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Sample records for vocabulary training methods

  1. The Mnemonic Keyword Method: The Effects of Bidirectional Retrieval Training and of Ability to Image on Foreign Language Vocabulary Recall

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    Wyra, Mirella; Lawson, Michael J.; Hungi, Njora

    2007-01-01

    The mnemonic keyword method is an effective technique for vocabulary acquisition. This study examines the effects on recall of word-meaning pairs of (a) training in use of the keyword procedure at the time of retrieval; and (b) the influence of the self-rated ability to image. The performance of students trained in bidirectional retrieval using…

  2. Impact of Training Deep Vocabulary Learning Strategies on Vocabulary Retention of Iranian EFL Learners

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    Seyed Javad Es-hagi Sardroud

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the overall tendency of foreign language learners to use mechanical strategies of rote rehearsal in vocabulary learning and their resistance towards use of 'deep' vocabulary learning strategies, namely contextual guessing, Keyword Method, metacognitive strategy, and semantic mapping, this study intended (a to explore what impact the instruction of these deep strategies, on vocabulary retention of 32 post-intermediate adult EFL Iranian learners, (b to determine how the variable of gender influences the vocabulary retention of students after receiving training in these strategies. To this end, on the basis of a strategy-based model of instruction–CALLA (Chamot & O'Malley, 1994, the experimental group received training in using 'deep' vocabulary learning strategies while the control group received only the common method of vocabulary teaching. After the treatment, following factorial design, the performance of the participants in the teacher-made vocabulary test as posttest was analyzed statistically.  The results indicated higher vocabulary retention for the experimental group, and it was revealed that female students were more receptive to strategy training. This study provides evidence for confirmation of 'depth of processing' hypothesis and the emerging theory about the impact of gender on effective strategy teaching and use, and it recommends incorporation of teaching these 'deep' strategies of vocabulary learning into EFL classrooms.

  3. PDS4 Training: Key Concepts and Vocabulary

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    Gordon, M. K.; Guinness, E. A.; Neakrase, L. D. V.; Padams, J.; Raugh, A. C.

    2017-06-01

    Those planning to attend the PDS4 training session are strongly encouraged to review this poster prior to the training session. This poster briefly describes new vocabulary and a number of key concepts introduced with PDS4.

  4. Methods of Enlarging English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁小航

    2012-01-01

      In order to enlarge English vocabulary , we need to have some methods. I’d like to share my experience with begin⁃ners how I enlarge English vocabulary when when I am learning English. It is a long process and needs hard work and patience.

  5. Facilitating vocabulary learning through metacognitive strategy training and learning journals

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    Carmen Luz Trujillo Becerra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a mixed- method action research study carried out with participants from three public high schools in different regions in Colombia: Bogotá, Orito and Tocaima.  The overall aim of this study was to analyze whether training in the use of metacognitive strategies (MS through learning journals could improve the participants’ vocabulary learning. The data, collected mainly through students’ learning journals, teachers’ field notes, questionnaires and mind maps, was analyzed following the principles of grounded theory. The results suggested that the training helped participants to develop metacognitive awareness of their vocabulary learning process and their lexical competence regarding daily routines.  Participants also displayed some improvements in critical thinking and self-directed attitudes that could likewise benefit their vocabulary learning. Finally, the study proposes that training in metacognitive and vocabulary strategies should be implemented in language classrooms to promote a higher degree of student control over learning and to facilitate the transference of these strategies to other areas of knowledge.

  6. Metacognitive Strategy Training and Vocabulary Learning of Chinese College Students

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    Zhao, Na

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to tap the relationship between metacognitive strategy training and vocabulary learning of college students through a five week training program. It aims to answer the following question: Can metacognitive strategy training facilitate vocabulary learning of Chinese college students? Both questionnaire and tests were used in the…

  7. Effectiveness of Structural Method of Teaching Vocabulary

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    Behlol, Malik; Dad, Hukam

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted to find out the effectiveness of structural method of teaching vocabulary in English subject at secondary level. The population of the study was the students of secondary classes studying in Federal Government schools of Islamabad District. Purposive and random sampling techniques were applied to select the school, teachers…

  8. The Effect of Keyword and Context Methods on Vocabulary Retention of Iranian EFL Learners

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    Hassan Soleimani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to investigate the comparative effectiveness of keyword and context method on immediate and delayed vocabulary retention of EFL learners. It also compared the rate of forgetting in the keyword and context groups. With a quasi experimental design, 40 learners from two intact classes in a language teaching institute in Khorramabad, Iran, were randomly assigned to the keyword and context group. The keyword group received the keyword strategy training, while the context group focused on learning vocabulary in their real context. The result indicated that learners in the keyword group recalled more vocabulary immediately after training and one week later. The results also indicated the rate of forgetting is more in the context group than in the keyword group.Key words: Vocabulary Learning, Keyword Strategy, Context Strategy, Vocabulary Retention

  9. The PRO-VOC Method: Combining Pronunciation and Vocabulary Teaching

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    Nicolaidis, Katerina; Mattheoudakis, Marina

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for the combined teaching of pronunciation and vocabulary to learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). While there is commonly strong emphasis on the teaching of vocabulary, pronunciation teaching is frequently neglected in the EFL classroom. The proposed method aims to address such imbalance which may…

  10. The PRO-VOC Method: Combining Pronunciation and Vocabulary Teaching

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    Nicolaidis, Katerina; Mattheoudakis, Marina

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for the combined teaching of pronunciation and vocabulary to learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). While there is commonly strong emphasis on the teaching of vocabulary, pronunciation teaching is frequently neglected in the EFL classroom. The proposed method aims to address such imbalance which may…

  11. Research on How to Teach Vocabulary by Adopting Morphological Method

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    涂敏

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of some theories and teaching experience, the thesis first attaches importance to vocabulary teaching and suggests that a morphological method should be applied. Supported by some examples, how to teach vocabulary in a morphological way is mainly discussed in the essay.

  12. Enjoying Vocabulary Learning in Junior High: The Keyword Method

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    Singer, Gail

    1977-01-01

    The keyword method is a mnemonic device limited to teaching vocabulary items. It involves association of a bizarre image with the meaning of the word and can take on the attractive qualities of a game. Results indicate that motivation and interest are stimulated and vocabulary skills improved. (AMH)

  13. Examining the Impact of Vocabulary Strategy Training on Adult EFL Students

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    Nafiye Çiğdem AKTEKİN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of strategy instruction in vocabulary learning. To reach the goal of the study, 70 elementary level EFL learners at the Preparatory School of Mersin University were assigned as study and control groups. At the first stage of the study, through a Vocabulary Strategy Frequency Survey (Cohen, Oxford & Chi, 2002 and Taxonomy (Schmitt, 1997, conscious and/or unconscious use of vocabulary learning strategies in both groups was investigated. The study group received instruction on vocabulary learning strategies which was embedded to the course-book through a 10-week period. For the next stage, it was aimed to raise the teachers’ awareness of vocabulary strategy learning; therefore, discussion and feedback sessions were planned. For the follow-up stage of the study, 10 of the participant students who were then second grade medical students were interviewed in order to investigate the effects of strategy training after 2 academic years. Interviewees were asked about their opinions on strategy use during this period. The findings indicated that vocabulary strategy training can help students to learn and store more vocabulary.

  14. Comparative Effect of Memory and Cognitive Strategies Training on EFL Intermediate Learners' Vocabulary Learning

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    Banisaeid, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the effect of memory and cognitive strategies training on vocabulary learning of intermediate proficiency group of Iranian learners of English as a foreign language. It is to check how memory and cognitive strategies training affect word learning of EFL intermediate learners (N = 60) who were homogenized…

  15. Measuring Second Language Vocabulary Knowledge Using a Temporal Method

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    Tanabe, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The present study addressed the role of speed as a factor in tests of second language (L2) vocabulary knowledge, presupposing that speed of performance is important in actual language use. Research questions were: (a) Do learners with a larger vocabulary size answer faster on an L2 vocabulary breadth test than smaller vocabulary sized learners?;…

  16. Tailoring vocabularies for NLP in sub-domains: a method to detect unused word sense.

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    Figueroa, Rosa L; Zeng-Treitler, Qing; Goryachev, Sergey; Wiechmann, Eduardo P

    2009-11-14

    We developed a method to help tailor a comprehensive vocabulary system (e.g. the UMLS) for a sub-domain (e.g. clinical reports) in support of natural language processing (NLP). The method detects unused sense in a sub-domain by comparing the relational neighborhood of a word/term in the vocabulary with the semantic neighborhood of the word/term in the sub-domain. The semantic neighborhood of the word/term in the sub-domain is determined using latent semantic analysis (LSA). We trained and tested the unused sense detection on two clinical text corpora: one contains discharge summaries and the other outpatient visit notes. We were able to detect unused senses with precision from 79% to 87%, recall from 48% to 74%, and an area under receiver operation curve (AUC) of 72% to 87%.

  17. Training in Metacognitive Strategies for Students’ Vocabulary Improvement by Using Learning Journals

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    Itala Diaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of metacognitive strategies to help beginning young learners with difficulties increasing and retaining vocabulary. This was a qualitative study in which participants first went through metacognitive strategy instruction to provide awareness of learning strategies. Following this instruction, students underwent a set of five interventions based on the cognitive academic language learning approach instructional model. These interventions, together with journaling progress, were used to train them in the use of the metacognitive strategies planning, monitoring, and evaluating. The findings showed that metacognitive strategy training has positively contributed to vocabulary acquisition skills, as participants were able to raise consciousness about some learning strategies and the use of metacognitive strategies to increase their vocabulary learning.

  18. Mixed-Method Research on Learning Vocabulary through Technology Reveals Vocabulary Growth in Second-Grade Students

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    Huang, SuHua

    2015-01-01

    A mixed-method embedded research design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of the integration of technology for second-grade students' vocabulary development and learning. Two second-grade classes with a total of 40 students (21 boys and 19 girls) were randomly selected to participate in this study for the course of a semester. One…

  19. Mixed-Method Research on Learning Vocabulary through Technology Reveals Vocabulary Growth in Second-Grade Students

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    Huang, SuHua

    2015-01-01

    A mixed-method embedded research design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of the integration of technology for second-grade students' vocabulary development and learning. Two second-grade classes with a total of 40 students (21 boys and 19 girls) were randomly selected to participate in this study for the course of a semester. One…

  20. THE EFFICIENCY OF VOCABULARY TEACHING METHODS IN TURKİSH LANGUAGE TEACHING

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    Şükran DİLİDÜZGÜN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Realising communication requires senders’ vocabulary knowledge to use correct words to transfer their ideas to receivers. The more vocabulary one has the more capable one is to express oneself and to comprehend messages. A little vocabulary is enough for daily affairs, but people need to get vocabulary education officially to improve their cognivite development, and intellectual thinking. This education is limited to the vocabulary in Turkish coursebooks. Therefore, the vocabulary in coursebooks ought to be taught via the methods which enable ones to store it in long term memory and retrieve when needed. This study aims to evaluate Turkish coursebooks in the context of vocabulary teaching methods and to propose activities in the light of findings to contribute to the field. Firstly, the vocabulary teaching methods in the 6th grade Turkish coursebook taken as sample have been classified in a descriptive manner. After that, these methods have been evaluated in the context of retrival levels of students applying a vocabulary test prepared with the words chosen randomly from the 6th level Turkish coursebook to 180 7th grade students from all over Turkey who studied the same book in the previous year to determine the effiency of the methods used.

  1. Developing Mathematical Vocabulary.

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    Monroe, Eula Ewing; Orme, Michelle P.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of mathematical vocabulary, difficulties students encounter in learning this vocabulary, and some instructional strategies. Two general methods for teaching vocabulary are discussed: context and explicit vocabulary instruction. The methods are summarized as they apply to mathematical vocabulary instruction and…

  2. Examining the Impact of Vocabulary Strategy Training on Adult EFL Students

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    Nafiye AKTEKİN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of strategy instruction in vocabulary learning. To reach the goal of the study, 70 elementary level EFL learners at the Preparatory School of Mersin University were assigned as study and control groups. At the first stage of the study, through a Vocabulary Strategy Frequency Survey (Cohen, Oxford & Chi, 2002 and Taxonomy (Schmitt, 1997, conscious and/or unconscious use of vocabulary learning strategies in both groups was investigated. The study group received instruction on vocabulary learning strategies which was embedded to the course-book through a 10-week period. For the next stage, it was aimed to raise the teachers’ awareness of vocabulary strategy learning; therefore, discussion and feedback sessions were planned. For the follow-up stage of the study, 10 of the participant students who were then second grade medical students were interviewed in order to investigate the effects of strategy training after 2 academic years. Interviewees were asked about their opinions on strategy use during this period. The findings indicated that vocabulary strategy training can help students to learn and store more vocabulary. Keywords: language learning strategies, vocabulary learning strategies, strategy training, adult EFL learners Özet–Kelime Strateji Eğitiminin İngilizce Öğrenen Yetişkin Öğrenciler Üzerindeki Etkisinin Araştırılması. Bu çalışma kelime öğreniminde strateji kullanımının etkisini ölçmek için yapılmıştır. Bu amaçla, Mersin Üniversitesi Yabancı Diller Yüksekokulundan 70 başlangıç düzey yabancı dil öğrencisi çalışma ve kontrol grubu olarak seçilmişlerdir. İlk olarak, kelime stratejisi sıklık anketi (Cohen, Oxford & Chi, 2002 ve taksonomisi (Schmitt, 1997 ile her iki grubun bilinçli ve/veya bilinçdışı kullandıkları stratejiler araştırılmıştır. Çalışma grubu ders kitaplarına uygun olarak düzenlenmiş etkinliklerle

  3. Off-line cursive handwriting recognition using multiple classifier systems—on the influence of vocabulary, ensemble, and training set size

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    Günter, Simon; Bunke, Horst

    2005-03-01

    Unconstrained handwritten text recognition is one of the most difficult problems in the field of pattern recognition. Recently, a number of classifier creation and combination methods, known as ensemble methods, have been proposed in the field of machine learning. They have shown improved recognition performance over single classifiers. In this paper, we examine the influence of the vocabulary size, the number of training samples, and the number of classifiers on the performance of three ensemble methods in the context of cursive handwriting recognition. All experiments were conducted using an off-line handwritten word recognizer based on hidden Markov models (HMMs).

  4. Learning new vocabulary during childhood: effects of semantic training on lexical consolidation and integration.

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    Henderson, Lisa; Weighall, Anna; Gaskell, Gareth

    2013-11-01

    Research suggests that word learning is an extended process, with offline consolidation crucial for the strengthening of new lexical representations and their integration with existing lexical knowledge (as measured by engagement in lexical competition). This supports a dual memory systems account, in which new information is initially sparsely encoded separately from existing knowledge and integrated with long-term memory over time. However, previous studies of this type exploited unnatural learning contexts, involving fictitious words in the absence of word meaning. In this study, 5- to 9-year-old children learned real science words (e.g., hippocampus) with or without semantic information. Children in both groups were slower to detect pauses in familiar competitor words (e.g., hippopotamus) relative to control words 24h after training but not immediately, confirming that offline consolidation is required before new words are integrated with the lexicon and engage in lexical competition. Children recalled more new words 24h after training than immediately (with similar improvements shown for the recall and recognition of new word meanings); however, children who were exposed to the meanings during training showed further improvements in recall after 1 week and outperformed children who were not exposed to meanings. These findings support the dual memory systems account of vocabulary acquisition and suggest that the association of a new phonological form with semantic information is critical for the development of stable lexical representations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An Empirical Study of Applying Associative Method in College English Vocabulary Learning

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    Zhang, Min

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary is the basis of any language learning. To many Chinese non-English majors it is difficult to memorize English words. This paper applied associative method in presenting new words to them. It is found that associative method did receive a better result both in short-term and long-term retention of English words. Compared with the…

  6. Comparing Three Methods to Create Multilingual Phone Models for Vocabulary Independent Speech Recognition Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    Glass, et al.: Multilingual Spoken Language Under- ( multilingual clusters) and 5280 monolingual clusters. This standing in the MIT VOYAGER System...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP010392 TITLE: Comparing Three Methods to Create Multilingual Phone...METHODS TO CREATE MULTILINGUAL PHONE MODELS FOR VOCABULARY INDEPENDENT SPEECH RECOGNITION TASKS Joachim Kdhler German National Research Center for

  7. Vocabulary Teaching in Foreign Language via Audiovisual Method Technique of Listening and Following Writing Scripts

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    Bozavli, Ebubekir

    2017-01-01

    The objective is hereby study is to compare the effects of conventional and audiovisual methods on learning efficiency and success of retention with regard to vocabulary teaching in foreign language. Research sample consists of 21 undergraduate and 7 graduate students studying at Department of French Language Teaching, Kazim Karabekir Faculty of…

  8. The Effect of Keyword Method on Vocabulary Retention of Senior High School EFL Learners in Iran

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    Davoudi, Mohammad; Yousefi, Dina

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of keyword method, as one of the mnemonic strategies, on vocabulary retention of Iranian senior high school EFL learners. Following a quasi-experimental design, the study used thirty eight (n = 38) female senior high school students in grade four from two intact classes at a public high school. The…

  9. Supports for Vocabulary Instruction in Early Language and Literacy Methods Textbooks

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    Wright, Tanya S.; Peltier, Marliese R.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the extent to which the content and recommendations in recently published early language and literacy methods textbooks may support early childhood teachers in learning to provide vocabulary instruction for young children. We completed a content analysis of 9 textbooks with coding at the sentence level.…

  10. L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children: Effects of Learning Method and Cognate Status

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    Tonzar, Claudio; Lotto, Lorella; Job, Remo

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of two learning methods (picture- or word-mediated learning) and of word status (cognates vs. noncognates) on the vocabulary acquisition of two foreign languages: English and German. We examined children from fourth and eighth grades in a school setting. After a learning phase during which L2 words were…

  11. Relationship between Gender and Vocabulary Teaching Methodology among Iranian EFL Children: A Comparison of TPR and Direct Method

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    Nazgol Nekoui Naeini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study intended to examine the impact of methodology on EFL vocabulary learning of elementary school boys and girls. To achieve this end, 40 elementary female and male students aged 9-10 were selected from among 60 students studying at a language institute in Isfahan, Iran. The students were selected based on the results of an overall language proficiency test as a placement test that had been prepared by the institute that identified students' level of proficiency. They were further divided into two experimental groups. Next, a pretest was used to identify the number of words students knew before treatment. The experimental group A learned vocabulary through Direct Method and in the experimental group B students learned vocabulary through Total Physical Response. After 12 weeks of instruction a post-test was administrated to measure and compare the results of vocabulary learning of two groups after treatment. The data collected were put to statistical analysis using SPSS. The results of t-test showed the positive effect of TPR on learners’ L2 vocabulary knowledge. With regard to the impact of gender on learners’ L2 vocabulary knowledge, findings revealed that there were not any statistically significant differences between the male and female learners’ vocabulary score. Keywords: Total physical response, direct method, gender, vocabulary, Iranian EFL learners

  12. Training 101: Choose Your Method.

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    Rae, Leslie

    1994-01-01

    Discusses a variety of training methods including mentoring, lecture, video, computer assisted, and simulation. Suggests basic approaches to on-the-job training and tools to supplement the process. A chart compares 11 training technologies in terms of settings, interactivity, development time, costs, advantages, and disadvantages. (JOW)

  13. A Study on the Application of the Pictographic Memorizing Method in Se-nior High School English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张欢

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, upon the pictographic theory and the behaviorist theory, based on Xiang’s (2007) pictographic memoriz-ing method, the author designs the corresponding procedure of the senior high school English vocabulary teaching. This research results show that, the application of the pictographic memorizing method in senior high school English vocabulary teaching is fea-sible and the teaching effect is relatively good.

  14. VOCABULARY STRATEGIES AND VOCABULARY LEARNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This research is a comparative study of Chinese EFLgradutes′vocabulary strategies applied in their EGeneralAP(English for General Academic Purposes)and ESpecialAP(English for Special Academic Purpose)learning.Participantswere the first-year graduates of non-English major in ChinaPharmaceutical University(N=102).The present study uses ataxonomy of strategies developed by O’Malley and Chamot(1990),which was modified to more accurately reflectvocabulary strategies(altogether 31 sub-strategy variables within16 strategies).Analysis through SAS(Statistic Analysis System)on the collected date has revealed that:1)Learners apply more types of vocabulary stategies inEGeneralAP than in ESpecialAP vocabulary learning.2)Translation and Extensive Reading gain higher frequencyof application in ESpecialAP learning.3)11 vocabulary strategies strongly predict EGeneralAPvocabulary achievement and only 6 strategies strongly predictESpecialAp vocabulary achievement.At the end of the paper,some practical suggestions aremade for EFL graduate teachers to adjust their teaching targetand methods.

  15. Interactive College English Vocabulary Teaching

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    杨敏

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary learning is the foundation of language learning and the security to realize the language communication. However, vocabulary learning for many students is a difficulty which is hard to pass across. This paper attempts to explore the present vocabulary teaching reform, which aims to establish a teaching method that is to help students develop vocabulary learn-ing interest with the game.

  16. The digital history of the anglophone vocabulary of psychology: An exploration using Zipfian methods.

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    Benjafield, John G

    2016-05-01

    The digital humanities are being applied with increasing frequency to the analysis of historically important texts. In this study, the methods of G. K. Zipf are used to explore the digital history of the vocabulary of psychology. Zipf studied a great many phenomena, from word frequencies to city sizes, showing that they tend to have a characteristic distribution in which there are a few cases that occur very frequently and many more cases that occur very infrequently. We find that the number of new words and word senses that writers contribute to the vocabulary of psychology have such a Zipfian distribution. Moreover, those who make the most contributions, such as William James, tend also to invent new metaphorical senses of words rather than new words. By contrast, those who make the fewest contributions tend to invent entirely new words. The use of metaphor makes a text easier for a reader to understand. While the use of new words requires more effort on the part of the reader, it may lead to more precise understanding than does metaphor. On average, new words and word senses become a part of psychology's vocabulary in the time leading up to World War I, suggesting that psychology was "finding its language" (Danziger, 1997) during this period.

  17. How marketing vocabulary was evolving from 2005 to 2014? An illustrative application of statistical methods on text mining

    OpenAIRE

    Barahona, Igor; Hernandez, Daria Micaela; Perez-Villarreal, Hector Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Here a collection of 1169 abstracts, which corresponds to articles that the Journal of Marketing Research has published from 2005 to 2014, are analysed under a novel approach. We apply several statistical methods, such as Principal Components Analysis and Correspondence Analysis to identify the way Marketing vocabulary is evolving. Similarly those articles that introduce new vocabulary are identified and the preferred words by authors are also detected. In order to provide an easy-to-understa...

  18. Beginning Word Recognition: Benefits of Training by Segmentation and Whole Word Methods.

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    Levy, Betty Ann; Lysynchuk, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Compares effectiveness of four different methods for acquiring initial reading vocabulary--onset plus vowel, rimes, phoneme segmentation and blending, and simple repetition of whole words. Finds that beginning nonreaders acquired the trained words fastest in the onset and rime conditions, and most slowly in the whole word condition. Finds the same…

  19. THE VOCABULARY OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR TYPING AND STENOGRAPHIC TRAINING, RESEARCH FINDINGS AND IMPLICATIONS.

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    WEST, LEONARD J.

    THE SILVERTHORN BASIC VOCABULARY OF WRITTEN BUSINESS COMMUNICATION WAS REANALYZED IN ORDER TO FURNISH ACCURATE DIFFICULTY INDEXES FOR INSTRUCTIONAL AND TEST MATERIALS FOR STENOGRAPHERS AND TYPISTS. AMONG THE 11,055 DIFFERENT WORDS IN THE REANALYZED LIST, 109 OCCUR AT LEAST ONCE IN EVERY 1,000 WORDS. MEAN SYLLABIC INTENSITY (NUMBER OF SPEECH…

  20. 论大学英语词汇记忆策略培训%The Practic on the Training of the Strategy of College English Vocabulary Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冬玲

    2012-01-01

    大学英语词汇记忆策略培训实践一年后,试验班和非试验班学生的词汇能力有了区别,试验班学生的词汇及词汇应用水平比非试验学生高,从而说明词汇记忆策略培训对提高大学生词汇记忆能力的积极作用。%There is difference in the level of English vocabulary between experimental classes who have been trained on the Strategy of college English Vocabulary learning for a year and the classes without training of it.Both the amount of their vocabulary and the ability to use them are higher for the experimental classes.This shows that the training on the Strategy of college English Vocabulary learning is positive in enhancing college students' ability to learn and use English vocabulary.

  1. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THREE METHODS OF TRAINING INDUSTRIAL EXECUTIVES IN READING IMPROVEMENT (PH.D. THESIS).

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    JONES, DAN H.

    TO COMPARE THREE METHODS OF TRAINING FOR READING IMPROVEMENT, 56 EXECUTIVES OF ONE CORPORATION WERE DIVIDED INTO FOUR GROUPS, EQUATED ACCORDING TO READING RATE, READING COMPREHENSION, READING INDEX, MENTAL ALERTNESS SCORES, AGE, AND VOCABULARY. GROUP A WAS TRAINED WITH THE AID OF ALL AVAILABLE COMMERCIAL EQUIPMENT INCLUDING THE HARVARD FILMS, THE…

  2. TEACHING NEW VOCABULARY TO IRANIAN YOUNG FL LEARNERS: USING TWO METHODS TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE AND KEYWORD METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Toghyani Khorasgani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Early language learning for children is increasingly common, and the majority of parents and the public do not see it as superfluous or overburdening children. Moreover, teaching a foreign language to very young children has been an increasingly dominant trend in most globalized societies. While there is abundant literature that supports teaching a foreign language at an early age through language immersion programs, little is known about the efficiency of strategies used to explicitly teach new vocabulary words in a foreign language to young learners. This empirical investigation aimed to assess and compare the efficiency of two mnemonics that have been traditionally used to explicitly teach new foreign language words: the Keyword Method (KWM and the Total Physical Response (TPR. Results indicate that the KWM is more effective than TPR in teaching new vocabulary words in a foreign language to early elementary school children.

  3. Intensifying Training of Learning Strategies to Improve the Efficiency of Learning English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛艳平

    2011-01-01

    词汇是语言的基本要求。没有词汇,语言将不存在,所以外语学习离不开词汇学习,针对英语教学中学生在词汇学习上的"费时低效"问题,本文提出了有关词汇学习的一些策略,鼓励学生积极采用多种生动有趣的词汇学习奇招,令学生产生"出格"的联想,激发其英语学习兴趣,从而饶有兴趣的学习英语词汇。%Vocabulary is the basic element of language. Without it,language would no longer exist. Therefore,foreign language study is closely associated with vocabulary study.In the thesis, it is viewed that learning English vocabulary makes great contribution to t

  4. Teaching Vocabulary

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    Lessard-Clouston, M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary is central to English language teaching. Without sufficient vocabulary, students cannot understand others or express their own ideas. Teachers who find the task of teaching English vocabulary a little daunting are not alone! This book presents important issues from recent vocabulary research and theory so that teachers may approach…

  5. Teaching Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard-Clouston, M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary is central to English language teaching. Without sufficient vocabulary, students cannot understand others or express their own ideas. Teachers who find the task of teaching English vocabulary a little daunting are not alone! This book presents important issues from recent vocabulary research and theory so that teachers may approach…

  6. What Is Going on During Vocabulary Lessons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Mott

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been 9 years since the Congressionally appointed National Reading Panel made recommendations for literacy instruction that comprise a five-component framework of phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. Vocabulary, a critical pillar of literacy, has reciprocal and correlational relationships with reading achievement. The researchers piloted an observational instrument to determine the methods and materials K-3 teachers use to teach vocabulary in today’s classrooms. This brief evaluates a vocabulary observation tool the researchers developed to gather information from early childhood classroom settings in the midsouth region of the United States. Understanding materials utilized in various contexts will enable practitioners and researchers to address the significant disparity between vocabulary “haves and have-nots.” An examination of the instrument was conducted (n = 18 raters at 3 ratings apiece for 45 trials to determine reliability and validity of observations. Reliability was addressed via training with discussion and resolution of ratings from video of vocabulary instruction. Validity was analyzed via multidimensional scaling (MDS to visually portray ratings along the dimensions of student or teacher control. From this data, we were able to determine the number of possible senses (auditory, visual, kinesthetic, smell, and taste students used. Results indicated observer ratings (n = 45 clustered or separated material-type consistently indicating variance along both dimensions. The researchers are currently applying this piloted instrument in a large-scale study to depict teachers’ vocabulary material use. Understanding vocabulary materials and contexts of their use may lead to more effective vocabulary curriculum, instruction, and assessment.

  7. Coding Methods for the NMF Approach to Speech Recognition and Vocabulary Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Sun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at improving the accuracy of the non- negative matrix factorization approach to word learn- ing and recognition of spoken utterances. We pro- pose and compare three coding methods to alleviate quantization errors involved in the vector quantization (VQ of speech spectra: multi-codebooks, soft VQ and adaptive VQ. We evaluate on the task of spotting a vocabulary of 50 keywords in continuous speech. The error rates of multi-codebooks decreased with increas- ing number of codebooks, but the accuracy leveled off around 5 to 10 codebooks. Soft VQ and adaptive VQ made a better trade-off between the required memory and the accuracy. The best of the proposed methods reduce the error rate to 1.2% from the 1.9% obtained with a single codebook. The coding methods and the model framework may also prove useful for applica- tions such as topic discovery/detection and mining of sequential patterns.

  8. General Reviews of Vocabulary Retention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper will try to review two important theories (repletion and retrieval) which are crucial for vocabulary retention. These two methods are well connected and each of them cannot lead to successful vocabulary retention without sensible utilization of the other.

  9. Improvement of Drivers’ Training Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аltay А. Makenov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the evaluation of the activity of driving schools of Ust-Kamenogorsk city, the study of risk drivers and polling of driving schools students, which can be used for the improvement of drivers’ training methods

  10. Supporting Preschoolers' Vocabulary Learning: Using a Decision-Making Model to Select Appropriate Words and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine

    2012-01-01

    Young children learn new vocabulary with great agility and speed, but their learning is dependent on the range of words they are exposed to. Teachers can naturally facilitate children's vocabulary learning using a variety of strategies, including making conversation and posing thoughtful questions. But there is also an important role for direct…

  11. Talking about Cultural Elements in Vocabulary and English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jinjing

    2015-01-01

    By illustrating the significance of cultural elements in vocabulary and current situations in English vocabulary teaching,the author hope that English teachers can pay more attention to cultural elements behind the conceptual meanings of English words and change their method of teaching to motivate students' interest in vocabulary learning.

  12. Talking about Cultural Elements in Vocabulary and English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Jinjing

    2015-01-01

    By illustrating the significance of cultural elements in vocabulary and current situations in English vocabulary teaching,the author hope that English teachers can pay more attention to cultural elements behind the conceptual meanings of English words and change their method of teaching to motivate students’ interest in vocabulary learning.

  13. Vocabulary notebooks

    OpenAIRE

    KOZETA HYSO

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary notebooks are one way of promoting learner independence. Introducing vocabulary notebooks to provide the learners with an area of language learning where they could be given a relatively high level of independence that would build their confidence in their ability to act independently in terms of vocabulary learning. This article is focused on the effectiveness of keeping the vocabulary notebooks to empower the learner’s independence on their foreign language learning and also to e...

  14. Visualizing Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary can become tedious and a chore if it is approached as such. By making art terms and vocabulary meaningful, students will remember and use them for years to come. In this article, the author describes two vocabulary review projects that work wonderfully and create great works of art: (1) cursive creature rubbings; and (2) bubbling bodies…

  15. Visualizing Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary can become tedious and a chore if it is approached as such. By making art terms and vocabulary meaningful, students will remember and use them for years to come. In this article, the author describes two vocabulary review projects that work wonderfully and create great works of art: (1) cursive creature rubbings; and (2) bubbling bodies…

  16. Techniques for Vocabulary Teaching in Elementary English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽华

    2004-01-01

    All teachers know very well how important vocabulary is in learning language, but, for many years, vocabulary has all been neglected in language teaching. In this essay will try to introduce some practical and effective methods in presenting, practising,and consolidating vocabulary in elementary level in which, I wish, the elementary teachers may get some inspiration for their vocabulary teaching.

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF VOCABULARY JOURNAL IN TEACHING STUDENTS’ VOCABULARY MASTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Rakhmawati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research is to find out the influence of vocabulary journal as media in teaching student vocabulary at the eighth grade students of SMP Al-Fajar. The quantitative method was conducted and this research is a population research, because all the member of population is taken as sample, which consisted of 30 students of eighth grade. To collect the data, the writer used pre-test and post-test, then the vocabulary test was used as the research instrument. To know whether there is an influence, the writer analyzed the data by using paired-sample T-test.The result shows that there is significant influence of vocabulary journal in teaching students’ vocabulary mastery.Keywords: Influence, vocabulary journal, students’ vocabulary mastery

  18. The Effectiveness of TPR (Total Physical Response Method in English Vocabulary Mastery of Elementary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ice Sariyati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This research employed a mixed method, combining quantitative and qualitative methods. To achieve the aims of the study, quasi-experimental design was used, involving two groups (control and experiment at the first grade in one Islamic elementary school in Bandung and employing pretest, treatment (TPR method to experiment group, conventional method to control group and posttest. The result of control class score computation to compare pretest score with posttest score showed that there is no significant difference between the pre-test and post-test score of control class. On the contrary, the result of experiment class score computation to compare pretest score with posttest score showed that there was significant difference between the pretest and posttest score of experiment class. Therefore, it can be concluded that the vocabulary mastery of experiment group was significantly improved.   Penelitian ini menggunakan sebuah metode gabung, yang menggabungkan metode kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Untuk mencapai tujuan penelitian ini, desain quasi-eksperimental digunakan dengan melibatkan dua kelompok (kendali dan eksperimental di kelas satu sekolah dasar Islam di Bandung dan menggunakan pretes, perlakuan (metode TPR untuk kelompok eksperimental, metode konvensional untuk kelompok kendali dan postes. Hasil perhitungan nilai kelas kendali dengan membandingkan nilai pretes dan postes menunjukkan bahwa tidak ada perbedaan yang signifikan antara nilai pretes dan postes di kelas kendali. Sebaliknya, hasil perhitungan nilai kelas eksperimental dengan membandingkan nilai pretes dan postes menunjukkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan antara nilai pretes dan nilai postes di kelompok eksperimental. Oleh karena itu, dapat disimpulkan bahwa penguasaan kosakata dikelas eksperimental dapat meningkat secara signifikan.

  19. The Dimensional Approach to Vocabulary Testing: What Can We ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vocabulary constitutes an important component of language and its study has ... what testing under this approach has contributed to the teaching of vocabulary. ... of vocabulary size has led to standardisation of methods, as well as insight into ...

  20. The Differential Effects of Two Vocabulary Instruction Methods on EFL Word Learning: A Study into Task Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Elke

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effect of two vocabulary instruction treatments on word retention by 56 EFL learners. In particular, it focuses on the differential effects of a message-oriented treatment (reading text and answering comprehension questions) and a vocabulary-oriented treatment (reading text and performing two vocabulary tasks) on learners'…

  1. Vocabulary knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严爽

    2016-01-01

    Knowing a word refers to more than just a matter of knowing its form, meaning, pronunciation and spelling. It also refers to one's knowledge of the relationships the word is involved in, such as its collocations, semantic associations and so on. Words are not isolated entities. This paper focuses on vocabulary knowledge and helps us get an idea of what needs to be learned and the process of English vocabulary learning.

  2. Science and Literacy: Incorporating Vocabulary, Reading Comprehension, Research Methods, and Writing into the Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieser, K.; Carlson, C.; Bering, E. A.; Slagle, E.

    2012-12-01

    Part of preparing the next generation of STEM researchers requires arming these students with the requisite literacy and research skills they will need. In a unique collaboration, the departments of Physics (ECE) and Psychology at the University of Houston have teamed up with NASA in a grant to develop a supplemental curriculum for elementary (G3-5) and middle school (G6-8) science teachers called Mars Rover. During this six week project, students work in teams to research the solar system, the planet Mars, design a research mission to Mars, and create a model Mars Rover to carry out this mission. Targeted Language Arts skills are embedded in each lesson so that students acquire the requisite academic vocabulary and research skills to enable them to successfully design their Mars Rover. Students learn academic and scientific vocabulary using scientifically based reading research. They receive direct instruction in research techniques, note-taking, summarizing, writing and other important language skills. The interdisciplinary collaboration empowers students as readers, writers and scientists. After the curriculum is completed, a culminating Mars Rover event is held at a local university, bringing students teams in contact with real-life scientists who critique their work, ask questions, and generate excite about STEM careers. Students have the opportunity to showcase their Mars Rover and to orally demonstrate their knowledge of Mars. Students discover the excitement of scientific research, STEM careers, important research and writing tools in a practical, real-life setting.

  3. Considerations on Carrying Out Vocabulary Teaching Efficiently

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴白音那

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses current situations and some problems with vocabulary leaning confronted by students (especially Mongolian students) in Inner Mongolian, which should be solved urgently since the requirements of College English Teaching Curriculum are increasing, and it points out the improvement of vocabulary teaching strategies should become college English teachers' main concern. Finally, interesting methods of presenting vocabulary and effective ways of checking students' vocabulary are suggested ...

  4. 少数民族大学生英语(L3)词汇学习策略训练研究%A study of English Vocabulary Learning Strategy Training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐世昌; 曹艳春

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of English vocabulary learning strategy training on minority non-English majors whose English is learned as a third language. The result shows that English vocabulary learning strategy training is beneficial to heightening their awareness of metacognitive and cognitive strategies used in English vocabulary acquisition, improving their lexical learning ability and lexical memorizing skills..%文章旨在探讨少数民族非英语专业大学生英语词汇学习策略训练对英语词汇学习的影响。实验结果表明,英语词汇学习策略训练有助于增强少数民族大学生英语词汇元认知与认知策略意识,提高词汇水平和词汇记忆技能。

  5. Vocabulary Teaching Based on Semantic-Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangru, Cao

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary is an indispensable part of language and it is of vital importance for second language learners. Wilkins (1972) points out: "without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed." Vocabulary teaching has experienced several stages characterized by grammatical-translation method, audio-lingual…

  6. Cultivating Pragmatic Competence in English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘果果

    2007-01-01

    vocabulary is one of the most important elements of the language. It is closely related with context and pragmatic. This paper intends to find out some effective method of vocabulary teaching under the pragmatic principles, exploring how to improve pragmatic competence of students in English vocabulary teaching.

  7. Teaching English vocabulary memorizing method for exams for going abroad%出国考试类英语词汇记忆法教学初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵立书

    2013-01-01

      对于大多数中国学生而言,应对出国类考试(如托福、雅思等)最大的挑战就是短期内如何快速扩大词汇量。据此情况,结合笔者实际的词汇教学总结,笔者给出了三点词汇记忆法的学习和教学策略,希望能激起广大英语学习者词汇学习的热情,同时为英语词汇教学方向带来一点启示。%  For most Chinese students who are preparing for exams like TOEFL and IETLS, the most challenging aspect is how to enlarge vocabulary in a short time. Based on that, combined with the author’s actual vocabulary teaching experience, this article mainly offers three learning and teaching strategies of vocabulary memorizing methods. Hopefully, this article can inspire students to learn vocabulary and at the same time, bring some enlightenment to vocabulary teaching methods.

  8. Introduction to the Junior High School English Vocabulary Teaching Methods%浅谈初中英语词汇教学的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹有顺

    2014-01-01

    词汇是语言的三要素之一,如果没有词汇,任何形式的交流都无从谈起。有研究表明,一个人的词汇量越大,其阅读正确率就越高,其听力水平和写作水平也随之提高。由此可见,词汇是多么的重要。但是,词汇的学习却是大部分学生感到头疼的事情。因此,教师应当根据记忆规律和语言规律去有效地教学。根据教学实践和经验,就词汇教学的方法进行了探讨。%Vocabulary is one of the three elements of language, if there are no words, any form of communication is impossible. Research has shown that,the langer a person’s vocabulary,his reading accuracy is higher, the listening and writing level increases. Therefore, vocabulary how important it is. However, most students think vocabulary learning is the most headache thing. Therefore, teachers should according to the laws of memory and language to teach effectively.According to teaching practice and experience, the methods of vocabulary teaching are discussed.

  9. Teaching Vocabulary to Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily; Douglas, W. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Despite poor vocabulary outcomes for children with hearing loss, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of specific vocabulary teaching methods on vocabulary learning for this group. The authors compared three vocabulary instruction conditions with preschool children with hearing loss: (a) explicit, direct instruction; (b) follow-in…

  10. Teaching Vocabulary to Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily; Douglas, W. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Despite poor vocabulary outcomes for children with hearing loss, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of specific vocabulary teaching methods on vocabulary learning for this group. The authors compared three vocabulary instruction conditions with preschool children with hearing loss: (a) explicit, direct instruction; (b) follow-in…

  11. Analytical Methods for Trace Metals. Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on the theoretical concepts involved in the methods listed in the Federal Register as approved for determination of trace metals. Emphasis is on laboratory operations. This course is intended for chemists and technicians with little or no experience in analytical methods for trace metals. Students should have…

  12. he Use of Association in the Vocabulary Teaching in Middle School%he Use of Association in the Vocabulary Teaching in Middle School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹文亭

    2011-01-01

    Vocabulary is very important in the process of learning English. The gift of vocabulary will directly affect one' s gifts of listening, speaking, reading, writing and translating. How to teach vocabulary? There are many methods to teach vocabulary in Midd

  13. Palula Vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this volume is to provide a complement to Towards a grammatical description of Palula (Liljegren 2008). The 1460 main entries included in the present work are limited to those lexical items that are cited or exemplified in the aforementioned work. The work is the result of linguistic research in and with the Palula community (Pakistan). It contains much of the basic vocabulary used in today's Palula, presented along with illustrative example sentences, grammatical informat...

  14. 元认知策略训练指导下的大学英语词汇教学%On College English Vocabulary Teaching under the Guid-ance of Metacognitive Strategy Training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷卉

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to explore whether metacognitive strategy training can effectively help college English learners to improve their metacognitive ability, so as to effectively improve their vocabulary level. The result shows that, after metacognitive strategy training, students' metacognitive consciousness is strengthened, and their vocabulary level is obviously higher than that of students without metacognitive strategy training.%本文旨在探讨元认知策略训练能否有效地帮助大学英语学习者提高元认知能力,从而有效提高他们的词汇水平。结果表明在接受了元认知策略训练后,学生元认知意识得到加强,词汇水平明显优于没有经过元认知策略训练的学生。

  15. 初中英语词汇教学的方法与策略探究%Methods and Strategies Exploration of Junior English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何柳

    2014-01-01

    词汇作为语言的三要素之一,是语言的基本材料,在二语或外语习得中起着关键作用,其重要性得到了普遍认可。针对目前词汇教学方法单一乏味的现象,本文进行了研究与探讨,归纳了词汇教学中选词的标准和记忆原则,提出了各种词汇教学方法和激发学生学习兴趣的策略,从而实现学生综合运用语言能力得到提高的最终目标。%As one of the three elements of language, vocabulary is the basic material of language, plays a key role in the sec-ond or foreign language acquisition, and its importance has been widely recognized. For the current single boring vocabulary teaching methods were studied and discussed in this article, summed up the standards and principles of vocabulary teaching selected memory word, a variety of vocabulary teaching methods and strategies to stimulate student interest in learning, en-abling students to the integrated use of language skills get the ultimate goal of improving.

  16. 大学英语词汇教学方法和策略%On Methods and Strategies of College English Vocabulary Teaching and Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鹏; 周晓玲

    2014-01-01

    鉴于词汇习得在大学英语教学中的重要地位,本文就目前高校英语词汇教学现状,结合个人教学实践经验,具体阐述词汇教学方法和策略,目的在于引起高校教师对课堂词汇教学的重视并努力改进教学方法,以增加学生的英语学习兴趣和增强词汇记忆效果。%Due to the important status of vocabulary acquisition in college English language teaching, the authors propose some useful vocabulary teaching and learning methods and strategies in detail according to their own teaching practice and experience in order that college teachers will pay attention to vocabulary teach-ing in class and try to improve teaching methods so as to arouse the students' interest in learning English language and ensure in-creased retention of vocabulary.

  17. 浅谈高职数控英语词汇的教学重点和教学方法%Teaching Emphases and Methods of NC English Vocabulary in Higher Vocational Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯海娣

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary is one of the NC specialized English teaching emphases in higher vocational colleges. The NC specialized English is a highly practical course and of great application,meanwhile,it has great difference in vocabulary with ordinary English, there-fore, the teaching emphases and methods are also differ with those of ordinary English. In higher vocational colleges, the vocabulary teaching of NC English should combine with the students' English level, and take "practical training, standard pronunciation, polysemy and synonymy, common abbreviated term and special deformation" as the teaching emphases, use flexible teaching methods which are suitable for vocational college students to achieve better teaching effect.%词汇是高职院校数控专业英语教学的重点之一。数控专业英语实践性和应用性很强,并且与普通英语在词汇方面存在很大差异,因此数控专业英语词汇的教学重点和教学方法也与传统的英语词汇教学有所不同。在高职数控专业英语词汇教学中应结合高职学生的英语水平,把“注重实训应用、强化发音规范、讲解一词多义和同义词、识记常见缩略术语、分析词汇特殊变形”作为教学重点,采用适合高职学生的灵活教学方法,从而取得良好的教学效果。

  18. 浅谈化学专业英语的词汇教学方法%Discussion on Teaching Methods of Specialized Vocabulary in Professional English of Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽娟

    2016-01-01

    Mastering and using the specialized vocabulary is the foundation and of primary importance and difficulty in learning the professional English of chemistry. In accordance with the characteristics of the specialized vocabulary and considering the author's recent teaching experiences, several methods in specialized vocabulary teaching were discussed, trying to help the students grasp scientific mnemonics. Guided by the student-centered teaching idea, the aim of the teaching was to stimulate the students' interest in learning English, improve the education effect, and enlarge their vocabulary in professional English of chemistry effectively.%在化学专业英语学习中,词汇的掌握和运用是基础,也是重点和难点。本文针对化学专业英语专业词汇的词汇特点和构词规律,结合教学经验和体会,着重在教学方法上提出一些探索,帮助学生找出行之有效的记忆方法。教学过程中,坚持以学生为主体的教学思想,激发学生的学习兴趣,提高教学效果,使学生迅速有效地扩大化学专业英语的词汇量。

  19. 独立学院英语词汇实践教学方法研究%Research of English Vocabulary Teaching Methods in Dependent College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵喆

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary teaching is the foundation of English teaching. Vocabulary carries the basic language information. It is the paper concern issue that in college English teaching, what teaching method to use can be more effective in improving students' vocabulary and use efficiency. This article aims to study English teaching- derived law, associative law and induction law to improve the English vocabulary independence college students.%词汇教学是英语教学的基础,词汇承载着基本的语言信息。在大学英语课堂上,使用何种教学方法能更加有效地提高学生的词汇记忆和使用效率,是本论丈关注的问题。本文旨在通过研究英语词汇的教学方法即派生法、联想法、归纳法三种方法与提升课堂英语词汇教学效率等来促进独立学院学生的英语词汇学习。

  20. Training Methods and Training Instructors' Qualification Are Related to Recruits' Fitness Development During Basic Military Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Lilian; Hofstetter, Marie-Claire; Mäder, Urs; Wyss, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Adequate physical fitness is essential for successful military service. Military organizations worldwide therefore make continuous efforts to improve their army's physical training (PT) programs. To investigate the effect of the training methods and the qualification of PT instructors on the development of recruits' physical fitness, the present study compared the outcomes of 2 training groups. Both study groups participated in approximately 145 minutes per week of PT. The control group executed the standard army PT prepared and supervised by army PT instructors. Content of the PT in the intervention group was similar to that of the control group, but their training sessions' methods were different. Their training sessions were organized, prepared, and delivered by more and better-qualified supervisors (tertiary-educated physical education teachers). After 10 weeks of training, the participants of the intervention group experienced a significantly greater physical fitness improvement than those of the control group (positive change in endurance 32 and 17%, balance 30 and 21%, and core strength 74 and 45%, respectively). In both groups, the recruits with the lowest initial fitness levels significantly increased their performance. In the intervention group, but not the control, one-third of the recruits with the highest initial fitness levels were able to further improve their general fitness performance. This study demonstrates that the training methods and quality of instruction during PT sessions are relevant for recruits' fitness development in basic military training.

  1. The Application of Situation-based Method in Teaching Business English Vocabulary%基于情境的商务英语词汇教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊继英; 储春艳

    2015-01-01

    商务英语与一般英语的主要区别之一就是旧词新义和专业词汇的大量使用.因此,词汇是学习商务英语相关课程的关键.商务英语课堂以语言为工具,以商务为内容,学生在学习商务知识的过程中习得语言知识,此特点便于教师将词汇放在特定的商务情境中,让学生通过生动具体的情境习得词汇知识.该文基于情境教学理论,结合商务英语的特点,主要分析了如何以情境教学理念为指导有效地进行商务英语词汇教学.%One of the major differences between business English and general English is the special meaning of vocabulary and wide use of business jargons, which results in the significance of vocabulary study in learning business English courses. English be-ing the learning tool and business the learning content, a typical business English class enables students to acquire the language knowledge through the process of learning the business knowledge. This characteristic in turn facilitates the application of situa-tion-based method in teaching vocabulary, thus enabling the vocabulary acquisition to be produced in specific and vivid situations. Based on the situational teaching theory and the features of business English, this paper mainly analyzes how to effectively teach business English vocabulary under the guidance of situational teaching theory.

  2. Object Detection with Vocabularies of Space-time Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hernandez-Heredia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel framework for objects detection in security and broadcast videos. Our method assumes thatobject classes are unknown in advance and exploit the temporal-space properties of the videos for the creation of avocabulary that describes these classes. Local space-time features have recently became a popular video representationfor action recognition and object detection. Several methods for feature localization and description have been proposedin the literature and promising recognition results were demonstrated for a number of action classes.In this work we propose the use of different kinds of descriptors for the creation of vocabularies for different detectionobject task. For a better description of the videos we carry out a background model, tryring to clean up and follow theareas where there are objects. The points of interest in the videos to characterize the objects are calculated with atemporary variant of the famous Harris corner detector. With the descriptors obtained from the points of interest, avocabulary is realized usingthe kinds of videos we want to train. Then we obtained the frequency histogramsbetween the videos for training and the vocabulary so, with a binary classifier obtain the trained classes and followingthe same procedure without the vocabulary realized the detection and monitoring of the objects.The new method presented is also compared with a state of the art method, obtaining better results in both accuracyand false object rejection.

  3. On Using Very Large Target Vocabulary for Neural Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Jean, Sébastien; Cho, Kyunghyun; Memisevic, Roland; Bengio, Yoshua

    2014-01-01

    Neural machine translation, a recently proposed approach to machine translation based purely on neural networks, has shown promising results compared to the existing approaches such as phrase-based statistical machine translation. Despite its recent success, neural machine translation has its limitation in handling a larger vocabulary, as training complexity as well as decoding complexity increase proportionally to the number of target words. In this paper, we propose a method that allows us ...

  4. Problems with Ballet: Steps, Style and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Geraldine

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to instigate a debate about the way in which professional ballet dancers are trained and the content of that training. The literature on the teaching of ballet has always focused on two areas: ballet vocabulary and training. The former is treated as both a fixed and autonomous form, and, for the latter, methods of…

  5. The Impact of Gloss Types on Reading Comprehension, Vocabulary Gain and Vocabulary Retention: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Elekaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The significance and impact of vocabulary learning in reading comprehension and L2 language learning are apparent to teachers, researchers and language learners. Moreover, glosses are found as one of the most effective strategies regarding vocabulary retention. Therefore, the present study attempted to investigate the effect of different types of glosses on reading comprehension, vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. To this end, 140 Iranian EFL learners learning English were selected and were divided into four groups (footnote gloss group, interlinear gloss group, marginal gloss group, and glossary group. They were required to read a text and answer four reading comprehension questions. In addition, one immediate vocabulary post-test and one delayed vocabulary post-test were taken in order to investigate learners' vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. In order to analyze the data, one one-way ANOVA and one MANOVA were run. The results of one-way ANOVA revealed that participants who received interlinear glosses significantly outperformed the other groups regarding comprehending the text. Moreover, the immediate vocabulary post-test was conducted immediately after reading test and the delayed post-test was administered after four weeks. The results of MANOVA indicated that the group which received interlinear glosses outperformed the other groups in both vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. The present study has implications for teachers and learners. Teachers can find better methods to teach new reading passages as well as vocabulary items. Also, glosses help learners to have a better comprehension of difficult passages and they facilitate learning. Moreover, learners can enhance their vocabulary knowledge with the help of glosses. Keywords: footnote gloss, interlinear gloss, marginal gloss, glossary, Iranian EFL learners, reading comprehension, vocabulary gain, vocabulary retention

  6. English Vocabulary Teaching Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary is very necessary in language teaching and acquisition.If students have a certain amount of vocabulary,they will overcome many difficulties in reading.listening、 speaking and writing.In vocabulary teaching,scholars have been working hard to find better ways.This paper attempts to find how to improve students’ enthusiasm of learning vocabulary and teach vocabulary more successfully and effectively.

  7. Advanced Teaching Strategies of College English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭萍

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary teaching is an important part in English teaching, which purpose is to foster students to use learned words to conduct language communication, increasing the capability of language using in daily life. This paper analyzes the present condition and exposes the problems existing in English vocabulary teaching and learning, then, puts forward some scientific, effective strategies for the education of English vocabulary. I hope these teaching strategies can help teachers improve their teaching methods and help English learners acquire knowledge easily and efficiently.

  8. Methods for quantifying training in sprint kayak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Thiago Oliveira; Bullock, Nicola; Duff, Christine; Coutts, Aaron J

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the validity of the session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) method by comparing 3 different scales of perceived exertion with common measures of training load (TL). A secondary aim was to verify the relationship between TLs, fitness, and performance in Sprint Kayak athletes. After laboratory assessment of maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) and lactate threshold, the athletes performed on water time trials over 200 and 1,000 m. Training load was quantified for external (distance and speed) and internal (session-RPE: 6-20, category ratio [CR]-10 and CR-100 scales, training impulse [TRIMP], and individual TRIMP). Ten (6 male, 4 female) well-trained junior Sprint Kayak athletes (age 17.1 ± 1.2 years; V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak 4.2 ± 0.7 L·min) were monitored over a 7-week period. There were large-to-very large within-individual correlations between the session distance and the various heart rate (HR) and RPE-based methods for quantifying TL (0.58-0.91). Correlations between the mean session speed and various HR- and RPE-based methods for quantifying TL were small to large (0.12-0.50). The within-individual relationships between the various objective and subjective methods of internal TL were large to very large (0.62-0.94). Moderate-to-large inverse relationships were found between mean session-RPE TL and various aerobic fitness variables (-0.58 to -0.37). Large-to-very large relationships were found between mean session-RPE TL and on water performance (0.57-0.75). In conclusion, session-RPE is a valid method for monitoring TL for junior Sprint Kayak athletes, regardless of the RPE scale used. The session-RPE TL relates to fitness and performance, supporting the use of session-RPE in Sprint Kayak training.

  9. The Mnemonic Keyword Method: Effects on the Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriganjanavong, Vanlee

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to introduce the technique called "Mnemonic Keyword Method" ("MKM") to low proficiency English learners, and to explore the effectiveness of the method in terms of short-term and long-term retention. The sample was purposefully drawn from one intact class consisting of 44 students. They were…

  10. IMPROVING VOCABULARY TEACHING IN INTENSIVE READING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    IntroductionIn China,intensive reading is the main method for teaching English.One feature of the textbooks isthat they all have large quantities of new words in each text,so vocabulary is one of the mostimportant aspects of this course.Recently,I conducted a survey among students who entered thePetroleum University in Shandong.To the question‘What is the greatest problem in your Englishstudies?’,82 out of the t00 students answered-vocabulary.This,to some extent,suggests that ourapproaches to vocabulary teaching should be improved.This article explores more effective ways toteach vocabulary.It suggests the idea of classifying and grouping vocabulary items and how to teachthem differently.A series of task-based activities are recommended to present and review vocabulary.

  11. Teaching Vocabulary to Senior High School Student

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆梅

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with methods of teaching vocabulary to high school students. It mainly talks about that vocabulary learning should relate to cultural background, connotative meaning, and social meaning. In order to collect dependable and reasonable result, a survey was conducted in a high school. The result of survey shows that this method is acceptable.

  12. Teaching A Large Russian Language Vocabulary By The Mnemonic Keyword Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raugh, Michael R.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A method in two stages: (1) to associate the Russian word with an English word that sounds like the foreign word, (2) to form a mental image of the foreign word "interacting" with the English translation. (Author)

  13. Relationship between Gender and Vocabulary Teaching Methodology among Iranian EFL Children: A Comparison of TPR and Direct Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeini, Nazgol Nekoui; Shahrokhi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    The present study intended to examine the impact of methodology on EFL vocabulary learning of elementary school boys and girls. To achieve this end, 40 elementary female and male students aged 9-10 were selected from among 60 students studying at a language institute in Isfahan, Iran. The students were selected based on the results of an overall…

  14. A Mixed-Methods Approach to Investigating First- and Second-Language Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition through the Reading of Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Barry Lee

    2015-01-01

    Adult English-L1 (n = 20) and English-L2 (n = 32) experimental groups were given a novel containing nonce words to read within two weeks to investigate whether the reading of fiction can induce a state of incidental vocabulary acquisition. After reading, an unexpected meaning recall translation assessment measuring acquisition of 49 target nonce…

  15. Validation of the Training Benefit Forecasting Method: Recreational Vehicle Service Training. Training and Development Research Center: Project Number Six.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Richard A.; Geroy, Gary D.

    The validity of the Training Benefit Forecasting Method (TBFM) in a recreational vehicle service training setting was studied. Cost-benefit issues were associated with the Onan Service School change from a field-based Recreational Vehicle Generator Set training program to a customer-delivered self-instructional training program. Actual costs and…

  16. The Functions and Methods of Mental Training on Competitive Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jianshe

    Mental training is the major training method of the competitive sports and the main factor of athletes skill and tactics level.By combining the psychological factor with the current competitive sports characteristics, this paper presents the function of mental training forward athletes, and how to improve the comprehensive psychological quality by using mental training.

  17. Research on English vocabulary teaching based on frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Shi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The key to accurately grasp the semantics in the context is to grasp the vocabularies. Only mastering a lot of vocabularies, many methods will be available in the process of English vocabulary learning and memory, of which English vocabulary teaching based on frequency gradually becomes an English vocabulary learning method recognized by everyone. In English teaching process, this paper makes the current English learning form a more systematic and comprehensive context theory through the questionnaires and application for English context and frequency method in English teaching process, thus proposing a feasible teaching method for the overall grasp of English language.

  18. Toward the Automatic Identification of Sublanguage Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Stephanie W.; He, Shaoyi

    1993-01-01

    Describes the development of a method for the automatic identification of sublanguage vocabulary words as they occur in abstracts. Highlights include research relating to sublanguages and their vocabulary; domain terms; evaluation criteria, including recall and precision; and implications for natural language processing and information retrieval.…

  19. Hypermedia and Vocabulary Acquisition for Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of multimedia as a delivery tool for enhancing vocabulary in second-language classrooms. The mixed method design focused on specific techniques to help students acquire Spanish vocabulary and communication skills. The theoretical framework for this study consisted of second language theories…

  20. Mnemonic Vocabulary Instruction: Additional Effectiveness Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Joel R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Four experiments with 132 seventh graders, 162 eighth graders, 75 fourth graders, and 52 third graders compared the mnemonic keyword method with various other vocabulary learning strategies. Mnemonic keyword students outperformed sentence-context and free-study counterparts and generally outperformed others on tests of vocabulary usage. (SLD)

  1. Teaching English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝丹

    2014-01-01

    Grammar provides the overall patterns, and vocabulary is the material to put in the patterns. Without grammar we can convey a little, but without vocabulary we can convey nothing. Vocabulary teaching is an indispensable part of English curriculum. Art is a kind of creation. Teaching vocabulary artistically can make teachers and students build up created consciousness in teaching and learning vocabulary activities and teachers put their experience and emotions towards beauty into teaching activities to raise general vocabulary teaching activities to appreciation of beauty and creative activities, convert bitter into happy, tense into ease. Thus the non-intellectual factors like motive, interest, emotion, self-confidence and so on can be developed naturally and they will elaborate a great part in English vocabulary teaching. At the same time, the relationship between teachers and students can get improved fundamentally furthest and it pushes vocabulary teaching powerfully in turn.

  2. Using Lemony Snicket to Bring Smiles to Your Vocabulary Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arter, Lisa Maxwell; Nilsen, Alleen Pace

    2009-01-01

    Vocabulary instruction is addressed on two levels in this article: 1) the importance of direct teaching and 2) using the books of a popular children's series as examples to support these vocabulary lessons. Also addressed are specific methods of turning classrooms into places where vocabulary instruction is effective and enjoyable. Elements of…

  3. Discussion on English Vocabulary Teaching in Higher Vocational College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蓉

    2012-01-01

    Mastering vocabulary is one of the key factors for learning a language. Therefore, how to teach and help students acquire vocabulary is worth researching for every English teacher. This paper mainly provides some effective ways of teaching vocabulary and discusses how to implement these methods in higher vocational English teaching.

  4. Elementary Preservice Teachers' Science Vocabulary: Knowledge and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Sarah J.

    2013-03-01

    Science vocabulary knowledge plays a role in understanding science concepts, and science knowledge is measured in part by correct use of science vocabulary (Lee et al. in J Res Sci Teach 32(8):797-816, 1995). Elementary school students have growing vocabularies and many are learning English as a secondary language or depend on schools to learn academic English. Teachers must have a clear understanding of science vocabulary in order to communicate and evaluate these understandings with students. The present study measured preservice teachers' vocabulary knowledge during a science methods course and documented their use of science vocabulary during peer teaching. The data indicate that the course positively impacted the preservice teachers' knowledge of select elementary science vocabulary; however, use of science terms was inconsistent in microteaching lessons. Recommendations include providing multiple vocabulary instruction strategies in teacher preparation.

  5. Rote Memorization of Vocabulary and Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weidong; Dai, Weiping

    2011-01-01

    Rote memorization of vocabulary has long been a common way for Chinese students to learn lexical items. Cultural, educational background and traditional teaching practice in China are identified to be the factors that contribute to many students' heavy reliance on memorization as their sole approach to vocabulary learning. In addition to rote…

  6. Vocabulary learning : A study of students’ and teachers' attitudes towards English vocabulary learning in lower secondary school

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Therese

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate student and teacher attitudes towards English vocabulary learning and teaching. Secondary aims were to find out how a number of students learn new vocabulary and whether teachers prefer explicit or implicit teaching methods. The investigation was conducted by letting 75 students in two lower secondary schools and 24 teachers of English from different schools answer questionnaires about vocabulary learning and vocabulary teaching. The results show that ...

  7. On Vocabulary Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑洁

    2013-01-01

    An efficient vocabulary learning strategy can supply students with exact meanings and usage of words. There are many differences between Chinese and English,so the result of memorizing vocabulary by rote is always not good. The paper holds the Incidental Vocabulary Learning to improve the English ability.

  8. The Role of Primary Caregiver Vocabulary Knowledge in the Development of Bilingual Children's Vocabulary Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buac, Milijana; Gross, Megan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined the impact of environmental factors (socioeconomic status [SES], the percent of language exposure to English and to Spanish, and primary caregivers' vocabulary knowledge) on bilingual children's vocabulary skills. Method: Vocabulary skills were measured in 58 bilingual children between the ages of 5…

  9. A harmonized vocabulary for soil observed properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Bruce; Wilson, Peter; Cox, Simon; Vleeshouer, Jamie

    2014-05-01

    Interoperability of soil data depends on agreements concerning models, schemas and vocabularies. However, observed property terms are often defined during different activities and projects in isolation of one another, resulting in data that has the same scope being represented with different terms, using different formats and formalisms, and published in various access methods. Significantly, many soil property vocabularies conflate multiple concepts in a single term, e.g. quantity kind, units of measure, substance being observed, and procedure. Effectively, this bundles separate information elements into a single slot. We have developed a vocabulary for observed soil properties by adopting and extending a previously defined water quality vocabulary. The observed property model separates the information elements, based on the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Observations & Measurements model and extending the NASA/TopQuadrant 'Quantities, Units, Dimensions and Types' (QUDT) ontology. The imported water quality vocabulary is formalized using the Web Ontology Language (OWL). Key elements are defined as sub-classes or sub-properties of standard Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) elements, allowing use of standard vocabulary interfaces. For the soil observed property vocabulary, terms from QUDT and water quality are used where possible. These are supplemented with additional unit of measure (Unit), observed property (ScaledQuantityKind) and substance being observed (SubstanceOrTaxon) vocabulary entries required for the soil properties. The vocabulary terms have been extracted from the Australian Soil and Land Survey Field Handbook and Australian Soil Information Transfer and Evaluation System (SITES) vocabularies. The vocabulary links any chemical substances to items from the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) ontology. By formalizing the model for observable properties, and clearly labelling the separate elements, soil property observations may

  10. Measuring Vocabulary: An overview of four types of vocabulary tests

    OpenAIRE

    Helga Hilmarsdóttir 1985

    2010-01-01

    In this essay four types of vocabulary tests are examined and the focus is on the variety in vocabulary tests. The main incentive with writing this essay was to make an overview of vocabulary measurement tools and to examine whether there existed a standardized vocabulary test. In the first chapter an attempt is made to answer the question of what vocabulary knowledge is. Receptive and productive knowledge of vocabulary is discussed as well as the distinction of vocabulary into breadth and...

  11. 专业领域技术性英文词汇识别的多方法对比%Multiple Methods for Identifying Professional/Technical Vocabularies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔维霞; 王均松

    2014-01-01

    ln this study, five different methods have been used to select the professional/ technical words in aeronautical text. The five methods are using rating scale, using clues provided by writers, using technical dictionaries, vocabulary classification and keyword analysis. The author compared the five methods in terms of accuracy, efficiency and practicality, and the evaluation results showed that keyword analysis is based on corpus comparison and considered to be an ideal method but it stil has problems, such as failing to separate technical words from their col ocates. A hybrid method was proposed for identifying professional/ technical vocabulary.%以航空英语为例,采用信息检索领域常用的准确率、召回率等指标对四种常用的专业技术词汇识别方法(使用专业词典、借助语境线索、分类排除法和主题词分析法)的识别有效性进行评估。结果显示,上述几种方法的平均识别率均不高,完全依靠某一种方法来识别专业技术词汇不可避免地存在不足或缺陷,建议开展多方法相结合的综合研究。

  12. THE VOCABULARY SELF-COLLECTION STRATEGY:ENHANCING ACTIVE VOCABULARY THROUGH TOPICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    IntroductionThe majority of English courses books in China provide students with long lists of vocabulary attached tothe end of the texts.Since vocabulary is regarded as central to language learning.Students are supposedto memorise all the new words and expressions on which they will be tested.Teachers rarely considerwhich items may be students active vocabulary and which items may be students passive vocabulary.Therefore.they treat all the new words and expressions with an equal amount of time and care:andstudents tend to treat all the new items as active vocabulary.The consequence of this approach is often:students get bored of memorising the long lists:even if they succeed in memorising all the new items,they are usually still unable to use themactively.This inappropriate method of teaching vocabulary tends to make students lose interest inlearning.

  13. Is Marathon Training Harder than the Ironman Training? An ECO-method Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Lanao, Jonathan; Moreno-Pérez, Diego; Cardona, Claudia A; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Muñoz, Iker; Sellés, Sergio; Cejuela, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the absolute and relative training load of the Marathon (42k) and the Ironman (IM) training in recreational trained athletes. Methods: Fifteen Marathoners and Fifteen Triathletes participated in the study. Their performance level was the same relative to the sex's absolute winner at the race. No differences were presented neither in age, nor in body weight, height, BMI, running VO2max max, or endurance training experience (p > 0.05). They all trained systematically for their respective event (IM or 42k). Daily training load was recorded in a training log, and the last 16 weeks were compared. Before this, gas exchange and lactate metabolic tests were conducted in order to set individual training zones. The Objective Load Scale (ECOs) training load quantification method was applied. Differences between IM and 42k athletes' outcomes were assessed using Student's test and significance level was set at p Training Weekly Avg Time (IM 12.9 h ± 2.6 vs. 42k 5.2 ± 0.9), and Average Weekly ECOs (IM 834 ± 171 vs. 42k 526 ± 118) were significantly higher in IM (p Training Load and Training Time was superior for 42k runners when comparing ECOs (IM 65.8 ± 11.8 vs. 42k 99.3 ± 6.8) (p training time or load vs. Competition Time were superior for 42k (p Training Time/Race Time: IM 1.1 ± 0.3 vs. 42k 1.7 ± 0.5), (ECOs Training Load/Race Time: IM 1.2 ± 0.3 vs. 42k 2.9 ± 1.0). Conclusions: In spite of IM athletes' superior training time and total or weekly training load, when comparing the ratios between training load and training time, and training time or training load vs. competition time, the preparation of a 42k showed to be harder.

  14. Vision training methods for sports concussion mitigation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joseph F; Colosimo, Angelo; Ellis, James K; Mangine, Robert; Bixenmann, Benjamin; Hasselfeld, Kimberly; Graman, Patricia; Elgendy, Hagar; Myer, Gregory; Divine, Jon

    2015-05-05

    There is emerging evidence supporting the use vision training, including light board training tools, as a concussion baseline and neuro-diagnostic tool and potentially as a supportive component to concussion prevention strategies. This paper is focused on providing detailed methods for select vision training tools and reporting normative data for comparison when vision training is a part of a sports management program. The overall program includes standard vision training methods including tachistoscope, Brock's string, and strobe glasses, as well as specialized light board training algorithms. Stereopsis is measured as a means to monitor vision training affects. In addition, quantitative results for vision training methods as well as baseline and post-testing *A and Reaction Test measures with progressive scores are reported. Collegiate athletes consistently improve after six weeks of training in their stereopsis, *A and Reaction Test scores. When vision training is initiated as a team wide exercise, the incidence of concussion decreases in players who participate in training compared to players who do not receive the vision training. Vision training produces functional and performance changes that, when monitored, can be used to assess the success of the vision training and can be initiated as part of a sports medical intervention for concussion prevention.

  15. Basic Training Methods in Transition Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoljub KAVRAN

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In many education and training institutions in the Central and South Eastern European Transition Countries, training is generally understood as a system of formal courses, not entirely different from education. To a lesser extent, training is based on the flexible training needs analysis based, training modules, courses workshops and seminars. It typically emphasizes teaching rather than learning. It is usually a one-shot exercise for an individual rather than an sequence in continuing, sometimes lifelong learning process and finally, it is understood as something done to trainees by an expert who is regarded as unquestionable authority – otherwise the training is considered irrelevant. The trainer or lecturer should not normally be strongly opposed in the classroom environment. Dialogues, student initiatives, lively classroom discussion with strong counter argumentation are still not dominant.

  16. Enhanced Context Recognition by Sensitivity Pruned Vocabularies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    Language independent `bag-of-words' representations are surprisingly effective for text classification. The generic BOW approach is based on a high-dimensional vocabulary which may reduce the generalization performance of subsequent classifiers, e.g., based on ill-posed principal component...... transformations. In this communication our aim is to study the effect of sensitivity based pruning of the bag-of-words representation. We consider neural network based sensitivity maps for determination of term relevancy, when pruning the vocabularies. With reduced vocabularies documents are classified using...... a latent semantic indexing representation and a probabilistic neural network classifier. Pruning the vocabularies to approximately 20% of the original size, we find consistent context recognition enhancement for two mid size data-sets for a range of training set sizes. We also study the applicability...

  17. Effect of Use of Caricatures on Teaching Vocabulary in Teaching Turkish as Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Yakup

    2015-01-01

    Teaching vocabulary in teaching Turkish as Foreign language is important. Different methods are employed in teaching vocabulary. In this study the pre- and post-test results of experimental group where caricatures were used to teach vocabulary and control group where vocabulary items were taught without use of caricatures when teaching Turkish…

  18. Cognitive Training Using Self-Discovery Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joan W.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Attempted cognitive training of Raven's Progressive Matrices using guided self-discovery, but without directly providing strategies. Thirty-six older and 36 younger adults were pretested, underwent training, and were posttested. Found no significant difference in improvement between younger and older adults. Failed to find evidence for successful…

  19. Compression method based on training dataset of SVM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The method to compress the training dataset of Support Vector Machine (SVM) based on the character of the Support Vector Machine is proposed.First,the distance between the unit in two training datasets,and then the samples that keep away from hyper-plane are discarded in order to compress the training dataset.The time spent in training SVM with the training dataset compressed by the method is shortened obviously.The result of the experiment shows that the algorithm is effective.

  20. A Study of Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Vocabulary Revising for Underachiever in Senior 3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱晓敏

    2015-01-01

    Through questionnaire,strategies training and tests,the author concludes that,firstly,the high achievers of vocabulary are more likely to use meta -cognitive strategies,cog-nitive strategies and social strategies.In contrast,underachievers are likely to use some traditional ways like reciting and repeating;secondly,strategies training has a good impact on the undera-chievers’vocabulary ability;final y,the underachievers need to be trained to use social strategies,meta -cognitive strategies and cognitive strategies more often.And the training process re-quires special patience and creativities.This paper analyzes the application of vocabulary learning strategies in revision for senior underachieving students,hoping to provide some references for students and English teachers in senior high school.

  1. Training in Metacognitive Strategies for Students' Vocabulary Improvement by Using Learning Journals (Entrenamiento de estrategias metacognitivas para mejorar vocabulario a través de diarios de aprendizaje)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Itala

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of metacognitive strategies to help beginning young learners with difficulties increasing and retaining vocabulary. This was a qualitative study in which participants first went through metacognitive strategy instruction to provide awareness of learning strategies. Following this instruction, students underwent a…

  2. Vocabulary Learning Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Craven, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    The prominent role of vocabulary knowledge in second or foreign language learning has been recently recognized by theorists and researchers in the field. This article aims to provide a digest of recent research on vocabulary learning strategies specifically in the English as a foreign language context in Japan. In Japan where there is minimal exposure to English in daily life and where word knowledge is often tested, teachers should be informing learners about vocabulary learning strategies a...

  3. Tagging vs. Controlled Vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine; Petras, Vivien

    2015-01-01

    elements like core bibliographic data, controlled vocabulary terms, reviews, and tags to the retrieval performance. Our comparison is done using a test collection of over 2 million book records with information elements from Amazon, the British Library, the Library of Congress, and LibraryThing. We find...... that tags and controlled vocabulary terms do not actually outperform each other consistently, but seem to provide complementary contributions: some information needs are best addressed using controlled vocabulary terms whereas other are best addressed using tags....

  4. NASA thesaurus aeronautics vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The controlled vocabulary used by the NASA Scientific and Technical Information effort to index documents in the area of aeronautics is presented. The terms comprise a subset of the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus and its supplements issued through the end of 1990. The Aeronautics Vocabulary contains over 4700 terms presented in a hierarchical display format. In addition to aeronautics per se, the vocabulary covers supporting terminology from areas such as fluid dynamics, propulsion engineering, and test facilities and instrumentation.

  5. Food and Feed Commodity Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Feed Vocabulary was developed to consolidate all the major OPP Commodity Vocabularies into one standardized vocabulary. The EPA-preferred term is the only term that can be used in setting tolerances.

  6. Specifying the Construct of Academic Vocabulary: Functional and Discursive Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Damián Perales Escudero

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Models of academic vocabulary use need to address discursive and functional linguistics perspectives in order to enhance construct validity and authenticity in academic vocabulary assessment, particularly with regard to the testing of word families.Purpose of Study: To provide a clearer picture of academic vocabulary use that can inform the design of academic vocabulary testing by enhancing construct validity and authenticity.Method: A survey of the literature on academic vocabulary has been conducted to present various perspectives and their shortcoming. Then, findings from the functional linguistics and discourse analysis traditions with regard to vocabulary use are discussed. An example of a testing item incorporating functional perspectives on the use of derivatives within a lemma is presented.Conclusion: Incorporating functional and discursive findings related to the discourse-structuring functions of multiple derivatives of a single lemma may lead to more valid and authentic academic vocabulary tests and teaching practices.

  7. Fundamental Vocabulary Selection Based on Word Familiarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Kasahara, Kaname; Kanasugi, Tomoko; Amano, Shigeaki

    This paper proposes a new method for selecting fundamental vocabulary. We are presently constructing the Fundamental Vocabulary Knowledge-base of Japanese that contains integrated information on syntax, semantics and pragmatics, for the purposes of advanced natural language processing. This database mainly consists of a lexicon and a treebank: Lexeed (a Japanese Semantic Lexicon) and the Hinoki Treebank. Fundamental vocabulary selection is the first step in the construction of Lexeed. The vocabulary should include sufficient words to describe general concepts for self-expandability, and should not be prohibitively large to construct and maintain. There are two conventional methods for selecting fundamental vocabulary. The first is intuition-based selection by experts. This is the traditional method for making dictionaries. A weak point of this method is that the selection strongly depends on personal intuition. The second is corpus-based selection. This method is superior in objectivity to intuition-based selection, however, it is difficult to compile a sufficiently balanced corpora. We propose a psychologically-motivated selection method that adopts word familiarity as the selection criterion. Word familiarity is a rating that represents the familiarity of a word as a real number ranging from 1 (least familiar) to 7 (most familiar). We determined the word familiarity ratings statistically based on psychological experiments over 32 subjects. We selected about 30,000 words as the fundamental vocabulary, based on a minimum word familiarity threshold of 5. We also evaluated the vocabulary by comparing its word coverage with conventional intuition-based and corpus-based selection over dictionary definition sentences and novels, and demonstrated the superior coverage of our lexicon. Based on this, we conclude that the proposed method is superior to conventional methods for fundamental vocabulary selection.

  8. Individualized Early Prediction of Familial Risk of Dyslexia: A Study of Infant Vocabulary Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ao; Wijnen, Frank; Koster, Charlotte; Schnack, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    We examined early vocabulary development in children at familial risk (FR) of dyslexia and typically developing (TD) children between 17 and 35 months of age. We trained a support vector machine to classify TD and FR using these vocabulary data at the individual level. The Dutch version of the McArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (Words and Sentences) (N-CDI) was used to measure vocabulary development. We analyzed group-level differences for both total vocabulary as well as lexical classes: common nouns, predicates, and closed class words. The generalizability of the classification model was tested using cross-validation. At the group level, for both total vocabulary and the composites, the difference between TD and FR was most pronounced at 19-20 months, with FRs having lower scores. For the individual prediction, highest cross-validation accuracy (68%) was obtained at 19-20 months, with sensitivity (correctly classified FR) being 70% and specificity (correctly classified TD) being 67%. There is a sensitive window in which the difference between FR and TD is most evident. Machine learning methods are promising techniques for separating FR and TD children at an early age, before they start reading.

  9. Individualized Early Prediction of Familial Risk of Dyslexia: A Study of Infant Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ao; Wijnen, Frank; Koster, Charlotte; Schnack, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    We examined early vocabulary development in children at familial risk (FR) of dyslexia and typically developing (TD) children between 17 and 35 months of age. We trained a support vector machine to classify TD and FR using these vocabulary data at the individual level. The Dutch version of the McArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (Words and Sentences) (N-CDI) was used to measure vocabulary development. We analyzed group-level differences for both total vocabulary as well as lexical classes: common nouns, predicates, and closed class words. The generalizability of the classification model was tested using cross-validation. At the group level, for both total vocabulary and the composites, the difference between TD and FR was most pronounced at 19–20 months, with FRs having lower scores. For the individual prediction, highest cross-validation accuracy (68%) was obtained at 19–20 months, with sensitivity (correctly classified FR) being 70% and specificity (correctly classified TD) being 67%. There is a sensitive window in which the difference between FR and TD is most evident. Machine learning methods are promising techniques for separating FR and TD children at an early age, before they start reading. PMID:28270778

  10. Human resource training and development. The outdoor management method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THANOS KRIEMADIS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the age of international competition in today’s economy, companies must train their employees and prepare them for jobs in the future. There are many different types and educational approaches in human resource training, but the present study will focus on the Outdoor Management Development (OMD. For better understanding, the particular training method and the core stages of the training process will be examined and the definitions of OMD as an educational tool for management development will be presented. Basic theories and models will be analysed as well as the benefits earned and evaluation concerns about the effectiveness of such training programs.

  11. VOCABULARY TEACHING FOR NON—ENGLISH MAJORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    Introduction "How can we enlarge the students’ vocabulary?" This is a very essential problem in the teaching of Enslish as a foreign language for non-English majors in our college. Firstly, their English level is low, They are not only lack of linguistic patterns, grammar rules, but also vocabulary, Secondly, they have only three hours of intensive reading every week, They should pass 2-grade college English examination through two years studying of English. Thirdly, botn the teachers and students are in very passive position in English language teaching and learning. Almost every lesson begins with vocabulary, then text reading comprehension, and exercises, which based on the traditional method.

  12. Vocabulary Instruction: Software Flashcards vs. Word Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Mansouri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to language learning, vocabulary learning is the main activity focused on. Vocabulary learning is the main problem and also the goal of new language learners. It is one of the major problems that language learners encounter during learning a new language. Krashen (1989 (cited in Tokac, 2005 points out the role of vocabulary in a language by stating that most of the meaning in a language is carried by words. This is why people visiting a foreign country prefer to take their dictionaries with them rather than grammar books. And on the other hand, nowadays everything is connected to technology and language learning and teaching is not an exception. As Stockwell (2007 cites, vocabulary has been one of the most commonly taught language areas through technology in recent years. Integration of computer and second/foreign language teaching is admired by many researchers. It is clear that technology can help enhance the degree of vocabulary learning, but the point is that which computer assisted vocabulary learning can work better and would be more efficient? In this paper we will discuss and analyze the usage of two kinds of different ways of using technology and see which of the methods will work better. A comparison between vocabulary software flashcard and word clouds (Wordle on vocabulary learning (retention will be compared by the researcher. We will see that using which method will encourage learners more and they will do better with which kind of using technology? The study is carried out in Iran on 44 English learners. The result is really surprising. Both of the groups were interested in technology, but one group did really better. Keywords: CALL, CAVL, Software flashcard, Word Clouds, Wordle, Vocabulary learning

  13. Novel training methods for robotic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Sun

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The use of these different entities to create a standardized curriculum for robotic surgery remains elusive. Selection of training modalities and assessment tools should be based upon performance data-based validity and practical feasibility. Comparative assessment of different modalities (cross-modality validity can help strengthen the development of common skill sets. Constant data collection must occur to guide continuing curriculum improvement.

  14. TEACHING VOCABULARY THROUGH SENTENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    irfan tosuncuoglu

    2015-12-01

    Almost every teacher is certain about that vocabulary is an important facet of learning a second language. It may be more important than grammar, at least in so far as this concerns communication , and particularly in the early stages when learners seem to understand that amassing a basic vocabulary is very important to fluency in another language. As a rule, receptive vocabulary exceeds productive vocabulary and why listening with comprehension and speaking with comprehension are two very different things—the latter a more difficult cognitive process than the former. Furthermore, vocabulary acquisition is highly idiosyncratic and depends largely on the learner and her or his individual learning styles and cognitive abilities. No two people learn alike. In particular, as understanding and fluency increases,  individual interests and even needs will change, which then requires teacher-assisted guidance and remediation vis-à-vis the compilation of a specified and nuanced vocabulary that is tailored to the learner’s more practical linguistic needs, whatever these might be. In this case, new vocabulary items are more likely to be recalled and communicative. Essential to such an approach to teaching vocabulary acquisition, it is argued here, is exposure to authentic language, that is, reading, writing, listening, and speaking in class that both engages the visual, tactile, and aural-oral senses and imprints. In the case of texts, it is paramount that the comprehension level be such that the learner can guestimate with a nigh degree of accuracy the meaning and proper usage of new vocabulary items without a dictionary and thus from their context. And the more often these new vocabulary items appear, the more likely it is that their full meaning will be understood and committed to memory.  For that reason we wanted to make use of sentences in vocabulary teaching.

  15. Discussion about English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenxia Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Vocabulary becomes more and more crucial in English learning.The article depicts six main domains about the mastery and enlargement of vocabulary,and they are motivation and aim,major fields,word,ways,radiation,and concrete execution respectively.

  16. Building Mathematics Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarik, Madeline

    2010-01-01

    Although mathematics is visual language of symbols and numbers it is also expressed and explained through written and spoken words. For students to excel in mathematics, they must recognize, comprehend and apply the requisite vocabulary. Thus, vocabulary instruction is as critical in content areas as it is in language arts. It is especially…

  17. The Superlearning of Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmer, H. Thompson

    1983-01-01

    Describes the use of Georgi Lozanov's technique using rhythm, breathing, music, and meditation to bring about hypermnesia, or supermemory, to teach vocabulary to 15 university students. Reviews students' vocabulary gains, as seen in pre- and post-test scores, and describes how some students implemented superlearning techniques with their own…

  18. Vocabularies in the VO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A. J. G.; Gray, N.; Ounis, I.

    2009-09-01

    There are multiple vocabularies and thesauri within astronomy, of which the best known are the 1993 IAU Thesaurus and the keyword list maintained by A&A, ApJ and MNRAS. The IVOA has agreed on a standard for publishing vocabularies, based on the W3C skos standard, to allow greater automated interaction with them, in particular on the Web. This allows links with the Semantic Web and looks forward to richer applications using the technologies of that domain. Vocabulary-aware applications can benefit from improvements in both precision and recall when searching for bibliographic or science data, and lightweight intelligent filtering for services such as VOEvent streams. In this paper we present two applications, the Vocabulary Explorer and its companion the Mapping Editor, which have been developed to support the use of vocabularies in the Virtual Observatory. These combine Semantic Web and Information Retrieval technologies to illustrate the way in which formal vocabularies might be used in a practical application, provide an online service which will allow astronomers to explore and relate existing vocabularies, and provide a service which translates free text user queries into vocabulary terms.

  19. Content Area Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Students' vocabulary knowledge is a significant predictor of their overall comprehension. The Common Core State Standards are raising the expectations for word learning and there are now 4 distinct standards related to vocabulary as well as expectations in other standards, including content areas. To address these expectations, teachers need…

  20. Effects of Hierarchy Vocabulary Exercises on English Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Ying; Hsu, Wei Shu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of hierarchy vocabulary exercises and copying vocabulary exercises on EFL students' vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension. Two specific factors were probed: (a) vocabulary gains and retention from different exercises; (b) reading comprehension performance through different…

  1. The usage of network vocabulary among college students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MlAO Xi-song; CHEN Tong

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To understand that college students how to use vocabulary on the network, the practicability of network vocabulary among college students, as well as the factors affecting the network vocabulary used. Methods: This study extracted 2500 college students of several universities in Yunnan Province as experimental subjects. Using non-experimental research methods to study the awareness,usage and practicability of the network vocabulary. Results: The number of the results of this study based on the analysis of 2500 college students ,the basic vocabulary to identify the network has 2426, accounting for 97.04% of the total number, which has 33.44 percent of the students fully understand the vocabulary of the network. While only 2.96 percent of the students do not understand the network vocabulary. Conclusion: The network vocabulary is vivid, straightforward, humorous, and fashionable. Thus it is popular among students. Students have strong awareness of network vocabulary. Besides the usage of network vocabulary is higher and it’s practical among college students.

  2. Weight-training injuries. Common injuries and preventative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, L J; Yetman, R J; Risser, W L

    1993-07-01

    The use of weights is an increasingly popular conditioning technique, competitive sport and recreational activity among children, adolescents and young adults. Weight-training can cause significant musculoskeletal injuries such as fractures, dislocations, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, intervertebral disk herniation, and meniscal injuries of the knee. Although injuries can occur during the use of weight machines, most apparently happen during the aggressive use of free weights. Prepubescent and older athletes who are well trained and supervised appear to have low injury rates in strength training programmes. Good coaching and proper weightlifting techniques and other injury prevention methods are likely to minimise the number of musculoskeletal problems caused by weight-training.

  3. Supplements to Traditional Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    布亚男

    2012-01-01

      In a word, Vocabulary plays an indispensable part in language proficiency and provides much of the basis of how wel learns language, so it cannot be ignored. I discussed Schools’ viewpoints on the vocabulary teaching ,Reason for forgetting, Traditional approach to vocabulary teaching, supplements to vocabulary teaching,the author hope the above content can offer some hints for language learners.

  4. The Effects of Reading Aloud on Vocabulary Development. Teacher Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings-Gongora, Brenda

    1993-01-01

    Examines the effects of training Spanish-speaking parents in read-aloud techniques on the Spanish vocabulary development of their children aged five and six. Although not statistically significant, the results seem to favor the group that received training for five weeks versus a control group. The training increased parental involvement and had…

  5. Total and Conceptual Vocabulary in Spanish-English Bilinguals from 22 to 30 Months: Implications for Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Core, Cynthia; Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Senor, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Vocabulary assessment holds promise as a way to identify young bilingual children at risk for language delay. This study compares 2 measures of vocabulary in a group of young Spanish-English bilingual children to a single-language measure used with monolingual children. Method: Total vocabulary and conceptual vocabulary were used to…

  6. Total and Conceptual Vocabulary in Spanish-English Bilinguals from 22 to 30 Months: Implications for Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Core, Cynthia; Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Senor, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Vocabulary assessment holds promise as a way to identify young bilingual children at risk for language delay. This study compares 2 measures of vocabulary in a group of young Spanish-English bilingual children to a single-language measure used with monolingual children. Method: Total vocabulary and conceptual vocabulary were used to…

  7. The Bonny Method: Training Innovations at Anna Maria College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Anne Abbott

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the 1970s, Helen Bonny developed the Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music for use as a primary process of receptive music psychotherapy in long-term therapy. Training programs in the method traditionally taught it for use in this manner. Over the last two decades, however, modifications of the Bonny Method for use in short term therapy have inspired innovations in training. As a part of this movement, the Anna Maria College training program is innovative in three main areas: a the music and imagery methods used to train students, b the processes of personal development in which students are engaged, and c the processes used for distance supervision and peer interaction.

  8. Comparing the Precision of Information Retrieval of MeSH-Controlled Vocabulary Search Method and a Visual Method in the Medline Medical Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Nadjla; Ravandi, Somayyeh Nadi

    2014-01-01

    Medline is one of the most important databases in the biomedical field. One of the most important hosts for Medline is Elton B. Stephens CO. (EBSCO), which has presented different search methods that can be used based on the needs of the users. Visual search and MeSH-controlled search methods are among the most common methods. The goal of this research was to compare the precision of the retrieved sources in the EBSCO Medline base using MeSH-controlled and visual search methods. This research was a semi-empirical study. By holding training workshops, 70 students of higher education in different educational departments of Kashan University of Medical Sciences were taught MeSH-Controlled and visual search methods in 2012. Then, the precision of 300 searches made by these students was calculated based on Best Precision, Useful Precision, and Objective Precision formulas and analyzed in SPSS software using the independent sample T Test, and three precisions obtained with the three precision formulas were studied for the two search methods. The mean precision of the visual method was greater than that of the MeSH-Controlled search for all three types of precision, i.e. Best Precision, Useful Precision, and Objective Precision, and their mean precisions were significantly different (P EBSCO Medline host than to use the controlled method, which requires users to use special keywords. The potential reason for their preference was that the visual method allowed them more freedom of action.

  9. Linking open vocabularies

    CERN Document Server

    Greifender, Elke; Seadle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Linked Data (LD), Linked Open Data (LOD) and generating a web of data, present the new knowledge sharing frontier. In a philosophical context, LD is an evolving environment that reflects humankinds' desire to understand the world by drawing on the latest technologies and capabilities of the time. LD, while seemingly a new phenomenon did not emerge overnight; rather it represents the natural progression by which knowledge structures are developed, used, and shared. Linked Open Vocabularies is a significant trajectory of LD. Linked Open Vocabularies targets vocabularies that have traditionally b

  10. Training Methods for Image Noise Level Estimation on Wavelet Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Stefano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of the standard deviation of noise contaminating an image is a fundamental step in wavelet-based noise reduction techniques. The method widely used is based on the mean absolute deviation (MAD. This model-based method assumes specific characteristics of the noise-contaminated image component. Three novel and alternative methods for estimating the noise standard deviation are proposed in this work and compared with the MAD method. Two of these methods rely on a preliminary training stage in order to extract parameters which are then used in the application stage. The sets used for training and testing, 13 and 5 images, respectively, are fully disjoint. The third method assumes specific statistical distributions for image and noise components. Results showed the prevalence of the training-based methods for the images and the range of noise levels considered.

  11. Incidental Vocabulary Learning in Second Language Acquisition: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falcon Dario Restrepo Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This literature review aims to analyze previous studies that address the incidental learning of vocabulary in second language acquisition. The articles included in this literature review look into the understanding of vocabulary learning through incidental means, the relationship of reading and incidental vocabulary learning, and the strategies and tasks that promote the incidental learning of vocabulary. The findings show that L2 learners develop much of their vocabulary by incidental means through exposure to words in informative contexts. Moreover, this exposure is promoted by reading, and enhanced through multimodal glosses. Further research may focus on listening for higher lexical retention rates, the circumstances that allow incidental learning of multi-word phrases and collocations, and the use of technology-based methods for incidental vocabulary acquisition.

  12. Cross-Country Skiing Injuries and Training Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Kyle B

    2015-01-01

    Cross-country skiing is a low injury-risk sport that has many health benefits and few long-term health risks. Some concern exists that cross-country skiing may be associated with a higher incidence of atrial fibrillation; however, mortality rates among skiers are lower than those among the general population. While continuing to emphasize aerobic and anaerobic training, training methods also should promote ski-specific strength training to increase maximum force and its rate of delivery and to build muscular endurance to maintain that power through a race. Multiple tests are available to monitor training progress. Which tests are most appropriate depends on the specific events targeted. In addition to laboratory-based tests, there also are many simpler, more cost-effective tests, such as short time trials, that can be used to monitor training progress and predict performance particularly at the junior skier level where access and cost may be more prohibitive.

  13. Marine Navigational Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠灵

    2014-01-01

    Every industry has its professional terms or particular use of common words. The marine industry is no exception. This paper attempts to give a brief introduction to the elementary vocabularies related to marine industry from six aspects: types of ships;ship’s structure and equipment, manning, logbook, safety and organizations concerned. The corresponding Chinese terms is given simultaneously. It concludes that a good master of these vocabularies is useful and necessary for Chinese seafarers whose native language is not English.

  14. Vocabulary teaching strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐桂荣

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary has always been one of the significant issues related both with teachers and learners of foreign languages. How to teach vocabulary efficiency? Teachers should choose proper ways to instruct words. Many teachers often write new words they want to teach on the blackboard and then explain them one by one. It makes students feel bored. This paper will summarize some teaching approaches that are better on teaching English words.

  15. The Temporal Effect of Training Utility Perceptions on Adopting a Trained Method: The Role of Perceived Organizational Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madera, Juan M.; Steele, Stacey T.; Beier, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the temporal effect of perceived training utility on adoption of a trained method and how perceived organizational support influences the relationship between perceived training utility perceptions and adoption of a trained method. With the use of a correlational-survey-based design, this longitudinal study required…

  16. New Learning Methods for Marine Oil Spill Response Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justiina Halonen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Finland the Regional Fire and Rescue Services (RFRS are responsible for near shore oil spill response and shoreline cleanup operations. In addition, they assist in other types of maritime incidents, such as search and rescue operations and fire-fighting on board. These statutory assignments require the RFRS to have capability to act both on land and at sea. As maritime incidents occur infrequently, little routine has been established. In order to improve their performance in maritime operations, the RFRS are participating in a new oil spill training programme to be launched by South-Eastern Finland University of Applied Sciences. This training programme aims to utilize new educational methods; e-learning and simulator based training. In addition to fully exploiting the existing navigational bridge simulator, radio communication simulator and crisis management simulator, an entirely new simulator is developed. This simulator is designed to model the oil recovery process; recovery method, rate and volume in various conditions with different oil types. New simulator enables creation of a comprehensive training programme covering training tasks from a distress call to the completion of an oil spill response operation. Structure of the training programme, as well as the training objectives, are based on the findings from competence and education surveys conducted in spring 2016. In these results, a need for vessel maneuvering and navigation exercises together with actual response measures training were emphasized. Also additional training for maritime radio communication, GMDSS-emergency protocols and collaboration with maritime authorities were seemed important. This paper describes new approach to the maritime operations training designed for rescue authorities, a way of learning by doing, without mobilising the vessels at sea.

  17. A Study of Association Strategies in Middle School Vocabulary Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜

    2013-01-01

    English for a long time, they still find their vocabulary insufficient. Because of the lack of vocabulary, they cannot understand the meaning of a sentence or cannot understand what others say. And their desire to learn is very strong. Therefore, possessing the efficient strategies of vocabulary learning is especially important. From this point, according to the investigation, this paper is intended to discuss the efficiency of the association methods in middle school vocabulary learning. Only when teachers adopt the appropriate strategies can they make a productive classroom teaching and arouse students’ learning interest.

  18. Efficient Training Methods for Conditional Random Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Learning (ICML), 2007. [63] Bruce G. Lindsay. Composite likelihood methods. Contemporary Mathematics, pages 221–239, 1988. 189 [64] Yan Liu, Jaime ...Conference on Machine Learning (ICML), pages 737–744, 2005. [107] Erik F. Tjong Kim Sang and Sabine Buchholz. Introduction to the CoNLL-2000 shared task

  19. Methods of Physical Recreation of Students Trained in Kickboxing Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. А. Пашкевич

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing sports massage in recreation of kickboxing students to improve their sports performance. Materials and methods. The research used: review and analysis of literature, pedagogical observations, physiological (relay test, strength endurance test, fatigue intensity assessment and statistical methods. The participants of the research were three groups (5 persons in each group. The first group of students (C1 received preliminary warming massage (20 min, the second group (C2 received recreational massage after the training (20 min, the third group (C3 had passive rest before and after the training (20 min. Before and after the massage session, assessment of the response rate and strength endurance took place three times during the training (at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end with regard to the level of the students’ fatigue intensity during the training. For the rough evaluation of the cause-effect relationship between the influencing factor and the effect appearance, the research used the relative risk indicator (RR. Research results. The sports massage reduced the athletes’ fatigue during the training (RR = 5.0, p < 0.05, i.e. the coach could increase the training load without any significant impact on the functional systems of the athletes. The preliminary massage had a more distinct positive effect on the students’ response rate and endurance indicators. The recreational massage improved only the students’ endurance processes during the training.

  20. A Study of English Vocabulary Learning Methods of the Students Majoring in English of Sanda University from the Perspectives of Psychological Factors%A Study of English Vocabulary Learning Methods of the Students Majoring in English of Sanda University from the Perspectives of Psychological Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶文琦

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Language is a very important communicative tool that people all around the world can use to convey the meanings of their intention. In order to learn a language, vocabulary, the building material, is a very essential element. It is one of the three basic components of language which are called pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar, and is of utmost importance to people' s communication and language learning. Language emerges first as words, and the coining of new words never stops. Pronunciation and grammar are presented by vocabulary. The British applied linguist David Wilkins (1972) once summed up the utmost importance of vocabulary in his book Linguistics and Language Teaching: Without grammar very little can be conveyed ; but without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed. This sentence in his book clearly stands out the significance of vocabulary to language learning.

  1. The Effectiveness of Strategies-based Instruction on Postgraduates' English Vocabulary Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蕾

    2008-01-01

    This ten-week quasi-experimental study was undertaken to explore the effectiveness of strategies-based vocabulary instruction on English vocabulary learning of postgraduate learners.By the questionnaires and vocabulary tests administered before and after the instruction, the experimental group and the control group were compared to find out whether reading comprehension plus SBI method was more effective than reading only method in postgraduates' English vocabulary learning.

  2. Improved Training Method for Rapid Rehabilitation of Amputees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    transtibial or transfemoral amputation at the Naval Medical Center San Diego. The training was a secondary rehabilitation program, implemented after...indicate that task-specific training is an effective rehabilitation method to reduce falls in warfighters with lower limb amputations . 15. SUBJECT...are at risk for diminished quality of life. The goal of this research effort was to rehabilitate warfighters with a lower extremity amputation to

  3. Age of acquisition effects in vocabulary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Shekeila D; Havelka, Jelena

    2010-11-01

    Two experiments examined whether the age of acquisition (AoA) of a concept influences the speed at which native English speakers are able to name pictures using a newly acquired second language (L2) vocabulary. In Experiment 1, participants were taught L2 words associated with pictures. In Experiment 2 a second group of participants were taught the same words associated with L1 translations. Following training both groups performed a picture naming task in which they were asked to name pictures using the newly acquired words. Significant AoA effects were observed only in Experiment 1, in that participants were faster at naming pictures representing early acquired relative to late acquired concepts. The results suggest that the AoA of a concept can exert influence over processing which is independent of the AoA of the word form. The results also indicate that different training methods may lead to qualitative differences in the nature of the links formed between words and concepts during the earliest stages of second language learning.

  4. A method for selecting training samples based on camera response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leihong; Li, Bei; Pan, Zilan; Liang, Dong; Kang, Yi; Zhang, Dawei; Ma, Xiuhua

    2016-09-01

    In the process of spectral reflectance reconstruction, sample selection plays an important role in the accuracy of the constructed model and in reconstruction effects. In this paper, a method for training sample selection based on camera response is proposed. It has been proved that the camera response value has a close correlation with the spectral reflectance. Consequently, in this paper we adopt the technique of drawing a sphere in camera response value space to select the training samples which have a higher correlation with the test samples. In addition, the Wiener estimation method is used to reconstruct the spectral reflectance. Finally, we find that the method of sample selection based on camera response value has the smallest color difference and root mean square error after reconstruction compared to the method using the full set of Munsell color charts, the Mohammadi training sample selection method, and the stratified sampling method. Moreover, the goodness of fit coefficient of this method is also the highest among the four sample selection methods. Taking all the factors mentioned above into consideration, the method of training sample selection based on camera response value enhances the reconstruction accuracy from both the colorimetric and spectral perspectives.

  5. Effects of different strength training methods on postexercise energetic expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Rodrigo Lavinas; Brentano, Michel Arias; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2010-08-01

    Although many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of strength training in increasing energetic expenditure (EE) both during and after training sessions, there are no studies available that analyze the influence on EE of the order in which exercises are performed. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to verify whether the order in which exercises are performed, represented by 2 different methods of strength training (circuit [CT] and pre-exhaustion [PE]), influences the magnitude of the excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) as well as the EE. Eight nonstrength-trained women participated in the study. Two strength training sessions, with different orders of execution, were held with 7 exercises performed with loads of between 50% and 55% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). The oxygen uptake was measured before the training sessions, and the difference between the values found was taken as the EPOC of each training session and used in later analysis. No significant differences were found in either the EPOC (CT: 7.19 L +/- 6.17 an. PE: 7.22 +/- 5.84 L) or the postexercise EE (CT: 34.67 +/- 29.76 Kcal, PE: 34.77 +/- 28.15 Kcal) of the 2 training methodologies. Our results indicate that, in strength training, the magnitude of the EPOC is not linked to the order in which the exercises are performed. However, the absence of recovery periods between the sets and the exercises promotes an increase in the magnitude of the EPOC to the levels found in training sessions with higher percentages of 1RM.

  6. Teaching Training Method of a Lower Limb Rehabilitation Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfei Feng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new lower limb rehabilitation robot (hereafter, referred to as LLR-Ro to help patients with lower limb disorder recover their movement function. Based on the ergonomics and kinematics principle, the motion of a human lower limb is analysed, which provides a theoretical basis for the leg mechanism design of LLR-Ro. This paper also proposes a teaching training method for improving the training performance of LLR-Ro. When a physician trains the lower limb of a patient, the acceleration data of the patient's lower limb motion will be collected through a wireless data acquisition system. The data can reproduce the movement trajectory of the physician rehabilitation training and this can be used as the training trajectory of LLR-Ro. The experiment results of this study demonstrate that the teaching training method is feasible. The theory analysis and experimental research of LLR-Ro lay the foundations for the future clinical application of this method.

  7. Teaching Training Method of a Lower Limb Rehabilitation Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfei Feng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new lower limb rehabilitation robot (hereafter, referred to as LLR-Ro to help patients with lower limb disorder recover their movement function. Based on the ergonomics and kinematics principle, the motion of a human lower limb is analysed, which provides a theoretical basis for the leg mechanism design of LLR-Ro. This paper also proposes a teaching training method for improving the training performance of LLR-Ro. When a physician trains the lower limb of a patient, the acceleration data of the patient’s lower limb motion will be collected through a wireless data acquisition system. The data can reproduce the movement trajectory of the physician rehabilitation training and this can be used as the training trajectory of LLR-Ro. The experiment results of this study demonstrate that the teaching training method is feasible. The theory analysis and experimental research of LLR-Ro lay the foundations for the future clinical application of this method.

  8. The importance of training in formal methods in Software Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Polansky

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of formal methods provides systematic techniques and rigorous to software develop and, due the crescent complexity and quality requirements of current products, is necessary introduce them in curriculum of software engineer. In this article is analyzed the importance of train in formal methods and described specific techniques to achieved it efficiently. This techniques are the result of an experimental process in the class room of more than fifteen years in undergraduate and graduate programs, the same as company training. Also are presented a proposal a curriculum to systematic introduction of this paradigm and description of a program in training methods that has been success to industry. Results shows that students gain confidence in formal methods just when found out of the benefits of this in the context of software engineer.

  9. A Study of Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Vocabulary Revising for Underachiever in Senior 3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱晓敏

    2015-01-01

    Through questionnaire,strategies training and tests,the author concludes that,firstly,the high achievers of vocabulary are more likely to use meta -cognitive strategies,cognitive strategies and social strategies.In contrast,underachievers are likely to use some traditional ways like reciting and repeating;secondly,strategies training has a good impact on the underachievers’vocabulary ability;finally,the underachievers need to be trained to use social strategies,meta-cognitive strategies and cognitive strategies more often.And the training process requires special patience and creativities.This paper analyzes the application ofvocabulary learning strategies in revision for senior underachieving students,hoping to provide some references for students and English teachers in senior high school.

  10. On Building a Universal and Compact Visual Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bag-of-visual-words has been shown to be a powerful image representation and attained great success in many computer vision and pattern recognition applications. Usually, for a given dataset, researchers choose to build a specific visual vocabulary from the dataset, and the problem of deriving a universal visual vocabulary is rarely addressed. Based on previous work on the classification performance with respect to visual vocabulary sizes, we arrive at a hypothesis that a universal visual vocabulary can be obtained by taking-into account the similarity extent of keypoints represented by one visual word. We then propose to use a similarity threshold-based clustering method to calculate the optimal vocabulary size, where the universal similarity threshold can be obtained empirically. With the optimal vocabulary size, the optimal visual vocabularies of limited sizes from three datasets are shown to be exchangeable and therefore universal. This result indicates that a universal and compact visual vocabulary can be built from a not too small dataset. Our work narrows the gab between bag-of-visual-words and bag-of-words, where a relatively fixed vocabulary can be used with different text datasets.

  11. Training Methods to Improve Evidence-Based Medicine Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Ozyigit

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence based medicine (EBM is the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. It is estimated that only 15% of medical interventions is evidence-based. Increasing demand, new technological developments, malpractice legislations, a very speed increase in knowledge and knowledge sources push the physicians forward for EBM, but at the same time increase load of physicians by giving them the responsibility to improve their skills. Clinical maneuvers are needed more, as the number of clinical trials and observational studies increase. However, many of the physicians, who are in front row of patient care do not use this increasing evidence. There are several examples related to different training methods in order to improve skills of physicians for evidence based practice. There are many training methods to improve EBM skills and these trainings might be given during medical school, during residency or as continuous trainings to the actual practitioners in the field. It is important to discuss these different training methods in our country as well and encourage dissemination of feasible and effective methods. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(3.000: 245-254

  12. An Overview of Bayesian Methods for Neural Spike Train Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural spike train analysis is an important task in computational neuroscience which aims to understand neural mechanisms and gain insights into neural circuits. With the advancement of multielectrode recording and imaging technologies, it has become increasingly demanding to develop statistical tools for analyzing large neuronal ensemble spike activity. Here we present a tutorial overview of Bayesian methods and their representative applications in neural spike train analysis, at both single neuron and population levels. On the theoretical side, we focus on various approximate Bayesian inference techniques as applied to latent state and parameter estimation. On the application side, the topics include spike sorting, tuning curve estimation, neural encoding and decoding, deconvolution of spike trains from calcium imaging signals, and inference of neuronal functional connectivity and synchrony. Some research challenges and opportunities for neural spike train analysis are discussed.

  13. A hybrid training method for neural energy estimation in calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Da Silva, P V M; Seixas, J

    2001-01-01

    A neural mapping is developed to improve the overall performance of Tilecal, which is the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS detector. Feeding the input nodes of a multilayer feedforward neural network with the energy values sampled by the calorimeter cells in beam tests, it is shown that the original energy scale of pion beams is reconstructed over a wide energy range and linearity is significantly improved. As it happens for classical methods, a compromise between nonlinearity correction and the optimization of the energy resolution of the detector has to be accomplished. A hybrid training method for the neural mapping is proposed to achieve this design goal. Using the backpropagation algorithm, the method intercalates an epoch of training steps, for which the neural mapping mainly focus on linearity correction, with another block of training steps, in which the original energy resolution obtained by linearly combining the calorimeter cells becomes the main target. (6 refs).

  14. Timing, methods and prospective in citizenship training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Carta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The current models of development are changing the balance between human activity and Nature on a local ands global level and the urgent need to establish a new relationship between Man and the environment is increasingly apparent. The move towards a more caring approach to the planet introducing concepts such as limits, impact on future generations, regeneration of resources, social and environmental justice and the right to citizenship should make us consider (aside from international undertakings by governments exactly how we can promote a culture of sustainability in schools in terms of methods, time scales, and location. Schools are directly involved in these processes of change however it is necessary to plan carefully and establish situations that will result in greater attention being paid to the interaction between man and the environment, and highlighting the lifestyles and attitudes that are currently incompatible with a sustainable future. These solutions, although based on technical-scientific knowledge, cannot be brought about without the involvement of the individual and local agencies working together. However we have chosen to concentrate on the links between educational policies and local areas interpreting declarations made by international bodies such as UNESCO and suggestions aimed at bringing sustainability to the centre of specific policies. Bringing about these aims requires great educational effort that goes well beyond simple environmental education since it requires a permanent process for educating adults. Looking at stages of the history of the theories regarding the development and education of adults shows how the topic of sustainability made its entry into the debate about permanent education and how in the last ten years it has taken on an unrivalled importance as a point of reference for educational policies and pedagogical reflection. The origin of the concept of sustainability, although belonging to natural

  15. Promoting L2 Vocabulary Learning through Narrow Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eun Young

    2015-01-01

    Krashen (2004) has advocated that narrow reading, i.e., reading a series of texts addressing one specific topic, is an effective method to grow vocabulary. While narrow reading has been championed to have many advantages for L2 vocabulary learning, there remains a relative dearth of empirical studies that test the impact of narrow reading on L2…

  16. Vocabulary Learning Strategies of English Majors in Professional Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楚承华; 张宇超

    2007-01-01

    The study adopted qualitative method to investigate vocabulary learning strategies utilized by English majors in professional universities.The findings of the research show that English majors in professional universities employ a wide range of vocabulary learning strategies including metacognitive and cognitive strategies.

  17. Teaching Academic Vocabulary to Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Kristen D.; Sanchez, Victoria; Flynn, Lindsay J.; O'Connor, Rollanda E.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the efforts of a U.S. History teacher to directly teach word meanings using the "robust vocabulary instruction" (RVI) approach, because research supports this method as a way to improve vocabulary knowledge for a range of students, including adolescents reading below grade level (i.e., struggling readers) and…

  18. Facilitating Vocabulary Acquisition of Young English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo-Neris, Mirza J.; Jackson, Carla Wood; Goldstein, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether English-only vocabulary instruction or English vocabulary instruction enhanced with Spanish bridging produced greater word learning in young Spanish-speaking children learning English during a storybook reading intervention while considering individual language characteristics. Method: Twenty-two…

  19. Comparison of instructor-led automated external defibrillation training and three alternative DVD-based training methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Wiebe; Turner, Nigel M.; Monsieurs, Koenraad G.; Bierens, Joost J. L. M.; Koster, Rudolph W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Self-directed BLS-training, using a personal training manikin with video has been shown to be as effective as instructor-led training. This has not previously been investigated for AED-training. Materials and methods: This prospective, randomized study with a non-inferiority design compa

  20. Vocabulary Knowledge and Vocabulary Use in Second Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark D.; Acevedo, Anthony; Mercado, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Research has consistently shown diversity of vocabulary to be an important indicator of second language (L2) writing development as well as L2 writing performance. These studies underscore the importance of vocabulary to L2 writing. However, they provide little to indicate what kind of vocabulary learners of English may need to know in order to…

  1. Vocabulary Knowledge and Vocabulary Use in Second Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark D.; Acevedo, Anthony; Mercado, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Research has consistently shown diversity of vocabulary to be an important indicator of second language (L2) writing development as well as L2 writing performance. These studies underscore the importance of vocabulary to L2 writing. However, they provide little to indicate what kind of vocabulary learners of English may need to know in order to…

  2. Vocabulary Plus: Comprehensive Vocabulary Instruction for English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Rhoda

    2010-01-01

    "Vocabulary Plus" is an interactive strategy which links vocabulary development with content area learning for English learners. This strategy uses interactive read-alouds of thematically- connected informational text matched to the grade-appropriate state standards and content of core subjects. When using "Vocabulary Plus",…

  3. English vocabulary learning with special attention to Norwegian pupils in lower secondary schools

    OpenAIRE

    Eide, Monique

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis vocabulary has been discussed from various angles. The aims of the thesis were: (1) To shed light on the building material of language viz. vocabulary, and relate this to theories and historical trends in the teaching of English. (2) To examine two teaching methodologies and try to find out if one of them was better than the other in making the pupils develop their vocabulary in English as a second language. Two different methods in vocabulary acqu...

  4. On Multi-Dimensional Vocabulary Teaching Mode for College English Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li-na

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the major approaches in EFL (English as a Foreign Language) vocabulary teaching from historical perspective and puts forward multi-dimensional vocabulary teaching mode for college English. The author stresses that multi-dimensional approaches of communicative vocabulary teaching, lexical phrase teaching method, the grammar…

  5. A System for English Vocabulary Acquisition Based on Code-Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Michal; Karolczak, Krzysztof; Rzepka, Rafal; Araki, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary plays an important part in second language learning and there are many existing techniques to facilitate word acquisition. One of these methods is code-switching, or mixing the vocabulary of two languages in one sentence. In this paper the authors propose an experimental system for computer-assisted English vocabulary learning in…

  6. WORD ORIGIN HELPS EXPAND LEARNERS’ VOCABULARY A VOCABULARY TEACHING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Word origin (motivation deals with the connection between name and sense, explaining how a word originated. With the knowledge of how words are originated, learners can grasp a word easier and thus expand their vocabulary more quickly. The introduction to word origin (motivation by teachers can also help the learners gain interest in the process of learning and learn more about the cultural and historical background of the English-speaking countries. This paper tries to clarify this method of teaching from four aspects: onomatopoeia, word formation, cultural and historical background and cognitive linguistics.

  7. How to do college students' English vocabulary training work--freshmen in independent colleges as an example%浅析如何进行大学生英语词汇培训工作--以独立学院大一新生为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆姝; 姜丽娜

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary teaching is a key problem for independent college freshman English teaching. Therefore, to explore the scientific and effective English vocabulary learning strategies training way, to solve the problems existing in the teaching process and further improve the level of English vocabulary teaching, improve students' English vocabulary learning ability, expand students' knowledge, students are encouraged to read widely, etc., have very important practical significance. In this paper, the author will combine to college English vocabulary teaching experience for many years, on the basis of an independent college freshman for emphasis, the brief analysis of ways and means to cultivate college students' English vocabulary learning strategies.%词汇教学是独立学院大一新生英语教学的难点。因此,探索科学、有效英语词汇学习策略的培训途径对于解决教学过程中存在的问题和进一步提高英语词汇教学水平,提高学生英语词汇学习能力,拓展学生的知识面,鼓励学生广泛阅读等方面都有十分重要的实践意义。本文笔者将结合多年来大学生英语词汇教学经验的基础上,以独立学院的大一新生为着重点,简要分析培养大学生英语词汇学习策略的途径和方式方法。

  8. How to Enlarge Productive Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘菁

    2015-01-01

    Haycraft defined receptive vocabulary as "words that the student recognizes and understands when they occur in a text, but which he cannot produce correctly", while productive vocabulary is "words which the student understands can pronounce correctly and use constructively in speaking and writing" (1978:44).In English language teaching practice, students' productive vocabulary size lags far behind there ceptive vocabulary size. Based on the SLA theories, many reasons caused this problem and some solutions will be discussed.

  9. Assessment methods in surgical training in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenios Evgeniou

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A career in surgery in the United Kingdom demands a commitment to a long journey of assessment. The assessment methods used must ensure that the appropriate candidates are selected into a programme of study or a job and must guarantee public safety by regulating the progression of surgical trainees and the certification of trained surgeons. This review attempts to analyse the psychometric properties of various assessment methods used in the selection of candidates to medical school, job selection, progression in training, and certification. Validity is an indicator of how well an assessment measures what it is designed to measure. Reliability informs us whether a test is consistent in its outcome by measuring the reproducibility and discriminating ability of the test. In the long journey of assessment in surgical training, the same assessment formats are frequently being used for selection into a programme of study, job selection, progression, and certification. Although similar assessment methods are being used for different purposes in surgical training, the psychometric properties of these assessment methods have not been examined separately for each purpose. Because of the significance of these assessments for trainees and patients, their reliability and validity should be examined thoroughly in every context where the assessment method is being used.

  10. Teaching Vocabulary across the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintz, William P.

    2011-01-01

    Learning vocabulary is an important instructional aim for teachers in all content areas in middle grades schools. Recent research, however, indicates that vocabulary instruction may be problematic because many teachers are not "confident about best practice in vocabulary instruction and at times don't know where to begin to form an instructional…

  11. Validation of the Training Benefit Forecasting Method: Grammar and Punctuation Training. Training and Development Research Center: Project Number Three.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidary, Farhood; And Others

    The validity of the Training Benefit Forecasting Method (TBFM) was studied in a Grammar and Punctuation Program conducted at Onan Corporation. The target population was composed of 10 workers who handled the document production in the organization's word processing center. Based on information gathered from the course instructor, participants, and…

  12. Integrating Research Skills Training into Non--Research Methods Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Jules

    2014-01-01

    Research skills are a valued commodity by industry and university administrators. Despite the importance placed on these skills students typically dislike taking research method courses where these skills are learned. However, training in research skills does not necessarily have to be confined to these courses. In this study participants at a…

  13. Modern methodic of power cardio training in students’ physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osipov A.Yu.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: significant increase of students’ physical condition and health level at the account of application of modern power cardio training methodic. Material: 120 students (60 boys and 60 girls participated in the research. The age of the tested was 19 years. The research took one year. We used methodic of power and functional impact on trainees’ organism (HOT IRON. Such methodic is some systems of physical exercises with weights (mini-barbells, to be fulfilled under accompaniment of specially selected music. Results: we showed advantages of power-cardio and fitness trainings in students’ health improvement and in elimination obesity. Control tests showed experimental group students achieved confidently higher physical indicators. Boys demonstrated increase of physical strength and general endurance indicators. Girls had confidently better indicators of physical strength, flexibility and general endurance. Increase of control group students’ body mass can be explained by students’ insufficient physical activity at trainings, conducted as per traditional program. Conclusions: students’ trainings by power-cardio methodic with application HOT IRON exercises facilitate development the following physical qualities: strength and endurance in boys and strength, flexibility and endurance in girls. Besides, it was found that such systems of exercises facilitate normalization of boys’ body mass and correction of girls’ constitution.

  14. Controlled Vocabulary Service Application for Environmental Data Store

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, P.; Piasecki, M.; Lovell, R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we present a controlled vocabulary service application for Environmental Data Store (EDS). The purpose for such application is to help researchers and investigators to archive, manage, share, search, and retrieve data efficiently in EDS. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is used in the application for the representation of the controlled vocabularies coming from EDS. The controlled vocabularies of EDS are created by collecting, comparing, choosing and merging controlled vocabularies, taxonomies and ontologies widely used and recognized in geoscience/environmental informatics community, such as Environment ontology (EnvO), Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontology, CUAHSI Hydrologic Ontology and ODM Controlled Vocabulary, National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI), National Water Information System (NWIS) codes, EPSG Geodetic Parameter Data Set, WQX domain value etc. TemaTres, an open-source, web -based thesaurus management package is employed and extended to create and manage controlled vocabularies of EDS in the application. TemaTresView and VisualVocabulary that work well with TemaTres, are also integrated in the application to provide tree view and graphical view of the structure of vocabularies. The Open Source Edition of Virtuoso Universal Server is set up to provide a Web interface to make SPARQL queries against controlled vocabularies hosted on the Environmental Data Store. The replicas of some of the key vocabularies commonly used in the community, are also maintained as part of the application, such as General Multilingual Environmental Thesaurus (GEMET), NetCDF Climate and Forecast (CF) Standard Names, etc.. The application has now been deployed as an elementary and experimental prototype that provides management, search and download controlled vocabularies of EDS under SKOS framework.

  15. Use of innovative training methods in teaching management subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Chernomorchenko Svetlana Ivanovna; Chernyshev Aleksandr Anatolyevich

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to identify the impact of innovative teaching methods on the improvement of future specialistsэ training in the field of management. The metaphoric business games and case study were considered to be the most productive according to the results of testing. They help trainees in forming new approaches to managerial problem solving. The research can be the basis for further research on improving the education of students and future managers, and identifying methods and t...

  16. Vocabulary Teaching Strategies in College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱荣

    2009-01-01

    We all focus on the students' abilities of listening, speaking, wading, writing and translating in college teaching. But actually, it is nothing without vocabulary. Thus, vocabulary teaching is an essential part in English teaching. However, seme traditional teaching takes vocabuhury out from the context, which costs a lot of time and energy, but students are involved in the dull circle of memorizing to forgetting to memorizing again. Finally, they lose their patience on English learning and maybe give it up. In this paper, we discuss some vocabulary teaching strategies, so as to help the memorizing of vocabulary and enhance the efficiency of vocabulary teaching and learning.

  17. DOBD Algorithm for Training Neural Network: Part I. Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建昱; 何小荣

    2002-01-01

    Overfitting is one of the important problems that restrain the application of neural network. The traditional OBD (Optimal Brain Damage) algorithm canavoid overfitting effectively. But it needs to train the network repeatedly with low calculational efficiency. In this paper, the Marquardt algorithm is incorporated into the OBD algorithm and a new method for pruning network-the Dynamic Optimal Brain Damage (DOBD) is introduced. This algorithm simplifies a network and obtains good generalization through dynamically deleting weight parameters with low sensitivity that is defined as the change of error function value with respect to the change of weights. Also a simplified method is presented through which sensitivities can be calculated during training with a little computation. Arule to determine the lower limit of sensitivity for deleting the unnecessary weights and other control methods during pruning and training are introduced. Thetraining course is analyzed theoretically and the reason why DOBD algorithm canobtain a much faster training speed than the OBD algorithm and avoid overfitting effectively is given.``

  18. Modelling Vocabulary Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meara, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes some simple simulation models of vocabulary attrition. The attrition process is modelled using a random autonomous Boolean network model, and some parallels with real attrition data are drawn. The paper argues that applying a complex systems approach to attrition can provide some important insights, which suggest that real…

  19. Building Your Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ScottThornbury

    2004-01-01

    “I'm not 100% convinced that memorizing the dictionary is the best way of improving your vocabulary,” says the character played by Hugh Grant in Woody Allen's film Small Time Crooks.Yet why not?Ifyou could memorize the dictionary-or even

  20. Reading vocabulary knowledge and deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, P

    1996-01-01

    With respect to reading vocabulary knowledge and deafness, this article addresses two broad questions: (1) Why is vocabulary knowledge related to reading comprehension ability? (2) How is reading vocabulary (i.e., word meanings) acquired? The article argues that the answers to these questions are best addressed by a vocabulary acquisition model labeled the knowledge model. In essence, this model asserts that both breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge are critical. It is necessary to teach vocabulary, especially to poor readers, who are not likely to derive many word meanings from the use of context during natural or deliberate reading situations. On the basis of theoretical and research syntheses, the article offers implications for vocabulary instruction for deaf children and adolescents.

  1. An Improved Method of Training Overcomplete Dictionary Pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuozheng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Training overcomplete dictionary pair is a critical step of the mainstream superresolution methods. For the high time complexity and susceptible to corruption characteristics of training dictionary, an improved method based on lifting wavelet transform and robust principal component analysis is reported. The high-frequency components of example images are estimated through wavelet coefficients of 3-tier lifting wavelet transform decomposition. Sparse coefficients are similar in multiframe images. Accordingly, the inexact augmented Lagrange multiplier method is employed to achieve robust principal component analysis in the process of imposing global constraints. Experiments reveal that the new algorithm not only reduces the time complexity preserving the clarity but also improves the robustness for the corrupted example images.

  2. A formative multi-method approach to evaluating training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Holly; Scott, Victoria; Abraczinskas, Michelle; Scaccia, Jonathan; Stout, Soma; Wandersman, Abraham

    2016-10-01

    This article describes how we used a formative multi-method evaluation approach to gather real-time information about the processes of a complex, multi-day training with 24 community coalitions in the United States. The evaluation team used seven distinct, evaluation strategies to obtain evaluation data from the first Community Health Improvement Leadership Academy (CHILA) within a three-prong framework (inquiry, observation, and reflection). These methods included: comprehensive survey, rapid feedback form, learning wall, observational form, team debrief, social network analysis and critical moments reflection. The seven distinct methods allowed for both real time quality improvement during the CHILA and long term planning for the next CHILA. The methods also gave a comprehensive picture of the CHILA, which when synthesized allowed the evaluation team to assess the effectiveness of a training designed to tap into natural community strengths and accelerate health improvement. We hope that these formative evaluation methods can continue to be refined and used by others to evaluate training.

  3. Active Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Using a quantitative method of data collection, this research explored the question: Do active learning strategies used in grades 5 and 6 affect student vocabulary achievement in a positive or negative direction? In their research, Wolfe (2001), Headley, et al., (1995), Freiberg, et al., (1992), and Brunner (2009) emphasize the importance of…

  4. Improving new vocabulary learning in context

    OpenAIRE

    Colombia Ovalle María

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to help students increase their vocabulary learning in context because when learners participate in a special class with different activities and keep in mind the situation, they remember new words. The study was carried out in the action research method, and the activities provided to students encouraged learning and motivated them to practice English more.

  5. A Comparison of Vocabulary Learning Strategies of Iranian EFL University Students: Repeating versus Cooperating with Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Maki; Foo, Thomas Chow Voon

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary learning and assessment are considered as the key basis for the training of English as a foreign language. However, it is time-consuming, uncertain and repetitious for the teachers to assess the proficiency of the students' vocabulary storage. This paper reports the results of a study which aimed to investigate the effect of Repeating…

  6. Analysis of Variance in Vocabulary Learning Strategies Theory and Practice: A Case Study in Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Salma H. M.; Shabdin, Ahmad Affendi

    2016-01-01

    The present study is an outcome of a concern for the teaching of English as a foreign language (EFL) in Libyan schools. Learning of a foreign language is invariably linked to learners building a good repertoire of vocabulary of the target language, which takes us to the theory and practice of imparting training in vocabulary learning strategies…

  7. Standard controlled vocabulary for climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moine, Marie-Pierre; Pascoe, Charlotte; Guilyardi, Eric; Ford, Rupert

    2010-05-01

    The scope of climate modeling has grown tremendously in the last 10 years, resulting in a large variety of climate models, increasing complexity with more physical or chemical components and huge volumes of data sets (simulation outputs). While significant efforts to standardise the associated metadata (i.e. data describing data and models) have already been made in recent projects (e.g. CF standard names for CMIP3), detailed standards documentation of the models and experiments that created this data is still lacking. The EU METAFOR Project (http://metaforclimate.eu) is specifically addressing this issue by creating new metadata schemas in cooperation with existing standards in Earth System Modeling (Curator, GridSpec, CF convention, NumSim, etc.). Descriptions of climate simulations, of the data they produce, and of the numerical models used to perform these simulations are all within the scope of METAFOR and these descriptions are assembled in a common information model (the CIM). Of particular note is the metadata for numerical models that is found in the CIM. This paper presents the controlled vocabulary (CV) that has been collected by METAFOR to describe (in a common manner) the components of the numerical models developed by the different modeling centres. This vocabulary is used in the model part of the web-based questionnaire that METAFOR has developed in support of the upcoming IPCC exercise (the CMIP5 questionnaire). The methods to (1) establish standards for this vocabulary via interactions with climate scientists, (2) utilise the vocabulary in the web-based questionnaire and (3) process the vocabulary for ingestion in the Earth System Grid (ESG) portal, are described. Governance aspects of this new controlled vocabulary are also addressed.

  8. TOPSIS Method for Determining The Priority of Strategic Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohmatulloh Rohmatulloh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The voice of stakeholders is an important issue for government or public organizations. The issue becomes an input in designing strategic program. Decision maker should evaluate the priority to get the importance level. The decision making process is a complex problem because it is influenced by many critetria. The purpose of this study is to solve multi-criteria decision making problem using TOPSIS method. This method is proposed due to its easy and simple computation process. The case sample is determining the strategic training program in energy and mineral resources field. TOPSIS analysis may be able to assist decision maker in allocating resources for the preparation of strategic training program in accordance with the priorities

  9. Learning the Structural Vocabulary of a Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navlakha, Saket

    2017-02-01

    Networks have become instrumental in deciphering how information is processed and transferred within systems in almost every scientific field today. Nearly all network analyses, however, have relied on humans to devise structural features of networks believed to be most discriminative for an application. We present a framework for comparing and classifying networks without human-crafted features using deep learning. After training, autoencoders contain hidden units that encode a robust structural vocabulary for succinctly describing graphs. We use this feature vocabulary to tackle several network mining problems and find improved predictive performance versus many popular features used today. These problems include uncovering growth mechanisms driving the evolution of networks, predicting protein network fragility, and identifying environmental niches for metabolic networks. Deep learning offers a principled approach for mining complex networks and tackling graph-theoretic problems.

  10. Training two-layered feedforward networks with variable projection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C T; Lee, J J

    2008-02-01

    The variable projection (VP) method for separable nonlinear least squares (SNLLS) is presented and incorporated into the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithm for training two-layered feedforward neural networks. It is shown that the Jacobian of variable projected networks can be computed by simple modification of the backpropagation algorithm. The suggested algorithm is efficient compared to conventional techniques such as conventional Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA), hybrid gradient algorithm (HGA), and extreme learning machine (ELM).

  11. The pace of vocabulary growth helps predict later vocabulary skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Meredith L; Raudenbush, Stephen W; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words--some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (socioeconomic status [SES], parent input, child gesture) of vocabulary growth between 14 and 46 months (n = 62) and then uses growth estimates to predict children's vocabulary at 54 months. Velocity and acceleration in vocabulary development at 30 months predicted later vocabulary, particularly for children from low-SES backgrounds. Understanding the pace of early vocabulary growth thus improves our ability to predict school readiness and may help identify children at risk for starting behind.

  12. Creativity in Building ESP Vocabulary in the Context Of ICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvyda Liuolienė

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at analyzing various creative methods of expanding students’ ESP vocabulary – the basic tool for communication and knowledge – in the context of ICT. The authors tackle traditional ways of using authentic texts and proceed with innovative methods of ESP vocabulary building such as using the Internet as an extremely diverse source of activities as well as emphasize the advantages of mock trials for law students and the most challenging activities – presentations and project-based learning. The framework of ICT offers numerous integrated and interactive materials and creative ways of vocabulary building.

  13. The Pilates method and cardiorespiratory adaptation to training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco-Fernández, Maria; Jiménez-Martín, Miguel; Sánchez-Caravaca, M Angeles; Fernández-Pérez, Antonio M; Ramírez-Rodrigo, Jesús; Villaverde-Gutiérrez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Although all authors report beneficial health changes following training based on the Pilates method, no explicit analysis has been performed of its cardiorespiratory effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate possible changes in cardiorespiratory parameters with the Pilates method. A total of 45 university students aged 18-35 years (77.8% female and 22.2% male), who did not routinely practice physical exercise or sports, volunteered for the study and signed informed consent. The Pilates training was conducted over 10 weeks, with three 1-hour sessions per week. Physiological cardiorespiratory responses were assessed using a MasterScreen CPX apparatus. After the 10-week training, statistically significant improvements were observed in mean heart rate (135.4-124.2 beats/min), respiratory exchange ratio (1.1-0.9) and oxygen equivalent (30.7-27.6) values, among other spirometric parameters, in submaximal aerobic testing. These findings indicate that practice of the Pilates method has a positive influence on cardiorespiratory parameters in healthy adults who do not routinely practice physical exercise activities.

  14. The effect of vocabulary notebooks on vocabulary acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Bozkurt, Neval

    2007-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Bilkent University, 2007. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2007. Includes bibliographical references leaves 82-87 This study investigated the effectiveness of vocabulary notebooks on vocabulary acquisition, and the attitudes of teachers and learners towards keeping vocabulary notebooks. The study was conducted with the participation of 60 pre-intermediate level students, divided into one treatment ...

  15. Development of the TARGET Training Effectiveness Tool and Underlying Algorithms Specifying Training Method - Performance Outcome Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    rules and concepts to process information and solve problems. Includes general logical reasoning skills: inductive , deductive , diagnostic, etc. A-2...task/skill type (e.g., cognitive- quantitative reasoning skills, perceptual skills, psychomotor skills) in order to identify which training methods...administration (i.e., Fixed and Adaptive). In this case, there would be two effect sizes to code: Control vs . Fixed Scaffolding, and Control vs . Adaptive

  16. VOCABULARY AND LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrudan Cristiana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have looked at the difference between teaching language structure and teaching vocabulary. We have discussed how counts of frequency alone are not enough to determine what words should be taught. We have seen that knowing a word means more than just knowing its meaning. Even that is problematical since meaning includes sense relations and context, for example. To know a word we also need to know about its use, how it is formed and what grammatical behavior it provokes. Above all, in this paper, we have approached the idea of how vocabulary teaching and learning need to be emphasized in order for students to be competent language users.

  17. English Vocabulary Memorizing Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯首慧

    2014-01-01

    With the high-speed development of society, English has already become a university language and learning English is the basic requirement to learners. Vocabulary learning is one of the key factors in English Learning. This paper focuses on the vocabulary memories strategies.%随着社会高速发展,对任何学习者来说,掌握英语,这个世界性语言是学习中最基本的要求。词汇学习当然是英语学习中关键因素之一。本文将侧重介绍词汇记忆的策略。

  18. The electric vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheils, James

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1600s, the developments in the understanding of electrical phenomena have frequently altered the models and metaphors used by physicists to describe and explain their experiments. However, to this day, certain relics of past theories still drench the vocabulary of the subject, serving as distracting fog for future students. This article attempts, through historical illumination, to shine through the mist of electrostatic terminology and offer a clearer view of the classical model of electricity.

  19. Features of Medical English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翠萍

    2015-01-01

    Medical English is relatively more difficult than general English,especially its vocabulary.Those medical English words are long and complex,making it hard to remember.But medical English vocabulary has its own features,which would help us in learning vocabulary.On the basis of many medical English materials,the paper explores the features of etymology,affixes and roots of medical English.

  20. Features of Medical English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翠萍

    2015-01-01

    Medical English is relatively more difficult than general English,especially its vocabulary.Those medical English words are long and complex,making it hard to remember. But medical English vocabulary has its own features,which would help us in learning vocabulary.On the basis of many medical English materials,the paper explores the features of etymology,affixes and roots of medical English.

  1. Summarizing Vocabularies in the Global Semantic Web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Zhang; Gong Cheng; Wei-Yi Ge; Yu-Zhong Qu

    2009-01-01

    In the Semantic Web, vocabularies are defined and shared among knowledge workers to describe linked data for scientific, industrial or daily life usage. With the rapid growth of online vocabularies, there is an emergent need for approaches helping users understand vocabularies quickly. In this paper, we study the summarization of vocabularies to help users understand vocabularies. Vocabulary summarization is based on the structural analysis and pragmatics statistics in the global Semantic Web. Local Bipartite Model and Expanded Bipartite Model of a vocabulary are proposed to characterize the structure in a vocabulary and links between vocabularies. A structural importance for each RDF sentence in the vocabulary is assessed using link analysis. Meanwhile, pragmatics importance of each RDF sentence is assessed using the statistics of instantiation of its terms in the Semantic Web. Summaries are produced by extracting important RDF sentences in vocabularies under a re-ranking strategy. Preliminary experiments show that it is feasible to help users understand a vocabulary through its summary.

  2. Enhancing vocabulary acquisition by encouraging extensive reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚亚芳

    2012-01-01

    Current situation of vocabulary teaching The importance of vocabulary in learning a second or foreign language has been widely acknowledged and the findings of a sea of research studies have convinced us to regard vocabulary k nowledge as a

  3. The effect of enhanced storybook interaction on signing deaf children's vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trussell, Jessica W; Easterbrooks, Susan R

    2014-07-01

    The link between vocabulary and later literacy is well documented in the research base. One way children gain vocabulary is through incidental learning. Deaf or hard-of-hearing children (D/HH) often struggle with incidental learning and require vocabulary intervention to increase their lexicon. An effective vocabulary intervention is storybook reading. When dialogic methods are added to storybook reading, the gains are greater than with traditional storybook reading. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an enhanced storybook reading intervention, which included scripted questions and picture prompts, on the vocabulary of young signing D/HH children. We utilized a multiple baseline across content probe design. We discovered a functional relation between the storybook intervention and picture vocabulary identification for several participants. This outcome offers insight into appropriate interventions to increase vocabulary for signing D/HH children.

  4. Learners' independent records of vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Leeke, Philip

    1999-01-01

    Handbooks recommend a variety of quite complicated procedures for learning and remembering vocabulary, but most learners only engage in very simple procedures. The aim of this project was to establish a basis for identifying optimal vocabulary recording procedures by finding out what learners...... currently do. We administered a questionnaire, interviewed learners who said that they kept vocabulary records of some kind and examined their records. Two-thirds had given up making vocabulary lists on entering the L2 environment and/or starting to read extensively, but several made interesting lists...

  5. On Vocabulary Acquisition by Chinese Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔莉; 南二丽

    2006-01-01

    It is admitted that vocabulary acquisition, as the smallest unit in English leaning, is the most basic, decisive yet difficult part. Yet vocabulary acquisition has always obsessed and fascinated Chinese learners of English. This paper mainly presents a discussion of English vocabulary acquisition by Chinese learners in the respect of vocabulary size and correct use. Through the analysis of the problems existing in the present vocabulary learning and teaching, author also presents some learning strategies to expand vocabulary size.

  6. Discussion on English Vocabulary and Description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Lan; Zhang Shiying

    2013-01-01

    Compared with the study of Grammar, syntax, the description on vocabulary is comparatively slower than them. The related theories of vocabulary description have fast developed since the 1980s and 1990s have experienced a growing interest in vocabulary learning and teaching----The vocabulary size, text coverage, word list, meaning of vocabulary in context, and collocation have been discovered and described, which helped new insights in arrange of different research fields have all added to our understanding of vocabulary development. Vocabulary acquisition research, based on vocabulary description, has established itself as a central research focus for language acquisition researchers and contributed to the focus of practical teaching and learning in English.

  7. The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Nasser; Mortazavi, Fariba

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size of Iranian university EFL students. Participants in the present study were a total of 67 EFL learners, studying at Shiraz Azad University as senior English Translation students. The instruments utilized for data collection were three tests: A…

  8. Problems of Controlled Vocabulary versus Uncontrolled Vocabulary in Subject Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-chen Chen

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is mainly to survey the centennial controversy between controlled vocabulary v. uncontrolled vocabulary of subject indexing in the western library and information society. We also discuss the related problems in Chinese information retrieval systems and analyze the factors affecting their performance. [Article content in Chinese

  9. The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Nasser; Mortazavi, Fariba

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size of Iranian university EFL students. Participants in the present study were a total of 67 EFL learners, studying at Shiraz Azad University as senior English Translation students. The instruments utilized for data collection were three tests: A…

  10. Improving Vocabulary of English Language Learners through Direct Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Meghan; Feng, Jay

    2016-01-01

    This is a report of a professional development project. The purpose of the project was to provide professional development to teachers in vocabulary instructional strategies and to examine vocabulary acquisition of English language learners. The participants were 8 second grade ELL students and 6 second grade teachers. The eight second grade…

  11. Academic Training Lecture: Statistical Methods for Particle Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2012-01-01

    2, 3, 4 and 5 April 2012 Academic Training Lecture  Regular Programme from 11:00 to 12:00 -  Bldg. 222-R-001 - Filtration Plant Statistical Methods for Particle Physics by Glen Cowan (Royal Holloway) The series of four lectures will introduce some of the important statistical methods used in Particle Physics, and should be particularly relevant to those involved in the analysis of LHC data. The lectures will include an introduction to statistical tests, parameter estimation, and the application of these tools to searches for new phenomena.  Both frequentist and Bayesian methods will be described, with particular emphasis on treatment of systematic uncertainties.  The lectures will also cover unfolding, that is, estimation of a distribution in binned form where the variable in question is subject to measurement errors.

  12. Introduction of the Formal Methods in Software Engineering Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Toledo B.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Formal methods were developed to provide systematic and rigorous techniques for software development, and as initiative will be introduced in training in Software Engineering (SE. This article discusses the importance of including these scientific principles and describes several specific techniques in order to improve the processes of the IS. It also provides an analysis of the principles that should be taken into account in a curriculum to systematically introduce in university education and business. Several methods have been tried in recent years to achieve this goal in undergraduate and graduate universities programs, as well as IT professionals. Experience shows that participants gain confidence in formal methods only when they learn their clear benefits in the context of software engineering.

  13. Total and Conceptual Vocabulary in Spanish–English Bilinguals From 22 to 30 Months: Implications for Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Core, Cynthia; Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Señor, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Vocabulary assessment holds promise as a way to identify young bilingual children at risk for language delay. This study compares 2 measures of vocabulary in a group of young Spanish–English bilingual children to a single-language measure used with monolingual children. Method Total vocabulary and conceptual vocabulary were used to measure mean vocabulary size and growth in 47 Spanish–English bilingually developing children from 22 to 30 months of age based on results from the MacArthur–Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI; Fenson et al., 1993) and the Inventario del Desarrollo de Habilidades Comunicativas (Jackson-Maldonado et al., 2003). Bilingual children’s scores of total vocabulary and conceptual vocabulary were compared with CDI scores for a control group of 56 monolingual children. Results The total vocabulary measure resulted in mean vocabulary scores and average rate of growth similar to monolingual growth, whereas conceptual vocabulary scores were significantly smaller and grew at a slower rate than total vocabulary scores. Total vocabulary identified the same proportion of bilingual children below the 25th percentile on monolingual norms as the CDI did for monolingual children. Conclusion These results support the use of total vocabulary as a means of assessing early language development in young bilingual Spanish–English speaking children. PMID:24023382

  14. Related General-Vocabulary Knowledge Transfers to Learning Technical Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, William R.

    2015-01-01

    In a classroom experiment during the first week of an introductory psychology course, randomly assigned students received a pretest and then a brief training on the definitions of general-vocabulary words either related (e.g., "facilitation") or unrelated (e.g., "rendition") to 16 technical terms (e.g., "social…

  15. Analysis of Variance in Vocabulary Learning Strategies Theory and Practice: A Case Study in Libya

    OpenAIRE

    Salma H M Khalifa; Ahmad Affendi Shabdin

    2016-01-01

    The present study is an outcome of a concern for the teaching of English as a foreign language (EFL) in Libyan schools. Learning of a foreign language is invariably linked to learners building a good repertoire of vocabulary of the target language, which takes us to the theory and practice of imparting training in vocabulary learning strategies (VLSs) to learners. The researcher observed that there exists a divergence in theoretical knowledge of VLSs and practically training learners in using...

  16. A Russian Keyword Spotting System Based on Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition and Linguistic Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Smirnov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the key concepts of a word spotting system for Russian based on large vocabulary continuous speech recognition. Key algorithms and system settings are described, including the pronunciation variation algorithm, and the experimental results on the real-life telecom data are provided. The description of system architecture and the user interface is provided. The system is based on CMU Sphinx open-source speech recognition platform and on the linguistic models and algorithms developed by Speech Drive LLC. The effective combination of baseline statistic methods, real-world training data, and the intensive use of linguistic knowledge led to a quality result applicable to industrial use.

  17. Strategies for teaching and learning vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Teng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article presents an overview of current research on second language vocabulary learning and proposes eight strategies for teaching and learning vocabulary. First, to facilitate effective vocabulary teaching, choosing high-frequency words is essential. Teachers of vocabulary also need to add explicit, intentional teaching to incidental learning. In addition, vocabulary learning strategies including morphological awareness and lexical inference provides a platform by which learners can improve both receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge. This article also suggests that productive vocabulary knowledge needs more attention than receptive vocabulary knowledge, and that available textbooks seldom address vocabulary sufficiently. In summary, it is very important for all learners and teachers to acknowledge that learning vocabulary is incremental in nature, and we should develop a principled, long-term program for teaching and learning vocabulary.

  18. Essential French Vocabulary Teach Yourself

    CERN Document Server

    Saint-Thomas, Noel

    2010-01-01

    Essential French Vocabulary is the course for you if you need help with your study of French. This fully revised edition of our best-selling course now comes with free downloadable audio support containing hints on how to learn vocabulary effectively.

  19. Teaching Vocabulary for Peace Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Francisco Gomes

    2002-01-01

    Shows English-as-a-Second-Language educators how vocabulary teaching can become humanizingly meaningful through the use of techniques inspired by some of the interdependent traditions to peace, and to make a plea for ESL teachers and learners to humanize their repertoires of best practices in vocabulary teaching and learning. (Author/VWL)

  20. The State of Vocabulary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairrell, Angela; Rupley, William; Simmons, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-four studies were included in this systematic review of vocabulary research literature. The review corroborates the findings of past studies that several strategies have emerged that increase students' vocabulary knowledge. Findings further reinforce the National Reading Panel's recommendations regarding the context and magnitude of studies…

  1. Reading, Dictionaries, and Vocabulary Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppescu, Stuart; Day, Richard R.

    1993-01-01

    The usefulness of bilingual dictionaries for vocabulary learning was examined with 293 Japanese university students studying English as a foreign language. Students who used a dictionary during reading scored significantly better on a vocabulary test than those who did not, but there was evidence for differential item functioning. (25 references)…

  2. Why Task-Based Training is Superior to Traditional Training Methods

    OpenAIRE

    McGuire, Kath

    2008-01-01

    The risks of spreadsheet use do not just come from the misuse of formulae. As such, training needs to go beyond this technical aspect of spreadsheet use and look at the spreadsheet in its full business context. While standard training is by and large unable to do this, task-based training is perfectly suited to a contextual approach to training.

  3. VOCABULARY AND LANGUAGE TEACHING

    OpenAIRE

    Abrudan Cristiana

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we have looked at the difference between teaching language structure and teaching vocabulary. We have discussed how counts of frequency alone are not enough to determine what words should be taught. We have seen that knowing a word means more than just knowing its meaning. Even that is problematical since meaning includes sense relations and context, for example. To know a word we also need to know about its use, how it is formed and what grammatical behavior it provokes. Above ...

  4. Tectonic Vocabulary & Materialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Beim, Anne; Bundgaard, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    By referring to the fundamental question of how we unite aesthetics and technology – tectonic theory is necessarily a focal point in the development of the architectural discipline. However, a critical reconsideration of the role of tectonic theory seems necessary when facing the present everyday...... architectural practice. In this matter the paper focuses on the need to juxtapose theoretical studies, to bring the present vocabulary of the tectonic further, as well as to spur further practical experiments enabling theory to materialize in the everyday of the current practice....

  5. Nuclear engineering vocabulary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumont, X. [FRAMATOME, Dept. Corporate R and D, 92 - Paris-La-Defence (France); Andrieux, C. [CEA Saclay, Direction des Technologies de l' Information, DTI, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2001-07-01

    The members of the CSTNIN - the Special Commission for Nuclear Engineering Terminology and Neology - have just produced a Nuclear Engineering Vocabulary, published by SFEN. A 120-page document which, to date, includes 400 nuclear engineering terms or expressions. For each term or expression, this Glossary gives: the primary and secondary subject field in which it is applied, a possible abbreviation, its definition, a synonym if appropriate, any relevant comments, any associated word(s), the English equivalent, its status on the date of publication of the Glossary. (author)

  6. Tectonic Vocabulary & Materialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Beim, Anne; Bundgaard, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    to establish a Nordic Network for Research and Teaching in Tectonics is currently forming. This paper seeks to jointly reflect upon these initiatives in order to bring them further, with the intention to clad a discourse on the future of tectonic architectural research that addresses the conditions of everyday...... architectural practice. In this matter the paper focuses on the need to juxtapose theoretical studies, to bring the present vocabulary of the tectonic further, as well as to spur further practical experiments enabling theory to materialize in the everyday of the current practice....

  7. Legal English Vocabulary and Its Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Kuang-zheng

    2016-01-01

    There are differences between legal English and general English. Legal English relates to the legal profession. Law needs to maintain the impression of seriousness, standardization, accuracy and objectiveness, and as a result, legal English also has these characteristics. Compared to general everyday English, the application of legal English vocabulary requires consider-ation of these characteristics. In the translation of legal content, attention is also needed to be paid to the characteristics of foren-sic linguistics. Standardized legal terms are used in the translation of legal regulations and other content to keep the characteris-tics of faithfulness, accuracy, smoothness and consistency. In this paper, legal English vocabulary is discussed based on its char-acteristics, as well as the method of translation of legal content. For practical translation of legal English, translation methods in-clude literal translation, free translation and addition and omission. These methods are briefly discussed in this paper.

  8. Legal English Vocabulary and Its Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Kuang zheng

    2016-01-01

    There are differences between legal English and general English. Legal English relates to the legal profession. Law needs to maintain the impression of seriousness, standardization, accuracy and objectiveness, and as a result, legal English also has these characteristics. Compared to general everyday English, the application of legal English vocabulary requires consideration of these characteristics. In the translation of legal content, attention is also needed to be paid to the characteristics of forensic linguistics. Standardized legal terms are used in the translation of legal regulations and other content to keep the characteristics of faithfulness, accuracy, smoothness and consistency. In this paper, legal English vocabulary is discussed based on its characteristics, as well as the method of translation of legal content. For practical translation of legal English, translation methods include literal translation, free translation and addition and omission. These methods are briefly discussed in this paper.

  9. Evaluation of an Efficient Method for Training Staff to Implement Stimulus Preference Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Eileen M.; Fisher, Wayne W.

    2008-01-01

    We used a brief training procedure that incorporated feedback and role-play practice to train staff members to conduct stimulus preference assessments, and we used group-comparison methods to evaluate the effects of training. Staff members were trained to implement the multiple-stimulus-without-replacement assessment in a single session and the…

  10. Closing the Vocabulary Gap?: A Review of Research on Early Childhood Vocabulary Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine

    2011-01-01

    Our qualitative literature review of 31 published studies found that (a) three major approaches are used in early childhood classrooms to support children's vocabulary learning--exposing children to advanced words, providing direct word-meaning instruction, and employing mixed-method interventions; (b) these practices support children's learning…

  11. Learning English Vocabulary via Online Communication : a study of vocabulary learning strategies used by English learners in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Tolstikova, Natalja

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to investigate vocabulary learning strategies that are used and perceived to be helpful by English learners while communicating online. The participants of the study are 20 young Lithuanian English learners (23-28 years old) who use online communication on a weekly basis. The method of the research is a combination of a questionnaire and a follow-up email interview. The questionnaire items are based on Schmitt’s taxonomy of vocabulary learning strategies (1997), while...

  12. Effective Strategies for Turning Receptive Vocabulary into Productive Vocabulary in EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, Avan Kamal Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary acquisition has been a main concern of EFL English teachers and learners. There have been tons of research to examine the student's level of receptive vocabulary and productive vocabulary, but no research has conducted on how turning receptive vocabulary into productive vocabulary. This study has reported the impact of the teaching…

  13. FL Vocabulary Learning of Undergraduate English Majors in Western China: Perspective, Strategy Use and Vocabulary Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baicheng

    2009-01-01

    The present study, by use of questionnaire and vocabulary tests, has investigated the foreign language vocabulary learning situation of 481 undergraduates in terms of their perspective of vocabulary learning, strategy use and vocabulary size. Based on the questionnaire investigation and vocabulary level tests, the characteristics of the subjects'…

  14. Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Arabic Vocabulary Size among Pre-University Students in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharudin, Harun; Ismail, Zawawi

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size are among the main factors that help determine how students learn second language vocabulary. The present study was an attempt to exploring the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and Arabic vocabulary size of 742 pre-university in "Religious High School" (SMKA) and…

  15. The Challenge of Effective Vocabulary Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cárdenas B. Melba Libia

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Helping students develop vocabulary competence is one of the main challenges English language teachers face. This paper addresses the main aspects we should consider when planning and developing lessons in terms of vocabulary improvement. To achieve that objective, we will analyse the linguistic background and principles of vocabulary teaching and learning, as well as some ways of opening up vocabulary.

  16. Second Language Vocabulary Growth at Advanced Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Meral

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the receptive vocabulary growth of advanced EFL learners in an English-medium degree programme. The study used the Vocabulary Size Test in a cross-sectional design to measure the vocabulary size of learners at various stages of study. The effect of word frequency on vocabulary development and the presence of an…

  17. For ELLs: Vocabulary beyond the Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Nancy S.; Truxaw, Mary P.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a classroom teacher discusses ambiguities in mathematics vocabulary and strategies for ELL students in building understanding. The authors note that mathematics vocabulary may be more difficult to learn than other academic vocabulary for several reasons: (1) definitions are filled with technical vocabulary, symbols, and diagrams;…

  18. Exact Methods for Solving the Train Departure Matching Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Bull, Simon Henry

    In this paper we consider the train departure matching problem which is an important subproblem of the Rolling Stock Unit Management on Railway Sites problem introduced in the ROADEF/EURO Challenge 2014. The subproblem entails matching arriving train units to scheduled departing trains at a railway...

  19. Improving New Vocabulary Learning in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombia Ovalle María

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to help students increase their vocabulary learning in context because when learners participate in a special class with different activities and keep in mind the situation, they remember new words. The study was carried out in the action research method, and the activities provided to students encouraged learning and motivated them to practice English more.

  20. The Evaluation of Micro Teaching Method Used in the Training of Primary School Teachers in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Taskaya Serdarhan

    2014-01-01

    Micro teaching, one of the most frequently used methods in the pre-service education of teachers, is used in many lectures for the training of teachers in the faculties of education in Turkey. Micro teaching is a teaching method which is especially used in the pre-service training of teachers and it aims to train prospective teachers by making…

  1. Optimization methods for the Train Unit Shunting Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Lusby, Richard Martin; Wagenaar, Joris Camiel

    2017-01-01

    We consider the Train Unit Shunting Problem, an important planning problem for passenger railway operators. This problem entails assigning train units from shunting yards to scheduled train services in such a way that the resulting operations are without conflicts. The problem arises at every...... shunting yard in the railway network and involves matching train units to arriving and departing train services as well as assigning the selected matchings to appropriate shunting yard tracks. We present an extensive comparison benchmark of multiple solution approaches for this problem, some of which...

  2. MULTIMEDIA LEARNING IMPLEMENTATION AND VOCABULARY MASTERY FOR ENHANCHING STUDENTS’ JAPANESE LANGUAGE READING SKILL AT SMKN 1 PURWOKERTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Haryono

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research is the implementation of the 2013 doctoral disertation report funded by DIKTI. The research is a part of IPTEKS scheme for community devotion that have strong relation to language education technology. It concern with the use of multimedia learning and vocabulary mastery on students’ Japanese language  reading skills at SMK 1 Purwokerto. The method is implemented experimentally by giving multimedia learning treatment such as Rosetta Stone and Tell Me More Japanese. Through some presentation with the use of those multimedia learning material, the purpose of this research is to know the extent to which the level of their vocabulary mastery and to encourage students in order to have an approriate skill to read Japanese documents. With the implementation of this multimedia learning training, graduate students of SMK Negeri I Purwokerto will be increased and for the future they have a good job at Japanese companies in Indonesia

  3. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development.

  4. DSpace and customized controlled vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skourlas, C.; Tsolakidis, A.; Kakoulidis, P.; Giannakopoulos, G.

    2015-02-01

    The open source platform of DSpace could be defined as a repository application used to provide access to digital resources. DSpace is installed and used by more than 1000 organizations worldwide. A predefined taxonomy of keyword, called the Controlled Vocabulary, can be used for describing and accessing the information items stored in the repository. In this paper, we describe how the users can create, and customize their own vocabularies. Various heterogeneous items, such as research papers, videos, articles and educational material of the repository, can be indexed in order to provide advanced search functionality using new controlled vocabularies.

  5. Vocabulary in SLA Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    HUSTON, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1980's, vocabulary acquisition has been one of the most actively researched aspects of SLA (Lightbown & Spada, 2006). Four factors emerge in an investigation of the development of the role of L2 vocabulary learning in SLA. First, successive SLA theories marginalized vocabulary, often emphasizing the importance of grammar. Second, a growing body of empirical research showed the efficiency and effectiveness of direct vocabulary teaching. Third, overestimates of L1 vocabulary size led ...

  6. The conceptual principles of the functioning of the methodical system of physical training of agricultural students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gryban G.P.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the conceptual principles of the functioning of the methodical system of physical training of agrarian university students. The author is the first to develop the methodology of creating the model of the methodical system of physical training, to specify its components (aim, content, methods, means and organizational forms of training, as well as the ways of their functioning in the physical training process. The author also determines the principles, specificities, the process of projecting and reforming the methodical system of physical training of agricultural students.

  7. Incidental English Vocabulary Studying in L2 learning : A Study of Learning and Teaching English Vocabulary in a College in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Linglin

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether incidental methods are used in learning English vocabulary by non-English students at college in China, and in teaching English vocabulary by their oral English teachers. It also finds out what kinds of incidental strategies are used. Then based on the results of the investigation, this study puts forward some pedagogical implications for teachers.

  8. Vocabularies of happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Bratu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to explore through interviews the vocabularies of happiness that interviewees invoke in face-to-face interactions to account for their happiness or lack thereof and, especially, for the (unhappiness of others. In other words, how do respondents present their own or others’ happiness – be they close or distant acquaintances, or people in general, in an interview conversation? Also, what understanding of others do these accounts make visible? This work embraces a discursive psychological (DP perspective, focusing on how different versions of happiness are being put together by respondents presenting themselves as competent and credible individuals, while at the same time positioning themselves in a moral order of happiness.

  9. Burrowing as a novel voluntary strength training method for mice : A comparison of various voluntary strength or resistance exercise methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roemers, P; Mazzola, P N; De Deyn, P P; Bossers, W J; van Heuvelen, M J G; van der Zee, E A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voluntary strength training methods for rodents are necessary to investigate the effects of strength training on cognition and the brain. However, few voluntary methods are available. NEW METHOD: The current study tested functional and muscular effects of two novel voluntary strength

  10. Learners' independent records of vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Leeke, Philip

    1999-01-01

    Handbooks recommend a variety of quite complicated procedures for learning and remembering vocabulary, but most learners only engage in very simple procedures. The aim of this project was to establish a basis for identifying optimal vocabulary recording procedures by finding out what learners...... currently do. We administered a questionnaire, interviewed learners who said that they kept vocabulary records of some kind and examined their records. Two-thirds had given up making vocabulary lists on entering the L2 environment and/or starting to read extensively, but several made interesting lists...... to be bilingual and single-word focused. The optimal listing procedures are those which represent a compromise between linguistically and psychologically effective practices and the amount of investment learners are actually prepared to put in. It is important to distinguish records made in class, which should...

  11. Differential Effects of Cognitive, Affective, and Proprioceptive Instructional Approaches on Vocabulary Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Ula Price; Manzo, Anthony V.

    The effectiveness of three instructional approaches was investigated in a study of how best to facilitate vocabulary acquisition. The three approaches were (1) the cognitive approach, a method employing dictionary worksheets and patterned after the most commonly used method of teaching vocabulary; (2) the affective approach, which urged students…

  12. The Effects of Suggestopedia in Teaching English Vocabulary to Spanish-dominant Chicano Third Graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Sylvia Z.

    1986-01-01

    Presents the findings of an experiment conducted to determine the efficacy of the suggestopedia method (learning through suggestion, relaxation, and concentration) in teaching English vocabulary to 90 Spanish-dominant third graders. Reports that suggestopedia was found to be more effective than a control method for teaching vocabulary. (DR)

  13. The Effects of Suggestopedia in Teaching English Vocabulary to Spanish-dominant Chicano Third Graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Sylvia Z.

    1986-01-01

    Presents the findings of an experiment conducted to determine the efficacy of the suggestopedia method (learning through suggestion, relaxation, and concentration) in teaching English vocabulary to 90 Spanish-dominant third graders. Reports that suggestopedia was found to be more effective than a control method for teaching vocabulary. (DR)

  14. Research on Methods of Nutrition after Middle and Long Distance Runners Training of Teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the method of literature research, interview, investigation, mathematical statistics and so on, combined with the actual situation in the teaching and training, analyzing the two main factors to affect the adolescent fatigue of muscles and nervous system after the middle distance race training, exploring the methods and measures of the recovery. Through the data access, our country to the adult middle-long-distance athletes training research has a lot of, but for teenage training, especially (youth physical training methods, characteristics and should pay attention to problem research is less.

  15. Student-Created Vocabulary Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Donald

    2016-01-01

    In this paper is described a preliminary study at a Japanese university on student affect toward self-created vocabulary tests. In order to foster greater learner autonomy in their vocabulary study, students were tasked with selecting words they wished to learn and creating their own tests using a template provided by the teacher. At the end of the course, a survey examining student attitudes toward the activity was conducted with 140 participants. The results were encouraging as they indicat...

  16. TOEFL IBT vocabulary flash review

    CERN Document Server

    Llc, Learning Express

    2014-01-01

    The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) measures the English proficiency of people whose native language isn't English. This portable guide features 600 essential TOEFL vocabulary flashcards, bound in a convenient book format, with definitions, sample sentences, synonyms, and pronunciation. The cards include the most-tested vocabulary on the exam. The perfect companion to any TOEFL study plan, this book is pocket-sized for portability and great for study anywhere, anytime!

  17. Validation of the Training Benefit Forecasting Method: Geometric Dimension & Tolerance Training. Training and Development Research Center: Project Number Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geroy, Gary D.

    The validity of the University of Minnesota Skills Training Cost-Benefit Forecasting Model (STCBFM) in a corporate setting was studied. Research and related literature suggested that a model for forecasting the economic benefits of training should include facility to identify and summarize costs and provide an assessment of the value of the…

  18. Video Tutorials: A Sustainable Method for Campus Technology Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, John; Dent, Julie; Barnes, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Technology training is a resource-intensive endeavor with inherent potential for waste. Such training is commonly offered in live, face-to-face workshops on campus, without charge, by colleges and universities who value technology skills in their faculty, staff, and students. The true cost to the institution begins with the space used for…

  19. 一种码本训练算法%A Method of Training Code Book

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐军; 叶澄清

    2000-01-01

    This paper proposes a new code training method of VQ based on discussing varies VQ,brings out a math. model,and shows a training algorithm. The experiment results of the image encoding that employs this algorithm demonstrate the efficiency of training.

  20. Coherent Image Layout using an Adaptive Visual Vocabulary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillard, Scott E.; Henry, Michael J.; Bohn, Shawn J.; Gosink, Luke J.

    2013-03-06

    When querying a huge image database containing millions of images, the result of the query may still contain many thousands of images that need to be presented to the user. We consider the problem of arranging such a large set of images into a visually coherent layout, one that places similar images next to each other. Image similarity is determined using a bag-of-features model, and the layout is constructed from a hierarchical clustering of the image set by mapping an in-order traversal of the hierarchy tree into a space-filling curve. This layout method provides strong locality guarantees so we are able to quantitatively evaluate performance using standard image retrieval benchmarks. Performance of the bag-of-features method is best when the vocabulary is learned on the image set being clustered. Because learning a large, discriminative vocabulary is a computationally demanding task, we present a novel method for efficiently adapting a generic visual vocabulary to a particular dataset. We evaluate our clustering and vocabulary adaptation methods on a variety of image datasets and show that adapting a generic vocabulary to a particular set of images improves performance on both hierarchical clustering and image retrieval tasks.

  1. Coherent image layout using an adaptive visual vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, Scott E.; Henry, Michael J.; Bohn, Shawn; Gosink, Luke J.

    2013-03-01

    When querying a huge image database containing millions of images, the result of the query may still contain many thousands of images that need to be presented to the user. We consider the problem of arranging such a large set of images into a visually coherent layout, one that places similar images next to each other. Image similarity is determined using a bag-of-features model, and the layout is constructed from a hierarchical clustering of the image set by mapping an in-order traversal of the hierarchy tree into a space-filling curve. This layout method provides strong locality guarantees so we are able to quantitatively evaluate performance using standard image retrieval benchmarks. Performance of the bag-of-features method is best when the vocabulary is learned on the image set being clustered. Because learning a large, discriminative vocabulary is a computationally demanding task, we present a novel method for efficiently adapting a generic visual vocabulary to a particular dataset. We evaluate our clustering and vocabulary adaptation methods on a variety of image datasets and show that adapting a generic vocabulary to a particular set of images improves performance on both hierarchical clustering and image retrieval tasks.

  2. Effects of individualized word retrieval in kindergarten vocabulary intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damhuis, C.M.P.; Segers, P.C.J.; Scheltinga, F.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of adaptive word retrieval intervention on a classroom vocabulary program on children's vocabulary acquisition in kindergarten. In the experimental condition, word retrieval was provided in a classroom vocabulary program, combining implicit and explicit vocabulary

  3. Hypoxic training methods for improving endurance exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A. Sinex

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Endurance athletic performance is highly related to a number of factors that can be altered through altitude and hypoxic training including increases in erythrocyte volume, maximal aerobic exercise capacity, capillary density, and economy. Physiological adaptations in response to acute and chronic exposure to hypoxic environments are well documented and range from short-term detrimental effects to longer-term adaptations that can improve performance at altitude and in sea-level competitions. Many altitude and hypoxic training protocols have been developed, employing various combinations of living and training at sea-level, low, moderate, and high altitudes and utilizing natural and artificial altitudes, with varying degrees of effectiveness. Several factors have been identified that are associated with individual responses to hypoxic training, and techniques for identifying those athletes most likely to benefit from hypoxic training continue to be investigated. Exposure to sufficiently high altitude (2000–3000 m for more than 12 h/day, while training at lower altitudes, for a minimum of 21 days is recommended. Timing of altitude training related to competition remains under debate, although general recommendations can be considered.

  4. Trip optimization system and method for a train

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ajith Kuttannair; Shaffer, Glenn Robert; Houpt, Paul Kenneth; Movsichoff, Bernardo Adrian; Chan, David So Keung

    2017-08-15

    A system for operating a train having one or more locomotive consists with each locomotive consist comprising one or more locomotives, the system including a locator element to determine a location of the train, a track characterization element to provide information about a track, a sensor for measuring an operating condition of the locomotive consist, a processor operable to receive information from the locator element, the track characterizing element, and the sensor, and an algorithm embodied within the processor having access to the information to create a trip plan that optimizes performance of the locomotive consist in accordance with one or more operational criteria for the train.

  5. Application of Korean Vocabulary Shorthand Method Based on Schema Theory%基于图式理论的韩国语词汇速记方法应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马海博; 崔京花

    2016-01-01

    随着我国逐渐步入全球化的竞争中,和很多国家的联系也日益加强。目前在国内有很多人选择学习韩国语,但是韩国语对于中国人学习起来是有一定难度的,怎么能让中国人在学习韩国语时以最简便的方法记住相关词汇是很重要的问题。本文主要运用图式理论来分析相关的韩国语词汇学习方法和手段,能让更多韩国语学习者在短时间内找到合适的方法。%As China gradually goes into the global competition, we also have many contacts with many countries. Currently in China there are a lot of people choosing to learn Korean, but there is a certain degree of difficulty for Chinese people to learn Korean, how to make Chinese people in learning the Korean language in the most convenient way to remember the rel-evant vocabulary is a very important issue. In this paper, the use of schema theory to analyze the relevant Korean vocabulary learning methods and means, to allow more Korean language learners in a short time to find a suitable method.

  6. Objective and subjective methods for quantifying training load in wheelchair basketball small-sided games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturricastillo, Aitor; Granados, Cristina; Los Arcos, Asier; Yanci, Javier

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the training load in wheelchair basketball small-sided games and determine the relationship between heart rate (HR)-based training load and perceived exertion (RPE)-based training load methods among small-sided games bouts. HR-based measurements of training load included Edwards' training load and Stagno's training impulses (TRIMPMOD) while RPE-based training load measurements included cardiopulmonary (session RPEres) and muscular (session RPEmus) values. Data were collected from 12 wheelchair basketball players during five consecutive weeks. The total load for the small-sided games sessions was 67.5 ± 6.7 and 55.3 ± 12.5 AU in HR-based training load (Edwards' training load and TRIMPMOD), while the RPE-based training loads were 99.3 ± 26.9 (session RPEres) and 100.8 ± 31.2 AU (session RPEmus). Bout-to-bout analysis identified greater session RPEmus in the third [P training loads. It is suggested that HR-based and RPE-based training loads provide different information, but these two methods could be complementary because one method could help us to understand the limitations of the other.

  7. The Effect of Anger Management Training Using Workshop and Training Package Methods on the Aggression of Patients with Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Vaghee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Given the importance of anger controlling on addicts aggression at withdrawal beginning and their specific conditions, it is essential that different educational methods tailored to the content anger management to reduce aggression and control anger in the addicted people. Aim: This study aimed to compare the effect of anger management training using workshop and training package methods on the aggression of patients with addiction. Method: In this  randomized clinical trial, 60 Clients referred to the addiction withdrawal clinic of psychiatric hospitals of Mashhad  in 2014-2015, were allocated into three groups, educational workshopsn=20 (4 sessions over 2 days of anger management training and  training package (n = 20(trained as a manual and CD and control (n = 20(no intervention. Bass & Perry Aggression Questionnaire was implemented immediately before and one month after the intervention.  For data analysis, ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and paired t-test were performed, using SPSS version 11.5. Results Based on the results of One-way ANOVA, there was a significant difference between the three groups of workshop (14.7±9.4, training package (10.3±5.3, and control (-2.8±3.6; (P

  8. 25 Years of Controlled Vocabularies in Oceanographic Data Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, R. K.

    2008-12-01

    In the 1980s data managers in IOC realised that data exchange required a common terminology for concepts such as parameters, instruments and platforms. They rose to the challenge by developing a set of 7 controlled vocabularies that were published in print as part of the GF3 standard in 1987. Unfortunately, because this was based on print, the vocabularies couldn't be maintained and were little used. However, in the 1990s the pan-European SeaSearch project developed them into a usable digital vocabulary library. Whilst this was a significant step forward, vocabulary content governance was delegated to individuals, technical governance procedures were far from watertight and the terms had no definitions. Consequently, usage problems, especially local copy evolution and term misunderstandings persisted. When SeaDataNet started in 2006 there was a determination to use technology to solve these problems. Now, list server content governance harnesses domain expertise, relational database technology provides robust, scalable, versioned storage and the NERC DataGrid SOAP and pseudo-RESTful Web Service APIs serve lists and mappings. The SeaDataNet vocabulary technology currently addresses two use cases: semantic cross-walking and metadata field content verification. Basic metadata cross-walks do not transfer fields populated from different vocabularies, thereby losing information, because machine-accessible translations are unavailable. In SeaDataNet we have assembled mappings between lists of interest, particularly parameter vocabularies, into an RDF triple store. The resulting ontology is served as RDF documents through API method calls and term URLs. Metadata content verification is implemented by embedding URNs into documents defined by Schematron- extended schemas that are automatically built by a service monitoring the vocabulary server for content changes. These schemas allow generic XML editors, such as Oxygen, to validate document semantic content against the

  9. A novel CPR training method using a smar tphone app

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Elliot Srither

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to validate that a smartphone application can assist in the learning and skills retention for cardiopulmonary resuscitation training. This cardiopulmonary resuscitation feature of the Crowdsav platform is designed to record the chest compression performance as well as the rate of compressions of the trainee. Crowdsav is available for downloading in the public domain. The application, once downloaded can be utilised during training and be replayed by the trainee at his/her own will or via reminders from the training centre. The goal of using this application is to minimise the decay of the knowledge and compression skills and perhaps even reduce the resource for recertification, as skills and performance can be kept up, maintained and monitored remotely by a training centre using the application.

  10. The Training of Military Pilots: Men, Machines, and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    program. Beyond its purely technical function, UPT has become both a cultural rite of passage and the institutional portal through which most Air Force...decades, becoming for many of its graduates a cultural rite of passage . This approach to pilot training, however, represented a departure from the...maneuvering, surface attack training, and, the Navy’s rite of passage , carrier landing qualification. Air Force fighter pilots receive all of their

  11. The Application of Contrastive Analysis to Vocabulary Teaching in Middle School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙和

    2013-01-01

    Learning a language must begin with learning pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar. Among these three factors, vo-cabulary is of great importance. By putting the method of the Contrastive Analysis theories into practice, this thesis presents the necessity and significance of Contrastive Analysis in practical teaching.

  12. Delayed Early Vocabulary Development in Children at Family Risk of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Viersen, Sietske; de Bree, Elise H.; Verdam, Mathilde; Krikhaar, Evelien; Maassen, Ben; van der Leij, Aryan; de Jong, Peter F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to gain more insight into the relation between vocabulary and reading acquisition by examining early growth trajectories in the vocabulary of children at family risk (FR) of dyslexia longitudinally. Method: The sample included 212 children from the Dutch Dyslexia Program with and without an FR. Parents reported on their…

  13. The Language of Mathematics: The Importance of Teaching and Learning Mathematical Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccomini, Paul J.; Smith, Gregory W.; Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Fries, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary understanding is a major contributor to overall comprehension in many content areas, including mathematics. Effective methods for teaching vocabulary in all content areas are diverse and long standing. Teaching and learning the language of mathematics is vital for the development of mathematical proficiency. Students' mathematical…

  14. Delayed Early Vocabulary Development in Children at Family Risk of Dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Viersen, Sietske; de Bree, Elise H; Verdam, Mathilde; Maassen, Ben; Krikhaar, Evelien; van der Leij, Aryan; de Jong, Peter F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to gain more insight into the relation between vocabulary and reading acquisition by examining early growth trajectories in the vocabulary of children at family risk (FR) of dyslexia longitudinally. Method: The sample included 212 children from the Dutch Dyslexia Program

  15. A Cognitive Linguistic Approach to Classroom English Vocabulary Instruction for EFL Learners in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanqing

    2009-01-01

    Vocabulary learning and teaching has been one of the main issues in ESL/EFL learning and teaching research. EFL teachers in China, in particular, are grappling with the effective vocabulary teaching methods. This paper is doing part of this job in a different way. It discusses three principles based on Cognitive Linguistics (CL), namely the study…

  16. L1 Use in L2 Vocabulary Learning: Facilitator or Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing

    2008-01-01

    Based on empirical research and qualitative analysis, this paper aims to explore the effects of L1 use on L2 vocabulary teaching. The results show that, during L2 vocabulary teaching process, the proper application of L1 can effectively facilitate the memorization of new words, and the bilingual method (both English explanation and Chinese…

  17. Exploring Expressive Vocabulary Variability in Two-Year-Olds: The Role of Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Jayne; Klee, Thomas; Stokes, Stephanie F.; Moran, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored whether measures of working memory ability contribute to the wide variation in 2-year-olds' expressive vocabulary skills. Method: Seventy-nine children (aged 24-30 months) were assessed by using standardized tests of vocabulary and visual cognition, a processing speed measure, and behavioral measures of verbal working…

  18. The Language of Mathematics: The Importance of Teaching and Learning Mathematical Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccomini, Paul J.; Smith, Gregory W.; Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Fries, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary understanding is a major contributor to overall comprehension in many content areas, including mathematics. Effective methods for teaching vocabulary in all content areas are diverse and long standing. Teaching and learning the language of mathematics is vital for the development of mathematical proficiency. Students' mathematical…

  19. The Influence of Reading on Vocabulary Growth: A Case for a Matthew Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Dawna; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Catts, Hugh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Individual differences in vocabulary development may affect academic or social opportunities. It has been proposed that individual differences in word reading could affect the rate of vocabulary growth, mediated by the amount of reading experience, a process referred to as a "Matthew effect" (Stanovich, 1986). Method: In the…

  20. Vocabulary Instruction in Fifth Grade and Beyond: Sources of Word Learning and Productive Contexts for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford-Connors, Evelyn; Paratore, Jeanne R.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the vocabulary knowledge of young adolescent and adolescent students has been a focal point of educational research and many teacher professional development initiatives. Yet many teachers continue to use traditional, but generally ineffective, methods of classroom-based vocabulary instruction. Synthesizing the literature around the…

  1. How Many Words Do Children Know? A Corpus-Based Estimation of Children's Total Vocabulary Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segbers, Jutta; Schroeder, Sascha

    2017-01-01

    In this article we present a new method for estimating children's total vocabulary size based on a language corpus in German. We drew a virtual sample of different lexicon sizes from a corpus and let the virtual sample "take" a vocabulary test by comparing whether the items were included in the virtual lexicons or not. This enabled us to…

  2. The Application of SPSS in Analyzing the Effect of English Vocabulary Strategy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoying

    2010-01-01

    The vocabulary learning is one of very important part in the college English teaching. Correct analysis of the result of vocabulary strategy instruction can offer feedbacks for English teaching, and help teachers to improve the teaching method. In this article, the issue how to use SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) to…

  3. Exploring Expressive Vocabulary Variability in Two-Year-Olds: The Role of Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Jayne; Klee, Thomas; Stokes, Stephanie F.; Moran, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored whether measures of working memory ability contribute to the wide variation in 2-year-olds' expressive vocabulary skills. Method: Seventy-nine children (aged 24-30 months) were assessed by using standardized tests of vocabulary and visual cognition, a processing speed measure, and behavioral measures of verbal working…

  4. The Yes/No Test as a Measure of Receptive Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochida, Akira; Harrington, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Performance on the Yes/No test (Huibregtse et al., 2002) was assessed as a predictor of scores on the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT), a standard test of receptive second language (L2) vocabulary knowledge (Nation, 1990). The use of identical items on both tests allowed a direct comparison of test performance, with alternative methods for scoring the…

  5. Analysis of Variance in Vocabulary Learning Strategies Theory and Practice: A Case Study in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma H M Khalifa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an outcome of a concern for the teaching of English as a foreign language (EFL in Libyan schools. Learning of a foreign language is invariably linked to learners building a good repertoire of vocabulary of the target language, which takes us to the theory and practice of imparting training in vocabulary learning strategies (VLSs to learners. The researcher observed that there exists a divergence in theoretical knowledge of VLSs and practically training learners in using the strategies in EFL classes in Libyan schools. To empirically examine the situation, a survey was conducted with secondary school English teachers. The study discusses the results of the survey. The results show that teachers of English in secondary school in Libya are either not aware of various vocabulary learning strategies, or if they are, they do not impart training in all VLSs as they do not realize that to achieve good results in language learning, a judicious use of all VLSs is required. Though the study was conducted on a small scale, the results are highly encouraging. Keywords: vocabulary learning strategies, vocabulary learning theory, teaching of vocabulary learning strategies

  6. The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary breadth and depth knowledge. One hundred and fifty first-year university students in China took the Vocabulary Levels Test, a meaning recall task, and the Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge Test. The first two tests were used to elicit two types of vocabulary…

  7. The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary breadth and depth knowledge. One hundred and fifty first-year university students in China took the Vocabulary Levels Test, a meaning recall task, and the Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge Test. The first two tests were used to elicit two types of vocabulary…

  8. Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge and Their Effects on L2 Vocabulary Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardakçi, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge have been studied from many different perspectives, but the related literature lacks serious studies dealing with their effects on vocabulary profiles of EFL learners. In this paper, with an aim to fill this gap, the relative effects of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge on L2 vocabulary profiles…

  9. Discussion on English Vocabulary and Description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈岚; 代显华

    2013-01-01

      Compared with the study of Grammar, syntax, the description on vocabulary is comparatively slower than them. The related theories of vocabulary description have fast developed since the 1980s and 1990s have experienced a growing interest in vocabulary learning and teaching----The vocabulary size, text coverage, word list, meaning of vocabulary in context, and collocation have been discovered and described, which helped new insights in arrange of different research fields have all added to our understanding of vocabulary development. Vocabulary acquisition research, based on vocabulary description, has established itself as a central research focus for language acquisition researchers and contributed to the focus of practical teaching and learning in College English.

  10. The Choice of Effective Vocabulary Learning Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建芳

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to make a comparison between good and poor language learners in the use of vocabulary learning strategies.It will introduce some helpful vocabulary learning strategies to help those frustrated Chinese college non-English major learners.

  11. A neural network driving curve generation method for the heavy-haul train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youneng Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The heavy-haul train has a series of characteristics, such as the locomotive traction properties, the longer length of train, and the nonlinear train pipe pressure during train braking. When the train is running on a continuous long and steep downgrade railway line, the safety of the train is ensured by cycle braking, which puts high demands on the driving skills of the driver. In this article, a driving curve generation method for the heavy-haul train based on a neural network is proposed. First, in order to describe the nonlinear characteristics of train braking, the neural network model is constructed and trained by practical driving data. In the neural network model, various nonlinear neurons are interconnected to work for information processing and transmission. The target value of train braking pressure reduction and release time is achieved by modeling the braking process. The equation of train motion is computed to obtain the driving curve. Finally, in four typical operation scenarios, comparing the curve data generated by the method with corresponding practical data of the Shuohuang heavy-haul railway line, the results show that the method is effective.

  12. A novel method of assessing quality of postgraduate psychiatry training: experiences from a large training programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizrah, Mukhtar; Iacoponi, Eduardo; Parker, Elizabeth; Rymer, Janice; Iversen, Amy; Wessely, Simon

    2013-06-14

    Most assessments of the quality of postgraduate training are based on anonymised questionnaires of trainees. We report a comprehensive assessment of the quality of training at a large postgraduate psychiatry training institute using non-anonymised face-to-face interviews with trainees and their trainers. Two consultant psychiatrists interviewed 99 trainees and 109 trainers. Scoring of interview responses was determined by using a pre-defined criteria. Additional comments were recorded as free text. Interviews covered 13 domains, including: Clinical, teaching, research and management opportunities, clinical environment, clinical supervision, adequacy of job description, absence of bullying and job satisfaction. Multiple interview domain scores were combined, generating a 'Combined' score for each post. The interview response rate was 97% for trainers 88% for trainees. There was a significant correlation between trainee and trainer scores for the same interview domains (Pearson's r = 0.968, pJob satisfaction scores of year 1 to year 3 core trainees showed a significant increase with increasing seniority (Linear regression coefficient = 0.273, 95% CI: 0.033 to 0.513, ANOVA p= 0.026). This in-depth examination of the quality of training on a large psychiatry training programme successfully elicited strengths and weakness of our programme. Such an interview scheme could be easily implemented in smaller schemes and may well provide important information to allow for targeted improvement of training. Additionally, trends in quality of training and job satisfaction amongst various psychiatric specialities were identified; specifically speciality posts and liaison posts in psychiatry were revealed to be the most popular with trainees.

  13. Acquisition of Expert/Non-Expert Vocabulary from Reformulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Edwige; Grabar, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Technical medical terms are complicated to be correctly understood by non-experts. Vocabulary, associating technical terms with layman expressions, can help in increasing the readability of technical texts and their understanding. The purpose of our work is to build this kind of vocabulary. We propose to exploit the notion of reformulation following two methods: extraction of abbreviations and of reformulations with specific markers. The segments associated thanks to these methods are aligned with medical terminologies. Our results allow to cover over 9,000 medical terms and show precision of extractions between 0.24 and 0.98. The results and analyzed and compared with the existing work.

  14. Effect of Different Sprint Training Methods on Sprint Performance Over Various Distances: A Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpf, Michael C; Lockie, Robert G; Cronin, John B; Jalilvand, Farzad

    2016-06-01

    Rumpf, MC, Lockie, RG, Cronin, JB, and Jalilvand, F. Effect of different sprint training methods on sprint performance over various distances: a brief review. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1767-1785, 2016-Linear sprinting speed is an essential physical quality for many athletes. There are a number of different training modalities that can be used to improve sprint performance. Strength and conditioning coaches must select the most appropriate modalities for their athletes, taking into consideration the sprint distances that typically occur during competition. The study purpose was to perform a brief review as to the effect of specific (free sprinting; resisted sprinting by sleds, bands, or incline running; assisted sprinting with a towing device or a downhill slope), nonspecific (resistance and plyometric training), and combined (a combination of specific and nonspecific) training methods on different sprint distances (0-10, 0-20, 0-30, and 31+ m). A total of 48 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, resulting in 1,485 subjects from a range of athletic backgrounds. The training effects associated with specific sprint training were classified as moderate (effect size [ES] = -1.00; %change = -3.23). Generally, the effect of specific sprint training tended to decrease with distance, although the largest training effects were observed for the 31+ m distance. The greatest training effects (ES = -0.43; %change = -1.65) of nonspecific training were observed for the 31+ m distance. The combined training revealed greatest effects (ES = -0.59; %change = -2.81) for the 0-10 m distance. After this review, specific sprint training methods seem the most beneficial over the investigated distances. However, the implementation of nonspecific training methods (e.g., strength and power training) could also benefit speed and athletic performance.

  15. Optimal Model for Velocity Strength Training Methods for Boy Sprinters Base on Fuzzy Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juntao Sun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available With literature consultation, Delphi method, fuzzy mathematics, experimental method and mathematical statistics method, from multi viewpoints, this study analyzes the velocity strength quality of boy two-level sprinters in quality and quantity. The result shows, with fuzzy mathematics, we can judge the relative degree between velocity strength and various methods, with quantitative disposal to analyze quantitatively, which has certain theoretic significance; according to analysis of fuzzy relation and corresponding relation, build the classification figure for velocity strength training method for boy sprinters; relative data proof, the optimal organization of different training methods can outstand the training specialization and save time and energy, so as to supplement the special training theories, to provide theoretic references and practical instructions for most coaches’ training processes, to improve the efficiency.

  16. Review of L2 Vocabulary Acquisition Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周先军

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary is important in language and language acquisition, but it did not catch as much attention as it deserved for a long time. In this thesis, I’ll go through changes of vocabulary studied in linguistics and language teaching as well as rise of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies. Several aspects of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies will then be reviewed.Issues that need to be further studied will at last be put forward.

  17. Vocabulary Is a Key to English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢翌春

    2008-01-01

    Vocabulary size is an important criterion to measure one's English proficiency. More words mean more freedom in language use. To many English learners, language skill remains difficult due to insufficient vocabulary. Both learners and teachers should be active to find an appropriate way to improve that condition. So it is necessary to know the feature of vocabulary and some effective ways to enlarge vocabulary size.

  18. Review of L2 Vocabulary Acquisition Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周先军

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary is important in language and language acquisition, but it did not catch as much attention as it deserved for a long time. In this thesis, I’ll go through changes of vocabulary studied in linguistics and language teaching as well as rise of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies. Several aspects of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies will then be reviewed .Issues that need to be further studied will at last be put forward.

  19. A Frequency Matching Method for Generation of a Priori Sample Models from Training Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Katrine; Cordua, Knud Skou; Frydendall, Jan

    2011-01-01

    new images that share the same multi-point statistics as a given training image. The FMM proceeds by iteratively updating voxel values of an image until the frequency of patterns in the image matches the frequency of patterns in the training image; making the resulting image statistically......This paper presents a Frequency Matching Method (FMM) for generation of a priori sample models based on training images and illustrates its use by an example. In geostatistics, training images are used to represent a priori knowledge or expectations of models, and the FMM can be used to generate...... indistinguishable from the training image....

  20. What kind of training is required to help language students use metaphor-based strategies to work out the meaning of new vocabulary? Que tipo de treinamento é necessário para ajudar estudantes de idiomas a usar estratégias baseadas em metáforas para adivinhar o significado de vocabulário novo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette Littlemore

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A study is described, which compared the benefits of two different training approaches in the use of metaphor-based vocabulary guessing strategies for foreign language learners. A group-based, step-by-step approach was compared with a more autonomous approach. The findings suggest that the type of training received affects the students' ability to use these strategies, but not their tendency to use them. The students who participated in the autonomous approach were significantly more successful at using metaphor-based vocabulary guessing strategies than the students who had received the group training. The difference was particularly marked in terms of their successful use of interactive images.É descrito um estudo que compara os benefícios de duas abordagens diferentes de treinamento no uso de estratégias de adivinhação de vocabulário baseadas em metáforas para estudantes de línguas estrangeiras. Uma abordagem passo-a-passo, de grupo, é comparada com outra, mais autônoma. Os resultados sugerem que o tipo de treinamento recebido afeta a capacidade dos alunos usarem essas estratégias, mas não sua tendência em usá-las. Alunos que participaram da abordagem autônoma foram significativamente melhor sucedidos no uso de estratégias de adivinhação de vocabulário baseadas em metáforas do que os alunos que receberam treinamento em grupo. A diferença foi particularmente acentuada em relação a seu sucesso no uso de imagens interativas.

  1. Teachers’ Vocabulary Developing Educational Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lea

    From a perspective of teachers’ continuing professional development (CPD) this paper considers the importance of the influence of teachers’ vocabulary in relation to their understanding and development of teaching practices. As the teacher spends most of her/his career teaching inside the classroom...... educational systems, teacher agency is an important issue. If teacher agencyis understood as the teachers’ active contribution to shaping their work and its conditions – for the overall quality of education (Biesta et al. 2015) then there may be a case for focusing on the development of teacher’s vocabulary...... interview techniqu, 2007) to examine the teachers’ ‘practical reasoning’, to develop (elicitation and reconstruction) a ‘practical argument’ (following: Fenstermacher & Richardson 1993), which points to a process of five premises. In the data collecting and in the analysis of the teachers’ vocabulary...

  2. The advantages of the communicative and intensive methods combining in a train-ing course of foreign students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Samosenkova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors view the methodological approaches to teaching foreign languages and give the definition of a teaching method. The authors consider that for the formation of communicative competence of students it is necessary to search new methods of teaching and substantiate the appropriateness and effectiveness of unifying of communicative and intensive methods in the process of teaching Russian language. The authors also describe the features and principles of intensive communicative training.

  3. Practical Recommendations to Improve the Quality of Training and Methodical Support of Professional Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebennikov, Valery V.; Grudtsina, Ludmila Yu.; Marchuk, Nikolay N.; Sangadgiev, Badma V.; Kudyashev, Nail K.

    2016-01-01

    The research urgency is caused by the transition to the knowledge society and new demands for training and methodical provision of professional pedagogical education. The purpose of this paper is to develop practical recommendations to improve the quality of training and methodical support of professional pedagogical education. The leading…

  4. Sampling Methods and the Accredited Population in Athletic Training Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, W. David; Volberding, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Context: We describe methods of sampling the widely-studied, yet poorly defined, population of accredited athletic training education programs (ATEPs). Objective: There are two purposes to this study; first to describe the incidence and types of sampling methods used in athletic training education research, and second to clearly define the…

  5. Sampling Methods and the Accredited Population in Athletic Training Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, W. David; Volberding, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Context: We describe methods of sampling the widely-studied, yet poorly defined, population of accredited athletic training education programs (ATEPs). Objective: There are two purposes to this study; first to describe the incidence and types of sampling methods used in athletic training education research, and second to clearly define the…

  6. Perfecting Language: Experimenting with Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absalom, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    One of the thorniest aspects of teaching languages is developing students' vocabulary, yet it is impossible to be "an accurate and highly communicative language user with a very small vocabulary" (Milton, 2009, p. 3). Nation (2006) indicates that more vocabulary than previously thought is required to function well both at spoken and…

  7. Vocabulary Pruning for Improved Context Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    of term relevancy, when pruning the vocabularies. With reduced vocabularies documents are classified using a latent semantic indexing representation and a probabilistic neural network classifier. Reducing the bag-of-words vocabularies with 90%-98%, we find consistent classification improvement using two...

  8. Pruning the vocabulary for better context recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    of term relevancy, when pruning the vocabularies. With reduced vocabularies, documents are classified using a latent semantic indexing representation and a probabilistic neural network classifier. Reducing the bag-of-words vocabularies with 90%-98%, we find consistent classification improvement using two...

  9. Teachers' Technology Use in Vocabulary Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilickaya, Ferit; Krajka, Jaroslaw

    2010-01-01

    It cannot be denied that vocabulary learning is central to learning a language, be it a mother tongue or the second/foreign language. According to Nunan (1991), learning vocabulary in the very early stages is more fundamental than grammar, since without vocabulary one would not be able to use the structures and functions for effective…

  10. Vocabulary Expansion in Modern Standard Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Louise

    1997-01-01

    Examines the discrepancy between spoken and written vocabularies in modern standard Chinese (MSC) textbooks that contributes to slow vocabulary development, and outlines a teaching technique to extend students' vocabulary using the ideographic nature of MSC characters rather than phonetic learning to increase efficient use of vocabulary…

  11. Vocabulary of Toddlers Who Are Late Talkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Shafer, Valerie L.; Fahey, Katlin J.; Kaden, Elyssa R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand vocabulary characteristics in toddlers who are late talkers (LT) as compared with age-matched (AM) and vocabulary-matched (VM) peers. The semantic categories (e.g., animals, foods, toys) and the percentage of nouns, verbs, and closed-class words in the vocabularies of 36 toddlers (12 LT, 12 AM, 12 VM)…

  12. How to develop vocabulary learning strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董振

    2010-01-01

    @@ Due to limited class time,students will not be able to learn all the vocabulary simply from class teaching.Thus we need to help students develop items vocabulary learning strategies so that they can effectively acquire more vocabulary on their own,especially outside the class.Below are some strategies.

  13. Learning Strategies in Acquisition of Medical Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田俊英; 蒋东坡

    2016-01-01

    Medical vocabulary consists of so many words and terms.Medical students are often terrified by large vocabulary.The paper aimed to analyze the problems lie in acquisition of medical vocabulary,review literature of learning strategies of medical vocabulary,and offers a few simple rules for students to follow to facilitate their acquisition of medical vocabulary.

  14. Listening Vocabulary: Embracing Forgotten Aural Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an innovation in the teaching and learning of vocabulary in English as a Foreign Language classes. Whereas vocabulary coverage in classrooms and textbooks traditionally focuses on lists of target words in printed form, this article promotes the notion of "aural vocabulary" as an important part of…

  15. Vocabulary Levels and Size of Malaysian Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harji, Madhubala Bava; Balakrishnan, Kavitha; Bhar, Sareen Kaur; Letchumanan, Krishnaveni

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary is a fundamental requirement of language acquisition, and its competence enables independent reading and effective language acquisition. Effective language use requires adequate level of vocabulary knowledge; therefore, efforts must be made to identify students' vocabulary base for greater efficiency and competency in the language.…

  16. Academic Listening: A Source of Vocabulary Acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Karina

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study of the acquisition of English-as-a-Foreign-Language vocabulary through academic listening. Explored the effects of EFL proficiency and lecture comprehension on vocabulary acquisition as well as the relationship between vocabulary gain and the following factors: frequency of occurrence, types of word, type of word elaboration, and…

  17. Teacher's Role in English Vocabulary Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵新颜

    2009-01-01

    Vocabulary is the basis for learning any language.Anyone who wants to learn a language well faces the challenge of enlarging his/her vocabulary effectively.From six aspects,this paper discusses what teachers should do to help their students with vocabulary acquisition.

  18. WORD ASSOCIATIONS IN VOCABULARY LEARNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    With the widespread adoption of new college Englishtextbooks,vocabulary learning seems a more important taskthan ever before for college students.This paper is about aresearch on how to help students learn English words moremeaningfully and enlarge their vocabulary more efficiently.This paper first discusses word meaning,concept,andconcept network,then explores the associative network of wordsand their associations,which corresponds to English lexicalrelations.The lexical network can be realized onto a computer tobenefit students in their learning.

  19. Content and Method in a Thanatology Training Program for Paraprofessionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Audrey P.

    1980-01-01

    A training program of paraprofessionals was developed in a university teaching hospital. Trainees were exposed to seminars and a supervised practicum. The objectives of the experience included sensitization of persons in the natural helping network to psychosocial needs of seriously ill persons and their families. (Author)

  20. Does the Use of Multifactorial Training Methods Increase Practitioners' Competence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Corinthus Omari; Lawdis, Katina

    2017-01-01

    Skilled therapy practitioners are required by their governing associations to seek professional development per licensure requirements. These requirements facilitate clinical reasoning and confidence during patient care. There are limited online professional development workshops, especially ones that offer multifactorial training as an…

  1. Development and Analysis of Train Brake Curve Calculation Methods with Complex Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bela Vincze

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an efficient method using simulation for developing and analyzing train brake curve calculation methods for the on-board computer of the ETCS system. An application example with actual measurements is also presented.

  2. Method of Parallel-Hierarchical Network Self-Training and its Application for Pattern Classification and Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIMCHENKO, L.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Propositions necessary for development of parallel-hierarchical (PH network training methods are discussed in this article. Unlike already known structures of the artificial neural network, where non-normalized (absolute similarity criteria are used for comparison, the suggested structure uses a normalized criterion. Based on the analysis of training rules, a conclusion is made that application of two training methods with a teacher is optimal for PH network training: error correction-based training and memory-based training. Mathematical models of training and a combined method of PH network training for recognition of static and dynamic patterns are developed.

  3. Training Needs and Methods of Training in Information Technology for Nigerian Special Library Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nweke, Ken M. C.

    1992-01-01

    Reports on a survey of heads of special libraries in Nigeria that revealed a need for training in and access to information technology in library schools and special libraries. Greater funding for technology, participation in international networks and professional associations, and utilization of international fellowships for further study are…

  4. Effects of Learning Style and Training Method on Computer Attitude and Performance in World Wide Web Page Design Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Huey-Wen; Wang, Yu-Fang

    1999-01-01

    Compares the effects of two training methods on computer attitude and performance in a World Wide Web page design program in a field experiment with high school students in Taiwan. Discusses individual differences, Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory and Learning Style Inventory, Computer Attitude Scale, and results of statistical analyses.…

  5. Image categorization based on spatial visual vocabulary model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuxin; He, Changqin; Guo, He; Feng, Zhen; Jia, Qi

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach to recognize scene categories by means of a novel method named spatial visual vocabulary. Firstly, we hierarchically divide images into sub regions and construct the spatial visual vocabulary by grouping the low-level features collected from every corresponding spatial sub region into a specified number of clusters using k-means algorithm. To recognize the category of a scene, the visual vocabulary distributions of all spatial sub regions are concatenated to form a global feature vector. The classification is obtained using LIBSVM, a support vector machine classifier. Our goal is to find a universal framework which is applicable to various types of features, so two kinds of features are used in the experiments: "V1-like" filters and PACT features. In almost all experimental cases, the proposed model achieves superior results. Source codes are available by email.

  6. Developing High-School Students'Motivation Through Vocabulary Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李生敏

    2012-01-01

    As is commonly accepted motivation is the key to success, and interest is the best teacher what the teacher is to do in class is to provide methods for learning to take place. I used to be a teacher in a high-school for two years, during the process of teaching, I had found that the classroom atmosphere was getting less and less active, a part of students idled in class, they were taking a less active role in classroom activities, one-third students even dropped out. They were caused by the lack of vocabulary. Based on some approaches that I have learned from English language Teaching Methodology and considering the characteristics of my students. I decided to adopt vocabulary design in my lessons to motivate the learners, and help them grasp vocabulary and keep up their English learning.

  7. [Experience with new teaching methods and testing in psychiatric training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, M; Georg, W; Mühlinghaus, I; Fröhmel, A; Rolle, D; Pruskil, S; Heinz, A; Burger, W

    2007-03-01

    In 1999, the Charité Medical University in Berlin, Germany, implemented a reformed medical study course (RMSC) along with traditional undergraduate medical education. The RMSC is characterized by problem-based learning (PBL), training in communication skills with "simulated patients", and interdisciplinary seminars. The curriculum is organized into blocks according to organ system and age (period od life). In a new intensive 4-week psychiatric block, 4th-year students get practical experience in psychiatric wards. Furthermore, PBL groups and workshops are offered that focus on frequent psychiatric disorders. By providing interactive courses with simulated patients, students are intensively trained in taking psychiatric histories and in generating psychopathological findings. Defined learning objectives are tested using multiple-choice items and objectively structured clinical examinations at semester end. First positive results indicate that this course represents an appropriate and practicable curriculum for teaching psychiatry in Germany.

  8. Training Input-Output Recurrent Neural Networks through Spectral Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Sedghi, Hanie; Anandkumar, Anima

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of training input-output recurrent neural networks (RNN) for sequence labeling tasks. We propose a novel spectral approach for learning the network parameters. It is based on decomposition of the cross-moment tensor between the output and a non-linear transformation of the input, based on score functions. We guarantee consistent learning with polynomial sample and computational complexity under transparent conditions such as non-degeneracy of model parameters, polynomi...

  9. Suri-English basic vocabulary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Suri, also known as Surma, are agropastoralists living in the semiarid lowland area of the Kafa Administrative Region of Ethiopia. The Suri language belongs to the South-East Surmic (SES) language group within the Eastern Sudanic family of Nilo-Saharan. The Suri-English vocabulary presented here

  10. BUILDING VOCABULARY USING POP SONGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    author Rahmatika Kayyis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to find out whether there is a significant difference between the vocabulary mastery of first semester students taughtusing English pop songs and that taught without using English pop songs as a medium. This study involved 64 students of first semesterof STKIP Muhammadiyah Pringsewu Lampung in the academic year of 2012/2013 as the objects of the study. The result of the study shows there is a significant difference in the student’s vocabulary mastery between the experimental group who are taughtusing English pop songs and that taught without using English pop songs as a medium.The mean of post test score of the experimental group is 16.93 while the mean score of the control group is 14.54. The result of t-test shows that t-observed value which is higher than the t-value of the table (2.572>1.99, with a probability value of 0.008 which is lower than the significance level (0.008 < 0.05. In conclusion, the use of English pop songscould improve the students’ vocabulary mastery.Keywords: Vocabulary, English Pop Songs

  11. Interactive Approaches for Vocabulary Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Grace Hui Chin

    2009-01-01

    Vocabulary acquisition research has been paid attention these years (e.g. Beck, McKeown & McCaslin, 1983; Harley, 1996; Huckin, Haynes, & Coady, 1993; Zahar, Cobb & Spada, 2001). A serious methodologies had been reported, including applying learner dictionaries (Nesi, 1999; Tribble, 2003), using forms of visual glossing (Al-Seghayer,…

  12. Transformation of Words into Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, H. Naseema; Rajan, Premalatha

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the significance of a word and the changes it undergoes in its form when it is placed in the hierarchy of grammatical constituents thereby forming a new word termed as vocabulary. This change or transformation is the result of affixations. Transformation becomes essential as the words learnt cannot be used as such in a…

  13. Is There an "Academic Vocabulary"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Ken; Tse, Polly

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the notion of "academic vocabulary": the assumption that students of English for academic purposes (EAP) should study a core of high frequency words because they are common in an English academic register. We examine the value of the term by using Cox-head's (2000) Academic Word List (AWL) to explore the distribution of its…

  14. Arabic Vocabulary Learning Strategies Among Non-native Speakers: A Case of IIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Hanan Mustapha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the vocabulary learning strategies used by Arabic learners of the International Islamic University Malaysia. It also compares between the Arabic and non-Arabic majoring students in the use of these strategies. The total sample of this study was 248 university students from different level of studies. They answered a ‘Vocabulary Learning Strategies Questionnaire’ by Pavicic Takac (2008 which consisted of three different components: Formal strategies, self-initiated independent strategies and incidental strategies. Results indicated that Arabic learners used a variety of vocabulary learning strategies with translation being the most widely employed. No statistically significant difference was found between the Arabic and non-Arabic majoring students. The findings provide support for helping the students to utilize their mother tongue in a fruitful way to learn new vocabularies, as well as training both groups equally on how to use these strategies efficiently.

  15. Monolingual and bilingual children with and without primary language impairment: core vocabulary comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Manon; Mayer-Crittenden, Chantal; Minor-Corriveau, Michèle; Bélanger, Roxanne

    2014-09-01

    Core vocabulary is an important component of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems for school-aged children who have complex communication needs. One method of identifying core vocabulary for these individuals is to study the vocabulary of speaking children. To date, the use of core vocabulary by speaking bilingual children has not been well documented. The present study compared the core vocabulary used by children who are monolingual (French), and bilingual (French-English; English-French). We also gathered and compared language samples from French-speaking children identified as having primary language impairment (PLI), with the goal of better understanding the language differences demonstrated by children with this disability. Language samples were collected from a total of 57 children within a school setting, in a region where French is a minority language. Contrary to the hypothesis, the analysis of language transcripts revealed that there were no important differences between the core words from the groups studied.

  16. Effective instructional design for web-based English vocabulary learning: Under the light of theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinçer Biçer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been exciting and serious progress in the field of computers for teaching English. Identification of the most effective methods is essential to make teaching and learning more efficient. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of using multiple content forms in web-based instruction on students’ English vocabulary learning. The study was conducted at the Compulsory Preparatory Program of a state university located in the Black Sea region of Turkey with 106 students. The factorial research design was used to conduct the study. Thus, the effect of using multiple content forms in web-based instruction on students’ English vocabulary learning was analyzed.The vocabulary level of students was measured with a web-based multiple choice English vocabulary achievement test. The measure of internal consistency of the English vocabulary achievement test was 0.966. The findings of this study indicate that, in vocabulary teaching, providing definitions in an audio format in English is more effective in teaching English vocabulary than providing the same definitions in an audio format in English accompanied with pictures. Mobile devices which eliminate the time and distance limitations can be used in further studies with developmental applications to investigate the effects on students’ English vocabulary learning.

  17. HOW TO EMPHASIZE THE STUDY OF ENGLISH ROOTS AND WORD-BUILDING FOR IMPROVING VOCABULARY TEACHING AT COLLEGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Hongyao

    2001-01-01

    Guiding college students to acquire an adequate vocabularyis an important task that is often neglected. The morevocabulary hat is mastered, the higher level a learner of Englishwill have. But in China, the traditional method of teachingvocabulary is learning by rote, and learners of foreign languagesare inclined to learn as much vocabulary as possible this wayregardless of whether these vocabulary is useful or not. Indeed,there are some disadvantageous factors hindering the studentsfrom expanding vocabulary rapidly and efficiently. We have todevelop a scientific method of teaching vocabulary exploringmethods of which is the key to this article.

  18. THE PROBLEM OF MOTIVATION AND METHODS OF ITS INCREASE AT STUDENTS OF NOT LANGUAGE TRAINING DIRECTION IN TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Danilova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the article is devoted to such an actual today issue as increasing of motivation of students learning foreign languages in non-language faculties of a contemporary university. The authors identify the main reasons causing the low level of language preparation among students of non-linguistic directions of preparation, which include – lack of motivation for the implementation of utterance (dominated by a strong belief that in real life it is not useful; small vocabulary; poor knowledge (or ignorance of grammar of the language being studied; the fear of making a mistake (“psycholo gical barrier”. Materials and Methods: the methodological basis of the research are scientific methods such as observation and experiment. In addition, the authors used some other methods such as study of students’ performance (written, examinations, tests, essays, dictations, summaries, etc.; method of pedagogical experiment; modeling. Results: in order to change this situation, the authors suggest to activate the teaching and speech activity of students at two levels: 1 motivation and impelling (to form among students sustained motive (need to speak and 2 tentatively and research (to train the ability to independently select and apply language and speech means appropriated to conditions and social environment. One must skillfully combine both traditional and innovative approaches and methods in the teaching of foreign languages, among which the authors identify a number of basic: the so-called gambling technology (business and role-playing games, information and communication technologies (presentations, projects, online tutorials, webinars, Internet communication with foreign counterparts, meetings and discussions with native speakers, participate in competitions and others. Their alternation on pairs will maintain the attention and interest of students at a high level. Discussion and Conclusions: it is noted that a key role in this process is

  19. Trains across the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    This feature article explores the topic of trains from their early history to recent trends in railroading. A glossary provides related vocabulary, a sidebar called "Romance of the Rails" adds colorful detail about train songs and railroad lore. An additional section, "Classroom Activities," by John Silver, presents three…

  20. Action First--Understanding Follows: An Expansion of Skills-Based Training Using Action Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Colin

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of training trainers in the skills they need to perform competently as trainers and how they follow their skills mastery with discussion on their new theoretical insight. Moreno's action method (psychodrama, sociodrama, sociometry, and role training) is the model used. (JOW)

  1. Action First--Understanding Follows: An Expansion of Skills-Based Training Using Action Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Colin

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of training trainers in the skills they need to perform competently as trainers and how they follow their skills mastery with discussion on their new theoretical insight. Moreno's action method (psychodrama, sociodrama, sociometry, and role training) is the model used. (JOW)

  2. Aerodynamic simulation of high-speed trains based on the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Aerodynamic simulation of high-speed trains has been carried out by using Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM). Non-simplified train model was used and the number of space grids reached tens of millions. All results under different working conditions reflected the actual situation.

  3. Do Different Training Conditions Facilitate Team Implementation? A Quasi-Experimental Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Karina; Randall, Raymond; Christensen, Karl B.

    2017-01-01

    A mixed methods approach was applied to examine the effects of a naturally occurring teamwork intervention supported with training. The first objective was to integrate qualitative process evaluation and quantitative effect evaluation to examine "how" and "why" the training influence intervention outcomes. The intervention (N =…

  4. Method for training honeybees to respond to olfactory stimuli and enhancement of memory retention therein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCade, Kirsten J.; Wingo, Robert M.; Haarmann, Timothy K.; Sutherland, Andrew; Gubler, Walter D.

    2015-12-15

    A specialized conditioning protocol for honeybees that is designed for use within a complex agricultural ecosystem. This method ensures that the conditioned bees will be less likely to exhibit a conditioned response to uninfected plants, a false positive response that would render such a biological sensor unreliable for agricultural decision support. Also described is a superboosting training regime that allows training without the aid of expensive equipment and protocols for training in out in the field. Also described is a memory enhancing cocktail that aids in long term memory retention of a vapor signature. This allows the bees to be used in the field for longer durations and with fewer bees trained overall.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTI-COORDINATE VOCABULARY, CHEMICAL PHYSICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LERNER, RITA G.

    THIS PAPER DESCRIBES A METHOD (SCHEME) FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A VOCABULARY IN THE FIELD OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS FROM PRIMARY JOURNAL ARTICLES. ALL TERMS APPEARING IN A RECENT JOURNAL (VOL. 39, JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS) JUDGED TO BE IMPORTANT WERE DIVIDED INTO THREE CATEGORIES--(1) PROPERTIES, PROCESSES, PHENOMENA, (2) OBJECTS, INCLUDING SYSTEMS AND…

  6. Vocabulary Acquisition--First Year German Language Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassner-Roberts, Sigrid

    An experiment was conducted using the suggestopedia method to learn German vocabulary words. Four students who had failed, or nearly failed, tests during the regular university term, took part in two tutoring sessions in which the following procedure was used. First, a pretest of 72 lexical items was given. The students cooperated with the teacher…

  7. A Preliminary Study of Cognitive Strategies in English Vocabulary Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚丽

    2009-01-01

    The paper tries to put forward some methods to learn English words effectively from the perspective of cognitive psychology. According to objective cognition rules: human are easier to know things from near surroundings, from similar group, from familiar situations and so on. The article explores that some cognitive strategies such as category, semantic net, context, and chunk are helpful for English vocabulary learning.

  8. Frequent Daytime Naps Predict Vocabulary Growth in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Klára; Plunkett, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The facilitating role of sleep for language learning is well-attested in adults and to a lesser extent in infants and toddlers. However, the longitudinal relationship between sleep patterns and early vocabulary development is not well understood. Methods: This study investigates how measures of sleep are related to the development of…

  9. Frequent Daytime Naps Predict Vocabulary Growth in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Klára; Plunkett, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The facilitating role of sleep for language learning is well-attested in adults and to a lesser extent in infants and toddlers. However, the longitudinal relationship between sleep patterns and early vocabulary development is not well understood. Methods: This study investigates how measures of sleep are related to the development of…

  10. Social Validity Assessment of Training Methods to Improve Treatment Integrity of Special Education Service Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmeier, Craig; Mulé, Christina; Luiselli, James K

    2014-05-01

    We report the results of a social validity assessment that was administered to special education service providers (N = 44) to document the acceptability and effectiveness ratings of several treatment integrity training methods. The participants judged performance feedback as the most likely method to improve their treatment integrity, followed by avoidance (negative reinforcement) of supervision meetings, online training, and financial incentive. Performance feedback was also rank-ordered as most effective among the four training methods. We discuss the merits of social validity assessment in designing programs for enhancing treatment integrity among practitioners within educational and clinical settings.

  11. Inspiratory muscle training is used in some intensive care units, but many training methods have uncertain efficacy: a survey of French physiotherapists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Bonnevie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Questions: How common is inspiratory muscle training by physiotherapists in the intensive care unit (ICU? Which patients receive the training? What methods are used to administer the training? Is maximal inspiratory pressure used to evaluate the need for the training and the patient's outcome after training? Design: Cross-sectional survey of all ICUs in France. Participants: Two hundred and sixty-five senior physiotherapists. Results: The response rate was 99% among eligible units. Therapist experience in ICU was significantly associated with the use of inspiratory muscle training (p = 0.02. Therapists mainly used inspiratory muscle training either systematically or specifically in patients who failed to wean from mechanical ventilation. The training was used significantly more in non-sedated patients (p < 0.0001. The most commonly nominated technique that respondents claimed to use to apply the training was controlled diaphragmatic breathing (83% of respondents, whereas 13% used evidence-based methods. Among those who applied some form of inspiratory muscle training, 16% assessed maximal inspiratory pressure. Six respondents (2%, 95% CI 1 to 5 used both an evidence-based method to administer inspiratory muscle training and the recommended technique for assessment of inspiratory muscle strength. Conclusion: Most physiotherapists in French ICUs who apply inspiratory muscle training use methods of uncertain efficacy without assessment of maximal inspiratory pressure. Further efforts need to be made in France to disseminate information regarding evidence-based assessment and techniques for inspiratory muscle training in the ICU. The alignment of inspiratory muscle training practice with evidence could be investigated in other regions. [Bonnevie T, Villiot-Danger J-C, Gravier F-E, Dupuis J, Prieur G, Médrinal C (2015 Inspiratory muscle training is used in some intensive care units, but many training methods have uncertain efficacy: a survey of

  12. Small Vocabulary with Saliency Matching for Video Copy Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Tang, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    of vocabulary. BoW descriptors under a small vocabulary can be both robust and efficient, while keeping high recall rate compared with large vocabulary. However, the high false positives exists in small vocabulary also limits its application. To address this problem in small vocabulary, we propose a novel...

  13. On the Application of Games in Junior English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖芳萍

    2015-01-01

    <正>Vocabulary,pronunciation and grammar are the three essential components of language,vocabulary being the building material of languages.The famous linguist Wilkins said,"Without grammar,very little can be conveyed;without vocabulary,nothing can be conveyed."The importance of vocabulary is strongly manifested.Therefore,vocabulary teaching has been the focus of

  14. New concepts for building vocabulary for cell image ontologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plant Anne L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are significant challenges associated with the building of ontologies for cell biology experiments including the large numbers of terms and their synonyms. These challenges make it difficult to simultaneously query data from multiple experiments or ontologies. If vocabulary terms were consistently used and reused across and within ontologies, queries would be possible through shared terms. One approach to achieving this is to strictly control the terms used in ontologies in the form of a pre-defined schema, but this approach limits the individual researcher's ability to create new terms when needed to describe new experiments. Results Here, we propose the use of a limited number of highly reusable common root terms, and rules for an experimentalist to locally expand terms by adding more specific terms under more general root terms to form specific new vocabulary hierarchies that can be used to build ontologies. We illustrate the application of the method to build vocabularies and a prototype database for cell images that uses a visual data-tree of terms to facilitate sophisticated queries based on a experimental parameters. We demonstrate how the terminology might be extended by adding new vocabulary terms into the hierarchy of terms in an evolving process. In this approach, image data and metadata are handled separately, so we also describe a robust file-naming scheme to unambiguously identify image and other files associated with each metadata value. The prototype database http://sbd.nist.gov/ consists of more than 2000 images of cells and benchmark materials, and 163 metadata terms that describe experimental details, including many details about cell culture and handling. Image files of interest can be retrieved, and their data can be compared, by choosing one or more relevant metadata values as search terms. Metadata values for any dataset can be compared with corresponding values of another dataset through logical

  15. Peculiarities of application the method of autogenic training in the correction of eating behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Shebanova, Vitaliya

    2014-01-01

    The article presented peculiarities of applying the method of autogenic training in the correction of eating disorders. Described stages of correction work with desadaptive eating behavior. Author makes accent on the rules self-assembly formula intentions.

  16. Comparison of respiratory muscle training methods in individuals with motor complete tetraplegia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, G.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Perret, C.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of inspiratory resistance training (IRT) and isocapnic hyperpnea (IH) versus incentive spirometry (placebo) on respiratory function, voice, and quality of life in individuals with motor complete tetraplegia. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, 24 individua

  17. Comparison of respiratory muscle training methods in individuals with motor complete tetraplegia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, G.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Perret, C.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of inspiratory resistance training (IRT) and isocapnic hyperpnea (IH) versus incentive spirometry (placebo) on respiratory function, voice, and quality of life in individuals with motor complete tetraplegia. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, 24

  18. Comparison of respiratory muscle training methods in individuals with motor complete tetraplegia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, G.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Perret, C.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of inspiratory resistance training (IRT) and isocapnic hyperpnea (IH) versus incentive spirometry (placebo) on respiratory function, voice, and quality of life in individuals with motor complete tetraplegia. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, 24 individua

  19. A pilot course for training-in-context in statistics and research methods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pilot course for training-in-context in statistics and research methods: Radiation oncology. ... roles of emotional engagement and social networking in facilitating effective ... Participants reported an increased understanding of the principles of ...

  20. Key Vocabulary Learning Strategies in ESP And EGP Course Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Akbari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of research evidence is showing the advantages of using certain skills and behaviours called language learning strategies in general and vocabulary learning strategies (VLSs in particular in the process of L2 acquisition. University students who require reading English texts in their fields of study have to expand their vocabulary knowledge in a much more efficient way than ordinary ESL/EFL learners.  And ELT course books are a good place to incorporate learner training in this regard. The purpose of this study is to see how vocabulary learning strategies are treated in both the book designer's claims section and the exercises of English for Specific Purposes (ESP course books for students of medicine and para-medicine on the one hand and English for General Purposes (EGP course book used commonly by these students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran on the other. In other words, the specified course books were analyzed based on the insights gained from VLS research to gauge the extent to which they have incorporated VLSs and training in using them. These books were published under the supervision of the center for studying and compiling university books in humanities (SAMT. Based on the review of the relevant literature, three key strategies were identified and an analytic framework was devised. The framework was then applied to the course books. It was found that the treatments in the specified course books were deemed unlikely to improve students’ abilities with these important skills and strategies. Keywords: Vocabulary Learning Strategies (VLSs, English for General Purposes (EGP, English for Specific Purposes (ESP, medical course books, paramedical course books, University students

  1. Vocabulary, Grammar, Sex, and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscoso Del Prado Martín, Fermín

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the changes in our language abilities along the lifespan is a crucial step for understanding the aging process both in normal and in abnormal circumstances. Besides controlled experimental tasks, it is equally crucial to investigate language in unconstrained conversation. I present an information-theoretical analysis of a corpus of dyadic conversations investigating how the richness of the vocabulary, the word-internal structure (inflectional morphology), and the syntax of the utterances evolves as a function of the speaker's age and sex. Although vocabulary diversity increases throughout the lifetime, grammatical diversities follow a different pattern, which also differs between women and men. Women use increasingly diverse syntactic structures at least up to their late fifties, and they do not deteriorate in terms of fluency through their lifespan. However, from age 45 onward, men exhibit a decrease in the diversity of the syntactic structures they use, coupled with an increased number of speech disfluencies. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  2. Suri-English basic vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    Abbink, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Suri, also known as Surma, are agropastoralists living in the semiarid lowland area of the Kafa Administrative Region of Ethiopia. The Suri language belongs to the South-East Surmic (SES) language group within the Eastern Sudanic family of Nilo-Saharan. The Suri-English vocabulary presented here was compiled during research carried out in southwestern Ethiopia, particularly in the village of Makara, between December 1991 and June 1992, and in October 1992. It incorporates two unpublished ...

  3. Desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bjork, RA; Kroll, JF

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 by the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois. In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is underst...

  4. The open method of coordination in vocational education and training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cort, Pia

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of EU modes of governance within the Copenhagen Process with a specific focus on the Open Method of Coordination.......Analysis of EU modes of governance within the Copenhagen Process with a specific focus on the Open Method of Coordination....

  5. Carriers Used in Memorizing Vocabulary of Classical Literature--Mnemonic Methods Enlightened by Words from Greek Mythology%古希腊文化中词汇记忆的载体运用 --由希腊神话故事启发的单词记忆方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严大为

    2005-01-01

    探讨了一些英语词汇的学习方略.正如古希腊神话对英语语言有着巨大的影响,许多起源于此的英语单词启发我产生出一种有效的词汇记忆法--载体运用.通过列举一些古希腊神话中具体而又有特殊意义的单词,结合其与普通单词记忆方法的比较,介绍给读者载体运用词汇记忆法.同时进行了一些理论分析,以明确其理论依据和教学意义.%This article mainly deals with the English vocabulary learning strategies. Just as the Greek mythology has a large influence on English, a lot of words derived from it enlightened me with an effective mnemonic method carriers-used method. In this article, compared with general vocabulary learning strategies, carriers-used method will be introduced to readers through detailed and typical word examples from Greek mythology. The learners will soon form their own carriers during the vocabulary learning. Also, theoretical aspects will be analyzed to show the theoretical considerations and pedagogical implications.

  6. The Sources of the English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shujun

    2015-01-01

    Lexicology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the study of the vocabulary of a given language. This paper begins with the question: What are the two approaches to the study of English lexicology? Then talk about the position and character of the English language in the Indo-European family. After this,the paper would on the way to explain the sources of the English vocabulary and different characters of different periods of English vocabulary.

  7. Development of an integrated energy vocabulary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niehoff, R.T.

    1976-02-01

    Vocabularies from 10 information systems were employed in this attempt to establish an integrated energy vocabulary. A broad definition of energy was formulated and used as a selection criterion. The resulting product, to be printed under separate cover, contains 30,000 terms and 55,000 cross references. It is felt that the integrated vocabulary, when printed, will aid both energy researchers and information scientists using both manual and on-line systems.

  8. The Influence of Contexts on Vocabulary Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高春梅

    2014-01-01

    In vocabulary testing, whether to adopt context is a heat-debated topic. In the article, an experiment is designed to in⁃vestigate what is the effect of zero context and sentence context on the vocabulary testing? And how do the different kinds of context in vocabulary affect the subjects’performance? The experimental result demonstrates that sentence do play an important role in helping text-takers to figure out the correct meaning or target words.

  9. Neural changes underlying early stages of L2 vocabulary acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, He; Holcomb, Phillip J; Midgley, Katherine J

    2016-11-01

    Research has shown neural changes following second language (L2) acquisition after weeks or months of instruction. But are such changes detectable even earlier than previously shown? The present study examines the electrophysiological changes underlying the earliest stages of second language vocabulary acquisition by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) within the first week of learning. Adult native English speakers with no previous Spanish experience completed less than four hours of Spanish vocabulary training, with pre- and post-training ERPs recorded to a backward translation task. Results indicate that beginning L2 learners show rapid neural changes following learning, manifested in changes to the N400 - an ERP component sensitive to lexicosemantic processing and degree of L2 proficiency. Specifically, learners in early stages of L2 acquisition show growth in N400 amplitude to L2 words following learning as well as a backward translation N400 priming effect that was absent pre-training. These results were shown within days of minimal L2 training, suggesting that the neural changes captured during adult second language acquisition are more rapid than previously shown. Such findings are consistent with models of early stages of bilingualism in adult learners of L2 (e.g. Kroll and Stewart's RHM) and reinforce the use of ERP measures to assess L2 learning.

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Receptive Vocabulary Breadth Knowledge Growth and Vocabulary Fluency Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2014-01-01

    This article reports results of a longitudinal study of vocabulary breadth knowledge growth, vocabulary fluency development, and the relationship between the two. We administered two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT; Nation 1983; Nation 1990; Schmitt et al. 2001) to 300 students at a Chinese university at three different time points…

  11. A Corpus Analysis of Vocabulary Coverage and Vocabulary Learning Opportunities within a Children's Story Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Extensive reading for second language learners have been widely documented over the past few decades. However, few studies, if any, have used a corpus analysis approach to analyze the vocabulary coverage within a single-author story series, its repetition of vocabulary, and the incidental and intentional vocabulary learning opportunities therein.…

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Receptive Vocabulary Breadth Knowledge Growth and Vocabulary Fluency Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2014-01-01

    This article reports results of a longitudinal study of vocabulary breadth knowledge growth, vocabulary fluency development, and the relationship between the two. We administered two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT; Nation 1983; Nation 1990; Schmitt et al. 2001) to 300 students at a Chinese university at three different time points…

  13. Assessing the Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategy Use and Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Feng

    2015-01-01

    This study is an attempt to explore the correlation between direct and indirect vocabulary learning strategies along with the depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge. To this end, a sample of 145 low proficiency students who learn English as a Foreign Language (EFL) completed a questionnaire concerning vocabulary learning strategy use.…

  14. Analysis of the reliabilities of maglev train power system with FTA method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zhiqiang; Lu, Zhiquo; Chen, Huixing; Liu, Shaoke

    2003-09-01

    As to the high safeties and reliabilities of the magnetic suspension train, the most fundamental rule is that under all supposed running disturbances, faults, and other urgent conditions, and at any time, the running train can all stop at any given point, where the passengers can get off the train completely and can all find a safe stopping place. The object studied in this paper is the CMS-3 type electromagnetic suspension sample train developed in the National University of Defense Technology. Based on the method of fault tree analysis, the safeties and the reliabilities of the key part (the power system) of the train are analyzed systematically. And the instructive viewpoints and the improving measures are put forward.

  15. Wurfelspiel-based training data methods for ATR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, James K.

    2004-09-01

    A data object is constructed from a P by M Wurfelspiel matrix W by choosing an entry from each column to construct a sequence A0A1"AM-1. Each of the PM possibilities are designed to correspond to the same category according to some chosen measure. This matrix could encode many types of data. (1) Musical fragments, all of which evoke sadness; each column entry is a 4 beat sequence with a chosen A0A1A2 thus 16 beats long (W is P by 3). (2) Paintings, all of which evoke happiness; each column entry is a layer and a given A0A1A2 is a painting constructed using these layers (W is P by 3). (3) abstract feature vectors corresponding to action potentials evoked from a biological cell's exposure to a toxin. The action potential is divided into four relevant regions and each column entry represents the feature vector of a region. A given A0A1A2 is then an abstraction of the excitable cell's output (W is P by 4). (4) abstract feature vectors corresponding to an object such as a face or vehicle. The object is divided into four categories each assigned an abstract feature vector with the resulting concatenation an abstract representation of the object (W is P by 4). All of the examples above correspond to one particular measure (sad music, happy paintings, an introduced toxin, an object to recognize)and hence, when a Wurfelspiel matrix is constructed, relevant training information for recognition is encoded that can be used in many algorithms. The focus of this paper is on the application of these ideas to automatic target recognition (ATR). In addition, we discuss a larger biologically based model of temporal cortex polymodal sensor fusion which can use the feature vectors extracted from the ATR Wurfelspiel data.

  16. Vocabulary services to support scientific data interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Simon; Mills, Katie; Tan, Florence

    2013-04-01

    Shared vocabularies are a core element in interoperable systems. Vocabularies need to be available at run-time, and where the vocabularies are shared by a distributed community this implies the use of web technology to provide vocabulary services. Given the ubiquity of vocabularies or classifiers in systems, vocabulary services are effectively the base of the interoperability stack. In contemporary knowledge organization systems, a vocabulary item is considered a concept, with the "terms" denoting it appearing as labels. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) formalizes this as an RDF Schema (RDFS) application, with a bridge to formal logic in Web Ontology Language (OWL). For maximum utility, a vocabulary should be made available through the following interfaces: * the vocabulary as a whole - at an ontology URI corresponding to a vocabulary document * each item in the vocabulary - at the item URI * summaries, subsets, and resources derived by transformation * through the standard RDF web API - i.e. a SPARQL endpoint * through a query form for human users. However, the vocabulary data model may be leveraged directly in a standard vocabulary API that uses the semantics provided by SKOS. SISSvoc3 [1] accomplishes this as a standard set of URI templates for a vocabulary. Any URI comforming to the template selects a vocabulary subset based on the SKOS properties, including labels (skos:prefLabel, skos:altLabel, rdfs:label) and a subset of the semantic relations (skos:broader, skos:narrower, etc). SISSvoc3 thus provides a RESTFul SKOS API to query a vocabulary, but hiding the complexity of SPARQL. It has been implemented using the Linked Data API (LDA) [2], which connects to a SPARQL endpoint. By using LDA, we also get content-negotiation, alternative views, paging, metadata and other functionality provided in a standard way. A number of vocabularies have been formalized in SKOS and deployed by CSIRO, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) and their

  17. Training NOAA Staff on Effective Communication Methods with Local Climate Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeyeva, M. M.; Mayes, B.

    2011-12-01

    Since 2002 NOAA National Weather Service (NWS) Climate Services Division (CSD) offered training opportunities to NWS staff. As a result of eight-year-long development of the training program, NWS offers three training courses and about 25 online distance learning modules covering various climate topics: climate data and observations, climate variability and change, NWS national and local climate products, their tools, skill, and interpretation. Leveraging climate information and expertise available at all NOAA line offices and partners allows delivery of the most advanced knowledge and is a very critical aspect of the training program. NWS challenges in providing local climate services includes effective communication techniques on provide highly technical scientific information to local users. Addressing this challenge requires well trained, climate-literate workforce at local level capable of communicating the NOAA climate products and services as well as provide climate-sensitive decision support. Trained NWS climate service personnel use proactive and reactive approaches and professional education methods in communicating climate variability and change information to local users. Both scientifically-unimpaired messages and amiable communication techniques such as story telling approach are important in developing an engaged dialog between the climate service providers and users. Several pilot projects NWS CSD conducted in the past year applied the NWS climate services training program to training events for NOAA technical user groups. The technical user groups included natural resources managers, engineers, hydrologists, and planners for transportation infrastructure. Training of professional user groups required tailoring the instructions to the potential applications of each group of users. Training technical user identified the following critical issues: (1) Knowledge of target audience expectations, initial knowledge status, and potential use of climate

  18. A tool for sharing annotated research data: the "Category 0" UMLS (Unified Medical Language System vocabularies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berman Jules J

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large biomedical data sets have become increasingly important resources for medical researchers. Modern biomedical data sets are annotated with standard terms to describe the data and to support data linking between databases. The largest curated listing of biomedical terms is the the National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS. The UMLS contains more than 2 million biomedical terms collected from nearly 100 medical vocabularies. Many of the vocabularies contained in the UMLS carry restrictions on their use, making it impossible to share or distribute UMLS-annotated research data. However, a subset of the UMLS vocabularies, designated Category 0 by UMLS, can be used to annotate and share data sets without violating the UMLS License Agreement. Methods The UMLS Category 0 vocabularies can be extracted from the parent UMLS metathesaurus using a Perl script supplied with this article. There are 43 Category 0 vocabularies that can be used freely for research purposes without violating the UMLS License Agreement. Among the Category 0 vocabularies are: MESH (Medical Subject Headings, NCBI (National Center for Bioinformatics Taxonomy and ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases-9-Clinical Modifiers. Results The extraction file containing all Category 0 terms and concepts is 72,581,138 bytes in length and contains 1,029,161 terms. The UMLS Metathesaurus MRCON file (January, 2003 is 151,048,493 bytes in length and contains 2,146,899 terms. Therefore the Category 0 vocabularies, in aggregate, are about half the size of the UMLS metathesaurus. A large publicly available listing of 567,921 different medical phrases were automatically coded using the full UMLS metatathesaurus and the Category 0 vocabularies. There were 545,321 phrases with one or more matches against UMLS terms while 468,785 phrases had one or more matches against the Category 0 terms. This indicates that when the two vocabularies are

  19. Development methods of strength training%力量训练方式发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋德海; 巢晓春

    2011-01-01

    随着力量训练方法手段的不断细化与发展,力量训练经过了传统力量训练到电刺激训练又向具有时代性的振动力量、核心力量和功能性力量训练方向发展,新兴力量训练方式的出现使得教练员在力量训练中不能很好地理解各种力量训练的优缺点及针对性。以致在训练中盲目追求新兴的力量训练方法而忽视针对运动员所需力量提高的要求。本研究目的在于阐述几种力量训练方式的产生及应用,分析几种不同力量训练方式在针对提高运动员力量过程中的优缺点,以便教练员在力量训练中选择适宜的力量训练手段,达到提高专项成绩的目的。%With the continuous refinement and development of strength training means, strength training was from the traditional strength training to the electrical stimulation training, and luther to the vibration strength, core strength and functional strength training. The emerging strength training can not make coaches understand the advantages and disadvantages of the meaus of various strength training, resulted in blind pursuit the new strength training methods, and neglect the new training methods to improve athletes strength development purpose of study is to describe the production and application of some required. This strength training ,analyze several different strength training advantages and disadvantages in the strength training, so coaches selecte the appropriate training means in process of improving strength training, to improve the purpose of special performance.

  20. A Component-Based Vocabulary-Extensible Sign Language Gesture Recognition Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengjing Wei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sign language recognition (SLR can provide a helpful tool for the communication between the deaf and the external world. This paper proposed a component-based vocabulary extensible SLR framework using data from surface electromyographic (sEMG sensors, accelerometers (ACC, and gyroscopes (GYRO. In this framework, a sign word was considered to be a combination of five common sign components, including hand shape, axis, orientation, rotation, and trajectory, and sign classification was implemented based on the recognition of five components. Especially, the proposed SLR framework consisted of two major parts. The first part was to obtain the component-based form of sign gestures and establish the code table of target sign gesture set using data from a reference subject. In the second part, which was designed for new users, component classifiers were trained using a training set suggested by the reference subject and the classification of unknown gestures was performed with a code matching method. Five subjects participated in this study and recognition experiments under different size of training sets were implemented on a target gesture set consisting of 110 frequently-used Chinese Sign Language (CSL sign words. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed framework can realize large-scale gesture set recognition with a small-scale training set. With the smallest training sets (containing about one-third gestures of the target gesture set suggested by two reference subjects, (82.6 ± 13.2% and (79.7 ± 13.4% average recognition accuracy were obtained for 110 words respectively, and the average recognition accuracy climbed up to (88 ± 13.7% and (86.3 ± 13.7% when the training set included 50~60 gestures (about half of the target gesture set. The proposed framework can significantly reduce the user’s training burden in large-scale gesture recognition, which will facilitate the implementation of a practical SLR system.

  1. A Component-Based Vocabulary-Extensible Sign Language Gesture Recognition Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shengjing; Chen, Xiang; Yang, Xidong; Cao, Shuai; Zhang, Xu

    2016-04-19

    Sign language recognition (SLR) can provide a helpful tool for the communication between the deaf and the external world. This paper proposed a component-based vocabulary extensible SLR framework using data from surface electromyographic (sEMG) sensors, accelerometers (ACC), and gyroscopes (GYRO). In this framework, a sign word was considered to be a combination of five common sign components, including hand shape, axis, orientation, rotation, and trajectory, and sign classification was implemented based on the recognition of five components. Especially, the proposed SLR framework consisted of two major parts. The first part was to obtain the component-based form of sign gestures and establish the code table of target sign gesture set using data from a reference subject. In the second part, which was designed for new users, component classifiers were trained using a training set suggested by the reference subject and the classification of unknown gestures was performed with a code matching method. Five subjects participated in this study and recognition experiments under different size of training sets were implemented on a target gesture set consisting of 110 frequently-used Chinese Sign Language (CSL) sign words. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed framework can realize large-scale gesture set recognition with a small-scale training set. With the smallest training sets (containing about one-third gestures of the target gesture set) suggested by two reference subjects, (82.6 ± 13.2)% and (79.7 ± 13.4)% average recognition accuracy were obtained for 110 words respectively, and the average recognition accuracy climbed up to (88 ± 13.7)% and (86.3 ± 13.7)% when the training set included 50~60 gestures (about half of the target gesture set). The proposed framework can significantly reduce the user's training burden in large-scale gesture recognition, which will facilitate the implementation of a practical SLR system.

  2. Methods of artificial enlargement of the training set for statistical shape models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koikkalainen, Juha; Tölli, Tuomas; Lauerma, Kirsi; Antila, Kari; Mattila, Elina; Lilja, Mikko; Lötjönen, Jyrki

    2008-11-01

    Due to the small size of training sets, statistical shape models often over-constrain the deformation in medical image segmentation. Hence, artificial enlargement of the training set has been proposed as a solution for the problem to increase the flexibility of the models. In this paper, different methods were evaluated to artificially enlarge a training set. Furthermore, the objectives were to study the effects of the size of the training set, to estimate the optimal number of deformation modes, to study the effects of different error sources, and to compare different deformation methods. The study was performed for a cardiac shape model consisting of ventricles, atria, and epicardium, and built from magnetic resonance (MR) volume images of 25 subjects. Both shape modeling and image segmentation accuracies were studied. The objectives were reached by utilizing different training sets and datasets, and two deformation methods. The evaluation proved that artificial enlargement of the training set improves both the modeling and segmentation accuracy. All but one enlargement techniques gave statistically significantly (p < 0.05) better segmentation results than the standard method without enlargement. The two best enlargement techniques were the nonrigid movement technique and the technique that combines principal component analysis (PCA) and finite element model (FEM). The optimal number of deformation modes was found to be near 100 modes in our application. The active shape model segmentation gave better segmentation accuracy than the one based on the simulated annealing optimization of the model weights.

  3. International Models and Methods of Remote Sensing Education and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Paul S.

    A classification of remote sensing courses throughout the world, the world-wide need for sensing instruction, and alternative instructional methods for meeting those needs are discussed. Remote sensing involves aerial photointerpretation or the use of satellite and other non-photographic imagery; its focus is to interpret what is in the photograph…

  4. Interactive teaching methods in teaching "practical (industrial training an accountant"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Zaicev

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Practical teaching activities needed to develop the methodological level, focused on their actual implementation in the classroom when studying a particular academic discipline. Given that interactive teaching methods are quite new for many teachers category, consideration of their nature and possibilities of practical application the subject of this article.

  5. Does project-based learning enhance Iranian EFL learners’ vocabulary recall and retention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Shafaei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary knowledge is an integral part of second/foreign language learning. Thus, using teaching methods that can help learners retain and expand their vocabulary knowledge is necessary to facilitate the language learning process. The current research investigated the effectiveness of an interactive classroom method, known as Project-Based Learning (PBL, in helping Iranian EFL learners not just learn but retain new vocabulary knowledge. To this end, an experimental approach using two groups of participants (i.e. experimental and control was employed. The experimental group was taught using the PBL method while the control group was taught using the conventional method. The findings of the study indicated that learners who were taught using the PBL approach (i.e. the experimental group had a significant improvement in their vocabulary recall and retention rate. Besides, they even showed better retention of new vocabulary with higher level of difficulty. This supports previous findings on the effectiveness of PBL as a vocabulary teaching method in the EFL context which could contribute to the betterment of the existing teaching methods.

  6. Methodology for Training Small Domain-specific Language Models and Its Application in Service Robot Speech Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ONDAS Stanislav

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The proposed paper introduces the novel methodology for training small domain-specific language models only from domain vocabulary. Proposed methodology is intended for situations, when no training data are available and preparing of appropriate deterministic grammar is not trivial task. Methodology consists of two phases. In the first phase the “random” deterministic grammar, which enables to generate all possible combination of unigrams and bigrams is constructed from vocabulary. Then, prepared random grammar serves for generating the training corpus. The “random” n-gram model is trained from generated corpus, which can be adapted in second phase. Evaluation of proposed approach has shown usability of the methodology for small domains. Results of methodology assessment favor designed method instead of constructing the appropriate deterministic grammar.

  7. An exploration of pain-related vocabulary: implications for AAC use with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ensa; Bornman, Juan; Tönsing, Kerstin M

    2016-12-01

    Children with significant communication difficulties who experience pain need appropriate means to communicate their pain in order to receive appropriate treatment. Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) strategies could be used to enable children to self-report pain. The aim of this research study was to identify the common vocabulary children with typical development use to describe physical pain experiences and develop and socially validate an appropriate pain-related vocabulary list for children who use or could benefit from using AAC. A sequential, exploratory, mixed-method design was employed. This paper focuses on the quantitative phase. A set of scenarios was developed to gather pain-related vocabulary appropriate for children aged 6;0-7;11 (years;months) and children aged 8;0-9;11, from 74 children, 61 parents, and 56 teachers. Some 629 pain-related words or phrases were suggested and then classified into seven categories. A composite list of the 84 most frequently occurring pain-related vocabulary items was compiled and socially validated by three adults who used AAC. They emphasized the need to individualize vocabulary and provided suggestions for vocabulary organization for display on any type of AAC system. Despite similarities in the categories of words offered by the various respondent groups, the differences underscore the importance of more than one perspective (particularly that of children and adults) in generating a comprehensive vocabulary list.

  8. The Train Driver Recovery Problem - a Set Partitioning Based Model and Solution Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezanova, Natalia Jurjevna; Ryan, David

    The need to recover a train driver schedule occurs during major disruptions in the daily railway operations. Using data from the train driver schedule of the Danish passenger railway operator DSB S-tog A/S, a solution method to the Train Driver Recovery Problem (TDRP) is developed. The TDRP is fo...... the depth-first search of the Branch & Bound tree. Preliminarily results are encouraging, showing that nearly all tested real-life instances produce integer solutions to the LP relaxation and solutions are found within a few seconds....

  9. Troubling objectivity: the promises and pitfalls of training Haitian clinicians in qualitative research methods.H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minn, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Building research capacity is a central component of many contemporary global health programs and partnerships. While medical anthropologists have been conducting qualitative research in resource-poor settings for decades, they are increasingly called on to train "local" clinicians, researchers, and students in qualitative research methods. In this article, I describe the process of teaching introductory courses in qualitative research methods to Haitian clinicians, hospital staff, and medical students, who rarely encounter qualitative research in their training or practice. These trainings allow participants to identify and begin to address challenges related to health services delivery, quality of care, and provider-patient relations. However, they also run the risk of perpetuating colonial legacies of objectification and reinforcing hierarchies of knowledge and knowledge production. As these trainings increase in number and scope, they offer the opportunity to reflect critically on new forms of transnational interventions that aim to reduce health disparities.

  10. Book review:Jeanne McCarten’s Teaching Vocabulary:Lessons from the Corpus,Lessons for the Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱瑶

    2015-01-01

    Corpus is now playing a significant role in various researchingfields,pedagogy included.Jeanne McCarten introduces her corpus-based method of vocabulary teaching in the book Teaching Vocabulary:Lessons from the Corpus,Lessons for the Classroom.This book review introduces you this book and makes some pertinent comments on it.

  11. My View on Teaching Chinese Vocabulary%浅谈汉语词汇教学技巧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔新丹

    2001-01-01

    This thesis will introduce the skill of Chinese Vocabulary teaching and main methods for students to accumulate vocabulary.%本文介绍了汉语词汇教学的技巧及帮助学生积累语汇的主要方法。

  12. Teaching Vocabulary to Preschoolers with Disabilities Using Adult-Child Shared Bookreading: A Comparison of Traditional and Electronic Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodehouse, Sara Bernice

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to validate adult-child shared storybook reading as a method for teaching target vocabulary words to preschool children with disabilities. The Vocabulary Learning through Books (VLTB) instructional procedure incorporates, adult-child book reading, questioning during reading requiring the child to answer with a target word, and…

  13. Associative vocabulary learning : development and testing of two paradigms for the (re-) acquisition of action- and object-related words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freundlieb, Nils; Ridder, Volker; Dobel, Christian; Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Baumgaertner, Annette; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Gerloff, Christian; Hummel, Friedhelm C; Liuzzi, Gianpiero

    2012-01-01

    Despite a growing number of studies, the neurophysiology of adult vocabulary acquisition is still poorly understood. One reason is that paradigms that can easily be combined with neuroscientfic methods are rare. Here, we tested the efficiency of two paradigms for vocabulary (re-) acquisition, and co

  14. Associative vocabulary learning : development and testing of two paradigms for the (re-) acquisition of action- and object-related words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freundlieb, Nils; Ridder, Volker; Dobel, Christian; Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Baumgaertner, Annette; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Gerloff, Christian; Hummel, Friedhelm C; Liuzzi, Gianpiero

    2012-01-01

    Despite a growing number of studies, the neurophysiology of adult vocabulary acquisition is still poorly understood. One reason is that paradigms that can easily be combined with neuroscientfic methods are rare. Here, we tested the efficiency of two paradigms for vocabulary (re-) acquisition, and co

  15. Book review:Jeanne Mc Carten’s Teaching Vocabulary:Lessons from the Corpus,Lessons for the Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱瑶

    2015-01-01

    Corpus is now playing a significant role in various researching fields,pedagogy included.Jeanne Mc Carten introduces her corpus-based method of vocabulary teaching in the book Teaching Vocabulary:Lessons from the Corpus,Lessons for the Classroom.This book review introduces you this book and makes some pertinent comments on it.

  16. Teaching Vocabulary to Preschoolers with Disabilities Using Adult-Child Shared Bookreading: A Comparison of Traditional and Electronic Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodehouse, Sara Bernice

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to validate adult-child shared storybook reading as a method for teaching target vocabulary words to preschool children with disabilities. The Vocabulary Learning through Books (VLTB) instructional procedure incorporates, adult-child book reading, questioning during reading requiring the child to answer with a target word, and…

  17. Receptive vocabulary knowledge tests: Their potential importance for planning a well-balanced vocabulary component of a language program

    OpenAIRE

    Wakeling, Elliott

    2015-01-01

    iii Abstract Nation and Webb (2011) state ‘Testing is one of the major jobs of the vocabulary teacher, because without good information about our learners’ vocabulary knowledge, we cannot do the most important job of planning a well-balanced program’ (p. 219). This paper evaluated different receptive vocabulary knowledge tests and assessed their potential to help a teacher plan a well-balanced vocabulary program. The Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT) was selected to assess the vocabulary kno...

  18. A multi-method evaluation of a training course on dual diagnosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rani, S

    2012-08-01

    A training course on dual diagnosis was developed within the Irish forensic mental health service, to bridge the gap in the lack of training on dual diagnosis in Ireland. The course was designed for service providers within mental health and addiction services. Twenty participants involving nursing, social work, police and social welfare disciplines attended the first training course. A mixed methodology research design was adapted to describe participants\\' evaluation of the training course. Data were collected using multiple methods: pre- and post-test, daily evaluation and focus group interviews. Quantitative data were analysed using the spss Version 16.0 and qualitative data were analysed thematically. Findings from the pre- and post-test suggest an increase in participants\\' knowledge of dual diagnosis and an increase in confidence in conducting groups. Daily evaluation indicates that the course content largely met participants\\' needs. Finally, three themes emerged from the focus group interview: increased confidence, the training course\\/teaching methods and personal\\/organizational challenges. This study implies that service providers within mental health and addiction services benefit from inter-professional, needs and skills based courses incorporating a variety of teaching methods. The way forward for future dual diagnosis training course developments would be working in partnership with service users and carers.

  19. A Train-Bridge Dynamic Interaction Analysis Method and Its Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The train-bridge dynamic interaction problem began with the development of railway technology, and requires an evaluation method for bridge design in order to ensure the safety and stability of the bridge and the running train. This problem is studied using theoretical analysis, numerical simulation, and experimental study. In the train-bridge dynamic interaction system proposed in this paper, the train vehicle model is established by the rigid-body dynamics method, the bridge model is established by the finite element method, and the wheel/rail vertical and lateral interaction are simulated by the corresponding assumption and the Kalker linear creep theory, respectively. Track irregularity, structure deformation, wind load, collision load, structural damage, foundation scouring, and earthquake action are regarded as the excitation for the system. The train-bridge dynamic interaction system is solved by inter-history iteration. A case study of the dynamic response of a CRH380BL high-speed train running through a standard-design bridge in China is discussed. The dynamic responses of the vehicle and of the bridge subsystems are obtained for speeds ranging from 200 km·h−1 to 400 km·h−1, and the vibration mechanism are analyzed.

  20. A multi-method evaluation of a training course on dual diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, S; Byrne, H

    2012-08-01

    A training course on dual diagnosis was developed within the Irish forensic mental health service, to bridge the gap in the lack of training on dual diagnosis in Ireland. The course was designed for service providers within mental health and addiction services. Twenty participants involving nursing, social work, police and social welfare disciplines attended the first training course. A mixed methodology research design was adapted to describe participants' evaluation of the training course. Data were collected using multiple methods: pre- and post-test, daily evaluation and focus group interviews. Quantitative data were analysed using the spss Version 16.0 and qualitative data were analysed thematically. Findings from the pre- and post-test suggest an increase in participants' knowledge of dual diagnosis and an increase in confidence in conducting groups. Daily evaluation indicates that the course content largely met participants' needs. Finally, three themes emerged from the focus group interview: increased confidence, the training course/teaching methods and personal/organizational challenges. This study implies that service providers within mental health and addiction services benefit from inter-professional, needs and skills based courses incorporating a variety of teaching methods. The way forward for future dual diagnosis training course developments would be working in partnership with service users and carers.

  1. PONS2train: tool for testing the MLP architecture and local traning methods for runoff forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maca, P.; Pavlasek, J.; Pech, P.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of presented poster is to introduce the PONS2train developed for runoff prediction via multilayer perceptron - MLP. The software application enables the implementation of 12 different MLP's transfer functions, comparison of 9 local training algorithms and finally the evaluation the MLP performance via 17 selected model evaluation metrics. The PONS2train software is written in C++ programing language. Its implementation consists of 4 classes. The NEURAL_NET and NEURON classes implement the MLP, the CRITERIA class estimates model evaluation metrics and for model performance evaluation via testing and validation datasets. The DATA_PATTERN class prepares the validation, testing and calibration datasets. The software application uses the LAPACK, BLAS and ARMADILLO C++ linear algebra libraries. The PONS2train implements the first order local optimization algorithms: standard on-line and batch back-propagation with learning rate combined with momentum and its variants with the regularization term, Rprop and standard batch back-propagation with variable momentum and learning rate. The second order local training algorithms represents: the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm with and without regularization and four variants of scaled conjugate gradients. The other important PONS2train features are: the multi-run, the weight saturation control, early stopping of trainings, and the MLP weights analysis. The weights initialization is done via two different methods: random sampling from uniform distribution on open interval or Nguyen Widrow method. The data patterns can be transformed via linear and nonlinear transformation. The runoff forecast case study focuses on PONS2train implementation and shows the different aspects of the MLP training, the MLP architecture estimation, the neural network weights analysis and model uncertainty estimation.

  2. Vocabulary Learning Strategies from the Bottom-Up: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostovar-Namaghi, Seyyed Ali; Malekpur, Akram

    2015-01-01

    Lots of studies have tried to test the effect of strategy training on vocabulary development. However, instead of trying to uncover the strategies that learners actually use, they have tried to expose learners to a list of strategies supported by theories. Although these theory-driven studies have provided the field with significant and…

  3. The Train Driver Recovery Problem - Solution Method and Decision Support System Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezanova, Natalia Jurjevna

    2009-01-01

    . Rezanova NJ, Ryan DM. The train driver recovery problem–A set partitioning based model and solution method. Computers and Operations Research, in press, 2009. doi: 10.1016/j.cor.2009.03.023. 2. Clausen J, Larsen A, Larsen J, Rezanova NJ. Disruption management in the airline industry–Concepts, models...... and methods. Computers and Operations Research, in press, 2009. doi: 10.1016/j.cor.2009.03.027. 3. Rezanova NJ, Ryan DM. The train driver recovery problem–A set partitioning based model and solution method. IMM-Technical Report-2006-24. Informatics and Mathematical Modelling, Technical University of Denmark...

  4. Aerodynamic Optimization of the Nose Shape of a Train Using the Adjoint Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Munoz-Paniagua

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The adjoint method is used in this paper for the aerodynamic optimization of the nose shape of a train. This method has been extensively applied in aircraft or ground vehicle aerodynamic optimization, but is still in progress in train aerodynamics. Here we consider this innovative optimization method and present its application to reduce the aerodynamic drag when the train is subjected to front wind. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, highlighting the requirements, limitations and capabilities of it. Furthermore, a significant reduction of the aerodynamic drag in a short number of solver calls is aimed as well. The independence of the computational cost with respect to the number of design variables that define the optimal candidate is stressed as the most interesting characteristic of the adjoint method. This behavior permits a more complete modification of the shape of the train nose because the number of design variables is not a constraint anymore. The information obtained from the sensitivity field permits determining the regions of the geometry where a small modification of the nose shape might introduce a larger improvement of the train performance. A good agreement between this information and the successive geometry modifications is observed here.

  5. Effectiveness of the Modified Intensive Toilet Training Method on Teaching Toilet Skills to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiç, Avsar; Cavkaytar, Atilla

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine effectiveness of a modified version of Azrin and Foxx's (1971) intensive toilet training method on teaching of toilet skills to children with autism. This method consists of administering extra fluids and a time schedule, but does not use overcorrection procedures. Implementation requires a study of six…

  6. Effectiveness of the Modified Intensive Toilet Training Method on Teaching Toilet Skills to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiç, Avsar; Cavkaytar, Atilla

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine effectiveness of a modified version of Azrin and Foxx's (1971) intensive toilet training method on teaching of toilet skills to children with autism. This method consists of administering extra fluids and a time schedule, but does not use overcorrection procedures. Implementation requires a study of six…

  7. Vocabulary Growth of the Advanced EFL Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Meral

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of two studies on the vocabulary growth of advanced learners of English as a foreign language in an English-medium degree programme. Growth in learners' written receptive and productive vocabularies was investigated in one cross-sectional and one longitudinal study over three years. The effect of word frequency on…

  8. Vocabulary Teaching in Action-Oriented Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunday, Rifat; Atmaca, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    The words are called as basic building blocks of language. It is impossible to discuss the language system without words. It is related to the vocabulary whether a language is rich or not. It is also related to the peoples' vocabulary to understand what is said and written or to express effectively their thoughts and their feelings verbally or in…

  9. Is Form-Focused Vocabulary Instruction Worthwhile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Beniko; Krashen, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Hearing stories can result in considerable incidental vocabulary development, for both first and second language acquisition (e.g. Elley 1992; Robbins and Ehri 1994; Senechal, LeFevre, Hudson and Lawson 1996). It has also been claimed, however, that direct instruction is more effective than incidental vocabulary acquisition and that combining both…

  10. Incidental Acquisition of Vocabulary by Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponniah, R. Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of reading on vocabulary development with adult ESL students at the National Institute of Technology (Trichirappalli, India). The researcher analyzes the performance of the students who devoted their time to reading, and the students who learned consciously the meaning of words to develop their vocabulary knowledge.…

  11. Vocabulary Growth of the Advanced EFL Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Meral

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of two studies on the vocabulary growth of advanced learners of English as a foreign language in an English-medium degree programme. Growth in learners' written receptive and productive vocabularies was investigated in one cross-sectional and one longitudinal study over three years. The effect of word frequency on…

  12. My World of Words: Building Vocabulary Lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MarcoPolo Education Foundation.

    This lesson uses students' areas of interest both in and out of school to generate personalized vocabulary lists. Working in small groups, grade 3 to 5 students select their own vocabulary words and research their meanings. In a culminating activity that uses text and illustration, each student will create a "My World of Words Journal." During…

  13. Review Article: Instructed Second Language Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    This article overviews current research on second language vocabulary learning. It concludes that a large vocabulary is necessary to function in English: 8000-9000 word families for reading, and perhaps as many as 5000-7000 families for oral discourse. In addition, a number of word knowledge aspects need to be learned about each lexical item.…

  14. Building Conceptual Understanding through Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupley, William H.; Nichols, William Dee; Mraz, Maryann; Blair, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Instructional design is an integral part of a balanced approach to teaching vocabulary instruction. This article presents several instructional procedures using research-based vocabulary strategies and explains how to design and adapt those strategies in order to reach desired learning outcomes. Emphasis is placed on research-based principles that…

  15. Vocabulary Strategies for a Fourth Grade Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Gina

    2012-01-01

    For this project I worked with twelve of my fourth grade students from a local school in the southwestern part of Stokes County, North Carolina on increasing their vocabulary skills through the development and implementation of seven vocabulary strategies. During the Literature Review I came across the following seven strategies: Prediction;…

  16. Vocabulary Memorizing Strategies by Chinese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei-dong; Dai, Wei-ping

    2012-01-01

    The findings of the study indicate that students prefer to engage in the vocabulary learning strategies that would be most appealing to them and that would entail less manipulation of the language. Of the four vocabulary memorizing strategies cited in the study (rote repetition, structural associations, semantic strategies, and mnemonic keyword…

  17. Helping Teachers Connect Vocabulary and Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, A. Susan

    2008-01-01

    A focus on mathematics vocabulary must be part of teachers' instructional plans to develop students' understanding of key ideas. The author presents examples from work with preservice teachers regarding two vocabulary strategies and other related activities that can be used by middle and high school mathematics teachers. (Contains 8 figures.)

  18. Effects of Morphological Instruction on Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Peter N.; Kirby, John R.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of a 20-session intervention targeting morphological word structure on vocabulary knowledge were investigated in four Grade 4 and 5 classes, assigned randomly to treatment and control conditions. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling for initial vocabulary showed significant instructional effects on morphological analysis and…

  19. English Vocabulary Instruction for English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyak, Patrick C.; Bauer, Eurydice Bouchereau

    2009-01-01

    In this column Manyak and Bauer summarize key research addressing the English vocabulary development of English learners (ELs) and distill implications for instructional practice. First, the authors discuss several key studies that demonstrate the limitation of many ELs' English vocabulary knowledge and the negative impact of this limitation on…

  20. Discussion on University English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关颖

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary is the foundation of language systems and the students' vocabulary ability directly affects their ability of lis⁃tening, speaking, reading, writing and translating.However, the traditional college English teaching of vocabulary can't meet the needs of memorizing words for students. Memorizing words is a heavy burden of students.Teaching practice shows that using the etymology of auxiliary teaching in the process of teaching can improve the students' learning interest and deepen their memory,al⁃so can improve the efficiency of vocabulary memory,which isnot only help students enlarge their vocabulary, but also can strengthen the students understand the English national cultures.In this paper, we start from the importance of vocabulary teach⁃ing and the present situation of college English vocabulary teaching,we talk about the feasibility of using etymology college Eng⁃lish vocabulary teaching strategies based on the etymology related knowledgein this paper in order to improve the English skills for students.

  1. Intentional Vocabulary Learning Using Digital Flashcards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hsiu-Ting

    2015-01-01

    As an attempt to follow through on the claims made by proponents of intentional vocabulary learning, the present study set out to examine whether and how digital flashcards can be incorporated into a university course to promote the vocabulary learning of English language learners. The overall research findings underscore the value of learning…

  2. Conceptual Metaphor and English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐立

    2013-01-01

      We can see how metaphors exist in everyday language, even if we may not always notice. Metaphor plays an important role in vocabulary teaching. In accordance with the analysis of the fundamental theories proposed by Lakoff&Johnson (1980), this thesis provides some suggestions which help English teachers improve vocabulary teaching strategies.

  3. Vocabulary Instruction for Second Language Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Deanna L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, research has consistently affirmed the importance of explicit vocabulary instruction for adult learners of English as a second language (ESL). Given the significant vocabulary demands faced by adult second language readers, ESL teachers must carefully target their instruction for maximum impact and to foster meaningful…

  4. Glossary of Social Studies Terms and Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Karen R., Comp.

    This glossary is a tool to help teachers better understand the language of social studies. It was not created to be a study guide for vocabulary tests, as learning social studies vocabulary is best done in context. The glossary is for use in conjunction with the social studies portion of Michigan's Clarifying Language in Michigan Benchmarks (MI…

  5. The Choice of Effective Vocabulary Learning Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-fang

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to make a comparison between good and poor language learners in the use of vocabulary learning strat-egies. It will introduce some helpful vocabulary learning strategies to help those frustrated Chinese college non-English major learners.

  6. Fostering Academic Vocabulary Use in Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun-Mercer, Nicole; Zimmerman, Cheryl Boyd

    2015-01-01

    Though research has established a relationship between vocabulary knowledge and academic success and identified features to guide the L2 word learner through academic tasks (see Nation, 2013), less is known regarding student perceptions of academic vocabulary and the conscious decision-making process of these learners while they are writing. In…

  7. Vocabulary Growth of the Advanced EFL Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Meral

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of two studies on the vocabulary growth of advanced learners of English as a foreign language in an English-medium degree programme. Growth in learners' written receptive and productive vocabularies was investigated in one cross-sectional and one longitudinal study over three years. The effect of word…

  8. The Acculturation in English vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严灵; 张华刚; 张凯

    2010-01-01

    The thesis is concerned with the acculturation in English words.More specifically,some consideration will be given to the why and how of learning culture.It will be demonstrated that learning a foreign language is not tantamount to giving a homily on syntactic structures or learning new vocabulary and expressions,but mainly incorporates,or should incorporate,some cultural elements,which are intertwined with language itself.The main premise of the paper is that apart from enhancing and enriching communicative competence,cultural competence can also lead to empathy and respect toward different cultures as well as promote objectivity and cultural perspicacity.

  9. Sound Symbolism in Basic Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Wichmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between meanings of words and their sound shapes is to a large extent arbitrary, but it is well known that languages exhibit sound symbolism effects violating arbitrariness. Evidence for sound symbolism is typically anecdotal, however. Here we present a systematic approach. Using a selection of basic vocabulary in nearly one half of the world’s languages we find commonalities among sound shapes for words referring to same concepts. These are interpreted as due to sound symbolism. Studying the effects of sound symbolism cross-linguistically is of key importance for the understanding of language evolution.

  10. An ERP study on initial second language vocabulary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Yen Na; Midgley, Katherine J; Holcomb, Phillip J; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the very initial phases of orthographic and semantic acquisition in monolingual native English speakers learning Chinese words under controlled laboratory conditions. Participants engaged in 10 sessions of vocabulary learning, four of which were used to obtain ERPs. Performance in behavioral tests improved over sessions, and these data were used to define fast and slow learners. Most important is that ERPs in the two groups of learners revealed qualitatively distinct learning patterns. Only fast learners showed a left-lateralized increase in N170 amplitude with training. Furthermore, only fast learners showed an increased N400 amplitude with training, with a distinct anterior distribution. Slow learners, on the other hand, showed a posterior positive effect, with increasingly positive-going waveforms in occipital sites as training progressed. Possible mechanisms underlying these qualitative differences are discussed.

  11. 机助课堂词汇测试介入与词汇习得研究%Computer-Assisted Classroom Vocabulary Quiz and Vocabulary Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健刚

    2012-01-01

    从教师、学生以及词汇三者的互动关系出发,提出词汇教学应该是动态的、互动的系统。以计算机为辅助的课堂词汇测试既是该系统的触发器,又是词汇教学的有机一环,它能够调动学生课上和课下学习词汇的主动性。调查了学生的反应并运用实证研究的方法来考察机助课堂词汇测试介入法是否能够促进学生的词汇习得。研究结果表明,该方法比传统的方法更能调动学生学习词汇的积极性,从而促进学生的词汇习得。%This paper attempts to discuss vocabulary teaching should be a dynamic and interactive system which involves the roles of teachers, students and vocabulary. The computer-assisted classroom vocabulary quiz is the engine of this system as well as the integral part of vocabulary teaching. It can stimulate students' motivation both in class and after class. This paper tries to examine whether or not this method will improve students' vocabulary acquisition and investigate the response from the part of students by an empirical method. The result shows that compared to traditional method, this method can better arouse students' enthusiasm for vocabulary learning and further their vocabulary acquisition.

  12. TEACHING VOCABULARY LEARNING STRATEGIES IN CLASSROOM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangWentao

    2004-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is one component of language skills such as reading and writing and enables language learners to more appropriate language use. 13ecause of the features of vocabulary learning, which is wide coverage in content and time, teaching vocabulary should base on learners previous knowledge and arouse their motivation to .further learning. Teaching language learning strategy in class can help studentsmore consciously monitor their learning, learn autonomously and become independent learner. Hence teacher should attach great importance to the instruction of voeabalary learnig strategies to students in classroom. This paper discusses theoretically the function and application of teaching learning strategy in vocabulary learning and also provides an applicable class sample to teach some vocabulary learning strategies to students.

  13. Does training managers enhance the effects of implementing teamworking? A longitudinal, mixed methods field study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina; Randall, R; Christensen, KB

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of team-working often has positive effects on team members but places significant new demands on managers. Unfortunately, little research has examined whether the impact of the intervention may be enhanced by providing managers with training during the change process. To test...... this possibility we carried out a longitudinal intervention study (with a ‘no training’ comparison group) in a part of the Danish elderly care sector that was implementing teamwork. Kirkpatrick’s (1998) training evaluation model was used to examine the effects of training team managers in issues such as teamwork......, transformational leadership and change management on the outcomes of team implementation. We used a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods to isolate the impact of manager training on the success of the teamwork intervention. The results identified some significant, but modest, incremental...

  14. Batch gradient method with smoothing L1/2 regularization for training of feedforward neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Fan, Qinwei; Zurada, Jacek M; Wang, Jian; Yang, Dakun; Liu, Yan

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a novel method to prune feedforward neural networks by introducing an L1/2 regularization term into the error function. This procedure forces weights to become smaller during the training and can eventually removed after the training. The usual L1/2 regularization term involves absolute values and is not differentiable at the origin, which typically causes oscillation of the gradient of the error function during the training. A key point of this paper is to modify the usual L1/2 regularization term by smoothing it at the origin. This approach offers the following three advantages: First, it removes the oscillation of the gradient value. Secondly, it gives better pruning, namely the final weights to be removed are smaller than those produced through the usual L1/2 regularization. Thirdly, it makes it possible to prove the convergence of the training. Supporting numerical examples are also provided.

  15. Apparatus and Method for Low-Temperature Training of Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanger, A. M.; Fesmire, J. E.; Trigwell, S.; Gibson, T. L.; Williams, M. K.; Benafan, O.

    2015-01-01

    An apparatus and method for the low-temperature thermo-mechanical training of shape memory alloys (SMA) has been developed. The experimental SMA materials are being evaluated as prototypes for applicability in novel thermal management systems for future cryogenic applications. Alloys providing two-way actuation at cryogenic temperatures are the chief target. The mechanical training regimen was focused on the controlled movement of rectangular strips, with S-bend configurations, at temperatures as low as 30 K. The custom holding fixture included temperature sensors and a low heat-leak linear actuator with a magnetic coupling. The fixture was mounted to a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler providing up to 25 W of cooling power at 20 K and housed within a custom vacuum chamber. Operations included both training cycles and verification of shape memory movement. The system design and operation are discussed. Results of the training for select prototype alloys are presented.

  16. Apparatus and method for low-temperature training of shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanger, A. M.; Fesmire, J. E.; Trigwell, S.; Gibson, T. L.; Williams, M. K.; Benafan, O.

    2015-12-01

    An apparatus and method for the low-temperature thermo-mechanical training of shape memory alloys (SMA) has been developed. The experimental SMA materials are being evaluated as prototypes for applicability in novel thermal management systems for future cryogenic applications. Alloys providing two-way actuation at cryogenic temperatures are the chief target. The mechanical training regimen was focused on the controlled movement of rectangular strips, with S-bend configurations, at temperatures as low as 30 K. The custom holding fixture included temperature sensors and a low heat-leak linear actuator with a magnetic coupling. The fixture was mounted to a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler providing up to 25 W of cooling power at 20 K and housed within a custom vacuum chamber. Operations included both training cycles and verification of shape memory movement. The system design and operation are discussed. Results of the training for select prototype alloys are presented.

  17. Effect of Multi-condition Training and Speech Enhancement Methods on Spoofing Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Hong; Sarkar, Achintya Kumar; Thomsen, Dennis Alexander Lehmann

    2016-01-01

    at different signal-to-noise ratios, and two mainstream speech enhancement methods, Wiener filtering and minimum mean-square error. The experimental results show that enhancement methods are not suitable for the spoofing detection task, as the spoofing detection accuracy will be reduced after speech......Many researchers have demonstrated the good performance of spoofing detection systems under clean training and testing conditions. However, it is well known that the performance of speaker and speech recognition systems significantly degrades in noisy conditions. Therefore, it is of great interest...... to investigate the effect of noise on the performance of spoofing detection systems. In this paper, we investigate a multi-conditional training method where spoofing detection models are trained with a mix of clean and noisy data. In addition, we study the effect of different noise types as well as speech...

  18. Semantic Processing of Out-Of-Vocabulary Words in a Spoken Dialogue System

    CERN Document Server

    Boros, M; Gallwitz, F; Noeth, E; Niemann, H; Boros, Manuela; Aretoulaki, Maria; Gallwitz, Florian; Noeth, Elmar; Niemann, Heinrich

    1997-01-01

    One of the most important causes of failure in spoken dialogue systems is usually neglected: the problem of words that are not covered by the system's vocabulary (out-of-vocabulary or OOV words). In this paper a methodology is described for the detection, classification and processing of OOV words in an automatic train timetable information system. The various extensions that had to be effected on the different modules of the system are reported, resulting in the design of appropriate dialogue strategies, as are encouraging evaluation results on the new versions of the word recogniser and the linguistic processor.

  19. A Method for Distinguishing Attosecond Single Pulse from Attosecond Pulse Train

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Yi-Ping; ZENG Zhi-Nan; LI Ru-Xin; XU Zhi-Zhan

    2004-01-01

    @@ The driving laser field assisted attosecond soft-extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) photo-ionization was used successfully to measure the duration of the attosecond pulse based on the cross-correlation method. However, this method in principle cannot distinguish a single attosecond pulse from the attosecond pulse train. We propose a technique for directly distinguishing attosecond single pulse from attosecond pulse train based on the photo-ionization of atoms by attosecond XUV pulse in the presence of a two-colour strong laser pulse.

  20. Investigating bang for your training buck: a randomized controlled trial comparing three methods of training clinicians in two core strategies of dialectical behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeff, Linda A; Harned, Melanie S; Woodcock, Eric A; Skutch, Julie M; Koerner, Kelly; Linehan, Marsha M

    2015-05-01

    The present study examined the efficacy of online training (OLT), instructor-led training (ILT), and a treatment manual (TM) in training mental health clinicians in two core strategies of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT): chain analysis and validation. A randomized controlled trial compared OLT, ILT, and TM among clinicians naïve to DBT (N=172) who were assessed at baseline, post-training, and 30, 60, and 90 days following training. Primary outcomes included satisfaction, self-efficacy, motivation, knowledge, clinical proficiency, and clinical use. Overall, ILT outperformed OLT and TM in satisfaction, self-efficacy, and motivation, whereas OLT was the most effective method for increasing knowledge. The conditions did not differ in observer-rated clinical proficiency or self-reported clinical use, which both increased to moderate levels after training. In addition, ILT was particularly effective at improving motivation to use chain analysis, whereas OLT was particularly effective at increasing knowledge of validation strategies. These findings suggest that these types of brief, didactic trainings may be effective methods of increasing knowledge of new treatment strategies, but may not be sufficient to enable clinicians to achieve a high level of clinical use or proficiency. Additional research examining the possible advantages of matching training methods to types of treatment strategies may help to determine a tailored, more effective approach to training clinicians in empirically supported treatments. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Facilitating the development of controlled vocabularies for metabolomics technologies with text mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebholz-Schuhmann Dietrich

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many bioinformatics applications rely on controlled vocabularies or ontologies to consistently interpret and seamlessly integrate information scattered across public resources. Experimental data sets from metabolomics studies need to be integrated with one another, but also with data produced by other types of omics studies in the spirit of systems biology, hence the pressing need for vocabularies and ontologies in metabolomics. However, it is time-consuming and non trivial to construct these resources manually. Results We describe a methodology for rapid development of controlled vocabularies, a study originally motivated by the needs for vocabularies describing metabolomics technologies. We present case studies involving two controlled vocabularies (for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography whose development is currently underway as part of the Metabolomics Standards Initiative. The initial vocabularies were compiled manually, providing a total of 243 and 152 terms. A total of 5,699 and 2,612 new terms were acquired automatically from the literature. The analysis of the results showed that full-text articles (especially the Materials and Methods sections are the major source of technology-specific terms as opposed to paper abstracts. Conclusions We suggest a text mining method for efficient corpus-based term acquisition as a way of rapidly expanding a set of controlled vocabularies with the terms used in the scientific literature. We adopted an integrative approach, combining relatively generic software and data resources for time- and cost-effective development of a text mining tool for expansion of controlled vocabularies across various domains, as a practical alternative to both manual term collection and tailor-made named entity recognition methods.

  2. Desirable Difficulties in Vocabulary Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, Robert A; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-01-01

    In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is understood and produced. From each perspective we discuss evidence that supports the notion that difficulties in learning and imposed costs to language processing may produce benefits because they are likely to increase conceptual understanding. We then consider the consequences of these processes for actual second-language learning and suggest that some of the domain-general cognitive advantages that have been reported for proficient bilinguals may reflect difficulties imposed by the learning process, and by the requirement to negotiate cross-language competition, that are broadly desirable. As Alice Healy and her collaborators were perhaps the first to demonstrate, research on desirable difficulties in vocabulary and language learning holds the promise of bringing together research traditions on memory and language that have much to offer each other.

  3. Vocabulary Development of Junior Teens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Nikonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the communicative competence formation of young adolescents in the secondary school at the Russian language lessons. The author maintains that the key element of the above problem is the vocabulary development guaranteeing both comprehension and verbal expression formation – oral and written. The theoretical part of the research explores different word functions: nominal, communicative, text generating and semantic. The correlation between the mental development level and lexical semantic system formation is emphasized. The age specific features of junior teens are listed: rising interest to various life spheres and activi- ties, capability of formulating opinions and judgments, self-awareness, formation of values. The relationship complexity stimulates vocabulary development of 10 to 12 year-old children; however, the process requires peda- gogical facilitation.The monitoring of speech development proves the necessity of commutative competence formation of the fifth- and sixth-year pupils. The paper presents the model of communicative competence development and its approbation results received for the junior adolescents. 

  4. Vocabulary Development of Junior Teens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Nikonova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the communicative competence formation of young adolescents in the secondary school at the Russian language lessons. The author maintains that the key element of the above problem is the vocabulary development guaranteeing both comprehension and verbal expression formation – oral and written. The theoretical part of the research explores different word functions: nominal, communicative, text generating and semantic. The correlation between the mental development level and lexical semantic system formation is emphasized. The age specific features of junior teens are listed: rising interest to various life spheres and activi- ties, capability of formulating opinions and judgments, self-awareness, formation of values. The relationship complexity stimulates vocabulary development of 10 to 12 year-old children; however, the process requires peda- gogical facilitation.The monitoring of speech development proves the necessity of commutative competence formation of the fifth- and sixth-year pupils. The paper presents the model of communicative competence development and its approbation results received for the junior adolescents. 

  5. Training set reduction methods for protein secondary structure prediction in single-sequence condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Zafer; Altunbasak, Yucel; Pakatci, Isa Kemal; Erdogan, Hakan

    2007-01-01

    Orphan proteins are characterized by the lack of significant sequence similarity to database proteins. To infer the functional properties of the orphans, more elaborate techniques that utilize structural information are required. In this regard, the protein structure prediction gains considerable importance. Secondary structure prediction algorithms designed for orphan proteins (also known as single-sequence algorithms) cannot utilize multiple alignments or alignment profiles, which are derived from similar proteins. This is a limiting factor for the prediction accuracy. One way to improve the performance of a single-sequence algorithm is to perform re-training. In this approach, first, the models used by the algorithm are trained by a representative set of proteins and a secondary structure prediction is computed. Then, using a distance measure, the original training set is refined by removing proteins that are dissimilar to the given protein. This step is followed by the re-estimation of the model parameters and the prediction of the secondary structure. In this paper, we compare training set reduction methods that are used to re-train the hidden semi-Markov models employed by the IPSSP algorithm [1]. We found that the composition based reduction method has the highest performance compared to the alignment based and the Chou-Fasman based reduction methods. In addition, threshold-based reduction performed better than the reduction technique that selects the first 80% of the dataset proteins.

  6. A Comparative Study of Mnemonic Methods and Word-Formation Instruction in L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Classroom Setting ——Based on the research on current situation of L2 vocabulary acquisition of Shaanxi senior high school students%课堂环境下构词法与记忆术词汇习得效果比较研究——基于陕西省高中学生英语词汇习得状况的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷宏友

    2011-01-01

    This paper surveys the inclinations of L2 vocabulary acquisition mode towards word formation and mnemonics among high school students and English teachers and discusses the follow-up results of the two methods students used in classroom setting. We further probe the impact of L2 vocabulary acquisition mode on L2 vocabulary acquisition and analyze the reasons for the results.%通过问卷调查等方法分析了高中英语教师及学生对构词法和记忆术两种词汇习得模式的使用趋向及学生在课堂环境下使用两种方法不同的后续效果,探讨了这两种词汇习得模式对词汇习得效果的影响,并分析造成该结果的原因。

  7. PARTIAL TRAINING METHOD FOR HEURISTIC ALGORITHM OF POSSIBLE CLUSTERIZATION UNDER UNKNOWN NUMBER OF CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Viattchenin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for constructing a subset of labeled objects which is used in a heuristic algorithm of possible  clusterization with partial  training is proposed in the  paper.  The  method  is  based  on  data preprocessing by the heuristic algorithm of possible clusterization using a transitive closure of a fuzzy tolerance. Method efficiency is demonstrated by way of an illustrative example.

  8. Language Training: English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from 04 October 2004 to 11 February 2005 (3 weeks break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow, tel. 72957. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants in...

  9. Learning vocabulary through a serious game in Primary Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heitink, Maaike Christine; Fisser, Petra; Voogt, Joke; McBride, Ron; Searson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the effect of a serious game on the vocabulary of students in primary education. 206 students and 10 teachers used the game during vocabulary lessons in three conditions: (a)online game and vocabulary instruction, (b)online game only, and (c)paper game and vocabulary instruction.

  10. Effects of Individualized Word Retrieval in Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damhuis, Carmen M. P.; Segers, Eliane; Scheltinga, Femke; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of adaptive word retrieval intervention on a classroom vocabulary program on children's vocabulary acquisition in kindergarten. In the experimental condition, word retrieval was provided in a classroom vocabulary program, combining implicit and explicit vocabulary instructions. Children performed extra word retrieval…

  11. Vocabulary Is Important for Some, but Not All Reading Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Jessie; Nation, Kate; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2007-01-01

    Although there is evidence for a close link between the development of oral vocabulary and reading comprehension, less clear is whether oral vocabulary skills relate to the development of word-level reading skills. This study investigated vocabulary and literacy in 81 children aged 8 to 10 years. In regression analyses, vocabulary accounted for…

  12. A Research on Vocabulary Teaching Strategies and Students’ Mastery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of questionnaire and quantitative research, this article aims at investigating the effects on students’ mastery of vocabulary by studying teachers’ adoption of seven kinds of common vocabulary teaching strategies and the usage of analyzing strategies in intensive English in order to improve vocabulary teaching strategies and to help enlarge students’ vocabulary.

  13. A RESEARCH ON VOCABULARY TEACHING STRATEGIES AND STUDENTS’ MASTERY

    OpenAIRE

    Tian Yuan; Liu Bingbing

    2013-01-01

    By means of questionnaire and quantitative research, this article aims at investigating the effects on students’ mastery of vocabulary by studying teachers’ adoption of seven kinds of common vocabulary teaching strategies and the usage of analyzing strategies in intensive English in order to improve vocabulary teaching strategies and to help enlarge students’ vocabulary.

  14. Mobile English Vocabulary Learning Based on Concept-Mapping Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Numerous researchers in education recognize that vocabulary is essential in foreign language learning. However, students often encounter vocabulary that is difficult to remember. Providing effective vocabulary learning strategies is therefore more valuable than teaching students a large amount of vocabulary. The purpose of this study was to…

  15. The Ways Metaphor is Brought into Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuYan; ShenXiang jing

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of vocabulary teaching in English is to enlarge breadth and depth of vocabulary and From the point of cognitive metaphor, meaning extension of vocabulary contributes a lot to the vocabulary teaching. The paper tries to sum up ways metaphor is brought into teaching as a means of improving English teaching.

  16. The Ways Metaphor is Brought into Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuYan; ShenXiang; jing

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of vocabulary teaching in English is to enlarge breadth and depth of vocabulary and From the point of cognitive metaphor,meaning extension of vocabulary contributes a lot to the vocabulary teaching.The paper tries to sum up ways metaphor is brought into teaching as a means of improving English teaching.

  17. Strategies on teaching English vocabulary of Non-English majors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉

    2014-01-01

    As we know that mastery of vocabulary is an essential component of foreign language acquisition, and learners cannot learn a language without vocabulary. Based on the vocabulary leaning problems of Non-English majors, this article makes analysis of the main factors for the problems and tries to provide some vocabulary teaching strategies to solve the problems.

  18. Justification for experimental methods for circuit training aerobics classes first mature age women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyniuk O.V.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: develop and validate a methodology for circuit training aerobics. Methodology focused on improving physical health first mature age women. Material : a study was conducted with 81 women (age 21 - 35 years. Results : justified the means and methods of circuit training, the duration of the structural components, the rational parameters of physical activity, pulse modes. Depending on the physical health of women developed a set of circuit training for the main part of the session. Complex circuit training consists of 2 series, active rest interval between 3 minutes. Duration of employment in one series of 23 minutes. Exercises are performed at 5 locations: 3 - aerobic (3x5 min, 2 - power (2x4 min. The total duration of training - 49 minutes. The intensity of the training load is regulated by the level of physical health and the maximum test results. Conclusions : The positive changes morphofunctional indicators show an increase in the body's bioenergy and women transition to a higher level of physical health.

  19. Effect of Different Methods of Physical Activity Training for Overweight Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Considering the increasing trend of obesity and the effects of limited physical activity on raising the incidence of childhood obesity, and on noting the limitations of families for sending their children to sport and exercise classes, and the limited time of students for participation in such classes, finding appropriate ways for training physical activity at home is necessary. Methods: This non pharmacological trial was conducted during 6 months among 105 obese children and adolescents who were randomly assigned in 3 groups with 35 participants. Dietary counseling and behavioral management was similar for all groups, but in one group physical activity was conducted by attending sport classes twice a week; the second group members were trained for physical activity through an educational CD and the third group were trained by face to face education. Anthropometric indexes were measured before and after intervention. Results: After the trial, the mean body mass index (BMI decreased significantly in the group attending sport classes and the group trained by CD. However, no significant difference was observed between the three groups who received different forms of training. Conclusion: The finding of our study showed that training through CD can be as effective as face to face education and attending sport classes. Dissemination of such type of interventions can be effective at community level.

  20. International Counseling Trainees' Experiences and Perceptions of Their Multicultural Counseling Training in the United States: A Mixed Method Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shannon D.; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2009-01-01

    This study examined international counseling students' (ICTs) experiences and perceptions of their multicultural counseling training (MCT) in the United States. The focus was on (a) relevance of the training, (b) effectiveness of the training methods, and (c) development of cross-cultural competence as trainees. Major findings indicated that ICTs…

  1. The use of electronic collars for training domestic dogs: estimated prevalence, reasons and risk factors for use, and owner perceived success as compared to other training methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blackwell Emily J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of electronic training devices for dog training is controversial. The aims of this study were to give an indication of the extent to which dog owners use these devices in England, identify factors associated with their use, and compare owner report of outcomes. A convenience sample of dog owners in England was used to identify numbers using electronic training devices and identify reasons for use. Factors associated with use of remote e-collars only were determined by comparing dogs trained using these devices with two control populations matched for reason of use (recall / chasing problems. Comparison groups were: those using other ‘negative reinforcement / positive punishment’ training techniques, and those using ‘positive reinforcement / negative punishment’ based methods. A multinominal logistic regression model was used to compare factors between categories of training method. Owner reported success for use was compared using chi-squared analysis. Results For England only, 3.3% (n = 133 owners reported using remote activated e-collars, 1.4% (n = 54 reported use of bark activated e-collars, and 0.9% (n = 36 reported using electronic boundary fences. In comparison with the e-collar group, owners using reward based training methods for recall / chasing were 2.8 times more likely to be female and 2.7 times less likely to have attended agility training. Owners using other aversive methods for recall / chasing were 2.8 times more likely to have attended puppy classes than those using e-collars. However, the model only explained 10% variance between groups. A significantly higher proportion of owners in the reward group reported training success than those in the e-collar group. Conclusions In conclusion, a fairly low proportion of owners select to use electronic training devices. For a population matched by reason for training method use, characteristics of dogs, including occurrence of undesired

  2. Increasing Middle School Students’ Vocabulary through Extensive Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何小庆

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses how to increase middle school English learners’ vocabulary through reading.Vocabulary is a core component of language proficiency and provides much of the basis of how well learners speak,listen,read,and write.Without an extensive vocabulary and strategies for acquiring new vocabulary,middle school students often feel discouraged during their study.They will lose their interests in English day by day.So it’s very important for middle school English learners to develop their vocabulary efficiently.There are many ways to enlarge vocabulary.In this article we will focus on improving middle school English learners’ vocabulary by extensive reading.

  3. e-Vocabulary and e-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-María Fernández-Pampillón

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A vocabulary is a linguistic resource that helps manage, query and retrieve information and/or knowledge via words. If vocabularies are built and used in electronic format, they are referred as e-vocabularies. E-vocabularies have been used in Education to help teachers and students to, amongst many issues, (1 comprehend and relate the concepts and the objects of a given knowledge domain; (2 understand and learn languages, be they specialized or not; and (3 identify, describe and query knowledge and digital educational resources. Despite its utility, it is in this field where vocabularies seem to be less systematically developed, known, studied, analyzed, compared and/or linked. For this reason, we thought it was an opportunity to edit a dedicated volume with real experiences concerning the construction, use and evaluation of electronic vocabularies relating to education, and their application to the Internet and e-learning. The result is, finally, this Special Issue with five papers that represent part of the current state-of-the-art in the construction and use of e-vocabularies and education.

  4. Toddlers learn words in a foreign language: the role of native vocabulary knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Melissa; Woodward, Amanda L

    2012-03-01

    The current study examined monolingual English-speaking toddlers' (N=50) ability to learn word-referent links from native speakers of Dutch versus English, and second, whether children generalized or sequestered their extensions when terms were tested by a subsequent speaker of English. Overall, children performed better in the English than in the Dutch condition; however, children with high native vocabularies successfully selected the target object for terms trained in fluent Dutch. Furthermore, children with higher vocabularies did not indicate their comprehension of Dutch terms when subsequently tested by an English speaker whereas children with low vocabulary scores responded at chance levels to both the original Dutch speaker and the second English speaker. These findings demonstrate that monolingual toddlers with proficiency in their native language are capable of learning words outside of their conventional system and may be sensitive to the boundaries that exist between language systems.

  5. Model-based acoustic substitution source methods for assessing shielding measures applied to trains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, A.C.; Thompson, D.J.; Verheij, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    A promising means of reducing the rolling noise from trains is local shielding in the form of vehicle-mounted shrouds combined with low trackside barriers. This is much less visually intrusive than classic lineside noise barriers. Various experimental methods have been proposed that allow the

  6. Smartphone Apps for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training and Real Incident Support: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco; Lenssen, Niklas; Felzen, Marco; Rossaint, Rolf; Tabuenca, Bernardo; Specht, Marcus; Skorning, Max

    2014-01-01

    Background: No systematic evaluation of smartphone/mobile apps for resuscitation training and real incident support is available to date. To provide medical, usability, and additional quality criteria for the development of apps, we conducted a mixed-methods sequential evaluation combining the persp

  7. Model-based acoustic substitution source methods for assessing shielding measures applied to trains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, A.C.; Thompson, D.J.; Verheij, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    A promising means of reducing the rolling noise from trains is local shielding in the form of vehicle-mounted shrouds combined with low trackside barriers. This is much less visually intrusive than classic lineside noise barriers. Various experimental methods have been proposed that allow the perfor

  8. Smartphone Apps for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training and Real Incident Support: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco; Lenssen, Niklas; Felzen, Marco; Rossaint, Rolf; Tabuenca, Bernardo; Specht, Marcus; Skorning, Max

    2014-01-01

    Background: No systematic evaluation of smartphone/mobile apps for resuscitation training and real incident support is available to date. To provide medical, usability, and additional quality criteria for the development of apps, we conducted a mixed-methods sequential evaluation combining the

  9. The Delphi Method: An Approach for Facilitating Evidence Based Practice in Athletic Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrey, Michelle A.; Bulger, Sean M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The growing importance of evidence based practice in athletic training is necessitating academics and clinicians to be able to make judgments about the quality or lack of the body of research evidence and peer-reviewed standards pertaining to clinical questions. To assist in the judgment process, consensus methods, namely brainstorming,…

  10. Validation of a training method for L2 continuous-speech segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.; Shanley, J.

    2010-01-01

    Recognising continuous speech in a second language is often unexpectedly difficult, as the operation of segmenting speech is so attuned to native-language structure. We report the initial steps in development of a novel training method for secondlanguage listening, focusing on speech segmentation an

  11. Effectiveness of Two Training Methods for Avoiding Excessive Inflation of Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya-Hong, Gong; Si, Chen; Zhi-Yong, Zhang; Yu-Guang, Huang

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of two training methods for avoiding excessive inflation of laryngeal mask airway(LMA)Supreme. Totally 41 anesthesiologists were randomly divided into hand touch group(H group,n=20)and short-term pressure gauge training group(G group,n=21). Before training,subjects were asked to inflate the cuff of LMA Supreme to two target pressures,30 cmH(2)O and 60 cmH(2)O, according to their own experiences. The actual cuff pressures were recorded as baseline pressures. Subjects in H group then received the training of hand touch:touch the vermilion of the lip and apex nasi with the left ring finger and feel the hardness. A cuff pressure with hardness similar to the vermilion of the lip was defined as 30 cmH(2)O, and similar to the apex nasi as 60 cmH(2)O. Subjects in G group were asked to inflate the cuff with a pressure gauge and feel the hardness of the cuff when the pressure reached 30 cmH(2)O and 60 cmH(2)O. After one-week training,two groups of subjects repeated the cuff inflation test. Actual cuff pressures after training were also recorded and compared with the baseline pressures. Results Actual cuff pressures after training[Group H:(39.7±15.7) cmH(2)O(P=0.00);Group G:(26.2±13.2) cmH(2)O(P=0.03)]were significantly lower than baseline pressures in both groups when the target cuff pressure was 30 cmH(2)O, and the differences were not statistically significant between these two groups(P=0.06). When the target pressure was 60 cmH(2)O,the actual cuff pressure of H group [(91.1±24.3)cmH(2)O] was significantly higher than that of G group [(58.1±15.4) cmH(2)O (P=0.01)]. However,the actual cuff pressure of G group was similar to the target pressure. The two training methods are equally effective when the target pressure is 30 cmH(2)O, while short-term pressure gauge training method is superior when the target pressure is 60 cmH(2)O.

  12. Associative vocabulary learning: development and testing of two paradigms for the (re- acquisition of action- and object-related words.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Freundlieb

    Full Text Available Despite a growing number of studies, the neurophysiology of adult vocabulary acquisition is still poorly understood. One reason is that paradigms that can easily be combined with neuroscientfic methods are rare. Here, we tested the efficiency of two paradigms for vocabulary (re- acquisition, and compared the learning of novel words for actions and objects. Cortical networks involved in adult native-language word processing are widespread, with differences postulated between words for objects and actions. Words and what they stand for are supposed to be grounded in perceptual and sensorimotor brain circuits depending on their meaning. If there are specific brain representations for different word categories, we hypothesized behavioural differences in the learning of action-related and object-related words. Paradigm A, with the learning of novel words for body-related actions spread out over a number of days, revealed fast learning of these new action words, and stable retention up to 4 weeks after training. The single-session Paradigm B employed objects and actions. Performance during acquisition did not differ between action-related and object-related words (time*word category: p = 0.01, but the translation rate was clearly better for object-related (79% than for action-related words (53%, p = 0.002. Both paradigms yielded robust associative learning of novel action-related words, as previously demonstrated for object-related words. Translation success differed for action- and object-related words, which may indicate different neural mechanisms. The paradigms tested here are well suited to investigate such differences with neuroscientific means. Given the stable retention and minimal requirements for conscious effort, these learning paradigms are promising for vocabulary re-learning in brain-lesioned people. In combination with neuroimaging, neuro-stimulation or pharmacological intervention, they may well advance the understanding of

  13. Associative vocabulary learning: development and testing of two paradigms for the (re-) acquisition of action- and object-related words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundlieb, Nils; Ridder, Volker; Dobel, Christian; Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Baumgaertner, Annette; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Gerloff, Christian; Hummel, Friedhelm C; Liuzzi, Gianpiero

    2012-01-01

    Despite a growing number of studies, the neurophysiology of adult vocabulary acquisition is still poorly understood. One reason is that paradigms that can easily be combined with neuroscientfic methods are rare. Here, we tested the efficiency of two paradigms for vocabulary (re-) acquisition, and compared the learning of novel words for actions and objects. Cortical networks involved in adult native-language word processing are widespread, with differences postulated between words for objects and actions. Words and what they stand for are supposed to be grounded in perceptual and sensorimotor brain circuits depending on their meaning. If there are specific brain representations for different word categories, we hypothesized behavioural differences in the learning of action-related and object-related words. Paradigm A, with the learning of novel words for body-related actions spread out over a number of days, revealed fast learning of these new action words, and stable retention up to 4 weeks after training. The single-session Paradigm B employed objects and actions. Performance during acquisition did not differ between action-related and object-related words (time*word category: p = 0.01), but the translation rate was clearly better for object-related (79%) than for action-related words (53%, p = 0.002). Both paradigms yielded robust associative learning of novel action-related words, as previously demonstrated for object-related words. Translation success differed for action- and object-related words, which may indicate different neural mechanisms. The paradigms tested here are well suited to investigate such differences with neuroscientific means. Given the stable retention and minimal requirements for conscious effort, these learning paradigms are promising for vocabulary re-learning in brain-lesioned people. In combination with neuroimaging, neuro-stimulation or pharmacological intervention, they may well advance the understanding of language learning

  14. Vocabulary Instruction: Software Flashcards vs. Word Clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Vahid Mansouri

    2015-01-01

    When it comes to language learning, vocabulary learning is the main activity focused on. Vocabulary learning is the main problem and also the goal of new language learners. It is one of the major problems that language learners encounter during learning a new language. Krashen (1989) (cited in Tokac, 2005) points out the role of vocabulary in a language by stating that most of the meaning in a language is carried by words. This is why people visiting a foreign country prefer to take their dic...

  15. Attempt to improve Vocabulary Teaching for Higher Vocational College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵春香

    2012-01-01

      Vocabulary is the building material of language, and vocabulary study is therefore one of the most important aspects in any language learning. It is a key point to improve English learning through paying more attention to vocabulary acquisition. However, vocabulary teaching is one aspect of language teaching that has not been given enough attention in China. Therefore, some issues in vocabulary teaching and learning in higher vocational colleges are being addressed at present, which are worthy of our further consideration.

  16. Modality, Vocabulary Size and Question Type as Mediators of Listening Comprehension Skill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VICTORIA A. MURPHY; JUAN JR. T. CASTILLO

    2013-01-01

    Most studies that have investigated the relationship between lexical knowledge and listening performance have used vocabulary assessments administered in the visual modality (e .g . , Mecartty , 2000 ) . However , the outcomes of vocabulary tests might vary as a function of the modality in which they are carried out ( e .g . Milton& Hopkins , 2005 , 2007 ) . Aural knowledge of words might be particularly important in listening , therefore using visually measured lexical knowledge as a predictor of listening performance could be problematic . To explore this issue , 51 English as a second language (L 2 ) learners from a vocational training institute in Hong Kong aged between 18 and 19 were given two different versions of the X Lex vocabulary test:( 1 ) the visual X Lex (Meara&Milton , 2003 ) and (2) the Aural Lex (Milton&Hopkins , 2005) . The listening sub-test of the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) was also administered to measure participants�listening performance . The results indicated that (1) participants scored higher in the X Lex than the Aural Lex; ( 2 ) the Aural Lex was a stronger predictor of listening performance than the X Lex;( 3 ) participants�proficiency in aural vocabulary influenced performance on the listening test . These results suggest that visual measurements of lexical knowledge may not as accurately reflect the learners�aural knowledge of words and therefore , the modality in which (lexical) knowledge is assessed when estimating vocabulary as a predictor of other skills needs to be considered .

  17. Effect of a physical training program using the Pilates method on flexibility in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremia, Jeam Marcel; Iskiewicz, Matheus Magalhães; Marschner, Rafael Aguiar; Lehnen, Tatiana Ederich; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado

    2015-12-01

    The adaptations of the human body resulting from the aging process especially loss of flexibility can increase the risk of falls and the risk of developing other health conditions. Exercise training, in particular the Pilates exercise method, has become an important form of physical activity that minimizes the deleterious effects of aging on flexibility. Few studies have evaluated the effect of this training method on body flexibility among elderly. We aimed to evaluate the effects of physical training using the Pilates method on body flexibility of elderly individuals. Eighteen elderly women and two elderly men (aged 70 ± 4 years) followed a 10-week Pilates training program. Individuals were recruited from the local community via open invitations. At study entry, none of them had limited mobility (walking requiring the use of walkers or canes). Furthermore, those with neurologic, muscular, or psychiatric disorders as well as those using an assistive device for ambulation were excluded secondary to limited participation. Flexibility assessment tests (flexion, extension, right and left tilt, and right and left rotation of the cervical and thoracolumbar spine; flexion, extension, abduction, and lateral and medial right and left rotation of the glenohumeral joint; flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and lateral and medial rotation of the right and left hip; and flexion of the right and left knee) were performed by a blinded evaluator using a flexometer before and after the training period. All assessments were carried out at the same time of day. There was an observed increase in flexion (22.86%; p training may minimize the deleterious effects of aging and may improve the functionality of elderly individuals, which would reduce the likelihood of accidents (especially falls).

  18. Study on Evaluation Methods for Lateral Stability of High-Speed Trains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Jianwei; SUN Lixia; HOU Fuguo

    2012-01-01

    Taking a high-speed train in China as an example,using computer simulation technology and comparing with the test data,the three current methods including linear stability analysis method,nonlinear stability analysis method and the field testing criterion are studied to evaluate stability of high-speed trains.A new stability evaluation method is proposed which can be used to evaluate lateral stability of high-speed vehicle based on the codes of UIC 515 and UIC 518.From the viewpoint of taking the most unfavorable track conditions into account and improving the safety margin,the new method uses the root mean square of bogie lateral acceleration as a criterion to evaluate the lateral stability of high-speed trains.Numerical example shows that the proposed method not only considers the forced vibration caused by track irregularities in the actual practice,but also takes the instability self-excited vibration into account,so it can realize early warning of bogie slight unstable oscillation,meanwhile the method itself does not involve complex algorithms which has the possibility of engineering applications.

  19. Children reading spoken words: interactions between vocabulary and orthographic expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Signy; Wang, Hua-Chen; de Lissa, Peter; Robidoux, Serje; Nation, Kate; Castles, Anne

    2017-07-12

    There is an established association between children's oral vocabulary and their word reading but its basis is not well understood. Here, we present evidence from eye movements for a novel mechanism underlying this association. Two groups of 18 Grade 4 children received oral vocabulary training on one set of 16 novel words (e.g., 'nesh', 'coib'), but no training on another set. The words were assigned spellings that were either predictable from phonology (e.g., nesh) or unpredictable (e.g., koyb). These were subsequently shown in print, embedded in sentences. Reading times were shorter for orally familiar than unfamiliar items, and for words with predictable than unpredictable spellings but, importantly, there was an interaction between the two: children demonstrated a larger benefit of oral familiarity for predictable than for unpredictable items. These findings indicate that children form initial orthographic expectations about spoken words before first seeing them in print. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://youtu.be/jvpJwpKMM3E. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. On Effective English Vocabulary Teaching in Senior High School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏艳红

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary is undoubtedly an important part in English language study.It's the basis of the development for the skills of reading. Thus,vocabulary teaching is a necessary part in English teaching.However,some traditional teaching methods take vocabulary out of context, which cost a lot of time and energy,but students fall into the dull circle from memorizing to forgetting to memorizing again.Finally,they lose their patience and may give it up eventually.This thesis,based on the new vocabulary teaching theory,seeks to investigate the present situation of vocabulary teaching.It is designed to put forward constructive suggestions so as to provide valuable reference for vocabulary teaching.%如果把英语比作自行车,那么对于英语学习而言,前轮是词汇,后轮是语法,想学好甚至精通英语,词汇语法二者缺一不可。词汇是培养阅读技能的基础。因此,词汇教学是英语教学中不可或缺的一部分。但是,一些传统的教学方法脱离了语境,耗费了学生大量的时间和精力而他们仍然处于一种忘了记,记了再忘的恶性循环状态。本文以新的词汇教学理论为基础,对中学教师的词汇教学状况以及方法进行研究,弄清中学英语教师们对词汇教学的重视程度、注重哪些方面及教学方法,找出这些方面可能存在的问题,提出了相应的建议。