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Sample records for vocal grooming hypothesis

  1. Social brain hypothesis, vocal and gesture networks of wild chimpanzees

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    Anna Ilona Roberts

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A key driver of brain evolution in primates and humans is the cognitive demands arising from managing social relationships. In primates, grooming plays a key role in maintaining these relationships, but the time that can be devoted to grooming is inherently limited. Communication may act as an additional, more time-efficient bonding mechanism to grooming, but how patterns of communication are related to patterns of sociality is still poorly understood. We used social network analysis to examine the associations between close proximity (duration of time spent within 10m per hour spent in the same party, grooming, vocal communication and gestural communication (duration of time and frequency of behaviour per hour spent within 10 meters in wild chimpanzees. The results were not corrected for multiple testing. Chimpanzees had differentiated social relationships, with focal chimpanzees maintaining some level of proximity to almost all group members, but directing gestures at and grooming with a smaller number of preferred social partners. Pairs of chimpanzees that had high levels of close proximity had higher rates of grooming. Importantly, higher rates of gestural communication were also positively associated with levels of proximity, and specifically gestures associated with affiliation (greeting, gesture to mutually groom were related to proximity. Synchronized low-intensity pant-hoots were also positively related to proximity in pairs of chimpanzees. Further, there were differences in the size of individual chimpanzees’ proximity networks - the number of social relationships they maintained with others. Focal chimpanzees with larger proximity networks had a higher rate of both synchronized low- intensity pant-hoots and synchronized high-intensity pant-hoots. These results suggest that in addition to grooming, both gestures and synchronized vocalisations may play key roles in allowing chimpanzees to manage a large and differentiated set of

  2. Grooming-at-a-distance by exchanging calls in non-human primates.

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    Arlet, Malgorzata; Jubin, Ronan; Masataka, Nobuo; Lemasson, Alban

    2015-10-01

    The 'social bonding hypothesis' predicts that, in large social groups, functions of gestural grooming should be partially transferred to vocal interactions. Hence, vocal exchanges would have evolved in primates to play the role of grooming-at-a-distance in order to facilitate the maintenance of social cohesion. However, there are few empirical studies testing this hypothesis. To address this point, we compared the rate of contact call exchanges between females in two captive groups of Japanese macaques as a function of female age, dominance rank, genetic relatedness and social affinity measured by spatial proximity and grooming interactions. We found a significant positive relationship between the time spent on grooming by two females and the frequency with which they exchanged calls. Our results conform to the predictions of the social bonding hypothesis, i.e. vocal exchanges can be interpreted as grooming-at-a-distance.

  3. If horses entrain, don’t entirely reject vocal learning: An experience-based vocal learning hypothesis

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    Adena Schachner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bregman and colleagues describe methods for testing whether horses entrain their actions to an auditory beat. If horses can entrain, does this necessarily imply that there is no causal relationship between vocal learning and entrainment? I propose an alternative way in which vocal learning may relate to entrainment — one that is consistent with entrainment in some vocal non-learning species. Due to engaging in the developmental process of vocal learning, there may be early experiences common to vocal learners, but rare in vocal non-learning species. It is possible that it is these experiences that are critical for entrainment — not vocal learning itself, nor related genes. These experiences may result in critical changes in neural development, leading to the development of cognitive mechanisms necessary for both vocal learning and entrainment. This hypothesis changes the causal story from one of genetic change to one of changes in experience, and from a focus on evolution to a focus on individual ontogeny. Thus, if horses can entrain, we should not immediately reject the idea of a relationship between vocal learning and entrainment: First, we should consider whether some unusual aspect of the horses' experience effectively replicates the unusual experiences of vocal learning animals.

  4. Cross-fostering alters advertisement vocalizations of grasshopper mice (Onychomys): Evidence for the developmental stress hypothesis.

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    Pasch, Bret; Abbasi, Mustafa Z; Wilson, Macey; Zhao, Daniel; Searle, Jeremy B; Webster, Michael S; Rice, Aaron N

    2016-04-01

    Nutritional stress can have lasting impacts on the development of traits involved in vocal production. Cross-fostering experiments are often used to examine the propensity for vocal learning in a variety of taxa, but few studies assess the influence of malnourishment that can occur as a byproduct of this technique. In this study, we reciprocally cross-fostered sister taxa of voluble grasshopper mice (genus Onychomys) to explore their propensity for vocal learning. Vocalizations of Onychomys leucogaster did not differ between control and cross-fostered animals, but cross-fostered Onychomys arenicola produced vocalizations that were higher in frequency in a direction away from tutors. These same animals exhibited a transient reduction in body mass early in development, indicative of malnutrition. Our findings simultaneously refute vocal learning and support the developmental stress hypothesis to highlight the importance of early ontogeny on the production of vocalizations later in life.

  5. A hypothesis on improving foreign accents by optimizing variability in vocal learning brain circuits.

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    Simmonds, Anna J

    2015-01-01

    Rapid vocal motor learning is observed when acquiring a language in early childhood, or learning to speak another language later in life. Accurate pronunciation is one of the hardest things for late learners to master and they are almost always left with a non-native accent. Here, I propose a novel hypothesis that this accent could be improved by optimizing variability in vocal learning brain circuits during learning. Much of the neurobiology of human vocal motor learning has been inferred from studies on songbirds. Jarvis (2004) proposed the hypothesis that as in songbirds there are two pathways in humans: one for learning speech (the striatal vocal learning pathway), and one for production of previously learnt speech (the motor pathway). Learning new motor sequences necessary for accurate non-native pronunciation is challenging and I argue that in late learners of a foreign language the vocal learning pathway becomes inactive prematurely. The motor pathway is engaged once again and learners maintain their original native motor patterns for producing speech, resulting in speaking with a foreign accent. Further, I argue that variability in neural activity within vocal motor circuitry generates vocal variability that supports accurate non-native pronunciation. Recent theoretical and experimental work on motor learning suggests that variability in the motor movement is necessary for the development of expertise. I propose that there is little trial-by-trial variability when using the motor pathway. When using the vocal learning pathway variability gradually increases, reflecting an exploratory phase in which learners try out different ways of pronouncing words, before decreasing and stabilizing once the "best" performance has been identified. The hypothesis proposed here could be tested using behavioral interventions that optimize variability and engage the vocal learning pathway for longer, with the prediction that this would allow learners to develop new motor

  6. A hypothesis on improving foreign accents by optimizing variability in vocal learning brain circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna J Simmonds

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rapid vocal motor learning is observed when acquiring a language in early childhood, or learning to speak another language later in life. Accurate pronunciation is one of the hardest things for late learners to master and they are almost always left with a non-native accent. Here I propose a novel hypothesis that this accent could be improved by optimizing variability in vocal learning brain circuits during learning. Much of the neurobiology of human vocal motor learning has been inferred from studies on songbirds. Jarvis (2004 proposed the hypothesis that as in songbirds there are two pathways in humans: one for learning speech (the striatal vocal learning pathway, and one for production of previously learnt speech (the motor pathway. Learning new motor sequences necessary for accurate non-native pronunciation is challenging and I argue that in late learners of a foreign language the vocal learning pathway becomes inactive prematurely. The motor pathway is engaged once again and learners maintain their original native motor patterns for producing speech, resulting in speaking with a foreign accent. Further, I argue that variability in neural activity within vocal motor circuitry generates vocal variability that supports accurate non-native pronunciation. Recent theoretical and experimental work on motor learning suggests that variability in the motor movement is necessary for the development of expertise. I propose that there is little trial-by-trial variability when using the motor pathway. When using the vocal learning pathway variability gradually increases, reflecting an exploratory phase in which learners try out different ways of pronouncing words, before decreasing and stabilizing once the ‘best’ performance has been identified. The hypothesis proposed here could be tested using behavioral interventions that optimize variability and engage the vocal learning pathway for longer, with the prediction that this would allow learners to

  7. Production of grooming-associated sounds by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Ngogo: variation, social learning, and possible functions.

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    Watts, David P

    2016-01-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use some communicative signals flexibly and voluntarily, with use influenced by learning. These signals include some vocalizations and also sounds made using the lips, oral cavity, and/or teeth, but not the vocal tract, such as "attention-getting" sounds directed at humans by captive chimpanzees and lip smacking during social grooming. Chimpanzees at Ngogo, in Kibale National Park, Uganda, make four distinct sounds while grooming others. Here, I present data on two of these ("splutters" and "teeth chomps") and consider whether social learning contributes to variation in their production and whether they serve social functions. Higher congruence in the use of these two sounds between dyads of maternal relatives than dyads of non-relatives implies that social learning occurs and mostly involves vertical transmission, but the results are not conclusive and it is unclear which learning mechanisms may be involved. In grooming between adult males, tooth chomps and splutters were more likely in long than in short bouts; in bouts that were bidirectional rather than unidirectional; in grooming directed toward high-ranking males than toward low-ranking males; and in bouts between allies than in those between non-allies. Males were also more likely to make these sounds while they were grooming other males than while they were grooming females. These results are expected if the sounds promote social bonds and induce tolerance of proximity and of grooming by high-ranking males. However, the alternative hypothesis that the sounds are merely associated with motivation to groom, with no additional social function, cannot be ruled out. Limited data showing that bouts accompanied by teeth chomping or spluttering at their initiation were longer than bouts for which this was not the case point toward a social function, but more data are needed for a definitive test. Comparison to other research sites shows that the possible existence of grooming

  8. Whom to groom and for what? Patterns of grooming in female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus).

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    Roubová, Veronika; Konečná, Martina; Šmilauer, Petr; Wallner, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Grooming is one of the most conspicuous social interactions among nonhuman primates. The selection of grooming partners can provide important clues about factors relevant for the distribution of grooming within a social group. We analyzed grooming behavior among 17 semi-free ranging female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). We tested whether grooming is related to kinship, rank and friendship. Furthermore, we tested whether grooming is reciprocated or exchanged for rank related benefits (i.e. lower aggression and increased tolerance whilst feeding). We found that in general grooming was reciprocally exchanged, directed up the hierarchy and at the same time affected by friendship and kinship. Grooming was more frequent among individuals with higher friendship values as well as amongst related individuals. We also divided our data set on the basis of rank difference and tested if different power asymmetries between individuals affected the tendency to exchange grooming for rank related benefits and grooming reciprocation. In support of our initial hypothesis our results show that the reciprocation of grooming was a significant predictor of grooming interactions between individuals of similar rank, but not between those individuals more distantly separated in the social hierarchy. However, we did not find any evidence for grooming being exchanged for rank related benefits in either data set. Our results, together with previously published studies, illustrate the behavioral flexibility of macaques. It is clear that multiple studies of the same species are necessary to gather the data required for the solid comparative studies needed to shed light on patterns of grooming behavior in primates.

  9. Social Grooming in Bats: Are Vampire Bats Exceptional?

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    Carter, Gerald; Leffer, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Evidence for long-term cooperative relationships comes from several social birds and mammals. Vampire bats demonstrate cooperative social bonds, and like primates, they maintain these bonds through social grooming. It is unclear, however, to what extent vampires are special among bats in this regard. We compared social grooming rates of common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and four other group-living bats, Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata, Eidolon helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus, under the same captive conditions of fixed association and no ectoparasites. We conducted 13 focal sampling sessions for each combination of sex and species, for a total of 1560 presence/absence observations per species. We observed evidence for social grooming in all species, but social grooming rates were on average 14 times higher in vampire bats than in other species. Self-grooming rates did not differ. Vampire bats spent 3.7% of their awake time social grooming (95% CI = 1.5-6.3%), whereas bats of the other species spent 0.1-0.5% of their awake time social grooming. Together with past data, this result supports the hypothesis that the elevated social grooming rate in the vampire bat is an adaptive trait, linked to their social bonding and unique regurgitated food sharing behavior.

  10. Social Grooming in Bats: Are Vampire Bats Exceptional?

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    Gerald Carter

    Full Text Available Evidence for long-term cooperative relationships comes from several social birds and mammals. Vampire bats demonstrate cooperative social bonds, and like primates, they maintain these bonds through social grooming. It is unclear, however, to what extent vampires are special among bats in this regard. We compared social grooming rates of common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and four other group-living bats, Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata, Eidolon helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus, under the same captive conditions of fixed association and no ectoparasites. We conducted 13 focal sampling sessions for each combination of sex and species, for a total of 1560 presence/absence observations per species. We observed evidence for social grooming in all species, but social grooming rates were on average 14 times higher in vampire bats than in other species. Self-grooming rates did not differ. Vampire bats spent 3.7% of their awake time social grooming (95% CI = 1.5-6.3%, whereas bats of the other species spent 0.1-0.5% of their awake time social grooming. Together with past data, this result supports the hypothesis that the elevated social grooming rate in the vampire bat is an adaptive trait, linked to their social bonding and unique regurgitated food sharing behavior.

  11. Advice on Good Grooming.

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    Tingey, Carol

    1987-01-01

    Suggestions are presented from parents on how to help children with disabilities (with particular focus on Downs Syndrome) learn good grooming habits in such areas as good health, exercise, cleanliness, teeth and hair care, skin care, glasses and other devices, and social behavior. (CB)

  12. Grooming. Learning Activity Package.

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    Stark, Pamela

    This learning activity package on grooming for health workers is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  13. Laughing, grooming, and pub science.

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    Provine, Robert R

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of naturalistic observations of people conversing and laughing in pubs, a new study suggests that the 'grooming-at-a-distance' of laughter provides a three-fold increase in grooming group size, potentially explaining how hominins evolved social groups that are considerably larger than those of other primates.

  14. Social learning of vocal structure in a nonhuman primate?

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    Lemasson Alban

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-human primate communication is thought to be fundamentally different from human speech, mainly due to vast differences in vocal control. The lack of these abilities in non-human primates is especially striking if compared to some marine mammals and bird species, which has generated somewhat of an evolutionary conundrum. What are the biological roots and underlying evolutionary pressures of the human ability to voluntarily control sound production and learn the vocal utterances of others? One hypothesis is that this capacity has evolved gradually in humans from an ancestral stage that resembled the vocal behavior of modern primates. Support for this has come from studies that have documented limited vocal flexibility and convergence in different primate species, typically in calls used during social interactions. The mechanisms underlying these patterns, however, are currently unknown. Specifically, it has been difficult to rule out explanations based on genetic relatedness, suggesting that such vocal flexibility may not be the result of social learning. Results To address this point, we compared the degree of acoustic similarity of contact calls in free-ranging Campbell's monkeys as a function of their social bonds and genetic relatedness. We calculated three different indices to compare the similarities between the calls' frequency contours, the duration of grooming interactions and the microsatellite-based genetic relatedness between partners. We found a significantly positive relation between bond strength and acoustic similarity that was independent of genetic relatedness. Conclusion Genetic factors determine the general species-specific call repertoire of a primate species, while social factors can influence the fine structure of some the call types. The finding is in line with the more general hypothesis that human speech has evolved gradually from earlier primate-like vocal communication.

  15. Is human conversation more efficient than chimpanzee grooming? : Comparison of clique sizes.

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    Nakamura, M

    2000-09-01

    Clique sizes for chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) grooming and for human conversation are compared in order to test Robin Dunbar's hypothesis that human language is almost three times as efficient a bonding mechanism as primate grooming. Recalculation of the data provided by Dunbar et al. (1995) reveals that the average clique size for human conversation is 2.72 whereas that of chimpanzee grooming is shown to be 2.18. The efficiency of human conversation and actual chimpanzee grooming over Dunbar's primate grooming model (always one-to-one and a one-way interaction) is 1.27 and 1.25, respectively, when we take role alternation into account. Chimpanzees can obtain about the same efficiency as humans in terms of quantity of social interactions because their grooming is often mutual and polyadic.

  16. Grooming patterns in Verreaux's sifaka.

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    Lewis, Rebecca J

    2010-03-01

    Lemur grooming has received very little attention in the literature. Nevertheless, allogrooming in lemurs has been suggested to be fundamentally different from the grooming of anthropoids. One reason is that lemurs generally rely on oral rather than manual grooming. Lemur allogrooming has also been suggested to serve less of a social function than has been attributed to anthropoid grooming. I analyzed the allogrooming behaviors of 29 Verreaux's sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) living in five social groups in the Kirindy Forest of Madagascar. Based upon 1,586 observation hours, I found that sifaka, like anthropoids, spend very little time mutual grooming (2+/-3%). Half of all allogrooming involved parts of the body that could have been easily groomed by the recipient, such as the limbs. Even though ectoparasite loads are expected to be greater during the rainy season, allogrooming did not increase during the rainy season. Allogrooming rates were influenced by both rank and sex, and increased by 50-100% during the mating season. The results of this study suggest that allogrooming in Verreaux's sifaka plays an important social function, even though it is performed with a toothcomb.

  17. Grooming-related feeding motivates macaques to groom and affects grooming reciprocity and episode duration in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

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    Onishi, Kenji; Yamada, Kazunori; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Allogrooming is considered as an altruistic behavior wherein primates exchange grooming as a tradable commodity for reciprocal grooming or other commodities such as support during aggression and tolerance during co-feeding. First, we report a case of the grooming relationships of the lowest-ranking adult female in a group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). The female (Lp) had lost a portion of the fur and was groomed by higher-ranking individuals without providing reciprocal grooming or other commodities. The groomers probably fed on lice eggs from the fur of Lp more frequently than from that of other adult groomees. This suggests that grooming-related feeding (GRF) motivated many individuals to groom Lp and influenced grooming reciprocity in dyads. Second, we investigated quantitative grooming data for adult females. A high GRF rate was found to lengthen the duration of grooming, suggesting that GRF motivates groomers to groom. From these results, we proposed 2 possible reasons for groomers' sensitivity to GRF rate: (1) the nutritional benefit from GRF compensates for part of the cost of giving grooming and facilitates giving grooming and (2) groomer's sensitivity to the GRF rate maintains the efficiency of removing lice eggs and ensures the groomee's hygienic benefit in receiving grooming.

  18. Self-grooming induced by sexual chemical signals in male root voles (Microtus oeconomus Pallas).

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    Yu, Honghao; Yue, Pengpeng; Sun, Ping; Zhao, Xinquan

    2010-03-01

    Sniffing is one-way animals collect chemical signals, and many males self-groom when they encounter the odor of opposite-sex conspecifics. We tested the hypothesis that sexual chemical signals from females can induce self-grooming behavior in male root voles (Microtus oeconomus Pallas). Specifically, we investigated the sniffing pattern of male root voles in response to odors from the head, trunk, and tail areas of lactating and non-lactating females. The self-grooming behavior of males in response to female individual odorant stimuli was documented, and the relationship between self-grooming and sniffing of odors from the head, trunk, and tails areas were analyzed. Sniffing pattern results showed that males are most interested in odors from the head area, and more interested in odors from the tail as compared to the trunk area. Males displayed different sniffing and self-grooming behaviors when they were exposed to odors from lactating females as compared to non-lactating females. Males also spent more time sniffing and engaged in more sniffing behaviors in response to odors from the lactating females' tail area as compared to the same odors from non-lactating females. Similarly, males spent more time self-grooming and engaged in more self-grooming behaviors in the presence of individual odors from lactating females as compared to individual odors from non-lactating females. Partial correlation analyses revealed that the frequency of self-grooming was significantly correlated with the frequency of tail area sniffs. Results from this experiment suggest that sexual attractiveness of lactating females is stronger than that of non-lactating females. Furthermore, the partial correlation analysis demonstrated that self-grooming in males is induced by odors from the tail area of females. Collectively, these results support the hypothesis that sexual chemical signals from females can induce self-grooming behavior in male root voles. Self-grooming may also reflect the

  19. Significance of grooming behavior in two polygynous groups of western black crested gibbons: Implications for understanding social relationships among immigrant and resident group members.

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    Guan, Zhen-Hua; Huang, Bei; Ning, Wen-He; Ni, Qing-Yong; Sun, Guo-Zheng; Jiang, Xue-Long

    2013-12-01

    In primates, grooming is considered among the most common behaviors for maintaining social bonds; however, to date, few studies have examined grooming behavior in gibbon species in detail. We used both a 5-min interval scan method and social network analysis to study grooming in two groups of polygynous western black-crested gibbon (Nomascus concolor) in Wuliang Mountain, Central Yunnan, China. Individuals in both groups spent little time in social grooming (1.45% and 1.97% of active time). We compared the two groups' grooming networks and found that the group that maintained a more stable social unit had a more complex grooming network while the group with new immigrants had a grooming network characterized by fewer grooming pairs. Females in both groups played important roles in the grooming network. A newly immigrant female spent the most time grooming others and chose the resident adult female as her main adult grooming partner. Other females from both groups chose the adult male as their primary grooming partner (except their offspring). A sub-adult male who had resided in his natal group for 2 years after maturing into an adult also groomed more and was at the center of the network. This male finally replaced the breeding male in his group 3 years after our data collection period ended. We hypothesize that the immigrant female and the resident young adult male engaged in more extensive grooming interactions as a behavioral strategy to gain tolerance from long-term residents. Our results suggest that female gibbons in polygynous groups actively cooperate in maintaining social relationships rather than co-exist through tolerance or avoidance. Our observations indicate that grooming networks in crested gibbons reflect individual dynamics and partly support the social cohesion hypothesis for primate grooming. In this regard, we suggest that changes in gibbon grooming networks can be used to predict social change.

  20. [Grooming and group structure in hamadryas baboons].

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    2010-09-01

    The results of 3-year observation on coral living hamadryas baboons transported from natural habitat in Tuapse reservation have been presented. Despite of the fact that grooming between males and females accounted for 73% of total cases of grooming in adult individual pairs, only the relationships of males with high-ranked females of their harems fully corresponded to a star-shaped sociogram. The high-ranked females were not different from all the other females either according to a total number of grooming cases with their female partners or according to a proportion of a performed and received grooming. Grooming between the related females was noted predominantly in the cases when they belonged to the same harem. Grooming between the related males accounted for 59% of all the cases of grooming between the male partners.

  1. Audience effects, but not environmental influences, explain variation in gorilla close distance vocalizations-A test of the acoustic adaptation hypothesis.

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    Hedwig, Daniela; Mundry, Roger; Robbins, Martha M; Boesch, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    Close distance vocalizations are an integral part of primate vocal communication. They exhibit large acoustic variation which has been suggested to constitute flexible responses to the highly variable social setting of group living animals. However, a recent study suggested that acoustic variation in close distance calls of baboons may also arise from acoustic adaptations to environmental factors in order to counteract sound degradation. We tested whether the variation in calling rate and acoustic structure of gorilla close distance vocalizations may serve to counteract distorting effects of vegetation during sound propagation. Using focal animal sampling we recorded the vocal behavior of 15 adult individuals living in two groups: one group of western lowland gorillas Gorilla gorilla gorilla and one group of mountain gorillas Gorilla beringei beringei. We considered the distance between the caller and its nearest neighbor as the minimum transmission distance of calls; while vegetation density was quantified through measures of visibility. Our analysis revealed vocal plasticity in gorilla close calls in relation to changes in visibility and nearest neighbor distance. However, the observed changes in fundamental frequency and calling rate are unlikely to counteract degrading effects of vegetation, but rather seem to reflect reactions to variation in spatial and visual separation from other group members, similar to the audience effects demonstrated in a range of other species. We propose that vocal plasticity to counteract distorting environmental effects may not be prevalent across taxa and perhaps confined to species living in heterogeneous habitats with highly variable transmission conditions.

  2. Grooming reciprocity in male Tibetan macaques.

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    Xia, Dong-Po; Li, Jin-Hua; Garber, Paul A; Matheson, Megan D; Sun, Bing-Hua; Zhu, Yong

    2013-10-01

    In several primate species, adult males are reported to compete for access to reproductive partners as well as forming affiliative and cohesive social bonds based on the exchange of goods or services. We hypothesized that among a broad set of fitness-maximizing strategies, grooming can be used by individual adult males to enhance social relationships through reciprocity and/or through the interchange of grooming for a different but equivalent good or service. We used focal animal sampling and continuously recorded dyadic grooming and agonistic interactions to test a series of predictions regarding male social interactions in a free-ranging group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China. During the non-mating season or between males of similar rank throughout the year, grooming effort given was matched by grooming effort received. However, lower ranking males groomed higher ranking males at a greater rate and/or for a longer duration during both the mating and non-mating periods. We found that higher ranking males directed less aggression towards males with whom they formed a frequent grooming partnership, indicating that grooming received was interchanged for increased social tolerance. These data suggest that individual male Tibetan macaques employ alternative social strategies associated with grooming reciprocity or interchange depending on dominance rank and rates of aggression, and highlight the importance of both biological markets and grooming reciprocity as behavioral mechanisms used by resident adult males to form and maintain affiliative social bonds.

  3. Grooming behavior of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuse, M. van den; Jong, Wybren de

    1987-01-01

    In an open field spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) exhibited lower scores for grooming when compared to their normotensive controls, the Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). After i.c.v. injection of 1 μg ACTH1–24 cumulative 50-min grooming scores were lower in SHR. Analysis of subscores indicated that the

  4. Sexual Grooming of Children: Review of Literature and Theoretical Considerations

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    Craven, Samantha; Brown, Sarah; Gilchrist, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    The current review aims to outline the existing understanding of sexual grooming. Issues of poor definition, the adoption of the term "grooming" and the prevalence of sexual grooming will be discussed. Consideration will be given to how prominent theories of child sexual abuse often neglect sexual grooming. This will be followed by a detailed…

  5. Grooming reciprocity in female tibetan macaques macaca thibetana.

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    Xia, Dongpo; Li, Jinhua; Garber, Paul A; Sun, Lixing; Zhu, Yong; Sun, Binghua

    2012-06-01

    Grooming among nonhuman primates is widespread and may represent an important service commodity that is exchanged within a biological marketplace. In this study, using focal animal sampling methods, we recorded grooming relationships among 12 adult females in a free-ranging group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China, to determine the influence of rank and kinship on grooming relationships, and whether females act as reciprocal traders (exchange grooming received for grooming given) or interchange traders (interchange grooming for social tolerance or other commodities). The results showed that: (1) grooming given was positively correlated with grooming received; (2) kinship did not exert a significant influence on grooming reciprocity; and (3) grooming reciprocity occurred principally between individuals of adjacent rank; however, when females of different rank groomed, females tended to groom up the hierarchy (lower ranking individuals groomed higher ranking individuals more than vice versa). Our results support the contention that both grooming reciprocity and the interchange of grooming for tolerance represent important social tactics used by female Tibetan macaques.

  6. Grooms receives 2011 Donald L. Turcotte Award

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    2012-02-01

    Ian Grooms has been awarded the AGU Donald L. Turcotte Award, given annually to recent Ph.D. recipients for outstanding dissertation research that contributes directly to the field of nonlinear geophysics. Grooms's thesis is entitled “Asymptotic and numerical methods for rapidly rotating buoyant flow.” He presented an invited talk and was formally presented with the award at the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting, held 5-9 December in San Francisco, Calif. Grooms received his B.S. in mathematics from the College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Va., in 2005. He received a Ph.D. in applied mathematics in 2011 under the supervision of Keith Julien at the University of Colorado at Boulder. His research interests include asymptotic and numerical methods for multiscale problems in geophysical fluid dynamics.

  7. Molecular transduction mechanisms in ACTH-induced grooming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Colbern, D.; Spruijt, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    Intraventricular administration of ACTH1-24 induces excessive grooming in the rat. Ethogram analysis shows that the peptide does not alter grooming behavior seen in a novel box, but that it prolongs the duration of the grooming bout. Extensive structure-activity studies have been performed which sug

  8. [The parameters of grooming in the ontogeny of rats].

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    Lepekhina, L M

    1993-08-01

    The grooming behaviour of rats includes different kinds of movements: scratching, licking, washing, shaking down, stinging out. All the parameters of these movements (their quantity, duration, and rhythm) were registered by graphic recording and may be objective indices of ontogenic development of grooming and the basis for the study of the mechanisms of grooming regulation.

  9. Grooming. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Pamela

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on grooming. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, an additional resources list, and student completion cards to issue to students as an…

  10. Survivable Impairment-Aware Traffic Grooming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beshir, A.; Nuijts, R.; Malhotra, R.; Kuipers, F.

    2011-01-01

    Traffic grooming allows efficient utilization of network capacity by aggregating several independent traffic streams into a wavelength. In addition, survivability and impairment-awareness (i.e., taking into account the effect of physical impairments) are two important issues that have gained a lot o

  11. The modulatory role of M2 muscarinic receptor on apomorphine-induced yawning and genital grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamberini, Maria Thereza; Bolognesi, Maria Laura; Nasello, Antonia Gladys

    2012-12-01

    receptor is presynaptic, we raised the hypothesis that tripitramine may alter cholinergic and/or dopaminergic transmission in brain areas responsible for induction of yawning and genital grooming in rats, possibly by control of acetylcholine and/or dopamine release. In addition, the present study showed the involvement of M2 cholinergic receptors in the complex mechanisms of functional interactions between dopaminergic and cholinergic systems involved in the control of yawning and genital grooming.

  12. Frequency of removal movements during social versus self-grooming among wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamma, Koichiro

    2011-10-01

    Grooming was observed in 11 wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Mahale, Tanzania, and the number of removal and stroke movements and grooming duration were recorded. Removal movements were more frequent during social grooming than during self-grooming. Chimpanzees used one or both hands for grooming, and grooming using both hands was more efficient for removing small objects. Due to physical constraints, self-grooming of the arms was almost always done using only one hand. The removal movement frequency during arm grooming was lower when self-grooming than when grooming another. They were more likely to use both hands during grooming another than during self-grooming, and fewer physical constraints during social grooming enabled a higher level of hygienic grooming.

  13. Dynamic multicast traffic grooming in WDM networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xiao-jun; GE Ning; FENG Chong-xi

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic multicast traffic grooming in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks was analyzed to minimize networkwide costs and to increase the network resource utilization.A network model was developed for dynamic multicast traffic grooming with resource constraints and an algorithm that can provide quality of service (QoS)was proposed.The QoS is measured by the maximum number of lightpaths passing between the source and the destinations.The blocking probability of the algorithm was assessed in simulations.The results show that a higher QoS requirement results in higher blocking probability,and when the QoS requirement is low,changes in the QoS requirements have only small effects on the blocking probability.

  14. Abnormal grooming activity in Dab1(scm) (scrambler) mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strazielle, C; Lefevre, A; Jacquelin, C; Lalonde, R

    2012-07-15

    Dab1(scm) mutant mice, characterized by cell ectopias and degeneration in cerebellum, hippocampus, and neocortex, were compared to non-ataxic controls for different facets of grooming caused by brief water immersions, as well as some non-grooming behaviors. Dab1(scm) mutants were strongly affected in their quantitative functional parameters, exhibiting higher starting latencies before grooming relative to non-ataxic littermates of the A/A strain, fewer grooming bouts, and grooming components of shorter duration, with an unequal regional distribution targeting almost totally the rostral part (head washing and forelimb licking) of the animal. Only bouts of a single grooming element were preserved. The cephalocaudal order of grooming elements appeared less disorganized, mutant and control mice initiating the grooming with head washing and forelimb licking prior to licking posterior parts. However, mutants differed from controls in that all their bouts were incomplete but uninterrupted, although intergroup difference for percentage of the incorrect transitions was not significant. In contrast to grooming, Dab1(scm) mice ambulated for a longer time. During walking episodes, they exhibited more body scratching than controls, possibly to compensate for the lack of licking different body parts. In conjunction with studies with other ataxic mice, these results indicate that the cerebellar cortex affects grooming activity and is consequently involved in executing various components, but not in its sequential organization, which requires other brain regions such as cerebral cortices or basal ganglia.

  15. Reinforcement of vocalizations through contingent vocal imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Gewirtz, Jacob L

    2011-01-01

    Maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations is highly prevalent during face-to-face interactions of infants and their caregivers. Although maternal vocal imitation has been associated with later verbal development, its potentially reinforcing effect on infant vocalizations has not been explored experimentally. This study examined the reinforcing effect of maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations using a reversal probe BAB design. Eleven 3- to 8-month-old infants at high risk for developmental delays experienced contingent maternal vocal imitation during reinforcement conditions. Differential reinforcement of other behavior served as the control condition. The behavior of 10 infants showed evidence of a reinforcement effect. Results indicated that vocal imitations can serve to reinforce early infant vocalizations.

  16. Grooming, rank, and agonistic support in tufted capuchin monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schino, Gabriele; Di Giuseppe, Francesca; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

    2009-02-01

    Studies investigating the relation between allogrooming and social rank in capuchin monkeys (genus Cebus) have yielded inconsistent results. In this study, we investigated the relation between grooming, agonistic support, aggression and social rank in a captive group of tufted capuchin monkeys (C. apella). Differently from most previous studies, we based our analyses on a relatively large database and studied a group with known genealogical relationships. Tufted capuchin females did not exchange grooming for rank-related benefits such as agonistic support or reduced aggression. Coherently with this picture, they did not groom up the hierarchy and did not compete for accessing high-ranking grooming partners. It is suggested that a small group size, coupled with a strong kin bias, may make the exchange of grooming for rank-related benefits impossible or unprofitable, thus eliminating the advantages of grooming up the hierarchy. We provide several possible explanations for the heterogeneity of results across capuchin studies that have addressed similar questions.

  17. Focused grooming networks and stress alleviation in wild female baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, Roman M; Crockford, Catherine; Lehmann, Julia; Whitten, Patricia L; Seyfarth, Robert M; Cheney, Dorothy L

    2008-06-01

    We examine the relationship between glucocorticoid (GC) levels and grooming behavior in wild female baboons during a period of instability in the alpha male rank position. All females' GC levels rose significantly at the onset of the unstable period, though levels in females who were at lower risk of infanticide began to decrease sooner in the following weeks. Three factors suggest that females relied on a focused grooming network as a coping mechanism to alleviate stress. First, all females' grooming networks became less diverse in the weeks following the initial upheaval. Second, females whose grooming had already focused on a few predictable partners showed a less dramatic rise in GC levels than females whose grooming network had been more diverse. Third, females who contracted their grooming network the most experienced a greater decrease in GC levels in the following week. We conclude that close bonds with a few preferred partners allow female baboons to alleviate the stress associated with social instability.

  18. Evidence for a grooming claw in a North American adapiform primate: implications for anthropoid origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiolino, Stephanie; Boyer, Doug M; Bloch, Jonathan I; Gilbert, Christopher C; Groenke, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Among fossil primates, the Eocene adapiforms have been suggested as the closest relatives of living anthropoids (monkeys, apes, and humans). Central to this argument is the form of the second pedal digit. Extant strepsirrhines and tarsiers possess a grooming claw on this digit, while most anthropoids have a nail. While controversial, the possible presence of a nail in certain European adapiforms has been considered evidence for anthropoid affinities. Skeletons preserved well enough to test this idea have been lacking for North American adapiforms. Here, we document and quantitatively analyze, for the first time, a dentally associated skeleton of Notharctus tenebrosus from the early Eocene of Wyoming that preserves the complete bones of digit II in semi-articulation. Utilizing twelve shape variables, we compare the distal phalanges of Notharctus tenebrosus to those of extant primates that bear nails (n = 21), tegulae (n = 4), and grooming claws (n = 10), and those of non-primates that bear claws (n = 7). Quantitative analyses demonstrate that Notharctus tenebrosus possessed a grooming claw with a surprisingly well-developed apical tuft on its second pedal digit. The presence of a wide apical tuft on the pedal digit II of Notharctus tenebrosus may reflect intermediate morphology between a typical grooming claw and a nail, which is consistent with the recent hypothesis that loss of a grooming claw occurred in a clade containing adapiforms (e.g. Darwinius masillae) and anthropoids. However, a cladistic analysis including newly documented morphologies and thorough representation of characters acknowledged to have states constituting strepsirrhine, haplorhine, and anthropoid synapomorphies groups Notharctus tenebrosus and Darwinius masillae with extant strepsirrhines rather than haplorhines suggesting that the form of pedal digit II reflects substantial homoplasy during the course of early primate evolution.

  19. Evidence for a grooming claw in a North American adapiform primate: implications for anthropoid origins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Maiolino

    Full Text Available Among fossil primates, the Eocene adapiforms have been suggested as the closest relatives of living anthropoids (monkeys, apes, and humans. Central to this argument is the form of the second pedal digit. Extant strepsirrhines and tarsiers possess a grooming claw on this digit, while most anthropoids have a nail. While controversial, the possible presence of a nail in certain European adapiforms has been considered evidence for anthropoid affinities. Skeletons preserved well enough to test this idea have been lacking for North American adapiforms. Here, we document and quantitatively analyze, for the first time, a dentally associated skeleton of Notharctus tenebrosus from the early Eocene of Wyoming that preserves the complete bones of digit II in semi-articulation. Utilizing twelve shape variables, we compare the distal phalanges of Notharctus tenebrosus to those of extant primates that bear nails (n = 21, tegulae (n = 4, and grooming claws (n = 10, and those of non-primates that bear claws (n = 7. Quantitative analyses demonstrate that Notharctus tenebrosus possessed a grooming claw with a surprisingly well-developed apical tuft on its second pedal digit. The presence of a wide apical tuft on the pedal digit II of Notharctus tenebrosus may reflect intermediate morphology between a typical grooming claw and a nail, which is consistent with the recent hypothesis that loss of a grooming claw occurred in a clade containing adapiforms (e.g. Darwinius masillae and anthropoids. However, a cladistic analysis including newly documented morphologies and thorough representation of characters acknowledged to have states constituting strepsirrhine, haplorhine, and anthropoid synapomorphies groups Notharctus tenebrosus and Darwinius masillae with extant strepsirrhines rather than haplorhines suggesting that the form of pedal digit II reflects substantial homoplasy during the course of early primate evolution.

  20. Giant Panda Maternal Care: A Test of the Experience Constraint Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Rebecca J; Perdue, Bonnie M; Zhang, Zhihe; Maple, Terry L; Charlton, Benjamin D

    2016-06-07

    The body condition constraint and the experience condition constraint hypotheses have both been proposed to account for differences in reproductive success between multiparous (experienced) and primiparous (first-time) mothers. However, because primiparous mothers are typically characterized by both inferior body condition and lack of experience when compared to multiparous mothers, interpreting experience related differences in maternal care as support for either the body condition constraint hypothesis or the experience constraint hypothesis is extremely difficult. Here, we examined maternal behaviour in captive giant pandas, allowing us to simultaneously control for body condition and provide a rigorous test of the experience constraint hypothesis in this endangered animal. We found that multiparous mothers spent more time engaged in key maternal behaviours (nursing, grooming, and holding cubs) and had significantly less vocal cubs than primiparous mothers. This study provides the first evidence supporting the experience constraint hypothesis in the order Carnivora, and may have utility for captive breeding programs in which it is important to monitor the welfare of this species' highly altricial cubs, whose survival is almost entirely dependent on receiving adequate maternal care during the first few weeks of life.

  1. Functional flexibility in wild bonobo vocal behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanna Clay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A shared principle in the evolution of language and the development of speech is the emergence of functional flexibility, the capacity of vocal signals to express a range of emotional states independently of context and biological function. Functional flexibility has recently been demonstrated in the vocalisations of pre-linguistic human infants, which has been contrasted to the functionally fixed vocal behaviour of non-human primates. Here, we revisited the presumed chasm in functional flexibility between human and non-human primate vocal behaviour, with a study on our closest living primate relatives, the bonobo (Pan paniscus. We found that wild bonobos use a specific call type (the “peep” across a range of contexts that cover the full valence range (positive-neutral-negative in much of their daily activities, including feeding, travel, rest, aggression, alarm, nesting and grooming. Peeps were produced in functionally flexible ways in some contexts, but not others. Crucially, calls did not vary acoustically between neutral and positive contexts, suggesting that recipients take pragmatic information into account to make inferences about call meaning. In comparison, peeps during negative contexts were acoustically distinct. Our data suggest that the capacity for functional flexibility has evolutionary roots that predate the evolution of human speech. We interpret this evidence as an example of an evolutionary early transition away from fixed vocal signalling towards functional flexibility.

  2. The expression and impact of antifungal grooming in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, A; Purcell, J; Buechel, S D; Buri, P; Chapuisat, M

    2011-05-01

    Parasites can cause extensive damage to animal societies in which many related individuals frequently interact. In response, social animals have evolved diverse individual and collective defences. Here, we measured the expression and efficiency of self-grooming and allo-grooming when workers of the ant Formica selysi were contaminated with spores of the fungal entomopathogen Metarhizium anisopliae. The amount of self-grooming increased in the presence of fungal spores, which shows that the ants are able to detect the risk of infection. In contrast, the amount of allo-grooming did not depend on fungal contamination. Workers groomed all nestmate workers that were re-introduced into their groups. The amount of allo-grooming towards noncontaminated individuals was higher when the group had been previously exposed to the pathogen. Allo-grooming decreased the number of fungal spores on the surface of contaminated workers, but did not prevent infection in the conditions tested (high dose of spores and late allo-grooming). The rate of disease transmission to groomers and other nestmates was extremely low. The systematic allo-grooming of all individuals returning to the colony, be they contaminated or not, is probably a simple but robust prophylactic defence preventing the spread of fungal diseases in insect societies.

  3. Alpha male chimpanzee grooming patterns: implications for dominance "style".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, M W; Gilby, I C; Murray, C M; Johnson, A; Wroblewski, E E; Pusey, A E

    2009-02-01

    In social primates, individuals use various tactics to compete for dominance rank. Grooming, displays and contact aggression are common components of a male chimpanzee's dominance repertoire. The optimal combination of these behaviors is likely to differ among males with individuals exhibiting a dominance "style" that reflects their tendency to use cooperative and/or agonistic dominance tactics. Here, we examine the grooming behavior of three alpha male chimpanzees at Gombe National Park, Tanzania. We found that (1) these males differed significantly in their tendency to groom with other males; (2) each male's grooming patterns remained consistent before, during and after his tenure as alpha, and (3) the three males tended to groom with high- middle- and low-ranking partners equally. We suggest that body mass may be one possible determinant of differences in grooming behavior. The largest male exhibited the lowest overall grooming rates, whereas the smallest male spent the most time grooming others. This is probably because large males are more effective at physically intimidating subordinates. To achieve alpha status, a small male may need to compensate for reduced size by investing more time and energy in grooming, thereby ensuring coalitionary support from others. Rates of contact aggression and charging displays conformed to this prediction, suggesting that each male exhibited a different dominance "style."

  4. [Asymmetry of antennal grooming in the cockroach (Periplaneta americana)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the key features of antennal grooming of male American cockroaches in neutral circumstances. It was shown for the first time that the right antenna was cleaned significantly more often than the left one, which indicates the presence of functional asymmetry of antennal grooming in this insect species. At the same time, no statistically significant asymmetry was found for grooming of antennal bases and legs. Morphological asymmetries of antennae and legs and/or brain lateralization are the plausible sources of observed behavioral asymmetry in antennal grooming.

  5. Preliminary notes on 'Grooming the Object'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristian; Lundsgaard, Christina

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the use of a particular gesture during the presentation of an architectural drawing – a gesture, which we refer to as ‘grooming the drawing’. On the one hand, it is related to a practical concern of the activity at hand; during the presentation the architect works...... sure that the manifold paper doesn’t move relative to the drawing underneath. He therefore often ‘grooms’ the manifold paper to straighten it out. On the other hand, the analysis reveals that although this (also) is of a practical purpose it occurs in specific positions and to serve an interactional...

  6. Emotional states after grooming interactions in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masataka; Yamada, Kazunori; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2015-11-01

    In animal societies, the effect of grooming interactions on anxiety reduction is unclear. This study examined the effects of giving and receiving grooming on anxiety reduction in free ranging female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) by measuring rates of self-scratching as an index of anxiety. In this study, the authors used a focal-animal sampling method, targeting 17 females at Katsuyama, Okayama prefecture, Japan. They evaluated affiliative relationships, which were defined by standard proximity rates, and found that females' self-scratching rates were lower after grooming affiliated partners than during matched-control periods (occurring on another day, beginning at approximately the same time of day as the corresponding postgrooming period) and not after grooming unaffiliated partners. Moreover, regardless of affiliative relationships, self-scratching rates were lower after receiving grooming than during matched-control periods. These findings did not change after excluding data in which groomer and groomee were in proximity after the grooming interaction. In addition, multivariable analysis showed that affiliative relationships, but not kinship or rank distances, were related to differences in the rates of self-scratching between giving grooming and matched-control periods. In contrast, neither affiliative relationships nor kinship nor rank distances affected differences in self-scratching rates between receiving grooming and matched-control periods. Therefore, individuals' anxiety levels decreased both after giving grooming to affiliated partners and after receiving grooming, regardless of affiliative relationships. This is the first empirical study to support the notion that giving grooming to affiliated partners is self-rewarding in Japanese macaques.

  7. Grooming reciprocation among female primates: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schino, Gabriele; Aureli, Filippo

    2008-02-23

    The theory of reciprocal altruism offers an explanation for the evolution of altruistic behaviours among unrelated animals. Among primates, grooming is one of the most common altruistic behaviours. Primates have been suggested to exchange grooming both for itself and for rank-related benefits. While previous meta-analyses have shown that they direct their grooming up the hierarchy and exchange it for agonistic support, no comprehensive evaluation of grooming reciprocation has been made. Here we report on a meta-analysis of grooming reciprocation among female primates based on 48 social groups belonging to 22 different species and 12 genera. The results of this meta-analysis showed that female primates groom preferentially those group mates that groom them most. To the extent allowed by the availability of kinship data, this result holds true when controlling for maternal kinship. These results, together with previous findings, suggest that primates are indeed able to exchange grooming both for itself and for different rank-related benefits.

  8. Third-party grooming in a captive chimpanzee group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Yvan I

    2010-01-01

    Social grooming is ubiquitous among the captive chimpanzees at Chester Zoo. Seven individuals were chosen here for a study of third-party social dynamics. The grooming decisions of five adult males were analysed, but only insofar as they directed attention to a mother-daughter pair. Uniquely, the daughter was an unpopular and physically disabled subadult whose congenital motor impairments prevented her from grooming others effectively. The impetus for this study was the observation that some males increased their grooming towards the disabled daughter during days when the mother had a tumescent anogenital swelling (sexually attractive to males) compared to days when the mother was not tumescent (less attractive). Apparently, males were grooming the daughter with no possibility of payback (because the daughter could never "return the favour"). A "grooming rate" (avg. grooming time/hour) was calculated that showed the grooming efforts of all five males towards both mother and daughter. These rates were compared on days when (1) the mother's anogenital swelling was tumescent, and (2) days when the swelling was not tumescent. Each male showed a different pattern of behaviour. Two males groomed the daughter significantly more when the mother was tumescent. Results for all males were graphed against the quality of the social relationship between each male and the mother. Apparently, only males that had a weaker relationship to the mother groomed the daughter more when the mother was tumescent. This pattern did not exist for males with a stronger relationship to the mother. Possibly, the insecure males were using the disabled daughter as a way to curry favour with the attractive mother. If this is confirmed, then this type of triadic situation is a possible setting for indirect reciprocity to occur.

  9. Dopaminergic modulation of grooming behavior in virgin and pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Serafim

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine receptors are involved in the expression of grooming behavior. The pregnancy-induced increase in self-licking observed in rats is important for mammary gland development and lactation. This study focuses on the role of dopamine receptor subtypes in grooming behavior of virgin and pregnant female rats. General and mammary gland grooming were measured in virgin rats treated with 0.25 mg/kg of the D1-like agonist SKF-81297 and antagonist SKF-83566 and the D2-like agonist lisuride and antagonist sulpiride. The effects of 0.01 and 0.25 mg/kg doses of the same agonists and antagonists were evaluated in pregnant rats as well. In virgin animals both SKF-83566 and sulpiride treatments significantly reduced the time spent in general grooming, while none of the dopamine agonists was able to significantly change any parameter of general grooming. Time spent in grooming directed at the mammary glands was not affected significantly by any of the drug treatments in virgin rats. All drugs tested significantly decreased the frequency of and the time spent with general grooming, while SKF-81297 treatment alone did not significantly reduce the duration of mammary gland grooming in pregnant rats. These data show that in female rats the behavioral effects of D1-like and D2-like dopamine receptor stimulation and blockade differ according to physiological state. The results suggest that dopamine receptors may play specific roles modulating grooming behavior in pregnant rats. Since grooming of the mammary gland during pregnancy may influence lactation, this aspect is relevant for studies regarding the perinatal use of dopamine-related drugs.

  10. Grooming up the hierarchy: the exchange of grooming and rank-related benefits in a new world primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiddi, Barbara; Aureli, Filippo; Schino, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Seyfarth's model assumes that female primates derive rank-related benefits from higher-ranking females in exchange for grooming. As a consequence, the model predicts females prefer high-ranking females as grooming partners and compete for the opportunity to groom them. Therefore, allogrooming is expected to be directed up the dominance hierarchy and to occur more often between females with adjacent ranks. Although data from Old World primates generally support the model, studies on the relation between grooming and dominance rank in the New World genus Cebus have found conflicting results, showing considerable variability across groups and species. In this study, we investigated the pattern of grooming in wild tufted capuchin females (Cebus apella nigritus) in Iguazú National Park, Argentina by testing both the assumption (i.e., that females gain rank-related return benefits from grooming) and predictions (i.e., that females direct grooming up the dominance hierarchy and the majority of grooming occurs between females with adjacent ranks) of Seyfarth's model. Study subjects were 9 adult females belonging to a single group. Results showed that grooming was given in return for tolerance during naturally occurring feeding, a benefit that higher-ranking females can more easily grant. Female grooming was directed up the hierarchy and was given more often to partners with similar rank. These findings provide supporting evidence for both the assumption and predictions of Seyfarth's model and represent, more generally, the first evidence of reciprocal behavioural interchanges driven by rank-related benefits in New World female primates.

  11. Traffic Grooming in Bidirectional WDM Ring Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bermond, Jean-Claude; Valls, Ignasi Sau

    2009-01-01

    We study the minimization of ADMs (Add-Drop Multiplexers) in optical WDM bidirectional rings considering symmetric shortest path routing and all-to-all unitary requests. We precisely formulate the problem in terms of graph decompositions, and state a general lower bound for all the values of the grooming factor $C$ and $N$, the size of the ring. We first study exhaustively the cases C=1, $C = 2$, and C=3, providing improved lower bounds, optimal constructions for several infinite families, as well as asymptotically optimal constructions and approximations. We then study the case $C>3$, focusing specifically on the case $C = k(k+1)/2$ for some $k \\geq 1$. We give optimal decompositions for several congruence classes of $N$ using the existence of some combinatorial designs. We conclude with a comparison of the cost functions in unidirectional and bidirectional WDM rings.

  12. Distress prevention by grooming others in crested black macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureli, Filippo; Yates, Kerrie

    2010-02-23

    Allogrooming is probably one of the most common and most studied social behaviours in a variety of animals. Whereas the short-term benefits for the groomee have often been investigated, little is known about the effects for the groomer. Our study focused on the short-term effects of grooming another group member in seven adult female crested black macaques (Macaca nigra). We found reductions in self-directed behaviour, an indicator of anxiety, and aggressive tendencies soon after grooming, when compared to matched-control periods. These findings can be interpreted as evidence of distress prevention, possibly mediated by an increase in tolerance. Indeed, a former groomee was more likely to be the nearest neighbour of the former groomer in the 10 min after grooming ended. Thus, the role of grooming in short-term distress alleviation can be applicable to the groomer as well as the groomee. These short-term effects, together with the longer-term effects of large and/or strong grooming networks confirm that grooming, as well as receiving grooming, has great importance for social dynamics.

  13. Social grooming among wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Wamba in the Luo Scientific Reserve, DR Congo, with special reference to the formation of grooming gatherings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamaki, Tetsuya

    2013-10-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) groom in gatherings in which many individuals may be connected via multiple chains of grooming and they often exchange partners with each other. They sometimes groom another while receiving grooming; that is, one animal can play two roles (i.e., groomer and groomee) simultaneously. Although this feature of chimpanzees is notable from the viewpoint of the evolution of human sociality, information on our other closest living relative, the bonobo (Pan paniscus), is still lacking. In this study, I describe grooming interactions of bonobos at Wamba in the Luo Scientific Reserve, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo), with a particular focus on the formation of grooming gatherings. Like chimpanzees, the bonobos also performed mutual grooming (two individuals grooming each other simultaneously) and polyadic grooming (three or more individuals). However, unlike chimpanzees, these sessions lasted for only a short time. Bonobos rarely groomed another while receiving grooming. Because social grooming occurred not only in trees but also in open spaces, including treefall gaps, the conditions did not necessarily limit the opportunity to make multiple chains of grooming. However, bonobos also engaged in social grooming in different ways from chimpanzees; That is, many individuals were involved simultaneously at a site, in which they separated for dyadic grooming. Some cases clearly showed that bonobos preferred a third party not to join while grooming in a dyad, suggesting that bonobos have a preference for grooming in dyads and that immature individuals formed the preference that was shared among adults while growing up. Most members of the study group ranged together during the majority of the study period. Although bonobos show a fission-fusion grouping pattern, when group members frequently encounter one another on a daily basis, they may not be motivated to form multiple grooming chains at this site, as do chimpanzees.

  14. An Investigation of Vocal Tract Characteristics for Acoustic Discrimination of Pathological Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Won Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effectiveness of measures related to vocal tract characteristics in classifying normal and pathological speech. Unlike conventional approaches that mainly focus on features related to the vocal source, vocal tract characteristics are examined to determine if interaction effects between vocal folds and the vocal tract can be used to detect pathological speech. Especially, this paper examines features related to formant frequencies to see if vocal tract characteristics are affected by the nature of the vocal fold-related pathology. To test this hypothesis, stationary fragments of vowel /aa/ produced by 223 normal subjects, 472 vocal fold polyp subjects, and 195 unilateral vocal cord paralysis subjects are analyzed. Based on the acoustic-articulatory relationships, phonation for pathological subjects is found to be associated with measures correlated with a raised tongue body or an advanced tongue root. Vocal tract-related features are also found to be statistically significant from the Kruskal-Wallis test in distinguishing normal and pathological speech. Classification results demonstrate that combining the formant measurements with vocal fold-related features results in improved performance in differentiating vocal pathologies including vocal polyps and unilateral vocal cord paralysis, which suggests that measures related to vocal tract characteristics may provide additional information in diagnosing vocal disorders.

  15. Vocal tract articulation revisited: the case of the monk parakeet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohms, Verena R; Beckers, Gabriël J L; ten Cate, Carel; Suthers, Roderick A

    2012-01-01

    Birdsong and human speech share many features with respect to vocal learning and development. However, the vocal production mechanisms have long been considered to be distinct. The vocal organ of songbirds is more complex than the human larynx, leading to the hypothesis that vocal variation in birdsong originates mainly at the sound source, while in humans it is primarily due to vocal tract filtering. However, several recent studies have indicated the importance of vocal tract articulators such as the beak and oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity. In contrast to most other bird groups, parrots have a prominent tongue, raising the possibility that tongue movements may also be of significant importance in vocal production in parrots, but evidence is rare and observations often anecdotal. In the current study we used X-ray cinematographic imaging of naturally vocalizing monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus) to assess which articulators are possibly involved in vocal tract filtering in this species. We observed prominent tongue height changes, beak opening movements and tracheal length changes, which suggests that all of these components play an important role in modulating vocal tract resonance. Moreover, the observation of tracheal shortening as a vocal articulator in live birds has to our knowledge not been described before. We also found strong positive correlations between beak opening and amplitude as well as changes in tongue height and amplitude in several types of vocalization. Our results suggest considerable differences between parrot and songbird vocal production while at the same time the parrot's vocal articulation might more closely resemble human speech production in the sense that both make extensive use of the tongue as a vocal articulator.

  16. Vocal Nonverbal Communication Skill and Deliberate Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Judith A.

    An experiment tested the hypothesis that the outcome of a vocal nonverbal persuasion attempt can be affected by the participants' skills in nonverbal communication. Subjects' vocal sending or decoding abilities were pretested. Senders and decoders (N=54) were agents and recipients of social influence, respectively, in a field experiment in which…

  17. A neural command circuit for grooming movement control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Stefanie; Franconville, Romain; Simpson, Julie H; Seeds, Andrew M

    2015-09-07

    Animals perform many stereotyped movements, but how nervous systems are organized for controlling specific movements remains unclear. Here we use anatomical, optogenetic, behavioral, and physiological techniques to identify a circuit in Drosophila melanogaster that can elicit stereotyped leg movements that groom the antennae. Mechanosensory chordotonal neurons detect displacements of the antennae and excite three different classes of functionally connected interneurons, which include two classes of brain interneurons and different parallel descending neurons. This multilayered circuit is organized such that neurons within each layer are sufficient to specifically elicit antennal grooming. However, we find differences in the durations of antennal grooming elicited by neurons in the different layers, suggesting that the circuit is organized to both command antennal grooming and control its duration. As similar features underlie stimulus-induced movements in other animals, we infer the possibility of a common circuit organization for movement control that can be dissected in Drosophila.

  18. Vocal Function in Introverts and Extraverts during a Psychological Stress Reactivity Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Maria; Verdolini Abbott, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the proposal that introversion predictably influences extralaryngeal and vocal behavior in vocally healthy individuals compared with individuals with extraversion and whether differences are of a nature that may support a risk hypothesis for primary muscle tension dysphonia. Method: Fifty-four vocally healthy female adults…

  19. Reproductive experience influences grooming behavior during pregnancy in rats

    OpenAIRE

    A.P. Serafim; Felicio,L.F.

    2002-01-01

    The pregnancy-induced increase in self-licking observed in rats is important for mammary gland development and lactation. Reproductive experience has epidemiologial implications such as a decrease in the incidence of mammary gland cancer in women and it also influences various behavioral, neurochemical and endocrine parameters. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of reproductive experience on grooming behavior patterns during pregnancy in rats. Self-grooming behavior...

  20. Reproductive experience influences grooming behavior during pregnancy in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafim A.P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The pregnancy-induced increase in self-licking observed in rats is important for mammary gland development and lactation. Reproductive experience has epidemiologial implications such as a decrease in the incidence of mammary gland cancer in women and it also influences various behavioral, neurochemical and endocrine parameters. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of reproductive experience on grooming behavior patterns during pregnancy in rats. Self-grooming behavior was measured in age-matched virgin, primi- and multigravid (days 7, 8, 9, 19, and 20 of pregnancy rats. General grooming (head, forelimbs and shoulders was not significantly different among virgin, primi- and multigravid rats during pregnancy. Confirming previous work, pregnant rats spent significantly more time in specific grooming (mammary glands, nipple lines, genital and pelvic regions than did virgin animals. In addition, self- licking of mammary glands was significantly increased in multi- as compared to primigravid rats on days 8, 9, 19 and 20 of pregnancy. The increase in mammary gland grooming observed in multigravid rats appears to be a consequence of previous reproductive experience. These data show that reproductive experience modulates mammary gland grooming during pregnancy, possibly contributing to successful reproduction.

  1. Neurofibromin Loss of Function Drives Excessive Grooming in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanikea B. King

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis I is a common genetic disorder that results in tumor formation, and predisposes individuals to a range of cognitive/behavioral symptoms, including deficits in attention, visuospatial skills, learning, language development, and sleep, and autism spectrum disorder-like traits. The nf1-encoded neurofibromin protein (Nf1 exhibits high conservation, from the common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to humans. Drosophila provides a powerful platform to investigate the signaling cascades upstream and downstream of Nf1, and the fly model exhibits similar behavioral phenotypes to mammalian models. In order to understand how loss of Nf1 affects motor behavior in flies, we combined traditional activity monitoring with video analysis of grooming behavior. In nf1 mutants, spontaneous grooming was increased up to 7x. This increase in activity was distinct from previously described dopamine-dependent hyperactivity, as dopamine transporter mutants exhibited slightly decreased grooming. Finally, we found that relative grooming frequencies can be compared in standard activity monitors that measure infrared beam breaks, enabling the use of activity monitors as an automated method to screen for grooming phenotypes. Overall, these data suggest that loss of nf1 produces excessive activity that is manifested as increased grooming, providing a platform to dissect the molecular genetics of neurofibromin signaling across neuronal circuits.

  2. Techniques for Vocal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiest, Lori

    1997-01-01

    Outlines a series of simple yet effective practices, techniques, and tips for improving the singing voice and minimizing stress on the vocal chords. Describes the four components for producing vocal sound: respiration, phonation, resonation, and articulation. Provides exercises for each and lists symptoms of sickness and vocal strain. (MJP)

  3. Self-Organization of Early Vocal Development in Infants and Machines: The Role of Intrinsic Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément eMoulin-Frier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We bridge the gap between two issues in infant development: vocal development and intrinsic motivation. We propose and experimentally test the hypothesis that general mechanisms of intrinsically motivated spontaneous exploration, also called curiosity-driven learning, can self-organize developmental stages during early vocal learning. We introduce a computational model of intrinsically motivated vocal exploration, which allows the learner to autonomously structure its own vocal experiments, and thus its own learning schedule, through a drive to maximize competence progress. This model relies on a physical model of the vocal tract, the auditory system and the agent's motor control as well as vocalizations of social peers. We present computational experiments that show how such a mechanism can explain the adaptive transition from vocal self-exploration with little influence from the speech environment, to a later stage where vocal exploration becomes influenced by vocalizations of peers. Within the initial self-exploration phase, we show that a sequence of vocal production stages self-organizes, and shares properties with data from infant developmental psychology: the vocal learner first discovers how to control phonation, then focuses on vocal variations of unarticulated sounds, and finally automatically discovers and focuses on babbling with articulated proto-syllables. As the vocal learner becomes more proficient at producing complex sounds, imitating vocalizations of peers starts to provide high learning progress explaining an automatic shift from self-exploration to vocal imitation.

  4. Repetitive self-grooming behavior in the BTBR mouse model of autism is blocked by the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Jill L; Tolu, Seda S; Barkan, Charlotte L; Crawley, Jacqueline N

    2010-03-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormal reciprocal social interactions, communication deficits, and repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) is an inbred mouse strain that shows robust behavioral phenotypes with analogies to all three of the diagnostic symptoms of autism, including well-replicated deficits in reciprocal social interactions and social approach, unusual patterns of ultrasonic vocalization, and high levels of repetitive self-grooming. These phenotypes offer straightforward behavioral assays for translational investigations of pharmacological compounds. Two suggested treatments for autism were evaluated in the BTBR mouse model. Methyl-6-phenylethynyl-pyridine (MPEP), an antagonist of the mGluR5 metabotropic glutamate receptor, blocks aberrant phenotypes in the Fmr1 mouse model of Fragile X, a comorbid neurodevelopmental disorder with autistic features. Risperidone has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of irritability, tantrums, and self-injurious behavior in autistic individuals. We evaluated the actions of MPEP and risperidone on two BTBR phenotypes, low sociability and high repetitive self-grooming. Open field activity served as an independent control for non-social exploratory activity and motor functions. C57BL/6J (B6), an inbred strain with high sociability and low self-grooming, served as the strain control. MPEP significantly reduced repetitive self-grooming in BTBR, at doses that had no sedating effects on open field activity. Risperidone reduced repetitive self-grooming in BTBR, but only at doses that induced sedation in both strains. No overall improvements in sociability were detected in BTBR after treatment with either MPEP or risperidone. Our findings suggest that antagonists of mGluR5 receptors may have selective therapeutic efficacy in treating repetitive behaviors in autism.

  5. Weeding and grooming of pathogens in agriculture by ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, C R; Stuart, A E

    2001-05-22

    The ancient mutualism between fungus-growing ants and the fungi they cultivate for food is a textbook example of symbiosis. Fungus-growing ants' ability to cultivate fungi depends on protection of the garden from the aggressive microbes associated with the substrate added to the garden as well as from the specialized virulent garden parasite Escovopsis. We examined ants' ability to remove alien microbes physically by infecting Atta colombica gardens with the generalist pathogen Trichoderma viride and the specialist pathogen Escovopsis. The ants sanitized the garden using two main behaviours: grooming of alien spores from the garden (fungus grooming) and removal of infected garden substrate (weeding). Unlike previously described hygienic behaviours (e.g. licking and self-grooming), fungus-grooming and garden-removal behaviours are specific responses to the presence of fungal pathogens. In the presence of pathogens, they are the primary activities performed by workers, but they are uncommon in uninfected gardens. In fact, workers rapidly eliminate Trichoderma from their gardens by fungus grooming and weeding, suggesting that these behaviours are the primary method of garden defence against generalist pathogens. The same sanitary behaviours were performed in response to the presence of the specialist pathogen Escovopsis. However, the intensity and duration of these behaviours were much greater in this treatment. Despite the increased effort, the ants were unable to eliminate Escovopsis from their gardens, suggesting that this specialized pathogen has evolved counter-adaptations in order to overcome the sanitary defences of the ants.

  6. The effect of solicitations on grooming exchanges among female Japanese macaques at Katsuyama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masataka; Yamada, Kazunori; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    In group-living primates, individuals often exchange grooming with not only kin but also non-kin. We investigated the effect of soliciting behaviors on grooming exchanges in a free-ranging Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) group at Katsuyama. In this study, we used a focal animal sampling method, targeting 14 females. Data were collected for 15.75 ± 2.67 (mean ± SD) hours per focal female. We classified female-female pairs into three pair types: kin pairs, affiliated non-kin pairs, and unaffiliated non-kin pairs. Females received grooming more frequently when they solicited after grooming their partners than when they did not solicit in all pair types. In addition, females received grooming less frequently when they did not groom their unaffiliated non-kin partners before soliciting; prior grooming was not needed to receive grooming from kin or affiliated non-kin partners. The degree of grooming reciprocity did not differ according to the frequency with which females in kin or affiliated non-kin pairs solicited after grooming. On the other hand, grooming reciprocity between unaffiliated non-kin females was more balanced when they solicited frequently after grooming, as compared with when they did not. In conclusion, our study suggests that soliciting behaviors promote grooming exchanges in female Japanese macaques.

  7. Energy efficiency of optical grooming of QAM optical transmission channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhopalwala, Mariya; Rastegarfar, Houman; Kilper, Daniel C; Wang, Michael; Bergman, Keren

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of the energy use for optical grooming of quadrature amplitude modulated signals in optical transmission systems is used to determine the potential efficiency benefits. An energy model is developed for both optical and electronic grooming and used to study the relative efficiency for three different network scenarios. The energy efficiency is evaluated considering both coherent and direct detection transceivers including power management strategies. Results indicate efficiency improvements up to an order of magnitude may be possible for 100 GBaud rates and 25-30 GBaud is a critical point at which optical grooming becomes the more efficient approach. These results are further shown to apply for the case of projected efficiency improvements in the underlying device technologies.

  8. Effects of winter road grooming on bison in YNP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornlie, Daniel D; Garrott, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of winter recreation—specifically snowmobiling—on wildlife in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) have become high-profile management issues. The road grooming needed to support oversnow travel in YNP is also being examined for its effects on bison (Bison bison) ecology. Data were collected from November 1997 through May 1998 and from December 1998 through May 1999 on the effects of road grooming on bison in Madison–Gibbon–Firehole (MGF) area of YNP Peak bison numbers occurred during late March—early April and were strongly correlated with the snow water equivalent measurements in the Hayden Valley area (1997–1998: r* = 0.62, p:0.001: 1998–1999: r2 = 0.64, P-0.001). Data from an infrared trail monitor on the Mary Mountain trail between the Hayden and Firehole valleys suggest that this trail is the sole corridor for major bison distributional shifts between these locations. Of the 28,293 observations of individual bison made during the study, 8% were traveling and 69% were foraging. These percentages were nearly identical during the period of winter road grooming (7% and 68%, respectively). During this period, 77% of bison foraging activity and 12% of bison traveling activity involved displacing snow. Most travel took place off roads (Pgrooming, with peak use in April and lowest use during the road-grooming period. Bison in the MGF area of YNF neither seek out nor avoid groomed roads. The minimal use of roads compared to off-road areas, the short distances traveled on the roads, the decreased use of roads during the over snow vehicle (OSV) season, and the increased costs of negative interactions with OSVs suggest that grooming roads during winter does not have a major influence on bison ecology.

  9. A Routing Algorithm in WDM Mesh Networks with Grooming Capacities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiang-min; RONG Meng-tian; ZHU Hong-wen

    2005-01-01

    Most of the work in traffic grooming has been in the area of providing efficient network designs in Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). The objective of these traffic grooming algorithms is to reduce the cost of overall networks.In this paper, a routing algorithm based on transiently chaotic neural network is proposed to solve the problem in WDM logical topology. The objectives of the routing algorithm are accommodating all traffic requirements and using less network resource. The simulation shows that the proposed algorithm is efficient in the routing selection, meanwhile the algorithm can use less network resource.

  10. Vocal Hygiene Habits and Vocal Handicap Among Conservatory Students of Classical Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achey, Meredith A; He, Mike Z; Akst, Lee M

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to assess classical singing students' compliance with vocal hygiene practices identified in the literature and to explore the relationship between self-reported vocal hygiene practice and self-reported singing voice handicap in this population. The primary hypothesis was that increased attention to commonly recommended vocal hygiene practices would correlate with reduced singing voice handicap. This is a cross-sectional, survey-based study. An anonymous survey assessing demographics, attention to 11 common vocal hygiene recommendations in both performance and nonperformance periods, and the Singing Voice Handicap Index 10 (SVHI-10) was distributed to classical singing teachers to be administered to their students at two major schools of music. Of the 215 surveys distributed, 108 were returned (50.2%), of which 4 were incomplete and discarded from analysis. Conservatory students of classical singing reported a moderate degree of vocal handicap (mean SVHI-10, 12; range, 0-29). Singers reported considering all 11 vocal hygiene factors more frequently when preparing for performances than when not preparing for performances. Of these, significant correlations with increased handicap were identified for consideration of stress reduction in nonperformance (P = 0.01) and performance periods (P = 0.02) and with decreased handicap for consideration of singing voice use in performance periods alone (P = 0.02). Conservatory students of classical singing report more assiduous attention to vocal hygiene practices when preparing for performances and report moderate degrees of vocal handicap overall. These students may have elevated risk for dysphonia and voice disorders which is not effectively addressed through common vocal hygiene recommendations alone. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Market powers predict reciprocal grooming in golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    Full Text Available Social grooming is a common form of affiliative behavior in primates. Biological market theory suggests that grooming can be traded either for grooming or other social commodities and services. When no other services are exchanged, grooming is predicted to be approximately reciprocated within a dyad. In contrast, the amount of reciprocal grooming should decrease as other offered services increase. We studied grooming patterns between polygamous male and female in golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana from the Qinling Mountains of central China and found that about 29.7% of grooming bouts were reciprocated. However, the durations of grooming bouts offered and returned was asymmetrical within dyads. In bisexual dyads, more grooming was initiated by females than males, which became more pronounced as the number of females per one-male unit increased. The rate of copulation per day for each female was positively correlated with the total duration of grooming time females invested in males.. Females without an infant (non-mothers directed more grooming towards females with an infant (mothers and were significantly more likely to be non-reciprocated. There was a significant negative relationship between non-mother and mother grooming duration and the rate of infants per female in each one-male unit. High-ranking females also received more grooming from low-ranking females than vice versa. The rate of food-related aggressive interactions was per day for low-ranking females was negatively correlated with the duration of grooming that low-ranking females gave to high-ranking females. Our results showed that grooming reciprocation in R. roxellana was discrepancy. This investment-reciprocity rate could be explained by the exchange of other social services in lieu of grooming.

  12. Market powers predict reciprocal grooming in golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Qi, Xiao-Guang; Guo, Song-Tao; Zhao, Da-Peng; Zhang, Peng; Huang, Kang; Li, Bao-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Social grooming is a common form of affiliative behavior in primates. Biological market theory suggests that grooming can be traded either for grooming or other social commodities and services. When no other services are exchanged, grooming is predicted to be approximately reciprocated within a dyad. In contrast, the amount of reciprocal grooming should decrease as other offered services increase. We studied grooming patterns between polygamous male and female in golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) from the Qinling Mountains of central China and found that about 29.7% of grooming bouts were reciprocated. However, the durations of grooming bouts offered and returned was asymmetrical within dyads. In bisexual dyads, more grooming was initiated by females than males, which became more pronounced as the number of females per one-male unit increased. The rate of copulation per day for each female was positively correlated with the total duration of grooming time females invested in males.. Females without an infant (non-mothers) directed more grooming towards females with an infant (mothers) and were significantly more likely to be non-reciprocated. There was a significant negative relationship between non-mother and mother grooming duration and the rate of infants per female in each one-male unit. High-ranking females also received more grooming from low-ranking females than vice versa. The rate of food-related aggressive interactions was per day for low-ranking females was negatively correlated with the duration of grooming that low-ranking females gave to high-ranking females. Our results showed that grooming reciprocation in R. roxellana was discrepancy. This investment-reciprocity rate could be explained by the exchange of other social services in lieu of grooming.

  13. Grooming behavior in American cockroach is affected by novelty and odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovskaya, Marianna I

    2014-01-01

    The main features of grooming behavior are amazingly similar among arthropods and land vertebrates and serve the same needs. A particular pattern of cleaning movements in cockroaches shows cephalo-caudal progression. Grooming sequences become longer after adaptation to the new setting. Novelty related changes in grooming are recognized as a form of displacement behavior. Statistical analysis of behavior revealed that antennal grooming in American cockroach, Periplaneta americana L., was significantly enhanced in the presence of odor.

  14. Rank-dependent grooming patterns and cortisol alleviation in Barbary macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnweber, Ruth S; Ravignani, Andrea; Stobbe, Nina; Schiestl, Gisela; Wallner, Bernard; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2015-06-01

    Flexibly adapting social behavior to social and environmental challenges helps to alleviate glucocorticoid (GC) levels, which may have positive fitness implications for an individual. For primates, the predominant social behavior is grooming. Giving grooming to others is particularly efficient in terms of GC mitigation. However, grooming is confined by certain limitations such as time constraints or restricted access to other group members. For instance, dominance hierarchies may impact grooming partner availability in primate societies. Consequently specific grooming patterns emerge. In despotic species focusing grooming activity on preferred social partners significantly ameliorates GC levels in females of all ranks. In this study we investigated grooming patterns and GC management in Barbary macaques, a comparably relaxed species. We monitored changes in grooming behavior and cortisol (C) for females of different ranks. Our results show that the C-amelioration associated with different grooming patterns had a gradual connection with dominance hierarchy: while higher-ranking individuals showed lowest urinary C measures when they focused their grooming on selected partners within their social network, lower-ranking individuals expressed lowest C levels when dispersing their grooming activity evenly across their social partners. We argue that the relatively relaxed social style of Barbary macaque societies allows individuals to flexibly adapt grooming patterns, which is associated with rank-specific GC management.

  15. Excessive grooming induced by somatostatin or its analog SMS 201-995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wimersma Greidanus, T.B. van; Maigret, C.; Krechting, B.

    1987-01-01

    Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of somatostatin or SMS 201-995 induces excessive grooming behavior in rats. The grooming inducing effect of somatostatin is rather weak, as doses of 300 ng or less did not result in increased total grooming scores. In contrast a dose of 10 ng SMS 201-9

  16. Grooming Cybervictims: The Psychosocial Effects of Online Exploitation for Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Ilene R.

    2003-01-01

    Presents an overview of the benefits and risks of Web-based interactions for youth. Discusses, as an illustrative example, the psychosocial effects of online "grooming" practices that are designed to lure and exploit children by enticing them, typically in a nonsexual way, toward a sexual encounter. Suggests constructive solutions and a plan for…

  17. Pollen processing behavior of Heliconius butterflies: a derived grooming behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikl, Anna-Laetitia; Krenn, Harald W

    2011-01-01

    Pollen feeding behaviors Heliconius and Laparus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) represent a key innovation that has shaped other life history traits of these neotropical butterflies. Although all flower visiting Lepidoptera regularly come in contact with pollen, only Heliconius and Laparus butterflies actively collect pollen with the proboscis and subsequently take up nutrients from the pollen grains. This study focused on the behavior of pollen processing and compared the movement patterns with proboscis grooming behavior in various nymphalid butterflies using video analysis. The proboscis movements of pollen processing behavior consisted of a lengthy series of repeated coiling and uncoiling movements in a loosely coiled proboscis position combined with up and down movements and the release of saliva. The proboscis-grooming behavior was triggered by contamination of the proboscis in both pollen feeding and non-pollen feeding nymphalid butterflies. Proboscis grooming movements included interrupted series of coiling and uncoiling movements, characteristic sideways movements, proboscis lifting, and occasionally full extension of the proboscis. Discharge of saliva was more pronounced in pollen feeding species than in non-pollen feeding butterfly species. We conclude that the pollen processing behavior of Heliconius and Laparus is a modified proboscis grooming behavior that originally served to clean the proboscis after contamination with particles.

  18. Grooming: over meerderjarigen die internet en jeugdigen misbruiken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodder, A.R.

    2015-01-01

    Betoogd wordt dat de intentie van de dader bij grooming een nadrukkelijker rol zou moeten spelen dan thans het geval is. Het internet is voor jong en oud een plek waar veel tijd wordt doorgebracht. Zoals bekend beperken internetgebruikers zich niet tot goedaardige mensen, maar wordt cyberspace ook b

  19. Students' Rights in Mississippi on Matters of Dress and Grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Jerry H.

    In the past few years numerous cases have appeared before the courts concerning the dress and grooming of students. In many of these cases, the issue has been related to male students' hair length. Throughout the nation, conflicting trends have emerged from a legal point of view, and the issues remain largely unresolved. This paper discusses the…

  20. Assessing grooming behavior of Russian honey bees toward Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The grooming behavior of Russian bees was compared to Italian bees. Overall, Russian bees had significantly lower numbers of mites than the Italian bees with a mean of 1,937 ± 366 and 5,088 ± 733 mites, respectively. This low mite population in the Russian colonies was probably due to the increased ...

  1. Pollen Processing Behavior of Heliconius Butterflies: A Derived Grooming Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikl, Anna-Laetitia; Krenn, Harald W.

    2011-01-01

    Pollen feeding behaviors Heliconius and Laparus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) represent a key innovation that has shaped other life history traits of these neotropical butterflies. Although all flower visiting Lepidoptera regularly come in contact with pollen, only Heliconius and Laparus butterflies actively collect pollen with the proboscis and subsequently take up nutrients from the pollen grains. This study focused on the behavior of pollen processing and compared the movement patterns with proboscis grooming behavior in various nymphalid butterflies using video analysis. The proboscis movements of pollen processing behavior consisted of a lengthy series of repeated coiling and uncoiling movements in a loosely coiled proboscis position combined with up and down movements and the release of saliva. The proboscis-grooming behavior was triggered by contamination of the proboscis in both pollen feeding and non-pollen feeding nymphalid butterflies. Proboscis grooming movements included interrupted series of coiling and uncoiling movements, characteristic sideways movements, proboscis lifting, and occasionally full extension of the proboscis. Discharge of saliva was more pronounced in pollen feeding species than in non-pollen feeding butterfly species. We conclude that the pollen processing behavior of Heliconius and Laparus is a modified proboscis grooming behavior that originally served to clean the proboscis after contamination with particles. PMID:22208893

  2. Reinforcement of Infant Vocalizations through Contingent Vocal Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Gewirtz, Jacob L.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations is highly prevalent during face-to-face interactions of infants and their caregivers. Although maternal vocal imitation has been associated with later verbal development, its potentially reinforcing effect on infant vocalizations has not been explored experimentally. This study examined the…

  3. 8-OH-DPAT inhibits both prandial and waterspray-induced grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, J E; Montgomery, A M J

    2008-09-01

    The effects of 8-OH-DPAT treatment on rat grooming behaviour, elicited either prandially or in response to spraying with water were investigated. Dose (grooming, body grooming, genital-grooming and resting) at 15 s intervals. In non-deprived rats, tested with wet mash available, feeding and activity frequencies were increased, but resting and total grooming were inhibited by 8-OH-DPAT. Face-, body- and genital-grooming occurred at higher levels than scratching, but all categories were reduced with reductions in scratching occurring at a lower dose (0.01 mg/kg). Misting rats with a fine water spray selectively increased body grooming and decreased activity without altering feeding, while 8-OH-DPAT increased feeding and reduced face-, body- and genital-grooming, without affecting already low levels of scratching. In misted rats, tested without food, 8-OH-DPAT reduced face-, body- and genital-grooming and increased resting. These results confirm i) that the water spray technique is a useful method for increasing grooming and ii) that 8-OH-DPAT has a suppressant effect on grooming independent of response competition from enhanced feeding.

  4. Grooming analysis algorithm: use in the relationship between sleep deprivation and anxiety-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Gabriel N; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L

    2013-03-01

    Increased anxiety is a classic effect of sleep deprivation. However, results regarding sleep deprivation-induced anxiety-like behavior are contradictory in rodent models. The grooming analysis algorithm is a method developed to examine anxiety-like behavior and stress in rodents, based on grooming characteristics and microstructure. This study evaluated the applicability of the grooming analysis algorithm to distinguish sleep-deprived and control rats in comparison to traditional grooming analysis. Forty-six animals were distributed into three groups: control (n=22), paradoxical sleep-deprived (96 h, n=10) and total sleep deprived (6 h, n=14). Immediately after the sleep deprivation protocol, grooming was evaluated using both the grooming analysis algorithm and traditional measures (grooming latency, frequency and duration). Results showed that both paradoxical sleep-deprived and total sleep-deprived groups displayed grooming in a fragmented framework when compared to control animals. Variables from the grooming analysis algorithm were successful in distinguishing sleep-deprived and normal sleep animals regarding anxiety-like behavior. The grooming analysis algorithm and traditional measures were strongly correlated. In conclusion, the grooming analysis algorithm is a reliable method to assess the relationship between anxiety-like behavior and sleep deprivation.

  5. Captive spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) arm-raise to solicit allo-grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Matthew H; Edwards, Dori

    2012-03-01

    Old World monkeys solicit allo-grooming from conspecifics. However, there are relatively few studies of allo-grooming among spider monkeys, and descriptions of allo-grooming solicitation among spider monkeys are anecdotal. In this study, eighty-one hours of video, shot over eight weeks, captured 271 allo-grooming bouts among small groups of captive spider monkeys. Six of eight monkeys made heretofore unreported arm-raises that solicited higher than normal rates of allo-grooming. Allo-grooming bout durations following arm-raises also tended to be longer than bouts not preceded by arm-raises. The efficacy of the arm-raise at soliciting allo-grooming suggests spider monkeys are capable of intentional communication.

  6. The trade balance of grooming and its coordination of reciprocation and tolerance in Indonesian long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumert, Michael D; Ho, Moon-Ho R

    2008-07-01

    We collected data on grooming, proximity, and aggression in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Kalimantan, Indonesia. We used this data to study how grooming influenced a receiver's (B) behavior towards the bout's initiator (A). In our first analysis, post-grooming samples were collected after A groomed B. These were compared to matched-control samples of similar conditions but A had not previously groomed B. This comparison was performed on 26 individuals (16 female, 3 male, 7 immature) and tested whether A's initial act of grooming increased the pair's time in proximity and the amount of time B groomed A. We also tested if A's grooming decreased B's aggression towards A per time in proximity. Rates of B-->A aggression per time in proximity with A for 39 individuals (18 female, 5 male, 16 immature) were compared between post-grooming and focal sample data. Finally, we studied 248 grooming bouts to test if the first two grooming episodes were time matched. We assessed the influence of age, sex, rank and inferred kinship on time matching, and controlled for individual variation and tendency to groom using a general linear mixed model. Our results showed that A-->B grooming acted to increase B-->A grooming and the pair's proximity, while lowering B-->A aggression. Despite these effects, episodes in grooming bouts were generally not matched, except weakly among similar partners (i.e., female pairs and immature pairs). Grooming imbalance was greatest across age-sex class (i.e., male-female and adult-immature pairs). In similar pairs, grooming duration was skewed in favor of high-ranking individuals. We conclude grooming established tolerance and increased the likelihood that grooming reciprocation would occur, but grooming durations were not typically matched within bouts. Lack of time matching may be the result of grooming that is performed to coordinate interchanges of other social services.

  7. The pivotal role of rank in grooming and support behaviour in a captive group of bonobos (Pan paniscus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervaecke, H.; Vries, Han de; Elsacker, Linda van

    2000-01-01

    We investigated dyadic grooming relationships in a captive group of bonobos (Pan paniscus) and questioned what social function grooming fulfils in the ‘market of services and favors’. Hereto we examined which of two theoretical models - grooming for support (Seyfarth, 1977, 1980) or grooming accordi

  8. Grooming as a secondary behavior in the shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea

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    Lauren VanMaurik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is a large shrimp extensively used in aquaculture whose grooming behaviors were analyzed in this study. Macrobrachium rosenbergii exhibits three unique male morphotypes that differ in their behavior, morphology and physiology: small-clawed males (SM, orange-clawed males (OC and blue-clawed males (BC. The largest and most dominant males, BC males, are predicted to have significantly different grooming behaviors compared to females and the other two male morphotypes. These BC males may be too large and bulky to efficiently groom and may dedicate more time to mating and agonistic interactions than grooming behaviors. Observations were conducted to look at the prevalence of grooming behaviors in the absence and presence of conspecifics and to determine if any differences in grooming behavior exist among the sexes and male morphotypes. Significant differences in the grooming behaviors of all individuals (females and male morphotypes were found. BC males tended to have the highest grooming time budget (percent of time spent grooming while SM males had a relatively low grooming time budget. The grooming behaviors of the male morphotypes differed, indicating while these males play distinct, separate roles in the social hierarchy, they also have different grooming priorities. The conditions in which M. rosenbergii are cultured may result in increased body fouling, which may vary, depending on the grooming efficiencies and priorities of these male morphotypes. Overall, grooming behaviors were found to be a secondary behavior which only occurred when primary behaviors such as mating, feeding or fighting were not present.

  9. MODUS OPERANDI OF SEXUAL ABUSERS AND THEIR GROOMING TECHNIQUES

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    Miraç Burak GÖNÜLTAŞ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Child sexual abuse has detrimental effects on both psychological and sociological development of children. In recent years, attention of sexual abuse and abuser has increased because of missing and abducted children. According to literature, sexual abusers are more opportunist and agile than offenders of other crime types. Academic researches related to sexual absusers aim to understand how to sexual abusers groom children and their methods. Therefore these studies intend to prevent sexual abuse, because sexual abuse harms victim seriously and irreversibly. The present study is compilation in that the researches conducted in this field are gathered in context to modus operandi and sexual grooming. Thus, it aims to remark attention to this field and to present some proposal for the prevention of sexual abuse in our country

  10. Sex preferences in Jeju pony foals (Equus caballus) for mutual grooming and play-fighting behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Jeong Rae; Srygley, Robert Baxter; Choe, Jae Chun

    2007-08-01

    We investigated mutual grooming by Jeju pony (Equus caballus) foals to determine whether male foals preferentially interact with potential future sexual partners or competitors. We predicted that relative to female foals, male foals would exchange grooming more frequently with young mares and that in general, foals would mutually groom more frequently with the opposite sex rather than the same sex. Observing 53 foals between April and October 1998, we recorded 113 mutual grooming events. Male foals exchanged grooming with yearling mares more frequently than with their mother, while female foals exchanged grooming with their mother more frequently than with yearling mares. Contrary to the prediction, foals were not more likely to mutually groom with a foal of the opposite sex than with a foal of the same sex. In our study, 21 instances of play-fighting behavior followed mutual grooming between peers. Relative to intersexual grooming events, play-fighting was more likely to follow intrasexual mutual grooming, and male foals were much more likely to play fight than female foals. These results provide evidence that Jeju pony foals develop and maintain social relationships at the earliest stage of their lives. We suggest that early social experiences might influence social bonding later when the male foal begins to form a harem after separation from its mother.

  11. Adapted to roar: functional morphology of tiger and lion vocal folds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Klemuk

    Full Text Available Vocal production requires active control of the respiratory system, larynx and vocal tract. Vocal sounds in mammals are produced by flow-induced vocal fold oscillation, which requires vocal fold tissue that can sustain the mechanical stress during phonation. Our understanding of the relationship between morphology and vocal function of vocal folds is very limited. Here we tested the hypothesis that vocal fold morphology and viscoelastic properties allow a prediction of fundamental frequency range of sounds that can be produced, and minimal lung pressure necessary to initiate phonation. We tested the hypothesis in lions and tigers who are well-known for producing low frequency and very loud roaring sounds that expose vocal folds to large stresses. In histological sections, we found that the Panthera vocal fold lamina propria consists of a lateral region with adipocytes embedded in a network of collagen and elastin fibers and hyaluronan. There is also a medial region that contains only fibrous proteins and hyaluronan but no fat cells. Young's moduli range between 10 and 2000 kPa for strains up to 60%. Shear moduli ranged between 0.1 and 2 kPa and differed between layers. Biomechanical and morphological data were used to make predictions of fundamental frequency and subglottal pressure ranges. Such predictions agreed well with measurements from natural phonation and phonation of excised larynges, respectively. We assume that fat shapes Panthera vocal folds into an advantageous geometry for phonation and it protects vocal folds. Its primary function is probably not to increase vocal fold mass as suggested previously. The large square-shaped Panthera vocal fold eases phonation onset and thereby extends the dynamic range of the voice.

  12. Adapted to roar: functional morphology of tiger and lion vocal folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemuk, Sarah A; Riede, Tobias; Walsh, Edward J; Titze, Ingo R

    2011-01-01

    Vocal production requires active control of the respiratory system, larynx and vocal tract. Vocal sounds in mammals are produced by flow-induced vocal fold oscillation, which requires vocal fold tissue that can sustain the mechanical stress during phonation. Our understanding of the relationship between morphology and vocal function of vocal folds is very limited. Here we tested the hypothesis that vocal fold morphology and viscoelastic properties allow a prediction of fundamental frequency range of sounds that can be produced, and minimal lung pressure necessary to initiate phonation. We tested the hypothesis in lions and tigers who are well-known for producing low frequency and very loud roaring sounds that expose vocal folds to large stresses. In histological sections, we found that the Panthera vocal fold lamina propria consists of a lateral region with adipocytes embedded in a network of collagen and elastin fibers and hyaluronan. There is also a medial region that contains only fibrous proteins and hyaluronan but no fat cells. Young's moduli range between 10 and 2000 kPa for strains up to 60%. Shear moduli ranged between 0.1 and 2 kPa and differed between layers. Biomechanical and morphological data were used to make predictions of fundamental frequency and subglottal pressure ranges. Such predictions agreed well with measurements from natural phonation and phonation of excised larynges, respectively. We assume that fat shapes Panthera vocal folds into an advantageous geometry for phonation and it protects vocal folds. Its primary function is probably not to increase vocal fold mass as suggested previously. The large square-shaped Panthera vocal fold eases phonation onset and thereby extends the dynamic range of the voice.

  13. M-Track: A New Software for Automated Detection of Grooming Trajectories in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Grooming is a complex and robust innate behavior, commonly performed by most vertebrate species. In mice, grooming consists of a series of stereotyped patterned strokes, performed along the rostro-caudal axis of the body. The frequency and duration of each grooming episode is sensitive to changes in stress levels, social interactions and pharmacological manipulations, and is therefore used in behavioral studies to gain insights into the function of brain regions that control movement execution and anxiety. Traditional approaches to analyze grooming rely on manually scoring the time of onset and duration of each grooming episode, and are often performed on grooming episodes triggered by stress exposure, which may not be entirely representative of spontaneous grooming in freely-behaving mice. This type of analysis is time-consuming and provides limited information about finer aspects of grooming behaviors, which are important to understand movement stereotypy and bilateral coordination in mice. Currently available commercial and freeware video-tracking software allow automated tracking of the whole body of a mouse or of its head and tail, not of individual forepaws. Here we describe a simple experimental set-up and a novel open-source code, named M-Track, for simultaneously tracking the movement of individual forepaws during spontaneous grooming in multiple freely-behaving mice. This toolbox provides a simple platform to perform trajectory analysis of forepaw movement during distinct grooming episodes. By using M-track we show that, in C57BL/6 wild type mice, the speed and bilateral coordination of the left and right forepaws remain unaltered during the execution of distinct grooming episodes. Stress exposure induces a profound increase in the length of the forepaw grooming trajectories. M-Track provides a valuable and user-friendly interface to streamline the analysis of spontaneous grooming in biomedical research studies. PMID:27636358

  14. M-Track: A New Software for Automated Detection of Grooming Trajectories in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheldon L Reeves

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Grooming is a complex and robust innate behavior, commonly performed by most vertebrate species. In mice, grooming consists of a series of stereotyped patterned strokes, performed along the rostro-caudal axis of the body. The frequency and duration of each grooming episode is sensitive to changes in stress levels, social interactions and pharmacological manipulations, and is therefore used in behavioral studies to gain insights into the function of brain regions that control movement execution and anxiety. Traditional approaches to analyze grooming rely on manually scoring the time of onset and duration of each grooming episode, and are often performed on grooming episodes triggered by stress exposure, which may not be entirely representative of spontaneous grooming in freely-behaving mice. This type of analysis is time-consuming and provides limited information about finer aspects of grooming behaviors, which are important to understand movement stereotypy and bilateral coordination in mice. Currently available commercial and freeware video-tracking software allow automated tracking of the whole body of a mouse or of its head and tail, not of individual forepaws. Here we describe a simple experimental set-up and a novel open-source code, named M-Track, for simultaneously tracking the movement of individual forepaws during spontaneous grooming in multiple freely-behaving mice. This toolbox provides a simple platform to perform trajectory analysis of forepaw movement during distinct grooming episodes. By using M-track we show that, in C57BL/6 wild type mice, the speed and bilateral coordination of the left and right forepaws remain unaltered during the execution of distinct grooming episodes. Stress exposure induces a profound increase in the length of the forepaw grooming trajectories. M-Track provides a valuable and user-friendly interface to streamline the analysis of spontaneous grooming in biomedical research studies.

  15. Friction force reduction triggers feet grooming behaviour in beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoda, Naoe; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2011-06-01

    In insects, cleaning (grooming) of tarsal attachment devices is essential for maintaining their adhesive ability, necessary for walking on a complex terrain of plant surfaces. How insects obtain information on the degree of contamination of their feet has remained, until recently, unclear. We carried out friction force measurements on walking beetles Gastrophysa viridula (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and counted grooming occurrence on stiff polymer substrata with different degrees of nanoroughness (root mean square: 28-288 nm). Since nanoscopically, rough surfaces strongly reduced friction and adhesion without contaminating feet, we were able to demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, that friction force between tarsal attachment pads and the substrate provides an insect with information on the degree of contamination of its attachment structures. We have shown that foot grooming occurrence correlates not only with the degree of contamination but also with the decrease of friction force. This result indicates that insects obtain information about the degree of contamination, not statically but rather dynamically and, presumably, use mechanoreceptors monitoring either tensile/compressive forces in the cuticle or tensile forces between leg segments.

  16. Impacto vocal de professores Teachers' vocal impact

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    Adriana Ricarte

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar o impacto vocal nas atividades diárias em professores do ensino médio. Correlacionar os achado da auto-percepção do problema vocal com os aspectos: efeitos no trabalho, na comunicação diária, na comunicação social e na sua emoção. MÉTODOS: a amostra foi constituída por 107 professores, sendo 86 com queixa e 21 sem queixa, selecionados em escolas da rede particular de ensino de Maceió-AL. Cada professor respondeu individualmente o protocolo Perfil Participação em Atividades Vocais na presença da pesquisadora, assinalando suas respostas em uma escala visual que varia de 0 a 10. O protocolo é composto por 28 questões com a presença integrada em cinco aspectos englobados para avaliar a qualidade de vida e o resultado de tratamentos vocais. O protocolo oferece, ainda, dois escores adicionais: pontuação de limitação nas atividades (PLA e de restrição de participação (PRP. RESULTADOS: na comparação dos grupos com e sem queixa vocal foram verificados que todos os resultados foram estatisticamente significantes (pPURPOSE: to analyze the vocal impact in the daily activities on high-school teachers. Correlate the finding of the auto-perception on the vocal problem with the following aspects: effects in the work, daily communication, social communication and, its emotion METHODS: the sample consisted of 107 teachers, 86 with and 21 with no complaint, selected from private teaching schools in Maceió-AL. Each teacher answered individually the Protocol for Voice Activity Participation Profile in the presence of the researcher, noting their responses on a visual scale ranging from 0 to 10. The protocol is composed of 28 questions with the presence integrated in five aspects to evaluate the quality of life and the result of vocal treatments. The protocol offers, still, two additional scores: punctuation of limitation in the activities (PLA and restriction of participation (PRP. RESULTS: comparing the groups with

  17. Male chimpanzees' grooming rates vary by female age, parity, and fertility status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proctor, Darby P; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steve;

    2011-01-01

    , should show little or no preference when choosing mating partners (e.g. should mate indiscriminately). To determine if the preferences indicated by copulations appear in other contexts as well as how they interact, we examined how male chimpanzees' grooming patterns varied amongst females. We found...... that males' preferences were based on interactions among females' fertility status, age, and parity. First, grooming increased with increasing female parity. We further found an effect of the estrous cycle on grooming; when females were at the lowest point of their cycle, males preferentially groomed parous...... females at peak reproductive age, but during maximal tumescence, males preferred the oldest multiparous females. Nulliparous females received relatively little grooming regardless of age or fertility. Thus, male chimpanzees apparently chose grooming partners based on both female's experience and fertility...

  18. The effects of chronic social defeat stress on mouse self-grooming behavior and its patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmark, Ashley; Tien, David; Wong, Keith; Chung, Amanda; Cachat, Jonathan; Goodspeed, Jason; Grimes, Chelsea; Elegante, Marco; Suciu, Christopher; Elkhayat, Salem; Bartels, Brett; Jackson, Andrew; Rosenberg, Michael; Chung, Kyung Min; Badani, Hussain; Kadri, Ferdous; Roy, Sudipta; Tan, Julia; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Stewart, Adam; Zapolsky, Ivan; Gilder, Thomas; Kalueff, Allan V

    2010-04-01

    Stress induced by social defeat is a strong modifier of animal anxiety and depression-like phenotypes. Self-grooming is a common rodent behavior, and has an ordered cephalo-caudal progression from licking of the paws to head, body, genitals and tail. Acute stress is known to alter grooming activity levels and disrupt its patterning. Following 15-17 days of chronic social defeat stress, grooming behavior was analyzed in adult male C57BL/6J mice exhibiting either dominant or subordinate behavior. Our study showed that subordinate mice experience higher levels of anxiety and display disorganized patterning of their grooming behaviors, which emerges as a behavioral marker of chronic social stress. These findings indicate that chronic social stress modulates grooming behavior in mice, thus illustrating the importance of grooming phenotypes for neurobehavioral stress research.

  19. A Grooming Nodes Optimal Allocation Method for Multicast in WDM Networks

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    Chengying Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The grooming node has the capability of grooming multicast traffic with the small granularity into established light at high cost of complexity and node architecture. In the paper, a grooming nodes optimal allocation (GNOA method is proposed to optimize the allocation of the grooming nodes constraint by the blocking probability for multicast traffic in sparse WDM networks. In the proposed GNOA method, the location of each grooming node is determined by the SCLD strategy. The improved smallest cost largest degree (SCLD strategy is designed to select the nongrooming nodes in the proposed GNOA method. The simulation results show that the proposed GNOA method can reduce the required number of grooming nodes and decrease the cost of constructing a network to guarantee a certain request blocking probability when the wavelengths per fiber and transmitter/receiver ports per node are sufficient for the optical multicast in WDM networks.

  20. Spontaneous motor entrainment to music in multiple vocal mimicking species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Adena; Brady, Timothy F; Pepperberg, Irene M; Hauser, Marc D

    2009-05-26

    The human capacity for music consists of certain core phenomena, including the tendency to entrain, or align movement, to an external auditory pulse [1-3]. This ability, fundamental both for music production and for coordinated dance, has been repeatedly highlighted as uniquely human [4-11]. However, it has recently been hypothesized that entrainment evolved as a by-product of vocal mimicry, generating the strong prediction that only vocal mimicking animals may be able to entrain [12, 13]. Here we provide comparative data demonstrating the existence of two proficient vocal mimicking nonhuman animals (parrots) that entrain to music, spontaneously producing synchronized movements resembling human dance. We also provide an extensive comparative data set from a global video database systematically analyzed for evidence of entrainment in hundreds of species both capable and incapable of vocal mimicry. Despite the higher representation of vocal nonmimics in the database and comparable exposure of mimics and nonmimics to humans and music, only vocal mimics showed evidence of entrainment. We conclude that entrainment is not unique to humans and that the distribution of entrainment across species supports the hypothesis that entrainment evolved as a by-product of selection for vocal mimicry.

  1. Unilateral Lesion of Dopamine Neurons Induces Grooming Asymmetry in the Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosi, Assunta; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Hervé, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Grooming behaviour is the most common innate behaviour in animals. In rodents, it consists of sequences of movements organized in four phases, executed symmetrically on both sides of the animal and creating a syntactic chain of behavioural events. The grooming syntax can be altered by stress and novelty, as well as by several mutations and brain lesions. Grooming behaviour is known to be affected by alterations of the dopamine system, including dopamine receptor modulation, dopamine alteration in genetically modified animals, and after brain lesion. While a lot is known about the initiation and syntactic modifications of this refined sequence of movements, effects of unilateral lesion of dopamine neurons are unclear particularly regarding the symmetry of syntactic chains. In the present work we studied grooming in mice unilaterally lesioned in the medial forebrain bundle by 6-hydroxydopamine. We found a reduction in completion of grooming bouts, associated with reduction in number of transitions between grooming phases. The data also revealed the development of asymmetry in grooming behaviour, with reduced tendency to groom the contralateral side to the lesion. Symmetry was recovered following treatment with L-DOPA. Thus, the present work shows that unilateral lesion of dopamine neurons reduces self-grooming behaviour by affecting duration and numbers of events. It produces premature discontinuation of grooming chains but the sequence syntax remains correct. This deficient grooming could be considered as an intrinsic symptom of Parkinson's disease in animal models and could present some similarities with abnormalities of motor movement sequencing seen in patients. Our study also suggests grooming analysis as an additional method to screen parkinsonism in animal models.

  2. Comparison of Voice Outcome After Vocal Fold Augmentation With Fat or Calcium Hydroxylapatite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodder, Wouter L.; Dikkers, Frederik G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives/HypothesisTo evaluate the short-term voice outcomes of vocal fold augmentation using fat compared to calcium hydroxylapatite product Radiesse Voice (Merz Aesthetics). Study DesignRetrospective study design. MethodsSixty-six consecutive patients with vocal fold insufficiency were recruited

  3. Vocal coordination and vocal imitation: a role for mirror neurons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John D

    2014-04-01

    Some birds and mammals have vocal communication systems in which coordination between individuals is important. Examples would include duetting or antiphonal calling in some birds and mammals, rapid exchanges of the same vocalization, and vocal exchanges between paired individuals and other nearby pairs. Mirror neurons may play a role in such systems but become functional only after experience.

  4. Short-term costs and benefits of grooming in Japanese macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schino, Gabriele; Alessandrini, Alessandro

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the short-term consequences of giving grooming in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in order to obtain information on its immediate costs and benefits. Giving grooming was associated with increased aggression received from groomees and decreased aggression received from third parties (but only as long as the groomer maintained proximity to the groomee). Grooming was also associated with decreased scratching rates. These results emphasize the unpredictable outcome of individual grooming interactions and the difficulties of social decision-making for monkeys living in despotic societies.

  5. Exchanging grooming, but not tolerance and aggression in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campennì, Marco; Manciocco, Arianna; Vitale, Augusto; Schino, Gabriele

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the reciprocal exchanges of grooming, tolerance and reduced aggression in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), a cooperatively breeding primate whose groups are typically characterized by uniformly high genetic relatedness and high interdependency between group members. Both partner control and partner choice processes played a role in the reciprocal exchanges of grooming. In contrast, we did not find any evidence of reciprocity between grooming and tolerance over a preferred food source or between grooming and reduced aggression. Thus, reciprocity seems to play a variable role in the exchange of cooperative behaviors in marmosets.

  6. Grooming network cohesion and the role of individuals in a captive chimpanzee group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanngiesser, Patricia; Sueur, Cédric; Riedl, Katrin; Grossmann, Johannes; Call, Josep

    2011-08-01

    Social network analysis offers new tools to study the social structure of primate groups. We used social network analysis to investigate the cohesiveness of a grooming network in a captive chimpanzee group (N = 17) and the role that individuals may play in it. Using data from a year-long observation, we constructed an unweighted social network of preferred grooming interactions by retaining only those dyads that groomed above the group mean. This choice of criterion was validated by the finding that the properties of the unweighted network correlated with the properties of a weighted network (i.e. a network representing the frequency of grooming interactions) constructed from the same data. To investigate group cohesion, we tested the resilience of the unweighted grooming network to the removal of central individuals (i.e. individuals with high betweenness centrality). The network fragmented more after the removal of individuals with high betweenness centrality than after the removal of random individuals. Central individuals played a pivotal role in maintaining the network's cohesiveness, and we suggest that this may be a typical property of affiliative networks like grooming networks. We found that the grooming network correlated with kinship and age, and that individuals with higher social status occupied more central positions in the network. Overall, the grooming network showed a heterogeneous structure, yet did not exhibit scale-free properties similar to many other primate networks. We discuss our results in light of recent findings on animal social networks and chimpanzee grooming.

  7. Vocal Fold Collision Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granados, Alba; Brunskog, Jonas; Misztal, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    When vocal folds vibrate at normal speaking frequencies, collisions occurs. The numerics and formulations behind a position-based continuum model of contact is an active field of research in the contact mechanics community. In this paper, a frictionless three-dimensional finite element model...... of the vocal fold collision is proposed, which incorporates different procedures used in contact mechanics and mathematical optimization theories. The penalty approach and the Lagrange multiplier method are investigated. The contact force solution obtained by the penalty formulation is highly dependent...

  8. Rank and grooming reciprocity among females in a mixed-sex group of captive hamadryas baboons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leinfelder, I.; Vries, Han de; Deleu, R.; Nelissen, M.

    2001-01-01

    In a mixed-sex, captive group of hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) we investigated whether female grooming relationships are affected by their dominance ranks. Seyfarths [1977] grooming for support model and Barrett et al.s [1999] biological market model both predict that in primate grou

  9. Wild Vervet Monkeys Trade Tolerance and Specific Coalitionary Support for Grooming in Experimentally Induced Conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgeaud, Christèle; Bshary, Redouan

    2015-11-16

    Grooming is a key social behavior in many primate species. Research has focused on three important aspects: the short- and long-term trading patterns of grooming for itself and/or for other commodities like tolerance or coalitionary support, the issue of whether exchanges are a convincing example for reciprocity, and what decision rules underlie trading. These issues remain largely unresolved due to the correlative nature of observational studies and the rarity of experimental studies. Here, we present a new experimental paradigm to address these questions in wild vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus). Adult females were first trained to approach a personal box, identifiable by unique color patterns, to access high-quality food. During the experiments, two boxes were placed next to each other to induce conflict through forced proximity. We found that while dominants were generally more tolerant toward bonded individuals, recent grooming increased tolerance independently of relationship quality. The latter result shows that vervet monkeys traded grooming for short-term tolerance, where dominants used a direct-reciprocity decision rule. In contrast, females invariably supported the higher-ranking opponent in a conflict, independently of who was the recent grooming partner. Nevertheless, recent grooming increased the probability that a female supported the partner during conflicts with a low-ranking third party. Thus, females' decisions about coalitionary support seem to integrate information about the current social hierarchy with recent grooming events. In conclusion, decision rules underlying trading of grooming for other commodities involve a variety of timescales and factors.

  10. Potential translational targets revealed by linking mouse grooming behavioral phenotypes to gene expression using public databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Andrew; Kyzar, Evan J; Cachat, Jonathan; Stewart, Adam Michael; Green, Jeremy; Gaikwad, Siddharth; O'Leary, Timothy P; Tabakoff, Boris; Brown, Richard E; Kalueff, Allan V

    2013-01-10

    Rodent self-grooming is an important, evolutionarily conserved behavior, highly sensitive to pharmacological and genetic manipulations. Mice with aberrant grooming phenotypes are currently used to model various human disorders. Therefore, it is critical to understand the biology of grooming behavior, and to assess its translational validity to humans. The present in-silico study used publicly available gene expression and behavioral data obtained from several inbred mouse strains in the open-field, light-dark box, elevated plus- and elevated zero-maze tests. As grooming duration differed between strains, our analysis revealed several candidate genes with significant correlations between gene expression in the brain and grooming duration. The Allen Brain Atlas, STRING, GoMiner and Mouse Genome Informatics databases were used to functionally map and analyze these candidate mouse genes against their human orthologs, assessing the strain ranking of their expression and the regional distribution of expression in the mouse brain. This allowed us to identify an interconnected network of candidate genes (which have expression levels that correlate with grooming behavior), display altered patterns of expression in key brain areas related to grooming, and underlie important functions in the brain. Collectively, our results demonstrate the utility of large-scale, high-throughput data-mining and in-silico modeling for linking genomic and behavioral data, as well as their potential to identify novel neural targets for complex neurobehavioral phenotypes, including grooming.

  11. Grooming relationships between breeding females and adult group members in cooperatively breeding moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löttker, Petra; Huck, Maren; Zinner, Dietmar P; Heymann, Eckhard W

    2007-10-01

    Grooming is the most common form of affiliative behavior in primates that apart from hygienic and hedonistic benefits offers important social benefits for the performing individuals. This study examined grooming behavior in a cooperatively breeding primate species, characterized by single female breeding per group, polyandrous matings, dizygotic twinning, delayed offspring dispersal, and intensive helping behavior. In this system, breeding females profit from the presence of helpers but also helpers profit from staying in a group and assisting in infant care due to the accumulation of direct and indirect fitness benefits. We examined grooming relationships of breeding females with three classes of partners (breeding males, potentially breeding males, (sub)adult non-breeding offspring) during three reproductive phases (post-partum ovarian inactivity, ovarian activity, pregnancy) in two groups of wild moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax). We investigated whether grooming can be used to regulate group size by either "pay-for-help" or "pay-to-stay" mechanisms. Grooming of breeding females with breeding males and non-breeding offspring was more intense and more balanced than with potentially breeding males, and most grooming occurred during the breeding females' pregnancies. Grooming was skewed toward more investment by the breeding females with breeding males during the phases of ovarian activity, and with potentially breeding males during pregnancies. Our results suggest that grooming might be a mechanism used by female moustached tamarins to induce mate association with the breeding male, and to induce certain individuals to stay in the group and help with infant care.

  12. Female snub-nosed monkeys exchange grooming for sex and infant handling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    Full Text Available Allogrooming in primates has acquired an important social function beyond its original hygienic function and can be exchanged either for itself or used as a currency to obtain other benefits such as copulations, access to infants or agonistic support. We explore the strategic use of grooming as a social tool in semi-wild golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana in central China, a species where two desirable resources, viz. reproductive males and infants, are restricted to the mating and birth season, respectively. We predict that females expend their grooming selectively to different individuals according to their "value". Our results show that in the mating season, females devoted more grooming to the resident male than in the birth season, and this effect was particularly strong in non-mothers (females without newborn infants. Moreover, females were more likely to groom the resident male after copulation than during baseline social conditions. In the birth season, females devoted more grooming to other females than in the mating season, and mothers (females with newborn infants were the most valuable grooming partners. The mean rate of contact by non-mothers toward infants of other females was significantly higher after grooming the mothers than in baseline social conditions. In conclusion, our findings lend credence to the notion that primate females use grooming as a strategic tool to obtain limited resources such as males and infants and vary preference for particular individuals depending on the seasonal availability of valuable resources.

  13. Female snub-nosed monkeys exchange grooming for sex and infant handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Xiang, Zuo-Fu; Yao, Hui; Grueter, Cyril C; Li, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Allogrooming in primates has acquired an important social function beyond its original hygienic function and can be exchanged either for itself or used as a currency to obtain other benefits such as copulations, access to infants or agonistic support. We explore the strategic use of grooming as a social tool in semi-wild golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in central China, a species where two desirable resources, viz. reproductive males and infants, are restricted to the mating and birth season, respectively. We predict that females expend their grooming selectively to different individuals according to their "value". Our results show that in the mating season, females devoted more grooming to the resident male than in the birth season, and this effect was particularly strong in non-mothers (females without newborn infants). Moreover, females were more likely to groom the resident male after copulation than during baseline social conditions. In the birth season, females devoted more grooming to other females than in the mating season, and mothers (females with newborn infants) were the most valuable grooming partners. The mean rate of contact by non-mothers toward infants of other females was significantly higher after grooming the mothers than in baseline social conditions. In conclusion, our findings lend credence to the notion that primate females use grooming as a strategic tool to obtain limited resources such as males and infants and vary preference for particular individuals depending on the seasonal availability of valuable resources.

  14. [Graphic registration of grooming behavior and its parameters in rat ontogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepekhina, L M; Voskresenskiĭ, V O

    1991-10-01

    Ontogenic development of grooming behaviour (washing, scratching, lacking, shake down) by using precise graphic recording was studied. For this reason actograph with crystal pickup and electroencephalograph were used. A rhythmic phase of grooming behaviour is formed gradually, reaching the adult level up to the period in 16-17 days.

  15. Differential gene expression associated with honey bee grooming behavior in response to varroa mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) grooming behavior is an important mechanism of resistance against the parasitic mite Varroa destructor. This research was conducted to study associations between grooming behavior and the expression of selected immune, neural, detoxification, developmental and health-relat...

  16. [Relationships between ectoparasites and grooming behavior of Tylonycteris pachypus and T. robustula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Biao; Zhang, Guang-Liang; Tang, Zhan-Hui; Hong, Ti-Yu

    2013-12-01

    Grooming behavior is evolved in animals in response to the costs associated with ectoparasites. In this study, ecotparasite densities and grooming behavior-including licking and scratching-of wild-caught lesser bamboo bat (Tylonycteris pachypus) and greater bamboo bat (T. robustula) were analyzed. The results indicated that both the frequencies and durations of licking were higher than those of scratching in both bat species, though T. pachypus licked more but scratched less than T. robustula. There were no difference in the durations of licking and scratching between the two bat species, and the durations and frequencies of grooming behavior of the two bat species were irrelevant with ectoparasite densities. These findings suggest that the grooming behavior of T. pachypus and T. robustula might be modulated by both the central control (programmed grooming) model and the peripheral stimulation (stimulus driven) model.

  17. Male-driven grooming bouts in mixed-sex dyads of Kinda baboons (Papio kindae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyher, Anna H; Phillips-Conroy, Jane E; Fourrier, Marc S; Jolly, Clifford J

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of the Central African Kinda baboon (Papio kindae) is not well documented. Having previously noted distinctive grooming behavior in several Kinda baboon populations, we investigated the topic more systematically in the Kafue National Park, Zambia. We recorded the duration and details of male-female dyadic interactions (approaches, withdrawals and time spent grooming) in the early morning and late afternoon. Such interactions were more often initiated by the male and terminated by the female partner. The male groomed the female more often, and longer, than she groomed him, regardless of the female's reproductive state or the presence of an infant. The bias towards male grooming was stronger in morning than evening interactions. These behaviors, whose function is not immediately obvious, and which are unlike those previously reported in baboons, further exemplify the distinctiveness of the taxon.

  18. The effects of grooming on a copper ablative coating: a six year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribou, Melissa; Swain, Geoffrey

    2017-07-01

    More than 90% of US Navy Ships are coated with copper ablative paint. These ships may spend long periods of time pier-side, which makes them vulnerable to fouling. Hull grooming has been proposed as a means of maintaining the coatings in an operational condition. This study investigated the effect of grooming on a copper ablative coating exposed statically for six years. Grooming was performed weekly or monthly with controls left ungroomed. The fouling community was visually assessed, dry film thickness measurements were taken to monitor coating loss, and the copper leaching rates were measured. It was found that weekly and monthly groomed surfaces reduced fouling, and the ungroomed surfaces became fully fouled. Coating loss was similar for weekly, monthly and ungroomed surfaces. The results suggest that grooming is a viable method for maintaining copper ablative coatings in a fouling-free condition without adverse increases in the total copper output.

  19. Role of Grooming in Reducing Tick Load in Wild Baboons (Papio cynocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyi, Mercy Y; Tung, Jenny; Jeneby, Maamun; Patel, Nilesh B; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2013-03-01

    Nonhuman primate species spend a conspicuous amount of time grooming during social interactions, a behavior that probably serves both social and health-related functions. While the social implications of grooming have been relatively well studied, less attention has been paid to the health benefits, especially the removal of ectoparasites, which may act as vectors in disease transmission. In this study, we examined the relationship between grooming behavior, tick load (number of ticks), and haemoprotozoan infection status in a population of wild free-ranging baboons (Papio cynocephalus). We found that the amount of grooming received was influenced by an individual's age, sex and dominance rank. The amount of grooming received, in turn, affected the tick load of an individual. Baboons with higher tick loads had lower packed red cell volume (PCV or haematocrit), one general measure of health status. We detected a tick-borne haemoprotozoan, Babesia microti, but its low prevalence in the population precluded identifying sources of variance in infection.

  20. Neurobiology of rodent self-grooming and its value for translational neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalueff, Allan V; Stewart, Adam Michael; Song, Cai; Berridge, Kent C; Graybiel, Ann M; Fentress, John C

    2016-01-01

    Self-grooming is a complex innate behaviour with an evolutionarily conserved sequencing pattern and is one of the most frequently performed behavioural activities in rodents. In this Review, we discuss the neurobiology of rodent self-grooming, and we highlight studies of rodent models of neuropsychiatric disorders--including models of autism spectrum disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder--that have assessed self-grooming phenotypes. We suggest that rodent self-grooming may be a useful measure of repetitive behaviour in such models, and therefore of value to translational psychiatry. Assessment of rodent self-grooming may also be useful for understanding the neural circuits that are involved in complex sequential patterns of action.

  1. Effect of serotonergic and catecholaminergic antagonists on mild-stress-induced excessive grooming in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Echandía, E L; Broitman, S T; Fóscolo, M R

    1983-12-01

    Excessive grooming was induced in male rats by two ip injections of physiological saline. This mild stressful procedure did not modify open-field locomotion in 5-min trials. Methysergide (15 mg/kg) and pizotifene (5 mg/kg), serotonergic blockers, selectively prevented the grooming response to saline without affecting locomotion. Haloperidol (.4 mg/kg) also prevented the excessive grooming. However, this dopaminergic blocker impaired locomotion. The alpha- or beta-adrenoceptor antagonists phentolamine (20 mg/kg) and l-propranolol (20 mg/kg) did not prevent the excessive grooming in response to saline and did not affect locomotion. The results suggest that some serotonergic pathways in the brain are involved in the grooming response to a mild stress and support previous findings on the role of dopaminergic systems on this activity.

  2. Molecular mapping of movement-associated areas in the avian brain: a motor theory for vocal learning origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenders, Gesa; Liedvogel, Miriam; Rivas, Miriam; Zapka, Manuela; Horita, Haruhito; Hara, Erina; Wada, Kazuhiro; Mouritsen, Henrik; Jarvis, Erich D

    2008-03-12

    Vocal learning is a critical behavioral substrate for spoken human language. It is a rare trait found in three distantly related groups of birds-songbirds, hummingbirds, and parrots. These avian groups have remarkably similar systems of cerebral vocal nuclei for the control of learned vocalizations that are not found in their more closely related vocal non-learning relatives. These findings led to the hypothesis that brain pathways for vocal learning in different groups evolved independently from a common ancestor but under pre-existing constraints. Here, we suggest one constraint, a pre-existing system for movement control. Using behavioral molecular mapping, we discovered that in songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds, all cerebral vocal learning nuclei are adjacent to discrete brain areas active during limb and body movements. Similar to the relationships between vocal nuclei activation and singing, activation in the adjacent areas correlated with the amount of movement performed and was independent of auditory and visual input. These same movement-associated brain areas were also present in female songbirds that do not learn vocalizations and have atrophied cerebral vocal nuclei, and in ring doves that are vocal non-learners and do not have cerebral vocal nuclei. A compilation of previous neural tracing experiments in songbirds suggests that the movement-associated areas are connected in a network that is in parallel with the adjacent vocal learning system. This study is the first global mapping that we are aware for movement-associated areas of the avian cerebrum and it indicates that brain systems that control vocal learning in distantly related birds are directly adjacent to brain systems involved in movement control. Based upon these findings, we propose a motor theory for the origin of vocal learning, this being that the brain areas specialized for vocal learning in vocal learners evolved as a specialization of a pre-existing motor pathway that controls

  3. Molecular mapping of movement-associated areas in the avian brain: a motor theory for vocal learning origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesa Feenders

    Full Text Available Vocal learning is a critical behavioral substrate for spoken human language. It is a rare trait found in three distantly related groups of birds-songbirds, hummingbirds, and parrots. These avian groups have remarkably similar systems of cerebral vocal nuclei for the control of learned vocalizations that are not found in their more closely related vocal non-learning relatives. These findings led to the hypothesis that brain pathways for vocal learning in different groups evolved independently from a common ancestor but under pre-existing constraints. Here, we suggest one constraint, a pre-existing system for movement control. Using behavioral molecular mapping, we discovered that in songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds, all cerebral vocal learning nuclei are adjacent to discrete brain areas active during limb and body movements. Similar to the relationships between vocal nuclei activation and singing, activation in the adjacent areas correlated with the amount of movement performed and was independent of auditory and visual input. These same movement-associated brain areas were also present in female songbirds that do not learn vocalizations and have atrophied cerebral vocal nuclei, and in ring doves that are vocal non-learners and do not have cerebral vocal nuclei. A compilation of previous neural tracing experiments in songbirds suggests that the movement-associated areas are connected in a network that is in parallel with the adjacent vocal learning system. This study is the first global mapping that we are aware for movement-associated areas of the avian cerebrum and it indicates that brain systems that control vocal learning in distantly related birds are directly adjacent to brain systems involved in movement control. Based upon these findings, we propose a motor theory for the origin of vocal learning, this being that the brain areas specialized for vocal learning in vocal learners evolved as a specialization of a pre-existing motor

  4. Mouthpart grooming behavior in honeybees: Kinematics and sectionalized friction between foreleg tarsi and proboscises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linghu, Zelin; Wu, Jianing; Wang, Changlong; Yan, Shaoze

    2015-11-01

    The mouthpart of a honeybee is prone to contamination by granular particles such as pollen or dirt from the field. To clean the contaminated mouthparts, a honeybee swings its foreleg tarsi forward and backward to brush the proboscis continuously, sweeping the contaminant from the surfaces of the labial palpi, galeae, and bushy haired tongue (glossa). This grooming behavior has been documented but the dynamic characteristics therein have not been investigated yet. We quantified the grooming behavior of a honeybee from the perspective of kinematic and tribological properties. We captured high-speed videos that recorded the mouthpart grooming patterns of honeybees from the front and side views and measured the friction on the grooming surfaces using a precision dynamometer. During grooming, a honeybee first positions the mouthpart and then places a pair of foreleg tarsi to the tubular-folded galea. The tarsi press the galea and labial palpi and slide downward while keeping close contact with the galea. Then, the hairy glossa stretches out of the temporary tube with the glossa setae erected. The tarsi slowly slide down when grooming the glossa. In the return stroke of grooming, the foreleg tarsi detach from the mouthpart and retreat swiftly. Friction analysis shows that the honeybees can coordinate the velocity of the foreleg tarsi to the sectionalized tribological property of the tarsus-mouthpart interface. The specific grooming pattern enables honeybees to save energy and resist wear, resulting in a possible highly evolved grooming strategy. These findings lead to further understanding of the honeybee's grooming behavior facilitated by the special motion kinematics and friction characteristics.

  5. Water spray-induced grooming is negatively correlated with depressive behavior in the forced swimming test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Noboru; Narikiyo, Kimiya; Masuda, Akira; Aou, Shuji

    2016-05-01

    Rodents show grooming, a typical self-care behavior, under stress and non-stress conditions. Previous studies revealed that grooming under stress conditions such as the open-field test (OFT) or the elevated plus-maze test (EPM) is associated with anxiety, but the roles of grooming under non-stress conditions are not well understood. Here, we examined spray-induced grooming as a model of grooming under a non-stress condition to investigate the relationship between this grooming and depression-like behavior in the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test, and we compared spray-induced grooming with OFT- and EPM-induced grooming. The main finding was that the duration of spray-induced grooming, but not that of OFT/EPM-induced grooming, was negatively correlated with the duration of immobility in the FST, an index of depression-like behavior. The results suggest that spray-induced grooming is functionally different from the grooming in the OFT and EPM and is related to reduction of depressive behavior.

  6. Social-bond strength influences vocally mediated recruitment to mobbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Julie M; Radford, Andrew N

    2016-11-01

    Strong social bonds form between individuals in many group-living species, and these relationships can have important fitness benefits. When responding to vocalizations produced by groupmates, receivers are expected to adjust their behaviour depending on the nature of the bond they share with the signaller. Here we investigate whether the strength of the signaller-receiver social bond affects response to calls that attract others to help mob a predator. Using field-based playback experiments on a habituated population of wild dwarf mongooses (Helogale parvula), we first demonstrate that a particular vocalization given on detecting predatory snakes does act as a recruitment call; receivers were more likely to look, approach and engage in mobbing behaviour than in response to control close calls. We then show that individuals respond more strongly to these recruitment calls if they are from groupmates with whom they are more strongly bonded (those with whom they preferentially groom and forage). Our study, therefore, provides novel evidence about the anti-predator benefits of close bonds within social groups.

  7. Auditory responses in the amygdala to social vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadziola, Marie A.

    The underlying goal of this dissertation is to understand how the amygdala, a brain region involved in establishing the emotional significance of sensory input, contributes to the processing of complex sounds. The general hypothesis is that communication calls of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) transmit relevant information about social context that is reflected in the activity of amygdalar neurons. The first specific aim analyzed social vocalizations emitted under a variety of behavioral contexts, and related vocalizations to an objective measure of internal physiological state by monitoring the heart rate of vocalizing bats. These experiments revealed a complex acoustic communication system among big brown bats in which acoustic cues and call structure signal the emotional state of a sender. The second specific aim characterized the responsiveness of single neurons in the basolateral amygdala to a range of social syllables. Neurons typically respond to the majority of tested syllables, but effectively discriminate among vocalizations by varying the response duration. This novel coding strategy underscores the importance of persistent firing in the general functioning of the amygdala. The third specific aim examined the influence of acoustic context by characterizing both the behavioral and neurophysiological responses to natural vocal sequences. Vocal sequences differentially modify the internal affective state of a listening bat, with lower aggression vocalizations evoking the greatest change in heart rate. Amygdalar neurons employ two different coding strategies: low background neurons respond selectively to very few stimuli, whereas high background neurons respond broadly to stimuli but demonstrate variation in response magnitude and timing. Neurons appear to discriminate the valence of stimuli, with aggression sequences evoking robust population-level responses across all sound levels. Further, vocal sequences show improved discrimination among stimuli

  8. Vocal therapy of hyperkinetic dysphonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mumović Gordana; Veselinović Mila; Arbutina Tanja; Škrbić Renata

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Hyperkinetic (hyperfunctional) dysphonia is a common pathology. The disorder is often found in vocal professionals faced with high vocal requirements. Objective. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vocal therapy on voice condition characterized by hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. Methods. The study included 100 adult patients and 27 children aged 4-16 years with prenodular lesions and soft...

  9. Alternate Routing in Tandem Traffic-Groomed Optical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Nicki Washington

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in telecommunication networks have allowed WDM to emerge as a viable solution to the ever-increasing demands of the Internet. Because these networks carry large amounts of traffic, alternate routing methods are designed in order to allow traffic to be properly re-routed from source to destination in the event of certain events, such as link blocking or failure. In this paper, we consider a tandem traffic-groomed optical network, modeled as a multi-level overflow system, where each level represents a wavelength between adjacent nodes. The queueing network is analyzed using a combination of methods. As will be shown, the decomposition method provides a good approximate analysis of large overflow systems supporting traffic from multiple sources.

  10. ATLAS Standard Model Measurements Using Jet Grooming and Substructure

    CERN Document Server

    Ucchielli, Giulia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Boosted topologies allow to explore Standard Model processes in kinematical regimes never tested before. In such LHC challenging environments, standard reconstruction techniques quickly hit the wall. Targeting hadronic final states means to properly reconstruct energy and multiplicity of the jets in the event. In order to be able to identify the decay product of boosted objects, i.e. W bosons, $t\\bar{t}$ pairs or Higgs produced in association with $t\\bar{t}$ pairs, ATLAS experiment is currently exploiting several algorithms using jet grooming and jet substructure. This contribution will mainly cover the following ATLAS measurements: $t\\bar{t}$ differential cross section production and jet mass using the soft drop procedure. Standard Model measurements offer the perfect field to test the performances of new jet tagging techniques which will become even more important in the search for new physics in highly boosted topologies.”

  11. Influence of parental deprivation on the behavioral development in Octodon degus: modulation by maternal vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Katharina; Kremz, Petra; Wetzel, Wolfram; Wagner, Thomas; Poeggel, Gerd

    2003-04-01

    Repeated separation from the family during very early stages of life is a stressful emotional experience which induces a variety of neuronal and synaptic changes in limbic cortical areas that may be related to behavioral alterations. First, we investigated whether repeated parental separation and handling, without separation from the family, leads to altered spontaneous exploratory behavior in a novel environment (open field test) in 8-day-old Octodon degus. Second, we tested whether the parentally deprived and handled animals display different stimulus-evoked exploratory behaviors in a modified open field version, in which a positive emotional stimulus, the maternal call, was presented. In the open field test a significant influence of previous emotional experience was found for the parameters of running, rearing, and vocalization. Parentally deprived degus displayed increased horizontal (running) and vertical (rearing) motoric activities, but decreased vocalization, compared to normal and handled controls. The presentation of maternal vocalizations significantly modified running, vocalization, and grooming activities, which in the case of running activity was dependent on previous emotional experience. Both deprivation-induced locomotor hyperactivity together with the reduced behavioral response towards a familiar acoustic emotional signal are similar to behavioral disturbances observed in human attachment disorders.

  12. Melanocortin MC(4) receptor-mediated feeding and grooming in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mul, Joram D; Spruijt, Berry M; Brakkee, Jan H; Adan, Roger A H

    2013-11-01

    Decades ago it was recognized that the pharmacological profile of melanocortin ligands that stimulated grooming behavior in rats was strikingly similar to that of Xenopus laevis melanophore pigment dispersion. After cloning of the melanocortin MC1 receptor, expressed in melanocytes, and the melanocortin MC4 receptor, expressed mainly in brain, the pharmacological profiles of these receptors appeared to be very similar and it was demonstrated that these receptors mediate melanocortin-induced pigmentation and grooming respectively. Grooming is a low priority behavior that is concerned with care of body surface. Activation of central melanocortin MC4 receptors is also associated with meal termination, and continued postprandial stimulation of melanocortin MC4 receptors may stimulate natural postprandial grooming behavior as part of the behavioral satiety sequence. Indeed, melanocortins fail to suppress food intake or induce grooming behavior in melanocortin MC4 receptor-deficient rats. This review will focus on how melanocortins affect grooming behavior through the melanocortin MC4 receptor, and how melanocortin MC4 receptors mediate feeding behavior. This review also illustrates how melanocortins were the most likely candidates to mediate grooming and feeding based on the natural behaviors they induced.

  13. Anxiolytic effect of clonazepam in female rats: grooming microstructure and elevated plus maze tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nin, Maurício S; Couto-Pereira, Natividade S; Souza, Marilise F; Azeredo, Lucas A; Ferri, Marcelo K; Dalprá, Walesca L; Gomez, Rosane; Barros, Helena M T

    2012-06-01

    Grooming behavior is an adaptation to a stressful environment that can vary in accordance with stress intensity. Direct and indirect GABA(A) receptor agonists decrease duration, frequency, incorrect transitions and uninterrupted bouts of grooming. Hormonal variation during the different phases of the estrous cycle of female rats also changes the grooming behavior. It is known that GABA(A) agonists and endogenous hormones change anxiety-like behaviors observed in the elevated plus maze test, a classical animal model of anxiety. This study was designed to determine the anxiolytic effect of clonazepam in female rats in different estrous phases and to correlate anxiety behaviors in the elevated plus maze and grooming microstructure tests. Our results show that female rats displayed higher anxiety-like behavior scores during the estrus and proestrus phases in the elevated plus maze and that clonazepam (0.25 mg/kg; i.p.) had an anxiolytic effect that was independent of the estrous phase. Grooming behaviors were higher in the proestrus phase but were decreased by clonazepam administration, independent of the estrous phase, demonstrating the anxiolytic effect of this drug in both animal models. Grooming behaviors were moderately associated with anxiolytic-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze test. Here, we describe the anxiolytic effect of clonazepam and the influence of estrous phase on anxiety. Moreover, we show that the grooming microstructure test is a useful tool for detecting anxiolytic-like behaviors in rats.

  14. Convergent differential regulation of SLIT-ROBO axon guidance genes in the brains of vocal learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Chen, Chun-Chun; Hara, Erina; Rivas, Miriam V; Roulhac, Petra L; Howard, Jason T; Chakraborty, Mukta; Audet, Jean-Nicolas; Jarvis, Erich D

    2015-04-15

    Only a few distantly related mammals and birds have the trait of complex vocal learning, which is the ability to imitate novel sounds. This ability is critical for speech acquisition and production in humans, and is attributed to specialized forebrain vocal control circuits that have several unique connections relative to adjacent brain circuits. As a result, it has been hypothesized that there could exist convergent changes in genes involved in neural connectivity of vocal learning circuits. In support of this hypothesis, expanding on our related study (Pfenning et al. [2014] Science 346: 1256846), here we show that the forebrain part of this circuit that makes a relatively rare direct connection to brainstem vocal motor neurons in independent lineages of vocal learning birds (songbird, parrot, and hummingbird) has specialized regulation of axon guidance genes from the SLIT-ROBO molecular pathway. The SLIT1 ligand was differentially downregulated in the motor song output nucleus that makes the direct projection, whereas its receptor ROBO1 was developmentally upregulated during critical periods for vocal learning. Vocal nonlearning bird species and male mice, which have much more limited vocal plasticity and associated circuits, did not show comparable specialized regulation of SLIT-ROBO genes in their nonvocal motor cortical regions. These findings are consistent with SLIT and ROBO gene dysfunctions associated with autism, dyslexia, and speech sound language disorders and suggest that convergent evolution of vocal learning was associated with convergent changes in the SLIT-ROBO axon guidance pathway.

  15. Automated classification of self-grooming in mice using open-source software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boom, Bastijn J G; Pavlidi, Pavlina; Wolf, Casper J H; Mooij, Adriana H; Willuhn, Ingo

    2017-09-01

    Manual analysis of behavior is labor intensive and subject to inter-rater variability. Although considerable progress in automation of analysis has been made, complex behavior such as grooming still lacks satisfactory automated quantification. We trained a freely available, automated classifier, Janelia Automatic Animal Behavior Annotator (JAABA), to quantify self-grooming duration and number of bouts based on video recordings of SAPAP3 knockout mice (a mouse line that self-grooms excessively) and wild-type animals. We compared the JAABA classifier with human expert observers to test its ability to measure self-grooming in three scenarios: mice in an open field, mice on an elevated plus-maze, and tethered mice in an open field. In each scenario, the classifier identified both grooming and non-grooming with great accuracy and correlated highly with results obtained by human observers. Consistently, the JAABA classifier confirmed previous reports of excessive grooming in SAPAP3 knockout mice. Thus far, manual analysis was regarded as the only valid quantification method for self-grooming. We demonstrate that the JAABA classifier is a valid and reliable scoring tool, more cost-efficient than manual scoring, easy to use, requires minimal effort, provides high throughput, and prevents inter-rater variability. We introduce the JAABA classifier as an efficient analysis tool for the assessment of rodent self-grooming with expert quality. In our "how-to" instructions, we provide all information necessary to implement behavioral classification with JAABA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Egalitarian despots: hierarchy steepness, reciprocity and the grooming-trade model in wild chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaburu, Stefano S K; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E

    2015-01-01

    Biological market theory models the action of natural selection as a marketplace in which animals are viewed as traders with commodities to offer and exchange. Studies of female Old World monkeys have suggested that grooming might be employed as a commodity to be reciprocated or traded for alternative services, yet previous tests of this grooming-trade model in wild adult male chimpanzees have yielded mixed results. Here we provide the strongest test of the model to date for male chimpanzees: we use data drawn from two social groups (communities) of chimpanzees from different populations and give explicit consideration to variation in dominance hierarchy steepness, as such variation results in differing conditions for biological markets. First, analysis of data from published accounts of other chimpanzee communities, together with our own data, showed that hierarchy steepness varied considerably within and across communities and that the number of adult males in a community aged 20-30 years predicted hierarchy steepness. The two communities in which we tested predictions of the grooming-trade model lay at opposite extremes of this distribution. Second, in accord with the grooming-trade model, we found evidence that male chimpanzees trade grooming for agonistic support where hierarchies are steep (despotic) and consequent effective support is a rank-related commodity, but not where hierarchies are shallow (egalitarian). However, we also found that grooming was reciprocated regardless of hierarchy steepness. Our findings also hint at the possibility of agonistic competition, or at least exclusion, in relation to grooming opportunities compromising the free market envisioned by biological market theory. Our results build on previous findings across chimpanzee communities to emphasize the importance of reciprocal grooming exchanges among adult male chimpanzees, which can be understood in a biological markets framework if grooming by or with particular individuals is a

  17. Vocal cord dysfunction in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Blakeslee E; Kemp, James S

    2007-06-01

    Vocal cord dysfunction is characterised by paradoxical vocal cord adduction that occurs during inspiration, resulting in symptoms of dyspnoea, wheeze, chest or throat tightness and cough. Although the condition is well described in children and adults, confusion with asthma often triggers the use of an aggressive treatment regimen directed against asthma. The laryngoscopic demonstration of vocal cord adduction during inspiration has been considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of vocal cord dysfunction, but historical factors and pulmonary function findings may provide adequate clues to the correct diagnosis. Speech therapy, and in some cases psychological counselling, is often beneficial in this disorder. The natural course and prognosis of vocal cord dysfunction are still not well described in adults or children.

  18. Distributed Grooming in Multi-Domain IP/MPLS-DWDM Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qing [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    This paper studies distributed multi-domain, multilayer provisioning (grooming) in IP/MPLS-DWDM networks. Although many multi-domain studies have emerged over the years, these have primarily considered 'homogeneous' network layers. Meanwhile, most grooming studies have assumed idealized settings with 'global' link state across all layers. Hence there is a critical need to develop practical distributed grooming schemes for real-world networks consisting of multiple domains and technology layers. Along these lines, a detailed hierarchical framework is proposed to implement inter-layer routing, distributed grooming, and setup signaling. The performance of this solution is analyzed in detail using simulation studies and future work directions are also high-lighted.

  19. Wild chimpanzees can perform social grooming and social play behaviors simultaneously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Masaki

    2013-10-01

    Reliable evidence was obtained of the simultaneous performance of social grooming and social play behaviors by individuals among wild chimpanzees of the M group in Mahale Mountains National Park. I observed three cases of this performance: in an old female, a young female, and an adult male. While the agent was grooming the back of an adult bimanually, an infant or a juvenile approached the agent. The agent then started playing with the infant/juvenile using only the right hand, while simultaneously grooming the back of the adult with the left hand. In one case, an old female continued the simultaneous performance for about 1 min. Such performances probably occur at low frequency because they are not often required. The similarity in the neurobiological bases and the functions of social grooming and social play behaviors, both of which include repetitive contact with the body of another individual, may facilitate their simultaneous performance.

  20. [The development of grooming in the ontogeny of rats and mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviderskaia, G E; Dmitrieva, L E

    1993-01-01

    Experiments have been made on rats and mice within the first month of postnatal life. Common age dynamics of grooming reactions for these animals was shown which consists of a sharp intensification of grooming movements at the 3rd week, i.e. at the period of "behavioral arousal", as well as of heterochronous onset of different types of movements which results from successive maturation of the brain structures in which rhythmic centres of these movements are located. Quantitative differences in grooming of rats and mice are presumably due to ecological peculiarities of these animals. Periodic pattern of realization of grooming, as well as the parameters of its rhythmic components suggests that stereotype behavioural reactions are governed by mechanisms of autorhythmic excitation which are typical for the early stages of the development of the nervous system.

  1. Beta-endorphin concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid of monkeys are influenced by grooming relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keverne, E B; Martensz, N D; Tuite, B

    1989-01-01

    Social relationships are integral to the behaviour of many mammalian species. Primates are unusual in that their social relationships are extensive within groups, which often contain many reproductively active males and females. Several hypotheses have been forwarded to explain the ultimate causation of primate sociality. While attention has focused on grooming as a proximate factor influencing social relationships, the neural basis of such behaviour has not been investigated in monkeys. This report presents changes in the brain's opioid system contingent on grooming in monkeys. Opiates themselves have a feedback interaction with grooming behaviour, as revealed from the administration of opiate agonists and antagonists. Opiate receptor blockade increases the motivation to be groomed, while morphine administration decreases it. These data support the view that brain opioids play an important role in mediating social attachment and may provide the neural basis on which primate sociality has evolved.

  2. Group size, grooming and fission in primates: a modeling approach based on group structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueur, Cédric; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis; Petit, Odile; Couzin, Iain D

    2011-03-21

    In social animals, fission is a common mode of group proliferation and dispersion and may be affected by genetic or other social factors. Sociality implies preserving relationships between group members. An increase in group size and/or in competition for food within the group can result in decrease certain social interactions between members, and the group may split irreversibly as a consequence. One individual may try to maintain bonds with a maximum of group members in order to keep group cohesion, i.e. proximity and stable relationships. However, this strategy needs time and time is often limited. In addition, previous studies have shown that whatever the group size, an individual interacts only with certain grooming partners. There, we develop a computational model to assess how dynamics of group cohesion are related to group size and to the structure of grooming relationships. Groups' sizes after simulated fission are compared to observed sizes of 40 groups of primates. Results showed that the relationship between grooming time and group size is dependent on how each individual attributes grooming time to its social partners, i.e. grooming a few number of preferred partners or grooming equally or not all partners. The number of partners seemed to be more important for the group cohesion than the grooming time itself. This structural constraint has important consequences on group sociality, as it gives the possibility of competition for grooming partners, attraction for high-ranking individuals as found in primates' groups. It could, however, also have implications when considering the cognitive capacities of primates.

  3. Dominance hierarchy and social grooming in female lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) in the Western Ghats, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mridula Singh; B A Krishna; Mewa Singh

    2006-09-01

    This article reports the structure of dominance and its relationship with social grooming in wild lion-tailed macaque females. The strength of dominance hierarchy was 0.79 on a scale of 0 to 1 indicating a moderate linearity in the ranking system. Dominance scores were converted into an ordinal as well as an interval scale. Grooming scores were also converted into interval scales using standard scores. Grooming received and grooming given correlated positively and negatively respectively with dominance ranks indicating that high ranking females received more and gave less grooming. Grooming was also positively related to encounter rates for dyads of females. More grooming among adjacent ranks, and grooming being more reciprocal, occurred only in the case of dominant females. The grooming patterns, therefore, appeared to be more of despotic than egalitarian nature. While ranking macaques into different Grades of social systems ranging from despotic to egalitarian, Thierry (2004) has placed lion-tailed macaques in Grade 3 corresponding to the ‘relaxed’ social system. Our results indicate that the grooming and dominance relationships in this species are more despotic, and hence, the Grade for this species requires to be shifted toward 2 or 1.

  4. RESEARCHES ON GROOMING BEHAVIOR OF THE DAMCALF COUPLE DURING THE FIRST WEEK AFTER CALVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. TRIPON

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dealing with the maternal behavior during the first week after calving. Researches were carried out during the winter season on Romanian Black and White breed dam-calf couples. The behavior of calves and their mothers was nonstop video recorded during the first, second and seventh day after calving. For a better interpretation the recorded material was divided in three periods for every 24 hours of surveillance: 07:00 to 15:00, 15:00 to 23:00, and 23:00 to 07:00. Calves received attention from their mothers in 18 to 33 grooming periods during the first day after calving. The number of grooming periods decreased to 6 – 15 periods per day in the seventh day after calving. The total length of grooming periods also decreased from the first day to the seventh day after calving from 26.5 minutes to 7.4 minutes on each 8-hour time frame. There were also contacts between mother cows and their calves that were not followed by grooming (sniffing. The number of contacts without grooming was higher during the first two days after calving and decreased on the seventh day after calving. During the first week of life calves received, 55.6 minutes per day of care from their mothers, and there were, on average, 8.1 contacts without grooming between mothers and calves.

  5. Male chimpanzees' grooming rates vary by female age, parity, and fertility status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Darby P; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2011-10-01

    Copulation preferences in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, suggest that males prefer older females who have had previous offspring. However, this finding is counter to some behavioral models, which predict that chimpanzee males, as promiscuous breeders with minimal costs to mating, should show little or no preference when choosing mating partners (e.g. should mate indiscriminately). To determine if the preferences indicated by copulations appear in other contexts as well as how they interact, we examined how male chimpanzees' grooming patterns varied amongst females. We found that males' preferences were based on interactions among females' fertility status, age, and parity. First, grooming increased with increasing female parity. We further found an effect of the estrous cycle on grooming; when females were at the lowest point of their cycle, males preferentially groomed parous females at peak reproductive age, but during maximal tumescence, males preferred the oldest multiparous females. Nulliparous females received relatively little grooming regardless of age or fertility. Thus, male chimpanzees apparently chose grooming partners based on both female's experience and fertility, possibly indicating a two-pronged social investment strategy. Male selectivity seems to have evolved to effectively distribute costly social resources in a pattern which may increase their overall reproductive success.

  6. The mouse who couldn't stop washing: pathologic grooming in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feusner, Jamie D; Hembacher, Emily; Phillips, Katharine A

    2009-09-01

    The basic science literature is replete with descriptions of naturally occurring or experimentally induced pathological grooming behaviors in animals, which are widely considered animal models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). These animal models rely largely on observed similarities between animal behaviors and human OCD behaviors, and on studies of animal pathological grooming disorders that respond to serotonin enhancing drugs. However, current limitations in assessment of complex cognition and affect in animals precludes the field's ability to match the driving primary processes behind observable phenomenology in animal "OCD" with human behavioral disorders. We propose that excessive grooming behaviors in animals may eventually prove to be equally, or possibly more relevant to, other conditions in humans that involve pathological grooming or grooming-like behaviors, such as trichotillomania, body dysmorphic disorder, olfactory reference syndrome, compulsive skin-picking, and onychophagia. Research is needed to better understand pathological grooming behaviors in both humans and animals, as animal models have the potential to elucidate pathogenic mechanisms and inform the treatment of these psychiatric conditions in humans.

  7. Collisional Grooming Models of the Kuiper Belt Dust Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchner, Marc J

    2010-01-01

    We modeled the 3-D structure of the Kuiper Belt dust cloud at four different dust production rates, incorporating both planet-dust interactions and grain-grain collisions using the collisional grooming algorithm. Simulated images of a model with a face-on optical depth of ~10^-4 primarily show an azimuthally-symmetric ring at 40-47 AU in submillimeter and infrared wavelengths; this ring is associated with the cold classical Kuiper Belt. For models with lower optical depths (10^-6 and 10^-7), synthetic infrared images show that the ring widens and a gap opens in the ring at the location of of Neptune; this feature is caused by trapping of dust grains in Neptune's mean motion resonances. At low optical depths, a secondary ring also appears associated with the hole cleared in the center of the disk by Saturn. Our simulations, which incorporate 25 different grain sizes, illustrate that grain-grain collisions are important in sculpting today's Kuiper Belt dust, and probably other aspects of the Solar System dust c...

  8. Noise impacts from professional dog grooming forced-air dryers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M Scheifele

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to measure the sound output of four commonly used brands of forced-air dryers used by dog groomers in the United States. Many dog groomers have questions about the effect of this exposure on their hearing, as well as on the hearing of the dogs that are being groomed. Readings taken from each dryer at 1 meter (the likely distance of the dryer from the groomer and the dog showed average levels ranging from 105.5 to 108.3 dB SPL or 94.8 to 108.0 dBA. Using the 90 dBA criterion required by the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration, dog groomers/bathers are at risk if exposure to the lowest intensity dryer (94.8 dBA exceeds 4 hours per day. If the more stringent 85 dBA criterion and 3 dB tradeoff is applied, less than one hour of exposure is permissible in an 8 hour day. Cautions are recommended for any persons exposed to noise from forced-air dryers.

  9. Vocal expressions of emotion and positive and negative basic emotions [Abstract

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, S.; Sauter, D.

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that vocal and facial expressions of the ‘basic’ emotions share aspects of processing. Thus amygdala damage compromises the perception of fear and anger from the face and from the voice. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that there exist positive basic emotions, expressed mainly in the voice (Ekman, 1992). Vocal stimuli were produced to express the specific positive emotions of amusement, achievement, pleasure, contentment and relief.

  10. Vocal therapy of hyperkinetic dysphonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumović Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hyperkinetic (hyperfunctional dysphonia is a common pathology. The disorder is often found in vocal professionals faced with high vocal requirements. Objective. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vocal therapy on voice condition characterized by hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. Methods. The study included 100 adult patients and 27 children aged 4-16 years with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. A subjective acoustic analysis using the GIRBAS scale was performed prior to and after vocal therapy. Twenty adult patients and 10 children underwent objective acoustic analysis including several acoustic parameters. Pathological vocal qualities (hoarse, harsh and breathy voice were also obtained by computer analysis. Results. The subjective acoustic analysis revealed a significant (p<0.01 reduction in all dysphonia parameters after vocal treatment in adults and children. After treatment, all levels of dysphonia were lowered in 85% (85/100 of adult patients and 29% (29/100 had a normal voice. Before vocal therapy 9 children had severe, 13 had moderate and 8 slight dysphonia. After vocal therapy only 1 child had severe dysphonia, 7 had moderate, 10 had slight levels of dysphonia and 9 were without voice disorder. The objective acoustic analysis in adults revealed a significant improvement (p≤0.025 in all dysphonia parameters except SD F0 and jitter %. In children, the acoustic parameters SD F0, jitter % and NNE (normal noise energy were significantly improved (p=0.003-0.03. Pathological voice qualities were also improved in adults and children (p<0.05. Conclusion. Vocal therapy effectively improves the voice in hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules in both adults and children, affecting diverse acoustic parameters.

  11. Physiologically driven avian vocal synthesizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitt, Jacobo D.; Arneodo, Ezequiel M.; Goller, Franz; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2010-03-01

    In this work, we build an electronic syrinx, i.e., a programmable electronic device capable of integrating biomechanical model equations for the avian vocal organ in order to synthesize song. This vocal prosthesis is controlled by the bird’s neural instructions to respiratory and the syringeal motor systems, thus opening great potential for studying motor control and its modification by sensory feedback mechanisms. Furthermore, a well-functioning subject-controlled vocal prosthesis can lay the foundation for similar devices in humans and thus provide directly health-related data and procedures.

  12. Alterations in grooming activity and syntax in heterozygous SERT and BDNF knockout mice: the utility of behavior-recognition tools to characterize mutant mouse phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzar, Evan J; Pham, Mimi; Roth, Andrew; Cachat, Jonathan; Green, Jeremy; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Kalueff, Allan V

    2012-12-01

    Serotonin transporter (SERT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are key modulators of molecular signaling, cognition and behavior. Although SERT and BDNF mutant mouse phenotypes have been extensively characterized, little is known about their self-grooming behavior. Grooming represents an important behavioral domain sensitive to environmental stimuli and is increasingly used as a model for repetitive behavioral syndromes, such as autism and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The present study used heterozygous ((+/-)) SERT and BDNF male mutant mice on a C57BL/6J background and assessed their spontaneous self-grooming behavior applying both manual and automated techniques. Overall, SERT(+/-) mice displayed a general increase in grooming behavior, as indicated by more grooming bouts and more transitions between specific grooming stages. SERT(+/-) mice also aborted more grooming bouts, but showed generally unaltered activity levels in the observation chamber. In contrast, BDNF(+/-) mice displayed a global reduction in grooming activity, with fewer bouts and transitions between specific grooming stages, altered grooming syntax, as well as hypolocomotion and increased turning behavior. Finally, grooming data collected by manual and automated methods (HomeCageScan) significantly correlated in our experiments, confirming the utility of automated high-throughput quantification of grooming behaviors in various genetic mouse models with increased or decreased grooming phenotypes. Taken together, these findings indicate that mouse self-grooming behavior is a reliable behavioral biomarker of genetic deficits in SERT and BDNF pathways, and can be reliably measured using automated behavior-recognition technology.

  13. Modal locking between vocal fold and vocal tract oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Aalto, Atte; Malinen, Jarmo; Vainio, Martti

    2012-01-01

    The human vocal folds are known to interact with the vocal tract acoustics during voiced speech production; namely a nonlinear source-filter coupling has been observed both by using models and in \\emph{in vivo} phonation. These phenomena are approached from two directions in this article. We first present a computational dynamical model of the speech apparatus that contains an explicit filter-source feedback mechanism from the vocal tract acoustics back to the vocal folds oscillations. The model was used to simulate vocal pitch glideswhere the trajectory was forced to cross the lowest vocal tract resonance, i.e., the lowest formant $F_1$. Similar patterns produced by human participants were then studied. Both the simulations and the experimental results reveal an effect when the glides cross the first formant (as may happen in \\textipa{[i]}). Conversely, this effect is not observed if there is no formant within the glide range (as is the case in \\textipa{[\\textscripta]}). The experiments show smaller effect c...

  14. Using biological markets principles to examine patterns of grooming exchange in Macaca thibetana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, K N; Berman, C M; Ogawa, H; Li, J

    2011-12-01

    Biological markets principles offer testable hypotheses to explain variation in grooming exchange patterns among nonhuman primates. They predict that when within-group contest competition (WGC) is high and dominance hierarchies steep, grooming interchange with other "commodity" behaviors (such as agonistic support) should prevail. In contrast, when WGC is low and gradients shallow, market theory predicts that grooming reciprocity should prevail. We tested these predictions in a wild, provisioned Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) group across six time periods during which the group had been subjected to varying degrees of range restriction. Data on female-female aggression, grooming, and support were collected using all-occurrences and focal animal sampling techniques, and analyzed using ANCOVA methods and correlation analyses. We found that hierarchical steepness varied significantly across periods, but did not correlate with two indirect indicators of WGC (group size and range restriction) in predicted directions. Contrary to expectations, we found a negative correlation between steepness and group size, perhaps because the responses of group members to external risks (i.e. prolonged and unavoidable exposure to humans) may have overshadowed the effects of WGC. As predicted, grooming reciprocity was significant in each period and negatively correlated with steepness, even after we controlled group size, kinship, rank differences, and proximity. In contrast, there was no evidence for grooming interchange with agonistic support or for a positive relationship between interchange and steepness. We hypothesize that stressful conditions and/or the presence of stable hierarchies during each period may have led to a greater market demand for grooming than support. We suggest that future studies testing these predictions consider more direct measures of WGC and commodities in addition to support, such as feeding tolerance and access to infants.

  15. Vocal Improvisation for Elementary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Keith P.

    1980-01-01

    The author describes the three-phase process of musical creativity (exploratory, invention, organizational), identifying activities in each of the creative phases. Included are vocal impression, picture sounds, chord tones, and name improvisation. Selected readings and recordings are included. (KC)

  16. Vocal therapy of hyperkinetic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumović, Gordana; Veselinović, Mila; Arbutina, Tanja; Škrbić, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Hyperkinetic (hyperfunctional) dysphonia is a common pathology. The disorder is often found in vocal professionals faced with high vocal requirements. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vocal therapy on voice condition characterized by hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. The study included 100 adult patients and 27 children aged 4-16 years with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. A subjective acoustic analysis using the GIRBAS scale was performed prior to and after vocal therapy. Twenty adult patients and 10 children underwent objective acoustic analysis including several acoustic parameters. Pathological vocal qualities (hoarse, harsh and breathy voice) were also obtained by computer analysis. The subjective acoustic analysis revealed a significant (pdysphonia parameters after vocal treatment in adults and children. After treatment, all levels of dysphonia were lowered in 85% (85/100) of adult patients and 29% (29/100) had a normal voice. Before vocal therapy 9 children had severe, 13 had moderate and 8 slight dysphonia. After vocal therapy only 1 child had severe dysphonia, 7 had moderate, 10 had slight levels of dysphonia and 9 were without voice disorder. The objective acoustic analysis in adults revealed a significant improvement (p≤0.025) in all dysphonia parameters except SD FO and jitter %. In children, the acoustic parameters SD FO, jitter % and NNE (normal noise energy) were significantly improved (p=0.003-0.03). Pathological voice qualities were also improved in adults and children (pdysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules in both adults and children, affectinq diverse acoustic parameters.

  17. Visualizing sound emission of elephant vocalizations: evidence for two rumble production types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela S Stoeger

    Full Text Available Recent comparative data reveal that formant frequencies are cues to body size in animals, due to a close relationship between formant frequency spacing, vocal tract length and overall body size. Accordingly, intriguing morphological adaptations to elongate the vocal tract in order to lower formants occur in several species, with the size exaggeration hypothesis being proposed to justify most of these observations. While the elephant trunk is strongly implicated to account for the low formants of elephant rumbles, it is unknown whether elephants emit these vocalizations exclusively through the trunk, or whether the mouth is also involved in rumble production. In this study we used a sound visualization method (an acoustic camera to record rumbles of five captive African elephants during spatial separation and subsequent bonding situations. Our results showed that the female elephants in our analysis produced two distinct types of rumble vocalizations based on vocal path differences: a nasally- and an orally-emitted rumble. Interestingly, nasal rumbles predominated during contact calling, whereas oral rumbles were mainly produced in bonding situations. In addition, nasal and oral rumbles varied considerably in their acoustic structure. In particular, the values of the first two formants reflected the estimated lengths of the vocal paths, corresponding to a vocal tract length of around 2 meters for nasal, and around 0.7 meters for oral rumbles. These results suggest that African elephants may be switching vocal paths to actively vary vocal tract length (with considerable variation in formants according to context, and call for further research investigating the function of formant modulation in elephant vocalizations. Furthermore, by confirming the use of the elephant trunk in long distance rumble production, our findings provide an explanation for the extremely low formants in these calls, and may also indicate that formant lowering functions to

  18. Neural FoxP2 and FoxP1 expression in the budgerigar, an avian species with adult vocal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Erina; Perez, Jemima M; Whitney, Osceola; Chen, Qianqian; White, Stephanie A; Wright, Timothy F

    2015-04-15

    Vocal learning underlies acquisition of both language in humans and vocal signals in some avian taxa. These bird groups and humans exhibit convergent developmental phases and associated brain pathways for vocal communication. The transcription factor FoxP2 plays critical roles in vocal learning in humans and songbirds. Another member of the forkhead box gene family, FoxP1 also shows high expression in brain areas involved in vocal learning and production. Here, we investigate FoxP2 and FoxP1 mRNA and protein in adult male budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), a parrot species that exhibits vocal learning as both juveniles and adults. To examine these molecules in adult vocal learners, we compared their expression patterns in the budgerigar striatal nucleus involved in vocal learning, magnocellular nucleus of the medial striatum (MMSt), across birds with different vocal states, such as vocalizing to a female (directed), vocalizing alone (undirected), and non-vocalizing. We found that both FoxP2 mRNA and protein expressions were consistently lower in MMSt than in the adjacent striatum regardless of the vocal states, whereas previous work has shown that songbirds exhibit down-regulation in the homologous region, Area X, only after singing alone. In contrast, FoxP1 levels were high in MMSt compared to the adjacent striatum in all groups. Taken together these results strengthen the general hypothesis that FoxP2 and FoxP1 have specialized expression in vocal nuclei across a range of taxa, and suggest that the adult vocal plasticity seen in budgerigars may be a product of persistent down-regulation of FoxP2 in MMSt.

  19. Song evolution, speciation, and vocal learning in passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Nicholas A; Burns, Kevin J; Tobias, Joseph A; Claramunt, Santiago; Seddon, Nathalie; Derryberry, Elizabeth P

    2017-03-01

    Phenotypic divergence can promote reproductive isolation and speciation, suggesting a possible link between rates of phenotypic evolution and the tempo of speciation at multiple evolutionary scales. To date, most macroevolutionary studies of diversification have focused on morphological traits, whereas behavioral traits─including vocal signals─are rarely considered. Thus, although behavioral traits often mediate mate choice and gene flow, we have a limited understanding of how behavioral evolution contributes to diversification. Furthermore, the developmental mode by which behavioral traits are acquired may affect rates of behavioral evolution, although this hypothesis is seldom tested in a phylogenetic framework. Here, we examine evidence for rate shifts in vocal evolution and speciation across two major radiations of codistributed passerines: one oscine clade with learned songs (Thraupidae) and one suboscine clade with innate songs (Furnariidae). We find that evolutionary bursts in rates of speciation and song evolution are coincident in both thraupids and furnariids. Further, overall rates of vocal evolution are higher among taxa with learned rather than innate songs. Taken together, these findings suggest an association between macroevolutionary bursts in speciation and vocal evolution, and that the tempo of behavioral evolution can be influenced by variation in developmental modes among lineages. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. A suppression hierarchy among competing motor programs drives sequential grooming in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeds, Andrew M; Ravbar, Primoz; Chung, Phuong; Hampel, Stefanie; Midgley, Frank M; Mensh, Brett D; Simpson, Julie H

    2014-08-19

    Motor sequences are formed through the serial execution of different movements, but how nervous systems implement this process remains largely unknown. We determined the organizational principles governing how dirty fruit flies groom their bodies with sequential movements. Using genetically targeted activation of neural subsets, we drove distinct motor programs that clean individual body parts. This enabled competition experiments revealing that the motor programs are organized into a suppression hierarchy; motor programs that occur first suppress those that occur later. Cleaning one body part reduces the sensory drive to its motor program, which relieves suppression of the next movement, allowing the grooming sequence to progress down the hierarchy. A model featuring independently evoked cleaning movements activated in parallel, but selected serially through hierarchical suppression, was successful in reproducing the grooming sequence. This provides the first example of an innate motor sequence implemented by the prevailing model for generating human action sequences.

  1. The critical effect of social grooming costs on structures of social relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Takano, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    The number of possible social relationships a single human being can be involved in is limited, and the distribution of strengths of such relationships show significant skew. This skewness suggests that costs and benefits of the social interactions required to bond with others (social grooming) depend on the strength of the social relationships: if it involved uniform costs and benefits, the distribution would not be skew. In this paper, we show that the cost of social grooming increases with the strength of social relationships, and its gradient increases the width and shallowness of these relationships as evident from an analysis of data from six communication systems. We show that narrow and deep social relationships require higher costs per relationship than do wide and shallow ones, using a comparison with a null model where social grooming costs were assumed to be independent of the strength of social relationships. This may be due to increase in communication volumes, such as number of characters and d...

  2. Dynamic Protection-at-Lightpath Algorithms in Traffic-Grooming WDM Mesh Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HERongxi; WENHaibo; LILemin

    2005-01-01

    Under the constraints of the number of transceivers per node and wavelength continuity, we investigate the problem of provisioning Protection-at-lightpath (PAL) level for connections with different bandwidth granularities in traffic-grooming WDM mesh networks. We first develop a new Protection graph model (PGM) to represent current state of the network, i.e., the information about transceivers, wavelengths, protected lightpath, bandwidth, etc. We then present two grooming policies for PAL, which are called Minimal wavelength-link policy (MWP) and Minimal transceiver policy (MTP). Based on the PGM, we propose two dynamic PAL algorithms with MWP and MTP respectively, which are called Minimal wavelength-link method (MWM) and Minimal transceiver method (MTM). At last we compare the performance of MWM and MTM with other methods utilizing different grooming policies presented in previous literatures via simulations. Our results show that MWM and MTM outperform other methods significantly and MWM has a better performance than MTM.

  3. Analysis of single-hop traffic grooming in mesh WDM optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Chunsheng; Qiao, Chunming; Dixit, Sudhir

    2003-10-01

    Traffic grooming is a significant task in internetworking between an optical wavelength-routed core network that supplies "pipes" at the wavelength-granularity, and the attached client (e.g., IP) networks that usually require connections of sub-wavelength granularity. The focus of this study is to develop a theoretical performance analysis model for online traffic grooming in mesh optical networks. This paper first briefly discusses the difficulty in applying the analytic models developed for circuit-switched networks (including wavelength-routed optical networks) to the traffic grooming problem. It then develops a link blocking model based on the continuous time Markov chain and queueing theory, and finally conducts end-to-end performance analysis based on the Erlang fixed-point approximation. The results obtained from the analytic model are shown to match well with numerical results obtained from simulations.

  4. Specialized motor-driven dusp1 expression in the song systems of multiple lineages of vocal learning birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruhito Horita

    Full Text Available Mechanisms for the evolution of convergent behavioral traits are largely unknown. Vocal learning is one such trait that evolved multiple times and is necessary in humans for the acquisition of spoken language. Among birds, vocal learning is evolved in songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds. Each time similar forebrain song nuclei specialized for vocal learning and production have evolved. This finding led to the hypothesis that the behavioral and neuroanatomical convergences for vocal learning could be associated with molecular convergence. We previously found that the neural activity-induced gene dual specificity phosphatase 1 (dusp1 was up-regulated in non-vocal circuits, specifically in sensory-input neurons of the thalamus and telencephalon; however, dusp1 was not up-regulated in higher order sensory neurons or motor circuits. Here we show that song motor nuclei are an exception to this pattern. The song nuclei of species from all known vocal learning avian lineages showed motor-driven up-regulation of dusp1 expression induced by singing. There was no detectable motor-driven dusp1 expression throughout the rest of the forebrain after non-vocal motor performance. This pattern contrasts with expression of the commonly studied activity-induced gene egr1, which shows motor-driven expression in song nuclei induced by singing, but also motor-driven expression in adjacent brain regions after non-vocal motor behaviors. In the vocal non-learning avian species, we found no detectable vocalizing-driven dusp1 expression in the forebrain. These findings suggest that independent evolutions of neural systems for vocal learning were accompanied by selection for specialized motor-driven expression of the dusp1 gene in those circuits. This specialized expression of dusp1 could potentially lead to differential regulation of dusp1-modulated molecular cascades in vocal learning circuits.

  5. The impact of vocal hyperfunction on relative fundamental frequency during voicing offset and onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Cara E; Hillman, Robert E; Heaton, James T

    2010-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that individuals with vocal hyperfunction would show decreases in relative fundamental frequency (RFF) surrounding a voiceless consonant. This retrospective study of 2 clinical databases used speech samples from 15 control participants and women with hyperfunction-related voice disorders: 82 prior to treatment (muscle tension dysphonia, n=22; vocal fold nodules, n=30; vocal fold polyps, N=30) and 18 before and after surgical removal of vocal fold nodules or polyps. Acoustic samples were analyzed with respect to the RFF at the offset and onset of voicing surrounding a voiceless consonant. Individuals with vocal hyperfunction in a large clinical sample showed significant lowering of offset and onset RFF compared with controls. Voicing offset and onset RFFs were not significantly changed by the removal of vocal fold lesions in the surgical group. Altered offset and onset RFF in patients with hyperfunction-related voice disorders can be interpreted as a by-product of heightened levels of laryngeal muscle tension. Measurement of RFF during voice offset and onset has potential for use as a simple, noninvasive measure of vocal hyperfunction.

  6. Multifunctional and Context-Dependent Control of Vocal Acoustics by Individual Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Kyle H; Elemans, Coen P H; Sober, Samuel J

    2015-10-21

    The relationship between muscle activity and behavioral output determines how the brain controls and modifies complex skills. In vocal control, ensembles of muscles are used to precisely tune single acoustic parameters such as fundamental frequency and sound amplitude. If individual vocal muscles were dedicated to the control of single parameters, then the brain could control each parameter independently by modulating the appropriate muscle or muscles. Alternatively, if each muscle influenced multiple parameters, a more complex control strategy would be required to selectively modulate a single parameter. Additionally, it is unknown whether the function of single muscles is fixed or varies across different vocal gestures. A fixed relationship would allow the brain to use the same changes in muscle activation to, for example, increase the fundamental frequency of different vocal gestures, whereas a context-dependent scheme would require the brain to calculate different motor modifications in each case. We tested the hypothesis that single muscles control multiple acoustic parameters and that the function of single muscles varies across gestures using three complementary approaches. First, we recorded electromyographic data from vocal muscles in singing Bengalese finches. Second, we electrically perturbed the activity of single muscles during song. Third, we developed an ex vivo technique to analyze the biomechanical and acoustic consequences of single-muscle perturbations. We found that single muscles drive changes in multiple parameters and that the function of single muscles differs across vocal gestures, suggesting that the brain uses a complex, gesture-dependent control scheme to regulate vocal output.

  7. Judgement bias in goats (Capra hircus): investigating the effects of human grooming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Animal emotional states can be investigated by evaluating their impact on cognitive processes. In this study, we used a judgement bias paradigm to determine if short-term positive human-animal interaction (grooming) induced a positive affective state in goats. We tested two groups of goats and trained them to discriminate between a rewarded and a non-rewarded location over nine training days. During training, the experimental group (n = 9) was gently groomed by brushing their heads and backs for five min over 11 days (nine training days, plus two testing days, total time 55 min). During training, the control group (n = 10) did not experience any direct interaction with the experimenter, but was kept unconstrained next to him for the same period of time. After successful completion of the training, the responses (latency time) of the two groups to reach ambiguous locations situated between the two reference locations (i.e., rewarded/non-rewarded) were compared over two days of testing. There was not a positive bias effect after the animals had been groomed. In a second experiment, 10 goats were tested to investigate whether grooming induced changes in physiological activation (i.e., heart rate and heart rate variability). Heart rate increased when goats were groomed compared to the baseline condition, when the same goats did not receive any contact with the experimenter. Also, subjects did not move away from the experimenter, suggesting that the grooming was positively accepted. The very good care and the regular positive contacts that goats received from humans at the study site could potentially account for the results obtained. Good husbandry outcomes are influenced by animals’ perception of the events and this is based on current circumstances, past experiences and individual variables. Taking into account animals’ individual characteristics and identifying effective strategies to induce positive emotions could increase the understanding and reliability of

  8. Zfp462 deficiency causes anxiety-like behaviors with excessive self-grooming in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B; Zheng, Y; Shi, H; Du, X; Zhang, Y; Wei, B; Luo, M; Wang, H; Wu, X; Hua, X; Sun, M; Xu, X

    2017-02-01

    Zfp462 is a newly identified vertebrate-specific zinc finger protein that contains nearly 2500 amino acids and 23 putative C2H2-type zinc finger domains. So far, the functions of Zfp462 remain unclear. In our study, we showed that Zfp462 is expressed predominantly in the developing brain, especially in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus regions from embryonic day 7.5 to early postnatal stage. By using a piggyBac transposon-generated Zfp462 knockout (KO) mouse model, we found that Zfp462 KO mice exhibited prenatal lethality with normal neural tube patterning, whereas heterozygous (Het) Zfp462 KO (Zfp462(+/-) ) mice showed developmental delay with low body weight and brain weight. Behavioral studies showed that Zfp462(+/-) mice presented anxiety-like behaviors with excessive self-grooming and hair loss, which were similar to the pathological grooming behaviors in Hoxb8 KO mice. Further analysis of grooming microstructure showed the impairment of grooming patterning in Zfp462(+/-) mice. In addition, the mRNA levels of Pbx1 (pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox 1, an interacting protein of Zfp462) and Hoxb8 decreased in the brains of Zfp462(+/-) mice, which may be the cause of anxiety-like behaviors. Finally, imipramine, a widely used and effective anti-anxiety medicine, rescued anxiety-like behaviors and excessive self-grooming in Zfp462(+/-) mice. In conclusion, Zfp462 deficiency causes anxiety-like behaviors with excessive self-grooming in mice. This provides a novel genetic mouse model for anxiety disorders and a useful tool to determine potential therapeutic targets for anxiety disorders and screen anti-anxiety drugs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  9. Judgement bias in goats (Capra hircus): investigating the effects of human grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baciadonna, Luigi; Nawroth, Christian; McElligott, Alan G

    2016-01-01

    Animal emotional states can be investigated by evaluating their impact on cognitive processes. In this study, we used a judgement bias paradigm to determine if short-term positive human-animal interaction (grooming) induced a positive affective state in goats. We tested two groups of goats and trained them to discriminate between a rewarded and a non-rewarded location over nine training days. During training, the experimental group (n = 9) was gently groomed by brushing their heads and backs for five min over 11 days (nine training days, plus two testing days, total time 55 min). During training, the control group (n = 10) did not experience any direct interaction with the experimenter, but was kept unconstrained next to him for the same period of time. After successful completion of the training, the responses (latency time) of the two groups to reach ambiguous locations situated between the two reference locations (i.e., rewarded/non-rewarded) were compared over two days of testing. There was not a positive bias effect after the animals had been groomed. In a second experiment, 10 goats were tested to investigate whether grooming induced changes in physiological activation (i.e., heart rate and heart rate variability). Heart rate increased when goats were groomed compared to the baseline condition, when the same goats did not receive any contact with the experimenter. Also, subjects did not move away from the experimenter, suggesting that the grooming was positively accepted. The very good care and the regular positive contacts that goats received from humans at the study site could potentially account for the results obtained. Good husbandry outcomes are influenced by animals' perception of the events and this is based on current circumstances, past experiences and individual variables. Taking into account animals' individual characteristics and identifying effective strategies to induce positive emotions could increase the understanding and reliability of using

  10. Judgement bias in goats (Capra hircus: investigating the effects of human grooming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Baciadonna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal emotional states can be investigated by evaluating their impact on cognitive processes. In this study, we used a judgement bias paradigm to determine if short-term positive human-animal interaction (grooming induced a positive affective state in goats. We tested two groups of goats and trained them to discriminate between a rewarded and a non-rewarded location over nine training days. During training, the experimental group (n = 9 was gently groomed by brushing their heads and backs for five min over 11 days (nine training days, plus two testing days, total time 55 min. During training, the control group (n = 10 did not experience any direct interaction with the experimenter, but was kept unconstrained next to him for the same period of time. After successful completion of the training, the responses (latency time of the two groups to reach ambiguous locations situated between the two reference locations (i.e., rewarded/non-rewarded were compared over two days of testing. There was not a positive bias effect after the animals had been groomed. In a second experiment, 10 goats were tested to investigate whether grooming induced changes in physiological activation (i.e., heart rate and heart rate variability. Heart rate increased when goats were groomed compared to the baseline condition, when the same goats did not receive any contact with the experimenter. Also, subjects did not move away from the experimenter, suggesting that the grooming was positively accepted. The very good care and the regular positive contacts that goats received from humans at the study site could potentially account for the results obtained. Good husbandry outcomes are influenced by animals’ perception of the events and this is based on current circumstances, past experiences and individual variables. Taking into account animals’ individual characteristics and identifying effective strategies to induce positive emotions could increase the understanding and

  11. The Null Hypothesis as the Research Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Barbara E.; Pohlmann, John T.

    A procedure was developed within hypothesis-testing logic that allows researchers to support a hypothesis that has traditionally been the statistical or null hypothesis. Four activities involved in attainment of this goal were discussed: (1) development of statistical logic needed to define the sampling distribution associated with the hypothesis…

  12. An auxiliary graph based dynamic traffic grooming algorithm in spatial division multiplexing enabled elastic optical networks with multi-core fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongli; Tian, Rui; Yu, Xiaosong; Zhang, Jiawei; Zhang, Jie

    2017-03-01

    A proper traffic grooming strategy in dynamic optical networks can improve the utilization of bandwidth resources. An auxiliary graph (AG) is designed to solve the traffic grooming problem under a dynamic traffic scenario in spatial division multiplexing enabled elastic optical networks (SDM-EON) with multi-core fibers. Five traffic grooming policies achieved by adjusting the edge weights of an AG are proposed and evaluated through simulation: maximal electrical grooming (MEG), maximal optical grooming (MOG), maximal SDM grooming (MSG), minimize virtual hops (MVH), and minimize physical hops (MPH). Numeric results show that each traffic grooming policy has its own features. Among different traffic grooming policies, an MPH policy can achieve the lowest bandwidth blocking ratio, MEG can save the most transponders, and MSG can obtain the fewest cores for each request.

  13. Towards high-throughput phenotyping of complex patterned behaviors in rodents: focus on mouse self-grooming and its sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzar, Evan; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Roth, Andrew; Green, Jeremy; Pham, Mimi; Stewart, Adam; Liang, Yiqing; Kobla, Vikrant; Kalueff, Allan V

    2011-12-01

    Increasingly recognized in biological psychiatry, rodent self-grooming is a complex patterned behavior with evolutionarily conserved cephalo-caudal progression. While grooming is traditionally assessed by the latency, frequency and duration, its sequencing represents another important domain sensitive to various experimental manipulations. Such behavioral complexity requires novel objective approaches to quantify rodent grooming, in addition to time-consuming and highly variable manual observation. The present study combined modern behavior-recognition video-tracking technologies (CleverSys, Inc.) with manual observation to characterize in-depth spontaneous (novelty-induced) and artificial (water-induced) self-grooming in adult male C57BL/6J mice. We specifically focused on individual episodes of grooming (paw licking, head washing, body/leg washing, and tail/genital grooming), their duration and transitions between episodes. Overall, the frequency, duration and transitions detected using the automated approach significantly correlated with manual observations (R=0.51-0.7, pgrooming, also indicating that behavior-recognition tools can be applied to characterize both the amount and sequential organization (patterning) of rodent grooming. Together with further refinement and methodological advancement, this approach will foster high-throughput neurophenotyping of grooming, with multiple applications in drug screening and testing of genetically modified animals.

  14. Morphological correlates of the grooming claw in distal phalanges of platyrrhines and other primates: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiolino, Stephanie; Boyer, Doug M; Rosenberger, Alfred

    2011-12-01

    Grooming claws are present on the second pedal digits of strepsirhines and on the second and third pedal digits of tarsiers. However, their presence in New World monkeys is often overlooked. As such, the absence of a grooming claw is generally considered an anthropoid synapomorphy. This study utilizes a quantitative multivariate analysis to define grooming claw morphology and document its presence in platyrrhine monkeys. Our results show that owl monkeys possess grooming claws similar to those of strepsirhines, while titi monkeys possess grooming claw-like morphology. Therefore, we conclude that anthropoids are not clearly united by the absence of a grooming claw. Furthermore, due to their presence in three major primate clades, we infer that it is likely that a grooming claw was present on the second pedal digit of the ancestor of living primates. Therefore, we advise the reassessment of fossil adapids in light of the anatomical correlates described here. This should increase resolution on the homology and polarity of grooming claw morphology, and, therefore, will help provide a sharper picture of primate evolution.

  15. University Vocal Training and Vocal Health of Music Educators and Music Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Vicki D.; Cohen, Nicki

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the university vocal training and vocal health of music educators and music therapists. The participants (N = 426), music educators (n = 351) and music therapists (n = 75), completed a survey addressing demographics, vocal training, voice usage, and vocal health. Both groups reported singing at least 50%…

  16. A traffic model of optical networks based on time-space complexity and traffic grooming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yongli; Zhang Jie; Han Dahai; Wang Lei; Chen Xiuzhong; Gu Wanyi

    2009-01-01

    This paper researched the traffic of optical networks in time-space complexity, proposed a novel traffic model for complex optical networks based on traffic grooming, designed a traffic generator GTS (generator based on time and space) with "centralized + distributed" idea, and then made a simulation in C language. Experiments results show that GTS can produce the virtual network topology which can change dynamically with the characteristic of scaling-free network. GTS can also groom the different traffic and trigger them under real-time or scheduling mechanisms, generating different optical connections. This traffic model is convenient for the simulation of optical networks considering the traffic complexity.

  17. Isolation of mutations affecting neural circuitry required for grooming behavior in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillis, R W; Bramlage, A T; Wotus, C; Whittaker, A; Gramates, L S; Seppala, D; Farahanchi, F; Caruccio, P; Murphey, R K

    1993-03-01

    We have developed a screen for the isolation of mutations that produce neural defects in adult Drosophila melanogaster. In this screen, we identify mutants as flies unable to remove a light coating of applied dust in a 2-hr period. We have recovered and characterized six mutations and have found that they produce coordination defects and some have reduced levels of reflex responsiveness to the stimulation of single tactile sensory bristles. The grooming defects produced by all six of the mutations are recessive, and each of the mutations has been genetically mapped. We have also used our assay to test the grooming ability of stocks containing mutations that produce known neural defects.

  18. The vocal monotony of monogamy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jeanette

    2003-04-01

    There are four phocids in waters around Antarctica: Weddell, leopard, crabeater, and Ross seals. These four species provide a unique opportunity to examine underwater vocal behavior in species sharing the same ecosystem. Some species live in pack ice, others in factice, but all are restricted to the Antarctic or sub-Antarctic islands. All breed and produce vocalizations under water. Social systems range from polygyny in large breeding colonies, to serial monogamy, to solitary species. The type of mating system influences the number of underwater vocalizations in the repertoire, with monogamous seals producing only a single call, polygynous species producing up to 35 calls, and solitary species an intermediate number of about 10 calls. Breeding occurs during the austral spring and each species carves-out an acoustic niche for communicating, with species using different frequency ranges, temporal patterns, and amplitude changes to convey their species-specific calls and presumably reduce acoustic competition. Some species exhibit geographic variations in their vocalizations around the continent, which may reflect discrete breeding populations. Some seals become silent during a vulnerable time of predation by killer whales, perhaps to avoid detection. Overall, vocalizations of these seals exhibit adaptive characteristics that reflect the co-evolution among species in the same ecosystem.

  19. Modeling the Biomechanical Influence of Epilaryngeal Stricture on the Vocal Folds: A Low-Dimensional Model of Vocal-Ventricular Fold Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisik, Scott R.; Esling, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Physiological and phonetic studies suggest that, at moderate levels of epilaryngeal stricture, the ventricular folds impinge upon the vocal folds and influence their dynamical behavior, which is thought to be responsible for constricted laryngeal sounds. In this work, the authors examine this hypothesis through biomechanical modeling.…

  20. Cross-channel effects of vocal and physical attractiveness and their implications for interpersonal perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, M; Miyake, K; Hodgins, H S

    1991-04-01

    Judges' ratings of senders' vocal attractiveness from face-plus-voice (F+V) cues were influenced by senders' physical attractiveness, and ratings of senders' physical attractiveness from F+V cues were influenced by senders' vocal attractiveness. This occurred even when judges were warned not to pay attention to face when rating vocal attractiveness and not to pay attention to voice when rating physical attractiveness. Instructions to judge attractiveness without being told which channel to attend to resulted in ratings influenced by both vocal and physical attractiveness of senders. Because of cross-channel effects, F+V attractiveness ratings should be more highly related to F+V personality impressions than attractiveness ratings based on only face or only voice. The results supported this hypothesis. Implications of cross-channel effects for research on the attractiveness stereotype were discussed.

  1. The effect of vocal tract impedance on the vocal folds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Selamtzis, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    , which is the mode that is most limited in pitch range, was tested at its pitch limit C5 (523 Hz) under normal conditions and when the singer has inhaled Helium. When inhaling Helium the acoustic impedance of the vocal tract is reduced in magnitude and the resonances are scaled upwards in frequency due...... to different density and speed of sound in Helium. The electroglottograph shows a change in waveform when the singer inhales helium. The percentage of the glottal cycle when the vocal cords are open, the so-called open quotient, increases from 40 to 55%. When inhaling helium the male singer was able reach Eb5...

  2. Frequent vocalizing is negatively associated with brood parasitism in a host of the brown-headed cowbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, Sonya E.; Conway, Courtney J.

    2012-01-01

    Brood parasitism by the Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) can substantially affect host species' reproductive success. The "host-activity" hypothesis suggests that parasites eavesdrop on conspicuous behaviors to locate and parasitize hosts, and several studies of cowbird hosts support this hypothesis. In contrast, a recent study of the Least Bell's Vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus) reported a negative association between the host's vocalization rate near the nest and brood parasitism. This contradictory pattern is intriguing because Bell's Vireo is a common cowbird host and vocalizes near and on its nests. We tested a key assumption of the host-activity hypothesis in a different subspecies (V. b. arizonae) to determine whether the contradictory pattern reported in V. b. pusillus is an anomaly or could be generalized to other subspecies. Unparasitized vireos vocalized more frequently than parasitized birds, confirming that the pattern in Bell's Vireos is the opposite of that reported for other cowbird hosts. Nesting stage played a role: unparasitized birds vocalized more than parasitized birds only during the nest-building and incubation stages. Given that vocalization rate and other behaviors change through the breeding season, future tests of the host-activity hypothesis should control for nesting stage. Moreover, future efforts to identify the underlying cause for the association between vocalization rate and probability of parasitism should consider the possibility of reciprocal causal relationships between them. We propose five additional hypotheses to explain why in Bell's Vireo the pattern between these two traits is opposite of what has been reported in other birds.

  3. An Investigation of Extinction-Induced Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Amber L.; Shillingsburg, M. Alice; Call, Nathan A.; Burton, Britney; Bowen, Crystal N.

    2011-01-01

    Children with autism have significant communication delays. Although some children develop vocalizations through shaping and differential reinforcement, others rarely exhibit vocalizations, and alternative methods are targeted in intervention. However, vocal language often remains a goal for caregivers and clinicians. Thus, strategies to increase…

  4. Cetacean vocal learning and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Vincent M

    2014-10-01

    The cetaceans are one of the few mammalian clades capable of vocal production learning. Evidence for this comes from synchronous changes in song patterns of baleen whales and experimental work on toothed whales in captivity. While baleen whales like many vocal learners use this skill in song displays that are involved in sexual selection, toothed whales use learned signals in individual recognition and the negotiation of social relationships. Experimental studies demonstrated that dolphins can use learned signals referentially. Studies on wild dolphins demonstrated how this skill appears to be useful in their own communication system, making them an interesting subject for comparative communication studies.

  5. Acoustic Tonal and Vector Properties of Red Hind Grouper Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Cameron Anthony

    validating hypothesis in a non-expert system manner that shows how a series of biological metrics may be assessed for detection, classification, localization and mass estimation for an individual vocalizing red hind grouper.

  6. Primate vocalization, gesture, and the evolution of human language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbib, Michael A; Liebal, Katja; Pika, Simone

    2008-12-01

    The performance of language is multimodal, not confined to speech. Review of monkey and ape communication demonstrates greater flexibility in the use of hands and body than for vocalization. Nonetheless, the gestural repertoire of any group of nonhuman primates is small compared with the vocabulary of any human language and thus, presumably, of the transitional form called protolanguage. We argue that it was the coupling of gestural communication with enhanced capacities for imitation that made possible the emergence of protosign to provide essential scaffolding for protospeech in the evolution of protolanguage. Similarly, we argue against a direct evolutionary path from nonhuman primate vocalization to human speech. The analysis refines aspects of the mirror system hypothesis on the role of the primate brain's mirror system for manual action in evolution of the human language-ready brain.

  7. From social behavior to neural circuitry: steroid hormones rapidly modulate advertisement calling via a vocal pattern generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remage-Healey, Luke; Bass, Andrew H

    2006-09-01

    Across vertebrates, androgens are rapidly elevated within minutes in response to aggressive or reproductive stimuli, yet it is unclear what the causal relationship is between fast androgen elevation and the ongoing (minute-by-minute) expression of behavior. This study tested the hypothesis that rapid increases in plasma steroid levels induce similarly rapid increases in both vocal behavior and the neurophysiological output of a central pattern generator that governs vocal behavior. In Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta), males call to attract females to their nesting sites, and both males and females vocalize in aggressive interactions. Previous field experiments with males showed that simulated territorial challenges produce rapid and concurrent elevations in ongoing calling behavior and circulating levels of the teleost-specific androgen 11-ketotestosterone (11kT), but not the glucocorticoid cortisol. The current field experiments showed that non-invasive (food) delivery of 11kT, but not cortisol, induced an elevation within 10 min in the ongoing calling behavior of males. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that intramuscular injections of either 11kT or cortisol, but neither testosterone nor 17-beta-estradiol, induced increases within 5 min in the output of the vocal pattern generator in males, whereas only cortisol had similarly fast effects in females. The field behavioral results support predictions generated by the challenge hypothesis and also parallel the 11kT-dependent modulation of the vocal pattern generator in males. The cortisol effect on the vocal pattern generator in both sexes predicts that glucocorticoids regulate vocalizations in non-advertisement contexts. Together, these experiments provide strong support for the hypothesis that surges in circulating steroid levels play a causal role in shaping rapid changes in social behavior (vocalizations) through non-genomic-like actions on neural (vocal motor) circuits that directly encode behavioral

  8. Drop cost and wavelength optimal two-period grooming with ratio 4

    CERN Document Server

    Bermond, Jean-Claude; Gionfriddo, Lucia; Quattrocchi, Gaetano; Valls, Ignasi Sau

    2009-01-01

    We study grooming for two-period optical networks, a variation of the traffic grooming problem for WDM ring networks introduced by Colbourn, Quattrocchi, and Syrotiuk. In the two-period grooming problem, during the first period of time, there is all-to-all uniform traffic among $n$ nodes, each request using $1/C$ of the bandwidth; and during the second period, there is all-to-all uniform traffic only among a subset $V$ of $v$ nodes, each request now being allowed to use $1/C'$ of the bandwidth, where $C' < C$. We determine the minimum drop cost (minimum number of ADMs) for any $n,v$ and C=4 and $C' \\in \\{1,2,3\\}$. To do this, we use tools of graph decompositions. Indeed the two-period grooming problem corresponds to minimizing the total number of vertices in a partition of the edges of the complete graph $K_n$ into subgraphs, where each subgraph has at most $C$ edges and where furthermore it contains at most $C'$ edges of the complete graph on $v$ specified vertices. Subject to the condition that the two-p...

  9. Opioid modulation of facial itch- and pain-related responses and grooming behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradley, Jessica M; Davoodi, Auva; Carstens, Mirela Iodi; Carstens, Earl

    2012-09-01

    Intradermal facial injections of pruritogens or algogens elicit distinct behavioral hindlimb scratch or forelimb wiping responses in rodents. We systematically investigated the parameters and opioid modulation of these evoked behaviors and spontaneous facial grooming in rats. Serotonin (5-HT) elicited hindlimb scratch bouts with few wipes. Scratching was attenuated by the µ-opiate antagonist naltrexone but not morphine. In contrast, cheek injection of mustard oil (allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC)) elicited ipsilateral forelimb wipes but little hindlimb scratching. AITC-evoked wiping was significantly attenuated by morphine but not naltrexone. Spontaneous facial grooming by the forepaws was attenuated by naltrexone, whereas morphine did not affect grooming behavior before or after cheek injections of 5-HT or AITC. These data validate that the rodent "cheek" model discriminates between itch- and pain-related behaviors. Naltrexone sensitivity of facial grooming and 5-HT-evoked scratch-ing suggests a common functionality. Forelimb wipes may represent a nocifensive response akin to rubbing an injury to relieve pain.

  10. Age and reproductive status of adult Varroa mites affect grooming success of honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirrane, Maria J; de Guzman, Lilia I; Rinderer, Thomas E; Frake, Amanda M; Wagnitz, Jeremy; Whelan, Pádraig M

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated for the first time the grooming response of honey bees to Varroa mites of different ages and reproductive statuses in the laboratory. Plastic cages containing a section of dark comb and about 200 bees were inoculated with groups of four classes of mites: gravid, phoretic foundresses, phoretic daughters and a combination of gravid and phoretic foundress mites. Each cage received 20 mites belonging to one of these classes. Our results showed that, 1 day after mite inoculation, phoretic daughter mites were the most prone to grooming by honey bees with an average mite drop of 49.8 ± 2.6 %. The lowest mite drop was recorded for bees inoculated with phoretic foundresses (30.3 ± 3.6 %) but was comparable to bees inoculated with gravid mites (31.8 ± 3.8 %) and the combination of gravid and phoretic foundress mites (34.2 ± 3.2 %). No differences among mite types were detected during the second and third days of observation. Regardless of mite type, the highest mite drop was recorded on the first day (35 ± 2.1 %) compared to the drop for any subsequent day (grooming behaviour may increase our insight into the importance of grooming in mite resistance.

  11. Grooming coercion and the post-conflict trading of social services in wild Barbary macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Richard; Majolo, Bonaventura

    2011-01-01

    In animal and human societies, social services such as protection from predators are often exchanged between group members. The tactics that individuals display to obtain a service depend on its value and on differences between individuals in their capacity to aggressively obtain it. Here we analysed the exchange of valuable social services (i.e. grooming and relationship repair) in the aftermath of a conflict, in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). The relationship repair function of post-conflict affiliation (i.e. reconciliation) was apparent in the victim but not in the aggressor. Conversely, we found evidence for grooming coercion by the aggressor; when the victim failed to give grooming soon after a conflict they received renewed aggression from the aggressor. We argue that post-conflict affiliation between former opponents can be better described as a trading of social services rather than coercion alone, as both animals obtain some benefits (i.e. grooming for the aggressor and relationship repair for the victim). Our study is the first to test the importance of social coercion in the aftermath of a conflict. Differences in competitive abilities can affect the exchange of services and the occurrence of social coercion in animal societies. This may also help explain the variance between populations and species in their social behaviour and conflict management strategies.

  12. Grooming coercion and the post-conflict trading of social services in wild Barbary macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard McFarland

    Full Text Available In animal and human societies, social services such as protection from predators are often exchanged between group members. The tactics that individuals display to obtain a service depend on its value and on differences between individuals in their capacity to aggressively obtain it. Here we analysed the exchange of valuable social services (i.e. grooming and relationship repair in the aftermath of a conflict, in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus. The relationship repair function of post-conflict affiliation (i.e. reconciliation was apparent in the victim but not in the aggressor. Conversely, we found evidence for grooming coercion by the aggressor; when the victim failed to give grooming soon after a conflict they received renewed aggression from the aggressor. We argue that post-conflict affiliation between former opponents can be better described as a trading of social services rather than coercion alone, as both animals obtain some benefits (i.e. grooming for the aggressor and relationship repair for the victim. Our study is the first to test the importance of social coercion in the aftermath of a conflict. Differences in competitive abilities can affect the exchange of services and the occurrence of social coercion in animal societies. This may also help explain the variance between populations and species in their social behaviour and conflict management strategies.

  13. Dynamic traffic grooming in distributed-controlled IP/WDM optical mesh networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Jun; Zeng Qingji; Liu Jimin; Xiao Pengcheng; Liu Hua; Xiao Shilin

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the study was devoted to the traffic-grooming problem in a distributed-controlled WDM mesh network. We studied the optimization of the maximal number of ports configured at each node in the network. We gave the maximumnumber simulation results in different network environment, which could be taken as a reference for network design.

  14. Sexual Abuse and the Grooming Process in Sport: Learning from Bella's Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owton, Helen; Sparkes, Andrew C.

    2017-01-01

    Through a process of collaborative autoethnography, we explore the experiences of one female athlete named Bella who was groomed and then sexually abused by her male coach. Bella's story signals how the structural conditions and power relationships embedded in competitive sporting environments, specifically the power invested in the coach, provide…

  15. Vocal Health for Physical Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Josh; McColl, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Evidence suggests that teachers are often at risk for vocal disease and are more likely to change occupations because of their voice problems compared to non-teachers. Physical educators are especially at risk for voice problems due to the intense daily demands of voice projection. Chronic abuse can cause swelling and inflammation of the…

  16. Reciprocation and interchange of grooming, agonistic support, feeding tolerance, and aggression in semi-free-ranging Barbary macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carne, Charlotte; Wiper, Sue; Semple, Stuart

    2011-11-01

    Evidence from a range of primate species indicates that grooming can be exchanged either for itself or for other rank-related "commodities," such as agonistic support, feeding tolerance, or reduced aggression. Patterns of exchange behavior have been found to vary considerably between species, and understanding the causes of this variation is central to the study of the evolution of primate social systems. It is, therefore, essential that exchange behavior is examined in a wide range of species and settings. This article is the first to explore the reciprocation and interchange of grooming in the Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus). We collected focal data on semi-free-ranging adult female Barbary macaques at Trentham Monkey Forest, England, and analyzed dyadic data using Generalized Linear Mixed Models. We found evidence for the reciprocal exchange of grooming and for the interchange of grooming for agonistic support and tolerance while feeding. There was no evidence that grooming was traded for a reduction in aggression; indeed, we found a positive relationship between aggression given and grooming received. This may reflect the "extortion" of grooming from subordinates by dominant animals. These results will facilitate comparative analyses of exchange behavior by adding to the current database a new species, characterized by a different social style from those macaque species previously investigated.

  17. Grooming and cultural socialization: a mixed method study of caregiving practices in Burma (Myanmar) and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein-Lemelson, Seinenu M

    2015-02-01

    Grooming behaviours are thought to be a crucial aspect of parenting and integral to the sociality of non-human mammals, but there have been few empirical studies on how grooming might be relevant to parenting and socialization processes in humans. Study 1 is a quantitative cross-cultural comparison of grooming practices in two cultural settings: an urban centre in Burma (Myanmar) and an urban centre in the United States. The study uses naturalistic video data of 57 families to analyse grooming behaviours directed at children. A broad range of ages was sampled in each culture to examine the developmental trajectory of grooming behaviours. Results indicate that significant cultural differences exist between Burma and the United States, with Burmese children being groomed by their caregivers more often than U.S. children. Results also indicate that cultural differences in grooming practices begin early and remain constant across age. An unexpected finding was that Burmese families were more variable in their behaviour than U.S. families. Study 2 attempts to explain this variability by using ethnography to describe how sociodemographic changes in Burma are leading to changes in parental values and socialization practices in the schools, but how embodied primary care in the homes appear resistant to change.

  18. Decomposition of vocal cycle length perturbations into vocal jitter and vocal microtremor, and comparison of their size in normophonic speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoentgen, J

    2003-06-01

    A statistical method that enables raw vocal cycle length perturbations to be decomposed into perturbations ascribed to vocal jitter and vocal tremor is presented, together with a comparison of the size of jitter and tremor. The method is based on a time series model that splits the vocal cycle length perturbations into uncorrelated cycle-to-cycle perturbations ascribed to vocal jitter and supra-cycle perturbations ascribed to vocal tremor. The corpus was composed of 114 vocal cycle length time series for sustained vowels [a], [i], and [u] produced by 22 male and 16 female normophonic speakers. The results were the following. First, 100 out of 114 time series were decomposed successfully by means of the time series model. Second, vocal perturbations ascribed to tremor were significantly larger than perturbations ascribed to jitter. Third, the correlation between vocal jitter and vocal tremor was moderate, but statistically significant. Fourth, small but statistically significant differences were observed among the three vowel timbres in the relative jitter and the arithmetic difference of jitter and tremor. Fifth, the differences between male and female speakers were not statistically significant in the relative raw perturbations, the relative jitter, or the modulation level owing to tremor.

  19. The Impact of Vocal Hyperfunction on Relative Fundamental Frequency during Voicing Offset and Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Cara E.; Hillman, Robert E.; Heaton, James T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested the hypothesis that individuals with vocal hyperfunction would show decreases in relative fundamental frequency (RFF) surrounding a voiceless consonant. Method: This retrospective study of 2 clinical databases used speech samples from 15 control participants and women with hyperfunction-related voice disorders: 82 prior…

  20. Analysis of long-term mechanical grooming on large-scale test panels coated with an antifouling and a fouling-release coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearin, John; Hunsucker, Kelli Z; Swain, Geoffrey; Stephens, Abraham; Gardner, Harrison; Lieberman, Kody; Harper, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Long-term grooming tests were conducted on two large-scale test panels, one coated with a fluorosilicone fouling-release (FR) coating, and one coated with a copper based ablative antifouling (AF) coating. Mechanical grooming was performed weekly or bi-weekly using a hand operated, electrically powered, rotating brush tool. The results indicate that weekly grooming was effective at removing loose or heavy biofilm settlement from both coatings, but could not prevent the permanent establishment of low-profile tenacious biofilms. Weekly grooming was very effective at preventing macrofouling establishment on the AF coating. The effectiveness of weekly grooming at preventing macrofouling establishment on the FR coating varied seasonally. The results suggest that frequent mechanical grooming is a viable method to reduce the fouling rating of ships' hulls with minimal impact to the coating. Frequent grooming could offer significant fuel savings while reducing hull cleaning frequencies and dry dock maintenance requirements.

  1. Some aspects of vocal fold bowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, S; Hirano, M; Chijiwa, K

    1994-05-01

    Bowing of the vocal fold frequently occurs in patients with vocal fold paralysis (VFP), those with sulcus vocalis, and those who have had laser surgery. Additionally, there are vocal folds that present bowing with no noticeable organic lesion. For the purpose of investigating the causes and mechanisms of vocal fold bowing, consecutive fiberscopic videorecordings of 127 patients with VFP, 33 with sulcus vocalis, 33 with laser surgery, and 33 with dysphonia having no clinically noticeable organic lesion were reviewed. Sixty-nine percent of the paralyzed vocal folds had bowing, and the occurrence of bowing was significantly related to the activity of the thyroarytenoid muscle as measured by electromyography. The cricothyroid activity had no significant relationship to vocal fold bowing. All vocal folds with sulcus presented with bowing. Thirty-five percent of the vocal folds that had had laser surgery had bowing. The extent of tissue removal was closely related to the occurrence of bowing. Twelve cases with no organic lesion had vocal fold bowing. Of these 12 patients, 8 were male and 9 were older than 60 years. Some aging process in the mucosa was presumed to be the cause of the bowing in this age group of patients without clinically noticeable organic lesions. Causes of vocal fold bowing in the younger group of patients without organic lesions were not determined in this study.

  2. Heterogeneity of vocal sac inflation patterns in Odorrana tormota plays a role in call diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Zhao, Juan; Chen, Pan; Chen, Zhuqing; Chen, Yuanyuan; Feng, Albert S

    2016-03-01

    Male concave-eared torrent frogs (Odorrana tormota) can emit at least eight distinct call-types. However, the mechanisms by which they are produced are not fully understood. Anatomical analysis revealed that the vocal sacs of male O. tormota comprise two physically distinct compartments (pars lateralis and pars ventralis), residing on two sides of the vocal slits. The goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the two compartments play a role in the production of the diverse call-types. For this, audio and video recordings of male vocalizations were made, and sounds were analyzed afterwards. Results showed that the vocal sac inflation pattern was heterogeneous, and the call duration was a major factor determining the differential inflation patterns. Short call-types (duration frequency (F0) of >5000 Hz involved inflation of pars lateralis only, whereas those with an F0 of 200 ms), e.g., shallow frequency modulation calls, staccato calls, and long calls, involved inflation of both compartments of the vocal sacs. These results give support to the working hypothesis.

  3. Teacher's voice: vocal tract discomfort symptoms, vocal intensity and noise in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Amanda Louize Félix; Lucena, Brunna Thaís Luckwu de; De Araújo, Aline Menezes Guedes Dias; Melo, Luciana Pimentel Fernandes de; Lopes, Leonardo Wanderley; Silva, Maria Fabiana Bonfim de Lima

    2016-04-01

    To identify a possible correlation between teachers vocal intensity and the noise in the classroom, as well as between vocal intensity and the symptoms of vocal tract discomfort before and after classes. 27 Elementary School I teachers participated in the study. We used the questionnaires "Vocal Production Condition of the Teacher" and "Vocal Tract Discomfort Scale - VTD" which were applied before and after the class. A properly calibrated noise meter was used for measuring noise in the classroom and the teachers' vocal intensity. There was a moderate positive correlation between vocal intensity and noise and also a significant difference between the VTD scale and the teachers with and without vocal complaint before and after classes. When compared separately on both occasions, there was an increase in the group's scores for both groups and with and without complaints. We found association of the vocal tract symptoms before and after classes, frequency of burning, itching, sore throat and sensitive throat were observed. The intensity of symptoms was significant for sore throat, itching and feeling of lump in the throat. We observed significant values of vocal intensity and frequency and intensity of symptoms for sensitive throat and lump in the throat before the class, and sore throat and lump in the throat after the. The increase in teacher's vocal intensity correlates to high noise levels in the classroom. The evidence suggests correlation between vocal intensity and discomfort of the vocal tract, with most of the symptoms reported in greater frequency and intensity after the class.

  4. VOCALS-UK: An overview of UK VOCALS science (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, H.; Vocals-Uk Science Team

    2010-12-01

    This paper will highlight a variety of process studies, observationally led studies and modelling studies, both completed and in progress, conducted by groups in the United Kingdom, working in collaboration with international partners on the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx). The VOCALS field experiment was conducted out of Arica, Chile, between October and November, 2008. The study aims to better understand the nature and variability of interactions between the ocean, atmosphere and steep topography, as well as local and long-range transport of pollutants and aerosol, in the context of their role in controlling the climate of the South East Pacific - an important region in terms of the global energy budget and which is currently poorly characterised in global climate models. Specific highlights will include a statistical representation of the SEP marine boundary layer during VOCALS-Rex to inform future modelling; an analysis of the synoptic and large-scale dynamical influences on cloud in the SEP; results from improved Met Office Unified Model forecast runs which examine aerosol-cloud interactions with a comparison to results from WRF-CHEM; and large eddy modelling of simulated gravity waves and their potential to induce open cellular convection (create pockets of open cells). In addition, early results from a number of further studies will be presented.

  5. Comportamento vocal de cantores populares Vocal behavior of popular singers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria Zimmer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar aspectos do histórico, hábitos e comportamentos vocais de cantores populares, conforme o sexo e as categorias profissional e amador. MÉTODO: entrevista com 47 cantores, 25 homens e 22 mulheres. RESULTADOS: significância estatística nos seguintes achados: MASCULINO - microfone nos ensaios, ausência de problemas vocais diagnosticados, ausência de orientações sobre higiene vocal, dor ou desconforto após cantar, ausência de alergias e problemas respiratórios; FEMININO - aulas de canto e conhecimento sobre postura; AMADOR - não cantar dançando, não imitar vozes, ausência de avaliação otorrinolaringológica, ausência de problemas vocais diagnosticados, ausência de terapia fonoaudiológica, ausência de orientações de anatomofisiologia vocal e não utilização de álcool nos ensaios; PROFISSIONAL - rouquidão, conhecimento sobre articulação, álcool durante os shows, "garganta suja" ou pigarro, dor após cantar. CONCLUSÕES: a comparação entre os sexos evidenciou que os homens utilizavam microfone no ensaio, não apresentavam problemas alérgicos ou respiratórios, nem problemas vocais diagnosticados, mas apresentavam sensação de dor ou desconforto após o canto e não possuíam noções sobre higiene vocal; e que as mulheres realizavam aulas de canto e possuíam orientações de postura. A comparação entre amadores e profissionais mostrou que os amadores não cantavam dançando, não imitavam vozes, não utilizavam álcool nos ensaios, e não apresentavam problemas vocais diagnosticados, mas não possuíam avaliação otorrinolaringológica, não realizavam terapia fonoaudiológica, e não possuíam conhecimento sobre anatomofisiologia vocal; e os profissionais apresentavam queixa de rouquidão, de "garganta suja" ou pigarro e de dor após cantar, e usavam álcool durante os shows, apesar de possuir conhecimento sobre articulação.PURPOSE: to investigate aspects of vocal history, vocal habits and

  6. Developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency alters pup-retrieval but not isolation-induced pup ultrasonic vocalizations in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burne, Thomas H J; O'Loan, Jonathan; Splatt, Karisha; Alexander, Suzanne; McGrath, John J; Eyles, Darryl W

    2011-02-01

    Evidence from animal experiments now demonstrates that prenatal vitamin D levels influence brain development. The aims of this study were to examine isolation-induced pup ultrasonic vocalizations and maternal-infant interactions using a pup-retrieval test in developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficient and control rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a vitamin D deficient diet or control diet six weeks prior to mating until birth and housed under UVB-free lighting conditions. In two separate experiments we recorded ultrasonic vocalizations at 46KHz in isolated pups and we performed a pup-retrieval test on the day of birth. There was no significant effect of maternal diet on the calling rate of isolation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations by pups. We found that DVD-deficient dams retrieved their pups sooner than control dams and engaged in more pup directed activities (sniffing and carrying pups) and had a longer latency for self-grooming and rearing than control dams. We also assessed vitamin D related measures from a terminal blood sample immediately after the pup-retrieval test and found that DVD-deficient dams and pups had significantly lower levels of 25 OH D₃, 1,25 (OH)₂D₃ and phosphate, elevated levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) but there was no significant effect of maternal diet on calcium levels. We speculate that the altered maternal-pup interactions identified in the DVD model may impact on early periods of brain development and behaviour.

  7. Acoustic detection of manatee vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niezrecki, Christopher; Phillips, Richard; Meyer, Michael; Beusse, Diedrich O.

    2003-09-01

    The West Indian manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of a growing number of collisions with boats. A system to warn boaters of the presence of manatees, that can signal to boaters that manatees are present in the immediate vicinity, could potentially reduce these boat collisions. In order to identify the presence of manatees, acoustic methods are employed. Within this paper, three different detection algorithms are used to detect the calls of the West Indian manatee. The detection systems are tested in the laboratory using simulated manatee vocalizations from an audio compact disk. The detection method that provides the best overall performance is able to correctly identify ~96% of the manatee vocalizations. However, the system also results in a false alarm rate of ~16%. The results of this work may ultimately lead to the development of a manatee warning system that can warn boaters of the presence of manatees.

  8. Recording vocalizations with Bluetooth technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaona-González, Andrés; Santillán-Doherty, Ana María; Arenas-Rosas, Rita Virginia; Muñoz-Delgado, Jairo; Aguillón-Pantaleón, Miguel Angel; Ordoñez-Gómez, José Domingo; Márquez-Arias, Alejandra

    2011-06-01

    We propose a method for capturing vocalizations that is designed to avoid some of the limiting factors found in traditional bioacoustical methods, such as the impossibility of obtaining continuous long-term registers or analyzing amplitude due to the continuous change of distance between the subject and the position of the recording system. Using Bluetooth technology, vocalizations are captured and transmitted wirelessly into a receiving system without affecting the quality of the signal. The recordings of the proposed system were compared to those obtained as a reference, which were based on the coding of the signal with the so-called pulse-code modulation technique in WAV audio format without any compressing process. The evaluation showed p < .05 for the measured quantitative and qualitative parameters. We also describe how the transmitting system is encapsulated and fixed on the animal and a way to video record a spider monkey's behavior simultaneously with the audio recordings.

  9. Ultrasonic vocalizations emitted by flying squirrels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan N Murrant

    Full Text Available Anecdotal reports of ultrasound use by flying squirrels have existed for decades, yet there has been little detailed analysis of their vocalizations. Here we demonstrate that two species of flying squirrel emit ultrasonic vocalizations. We recorded vocalizations from northern (Glaucomys sabrinus and southern (G. volans flying squirrels calling in both the laboratory and at a field site in central Ontario, Canada. We demonstrate that flying squirrels produce ultrasonic emissions through recorded bursts of broadband noise and time-frequency structured frequency modulated (FM vocalizations, some of which were purely ultrasonic. Squirrels emitted three types of ultrasonic calls in laboratory recordings and one type in the field. The variety of signals that were recorded suggest that flying squirrels may use ultrasonic vocalizations to transfer information. Thus, vocalizations may be an important, although still poorly understood, aspect of flying squirrel social biology.

  10. Universal vocal signals of emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Sauter, D.; Eisner, F.; Ekman, P.; Scott, S.

    2009-01-01

    Emotional signals allow for the sharing of important information with conspecifics, for example to warn them of danger. Humans use a range of different cues to communicate to others how they feel, including facial, vocal, and gestural signals. Although much is known about facial expressions of emotion, less research has focused on affect in the voice. We compare British listeners to individuals from remote Namibian villages who have had no exposure to Western culture, and examine recognition ...

  11. Vocal improvement after voice therapy in the treatment of benign vocal fold lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, A; MOZZANICA, F.; Ginocchio, D.; MARUZZI, P.; Atac, M.; OTTAVIANI, F.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Benign vocal fold lesions are common in the general population, and have important public health implications and impact on patient quality of life. Nowadays, phonomicrosurgery is the most common treatment of these lesions. Voice therapy is generally associated in order to minimize detrimental vocal behaviours that increase the stress at the mid-membranous vocal folds. Nonetheless, the most appropriate standard of care for treating benign vocal fold lesion has not been established. Th...

  12. Vocal attractiveness increases by averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckert, Laetitia; Bestelmeyer, Patricia; Latinus, Marianne; Rouger, Julien; Charest, Ian; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Kawahara, Hideki; Belin, Pascal

    2010-01-26

    Vocal attractiveness has a profound influence on listeners-a bias known as the "what sounds beautiful is good" vocal attractiveness stereotype [1]-with tangible impact on a voice owner's success at mating, job applications, and/or elections. The prevailing view holds that attractive voices are those that signal desirable attributes in a potential mate [2-4]-e.g., lower pitch in male voices. However, this account does not explain our preferences in more general social contexts in which voices of both genders are evaluated. Here we show that averaging voices via auditory morphing [5] results in more attractive voices, irrespective of the speaker's or listener's gender. Moreover, we show that this phenomenon is largely explained by two independent by-products of averaging: a smoother voice texture (reduced aperiodicities) and a greater similarity in pitch and timbre with the average of all voices (reduced "distance to mean"). These results provide the first evidence for a phenomenon of vocal attractiveness increases by averaging, analogous to a well-established effect of facial averaging [6, 7]. They highlight prototype-based coding [8] as a central feature of voice perception, emphasizing the similarity in the mechanisms of face and voice perception.

  13. The Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydman, Roman; Johansen, Søren; Rahbek, Anders

    We introduce the Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis (QEH) as a new approach to modeling macroeconomic and financial outcomes. Building on John Muth's seminal insight underpinning the Rational Expectations Hypothesis (REH), QEH represents the market's forecasts to be consistent with the predictions...

  14. The Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydman, Roman; Johansen, Søren; Rahbek, Anders

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis (QEH) as a new approach to modeling macroeconomic and financial outcomes. Building on John Muth's seminal insight underpinning the Rational Expectations Hypothesis (REH), QEH represents the market's forecasts to be consistent with the predictions...

  15. Aesthetic and Culture Origin of Vocal Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张延春

    2010-01-01

    As one of the most commonly and widely adopted art forms, vocal art has been closely related with national culture and the aesthetics trend. Traditional Chinese vocal art rooted from China' s long history and distinctive culture. On the contrary, Italian bel canto stems from the prospect of Italian Opera Art during the Renaissance period. This essay discusses the differences between East and West vocal art, from its aesthetic and culture origin.

  16. Factorization for groomed jet substructure beyond the next-to-leading logarithm

    CERN Document Server

    Frye, Christopher; Schwartz, Matthew D; Yan, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Jet grooming algorithms are widely used in experimental analyses at hadron colliders to remove contaminating radiation from within jets. While the algorithms perform a great service to the experiments, their intricate algorithmic structure and multiple parameters has frustrated precision theoretic understanding. In this paper, we demonstrate that one particular groomer called soft drop actually makes precision jet substructure easier. In particular, we derive a factorization formula for a large class of soft drop jet substructure observables, including jet mass. The essential observation that allows for this factorization is that, without the soft wide-angle radiation groomed by soft drop, all singular contributions are collinear. The simplicity and universality of the collinear limit in QCD allows us to show that to all orders, the normalized differential cross section has no contributions from non-global logarithms. It is also independent of process, up to the relative fraction of quark and gluon jets. In f...

  17. Improved jet substructure methods: Y-splitter and variants with grooming

    CERN Document Server

    Dasgupta, Mrinal; Schunk, Lais; Soyez, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated with Monte Carlo studies that combining the well-known Y-splitter and trimming techniques gives rise to important gains in the signal significance achievable for boosted electroweak boson tagging at high $p_t$. Here we carry out analytical calculations that explain these findings from first principles of QCD both for grooming via trimming and via the modified mass-drop tagger (mMDT). We also suggest modifications to Y-splitter itself, which result in great simplifications to the analytical results both for pure Y-splitter as well as its combination with general grooming methods. The modifications also lead to further performance gains, while making the results largely independent of choice of groomer. We discuss the implications of these findings in the broader context of optimal methods for boosted object studies at hadron colliders.

  18. Physiopathological hypothesis of cellulite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, José Maria Pereira; de Godoy, Maria de Fátima Guerreiro

    2009-08-31

    A series of questions are asked concerning this condition including as regards to its name, the consensus about the histopathological findings, physiological hypothesis and treatment of the disease. We established a hypothesis for cellulite and confirmed that the clinical response is compatible with this hypothesis. Hence this novel approach brings a modern physiological concept with physiopathologic basis and clinical proof of the hypothesis. We emphasize that the choice of patient, correct diagnosis of cellulite and the technique employed are fundamental to success.

  19. Physiopathological Hypothesis of Cellulite

    OpenAIRE

    de Godoy, José Maria Pereira; Godoy,Maria de Fátima Guerreiro

    2009-01-01

    A series of questions are asked concerning this condition including as regards to its name, the consensus about the histopathological findings, physiological hypothesis and treatment of the disease. We established a hypothesis for cellulite and confirmed that the clinical response is compatible with this hypothesis. Hence this novel approach brings a modern physiological concept with physiopathologic basis and clinical proof of the hypothesis. We emphasize that the choice of patient, correct ...

  20. Adaptation for rodent pollination in Leucospermum arenarium (Proteaceae) despite rapid pollen loss during grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher Michael; Pauw, Anton

    2014-05-01

    Plants are adapted for rodent pollination in diverse and intricate ways. This study explores an extraordinary example of these adaptations in the pincushion Leucospermum arenarium (Proteaceae) from South Africa. Live trapping and differential exclusion experiments were used to test the role of rodents versus birds and insects as pollinators. To explore the adaptive significance of geoflory, inflorescences were raised above ground level and seed production was compared. Captive rodents and flowers with artificial stigmas were used to test the effect of grooming on the rate of pollen loss. Microscopy, nectar composition analysis and manipulative experiments were used to investigate the bizarre nectar production and transport system. Differential exclusion of rodents, birds and insects demonstrated the importance of rodents in promoting seed production. Live trapping revealed that hairy-footed gerbils, Gerbillurus paeba, and striped field mice, Rhabdomys pumilio, both carried L. arenarium pollen on their forehead and rostrum, but much larger quantities ended up in faeces as a result of grooming. Terrarium experiments showed that grooming exponentially diminished the pollen loads that they carried. The nectar of L. arenarium was found to be unusually viscous and to be presented in a novel location on the petal tips, where rodents could access it without destroying the flowers. Nectar was produced inside the perianth, but was translocated to the petal tips via capillary ducts. In common with many other rodent-pollinated plants, the flowers are presented at ground level, but when raised to higher positions seed production was not reduced, indicating that selection through female function does not drive the evolution of geoflory. Despite the apparent cost of pollen lost to grooming, L. arenarium has evolved remarkable adaptations for rodent pollination and provides the first case of this pollination system in the genus.

  1. Isolation of Mutations Affecting Neural Circuitry Required for Grooming Behavior in Drosophila Melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a screen for the isolation of mutations that produce neural defects in adult Drosophila melanogaster. In this screen, we identify mutants as flies unable to remove a light coating of applied dust in a 2-hr period. We have recovered and characterized six mutations and have found that they produce coordination defects and some have reduced levels of reflex responsiveness to the stimulation of single tactile sensory bristles. The grooming defects produced by all six of the muta...

  2. Can vocal conditioning trigger a semiotic ratchet in marmosets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turesson, Hjalmar K; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of human communication has often been taken as evidence that our language reflects a true evolutionary leap, bearing little resemblance to any other animal communication system. The putative uniqueness of the human language poses serious evolutionary and ethological challenges to a rational explanation of human communication. Here we review ethological, anatomical, molecular, and computational results across several species to set boundaries for these challenges. Results from animal behavior, cognitive psychology, neurobiology, and semiotics indicate that human language shares multiple features with other primate communication systems, such as specialized brain circuits for sensorimotor processing, the capability for indexical (pointing) and symbolic (referential) signaling, the importance of shared intentionality for associative learning, affective conditioning and parental scaffolding of vocal production. The most substantial differences lie in the higher human capacity for symbolic compositionality, fast vertical transmission of new symbols across generations, and irreversible accumulation of novel adaptive behaviors (cultural ratchet). We hypothesize that increasingly-complex vocal conditioning of an appropriate animal model may be sufficient to trigger a semiotic ratchet, evidenced by progressive sign complexification, as spontaneous contact calls become indexes, then symbols and finally arguments (strings of symbols). To test this hypothesis, we outline a series of conditioning experiments in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). The experiments are designed to probe the limits of vocal communication in a prosocial, highly vocal primate 35 million years far from the human lineage, so as to shed light on the mechanisms of semiotic complexification and cultural transmission, and serve as a naturalistic behavioral setting for the investigation of language disorders.

  3. Can vocal conditioning trigger a semiotic ratchet in marmosets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjalmar Kosmos Turesson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of human communication has often been taken as evidence that our language reflects a true evolutionary leap, bearing little resemblance to any other animal communication system. The putative uniqueness of the human language poses serious evolutionary and ethological challenges to a rational explanation of human communication. Here we review ethological, anatomical, molecular and computational results across several species to set boundaries for these challenges. Results from animal behavior, cognitive psychology, neurobiology, and semiotics indicate that human language shares multiple features with other primate communication systems, such as specialized brain circuits for sensorimotor processing, the capability for indexical (pointing and symbolic (referential signaling, the importance of shared intentionality for associative learning, affective conditioning and parental scaffolding of vocal production. The most substantial differences lie in the higher human capacity for symbolic compositionality, fast vertical transmission of new symbols across generations, and irreversible accumulation of novel adaptive behaviors (cultural ratchet. We hypothesize that increasingly-complex vocal conditioning of an appropriate animal model may be sufficient to trigger a semiotic ratchet, evidenced by progressive sign complexification, as spontaneous contact calls become indexes, then symbols and finally arguments (strings of symbols. To test this hypothesis, we outline a series of conditioning experiments in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus. The experiments are designed to probe the limits of vocal communication in a prosocial, highly vocal primate 35 million years far from the human lineage, so as to shed light on the mechanisms of semiotic complexification and cultural transmission, and serve as a naturalistic behavioral setting for the investigation of language disorders.

  4. Prevention by All Means?A Legal Comparison of the Criminalization of Online Grooming and its Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Kool

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The obligation to criminalise online grooming, recently prescribed by the Council of Europe in the Treaty of Lanzarote, illustrates modern citizens' fears of external dangers, especially towards the sexual abuse of minors. The authorities' image of online grooming being unclear, the penalisatiom tends to be of a symbolic nature, implying false prophecies of legal protection. Moreover, the penalisation of online grooming indicates a precautionary use of the criminal law, so its justification lies within the perpertrators' objectionable motive, the latter violating basic assumptions of criminal law. Next to theoretical objections, practical issues are to be foreseen, as the criminal investigation of online grooming indicates the use of undercover tactics, which has a bearing on the procedural risk, e.g. the entrapment defence. Nevertheless, the British authorities have been able to penalise online grooming rather successfully. The Netherlands having recently (in July 2010 introduced a similar provision, this calls for a comparative analysis. Does the penalisation of online grooming have any added value, especially in light of the tendency towards a precautionary use of the criminal law, and what features are apparent in the British success?

  5. Prevention by All Means?
    A Legal Comparison of the Criminalization of Online Grooming and its Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Kool

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The obligation to criminalise online grooming, recently prescribed by the Council of Europe in the Treaty of Lanzarote, illustrates modern citizens' fears of external dangers, especially towards the sexual abuse of minors. The authorities' image of online grooming being unclear, the penalisatiom tends to be of a symbolic nature, implying false prophecies of legal protection. Moreover, the penalisation of online grooming indicates a precautionary use of the criminal law, so its justification lies within the perpertrators' objectionable motive, the latter violating basic assumptions of criminal law. Next to theoretical objections, practical issues are to be foreseen, as the criminal investigation of online grooming indicates the use of undercover tactics, which has a bearing on the procedural risk, e.g. the entrapment defence. Nevertheless, the British authorities have been able to penalise online grooming rather successfully. The Netherlands having recently (in July 2010 introduced a similar provision, this calls for a comparative analysis. Does the penalisation of online grooming have any added value, especially in light of the tendency towards a precautionary use of the criminal law, and what features are apparent in the British success?

  6. Antagonistic control of social versus repetitive self-grooming behaviors by separable amygdala neuronal subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Weizhe; Kim, Dong-Wook; Anderson, David J

    2014-09-11

    Animals display a range of innate social behaviors that play essential roles in survival and reproduction. While the medial amygdala (MeA) has been implicated in prototypic social behaviors such as aggression, the circuit-level mechanisms controlling such behaviors are not well understood. Using cell-type-specific functional manipulations, we find that distinct neuronal populations in the MeA control different social and asocial behaviors. A GABAergic subpopulation promotes aggression and two other social behaviors, while neighboring glutamatergic neurons promote repetitive self-grooming, an asocial behavior. Moreover, this glutamatergic subpopulation inhibits social interactions independently of its effect to promote self-grooming, while the GABAergic subpopulation inhibits self-grooming, even in a nonsocial context. These data suggest that social versus repetitive asocial behaviors are controlled in an antagonistic manner by inhibitory versus excitatory amygdala subpopulations, respectively. These findings provide a framework for understanding circuit-level mechanisms underlying opponency between innate behaviors, with implications for their perturbation in psychiatric disorders.

  7. Central amygdalar nucleus treated with orexin neuropeptides evoke differing feeding and grooming responses in the hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alò, Raffaella; Avolio, Ennio; Mele, Maria; Di Vito, Anna; Canonaco, Marcello

    2015-04-15

    Interaction of the orexinergic (ORXergic) neuronal system with the excitatory (glutamate, l-Glu) or the inhibitory (GABA) neurosignaling complexes evokes major homeostatic physiological events. In this study, effects of the two ORXergic neuropeptides (ORX-A/B) on their receptor (ORX-2R) expression changes were correlated to feeding and grooming actions of the hibernating hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Infusion of the central amygdala nucleus (CeA) with ORX-A caused hamsters to consume notable quantities of food, while ORX-B accounted for a moderate increase. Interestingly the latter neuropeptide was responsible for greater frequencies of grooming with respect to both controls and the hamsters treated with ORX-A. These distinct behavioral changes turned out to be even greater in the presence of l-Glu agonist (NMDA) while the α1 GABAA receptor agonist (zolpidem, Zol) greatly reduced ORX-A-dependent feeding bouts. Moreover, ORX-A+NMDA mainly promoted greater ORX-2R expression levels with respect to ORX-A-treated hamsters while ORX-B+Zol was instead largely responsible for a down-regulatory trend. Overall, these features point to CeA ORX-2R sites as key sensory limbic elements capable of regulating eating and grooming responses, which may provide useful insights regarding the type of molecular mechanism(s) operating during feeding bouts.

  8. Behavioural processes in social context: female abductions, male herding and female grooming in hamadryas baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Pablo; Colmenares, Fernando

    2012-06-01

    The formation of bonds between strangers is an event that occurs routinely in many social animals, including humans, and, as social bonds in general, they affect the individuals' welfare and biological fitness. The present study was motivated by an interest in the behavioural processes that drive bond formation in a social context of hostility, in which the incumbent partners vary greatly in physical power and reproductive interests, a situation in which individuals of many group-living species find themselves often throughout their lives. We focused on the quantitative analysis of female abductions via male aggressive herding in a nonhuman primate, the hamadryas baboon, in which intersexual bonds are known to be strong. We tested three hypotheses informed by sexual conflict/sexual coercion theory (male herding-as-conditioning and female grooming-as-appeasement) and by socioecological theory (unit size and female competition). The results supported the predictions: males resorted to coercive tactics (aggressive herding) with abducted females, and abducted females elevated the amount of grooming directed at their new unit males; in fact, they escaped from the otherwise negative effect of unit size on female-to-male grooming. These findings reveal that conflicts of interest are natural ingredients underpinning social bonds and that resorting to coercive aggression may be an option especially when partners differ greatly in their physical power.

  9. Effects of LSD on grooming behavior in serotonin transporter heterozygous (Sert⁺/⁻) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzar, Evan J; Stewart, Adam Michael; Kalueff, Allan V

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) plays a crucial role in the brain, modulating mood, cognition and reward. The serotonin transporter (SERT) is responsible for the reuptake of 5-HT from the synaptic cleft and regulates serotonin signaling in the brain. In humans, SERT genetic variance is linked to the pathogenesis of various psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Rodent self-grooming is a complex, evolutionarily conserved patterned behavior relevant to stress, ASD and OCD. Genetic ablation of mouse Sert causes various behavioral deficits, including increased anxiety and grooming behavior. The hallucinogenic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent serotonergic agonist known to modulate human and animal behavior. Here, we examined heterozygous Sert(+/-) mouse behavior following acute administration of LSD (0.32 mg/kg). Overall, Sert(+/-) mice displayed a longer duration of self-grooming behavior regardless of LSD treatment. In contrast, LSD increased serotonin-sensitive behaviors, such as head twitching, tremors and backwards gait behaviors in both Sert(+/+) and Sert(+/-) mice. There were no significant interactions between LSD treatment and Sert gene dosage in any of the behavioral domains measured. These results suggest that Sert(+/-) mice may respond to the behavioral effects of LSD in a similar manner to wild-type mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. THE FRACTAL MARKET HYPOTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELICIA RAMONA BIRAU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the concept of capital market is analysed using Fractal Market Hypothesis which is a modern, complex and unconventional alternative to classical finance methods. Fractal Market Hypothesis is in sharp opposition to Efficient Market Hypothesis and it explores the application of chaos theory and fractal geometry to finance. Fractal Market Hypothesis is based on certain assumption. Thus, it is emphasized that investors did not react immediately to the information they receive and of course, the manner in which they interpret that information may be different. Also, Fractal Market Hypothesis refers to the way that liquidity and investment horizons influence the behaviour of financial investors.

  11. Comparison between Input Hypothesis and Interaction Hypothesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳

    2012-01-01

      Krashen’s Input hypothesis and Long’s Interaction hypothesis are both valuable research results in the field of language acquisition and play a significant role in language teaching and learning instruction. Through comparing them, their similarities lie in same goal and basis, same focus on comprehension and same challenge the traditional teaching concept. While the differences lie in Different ways to make exposure comprehensible and different roles that learners play. It is meaningful to make the compari⁃son because the results can be valuable guidance and highlights for language teachers and learners to teach or acquire a new lan⁃guage more efficiently.

  12. Audio-vocal responses of vocal fundamental frequency and formant during sustained vowel vocalizations in different noises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shao-Hsuan; Hsiao, Tzu-Yu; Lee, Guo-She

    2015-06-01

    Sustained vocalizations of vowels [a], [i], and syllable [mə] were collected in twenty normal-hearing individuals. On vocalizations, five conditions of different audio-vocal feedback were introduced separately to the speakers including no masking, wearing supra-aural headphones only, speech-noise masking, high-pass noise masking, and broad-band-noise masking. Power spectral analysis of vocal fundamental frequency (F0) was used to evaluate the modulations of F0 and linear-predictive-coding was used to acquire first two formants. The results showed that while the formant frequencies were not significantly shifted, low-frequency modulations (production, the motor speech controls on F0 may depend on a feedback mechanism while articulation should rely more on a feedforward mechanism. Power spectral analysis of F0 might be applied to evaluate audio-vocal control for various hearing and neurological disorders in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Multifunctional and context-dependent control of vocal acoustics by individual muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srivastava, Kyle H; Elemans, Coen P H; Sober, Samuel J

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between muscle activity and behavioral output determines how the brain controls and modifies complex skills. In vocal control, ensembles of muscles are used to precisely tune single acoustic parameters such as fundamental frequency and sound amplitude. If individual vocal muscles...... a context-dependent scheme would require the brain to calculate different motor modifications in each case. We tested the hypothesis that single muscles control multiple acoustic parameters and that the function of single muscles varies across gestures using three complementary approaches. First, we...... recorded electromyographic data from vocal muscles in singing Bengalese finches. Second, we electrically perturbed the activity of single muscles during song. Third, we developed an ex vivo technique to analyze the biomechanical and acoustic consequences of single-muscle perturbations. We found that single...

  14. First Communion: The Emergence of Vocal Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, John L.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes that vocal communion between infant and caregiver supports infants' language acquisition and connectedness with caregivers. Recommends research to determine whether social behaviors such as joint attention and vocal imitation are functionally related to language learning or are only symptomatic of a survival-centered caregiving…

  15. Pulmonary mucormycosis presenting with vocal cord paralysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gayathri Devi, H. J.; Mohan Rao, K.N.; K M Prathima; Moideen, Riyaz

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary mucormycosis is a relatively uncommon infection. It can present in various forms. Very few cases of pulmonary mucormycosis presenting as vocal cord paralysis have been described in the literature. We report a case of pulmonary mucormycosis presenting as vocal cord paralysis in an uncontrolled diabetic patient.

  16. Phonetic characteristics of vocalizations during pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Lautenbacher

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion:. Vocalization characteristics of pain seem to be best described by an increase in pitch and in loudness. Future studies using more specific and comprehensive phonetic analyses will surely help to provide an even more precise characterization of vocalizations because of pain.

  17. Comportamento vocal de cantores populares

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmer,Valquíria; Cielo,Carla Aparecida; Ferreira,Fernanda Mariotto

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: investigar aspectos do histórico, hábitos e comportamentos vocais de cantores populares, conforme o sexo e as categorias profissional e amador. MÉTODO: entrevista com 47 cantores, 25 homens e 22 mulheres. RESULTADOS: significância estatística nos seguintes achados: MASCULINO - microfone nos ensaios, ausência de problemas vocais diagnosticados, ausência de orientações sobre higiene vocal, dor ou desconforto após cantar, ausência de alergias e problemas respiratórios; FEMININO - aulas...

  18. The Riemann Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The Riemann Hypothesis is a conjecture made in 1859 by the great mathematician Riemann that all the complex zeros of the zeta function $\\zeta(s)$ lie on the `critical line' ${Rl} s= 1/2$. Our analysis shows that the assumption of the truth of the Riemann Hypothesis leads to a contradiction. We are therefore led to the conclusion that the Riemann Hypothesis is not true.

  19. Auditory–vocal mirroring in songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Mirror neurons are theorized to serve as a neural substrate for spoken language in humans, but the existence and functions of auditory–vocal mirror neurons in the human brain remain largely matters of speculation. Songbirds resemble humans in their capacity for vocal learning and depend on their learned songs to facilitate courtship and individual recognition. Recent neurophysiological studies have detected putative auditory–vocal mirror neurons in a sensorimotor region of the songbird's brain that plays an important role in expressive and receptive aspects of vocal communication. This review discusses the auditory and motor-related properties of these cells, considers their potential role on song learning and communication in relation to classical studies of birdsong, and points to the circuit and developmental mechanisms that may give rise to auditory–vocal mirroring in the songbird's brain. PMID:24778375

  20. Neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Owen, Michael J; O'Donovan, Michael C; Thapar, Anita; Craddock, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia provided a valuable framework that allowed a condition that usually presents with frank disorder in adolescence or early adulthood to be understood...

  1. Acoustic allometry revisited: morphological determinants of fundamental frequency in primate vocal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maxime; Herbst, Christian T; Bowling, Daniel L; Dunn, Jacob C; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2017-09-05

    A fundamental issue in the evolution of communication is the degree to which signals convey accurate ("honest") information about the signaler. In bioacoustics, the assumption that fundamental frequency (f o) should correlate with the body size of the caller is widespread, but this belief has been challenged by various studies, possibly because larynx size and body size can vary independently. In the present comparative study, we conducted excised larynx experiments to investigate this hypothesis rigorously and explore the determinants of f o. Using specimens from eleven primate species, we carried out an inter-specific investigation, examining correlations between the minimum f o produced by the sound source, body size and vocal fold length (VFL). We found that, across species, VFL predicted minimum f o much better than body size, clearly demonstrating the potential for decoupling between larynx size and body size in primates. These findings shed new light on the diversity of primate vocalizations and vocal morphology, highlighting the importance of vocal physiology in understanding the evolution of mammal vocal communication.

  2. Life Origination Hydrate Hypothesis (LOH-Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ostrovskii

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops the Life Origination Hydrate Hypothesis (LOH-hypothesis, according to which living-matter simplest elements (LMSEs, which are N-bases, riboses, nucleosides, nucleotides, DNA- and RNA-like molecules, amino-acids, and proto-cells repeatedly originated on the basis of thermodynamically controlled, natural, and inevitable processes governed by universal physical and chemical laws from CH4, niters, and phosphates under the Earth's surface or seabed within the crystal cavities of the honeycomb methane-hydrate structure at low temperatures; the chemical processes passed slowly through all successive chemical steps in the direction that is determined by a gradual decrease in the Gibbs free energy of reacting systems. The hypothesis formulation method is based on the thermodynamic directedness of natural movement and consists ofan attempt to mentally backtrack on the progression of nature and thus reveal principal milestones alongits route. The changes in Gibbs free energy are estimated for different steps of the living-matter origination process; special attention is paid to the processes of proto-cell formation. Just the occurrence of the gas-hydrate periodic honeycomb matrix filled with LMSEs almost completely in its final state accounts for size limitation in the DNA functional groups and the nonrandom location of N-bases in the DNA chains. The slowness of the low-temperature chemical transformations and their “thermodynamic front” guide the gross process of living matter origination and its successive steps. It is shown that the hypothesis is thermodynamically justified and testable and that many observed natural phenomena count in its favor.

  3. The Risk of Vocal Fold Atrophy after Serial Corticosteroid Injections of the Vocal Fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lucy L; Giraldez-Rodriguez, Laureano A; Johns, Michael M

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to illustrate the risk of vocal fold atrophy in patients who receive serial subepithelial steroid injections for vocal fold scar. This study is a retrospective case report of two patients who underwent a series of weekly subepithelial infusions of 10 mg/mL dexamethasone for benign vocal fold lesion. Shortly after the procedures, both patients developed a weak and breathy voice. The first patient was a 53-year-old man with radiation-induced vocal fold stiffness. Six injections were performed unilaterally, and 1 week later, he developed unilateral vocal fold atrophy with new glottal insufficiency. The second patient was a 67-year-old woman with severe vocal fold inflammation related to laryngitis and calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophagean dysmotility, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia (CREST) syndrome. Five injections were performed bilaterally, and 1 week later, she developed bilateral vocal fold atrophy with a large midline glottal gap during phonation. In both cases, the steroid-induced vocal atrophy resolved spontaneously after 4 months. Serial subepithelial steroid infusions of the vocal folds, although safe in the majority of patients, carry the risk of causing temporary vocal fold atrophy when given at short intervals. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Rat Excised Larynx Model of Vocal Fold Scar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welham, Nathan V.; Montequin, Douglas W.; Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Choi, Seong Hee; Bless, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a rat excised larynx model for the measurement of acoustic, aerodynamic, and vocal fold vibratory changes resulting from vocal fold scar. Method: Twenty-four 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: chronic vocal fold scar, chronic vocal fold scar treated with 100-ng basic…

  5. Energy-efficient multicast traffic grooming strategy based on light-tree splitting for elastic optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanlin; Yin, Yarui; Chen, Yong

    2017-07-01

    In order to address the problem of optimizing the spectrum resources and power consumption in elastic optical networks (EONs), we investigate the potential gains by jointly employing the light-tree splitting and traffic grooming for multicast requests. An energy-efficient multicast traffic grooming strategy based on light-tree splitting (EED-MTGS-LS) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, we design a traffic pre-processing mechanism to decide the multicast requests' routing order, which considers the request's bandwidth requirement and physical hops synthetically. Then, by dividing a light-tree to some sub-light-trees and grooming the request to these sub-light-trees, the light-tree sharing ratios of multicast requests can be improved. What's more, a priority scheduling vector is constructed, which aims to improve the success rate of spectrum assignment for grooming requests. Finally, a grooming strategy is designed to optimize the total power consumption by reducing the use of transponders and IP routers during routing. Simulation results show that the proposed strategy can significantly improve the spectrum utilization and save the power consumption.

  6. Dopamine receptor modulation of repetitive grooming actions in the rat: potential relevance for Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jennifer L; Rajbhandari, Abha K; Berridge, Kent C; Aldridge, J Wayne

    2010-03-31

    Studies of rodent grooming can provide valuable insight for dopamine contributions to the initiation, organization, and repetition of motor patterns. This information is useful for understanding how brain dysfunctions contribute to movement disorders such as Tourette syndrome and obsessive compulsive disorder, in which patients are driven to reiterate particular movement patterns. In rodents, dopamine D1 receptor stimulation causes a complex behavioral super-stereotypy in the form of excessive production and rigid execution of whole sequences of movements known as syntactic grooming chains. Sequential super-stereotypy of grooming chains may be particularly advantageous for modeling movement sequences and treatments in Tourette syndrome and related disorders. Here, we report that co-administration of haloperidol, one available treatment for Tourette syndrome and primarily a D2 receptor antagonist, prevented D1 stimulation with SKF38393 from inducing sequential super-stereotypy, which manifests as an exaggeration of the tendency to complete all four phases of a syntactic chain in rigid serial order once the first phase has begun. In a separate experiment, we showed that in contrast to acute D1 agonist administration, 39h withdrawal from chronic (3weeks) administration of the D1 antagonist SCH23390 (which has been suggested to increase D1 receptor expression in the basal ganglia) did not elicit sequential super-stereotypy after drug cessation. Instead, rats suddenly removed from repeated SCH23390 spent more time performing simple stereotypies that included intense scratching and biting behaviors. Together, these results have implications for understanding how dopamine receptors facilitate particular stereotypies manifest in animal models of Tourette syndrome and obsessive compulsive disorder.

  7. Vocal Loading in Speaking a Foreign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Kati; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether speaking a foreign language affects the subjective notions of vocal fatigue, and whether acoustic measurements reveal a higher vocal loading. The speech samples of 20 native Finnish-speaking and 23 native English-speaking subjects were recorded in Finnish and in English. From the speech samples, fundamental frequency, equivalent sound level, total duration of voiced speech, speech rate, alpha ratio and L1-L0 level difference were analyzed. Vocal doses were calculated. According to subjective notions, the voice gets tired more quickly when speaking a foreign language. The mean fundamental frequency increased but the speech rate and total duration of voiced speech decreased significantly when speaking a foreign language. Thus, the vocal doses decreased. The subjective sensations of increased vocal fatigue may be due to increased mental stress rather than to higher vocal loading. However, a trend that speaking a foreign language may involve more loading was found in L1-L0 level difference and in the doses normalized to time dose. Longer speech samples should be studied. Voice quality-based indicators of vocal loading are worth testing in addition to the measures based on the amount of voicing in speech. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Combining snow depth and innovative skier flow measurements in order to improve snow grooming techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmagnola, Carlo Maria; Albrecht, Stéphane; Hargoaa, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    In the last decades, ski resort managers have massively improved their snow management practices, in order to adapt their strategies to the inter-annual variability in snow conditions and to the effects of climate change. New real-time informations, such as snow depth measurements carried out on the ski slopes by grooming machines during their daily operations, have become available, allowing high saving, efficiency and optimization gains (reducing for instance the groomer fuel consumption and operation time and the need for machine-made snow production). In order to take a step forward in improving the grooming techniques, it would be necessary to keep into account also the snow erosion by skiers, which depends mostly on the snow surface properties and on the skier attendance. Today, however, most ski resort managers have only a vague idea of the evolution of the skier flows on each slope during the winter season. In this context, we have developed a new sensor (named Skiflux) able to measure the skier attendance using an infrared beam crossing the slopes. Ten Skiflux sensors have been deployed during the 2016/17 winter season at Val Thorens ski area (French Alps), covering a whole sector of the resort. A dedicated software showing the number of skier passages in real time as been developed as well. Combining this new Skiflux dataset with the snow depth measurements from grooming machines (Snowsat System) and the snow and meteorological conditions measured in-situ (Liberty System from Technoalpin), we were able to create a "real-time skiability index" accounting for the quality of the surface snow and its evolution during the day. Moreover, this new framework allowed us to improve the preparation of ski slopes, suggesting new strategies for adapting the grooming working schedule to the snow quality and the skier attendance. In the near future, this work will benefit from the advances made within the H2020 PROSNOW project ("Provision of a prediction system allowing

  9. Vocal ontogeny in neotropical singing mice (Scotinomys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polly Campbell

    Full Text Available Isolation calls produced by dependent young are a fundamental form of communication. For species in which vocal signals remain important to adult communication, the function and social context of vocal behavior changes dramatically with the onset of sexual maturity. The ontogenetic relationship between these distinct forms of acoustic communication is surprisingly under-studied. We conducted a detailed analysis of vocal development in sister species of Neotropical singing mice, Scotinomys teguina and S. xerampelinus. Adult singing mice are remarkable for their advertisement songs, rapidly articulated trills used in long-distance communication; the vocal behavior of pups was previously undescribed. We recorded 30 S. teguina and 15 S. xerampelinus pups daily, from birth to weaning; 23 S. teguina and 11 S. xerampelinus were recorded until sexual maturity. Like other rodent species with poikilothermic young, singing mice were highly vocal during the first weeks of life and stopped vocalizing before weaning. Production of first advertisement songs coincided with the onset of sexual maturity after a silent period of ≧2 weeks. Species differences in vocal behavior emerged early in ontogeny and notes that comprise adult song were produced from birth. However, the organization and relative abundance of distinct note types was very different between pups and adults. Notably, the structure, note repetition rate, and intra-individual repeatability of pup vocalizations did not become more adult-like with age; the highly stereotyped structure of adult song appeared de novo in the first songs of young adults. We conclude that, while the basic elements of adult song are available from birth, distinct selection pressures during maternal dependency, dispersal, and territorial establishment favor major shifts in the structure and prevalence of acoustic signals. This study provides insight into how an evolutionarily conserved form of acoustic signaling provides

  10. Comparison between Input Hypothesis and Interaction Hypothesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗琦

    2016-01-01

    Second Language Acquisition has received more and more attention since 1950s when it becomes an autonomous field of research. Linguists have carried out many theoretical and empirical studies with a sharp purpose to promote Second Language Acquisition. Krashen’s Input Hypothesis and Long’s Interaction Hypothesis are most influential ones among the studies. They both play important roles in language teaching and learning. The paper will present an account of the two great theories, includ-ing the main claims, theoretical foundations as well as some related empirical works and try to investigate commons and differ-ences between them, based on literature and empirical studies. The purpose of writing this paper is to provide a clear outline of the two theories and point out how they are interrelated yet separate predictions about how second language are learned. It is meaningful because the results can be valuable guidance and highlights for language teachers and learners to teach or acquire a language better.

  11. Vocal learning beyond imitation: mechanisms of adaptive vocal development in songbirds and human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchernichovski, Ofer; Marcus, Gary

    2014-10-01

    Studies of vocal learning in songbirds typically focus on the acquisition of sensory templates for song imitation and on the consequent process of matching song production to templates. However, functional vocal development also requires the capacity to adaptively diverge from sensory templates, and to flexibly assemble vocal units. Examples of adaptive divergence include the corrective imitation of abnormal songs, and the decreased tendency to copy over-abundant syllables. Such frequency-dependent effects might mirror tradeoffs between the assimilation of group identity (culture) while establishing individual and flexibly expressive songs. Intriguingly, although the requirements for vocal plasticity vary across songbirds, and more so between birdsong and language, the capacity to flexibly assemble vocal sounds develops in a similar, stepwise manner across species. Therefore, universal features of vocal learning go well beyond the capacity to imitate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. What makes a cry a cry? A review of infant distress vocalizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susan LINGLE; Megan T.WYMAN; Radim KOTRBA; Lisa J.TEICHROEB; Cora A.ROMANOW

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to the cries of human infants,sounds made by non-human infants in different stressful behavioral contexts (hunger or physical discomfort,isolation,capture by humans or predators) are usually treated as distinct types of vocalizations.However,if distress vocalizations produced by different species and in different contexts share a common motivational state and associated neurochemical pathways,we can expect them to share a common acoustic structure and adaptive function,showing only limited variation that corresponds to the infant's level of arousal.Based on this premise,we review the acoustic structure and adaptive function of two types of distress calls,those given when infants were isolated from their mothers (isolation calls) or captured by humans (capture calls).We conducted a within-context comparison examining the two call types across a diverse selection of mammalian species and other vertebrate groups,followed by a comparison of how acoustic structure and function differs between these contexts.In addition,we assessed acoustic traits that are critical to the response of caregivers.Across vertebrate species,distress vocalizations produced in these two behavioral contexts tend to be tonal with a simple chevron,flat or descending pattern of frequency modulation.Reports that both isolation and capture calls of vertebrate infants serve to attract caregivers are universal,and the fundamental frequency of infant vocalizations is often critical to this response.The results of our review are consistent with the hypothesis that differences in the acoustic structure of isolation and capture distress vocalizations reflect differences in arousal,and not discrete functions.The similarity in acoustic structure and caregiver response observed across vertebrates adds support to the hypothesis that the production and processing of distress vocalizations are part of a highly-conserved system of social vocal behaviour in vertebrates.Bioacoustic research may move

  13. What makes a cry a cry? A review of infant distress vocalizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan LINGLE, Megan T. WYMAN, Radim KOTRBA, Lisa J. TEICHROEB, Cora A. ROMANOW

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the cries of human infants, sounds made by non-human infants in different stressful behavioral contexts (hunger or physical discomfort, isolation, capture by humans or predators are usually treated as distinct types of vocalizations. However, if distress vocalizations produced by different species and in different contexts share a common motivational state and associated neurochemical pathways, we can expect them to share a common acoustic structure and adaptive function, showing only limited variation that corresponds to the infant’s level of arousal. Based on this premise, we review the acoustic structure and adaptive function of two types of distress calls, those given when infants were isolated from their mothers (isolation calls or captured by humans (capture calls. We conducted a within-context comparison examining the two call types across a diverse selection of mammalian species and other vertebrate groups, followed by a comparison of how acoustic structure and function differs between these contexts. In addition, we assessed acoustic traits that are critical to the response of caregivers. Across vertebrate species, distress vocalizations produced in these two behavioral contexts tend to be tonal with a simple chevron, flat or descending pattern of frequency modulation. Reports that both isolation and capture calls of vertebrate infants serve to attract caregivers are universal, and the fundamental frequency of infant vocalizations is often critical to this response. The results of our review are consistent with the hypothesis that differences in the acoustic structure of isolation and capture distress vocalizations reflect differences in arousal, and not discrete functions. The similarity in acoustic structure and caregiver response observed across vertebrates adds support to the hypothesis that the production and processing of distress vocalizations are part of a highly-conserved system of social vocal behaviour in

  14. Vocal cord paralysis caused by stingray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Jin; Park, Jung Je; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Woo, Seung Hoon

    2013-11-01

    Foreign bodies in the oral cavity and pharynx are commonly encountered in the emergency room and outpatient departments, and the most frequently observed of these foreign bodies are fish bones. Among the possible complications resulting from a pharyngeal foreign body, vocal cord fixation is extremely rare, with only three cases previously reported in the English literature. The mechanisms of vocal cord fixation can be classified into mechanical articular fixation, direct injury of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, or recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis secondary to inflammation. The case discussed here is different from previous cases. We report a rare case of vocal cord paralysis caused by the venom of a stingray tail in the hypopharynx.

  15. Vocal cord paralysis in a fighter pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturo, Stephen; Brennan, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    We present in this case report the return to flying duty of a pilot with vocal cord paralysis secondary to removal of a thymoma. We discuss the importance of glottic function as it pertains to the unique aviation environment. We also discuss the anatomy and physiology of the glottis, the evaluation for vocal cord paralysis, and surgical approaches for paralyzed vocal cords. Although the incidence of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis is low in the military aviation community, it is important to recognize that its sequelae can be managed so that the aviator may return to flight duties.

  16. Development of auditory-vocal perceptual skills in songbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa C Miller-Sims

    Full Text Available Songbirds are one of the few groups of animals that learn the sounds used for vocal communication during development. Like humans, songbirds memorize vocal sounds based on auditory experience with vocalizations of adult "tutors", and then use auditory feedback of self-produced vocalizations to gradually match their motor output to the memory of tutor sounds. In humans, investigations of early vocal learning have focused mainly on perceptual skills of infants, whereas studies of songbirds have focused on measures of vocal production. In order to fully exploit songbirds as a model for human speech, understand the neural basis of learned vocal behavior, and investigate links between vocal perception and production, studies of songbirds must examine both behavioral measures of perception and neural measures of discrimination during development. Here we used behavioral and electrophysiological assays of the ability of songbirds to distinguish vocal calls of varying frequencies at different stages of vocal learning. The results show that neural tuning in auditory cortex mirrors behavioral improvements in the ability to make perceptual distinctions of vocal calls as birds are engaged in vocal learning. Thus, separate measures of neural discrimination and behavioral perception yielded highly similar trends during the course of vocal development. The timing of this improvement in the ability to distinguish vocal sounds correlates with our previous work showing substantial refinement of axonal connectivity in cortico-basal ganglia pathways necessary for vocal learning.

  17. Development of auditory-vocal perceptual skills in songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Sims, Vanessa C; Bottjer, Sarah W

    2012-01-01

    Songbirds are one of the few groups of animals that learn the sounds used for vocal communication during development. Like humans, songbirds memorize vocal sounds based on auditory experience with vocalizations of adult "tutors", and then use auditory feedback of self-produced vocalizations to gradually match their motor output to the memory of tutor sounds. In humans, investigations of early vocal learning have focused mainly on perceptual skills of infants, whereas studies of songbirds have focused on measures of vocal production. In order to fully exploit songbirds as a model for human speech, understand the neural basis of learned vocal behavior, and investigate links between vocal perception and production, studies of songbirds must examine both behavioral measures of perception and neural measures of discrimination during development. Here we used behavioral and electrophysiological assays of the ability of songbirds to distinguish vocal calls of varying frequencies at different stages of vocal learning. The results show that neural tuning in auditory cortex mirrors behavioral improvements in the ability to make perceptual distinctions of vocal calls as birds are engaged in vocal learning. Thus, separate measures of neural discrimination and behavioral perception yielded highly similar trends during the course of vocal development. The timing of this improvement in the ability to distinguish vocal sounds correlates with our previous work showing substantial refinement of axonal connectivity in cortico-basal ganglia pathways necessary for vocal learning.

  18. Kind granddaughters of angry grandmothers: the effect of domestication on vocalization in cross-bred silver foxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoleva, Svetlana S; Volodin, Ilya A; Volodina, Elena V; Kharlamova, Anastasia V; Trut, Lyudmila N

    2009-07-01

    The genetic basis of the effects of domestication has previously been examined in relation to morphological, physiological and behavioural traits, but not for vocalizations. According to Belyaev [Belyaev, D.K., 1979. Destabilizing selection as a factor in domestication. J. Hered. 70, 301-308], directional selection for tame behaviour toward humans resulted in domestication. This hypothesis has been confirmed experimentally on the farm-bred silver fox Vulpes vulpes population that has undergone 45 years of artificial selection for tameness and 35 years of selection for aggressiveness. These foxes, with their precisely known attitudes toward people, provide a means of examining vocal indicators of tameness and aggressiveness to establish the genetic basis for vocal production in canids. We examined vocalizations toward people in foxes selected for tameness and aggressiveness compared to those of three kinds of crosses: Hybrids (Tame x Aggressive), A-Backcrosses (Aggressive x Hybrid) and T-Backcrosses (Tame x Hybrid). We report the effects of selection for tameness on usage and structure of different vocalizations and suggest that vocal indicators for tameness and aggressiveness toward people are discrete phenotypic traits in silver foxes.

  19. Context-dependent differences in grooming behavior among the NIH heterogeneous stock and the Roman high- and low-avoidance rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estanislau, C; Díaz-Morán, S; Cañete, T; Blázquez, G; Tobeña, A; Fernández-Teruel, A

    2013-12-01

    Grooming occurs during/after stress and seems to accompany dearousal. Here, grooming was investigated under testing situations involving different levels of aversiveness, taking advantage of differences among three rat strains in fearfulness/anxiety. Inbred Roman High Avoidance (RHA-I) rats are less anxious/fearful than inbred Roman Low Avoidance (RLA-I). The outbred genetically heterogeneous stock of rats (NIH-HS), which resembles the RLA-I in many behavioral traits, was also studied. Adult male rats (RLA-I: n=9, RHA-I: n=10, NIH-HS: n=12) were observed for 30min in: a novel open-field, a novel hole-board and in the home-cage. They were also observed during two-way active avoidance training. Differences in grooming depended on test situation: (a) No differences were found in the home-cage. (b) While tested in a novel environment, RHA-I showed less grooming activity than the other rats. (c) After avoidance responses appeared, differences among the strains were opposite to the observed in novelty tests. Furthermore, results suggest that (i) grooming is mostly suppressed when assured aversive experience is under way; (ii) rostral grooming prevails when experience with aversive stimuli is unpredictable (novelty) or potential (avoidance training); (iii) body grooming increases for a period in novel environments. In general, our results support that grooming takes place during dearousal.

  20. Histidine decarboxylase knockout mice, a genetic model of Tourette syndrome, show repetitive grooming after induced fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meiyu; Li, Lina; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Pittenger, Christopher

    2015-05-19

    Tics, such as are seen in Tourette syndrome (TS), are common and can cause profound morbidity, but they are poorly understood. Tics are potentiated by psychostimulants, stress, and sleep deprivation. Mutations in the gene histidine decarboxylase (Hdc) have been implicated as a rare genetic cause of TS, and Hdc knockout mice have been validated as a genetic model that recapitulates phenomenological and pathophysiological aspects of the disorder. Tic-like stereotypies in this model have not been observed at baseline but emerge after acute challenge with the psychostimulant d-amphetamine. We tested the ability of an acute stressor to stimulate stereotypies in this model, using tone fear conditioning. Hdc knockout mice acquired conditioned fear normally, as manifested by freezing during the presentation of a tone 48h after it had been paired with a shock. During the 30min following tone presentation, knockout mice showed increased grooming. Heterozygotes exhibited normal freezing and intermediate grooming. These data validate a new paradigm for the examination of tic-like stereotypies in animals without pharmacological challenge and enhance the face validity of the Hdc knockout mouse as a pathophysiologically grounded model of tic disorders.

  1. Human cerebral response to animal affective vocalizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pascal Belin; Shirley Fecteau; Ian Charest; Nicholas Nicastro; Marc D Hauser; Jorge L Armony

    2008-01-01

    .... Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in normal participants to measure cerebral activity during auditory stimulation with affectively valenced animal vocalizations, some familiar (cats) and others not (rhesus monkeys...

  2. Improvement of a Vocal Fold Imaging System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauter, K. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Medical professionals can better serve their patients through continual update of their imaging tools. A wide range of pathologies and disease may afflict human vocal cords or, as they’re also known, vocal folds. These diseases can affect human speech hampering the ability of the patient to communicate. Vocal folds must be opened for breathing and the closed to produce speech. Currently methodologies to image markers of potential pathologies are difficult to use and often fail to detect early signs of disease. These current methodologies rely on a strobe light and slower frame rate camera in an attempt to obtain images as the vocal folds travel over the full extent of their motion.

  3. Influence of grooming on Rhipicephalus microplus tick infestation and serum cortisol rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ferreira Pessoa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Grooming is an important factor on animal resistance to ticks. Rhipicephalus microplus is the most pathogenic cattle tick in Brazil causing death in susceptible animals. Cortisol is the hormone of stress. The influence of grooming on tick infestation and serum cortisol level was studied in 16 Holstein heifers from fifth to eight-month-old. They were infested with 10,000 larvae in June/20/2011. Half of them used a necklace made of wood strips and had an infestation chamber made by cotton cloth covering about 50 cm diameter of the shaved flank, fixed at the skin in both sides with adhesive to prevent larvae to escape from the infestation chamber and the amount of larvae was divided into the two chambers. Such artifacts had the purpose to avoid grooming. The heifers remained all the tick parasitic life cycle in individual pens inside a closed shed at Instituto de Zootecnia, in Nova Odessa, São Paulo State. Tick females bigger than 4.5 mm were counted in the right side from day 20 to 22 after the artificial infestation. The tick recovery rate was calculated by adding and multiplying by two the number of ticks counted, assuming that 5,000 female larvae had infested the cattle. Immediately before infestation (day 0 and in day2, day8, and day17 after infestation, blood samples were collected using vacuum tubes, in the morning (8:30 – 10:00 A.M.. Cortisol was measured by immunoassay (EIA and the D.O. (optical density at 420 nm was converted in ng of cortisol/mL of serum sample. The experimental design was randomized with 8 replications. Data from serum cortisol were analyzed using the General linear models of the SPSS® statistical package (version 12.0 using the presence of the artifacts (necklace and chamber and sampling day as independent variables and serum cortisol as the dependent variable. In the analyse of tick recovery rate, the presence of artifacts was the independent variable and tick recovery rate the dependent variable. The presence of

  4. The evolution of coordinated vocalizations before language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Gregory A

    2014-12-01

    Ackermann et al. briefly point out the potential significance of coordinated vocal behavior in the dual pathway model of acoustic communication. Rhythmically entrained and articulated pre-linguistic vocal activity in early hominins might have set the evolutionary stage for later refinements that manifest in modern humans as language-based conversational turn-taking, joint music-making, and other behaviors associated with prosociality.

  5. Ultrasonic Vocalizations by Adult Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    begun. Diazepam , chlordiazepoxide , morphine, or naloxone was administered I.P. prior to placing the rat in the tailshock apparatus. Four different...by chlordiazepoxide and diazepam . Drug Dev. Res., 5, 185-193 (1985). Gardner, C.R., and Budhram, P. Effects of agents which interact with central... diazepam , and chlorpromazine, attenuate these vocalizations. Recent work by Kaltwasser (1990) examined the occurrence of vocalizations in response to

  6. VOCAL SEGMENT CLASSIFICATION IN POPULAR MUSIC

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Ling; Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the vocal and non-vocal music classification problem within popular songs. A newly built labeled database covering 147 popular songs is announced. It is designed for classifying signals from 1sec time windows. Features are selected for this particular task, in order to capture both the temporal correlations and the dependencies among the feature dimensions. We systematically study the performance of a set of classifiers, including linear regression, generalized linear mode...

  7. Vocal tract articulation in zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena R Ohms

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birdsong and human vocal communication are both complex behaviours which show striking similarities mainly thought to be present in the area of development and learning. Recent studies, however, suggest that there are also parallels in vocal production mechanisms. While it has been long thought that vocal tract filtering, as it occurs in human speech, only plays a minor role in birdsong there is an increasing number of studies indicating the presence of sound filtering mechanisms in bird vocalizations as well. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Correlating high-speed X-ray cinematographic imaging of singing zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata to song structures we identified beak gape and the expansion of the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity (OEC as potential articulators. We subsequently manipulated both structures in an experiment in which we played sound through the vocal tract of dead birds. Comparing acoustic input with acoustic output showed that OEC expansion causes an energy shift towards lower frequencies and an amplitude increase whereas a wide beak gape emphasizes frequencies around 5 kilohertz and above. CONCLUSION: These findings confirm that birds can modulate their song by using vocal tract filtering and demonstrate how OEC and beak gape contribute to this modulation.

  8. Vocal health fitness to different music styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cláudia Mendes Caminha Muniz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present genres and styles currently running on western music scene, focusing on the practice of singing voice. Methods: An observational and documental study for which were selected sound sources presenting musical genres and styles that are part of the experience of the researchers, which were analyzed considering origins, formative elements and vocal features. Alongside we carried out a review of literature grounded in databases research and free review of websites and classical books of the area. Results: The selected styles (Rock and Roll, Heavy Metal, Trash Metal, Grunge, Gothic Metal, Rap, Funk, Blues, R&B – Rhythm and Blues, Soul, Gospel, MPB, Samba, Forro, Sertanejo, Bossa Nova, Opera and Chamber Music were described, pointing the reasons for the speech therapist to be informed about them and about singing voice aspects. His guidance may minimize possible vocal damage caused by each style, since each of them carries its own patterns to which the interpreter must submit. Conclusions: We conclude that the singer will use a specific vocal pattern that resembles the musical style he intends to sing, regardless of any harm it may or may not cause to vocal health. When choosing a musical style, it is important that the singer has the knowledge and understanding of how the use of his vocal apparatus will cause or not cause injury to his voice. Also be aware that the technique in singing is necessary for vocal longevity.

  9. Vocal learning is constrained by the statistics of sensorimotor experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sober, Samuel J; Brainard, Michael S

    2012-12-18

    The brain uses sensory feedback to correct behavioral errors. Larger errors by definition require greater corrections, and many models of learning assume that larger sensory feedback errors drive larger motor changes. However, an alternative perspective is that larger errors drive learning less effectively because such errors fall outside the range of errors normally experienced and are therefore unlikely to reflect accurate feedback. This is especially crucial in vocal control because auditory feedback can be contaminated by environmental noise or sensory processing errors. A successful control strategy must therefore rely on feedback to correct errors while disregarding aberrant auditory signals that would lead to maladaptive vocal corrections. We hypothesized that these constraints result in compensation that is greatest for smaller imposed errors and least for larger errors. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated the pitch of auditory feedback in singing Bengalese finches. We found that learning driven by larger sensory errors was both slower than that resulting from smaller errors and showed less complete compensation for the imposed error. Additionally, we found that a simple principle could account for these data: the amount of compensation was proportional to the overlap between the baseline distribution of pitch production and the distribution experienced during the shift. Correspondingly, the fraction of compensation approached zero when pitch was shifted outside of the song's baseline pitch distribution. Our data demonstrate that sensory errors drive learning best when they fall within the range of production variability, suggesting that learning is constrained by the statistics of sensorimotor experience.

  10. "Groom"-ing the Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Art educators are aware that one way to inspire students is to introduce them to prominent artists. They all know that many students have preconceived notions that artists only become well-known after death, or that a life of art means a life of poverty. To open the students' eyes, the author always tries to include lessons about successful,…

  11. Voice analysis before and after vocal rehabilitation in patients following open surgery on vocal cords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunijevac Mila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The major role of larynx in speech, respiration and swallowing makes carcinomas of this region and their treatment very influential for patients’ life quality. The aim of this study was to assess the importance of voice therapy in patients after open surgery on vocal cords. Methods. This study included 21 male patients and the control group of 19 subjects. The vowel (A was recorded and analyzed for each examinee. All the patients were recorded twice: firstly, when they contacted the clinic and secondly, after a three-month vocal therapy, which was held twice per week on an outpatient basis. The voice analysis was carried out in the Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT Clinic, Clinical Hospital Center “Zvezdara” in Belgrade. Results. The values of the acoustic parameters in the patients submitted to open surgery on the vocal cords before vocal rehabilitation and the control group subjects were significantly different in all specified parameters. These results suggest that the voice of the patients was damaged before vocal rehabilitation. The results of the acoustic parameters of the vowel (A before and after vocal rehabilitation of the patients with open surgery on vocal cords were statistically significantly different. Among the parameters - Jitter (%, Shimmer (% - the observed difference was highly statistically significant (p 0.05 . Conclusion. There was a significant improvement of the acoustic parameters of the vowel (A in the study subjects three months following vocal therapy. Only one out of five representative parameters showed no significant improvement.

  12. High speed digital phonoscopy of selected extreme vocalization (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebski, Krzysztof; Blanco, Matthew; Di Lorenzo, Enrico; Yan, Yuling

    2017-02-01

    We used HSDP (KayPENTAX Model 9710, NJ, USA) to capture the kinematics of vocal folds in the production of extreme vocalization used by heavy metal performers. The vibrations of the VF were captured at 4000 f/s using transoral rigid scope. Growl, scream and inhalatory phonations were recoded. Results showed that these extreme sounds are produced predominantly by supraglottic tissues rather than by the true vocal folds, which explains while these sounds do not injure the mucosa of the true vocal folds. In addition, the HSDI were processed using custom software (Vocalizer®) that clearly demonstrated the contribution of each vocal fold to the generation of the sound.

  13. Correlation between vocal functions and glottal measurements in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagi, K; Khidr, A A; Ford, C N; Bless, D M; Heisey, D M

    1997-06-01

    Observations and analysis of glottal characteristics are critical in choosing the best modality for surgery in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVP). This study suggests that multiple glottal characteristics influence the vocal product in patients with UVP. In addition to the horizontal position of the paralyzed vocal fold (deviation from the midline), the glottal area, degree of bowing of the paralyzed and contralateral vocal folds, maximum separation between vocal folds, compensatory glottal maneuvers, and the vertical glottic closure plane significantly influenced the quality of the voice. Clinicians should be aware of these observations to facilitate treatment planning and assessment of the results of surgical procedures used to improve voice quality in cases of UVP.

  14. Expression of emotion in Eastern and Western music mirrors vocalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Daniel Liu; Sundararajan, Janani; Han, Shui'er; Purves, Dale

    2012-01-01

    In Western music, the major mode is typically used to convey excited, happy, bright or martial emotions, whereas the minor mode typically conveys subdued, sad or dark emotions. Recent studies indicate that the differences between these modes parallel differences between the prosodic and spectral characteristics of voiced speech sounds uttered in corresponding emotional states. Here we ask whether tonality and emotion are similarly linked in an Eastern musical tradition. The results show that the tonal relationships used to express positive/excited and negative/subdued emotions in classical South Indian music are much the same as those used in Western music. Moreover, tonal variations in the prosody of English and Tamil speech uttered in different emotional states are parallel to the tonal trends in music. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the association between musical tonality and emotion is based on universal vocal characteristics of different affective states.

  15. Expression of emotion in Eastern and Western music mirrors vocalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Liu Bowling

    Full Text Available In Western music, the major mode is typically used to convey excited, happy, bright or martial emotions, whereas the minor mode typically conveys subdued, sad or dark emotions. Recent studies indicate that the differences between these modes parallel differences between the prosodic and spectral characteristics of voiced speech sounds uttered in corresponding emotional states. Here we ask whether tonality and emotion are similarly linked in an Eastern musical tradition. The results show that the tonal relationships used to express positive/excited and negative/subdued emotions in classical South Indian music are much the same as those used in Western music. Moreover, tonal variations in the prosody of English and Tamil speech uttered in different emotional states are parallel to the tonal trends in music. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the association between musical tonality and emotion is based on universal vocal characteristics of different affective states.

  16. Deficiency of antinociception and excessive grooming induced by acute immobilization stress in Per1 mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wu, Zhouqiao; Zhou, Linglin; Li, Huili; Teng, Huajing; Dai, Wei; Wang, Yongqing; Sun, Zhong Sheng

    2011-01-14

    Acute stressors induce changes in numerous behavioral parameters through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Several important hormones in paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) play the roles in these stress-induced reactions. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and corticosterone are considered as molecular markers for stress-induced grooming behavior. Oxytocin in PVN is an essential modulator for stress-induced antinociception. The clock gene, Per1, has been identified as an effecter response to the acute stresses, but its function in neuroendocrine stress systems remains unclear. In the present study we observed the alterations in grooming and nociceptive behaviors induced by acute immobilization stress in Per1 mutant mice and other genotypes (wild types and Per2 mutant). The results displayed that stress elicited a more robust effect on grooming behavior in Per1 mutant mice than in other genotypes. Subsequently, the obvious stress-induced antinociception was observed in the wild-type and Per2 mutant mice, however, in Per1 mutant, this antinociceptive effects were partially-reversed (mechanical sensitivity), or over-reversed to hyperalgesia (thermal sensitivity). The real-time qPCR results showed that in PVN, there were stress-induced up-regulations of Crh, Avp and c-fos in all of genotypes; moreover, the expression change of Crh in Per1 mutant mice was much larger than in others. Another hormonal gene, Oxt, was up-regulated induced by stress in wild-type and Per2 mutant but not in Per1 mutant. In addition, the stress significantly elevated the serum corticosterone levels without genotype-dependent differences, and accordingly the glucocorticoid receptor gene, Nr3c1, expressed with a similar pattern in PVN of all strains. Taken together, the present study indicated that in acute stress treated Per1 mutant mice, there are abnormal hormonal responses in PVN, correlating with the aberrant

  17. On the role of emerging voluntary control of vocalization in language evolution. Comment on "Towards a Computational Comparative Neuroprimatology: Framing the language-ready brain" by Michael A. Arbib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudé, Gino

    2016-03-01

    This comment will be focused on the role of monkey vocal control in the evolution of language. I will essentially reiterate the observations expressed in a commentary [1] about the book "How the brain got language: the mirror system hypothesis", written by Arbib [2]. I will hopefully clarify our suggestion that non-human primates vocal communication, in conjunction with gestures, could have had an active role in the emergence of the first voluntary forms of utterances that will later shape protospeech. This suggestion is mainly rooted in neurophysiological data about vocal control in monkey. I will very briefly summarize how neurophysiological data allowed us to suggest a possible role for monkey vocalization in language evolution. We conducted a study [3] in which we recorded from ventral premotor cortex (PMv) of macaques trained to emit vocalizations (i.e. coo-calls). The results showed that the rostro-lateral part of PMv contains neurons that fire during conditioned vocalization. The involvement of PMv in vocalization production was further supported by electrical microstimulation of the cortical sector where some of the vocalization neurons were found. Microstimulation elicited in some cases a combination of jaw, tongue and larynx movements. To us, the evolutionary implications of those results were obvious: a partial voluntary vocal control was already taking place in the primate PMv cortex some 25 million years ago.

  18. Aggression, grooming and group-level cooperation in white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus): insights from social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofoot, Margaret C; Rubenstein, Daniel I; Maiya, Arun S; Berger-Wolf, Tanya Y

    2011-08-01

    The form of animal social systems depends on the nature of agonistic and affiliative interactions. Social network theory provides tools for characterizing social structure that go beyond simple dyadic interactions and consider the group as a whole. We show three groups of capuchin monkeys from Barro Colorado Island, Panama, where there are strong connections between key aspects of aggression, grooming, and proximity networks, and, at least among females, those who incur risk to defend their group have particular "social personalities." Although there is no significant correlation for any of the network measures between giving and receiving aggression, suggesting that dominance relationships do not follow a simple hierarchy, strong correlations emerge for many measures between the aggression and grooming networks. At the local, but not global, scale, receiving aggression and giving grooming are strongly linked in all groups. Proximity shows no correlation with aggression at either the local or the global scale, suggesting that individuals neither seek out nor avoid aggressors. Yet, grooming has a global but not local connection to proximity. Extensive groomers who tend to direct their efforts at other extensive groomers also spend time in close proximity to many other individuals. These results indicate the important role that prosociality plays in shaping female social relationships. We also show that females who receive the least aggression, and thus pay low costs for group living, are most likely to participate in group defense. No consistent "social personality" traits characterize the males who invest in group defense.

  19. Examination of Ethnic and Policy Issues in Grooming Preferences and Ethnic Hairstyles of African American Women in Corporate America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Renee Payne

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available For a century, college-trained, professional racial minorities: specifically, African American women with a preference in grooming methods have contributed to the labor market; however, in the new millennium, they are often discriminated against, scoffed at, isolated, and demoralized based on ethnic hairstyles. Research studies have distinguished a depth of research on this and conversely there are limited studies on racial minorities, in particular among grooming preferences in ethnic hairstyles. Studies have shown that in progressive companies, racial minorities and African American women who wear ethnic hairstyles had their employment terminated with prejudice. With regard to these case studies and findings, one could argue that in this nation there is freedom of speech and inequality in expression. For this reason, this research is very necessary to discover variables in ethnic and policy issues in grooming preferences with regard to the ethnic hairstyles of African American women as it relates to employers, whereat cohesive practices in diversity and policies address imposing construct in the labor market. This research will not address every ethnical concern in the labor market; yet, it responds to a call in the literature to define managerial deficiencies against racial minorities: in particular, African American women in grooming preferences.

  20. The Lehman Sisters Hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This article explores the Lehman Sisters Hypothesis. It reviews empirical literature about gender differences in behavioral, experimental, and neuro-economics as well as in other fields of behavioral research. It discusses gender differences along three dimensions of fi

  1. Revisiting the Dutch hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Dirkje S.; Weiss, Scott T.; van den Berge, Maarten; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Koppelman, Gerard H.

    The Dutch hypothesis was first articulated in 1961, when many novel and advanced scientific techniques were not available, such as genomics techniques for pinpointing genes, gene expression, lipid and protein profiles, and the microbiome. In addition, computed tomographic scans and advanced analysis

  2. Stuttering: A novel bullfrog vocalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Andrea; Suggs, Dianne

    2004-05-01

    The advertisement call of male bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) consists of a series of individual croaks, each of which contains multiple harmonics with a missing or attenuated fundamental frequency of approximately 100 Hz. The envelope of individual croaks has typically been represented in the literature as smooth and unmodulated. From an analysis of 5251 advertisement calls from 17 different choruses over two mating seasons, we show that males add an extra modulation (around 4 Hz) to the envelope of individual croaks, following specific rules. We term these extra modulations stutters. Neither single croak calls nor the first croak in multiple croak calls contains stutters. When stuttering begins, it does so with a croak containing a single stutter, and the number of stutters increases linearly (plus or minus 1 stutter, up to 4 stutters) with the number of croaks. This pattern is stable across individual males (N=10). Playback experiments reveal that vocal responses to stuttered and nonstuttered calls vary with proximity to the stimulus. Close males respond with nonstuttered calls, while far males respond with stuttered calls. The data suggest that nonstuttered calls are used for aggressive or territorial purposes, while stuttered calls are used to attract females.

  3. Vocal cord paralysis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ericka F; Blumin, Joel H

    2009-12-01

    Vocal fold paralysis (VFP) is an increasingly commonly identified problem in the pediatric patient. Diagnostic and management techniques honed in adult laryngologic practice have been successfully applied to children. Iatrogenic causes, including cardiothoracic procedures, remain a common cause of unilateral VFP. Neurologic disorders predominate in the cause of bilateral VFP. Diagnosis with electromyography is currently being evaluated in children. Treatment of VFP is centered around symptomology, which is commonly divided between voice and airway concerns. Speech therapy shows promise in older children. Surgical management for unilateral VFP with injection laryngoplasty is commonly performed and well tolerated. Laryngeal reinnervation is currently being applied to the pediatric population as a permanent treatment and offers several advantages over laryngeal framework procedures. For bilateral VFP, tracheotomy is still commonly performed. Glottic dilation procedures are performed both openly and endoscopically with a high degree of success. VFP is a well recognized problem in pediatric patients with disordered voice and breathing. Some patients will spontaneously recover their laryngeal function. For those who do not, a variety of reliable techniques are available for rehabilitative treatment.

  4. What can vortices tell us about vocal fold vibration and voice production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Sid; Murugappan, Shanmugam; Gutmark, Ephraim

    2008-06-01

    Much clinical research on laryngeal airflow has assumed that airflow is unidirectional. This review will summarize what additional knowledge can be obtained about vocal fold vibration and voice production by studying rotational motion, or vortices, in laryngeal airflow. Recent work suggests two types of vortices that may strongly contribute to voice quality. The first kind forms just above the vocal folds during glottal closing, and is formed by flow separation in the glottis; these flow separation vortices significantly contribute to rapid closing of the glottis, and hence, to producing loudness and high frequency harmonics in the acoustic spectrum. The second is a group of highly three-dimensional and coherent supraglottal vortices, which can produce sound by interaction with structures in the vocal tract. Present work is also described that suggests that certain laryngeal pathologies, such as asymmetric vocal fold tension, will significantly modify both types of vortices, with adverse impact on sound production: decreased rate of glottal closure, increased broadband noise, and a decreased signal to noise ratio. Recent research supports the hypothesis that glottal airflow contains certain vortical structures that significantly contribute to voice quality.

  5. Vocal production complexity correlates with neural instructions in the oyster toadfish (Opsanus tau).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elemans, Coen P H; Mensinger, Allen F; Rome, Lawrence C

    2014-06-01

    Sound communication is fundamental to many social interactions and essential to courtship and agonistic behaviours in many vertebrates. The swimbladder and associated muscles in batrachoidid fishes (midshipman and toadfish) is a unique vertebrate sound production system, wherein fundamental frequencies are determined directly by the firing rate of a vocal-acoustic neural network that drives the contraction frequency of superfast swimbladder muscles. The oyster toadfish boatwhistle call starts with an irregular sound waveform that could be an emergent property of the peripheral nonlinear sound-producing system or reflect complex encoding in the central nervous system. Here, we demonstrate that the start of the boatwhistle is indicative of a chaotic strange attractor, and tested whether its origin lies in the peripheral sound-producing system or in the vocal motor network. We recorded sound and swimbladder muscle activity in awake, freely behaving toadfish during motor nerve stimulation, and recorded sound, motor nerve and muscle activity during spontaneous grunts. The results show that rhythmic motor volleys do not cause complex sound signals. However, arrhythmic recruitment of swimbladder muscle during spontaneous grunts correlates with complex sounds. This supports the hypothesis that the irregular start of the boatwhistle is encoded in the vocal pre-motor neural network, and not caused by peripheral interactions with the sound-producing system. We suggest that sound production system demands across vocal tetrapods have selected for muscles and motorneurons adapted for speed, which can execute complex neural instructions into equivalently complex vocalisations. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Vocal Modification Abilities and Brain Structures in Parrots – how do they Correlate?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpøth, Solveig Walløe

    .e. the oval nucleus of the mesopallium, MO and 3) investigate the effect of long-­term social and sound-isolation on the vocal modification ability and on the contact call of the peach-­fronted conure, Aratinga aurea. Article 1: The social complexity hypothesis states that with a complex social structure......-­fronted conure and the budgerigar. Article 2: It has been suggested that the size of various brain regions is important for behavioral capability and also the number of neurons have been suggested to be important. Here we correlate the vocal modification ability of the peach-­fronted conure, the budgerigar...... and the peach-faced lovebird with a brain nucleus, MO, involved in vocal learning. We show that the species with the highest level of vocal complexity (i.e. the peach-fronted conure) was also the species with the largest volume of MO and the highest number of neurons in MO. The budgerigar had the smallest...

  7. Elaborate Mimetic Vocal Displays by Female Superb Lyrebirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia H Dalziell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most striking vocalizations in birds are made by males that incorporate vocal mimicry in their sexual displays. Mimetic vocalization in females is largely undescribed, but it is unclear whether this is because of a lack of selection for vocal mimicry in females, or whether the phenomenon has simply been overlooked. These issues are thrown into sharp relief in the superb lyrebird, Menura novaehollandiae, a basal oscine passerine with a lek-like mating system and female uniparental care. The spectacular mimetic song display produced by courting male lyrebirds is a textbook example of a sexually selected trait, but the vocalizations of female lyrebirds are largely unknown. Here, we provide the first analysis of the structure and context of the vocalizations of female lyrebirds. Female lyrebirds were completely silent during courtship; however, females regularly produced sophisticated vocal displays incorporating both lyrebird-specific vocalizations and imitations of sounds within their environment. The structure of female vocalizations varied significantly with context. While foraging, females mostly produced a complex lyrebird-specific song, whereas they gave lyrebird-specific alarm calls most often during nest defense. Within their vocal displays females also included a variety of mimetic vocalizations, including imitations of the calls of dangerous predators, and of alarm calls and song of harmless heterospecifics. Females gave more mimetic vocalizations during nest defense than while foraging, and the types of sounds they imitated varied between these contexts, suggesting that mimetic vocalizations have more than one function. These results are inconsistent with previous portrayals of vocalizations by female lyrebirds as rare, functionless by-products of sexual selection on males. Instead, our results support the hypotheses that complex female vocalizations play a role in nest defense and mediate female-female competition for

  8. Evaluation of beach grooming techniques on Escherichia coli density in foreshore sand at North Beach, Racine, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzelman, Julie L.; Whitman, Richard L.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Jackson, Emma; Bagley, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    Elevated levels of Escherichia coli(E. coli) in bathing waters at North Beach, a popular recreational site in Racine, Wisconsin, have been a persistent problem often resulting in the issuance of poor water quality advisories. Moreover, waterfowl (mostly Larus delawarensis and L. argentatus) in nearshore and offshore areas are common and may serve as non-point sources for bacterial contamination of recreational waters. Current beach management practice involves daily mechanical grooming of the nearshore sand for aesthetics and removal of hazardous debris. However, this practice has not been evaluated in terms of its effects on E. coli loading to beach sand and potential introduction to contiguous swimming water. In this study, we tested E. coli responses to three treatments: mechanical groomer, daily and twice weekly hand raking, and a control (no raking/grooming). A randomized block design consisted of replicated treatments and one control (10 each), for a total of 40 blocks sampled daily for 10 days. Foreshore sand samples were collected by hand coring to an average depth of 10 cm. Median E. colirecovered were 73 (mechanically groomed), 27 (hand-raked daily), 32 (hand-raked twice weekly), and 22 (control) colony-forming units (CFU) per gram dry weight sand. E. colicounts in sand that was groomed were significantly higher than hand rakings and control (p grooming efficacy and the importance of understanding non-point sources of bacterial contamination.

  9. Setal morphology of the grooming appendages of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae) and review of decapod setal classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortham, Jennifer L; Vanmaurik, Lauren N; Wayne Price, W

    2014-06-01

    Setae are vital in grooming activities and aiding in the removal of epibionts and sedimentary fouling from the body surfaces of decapod crustaceans. Thus, the setal structures and their arrangement on the grooming appendages and sensory structures of the commercially important shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Macrobrachium rosenbergii is extensively grown in aquaculture and exhibits unique male morphological forms, termed morphotypes. The three male morphotypes are termed blue-clawed males, orange-clawed males, and small-clawed or undifferentiated males and all three differ in their dominance, behavior, body morphology, and reproductive success. Seven setal types, two of which have never been described in the literature, are identified on the grooming appendages (third maxillipeds, first, second, and fifth pereopods) and antennae: simple, serrate, serrulate, spiniform, pappose, crinoid, and spinulate. The latter two setae are newly identified. Certain setal types, such as serrate and serrulate setae were located and associated with specific grooming appendages such as the first pereopods. The types of setae on the grooming appendages varied among females and male morphotypes and the novel setal types (crinoid and spinulate) were found only on two of the male morphotypes. A literature review of terminology related to the structure of setae and setal types in decapod crustaceans is offered as the usage of various terms is ambiguous and conflicting in the literature. The intention of this review is to provide future authors with a comprehensive collection of terms and images that can be used to describe various aspects of setal morphology in decapods.

  10. Structural and functional analysis of single neurons to correlate synaptic connectivity with grooming behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kays, Ibrahim; Cvetkovska, Vedrana; Chen, Brian E

    2014-01-01

    We describe a protocol to image the complex axonal branching structure of identified mechanosensory neurons in Drosophila, combined with a behavioral assay to evaluate the functional output of the neuron. The stimulation of identified mechanosensory neurons in live animals produces a stereotyped grooming reflex. The mechanosensory axonal arbor within the CNS is subsequently labeled with a lipophilic fluorescent dye and imaged by fluorescence microscopy. The behavioral output can therefore be correlated to the axonal morphology of the stimulated neuron in the same animal. Combining this protocol with genetic analysis provides a powerful tool for identifying the roles of molecules involved in different aspects of hard-wired neural circuit formation underlying an innate behavior. From behavioral analysis to axonal imaging, the protocol takes 4 d.

  11. Traffic Grooming in WDM Optical Networks%WDM光网络中的业务疏导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄俊; 刘华; 曾庆济; 肖鹏程; 刘继民; 徐捷

    2002-01-01

    目前WDM光网络普通用户大量的一般业务请求数目及波长通道带宽的不断增加极大的增加了网络中电层和光层设备的处理负担,增加了网络成本.对低速电信号复用到高速光通道进行优化,减少网络电层设备的使用,降低网络成本的业务疏导(Traffic Grooming)技术成为目前光网络研究的一个热点.本文主要介绍了WDM光网络中的业务疏导问题的基本概念、技术特点、国内外研究现状进行了总结.

  12. Necropsy findings in dogs that died during grooming or other pet service procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Anna Carolina Barbosa Esteves; Rego, Alexandre Aparecido Mattos da Silva; Maiorka, Paulo César

    2013-09-01

    Procedures involved in grooming, bathing, and other pet services can often lead animals to death. Of the necropsies of 1391 animals carried out at a private diagnostic laboratory in Sao Paulo, Brazil from 2004 to 2009, 94 were dogs that died during the above-mentioned procedures. Young male dogs and small breeds like Poodle Miniature, Yorkshire Terrier, and Lhasa Apso were most frequently observed. Blunt-force trauma was responsible for the deaths of 31% of the animals, with a higher incidence of trauma to the head, characterized chiefly by fractures and nervous tissue lesions. In the other 69% of cases, the animals showed signs of stress, and died due to pulmonary edema and hemorrhage. As we cannot rule out the intentional character in some situations, this article provides veterinary forensic support for veterinarians and pet owners, especially in lawsuits, helping in finding the cause of animal's death in such pet services.

  13. Groomed jets in heavy-ion collisions: sensitivity to medium-induced bremsstrahlung

    CERN Document Server

    Mehtar-Tani, Yacine

    2017-04-21

    We argue that contemporary jet substructure techniques might facilitate a more direct measurement of hard medium-induced gluon bremsstrahlung in heavy-ion collisions, and focus specifically on the "soft drop declustering" procedure that singles out the two leading jet substructures. Assuming coherent jet energy loss, we find an enhancement of the distribution of the energy fractions shared by the two substructures at small subjet energy caused by hard medium-induced gluon radiation. Departures from this approximation are discussed, in particular, the effects of colour decoherence and the contamination of the grooming procedure by soft background. Finally, we propose a complementary observable, that is the ratio of the two-pronged probability in Pb-Pb to proton-proton collisions and discuss its sensitivity to various energy loss mechanisms.

  14. Groomed jets in heavy-ion collisions: sensitivity to medium-induced bremsstrahlung

    CERN Document Server

    Mehtar-Tani, Yacine

    2016-01-01

    We argue that contemporary jet substructure techniques might facilitate a more direct measurement of hard medium-induced gluon bremsstrahlung in heavy-ion collisions, and focus specifically on the "soft drop declustering" procedure that singles out the two leading jet substructures. Assuming coherent jet energy loss, we find an enhancement of the distribution of the energy fractions shared by the two substructures at small subjet energy caused by hard medium-induced gluon radiation. Departures from this approximation are discussed, in particular, the effects of colour decoherence and the contamination of the grooming procedure by soft background. Finally, we propose a complementary observable, that is the ratio of the two-pronged probability in Pb-Pb to proton-proton collisions and discuss its sensitivity to various energy loss mechanisms.

  15. Repetitive grooming and sensorimotor abnormalities in an ephrin-A knockout model for Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzman, Rachel; Forcelli, Patrick A; Griffey, Christopher J; Kromer, Lawrence F

    2015-02-01

    EphA receptors and ephrin-A ligands play important roles in neural development and synaptic plasticity in brain regions where expression persists into adulthood. Recently, EPHA3 and EPHA7 gene mutations were linked with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) and developmental neurological delays, respectively. Furthermore, deletions of ephrin-A2 or ephrin-A3, which exhibit high binding affinity for EphA3 and EphA7 receptors, are associated with subtle deficits in learning and memory behavior and abnormalities in dendritic spine morphology in the cortex and hippocampus in mice. To better characterize a potential role for these ligands in ASDs, we performed a comprehensive behavioral characterization of anxiety-like, sensorimotor, learning, and social behaviors in ephrin-A2/-A3 double knockout (DKO) mice. The predominant phenotype in DKO mice was repetitive and self-injurious grooming behaviors such as have been associated with corticostriatal circuit abnormalities in other rodent models of neuropsychiatric disorders. Consistent with ASDs specifically, DKO mice exhibited decreased preference for social interaction in the social approach assay, decreased locomotor activity in the open field, increased prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle, and a shift towards self-directed activity (e.g., grooming) in novel environments, such as marble burying. Although there were no gross deficits in cognitive assays, subtle differences in performance on fear conditioning and in the Morris water maze resembled traits observed in other rodent models of ASD. We therefore conclude that ephrin-A2/-A3 DKO mice have utility as a novel ASD model with an emphasis on sensory abnormalities and restricted, repetitive behavioral symptoms.

  16. Melanocortin receptor 4 deficiency affects body weight regulation, grooming behavior, and substrate preference in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mul, Joram D; van Boxtel, Ruben; Bergen, Dylan J M; Brans, Maike A D; Brakkee, Jan H; Toonen, Pim W; Garner, Keith M; Adan, Roger A H; Cuppen, Edwin

    2012-03-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure and has become a major health-care problem in western society. The central melanocortin system plays a crucial role in the regulation of feeding and energy expenditure, and functional loss of melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is the most common genetic cause of human obesity. In this study, we present the first functional Mc4r knockout model in the rat, resulting from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis-induced point mutation. In vitro observations revealed impaired membrane-binding and subsequent nonfunctionality of the receptor, whereas in vivo observations showed that functional loss of MC4R increased body weight, food intake, white adipose mass, and changed substrate preference. In addition, intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of Agouti-Related Protein(79-129) (AgRP(79-129)), an MC4R inverse agonist, or Melanotan-II (MTII), an MC4R agonist, did affect feeding behavior in wild-type rats but not in homozygous mutant rats, confirming complete loss of MC4R function in vivo. Finally, ICV administration of MTII induced excessive grooming behavior in wild-type rats, whereas this effect was absent in homozygous mutant rats, indicating that MTII-induced grooming behavior is exclusively regulated via MC4R pathways. Taken together, we expect that the MC4R rat model described here will be a valuable tool for studying monogenic obesity in humans. More specifically, the relative big size and increased cognitive capacity of rats as compared to mice will facilitate complex behavioral studies and detailed mechanistic studies regarding central function of MC4R, both of which ultimately may help to further understand the specific mechanisms that induce obesity during loss of MC4R function.

  17. Viscoelastic properties of the false vocal fold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Roger W.

    2004-05-01

    The biomechanical properties of vocal fold tissues have been the focus of many previous studies, as vocal fold viscoelasticity critically dictates the acoustics and biomechanics of phonation. However, not much is known about the viscoelastic response of the ventricular fold or false vocal fold. It has been shown both clinically and in computer simulations that the false vocal fold may contribute significantly to the aerodynamics and sound generation processes of human voice production, with or without flow-induced oscillation of the false fold. To better understand the potential role of the false fold in phonation, this paper reports some preliminary measurements on the linear and nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of false vocal fold tissues. Linear viscoelastic shear properties of human false fold tissue samples were measured by a high-frequency controlled-strain rheometer as a function of frequency, and passive uniaxial tensile stress-strain response of the tissue samples was measured by a muscle lever system as a function of strain and loading rate. Elastic moduli (Young's modulus and shear modulus) of the false fold tissues were calculated from the measured data. [Work supported by NIH.

  18. Vocal effort and voice handicap among teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Márcio Cardoso; dos Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Porto, Lauro Antonio; Araújo, Tânia Maria

    2012-11-01

    The relationship between voice handicap and professional vocal effort was investigated among teachers in a cross-sectional study of census nature on 4496 teachers within the public elementary education network in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Voice handicap (the outcome of interest) was evaluated using the Voice Handicap Index 10. The main exposure, the lifetime vocal effort index, was obtained as the product of the number of years working as a teacher multiplied by the mean weekly working hours. The prevalence of voice handicap was 28.8% among teachers with high professional vocal effort and 21.3% among those with acceptable vocal effort, thus yielding a crude prevalence ratio (PR) of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.14-1.61). In the final logistic model, the prevalence of voice handicap was statistically associated with the professional vocal effort index (PR=1.47; 95% CI=1.19-1.82), adjusted according to sex, microphone availability in the classroom, excessive noise, pressure from the school management, heartburn, and rhinitis.

  19. Wavelet based detection of manatee vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Berke M.; Niezrecki, Christopher

    2005-04-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of watercraft collisions in Florida's coastal waterways. Several boater warning systems, based upon manatee vocalizations, have been proposed to reduce the number of collisions. Three detection methods based on the Fourier transform (threshold, harmonic content and autocorrelation methods) were previously suggested and tested. In the last decade, the wavelet transform has emerged as an alternative to the Fourier transform and has been successfully applied in various fields of science and engineering including the acoustic detection of dolphin vocalizations. As of yet, no prior research has been conducted in analyzing manatee vocalizations using the wavelet transform. Within this study, the wavelet transform is used as an alternative to the Fourier transform in detecting manatee vocalizations. The wavelet coefficients are analyzed and tested against a specified criterion to determine the existence of a manatee call. The performance of the method presented is tested on the same data previously used in the prior studies, and the results are compared. Preliminary results indicate that using the wavelet transform as a signal processing technique to detect manatee vocalizations shows great promise.

  20. Impact of Vocal Tract Resonance on the Perception of Voice Quality Changes Caused by Varying Vocal Fold Stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorello, Rosario; Zhang, Zhaoyan; Gerratt, Bruce; Kreiman, Jody

    2016-01-01

    Summary Experiments using animal and human larynx models are often conducted without a vocal tract. While it is often assumed that the absence of a vocal tract has only small effects on vocal fold vibration, it is not actually known how sound production and quality are affected. In this study, the validity of using data obtained in the absence of a vocal tract for voice perception studies was investigated. Using a two-layer self-oscillating physical model, three series of voice stimuli were created: one produced with conditions of left-right symmetric vocal fold stiffness, and two with left-right asymmetries in vocal fold body stiffness. Each series included a set of stimuli created with a physical vocal tract, and a second set created without a physical vocal tract. Stimuli were re-synthesized to equalize the mean F0 for each series and normalized for amplitude. Listeners were asked to evaluate the three series in a sort-and-rate task. Multidimensional scaling analysis was applied to examine the perceptual interaction between the voice source and the vocal tract resonances. The results showed that the presence or absence of a vocal tract can significantly affect perception of voice quality changes due to parametric changes in vocal fold properties, except when the parametric changes in vocal fold properties produced an abrupt shift in vocal fold vibratory pattern resulting in a salient quality change. PMID:27134616

  1. The Cambrian impact hypothesis

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Weijia

    2008-01-01

    After a thorough research on the circumstantial changes and the great evolution of life in the Cambrian period, the author propounds such a hypothesis: During the Late Precambrian, about 500-600Ma, a celestial body impacted the Earth. The high temperature ended the great glaciation, facilitated the communication of biological information. The rapid change of Earth environment enkindled the genesis-control system, and released the HSP-90 variations. After the impact, benefited from the protection of the new ozone layer and the energy supplement of the aerobic respiration, those survived underground life exploded. They generated carapaces and complex metabolism to adjust to the new circumstance of high temperature and high pressure. This article uses a large amount of analyses and calculations, and illustrates that this hypothesis fits well with most of the important incidences in astronomic and geologic discoveries.

  2. Whale strandings: hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, A R

    1978-01-01

    The hypothesis is presented that whales become stranded inadvertently as a consequence of seeking stimulation. The animals enter shallow water in order to roll over, bask, and rub themselves in the sand, and are trapped by the receding tide. It suggested that stimulation-seeking behavior (and stranding) reflects a general sympathetic nervous system response which may be due to a number of factors such as pain, discomfort, reproductive state, and other biorhythmic changes.

  3. Mesoamerican cosmovision: an hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franch, J. A.

    In the present conference the author explains a new hypothesis to interpret the cosmogonic vision of the people and the cultures from the Mesoamerican area during the precolumbian period. The hypothesis at issue consists in irregular octahedrical form, or as two pyramids jointed by the base in such a manner that the celestial pyramid has thirteen heavens in the form of platforms in such a way that the zenith is the seventh platform; on the contrary, the infraworld pyramid has nine platforms. The sequence of the heavens comes to an end in the number 13 heaven, or the West side of the world, that is to say the Omeyocan or the Tamoanchan, whereas the ninth infraworld is the Apochcalocan. This is the point of the intercommunication between the celestial world and the infraworld, the place of Death and Birth. In order to develop that hypothesis the author has a great number of ethnographic testimonies taken from Totonacs, Tzotziles, Mayas and, along with this, from Southamerican areas, as it is the case of the Kogi, of Colombia. The author has also considered the evidence that proceeds from the ancient codices as well as numerous samples of sculptures and reliefs, especially from the Aztec culture.

  4. Discovery of a low frequency sound source in Mysticeti (baleen whales): anatomical establishment of a vocal fold homolog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidenberg, Joy S; Laitman, Jeffrey T

    2007-06-01

    The mechanism of mysticete (baleen whale) vocalization has remained a mystery. Vocal folds (true vocal "cords"), the structures responsible for sound production in terrestrial mammals, were thought to be absent in whales. This study tests the hypothesis that the mysticete larynx possesses structures homologous to vocal folds and that they are capable of sound generation. Laryngeal anatomy was examined in 37 specimens representing 6 mysticete species. Results indicate the presence of a U-shaped fold (U-fold) in the lumen of the larynx. The U-fold is supported by arytenoid cartilages, controlled by skeletal muscles innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve, is adjacent to a diverticulum (laryngeal sac) covered with mucosa innervated by the superior laryngeal nerve, and contains a ligament-conditions that also define the vocal folds of terrestrial mammals and, therefore, supports homology. Unlike the vocal folds of terrestrial mammals, which are perpendicular to airflow, the mysticete U-fold is oriented parallel to airflow. U-fold adduction/abduction and elevation/depression may control airflow, and vibration of its edges may generate sounds. The walls of the laryngeal sac can expand and contract, may serve as a resonant space, and may also propagate vibrations generated by movements of the supporting arytenoid cartilages. The extensive musculature surrounding the laryngeal sac may enable rapid and forceful expulsion of air from the lumen of the sac into other respiratory spaces, or maintain a constant sac volume despite the effects of ambient pressure (e.g., changes during diving or ascent). The size and complexity of the mysticete larynx indicates an organ with multiple functions, including protection during breathing/swallowing, regulation of airflow and pressures in the respiratory spaces, and sound generation. The presence of a vocal fold homolog offers a new insight into both the mechanism of sound generation by mysticetes and the divergent evolution of

  5. VOCAL: Voice Oriented Curriculum Author Language. Technical Report No. 291.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, Michael; And Others

    VOCAL (Voice Oriented Curriculum Author Language) is designed to facilitate the authoring of computer assisted curricula which incorporate highly interactive audio and text presentations. Lessons written in VOCAL are intended to be patterned after the style of informal classroom lectures. VOCAL contains features that allow the author to specify…

  6. Oral Breathing Challenge in Participants with Vocal Attrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Fisher, Kimberly V.

    2003-01-01

    Vocal folds undergo osmotic challenge by mouth breathing during singing, exercising, and loud speaking. Just 15 min of obligatory oral breathing, to dry the vocal folds, increases phonation threshold pressure (P[subscript th]) and expiratory vocal effort in healthy speakers (M. Sivasankar & K. Fisher, 2002). We questioned whether oral breathing is…

  7. The Development and Validation of the Vocalic Sensitivity Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaume, William A.; Brown, Mary Helen

    1999-01-01

    Notes that presbycusis, hearing loss associated with aging, may be marked by a second dimension of hearing loss, a loss in vocalic sensitivity. Reports on the development of the Vocalic Sensitivity Test, which controls for the verbal elements in speech while also allowing for the vocalics to exercise their normal metacommunicative function of…

  8. Sex differences in razorbill (Family: Alcidae) parent-offspring vocal recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insley, Stephen J.; Paredes Vela, Rosana; Jones, Ian L.

    2002-05-01

    In this study we examines how a pattern of parental care may result in a sex bias in vocal recognition. In Razorbills (Alca torda), both sexes provide parental care to their chicks while at the nest, after which the male is the sole caregiver for an additional period at sea. Selection pressure acting on recognition behavior is expected to be strongest during the time when males and chicks are together at sea, and as a result, parent-offspring recognition was predicted to be better developed in the male parent, that is, show a paternal bias. In order to test this hypothesis, vocal playback experiments were conducted on breeding Razorbills at the Gannet Islands, Labrador, 2001. The data provide clear evidence of mutual vocal recognition between the male parent and chick but not between the female parent and chick, supporting the hypothesis that parent-offspring recognition is male biased in this species. In addition to acoustic recognition, such a bias could have important social implications for a variety of behavioral and basic life history traits such as cooperation and sex-biased dispersal.

  9. Gestures, vocalizations and memory in language origins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco eAboitiz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the possible homologies between the human language networks and comparable auditory projection systems in the macaque brain, in an attempt to conciliate two existing views on language evolution: one that makes emphasis on hand control and gestures, and the other that makes emphasis on auditory-vocal mechanisms. The capacity for language is based on relatively well defined neural substrates whose rudiments have been traced into the non-human primate brain. In its core, this circuit makes up an auditory-vocal sensorimotor circuit with two main components, a ventral pathway connecting anterior auditory regions with anterior ventrolateral prefrontal areas, and a dorsal pathway connecting auditory areas with parietal areas and with posterior ventrolateral prefrontal areas via the arcuate fasciculus and the superior longitudinal fasciculus. In humans, the dorsal circuit is especially important for phonological processing and phonological working memory, capacities that are critical for language acquisition and for complex syntax processing. In the macaque, the homologue to the dorsal circuit overlaps with an inferior parietal-ventrolateral prefrontal network for hand and gestural action selection that is under voluntary control, while vocalizations are largely fixed and involuntary. The recruitment of this dorsal component for vocalization behavior in the human lineage, together with a direct cortical control of the subcortical vocalizing system, are proposed to have marked a fundamental innovation in human evolution, generating an inflection point that permitted the explosion of language and human communication. In this context, vocal communication and gesturing have a common history in primate communication.

  10. Angyomatous vocal polypus: a complete spontaneous regression

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    Edmir Américo Lourenço

    Full Text Available The authors describe a male patient who had malignant lymphoma seven years ago which remitted with chemotherapy.Two years ago he developed dysphonia. An unilateral, pediculate smooth red lesion on the right vocal fold was later discovered. Even without benefit of medicamentosus treatment, the patient refused surgery. In a reevaluation using rigid telescopy of the larynx two years later, the lesion had disappeared, completely and spontaneously. As there are no existing publications on this topic, this case report is an alert that surgery should be recommended with extreme caution in this type of vocal disease.

  11. MARATHON DESPITE UNILATERAL VOCAL FOLD PARALYSIS

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    Matthias Echternach

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The principal symptoms of unilateral vocal fold paralysis are hoarseness and difficulty in swallowing. Dyspnea is comparatively rare (Laccourreye et al., 2003. The extent to which unilateral vocal fold paralysis may lead to respiratory problems at all - in contrast to bilateral vocal fold paralysis- has not yet well been determined. On the one hand, inspiration is impaired with unilateral vocal fold paralysis; on the other hand, neither the position of the vocal fold paralysis nor the degree of breathiness correlates with respiratory parameters (Cantarella et al., 2003; 2005. The question of what respiratory stress a patient with a vocal fold paresis can endure has not yet been dealt with.A 43 year-old female patient was suffering from recurrent unspecific respiratory complaints for four months after physical activity. During training for a marathon, she experienced no difficulty in breathing. These unspecific respiratory complaints occurred only after athletic activity and persisted for hours. The patient observed neither an increased coughing nor a stridor. Her voice remained unaltered during the attacks, nor were there any signs of a symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux or infectious disease. A cardio-pulmonary and a radiological examination by means of an X-ray of the thorax also revealed no pathological phenomena. As antiallergic and antiobstructive therapy remained unsuccessful, a laryngological examination was performed in order to exclude a vocal cord dysfunction.Surprisingly enough, the laryngostroboscopy showed, as an initial description, a vocal fold paralysis of the left vocal fold in median position (Figure 1. The anamnestic background for the cause was unclear. The only clue was a thoracotomy on the left side due to a pleuritis in childhood. A subsequent laryngoscopic examination had never been performed. Good mucosa waves and amplitudes were shown bilateral with complete glottal closure. Neither in the acoustic analysis, nor in the

  12. VOCAL SEGMENT CLASSIFICATION IN POPULAR MUSIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling; Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the vocal and non-vocal music classification problem within popular songs. A newly built labeled database covering 147 popular songs is announced. It is designed for classifying signals from 1sec time windows. Features are selected for this particular task, in order to capture......-validated training and test setup. The database is divided in two different ways: with/without artist overlap between training and test sets, so as to study the so called ‘artist effect’. The performance and results are analyzed in depth: from error rates to sample-to-sample error correlation. A voting scheme...

  13. The Importance of Vocal Parameters Correlation

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    Valentin Ghisa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To analyze communication we need to study the main parameters that describe the vocal sounds from the point of view of information content transfer efficiency. In this paper we analyze the physical quality of the “on air" information transfer, according to the audio streaming parameters and from the particular phonetic nature of the human factor. Applying this statistical analysis we aim to identify and record the correlation level of the acoustical parameters with the vocal ones and the impact which the presence of this cross-correlation can have on communication structures’ improvement.

  14. Working Conditions and Workplace Barriers to Vocal Health in Primary School Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier, Caitriona; Farrell, Rory

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the working conditions and workplace barriers to vocal health in primary school teachers. The relationship between working conditions and voice is analyzed. This is a survey study in 42 randomized schools from a restricted geographical area. An 85-item questionnaire was administered to 550 primary school teachers in 42 schools in Dublin. It was designed to obtain information on demographics, vocal use patterns, vocal health, work organization, working conditions, and teacher's perceptions of the conditions in teaching that might cause a voice problem. The relationship between voice and overstretched work demands, and voice and class size, was examined. A chi-squared test was run to test the null hypothesis that the variables overstretched work demands and voice and class size and voice are independent. Subjects were given the opportunity to give their opinion on their working conditions and on the availability of advice and support within the workplace. A final question sought their opinion on what should be included in a voice care program. A 55% response rate was obtained (n = 304). It was found with 96.52% confidence that the variables overstretched work demands and voice are related. Likewise, it was found that the variables class size and voice are related with 99.97% confidence. There are workplace barriers to vocal health. The working conditions of primary school teachers need to be fully adapted to promote vocal health. Changes by education and health policy makers are needed to achieve this goal. There is a need for future research which focuses on the working conditions of teachers. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. The Drift Burst Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim; Oomen, Roel; Renò, Roberto

    The Drift Burst Hypothesis postulates the existence of short-lived locally explosive trends in the price paths of financial assets. The recent US equity and Treasury flash crashes can be viewed as two high profile manifestations of such dynamics, but we argue that drift bursts of varying magnitude......, currencies and commodities. We find that the majority of identified drift bursts are accompanied by strong price reversals and these can therefore be regarded as “flash crashes” that span brief periods of severe market disruption without any material longer term price impacts....

  16. Discrimination of ultrasonic vocalizations by CBA/CaJ mice (Mus musculus is related to spectrotemporal dissimilarity of vocalizations.

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    Erikson G Neilans

    Full Text Available The function of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs produced by mice (Mus musculus is a topic of broad interest to many researchers. These USVs differ widely in spectrotemporal characteristics, suggesting different categories of vocalizations, although this has never been behaviorally demonstrated. Although electrophysiological studies indicate that neurons can discriminate among vocalizations at the level of the auditory midbrain, perceptual acuity for vocalizations has yet to be determined. Here, we trained CBA/CaJ mice using operant conditioning to discriminate between different vocalizations and between a spectrotemporally modified vocalization and its original version. Mice were able to discriminate between vocalization types and between manipulated vocalizations, with performance negatively correlating with spectrotemporal similarity. That is, discrimination performance was higher for dissimilar vocalizations and much lower for similar vocalizations. The behavioral data match previous neurophysiological results in the inferior colliculus (IC, using the same stimuli. These findings suggest that the different vocalizations could carry different meanings for the mice. Furthermore, the finding that behavioral discrimination matched neural discrimination in the IC suggests that the IC plays an important role in the perceptual discrimination of vocalizations.

  17. Hypothesis in Language Learning Research

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    Mohammad Adnan Latief

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypothesis is very often inevitable in research activities. Hypothesis is of at least three kinds, each of which should not be confused. A study trying to measure the relationship between variables can predict the finding based on theory or logical common sense. This prediction is called theoretical hypothesis. In testing hypothesis quantitatively, the theoretical hypothesis should be transformed into statistical hypothesis, which takes the form of Null hypothesis and its alternatives. It is the Null hypothesis that is to be tested to justify its rejection or otherwise its acceptance. In qualitative study, the result of first data analysis is called temporal empirical hypothesis that should be validated with more data. This cycle of rechecking the result with more data is done again and again until the hypothesis becomes the final conclusion.

  18. Vocal improvement after voice therapy in the treatment of benign vocal fold lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, A; Mozzanica, F; Ginocchio, D; Maruzzi, P; Atac, M; Ottaviani, F

    2012-10-01

    Benign vocal fold lesions are common in the general population, and have important public health implications and impact on patient quality of life. Nowadays, phonomicrosurgery is the most common treatment of these lesions. Voice therapy is generally associated in order to minimize detrimental vocal behaviours that increase the stress at the mid-membranous vocal folds. Nonetheless, the most appropriate standard of care for treating benign vocal fold lesion has not been established. The aim of this study was to analyze voice changes in a group of dysphonic patients affected by benign vocal fold lesions, evaluated with a multidimensional protocol before and after voice therapy. Sixteen consecutive patients, 12 females and 4 males, with a mean age of 49.7 years were enrolled. Each subject had 10 voice therapy sessions with an experienced speech/language pathologist for a period of 1-2 months, and was evaluated before and at the end of voice therapy with a multidimensional protocol that included self-assessment measures and videostroboscopic, perceptual, aerodynamic and acoustic ratings. Videostroboscopic examination did not reveal resolution of the initial pathology in any case. No improvement was observed in aerodynamic and perceptual ratings. A clear and significant improvement was visible on Wilcoxon signed-rank test for the mean values of Jitt%, Noise to Harmonic Ratio (NHR) and Voice Handicap Index (VHI) scores. Even if it is possible that, for benign vocal fold lesions, only a minor improvement of voice quality can be achieved after voice therapy, rehabilitation treatment still seems useful as demonstrated by improvement in self-assessment measures. If voice therapy is provided as an initial treatment to the patients with benign vocal fold lesions, this may lead to an improvement in the perceived voice quality, making surgical intervention unnecessary. This is one of the first reports on the efficacy of voice therapy in the management of benign vocal fold

  19. Risk factors for the appearance of minimal pathologic lesions on vocal folds in vocal professionals

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    Stojanović Jasmina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. An excessive use or misuse of voice by vocal professionals may result in symptoms such are husky voice, hoarse voice, total loss of voice, or even organic changes taking place on vocal folds - minimal pathological lesions - MAPLs. The purpose of this study was to identify the type of MAPLs which affects vocal professionals, as well as to identify the risk factors that bring about these changes. Methods. There were 94 vocal professionals who were examined altogether, out of whom 46 were affected by MAPLs, whereas 48 of them were diagnosed with no MAPLs, so that they served as the control group. All these patients were clinically examined (anamnesis, clinical examination, bacteoriological examination of nose and pharynx, radiography of paranasal cavities, allergological processing, phoniatric examination, endo-video-stroboscopic examination, as well as gastroenterologic examination, and finally endocrinological and pulmological analyses. Results. The changes that occurred most often were identified as nodules (50%; n = 23/46 and polyps (24%; n = 11/46. Risk factors causing MAPLs in vocal professionals were as follows: age, which reduced the risk by 23.9% [OR 0.861 (0.786-0.942] whereas the years of career increase the risk [OR 1.114 (1.000-1.241], as well as the presence of a chronic respiratory disease [OR 7.310 (1.712- 31.218], and the presence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease [OR 4.542 (1.263-16.334]. The following factors did not contribute to development of MAPLs in vocal professionals: sex, a place of residence, irritation, smoking, endocrinologic disease and the presence of poly-sinusitis. Conclusion. It is necessary to introduce comprehensive procedures for prevention of MAPLs, particularly in high-risk groups. Identification of the risk factors for MAPLs and prevention of their influence on vocal professionals (given that their income depends on their vocal ability is of the highest importance.

  20. Predicting Achievable Fundamental Frequency Ranges in Vocalization Across Species.

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    Ingo Titze

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vocal folds are used as sound sources in various species, but it is unknown how vocal fold morphologies are optimized for different acoustic objectives. Here we identify two main variables affecting range of vocal fold vibration frequency, namely vocal fold elongation and tissue fiber stress. A simple vibrating string model is used to predict fundamental frequency ranges across species of different vocal fold sizes. While average fundamental frequency is predominantly determined by vocal fold length (larynx size, range of fundamental frequency is facilitated by (1 laryngeal muscles that control elongation and by (2 nonlinearity in tissue fiber tension. One adaptation that would increase fundamental frequency range is greater freedom in joint rotation or gliding of two cartilages (thyroid and cricoid, so that vocal fold length change is maximized. Alternatively, tissue layers can develop to bear a disproportionate fiber tension (i.e., a ligament with high density collagen fibers, increasing the fundamental frequency range and thereby vocal versatility. The range of fundamental frequency across species is thus not simply one-dimensional, but can be conceptualized as the dependent variable in a multi-dimensional morphospace. In humans, this could allow for variations that could be clinically important for voice therapy and vocal fold repair. Alternative solutions could also have importance in vocal training for singing and other highly-skilled vocalizations.

  1. Molecular mapping of brain areas involved in parrot vocal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, E D; Mello, C V

    2000-03-27

    Auditory and vocal regulation of gene expression occurs in separate discrete regions of the songbird brain. Here we demonstrate that regulated gene expression also occurs during vocal communication in a parrot, belonging to an order whose ability to learn vocalizations is thought to have evolved independently of songbirds. Adult male budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were stimulated to vocalize with playbacks of conspecific vocalizations (warbles), and their brains were analyzed for expression of the transcriptional regulator ZENK. The results showed that there was distinct separation of brain areas that had hearing- or vocalizing-induced ZENK expression. Hearing warbles resulted in ZENK induction in large parts of the caudal medial forebrain and in 1 midbrain region, with a pattern highly reminiscent of that observed in songbirds. Vocalizing resulted in ZENK induction in nine brain structures, seven restricted to the lateral and anterior telencephalon, one in the thalamus, and one in the midbrain, with a pattern partially reminiscent of that observed in songbirds. Five of the telencephalic structures had been previously described as part of the budgerigar vocal control pathway. However, functional boundaries defined by the gene expression patterns for some of these structures were much larger and different in shape than previously reported anatomical boundaries. Our results provide the first functional demonstration of brain areas involved in vocalizing and auditory processing of conspecific sounds in budgerigars. They also indicate that, whether or not vocal learning evolved independently, some of the gene regulatory mechanisms that accompany learned vocal communication are similar in songbirds and parrots.

  2. [Etiology, diagnosis, differential diagnosis and therapy of vocal fold paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, R; Hoffmann, T K; Rotter, N; Pickhard, A; Scheithauer, M O; Brosch, S

    2014-03-01

    Etiology of vocal fold paralysis is broad: e. g. iatrogenic/traumatic, associated with neoplasms or with systemic diseases. The cause of idiopathic paralysis is unknown. The main symptom of unilateral vocal fold paralysis is hoarseness because of a remaining glottic gap during phonation. Patients with bilateral vocal fold paralysis typically have no impairment of the voice but dyspnea. Examination of patients with an idopathic vocal fold paralysis is a CT of the vagal nerve and recurrent laryngeal nerve from skull base to neck and mediastinum. Serological tests are not obligatory. Differential diagnosis of vocal fold immobility is vocal fold paralysis/neurological causes and arthrogene causes such as arytenoid subluxation, interarytenoid adhesion and vocal fold fixation in laryngeal carcinomas. Voice therapy is a promising approach for patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis, but not all patients benefit sufficiently. Temporary vocal fold augmentation by injection medialization results in satisfactory voice quality that is comparable with a thyroplasty. Patients with bilateral vocal fold immobility show typically dyspnea requiring immediate therapy such as temporary tracheotomy or reversible laterofixation of the paralyzed vocal chord. If the paralysis persists a definitive enlargement of the glottic airway by eg. arytenoidectomy needs to be performed.

  3. Female presence and estrous state influence mouse ultrasonic courtship vocalizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Hanson

    Full Text Available The laboratory mouse is an emerging model for context-dependent vocal signaling and reception. Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations are robustly produced in social contexts. In adults, male vocalization during courtship has become a model of interest for signal-receiver interactions. These vocalizations can be grouped into syllable types that are consistently produced by different subspecies and strains of mice. Vocalizations are unique to individuals, vary across development, and depend on social housing conditions. The behavioral significance of different syllable types, including the contexts in which different vocalizations are made and the responses listeners have to different types of vocalizations, is not well understood. We examined the effect of female presence and estrous state on male vocalizations by exploring the use of syllable types and the parameters of syllables during courtship. We also explored correlations between vocalizations and other behaviors. These experimental manipulations produced four main findings: 1 vocalizations varied among males, 2 the production of USVs and an increase in the use of a specific syllable type were temporally related to mounting behavior, 3 the frequency (kHz, bandwidth, and duration of syllables produced by males were influenced by the estrous phase of female partners, and 4 syllable types changed when females were removed. These findings show that mouse ultrasonic courtship vocalizations are sensitive to changes in female phase and presence, further demonstrating the context-sensitivity of these calls.

  4. Modelling vocal anatomy's significant effect on speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of larynx position on the articulatory abilities of a humanlike vocal tract. Previous work has investigated models that were built to resemble the anatomy of existing species or fossil ancestors. This has led to conflicting conclusions about the relation between

  5. Gelada vocal sequences follow Menzerath's linguistic law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustison, Morgan L; Semple, Stuart; Ferrer-I-Cancho, Ramon; Bergman, Thore J

    2016-05-10

    Identifying universal principles underpinning diverse natural systems is a key goal of the life sciences. A powerful approach in addressing this goal has been to test whether patterns consistent with linguistic laws are found in nonhuman animals. Menzerath's law is a linguistic law that states that, the larger the construct, the smaller the size of its constituents. Here, to our knowledge, we present the first evidence that Menzerath's law holds in the vocal communication of a nonhuman species. We show that, in vocal sequences of wild male geladas (Theropithecus gelada), construct size (sequence size in number of calls) is negatively correlated with constituent size (duration of calls). Call duration does not vary significantly with position in the sequence, but call sequence composition does change with sequence size and most call types are abbreviated in larger sequences. We also find that intercall intervals follow the same relationship with sequence size as do calls. Finally, we provide formal mathematical support for the idea that Menzerath's law reflects compression-the principle of minimizing the expected length of a code. Our findings suggest that a common principle underpins human and gelada vocal communication, highlighting the value of exploring the applicability of linguistic laws in vocal systems outside the realm of language.

  6. Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Bänziger

    Full Text Available We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition. The utility of the approach is demonstrated for two data sets from two different cultures and languages, based on corpora of vocal emotion enactment by professional actors and emotion inference by naïve listeners. Lens model equations, hierarchical regression, and multivariate path analysis are used to compare the relative contributions of objectively measured acoustic cues in the enacted expressions and subjective voice cues as perceived by listeners to the variance in emotion inference from vocal expressions for four emotion families (fear, anger, happiness, and sadness. While the results confirm the central role of arousal in vocal emotion communication, the utility of applying an extended path modeling framework is demonstrated by the identification of unique combinations of distal cues and proximal percepts carrying information about specific emotion families, independent of arousal. The statistical models generated show that more sophisticated acoustic parameters need to be developed to explain the distal underpinnings of subjective voice quality percepts that account for much of the variance in emotion inference, in particular voice instability and roughness. The general approach advocated here, as well as the specific results, open up new research strategies for work in psychology (specifically emotion and social perception research and engineering and computer science (specifically research and development in the domain of affective computing, particularly on automatic emotion detection and synthetic emotion expression in avatars.

  7. Music Education Intervention Improves Vocal Emotion Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mualem, Orit; Lavidor, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The current study is an interdisciplinary examination of the interplay among music, language, and emotions. It consisted of two experiments designed to investigate the relationship between musical abilities and vocal emotional recognition. In experiment 1 (N = 24), we compared the influence of two short-term intervention programs--music and…

  8. Patterns of Vocalization and Impression Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Donald P.; Bouma, Gary D.

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses the interactive behavior that accompanies verbal exchange. It specifically describes a set of experiments designed to isolate an important subset of interactive behavior, the vocal (as opposed to the verbal) and to relate this information to a wide range of social impressions resulting from verbal exchange. (Available from…

  9. Patterns of Vocalization and Impression Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Donald P.; Bouma, Gary D.

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses the interactive behavior that accompanies verbal exchange. It specifically describes a set of experiments designed to isolate an important subset of interactive behavior, the vocal (as opposed to the verbal) and to relate this information to a wide range of social impressions resulting from verbal exchange. (Available from…

  10. Music Education Intervention Improves Vocal Emotion Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mualem, Orit; Lavidor, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The current study is an interdisciplinary examination of the interplay among music, language, and emotions. It consisted of two experiments designed to investigate the relationship between musical abilities and vocal emotional recognition. In experiment 1 (N = 24), we compared the influence of two short-term intervention programs--music and…

  11. Audiovisual vocal outburst classification in noisy conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eyben, Florian; Petridis, Stavros; Schuller, Björn; Pantic, Maja

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate an audiovisual approach for classification of vocal outbursts (non-linguistic vocalisations) in noisy conditions using Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines. Fusion of geometric shape features and acoustic low-level descript

  12. Vocal cord dysfunction in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilles, Stephen A

    2003-11-01

    Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is a nonorganic disorder of the larynx that involves unintentional paradoxical adduction of the vocal cords while breathing. The resultant symptoms can include dyspnea, chest tightness, cough, throat tightness, wheezing, or voice change. Most patients with VCD are female, and among adolescents and children, VCD tends to be triggered by exercise and is typically confused with exercise-induced asthma. Both gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and psychiatric illness have been reported as having strong associations with VCD, although, to date, there is no evidence that either causes VCD. VCD often coexists with asthma, and should be suspected in any patient in whom asthma treatment fails. Confirming the diagnosis involves direct visualization of abnormal vocal cord motion, and this usually only occurs during symptoms. Adolescent athletes often require free running exercise challenge to reproduce their symptoms and confirm abnormal vocal cord motion laryngoscopically. The primary treatment for VCD involves a combination of patient education and speech therapy, and, in most cases, patients may resume their activities without significant limitation.

  13. VOCALIZATIONS AND BREEDING BEHAVIOUR OF PTYCHADENA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    also produced resuIarly and its production is dependent on the prCSCDCe of two or more individuals. ... analyser) within the frequency range 80 Hz-8 kHz using a wide band filter (300 Hz). ..... The evoked vocal response of the bullfrog. Res.

  14. Vocal cord hemangioma in an adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Kanlıkama

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hemangioma is one of the most common benign tumors in the head and neck region. Laryngeal hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors of unknown etiology that arise from subglottic region with stridor in infants. This type also known as congenital laryngeal hemangioma, is the more common. Congenital hemangiomas occur usually in subglottic region and more frequent in girls. Laryngeal hemangioma in adults is a very rare condition and main symptom is hoarseness and breathing difficulties. Adult hemangiomas can be seen in different locations such as the epiglottis, aryepiglottic folds, arytenoids and false and true vocal cords. They are more often of cavernous form and cause hoarseness. In this report we present an adult patient with hemangioma of the left vocal fold and review the literature. Diagnostic investigation revealed a pink-purple mass which was extended from the anterior comissure to the posterior part of true vocal cord and false vocal cord, filling the ventricule and extending to supraglottic region. Direct laryngoscopy was performed, but the lesion was not excised because of its widespread extension in the larynx. J Clin Exp Invest 2010; 2(3: 323-326.

  15. Vocal cord hemangioma in an adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Kanlıkama

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemangioma is one of the most common benign tumorsin the head and neck region. Laryngeal hemangiomasare benign vascular tumors of unknown etiology thatarise from subglottic region with stridor in infants. Thistype also known as congenital laryngeal hemangioma, isthe more common. Congenital hemangiomas occur usuallyin subglottic region and more frequent in girls. Laryngealhemangioma in adults is a very rare conditionand main symptom is hoarseness and breathing difficulties.Adult hemangiomas can be seen in different locationssuch as the epiglottis, aryepiglottic folds, arytenoidsand false and true vocal cords. They are more oftenof cavernous form and cause hoarseness. In this reportwe present an adult patient with hemangioma ofthe left vocal fold and review the literature. Diagnosticinvestigation revealed a pink-purple mass which was extendedfrom the anterior comissure to the posterior partof true vocal cord and false vocal cord, filling the ventriculeand extending to supraglottic region. Directlaryngoscopy was performed, but the lesion was not excisedbecause of its widespread extension in the larynx. JClin Exp Invest 2010; 2(1: 91-94

  16. Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bänziger, Tanja; Hosoya, Georg; Scherer, Klaus R

    2015-01-01

    We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition. The utility of the approach is demonstrated for two data sets from two different cultures and languages, based on corpora of vocal emotion enactment by professional actors and emotion inference by naïve listeners. Lens model equations, hierarchical regression, and multivariate path analysis are used to compare the relative contributions of objectively measured acoustic cues in the enacted expressions and subjective voice cues as perceived by listeners to the variance in emotion inference from vocal expressions for four emotion families (fear, anger, happiness, and sadness). While the results confirm the central role of arousal in vocal emotion communication, the utility of applying an extended path modeling framework is demonstrated by the identification of unique combinations of distal cues and proximal percepts carrying information about specific emotion families, independent of arousal. The statistical models generated show that more sophisticated acoustic parameters need to be developed to explain the distal underpinnings of subjective voice quality percepts that account for much of the variance in emotion inference, in particular voice instability and roughness. The general approach advocated here, as well as the specific results, open up new research strategies for work in psychology (specifically emotion and social perception research) and engineering and computer science (specifically research and development in the domain of affective computing, particularly on automatic emotion detection and synthetic emotion expression in avatars).

  17. Quantitative microlaryngoscopic measurements of vocal fold polyps, glottal gap and their relation to vocal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uloza, Virgilijus; Kaseta, Marius; Pribuisiene, Rūta; Saferis, Viktoras; Jokūzis, Vytautas; Gelzinis, Adas; Bacauskiene, Marija

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the size of vocal fold polyps and to investigate the relationship between the glottal gap and parameters of acoustic voice analysis and phonetography. Eighty-one microlaryngoscopic images and digital recordings of voices (acoustic analysis and phonetogram) acquired from the patients with vocal fold polyps (VFPs) were employed in this study. Vocal fold (VF) images were collected during routine direct microlaryngoscopy using Moller-Wedel Universa 300 surgical microscope, 3-CCD Elmo 768 x 576-pixel color video camera and a 300 W Xenon light source. Acoustic voice analysis and phonetography were established using Dr. Speech (Tiger Electronics Inc.) software. Microlaryngoscopic images were processed by original software created by ELINTA and displayed on a monitor. The relative lengths and widths of vocal fold polyps as well as percentage area of VFP were calculated. The Pearson's correlation was applied to reveal the correlation between VFP dimensions and acoustic voice parameters. There were no statistically significant differences between the dimensions of left and right vocal folds and VFPs. Statistically significant slight to mild correlations between measured dimensions of VFP acoustic and phonetogram parameters were revealed, with HNR and phonetogram area showing the strongest correlation to the size of VFPs. The results of our study confirm that quantitative microlaryngoscopic measurements of vocal fold polyp and glottal gap dimensions may be a useful tool for objective assessment of glottic incompetence and voice impairment.

  18. Auditory lateralization of conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; Laddago, Serena; Quaranta, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Auditory lateralization in response to both conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations (dog vocalizations) was observed in 16 tabby cats (Felis catus). Six different vocalizations were used: cat "purring," "meowing" and "growling" and dog typical vocalizations of "disturbance," "isolation" and "play." The head-orienting paradigm showed that cats turned their head with the right ear leading (left hemisphere activation) in response to their typical-species vocalization ("meow" and "purring"); on the other hand, a clear bias in the use of the left ear (right hemisphere activation) was observed in response to vocalizations eliciting intense emotion (dogs' vocalizations of "disturbance" and "isolation"). Overall these findings suggest that auditory sensory domain seems to be lateralized also in cat species, stressing the role of the left hemisphere for intraspecific communication and of the right hemisphere in processing threatening and alarming stimuli.

  19. Vocal learning in elephants: neural bases and adaptive context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeger, Angela S; Manger, Paul

    2014-10-01

    In the last decade clear evidence has accumulated that elephants are capable of vocal production learning. Examples of vocal imitation are documented in African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants, but little is known about the function of vocal learning within the natural communication systems of either species. We are also just starting to identify the neural basis of elephant vocalizations. The African elephant diencephalon and brainstem possess specializations related to aspects of neural information processing in the motor system (affecting the timing and learning of trunk movements) and the auditory and vocalization system. Comparative interdisciplinary (from behavioral to neuroanatomical) studies are strongly warranted to increase our understanding of both vocal learning and vocal behavior in elephants.

  20. Genotypic variability and relationships between mite infestation levels, mite damage, grooming intensity, and removal of Varroa destructor mites in selected strains of worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto; Emsen, Berna; Unger, Peter; Espinosa-Montaño, Laura G; Petukhova, Tatiana

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate genotypic variability and analyze the relationships between the infestation levels of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies, the rate of damage of fallen mites, and the intensity with which bees of different genotypes groom themselves to remove mites from their bodies. Sets of paired genotypes that are presumably susceptible and resistant to the varroa mite were compared at the colony level for number of mites falling on sticky papers and for proportion of damaged mites. They were also compared at the individual level for intensity of grooming and mite removal success. Bees from the "resistant" colonies had lower mite population rates (up to 15 fold) and higher percentages of damaged mites (up to 9 fold) than bees from the "susceptible" genotypes. At the individual level, bees from the "resistant" genotypes performed significantly more instances of intense grooming (up to 4 fold), and a significantly higher number of mites were dislodged from the bees' bodies by intense grooming than by light grooming (up to 7 fold) in all genotypes. The odds of mite removal were high and significant for all "resistant" genotypes when compared with the "susceptible" genotypes. The results of this study strongly suggest that grooming behavior and the intensity with which bees perform it, is an important component in the resistance of some honey bee genotypes to the growth of varroa mite populations. The implications of these results are discussed.

  1. Vocal communication in African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Research on vocal communication in African elephants has increased in recent years, both in the wild and in captivity, providing an opportunity to present a comprehensive review of research related to their vocal behavior. Current data indicate that the vocal repertoire consists of perhaps nine acoustically distinct call types, "rumbles" being the most common and acoustically variable. Large vocal production anatomy is responsible for the low-frequency nature of rumbles, with fundamental frequencies in the infrasonic range. Additionally, resonant frequencies of rumbles implicate the trunk in addition to the oral cavity in shaping the acoustic structure of rumbles. Long-distance communication is thought possible because low-frequency sounds propagate more faithfully than high-frequency sounds, and elephants respond to rumbles at distances of up to 2.5 km. Elephant ear anatomy appears designed for detecting low frequencies, and experiments demonstrate that elephants can detect infrasonic tones and discriminate small frequency differences. Two vocal communication functions in the African elephant now have reasonable empirical support. First, closely bonded but spatially separated females engage in rumble exchanges, or "contact calls," that function to coordinate movement or reunite animals. Second, both males and females produce "mate attraction" rumbles that may advertise reproductive states to the opposite sex. Additionally, there is evidence that the structural variation in rumbles reflects the individual identity, reproductive state, and emotional state of callers. Growth in knowledge about the communication system of the African elephant has occurred from a rich combination of research on wild elephants in national parks and captive elephants in zoological parks.

  2. A Study on the Input Hypothesis and Interaction Hypothesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪清

    2016-01-01

    In Second Language Acquisition theory, input and interaction are considered as two key factors greatly influencing the learners’acquisition rate and quality, and therefore input and interaction research has been receiving increasing attention in re-cent years. Among the large amount of research, Krashen’s input hypothesis and Long’s interaction hypothesis are perhaps most influential theories, from which most of input and interaction studies have developed. Input hypothesis claims that compre-hensible input is the only one way to acquire language, whereas interaction hypothesis argues that interaction is necessary for language acquisition. Therefore,this thesis attempts to conduct a descriptive analysis between input hypothesis and interaction hypothesis, based on their basic ideas, theoretical basis, comparisons and empirical work. It concludes that input hypothesis and interaction hypothesis succeed in interpreting the process of language acquisition to some extent, and offer both theoretical and practical inspirations on second language teaching.

  3. The effect of queen pheromone status on Varroa mite removal from honey bee colonies with different grooming ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahreini, Rassol; Currie, Robert W

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) with different grooming ability and queen pheromone status on mortality rates of Varroa mites (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman), mite damage, and mortality rates of honey bees. Twenty-four small queenless colonies containing either stock selected for high rates of mite removal (n = 12) or unselected stock (n = 12) were maintained under constant darkness at 5 °C. Colonies were randomly assigned to be treated with one of three queen pheromone status treatments: (1) caged, mated queen, (2) a synthetic queen mandibular pheromone lure (QMP), or (3) queenless with no queen substitute. The results showed overall mite mortality rate was greater in stock selected for grooming than in unselected stock. There was a short term transitory increase in bee mortality rates in selected stock when compared to unselected stock. The presence of queen pheromone from either caged, mated queens or QMP enhanced mite removal from clusters of bees relative to queenless colonies over short periods of time and increased the variation in mite mortality over time relative to colonies without queen pheromone, but did not affect the proportion of damaged mites. The effects of source of bees on mite damage varied with time but damage to mites was not reliably related to mite mortality. In conclusion, this study showed differential mite removal of different stocks was possible under low temperature. Queen status should be considered when designing experiments using bioassays for grooming response.

  4. Central generation of grooming motor patterns and interlimb coordination in locusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, A; Laurent, G

    1996-12-15

    Coordinated bursts of leg motoneuron activity were evoked in locusts with deefferented legs by tactile stimulation of sites that evoke grooming behavior. This suggests that insect thoracic ganglia contain central pattern generators for directed leg movements. Motoneuron recordings were made from metathoracic and mesothoracic nerves, after eliminating all leg motor innervation, as well as all input from the brain, subesophageal ganglion, and prothoracic ganglion. Strong, brief trochanteral levator motoneuron bursts occurred, together with silence of the slow and fast trochanteral depressor motoneurons and activation of the common inhibitor motoneuron. The metathoracic slow tibial extensor motoneuron was active in a pattern distinct from its activity during walking or during rhythms evoked by the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine. Preparations in which the metathoracic ganglion was isolated from all other ganglia could still produce fictive motor patterns in response to tactile stimulation of metathoracic locations. Bursts of trochanteral levator and depressor motoneurons were clearly coordinated between the left and right metathoracic hemiganglia and also between the mesothoracic and the ipsilateral metathoracic ganglia. These data provide clear evidence for centrally generated interlimb coordination in an insect.

  5. Antibacterial properties of saliva: role in maternal periparturient grooming and in licking wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, B L; Powell, K L

    1990-09-01

    Canine saliva was tested for its bactericidal effects against pathogens relevant to the presumed hygienic functions of maternal grooming of the mammary and anogenital areas and licking of wounds. Both female and male saliva were bactericidal against Escherichia coli and Streptococcus canis but only slightly, and nonsignificantly, bactericidal against coagulase positive staphylococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. E. coli is the cause of highly fatal coliform enteritis of neonatal mammals and E. coli and S. canis are the main pathogens implicated in neonatal septicemia of dogs. The bactericidal effects of saliva would facilitate the hygienic function of maternal licking of the mammary and anogenital areas in protecting newborns from these diseases. E. coli and S. canis along with coagulase positive staphylococcus and P. aeruginosa are among the common wound contaminants of dogs. Wound licking, and the application of saliva, would thus reduce wound contamination by E. coli and S. canis. The resistance of staphylococcus to bactericidal effects of saliva may be a factor in the high frequency (46 percent) with which coagulase positive staphylococcus was isolated from wounds compared with much lower frequency (9-17 percent) with which E. coli and S. canis were isolated.

  6. Multidimensional Analysis on the Effect of Vocal Function Exercises on Aged Vocal Fold Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Mami; Hirano, Shigeru; Tateya, Ichiro; Kishimoto, Yo; Hiwatashi, Nao; Fujiu-Kurachi, Masako; Ito, Juichi

    2015-09-01

    Age-related voice change is characterized as weak, harsh, and breathy. These changes are caused by histologic alteration of the lamina propria of the vocal fold mucosa as well as atrophy of the thyroarytenoid muscle. Several therapeutic strategies involving laryngeal framework surgery and injection laryngoplasty have been tried, but effects have been limited. Vocal function exercises (VFE) have been used to treat age-related vocal fold atrophy although the effectiveness has been shown with limited analysis. The present study aims to determine the effectiveness of VFE for the treatment of aged atrophy using multidimensional analysis. This is a retrospective study. Sixteen patients with vocal fold atrophy aged 65-81 years underwent voice therapy using VFE. Six patients with vocal fold atrophy aged 65-85 years were involved as a historical control group. The grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, strain (GRBAS) scale, stroboscopic examinations, aerodynamic assessment, acoustic analysis, and Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) were performed before and after VFE. Normalized mucosal wave amplitude (NMWA), normalized glottal gap (NGG), and bowing index (BI) were measured by image analysis during stroboscopic examinations. After VFE, significant improvements were shown in GRBAS, maximum phonation time, jitter, NMWA, NGG, and VHI-10 although BI has not changed significantly. There were no significant improvements in the historical control. The data suggest that VFE produces significant improvement in subjective, objective, and patient self-evaluation and deserves further attention as a treatment for aged atrophy of the vocal fold. It was also suggested that VFE does not improve the vocal fold bowing but may improve muscular function during voicing. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Improvement of Vocal Pathologies Diagnosis Using High-Speed Videolaryngoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuji, Domingos Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The study of the dynamic properties of vocal fold vibration is important for understanding the vocal production mechanism and the impact of organic and functional changes. The advent of high-speed videolaryngoscopy (HSV has provided the possibility of seeing the real cycle of vocal fold vibration in detail through high sampling rate of successive frames and adequate spatial resolution. Objective To describe the technique, advantages, and limitations of using HSV and digital videokymography in the diagnosis of vocal pathologies. Methods We used HSV and digital videokymography to evaluate one normophonic individual and four patients with vocal fold pathologies (nodules, unilateral paralysis of the left vocal fold, intracordal cyst, and adductor spasmodic dysphonia. The vocal fold vibration parameters (glottic closure, vibrational symmetry, periodicity, mucosal wave, amplitude, and glottal cycle phases were assessed. Results Differences in the vocal vibration parameters were observed and correlated with the pathophysiology. Conclusion HSV is the latest diagnostic tool in visual examination of vocal behavior and has considerable potential to refine our knowledge regarding the vocal fold vibration and voice production, as well as regarding the impact of pathologic conditions have on the mechanism of phonation.

  8. Improvement of vocal pathologies diagnosis using high-speed videolaryngoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Domingos Hiroshi; Hachiya, Adriana; Dajer, Maria Eugenia; Ishikawa, Camila Cristina; Takahashi, Marystella Tomoe; Montagnoli, Arlindo Neto

    2014-07-01

    Introduction The study of the dynamic properties of vocal fold vibration is important for understanding the vocal production mechanism and the impact of organic and functional changes. The advent of high-speed videolaryngoscopy (HSV) has provided the possibility of seeing the real cycle of vocal fold vibration in detail through high sampling rate of successive frames and adequate spatial resolution. Objective To describe the technique, advantages, and limitations of using HSV and digital videokymography in the diagnosis of vocal pathologies. Methods We used HSV and digital videokymography to evaluate one normophonic individual and four patients with vocal fold pathologies (nodules, unilateral paralysis of the left vocal fold, intracordal cyst, and adductor spasmodic dysphonia). The vocal fold vibration parameters (glottic closure, vibrational symmetry, periodicity, mucosal wave, amplitude, and glottal cycle phases) were assessed. Results Differences in the vocal vibration parameters were observed and correlated with the pathophysiology. Conclusion HSV is the latest diagnostic tool in visual examination of vocal behavior and has considerable potential to refine our knowledge regarding the vocal fold vibration and voice production, as well as regarding the impact of pathologic conditions have on the mechanism of phonation.

  9. Endoscopic laterofixation in bilateral vocal cords paralysis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidia, Zawadzka-Glos; Magdalena, Frackiewicz; Mieczyslaw, Chmielik

    2010-06-01

    Vocal cords paralysis is the second most frequent cause of laryngeal stridor in children. Symptoms of congenital vocal cords paralysis can occur shortly after birth or later. Vocal cords paralysis can be unilateral or bilateral. Symptoms of unilateral paralysis include hoarse weeping or stridor during a deep inhalation. In children unilateral vocal cords paralysis often retreats spontaneously or can be completely compensated. Children with bilateral vocal cords paralysis present mainly breathing disorders while phonation is normal. Symptoms are different, starting from complete occlusion of respiratory tracts and ending on small symptoms connected with the lack of effort tolerance. When symptoms are severe, patients from this group require a tracheotomy. The lack of restoration of normal function of vocal cords or lack of complete compensation and maintenance of symptoms are an indication for surgical treatment. The aim of this study is to present results of the treatment of bilateral vocal cords paralysis in children using the endoscopic method of laterofixation of vocal cords. In the Pediatric ENT Department between 1998 and 2009 sixty four children with dyspnoea and/or phonation disorders caused by vocal cords paralysis were treated. In ten cases laterofixation of vocal cords was performed, in most cases with good result. In this article the authors present the method of endoscopic laterofixation and achieved results. Endoscopic laterofixation of vocal cords in children is a safe and an easy method of surgical treatment of bilateral vocal cords paralysis. This method can be used as a first and often as a one stage treatment of vocal cords paralysis. In some cases this procedure is insufficient and has to be completed with other methods. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Recording Mouse Ultrasonic Vocalizations to Evaluate Social Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferhat, Allain-Thibeault; Torquet, Nicolas; Le Sourd, Anne-Marie; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Faure, Philippe; Bourgeron, Thomas; Ey, Elodie

    2016-06-05

    Mice emit ultrasonic vocalizations in different contexts throughout development and in adulthood. These vocal signals are now currently used as proxies for modeling the genetic bases of vocal communication deficits. Characterizing the vocal behavior of mouse models carrying mutations in genes associated with neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorders will help to understand the mechanisms leading to social communication deficits. We provide here protocols to reliably elicit ultrasonic vocalizations in pups and in adult mice. This standardization will help reduce inter-study variability due to the experimental settings. Pup isolation calls are recorded throughout development from individual pups isolated from dam and littermates. In adulthood, vocalizations are recorded during same-sex interactions (without a sexual component) by exposing socially motivated males or females to an unknown same-sex conspecific. We also provide a protocol to record vocalizations from adult males exposed to an estrus female. In this context, there is a sexual component in the interaction. These protocols are established to elicit a large amount of ultrasonic vocalizations in laboratory mice. However, we point out the important inter-individual variability in the vocal behavior of mice, which should be taken into account by recording a minimal number of individuals (at least 12 in each condition). These recordings of ultrasonic vocalizations are used to evaluate the call rate, the vocal repertoire and the acoustic structure of the calls. Data are combined with the analysis of synchronous video recordings to provide a more complete view on social communication in mice. These protocols are used to characterize the vocal communication deficits in mice lacking ProSAP1/Shank2, a gene associated with autism spectrum disorders. More ultrasonic vocalizations recordings can also be found on the mouseTube database, developed to favor the exchange of such data.

  11. Bit Grooming: statistically accurate precision-preserving quantization with compression, evaluated in the netCDF Operators (NCO, v4.4.8+)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zender, Charles S.

    2016-09-01

    Geoscientific models and measurements generate false precision (scientifically meaningless data bits) that wastes storage space. False precision can mislead (by implying noise is signal) and be scientifically pointless, especially for measurements. By contrast, lossy compression can be both economical (save space) and heuristic (clarify data limitations) without compromising the scientific integrity of data. Data quantization can thus be appropriate regardless of whether space limitations are a concern. We introduce, implement, and characterize a new lossy compression scheme suitable for IEEE floating-point data. Our new Bit Grooming algorithm alternately shaves (to zero) and sets (to one) the least significant bits of consecutive values to preserve a desired precision. This is a symmetric, two-sided variant of an algorithm sometimes called Bit Shaving that quantizes values solely by zeroing bits. Our variation eliminates the artificial low bias produced by always zeroing bits, and makes Bit Grooming more suitable for arrays and multi-dimensional fields whose mean statistics are important. Bit Grooming relies on standard lossless compression to achieve the actual reduction in storage space, so we tested Bit Grooming by applying the DEFLATE compression algorithm to bit-groomed and full-precision climate data stored in netCDF3, netCDF4, HDF4, and HDF5 formats. Bit Grooming reduces the storage space required by initially uncompressed and compressed climate data by 25-80 and 5-65 %, respectively, for single-precision values (the most common case for climate data) quantized to retain 1-5 decimal digits of precision. The potential reduction is greater for double-precision datasets. When used aggressively (i.e., preserving only 1-2 digits), Bit Grooming produces storage reductions comparable to other quantization techniques such as Linear Packing. Unlike Linear Packing, whose guaranteed precision rapidly degrades within the relatively narrow dynamic range of values that

  12. Desvantagem vocal em cantores de igreja Vocal handicap of church singers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Prestes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a desvantagem vocal de cantores amadores de coros de igreja. MÉTODO: participaram 42 cantores de coros amadores de igrejas, sendo 20 homens e 22 mulheres, com idades entre 18 e 59 anos. Todos responderam a um questionário contendo perguntas sobre autopercepção vocal e práticas de canto, e ao protocolo Índice de Desvantagem para o Canto Moderno (IDCM, composto por 30 questões referentes às subescalas incapacidade, desvantagem e defeito. Foi realizada triagem perceptivo-auditiva para classificação das vozes em adaptadas ou alteradas e mensuração dos graus De alteração. RESULTADOS: a pontuação total média obtida no IDCM foi 23 pontos. Os maiores escores foram obtidos na subescala "defeito" (10,9, seguido por "incapacidade" (7,6 e "desvantagem" (4,5, com diferença entre elas (p= 0,001. Cantores que nunca realizaram aula de canto apresentaram maiores escores no domínio "desvantagem" (p=0,003. À medida que o escore total do IDCM aumentou, a nota atribuída pelo cantor em relação à própria voz diminuiu (p= 0,046. Participantes com qualidade vocal alterada apresentaram maiores escores nas subescalas incapacidade e desvantagem e no domínio total do IDCM quando comparados aos que apresentavam qualidade vocal adaptada (p=0,012, p=0,049 e p=0,015, respectivamente. Além disso, quanto maior o grau de alteração vocal, maiores foram os escores referentes à subescala incapacidade (p=0,022. CONCLUSÃO: cantores de igreja apresentam desvantagem vocal importante. Quando apresentam alterações vocais, esta desvantagem é ainda maior. Quanto maior o grau de alteração vocal, maiores as limitações referentes à voz cantada. Aulas de canto parecem minimizar a desvantagem vocal nessa população.PURPOSE: to evaluate the vocal handicap of amateur singers of church choirs. METHOD: we interviewed 42 amateur singers from church choirs, 20 men, and 22 women, between 18 and 59 year old. Everybody answered a questionnaire

  13. Input Hypothesis and its Controversy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金灵

    2016-01-01

    With Krashen's proposal of input hypothesis in 1980s, lots of contributions and further researches have been done in second language acquisition and teaching. Since it is impossible to undertake the exact empirical research to investigate its credibility, lots of criticisms are also aroused to disprove or adjust this hypothesis. However, due to its significant development in SLA, it is still valuable to explore the hypothesis and implications in language teaching to non-native speakers. This paper firstly focuses on the development of the input hypothesis, and then discusses some criticisms of this hypothesis.

  14. Modal locking between vocal fold and vocal tract oscillations: Simulations in time domain

    CERN Document Server

    Aalto, Atte; Malinen, Jarmo; Aalto, Daniel; Vainio, Martti

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that during voiced speech, the human vocal folds interact with the vocal tract acoustics. The resulting source-filter coupling has been observed using mathematical and physical models as well as in in vivo phonation. We propose a computational time-domain model of the full speech apparatus that, in particular, contains a feedback mechanism from the vocal tract acoustics to the vocal fold oscillations. It is based on numerical solution of ordinary and partial differential equations defined on vocal tract geometries that have been obtained by Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The model is used to simulate rising and falling pitch glides of [a, i] in the fundamental frequency (f_0) interval [180 Hz, 360 Hz]. The interval contains the first formant F1 of [i] as well as the subformants F1/4 and F1/3 of [a]. The simulations reveal a locking pattern of the f_0-trajectory at F1 of [i] in falling and rising glides. The subformants of [a] produce perturbations in the waveforms of glottal signals but no locki...

  15. Vocal training, levodopa, and environment effects on ultrasonic vocalizations in a rat neurotoxin model of Parkinson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelm-Nelson, Cynthia A.; Brauer, Alexander F.L.; Ciucci, Michelle R.

    2016-01-01

    Levodopa does not improve dysarthria in patients with Parkinson Disease (PD), although vocal exercise therapy, such as “LSVT/LOUD®”, does improve vocal communication. Most patients receive vocal exercise therapy while concurrently being treated with levodopa, although the interaction between levodopa and vocal exercise therapy on communication in PD is relatively unknown. Further, carryover of vocal exercise therapy to novel situations is critical for successful outcomes, but the influence of novel situations on rehabilitated vocal communication is not well understood. To address the influence of exercise, medications, and environment on vocal communication with precise experimental control, we employed the widely used 6-OHDA rat neurotoxin model of PD (infusion to the medial forebrain bundle), and assessed ultrasonic vocalizations after: vocal exercise, vocal exercise with levodopa, levodopa alone, and control conditions. We tested USVs in the familiar training environment of the home cage and a novel cage. We hypothesized that parkinsonian rats that undergo vocal exercise would demonstrate significant improvement of ultrasonic vocalization (USV) acoustic parameters as compared to the control exercise and levodopa-only treatment groups. We further hypothesized that vocal exercise in combination with levodopa administration, similar to what is common in humans, would lead to improvement in USV outcomes, particularly when tested in a familiar versus a novel environment. We found that the combination of exercise and levodopa lead to some improvement in USV acoustic parameters and these effects were stronger in a familiar vs. a novel environment. Our results suggest that although treatment can improve aspects of communication, environment can influence the benefits of these effects. PMID:27025445

  16. Amygdalar vocalization pathways in the squirrel monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, U

    1982-06-10

    In 22 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) vocalization-eliciting electrodes were implanted into the amygdala and along the trajectory of the stria terminalis. Then, lesions were placed in the stria terminalis, its bed nucleus, the ventral amygdalofugal pathway and several di- and mesencephalic structures in order to find out the pathways along which the amygdala exerts its vocalization-controlling influence. It was found that different call types are controlled by different pathways. Purring and chattering calls, which express a self-confident, challenging attitude and an attempt to recruit fellow-combatants in intra-specific mobbing, respectively, are controlled via the stria terminalis; alarm peep and groaning calls, in contrast, which indicate flight motivation and resentment, respectively, are triggered via the ventral amygdalofugal fibre bundle. Both pathways traverse the dorsolateral and dorsomedial hypothalamus, respectively, and unite in the periaqueductal grey of the midbrain.

  17. Measurement of vocal doses in virtual classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottalico, Pasquale; Pelegrin Garcia, David

    2010-01-01

    different acoustical conditions, that combined different kind of background noise and virtual classroom acoustics. Readings from the vocal fold vibrations were registered with an Ambulatory Phonation Monitor device. The speech signal from the talker in the center of the facility was picked up with a head......This work shows the results of a preliminary study about the determination of the optimal acoustical conditions for speakers in small classrooms. An experiment was carried out in a laboratory facility with 22 untrained talkers, who read a text passage from “Goldilocks” during two minutes under 13...... with an artificial head (corresponding to the mouth-ears path) placed at the talker position while simulating the classrooms. Time histories of the vocal fold vibration readings, with the trend of the fundamental frequency and an estimation of the sound pressure level, sampled every 50 ms, were obtained. From...

  18. Vocal tract dynamics in an adult stutterer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Wolk

    1981-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was motivated by the clinical observation of "laryngeal spasms" during dysfluency in an adult female  stutterer. The flexible fiberoptic nasolaryngoscope was employed in an attempt to assess this phenomenon objectively. Findings from fiberscopic and spectrographic investigations provided evidence for a disturbance in laryngeal behaviour, and in turn served to determine the nature of the treatment programme. Asymmetry of the vocal folds  and partial abductory laryngeal behaviour, reflecting  a conflict between adductory and abductory forces, characterized the dysfluency  in this patient. A subjective evaluation after treatment revealed a reduction in both severity and frequency of stuttering behaviour. Furthermore, fiberscopic examination carried out after treatment revealed an absence of the laryngeal disturbances noted previously. Results are considered in terms of vocal tract dynamics in stuttering and its clinical applicability.

  19. Vocal caricatures reveal signatures of speaker identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Sabrina; Riera, Pablo; Assaneo, María Florencia; Eguía, Manuel; Sigman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos A.

    2013-12-01

    What are the features that impersonators select to elicit a speaker's identity? We built a voice database of public figures (targets) and imitations produced by professional impersonators. They produced one imitation based on their memory of the target (caricature) and another one after listening to the target audio (replica). A set of naive participants then judged identity and similarity of pairs of voices. Identity was better evoked by the caricatures and replicas were perceived to be closer to the targets in terms of voice similarity. We used this data to map relevant acoustic dimensions for each task. Our results indicate that speaker identity is mainly associated with vocal tract features, while perception of voice similarity is related to vocal folds parameters. We therefore show the way in which acoustic caricatures emphasize identity features at the cost of loosing similarity, which allows drawing an analogy with caricatures in the visual space.

  20. Phonetic characteristics of vocalizations during pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lautenbacher, Stefan; Salinas-Ranneberg, Melissa; Niebuhr, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives: There have, yet, been only few attempts to phonetically characterize the vocalizations of pain, although there is wide agreement that moaning, groaning, or other nonverbal utterance can be indicative of pain. We studied the production of vowels “u,” “a,” “i”, and “schwa......” (central vowel, sounding like a darker “e” as in hesitations like “ehm”)—as experimental approximations to natural vocalizations. Methods: In 50 students vowel production and self-report ratings were assessed during painful and nonpainful heat stimulation (hot water immersion) as well as during baseline...... (no-stimulation). The phonetic parameters extracted were pitch (mean F0), phonatory fluctuations (range F0) and loudness (acoustic energy level). Results: Only for the vowels “u” and “schwa,” which might be considered best approximations to moaning and groaning, did pitch and loudness increase during...

  1. L1 literacy affects L2 pronunciation intake and text vocalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Martin

    2005-04-01

    For both deaf and hearing learners, L1 acquisition calls on auditive, gestural and visual modes in progressive processes over longer stages imposed in strictly anatomical and social order from the earliest pre-lexical phase [Jusczyk (1993), Kuhl & Meltzoff (1996)] to ultimate literacy. By contrast, L2 learning will call on accelerating procedures but with restricted input, arbitrated by L1 literacy as can be traced in the English of French-speaking learners, whether observed in spontaneous speech or in text vocalization modes. An inventory of their predictable omissions, intrusions and substitutions at suprasegmental and syllabic levels, many of which they can actually hear while unable to vocalize in real-time, suggests that a photogenic segmentation of continuous speech into alphabetical units has eclipsed the indispensable earlier phonogenic module, filtering L2 intake and output. This competing mode analysis hypothesizes a critical effect on L2 pronunciation of L1 graphemic procedures acquired usually before puberty, informing data for any Critical Period Hypothesis or amounts of L1 activation influencing L2 accent [Flege (1997, 1998)] or any psychoacoustic French deafness with regard to English stress-timing [Dupoux (1997)]. A metaphonic model [Howell & Dean (1991)] adapted for French learners may remedially distance L1 from L2 vocalization procedures.

  2. Vocalization-correlated respiratory movements in the squirrel monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häusler, U

    2000-10-01

    Respiratory abdominal movements associated with vocalization were recorded in awake squirrel monkeys. Several call types, such as peeping, trilling, cackling, and err-chucks, were accompanied by large vocalization-correlated respiratory movements (VCRM) that started before vocalization. During purring, in contrast, only small VCRM were recorded that started later after vocal onset. VCRM during trill calls, a vocalization type with repetitive frequency modulation, showed a modulation in the rhythm of the frequency changes. A correlation with amplitude modulation was also present, but more variable. As high frequencies need a higher lung pressure for production than low frequencies, the modulation of VCRM seems to serve to optimize the lung pressure in relation to the vocalization frequency. The modulation, furthermore, may act as a mechanism to produce different trill variants. During err-chucks and staccato peeps, which show a large amplitude modulation, a nonmodulated VCRM occurred. This indicates the existence of a laryngeal amplitude-controlling mechanism that is independent from respiration.

  3. Human mutant huntingtin disrupts vocal learning in transgenic songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wan-Chun; Kohn, Jessica; Szwed, Sarah K; Pariser, Eben; Sepe, Sharon; Haripal, Bhagwattie; Oshimori, Naoki; Marsala, Martin; Miyanohara, Atsushi; Lee, Ramee

    2015-11-01

    Speech and vocal impairments characterize many neurological disorders. However, the neurogenetic mechanisms of these disorders are not well understood, and current animal models do not have the necessary circuitry to recapitulate vocal learning deficits. We developed germline transgenic songbirds, zebra finches (Taneiopygia guttata) expressing human mutant huntingtin (mHTT), a protein responsible for the progressive deterioration of motor and cognitive function in Huntington's disease (HD). Although generally healthy, the mutant songbirds had severe vocal disorders, including poor vocal imitation, stuttering, and progressive syntax and syllable degradation. Their song abnormalities were associated with HD-related neuropathology and dysfunction of the cortical-basal ganglia (CBG) song circuit. These transgenics are, to the best of our knowledge, the first experimentally created, functional mutant songbirds. Their progressive and quantifiable vocal disorder, combined with circuit dysfunction in the CBG song system, offers a model for genetic manipulation and the development of therapeutic strategies for CBG-related vocal and motor disorders.

  4. Computational model for vocal tract dynamics in a suboscine bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaneo, M. F.; Trevisan, M. A.

    2010-09-01

    In a recent work, active use of the vocal tract has been reported for singing oscines. The reconfiguration of the vocal tract during song serves to match its resonances to the syringeal fundamental frequency, demonstrating a precise coordination of the two main pieces of the avian vocal system for songbirds characterized by tonal songs. In this work we investigated the Great Kiskadee (Pitangus sulfuratus), a suboscine bird whose calls display a rich harmonic content. Using a recently developed mathematical model for the syrinx and a mobile vocal tract, we set up a computational model that provides a plausible reconstruction of the vocal tract movement using a few spectral features taken from the utterances. Moreover, synthetic calls were generated using the articulated vocal tract that accounts for all the acoustical features observed experimentally.

  5. Diffraction method of vocal chord oscillation sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Sergey Y.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    1996-04-01

    A method of small-amplitude biovibrations detection is presented in the paper. The method uses a dependence of properties of speckle-structures formed by focused coherent light field diffraction from rough surfaces on the statistics and movement parameters of the surface. With the help of computer modeling the different components of skin surface vibration were analyzed and their influence on speckles dynamics was studied. Human vocal chord oscillations spectrum was monitored using the developed technique.

  6. The role of vocal individuality in conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terry, Andrew Mark Ryder; Peake, Thomas More; McGregor, Peter Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    Identifying the individuals within a population can generate information on life history parameters, generate input data for conservation models, and highlight behavioural traits that may affect management decisions and error or bias within census methods. Individual animals can be discriminated...... and techniques for using this to count and monitor populations over time. We present case studies in birds where vocal individuality has been applied to conservation and we discuss its role in mammals....

  7. Treatment of aging vocal folds: surgical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, Yutomo; Allen, Jacqui E

    2014-12-01

    Aging may affect the voice through either physiological or pathological changes. Globally society is aging and the working lifetime is extending. Increasing numbers of elderly will present with voice issues. This review examines current thinking regarding surgical treatment of the aging voice. The mainstay of surgical treatment remains injection laryngoplasty and medialization thyroplasty. In-office injection laryngoplasty is increasingly common. Data suggest that patients with vocal fold atrophy do not achieve as much benefit from augmentation treatments as other causes of glottal incompetence. In addition the timing of injection laryngoplasty may influence the rate of subsequent medialization thyroplasty. Disease-specific treatments can provide some benefit to voice, such as deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease. Novel treatments including growth factor therapy are entering clinical practice and will provide new options for the clinician in future. Voice disorders affect approximately 20% of the elderly population. Causes include neurologic, malignant, iatrogenic and benign vocal fold disorders. These should be ruled out before accepting dysphonia is age-related in nature. Treatment should be specific to recognized vocal disorders but may also address physiologic changes in the glottis. Injection laryngoplasty and thyroplasty remain effective options for treating glottal incompetence but novel therapies are showing promising results.

  8. Vocally mediated social recognition in anurans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Mark A.

    2005-09-01

    Anuran amphibians (frogs and toads) are among the most vocal of vertebrates and have long served as model systems for investigating the mechanisms and evolution of acoustic communication. Compared to higher vertebrates, however, the role of cognition in anuran communication has received less attention, at least in part due to the lack of evidence that juvenile anurans learn to produce signals or associate them with particular social contexts. Recent studies of social recognition in two anuran families indicate that territorial male frogs in some species are able to learn about and recognize the individually distinctive properties of the calls of nearby neighbors. For example, male bullfrogs (ranidae) learn about the pitch of a neighbor's vocalizations (an individually distinct voice property) and associate a familiar pitch with the location of the neighbor's territory. As in songbirds, this form of vocally mediated social recognition allows territory holders to direct low levels of aggression toward well-established neighbors, while maintaining a readiness to respond aggressively to more threatening strangers that may attempt a territory takeover. A brief review of currently available data will be used to illustrate how anurans can serve as model systems for investigating the role of cognition in acoustic communication.

  9. Evidence of sound symbolism in simple vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, Cesare V; Pavani, Francesco

    2011-10-01

    The question of the arbitrariness of language is among the oldest in cognitive sciences, and it relates to the nature of the associations between vocal sounds and their meaning. Growing evidence seems to support sound symbolism, claiming for a naturally constrained mapping of meaning into sounds. Most of such evidence, however, comes from studies based on the interpretation of pseudowords, and to date, there is little empirical evidence that sound symbolism can affect phonatory behavior. In the present study, we asked participants to utter the letter /a/ in response to visual stimuli varying in shape, luminance, and size, and we observed consistent sound symbolic effects on vocalizations. Utterances' loudness was modulated by stimulus shape and luminance. Moreover, stimulus shape consistently modulated the frequency of the third formant (F3). This finding reveals an automatic mapping of specific visual attributes into phonological features of vocalizations. Furthermore, it suggests that sound-meaning associations are reciprocal, affecting active (production) as well as passive (comprehension) linguistic behavior.

  10. Imaging evaluation of vocal cord paralysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo de Mattos; Magalhaes, Fabiana Pizanni; Dadalto, Gabriela Bijos; Moura, Marina Vimieiro Timponi de [Axial Centro de Imagem, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: marcelomgarcia@superig.com.br, e-mail: ce@axialmg.com.br

    2009-09-15

    Vocal cord paralysis is a common cause of hoarseness. It may be secondary to many types of lesions along the cranial nerve X pathway and its branches, particularly the laryngeal recurrent nerves. Despite the idiopathic nature of a great number of cases, imaging methods play a very significant role in the investigation of etiologic factors, such as thyroid and esophagus neoplasias with secondary invasion of the laryngeal recurrent nerves. Other conditions such as aortic and right subclavian artery aneurysms also may be found. The knowledge of local anatomy and related diseases is of great importance for the radiologist, so that he can tailor the examination properly to allow an appropriate diagnosis and therapy planning. Additionally, considering that up to 35% of patients with vocal cord paralysis are asymptomatic, the recognition of radiological findings indicative of this condition is essential for the radiologist who must warn the referring physician on the imaging findings. In the present study, the authors review the anatomy and main diseases related to vocal cord paralysis, demonstrating them through typical cases evaluated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, besides describing radiological findings of laryngeal abnormalities indicative of this condition. (author)

  11. Singers' Vocal Function Knowledge Levels, Sensorimotor Self-awareness of Vocal Tract, and Impact of Functional Voice Rehabilitation on the Vocal Function Knowledge and Self-awareness of Vocal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielska-Badurek, Ewelina; Osuch-Wójcikiewicz, Ewa; Sobol, Maria; Kazanecka, Ewa; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated vocal function knowledge and vocal tract sensorimotor self-awareness and the impact of functional voice rehabilitation on vocal function knowledge and self-awareness. This is a prospective, randomized study. Twenty singers (study group [SG]) completed a questionnaire before and after functional voice rehabilitation. Twenty additional singers, representing the control group, also completed the questionnaire without functional voice rehabilitation at a 3-month interval. The questionnaire consisted of three parts. The first part evaluated the singers' attitude to the anatomical and physiological knowledge of the vocal tract and their self-esteem of the knowledge level. The second part assessed the theoretical knowledge of the singers' vocal tract physiology. The third part of the questionnaire assessed singers' sensorimotor self-awareness of the vocal tract. The results showed that most singers indicated that knowledge of the vocal tract's anatomy and physiology is useful (59% SG, 67% control group). However, 75% of all participants defined their knowledge of the vocal tract's anatomy and physiology as weak or inadequate. In the SG, vocal function knowledge at the first assessment was 45%. After rehabilitation, the level increased to 67.7%. Vocal tract sensorimotor self-awareness initially was 38.9% in SG but rose to 66.7%. Findings of the study suggest that classical singers lack knowledge about the physiology of the vocal mechanism, especially the breathing patterns. In addition, they have low sensorimotor self-awareness of their vocal tract. The results suggest that singers would benefit from receiving services from phoniatrists and speech-language pathologists during their voice training. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Carbon dioxide laser enucleation of polypoid vocal cords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, A; Dedo, H H

    1984-06-01

    Polypoid vocal cords have routinely been treated by endoscopic vocal cord stripping, often-times resulting in prolonged hoarseness postoperatively. Submucosal CO2 laser enucleation of the polypoid tissue, with preservation of a mucosal flap on the medial edge of the cord, has proved to be a valuable improvement. The surgical procedure is described and results are presented which suggest that voice quality is better earlier than is the case after vocal cord stripping.

  13. The anuran vocal sac: a tool for multimodal signalling

    OpenAIRE

    STARNBERGER, IRIS; Preininger, Doris; Hödl, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Although in anurans the predominant mode of intra- and intersexual communication is vocalization, modalities used in addition to or instead of acoustic signals range from seismic and visual to chemical. In some cases, signals of more than one modality are produced through or by the anuran vocal sac. However, its role beyond acoustics has been neglected for some time and nonacoustic cues such as vocal sac movement have traditionally been seen as an epiphenomenon of sound production. The divers...

  14. Pharmacokinetics and anthelmintic efficacy of topical eprinomectin in goats prevented from grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, Steffen; Kellermann, Michael; Wehner, Teresa A

    2014-11-01

    Pharmacokinetics and anthelmintic activity of topical eprinomectin in goats prevented from physical contact to others and self-grooming were studied. Sixteen approximately 7 months old male castrated German White Noble goats harbouring induced infections of gastrointestinal nematode parasites were included in the study. They were blocked based on pre-treatment body weight (range 22.4 to 36.4 kg) and then randomly allocated to the untreated control group or the group treated with topical 0.5% w/v eprinomectin (EPRINEX Pour-on, Merial) at 1 mg/kg body weight. Plasma samples were collected prior to and at intervals up to 14 days following treatment and analyzed to determine the concentrations of eprinomectin (B1a component). Parasites were recovered, identified, and counted following necropsy 14 days after treatment. Goats treated with topical eprinomectin had significantly fewer (≥99% reduction, p < 0.01) adult Cooperia curticei, Haemonchus contortus, Nematodirus battus, Oesophagostomum venulosum, Ostertagia circumcincta, and Trichostrongylus colubriformis than the untreated controls. Basic pharmacokinetic parameters for eprinomectin B1a were AUCinfinity, 37.1 ± 15.2 day ng/mL; T½, 5.11 ± 2.83 days; and Cmax, 5.93 ± 1.87 ng/mL; individual maximal concentrations were observed 1 or 2 days after treatment. Results of this study indicate that oral ingestion is not required to achieve adequate exposure for excellent anthelmintic efficacy following topical administration of eprinomectin at 1 mg/kg body weight to goats.

  15. The Value of Vocal Extent Measure (VEM) Assessing Phonomicrosurgical Outcomes in Vocal Fold Polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmen, Tatjana; Ermakova, Tatiana; Möller, Andreas; Seipelt, Matthias; Weikert, Sebastian; Rummich, Julius; Gross, Manfred; Nawka, Tadeus; Caffier, Philipp P

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to present vocal extent measure (VEM), demonstrate its changes with phonomicrosurgical treatment in patients with vocal fold polyps (VFPs), and to compare its performance to that of established vocal parameters. This is an individual cohort study. Microlaryngoscopic ablation was executed in 61 patients with manifestation of VFP (28 male, 33 female; 45 ± 13 years [mean ± SD]). Analysis of treatment outcome was based on pre- and postoperative voice function diagnostics and videolaryngostroboscopy. Examination instruments were: auditory-perceptual voice assessment (roughness, breathiness, and overall hoarseness [RBH]-status), voice range profile (VRP), acoustic-aerodynamic analysis, and patients' self-assessment of voice using the voice handicap index. The VEM, a parameter not yet commonly established in phoniatric diagnostics, was calculated from area and shape of the VRP to be compared with the dysphonia severity index (DSI) concerning diagnostic suitability. All polyps were completely excised. Three months postoperatively, mucosal wave propagation had recovered. All subjective and most objective acoustic and aerodynamic parameters showed highly significant improvement. The VHI-9i-score decreased from 15 ± 8 to 6 ± 7 points. The average total vocal range extended by 4 ± 5 semitones, the mean speaking pitch decreased by 1 ± 2 semitones. The DSI increased on average from 2.6 ± 2.1 to 4.0 ± 2.2, VEM from 83 ± 28 to 107 ± 21 (P VRP evaluation. This positive measure of vocal function seems to be a compelling diagnostic addition for objective quantification of vocal performance. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Idiopathic ulcerative laryngitis causing midmembranous vocal fold granuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Catherine F; Sulica, Lucian

    2013-02-01

    Idiopathic ulcerative laryngitis (IUL) is characterized by bilateral midmembranous vocal fold ulceration, which follows upper respiratory infection with cough. In contrast, granuloma of the membranous vocal fold can occur rarely following microlaryngoscopy, presumably secondary to surgical violation of deep tissue planes. We report a novel case of noniatrogenic membranous vocal fold granulation developing in a patient with IUL. Although the presence of granulation implied injury to the entire microstructure of the vibratory portion of the vocal fold, the lesion resolved with conservative management without adverse sequelae.

  17. Vocal-tract filtering by lingual articulation in a parrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Gabriël J L; Nelson, Brian S; Suthers, Roderick A

    2004-09-07

    Human speech and bird vocalization are complex communicative behaviors with notable similarities in development and underlying mechanisms. However, there is an important difference between humans and birds in the way vocal complexity is generally produced. Human speech originates from independent modulatory actions of a sound source, e.g., the vibrating vocal folds, and an acoustic filter, formed by the resonances of the vocal tract (formants). Modulation in bird vocalization, in contrast, is thought to originate predominantly from the sound source, whereas the role of the resonance filter is only subsidiary in emphasizing the complex time-frequency patterns of the source (e.g., but see ). However, it has been suggested that, analogous to human speech production, tongue movements observed in parrot vocalizations modulate formant characteristics independently from the vocal source. As yet, direct evidence of such a causal relationship is lacking. In five Monk parakeets, Myiopsitta monachus, we replaced the vocal source, the syrinx, with a small speaker that generated a broad-band sound, and we measured the effects of tongue placement on the sound emitted from the beak. The results show that tongue movements cause significant frequency changes in two formants and cause amplitude changes in all four formants present between 0.5 and 10 kHz. We suggest that lingual articulation may thus in part explain the well-known ability of parrots to mimic human speech, and, even more intriguingly, may also underlie a speech-like formant system in natural parrot vocalizations.

  18. Continuous Vocalization during Kendo Exercises Suppresses Expiration of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikawa, H; Terada, T; Takahashi, T; Kizaki, K; Imai, H; Era, S

    2015-06-01

    One distinctive trait of kendo, the Japanese martial art of fencing, is the execution of sustained, high-effort vocalizations during actions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of these vocalizations on respiratory functions. First, the intensity of 3 kendo exercises was quantified by measuring oxygen uptake (V̇O2) and comparing it with V̇O2max measured during treadmill tests of 8 university kendo athletes. Respiratory variables of these 8 athletes were then analyzed using a portable breath gas analyzer during the most intensive kendo exercise, kakari-keiko, with and without vocalization. Breathing frequency (fB) increased regardless of vocalization, but in trials with vocalization, fB and ventilation were significantly lower, and expiration time was significantly longer. Components of expired gases were also affected by vocalization. Although there was no significant difference in oxygen uptake, vocalization yielded a reduction in carbon dioxide output (V̇CO2) and an increase in fraction of end-tidal carbon dioxide (FetCO2). We thus conclude that these vocalizations greatly affect expiration breathing patterns in kendo. Moreover, repetition of kakari-keiko caused a reduction in V̇CO2 and an increase in FetCO2 and CO2 storage. We consider the possibility that the sustained high-effort vocalizations of kendo also increase cerebral blood flow.

  19. Vocal Emotion of Humanoid Robots: A Study from Brain Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youhui Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Driven by rapid ongoing advances in humanoid robot, increasing attention has been shifted into the issue of emotion intelligence of AI robots to facilitate the communication between man-machines and human beings, especially for the vocal emotion in interactive system of future humanoid robots. This paper explored the brain mechanism of vocal emotion by studying previous researches and developed an experiment to observe the brain response by fMRI, to analyze vocal emotion of human beings. Findings in this paper provided a new approach to design and evaluate the vocal emotion of humanoid robots based on brain mechanism of human beings.

  20. Perceptual and acoustic parameters of vocal nodules in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramuglia, Andréa Cristina Joia; Tavares, Elaine L M; Rodrigues, Sérgio Augusto; Martins, Regina H G

    2014-02-01

    Vocal nodules constitute the major cause of dysphonia during childhood. Auditory-perceptual and acoustic vocal analyses have been used to differentiate vocal nodules from normal voice in children. To study the value of auditory-perceptual and acoustic vocal analyses in assessments of children with nodules. Diagnostic test study. A comparative study was carried out including 100 children with videolaryngoscopic diagnosis of vocal nodules (nodule group-NG); and 100 children without vocal symptoms and with normal videolaryngoscopic exams (control group-CG). The age range of both groups was between 4 and 11 years. All children underwent auditory-perceptual vocal analyses (GRBASI scale); maximum phonation time and s/z ratio were calculated, and acoustic vocal analysis (MDVP software) were carried out. There was no difference in the values of maximum phonation time and s/z ratio between groups. Auditory-perceptual analysis indicated greater compromising of voice parameters for NG, compared to CG: G (79 versus 24), R (53 versus 3), B (67 versus 23) and S (35 versus 1). The values of acoustic parameters jitter, PPQ, shimmer, APQ, NHR and SPI were higher for NG for CG. The parameter f0 did not differ between groups. Compromising of auditory-perceptual (G, R, B and S) and acoustic vocal parameters (jitter, PPQ, shimmer, APQ, NHR and SPI) was greater for children with nodules than for those of the control group, which makes them important methods for assessing child dysphonia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Frequency and significance of vocalizations in Sydenham's chorea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Teixeira, Antonio Lúcio; Cardoso, Francisco; Maia, Débora P; Sacramento, Daniel R; Mota, Cleonice de Carvalho Coelho; Meira, Zilda Maria Alves; Lees, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Sydenham's chorea (SC) is a complication of Streptococcus infection characterized by a combination of motor and non-motor features. We have investigated the presence of vocalizations in 89 consecutive patients with SC evaluated during a one-year period in the UFMG Movement Disorders Clinic. Seven (4/3 M/F) of the 89 patients (29/60 M/F) presented with simple vocalizations not preceded by premonitory sensations but in association with facial chorea in five patients. These findings suggest that vocalizations are not a common feature in SC and their phenomenology is quite distinct from the characteristics of vocal tics in tic disorders.

  2. [Potentialities of conservative therapy of vocal disorders in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtsig, E Yu; Bogomilsky, M R

    2007-01-01

    The article concerns problems of classification and treatment of various vocal problems in children, presents treatment outcomes in patients with functional and organic dysphonia using complex homeopathic drugs.

  3. Diagnostic and therapeutic pitfalls in benign vocal fold diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohlender, Jörg

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available [english] More than half of patients presenting with hoarseness show benign vocal fold changes. The clinician should be familiar with the anatomy, physiology and functional aspects of voice disorders and also the modern diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities in order to ensure an optimal and patient specific management. This review article focuses on the diagnostic and therapeutic limitations and difficulties of treatment of benign vocal fold tumors, the management and prevention of scarred vocal folds and the issue of unilateral vocal fold paresis.

  4. The structure and usage of female and male mouse ultrasonic vocalizations reveal only minor differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Hammerschmidt

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic vocalizations (USV of mice are increasingly recognized as informative dependent variables in studies using mouse models of human diseases. While pup vocalizations primarily serve to re-establish contact with the mother, adult male "songs" were considered to be courtship signals. Alternatively, mouse USVs may generally function as territorial signals. To distinguish between these two hypotheses, we compared the structure and usage of adult male and female USVs in staged resident-intruder encounters. If calls function primarily as courtship signals, males should respond stronger than females, specifically when presented with a female intruder. Refuting this hypothesis, we found that in response to female intruders, females called more than males (228±32 calls/min vs. 71±15 calls/min, and males called more to female than to male intruders (14±7.5 calls/min. There were no significant differences in the acoustic characteristics of the calls given by females and males. To control for the influence of the intruder's behavior on calling, we repeated the experiments using anaesthetized intruders. Again, females produced more calls to female than male intruders (173±17 calls/min vs. 71±15 calls/min, while males called more in response to female than male intruders (39±17 calls/min, and there were no acoustic differences in female and male calls. The vocal activity did not differ significantly with regard to intruder state (awake or anaesthetized, while the acoustic structure exhibited significant differences. Taken together, our findings support the view that calls do not mainly function as courtship signals, although they might serve both a territorial (sex-independent and a courtship function. The comparison of responses to awake vs. anaesthetized intruders suggests that the latter are sufficient to elicit vocal activity. The subtle acoustic differences, however, indicate that the subject differentiates between intruder states.

  5. Song practice promotes acute vocal variability at a key stage of sensorimotor learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie E Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trial by trial variability during motor learning is a feature encoded by the basal ganglia of both humans and songbirds, and is important for reinforcement of optimal motor patterns, including those that produce speech and birdsong. Given the many parallels between these behaviors, songbirds provide a useful model to investigate neural mechanisms underlying vocal learning. In juvenile and adult male zebra finches, endogenous levels of FoxP2, a molecule critical for language, decrease two hours after morning song onset within area X, part of the basal ganglia-forebrain pathway dedicated to song. In juveniles, experimental 'knockdown' of area X FoxP2 results in abnormally variable song in adulthood. These findings motivated our hypothesis that low FoxP2 levels increase vocal variability, enabling vocal motor exploration in normal birds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After two hours in either singing or non-singing conditions (previously shown to produce differential area X FoxP2 levels, phonological and sequential features of the subsequent songs were compared across conditions in the same bird. In line with our prediction, analysis of songs sung by 75 day (75d birds revealed that syllable structure was more variable and sequence stereotypy was reduced following two hours of continuous practice compared to these features following two hours of non-singing. Similar trends in song were observed in these birds at 65d, despite higher overall within-condition variability at this age. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together with previous work, these findings point to the importance of behaviorally-driven acute periods during song learning that allow for both refinement and reinforcement of motor patterns. Future work is aimed at testing the observation that not only does vocal practice influence expression of molecular networks, but that these networks then influence subsequent variability in these skills.

  6. Computational acoustic modeling of cetacean vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, Michael Dixon

    A framework for computational acoustic modeling of hypothetical vocal production mechanisms in cetaceans is presented. As a specific example, a model of a proposed source in the larynx of odontocetes is developed. Whales and dolphins generate a broad range of vocal sounds, but the exact mechanisms they use are not conclusively understood. In the fifty years since it has become widely accepted that whales can and do make sound, how they do so has remained particularly confounding. Cetaceans' highly divergent respiratory anatomy, along with the difficulty of internal observation during vocalization have contributed to this uncertainty. A variety of acoustical, morphological, ethological and physiological evidence has led to conflicting and often disputed theories of the locations and mechanisms of cetaceans' sound sources. Computational acoustic modeling has been used to create real-time parametric models of musical instruments and the human voice. These techniques can be applied to cetacean vocalizations to help better understand the nature and function of these sounds. Extensive studies of odontocete laryngeal morphology have revealed vocal folds that are consistently similar to a known but poorly understood acoustic source, the ribbon reed. A parametric computational model of the ribbon reed is developed, based on simplified geometrical, mechanical and fluid models drawn from the human voice literature. The physical parameters of the ribbon reed model are then adapted to those of the odontocete larynx. With reasonable estimates of real physical parameters, both the ribbon reed and odontocete larynx models produce sounds that are perceptually similar to their real-world counterparts, and both respond realistically under varying control conditions. Comparisons of acoustic features of the real-world and synthetic systems show a number of consistencies. While this does not on its own prove that either model is conclusively an accurate description of the source, it

  7. WDM光网络中多播业务量疏导方法分析%Analysis of multicast traffic grooming algorithms in WDM mesh networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘焕淋; 方强; 雷芳

    2012-01-01

    在光层多播树路由中疏导低速业务实现阻塞率降低和吞吐量提高是光网络比较复杂的联合优化问题.分析了WDM(wave-length division multiplex)网络中多播业务量疏导问题的研究方法和成果,分析比较了静态多播业务和动态多播业务的疏导方法,并讨论了各种多播业务疏导方法性能、特点及存在的问题,最后总结了关于动态多播疏导的未来研究思路.%Grooming the low-speed traffic to reduce the blocking probability and improve throughput in optical layer multicast routing tree is a more complex joint optimization problem. The paper analyzes the methods and results of the optical multicast traffic grooming problem in WDM networks. Also,the multicast static traffic and dynamic traffic grooming algorithms are analyzed and compared in the paper respectively. Furthermore,the authors discuss the performance,characteristics and the existing problems of those algorithms for optical multicast traffic grooming. Finally,we summarize the future research ideas about the methods of dynamic multicast traffic grooming.

  8. Is the Aluminum Hypothesis Dead?

    OpenAIRE

    Lidsky, Theodore I.

    2014-01-01

    The Aluminum Hypothesis, the idea that aluminum exposure is involved in the etiology of Alzheimer disease, dates back to a 1965 demonstration that aluminum causes neurofibrillary tangles in the brains of rabbits. Initially the focus of intensive research, the Aluminum Hypothesis has gradually been abandoned by most researchers. Yet, despite this current indifference, the Aluminum Hypothesis continues to attract the attention of a small group of scientists and aluminum continues to be viewed w...

  9. Is the Aluminum Hypothesis dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidsky, Theodore I

    2014-05-01

    The Aluminum Hypothesis, the idea that aluminum exposure is involved in the etiology of Alzheimer disease, dates back to a 1965 demonstration that aluminum causes neurofibrillary tangles in the brains of rabbits. Initially the focus of intensive research, the Aluminum Hypothesis has gradually been abandoned by most researchers. Yet, despite this current indifference, the Aluminum Hypothesis continues to attract the attention of a small group of scientists and aluminum continues to be viewed with concern by some of the public. This review article discusses reasons that mainstream science has largely abandoned the Aluminum Hypothesis and explores a possible reason for some in the general public continuing to view aluminum with mistrust.

  10. Social grooming network in captive chimpanzees: does the wild or captive origin of group members affect sociality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levé, Marine; Sueur, Cédric; Petit, Odile; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Hirata, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Many chimpanzees throughout the world are housed in captivity, and there is an increasing effort to recreate social groups by mixing individuals with captive origins with those with wild origins. Captive origins may entail restricted rearing conditions during early infant life, including, for example, no maternal rearing and a limited social life. Early rearing conditions have been linked with differences in tool-use behavior between captive- and wild-born chimpanzees. If physical cognition can be impaired by non-natural rearing, what might be the consequences for social capacities? This study describes the results of network analysis based on grooming interactions in chimpanzees with wild and captive origins living in the Kumamoto Sanctuary in Kumamoto, Japan. Grooming is a complex social activity occupying up to 25% of chimpanzees' waking hours and plays a role in the emergence and maintenance of social relationships. We assessed whether the social centralities and roles of chimpanzees might be affected by their origin (captive vs wild). We found that captive- and wild-origin chimpanzees did not differ in their grooming behavior, but that theoretical removal of individuals from the network had differing impacts depending on the origin of the individual. Contrary to findings that non-natural early rearing has long-term effects on physical cognition, living in social groups seems to compensate for the negative effects of non-natural early rearing. Social network analysis (SNA) and, in particular, theoretical removal analysis, were able to highlight differences between individuals that would have been impossible to show using classical methods. The social environment of captive animals is important to their well-being, and we are only beginning to understand how SNA might help to enhance animal welfare.

  11. Millisecond-Scale Motor Encoding in a Cortical Vocal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemenman, Ilya; Tang, Claire; Chehayeb, Diala; Srivastava, Kyle; Sober, Samuel

    2015-03-01

    Studies of motor control have almost universally examined firing rates to investigate how the brain shapes behavior. In principle, however, neurons could encode information through the precise temporal patterning of their spike trains as well as (or instead of) through their firing rates. Although the importance of spike timing has been demonstrated in sensory systems, it is largely unknown whether timing differences in motor areas could affect behavior. We tested the hypothesis that significant information about trial-by-trial variations in behavior is represented by spike timing in the songbird vocal motor system. We found that neurons in motor cortex convey information via spike timing far more often than via spike rate and that the amount of information conveyed at the millisecond timescale greatly exceeds the information available from spike counts. These results demonstrate that information can be represented by spike timing in motor circuits and suggest that timing variations evoke differences in behavior. This work was supported in part by the National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, and James S. McDonnell Foundation

  12. Vocal Cord Paralysis and its Etiologies: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Seyed Toutounchi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vocal cord paralysis is a common symptom of numerous diseases and it may be due to neurogenic or mechanical fixation of the cords. Paralysis of the vocal cords is just a symptom of underlying disease in some cases; so, clinical diagnosis of the underlying cause leading to paralysis of the vocal cords is important. This study evaluates the causes of vocal cord paralysis.Methods: In a prospective study, 45 patients with paralyzed vocal cord diagnosis were examined by tests such as examination of the pharynx, larynx, esophagus, thyroid, cervical, lung, and mediastinum, brain and heart by diagnostic imaging to investigate the cause vocal cord paralysis. The study was ended by diagnosing the reason of vocal cord paralysis at each stage of the examination and the clinical studies.Results: The mean duration of symptoms was 18.95±6.50 months. The reason for referral was phonation changes (97.8% and aspiration (37.8% in the subjects. There was bilateral paralysis in 6.82%, left paralysis in 56.82% and right in 63.36% of subjects. The type of vocal cord placement was midline in 52.8%, paramedian in 44.4% and lateral in 2.8% of the subjects. The causes of vocal cords paralysis were idiopathic paralysis (31.11%, tumors (31.11%, surgery (28.89%, trauma, brain problems, systemic disease and other causes (2.2%.Conclusion: An integrated diagnostic and treatment program is necessary for patients with vocal cord paralysis. Possibility of malignancy should be excluded before marking idiopathic reason to vocal cord paralysis.

  13. In vivo measurement of vocal fold surface resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuta, Masanobu; Kurita, Takashi; Dillon, Neal P; Kimball, Emily E; Garrett, C Gaelyn; Sivasankar, M Preeti; Webster, Robert J; Rousseau, Bernard

    2017-10-01

    A custom-designed probe was developed to measure vocal fold surface resistance in vivo. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate proof of concept of using vocal fold surface resistance as a proxy of functional tissue integrity after acute phonotrauma using an animal model. Prospective animal study. New Zealand White breeder rabbits received 120 minutes of airflow without vocal fold approximation (control) or 120 minutes of raised intensity phonation (experimental). The probe was inserted via laryngoscope and placed on the left vocal fold under endoscopic visualization. Vocal fold surface resistance of the middle one-third of the vocal fold was measured after 0 (baseline), 60, and 120 minutes of phonation. After the phonation procedure, the larynx was harvested and prepared for transmission electron microscopy. In the control group, vocal fold surface resistance values remained stable across time points. In the experimental group, surface resistance (X% ± Y% relative to baseline) was significantly decreased after 120 minutes of raised intensity phonation. This was associated with structural changes using transmission electron microscopy, which revealed damage to the vocal fold epithelium after phonotrauma, including disruption of the epithelium and basement membrane, dilated paracellular spaces, and alterations to epithelial microprojections. In contrast, control vocal fold specimens showed well-preserved stratified squamous epithelia. These data demonstrate the feasibility of measuring vocal fold surface resistance in vivo as a means of evaluating functional vocal fold epithelial barrier integrity. Device prototypes are in development for additional testing, validation, and for clinical applications in laryngology. NA Laryngoscope, 127:E364-E370, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Effects of Parental Interaction on Infant Vocalization Rate, Variability and Vocal Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Beau; Warlaumont, Anne S.; Messinger, Daniel; Bene, Edina; Iyer, Suneeti Nathani; Lee, Chia-Chang; Lambert, Brittany; Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2014-01-01

    Examination of infant vocalization patterns across interactive and noninteractive contexts may facilitate better understanding of early communication development. In the current study, with 24 infant-parent dyads, infant volubility increased significantly when parent interaction ceased (presenting a "still face," or SF) after a period of…

  15. Vocal Patterns in Infants with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Canonical Babbling Status and Vocalization Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Elena; Belardi, Katie; Baranek, Grace T.; Watson, Linda R.; Labban, Jeffrey D.; Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2014-01-01

    Canonical babbling is a critical milestone for speech development and is usually well in place by 10 months. The possibility that infants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show late onset of canonical babbling has so far eluded evaluation. Rate of vocalization or "volubility" has also been suggested as possibly aberrant in infants with…

  16. Modeling the Pathophysiology of Phonotraumatic Vocal Hyperfunction With a Triangular Glottal Model of the Vocal Folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Gabriel E; Peterson, Sean D; Erath, Byron D; Castro, Christian; Hillman, Robert E; Zañartu, Matías

    2017-09-18

    Our goal was to test prevailing assumptions about the underlying biomechanical and aeroacoustic mechanisms associated with phonotraumatic lesions of the vocal folds using a numerical lumped-element model of voice production. A numerical model with a triangular glottis, posterior glottal opening, and arytenoid posturing is proposed. Normal voice is altered by introducing various prephonatory configurations. Potential compensatory mechanisms (increased subglottal pressure, muscle activation, and supraglottal constriction) are adjusted to restore an acoustic target output through a control loop that mimics a simplified version of auditory feedback. The degree of incomplete glottal closure in both the membranous and posterior portions of the folds consistently leads to a reduction in sound pressure level, fundamental frequency, harmonic richness, and harmonics-to-noise ratio. The compensatory mechanisms lead to significantly increased vocal-fold collision forces, maximum flow-declination rate, and amplitude of unsteady flow, without significantly altering the acoustic output. Modeling provided potentially important insights into the pathophysiology of phonotraumatic vocal hyperfunction by demonstrating that compensatory mechanisms can counteract deterioration in the voice acoustic signal due to incomplete glottal closure, but this also leads to high vocal-fold collision forces (reflected in aerodynamic measures), which significantly increases the risk of developing phonotrauma.

  17. The relationship between pitch discrimination and vocal production: comparison of vocal and instrumental musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikjeh, Dee A; Lister, Jennifer J; Frisch, Stefan A

    2009-01-01

    Auditory pitch discrimination and vocal pitch accuracy are fundamental abilities and essential skills of a professional singer; yet, the relationship between these abilities, particularly in trained vocal musicians, has not been the subject of much research. Difference limens for frequency (DLFs) and pitch production accuracy (PPA) were examined among 20 vocalists, 21 instrumentalists, and 21 nonmusicians. All were right-handed young adult females with normal hearing. Stimuli were harmonic tone complexes simulating piano tones and represented the mid-frequency of the untrained female vocal range, F0=261.63-392 Hz (C4-G4). DLFs were obtained by an adaptive psychophysical paradigm. Vocal pitch recordings were analyzed to determine PPA. Musicians demonstrated superior pitch discrimination and production accuracy compared to nonmusicians. These abilities did not distinguish instrumentalists and vocalists. DLF and PPA were significantly correlated with each other only for musicians with instrumental training; however, PPA was most consistent with minimal variance for vocalists. It would appear that a relationship between DLF and PPA develops with musical training, and these abilities can be differentially influenced by the type of specialty training.

  18. Riemann hypothesis is not correct

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper use Nevanlinna's Second Main Theorem of the value distribution theory, we got an important conclusion by Riemann hypothesis. this conclusion contradicts the Theorem 8.12 in Titchmarsh's book "Theory of the Riemann Zeta-functions", therefore we prove that Riemann hypothesis is incorrect.

  19. Response of male mice to odours of female mice in different stages of oestrous cycle: self-grooming behaviour and the effect of castration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiraman, Shanmugam; SankarGanesh, Devaraj; Kannan, Soundarapandian; Kamalakkannan, Soundararajan; Nirmala, Natarajan; Archunan, Govindaraju

    2014-01-01

    The behavioural assays were carried out in a Y-maze wherein intact, castrated and testosterone-treated male mice were exposed to oestrus and non-oestrus urine samples. The intact male mice investigated more frequently and spent more time in the Y-maze arm with oestrus urine than in that with non-oestrus urine. In contrast, the castrated mice were not attracted to oestrus urine, whereas testosterone-treated mice showed preference for oestrus urine. The rate of self-grooming was higher in intact males in case of exposure to oestrus urine while the rate was lower with respect to non-oestrus urine. However, castrated mice exhibited less self-grooming behaviour which was partially restored by testosterone treatment. The results suggest that self-grooming behaviour is an indicator of detection and discrimination of oestrus by males, and supports the androgen role in male chemosensory ability to discriminate between oestrus and non-oestrus female odours.

  20. Self-grooming by rodents in social and sexual contexts%社会关系和性关系中的自我理毛行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael H. FERKIN; Stuart T. LEONARD

    2005-01-01

    Arguments swirl about explanations about the function of self-grooming in mammals. For instance, mammals self-groom to remove parasites that maybe transferred from a nearby opposite-sex conspecific during an encounter. Animals also self-groom when they encounter the odor of an opposite-sex conspecific because self-grooming is a re-directed behavior displayed by individuals that are torn between fleeing and fighting. Animals may self-groom to relieve stress and be a form of de-arousal. In other cases, animals may self-groom to indicate their response to conspecifics. The ubiquity of self-grooming in different contexts suggests that it serves multiple functions. Consequently, in this review, we do much to avoid arguments against these other roles for self-grooming. It is not our intent nor do we feel that it is constructive to label self-grooming as being solely a response to anxiety or stress, a mechanism to lower body temperature, or a behavior involved in care of the body surface. This limited view does not accept the possibility that self-grooming serves multiple domains. Rather, in this paper, we focus on a very specific context for self-grooming. That is, when an individual encounters the odors of a conspecific and self-grooms%有很多观点解释了动物自我理毛的作用.例如,动物通过自我理毛可以清除在与附近的同种异性接触期间传播来的寄生虫,当嗅出同种异性的气味时也可能自我理毛,因为自我理毛是一种动物在逃避还是战斗之间所面临的进退两难选择时表现出来的改向行为.动物可以通过自我理毛缓解紧张,因而是一种缓解冲动的方式.在其它情况下,动物自我理毛可能表示对同种个体的反应,它们在不同场合下普遍存在自我理毛行为,表明这种行为有多种功能.因此,在这篇综述中,作者尽量避免自我理毛具有其它功能的争议,我们无意把自我理毛看成一种仅仅是对焦虑和紧张

  1. Effects of smoking on the elderly people's vocal cords dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasconcelos, Sandrelli Virginio de

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Smoking is highly aggressive and the vocal tract is one of the main risk factors for cancer of the larynx. The tobacco may lead to irritation of the vocal tract, edema in the vocal cords, hoarseness, coughing, increased secretion and infections. Objective: To evaluate the dimensions of the vocal cords in elderly smokers and male non-smokers. Method: We studied 15 male corpses, aged from 60 to 90 years, 8 of whom were non-smokers and 7 smokers. For data collection, four sequential steps were followed: 1st Clinical history of the corpse; 2nd Removal of the larynx, 3rd Dissection of the larynx and 4th Morphometry of the vocal cords dimensions. Results: There was no statistically significant difference as for the morphology of the vocal cords dimensions between elderly smokers and nonsmokers, and the length (p = 0.58, width (p = 0.72 and thickness (p = 0.65 were equivalent between both groups. Conclusion: We confirmed it's macroscopically impossible to find differences caused by smoking in the three dimensions of the vocal cords, however, in the histology, smokers are proved to be more susceptible to findings regarding dysplasia and neoplasms in the vocal cords tissue with problems in voice quality.

  2. What's the Difference Between Vocal Cord Dysfunction and Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T C Li, M.D., Ph.D. Both asthma and vocal cord dysfunction can make breathing difficult. Signs and symptoms of either condition can include coughing, wheezing, throat tightness and hoarseness, but they're two separate ... motion. Like asthma, vocal cord dysfunction can be triggered by breathing ...

  3. An Analysis of Vocal Stereotypy and Therapist Fading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athens, Elizabeth S.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Sloman, Kimberly N.; Pipkin, Claire St. Peter

    2008-01-01

    A functional analysis for a boy with Down syndrome and autism suggested that vocal stereotypy was maintained by automatic reinforcement. The analysis also showed that instructions and noncontingent attention suppressed vocal stereotypy. A treatment package consisting of noncontingent attention, contingent demands, and response cost effectively…

  4. The Effect of Vocalization on Melodic Memory Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembrook, Randall G.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study which reinforces prior findings on melodic memory that show a majority of students do not sing accurately enough after only one hearing of a melody to benefit from vocalization memory techniques. Questions whether vocalization can be a memory reinforcer in melodies that are shorter and simpler than those used in this research.…

  5. Noncry Vocal Production in Infancy: A Bibliographic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Adele

    This bibliographic review aims to present a single comprehensive source of references to facilitate clinical application of data obtained on the vocal activity of normal infants and to facilitate continued research on prelinguistic vocal output. The bibliography cites the published observational, empirical, and theoretical reports that examine the…

  6. Genetic and Environmental Effects on Vocal Symptoms and Their Intercorrelations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybacka, Ida; Simberg, Susanna; Santtila, Pekka; Sala, Eeva; Sandnabba, N. Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Recently, Simberg et al. (2009) found genetic effects on a composite variable consisting of 6 vocal symptom items measuring dysphonia. The purpose of the present study was to determine genetic and environmental effects on the individual vocal symptoms in a population-based sample of Finnish twins. Method: The sample comprised 1,728 twins…

  7. Quantifying the Effects of Propagation on Classification of Cetacean Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    of Cetacean Vocalizations Paul C. Hines Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 5269 Morris St. Morray Building, Room 200 PO Box...of cetacean species in diverse ocean environments. OBJECTIVES In previous work as part of ONR grant N000141210139 a unique automatic classifier...successfully classify anthropogenic transients, and vocalizations from five cetacean species. Although this is a significant achievement, successful

  8. Effects of Music on Vocal Stereotypy in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanovaz, Marc J.; Sladeczek, Ingrid E.; Rapp, John T.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of manipulating the intensity (i.e., volume) of music on engagement in vocal stereotypy in 2 children with autism. Noncontingent access to music decreased immediate engagement in vocal stereotypy for each participant, but it produced only marginal effects on subsequent engagement in the behavior (i.e., after withdrawal).…

  9. Arousal dynamics drive vocal production in marmoset monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjon, Jeremy I; Takahashi, Daniel Y; Cervantes, Diego C; Ghazanfar, Asif A

    2016-08-01

    Vocal production is the result of interacting cognitive and autonomic processes. Despite claims that changes in one interoceptive state (arousal) govern primate vocalizations, we know very little about how it influences their likelihood and timing. In this study we investigated the role of arousal during naturally occurring vocal production in marmoset monkeys. Throughout each session, naturally occurring contact calls are produced more quickly, and with greater probability, during higher levels of arousal, as measured by heart rate. On average, we observed a steady increase in heart rate 23 s before the production of a call. Following call production, there is a sharp and steep cardiac deceleration lasting ∼8 s. The dynamics of cardiac fluctuations around a vocalization cannot be completely predicted by the animal's respiration or movement. Moreover, the timing of vocal production was tightly correlated to the phase of a 0.1-Hz autonomic nervous system rhythm known as the Mayer wave. Finally, a compilation of the state space of arousal dynamics during vocalization illustrated that perturbations to the resting state space increase the likelihood of a call occurring. Together, these data suggest that arousal dynamics are critical for spontaneous primate vocal production, not only as a robust predictor of the likelihood of vocal onset but also as scaffolding on which behavior can unfold.

  10. Bupropion XL-induced motor and vocal tics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayhan, Fatih; Uguz, Faruk; Kayhan, Ayşegül; Toktaş, Fikriye Ilay

    2014-01-01

    Tics are stereotypical repetitive involuntary movements (motor tics) or sounds (vocal tics). Although the emergence of tics were reported in a few cases with the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, there was no case with bupropion extended-release (Bupropion XL). The current case report presents a male patient developing motor and vocal tics with the use of bupropion XL.

  11. Mechanisms underlying the social enhancement of vocal learning in songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yining; Matheson, Laura E; Sakata, Jon T

    2016-06-14

    Social processes profoundly influence speech and language acquisition. Despite the importance of social influences, little is known about how social interactions modulate vocal learning. Like humans, songbirds learn their vocalizations during development, and they provide an excellent opportunity to reveal mechanisms of social influences on vocal learning. Using yoked experimental designs, we demonstrate that social interactions with adult tutors for as little as 1 d significantly enhanced vocal learning. Social influences on attention to song seemed central to the social enhancement of learning because socially tutored birds were more attentive to the tutor's songs than passively tutored birds, and because variation in attentiveness and in the social modulation of attention significantly predicted variation in vocal learning. Attention to song was influenced by both the nature and amount of tutor song: Pupils paid more attention to songs that tutors directed at them and to tutors that produced fewer songs. Tutors altered their song structure when directing songs at pupils in a manner that resembled how humans alter their vocalizations when speaking to infants, that was distinct from how tutors changed their songs when singing to females, and that could influence attention and learning. Furthermore, social interactions that rapidly enhanced learning increased the activity of noradrenergic and dopaminergic midbrain neurons. These data highlight striking parallels between humans and songbirds in the social modulation of vocal learning and suggest that social influences on attention and midbrain circuitry could represent shared mechanisms underlying the social modulation of vocal learning.

  12. Vocal matching by orange-fronted conures (Aratinga canicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balsby, Thorsten J S; Bradbury, Jack W

    2009-01-01

    The functions of vocal matching have been clarified in territorial songbirds, compositionally stable groups of birds and mammals, and species with multiple alarm or assembly signals. The functions of vocal matching are less well understood in fission/fusion species that are non-territorial, live...

  13. Rats with differential self-grooming expression in the elevated plus-maze do not differ in anxiety-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Adriano Edgar; de Oliveira, Amanda Ribeiro; Diniz, Juliana Belo; Hoexter, Marcelo Queiroz; Chiavegatto, Silvana; Brandão, Marcus Lira

    2015-10-01

    Individual differences are important biological predictors for reactivity to stressful stimulation. The extent to which trait differences underlie animal's reactions to conditioned and unconditioned fear stimuli, for example, is still to be clarified. Although grooming behavior has been associated with some aspects of the obsessive-compulsive disorder in humans, its relation with other anxiety disorders is still unknown. Given that grooming behavior could be a component of the whole spectrum of these disorders, in the present study we allocated male Wistar rats in low, intermediate and high self-grooming groups according to the duration of such behavior in the elevated plus-maze (EPM). These groups were then evaluated in unconditioned fear tests, such as the EPM and the open-field, and in conditioned fear tests, such as fear-potentiated startle and fear extinction retention. Additionally, we studied the expression of unconditioned behaviors in marble burying test and the sensorimotor gate function with prepulse inhibition test. Neurochemicals and neuroendocrine parameters were also evaluated, with the quantification of basal corticosterone in the plasma, and dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites in brain structures involved with fear processing. In general, rats classified according to grooming expression showed similar performance in all behavioral tests. Accordingly, corticosterone and monoamine concentrations were similar among groups. Thus, despite grooming expression elicited by different approaches--especially pharmacological ones--has been related with some aspects of anxiety disorders, rats with different expression of spontaneous self-grooming in the EPM do not differ in anxiety-like behaviors nor in neurochemical and neuroendocrine parameters generally associated with anxiety disorders.

  14. Facial and vocal expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James A; Bachorowski, Jo-Anne; Fernandez-Dols, Jose-Miguel

    2003-01-01

    A flurry of theoretical and empirical work concerning the production of and response to facial and vocal expressions has occurred in the past decade. That emotional expressions express emotions is a tautology but may not be a fact. Debates have centered on universality, the nature of emotion, and the link between emotions and expressions. Modern evolutionary theory is informing more models, emphasizing that expressions are directed at a receiver, that the interests of sender and receiver can conflict, that there are many determinants of sending an expression in addition to emotion, that expressions influence the receiver in a variety of ways, and that the receiver's response is more than simply decoding a message.

  15. Dynamics of zebra finch and mockingbird vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimenser, Aylin

    Along with humans, whales, and bats, three groups of birds which include songbirds (oscines) such as the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata) and Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) are the only creatures known to learn sounds by imitation. Numerous similarities between human and songbird vocalizations exist and, recently, it has been shown that Zebra Finch in particular possesses a gene, FoxP2, known to be involved in human language. This thesis investigates song development in Zebra Finches, as well as the temporal dynamics of song in Mockingbirds. Zebra Finches have long been the system of choice for studying vocal development, ontogeny, and complexity in birdsong. Physicists find them intriguing because the spectrally complex vocalizations of the Zebra Finch can exhibit sudden transitions to chaotic dynamics, period doubling & mode-locking phenomena. Mockingbirds, by contrast, provide an ideal system to examine the richness of an avian repertoire, since these musically versatile songbirds typically know upwards of 200 songs. To analyse birdsong data, we have developed a novel clustering algorithm that can be applied to the bird's syllables, tracing their dynamics back to the earliest stages of vocal development. To characterize birdsong we have used Fourier techniques, based upon multitaper spectral analysis, to optimally work around the constraints imposed by (Heisenberg's) time-frequency uncertainty principle. Furthermore, estimates that provide optimal compromise between frequency and temporal resolution have beautiful connections with solutions to the Helmholtz wave equation in prolate spheroidal coordinates. We have used this connection to provide firm foundation for certain heuristics used in the literature to compute associated spectral derivatives and supply a pedagogical account here in this thesis. They are of interest because spectral derivatives emphasize sudden changes in the dynamics of the underlying phenomenon, and often provide a nice way to visualize

  16. A child with ictal vocalizations and generalized epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Mary; Heritier Barras, Anne-Chantal; Korff, Christian M

    2015-03-01

    Ictal vocalizations in the form of both articulate speech and non-speech vocalizations have been described in focal epilepsies, with seizures originating mainly from the frontal and temporal lobe, however, this phenomenon has not been described in generalized epilepsies. We report the case of an adolescent boy with juvenile-onset generalized epilepsy who presented with ictal "ovine vocalizations" (resembling the bleating of sheep). The ictal EEG revealed a clear correlate of vocalizations with time-locked generalized spikes and polyspike discharges. The 3T cerebral MRI ruled out any focal lesion. The boy is currently seizure-free under valproic acid, after twelve months of follow-up. We conclude that ictal non-speech vocalizations may be observed not only in focal or structural epilepsies, but also in generalized epilepsies; the exact underlying mechanism of this phenomenon needs to be further delineated. [Published with video sequence].

  17. Dynamical origin of spectrally rich vocalizations in birdsong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitt, J. D.; Amador, A.; Goller, F.; Mindlin, G. B.

    2008-07-01

    Birdsong is a model system for learned vocal behavior with remarkable parallels to human vocal development and sound production mechanisms. Upper vocal tract filtering plays an important role in human speech, and its importance has recently also been recognized in birdsong. However, the mechanisms of how the avian sound source might contribute to spectral richness are largely unknown. Here we show in the most widely studied songbird, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), that the broad range of upper harmonic content in different low-frequency song elements is the fingerprint of the dynamics displayed by its vocal apparatus, which can be captured by a two-dimensional dynamical model. As in human speech and singing, the varying harmonic content of birdsong is not only the result of vocal tract filtering but of a varying degree of tonality emerging from the sound source. The spectral content carries a strong signature of the intrinsic dynamics of the sound source.

  18. A new hypothesis of drug refractory epilepsy: neural network hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Min; Xi, Zhi-Qin; Wu, Yuan; Wang, Xue-Feng

    2011-06-01

    Drug refractory is an important clinical problem in epilepsy, affecting a substantial number of patients globally. Mechanisms underlying drug refractory need to be understood to develop rational therapies. Current two prevailing theories on drug refractory epilepsy (DRE) include the target hypothesis and the transporter hypothesis. However, those hypotheses could not be adequate to explain the mechanisms of all the DRE. Thus, we propose another possible mechanism of DRE, which is neural network hypothesis. It is hypothesized that seizure-induced alterations of brain plasticity including axonal sprouting, synaptic reorganization, neurogenesis and gliosis could contribute to the formation of abnormal neural network, which has not only avoided the inhibitory effect of endogenous antiepileptic system but also prevented the traditional antiepileptic drugs from entering their targets, eventually leading to DRE. We will illustrate this hypothesis at molecular and structural level based on our recent studies and other related researches.

  19. Jets from Jets: Re-clustering as a tool for large radius jet reconstruction and grooming at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Nachman, Benjamin; Schwartzman, Ariel; Swiatlowski, Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    Jets with a large radius $R\\gtrsim 1$ and grooming algorithms are widely used to fully capture the decay products of boosted heavy particles at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Unlike most discriminating variables used in such studies, the jet radius is usually not optimized for specific physics scenarios. This is because every jet configuration must be calibrated, insitu, to account for detector response and other experimental effects. One solution to enhance the availability of large-R jet configurations used by the LHC experiments is {\\it jet re-clustering}. Jet re-clustering introduces an intermediate scale $rgroomed jets. Jet re-clustering has the benefit that no additional large-R calibration is necessary, allowing the r...

  20. A California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) can keep the beat: motor entrainment to rhythmic auditory stimuli in a non vocal mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Peter; Rouse, Andrew; Wilson, Margaret; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2013-11-01

    Is the ability to entrain motor activity to a rhythmic auditory stimulus, that is "keep a beat," dependent on neural adaptations supporting vocal mimicry? That is the premise of the vocal learning and synchronization hypothesis, recently advanced to explain the basis of this behavior (A. Patel, 2006, Musical Rhythm, Linguistic Rhythm, and Human Evolution, Music Perception, 24, 99-104). Prior to the current study, only vocal mimics, including humans, cockatoos, and budgerigars, have been shown to be capable of motoric entrainment. Here we demonstrate that a less vocally flexible animal, a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), can learn to entrain head bobbing to an auditory rhythm meeting three criteria: a behavioral response that does not reproduce the stimulus; performance transfer to a range of novel tempos; and entrainment to complex, musical stimuli. These findings show that the capacity for entrainment of movement to rhythmic sounds does not depend on a capacity for vocal mimicry, and may be more widespread in the animal kingdom than previously hypothesized.

  1. Vocal activity of lesser galagos (Galago spp.) at zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderová, Irena; Zouhar, Jan; Štefanská, Lucie; Bolfíková, Barbora Černá; Lhota, Stanislav; Brandl, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Almost nothing is known about the natural vocal behavior of lesser galagos living in zoos. This is perhaps because they are usually kept in nocturnal exhibits separated from the visitors by a transparent and acoustically insulating glass barrier. The aim of the present study was therefore to fill this gap in knowledge of the vocal behavior of lesser galagos from zoos. This knowledge might be beneficial because the vocalizations of these small primates can be used for species determination. We performed a 10-day-long acoustic monitoring of vocal activity in each of seven various groups of Galago senegalensis and G. moholi living at four zoos. We quantitatively evaluated the occurrence of four loud vocalization types present in both species, including the most species-specific advertisement call. We found that qualitative as well as quantitative differences exist in the vocal behavior of the studied groups. We confirmed that the observed vocalization types can be collected from lesser galagos living at zoos, and the success can be increased by selecting larger and more diverse groups. We found two distinct patterns of diel vocal activity in the most vocally active groups. G. senegalensis groups were most vocally active at the beginning and at the end of their activity period, whereas one G. moholi group showed an opposite pattern. The latter is surprising, as it is generally accepted that lesser galagos emit advertisement calls especially at dawn and dusk, i.e., at the beginning and at the end of their diel activity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Comparative gene expression analysis among vocal learners (Bengalese finch and budgerigar and non-learners (quail and ring dove reveals variable cadherin expressions in the vocal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji eMatsunaga

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Birds use various vocalizations to communicate with one another, and some are acquired through learning. So far, three families of birds (songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds have been identified as having vocal learning ability. Previously, we found that cadherins, a large family of cell-adhesion molecules, show vocal control-area-related expression in a songbird, the Bengalese finch. To investigate the molecular basis of evolution in avian species, we conducted comparative analysis of cadherin expressions in the vocal and other neural systems among vocal learners (Bengalese finch and budgerigar and a non-learner (quail and ring dove. The gene expression analysis revealed that cadherin expressions were more variable in vocal and auditory areas compared to vocally unrelated areas such as the visual areas among these species. Thus, it appears that such diverse cadherin expressions might have been related to generating species diversity in vocal behavior during the evolution of avian vocal learning. 

  3. Vocal fold elasticity of the Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) - producing high fundamental frequency vocalization with a very long vocal fold

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riede, Tobias; Titze, Ingo R

    2008-01-01

    .... If fundamental frequency were to be predicted by a simple vibrating string formula, as is often done for the human larynx, such long vocal folds would bear enormous stress to produce the species...

  4. Social coordination in animal vocal interactions. Is there any evidence of turn-taking? The starling as an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Laurence; Craig, Adrian J F K; Lemasson, Alban; Hausberger, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Turn-taking in conversation appears to be a common feature in various human cultures and this universality raises questions about its biological basis and evolutionary trajectory. Functional convergence is a widespread phenomenon in evolution, revealing sometimes striking functional similarities between very distant species even though the mechanisms involved may be different. Studies on mammals (including non-human primates) and bird species with different levels of social coordination reveal that temporal and structural regularities in vocal interactions may depend on the species' social structure. Here we test the hypothesis that turn-taking and associated rules of conversations may be an adaptive response to the requirements of social life, by testing the applicability of turn-taking rules to an animal model, the European starling. Birdsong has for many decades been considered as one of the best models of human language and starling songs have been well described in terms of vocal production and perception. Starlings do have vocal interactions where alternating patterns predominate. Observational and experimental data on vocal interactions reveal that (1) there are indeed clear temporal and structural regularities, (2) the temporal and structural patterning is influenced by the immediate social context, the general social situation, the individual history, and the internal state of the emitter. Comparison of phylogenetically close species of Sturnids reveals that the alternating pattern of vocal interactions varies greatly according to the species' social structure, suggesting that interactional regularities may have evolved together with social systems. These findings lead to solid bases of discussion on the evolution of communication rules in relation to social evolution. They will be discussed also in terms of processes, at the light of recent neurobiological findings.

  5. Generalized perceptual features for animal vocalization classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemins, Patrick J.; Johnson, Michael T.

    2001-05-01

    Two sets of generalized, perceptual-based features are investigated for use in classifying animal vocalizations. Since many species, especially mammals, share similar physical sound perception mechanisms which vary in size, two features sets commonly used in human speech processing, mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) and perceptual linear prediction (PLP) analysis, are modified for use in other species. One modification made to the feature extraction process is incorporating the frequency range of hearing and length of the basilar membrane of the animal in order to correctly determine the width and location of the critical band filters used for signal processing. Experimentally determined critical bands (equivalent rectangular bandwidth) and equal loudness curves (audiograms) can also be incorporated directly into the feature extraction process. Experiments are performed on African elephant (Loxodonta africana) vocalizations using a hidden Markov model (HMM) based classifier showing increased classification accuracy when using features sets based on the specific animals perceptual abilities compared to the original human perception-based feature sets.

  6. The absorber hypothesis of electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    De Luca, Jayme

    2008-01-01

    We test the absorber hypothesis of the action-at-a-distance electrodynamics for globally-bounded solutions of a finite-particle universe. We find that the absorber hypothesis forbids globally-bounded motions for a universe containing only two charged particles, otherwise the condition alone does not forbid globally-bounded motions. We discuss the implication of our results for the various forms of electrodynamics of point charges.

  7. A study of vocal nonlinearities in humpback whale songs: from production mechanisms to acoustic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dorian Cazau; Olivier Adam; Thierry Aubin; Laitman, Jeffrey T.; Reidenberg, Joy S.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Although mammalian vocalizations are predominantly harmonically structured, they can exhibit an acoustic complexity with nonlinear vocal sounds, including deterministic chaos and frequency jumps. Such sounds are normative events in mammalian vocalizations, and can be directly traceable to the nonlinear nature of vocal-fold dynamics underlying typical mammalian sound production. In this study, we give qualitative descriptions and quantitative analyses of nonlinearities ...

  8. THE VOCALIZATION MECHANISM OF THE FLORIDA MANATEE (TRICHECHUS MANATUS LATIROSTRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Grossman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism by which Florida manatees produce vocalizations is unknown. Anatomically, the laryngeal region in manatees lacks clearly defined vocal folds. Initially we developed a method to visualize the entire manatee upper respiratory system. We then forced air through fresh necropsied manatee larynxes and generated artificial vocalizations which closely duplicated the normal vocalizations produced by live manatees, both in fundamental frequency and structure of harmonics. Here we report that sound is generated in the larynx when air vibrates bilateral strips of tissue embedded in the lateral laryngeal walls which are in close approximation anteriorly but which diverge posteriorly. We propose that these strips of tissue are the modified vocal folds containing ligaments and we support this through histological stained sections and because they are connected anteriorly to the posterior side of the thyroid cartilage and posteriorly with the arytenoidal cartilages. We also suggest that these vocalizations are then modified within the resonance cavities in the frontal area of the head and the air used to generate these vocalizations also causes a transient deformation of this region before being conserved and returned to the lungs.

  9. Vocal fold ion transport and mucin expression following acrolein exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levendoski, Elizabeth Erickson; Sivasankar, M Preeti

    2014-05-01

    The vocal fold epithelium is exposed to inhaled particulates including pollutants during breathing in everyday environments. Yet, our understanding of the effects of pollutants on vocal fold epithelial function is extremely limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the pollutant acrolein on two vocal fold epithelial mechanisms: ion transport and mucin (MUC) synthesis. These mechanisms were chosen as each plays a critical role in vocal defense and in maintaining surface hydration which is necessary for optimal voice production. Healthy, native porcine vocal folds (N = 85) were excised and exposed to an acrolein or sham challenge. A 60-min acrolein, but not sham challenge significantly reduced ion transport and inhibited cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent, increases in ion transport. Decreases in ion transport were associated with reduced sodium absorption. Within the same timeline, no significant acrolein-induced changes in MUC gene or protein expression were observed. These results improve our understanding of the effects of acrolein on key vocal fold epithelial functions and inform the development of future investigations that seek to elucidate the impact of a wide range of pollutant exposures on vocal fold health.

  10. The impact of intraglottal vortices on vocal fold dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erath, Byron; Pirnia, Alireza; Peterson, Sean

    2016-11-01

    During voiced speech a critical pressure is produced in the lungs that separates the vocal folds and creates a passage (the glottis) for airflow. As air passes through the vocal folds the resulting aerodynamic loading, coupled with the tissue properties of the vocal folds, produces self-sustained oscillations. Throughout each cycle a complex flow field develops, characterized by a plethora of viscous flow phenomena. Air passing through the glottis creates a jet, with periodically-shed vortices developing due to flow separation and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the shear layer. These vortices have been hypothesized to be a crucial mechanism for producing vocal fold vibrations. In this study the effect of vortices on the vocal fold dynamics is investigated experimentally by passing a vortex ring over a flexible beam with the same non-dimensional mechanical properties as the vocal folds. Synchronized particle image velocimetry data are acquired in tandem with the beam dynamics. The resulting impact of the vortex ring loading on vocal fold dynamics is discussed in detail. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation Grant CBET #1511761.

  11. Vocal cord palsy: An uncommon presenting feature of myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethi Prahlad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vocal cord palsy can have myriad causes. Unilateral vocal cord palsy is common and frequently asymptomatic. Trauma, head, neck and mediastinal tumors as well as cerebrovascular accidents have been implicated in causing unilateral vocal cord palsy. Viral neuronitis accounts for most idiopathic cases. Bilateral vocal cord palsy, on the other hand, is much less common and is a potentially life-threatening condition. Myasthenia gravis, an autoimmune disorder caused by antibodies targeting the post-synaptic acetylcholine receptor, has been infrequently implicated in its causation. We report here a case of bilateral vocal cord palsy developing in a 68-year-old man with no prior history of myasthenia gravis 2 months after he was operated on for diverticulitis of the large intestine. Delay in considering the diagnosis led to endotracheal intubation and prolonged mechanical ventilation with attendant complications. Our case adds to the existing literature implicating myasthenia gravis as an infrequent cause of bilateral vocal cord palsy. Our case is unusual as, in our patient, acute-onset respiratory distress and stridor due to bilateral vocal cord palsy was the first manifestation of a myasthenic syndrome.

  12. Motor planning for vocal production in common marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cory T; Eliades, Steven J; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2009-11-01

    The vocal motor plan is one of the most fundamental and poorly understood elements of primate vocal production. Here we tested whether a single vocal motor plan comprises the full length of a vocalization. We hypothesized that if a single motor plan was determined at vocal onset, the acoustic features early in the call should be predictive of the subsequent call structure. Analyses were performed on two classes of features in marmoset phee calls: continuous and discrete. We first generated correlation matrices of all the continuous features of phee calls. Results showed that the start frequency of a phee's first pulse significantly correlated with all subsequent spectral features. Moreover, significant correlations were evident within the spectral features as well as within the temporal features, but there was little relationship between these measures. Using a discrete feature, 'the number of pulses in the phee call', a discriminant function was able to correctly classify the number of pulses in the calls well above chance based solely on the acoustic structure of the call's first pulse. Together, these data suggest that a vocal motor plan for the complete call structure is established at call onset. These findings provide a key insight into the mechanisms underlying vocal production in nonhuman primates.

  13. A comparative neurological approach to emotional expressions in primate vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Thibaud; Grandjean, Didier

    2017-02-01

    Different approaches from different research domains have crystallized debate over primate emotional processing and vocalizations in recent decades. On one side, researchers disagree about whether emotional states or processes in animals truly compare to those in humans. On the other, a long-held assumption is that primate vocalizations are innate communicative signals over which nonhuman primates have limited control and a mirror of the emotional state of the individuals producing them, despite growing evidence of intentional production for some vocalizations. Our goal is to connect both sides of the discussion in deciphering how the emotional content of primate calls compares with emotional vocal signals in humans. We focus particularly on neural bases of primate emotions and vocalizations to identify cerebral structures underlying emotion, vocal production, and comprehension in primates, and discuss whether particular structures or neuronal networks solely evolved for specific functions in the human brain. Finally, we propose a model to classify emotional vocalizations in primates according to four dimensions (learning, control, emotional, meaning) to allow comparing calls across species.

  14. A new instrument for intraoperative assessment of individual vocal folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, James T; Kobler, James B; Hillman, Robert E; Zeitels, Steven M

    2005-07-01

    Intraoperative assessment of vocal fold vibration during phonomicrosurgery performed under general anesthesia may enhance surgical decision-making. We therefore developed and bench-tested a new device we refer to as the aerodynamic vocal fold driver (AVFD). The AVFD comprises a hand-held probe that uses airflow to drive individual vocal folds into phonatory-like vibration. This permits stroboscopic visualization of mucosal waves with simultaneous control of subglottal air pressure. In initial experiments to validate the technique, AVFD driven phonation and conventional whole-larynx phonation were compared using excised canine larynges (n = 14). Single vocal fold phonation using the AVFD and whole larynx phonation yielded similar, positive correlations between subglottal pressure and both amplitude and frequency of vibration. Experiments simulating vocal fold scar-related mucosal stiffening by subepithelial injection of fixative showed the expected elevation of phonation threshold pressures as measured with the AVFD. Likewise, unilateral tissue compression injury disrupted vocal fold vibration, and the AVFD was useful for quantifying improvement in the damaged vocal fold after repair with injection of cross-linked hyaluronic acid gel. These results show that this new instrument has the potential to provide novel and useful information for laryngeal experimentation and to improve phonosurgery.

  15. Acoustic Vocal Tract Model of One-year-old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vojnović

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The physical shape of vocal tract and its formant (resonant frequencies are directly related. The study of this functional connectivity is essential in speech therapy practice with children. Most of the perceived children’s speech anomalies can be explained on a physical level: malfunctioning movement of articulation organs. The current problem is that there is no enough data on the anatomical shape of children’s vocal tract to create its acoustic model. Classical techniques for vocal tract shape imaging (X-ray, magnetic resonance, etc. are not appropriate for children. One possibility is to start from the shape of the adult vocal tract and correct it based on anatomical, morphological and articulatory differences between children and adults. This paper presents a method for vocal tract shape estimation of the child aged one year. The initial shapes of the vocal tract refer to the Russian vowels spoken by an adult male. All the relevant anatomical and articulation parameters, that influence the formant frequencies, are analyzed. Finally, the hypothetical configurations of the children’s vocal tract, for the five vowels, are presented.

  16. Efeito imediato de técnicas vocais em mulheres sem queixa vocal Immediate effect of vocal techniques in women without vocal complaint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Cristina Pereira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar o efeito imediato das técnicas vocais vibração, som nasal e sobrearticulação na voz e na laringe de mulheres sem queixas vocais. MÉTODO: participaram da pesquisa 32 sujeitos do sexo feminino, com idades entre 20 e 45 anos, sem queixas vocais, com qualidade vocal avaliada entre normal e alteração de grau leve Os sujeitos foram submetidos à análise perceptivo-auditiva pela escala visual analógica da vogal /ε/ e fala espontânea, análise acústica e laringoestroboscopia antes e após a realização das técnicas. RESULTADOS: a análise perceptivo-auditiva revelou melhora significante dos parâmetros impressão global da voz, rouquidão e estabilidade na vogal /ε/ e articulação na fala espontânea. A análise acústica evidenciou melhora significante do jitter e shimmer. A laringoestroboscopia evidenciou significante melhora no fechamento glótico e melhora na movimentação muco-ondulatória das pregas vocais. CONCLUSÃO: as técnicas vocais estudadas são capazes de proporcionar melhora imediata significante da qualidade vocal e da configuração laríngea.PURPOSE: to check the immediate effect of vocal techniques: vibration, nasal sound and overarticulation. METHOD: 32 female subjects with normal to mild dysphonia took part in the study, with ages from 20 to 45 years. Subjects were submitted to perceptual analysis and laryngostroboscopic exams before and after the use of vocal techniques. RESULTS: subjects' vocal classification in perceptual analysis after accomplishing the vocal techniques showed significant improvement on parameters voice global impression, hoarseness and stability; and, in spontaneous speech, one showed a significant improvement on the parameter articulation. The acoustic analysis evidenced significant improvement of the jitter and shimmer. Laryngostroboscopic examination evidenced a significant increase in the glottic closing and an increase in the mucondulatory movement of the vocal folds

  17. Structural Classification of Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) Vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maxime; Gingras, Bruno; Bowling, Daniel L; Herbst, Christian T; Boeckle, Markus; Locatelli, Yann; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2016-04-01

    Determining whether a species' vocal communication system is graded or discrete requires definition of its vocal repertoire. In this context, research on domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) vocalizations, for example, has led to significant advances in our understanding of communicative functions. Despite their close relation to domestic pigs, little is known about wild boar (Sus scrofa) vocalizations. The few existing studies, conducted in the 1970s, relied on visual inspections of spectrograms to quantify acoustic parameters and lacked statistical analysis. Here, we use objective signal processing techniques and advanced statistical approaches to classify 616 calls recorded from semi-free ranging animals. Based on four spectral and temporal acoustic parameters-quartile Q25, duration, spectral flux, and spectral flatness-extracted from a multivariate analysis, we refine and extend the conclusions drawn from previous work and present a statistically validated classification of the wild boar vocal repertoire into four call types: grunts, grunt-squeals, squeals, and trumpets. While the majority of calls could be sorted into these categories using objective criteria, we also found evidence supporting a graded interpretation of some wild boar vocalizations as acoustically continuous, with the extremes representing discrete call types. The use of objective criteria based on modern techniques and statistics in respect to acoustic continuity advances our understanding of vocal variation. Integrating our findings with recent studies on domestic pig vocal behavior and emotions, we emphasize the importance of grunt-squeals for acoustic approaches to animal welfare and underline the need of further research investigating the role of domestication on animal vocal communication.

  18. A nomenclature paradigm for benign midmembranous vocal fold lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Clark A; Gartner-Schmidt, Jackie; Hathaway, Bridget; Simpson, C Blake; Postma, Gregory N; Courey, Mark; Sataloff, Robert T

    2012-06-01

    There is a significant lack of uniform agreement regarding nomenclature for benign vocal fold lesions (BVFLs). This confusion results in difficulty for clinicians communicating with their patients and with each other. In addition, BVFL research and comparison of treatment methods are hampered by the lack of a detailed and uniform BVFL nomenclature. Clinical consensus conferences were held to develop an initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm. Perceptual video analysis was performed to validate the stroboscopy component of the paradigm. The culmination of the consensus conferences and the video-perceptual analysis was used to evaluate the BVFL nomenclature paradigm using a retrospective review of patients with BVFL. An initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm was proposed utilizing detailed definitions relating to vocal fold lesion morphology, stroboscopy, response to voice therapy and intraoperative findings. Video-perceptual analysis of stroboscopy demonstrated that the proposed binary stroboscopy system used in the BVFL nomenclature paradigm was valid and widely applicable. Retrospective review of 45 patients with BVFL followed to the conclusion of treatment demonstrated that slight modifications of the initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm were required. With the modified BVFL nomenclature paradigm, 96% of the patients fit into the predicted pattern and definitions of the BVFL nomenclature system. This study has validated a multidimensional BVFL nomenclature paradigm. This vocal fold nomenclature paradigm includes nine distinct vocal fold lesions: vocal fold nodules, vocal fold polyp, pseudocyst, vocal fold cyst (subepithelial or ligament), nonspecific vocal fold lesion, vocal fold fibrous mass (subepithelial or ligament), and reactive lesion. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Effect of hydration and vocal rest on the vocal fatigue in amateur karaoke singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Edwin M L; Chan, Rainy M M

    2003-06-01

    Karaoke singing is a very popular entertainment among young people in Asia. It is a leisure singing activity with the singer's voice amplified with special acoustic effects in the backdrop of music. Music video and song captions are shown on television screen to remind the singers during singing. It is not uncommon to find participants singing continuously for four to five hours each time. As most of the karaoke singers have no formal training in singing, these amateur singers are more vulnerable to developing voice problems under these intensive singing activities. This study reports the performance of 20 young amateur singers (10 males and 10 females, aged between 20-25 years) on a series of phonatory function tasks carried out during continuous karaoke singing. Half of the singers were given water to drink and short duration of vocal rests at regular intervals during singing and the other half sang continuously without taking any water or rest. The subjects who were given hydration and vocal rests sang significantly longer than those who did not take any water or rest. The voice quality, as measured by perceptual and acoustic measures, and vocal function, as measured by phonetogram, did not show any significant changes during singing in the subjects who were given water and rest during the singing. However, subjects who sang continuously without drinking water and taking rests showed significant changes in the jitter measure and the highest pitch they could produce during singing. These results suggest that hydration and vocal rests are useful strategies to preserve voice function and quality during karaoke singing. This information is useful educational information for karaoke singers.

  20. Traffic Grooming in Multi-hop WDM rings%多跳波分复用环网中的业务疏导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘逢清; 钱炎琛; 冯翰林

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the problem of traffic grooming in WDM optical networks for both uniform and non-uniform traffic patterns,an ILP (Interger Linear Programming) algorithm and a heuristic algorithm are presented.The optimization objective of traffic grooming is to minimize the number of optical transceivers and wavelengths for a given traffic matrix.Taking WDM rings as examples,numerical results derived verify the effectiveness of the heuristic algorithm.It also demonstrates that the bigger the scale of ring networks,the more lightpaths reduced by traffic grooming,and the more obvious the effect of traffic grooming.%采用整数线性规划算法和启发式算法对均匀和非均匀业务模式下WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing)网络的业务疏导问题进行研究,优化目标为最小化给定业务矩阵情况下所需光收发机和波长数.以环网为例进行了数值仿真,数值结果验证了启发式算法的有效性,并表明随着环网规模的增大,通过疏导减少的光通道数越来越大,疏导的效果也越来越明显.

  1. Separate and Combined Effects of Behavior Rehearsal and Self-Other Modeling Variations on the Grooming Skill Acquisition of Mentally Retarded Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroski, Richard A.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compared the separate and combined effects of behavior rehearsal and modeling on grooming skill development of mentally retarded women (N=48). All treatments were superior to the control condition. Modeling and behavior rehearsal were both effective but there was no advantage to combining them. Cost effectiveness favored the other-model procedure.…

  2. Long Hair and the Law: A Look at Constitutional and Title VII Challenges to Public and Private Regulation of Male Grooming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troup, David P.

    1975-01-01

    Arguments that have been advanced in court by both sides of the controversy are examined, and it is concluded that male grooming regulations may effectively exclude a significant proportion of males from job opportunities or require them to alter their personal appearance for reasons probably unrelated to job performance. (LBH)

  3. Modeling of the transient responses of the vocal fold lamina propria

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Kai; Siegmund, Thomas; Chan, Roger W.

    2009-01-01

    The human voice is produced by flow-induced self-sustained oscillation of the vocal fold lamina propria. The mechanical properties of vocal fold tissues are important for understanding phonation, including the time-dependent and transient changes in fundamental frequency (F0). Cyclic uniaxial tensile tests were conducted on a group of specimens of the vocal fold lamina propria, including the superficial layer (vocal fold cover) (5 male, 5 female) and the deeper layers (vocal ligament) (6 male...

  4. A singing voices synthesis system to characterize vocal registers using ARX-LF model

    OpenAIRE

    Motoda, Hiroki; Akagi, Masato

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a singing voices synthesis system to synthesize singing voices having characteristics of vocal registers, such as vocal fly, modal and falsetto. Human can sing songs naturally in wide range of frequency by training how to use vocal fold vibrations to represent vocal registers. However, even state-of-the-art singing voices synthesis systems cannot produce vocal registers appropriately. Naturalness of the synthesized singing voices using these systems is reduced in low and h...

  5. Auditory-motor entrainment in vocal mimicking species: Additional ontogenetic and phylogenetic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Schachner, Adena

    2010-01-01

    We have recently found robust evidence of motor entrainment to auditory stimuli in multiple species of non-human animal, all of which were capable of vocal mimicry. In contrast, the ability remained markedly absent in many closely related species incapable of vocal mimicry. This suggests that vocal mimicry may be a necessary precondition for entrainment. However, within the vocal mimicking species, entrainment appeared non-randomly, suggesting that other components besides vocal mimicry play ...

  6. Deep Brain Stimulation for Essential Vocal Tremor: A Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Allen L; Choudhri, Omar; Sung, C Kwang; DiRenzo, Elizabeth E; Halpern, Casey H

    2015-03-01

    Essential vocal tremor (EVT) is the presence of a tremulous voice that is commonly associated with essential tremor. Patients with EVT often report a necessary increase in vocal effort that significantly worsens with stress and anxiety and can significantly impact quality of life despite optimal medical and behavioral treatment options. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been proposed as an effective therapy for vocal tremor, but very few studies exist in the literature that comprehensively evaluate the efficacy of DBS for specifically addressing EVT. We present a technical report on our multidisciplinary, comprehensive operative methodology for treatment of EVT with frameless, awake deep brain stimulation (DBS).

  7. Vocal mechanisms in birds and bats: a comparative view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthers Roderick A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Vocal signals play a very important role in the life of both birds and echolocating bats, but these two unrelated groups of flying vertebrates have very different vocal systems. They nevertheless must solve many of the same problems in producing sound. This brief review examines avian and microchiropteran motor mechanisms for: 1 coordinating the timing of phonation with the vocal motor pattern that controls its acoustic properties, and 2 achieving respiratory strategies that provide adequate ventilation for pulmonary gas exchange, while also facilitating longer duration songs or trains of sonar pulses.

  8. Especializaciones cognitivas: El caso del procesamiento de consonantes y vocales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Toro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Las consonantes y la vocales parecen tener funciones diferentes. Mientras las consonantes están más directamente implicadas en el procesamiento léxico, las vocales tienden a marcar rasgos sintácticos. Estudios recientes con lenguajes artificiales confirman esta hipótesis. Los resultados muestran que las palabras se reconocen más fácilmente sobre las consonantes, mientras que se extraen y generalizan reglas más fácilmente sobre las vocales

  9. Personality traits inventory in patients with vocal nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Alexia; Revis, Joana; Giovanni, Antoine

    2017-04-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze temperament and character in females with vocal nodules (VN) compared to a vocally healthy control population. 61 females were examined over a 17-month period for dysphonia with VN (mean age 46 years, duration of vocal complaints from 2 months to 6 years). 71 control females were recruited in their environment (mean age 34 years). The validated French Version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was used. Patients with VN had significantly (p personality-specific maladaptive behaviors. A possible personalized approach to voice therapy could be organized on the basis of the TCI findings.

  10. 5-HTP hypothesis of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, K

    2014-01-01

    To pose a new hypothesis of schizophrenia that affirms and unifies conventional hypotheses. Outside the brain, there are 5-HTP-containing argyrophil cells that have tryptophan hydroxylase 1 without l-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase. Monoamine oxidase in the liver and lung metabolize 5-HT, rather than 5-HTP, and 5-HTP freely crosses the blood-brain barrier, converting to 5-HT in the brain. Therefore I postulate that hyperfunction of 5-HTP-containing argyrophil cells may be a cause of schizophrenia. I investigate the consistency of this hypothesis with other hypotheses using a deductive method. Overactive 5-HTP-containing argyrophil cells produce excess amounts of 5-HTP. Abundant 5-HTP increases 5-HT within the brain (linking to the 5-HT hypothesis), and leads to negative feedback of 5-HT synthesis at the rate-limiting step catalysed by tryptophan hydroxylase 2. Owing to this negative feedback, brain tryptophan is further metabolized via the kynurenine pathway. Increased kynurenic acid contributes to deficiencies of glutamate function and dopamine activity, known causes of schizophrenia. The 5-HTP hypothesis affirms conventional hypotheses, as the metabolic condition caused by acceleration of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 and suppression of tryptophan hydroxylase 2, activates both 5-HT and kynurenic acid. In order to empirically test the theory, it will be useful to monitor serum 5-HTP and match it to different phases of schizophrenia. This hypothesis may signal a new era with schizophrenia treated as a brain-gut interaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of fractionated extracts and isolated pure compounds of Spondias mombin (L. Anacardiaceae) leaves on novelty-induced rearing and grooming behaviours in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoka, Abiodun O; Owolabi, Rotimi A; Bamitale, Samuel K; Akomolafe, Rufus O; Aladesanmi, Joseph A; Ukponmwan, Eghe O

    2013-01-01

    This study attempted to elucidate the neurotransmitter systems involved in the neurophysiological properties of ethanolic extract, fractions and pure isolates of Spondias mombin leaves in mice (n = 6) after intraperitoneal (i.p.) route of administration.The crude ethanolic extract of Spondian mombin leaves was fractionated using the partitioning method to obtain the ethylacetate, butanolic and aqueous fractions. Open column chromatographic fractionation of the ethylacetate fraction yielded seven sub-fractions, out of which the pure coumaroyl, quercetin and gallic acid derivatives were obtained after purification on Sephadex LH 20. The ethanolic extract, butanolic fraction, ethylacetate subfractions and pure isolates of the Spondian mombin leaves were tested on novelty-induced rearing and grooming behaviours in mice with standard pharmacological tools using the open field method. The extract and its fractions decreased novelty-induced rearing in a dose-dependent manner. While the Coumaroyl derivative had no effect on novelty-induced rearing, it significantly reversed the inhibitory effect of yohimbine, propranolol and haloperidol on novelty-induced rearing. Quercetin significantly potentiated the inhibitory effect of yohimbine on novelty-induced rearing. Naloxone significantly potentiated the quercetin-induced suppression of novelty-induced rearing. Gallic acid derivative significantly potentiated the inhibitory effect of yohimbine on novelty-induced rearing. Naloxone, atropine and haloperidol pretreatments significantly potentiated gallic acid derivative-induced suppression of novelty-induced rearing.The extract and its fractions had biphasic effect on novelty-induced grooming in mice. Coumaroyl derivative significantly increased novelty-induced grooming, while quercetin and gallic acid derivative decreased novelty-induced grooming significantly. The three pure isolates significantly reversed the effects of yohimbine and atropine on the novelty-induced grooming in

  12. Voz e posição de prega vocal em homens com paralisia unilateral de prega vocal Voice and vocal fold position in men with unilateral vocal fold paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Schwarz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O posicionamento da prega vocal paralisada e o grau de disfonia são fatores importantes para decidir as opções de tratamento na paralisia de prega vocal unilateral (PPVU. OBJETIVO: Verificar as características perceptivo-auditivas da voz e a posição da prega vocal paralisada, em homens, com PPVU. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo, coorte histórica, com corte transversal, com dados de 24 homens com PPVU, com média de 60,7 anos, submetidos à avaliação vocal perceptivo-auditiva da voz, por três juízas fonoaudiólogas e perceptivo-visual das imagens laríngeas, com a classificação da posição da prega vocal paralisada, por três juízes otorrinolaringologistas. RESULTADOS: A prega vocal paralisada em posição paramediana ocorreu em 45,83% dos casos; a intermediária, em 25%; a lateral, em 20,83%, e a mediana, em 4,16%; a disfonia resultante da PPVU foi caracterizada pela rouquidão, aspereza e tensão, de grau moderado; soprosidade (maior frequência do grau grave; astenia e instabilidade (maior frequência do grau leve; a posição da prega vocal paralisada influenciou significativamente o grau geral de desvio vocal. CONCLUSÃO: O grau geral de disfonia está relacionado com a posição da prega vocal paralisada; a disfonia é caracterizada pela presença de rouquidão, soprosidade, aspereza e tensão de grau moderado a grave.The paralyzed vocal fold positioning and the degree of dysphonia are important inputs when one is deciding upon treatment options for unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP. OBJECTIVE: To check voice characteristics and paralyzed vocal fold position in men with UVFP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective historical cross-sectional cohort study, with data from 24 men with UVFP with mean age of 60.7 years, submitted to voice assessment by three speech therapists and three ENT physicians used laryngeal images to classify the position of the paralyzed vocal fold. RESULTS: The paralyzed vocal fold

  13. Measurement of vocal doses in virtual classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottalico, Pasquale; Pelegrin Garcia, David

    2010-01-01

    This work shows the results of a preliminary study about the determination of the optimal acoustical conditions for speakers in small classrooms. An experiment was carried out in a laboratory facility with 22 untrained talkers, who read a text passage from “Goldilocks” during two minutes under 13...... different acoustical conditions, that combined different kind of background noise and virtual classroom acoustics. Readings from the vocal fold vibrations were registered with an Ambulatory Phonation Monitor device. The speech signal from the talker in the center of the facility was picked up with a head......-worn microphone, convolved in real time with the impulse response of the chosen classroom, and reproduced through 29 loudspeakers placed around the subject. In particular, two different primary school classrooms were selected, with very low and very high reverberation time and, for each of them, two speaker...

  14. Vocal dose in teachers: correlation with dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes; Santos, Juliana Nunes; Pedra, Elisângela de Fátima Pereira; Rabelo, Alessandra Terra Vasconcelos; Magalhães, Max de Castro; Casas, Estevam Barbosa de Las

    2016-04-01

    Teachers are professionals with high prevalence of dysphonia, whose main risk factors are the large work hours in classrooms with the presence of background noise. The purpose of the study was to calculate the phonation time and the cycle dose of teachers with dysphonia and teachers without voice disorders during the class. There were two groups analyzed: five teachers with functional dysphonia were the first group and five teachers without voice disorders were the second group. For the data was used the VoxLog® dosimeter and the parameters were: intensity; fundamental frequency; phonation time and cycle dose. The statistical analysis used ANOVA, Student's T-test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Dysphonic teachers showed major values of phonation time and cycle dose compared with teachers without voice disorders. The dysphonia is related to extended period of speech time and greater exposure of the tissue of the vocal fold to phonotrauma.

  15. Cultural relativity in perceiving emotion from vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Maria; Roberson, Debi; van der Vyver, Jacoba Marieta; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2014-04-01

    A central question in the study of human behavior is whether certain emotions, such as anger, fear, and sadness, are recognized in nonverbal cues across cultures. We predicted and found that in a concept-free experimental task, participants from an isolated cultural context (the Himba ethnic group from northwestern Namibia) did not freely label Western vocalizations with expected emotion terms. Responses indicate that Himba participants perceived more basic affective properties of valence (positivity or negativity) and to some extent arousal (high or low activation). In a second, concept-embedded task, we manipulated whether the target and foil on a given trial matched in both valence and arousal, neither valence nor arousal, valence only, or arousal only. Himba participants achieved above-chance accuracy only when foils differed from targets in valence only. Our results indicate that the voice can reliably convey affective meaning across cultures, but that perceptions of emotion from the voice are culturally variable.

  16. BREATH OF USE AND VOCAL TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuran ACAR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Breathable, who escorted us in every aspect of our lives and our survival is our primary activity, allowing for quality of life in a healthy way. quality of breaths taken the right technique, you need both health professional sense should perhaps take advantage of individuals who want to achieve success in life is the primary rule. When the diaphragm is born with assisted breathing lungs of every person's life starts to grow to keep up with the flurry lose this special and important skills. First and foremost, which is important for our body health, including every aspect of proper breathing, especially correct use of the voice carries particular importance. In this article, breathing subject discussed, correct breathing and our lives have tried to give us information about the benefits of both vocal training.

  17. When internal communication becomes multi-vocal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Vibeke Thøis

    The aim of this paper is to present the findings of an exploratory case study of communication on internal social media within the Danish bank, Jyske Bank. The study involved an analysis of staff interaction on internal social media over three months, as well as interviews with 17 of the bank’s...... employees. The study not only answers questions about who participates in internal social media and the content of their communication, it also shows that when organizational culture and management support coworker communication, internal social media becomes a multi-vocal rhetorical arena where coworkers...... are likely to converse about how to solve product and customer-related challenges, and to discuss working conditions. In addition, this study shows that coworkers co-construct organizational identity when they discuss questions such as: Who are we as an organization? Which products should we provide...

  18. Singers' and Nonsingers' Perception of Vocal Vibrato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, A Anita; Subramanian, Uma

    2015-09-01

    Vibrato, a small, nevertheless an important component in the singing voice is known to enrich the overall singing voice quality. However, in the perception of overall performance, it is often neglected. Singing performance is often appreciated by a mixed audience of those who love music, but not necessarily sing and other singers who may or may not be teachers of singing. The objectives of the present study were aimed at investigating singers' and nonsingers' perception of vocal vibrato and its effect on the ratings of singer's overall performance. Prerecorded audio samples of the chorus of a hymn (How Great Thou Art) as sung by 10 singers (both men and women) were played via a speaker to two groups of judges which consisted of three experienced singers and three experienced nonsingers. The singer judges (SJs) were vocal instructors in Western classical, music theater, pop, and contemporary styles. Seven parameters (presence of vibrato, rate, extent, conspicuousness, quality, periodicity, and type) related to vibrato were evaluated through auditory perception by these two groups of judges on a rating scale developed specifically for the study, and one parameter evaluated singer's overall performance. Cohen's Kappa statistical analysis was used for inter-rater reliability within groups. Nonsinger judges (NSJs) within the group showed varied ratings as did SJs, yet SJs did have higher agreement than NSJs. Chi-square analysis was used across groups. Both groups were distinct from each other in their perception of vibrato. Ratings of singer's overall performance were not affected for NSJs, but certainly affected for SJ. It could not be concluded that ratings on singer's overall performance was affected as a result of vibrato. Since vibrato is often over-ridden by the singer's voice. But a rare occasion can arise where a vibrato may not sound pleasant and can affect the listener's perception of the singer's performance. Often a feedback from listeners would help monitor

  19. Intermediate-term emotional bookkeeping is necessary for long-term reciprocal grooming partner preferences in an agent-based model of macaque groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Evers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Whether and how primates are able to maintain long-term affiliative relationships is still under debate. Emotional bookkeeping (EB, the partner-specific accumulation of emotional responses to earlier interactions, is a candidate mechanism that does not require high cognitive abilities. EB is difficult to study in real animals, due to the complexity of primate social life. Therefore, we developed an agent-based model based on macaque behavior, the EMO-model, that implements arousal and two emotional dimensions, anxiety-FEAR and satisfaction-LIKE, which regulate social behavior. To implement EB, model individuals assign dynamic LIKE attitudes towards their group members, integrating partner-specific emotional responses to earlier received grooming episodes. Two key parameters in the model were varied to explore their effects on long-term affiliative relationships: (1 the timeframe over which earlier affiliation is accumulated into the LIKE attitudes; and (2 the degree of partner selectivity. EB over short and long timeframes gave rise to low variation in LIKE attitudes, and grooming partner preferences were only maintained over one to two months. Only EB over intermediate-term timeframes resulted in enough variation in LIKE attitudes, which, in combination with high partner selectivity, enables individuals to differentiate between regular and incidental grooming partners. These specific settings resulted in a strong feedback between differentiated LIKE attitudes and the distribution of grooming, giving rise to strongly reciprocated partner preferences that could be maintained for longer periods, occasionally up to one or two years. Moreover, at these settings the individual’s internal, socio-emotional memory of earlier affiliative episodes (LIKE attitudes corresponded best to observable behavior (grooming partner preferences. In sum, our model suggests that intermediate-term LIKE dynamics and high partner selectivity seem most plausible for

  20. Child Grooming and Sexual Exploitation: Are South Asian Men the UK Media’s New Folk Devils?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha K Gill

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In May 2012, nine men from the Rochdale area of Manchester were found guilty of sexually exploiting a number of underage girls. Media reporting on the trial focused on the fact that eight of the men were of Pakistani descent, while all the girls were white. Framing similar cases in Preston, Rotherham, Derby, Shropshire, Oxford, Telford and Middlesbrough as ethnically motivated, the media incited moral panic over South Asian grooming gangs preying on white girls. While these cases shed light on the broader problem of sexual exploitation in Britain, they also reveal continuing misconceptions that stereotype South Asian men as ‘natural’ perpetrators of these crimes due to culturally-specific notions of hegemonic masculinity. Examining newspaper coverage from 2012 to 2013, this article discusses the discourse of the British media’s portrayal of South Asian men as perpetrators of sexual violence against white victims, inadvertently construing ‘South Asian men’ as ‘folk devils’.

  1. Distribution of language-related Cntnap2 protein in neural circuits critical for vocal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condro, Michael C; White, Stephanie A

    2014-01-01

    Variants of the contactin associated protein-like 2 (Cntnap2) gene are risk factors for language-related disorders including autism spectrum disorder, specific language impairment, and stuttering. Songbirds are useful models for study of human speech disorders due to their shared capacity for vocal learning, which relies on similar cortico-basal ganglia circuitry and genetic factors. Here we investigate Cntnap2 protein expression in the brain of the zebra finch, a songbird species in which males, but not females, learn their courtship songs. We hypothesize that Cntnap2 has overlapping functions in vocal learning species, and expect to find protein expression in song-related areas of the zebra finch brain. We further expect that the distribution of this membrane-bound protein may not completely mirror its mRNA distribution due to the distinct subcellular localization of the two molecular species. We find that Cntnap2 protein is enriched in several song control regions relative to surrounding tissues, particularly within the adult male, but not female, robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA), a cortical song control region analogous to human layer 5 primary motor cortex. The onset of this sexually dimorphic expression coincides with the onset of sensorimotor learning in developing males. Enrichment in male RA appears due to expression in projection neurons within the nucleus, as well as to additional expression in nerve terminals of cortical projections to RA from the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the nidopallium. Cntnap2 protein expression in zebra finch brain supports the hypothesis that this molecule affects neural connectivity critical for vocal learning across taxonomic classes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Ontogeny of a social custom in wild chimpanzees: age changes in grooming hand-clasp at Mahale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Michio; Nishida, Toshisada

    2013-02-01

    Among cultural behaviors of chimpanzees, the developmental processes of complex skills involved in tool use are relatively well known. However, few studies have examined the ontogeny of social customs that do not require complex skills. Thus, in this study, we describe the developmental process of the grooming hand-clasp (GHC), one of the well-known social customs of chimpanzees at Mahale. We have collected 383 cases of GHC where at least one of the participants was 15 years old or younger during 1994-2007. First performances of GHC with the mother were observed at around 4-6 years old; the earliest observed age was 4 years and 4 months old. The first performances of GHC with nonrelated females were at around age 9 years, and those with adult males at around 11 years. However, some orphans engaged in GHC earlier than nonorphans. By gradually expanding GHC partners from the mother to other females and then to males, chimpanzees increased the number of GHC partners with age. Young males were observed to perform GHC with larger numbers of partners than were young females. GHC by young chimpanzees was shorter in duration than that among adults. Overall, the ontogeny of GHC showed several dissimilarities with that of tool use and was more an extension of the development of typical grooming behavior. For example, infants did not try to perform GHC initially; instead, mothers were more active in the earliest stages. These results suggest that not all socially learned cultural behaviors are acquired in the way of learning tool use. There may be various ways of learning behavioral patterns that are performed continuously in a group and that consequently comprise culture in chimpanzees.

  3. Pyrethroids and Nectar Toxins Have Subtle Effects on the Motor Function, Grooming and Wing Fanning Behaviour of Honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Caitlin J; Softley, Samantha; Williamson, Sally M; Stevenson, Philip C; Wright, Geraldine A

    2015-01-01

    Sodium channels, found ubiquitously in animal muscle cells and neurons, are one of the main target sites of many naturally-occurring, insecticidal plant compounds and agricultural pesticides. Pyrethroids, derived from compounds found only in the Asteraceae, are particularly toxic to insects and have been successfully used as pesticides including on flowering crops that are visited by pollinators. Pyrethrins, from which they were derived, occur naturally in the nectar of some flowering plant species. We know relatively little about how such compounds--i.e., compounds that target sodium channels--influence pollinators at low or sub-lethal doses. Here, we exposed individual adult forager honeybees to several compounds that bind to sodium channels to identify whether these compounds affect motor function. Using an assay previously developed to identify the effect of drugs and toxins on individual bees, we investigated how acute exposure to 10 ng doses (1 ppm) of the pyrethroid insecticides (cyfluthrin, tau-fluvalinate, allethrin and permethrin) and the nectar toxins (aconitine and grayanotoxin I) affected honeybee locomotion, grooming and wing fanning behaviour. Bees exposed to these compounds spent more time upside down and fanning their wings. They also had longer bouts of standing still. Bees exposed to the nectar toxin, aconitine, and the pyrethroid, allethrin, also spent less time grooming their antennae. We also found that the concentration of the nectar toxin, grayanotoxin I (GTX), fed to bees affected the time spent upside down (i.e., failure to perform the righting reflex). Our data show that low doses of pyrethroids and other nectar toxins that target sodium channels mainly influence motor function through their effect on the righting reflex of adult worker honeybees.

  4. Pyrethroids and Nectar Toxins Have Subtle Effects on the Motor Function, Grooming and Wing Fanning Behaviour of Honeybees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin J Oliver

    Full Text Available Sodium channels, found ubiquitously in animal muscle cells and neurons, are one of the main target sites of many naturally-occurring, insecticidal plant compounds and agricultural pesticides. Pyrethroids, derived from compounds found only in the Asteraceae, are particularly toxic to insects and have been successfully used as pesticides including on flowering crops that are visited by pollinators. Pyrethrins, from which they were derived, occur naturally in the nectar of some flowering plant species. We know relatively little about how such compounds--i.e., compounds that target sodium channels--influence pollinators at low or sub-lethal doses. Here, we exposed individual adult forager honeybees to several compounds that bind to sodium channels to identify whether these compounds affect motor function. Using an assay previously developed to identify the effect of drugs and toxins on individual bees, we investigated how acute exposure to 10 ng doses (1 ppm of the pyrethroid insecticides (cyfluthrin, tau-fluvalinate, allethrin and permethrin and the nectar toxins (aconitine and grayanotoxin I affected honeybee locomotion, grooming and wing fanning behaviour. Bees exposed to these compounds spent more time upside down and fanning their wings. They also had longer bouts of standing still. Bees exposed to the nectar toxin, aconitine, and the pyrethroid, allethrin, also spent less time grooming their antennae. We also found that the concentration of the nectar toxin, grayanotoxin I (GTX, fed to bees affected the time spent upside down (i.e., failure to perform the righting reflex. Our data show that low doses of pyrethroids and other nectar toxins that target sodium channels mainly influence motor function through their effect on the righting reflex of adult worker honeybees.

  5. Using Vocal and Silent Reading Approaches for the Enhancement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    of teaching reading skills in English Language through the use of vocal and silent reading ... Performance, English Language, Effective Teaching and Learning. Introduction. Language ..... Reflections on Nigeria's literacy culture. The. Guardian ...

  6. Vocal acrobatics in a Chinese frog, Amolops tormotus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Albert; Narins, Peter; Xu, Chun-He

    2002-06-01

    Although amphibians are highly vocal, they generally emit only a limited number of acoustic communication signals. We report here the extraordinarily rich vocal repertoire of Amolops tormotus, a ranid species in China. These frogs produce countless vocalizations, some of which share features of birdsong or primate calls, e.g., ultrasonic frequency components, multiple upward and downward FM sweeps, and sudden onset and offset of selective harmonic components within a call note. Frame-by-frame video analysis of the frog's calling behavior suggests the presence of two pairs of vocal sacs that may contribute to the remarkable call-note complexity in this species. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00114-002-0335-x.

  7. Corrigendum: Cultural Relativity in Perceiving Emotion From Vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Gendron, M., Roberson, D., van der Vyver, J. M., & Barrett, L. F. (2014). Cultural relativity in perceiving emotion from vocalizations. Psychological Science, 25, 911-920. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0956797613517239 ).

  8. Semiotic aspects of human nonverbal vocalizations: a functional imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Susanne; Hertrich, Ingo; Alter, Kai; Ischebeck, Anja; Ackermann, Hermann

    2007-12-03

    Humans produce a variety of distinct nonverbal vocalizations. Whereas affective bursts, for example, laughter, have an intrinsic communicative role bound to social behavior, vegetative sounds, for example, snoring, just signal autonomic-physiological states. However, the latter events, for example, belching, may also be used as intentional communicative actions (vocal gestures), characterized by an arbitrary culture-dependent sound-to-meaning (semiotic) relationship, comparable to verbal utterances. Using a decision task, hemodynamic responses to affective bursts, vegetative sounds, and vocal gestures were measured by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Affective bursts elicited activation of anterior left superior temporal gyrus. In contrast, arbitrary vocal gestures yielded hemodynamic reactions of the left temporo-parietal junction. Conceivably, a listener's interpretation of nonverbal utterances as intentional events depends upon a left-hemisphere temporo-parietal 'auditory-to-meaning interface' related to our mechanisms of speech processing.

  9. A HMM-Based Method for Vocal Fold Pathology Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Majidnezhad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic analysis is a proper method in vocal fold pathology diagnosis so that it can complement and in some cases replace the other invasive, based on direct vocal fold observations methods. There are different approaches for vocal fold pathology diagnosis. This paper presents a method based on hidden markov model which classifies speeches into two classes: the normal and the pathological. Two hidden markov models are trained based on these two classes of speech and then the trained models are used to classify the dataset. The proposed method is able to classify the speeches with an accuracy of 93.75%. The results of this algorithm provide insights that can help biologists and computer scientists design high-performance system for detection of vocal fold pathology diagnosis.

  10. [Management of T1a vocal fold carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, R; Brosch, S; Smith, E; Pickhard, A

    2013-12-01

    About 2/3 of the larynx carcinomas affect the vocal chords. The main risk factor is smoking. Carcinomas in this localisation often arise from leukoplakias with dysplasia. A typical symptom is dysphonia. Arrest of vibration in microlaryngostroboscopy is a hint that a carcinoma could be present. Transoral laser cordectomy or radiotherapy show equivalent oncological results and results in quality of voice in the treatment of vocal fold carcinoma (T1a). As lymph node and distant metastasis are very rare, follow-up can concentrate on microlaryngoscopy. In case of a suspicious area on the vocal fold, biopsy of the affected tissue is needed to plan correct treatment. The prognosis of the T1 vocal chord carcinoma is quite good with a 5-year survival rate of almost 100%.

  11. Vocal tract filtering and sound radiation in a songbird

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, Brian S; Beckers, Gabriël J L; Suthers, Roderick A

    2005-01-01

    .... Several studies have described the dynamics with which birds actively vary beak gape while singing and it has been hypothesized that birds vary beak gape as a mechanism for varying vocal tract resonances...

  12. Vocal correlates of sender-identity and arousal in the isolation calls of domestic kitten (Felis silvestris catus)

    OpenAIRE

    Scheumann Marina; Roser Anna-Elisa; Konerding Wiebke; Bleich Eva; Hedrich Hans-Jürgen; Zimmermann Elke

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Human speech does not only communicate linguistic information but also paralinguistic features, e.g. information about the identity and the arousal state of the sender. Comparable morphological and physiological constraints on vocal production in mammals suggest the existence of commonalities encoding sender-identity and the arousal state of a sender across mammals. To explore this hypothesis and to investigate whether specific acoustic parameters encode for sender-ident...

  13. Counselor Hypothesis-Testing Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmer, Douglas C.; Newman, Lisa J.

    1983-01-01

    Reports two experiments relevant to the questioning strategies counselors use in testing their hypotheses about clients. Results supported the idea that counselors are able to take a tentative hypothesis about a client and test its accuracy against additional independent, unbiased observations of the client. (LLL)

  14. Dynamic expression of cadherins regulates vocal development in a songbird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Matsunaga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since, similarly to humans, songbirds learn their vocalization through imitation during their juvenile stage, they have often been used as model animals to study the mechanisms of human verbal learning. Numerous anatomical and physiological studies have suggested that songbirds have a neural network called 'song system' specialized for vocal learning and production in their brain. However, it still remains unknown what molecular mechanisms regulate their vocal development. It has been suggested that type-II cadherins are involved in synapse formation and function. Previously, we found that type-II cadherin expressions are switched in the robust nucleus of arcopallium from cadherin-7-positive to cadherin-6B-positive during the phase from sensory to sensorimotor learning stage in a songbird, the Bengalese finch. Furthermore, in vitro analysis using cultured rat hippocampal neurons revealed that cadherin-6B enhanced and cadherin-7 suppressed the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents via regulating dendritic spine morphology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To explore the role of cadherins in vocal development, we performed an in vivo behavioral analysis of cadherin function with lentiviral vectors. Overexpression of cadherin-7 in the juvenile and the adult stages resulted in severe defects in vocal production. In both cases, harmonic sounds typically seen in the adult Bengalese finch songs were particularly affected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that cadherins control vocal production, particularly harmonic sounds, probably by modulating neuronal morphology of the RA nucleus. It appears that the switching of cadherin expressions from sensory to sensorimotor learning stage enhances vocal production ability to make various types of vocalization that is essential for sensorimotor learning in a trial and error manner.

  15. Social ultrasonic vocalization in awake head-restrained mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Weiner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous animal species emit vocalizations in response to various social stimuli. The neural basis of vocal communication has been investigated in monkeys, songbirds, rats, bats and invertebrates resulting in deep insights into motor control, neural coding and learning. Mice, which recently became very popular as a model system for mammalian neuroscience, also utilize ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs during mating behavior. However, our knowledge is lacking of both the behavior and its underlying neural mechanism. We developed a novel method for head-restrained male mice (HRMM to interact with non-restrained female mice (NRFM and show that mice can emit USVs in this context. We first recorded USVs in free arena with non-restrained male mice (NRMM and NRFM. Of the NRMM, which vocalized in the free arena, the majority could be habituated to also vocalize while head-restrained but only when a female mouse was present in proximity. The USVs emitted by HRMM are similar to the USVs of NRMM in the presence of a female mouse in their spectral structure, inter syllable interval distribution and USV sequence length, and therefore are interpreted as social USVs. By analyzing vocalizations of NRMM, we established criteria to predict which individuals are likely to vocalize while head fixed based on the USV rate and average syllable duration. To characterize the USVs emitted by HRMM, we analyzed the syllable composition of HRMM and NRMM and found that USVs emitted by HRMM have higher proportions of USVs with complex spectral representation, supporting previous studies showing that mice social USVs are context dependent. Our results suggest a way to study the neural mechanisms of production and control of social vocalization in mice using advanced methods requiring head fixation.

  16. Anatomical Study Of Minor Alterations In Neonate Vocal Folds.

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano Rezende Silva; Almiro José Machado Júnior; Agrício Nubiato Crespo

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Minor structural alterations of the vocal fold cover are frequent causes of voice abnormalities. They may be difficult to diagnose, and are expressed in different manners. Cases of intracordal cysts, sulcus vocalis, mucosal bridge, and laryngeal micro-diaphragm form the group of minor structural alterations of the vocal fold cover investigated in the present study. The etiopathogenesis and epidemiology of these alterations are poorly known. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the existe...

  17. Vocal Characteristics and Laryngoscopic Findings in Future Musical Theater Performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'haeseleer, Evelien; Claeys, Sofie; Meerschman, Iris; Bettens, Kim; Degeest, Sofie; Dijckmans, Caroline; De Smet, Joke; Luyten, Anke; Van Lierde, Kristiane

    2017-07-01

    Musical theater performers are a special group of elite vocal performers with a high vocal load as they combine singing, acting, and physical performance. As they are absolutely depending on their voice quality and vocal capacities for their studies and their future profession, an optimal voice production is very important. The purpose of this study was to determine the voice quality of musical theater students. The voice quality of seven students was then reevaluated 1 year after the first assessment. Observational study. Thirty-one musical students (7 men and 24 women) with a mean age of 20 years participated in the study. To determine the voice quality, objective (aerodynamic measurements, voice range profile, acoustic analysis, and Dysphonia Severity Index) and subjective (videolaryngostroboscopy, Voice Handicap Indexes, and questionnaires regarding voice symptoms and risk factors) voice measurements were performed. The median Dysphonia Severity Index in male and female musical students was respectively 5.3 and 5.7, both corresponding with an overall good voice quality. The questionnaires revealed the presence of vocal fatigue, dryness of the throat, vocal tract discomfort, and harmful vocal habits in the majority of students. In 45% of the subjects, videolaryngostroboscopic evaluation of the vocal folds showed an organic lesion. The majority of these lesions are inflammatory lesions (26%). In 68% of the subjects, a certain degree of supraglottic constriction was observed. Despite the overall good voice quality, videolaryngostroboscopy showed a high presence of vocal fold lesions and supraglottic constriction during phonation. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Vocal accuracy and neural plasticity following micromelody-discrimination training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Mary Zarate

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent behavioral studies report correlational evidence to suggest that non-musicians with good pitch discrimination sing more accurately than those with poorer auditory skills. However, other studies have reported a dissociation between perceptual and vocal production skills. In order to elucidate the relationship between auditory discrimination skills and vocal accuracy, we administered an auditory-discrimination training paradigm to a group of non-musicians to determine whether training-enhanced auditory discrimination would specifically result in improved vocal accuracy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We utilized micromelodies (i.e., melodies with seven different interval scales, each smaller than a semitone as the main stimuli for auditory discrimination training and testing, and we used single-note and melodic singing tasks to assess vocal accuracy in two groups of non-musicians (experimental and control. To determine if any training-induced improvements in vocal accuracy would be accompanied by related modulations in cortical activity during singing, the experimental group of non-musicians also performed the singing tasks while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Following training, the experimental group exhibited significant enhancements in micromelody discrimination compared to controls. However, we did not observe a correlated improvement in vocal accuracy during single-note or melodic singing, nor did we detect any training-induced changes in activity within brain regions associated with singing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Given the observations from our auditory training regimen, we therefore conclude that perceptual discrimination training alone is not sufficient to improve vocal accuracy in non-musicians, supporting the suggested dissociation between auditory perception and vocal production.

  19. The Effect of Vocal Hygiene and Behavior Modification Instruction on the Self-Reported Vocal Health Habits of Public School Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackworth, Rhonda S.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of vocal hygiene and behavior modification instruction on self-reported behaviors of music teachers. Subjects (N = 76) reported daily behaviors for eight weeks: water consumption, warm-up, talking over music/noise, vocal rest, nonverbal commands, and vocal problems. Subjects were in experimental group 1 or 2, or the…

  20. Exploring vocal recovery after cranial nerve injury in Bengalese finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbano, Catherine M; Peterson, Jennifer R; Cooper, Brenton G

    2013-02-08

    Songbirds and humans use auditory feedback to acquire and maintain their vocalizations. The Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata domestica) is a songbird species that rapidly modifies its vocal output to adhere to an internal song memory. In this species, the left side of the bipartite vocal organ is specialized for producing louder, higher frequencies (≥2.2kHz) and denervation of the left vocal muscles eliminates these notes. Thus, the return of higher frequency notes after cranial nerve injury can be used as a measure of vocal recovery. Either the left or right side of the syrinx was denervated by resection of the tracheosyringeal portion of the hypoglossal nerve. Histologic analyses of syringeal muscle tissue showed significant muscle atrophy in the denervated side. After left nerve resection, songs were mainly composed of lower frequency syllables, but three out of five birds recovered higher frequency syllables. Right nerve resection minimally affected phonology, but it did change song syntax; syllable sequence became abnormally stereotyped after right nerve resection. Therefore, damage to the neuromuscular control of sound production resulted in reduced motor variability, and Bengalese finches are a potential model for functional vocal recovery following cranial nerve injury.

  1. Modulation frequency and modulation level owing to vocal microtremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoentgen, Jean

    2002-08-01

    Vocal microtremor designates a normal slow modulation of the vocal cycle lengths of speakers who do not suffer from pathological tremor of the limbs and whose voices are not perceived as tremulous. Vocal microtremor is therefore distinct from pathological vocal tremor. The objective is to report data about the modulation frequency and modulation level owing to vocal microtremor. The modulation data have been obtained for vowels [a], [i], and [u] sustained by normophonic and mildly dysphonic male and female speakers. The results are the following. First, modulation frequencies and relative modulation levels do not differ significantly for male and female speakers, normophonic and mildly dysphonic speakers, as well as for vowel timbres [a], [i], and [u]. Second, the typical interquartile intervals of the modulation frequency and modulation level are equal to 2.0-4.7 Hz and 0.4%-1.3%, respectively. Third, dissimilarities between data reported by different studies are due to different cutoff frequencies below which spectral peaks are considered not to contribute to vocal microtremor.

  2. Vocal copying of individually distinctive signature whistles in bottlenose dolphins

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephanie L.; Sayigh, Laela S.; Wells, Randall S.; Fellner, Wendi; Janik, Vincent M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocal learning is relatively common in birds but less so in mammals. Sexual selection and individual or group recognition have been identified as major forces in its evolution. While important in the development of vocal displays, vocal learning also allows signal copying in social interactions. Such copying can function in addressing or labelling selected conspecifics. Most examples of addressing in non-humans come from bird song, where matching occurs in an aggressive context. However, in other animals, addressing with learned signals is very much an affiliative signal. We studied the function of vocal copying in a mammal that shows vocal learning as well as complex cognitive and social behaviour, the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Copying occurred almost exclusively between close associates such as mother–calf pairs and male alliances during separation and was not followed by aggression. All copies were clearly recognizable as such because copiers consistently modified some acoustic parameters of a signal when copying it. We found no evidence for the use of copying in aggression or deception. This use of vocal copying is similar to its use in human language, where the maintenance of social bonds appears to be more important than the immediate defence of resources. PMID:23427174

  3. Vocal interaction between children with Down syndrome and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann-Bourque, Kathy S; Warren, Steven F; Brady, Nancy; Gilkerson, Jill; Richards, Jeffrey A

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe differences in parent input and child vocal behaviors of children with Down syndrome (DS) compared with typically developing (TD) children. The goals were to describe the language learning environments at distinctly different ages in early childhood. Nine children with DS and 9 age-matched TD children participated; 4 children in each group were ages 9-11 months, and 5 were between 25 and 54 months. Measures were derived from automated vocal analysis. A digital language processor measured the richness of the child's language environment, including number of adult words, conversational turns, and child vocalizations. Analyses indicated no significant differences in words spoken by parents of younger versus older children with DS and significantly more words spoken by parents of TD children than parents of children with DS. Differences between the DS and TD groups were observed in rates of all vocal behaviors, with no differences noted between the younger versus older children with DS, and the younger TD children did not vocalize significantly more than the younger DS children. Parents of children with DS continue to provide consistent levels of input across the early language learning years; however, child vocal behaviors remain low after the age of 24 months, suggesting the need for additional and alternative intervention approaches.

  4. Treatment outcome of vocal cord leukoplakia by transoral laser microsurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shih-Wei; Chao, Wei-Chieh; Lee, Yun-Shien; Chang, Liang-Che; Hsieh, Tsan-Yu; Chen, Tai-An; Luo, Cheng-Ming

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the treatment outcome and analyze the associated factors of postoperative recurrence in patients who received transoral laser microsurgery for vocal cord leukoplakia. The demographic, histopathological data were retrospectively reviewed and the factors associated with recurrence of vocal leukoplakia after surgery were analyzed statistically. A total of 44 patients, including 36 males and 8 females, with a mean age of 50.4 ± 13.4 years, were enrolled. All the patients received excision of the vocal leukoplakia by carbon dioxide laser (2-4 Watt, ultrapulse mode) under general anesthesia. No patients had malignant transformation after surgery. Postoperative recurrence occurred in 10 patients (22.7 %). Univariate analysis showed that patients who had the habit of cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease tended to recur. Among these risk factors, presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (odds ratio 8.43) was the independent prognostic factor for recurrence using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Carbon dioxide laser excision is effective for treating vocal leukoplakia that is still confined to dysplasia of any degree, with acceptable morbidity. This study suggests that the presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease is the prognostic indicator for postoperative recurrence of vocal leukoplakia. Aggressive treatment of reflux disease for those who have received surgical excision for vocal leukoplakia is indicated.

  5. Emancipation of the voice: Vocal complexity as a fitness indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, John L

    2017-02-01

    Although language is generally spoken, most evolutionary proposals say little about any changes that may have induced vocal control. Here I suggest that the interaction of two changes in our species-one in sociality, the other in life history-liberated the voice from its affective moorings, enabling it to serve as a fitness cue or signal. The modification of life history increased the helplessness of infants, thus their competition for care, pressuring them to emit, and parents (and others) to evaluate, new vocal cues in bids for attention. This change elaborated and formalized the care communication system that was used in infancy and, because of parental adoption of social criteria, extended it into childhood, supporting the extrafamilial relationships that intensify in those stages. The remodeling of life history, in conjunction with intensified sociality, also enhanced vocal signaling in adolescence-a second stage that is unique to humans-and adulthood. Building on the new vocal skills and fitness criteria that emerged earlier, I claim that males with ornamented speech enjoyed advantages in their pursuit of dominance and reproductive opportunities in evolutionary history, as they do today. There are implications of this scenario for the mechanistic level of vocal diversification. Today, intentionality plays a role both in the instrumental crying of infants and the modulated vocalizations of adults. In evolutionary history, I claim that in both cases, spontaneously emitted behavioral cues elicited perceptible responses, giving rise to strategic signals that were sent, and processed, under a new and fundamentally different neural regime.

  6. Phonology and vocal behavior in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Elizabeth; Paul, Rhea; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the phonological and other vocal productions of children, 18-36 months, with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to compare these productions to those of age-matched and language-matched controls. Speech samples were obtained from 30 toddlers with ASD, 11 age-matched toddlers and 23 language-matched toddlers during either parent-child or clinician-child play sessions. Samples were coded for a variety of speech-like and nonspeech vocalization productions. Toddlers with ASD produced speech-like vocalizations similar to those of language-matched peers, but produced significantly more atypical nonspeech vocalizations when compared to both control groups. Toddlers with ASD show speech-like sound production that is linked to their language level, in a manner similar to that seen in typical development. The main area of difference in vocal development in this population is in the production of atypical vocalizations. Findings suggest that toddlers with ASDs do not tune into the language model of their environment. Failure to attend to the ambient language environment negatively impacts the ability to acquire spoken language. Copyright © 2011, International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Implicitly perceived vocal attractiveness modulates prefrontal cortex activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestelmeyer, Patricia E G; Latinus, Marianne; Bruckert, Laetitia; Rouger, Julien; Crabbe, Frances; Belin, Pascal

    2012-06-01

    Social interactions involve more than "just" language. As important is a more primitive nonlinguistic mode of communication acting in parallel with linguistic processes and driving our decisions to a much higher degree than is generally suspected. Amongst the "honest signals" that influence our behavior is perceived vocal attractiveness. Not only does vocal attractiveness reflect important biological characteristics of the speaker, it also influences our social perceptions according to the "what sounds beautiful is good" phenomenon. Despite the widespread influence of vocal attractiveness on social interactions revealed by behavioral studies, its neural underpinnings are yet unknown. We measured brain activity while participants listened to a series of vocal sounds ("ah") and performed an unrelated task. We found that voice-sensitive auditory and inferior frontal regions were strongly correlated with implicitly perceived vocal attractiveness. While the involvement of auditory areas reflected the processing of acoustic contributors to vocal attractiveness ("distance to mean" and spectrotemporal regularity), activity in inferior prefrontal regions (traditionally involved in speech processes) reflected the overall perceived attractiveness of the voices despite their lack of linguistic content. These results suggest the strong influence of hidden nonlinguistic aspects of communication signals on cerebral activity and provide an objective measure of this influence.

  8. The effect of superior auditory skills on vocal accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Ofer; Amir, Noam; Kishon-Rabin, Liat

    2003-02-01

    The relationship between auditory perception and vocal production has been typically investigated by evaluating the effect of either altered or degraded auditory feedback on speech production in either normal hearing or hearing-impaired individuals. Our goal in the present study was to examine this relationship in individuals with superior auditory abilities. Thirteen professional musicians and thirteen nonmusicians, with no vocal or singing training, participated in this study. For vocal production accuracy, subjects were presented with three tones. They were asked to reproduce the pitch using the vowel /a/. This procedure was repeated three times. The fundamental frequency of each production was measured using an autocorrelation pitch detection algorithm designed for this study. The musicians' superior auditory abilities (compared to the nonmusicians) were established in a frequency discrimination task reported elsewhere. Results indicate that (a) musicians had better vocal production accuracy than nonmusicians (production errors of 1/2 a semitone compared to 1.3 semitones, respectively); (b) frequency discrimination thresholds explain 43% of the variance of the production data, and (c) all subjects with superior frequency discrimination thresholds showed accurate vocal production; the reverse relationship, however, does not hold true. In this study we provide empirical evidence to the importance of auditory feedback on vocal production in listeners with superior auditory skills.

  9. Vocal tract resonances in speech, singing, and playing musical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Joe; Garnier, Maëva; Smith, John

    2009-01-01

    IN BOTH THE VOICE AND MUSICAL WIND INSTRUMENTS, A VALVE (VOCAL FOLDS, LIPS, OR REED) LIES BETWEEN AN UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM DUCT: trachea and vocal tract for the voice; vocal tract and bore for the instrument. Examining the structural similarities and functional differences gives insight into their operation and the duct-valve interactions. In speech and singing, vocal tract resonances usually determine the spectral envelope and usually have a smaller influence on the operating frequency. The resonances are important not only for the phonemic information they produce, but also because of their contribution to voice timbre, loudness, and efficiency. The role of the tract resonances is usually different in brass and some woodwind instruments, where they modify and to some extent compete or collaborate with resonances of the instrument to control the vibration of a reed or the player's lips, andor the spectrum of air flow into the instrument. We give a brief overview of oscillator mechanisms and vocal tract acoustics. We discuss recent and current research on how the acoustical resonances of the vocal tract are involved in singing and the playing of musical wind instruments. Finally, we compare techniques used in determining tract resonances and suggest some future developments.

  10. Vocal Interaction between Children with Down syndrome and their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann-Bourque, Kathy S.; Warren, Steven F.; Brady, Nancy; Gilkerson, Jill; Richards, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe differences in parent input and child vocal behaviors of children with Down syndrome (DS) compared to typically developing (TD) children. The goals were to describe the language learning environments at distinctly different ages in early childhood. Method Nine children with DS and 9 age-matched TD children participated; four children in each group were ages 9–11 months and five were between 25–54 months. Measures were derived from automated vocal analysis. A digital language processer measured the richness of the child’s language environment, including number of adult words, conversational turns, and child vocalizations. Results Analyses indicated no significant differences in words spoken by parents of younger vs. older children with DS, and significantly more words spoken by parents of TD children than parents of children with DS. Differences between the DS and TD groups were observed in rates of all vocal behaviors; with no differences noted between the younger vs. older children with DS, and the younger TD children did not vocalize significantly more than the younger DS children. Conclusions Parents of children with DS continue to provide consistent levels of input across the early language learning years; however, child vocal behaviors remain low after the age of 24 months suggesting the need for additional and alternative intervention approaches. PMID:24686777

  11. The anuran vocal sac: a tool for multimodal signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnberger, Iris; Preininger, Doris; Hödl, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Although in anurans the predominant mode of intra- and intersexual communication is vocalization, modalities used in addition to or instead of acoustic signals range from seismic and visual to chemical. In some cases, signals of more than one modality are produced through or by the anuran vocal sac. However, its role beyond acoustics has been neglected for some time and nonacoustic cues such as vocal sac movement have traditionally been seen as an epiphenomenon of sound production. The diversity in vocal sac coloration and shape found in different species is striking and recently its visual properties have been given a more important role in signalling. Chemosignals seem to be the dominant communication mode in newts, salamanders and caecilians and certainly play a role in the aquatic life phase of anurans, but airborne chemical signalling has received less attention. There is, however, increasing evidence that at least some terrestrial anuran species integrate acoustic, visual and chemical cues in species recognition and mate choice and a few secondarily mute anuran species seem to fully rely on volatile chemical cues produced in glands on the vocal sac. Within vertebrates, frogs in particular are suitable organisms for investigating multimodal communication by means of experiments, since they are tolerant of disturbance by observers and can be easily manipulated under natural conditions. Thus, the anuran vocal sac might be of great interest not only to herpetologists, but also to behavioural biologists studying communication systems. PMID:25389375

  12. Pianists exhibit enhanced memory for vocal melodies but not piano melodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Michael W; Vanzella, Patrícia; Schellenberg, E Glenn; Trehub, Sandra E

    2015-01-01

    Nonmusicians remember vocal melodies (i.e., sung to la la) better than instrumental melodies. If greater exposure to the voice contributes to those effects, then long-term experience with instrumental timbres should elicit instrument-specific advantages. Here we evaluate this hypothesis by comparing pianists with other musicians and nonmusicians. We also evaluate the possibility that absolute pitch (AP), which involves exceptional memory for isolated pitches, influences melodic memory. Participants heard 24 melodies played in four timbres (voice, piano, banjo, marimba) and were subsequently required to distinguish the melodies heard previously from 24 novel melodies presented in the same timbres. Musicians performed better than nonmusicians, but both groups showed a comparable memory advantage for vocal melodies. Moreover, pianists performed no better on melodies played on piano than on other instruments, and AP musicians performed no differently than non-AP musicians. The findings confirm the robust nature of the voice advantage and rule out explanations based on familiarity, practice, and motor representations.

  13. Ontogeny of swift fox Vulpes velox vocalizations: production, usage and response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darden, Safi-Kirstine Klem; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2006-01-01

    Three processes, production, usage, and response, can be used to describe vocal ontogeny. They may develop independently of each other for a given vocalization and a given species as a result of the different selective pressures associated with each process. We have investigated vocal ontogeny...... in the swift fox Vulpes velox, using recordings and observations of captive foxes from the time of natal den emergence (age 3-4 weeks) to the time of natal dispersal in the wild (age 4-5 months). We first classified adult vocalizations used during the mating and pup rearing seasons into vocal types (19 types....... Two of the 3 adult vocalizations not observed in juveniles appear to be associated with mating and possibly territoriality and the third is a high intensity alarm vocalization. Apart from 3 vocal types (1 alarm and 2 non-agonistic), once vocalizations had appeared in the juvenile repertoire, they did...

  14. Comparative analysis of mineralocorticoid receptor expression among vocal learners (Bengalese finch and budgerigar) and non-vocal learners (quail and ring dove) has implications for the evolution of avian vocal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Eiji; Suzuki, Kenta; Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2011-12-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor is the receptor for corticosteroids such as corticosterone or aldosterone. Previously, we found that mineralocorticoid receptor was highly expressed in song nuclei of a songbird, Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata var. domestica). Here, to examine the relationship between mineralocorticoid receptor expression and avian vocal learning, we analyzed mineralocorticoid receptor expression in the developing brain of another vocal learner, budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) and non-vocal learners, quail (Coturnix japonica) and ring dove (Streptopelia capicola). Mineralocorticoid receptor showed vocal control area-related expressions in budgerigars as Bengalese finches, whereas no such mineralocorticoid receptor expressions were seen in the telencephalon of non-vocal learners. Thus, these results suggest the possibility that mineralocorticoid receptor plays a role in vocal development of parrots as songbirds and that the acquisition of mineralocorticoid receptor expression is involved in the evolution of avian vocal learning.

  15. Slowing down facial movements and vocal sounds enhances facial expression recognition and facial-vocal imitation in children with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Tardif, Carole; Lainé, France; Rodriguez, Mélissa; Gepner, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    International audience; This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on CD-Rom, under audio or silent conditions, and under dynamic visual conditions (slowly, very slowly, at normal speed) plus a st...

  16. Envelhecimento vocal em idosos instucionalizados Vocal aging of institutionalized elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Neiva de Menezes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar de forma perceptivo-auditiva as características vocais de idosos institucionalizados, identificar se essas características interferem no processo de comunicação e correlacioná-las com a avaliação das estruturas do sistema estomatognático e do padrão de fala. MÉTODOS: estudo clínico do tipo transversal, no qual foram realizadas anamneses e avaliações fonoaudiológicas em uma amostra aleatória de 48 indivíduos idosos, residentes na Casa do Ancião Francisco Azevedo - Belo Horizonte/MG, que não apresentavam nenhum tipo de alteração neurológica, uma vez que, buscou-se traçar as manifestações fonoaudiológicas de idosos em processo de envelhecimento sadio. Utilizou-se protocolos específicos, desenvolvidos pelas autoras, de acordo com os aspectos pertinentes aos objetivos do presente estudo. RESULTADOS: na avaliação perceptivo-auditiva da qualidade vocal, constatou-se predominantemente qualidade vocal rouca (70,8%, em grau moderado (33,3%, loudness reduzida (56,2%, pitch grave (62,5% e tempos máximos de fonação reduzidos (81,2%. Dos 48 participantes, 85,4% relataram que a voz não interfere no processo de comunicação. Em relação aos padrões de fala, predominaram inteligibilidade preservada (83,3%, articulação preservada (72,9% e precisão articulatória preservada (83,3%. CONCLUSÕES: existem alterações nos parâmetros referentes à voz decorrentes da idade, sendo que elas não interferem na comunicação e mantêm relação diversa com outras mudanças nas estruturas do sistema estomatognático. Este estudo veio complementar as pesquisas na área de voz envolvendo indivíduos da terceira idade, sob processo de envelhecimento sadio e residentes em instituições de longa permanência.PURPOSES: to investigate vocal aspects related to healthy aging in the institutionalized elderly people, and to identify if these aspects interfer with communication and correlate vocal changes with motor oral system

  17. Effect of Endotracheal Tube Size on Vocal Outcomes After Thyroidectomy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehanna, Rania; Hennessy, Anthony; Mannion, Stephen; O'Leary, Gerard; Sheahan, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    The optimum size of endotracheal tube (ETT) for general anesthesia remains unresolved. Choice of ETT size may be of particular relevance to thyroid surgery because of the increased risk of laryngeal trauma and concerns regarding postoperative vocal outcomes. To test our hypothesis that intubation with a smaller ETT would lead to reduced postoperative vocal impairment and associated reduced laryngoscopic evidence of laryngeal trauma compared with intubation with a standard-size ETT. This double-blind randomized clinical trial studied patients 18 years and older undergoing elective thyroidectomy at an academic teaching hospital from October 15, 2012, through June 13, 2013. Patients were randomized to group 1 (standard-size ETT, 8.0 mm for men and 7.5 mm for women; n = 24) or group 2 (small ETT, 7.0 mm for men and 6.5 mm for women; n = 25). Patients were assessed preoperatively and at 24 hours and 3 weeks postoperatively. Fiberoptic videolaryngoscopy with modified scoring system, voice assessment using the GRBAS (grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, strain) rating scale, vocal self-assessment using the 30-item Voice Handicap Index, and subjective pain score. At 24 hours, no significant differences were found between patients in groups 1 and 2 in change in GRBAS scores, change in laryngoscopic score (1.71 vs 1.76, P = .90), or postoperative pain score (3.3 vs 3.2, P = .91). At 3 weeks, no significant differences were found in changes in the 30-item Voice Handicap Index score (-2.2 vs -1.3, P = .74), GRBAS scores, or laryngoscopic score (0.25 vs 0.16, P = .67). We did not find evidence that smaller ETT size for thyroidectomy has any significant effect on postoperative vocal outcomes, incidence of laryngeal trauma as assessed by laryngoscopy, or pain scores. However, because of the small sample size, our study may have been underpowered to detect small differences. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02136459.

  18. Lipofuscin hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaccone, Giorgio; Orsi, Laura; Cupidi, Chiara; Tagliavini, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    The primary culprit responsible for Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unknown. Aβ protein has been identified as the main component of amyloid of senile plaques, the hallmark lesion of AD, but it is not definitively established whether the formation of extracellular Aβ deposits is the absolute harbinger of the series of pathological events that hit the brain in the course of sporadic AD. The aim of this paper is to draw attention to a relatively overlooked age-related product, lipofuscin, and advance the hypothesis that its release into the extracellular space following the death of neurons may substantially contribute to the formation of senile plaques. The presence of intraneuronal Aβ, similarities between AD and age-related macular degeneration, and the possible explanation of some of the unknown issues in AD suggest that this hypothesis should not be discarded out of hand.

  19. Metabolic hypothesis for human altriciality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsworth, Holly M; Warrener, Anna G; Deacon, Terrence; Ellison, Peter T; Pontzer, Herman

    2012-09-18

    The classic anthropological hypothesis known as the "obstetrical dilemma" is a well-known explanation for human altriciality, a condition that has significant implications for human social and behavioral evolution. The hypothesis holds that antagonistic selection for a large neonatal brain and a narrow, bipedal-adapted birth canal poses a problem for childbirth; the hominin "solution" is to truncate gestation, resulting in an altricial neonate. This explanation for human altriciality based on pelvic constraints persists despite data linking human life history to that of other species. Here, we present evidence that challenges the importance of pelvic morphology and mechanics in the evolution of human gestation and altriciality. Instead, our analyses suggest that limits to maternal metabolism are the primary constraints on human gestation length and fetal growth. Although pelvic remodeling and encephalization during hominin evolution contributed to the present parturitional difficulty, there is little evidence that pelvic constraints have altered the timing of birth.

  20. Non-song vocalizations of pygmy blue whales in Geographe Bay, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recalde-Salas, A; Salgado Kent, C P; Parsons, M J G; Marley, S A; McCauley, R D

    2014-05-01

    Non-song vocalizations of migrating pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) in Western Australia are described. Simultaneous land-based visual observations and underwater acoustic recordings detected 27 groups in Geographe Bay, WA over 2011 to 2012. Six different vocalizations were recorded that were not repeated in a pattern or in association with song, and thus were identified as non-song vocalizations. Five of these were not previously described for this population. Their acoustic characteristics and context are presented. Given that 56% of groups vocalized, 86% of which produced non-song vocalizations and 14% song units, the inclusion of non-song vocalizations in passive-acoustic monitoring is proposed.