枯燥,既能感受民族民间音乐文化的博大精深,又能提高音乐文化修养与自身演唱水平。

  14. The evolution of coordinated vocalizations before language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Gregory A

    2014-12-01

    Ackermann et al. briefly point out the potential significance of coordinated vocal behavior in the dual pathway model of acoustic communication. Rhythmically entrained and articulated pre-linguistic vocal activity in early hominins might have set the evolutionary stage for later refinements that manifest in modern humans as language-based conversational turn-taking, joint music-making, and other behaviors associated with prosociality.

  15. 地方高校音乐表演专业声乐实践课程的新设置与解读--以乐山师范学院声乐教改为例%New Curriculum and Interpretat ion of Practical Course of Vocal Music for Specialty of Music Performance in Local Colleges and Universities---A Case Study of Teaching R eform for Leshan Normal University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕玲

    2016-01-01

    Taking the teaching reform of special ty of music performance in Leshan Normal Universi-ty as an example , this paper explores the curriculum of vocal music practice course on how to nurture the students' practice ability of vocal music training in local colleges and universities . "Applied Tal-ents" is the goal of nurture students . In this case , through upgrading the curriculum of vocal music practice course , the problems relating to the courses , teachers , students and teaching method can be relieved for better quality of teaching .%文章以乐山师范学院音乐表演专业声乐教改为例,探索地方高校音乐表演专业学生声乐实践能力培养中声乐实践课程的设置问题。以“应用型人才培养”为目标,通过优化声乐实践课程的设置及教学安排,有效缓解课程、教师、学生、教法之间存在的问题,提高教学质量。

  16. Promoting tobacco through the international language of dance music: British American Tobacco and the Ministry of Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Caitlin R; Chu, Alexandria; Collin, Jeff; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-02-01

    Tobacco companies target young adults through marketing strategies that use bars and nightclubs to promote smoking. As restrictions increasingly limit promotions, music marketing has become an important vehicle for tobacco companies to shape brand image, generate brand recognition and promote tobacco. Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents from British American Tobacco, available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu. In 1995, British American Tobacco (BAT) initiated a partnership with London's Ministry of Sound (MOS) nightclub to promote Lucky Strike cigarettes to establish relevance and credibility among young adults in the UK. In 1997, BAT extended their MOS partnership to China and Taiwan to promote State Express 555. BAT sought to transfer values associated with the MOS lifestyle brand to its cigarettes. The BAT/MOS partnership illustrates the broad appeal of international brands across different regions of the world. Transnational tobacco companies like BAT are not only striving to stay contemporary with young adults through culturally relevant activities such as those provided by MOS but they are also looking to export their strategies to regions across the world. Partnerships like this BAT/MOS one skirt marketing restrictions recommended by the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The global scope and success of the MOS program emphasizes the challenge for national regulations to restrict such promotions.

  17. Sounding the Bromance: The Chopstick Brothers' 'Little Apple' music video, genre, gender and the search for meaning in Chinese popular music

    OpenAIRE

    Stock, Jonathan P. J.

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the music video of ‘Little Apple’ by Wang Taili and Xiao Yang, also known as the Chopstick Brothers, one of China’s most successful productions in 2014, and one that exemplifies certain emerging trends in Chinese popular music more generally. The music video draws on K-pop models but also on Western inspirations (biblical, historical and contemporary) and has proven hard to reduce to a single, definitive narrative or interpretation. The analysis proceeds by introducing t...

  18. Acoustic and categorical dissimilarity of musical timbre: Evidence from asymmetriesbetween acoustic and chimeric sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eSiedenburg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of acoustic and categorical information in timbre dissimilarity ratings. Using a Gammatone-filterbank-based sound transformation, we created tones that were rated as less familiar than recorded tones from orchestral instruments and that were harder to associate with an unambiguous sound source (Exp. 1. A subset of transformed tones, a set of orchestral recordings, and a mixed set were then rated on pairwise dissimilarity (Exp. 2A. We observed that recorded instrument timbres clustered into subsets that distinguished timbres according to acoustic and categorical properties. For the subset of cross-category comparisons in the mixed set, we observed asymmetries in the distribution of ratings, as well as a stark decay of inter-rater agreement. These effects were replicated in a more robust within-subjects design (Exp. 2B and cannot be explained by acoustic factors alone. We finally introduced a novel model of timbre dissimilarity based on partial least-squares regression that compared the contributions of both acoustic and categorical timbre descriptors. The best model fit (R^2 = .88 was achieved when both types of descriptors were taken into account. These findings are interpreted as evidence for an interplay of acoustic and categorical information in timbre dissimilarity perception.

  19. Acoustic and Categorical Dissimilarity of Musical Timbre: Evidence from Asymmetries Between Acoustic and Chimeric Sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedenburg, Kai; Jones-Mollerup, Kiray; McAdams, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of acoustic and categorical information in timbre dissimilarity ratings. Using a Gammatone-filterbank-based sound transformation, we created tones that were rated as less familiar than recorded tones from orchestral instruments and that were harder to associate with an unambiguous sound source (Experiment 1). A subset of transformed tones, a set of orchestral recordings, and a mixed set were then rated on pairwise dissimilarity (Experiment 2A). We observed that recorded instrument timbres clustered into subsets that distinguished timbres according to acoustic and categorical properties. For the subset of cross-category comparisons in the mixed set, we observed asymmetries in the distribution of ratings, as well as a stark decay of inter-rater agreement. These effects were replicated in a more robust within-subjects design (Experiment 2B) and cannot be explained by acoustic factors alone. We finally introduced a novel model of timbre dissimilarity based on partial least-squares regression that compared the contributions of both acoustic and categorical timbre descriptors. The best model fit (R (2) = 0.88) was achieved when both types of descriptors were taken into account. These findings are interpreted as evidence for an interplay of acoustic and categorical information in timbre dissimilarity perception.

  20. Music Listening Is Creative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratus, John

    2017-01-01

    Active music listening is a creative activity in that the listener constructs a uniquely personal musical experience. Most approaches to teaching music listening emphasize a conceptual approach in which students learn to identify various characteristics of musical sound. Unfortunately, this type of listening is rarely done outside of schools. This…

  1. World Music Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    Access to world music resources such as videos and sound recordings have increased with the advent of YouTube and the efforts of music educators working closely with ethnomusicologists to provide more detailed visual and audio information about various musical practices. This column discusses some world music resources available for music…

  2. Sounding stereotypes: Construction of place and reproduction of metaphors in the music of Goran Bregović

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Marković

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the labelling of the Balkans in the popular/world music realm, through a case-study revolving around the music of Goran Bregović, the self-declared Balkan music composer. It examines the ways the Balkans are reproduced as a spatial reference, both in the minds of their inh

  3. Affective responses in tamarins elicited by species-specific music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, Charles T; Teie, David

    2010-02-23

    Theories of music evolution agree that human music has an affective influence on listeners. Tests of non-humans provided little evidence of preferences for human music. However, prosodic features of speech ('motherese') influence affective behaviour of non-verbal infants as well as domestic animals, suggesting that features of music can influence the behaviour of non-human species. We incorporated acoustical characteristics of tamarin affiliation vocalizations and tamarin threat vocalizations into corresponding pieces of music. We compared music composed for tamarins with that composed for humans. Tamarins were generally indifferent to playbacks of human music, but responded with increased arousal to tamarin threat vocalization based music, and with decreased activity and increased calm behaviour to tamarin affective vocalization based music. Affective components in human music may have evolutionary origins in the structure of calls of non-human animals. In addition, animal signals may have evolved to manage the behaviour of listeners by influencing their affective state.

  4. 话剧《死无葬身之地》的音乐设计和音响效果%Music and Sound Design of DramaResting Place

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周涛

    2015-01-01

    The music characteristics and sound design of Drama Resting Place was analysed in this paper, including music rhythm, foil emotions, the fusion of music and the characters psychological activity, the positive and negative contrast of music to promote the plot development, etc.%分析《死无葬身之地》音乐特点和音响效果,包括把握音乐节奏、烘托情绪,音乐与人物心理活动融合,音乐正反对比推进剧情发展等.

  5. An Antropologist of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2015-01-01

    PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology....

  6. Music Ensemble: Course Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, Brian

    A proposal is presented for a Music Ensemble course to be offered at the Community College of Philadelphia for music students who have had previous vocal or instrumental training. A standardized course proposal cover form is followed by a statement of purpose for the course, a list of major course goals, a course outline, and a bibliography. Next,…

  7. 学前教育专业声乐教学的社会化方式初探%A Preliminary Study of the Socialization of Vocal Music Teaching for Preschool Education Majors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金铃玲

    2015-01-01

    Vocal music teaching of preschool education is an important part in the cultivating students 'artistic skills.At pres-ent, there are some problems in the preschool education ,especially in the vocal music teaching .It is necessary for us to grasp the key link to deepen the reform of preschool education teaching and the cooperation between higher vocational colleges and enterpri -ses, to improve the practical ability of students .What we have to is to optimize the faculty , raising the teaching level to enhance the students'employment ability .%学前教育专业声乐教学是培养学生艺术技能的重要内容。现阶段高职院校学前教育专业声乐教学工作与幼儿园实际需求还不适应,学生校内学习与校外实践存在学用脱节问题,需要进一步把握关键环节,采取社会化运作方式,不断深化学前教育专业教学改革,创新推进“校企合作”,强化学生实践锻炼,切实优化教师队伍,全面提升高职院校的办学水平和学生的就业能力。

  8. Feedback-based error monitoring processes during musical performance: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katahira, Kentaro; Abla, Dilshat; Masuda, Sayaka; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2008-05-01

    Auditory feedback is important in detecting and correcting errors during sound production when a current performance is compared to an intended performance. In the context of vocal production, a forward model, in which a prediction of action consequence (corollary discharge) is created, has been proposed to explain the dampened activity of the auditory cortex while producing self-generated vocal sounds. However, it is unclear how auditory feedback is processed and what neural mechanism underlies the process during other sound production behavior, such as musical performances. We investigated the neural correlates of human auditory feedback-based error detection using event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded during musical performances. Keyboard players of two different skill levels played simple melodies using a musical score. During the performance, the auditory feedback was occasionally altered. Subjects with early and extensive piano training produced a negative ERP component N210, which was absent in non-trained players. When subjects listened to music that deviated from a corresponding score without playing the piece, N210 did not emerge but the imaginary mismatch negativity (iMMN) did. Therefore, N210 may reflect a process of mismatch between the intended auditory image evoked by motor activity, and actual auditory feedback.

  9. Music listening engages specific cortical regions within the temporal lobes: differences between musicians and non-musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Perkins, Arafat; Aubé, William; Peretz, Isabelle; Barrios, Fernando A; Armony, Jorge L; Concha, Luis

    2014-10-01

    Music and speech are two of the most relevant and common sounds in the human environment. Perceiving and processing these two complex acoustical signals rely on a hierarchical functional network distributed throughout several brain regions within and beyond the auditory cortices. Given their similarities, the neural bases for processing these two complex sounds overlap to a certain degree, but particular brain regions may show selectivity for one or the other acoustic category, which we aimed to identify. We examined 53 subjects (28 of them professional musicians) by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), using a paradigm designed to identify regions showing increased activity in response to different types of musical stimuli, compared to different types of complex sounds, such as speech and non-linguistic vocalizations. We found a region in the anterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus (aSTG) (planum polare) that showed preferential activity in response to musical stimuli and was present in all our subjects, regardless of musical training, and invariant across different musical instruments (violin, piano or synthetic piano). Our data show that this cortical region is preferentially involved in processing musical, as compared to other complex sounds, suggesting a functional role as a second-order relay, possibly integrating acoustic characteristics intrinsic to music (e.g., melody extraction). Moreover, we assessed whether musical experience modulates the response of cortical regions involved in music processing and found evidence of functional differences between musicians and non-musicians during music listening. In particular, bilateral activation of the planum polare was more prevalent, but not exclusive, in musicians than non-musicians, and activation of the right posterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus (planum temporale) differed between groups. Our results provide evidence of functional specialization for music processing in specific

  10. Music for Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KIDS' HEALTH NUTRITION PATIENT RESOURCES Search form Search Music for your Health By R. Mack Harrell, MD, ... creation of sound for sound’s sake is called “music.” In 2008, scientists digging up a huge granite ...

  11. An Antropologist of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2015-01-01

    PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology.......PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology....

  12. Study on the tragic of Handel's vocal music works--Taske the Aria"let me weep"as an example%亨德尔声乐作品的悲剧性探析——以咏叹调《让我痛哭吧》为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑杰

    2012-01-01

      亨德尔在声乐作品的创作中注重音乐的戏剧效果,其作品以主调音乐风格为主,少用转调,强调节奏重音以渲染气氛,旋律更富有歌唱性,附有宽广庄严的特点,兼具一定的悲剧性因素。以亨德尔的歌剧《里那尔多》中的咏叹调《让我痛哭吧》为例进行分析研究,剖析亨德尔声乐作品中的悲剧性因素,在声乐学习和教学中具有一定的意义。%  Handel focuses on musical theater in vocal music works, his work with homophonic music style, with less emphasis on rhythmic stress modulation, to render the atmosphere, more rich melodic singing, accompanies by broad majestic features, with some tragic factors. In Handel's opera"Linaerduo"Aria"let me weep"as an example of Handel's vocal music works, to analyze tragic elements, has a certain significance in the vocal learning and teaching.

  13. The effect of vocal tract impedance on the vocal folds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Selamtzis, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    , which is the mode that is most limited in pitch range, was tested at its pitch limit C5 (523 Hz) under normal conditions and when the singer has inhaled Helium. When inhaling Helium the acoustic impedance of the vocal tract is reduced in magnitude and the resonances are scaled upwards in frequency due...... to different density and speed of sound in Helium. The electroglottograph shows a change in waveform when the singer inhales helium. The percentage of the glottal cycle when the vocal cords are open, the so-called open quotient, increases from 40 to 55%. When inhaling helium the male singer was able reach Eb5...

  14. Sound a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmith, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Sound is integral to how we experience the world, in the form of noise as well as music. But what is sound? What is the physical basis of pitch and harmony? And how are sound waves exploited in musical instruments? Sound: A Very Short Introduction looks at the science of sound and the behaviour of sound waves with their different frequencies. It also explores sound in different contexts, covering the audible and inaudible, sound underground and underwater, acoustic and electronic sound, and hearing in humans and animals. It concludes with the problem of sound out of place—noise and its reduction.

  15. Tool-use-associated sound in the evolution of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Matz

    2015-09-01

    Proponents of the motor theory of language evolution have primarily focused on the visual domain and communication through observation of movements. In the present paper, it is hypothesized that the production and perception of sound, particularly of incidental sound of locomotion (ISOL) and tool-use sound (TUS), also contributed. Human bipedalism resulted in rhythmic and more predictable ISOL. It has been proposed that this stimulated the evolution of musical abilities, auditory working memory, and abilities to produce complex vocalizations and to mimic natural sounds. Since the human brain proficiently extracts information about objects and events from the sounds they produce, TUS, and mimicry of TUS, might have achieved an iconic function. The prevalence of sound symbolism in many extant languages supports this idea. Self-produced TUS activates multimodal brain processing (motor neurons, hearing, proprioception, touch, vision), and TUS stimulates primate audiovisual mirror neurons, which is likely to stimulate the development of association chains. Tool use and auditory gestures involve motor processing of the forelimbs, which is associated with the evolution of vertebrate vocal communication. The production, perception, and mimicry of TUS may have resulted in a limited number of vocalizations or protowords that were associated with tool use. A new way to communicate about tools, especially when out of sight, would have had selective advantage. A gradual change in acoustic properties and/or meaning could have resulted in arbitrariness and an expanded repertoire of words. Humans have been increasingly exposed to TUS over millions of years, coinciding with the period during which spoken language evolved. ISOL and tool-use-related sound are worth further exploration.

  16. 传播学视野下的中国民族声乐价值现状与发展对策研究%A Study of the Current Situation of Chinese National Vocal Music and the Coping Strategies for Development. A Perspective of Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊丽媛

    2011-01-01

    From a perspective of communication studies, the theory of two-step communication contributes to the acceptance of Chinese national vocal music by more people. And the agenda setting theory can lay a solid mass foundation of Chinese national vocal music. Moreover, the inheritance nature of communication concept provides the guarantee for the highlight and innovation of national vocal music. To drive the development of the national vocal music with the application of communication theories, we should pay more attention to the disseminating function of news conference and mass media. In addition, we should make great efforts to do well the work of inheriting and developing our national music. Further, we should dare to give up old and unitary conceptions and take more roads to our development.%在传播学视野下,“二级传播”理论使得中国民族声乐被更多人所接受;“议程设置”理论为中国民族声乐奠定更为牢固的群众基础;传播学理念的“传承特性”,为弘扬与创新民族声乐艺术,提供了根本性保障。运用传播学理论促进中国民族声乐科学发展,应注重借助新闻发布会的组织传播功效积极造势;注重发挥大众传媒强大的传播功能;要努力做好中国民族声乐文化继承与发展这篇大文章;要敢于破除陈旧观念,摒弃单一化,走多元化发展之路。

  17. Under the Influence of Bel Canto,National Vocal Music How to Carry Forward the National Character to Move Towards the World%美声唱法影响下的民族声乐如何发扬民族性以走向世界

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴沁

    2016-01-01

    China's national vocal music is based on traditional Chinese culture、Developed,Its performance form and singing skills all reveal the unique national character. but,Since the 20th century bel canto was introduced into our country,In bel canto and national vocal music influence each other,the process of integration,National vocal music opened up a new stage of development. How to scientifically and rationally think about bel canto,The national vocal music at the same time,fully absorb the essence and can maintain its own national characteristics,In order to more effectively show the distinctive glamour of national vocal music,To China's national vocal music under the influence of the bel canto how to carry forward the national character as to make the beneficial thinking and exploration to the world.%我国的民族声乐是依托中国传统文化产生、发展而来的,其表演形式及演唱技巧无不彰显着独具特色的民族性。但是,自20世纪初美声唱法传入我国以来,在美声唱法与民族声乐的相互影响、融合的进程中,民族声乐开启了发展的新阶段。如何科学、理性地看待美声唱法,使民族声乐在充分汲取其精华的同时,又能够保持自身的民族特色,以便更加有效地展现民族声乐的独特魅力,从而对美声唱法影响下的我国民族声乐如何发扬民族性以走向世界作出有益的思考与探索。

  18. Perceived pitch class of isolated musical triads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, J R; Racine, R J

    1990-05-01

    A paired-comparisons task was used to determine which note of a pure-tone triad sounded most similar to the triad. Musically inexperienced Ss showed no systematic preference, experienced Ss consistently preferred the highest note in the triad, and professional musicians split equally between preferring the highest note and the root note. Preference for the root note shifted to preference for the highest note as the triad type became increasingly inharmonic, suggesting that the former depended on inference of a missing fundamental. When Ss were asked to vocally reproduce the pitch they heard when listening to a triad, similar results were obtained, except that a root-note preference was not detectable in Ss with less musical experience. Preference for the root note was also facilitated by use of octave-replicated tones, and this increase was shown to be due to obscuring of pitch-height cues, rather than harmonic complexity.

  19. Elaborate Mimetic Vocal Displays by Female Superb Lyrebirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia H Dalziell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most striking vocalizations in birds are made by males that incorporate vocal mimicry in their sexual displays. Mimetic vocalization in females is largely undescribed, but it is unclear whether this is because of a lack of selection for vocal mimicry in females, or whether the phenomenon has simply been overlooked. These issues are thrown into sharp relief in the superb lyrebird, Menura novaehollandiae, a basal oscine passerine with a lek-like mating system and female uniparental care. The spectacular mimetic song display produced by courting male lyrebirds is a textbook example of a sexually selected trait, but the vocalizations of female lyrebirds are largely unknown. Here, we provide the first analysis of the structure and context of the vocalizations of female lyrebirds. Female lyrebirds were completely silent during courtship; however, females regularly produced sophisticated vocal displays incorporating both lyrebird-specific vocalizations and imitations of sounds within their environment. The structure of female vocalizations varied significantly with context. While foraging, females mostly produced a complex lyrebird-specific song, whereas they gave lyrebird-specific alarm calls most often during nest defense. Within their vocal displays females also included a variety of mimetic vocalizations, including imitations of the calls of dangerous predators, and of alarm calls and song of harmless heterospecifics. Females gave more mimetic vocalizations during nest defense than while foraging, and the types of sounds they imitated varied between these contexts, suggesting that mimetic vocalizations have more than one function. These results are inconsistent with previous portrayals of vocalizations by female lyrebirds as rare, functionless by-products of sexual selection on males. Instead, our results support the hypotheses that complex female vocalizations play a role in nest defense and mediate female-female competition for

  20. Light and Heavy Music upon Souls——A Contrastive Analysis of Sound Effect in "Infant Joy" and "Infant Sorrow"%心灵的轻音乐与重音乐——威廉·布莱克诗歌《婴儿的欢乐》与《婴儿的忧伤》之声效对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖丹

    2012-01-01

    English poem is an art with musical effect (mainly by its rhymes and rhythms). Sound effect, as what is explained in Chinese-English Dictionary, is the effect made by specific sound that is given by the vocal cord to enhance the authentic feeling of a certain occasion, adding to a particular atmosphere. The poetic musicality resides not only in sonorous rhythms and beautiful rhymes but also in the representation of a certain musical image. Music and poetry are a well-integrated art. Taking "Infant Joy" and "Infant Sorrow" written by William Blake as examples, this paper hereby aims to make a contrastive analysis of how different sound effects brought about by different rhyme schemes, phonemes distributions, word's syllable length in these two poems respectively affect the feeling the poet intended to express and the very themes these two poems were designed to emphasize.%英文诗歌是具有声音效果(音韵和节奏)的艺术。声效在汉英词典中的解释是由声音所制造的效果,指为增进某一场面之真实感、渲染气氛,而加于声带上的声音。诗歌的音乐性不仅寓于铿锵的节奏和优美的韵律之中,而且有的还直接表现在音乐形象的塑造上,诗与音乐浑然一体。本文以英国浪漫主义先驱威廉.布莱克的诗歌《婴儿的欢乐》和《婴儿的忧伤》为例,对比分析这两首诗中的不同韵式、音素分布、音节长短等等所产生的不同音乐效果是如何抒发诗人的感情,表达其诗歌主题的。

  1. Investigating emotion with music: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan; Fritz, Thomas; V Cramon, D Yves; Müller, Karsten; Friederici, Angela D

    2006-03-01

    The present study used pleasant and unpleasant music to evoke emotion and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine neural correlates of emotion processing. Unpleasant (permanently dissonant) music contrasted with pleasant (consonant) music showed activations of amygdala, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and temporal poles. These structures have previously been implicated in the emotional processing of stimuli with (negative) emotional valence; the present data show that a cerebral network comprising these structures can be activated during the perception of auditory (musical) information. Pleasant (contrasted to unpleasant) music showed activations of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, inferior Brodmann's area (BA) 44, BA 45, and BA 46), the anterior superior insula, the ventral striatum, Heschl's gyrus, and the Rolandic operculum. IFG activations appear to reflect processes of music-syntactic analysis and working memory operations. Activations of Rolandic opercular areas possibly reflect the activation of mirror-function mechanisms during the perception of the pleasant tunes. Rolandic operculum, anterior superior insula, and ventral striatum may form a motor-related circuitry that serves the formation of (premotor) representations for vocal sound production during the perception of pleasant auditory information. In all of the mentioned structures, except the hippocampus, activations increased over time during the presentation of the musical stimuli, indicating that the effects of emotion processing have temporal dynamics; the temporal dynamics of emotion have so far mainly been neglected in the functional imaging literature. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. On the Application of Value of Ancient Chinese Poems Art Songs in Vocal Music Teaching%中国古诗词艺术歌曲在声乐教学中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁珺

    2015-01-01

    随着中国古诗词艺术歌曲的不断创作与实践,其越来越多地出现在声乐教学领域,并体现着作为中国特有艺术歌曲体裁的重要价值。学习并演唱中国古诗词艺术歌曲不仅能更好地掌握演唱技巧、提高对音乐的理解和想象能力,还能更深层次地领会中华文化的博大精深,丰富自身的艺术修养。%With the development of Chinese poetry art song creation and practice, more and more of them are used in the field of vocal music teaching, and embodies the unique Chinese art song genre as an important value. Therefore, learn and sing Chinese poetry art song can not only better master singing skills and improve understanding of music and imagination ability, but also understand Chinese culture and profound and rich artistic accomplishment deeply.

  3. Music Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søderberg, Ene Alicia; Odgaard, Rasmus Emil; Bitsch, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the possibility of breaking the barrier between deaf and hearing people when it comes to the subject of making music. Suggestions on how deaf and hearing people can collaborate in creating music together, are presented. The conducted research will focus on deaf people...... with a general interest in music as well as hearing musicians as target groups. Through reviewing different related research areas, it is found that visualization of sound along with a haptic feedback can help deaf people interpret and interact with music. With this in mind, three variations of a collaborative...

  4. Sacred byzantine music and its influence on old East Slavic Orthodox music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz Wołosiuk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sacred Byzantine music originates from three sources: “the liturgy of heaven”, synagogue music as well as old Greek theory of music and lays at the bottom of the East Slavs liturgical chant. The tonal base of the Byzantine music formed tetrachords. From them the so called Diatonic mode took shape. It was the easiest and the most popular sound arrangement steming from Greek music. The Cristian Church considered it to be in accordance with its Spirit and needs. From the tetrachords mentioned above other tones were created, namely Doric tones, Lydian, Phrygian and Mixolydian and, together withall their derivatives they gave beginning to the Oktoechos tradition. Byzantine music was flourishing in monasteries and in town areas andmany different forms were elaborated on like troparions, kontakions, stichiry, canons, etc. If one speaks about composers then certainly some names cannot be omitted. These are: St. Anatolius (Patriarchof Constantinople, St. Andrew of Crete, St. Romanos the Melodist,St. Sophronius of Jerusalem and, above all, St. John of Damascus who collected and systematized the liturgical chants creating mentioned Oktoechos. The acceptance of the Greek form of Christianity by Rus’ caused a cultivation of the sacred Greek vocal art on its territory which manifested in a form of so called Znamenny chant. This type of chant was at first similar to the Greek model but later on it moved away from it. Musical notation of the Old East Slavic singing was based on neumes which names in Old East Slavic have changed a little and only few survived. Furthermore, liturgical note books together with their genre and music content have been taken over from Byzantium. Especially visible in the Old East Slavic monody, Byzantine patterns were pervading also the later polyphony which proves they were always current. Moreover, this allows to claim that Rus’ became the real successor of the Greek Orthodox traditions in new circumstances of sacral

  5. Evaluating musical instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D. Murray

    2014-04-01

    Scientific measurements of sound generation and radiation by musical instruments are surprisingly hard to correlate with the subtle and complex judgments of instrumental quality made by expert musicians.

  6. Dynamical origin of spectrally rich vocalizations in birdsong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitt, J. D.; Amador, A.; Goller, F.; Mindlin, G. B.

    2008-07-01

    Birdsong is a model system for learned vocal behavior with remarkable parallels to human vocal development and sound production mechanisms. Upper vocal tract filtering plays an important role in human speech, and its importance has recently also been recognized in birdsong. However, the mechanisms of how the avian sound source might contribute to spectral richness are largely unknown. Here we show in the most widely studied songbird, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), that the broad range of upper harmonic content in different low-frequency song elements is the fingerprint of the dynamics displayed by its vocal apparatus, which can be captured by a two-dimensional dynamical model. As in human speech and singing, the varying harmonic content of birdsong is not only the result of vocal tract filtering but of a varying degree of tonality emerging from the sound source. The spectral content carries a strong signature of the intrinsic dynamics of the sound source.

  7. Vocal Connections: How Voicework in Music Therapy Helped a Young Girl with Severe Learning Disabilities and Autism to Engage in her Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Warnock

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the use of the non-verbal voice in music therapy with children with severe learning disabilities, complex needs and autism. Recent literature on the use of the voice in music therapy is summarised and links are made between the aims of music therapy and those of special educational establishments. Theories regarding the voice and the self, and the important connection between body awareness and emotion as precursors to learning are referred to, particularly in relation to learning disability. Through a case study, I demonstrate how a young girl used voicework to build connections with herself and the music therapist, whereby consequently she became more motivated to interact with her surroundings. I argue hence that the use of the non-verbal voice in music therapy, through its intrinsic connection to identity and internal emotional states can contribute significantly towards the healthy developments necessary for a person to be able to learn. Therefore, by increasing our knowledge about the actual process of learning, and the significance of our work within that process, we can move towards demonstrating clearer outcomes of music therapy in the educational context and have a stronger ‘voice’ within the multi-disciplinary teams that serve this population.

  8. Vocal learning beyond imitation: mechanisms of adaptive vocal development in songbirds and human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchernichovski, Ofer; Marcus, Gary

    2014-10-01

    Studies of vocal learning in songbirds typically focus on the acquisition of sensory templates for song imitation and on the consequent process of matching song production to templates. However, functional vocal development also requires the capacity to adaptively diverge from sensory templates, and to flexibly assemble vocal units. Examples of adaptive divergence include the corrective imitation of abnormal songs, and the decreased tendency to copy over-abundant syllables. Such frequency-dependent effects might mirror tradeoffs between the assimilation of group identity (culture) while establishing individual and flexibly expressive songs. Intriguingly, although the requirements for vocal plasticity vary across songbirds, and more so between birdsong and language, the capacity to flexibly assemble vocal sounds develops in a similar, stepwise manner across species. Therefore, universal features of vocal learning go well beyond the capacity to imitate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 在探索与实践中收获--写在《声乐集体课教程》出版之际%Harvest in the Exploration and Practice-for Publishing The Tutorial of Group Class of Vocal Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蓉

    2015-01-01

    相比较于声乐个别课教学中,教师教材实施的高度灵活性、开放性、针对性和自主性选择而言,声乐集体课教学则迫切需要一份相对统一、系统、规范的教材来组织教学活动。武汉音乐学院声乐教师团队为满足这种教学需求,经过数年努力推出的教材成果《声乐集体课教程》将“教科书与工具书融为一体,理论性和实践性集于一身,主体性与参考性合为一处”,对个别课和集体课在声乐教学中的作用意义分别做了说明与阐释。%Compared to the individual lesson of vocal music, which of teachers’teaching mate-rials to implement high flexibility, openness, relevance and autonomy of choice, the group class of vocal teaching is an urgent need for a relatively unified, systematic and standardized materials to organize teaching activities. In order to meet this demand, the vocal teaching team in Wuhan Conservatory of Music launched of The Tutorial of Group Class of Vocal Music after several years of efforts, which “integrated textbooks and reference books, set theory and practice all in one, subjectivity and reference collection in one”, interpreted and explained the significance to vocal teaching of individual lesson and group class separately.

  10. "With concord of sweet sounds...": new perspectives on the diversity of musical experience in autism and other neurodevelopmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Pamela; Allen, Rory

    2009-07-01

    Questions about music's evolution and functions have long excited interest among scholars. More recent theoretical accounts have stressed the importance of music's social origins and functions. Autism and Williams syndrome, neurodevelopmental disorders supposedly characterized by contrasting social and musical phenotypes, have been invoked as evidence for these. However, empirical data on social skills and deficits in autism and Williams syndrome do not support the notion of contrasting social phenotypes: research findings suggest that the social deficits characteristic of both disorders may increase rather than reduce the importance of music. Current data do not allow for a direct comparison of musical phenotypes in autism and Williams syndrome, although it is noted that deficits in music cognition have been observed in Williams syndrome, but not in autism. In considering broader questions about musical understanding in neurodevelopmental disorders, we conclude that intellectual impairment is likely to result in qualitative differences between handicapped and typical listeners, but this does not appear to limit the extent to which individuals can derive benefits from the experience of listening to music.

  11. Vocal behavior of Crested Guineafowl(Guttera edouardi) based on visual and sound playback surveys in the Umhlanga Lagoon Nature Reserve,Kwa Zulu-Natal province,South Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Johann H.van Niekerk

    2015-01-01

    Background:Generally speaking,playbacks were often ineffective to determine the group sizes of birds since mainly males from leks responded.This limitation has not been tested properly for flocking birds such as Crested Guineafowl(Guttera edouardi) with the view to use it as a counting method.The aims of the study reported in this paper were(1) to describe the cal s of Crested Guineafowl in a social context;(2) to interpret cal s in an evolutionary context;and(3) to demonstrate that playbacks can be used to locate and count Crested Guineafowl in smal isolated forests.Methods:The vocal behavior of Crested Guineafowl was observed during a survey conducted in the Umhlanga Lagoon Nature Reserve(Kwa Zulu-Natal,South Africa) from November 2010 to June 2012.Transect line observations and sound playback methods were used.Results:The behavioral context and structure of cal s were described.The eight cal s described for Crested Guineafowl were produced mainly to unite flock members in the dense understory,where visibility was poor,and to repel intruders.When not disturbed,Crested Guineafowl were quiet and only made soft contact calls.Conclusions:The high rate of call back and the fact that flocks invariably approach the source of the call en masse,shows that field researchers are able to assess the population size of Crested Guineafowl with sound playbacks along a transect.The value of playbacks as a conservation tool is assessed.

  12. Reinforcement of vocalizations through contingent vocal imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Gewirtz, Jacob L

    2011-01-01

    Maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations is highly prevalent during face-to-face interactions of infants and their caregivers. Although maternal vocal imitation has been associated with later verbal development, its potentially reinforcing effect on infant vocalizations has not been explored experimentally. This study examined the reinforcing effect of maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations using a reversal probe BAB design. Eleven 3- to 8-month-old infants at high risk for developmental delays experienced contingent maternal vocal imitation during reinforcement conditions. Differential reinforcement of other behavior served as the control condition. The behavior of 10 infants showed evidence of a reinforcement effect. Results indicated that vocal imitations can serve to reinforce early infant vocalizations.

  13. Vocal-tract filtering by lingual articulation in a parrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Gabriël J L; Nelson, Brian S; Suthers, Roderick A

    2004-09-07

    Human speech and bird vocalization are complex communicative behaviors with notable similarities in development and underlying mechanisms. However, there is an important difference between humans and birds in the way vocal complexity is generally produced. Human speech originates from independent modulatory actions of a sound source, e.g., the vibrating vocal folds, and an acoustic filter, formed by the resonances of the vocal tract (formants). Modulation in bird vocalization, in contrast, is thought to originate predominantly from the sound source, whereas the role of the resonance filter is only subsidiary in emphasizing the complex time-frequency patterns of the source (e.g., but see ). However, it has been suggested that, analogous to human speech production, tongue movements observed in parrot vocalizations modulate formant characteristics independently from the vocal source. As yet, direct evidence of such a causal relationship is lacking. In five Monk parakeets, Myiopsitta monachus, we replaced the vocal source, the syrinx, with a small speaker that generated a broad-band sound, and we measured the effects of tongue placement on the sound emitted from the beak. The results show that tongue movements cause significant frequency changes in two formants and cause amplitude changes in all four formants present between 0.5 and 10 kHz. We suggest that lingual articulation may thus in part explain the well-known ability of parrots to mimic human speech, and, even more intriguingly, may also underlie a speech-like formant system in natural parrot vocalizations.

  14. Impact of Vocal Tract Resonance on the Perception of Voice Quality Changes Caused by Varying Vocal Fold Stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorello, Rosario; Zhang, Zhaoyan; Gerratt, Bruce; Kreiman, Jody

    2016-01-01

    Summary Experiments using animal and human larynx models are often conducted without a vocal tract. While it is often assumed that the absence of a vocal tract has only small effects on vocal fold vibration, it is not actually known how sound production and quality are affected. In this study, the validity of using data obtained in the absence of a vocal tract for voice perception studies was investigated. Using a two-layer self-oscillating physical model, three series of voice stimuli were created: one produced with conditions of left-right symmetric vocal fold stiffness, and two with left-right asymmetries in vocal fold body stiffness. Each series included a set of stimuli created with a physical vocal tract, and a second set created without a physical vocal tract. Stimuli were re-synthesized to equalize the mean F0 for each series and normalized for amplitude. Listeners were asked to evaluate the three series in a sort-and-rate task. Multidimensional scaling analysis was applied to examine the perceptual interaction between the voice source and the vocal tract resonances. The results showed that the presence or absence of a vocal tract can significantly affect perception of voice quality changes due to parametric changes in vocal fold properties, except when the parametric changes in vocal fold properties produced an abrupt shift in vocal fold vibratory pattern resulting in a salient quality change. PMID:27134616

  15. Short-term music-induced hearing loss after sound exposure to discotheque music: the effectiveness of a break in reducing temporary threshold shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helleman, Hiske W; Dreschler, Wouter A

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the effect of a break in music exposure on temporary threshold shifts. A cross-over design where subjects are exposed to dance music for either two hours consecutively, or exposed to two hours of dance music with a one-hour break in between. Outcome measure was the change in hearing threshold, measured in 1-dB steps at different time points after ending the music. Eighteen normal-hearing subjects participated in this study. Changes in pure-tone threshold were observed in both conditions and were similar, regardless of the break. Threshold shifts could be averaged for 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz. The shift immediately after the ending of the music was 1.7 dB for right ears, and 3.4 dB for left ears. The difference between left and right ears was significant. One hour after the exposure, right ears were recovered to baseline conditions whereas left ears showed a small but clinically irrelevant remaining shift of approximately 1 dB. The advice to use chill-out zones is still valid, because this helps to reduce the duration to the exposure. This study does not provide evidence that a rest period gives an additional reduction of temporary threshold shifts.

  16. Automatic Classification of Cetacean Vocalizations Using an Aural Classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    were inspired by research directed at discriminating the timbre of different musical instruments – a passive classification problem – which suggests...the method should be able to classify marine mammal vocalizations since these calls possess many of the acoustic attributes of music . APPROACH

  17. Music and the Three Appeals of Classical Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCoat, Gerard G.

    1976-01-01

    Contends that rhetorical theory of the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries influenced the theory of the composition of music and offers examples of vocal music which was adapted to the rhetorical appeals of logos, ethos, and pathos. (MH)

  18. InfoSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Gopinath, B.; Haberman, Gary O.

    1990-01-01

    The authors explore ways to enhance users' comprehension of complex applications using music and sound effects to present application-program events that are difficult to detect visually. A prototype system, Infosound, allows developers to create and store musical sequences and sound effects...... helped users detect rapid, multiple-event sequences that were difficult to visually detect using text and graphical interfaces. The authors describe the architecture of InfoSound, the use of the system, and the lessons learned....

  19. Computer Music Synthesis and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Lydia

    What is computer music composition? Composers are using the computer for everything from MIDI instruments communicating with computer sequencers, pitch trackers analyzing the sounds of acoustic instruments and converting them to pitch information, live performers with recorded music, performers with interactive computer programs, computer music produced by dancers using sensors, automatic music composition with the computer programs composing the music, composing with sounds or parts of sounds rather than notes, how to structure the use of time, composing with timbres, or the colors of sounds, and timbre morphing, such as a gong morphing to a voice, composing with textures and texture morphing, such as fluttertonguing morphing to pitch, granular synthesis, trills and convolution.

  20. Principles of structure building in music, language and animal song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Zuidema, Willem; Wiggins, Geraint A; Scharff, Constance

    2015-03-19

    Human language, music and a variety of animal vocalizations constitute ways of sonic communication that exhibit remarkable structural complexity. While the complexities of language and possible parallels in animal communication have been discussed intensively, reflections on the complexity of music and animal song, and their comparisons, are underrepresented. In some ways, music and animal songs are more comparable to each other than to language as propositional semantics cannot be used as indicator of communicative success or wellformedness, and notions of grammaticality are less easily defined. This review brings together accounts of the principles of structure building in music and animal song. It relates them to corresponding models in formal language theory, the extended Chomsky hierarchy (CH), and their probabilistic counterparts. We further discuss common misunderstandings and shortcomings concerning the CH and suggest ways to move beyond. We discuss language, music and animal song in the context of their function and motivation and further integrate problems and issues that are less commonly addressed in the context of language, including continuous event spaces, features of sound and timbre, representation of temporality and interactions of multiple parallel feature streams. We discuss these aspects in the light of recent theoretical, cognitive, neuroscientific and modelling research in the domains of music, language and animal song. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. The anuran vocal sac: a tool for multimodal signalling

    OpenAIRE

    STARNBERGER, IRIS; Preininger, Doris; Hödl, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Although in anurans the predominant mode of intra- and intersexual communication is vocalization, modalities used in addition to or instead of acoustic signals range from seismic and visual to chemical. In some cases, signals of more than one modality are produced through or by the anuran vocal sac. However, its role beyond acoustics has been neglected for some time and nonacoustic cues such as vocal sac movement have traditionally been seen as an epiphenomenon of sound production. The divers...

  2. Can nonlinguistic musical training change the way the brain processes speech? The expanded OPERA hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Aniruddh D

    2014-02-01

    A growing body of research suggests that musical training has a beneficial impact on speech processing (e.g., hearing of speech in noise and prosody perception). As this research moves forward two key questions need to be addressed: 1) Can purely instrumental musical training have such effects? 2) If so, how and why would such effects occur? The current paper offers a conceptual framework for understanding such effects based on mechanisms of neural plasticity. The expanded OPERA hypothesis proposes that when music and speech share sensory or cognitive processing mechanisms in the brain, and music places higher demands on these mechanisms than speech does, this sets the stage for musical training to enhance speech processing. When these higher demands are combined with the emotional rewards of music, the frequent repetition that musical training engenders, and the focused attention that it requires, neural plasticity is activated and makes lasting changes in brain structure and function which impact speech processing. Initial data from a new study motivated by the OPERA hypothesis is presented, focusing on the impact of musical training on speech perception in cochlear-implant users. Suggestions for the development of animal models to test OPERA are also presented, to help motivate neurophysiological studies of how auditory training using non-biological sounds can impact the brain's perceptual processing of species-specific vocalizations. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled .

  3. Sounding Bridges – An Intergenerational Music Therapy Group With Persons With Dementia and Children and Adolescents in Psychiatric Care

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelia Hessenberg; Wolfgang Schmid

    2013-01-01

    In this article an intergenerational music therapy group including persons with dementia and children and adolescents in psychiatric care will be introduced. The special feature of this group is that people with dementia and children and adolescents in psychiatric care come together to make music. Young and old participants share important life issues such as the experience of a stigmatizing illness, or not being able to live in their familiar environment any more. The promotion of social ski...

  4. Affective responses in tamarins elicited by species-specific music

    OpenAIRE

    Snowdon, Charles T.; Teie, David

    2009-01-01

    Theories of music evolution agree that human music has an affective influence on listeners. Tests of non-humans provided little evidence of preferences for human music. However, prosodic features of speech (‘motherese’) influence affective behaviour of non-verbal infants as well as domestic animals, suggesting that features of music can influence the behaviour of non-human species. We incorporated acoustical characteristics of tamarin affiliation vocalizations and tamarin threat vocalizations...

  5. Benefits of music training are widespread and lifelong: a bibliographic review of their non-musical effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, William J

    2014-06-01

    Recent publications indicate that musical training has effects on non-musical activities, some of which are lifelong. This study reviews recent publications collected from the Performing Arts Medicine Association bibliography. Music training, whether instrumental or vocal, produces beneficial and long-lasting changes in brain anatomy and function. Anatomic changes occur in brain areas devoted to hearing, speech, hand movements, and coordination between both sides of the brain. Functional benefits include improved sound processing and motor skills, especially in the upper extremities. Training benefits extend beyond music skills, resulting in higher IQs and school grades, greater specialized sensory and auditory memory/recall, better language memory and processing, heightened bilateral hand motor functioning, and improved integration and synchronization of sensory and motor functions. These changes last long after music training ends and can minimize or prevent age-related loss of brain cells and some mental functions. Early institution of music training and prolonged duration of training both appear to contribute to these positive changes.

  6. Temporal recalibration in vocalization induced by adaptation of delayed auditory feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Yamamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We ordinarily perceive our voice sound as occurring simultaneously with vocal production, but the sense of simultaneity in vocalization can be easily interrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF. DAF causes normal people to have difficulty speaking fluently but helps people with stuttering to improve speech fluency. However, the underlying temporal mechanism for integrating the motor production of voice and the auditory perception of vocal sound remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the temporal tuning mechanism integrating vocal sensory and voice sounds under DAF with an adaptation technique. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants produced a single voice sound repeatedly with specific delay times of DAF (0, 66, 133 ms during three minutes to induce 'Lag Adaptation'. They then judged the simultaneity between motor sensation and vocal sound given feedback. We found that lag adaptation induced a shift in simultaneity responses toward the adapted auditory delays. This indicates that the temporal tuning mechanism in vocalization can be temporally recalibrated after prolonged exposure to delayed vocal sounds. Furthermore, we found that the temporal recalibration in vocalization can be affected by averaging delay times in the adaptation phase. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest vocalization is finely tuned by the temporal recalibration mechanism, which acutely monitors the integration of temporal delays between motor sensation and vocal sound.

  7. Self-Organization of Early Vocal Development in Infants and Machines: The Role of Intrinsic Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément eMoulin-Frier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We bridge the gap between two issues in infant development: vocal development and intrinsic motivation. We propose and experimentally test the hypothesis that general mechanisms of intrinsically motivated spontaneous exploration, also called curiosity-driven learning, can self-organize developmental stages during early vocal learning. We introduce a computational model of intrinsically motivated vocal exploration, which allows the learner to autonomously structure its own vocal experiments, and thus its own learning schedule, through a drive to maximize competence progress. This model relies on a physical model of the vocal tract, the auditory system and the agent's motor control as well as vocalizations of social peers. We present computational experiments that show how such a mechanism can explain the adaptive transition from vocal self-exploration with little influence from the speech environment, to a later stage where vocal exploration becomes influenced by vocalizations of peers. Within the initial self-exploration phase, we show that a sequence of vocal production stages self-organizes, and shares properties with data from infant developmental psychology: the vocal learner first discovers how to control phonation, then focuses on vocal variations of unarticulated sounds, and finally automatically discovers and focuses on babbling with articulated proto-syllables. As the vocal learner becomes more proficient at producing complex sounds, imitating vocalizations of peers starts to provide high learning progress explaining an automatic shift from self-exploration to vocal imitation.

  8. Processing Music Signals Using Audio Decomposition Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Driedger, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Music signals are complex. When musicians play together, their instruments' sounds superimpose and form a single complex sound mixture. Furthermore, even the sound of a single instrument may already comprise sound components of harmonic, percussive, noise-like, and transient nature, among others. The complexity of music signal processing tasks such as time-scale modifcation - the task of stretching or compressing the duration of a music signal - or music source separation - the...

  9. The Sound of Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程远征

    2002-01-01

    Maria,a postulont (见习修女) in a Salzburg Abbey(萨尔茨保修道院),is distracted(分散) from her religious duties by the majestic(雄伟的) Alpine landscape and her restless,passionate(热情的) spirit.The Mother Abbess, Believing that Maria's buoyant(快活的) personality may be incompatible(不相容的)with monastic(修道院的) life,wisely sends her away to discover her true calling.

  10. On"the cultivation of music hearing in heart"in look, singing, hearing teaching%剖析视唱练耳教学中“内心音乐听觉”的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨殿金

    2013-01-01

    The teaching of vocal music is an important for the music course, vocal music has certain requirements for students to voice and hearing, and in the teaching process, teachers need to use a more creative way, to strengthen students' vocal ability. The cultivation of“music hearing in heart”is a way of learning vocal music, music teaching is not only a sound learning, it is through the heart to feel, through the understanding of music, so as to achieve the purpose of thought. This paper focuses on the analysis of"the cultivation of music hearing in heart"in look, singing, hearing teaching.%  声乐教学是音乐科目中较为重要的一门,声乐对于学生们的声音以及听力都有一定的要求,对于视唱以及练耳教学过程中,需要教师能够采用较为创新的方式,来加强学生们的声乐能力。内心音乐的听觉培养是一种建立在用心去学习声乐的方式,音乐教学不仅仅是一种声音上的学习,更是通过心灵去感悟,通过对音乐的理解,从而实现心领神会的目的。本文重点剖析视唱练耳教学中“内心音乐听觉”的培养。

  11. Bupropion XL-induced motor and vocal tics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayhan, Fatih; Uguz, Faruk; Kayhan, Ayşegül; Toktaş, Fikriye Ilay

    2014-01-01

    Tics are stereotypical repetitive involuntary movements (motor tics) or sounds (vocal tics). Although the emergence of tics were reported in a few cases with the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, there was no case with bupropion extended-release (Bupropion XL). The current case report presents a male patient developing motor and vocal tics with the use of bupropion XL.

  12. Classical Music Fan Chen Li

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The heyday of Beijing’s classical music beganin 1993, when top-quality sound equipment andrecords were imported. Also in that year, BeijingMusic Radio presented a classical music programtitled "Fan’s Club" and founded the "Music and

  13. When I Listen to Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Alan Russell

    2000-01-01

    Using music in the classroom enhances learning. Music and dance provide an opportunity for positive social interaction. Singing fosters understanding of the sound and rhythm of language. Exposing children to the patterns of different kinds of music helps them to recognize patterns in mathematics. Background music in the classroom reduces stress…

  14. Musical Understanding, Musical Works, and Emotional Expression: Implications for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, David J.

    2005-01-01

    What do musicians, critics, and listeners mean when they use emotion-words to describe a piece of instrumental music? How can "pure" musical sounds "express" emotions such as joyfulness, sadness, anguish, optimism, and anger? Sounds are not living organisms; sounds cannot feel emotions. Yet many people around the world believe they hear emotions…

  15. Musical Understanding, Musical Works, and Emotional Expression: Implications for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, David J.

    2005-01-01

    What do musicians, critics, and listeners mean when they use emotion-words to describe a piece of instrumental music? How can "pure" musical sounds "express" emotions such as joyfulness, sadness, anguish, optimism, and anger? Sounds are not living organisms; sounds cannot feel emotions. Yet many people around the world believe they hear emotions…

  16. Perception of emotionally loaded vocal expressions and its connection to responses to music. A cross-cultural investigation: Estonia, Finland, Sweden, Russia, and the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Teija eWaaramaa; Timo eLeisiö

    2013-01-01

    The present study focused on voice quality and the perception of the basic emotions from speech samples in cross-cultural conditions. It was examined whether voice quality, cultural, or language background, age, or gender were related to the identification of the emotions. Professional actors (n2) and actresses (n2) produced non-sense sentences (n32) and protracted vowels (n8) expressing the six basic emotions, interest, and a neutral emotional state. The impact of musical interests on the ab...

  17. Peripheral Mechanisms for Vocal Production in Birds--Differences and Similarities to Human Speech and Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Tobias; Goller, Franz

    2010-01-01

    Song production in songbirds is a model system for studying learned vocal behavior. As in humans, bird phonation involves three main motor systems (respiration, vocal organ and vocal tract). The avian respiratory mechanism uses pressure regulation in air sacs to ventilate a rigid lung. In songbirds sound is generated with two independently…

  18. 莫扎特艺术歌曲在声乐教学中的重要价值%The Important Value of Mozart's art Songs in Vocal Music Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建峰

    2015-01-01

    The genius composer is Wolfgang Amadeus - Mozart, is also the founder of classical music and left to posterity's vocal works up to more than 600 first, contains all the creative theme, these works of art songs can be said is Mozart come in handy improvisation. Is he bursts of inspiration creation has artistic charm of outstanding works.%沃尔夫冈·阿玛多伊斯·莫扎特是天才作曲家,也是古典音乐的奠基人,留给后人的声乐作品多达600多首,包含了所有的创作题材,这些作品中的艺术歌曲可以说是莫扎特信手拈来的即兴作品,也是他灵感爆发创作的具有艺术魅力的优秀作品。

  19. Music therapy improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Kuzma

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the technique of music therapy – music therapy improvisation is introduced. In this form of music therapy the improvising partners share meaning through the improvisation: the improvisation is not an end in itself: it portrays meaning that is personal, complex and can be shared with the partner. The therapeutic work, then, is meeting and matching the client's music in order to give the client an experience of "being known", being responded through sounds and being able to express things and communicate meaningfully. Rather than the client playing music, the therapy is about developing the engagement through sustained, joint improvisations. In music therapy, music and emotion share fundamental features: one may represent the other, i.e., we hear the music not as music but as dynamic emotional states. The concept of dynamic structure explains why music makes therapeutic sense.

  20. Voice Savers for Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookman, Starr

    2012-01-01

    Music teachers are in a class all their own when it comes to voice use. These elite vocal athletes require stamina, strength, and flexibility from their voices day in, day out for hours at a time. Voice rehabilitation clinics and research show that music education ranks high among the professionals most commonly affected by voice problems.…

  1. MUSIC RADIO-JOURNALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubovtceva Ludmila I.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on years of practical experience, the author highlights the main radio genres in which music correspondent, music reviewer, music commentator, and music leading and a disc jockey work. Theoretical principles of their creative activities are analyzed in common journalistic genres, such as interview, reportage, talk show, live broadcast, radiofilm, as well as specialized genres like concert on demand and music competition. Journalist’ speech is seen as a logical element, the incoming with music in art-structural relationships. However, it does not become the predominant sound layer and aims to harmonious correlation or local penetration into music opus. In addition, important links in music journalism are defined the auxiliary "offscreen" editor's job and keeping the original sound archive. The author cites a number of own work examples on the air.

  2. On-Chip electric power generation system from sound of portable music plyers and smartphones towerd portable uTAS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naito, T.; Kaji, N.; le Gac, Severine; Tokeshi, M.; van den Berg, Albert; Baba, Y.; Fujii, T.; Hibara, A.; Takeuchi, S.; Fukuba, T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates electric generation from sound to minimize and integrate microfluidic systems for point of care testing or in-situ analysis. In this work, 5.4 volts and 50 mW DC was generated from sound through an earphone cable, which is a versatile system and able to actuate small size and

  3. Self-experiential learning – a research study into music therapy students’ perspective. Sounds that resonate with the personality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvang, Charlotte

    In this paper I presented a part of my PhD-study in music therapy: “A Field of Resonant Learning. Self-experiential training and the development of music therapeutic competencies: a mixed methods investigation of student experiences and professionals’ evaluation of their own competencies......”. In the paper I briefly described how self-experience and personal therapy is implemented as a mandatory part of the Music Therapy training program in Aalborg, Denmark. The self-experience-disciplines are implemented as compulsory part inside the programme, with much weight from the very beginning...... of the training. The purpose of my study was to explore and generate understanding and insight into the phenomena of self-experience and personal therapy in training, first and foremost from the students’ perspective. Secondly the phenomenon of self-experiential learning was contextualised clinically...

  4. Self-experiential learning – a research study into music therapy students’ perspective. Sounds that resonate with the personality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvang, Charlotte

    of the training. The purpose of my study was to explore and generate understanding and insight into the phenomena of self-experience and personal therapy in training, first and foremost from the students’ perspective. Secondly the phenomenon of self-experiential learning was contextualised clinically......In this paper I presented a part of my PhD-study in music therapy: “A Field of Resonant Learning. Self-experiential training and the development of music therapeutic competencies: a mixed methods investigation of student experiences and professionals’ evaluation of their own competencies......”. In the paper I briefly described how self-experience and personal therapy is implemented as a mandatory part of the Music Therapy training program in Aalborg, Denmark. The self-experience-disciplines are implemented as compulsory part inside the programme, with much weight from the very beginning...

  5. Sounding Bridges – An Intergenerational Music Therapy Group With Persons With Dementia and Children and Adolescents in Psychiatric Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Hessenberg

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article an intergenerational music therapy group including persons with dementia and children and adolescents in psychiatric care will be introduced. The special feature of this group is that people with dementia and children and adolescents in psychiatric care come together to make music. Young and old participants share important life issues such as the experience of a stigmatizing illness, or not being able to live in their familiar environment any more. The promotion of social skills and resources, as well as the support of emotional expressivity, and reminiscence work are particularly important in the intergenerational group. The article presents the project with its contents and discusses it with respect to theoretical perspectives from music therapy, sociology and gerontology.

  6. Deficit in automatic sound-change detection may underlie some music perception deficits after acute hemispheric stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmetz, C; Altenmüller, E; Schuppert, M; Wieringa, B M; Münte, T F

    2001-01-01

    Music perception deficits following acute neurological damage are thought to be rare. By a newly devised test battery of music-perception skills, however, we were able to identify among a group of 12 patients with acute hemispheric stroke six patients with music perception deficits (amusia) while six others had no such deficits. In addition we recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in a passive listening task with frequent standard and infrequent pitch deviants designed to elicit the mismatch negativity (MMN). The MMN in the patients with amusia was grossly reduced, while the non-amusic patients and control subjects had MMNs of equal size. These data show that amusia is quite common in unselected stroke patients. The MMN reduction suggests that amusia is related to unspecific automatic stimulus classification deficits in these patients.

  7. Music in the Bauhaus (1919-1933: Gertrud Grunow as Teacher of Harmony. The Fusion of Art, Colour and Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Vadillo Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In few occasions there has given in a school of art a few so original and complete theories like that the musical Gertrud Grunow (1870-1944 gave in his subject of ‘ Theory of the Harmony ‘ for the famous german Bauhaus, from 1919 to 1923. He had studied with teachers as Hans Guido von Bülow (1830-1894, Scharwenka (1850-1924 or Giovanni Battista Lamperti (1839-1910 and she came to the school being an authoress of a recognized intellectual prestige. The aim of her subject in the Bauhaus was the search of a balance and the analysis on the part of the students of her own artistic skills across the music. Being based on phenomena as the synaesthesia, she was thinking that to every colour a musical note was corresponding to her not only but also it was in relation with a feeling, movement, material and condition of the soul humanizes.

  8. Vocal tract articulation in zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena R Ohms

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birdsong and human vocal communication are both complex behaviours which show striking similarities mainly thought to be present in the area of development and learning. Recent studies, however, suggest that there are also parallels in vocal production mechanisms. While it has been long thought that vocal tract filtering, as it occurs in human speech, only plays a minor role in birdsong there is an increasing number of studies indicating the presence of sound filtering mechanisms in bird vocalizations as well. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Correlating high-speed X-ray cinematographic imaging of singing zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata to song structures we identified beak gape and the expansion of the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity (OEC as potential articulators. We subsequently manipulated both structures in an experiment in which we played sound through the vocal tract of dead birds. Comparing acoustic input with acoustic output showed that OEC expansion causes an energy shift towards lower frequencies and an amplitude increase whereas a wide beak gape emphasizes frequencies around 5 kilohertz and above. CONCLUSION: These findings confirm that birds can modulate their song by using vocal tract filtering and demonstrate how OEC and beak gape contribute to this modulation.

  9. Vocal tract articulation revisited: the case of the monk parakeet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohms, Verena R; Beckers, Gabriël J L; ten Cate, Carel; Suthers, Roderick A

    2012-01-01

    Birdsong and human speech share many features with respect to vocal learning and development. However, the vocal production mechanisms have long been considered to be distinct. The vocal organ of songbirds is more complex than the human larynx, leading to the hypothesis that vocal variation in birdsong originates mainly at the sound source, while in humans it is primarily due to vocal tract filtering. However, several recent studies have indicated the importance of vocal tract articulators such as the beak and oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity. In contrast to most other bird groups, parrots have a prominent tongue, raising the possibility that tongue movements may also be of significant importance in vocal production in parrots, but evidence is rare and observations often anecdotal. In the current study we used X-ray cinematographic imaging of naturally vocalizing monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus) to assess which articulators are possibly involved in vocal tract filtering in this species. We observed prominent tongue height changes, beak opening movements and tracheal length changes, which suggests that all of these components play an important role in modulating vocal tract resonance. Moreover, the observation of tracheal shortening as a vocal articulator in live birds has to our knowledge not been described before. We also found strong positive correlations between beak opening and amplitude as well as changes in tongue height and amplitude in several types of vocalization. Our results suggest considerable differences between parrot and songbird vocal production while at the same time the parrot's vocal articulation might more closely resemble human speech production in the sense that both make extensive use of the tongue as a vocal articulator.

  10. Predicting Achievable Fundamental Frequency Ranges in Vocalization Across Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Titze

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vocal folds are used as sound sources in various species, but it is unknown how vocal fold morphologies are optimized for different acoustic objectives. Here we identify two main variables affecting range of vocal fold vibration frequency, namely vocal fold elongation and tissue fiber stress. A simple vibrating string model is used to predict fundamental frequency ranges across species of different vocal fold sizes. While average fundamental frequency is predominantly determined by vocal fold length (larynx size, range of fundamental frequency is facilitated by (1 laryngeal muscles that control elongation and by (2 nonlinearity in tissue fiber tension. One adaptation that would increase fundamental frequency range is greater freedom in joint rotation or gliding of two cartilages (thyroid and cricoid, so that vocal fold length change is maximized. Alternatively, tissue layers can develop to bear a disproportionate fiber tension (i.e., a ligament with high density collagen fibers, increasing the fundamental frequency range and thereby vocal versatility. The range of fundamental frequency across species is thus not simply one-dimensional, but can be conceptualized as the dependent variable in a multi-dimensional morphospace. In humans, this could allow for variations that could be clinically important for voice therapy and vocal fold repair. Alternative solutions could also have importance in vocal training for singing and other highly-skilled vocalizations.

  11. Molecular mapping of brain areas involved in parrot vocal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, E D; Mello, C V

    2000-03-27

    Auditory and vocal regulation of gene expression occurs in separate discrete regions of the songbird brain. Here we demonstrate that regulated gene expression also occurs during vocal communication in a parrot, belonging to an order whose ability to learn vocalizations is thought to have evolved independently of songbirds. Adult male budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were stimulated to vocalize with playbacks of conspecific vocalizations (warbles), and their brains were analyzed for expression of the transcriptional regulator ZENK. The results showed that there was distinct separation of brain areas that had hearing- or vocalizing-induced ZENK expression. Hearing warbles resulted in ZENK induction in large parts of the caudal medial forebrain and in 1 midbrain region, with a pattern highly reminiscent of that observed in songbirds. Vocalizing resulted in ZENK induction in nine brain structures, seven restricted to the lateral and anterior telencephalon, one in the thalamus, and one in the midbrain, with a pattern partially reminiscent of that observed in songbirds. Five of the telencephalic structures had been previously described as part of the budgerigar vocal control pathway. However, functional boundaries defined by the gene expression patterns for some of these structures were much larger and different in shape than previously reported anatomical boundaries. Our results provide the first functional demonstration of brain areas involved in vocalizing and auditory processing of conspecific sounds in budgerigars. They also indicate that, whether or not vocal learning evolved independently, some of the gene regulatory mechanisms that accompany learned vocal communication are similar in songbirds and parrots.

  12. Perception of emotionally loaded vocal expressions and its connection to responses to music. A cross-cultural investigation: Estonia, Finland, Sweden, Russia and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teija eWaaramaa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused on voice quality and the perception of the basic emotions from speech samples in cross-cultural conditions. It was examined whether voice quality, cultural or language background, age or gender were related to the identification of the emotions. Professional actors (n2 and actresses (n2 produced nonsense sentences (n32 and protracted vowels (n8 expressing the six basic emotions, interest and a neutral emotional state. The impact of musical interests on the ability to distinguish between emotions or valence (on an axis positivity – neutrality – negativity from voice samples was studied. Listening tests were conducted on location in five countries: Estonia, Finland, Russia, Sweden and the USA with 50 randomly chosen participants (25 males and 25 females in each country. The participants (total N=250 completed a questionnaire eliciting their background information and musical interests. The responses in the listening test and the questionnaires were statistically analysed. Voice quality parameters and the share of the emotions and valence identified correlated significantly with each other for both genders. The percentage of emotions and valence identified was clearly above the chance level in each of the five countries studied, however, the countries differed significantly from each other for the identified emotions and the gender of the speaker. The samples produced by females were identified significantly better than those produced by males. Listener’s age was a significant variable. Only minor gender differences were found for the identification. Perceptual confusion in the listening test between emotions seemed to be dependent on their similar voice production types. Musical interests tended to have a positive effect on the identification of the emotions. The results also suggest that identifying emotions from speech samples may be easier for those listeners who share a similar language or cultural background

  13. Perception of emotionally loaded vocal expressions and its connection to responses to music. A cross-cultural investigation: Estonia, Finland, Sweden, Russia, and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waaramaa, Teija; Leisiö, Timo

    2013-01-01

    The present study focused on voice quality and the perception of the basic emotions from speech samples in cross-cultural conditions. It was examined whether voice quality, cultural, or language background, age, or gender were related to the identification of the emotions. Professional actors (n2) and actresses (n2) produced non-sense sentences (n32) and protracted vowels (n8) expressing the six basic emotions, interest, and a neutral emotional state. The impact of musical interests on the ability to distinguish between emotions or valence (on an axis positivity - neutrality - negativity) from voice samples was studied. Listening tests were conducted on location in five countries: Estonia, Finland, Russia, Sweden, and the USA with 50 randomly chosen participants (25 males and 25 females) in each country. The participants (total N = 250) completed a questionnaire eliciting their background information and musical interests. The responses in the listening test and the questionnaires were statistically analyzed. Voice quality parameters and the share of the emotions and valence identified correlated significantly with each other for both genders. The percentage of emotions and valence identified was clearly above the chance level in each of the five countries studied, however, the countries differed significantly from each other for the identified emotions and the gender of the speaker. The samples produced by females were identified significantly better than those produced by males. Listener's age was a significant variable. Only minor gender differences were found for the identification. Perceptual confusion in the listening test between emotions seemed to be dependent on their similar voice production types. Musical interests tended to have a positive effect on the identification of the emotions. The results also suggest that identifying emotions from speech samples may be easier for those listeners who share a similar language or cultural background with the

  14. Vocal Loading in Speaking a Foreign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Kati; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether speaking a foreign language affects the subjective notions of vocal fatigue, and whether acoustic measurements reveal a higher vocal loading. The speech samples of 20 native Finnish-speaking and 23 native English-speaking subjects were recorded in Finnish and in English. From the speech samples, fundamental frequency, equivalent sound level, total duration of voiced speech, speech rate, alpha ratio and L1-L0 level difference were analyzed. Vocal doses were calculated. According to subjective notions, the voice gets tired more quickly when speaking a foreign language. The mean fundamental frequency increased but the speech rate and total duration of voiced speech decreased significantly when speaking a foreign language. Thus, the vocal doses decreased. The subjective sensations of increased vocal fatigue may be due to increased mental stress rather than to higher vocal loading. However, a trend that speaking a foreign language may involve more loading was found in L1-L0 level difference and in the doses normalized to time dose. Longer speech samples should be studied. Voice quality-based indicators of vocal loading are worth testing in addition to the measures based on the amount of voicing in speech. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. From Sound Morphing to the Synthesis of Starlight. Musical experiences with the Phase Vocoder over 25 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Wishart

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article reports the author’s experiences with the phase vocoder. Starting from the first attempts during the years 1973-77 – in connection with a speculative project to morph the sounds of a speaking voice into sounds from the natural world, project subsequently developed at Ircam in Paris between 1979 and 1986 – up to the most recent experiences in 2011-12 associated with the realization of Supernova, an 8-channel sound-surround piece, where the phase vocoder data format is used as a synthesis tool.

  16. Assessing the Unseen: Using Music and Literature to Access and Develop First Graders' Knowledge of Sound Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCourt, Susan; Kelley, Sybil S.

    2016-01-01

    Most young children love a good song and dance, an enticing story, and gorgeous illustrations. How could this staple of the early childhood classroom--music and literature--access children's ideas about physical science? How can young children communicate their knowledge of unseen science concepts that are not easily represented in pictures? These…

  17. Background instrumental music and serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittono, H

    1997-06-01

    Although speech and vocal music are consistently shown to impair serial recall for visually presented items, instrumental music does not always produce a significant disruption. This study investigated the features of instrumental music that would modulate the disruption in serial recall. 24 students were presented sequences of nine digits and required to recall the digits in order of presentation. Instrumental music as played either forward or backward during the task. Forward music caused significantly more disruption than did silence, whereas the reversed music did not. Some higher-order factor may be at work in the effect of background music on serial recall.

  18. Signal-to-background ratio preferences of normal-hearing listeners as a function of music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jillian Gallant

    The purpose of this study was to identify listeners' signal-to-background-ratio (SBR) preference levels for vocal music and to investigate whether or not SBR differences existed for different music genres. The ``signal'' was the singer's voice, and the ``background'' was the accompanying music. Three songs were each produced in two different genres (total of 6 genres represented). Each song was performed by three male and three female singers. Analyses addressed influences of musical genre, singing style, and singer timbre on listener's SBR choices. Fifty-three normal-hearing California State University of Northridge students ranging in age from 20-52 years participated as subjects. Subjects adjusted the overall music loudness to a comfortable listening level, and manipulated a second gain control which affected only the singer's voice. Subjects listened to 72 stimuli and adjusted the singer's voice to the level they felt sounded appropriate in comparison to the background music. Singer and Genre were the two primary contributors to significant differences in subject's SBR preferences, although the results clearly indicate Genre, Style and Singer interact in different combinations under different conditions. SBR differences for each song, each singer, and each subject did not occur in a predictable manner, and support the hypothesis that SBR preferences are neither fixed nor dependent merely upon music application or setting. Further investigations regarding psychoacoustical bases responsible for differences in SBR preferences are warranted.

  19. Interdisciplinary Lessons in Musical Acoustics: The Science-Math-Music Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, George L.

    2004-01-01

    The National Standards for Arts Education encourages teachers to help students make connections between music and other disciplines. Many state curriculum guides likewise encourage educators to integrate curricula and find common ground between different subjects. Music--particularly vocal music--offers ample opportunities to find relationships…

  20. Musical melody and speech intonation: singing a different tune.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Zatorre

    Full Text Available Music and speech are often cited as characteristically human forms of communication. Both share the features of hierarchical structure, complex sound systems, and sensorimotor sequencing demands, and both are used to convey and influence emotions, among other functions [1]. Both music and speech also prominently use acoustical frequency modulations, perceived as variations in pitch, as part of their communicative repertoire. Given these similarities, and the fact that pitch perception and production involve the same peripheral transduction system (cochlea and the same production mechanism (vocal tract, it might be natural to assume that pitch processing in speech and music would also depend on the same underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms. In this essay we argue that the processing of pitch information differs significantly for speech and music; specifically, we suggest that there are two pitch-related processing systems, one for more coarse-grained, approximate analysis and one for more fine-grained accurate representation, and that the latter is unique to music. More broadly, this dissociation offers clues about the interface between sensory and motor systems, and highlights the idea that multiple processing streams are a ubiquitous feature of neuro-cognitive architectures.