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Sample records for vocabulary oral expressive

  1. Preferences of ELT Learners in the Correction of Oral Vocabulary and Pronunciation Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustaci, Hale Yayla; Ok, Selami

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary is an essential component of language teaching and learning process, and correct pronunciation of lexical items is an ultimate goal for language instructors in ELT programs. Apart from how lexical items should be taught, the way teachers correct oral vocabulary errors as well as those of pronunciation in line with the preferences of…

  2. Helping Children Learn Vocabulary during Computer-Assisted Oral Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Aist

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses an indispensable skill using a unique method to teach a critical component: helping children learn to read by using computer-assisted oral reading to help children learn vocabulary. We build on Project LISTEN’s Reading Tutor, a computer program that adapts automatic speech recognition to listen to children read aloud, and helps them learn to read (http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~listen. To learn a word from reading with the Reading Tutor, students must encounter the word and learn the meaning of the word in context. We modified the Reading Tutor first to help students encounter new words and then to help them learn the meanings of new words. We then compared the Reading Tutor to classroom instruction and to human-assisted oral reading as part of a yearlong study with 144 second and third graders. The result: Second graders did about the same on word comprehension in all three conditions. However, third graders who read with the 1999 Reading Tutor, modified as described in this paper, performed statistically significantly better than other third graders in a classroom control on word comprehension gains – and even comparably with other third graders who read one-on-one with human tutors.

  3. Speech, vocabulary, and the education of children using cochlear implants: oral or total communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, C M; Hieber, S; Arts, H A; Zwolan, T A

    2000-10-01

    This study examines the relationship between the teaching method, oral or total communication, used at children's schools and children's consonant-production accuracy and vocabulary development over time. Children who participated in the study (N = 147) demonstrated profound sensorineural hearing loss and had used cochlear implants for between 6 months and 10 years. Educational programs that used an oral communication (OC) approach focused on the development of spoken language, whereas educational programs that used a total communication (TC) approach focused on the development of language using both signed and spoken language. Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) we compared the consonant-production accuracy, receptive spoken vocabulary, and expressive spoken and/or signed vocabulary skills, over time, of children who were enrolled in schools that used either OC or TC approaches, while controlling for a number of variables. These variables included age at implantation, preoperative aided speech detection thresholds, type of cochlear implant device used, and whether a complete or incomplete active electrode array was implanted. The results of this study indicated that as they used their implants the children demonstrated improved consonant-production accuracy and expressive and receptive vocabulary over time, regardless of whether their school employed a TC or OC teaching method. Furthermore, there appeared to be a complex relationship among children's performance with the cochlear implant, age at implantation, and communication/teaching strategy employed by the school. Controlling for all variables, children in OC programs demonstrated, on average, superior consonant-production accuracy, with significantly greater rates of improvement in consonant-production accuracy scores over time compared to children in TC programs. However, there was no significant difference between OC and TC groups in performance or rate of growth in consonant-production accuracy when

  4. Cross-Language Associations in the Development of Preschoolers' Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Michelle F; Bohlmann, Natalie L; Palacios, Natalia A

    The increasing population of dual language learners (DLLs) entering preschool classrooms highlights a continued need for research on the development of dual language acquisition, and specifically vocabulary skills, in this age group. This study describes young DLL children's (N = 177) vocabulary development in both English and Spanish simultaneously, and how vocabulary skills in each language relate to one another, during a contextual shift that places greater emphasis on the acquisition of academic English language skills. Findings demonstrated that DLL preschoolers made gains in vocabulary in both languages with more change evidenced in receptive, in comparison to expressive, vocabulary as well as in English in comparison to Spanish. When examining whether children's vocabulary scores in one language at the beginning of preschool interact with their vocabulary scores in the other language to predict vocabulary growth, no significant associations were found for receptive vocabulary. In contrast, the interaction between initial English and Spanish expressive vocabulary scores was negatively related to growth in English expressive vocabulary. This cross-language association suggests that children who have low expressive vocabulary skills in both languages tend to grow faster in their English expressive vocabulary. The study extends previous work on dual language development by examining growth in expressive and receptive vocabulary in both English and Spanish. It also provides suggestions for future work to inform a more comprehensive understanding of DLL children's development in both languages.

  5. Cross-Language Associations in the Development of Preschoolers’ Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Michelle F.; Bohlmann, Natalie L.; Palacios, Natalia A.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing population of dual language learners (DLLs) entering preschool classrooms highlights a continued need for research on the development of dual language acquisition, and specifically vocabulary skills, in this age group. This study describes young DLL children's (N = 177) vocabulary development in both English and Spanish simultaneously, and how vocabulary skills in each language relate to one another, during a contextual shift that places greater emphasis on the acquisition of academic English language skills. Findings demonstrated that DLL preschoolers made gains in vocabulary in both languages with more change evidenced in receptive, in comparison to expressive, vocabulary as well as in English in comparison to Spanish. When examining whether children's vocabulary scores in one language at the beginning of preschool interact with their vocabulary scores in the other language to predict vocabulary growth, no significant associations were found for receptive vocabulary. In contrast, the interaction between initial English and Spanish expressive vocabulary scores was negatively related to growth in English expressive vocabulary. This cross-language association suggests that children who have low expressive vocabulary skills in both languages tend to grow faster in their English expressive vocabulary. The study extends previous work on dual language development by examining growth in expressive and receptive vocabulary in both English and Spanish. It also provides suggestions for future work to inform a more comprehensive understanding of DLL children's development in both languages. PMID:26807002

  6. The Benefit of Orthographic Support for Oral Vocabulary Learning in Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengoni, Sylvana E.; Nash, Hannah; Hulme, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome typically have weaknesses in oral language, but it has been suggested that this domain may benefit from learning to read. Amongst oral language skills, vocabulary is a relative strength, although there is some evidence of difficulties in learning the phonological form of spoken words. This study investigated the effect…

  7. The Benefit of Orthographic Support for Oral Vocabulary Learning in Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengoni, Sylvana E.; Nash, Hannah; Hulme, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome typically have weaknesses in oral language, but it has been suggested that this domain may benefit from learning to read. Amongst oral language skills, vocabulary is a relative strength, although there is some evidence of difficulties in learning the phonological form of spoken words. This study investigated the effect…

  8. The moderating effect of orthographic consistency on oral vocabulary learning in monolingual and bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubenville, Kathleen; Sénéchal, Monique; Malette, Melissa

    2014-10-01

    Two studies were conducted to assess whether (a) the incidental presence of print facilitates the acquisition of oral vocabulary, (b) the facilitative effect of print is moderated by phoneme-to-grapheme consistency, and (c) the findings obtained with monolingual children generalize to bilingual children. In total, 71 monolingual French-speaking children (M age = 9 years 2 months) in Study 1 and 64 bilingual children (M age = 9 years 3 months) in Study 2 participated in one of three conditions: consistent print, inconsistent print, or no print. Children were to learn novel labels for unfamiliar objects in a paired-associate paradigm. In both studies, print facilitated the acquisition and recall of expressive vocabulary. The effect of print consistency, however, varied across studies. As expected, monolingual children exposed to consistent print learned more novel labels than children exposed to inconsistent print. In contrast, bilingual children exposed to inconsistent print learned and recalled more labels than children exposed to consistent print. These intriguing findings might be due to differences in attention allocation during training.

  9. The Role of Orthography in Oral Vocabulary Learning in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Zhang, Jie; Ehri, Linnea; Chen, Yu; Ruan, Xiaotong; Dong, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the presence of English word spellings facilitates children's oral vocabulary learning. Whether a similar orthographic facilitation effect may exist in Chinese is interesting but not intuitively obvious due to the character writing system representing morphosyllabic but not phoneme-size information, and the more…

  10. Mediated Vocabulary in Native Speaker-Learner Interactions during an Oral Portfolio Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocaimaza-Hatch, C. Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    This project investigated vocabulary learning from a sociocultural perspective--in particular, the way in which lexical knowledge was mediated in Spanish second language (L2) learners' and native speakers' (NSs') interactions. Nine students who were enrolled in an advanced conversation course completed an oral portfolio assignment consisting of…

  11. Teaching Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard-Clouston, M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary is central to English language teaching. Without sufficient vocabulary, students cannot understand others or express their own ideas. Teachers who find the task of teaching English vocabulary a little daunting are not alone! This book presents important issues from recent vocabulary research and theory so that teachers may approach…

  12. Teaching Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard-Clouston, M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary is central to English language teaching. Without sufficient vocabulary, students cannot understand others or express their own ideas. Teachers who find the task of teaching English vocabulary a little daunting are not alone! This book presents important issues from recent vocabulary research and theory so that teachers may approach…

  13. The oral core vocabulary of typically developing English-speaking school-aged children: implications for AAC practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boenisch, Jens; Soto, Gloria

    2015-03-01

    This study analyzes the core vocabulary used by typically developing school-aged English-speaking children in the United States while participating in a variety of school activities. The language of typically developing children, some of whom spoke English as a second language was recorded, transcribed and analyzed to identify the most frequently used words across samples. An inventory of oral core vocabulary of typically developing school-aged children resulted from this analysis. This inventory can be used as a source list for vocabulary selection for school-aged children with AAC needs. Implications for vocabulary selection are discussed.

  14. A Path Model of Expressive Vocabulary Skills in Initially Preverbal Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Jena; Yoder, Paul; Watson, Linda R

    2017-04-01

    We examined direct and indirect paths involving receptive vocabulary and diversity of key consonants used in communication (DKCC) to improve understanding of why previously identified value-added predictors are associated with later expressive vocabulary for initially preverbal children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 87). Intentional communication, DKCC, and parent linguistic responses accounted for unique variance in later expressive vocabulary when controlling for mid-point receptive vocabulary, but responding to joint attention did not. We did not confirm any indirect paths through mid-point receptive vocabulary. DKCC mediated the association between intentional communication and expressive vocabulary. Further research is needed to replicate the findings, test potentially causal relations, and provide a specific sequence of intervention targets for preverbal children with ASD.

  15. Toddlers' Expressive Vocabulary Outcomes after One Year of Parent-Child Home Program Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manz, Patricia H.; Bracaliello, Catherine B.; Pressimone, Vanessa J.; Eisenberg, Rachel A.; Gernhart, Amanda C.; Fu, Qiong; Zuniga, Cesar

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study examined expressive vocabulary outcomes for Parent-Child Home Program (PCHP) toddlers, after one year of home-visiting services. First, this study applied Rasch modelling to establish the construct validity and reliability of a widely used expressive vocabulary measure, as modified for a sample of ethnic and…

  16. An Examination of the Relations between Oral Vocabulary and Phonological Awareness in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassano, Christina M.; Schickedanz, Judith A.

    2015-01-01

    This article reports a post hoc analysis conducted as part of a larger study in which 61 typically developing, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds were assessed in phonological awareness (PA), vocabulary (i.e., receptive, expressive, and definitional), and grammatical skill at baseline and 3, 6, and 9 months later. The larger study's purpose was to shed light…

  17. A Path Model of Expressive Vocabulary Skills in Initially Preverbal Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Jena; Yoder, Paul; Watson, Linda R.

    2017-01-01

    We examined direct and indirect paths involving receptive vocabulary and diversity of key consonants used in communication (DKCC) to improve understanding of why previously identified value-added predictors are associated with later expressive vocabulary for initially preverbal children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 87). Intentional…

  18. Exploring Expressive Vocabulary Variability in Two-Year-Olds: The Role of Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Jayne; Klee, Thomas; Stokes, Stephanie F.; Moran, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored whether measures of working memory ability contribute to the wide variation in 2-year-olds' expressive vocabulary skills. Method: Seventy-nine children (aged 24-30 months) were assessed by using standardized tests of vocabulary and visual cognition, a processing speed measure, and behavioral measures of verbal working…

  19. Exploring Expressive Vocabulary Variability in Two-Year-Olds: The Role of Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Jayne; Klee, Thomas; Stokes, Stephanie F.; Moran, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored whether measures of working memory ability contribute to the wide variation in 2-year-olds' expressive vocabulary skills. Method: Seventy-nine children (aged 24-30 months) were assessed by using standardized tests of vocabulary and visual cognition, a processing speed measure, and behavioral measures of verbal working…

  20. Investigating the Receptive-Expressive Vocabulary Profile in Children with Idiopathic ASD and Comorbid ASD and Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haebig, Eileen; Sterling, Audra

    2017-01-01

    Previous work has noted that some children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display weaknesses in receptive vocabulary relative to expressive vocabulary abilities. The current study extended previous work by examining the receptive-expressive vocabulary profile in boys with idiopathic ASD and boys with concomitant ASD and fragile X syndrome…

  1. The Relationship Between Expressive Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Skills for Adult Struggling Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ryan; Greenberg, Daphne; Gore, Jacqueline Laures; Pae, Hye K.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined expressive vocabulary and its relationship to reading skills for 232 native English-speaking adults who read between the third- and fifth-grade levels. The Boston Naming Test (BNT; Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 2001) was used to measure expressive vocabulary. Participants scored lower than the normative sample of adults on all aspects of the test; they had fewer spontaneously correct answers, and were not helped by stimulus or phonemic cues. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that expressive vocabulary accounted for significant variance in both reading comprehension and exception word reading, but not for general word reading or nonword reading. PMID:24778459

  2. Early postnatal testosterone predicts sex-related differences in early expressive vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Karson T F; Browne, Wendy V; Constantinescu, Mihaela; Noorderhaven, Rebecca M; Hines, Melissa

    2016-06-01

    During the first few years of life, girls typically have a larger expressive vocabulary than boys. This sex difference is important since a small vocabulary may predict subsequent language difficulties, which are more prevalent in boys than girls. The masculinizing effects of early androgen exposure on neurobehavioral development are well-documented in nonhuman mammals. The present study conducted the first test of whether early postnatal testosterone concentrations influence sex differences in expressive vocabulary in toddlers. It was found that testosterone measured in saliva samples collected at 1-3 months of age, i.e., during the period called mini-puberty, negatively predicted parent-report expressive vocabulary size at 18-30 months of age in boys and in girls. Testosterone concentrations during mini-puberty also accounted for additional variance in expressive vocabulary after other predictors such as sex, child's age at vocabulary assessment, and paternal education, were taken into account. Furthermore, testosterone concentrations during mini-puberty mediated the sex difference in expressive vocabulary. These results suggest that testosterone during the early postnatal period contributes to early language development and neurobehavioral sexual differentiation in humans.

  3. Summer Oral Expression English Course

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    An English Oral Expression course will take place between 15 August and 30 September 2011. Schedule: to be determined (2 sessions of 2 hours per week). Please note that this course is for learners who have a good knowledge of English (CERN level 7 upwards). If you are interested in following this course, please enrol here. Or contact: Kerstin FUHRMEISTER (70896) Tessa OSBORNE (72957)  

  4. The Importance of SES, Home and School Language and Literacy Practices, and Oral Vocabulary in Bilingual Children's English Reading Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Elizabeth R.; Páez, Mariela M.; August, Diane L.; Barr, Christopher D.; Kenyon, Dorry; Malabonga, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the role that socioeconomic status (SES), home and school language and literacy practices, and oral vocabulary play in the development of English reading skills in Latino English language learners (ELLs) and how these factors contribute differentially to English reading outcomes for children of different ages and in different…

  5. Effects of Adapted Dialogic Reading on Oral Language and Vocabulary Knowledge of Latino Preschoolers at Risk for English Language Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Vivian I.; Lo, Ya-Yu; Godfrey-Hurrell, Kristi; Swart, Katie; Baker, Doris Luft

    2015-01-01

    In this single-case design study, we examined the effects of an adapted dialogic reading intervention on the oral language and vocabulary skills of four Latino preschool children who were at risk for English language delays. We used adapted dialogic reading strategies in English and two literacy games that included a rapid naming activity and…

  6. The Importance of SES, Home and School Language and Literacy Practices, and Oral Vocabulary in Bilingual Children's English Reading Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Elizabeth R.; Páez, Mariela M.; August, Diane L.; Barr, Christopher D.; Kenyon, Dorry; Malabonga, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the role that socioeconomic status (SES), home and school language and literacy practices, and oral vocabulary play in the development of English reading skills in Latino English language learners (ELLs) and how these factors contribute differentially to English reading outcomes for children of different ages and in different…

  7. The Receptive-Expressive Gap in the Vocabulary of Young Second-Language Learners: Robustness and Possible Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Todd A.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Jarmulowicz, Linda; Ethington, Corinna A.

    2012-01-01

    Adults and children learning a second language show difficulty accessing expressive vocabulary that appears accessible receptively in their first language (L1). We call this discrepancy the receptive-expressive gap. Kindergarten Spanish (L1)-English (L2) sequential bilinguals were given standardized tests of receptive and expressive vocabulary in…

  8. Summer Oral Expression English course

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    An English Oral Expression course will take place this summer at some time between August 19 and October 4.   Schedule: to be determined (2 sessions of 2 hours per week). Please note that this course is for learners who have a good knowledge of English (CERN level 7 upwards). If you are interested in following this course, please enroll through this link. Please be sure to indicate your planned absences in the comments field so we can schedule the course. If you need more information please send a message to English.training@cern.ch.

  9. Summer Oral Expression English course

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    An English Oral Expression course will take place this summer from 20 August to 29 September.   Schedule: to be determined (2 sessions of 2 hours per week). Please note that this course is for learners who have a good knowledge of English (CERN level 7 upwards). If you are interested in following this course, please enroll through this link. Please be sure to indicate your planned absences in the comments field so we can schedule the course. If you need more information please send a message to English.training@cern.ch

  10. Summer Oral Expression English Course

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    An English Oral Expression course will take place between 15 August and 30 September 2011. Schedule: to be determined (2 sessions of 2 hours per week). Please note that this course is for learners who have a good knowledge of English (CERN level 7 upwards). If you are interested in following this course, please enrol through the following link https://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=110:9:1576796470009589::::X_STATUS,XS_COURSE_NAME,XS_PROGRAMME,XS_SUBCATEGORY,X_COURSE_ID,XS_LANGUAGE,XS_SESSION:D,,1,,4368,B, Or contact: Kerstin FUHRMEISTER (70896) Tessa OSBORNE (72957)  

  11. Summer Oral Expression English course

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    An English Oral Expression course will take place this summer at some time between 25 June and 28 September. The exact dates will be decided according to the preferences of the students.   Schedule: to be determined (2 sessions of 2 hours per week). Please note that this course is for learners who have a good knowledge of English (CERN level 7 upwards). If you are interested in following this course, please enroll through this link. Please be sure to indicate your planned absences in the comments field so we can schedule the course. If you need more information please send a message to English.training@cern.ch

  12. Three Profiles of Language Abilities in Toddlers with an Expressive Vocabulary Delay: Variations on a Theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, Chantal; Sylvestre, Audette; Meyer, Francois; Bairati, Isabelle; Rouleau, Nancie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The presence of an expressive vocabulary delay (EVD) in the context of otherwise harmonious development has been the main criterion used to define language delay in 2-year-olds. To better understand the communicative functioning of these children, other variables must be considered. In this study, the aim was to delineate and characterize…

  13. Expressive Vocabulary Development of Infants and Toddlers Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Alison M.; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Sedey, Allison L.; Carey, Angela

    1999-01-01

    A study involving 113 children (ages 24-37 months) with hearing impairments found expressive vocabulary was related to the child's age, the age of identification of the child's hearing loss (before or after 6 months), the child's cognitive quotient, and the presence or absence of one or more additional disabilities. (Contains extensive…

  14. Development of a Mandarin Expressive and Receptive Vocabulary Test for children using cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaopan; Wong, Lena L-N; Wong, Anita M-Y; Xi, Xin

    2013-10-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) provide children with profound hearing loss access to sounds and speech. Research on the effects of CI on speech and language development in mainland China is scarce due to the lack of standardized tests. This study aims at developing a vocabulary measure, the Mandarin Expressive and Receptive Vocabulary Test (MERVT), for pre-school children with CIs. Using responses from 102 normal-hearing preschool children, the initial vocabulary set was subjected to analyses to identify items with appropriate levels of difficulty and discrimination. Norms on 245 normal-hearing children aged 1;6 to 3;11 were later collected based on the final set of the items. Evaluation of the test's psychometric properties revealed good internal consistency. Significant correlations between the total MERVT scores and the Gesell Developmental Scale scores, between the MERVT expressive and receptive subtest scores and the total scores, and the gradual increase in MERVT scores with age, provided evidence of construct validity. Results from 29 children with CIs were also examined for evidence of the MERVT's construct validity. There was a significant correlation between these children's MERVT scores and their scores from an intelligence test. The MERVT scores increased with an increase in the duration of CI use and in chronological age. With good reliability and strong validity, the test is recommended for use in the monitoring of language development in children with CI.

  15. Task-Based Oral Computer-Mediated Communication and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanguas, Inigo

    2012-01-01

    The present study adds to the computer-mediated communication (CMC) literature by exploring oral learner-to-learner interaction using Skype, a free and widely used Internet software program. In particular, this task-based study has a two-fold goal. Firstly, it explores possible differences between two modes of oral CMC (audio and video) and…

  16. The impact of using student-dictated oral review stories on science vocabulary, content knowledge, and non-fiction writing skills of first grade students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishoff, Sandra Wells

    The purpose of this study was to determine if using an intervention called Student Dictated Oral Review Stories (SDORS) had an effect on science vocabulary usage and content knowledge for ninety-three students in six first grade classrooms and the subgroup of economically disadvantaged students in a mid-sized north Texas school district. The five science units involved in the study were written incorporating the strand of physical science. Data from pre- and posttests from each unit and an end-of-study assessment were compiled and analyzed. This study also looked at integration of science with literacy through analysis of students' science journal writings. Journal writings were analyzed for vocabulary usage and non-fiction writing skills of capitalization and punctuation. Average sentence length was also analyzed for Units 1--5 of the treatment group. It was anticipated that the outcomes of this study would allow school districts and curriculum writers to determine how to best integrate key concepts and important vocabulary with literacy particularly in the area of science. Results from the study showed significant differences in the end-of-study assessment, vocabulary usage as evidenced in journal writings, and average sentence length. Although there was gain over time for every student in the study in vocabulary and content knowledge, these gains could not be attributed to the intervention. This study also hoped to establish whether students were using science vocabulary routinely in their discussions and their writings and were building and continually assessing their own schemas about scientific concepts through using Student Dictated Oral Review Stories.

  17. Relations among Neighborhood Social Networks, Home Literacy Environments, and Children's Expressive Vocabulary in Suburban At-Risk Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froiland, John Mark; Powell, Douglas R.; Diamond, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    In response to increasing research and policy interest in the neighborhood context of early school success, this study examined relations among neighborhood social networks, home literacy practices/resources, and children's expressive vocabulary in a suburban at-risk sample in the USA at the beginning of the school year. In a Structural Equation…

  18. Relations among Neighborhood Social Networks, Home Literacy Environments, and Children's Expressive Vocabulary in Suburban At-Risk Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froiland, John Mark; Powell, Douglas R.; Diamond, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    In response to increasing research and policy interest in the neighborhood context of early school success, this study examined relations among neighborhood social networks, home literacy practices/resources, and children's expressive vocabulary in a suburban at-risk sample in the USA at the beginning of the school year. In a Structural Equation…

  19. Expressive Vocabulary Development in Children from Bilingual and Monolingual Homes: A Longitudinal Study from Two to Four Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Burridge, Andrea; Ribot, Krystal M; Welsh, Stephanie N

    2014-10-01

    The early course of language development among children from bilingual homes varies in ways that are not well described and as a result of influences that are not well understood. Here, we describe trajectories of relative change in expressive vocabulary from 22 to 48 months and vocabulary achievement at 48 months in two groups of children from bilingual homes (children with one and children with two native Spanish-speaking parents [ns = 15 and 11]) and in an SES-equivalent group of children from monolingual English homes (n = 31). The two groups from bilingual homes differed in their mean levels of English and Spanish skills, in their developmental trajectories during this period, and in the relation between language use at home and their vocabulary development. Children with two native Spanish-speaking parents showed steepest gains in total vocabulary and were more nearly balanced bilinguals at 48 months. Children with one native Spanish- and one native English-speaking parent showed trajectories of relative decline in Spanish vocabulary. At 48 months, mean levels of English skill among the bilingual children were comparable to monolingual norms, but children with two native Spanish-speaking parents had lower English scores than the SES-equivalent monolingual group. Use of English at home was a significant positive predictor of English vocabulary scores only among children with a native English-speaking parent. These findings argue that efforts to optimize school readiness among children from immigrant families should facilitate their access to native speakers of the community language, and efforts to support heritage language maintenance should include encouraging heritage language use by native speakers in the home.

  20. Expressive Vocabulary Development in Children from Bilingual and Monolingual Homes: A Longitudinal Study from Two to Four Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Burridge, Andrea; Ribot, Krystal M.; Welsh, Stephanie N.

    2014-01-01

    The early course of language development among children from bilingual homes varies in ways that are not well described and as a result of influences that are not well understood. Here, we describe trajectories of relative change in expressive vocabulary from 22 to 48 months and vocabulary achievement at 48 months in two groups of children from bilingual homes (children with one and children with two native Spanish-speaking parents [ns = 15 and 11]) and in an SES-equivalent group of children from monolingual English homes (n = 31). The two groups from bilingual homes differed in their mean levels of English and Spanish skills, in their developmental trajectories during this period, and in the relation between language use at home and their vocabulary development. Children with two native Spanish-speaking parents showed steepest gains in total vocabulary and were more nearly balanced bilinguals at 48 months. Children with one native Spanish- and one native English-speaking parent showed trajectories of relative decline in Spanish vocabulary. At 48 months, mean levels of English skill among the bilingual children were comparable to monolingual norms, but children with two native Spanish-speaking parents had lower English scores than the SES-equivalent monolingual group. Use of English at home was a significant positive predictor of English vocabulary scores only among children with a native English-speaking parent. These findings argue that efforts to optimize school readiness among children from immigrant families should facilitate their access to native speakers of the community language, and efforts to support heritage language maintenance should include encouraging heritage language use by native speakers in the home. PMID:25089074

  1. Influence of Verbal Working Memory Depends on Vocabulary: Oral Reading Fluency in Adolescents with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, L. Todd; Rouhani, Parisa

    2012-01-01

    Most research on dyslexia to date has focused on early childhood, while comparatively little is known about the nature of dyslexia in adolescence. The current study had two objectives. The first was to investigate the relative contributions of several cognitive and linguistic factors to connected-text oral reading fluency in a sample of…

  2. Influence of Verbal Working Memory Depends on Vocabulary: Oral Reading Fluency in Adolescents with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, L. Todd; Rouhani, Parisa

    2012-01-01

    Most research on dyslexia to date has focused on early childhood, while comparatively little is known about the nature of dyslexia in adolescence. The current study had two objectives. The first was to investigate the relative contributions of several cognitive and linguistic factors to connected-text oral reading fluency in a sample of…

  3. The Impact of a Systematic and Explicit Vocabulary Intervention in Spanish with Spanish-Speaking English Learners in First Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cena, Johanna; Baker, Doris Luft; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Baker, Scott K.; Park, Yonghan; Smolkowski, Keith

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a 15-min daily explicit vocabulary intervention in Spanish on expressive and receptive vocabulary knowledge and oral reading fluency in Spanish, and on language proficiency in English. Fifty Spanish-speaking English learners who received 90 min of Spanish reading instruction in an early transition model were…

  4. An Examination of Growth in Vocabulary and Phonological Awareness in Early Childhood: An Individual Growth Model Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassano, Christina Marie

    2013-01-01

    The present study used individual growth modeling to examine the role of specific forms (i.e., receptive, expressive, and definitional vocabulary and grammatical skill) and levels of oral vocabulary skill (i.e., 25th, 50th, or 75th percentile) in phonological awareness growth during the preschool and kindergarten years. Sixty-one,…

  5. The Impact of a Systematic and Explicit Vocabulary Intervention in Spanish with Spanish-Speaking English Learners in First Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cena, Johanna; Baker, Doris Luft; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Baker, Scott K.; Park, Yonghan; Smolkowski, Keith

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a 15-min daily explicit vocabulary intervention in Spanish on expressive and receptive vocabulary knowledge and oral reading fluency in Spanish, and on language proficiency in English. Fifty Spanish-speaking English learners who received 90 min of Spanish reading instruction in an early transition model were…

  6. Gene expression profiling predicts the development of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintigny, Pierre; Zhang, Li; Fan, You-Hong; El-Naggar, Adel K; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki A; Feng, Lei; Lee, J Jack; Kim, Edward S; Ki Hong, Waun; Mao, Li

    2011-02-01

    Patients with oral premalignant lesion (OPL) have a high risk of developing oral cancer. Although certain risk factors, such as smoking status and histology, are known, our ability to predict oral cancer risk remains poor. The study objective was to determine the value of gene expression profiling in predicting oral cancer development. Gene expression profile was measured in 86 of 162 OPL patients who were enrolled in a clinical chemoprevention trial that used the incidence of oral cancer development as a prespecified endpoint. The median follow-up time was 6.08 years and 35 of the 86 patients developed oral cancer over the course. Gene expression profiles were associated with oral cancer-free survival and used to develop multivariate predictive models for oral cancer prediction. We developed a 29-transcript predictive model which showed marked improvement in terms of prediction accuracy (with 8% predicting error rate) over the models using previously known clinicopathologic risk factors. On the basis of the gene expression profile data, we also identified 2,182 transcripts significantly associated with oral cancer risk-associated genes (P value oral cancer risk. In multiple independent data sets, the expression profiles of the genes can differentiate head and neck cancer from normal mucosa. Our results show that gene expression profiles may improve the prediction of oral cancer risk in OPL patients and the significant genes identified may serve as potential targets for oral cancer chemoprevention. ©2011 AACR.

  7. Vocabulary Is Important for Some, but Not All Reading Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Jessie; Nation, Kate; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2007-01-01

    Although there is evidence for a close link between the development of oral vocabulary and reading comprehension, less clear is whether oral vocabulary skills relate to the development of word-level reading skills. This study investigated vocabulary and literacy in 81 children aged 8 to 10 years. In regression analyses, vocabulary accounted for…

  8. Building Mathematics Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarik, Madeline

    2010-01-01

    Although mathematics is visual language of symbols and numbers it is also expressed and explained through written and spoken words. For students to excel in mathematics, they must recognize, comprehend and apply the requisite vocabulary. Thus, vocabulary instruction is as critical in content areas as it is in language arts. It is especially…

  9. TEACHING VOCABULARY THROUGH SENTENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    irfan tosuncuoglu

    2015-12-01

    Almost every teacher is certain about that vocabulary is an important facet of learning a second language. It may be more important than grammar, at least in so far as this concerns communication , and particularly in the early stages when learners seem to understand that amassing a basic vocabulary is very important to fluency in another language. As a rule, receptive vocabulary exceeds productive vocabulary and why listening with comprehension and speaking with comprehension are two very different things—the latter a more difficult cognitive process than the former. Furthermore, vocabulary acquisition is highly idiosyncratic and depends largely on the learner and her or his individual learning styles and cognitive abilities. No two people learn alike. In particular, as understanding and fluency increases,  individual interests and even needs will change, which then requires teacher-assisted guidance and remediation vis-à-vis the compilation of a specified and nuanced vocabulary that is tailored to the learner’s more practical linguistic needs, whatever these might be. In this case, new vocabulary items are more likely to be recalled and communicative. Essential to such an approach to teaching vocabulary acquisition, it is argued here, is exposure to authentic language, that is, reading, writing, listening, and speaking in class that both engages the visual, tactile, and aural-oral senses and imprints. In the case of texts, it is paramount that the comprehension level be such that the learner can guestimate with a nigh degree of accuracy the meaning and proper usage of new vocabulary items without a dictionary and thus from their context. And the more often these new vocabulary items appear, the more likely it is that their full meaning will be understood and committed to memory.  For that reason we wanted to make use of sentences in vocabulary teaching.

  10. Effects of a Picture Racetrack Game on the Expressive Vocabulary of Deaf Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Carrie A; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R; Clancy, Shannon M; Kranak, Michael P

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the effects of a picture racetrack game on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of picture labeling for 2 preschool students who are deaf. The game consisted of placing photographs representing individualized target vocabulary around a racetrack board and prompting the participant to sign each photo. A multiple baseline design across picture sets demonstrated that playing the picture racetrack game was functionally related to acquisition of vocabulary to 100% mastery on at least 3 consecutive sessions for each participant. Additionally, both participants maintained most of the vocabulary they acquired for at least 4 weeks after intervention, and they generalized picture labeling to a different presentation mode (i.e., a photo album). © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Vocabulary notebooks

    OpenAIRE

    KOZETA HYSO

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary notebooks are one way of promoting learner independence. Introducing vocabulary notebooks to provide the learners with an area of language learning where they could be given a relatively high level of independence that would build their confidence in their ability to act independently in terms of vocabulary learning. This article is focused on the effectiveness of keeping the vocabulary notebooks to empower the learner’s independence on their foreign language learning and also to e...

  12. Visualizing Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary can become tedious and a chore if it is approached as such. By making art terms and vocabulary meaningful, students will remember and use them for years to come. In this article, the author describes two vocabulary review projects that work wonderfully and create great works of art: (1) cursive creature rubbings; and (2) bubbling bodies…

  13. Visualizing Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary can become tedious and a chore if it is approached as such. By making art terms and vocabulary meaningful, students will remember and use them for years to come. In this article, the author describes two vocabulary review projects that work wonderfully and create great works of art: (1) cursive creature rubbings; and (2) bubbling bodies…

  14. MODERN MEANS OF EXPRESSIVE ORAL SPEECH CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadehzda Yurevna Gutareva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The notion “an oral communicative test in the form of interview” is carried out from linguistics, methods of teaching foreign languages and physiology point of view in the article. The basic components of foreign communicative competence are indicated in the works of Russian and foreign scientists, and the new component parts are added that are actual for a specialist of nonlinguistic institute of higher education. The author of the work also dwells on the concept that there are two types of oral communicative tests in the form of interview and in the form of role playing game in the modern lingvo-didactic testing and the choice of this and that form always depends on purpose, objects and stage of testing and teaching. Purpose: to determine the basic advantages of using oral communicative tests in the form of interview. Methodology: studying and analysis of linguistic, psychological, pedagogical and methodological literature on the theme of investigation, questionnaire and testing of students. Results: the analysis of the purpose and functions of using oral communicative tests in the form of interview has shown importance of their application in practice.Practical implications: it is possible for us to use the results of this work in courses of theory of methodology of teaching foreign languages.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-16

  15. Oral pathogens change proliferation properties of oral tumor cells by affecting gene expression of human defensins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, T; Kraus, D; Novak, N; Probstmeier, R; Frentzen, M; Wenghoefer, M; Jepsen, S; Winter, J

    2016-10-01

    The impact of oral pathogens onto the generation and variability of oral tumors has only recently been investigated. To get further insights, oral cancer cells were treated with pathogens and additionally, as a result of this bacterial cellular infection, with human defensins, which are as anti-microbial peptide members of the innate immune system. After cell stimulation, proliferation behavior, expression analysis of oncogenic relevant defensin genes, and effects on EGFR signaling were investigated. The expression of oncogenic relevant anti-microbial peptides was analyzed with real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Cell culture experiments were performed to examine cellular impacts caused by stimulation, i.e., altered gene expression, proliferation rate, and EGF receptor-dependent signaling. Incubation of oral tumor cells with an oral pathogen (Porphyromonas gingivalis) and human α-defensins led to an increase in cell proliferation. In contrast, another oral bacterium used, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, enhanced cell death. The bacteria and anti-microbial peptides exhibited diverse effects on the transcript levels of oncogenic relevant defensin genes and epidermal growth factor receptor signaling. These two oral pathogens exhibited opposite primary effects on the proliferation behavior of oral tumor cells. Nevertheless, both microbe species led to similar secondary impacts on the proliferation rate by modifying expression levels of oncogenic relevant α-defensin genes. In this respect, oral pathogens exerted multiplying effects on tumor cell proliferation. Additionally, human defensins were shown to differently influence epidermal growth factor receptor signaling, supporting the hypothesis that these anti-microbial peptides serve as ligands of EGFR, thus modifying the proliferation behavior of oral tumor cells.

  16. PBK/TOPK Expression Predicts Prognosis in Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Fang Chang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is a common cancer with poor prognosis. We evaluated the expression of PBK/TOPK (PDZ-binding kinase/T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase and its prognostic significance in oral cancer. PBK/TOPK expression was measured by immunohistochemical staining of samples from 287 patients with oral cancer. The association between PBK/TOPK expression and clinicopathological features was analyzed. The prognostic value of PBK/TOPK for overall survival was determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazard models. A high PBK/TOPK expression level was correlated with long overall survival. The prognostic role of PBK/TOPK expression was significant in young patients (p < 0.05, patients with smoking habits (p < 0.05, and late stage disease (p < 0.05. Our results suggest that PBK/TOPK expression is enhanced in oral cancer. High PBK/TOPK expression, either alone or in subgroups according to clinicopathological features, may serve as a favorable prognostic marker for patients with oral cancer.

  17. The concurrent and predictive validity of the Dutch version of the Communicative Development Inventory in children with Down Syndrome for the assessment of expressive vocabulary in verbal and signed modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckers, S R J M; Van Zaalen, Y; Mens, E J M; Van Balkom, H; Verhoeven, L

    2016-09-01

    The expressive vocabulary of children with Down Syndrome (DS) is generally measured with parental reports, such as the Communicative Development Inventory (CDI), given that standardized tests for assessing vocabulary levels may be too difficult for most young children with DS. The CDI provides important insight into the parents' perception of their child's vocabulary development. The CDI has proven to be a valid measurement of expressive vocabulary, spoken and gestural, in typical and atypical populations. The validity in children with DS is not well established and signed vocabulary is often not included. This longitudinal study examined the concurrent and predictive validity of the Dutch version of the CDI (N-CDI) in children with DS between 2;0 and 7;6 years old to assess spoken and signed vocabulary. N-CDI scores were assessed on strength of association with mental age, an expressive vocabulary test and spontaneous language analyses in a play setting with parents at T1 and T2 (1.5 years later), and a therapy setting with speech language pathologists at T1. The results of the present study show that the N-CDI is a valuable and valid measurement of expressive vocabulary in children with DS. Strengths and weaknesses of several assessment methods for expressive vocabulary are discussed.

  18. An analysis of topics and vocabulary in Chinese oral narratives by normal speakers and speakers with fluent aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Sam-Po; Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Lai, Christy

    2017-07-13

    This study analysed the topic and vocabulary of Chinese speakers based on language samples of personal recounts in a large spoken Chinese database recently made available in the public domain, i.e. Cantonese AphasiaBank ( http://www.speech.hku.hk/caphbank/search/ ). The goal of the analysis is to offer clinicians a rich source for selecting ecologically valid training materials for rehabilitating Chinese-speaking people with aphasia (PWA) in the design and planning of culturally and linguistically appropriate treatments. Discourse production of 65 Chinese-speaking PWA of fluent types (henceforth, PWFA) and their non-aphasic controls narrating an important event in their life were extracted from Cantonese AphasiaBank. Analyses of topics and vocabularies in terms of part-of-speech, word frequency, lexical semantics, and diversity were conducted. There was significant overlap in topics between the two groups. While the vocabulary was larger for controls than that of PWFA as expected, they were similar in distribution across parts-of-speech, frequency of occurrence, and the ratio of concrete to abstract items in major open word classes. Moreover, proportionately more different verbs than nouns were employed at the individual level for both speaker groups. The findings provide important implications for guiding directions of aphasia rehabilitation not only of fluent but also non-fluent Chinese aphasic speakers.

  19. Facilitating Vocabulary Acquisition of Children With Cochlear Implants Using Electronic Storybooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, Jane; Wood, Carla

    2015-10-01

    The present intervention study explored the word learning of 18 children with cochlear implants in response to E-book instruction. Capitalizing on the multimedia options available in electronic storybooks, the intervention incorporated videos and definitions to provide a vocabulary intervention that includes evidence-based teaching strategies. The extent of the children's word learning was assessed using three assessment tasks: receptive pointing, expressively labeling, and word defining. Children demonstrated greater immediate expressive labeling gains and definition generation gains for words taught in the treatment condition compared to those in the comparison condition. In addition, the children's performance on delayed posttest vocabulary assessments indicated better retention across the expressive vocabulary task for words taught within the treatment condition as compared to the comparison condition. Findings suggest that children with cochlear implants with functional speech perception can benefit from an oral-only multimedia-enhanced intensive vocabulary instruction.

  20. Oral and Written Expression in Children With Reading Comprehension Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretti, Barbara; Motta, Eleonora; Re, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have highlighted that children with reading comprehension difficulties also have problems in tasks that involve telling a story, in writing or verbally. The main differences identified regard poor comprehenders' lower level of coherence in their productions by comparison with good comprehenders. Only one study has compared poor and good comprehenders' performance in both modalities (oral and written), however, to see whether these modalities differently influence poor comprehenders' performance. We qualitatively and quantitatively compared the performance of good and poor comprehenders in oral and written narrative tasks with the aim of shedding light on this issue. Regression analyses were also used to explore the role of working memory and vocabulary in explaining individual differences. Our results showed that the two groups produced narratives of comparable length, with similar percentages of spelling mistakes, whereas they differed in terms of the quality of their narratives, regardless of the modality. These differences were qualified by analyzing the children's use of connective devices, and poor comprehenders were found to use a higher proportion of additive devices than good comprehenders. Regression analyses showed that working memory (particularly the intrusion errors measure) explained a modest part of the qualitative differences in narrative production. Implications for our theoretical understanding of poor comprehenders' profiles and education are discussed. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  1. Site-specific gene expression patterns in oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohwitter, Gesche; Buerger, Horst; Korsching, Eberhard; van Diest, Paul J; Kleinheinz, Johannes; Fillies, Thomas

    2017-05-10

    Squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are the most prevalent malignant tumours within the head and neck. Evidence exists that distinct genes are differentially regulated in SCCs of the oral cavity compared to other head and neck regions. Given this background, the aim of this study was to investigate whether such tumour site-specific gene expression can also be observed in different localizations within the oral cavity. Using tissue microarrays (TMAs), we investigated 76 SCCs of the floor of the mouth, 49 SCCs of the tongue and 68 SCCs of other anatomic regions within the oral cavity. The expression of 17 genes involved in cell cycle and growth control (p16, p21, p27, p53, cyclin D1, EGFR, c-kit, bcl-6), cell adhesion (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-catenin), and apoptosis/stress response genes (Hif-1-alpha, Glut 1, CA IX, caspase, hsp70, XIAP) were investigated by means of immunohistochemistry. The data were subjected to chi(2), interdependency and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Our study suggests a remote difference in the site-specific gene expression patterns of oral cancer. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) showed a significantly higher expression (p oral cavity. The increased XIAP expression was further associated with significantly decreased overall survival in all cases of SCCs of the oral cavity (p Expression levels of p53, CA IX, beta-catenin, Hif-1-alpha, and c-kit were also observed to be inversely related between SCCs of the floor of the mouth and those of the tongue respectively, although these differences did not reach statistical significance. Overall and event-free survival did not differ in patients with T1/T2/N0 SCCs according to tumour localization. In summary, the protein expression patterns of SCCs of the oral cavity suggest the existence of a molecular and morphological spectrum of SCCs in the oral cavity. In particular the expression pattern of XIAP indicates distinct gene expression patterns between carcinomas of the floor of the mouth and oral tongue

  2. Estrogen and Progesterone hormone receptor expression in oral cavity cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegner, Thorsten; Teriete, Peter; Hoefert, Sebastian; Krimmel, Michael; Munz, Adelheid; Reinert, Siegmar

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown an increase in the incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in younger patients. The hypothesis that tumors could be hormonally induced during pregnancy or in young female patients without the well-known risk factors alcohol or tobacco abuse seems to be plausible. Material and Methods Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERα) and Progesterone Receptor (PR) expression were analyzed in normal oral mucosa (n=5), oral precursor lesions (simple hyperplasia, n=11; squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=35), and OSCC specimen. OSCCs were stratified in a young female (n=7) study cohort and older patients (n=46). In the young female study cohort three patients (n=3/7) developed OSCC during or shortly after pregnancy. Breast cancer tissues were used as positive control for ERα and PR expression. Results ERα expression was found in four oral precursor lesions (squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=4/35, 11%) and in five OSCC specimen (n=5/46, 11%). The five ERα positive OSCC samples were older male patients. All patients within the young female study cohort were negatively stained for both ERα and PR. Conclusions ER expression could be regarded as a seldom risk factor for OSCC. PR expression seems to be not relevant for the development of OSCC. Key words:Oral squamous cell carcinoma, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, hormone receptor. PMID:27475696

  3. Relations among Neighborhood Social Networks, Home Literacy Environments, and Children's Expressive Vocabulary in Suburban At-Risk Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froiland, John Mark; Powell, Douglas R.; Diamond, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    In response to increasing research and policy interest in the neighborhood context of early school success, this study examined relations among neighborhood social networks, home literacy practices/resources, and children's expressive vocabulary in a suburban at-risk sample in the USA at the beginning of the school year. In a Structural…

  4. The influence of part-word phonotactic probability/neighborhood density on word learning by preschool children varying in expressive vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storkel, Holly L; Hoover, Jill R

    2011-06-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the influence of part-word phonotactic probability/neighborhood density on word learning by preschool children with normal vocabularies that varied in size. Ninety-eight children (age 2 ; 11-6 ; 0) were taught consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) nonwords orthogonally varying in the probability/density of the CV (i.e. body) and VC (i.e. rhyme). Learning was measured via picture naming. Children with the lowest expressive vocabulary scores showed no effect of either CV or VC probability/density, although floor effects could not be ruled out. In contrast, children with low or high expressive vocabulary scores demonstrated sensitivity to part-word probability/density with the nature of the effect varying by group. Children with the highest expressive vocabulary scores displayed yet a third pattern of part-word probability/density effects. Taken together, word learning by preschool children was influenced by part-word probability/density but the nature of this influence appeared to depend on the size of the lexicon.

  5. The Development of Facility in Free Oral Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Betsy Davis

    This thesis develops a method of classroom language instruction for teachers of English as a second language which enables students to extend their linguistic skills from language manipulation to free oral expression. Detailed description of a model class is presented. Pedagogical guidelines for preparation of instructional materials and for…

  6. Genetic expression signatures of oral submucous fibrosis and oral cancer—A preliminary microarray report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Hsin Liao

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: The distinct but similar genetic expression signatures seen in OSF and SCC suggested that this expression may be used as a supplemental diagnostic tool in pathology practice. This preliminary study showed that the XRCC5 gene promoted GNM cell growth and conferred resistance to low-density X-ray irradiation. Further studies on the effect of XRCC5 in oral cancer cells are in progress.

  7. 多样词汇能力与提高口语水平的相关性探究*%On the Pertinence between Diversity of Vocabulary and Level of Oral English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵娟

    2013-01-01

    According to the practical experience,this paper explores the pertinence between diversity of vo-cabulary and level of oral English.With a reference to Lewis’Lexical Approach,the author of this paper argues that it is important to combine the diversity of vocabulary input with context whereas the active out-put of vocabulary can improve oral English and activate the old vocabulary.%以高职高专英语专业口语课为实践载体,探讨了多样词汇能力与口语水平的相关性。借鉴Lewis的词块教学理论,指出结合语境有效输入多样性词汇的重要性,并强调了积极的词汇输出可以提高口语水平,激活已有词汇,巩固多样词汇能力。

  8. Vocabulary Development of Junior Teens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Nikonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the communicative competence formation of young adolescents in the secondary school at the Russian language lessons. The author maintains that the key element of the above problem is the vocabulary development guaranteeing both comprehension and verbal expression formation – oral and written. The theoretical part of the research explores different word functions: nominal, communicative, text generating and semantic. The correlation between the mental development level and lexical semantic system formation is emphasized. The age specific features of junior teens are listed: rising interest to various life spheres and activi- ties, capability of formulating opinions and judgments, self-awareness, formation of values. The relationship complexity stimulates vocabulary development of 10 to 12 year-old children; however, the process requires peda- gogical facilitation.The monitoring of speech development proves the necessity of commutative competence formation of the fifth- and sixth-year pupils. The paper presents the model of communicative competence development and its approbation results received for the junior adolescents. 

  9. Vocabulary Development of Junior Teens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Nikonova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the communicative competence formation of young adolescents in the secondary school at the Russian language lessons. The author maintains that the key element of the above problem is the vocabulary development guaranteeing both comprehension and verbal expression formation – oral and written. The theoretical part of the research explores different word functions: nominal, communicative, text generating and semantic. The correlation between the mental development level and lexical semantic system formation is emphasized. The age specific features of junior teens are listed: rising interest to various life spheres and activi- ties, capability of formulating opinions and judgments, self-awareness, formation of values. The relationship complexity stimulates vocabulary development of 10 to 12 year-old children; however, the process requires peda- gogical facilitation.The monitoring of speech development proves the necessity of commutative competence formation of the fifth- and sixth-year pupils. The paper presents the model of communicative competence development and its approbation results received for the junior adolescents. 

  10. p53 expression in oral lichenoid lesions and oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreaza, A; Rivera, H; Correnti, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article was to compare the expression of p53 protein in oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid reaction (OLR). The study population consisted of 65 patients--31 diagnosed with OLP and 34 with OLR. The results showed more p53 positive cases in the OLP group than in the OLR group. However, the difference between the 2 groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.114). The most common immunolocalization was observed at the basal cell layer. Due to the chance of potential future malignancy, follow-up for all cases is recommended.

  11. Vocabulary knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严爽

    2016-01-01

    Knowing a word refers to more than just a matter of knowing its form, meaning, pronunciation and spelling. It also refers to one's knowledge of the relationships the word is involved in, such as its collocations, semantic associations and so on. Words are not isolated entities. This paper focuses on vocabulary knowledge and helps us get an idea of what needs to be learned and the process of English vocabulary learning.

  12. Immunohistochemical expression of Bcl-2 in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Juneja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The B cell lymphoma-2 gene is a proto-oncogene whose protein product inhibits apoptosis. Its role is associated with keeping cells alive, but not by stimulating them to proliferation, as other proto-oncogenes do. Increased expression of protein product of Bcl-2 gene appears in the early phase of carcinogenesis leading to apoptosis impairment and in consequence to the progression of neoplastic changes. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the expression of Bcl-2 protein in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty cases of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archival specimens comprising of 30 cases of leukoplakia with oral epithelial dysplasia and 30 cases of OSCC were taken for immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal antibody against anti-human Bcl-2 oncoprotein. RESULTS: Immunostaining for Bcl-2 protein was identified in basal and parabasal layers as granular cytoplasmic staining in oral epithelial dysplasia. In OSCC, Bcl-2 immunoreactivity was most prominent in the peripheral cells of the infiltrating tumor islands which diminished toward the center in well-differentiated and moderately differentiated OSCC, whereas stronger and more diffuse expression of Bcl-2 oncoprotein was seen in poorly differentiated OSCC. Overall positivity of 26.7% (8/30 was observed in oral epithelial dysplasia and 30% (9/30 in OSCC in this study. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION: Altered expression of Bcl-2 oncoprotein may be an early molecular event which leads to prolonged cell survival, increased chances of accumulation of genetic alterations, and subsequent increase in malignant transformation potential.

  13. COX-2, MMP-7 expression in oral lichen planus and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tie-Jun Li; Jun Cui

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To observe cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in normal oral mucosa (NOM), oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and explore its significance in the incidence of oral cancer. Methods: The immunohistochemical method and RT-PCR method were applied to detect the expression of COX-2 and MMP-7 in 10 cases with NOM, 33 cases of with OLP and 38 cases with OSCC. Results: The expression of COX-2 mRNA in OSCC tissues (68.4%, 26/38) was significantly higher than in the OLP (24.2%, 8/33) and NOM (0.0%, 0/10) (P<0.01). The expression of MMP-7 mRNA in OSCC tissues (65.8%, 25/38) was significantly higher than in the OLP (30.3%, 10/33) and NOM (0.0%, 0/10) (P<0.01). The expression of MMP-7 in OLP was significantly higher than in the NOM (P<0.05). There was no significant expression of COX-2 protein in NOM, and the positive rate was 42.4% (14/33) and 89.5% (34/38) in OLP and OSCC group, respectively. The COX-2 expression in cancer tissues was significantly higher than in NOM and OLP (P<0.05). The MMP-7 protein expression in cancer tissues (84.2%, 32/38) was significantly higher than in NOM (10.0%, 1/10) and in OLP (42.4%, 14/33), and the positive rate in OLP was significantly higher than in NOM (P<0.01). The COX-2 expression was associated with clinical stage (P<0.05), the MMP-7 expression was associated with clinical stage and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). The expressions of COX-2 and MMP-7 mRNA were positively correlated with OSCC. Conclusions:The abnormal expressions of COX-2 and MMP-7 are closely related to the biological behavior of OSCC, the MMP-7 may be induced by COX-2, and further lead to the invasion and metastasis of OSCC.

  14. VCAM1 and ICAM1 expression in oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Shafaee, Shahryar; Bijani, Ali; Bagheri, Soodabeh

    2013-01-01

    Oral lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory immune-mediated disease. ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are vascular adhesion molecules that their receptors are located on endothelial cells and leukocytes. The aim of this study is the immunohistochemical evaluation of VCAM1 and ICAM1 in oral lichen planus and to compare these two markers with normal mucosa for evaluation of angiogenesis. This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 70 paraffined blocks of oral lichen planus and 30 normal mucosa samples taken from around the lesions. Samples were stained with H & E and then with Immunohistochemistry using monoclonal mouse anti human VCAM1 (CD106), & monoclonal mouse anti human ICAM1(CD54) for confirmation of diagnosis. Slides were evaluated under light microscope and VCAM1 and ICAM1 positive cells (endothelial cells and leukocytes) were counted. Data were analyzed with Mann-Whitney test, Wilcoxon and Chi-Square and plichen planus according to the percentage of stained cells (p=0.000& p=0.000, Mann-Whitney test). Thirty cases of oral normal mucosa associated with lichen planus showed that the VCAM1 has increased significantly in comparison to normal mucosa (plichen planus and normal mucosa, showed a significantly difference (plichen planus was not observed (p>0.05). Regarding the results, it seems that high expression of VCAM1 and ICAM1 is related to oral lichen planus.

  15. "L'Atelier d'expression orale" (The Oral Expression Workshop).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabensky, Alexis; Mesana, Corinne

    1990-01-01

    An extracurricular program in an Australian university French language program that brings together adults of varying ages and nationalities for oral language development activities is described. The program uses improvisation, psychodrama and role playing, and suggestopedia all together to develop a theme or in alternation, for creativity and…

  16. "L'Atelier d'expression orale" (The Oral Expression Workshop).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabensky, Alexis; Mesana, Corinne

    1990-01-01

    An extracurricular program in an Australian university French language program that brings together adults of varying ages and nationalities for oral language development activities is described. The program uses improvisation, psychodrama and role playing, and suggestopedia all together to develop a theme or in alternation, for creativity and…

  17. A TOMM40 poly-T variant modulates gene expression and is associated with vocabulary ability and decline in nonpathologic aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, A; Sindrewicz, P; Pessoa, V; Platt, H; Horan, M; Ollier, W; Bubb, V J; Pendleton, N; Quinn, J P

    2016-03-01

    The Translocase of Outer Mitochondrial Membrane 40 Homolog and Apolipoprotein E (TOMM40-APOE) locus has been associated with a number of age-related phenotypes in humans including nonpathologic cognitive aging, late-onset Alzheimer's disease, and longevity. Here, we investigate the influence of the TOMM40 intron 6 poly-T variant (rs10524523) on TOMM40 gene expression and cognitive abilities and decline in a cohort of 1613 community-dwelling elderly volunteers who had been followed for changes in cognitive functioning over a period of 14 years (range = 12-18 years). We showed that the shorter length poly-T variants were found to act as a repressor of luciferase gene expression in reporter gene constructs. Expression was reduced to approximately half of that observed for the very long variant. We further observed that the shorter poly-T variant was significantly associated with reduced vocabulary ability and a slower rate of vocabulary decline with age compared to the very long poly-T variants. No significant associations were observed for memory, fluid intelligence or processing speed, although the direction of effect, where the short variant was correlated with reduced ability and slower rate of decline was observed for all tests. Our results indicate that the poly-T variant has the ability to interact with transcription machinery and differentially modulate reporter gene expression and influence vocabulary ability and decline with age.

  18. Review Article: Instructed Second Language Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    This article overviews current research on second language vocabulary learning. It concludes that a large vocabulary is necessary to function in English: 8000-9000 word families for reading, and perhaps as many as 5000-7000 families for oral discourse. In addition, a number of word knowledge aspects need to be learned about each lexical item.…

  19. The Effectiveness of a Supplemental Pre-Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Na Young

    2013-01-01

    Oral vocabulary is a strong predictor of young children's later reading development. Many children enter kindergarten with weak vocabulary knowledge and could benefit from an extra level or higher tier of intentional instruction in vocabulary that supplements the Tier 1 core curriculum in language. Recent findings from research developing a…

  20. Investigating Immunohistochemical Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in oral lichen planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Seyedmajidi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and goal: (cox2 Cyclooxygenase -2 as an enzyme is not present in normal tissues and in fact is a type of inductive enzyme during pathological phenomena such as inflammation and cancer are significantly increased. Increased expression of cox-2 in gastric carcinoma, pancreatic, lung and oral squamous cell carcinoma has been shown and seems to be one of the performance mechanisms of the inhibition of apoptosis in tumor cells. Regarding the role of cox-2 in apoptosis mechanisms and the creation of dysplastic changes and malignant, the study aimed to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of cox-2 in oral lichen planus and were compared with normal mucosa and gingivitis. Methods: The study was performed on 30 paraffin blocks related to patients referred to oral and maxillofacial pathology department in Dental School of Babol with confirmed diagnosis of oral lichen planus was done. The same number of samples of normal mucosa and samples of gingivitis were studied. Slices prepared from the above blocks bycoloring immunostaining cox-2 were stained and after reviewing the slides obtained, data using statistical software spss20 and x2 tests, Mann-Whitney and parametric tests such as T test was analyzed and P ˂0.05 was considered significant Results: In this study, significantly percentage of stained cells and staining intensity of cells in the basal layer of lichen planus was higher than normal mucosa (p <0.001. In parabasal layer the results were similar (p <0.001. This results in comparison to lichen planus and gingivitis in basal layer (p <0.001 and parabasal was seen (p <10.0. On the other hand, significantly the percentage of stained cells and staining intensity of cells in the basal layer of gingivitis was more than normal mucosa (p <0.001. In above comparison, similar result in the parabasal layer was seen (p <0.001. The percentage of stained cells and staining intensity of cells in lymphocytic infiltration was significantly higher

  1. VOCABULARY STRATEGIES AND VOCABULARY LEARNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This research is a comparative study of Chinese EFLgradutes′vocabulary strategies applied in their EGeneralAP(English for General Academic Purposes)and ESpecialAP(English for Special Academic Purpose)learning.Participantswere the first-year graduates of non-English major in ChinaPharmaceutical University(N=102).The present study uses ataxonomy of strategies developed by O’Malley and Chamot(1990),which was modified to more accurately reflectvocabulary strategies(altogether 31 sub-strategy variables within16 strategies).Analysis through SAS(Statistic Analysis System)on the collected date has revealed that:1)Learners apply more types of vocabulary stategies inEGeneralAP than in ESpecialAP vocabulary learning.2)Translation and Extensive Reading gain higher frequencyof application in ESpecialAP learning.3)11 vocabulary strategies strongly predict EGeneralAPvocabulary achievement and only 6 strategies strongly predictESpecialAp vocabulary achievement.At the end of the paper,some practical suggestions aremade for EFL graduate teachers to adjust their teaching targetand methods.

  2. Immunohistochemical expression of Skp2 protein in oral nevi and melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Jorge E.; Carlos, Román; Delgado-Azañero, Wilson; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Paes-de-Almeida, Oslei

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the immunohistochemical expression of Skp2 protein in 38 oral nevi and 11 primary oral melanomas. Study Design: Expression of this ubiquitin protein was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 49 oral melanocytic lesions, including 38 intramucosal nevi and 11 primary oral melanomas. The labeling index (LI) was assessed considering the percentage of cells expressing nuclear positivity out of the total number of cells, counting 1000 cells per slide. Results: Skp2 protein was rarely expressed in intramucosal nevi, in contrast to oral melanomas, which showed high levels of this protein. Conclusion: These results indicate that Skp2 protein may play a role in the development and progression of oral melanomas, and it also could be useful as an immunohistochemical marker for differential diagnosis of oral benign and malignant melanocytic lesions. Key words:Oral melanoma, oral nevi, Skp2, cell cycle, immunohistochemistry. PMID:23385514

  3. Is the Expressive Vocabulary of Young Cantonese Speakers Noun or Verb Dominated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Shek Kam; Chan, Carol; Li, Hui

    2005-01-01

    The spontaneous utterances produced by 492 Cantonese-speaking children aged 36-60 months in 30-minute toy play contexts were collected. The incidence and percentage of different lexical classes, the ratio of noun and verb types and tokens were calculated. A statistically significant predominance of verb usage was found in the expressive utterances…

  4. Microbiota diversity and gene expression dynamics in human oral biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Páez, Alfonso; Belda-Ferre, Pedro; Simón-Soro, Aurea; Mira, Alex

    2014-04-27

    Micro-organisms inhabiting teeth surfaces grow on biofilms where a specific and complex succession of bacteria has been described by co-aggregation tests and DNA-based studies. Although the composition of oral biofilms is well established, the active portion of the bacterial community and the patterns of gene expression in vivo have not been studied. Using RNA-sequencing technologies, we present the first metatranscriptomic study of human dental plaque, performed by two different approaches: (1) A short-reads, high-coverage approach by Illumina sequencing to characterize the gene activity repertoire of the microbial community during biofilm development; (2) A long-reads, lower-coverage approach by pyrosequencing to determine the taxonomic identity of the active microbiome before and after a meal ingestion. The high-coverage approach allowed us to analyze over 398 million reads, revealing that microbial communities are individual-specific and no bacterial species was detected as key player at any time during biofilm formation. We could identify some gene expression patterns characteristic for early and mature oral biofilms. The transcriptomic profile of several adhesion genes was confirmed through qPCR by measuring expression of fimbriae-associated genes. In addition to the specific set of gene functions overexpressed in early and mature oral biofilms, as detected through the short-reads dataset, the long-reads approach detected specific changes when comparing the metatranscriptome of the same individual before and after a meal, which can narrow down the list of organisms responsible for acid production and therefore potentially involved in dental caries. The bacteria changing activity during biofilm formation and after meal ingestion were person-specific. Interestingly, some individuals showed extreme homeostasis with virtually no changes in the active bacterial population after food ingestion, suggesting the presence of a microbial community which could be

  5. 高职英语学习者口语词汇产出能力的发展模式%Patterns of Development in the Oral Vocabulary Productivity of Higher Vocational English Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张成国; 林梅; 冒端

    2012-01-01

    基于高职商务英语专业一至三年级89名学生一次同一时间的限时口语测试,从词汇广度和词汇深度两个方面的7项指标入手,研究其口语词汇产出能力的发展模式。结果显示,对高职英语学习者而言,一至二年级期间口语词汇的产出速度发展迅速,高频词使用倾向明显;二至三年级期间口语表达中的低频词明显增多,词汇的重复率明显减少,语义搭配及语用准确性显著提高。这与高职英语学习者年级增长,口语能力提高,词汇习得观念和产出策略的改变有关。%Based on the same timed oral test of 89 vocational students from three grades of business English majors,the paper analyzes the patterns of development in the oral vocabulary productivity according to 7 indicators of breadth and depth.Results show that for vocational English learners from grade one to grade two,the oral vocabulary productivity is characterized by the fast production speed and the large number of high frequency words;while for those from grade two to grade three,the oral vocabulary productivity is marked by the significant changes in the increase of the low frequency words,the reduction of the repetitive rate and the improvement of the collocation and pragmatic accuracy.These developmental patterns may be related to the gradual improvement of the speaking ability,and the subtle changes of acquisition concept and productive strategies of oral vocabulary along with growth of the grade.

  6. Expression of heat shock protein70 in oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma: An immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Thubashini

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: HSP70 is synthesized upon stress situations arising in cells of all living organisms. Expression of HSP70 indicates that stress plays an important role as a predisposing factor in oral submucous fibrosis and its subsequent progression to oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  7. Developing Mathematical Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Eula Ewing; Orme, Michelle P.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of mathematical vocabulary, difficulties students encounter in learning this vocabulary, and some instructional strategies. Two general methods for teaching vocabulary are discussed: context and explicit vocabulary instruction. The methods are summarized as they apply to mathematical vocabulary instruction and…

  8. Expression of zebrafish nos2b surrounds oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kar-Lai; Richardson, Michael; Korzh, Vladimir

    2008-06-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) catalyzes the production of nitric oxide (NO), and is one of the factors establishing innate immunity. In zebrafish, Nos2 is represented by nos2a and nos2b. Here, we report the cloning and expression pattern of the zebrafish nos2b gene, which does not seem to participate in induced immune response. nos2b was mapped to zebrafish linkage group 15. The spatial and temporal expression pattern of nos2b in embryonic zebrafish was analyzed by whole-mount in situ hybridization. nos2b is expressed constitutively in two primordia located along the ventral midline. The first group of cells contributes to the neurohypophysis. Initially at the level of the ventral hindbrain, the second group of cells migrates closely with the thyroid primordium to its final position at the basihyal by 3 dpf. Thus, the analysis of expression pattern of nos2b reveals complex morphogenetic movements resulting in its expression surrounding the oral cavity.

  9. Oral and Hand Movement Speeds Are Associated with Expressive Language Ability in Children with Speech Sound Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beate

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that children with speech sound disorder have generalized slowed motor speeds. It evaluated associations among oral and hand motor speeds and measures of speech (articulation and phonology) and language (receptive vocabulary, sentence comprehension, sentence imitation), in 11 children with moderate to severe SSD…

  10. Oral and Hand Movement Speeds Are Associated with Expressive Language Ability in Children with Speech Sound Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beate

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that children with speech sound disorder have generalized slowed motor speeds. It evaluated associations among oral and hand motor speeds and measures of speech (articulation and phonology) and language (receptive vocabulary, sentence comprehension, sentence imitation), in 11 children with moderate to severe SSD…

  11. Vocabulary – semantics – consciousness: scientific-analitical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Telegina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article studies relations between vocabulary, words meaning, conceptualization process, thinking, consciousness. Consciousness strategies detection necessitates study of mental vocabulary, expressing mental activity state and processes.

  12. Palula Vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this volume is to provide a complement to Towards a grammatical description of Palula (Liljegren 2008). The 1460 main entries included in the present work are limited to those lexical items that are cited or exemplified in the aforementioned work. The work is the result of linguistic research in and with the Palula community (Pakistan). It contains much of the basic vocabulary used in today's Palula, presented along with illustrative example sentences, grammatical informat...

  13. ALDH1 and podoplanin expression patterns predict the risk of malignant transformation in oral leukoplakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habiba, Umma; Hida, Kyoko; Kitamura, Tetsuya; Matsuda, Aya Yanagawa; Higashino, Fumihiro; Ito, Yoichi M.; Ohiro, Yoichi; Totsuka, Yasunori; Shindoh, Masanobu

    2017-01-01

    Oral leukoplakia (OL) is a clinically diagnosed preneoplastic lesion of the oral cavity with an increased oral cancer risk. However, the risk of malignant transformation is still difficult to assess. The objective of the present study was to examine the expression patterns of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) and podoplanin in OL, and to determine their roles in predicting oral cancer development. In the present study, the expression patterns of ALDH1 and podoplanin were determined in samples from 79 patients with OL. The association between protein expression and clinicopathological parameters, including oral cancer-free survival, was analyzed during a mean follow-up period of 3.4 years. Expression of ALDH1 and podoplanin was observed in 61 and 67% patients, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that the expression of the proteins was correlated with the risk of progression to oral cancer. Multivariate analysis revealed that expression of ALDH1 and podoplanin was associated with 3.02- and 2.62-fold increased risk of malignant transformation, respectively. The malignant transformation risk of OL was considerably higher in cases with expression of both proteins. Point-prevalence analysis revealed that 66% of patients with co-expression of ALDH1 and podoplanin developed oral cancer. Taken together, our data indicate that ALDH1 and podoplanin expression patterns in OL are associated with oral cancer development, suggesting that ALDH1 and podoplanin may be useful biomarkers to identify OL patients with a substantially high oral cancer risk. PMID:28123562

  14. ALDH1 and podoplanin expression patterns predict the risk of malignant transformation in oral leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habiba, Umma; Hida, Kyoko; Kitamura, Tetsuya; Matsuda, Aya Yanagawa; Higashino, Fumihiro; Ito, Yoichi M; Ohiro, Yoichi; Totsuka, Yasunori; Shindoh, Masanobu

    2017-01-01

    Oral leukoplakia (OL) is a clinically diagnosed preneoplastic lesion of the oral cavity with an increased oral cancer risk. However, the risk of malignant transformation is still difficult to assess. The objective of the present study was to examine the expression patterns of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) and podoplanin in OL, and to determine their roles in predicting oral cancer development. In the present study, the expression patterns of ALDH1 and podoplanin were determined in samples from 79 patients with OL. The association between protein expression and clinicopathological parameters, including oral cancer-free survival, was analyzed during a mean follow-up period of 3.4 years. Expression of ALDH1 and podoplanin was observed in 61 and 67% patients, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that the expression of the proteins was correlated with the risk of progression to oral cancer. Multivariate analysis revealed that expression of ALDH1 and podoplanin was associated with 3.02- and 2.62-fold increased risk of malignant transformation, respectively. The malignant transformation risk of OL was considerably higher in cases with expression of both proteins. Point-prevalence analysis revealed that 66% of patients with co-expression of ALDH1 and podoplanin developed oral cancer. Taken together, our data indicate that ALDH1 and podoplanin expression patterns in OL are associated with oral cancer development, suggesting that ALDH1 and podoplanin may be useful biomarkers to identify OL patients with a substantially high oral cancer risk.

  15. In vitro cytokeratin expression profiling of human oral mucosa substitutes developed by tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzon, Ingrid; Serrato, Deyanira; Roda, Olga; Del Carmen Sanchez-Quevedo, Maria; Gonzales-Jaranay, Maximino; Moreu, Gerardo; Nieto-Aguilar, Renato; Alaminos, Miguel; Campos, Antonio

    2009-10-01

    In this work we performed a study of cytokeratin (CK) expression profiling on human artificial oral mucosa developed in vitro by tissue engineering at different stages of maturation (from immature to well-developed stages) at the protein and mRNA levels. Human artificial oral mucosa was generated in the laboratory using fibrin-agarose biomaterials. As controls, we used human native normal oral mucosa and embryonic oral tissues. Our results demonstrated that human embryonic oral tissues tended to express CK8 and CK19. In contrast, monolayered bioengineered oral mucosa did not show any CK expression by immunohistochemistry, whereas bilayered and multilayered artificial oral mucosa showed several markers of stratified epithelia, but did not express CK10. These results suggest that the CK expression pattern is strongly dependent on the maturation state of the artificial tissues and that the CK expression profile of our model of artificial oral mucosa was partially similar to that of the non-keratinized human adult oral mucosa. However, the expression of CK8 by the artificial oral mucosa suggests that these samples correspond to an early stage of development while kept in vitro.

  16. Nuclear engineering vocabulary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumont, X. [FRAMATOME, Dept. Corporate R and D, 92 - Paris-La-Defence (France); Andrieux, C. [CEA Saclay, Direction des Technologies de l' Information, DTI, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2001-07-01

    The members of the CSTNIN - the Special Commission for Nuclear Engineering Terminology and Neology - have just produced a Nuclear Engineering Vocabulary, published by SFEN. A 120-page document which, to date, includes 400 nuclear engineering terms or expressions. For each term or expression, this Glossary gives: the primary and secondary subject field in which it is applied, a possible abbreviation, its definition, a synonym if appropriate, any relevant comments, any associated word(s), the English equivalent, its status on the date of publication of the Glossary. (author)

  17. Investigation of trefoil factor expression in saliva and oral mucosal tissues of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiyarit, Ponlatham; Utrawichian, Akasith; Leelayuwat, Chanvit

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aims of our study were to determine levels of trefoil factor (TFF) peptides in saliva and oral mucosal tissues from patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and to evaluate whether individual members of TFFs (TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3) might act as biomarkers of disease....... Materials and methods Saliva samples were from 23 healthy subjects and 23 OSCC patients. Tissue samples were collected from 32 normal oral mucosa (NOM) and 32 OSCC biopsy specimens. ELISA and immunohistochemical methods were used to evaluate the expression of TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 in saliva and oral mucosal...... progression in OSCC. Quantification of TFF levels in saliva may not be optimal in terms of diagnostic or predictive value for OSCC derived from oral mucosa....

  18. Vocabulary Teaching in Action-Oriented Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunday, Rifat; Atmaca, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    The words are called as basic building blocks of language. It is impossible to discuss the language system without words. It is related to the vocabulary whether a language is rich or not. It is also related to the peoples' vocabulary to understand what is said and written or to express effectively their thoughts and their feelings verbally or in…

  19. Oral annunciator with programmable vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paslay, D.; Wong, P.

    1977-01-01

    Voice (analog) signal is converted to its digital equivalent and stored in solid state memory. Upon command, memory becomes part of annunciator system which includes other digital logic, digital-to-analog converter, and audio amplifier.

  20. Heat shock protein 47 expression in oral squamous cell carcinomas and upregulated by arecoline in human oral epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shiuan-Shinn; Tseng, Ling-Hsien; Li, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2011-05-01

    Heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) is a product of CBP2 gene located at chromosome 11q13.5, a region frequently amplified in human cancers. Areca quid chewing is a major risk factor of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The aim of this study was to compare HSP47 expression in normal human oral epithelium and OSCC and further to explore the potential mechanisms that may lead to induce HSP47 expression. Thirty-two OSCC specimens and ten normal oral tissue biopsy samples without areca quid chewing were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The oral epithelial cell line OC2 cells were challenged with arecoline, a major areca nut alkaloid, by using Western blot analysis. Furthermore, glutathione precursor N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) inhibitor PD98059, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor NS-398, and tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin A were added to find the possible regulatory mechanisms. HSP47 expression was significantly higher in OSCC specimens than normal epithelium (P0.05). The lower HSP47 expression was associated with lymph node metastasis (P=0.015). Arecoline was found to elevate HSP47 expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner (Parecoline-induced HSP47 expression (Parecoline-induced HSP47 expression was downregulated by NAC, PD98059, LY294002, NS398, and herbimycin A. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Primary Discourse and Expressive Oral Language in a Kindergarten Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiano, Darcy A.

    2014-01-01

    This seven-month ethnographic case study elucidated a kindergarten student's navigation through her first formal schooling experience with relation to expressive oral language. Gee's theory of Discourses and methodology of discourse analysis were used to examine expressive oral language in use. Two discursive contexts germane to…

  2. THE VOCABULARY SELF-COLLECTION STRATEGY:ENHANCING ACTIVE VOCABULARY THROUGH TOPICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    IntroductionThe majority of English courses books in China provide students with long lists of vocabulary attached tothe end of the texts.Since vocabulary is regarded as central to language learning.Students are supposedto memorise all the new words and expressions on which they will be tested.Teachers rarely considerwhich items may be students active vocabulary and which items may be students passive vocabulary.Therefore.they treat all the new words and expressions with an equal amount of time and care:andstudents tend to treat all the new items as active vocabulary.The consequence of this approach is often:students get bored of memorising the long lists:even if they succeed in memorising all the new items,they are usually still unable to use themactively.This inappropriate method of teaching vocabulary tends to make students lose interest inlearning.

  3. English Vocabulary Teaching Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary is very necessary in language teaching and acquisition.If students have a certain amount of vocabulary,they will overcome many difficulties in reading.listening、 speaking and writing.In vocabulary teaching,scholars have been working hard to find better ways.This paper attempts to find how to improve students’ enthusiasm of learning vocabulary and teach vocabulary more successfully and effectively.

  4. Suprabasal expression of Ki-67 as a marker for the severity of oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Dwivedi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transition of the normal oral epithelium to dysplasia and to malignancy is featured by increased cell proliferation. To evaluate the hypothesis of distributional disturbances in proliferating and stem cells in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Aim: To evaluate layer wise expression of Ki-67 in oral epithelial dysplasia and in OSCC. Materials and Methods: Thirty histologically confirmed cases of oral epithelial dysplasia, fifteen cases of OSCC and five cases of normal buccal mucosa were immunohistochemically examined and nuclear expression of Ki-67 was counted according to basal, parabasal, and suprabasal layers in epithelial dysplasia and number of positive cells per 100 cells in OSCC as labeling index (LI. Results: Suprabasal expression of Ki-67 increased according to the severity of epithelial dysplasia and the difference was statistically significant ( P < 0.001. The mean Ki-67LI was 12.78 for low risk lesions, 28.68 for high risk lesions, 39.45 for OSCC and 13.6 for normal buccal mucosa. Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrate the use of proliferative marker Ki-67 in assessing the severity of epithelial dysplasia. Suprabasal expression of Ki-67 provides an objective criteria for determining the severity of epithelial dysplasia and histological grading of OSCC.

  5. Cyclooxygenase-2 and Ki67 Expression in Oral Leukoplakia: a Clinicopathological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Sinanoglu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Oral leukoplakia is a precancerous lesion of the oral mucosa. The upregulation of Ki67 and cyclooxygenase-2 has been reported in both dysplastic and non-dysplastic tissues. The aim of this clinicopathological study was to investigate the prognostic value of Ki67 and cyclooxygenase-2 expression for oral leukoplakia. Material and Methods: A total of 50 samples were investigated and the study group consisted of 30 oral leukoplakia samples. Samples of 10 intact oral mucosa and 10 squamous cell carcinoma were included as negative and positive control groups, respectively. Epithelial dysplasia was defined as oral intraepithelial neoplasia (OIN and classified into subgroups 1 - 3. Tissue samples were assessed immunohistochemically for Ki67 and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. Clinicopathological correlations of oral leukoplakia patients were also investigated. Results: All OIN 3 patients were non-smokers (P < 0.05, and homogeneous oral leukoplakia lesions also presented OIN. Both cyclooxygenase-2 and Ki67 expression increased with the severity of lesions, which defined different subgroups (P < 0.05, except there was no significant difference between the hyperkeratosis and OIN groups for Ki67 expression. Conclusions: Cyclooxygenase-2 and Ki67 expression may have a prognostic value for the malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia.

  6. Le qualita espressive del linguaggio orale: Il simbolismo fonetico (The Expressive Qualities of Oral Language: Phonetic Symbolism).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, Roberto

    1988-01-01

    Discusses a study of the expressive qualities of oral language. Results suggest that there is a natural rather than an arbitrary relationship between words and their meanings. Practical applications of this theory of phonetic symbolism in the area of commercial advertising are presented. (CFM)

  7. Vocabulary Learning through Extensive Reading: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senoo, Yasuko; Yonemoto, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    The role and importance of reading in second language vocabulary learning have been discussed by many researchers because of the richness and variety of vocabulary in written texts compared to oral discourse (Horst, 2005; Nation, 2001). However, despite the recent increase of studies in this field, there are very few studies focusing on…

  8. [Study of testicular cancer gene expression in samples of oral leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorodumova, L O; Muraev, A A; Zakharova, E S; Shepelev, M V; Korobko, I V; Zaderenko, I A; Ivanov, S Iu; Gnuchev, N V; Georgiev, G P; Larin, S S

    2012-01-01

    Cancer-testis (CT) antigens are normally expressed mostly in human germ cells, there is also an aberrant expression in some tumor cells. This expression profile makes them potential tumor growth biomarkers and a promising target for tumor immunotherapy. Specificity of CT genes expression in oral malignant and potentially malignant diseases, e.g. oral leukoplakia, is not yet studied. Data on CT genes expression profile in leukoplakia would allow developing new diagnostic methods with potential value for immunotherapy and prophylaxis of leukoplakia malignization. In our study we compared CT genes expression in normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. We are the first to describe CT genes expression in oral leukoplakia without dysplasia. This findings make impossible differential diagnosis of oral leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma on the basis of CT genes expression. The prognostic value of CT genes expression is still unclear, therefore the longitudinal studies are necessary.

  9. [Suppression of VEGF protein expression by arctigenin in oral squamous cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Guang-rui; Liu, Fa-yu; Wang, Bo

    2015-08-01

    To observe arctigenin's inhibitory effect on oral squamous cell carcinoma, and explore the possible mechanism. The expression of VEGF in 32 cases of oral squamous cell cancer and 20 adjacent tissue specimen were detected with immunohistochemistry. Human nude mouse transplantation tumor model of oral squamous cell cancer was prepared with HSC-3 cells line. Transplanted tumor growth and VEGF expression in transplanted tumor tissues were assayed after treatment with arctigenin. One-way ANOVA was used for comparison between groups with SPSS 16.0 software package. Compared with the adjacent tissue, immunohistochemical staining score of VEGF was significantly higher (Parctigenin, the growth of oral squamous cell transplanted tumors in nude mouse was inhibited (Parctigenin group (PArctigenin can dose-dependently inhibit the growth of oral squamous cell carcinomas, and this effect may be related to down regulation of VEGF expression.

  10. The Influence of Spelling Ability on Vocabulary Choices When Writing for Children With Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Emma; Connelly, Vincent; Barnett, Anna L

    2016-01-01

    Spelling is a prerequisite to expressing vocabulary in writing. Research has shown that children with dyslexia are hesitant spellers when composing. This study aimed to determine whether the hesitant spelling of children with dyslexia, evidenced by frequent pausing, affects vocabulary choices when writing. A total of 31 children with dyslexia, mean age 9 years, were compared to typically developing groups of children: the first matched by age, the second by spelling ability. Oral vocabulary was measured and children completed a written and verbal compositional task. Lexical diversity comparisons were made across written and verbal compositions to highlight the constraint of having to select and spell words. A digital writing tablet recorded the writing. Children with dyslexia and the spelling-ability group made a high proportion of spelling errors and within-word pauses, and had a lower lexical diversity within their written compositions compared to their verbal compositions. The age-matched peers demonstrated the opposite pattern. Spelling ability and pausing predicted 53% of the variance in written lexical diversity of children with dyslexia, demonstrating the link between spelling and vocabulary when writing. Oral language skills had no effect. Lexical diversity correlated with written and verbal text quality for all groups. Practical implications are discussed and related to writing models.

  11. A Study of Oral and Written Expression Abilities of Adolescents with Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaon, Felicia

    This study investigated the oral and written expression of 16 learning disabled students in a special education alternative high school. Students were offered two prompts: one written, one verbal. Written and oral responses were scored according to a rubric similar to that used for the New York State High School English Regents Examination.…

  12. Downregulation of keratin 76 expression during oral carcinogenesis of human, hamster and mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikant Ambatipudi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Keratins are structural marker proteins with tissue specific expression; however, recent reports indicate their involvement in cancer progression. Previous study from our lab revealed deregulation of many genes related to structural molecular integrity including KRT76. Here we evaluate the role of KRT76 downregulation in oral precancer and cancer development. METHODS: We evaluated KRT76 expression by qRT-PCR in normal and tumor tissues of the oral cavity. We also analyzed K76 expression by immunohistochemistry in normal, oral precancerous lesion (OPL, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and in hamster model of oral carcinogenesis. Further, functional implication of KRT76 loss was confirmed using KRT76-knockout (KO mice. RESULTS: We observed a strong association of reduced K76 expression with increased risk of OPL and OSCC development. The buccal epithelium of DMBA treated hamsters showed a similar trend. Oral cavity of KRT76-KO mice showed preneoplastic changes in the gingivobuccal epithelium while no pathological changes were observed in KRT76 negative tissues such as tongue. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates loss of KRT76 in oral carcinogenesis. The KRT76-KO mice data underlines the potential of KRT76 being an early event although this loss is not sufficient to drive the development of oral cancers. Thus, future studies to investigate the contributing role of KRT76 in light of other tumor driving events are warranted.

  13. Teaching English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝丹

    2014-01-01

    Grammar provides the overall patterns, and vocabulary is the material to put in the patterns. Without grammar we can convey a little, but without vocabulary we can convey nothing. Vocabulary teaching is an indispensable part of English curriculum. Art is a kind of creation. Teaching vocabulary artistically can make teachers and students build up created consciousness in teaching and learning vocabulary activities and teachers put their experience and emotions towards beauty into teaching activities to raise general vocabulary teaching activities to appreciation of beauty and creative activities, convert bitter into happy, tense into ease. Thus the non-intellectual factors like motive, interest, emotion, self-confidence and so on can be developed naturally and they will elaborate a great part in English vocabulary teaching. At the same time, the relationship between teachers and students can get improved fundamentally furthest and it pushes vocabulary teaching powerfully in turn.

  14. Foxp3 gene expression in oral lichen planus: A clinicopathological study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LEI, LEI; ZHAN, LIHUA; TAN, WEIXIA; CHEN, SHAOHUA; LI, YANGQIU; REYNOLDS, MARK

    2014-01-01

    ...). The present study aimed to investigate Foxp3 expression in CD4+CD25+ T cells of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and oral lesions in patients diagnosed with OLP, who were grouped as OLP subtype, duration and relapse...

  15. Rote Memorization of Vocabulary and Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weidong; Dai, Weiping

    2011-01-01

    Rote memorization of vocabulary has long been a common way for Chinese students to learn lexical items. Cultural, educational background and traditional teaching practice in China are identified to be the factors that contribute to many students' heavy reliance on memorization as their sole approach to vocabulary learning. In addition to rote…

  16. On Vocabulary Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑洁

    2013-01-01

    An efficient vocabulary learning strategy can supply students with exact meanings and usage of words. There are many differences between Chinese and English,so the result of memorizing vocabulary by rote is always not good. The paper holds the Incidental Vocabulary Learning to improve the English ability.

  17. Oral neutrophils display a site-specific phenotype characterized by expression of T-cell receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakschevitz, Flavia S; Aboodi, Guy M; Glogauer, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Neutrophils, key cells of the innate immune system, were previously thought to be terminally differentiated cells, incapable of altering their gene expression after differentiation and maturation in the bone marrow. Only recently has it been shown that neutrophils perform rapid and complex changes in gene expression during inflammatory responses. Previous work by the authors has demonstrated differences in reactive oxygen species production between oral and peripheral blood neutrophils isolated from patients with chronic periodontitis, suggesting that oral neutrophils present with a unique oral phenotype. Understanding differences in the neutrophil transcriptome after transit from circulation into the site of inflammation will give new insights into how these innate immune cells function during inflammation. Venous blood and oral rinse samples were obtained from five healthy participants. Blood neutrophils were isolated using a standard gradient method. Oral neutrophils were isolated through nylon mesh filters of different pore sizes (40 to 10 μm). RNA was purified from isolated neutrophils, and gene expression microarray analysis was completed. Results were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence microscopy. Oral neutrophil isolation, which is critical when analyzing gene expression with samples clear of epithelial cell contamination, was optimized. It was also demonstrated that oral neutrophils present with a significant increase in T-cell receptor expression compared with circulating neutrophils, suggesting a role for oral neutrophils in crosstalk between the innate and adaptive immune system in the mouth. To the best of the authors' knowledge, it is demonstrated for the first time that, compared with circulating neutrophils, oral neutrophils present a site-specific gene expression profile in healthy individuals.

  18. Early vocabulary development in children with bilateral cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välimaa, Taina; Kunnari, Sari; Laukkanen-Nevala, Päivi; Lonka, Eila

    2017-06-16

    Children with unilateral cochlear implants (CIs) may have delayed vocabulary development for an extended period after implantation. Bilateral cochlear implantation is reported to be associated with improved sound localization and enhanced speech perception in noise. This study proposed that bilateral implantation might also promote early vocabulary development. Knowledge regarding vocabulary growth and composition in children with bilateral CIs and factors associated with it may lead to improvements in the content of early speech and language intervention and family counselling. To analyse the growth of early vocabulary and its composition during the first year after CI activation and to investigate factors associated with vocabulary growth. The participants were 20 children with bilateral CIs (12 boys; eight girls; mean age at CI activation = 12.9 months). Vocabulary size was assessed with the Finnish version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) Infant Form and compared with normative data. Vocabulary composition was analysed in relation to vocabulary size. Growth curve modelling was implemented using a linear mixed model to analyse the effects of the following variables on early vocabulary growth: time, gender, maternal education, residual hearing with hearing aids, age at first hearing aid fitting and age at CI activation. Despite clear vocabulary growth over time, children with bilateral CIs lagged behind their age norms in receptive vocabulary during the first 12 months after CI activation. In expressive vocabulary, 35% of the children were able to catch up with their age norms, but 55% of the children lagged behind them. In receptive and expressive vocabularies of 1-20 words, analysis of different semantic categories indicated that social terms constituted the highest proportion. Nouns constituted the highest proportion in vocabularies of 101-400 words. The proportion of verbs remained below 20% and the proportion of function words and

  19. Probing oral microbial functionality--expression of spxB in plaque samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhu

    Full Text Available The Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD provides an extensive collection of genome sequences from oral bacteria. The sequence information is a static snapshot of the microbial potential of the so far sequenced species. A major challenge is to connect the microbial potential encoded in the metagenome to an actual function in the in vivo oral biofilm. In the present study we took a reductionist approach and identified a considerably conserved metabolic gene, spxB to be encoded by a majority of oral streptococci using the HOMD metagenome information. spxB encodes the pyruvate oxidase responsible for the production of growth inhibiting amounts of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and has previously been shown as important in the interspecies competition in the oral biofilm. Here we demonstrate a strong correlation of H2O2 production and the presence of the spxB gene in dental plaque. Using Real-Time RT PCR we show that spxB is expressed in freshly isolated human plaque samples from several donors and that the expression is relative constant when followed over time in one individual. This is the first demonstration of an oral community encoded gene expressed in vivo suggesting a functional role of spxB in oral biofilm physiology. This also demonstrates a possible strategy to connect the microbial potential of the metagenome to its functionality in future studies by identifying similar highly conserved genes in the oral microbial community.

  20. Measuring Vocabulary: An overview of four types of vocabulary tests

    OpenAIRE

    Helga Hilmarsdóttir 1985

    2010-01-01

    In this essay four types of vocabulary tests are examined and the focus is on the variety in vocabulary tests. The main incentive with writing this essay was to make an overview of vocabulary measurement tools and to examine whether there existed a standardized vocabulary test. In the first chapter an attempt is made to answer the question of what vocabulary knowledge is. Receptive and productive knowledge of vocabulary is discussed as well as the distinction of vocabulary into breadth and...

  1. COX-1 and COX-2 expression in canine cutaneous, oral and ocular melanocytic tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, I; Garcia, A; Prada, J; Queiroga, F L

    2010-01-01

    In order to evaluate the potential value of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the treatment of canine malignant melanoma, expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 was determined in 20 cutaneous, nine oral and two ocular malignant melanomas, and in nine cutaneous melanocytomas. Almost all tumours expressed COX-1, but COX-2 expression was restricted to the malignant tumours being found in 11 of the 20 cutaneous malignant melanomas, all oral malignant melanomas and in one of two ocular malignant melanomas. COX-1 expression did not differ significantly between benign and malignant skin lesions, but COX-2 expression was significantly greater in cutaneous malignant melanoma compared with melanocytoma (P=0.047). COX-2 labelling was particularly intense in the more highly malignant oral tumours. The results of the study suggest that NSAIDs, particularly COX-2 inhibitors, may be useful in the treatment of canine malignant melanoma.

  2. Expression of E-Cadherin in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma is Associated with Clinical Prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianming Zhang; Wei Zhang; Ping Gao; Yanqiu Li; Changyi Li; Sakan Maeda

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the correlation of E-cadherin expression with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.METHODS We examined the expression of the protein E-cadherin in 43 oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) surgical speciments by SABC immunohistochemistry.RESULTS There was a significant correlation between the level of Ecadherin expression and tumor stage (P=0.024), invasive pattern (P=0.009) and lymph node metastasis (P=0.023). No relation was found with age (P=0.084), sex (P=1.356) and differentiation (P=0.877). Using the Kaplan-Meier method we demonstrated that those cases which showed E-cadherin expression (-) or (+) had a significantly poorer prognosis compared those cases which showed expression (++) or (+++) (P= 0.0146).CONCLUSION E-cadherin, is an important indicator of clinical diagnoses and prognositic marker for oral SCC patients.

  3. Expression of Yes-associated protein 1 gene and protein in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Song-ying; HU Ji-an; WANG Hui-ming

    2013-01-01

    Background Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common malignancies in the oral and maxillofaoial region.Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) has been implicated as a bona fide oncogene in solid tumors.We seek to elucidate the role of YAP1 in OSCC tissue.Methods We identified YAP1 gene and protein overexpression in 30 OSCC patients and 10 normal oral mucosa tissues by immunohistochemistry,Western blotting and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results In the normal oral mucosa by immunohistochemical staining,YAP1 mainly located in both the cytoplasm and nucleus mainly the nuclei of the basal cells.In OSCC,the expression of YAP1 translocated from the nucleus to cytoplasm;YAP1 being mainly located in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of the adjacent mucosa.The expression of YAP1 gradual increased in normal oral mucosa,tumor adjacent mucosa and low grade,middle grade,high grade OSCC tissue by Western blotting.Significant difference was found between the expressions of the normal oral mucosa and OSCC tissue (P <0.05).The coincidence was detected between the normal oral mucosa and OSCC tissue by RT-PCR (P <0.05).Conclusions YAP1 is involved in the carcinogenesis and development of OSCC.There is a transformation between nucleus and cytoplasm.

  4. The efficacy of a vocabulary intervention for dual-language learners with language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Maria Adelaida; Morgan, Gareth P; Thompson, Marilyn S

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated the efficacy of a Spanish-English versus English-only vocabulary intervention for dual-language learners (DLLs) with language impairment compared to mathematics intervention groups and typically developing controls with no intervention. Further, in this study the authors also examined whether the language of instruction affected English, Spanish, and conceptual vocabulary differentially. The authors randomly assigned 202 preschool DLLs with language impairment to 1 of 4 conditions: bilingual vocabulary, English-only vocabulary, bilingual mathematics, or English-only mathematics. Fifty-four DLLs with typical development received no intervention. The vocabulary intervention consisted of a 12-week small-group dialogic reading and hands-on vocabulary instruction of 45 words. Postintervention group differences and linear growth rates were examined in conceptual, English, and Spanish receptive and expressive vocabulary for the 45 treatment words. Results indicate that the bilingual vocabulary intervention facilitated receptive and expressive Spanish and conceptual vocabulary gains in DLLs with language impairment compared with the English vocabulary intervention, mathematics intervention, and no-intervention groups. The English-only vocabulary intervention differed significantly from the mathematics condition and no-intervention groups on all measures but did not differ from the bilingual vocabulary intervention. Vocabulary growth rates postintervention slowed considerably. Results support the idea that bilingual interventions support native- and second-language vocabulary development. English-only intervention supports only English. Use of repeated dialogic reading and hands-on activities facilitates vocabulary acquisition.

  5. [Meta-analysis of oral squamous cell carcinoma on gene expression level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yang; Liang, Yan; Leng, Dong

    2014-01-01

    To study the differently expressed genes of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissue. Gene expression datasets related to oral squamous cell carcinoma in the gene expression omnibus (gene expression omnibus, GEO) repository were retrieved. Datasets were merged by normalization.Significantly expressed genes were obtained by statistical methods, and genes' functions, interactions, signaling pathways were analyzed accordingly. In GEO, there were 1 125 records related to OSCC, and four of them were selected and merged to a super array data, within the super array data, 233 genes were significantly expressed (P expressed genes were selected as signature genes.Signature genes were more related to cell surface or cell-cell interactive activities. Clusters of interactive signature genes and the related signaling pathways were related with mitosis process. OSCC signature genes and the corresponding signaling pathways will provide not only an important clue for further research of the disease, but also reference for diagnosis and treatment.

  6. p53 Expression in Oral cancer: A study of 50 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ghanghoria

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the world. P53 mutations are associated with the development of oral squamous cell carcinomas. This study is to determine the presence of p53 oncogene expression in cases of oral malignant, premalignant and benign lesions and to show association of p53 oncogene and lymph node enlargement in malignant lesion.Materials and Methods: Four to five micron-thick sections of formalin fixed, paraffin embedded biopsy material from various intra-oral sites of 50 patients were collected, in the series of 50 cases, 35 oral squamous cell carcinoma, 10 dysplastic lesions and 05 hyperplastic lesions were assessed for p53 expression. The tissue sections were immunohistochemically analyzed for the expression of p53 gene.Results: Out of 50; 22/35 (63% cases of squamous cell carcinoma, 02/10 (20% cases of dysplasia (20%, were positive for p53. Five hyperplastic lesions were negative for p53. The P53 protein was not identified in benign lesion.Conclusion: Results indicate that p53 over-expression is seen in oral squamous cell carcinomas. It is a significant marker of carcinogenesis and can be considered as an important marker for clinical evaluation, diagnosis as well as prognosis of disease.Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2015 Vol. 5, 747-751

  7. Expression of GLUT1 in stratified squamous epithelia and oral carcinoma from humans and rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldstedlund, M; Dabelsteen, Erik

    1997-01-01

    was also expressed in ductal- and myoepithelial cells of minor salivary glands and perineural sheath located in the lamina propra, and furthermore in the cells of an oral carcinoma. GLUT4 was not expressed in any of the tissues examined. This distribution of GLUT1 does not fit with the idea of GLUT1...

  8. Expression of major histocompatibility complex class II and costimulatory molecules in oral carcinomas in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel-Dorrego, Mariana; Speight, Paul M; Barrett, A William

    2005-01-01

    Recognition in the 1980 s that keratinocytes can express class II molecules of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) first raised the possibility that these cells might have an immunological function, and may even act as antigen presenting cells (APC). For effective T lymphocyte activation, APC require, in addition to MHC II, appropriate costimulatory signals. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of MHC class II and the co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86 in keratinocytes derived from healthy oral mucosa and oral carcinomas. Using flow cytometry, it was confirmed that oral keratinocytes, switch on, expression of MHC class II molecules after stimulation with IFNgamma in vitro. All keratinocyte lines expressed CD40 constitutively; by contrast, CD80 and CD86 were universally absent. Loss of CD80 and CD86 may be one means whereby tumours escape immunological surveillance.

  9. Boosting Vocabulary Learning through Self-Assessment in an English Language Teaching Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque Micán, Adriana; Cuesta Medina, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the influence of self-assessment of vocabulary competence on a group of students' oral fluency. Twenty-four young adult learners participated in a learning process that promoted their oral skills and vocabulary development. Self-assessment was mainly examined through the analysis of students' learning logs, field notes and…

  10. Boosting Vocabulary Learning through Self-Assessment in an English Language Teaching Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque Micán, Adriana; Cuesta Medina, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the influence of self-assessment of vocabulary competence on a group of students' oral fluency. Twenty-four young adult learners participated in a learning process that promoted their oral skills and vocabulary development. Self-assessment was mainly examined through the analysis of students' learning logs, field notes and…

  11. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in different subtypes of oral lichenoid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Ramírez, Dionisio-Alejandro; Rodríguez-Tojo, María-Jose; Coca-Meneses, Juan-Carlos; Marichalar-Mendia, Xabier; Aguirre-Urizar, José-Manuel

    2014-09-01

    The oral lichenoid disease (OLD) includes different chronic inflammatory processes such as oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid lesions (OLL), both entities with controversial diagnosis and malignant potential. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EFGR) is an important oral carcinogenesis biomarker and overexpressed in several oral potentially malignant disorders. To analyze the EGFR expression in the OLD to find differences between OLP and OLL, and to correlate it with the main clinical and pathological features. Forty-four OLD cases were studied and classified according to their clinical (Group C1: only papular lesions / Group C2: papular and other lesions) and histopathological features (Group HT: OLP-typical / Group HC: OLP-compatible) based in previous published criteria. Standard immunohistochemical identification of EGFR protein was performed. Comparative and descriptive statistical analyses were performed. Thirty-five cases (79.5%) showed EGFR overexpression without significant differences between clinical and histopathological groups (p<0.05). Histological groups showed significant differences in the EGFR expression pattern (p=0.016). Conlusions: All OLD samples showed high EGFR expression. The type of clinical lesion was not related with EGFR expression; however, there are differences in the EGFR expression pattern between histological groups that may be related with a different biological profile and malignant risk.

  12. Expression of COX-2 and bcl-2 in oral lichen planus lesions and lichenoid reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreaza, Alven J; Rivera, Helen; Correnti, María

    2014-01-01

    Oral lichen planus and lichenoid reactions are autoimmune type inflammatory conditions of the oral mucosa with similar clinical and histological characteristics. Recent data suggest that oral lichenoid reactions (OLR) present a greater percentage of malignant transformation than oral lichen planus (OLP). Objective To compare the expression of bcl-2 and COX-2 in OLP and OLR. Methods The study population consisted of 65 cases; 34 cases diagnosed as OLR and 31 as OLP. A retrospective study was done, and bcl-2 and COX-2 expression was semiquantitatively analysed. Results Fifty-three per cent (18/34) of the ORL samples tested positive for COX-2, whereas in the OLP group, 81% of the samples (25/31) immunostained positive for COX-2. The Fisher’s exact test for the expression of COX-2 revealed that there are significant differences between the two groups, P = 0.035. With respect to the expression of the bcl-2 protein, 76% (26/34) of the samples were positive in OLR, while 97% (30/31) were positive in the group with OLP. The Fisher’s exact test for the expression of bcl-2 revealed that there are significant statistical differences between the two groups, P = 0.028. Conclusions The expression of bcl-2 and COX-2 was more commonly expressed in OLP when compared with OLR. PMID:24834112

  13. How to assess and compare inter-rater reliability, agreement and correlation of ratings: an exemplary analysis of mother-father and parent-teacher expressive vocabulary rating pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita eStolarova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This report has two main purposes. First, we combine well-known analytical approaches to conduct a comprehensive assessment of agreement and correlation of rating-pairs and to dis-entangle these often confused concepts, providing a best-practice example on concrete data and a tutorial for future reference. Second, we explore whether a screening questionnaire deve-loped for use with parents can be reliably employed with daycare teachers when assessing early expressive vocabulary. A total of 53 vocabulary rating pairs (34 parent-teacher and 19 mother-father pairs collected for two-year-old children (12 bilingual are evaluated. First, inter-rater reliability both within and across subgroups is assessed using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC. Next, based on this analysis of reliability and on the test-retest reliability of the employed tool, inter-rater agreement is analyzed, magnitude and direction of rating differences are considered. Finally, Pearson correlation coefficients of standardized vocabulary scores are calculated and compared across subgroups. The results underline the necessity to distinguish between reliability measures, agreement and correlation. They also demonstrate the impact of the employed reliability on agreement evaluations. This study provides evidence that parent-teacher ratings of children’s early vocabulary can achieve agreement and correlation comparable to those of mother-father ratings on the assessed vocabulary scale. Bilingualism of the evaluated child decreased the likelihood of raters’ agreement. We conclude that future reports of agree-ment, correlation and reliability of ratings will benefit from better definition of terms and stricter methodological approaches. The methodological tutorial provided here holds the potential to increase comparability across empirical reports and can help improve research practices and knowledge transfer to educational and therapeutic settings.

  14. Vocabulary Learning Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Craven, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    The prominent role of vocabulary knowledge in second or foreign language learning has been recently recognized by theorists and researchers in the field. This article aims to provide a digest of recent research on vocabulary learning strategies specifically in the English as a foreign language context in Japan. In Japan where there is minimal exposure to English in daily life and where word knowledge is often tested, teachers should be informing learners about vocabulary learning strategies a...

  15. Tagging vs. Controlled Vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine; Petras, Vivien

    2015-01-01

    elements like core bibliographic data, controlled vocabulary terms, reviews, and tags to the retrieval performance. Our comparison is done using a test collection of over 2 million book records with information elements from Amazon, the British Library, the Library of Congress, and LibraryThing. We find...... that tags and controlled vocabulary terms do not actually outperform each other consistently, but seem to provide complementary contributions: some information needs are best addressed using controlled vocabulary terms whereas other are best addressed using tags....

  16. NASA thesaurus aeronautics vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The controlled vocabulary used by the NASA Scientific and Technical Information effort to index documents in the area of aeronautics is presented. The terms comprise a subset of the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus and its supplements issued through the end of 1990. The Aeronautics Vocabulary contains over 4700 terms presented in a hierarchical display format. In addition to aeronautics per se, the vocabulary covers supporting terminology from areas such as fluid dynamics, propulsion engineering, and test facilities and instrumentation.

  17. Food and Feed Commodity Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Feed Vocabulary was developed to consolidate all the major OPP Commodity Vocabularies into one standardized vocabulary. The EPA-preferred term is the only term that can be used in setting tolerances.

  18. An Investigation of the Impact of Small Group Direct Vocabulary Instruction on the Vocabulary Development of Kindergarten Children Living in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Katie A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which tri-weekly evidence-based vocabulary lessons implemented throughout the regular school day would increase kindergarten students' expressive and receptive vocabulary development, thus decreasing the vocabulary gap exhibited between low-income children and their more advantaged peers…

  19. Foxp3 gene expression in oral lichen planus: a clinicopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Lei; Zhan, Lihua; Tan, Weixia; Chen, Shaohua; Li, Yangqiu; Reynolds, Mark

    2014-03-01

    CD4+CD25+ Forkhead‑box protein 3 (Foxp3+) regulatory T cells are important in oral lichen planus (OLP). The present study aimed to investigate Foxp3 expression in CD4+CD25+ T cells of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and oral lesions in patients diagnosed with OLP, who were grouped as OLP subtype, duration and relapse. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), western blotting and immunohistochemistry, Foxp3 expression levels in explants of oral lesions and CD4+CD25+ T cells from 32 patients with OLP were measured and compared, with 10 healthy subjects as the control group. Foxp3 mRNA expression levels in the explants of oral lesions and circulating CD4+CD25+ T cells in patients with OLP were significantly higher than those in the control group (Pexpression was significantly lower in circulating CD4+CD25+ T cells and tissue explants compared to patients with reticular lesions (P1 year or with a history of relapse (Pexpression in OLP tissues was 36.24±18.92 and 10.44±6.51% in normal oral mucosa (P=0.019). Atrophic/erosive OLP lesions showed a higher proportion of Foxp3‑expressing cells than that of reticular OLP lesions (Pexpression in patients with OLP is associated with the severity and duration of the disorder, suggesting altered immune suppression in the development, clinical course and responsiveness to treatment.

  20. Analysis of the distribution and expression of claudin-1 tight junction protein in the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouban, Abderrahman; Ahmed, Atif

    2015-07-01

    Claudins are the main sealing proteins of the intercellular tight junctions and play an important role in cancer cell progression and dissemination. The authors have previously shown that overexpression of claudin-1 is associated with angiolymphatic and perineural invasion, consistent with aggressive tumor behavior and with advanced stage disease in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). Our goal in this study was to examine claudin-1 expression in a tissue microarray of OSCCs taken from multiple sites within the oral cavity. This study examined and compared the expression of claudin-1 by immunohistochemistry in 60 tissue samples (49 OSCCs and 10 cases of non-neoplastic tissue, single core per case) were analyzed for claudin-1 expression by immunohistochemistry. The tumors included SCCs from the tongue (n=28), the cheek (n=9), gingival (n=4), lip (n=3), and oral cavity (n=5). Nonmalignant normal oral mucosa from the tongue (unmatched cases, n=2). Cancer adjacent tissue samples were taken from the tongue (n=6), gingival (n=2), and palate (n=1). This study demonstrates the expression of claudin-1 protein across a sample of OSCCs originating from multiple locations in the oral cavity. The highest expression of claudin-1 was observed in well-differentiated OSCCs, whereas poorly differentiated OSCCs exhibited mostly negative staining for claudin-1. In addition, we hereby report differential pattern of expression among tumors of different sites within the oral cavity, and between benign and cancerous samples. Our understanding of the exact function and role of claudin-1 in tumorigenesis is expanding exponentially.

  1. The expression of calretinin and cytokeratins in canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, A; Arzi, B; Murphy, B; Naydan, D K; Verstraete, F J M

    2014-12-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma (CAA) represent two epithelium-derived neoplasms that affect the oral cavity of dogs. The expression of cytokeratins (CKs) and calretinin has been previously established in the canine tooth bud and odontogenic tumours. The aim of this study was to characterize the CK and calretinin expression profile of OSCC in comparison to CAA and canine tooth bud tissues. Samples from 15 OSCC and 15 CAA cases, as well as 6 tooth buds and 2 normal gingival tissues were examined. OSCC CK expression was consistent with the CK expression profile of CAA and canine tooth bud tissue. Calretinin was positively expressed in 10 of 15 OSCC cases, with 5 cases demonstrating high staining intensity. Only 2 of 15 CAA cases demonstrated mild-moderate staining intensity. The statistically significant difference in staining pattern and intensity of calretinin in OSCC and CAA can help distinguish between these two tumour types.

  2. β-catenin expression pattern in primary oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Zhi-gang; SHI Xiao-jian; GAO Yan; WEI Ming-jie; WANG Cun-yu; YU Guang-yan

    2008-01-01

    Background β-catenin, a 92 kDa protein that binds to the cytoplasmic tail of E-cadherin, has an essential role in intercellular adhesion and signal transduction. Aberrant expression of β-catenin has been associated with progression and metastasis of various human cancers. The aim of this study was to elucidate the expression pattem of β-catenin in primary oral squamous cell carcinoma and examine the correlation between β-catenin expression and tumor differentiation, histological grade and lymph node status as well as its clinical significances.Methods Seventy-six patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and sixteen metastatic lymph nodes were studied.The β-catenin expression was determined by immunohistochemical staining. The correlation with clinical, histological data was analyzed statistically.Results Normal oral epithelium showed strong β-catenin expression at the cell membrane, but no cytoplasmic or nuclear expression. Different degrees of reduced expression of β-catenin at the cell membrane were found in 54 cases with squamous cell carcinoma (71%). Cytoplasmic β-catenin expression was found in 17 tumors (22.4%). Three caseswere found with nuclear β-catenin expression. In sixteen lymph nodes with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma,negative β-catenin expression at the cell membrane was seen in 13 tumors (81.2%) and weak expression in 3 tumors (18.8%). Statistical analysis showed that there was an inverse correlation between β-catenin expression and lymph node status and histological grade of tumors.Conclusions Reduced β-catenin expression at the cell membrane is clearly associated with lymph node metastasis. A reduced expression of β-catenin may constitute a hallmark of aggressive biological behavior of squamous cell carcinoma.

  3. Longitudinal Profiles of Expressive Vocabulary, Syntax and Pragmatic Language in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome or Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary E.; Losh, Molly; Estigarribia, Bruno; Sideris, John; Roberts, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) and Down syndrome (DS) are the two leading genetic causes of intellectual disability, and FXS is the most common known genetic condition associated with autism. Both FXS and DS are associated with significant language impairment, but little is known about expressive language across domains over time or the role…

  4. Gene expression based evidence of innate immune response activation in the epithelium with oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Guy R; Yeung, Alexander C F; Stucki, Grant; Kolokythas, Antonia; Sroussi, Herve Y; Cabay, Robert J; Kuzin, Igor; Schwartz, Joel L

    2014-03-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a disease of the oral mucosa of unknown cause producing lesions with an intense band-like inflammatory infiltrate of T cells to the subepithelium and keratinocyte cell death. We performed gene expression analysis of the oral epithelium of lesions in subjects with OLP and its sister disease, oral lichenoid reaction (OLR), in order to better understand the role of the keratinocytes in these diseases. Fourteen patients with OLP or OLR were included in the study, along with a control group of 23 subjects with a variety of oral diseases and a normal group of 17 subjects with no clinically visible mucosal abnormalities. Various proteins have been associated with OLP, based on detection of secreted proteins or changes in RNA levels in tissue samples consisting of epithelium, stroma, and immune cells. The mRNA level of twelve of these genes expressed in the epithelium was tested in the three groups. Four genes showed increased expression in the epithelium of OLP patients: CD14, CXCL1, IL8, and TLR1, and at least two of these proteins, TLR1 and CXCL1, were expressed at substantial levels in oral keratinocytes. Because of the large accumulation of T cells in lesions of OLP it has long been thought to be an adaptive immunity malfunction. We provide evidence that there is increased expression of innate immune genes in the epithelium with this illness, suggesting a role for this process in the disease and a possible target for treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. EGFR expression and copy number changes in low T-stage oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössle, Matthias; Weber, Claudia S; Züllig, Lena; Graf, Nicole; Jochum, Wolfram; Stöckli, Sandro J; Moch, Holger; Huber, Gerhard F

    2013-08-01

    EGFR-directed therapies are used to treat patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). As it is still unclear whether or not EGFR amplification represents an early or late event in head and neck SCC progression, we aimed to determine the frequency of abnormalities of EGFR protein and gene copy numbers in early oral SCC. A tissue microarray of cancer tissue from 120 patients with pT1/2 oral SCC was constructed. We investigated EGFR protein expression by immunohistochemistry. EGFR gene copy enumeration was performed using fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and the novel automated silver in-situ hybridization (SISH) technology. Of early oral SCC, 19.3% showed high, 57.1% moderate and 23.6% low EGFR expression. EGFR amplification/polysomy was identified in 8% and 9% of cases by FISH and SISH, respectively. EGFR-SISH had a high concordance with EGFR-FISH (kappa value = 1.0), and both methods showed high conformity with EGFR immunohistochemistry (P = 0.001 and P = 0.006, respectively). No correlation was found of EGFR protein expression or gene amplification status with pT or pN stage. Only a small subgroup of early oral SCC is characterized by EGFR amplification, which can be identified reliably using EGFR-SISH technology. This finding suggests that EGFR gene amplification mostly occurs in advanced stages of oral SCC. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Discussion about English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenxia Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Vocabulary becomes more and more crucial in English learning.The article depicts six main domains about the mastery and enlargement of vocabulary,and they are motivation and aim,major fields,word,ways,radiation,and concrete execution respectively.

  7. The Superlearning of Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmer, H. Thompson

    1983-01-01

    Describes the use of Georgi Lozanov's technique using rhythm, breathing, music, and meditation to bring about hypermnesia, or supermemory, to teach vocabulary to 15 university students. Reviews students' vocabulary gains, as seen in pre- and post-test scores, and describes how some students implemented superlearning techniques with their own…

  8. Vocabularies in the VO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A. J. G.; Gray, N.; Ounis, I.

    2009-09-01

    There are multiple vocabularies and thesauri within astronomy, of which the best known are the 1993 IAU Thesaurus and the keyword list maintained by A&A, ApJ and MNRAS. The IVOA has agreed on a standard for publishing vocabularies, based on the W3C skos standard, to allow greater automated interaction with them, in particular on the Web. This allows links with the Semantic Web and looks forward to richer applications using the technologies of that domain. Vocabulary-aware applications can benefit from improvements in both precision and recall when searching for bibliographic or science data, and lightweight intelligent filtering for services such as VOEvent streams. In this paper we present two applications, the Vocabulary Explorer and its companion the Mapping Editor, which have been developed to support the use of vocabularies in the Virtual Observatory. These combine Semantic Web and Information Retrieval technologies to illustrate the way in which formal vocabularies might be used in a practical application, provide an online service which will allow astronomers to explore and relate existing vocabularies, and provide a service which translates free text user queries into vocabulary terms.

  9. Content Area Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Students' vocabulary knowledge is a significant predictor of their overall comprehension. The Common Core State Standards are raising the expectations for word learning and there are now 4 distinct standards related to vocabulary as well as expectations in other standards, including content areas. To address these expectations, teachers need…

  10. Study on Translational Medicine of RUNX3 Expression in Oral Precancerous Lesions and Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramamurthy Mustafa; Shabil Mohamed Rajaraman

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the expression and distribution characteristics of RUNX3 in the pathological process of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) as well as its correlation with clinicopathological features. Methods: Fifteen cases of normal oral mucosal tissues, 37 cases of OSCC tissues and 21 cases of precancerous lesion tissues were respectively collected. The expression and distribution characteristics of RUNX3 were detected using immunohistochemical method, and its relationship with each clinicopathological feature of OSCC was analyzed. Results: The positive rates of RUNX3 expression in normal oral mucosal tissues, precancerous lesion tissues and OSCC tissues were 100% (15/15), 95.24% (20/21) and 54.05% (20/37), and their average optical densities were (0.391±0.07), (0.369±0.03) and (0.263±0.01), respectively. The differences were statistically signiifcant by comparison to the positive rates of RUNX3 expression and their average optical densities in normal oral mucosal tissue, precancerous lesion tissue and OSCC tissue (P0.05), but the difference was statistically signiifcant among the patients with different pathological gradings (P=0.012). Conclusion: The expression of RUNX3 in normal oral mucosal tissues, precancerous lesion tissues and OSCC tissues gradually shows a down-regulating tendency and its frequency of abnormal localization is on the rise. The expression of RUNX3 is closely associated with the degree of histological differentiation. All of these findings indicate that RUNX3, an important action factor in the occurrence and progression of OSCC, can be considered as a key biological indicator for early diagnosis, judgment of malignant degree and prognostic monitoring.

  11. CTCFL (BORIS mRNA Expression in a Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma of the Oral Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Zambrano-Galván

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG is a relatively common benign reactive lesion of the oral cavity which can occur at any age. CTCFL/BORIS (CTCF like/Brother of the Regulator of Imprinted Sites and CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor are paralogous genes with an important role in the regulation of gene expression, genomic imprinting, and nuclear chromatin insulators regulation. BORIS expression promotes cell immortalization and growth while CTCF has tumor suppressor activity; the expression pattern may reflect the reverse transcription silencing of BORIS. The aim of this work was to describe a histopathological and molecular approach of an 8-year-old pediatric male patient with PGCG diagnosis. It was observed that the PGCG under study expressed CTCF as well as BORIS mRNAs alongside with the housekeeping gene GAPDH, which may be related to possible genetic and epigenetic changes in normal cells of oral cavity.

  12. Effects of Hierarchy Vocabulary Exercises on English Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Ying; Hsu, Wei Shu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of hierarchy vocabulary exercises and copying vocabulary exercises on EFL students' vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension. Two specific factors were probed: (a) vocabulary gains and retention from different exercises; (b) reading comprehension performance through different…

  13. Lexical access and vocabulary development in very young bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Bialystok, Ellen; Blaye, Agnes; Polonia, Alexandra; Yott, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This study compares lexical access and expressive and receptive vocabulary development in monolingual and bilingual toddlers. More specifically, the link between vocabulary size, production of translation equivalents, and lexical access in bilingual infants was examined as well as the relationship between the Communicative Development Inventories and the Computerized Comprehension Task. Twenty-five bilingual and 18 monolingual infants aged 24 months participated in this study. The results revealed significant differences between monolingual and bilinguals’ expressive vocabulary size in L1 but similar total vocabularies. Performance on the Computerized Comprehension Task revealed no differences between the two groups on measures of both reaction time and accuracy, and a strong convergent validity of the Computerized Comprehension Task with the Communicative Development Inventories was observed for both groups. Bilinguals with a higher proportion of translation equivalents in their expressive vocabulary showed faster access to words in the Computerized Comprehension Task. PMID:24761135

  14. Lexical access and vocabulary development in very young bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Bialystok, Ellen; Blaye, Agnes; Polonia, Alexandra; Yott, Jessica

    2013-02-01

    This study compares lexical access and expressive and receptive vocabulary development in monolingual and bilingual toddlers. More specifically, the link between vocabulary size, production of translation equivalents, and lexical access in bilingual infants was examined as well as the relationship between the Communicative Development Inventories and the Computerized Comprehension Task. Twenty-five bilingual and 18 monolingual infants aged 24 months participated in this study. The results revealed significant differences between monolingual and bilinguals' expressive vocabulary size in L1 but similar total vocabularies. Performance on the Computerized Comprehension Task revealed no differences between the two groups on measures of both reaction time and accuracy, and a strong convergent validity of the Computerized Comprehension Task with the Communicative Development Inventories was observed for both groups. Bilinguals with a higher proportion of translation equivalents in their expressive vocabulary showed faster access to words in the Computerized Comprehension Task.

  15. Gene expression changes in Porphyromonas gingivalis W83 after inoculation in rat oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Li, Qian; Pan, Chun-Ling; Liu, Jun-Chao; Wang, Hong-Yan; Tan, Li-Si; Pan, Ya-Ping

    2015-05-24

    The development of chronic periodontitis was due to not only periodontal pathogens, but also the interaction between periodontal pathogens and host. The aim of this study is to investigate the alterations in gene expression in Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.gingivalis) W83 after inoculation in rat oral cavity. P.gingivalis W83 inoculation in rat oral cavity caused inflammatory responses in gingival tissues and destroyed host alveolar bone. Microarray analysis revealed that 42 genes were upregulated, and 22 genes were downregulated in the detected 1786 genes in the inoculated P.gingivalis W83. Real-time quantitative PCR detection confirmed the expression alterations in some selected genes. Products of these upregulated and downregulated genes are mainly related to transposon functions, cell transmembrane transportation, protein and nucleic acid metabolism, energy metabolism, cell division and bacterial pathogenicity. P.gingivalis W83 has a pathogenic effect on host oral cavity. Meanwhile, inflammatory oral environment alters P.gingivalis W83 gene expression profile. These changes in gene expression may limit the proliferation and weaken the pathogenicity of P.gingivalis W83, and favor themselves to adapt local environment for survival.

  16. Gene expression of oncogenes, antimicrobial peptides, and cytokines in the development of oral leukoplakia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenghoefer, M.; Pantelis, A.; Najafi, T.; Deschner, J.; Allam, J.P.; Novak, N.; Reich, R.; Martini, M.; Berge, S.J.; Fischer, H.P.; Jepsen, S.; Winter, J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the expression pattern of oncogenes, antimicrobial peptides, and genes involved in inflammation in leukoplakia of the oral cavity compared with healthy gingiva. STUDY DESIGN: Biopsies of healthy gingiva (n=20) and leukoplakia (n=20), were obtained

  17. Altered β-catenin expression in oral mucosal dysplasia: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunno Santos de Freitas SILVA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective The current study aimed to investigate the β-catenin expression in oral leukoplakia (OL with different degrees of epithelial dysplasia and normal oral mucosa.Material and Methods Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples of 39 OL (mild dysplasia n=19, moderate dysplasia n=13, and severe dysplasia n=7, and 10 normal oral mucosa (control group were submitted to immunohistochemical reactions to anti-β-catenin primary antibody. A qualitative β-catenin analysis was performed based on the percentage of positive cells. The cellular location and the epithelial layer were also considered. The Chi-square test and the Fisher’s exact test were used to verify possible differences in the β-catenin expression among the OL groups. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results Membranous expression of β-catenin in parabasal and basal layers was gradually lost in the higher degrees of epithelial dysplasia. In normal oral mucosa, β-catenin was detected only in the cytoplasmic membrane. However, a significant increase in cytoplasmic β-catenin could be observed between mild and moderate dysplasia (Fisher Exact test - p<0.001 and between mild and severe dysplasia (p<0.001.Conclusions The β-catenin cytoplasmic expression observed in this study may represent the initial stage of modifications in the E-cadherin-catenin complex, along with morphological cellular changes.

  18. Gene expression response of the rat small intestine following oral salmonella infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, G.C.H.; Bovee-Oudenhoven, I.M.J.; Kramer, E.H.M.; Meer, van der R.; Keijer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Data on the molecular response of the intestine to the food-borne pathogen Salmonella are derived from in vitro studies, whereas in vivo data are lacking. We performed an oral S. enteritidis infection study in Wistar rats to obtain insight in the in vivo response in time. Expression profiles of ilea

  19. Gene expression of oncogenes, antimicrobial peptides, and cytokines in the development of oral leukoplakia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenghoefer, M.; Pantelis, A.; Najafi, T.; Deschner, J.; Allam, J.P.; Novak, N.; Reich, R.; Martini, M.; Berge, S.J.; Fischer, H.P.; Jepsen, S.; Winter, J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the expression pattern of oncogenes, antimicrobial peptides, and genes involved in inflammation in leukoplakia of the oral cavity compared with healthy gingiva. STUDY DESIGN: Biopsies of healthy gingiva (n=20) and leukoplakia (n=20), were obtained

  20. Diagnostic and therapeutic relevance of NY-ESO-1 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Jutta; Mollaoglu, Nur; Vairaktaris, Eleftherios; Neukam, Friedrich W; Nkenke, Emeka

    2009-12-01

    Cancer/testis antigen 1B (NY-ESO-1) is exclusively expressed in various types of tumor but not in healthy normal tissue, except testis, and induces strong cellular and humoral immune responses. Therefore, it represents an ideal target for diagnostic and immunotherapeutic applications. The aim of the study was to investigate the expression of NY-ESO-1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) to determine its impact as a diagnostic parameter or a therapeutic target for oral cancer. A total of 65 OSCC and 20 normal oral mucosal samples of otherwise healthy volunteers were included in this study. Expression of NY-ESO-1 was determined using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results were correlated to diagnosis and clinicopathological parameters. NY-ESO-1 was expressed in 27.7% of the investigated tumor samples, but not in normal oral mucosal. The correlation between NY-ESO-1 expression and malignancy was significant (p=0.008). The prevalence of NY-ESO-1 expression was significantly associated with tumor size (p=0.033), but not with histological grading, positive lymph node status or clinical stage of disease. NY-ESO-1 expression is restricted to OSCC, clearly indicating malignancy. However, the expression rate of this antigen is too low for clinical application but it might be a useful additional biomarker within a multiple marker system for the diagnosis of OSCC. In addition, NY-ESO-1 might be a candidate for immunotherapy and polyvaccination in patients suffering from OSCC.

  1. Expression of p53, MDM2, p21, heat shock protein 70, and HPV 16/18 E6 proteins in oral verrucous carcinoma and oral verrucous hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Pin; Wang, Yi-Ping; Chiang, Chun-Pin

    2011-03-01

    Oral verrucous hyperplasia is a precancerous lesion of oral verrucous carcinoma. This study used immunohistochemistry to examine the expression of p53, murine double minute 2 (MDM2), p21, heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70), and human papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 E6 proteins in 48 oral verrucous carcinoma and 30 oral verrucous hyperplasia samples. The mean labeling indices of p53, MDM2, p21, HSP 70, and HPV 16/18 E6 proteins in oral verrucous carcinoma samples were 21%, 31%, 7%, 17%, and 0.5%, respectively, and those in oral verrucous hyperplasia samples were 19%, 35%, 11%, 14%, and 0.3%, respectively. Immunohistochemistry with the above-cited 5 biomarkers could not help differentiate oral verrucous hyperplasia from oral verrucous carcinoma. The low expression of p21 may partially explain abnormal epithelial overgrowth in both verrucous lesions. The pathogenesis of both verrucous lesions may be at least partially attributed to the overexpression of MDM2 protein and moderate expression of HSP 70 protein in both lesions. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Constructivist Strategies for English Vocabulary Teaching in Senior Middle School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程文文

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary is one of the cores of language abilities in communication. As the main means to help students learn new words and expressions, vocabulary teaching is very important. Constructivism and constructivist learning theory are proposed by the Swiss psychologist Piaget at the earliest, and then completed by many linguists and psychologists to form a rigorously theoretical system.

  3. [Effects of arecoline and nicotine on the expression of hTERT in oral keratinocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yi-jun; Ling, Tian-you; Yin, Xiao-min; Li, Xia; Huang, Yan

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the effects of arecoline and nicotine on the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) mRNA and protein in cultured normal human oral keratinocytes (KC). The experiments were divided into arecoline group, arecoline/nicotine group and control group. The hTERT mRNA and protein expression of KC was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot. Arecoline could induce the hTERT mRNA and protein expression of KC in a dose dependent manner, the hTERT mRNA and protein expression of KC was higher in 0.030, 0.060, 0.090 g/L arecoline group than control group (P arecoline. Arecoline could increase the expression of hTERT mRNA and protein in oral keratinocytes. Nicotine had a synergistic effect on arecoline. hTERT over-expression induced by arecoline and nicotine may play an important role in the malignant transformation of oral submucous fibrosis.

  4. Shyness and Chinese and English Vocabulary Skills in Hong Kong Kindergartners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; Ting, Ka-Tsun; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined relations between parent-rated shyness and children's vocabulary skills in 54 Hong Kong Chinese kindergartners who learned English as a foreign language at school. Receptive vocabulary and expressive vocabulary were assessed both in Chinese and in English. Parent-rated shyness was uniquely associated with…

  5. eVoc Strategies: 10 Ways to Use Technology to Build Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Bridget; Grisham, Dana L.

    2011-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is key to comprehension and expression. For students in the intermediate grades, the need for breadth and depth of vocabulary accelerates as they encounter more challenging academic texts in print and on the Internet. Drawing on research-based principles of vocabulary instruction and multimedia learning, this article presents…

  6. Interactive College English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敏

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary learning is the foundation of language learning and the security to realize the language communication. However, vocabulary learning for many students is a difficulty which is hard to pass across. This paper attempts to explore the present vocabulary teaching reform, which aims to establish a teaching method that is to help students develop vocabulary learn-ing interest with the game.

  7. Supplements to Traditional Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    布亚男

    2012-01-01

      In a word, Vocabulary plays an indispensable part in language proficiency and provides much of the basis of how wel learns language, so it cannot be ignored. I discussed Schools’ viewpoints on the vocabulary teaching ,Reason for forgetting, Traditional approach to vocabulary teaching, supplements to vocabulary teaching,the author hope the above content can offer some hints for language learners.

  8. MicroRNA and target gene expression based clustering of oral cancer, precancer and normal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Roshni; Singh, Richa; Chattopadhyay, Esita; Ray, Anindita; Sarkar, Navonil De; Aich, Ritesh; Paul, Ranjan Rashmi; Pal, Mousumi; Roy, Bidyut

    2016-11-15

    Development of oral cancer is usually preceded by precancerous lesion. Despite histopathological diagnosis, development of disease specific biomarkers continues to be a promising field of study. Expression of miRNAs and their target genes was studied in oral cancer and two types of precancer lesions to look for disease specific gene expression patterns. Expression of miR-26a, miR-29a, miR-34b and miR-423 and their 11 target genes were determined in 20 oral leukoplakia, 20 lichen planus and 20 cancer tissues with respect to 20 normal tissues using qPCR assay. Expression data were, then, used for cluster analysis of normal as well as disease tissues. Expression of miR-26a and miR-29a was significantly down regulated in leukoplakia and cancer tissues but up regulated in lichen planus tissues. Expression of target genes such as, ADAMTS7, ATP1B1, COL4A2, CPEB3, CDK6, DNMT3a and PI3KR1 was significantly down regulated in at least two of three disease types with respect to normal tissues. Negative correlations between expression levels of miRNAs and their targets were observed in normal tissues but not in disease tissues implying altered miRNA-target interaction in disease state. Specific expression profile of miRNAs and target genes formed separate clusters of normal, lichen planus and cancer tissues. Our results suggest that alterations in expression of selected miRNAs and target genes may play important roles in development of precancer to cancer. Expression profiles of miRNA and target genes may be useful to differentiate cancer and lichen planus from normal tissues, thereby bolstering their role in diagnostics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The expression of O(6) -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase in human oral keratinocytes stimulated with arecoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shiuan-Shinn; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Yu, Cheng-Chia; Ho, Yung-Chuan; Hsu, Hsin-I; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2013-09-01

    O(6) -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is a DNA repair enzyme that can protect cells from carcinogenic effects of alkylating agents by removing adducts from the O(6) position of guanine. Evidences indicated that areca quid chewing may increase the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). This study was to investigate the role of MGMT expression in OSCCs and the normal oral tissues. Thirty-two OSCCs from areca quid chewers and ten normal oral tissue biopsy samples without areca quid chewing were analyzed by the immunohistochemistry for MGMT. Primary human oral keratinocytes (HOKs) were challenged with arecoline, the major alkaloid of areca nut, by Western blot. Nicotine, an important component of cigarette smoke, was added to find the possible regulatory mechanisms. Significant association was observed between low MGMT expression and advanced clinical stage of OSCCs and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.03). MGMT expression was significantly higher in patients only chewing areca quid than patients both chewing areca quid and smoking (P = 0.028). Arecoline was found to elevate MGMT expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The addition of nicotine was found to enhance arecoline-induced MGMT expression. Our results indicate that MGMT could be used clinically as a predictive marker for tumor processing, the potential for lymph node metastasis as well as advanced clinical stage. MGMT expression was significantly upregulated by arecoline in HOKs. Nicotine has a synergistic effect of arecoline-induced MGMT expression. The cigarette smoking may act synergistically in the pathogenesis of OSCC in areca quid chewers via the upregulation of MGMT. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Study on Translational Medicine of RUNX3 Expression in Oral Precancerous Lesions and Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramamurthy Mustafa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the expression and distribution characteristics of RUNX3 in the pathological process of oralsquamous cell carcinoma (OSCC as well as its correlation with clinicopathological features. Methods: Fifteen cases of normal oral mucosal tissues, 37 cases of OSCC tissues and 21 cases of precancerous lesion tissues were respectively collected. The expression and distribution characteristics of RUNX3 were detected using immunohistochemical method, and its relationship with each clinicopathological feature of OSCC was analyzed. Results: The positive rates of RUNX3 expression in normal oral mucosal tissues, precancerous lesion tissues and OSCC tissues were 100% (15/15, 95.24% (20/21 and 54.05% (20/37, and their average optical densities were (0.391±0.07, (0.369±0.03 and (0.263±0.01, respectively. The differences were statistically significant by comparison to the positive rates of RUNX3 expression and their average optical densities in normal oral mucosal tissue, precancerous lesion tissue and OSCC tissue (P<0.01. There was no statistical significance regarding RUNX3 expression in the patients with different gender, age and presence or absence of lymph node metastasis (P>0.05, but the difference was statistically significant among the patients with different pathological gradings (P=0.012. Conclusion: The expression of RUNX3 in normal oral mucosal tissues, precancerous lesion tissues and OSCC tissues gradually shows a down-regulating tendency and its frequency of abnormal localization is on the rise. The expression of RUNX3 is closely associated with the degree of histological differentiation. All of these findings indicate that RUNX3, an important action factor in the occurrence and progression of OSCC, can be considered as a key biological indicator for early diagnosis, judgment of malignant degree and prognostic monitoring.

  11. Incidental English Vocabulary Studying in L2 learning : A Study of Learning and Teaching English Vocabulary in a College in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Linglin

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether incidental methods are used in learning English vocabulary by non-English students at college in China, and in teaching English vocabulary by their oral English teachers. It also finds out what kinds of incidental strategies are used. Then based on the results of the investigation, this study puts forward some pedagogical implications for teachers.

  12. Increased expression of the PRL-3 gene in human oral squamous cell carcinoma and dysplasia tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Nur Mohammad Monsur; Hamada, Jun-ichi; Kameyama, Takeshi; Tada, Mitsuhiro; Nakagawa, Koji; Yoshida, Shoko; Kashiwazaki, Haruhiko; Yamazaki, Yutaka; Suzuki, Yukiko; Sasaki, Akira; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi; Inoue, Nobuo; Moriuchi, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    Phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL) belongs to a class of the protein tyrosine phosphatase family, which is known so far to consist of 3 members, PRL-1, PRL-2, and PRL-3. The aim of this study was to uncover the role of PRL genes in development of oral malignancy. We analyzed expression levels of the 3 PRL genes in 50 human oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs), 11 dysplasia and 12 normal mucosa tissues by a real-time RT-PCR method. PRL-3 but not PRL-1 or PRL-2 expressions were significantly higher in OSCC and dysplasia than in normal mucosa tissues. Additionally, PRL-3 expressions were significantly higher in OSCC tissues harboring dominant-negative p53 or recessive p53 mutation than in those harboring wild-type p53. These results suggest that PRL-3 plays a role in oral cancer development and can be useful as a marker of pre-malignant and malignant lesion of oral mucosa.

  13. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in oral potentially malignant disorders: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Archana; Uma Maheswari, T N

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is an inducible enzyme. Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) are considered as the early tissue changes that happen due to various habits such as smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco or stress. This alteration in the tissues alters the expression of MMP-9. The rationale of the review is to know the expression of MMP-9 in OPMDs. Hand searching and electronic databases such as PubMed and ScienceDirect were done for mesh terms such as OPMDs and MMP-9. Eight articles were obtained, after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. These articles were assessed with QUADAS and data were extracted and evaluated. The included eight studies were done in 182 oral squamous cell carcinoma cases, 430 OPMDs (146 oral lichen planus, 264 leukoplakia and 20 oral submucous fibrosis) and 352 healthy controls evaluated for MMP-9. MMP-9 expression was found to be elevated in tissue, serum and saliva samples of OPMDs than in healthy controls. There is only one study in each serum and saliva samples to evaluate MMP-9. Saliva being noninvasive and serum being minimally invasive, more studies need to be done in both serum and saliva to establish MMP-9 as an early diagnostic marker in OPMDs to know its potential in malignant transformation.

  14. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in oral potentially malignant disorders: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Venugopal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 is an inducible enzyme. Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs are considered as the early tissue changes that happen due to various habits such as smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco or stress. This alteration in the tissues alters the expression of MMP-9. The rationale of the review is to know the expression of MMP-9 in OPMDs. Hand searching and electronic databases such as PubMed and ScienceDirect were done for mesh terms such as OPMDs and MMP-9. Eight articles were obtained, after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. These articles were assessed with QUADAS and data were extracted and evaluated. The included eight studies were done in 182 oral squamous cell carcinoma cases, 430 OPMDs (146 oral lichen planus, 264 leukoplakia and 20 oral submucous fibrosis and 352 healthy controls evaluated for MMP-9. MMP-9 expression was found to be elevated in tissue, serum and saliva samples of OPMDs than in healthy controls. There is only one study in each serum and saliva samples to evaluate MMP-9. Saliva being noninvasive and serum being minimally invasive, more studies need to be done in both serum and saliva to establish MMP-9 as an early diagnostic marker in OPMDs to know its potential in malignant transformation.

  15. Elevation of Twist expression by arecoline contributes to the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Hsien; Yang, Li-Chiu; Hu, Fang-Wei; Peng, Chih-Yu; Yu, Chuan-Hang; Yu, Cheng-Chia

    2016-05-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), a chronic progressive scarring disease, has been considered as a precancerous condition of oral mucosa. In this study, we investigated the functional role of Twist, an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) transcriptional factor, in myofibroblastic differentiation activity of OSF. Arecoline, a major areca nut alkaloid, was used to explore whether expression of Twist could be changed dose-dependently in human primary buccal mucosal fibroblasts (BMFs). Collagen gel contraction and migration capability in arecoline-stimulated BMFs and primary oral submucous fibrosis-derived fibroblasts (OSFs) with Twist knockdown was presented. We observed that the treatment of arecoline dose-dependently increased Twist expression transcript and protein levels in BMFs. The myofibroblast activity including collagen gel contraction and migration capability also induced by arecoline, while knockdown of Twist reversed these phenomena. Importantly, inhibition of Twist led to the suppression collagen contraction and wound healing capability of primary cultivated OSFs. Clinically, Twist transcript and protein expression was higher in areca quid chewing-associated OSF tissues than in normal oral mucosa tissues. This evidence suggests that upregulation of Twist might be involved in the pathogenesis of areca quid-associated OSF through dysregulation of myofibroblast activity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Immunohistochemical expression of basement membrane proteins of verrucous carcinoma of the oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, Paolo G; Carrozzo, Marco; Pagano, Marco; Broccoletti, Roberto; Scully, Crispian; Gandolfo, Sergio

    2010-06-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity is an extremely invasive tumour of stratified squamous epithelium that spreads throughout degradation of the basement membrane (BM) and extra-cellular matrix. Oral verrucous carcinoma (VC) is a rare low-grade variant of oral SCC that penetrates into the subepithelial connective tissue. It also has a different clinical behaviour from classical oral SCC. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of laminin, laminin-5, collagen IV and fibronectin in VC, severe epithelial dysplasia (SED) and SCC in order to analyse if the pattern of these molecules expression contributes to the differences in the biological behaviour of these diseases. The staining pattern of laminin was less intensive in SCC compared with SED and VC, and collagen IV expression was increased in VC compared with SED. Discontinuities of laminin, collagen IV and fibronectin were more evident in SED than in VC. This study indicates that VC has a biological behaviour different from SED or SCC, observable by immunohistochemistry in the BM zone.

  17. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in oral potentially malignant disorders: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Archana; Uma Maheswari, TN

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is an inducible enzyme. Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) are considered as the early tissue changes that happen due to various habits such as smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco or stress. This alteration in the tissues alters the expression of MMP-9. The rationale of the review is to know the expression of MMP-9 in OPMDs. Hand searching and electronic databases such as PubMed and ScienceDirect were done for mesh terms such as OPMDs and MMP-9. Eight articles were obtained, after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. These articles were assessed with QUADAS and data were extracted and evaluated. The included eight studies were done in 182 oral squamous cell carcinoma cases, 430 OPMDs (146 oral lichen planus, 264 leukoplakia and 20 oral submucous fibrosis) and 352 healthy controls evaluated for MMP-9. MMP-9 expression was found to be elevated in tissue, serum and saliva samples of OPMDs than in healthy controls. There is only one study in each serum and saliva samples to evaluate MMP-9. Saliva being noninvasive and serum being minimally invasive, more studies need to be done in both serum and saliva to establish MMP-9 as an early diagnostic marker in OPMDs to know its potential in malignant transformation. PMID:27721614

  18. Zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein expression as a marker of differentiation in human oral tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brysk, M M; Lei, G; Adler-Storthz, K; Chen, Z; Brysk, H; Tyring, S K; Arany, I

    1999-03-22

    Zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein (Znalpha2gp) is a soluble major histocompatibility complex homolog widespread in body fluids and in glandular epithelia; the authors recently demonstrated its presence in stratified epithelia. Znalpha2gp has been associated with tumor differentiation in breast cancers and other carcinomas. We compare here its gene expression in histopathologically graded oral squamous cell carcinomas and in their perilesional normals. Znalpha2gp levels are higher in the controls than in the tumors, and higher in well-differentiated tumors than in poorly differentiated ones. Markers of oral epithelial maturation (keratin K13 and involucrin) are less simply related to tumor histology.

  19. Expression of cytokeratin 18 and 19 in oral potentially malignant disorders: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Prasad Prabakaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to evaluate the expression of cytokeratin 18 and 19 in oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD. Systematic review was performed using Medline and PubMed. Hand searches were taken from the back references. Articles published till 15 July 2014 were included in the search. The search yielded a total of 20 articles, out of which 16 articles were eliminated, as they did not fulfill the inclusion criteria and 4 articles were included for the final analysis. The available literature showed that cytokeratin 18 and 19 were expressed in all OPMDs. The level of expression varied among different oral, potentially malignant disorders and among different studies.

  20. Analysis of expression profiles of MAGE-A antigens in oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reichert Torsten E

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The immunological response to solid tumours is insufficient. Therefore, tumour specific antigens have been explored to facilitate the activation of the immune system. The cancer/testis antigen class of MAGE-A antigens is a possible target for vaccination. Their differential expression profiles also modulate the course of the cancer disease and its response to antineoplastic drugs. Methods The expression profiles of MAGE-A2, -A3, -A4, -A6 and -A10 in five own oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines were characterised by rt-PCR, qrt-PCR and immunocytochemistry with a global MAGE-A antibody (57B and compared with those of an adult keratinocyte cell line (NHEK. Results All tumour cell lines expressed MAGE-A antigens. The antigens were expressed in groups with different preferences. The predominant antigens expressed were MAGE-A2, -A3 and -A6. MAGE-A10 was not expressed in the cell lines tested. The MAGE-A gene products detected in the adult keratinocyte cell line NHEK were used as a reference. Conclusion MAGE-A antigens are expressed in oral squamous cell carcinomas. The expression profiles measured facilitate distinct examinations in forthcoming studies on responses to antineoplastic drugs or radiation therapy. MAGE-A antigens are still an interesting aim for immunotherapy.

  1. Linking open vocabularies

    CERN Document Server

    Greifender, Elke; Seadle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Linked Data (LD), Linked Open Data (LOD) and generating a web of data, present the new knowledge sharing frontier. In a philosophical context, LD is an evolving environment that reflects humankinds' desire to understand the world by drawing on the latest technologies and capabilities of the time. LD, while seemingly a new phenomenon did not emerge overnight; rather it represents the natural progression by which knowledge structures are developed, used, and shared. Linked Open Vocabularies is a significant trajectory of LD. Linked Open Vocabularies targets vocabularies that have traditionally b

  2. Oral immunization of animals with transgenic cherry tomatillo expressing HBsAg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Gao; Yina Ma; Mei Li; Tonq Chenq; Shao-Wei Li; Jun Zhang; Ning-Shao Xia

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of recombinant HBsAg (rHBsAg) in transgenic cherry tomatillo in order to explore the feasibility of producing HBV oral vaccine with cherry tomatillo by animal immune tests.METHODS: The recombinant plant expression vector containing HBsAg gene was constructed. Mediated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, HBsAg gene was transferred into cotyledons of cherry tomatillo. Transformed cherry tomatillos were obtained through hygromycin delay-selection. Integrated DNA in transgenic cherry tomatillo was confirmed by hygromycin resistance selection, Gus detection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and dot blotting analysis. Antigenicity of rHBsAg was examined by ELISA and the immunogenicity of rHBsAg derived from transgenic cherry tomatillo tissues was confirmed by oral feed of transformed tissues to BALB/c mice primed with commercial HBV vaccines. Specific antibody titers in mice's serum were examined by ELISA every week.RESULTS: By far, 10 positive lines of transgenic cherry tomatillos containing HBsAg gene were obtained. Among different organs of the same transgenic cherry tomatillo,level of rHBsAg expressed in leaves was the highest with the yield up to 300ng/g fresh weight. And the rHBsAg expression level in fruits was about 10 ng/g fresh weight.In animal immune tests, oral delivery with transgenic tissues to mice primed with commercial vaccine instead of naive mice resulted in significant immune response.CONCLUSION: The result of this animal immune test indicated the rHBsAg derived from transgenic cherry tomatillo possessed normal immunogenicity. This work demonstrated the feasibility to generate oral immunogenic rHBsAg in transgenic cherry tomatillo, and would provide some experimental approach for the production of low-cost oral vaccines using transgenic cherry tomatillo in large scale.

  3. Vocabulário expressivo de crianças com diferentes níveis de gravidade de desvio fonológico Expressive vocabulary of children with differently severe grades of phonological deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia de Lima Athayde

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: relacionar o desempenho de vocabulário expressivo com a gravidade do desvio, as faixas etárias e os valores de referência da prova de vocabulário utilizada. MÉTODOS: a amostra foi constituída por 17 sujeitos com desvio fonológico, com idades entre três anos e cinco meses e oito anos e dois meses, sendo dividida em quatro grupos, baseado na análise do Percentual de Consoantes Corretas e classificação do grau de severidade conforme Shriberg & Kwiatkowski (1982. Esse resultado permite classificar o desvio em: severo, moderadamente-severo, médio-moderado e médio. Foi aplicado o teste de linguagem ABFW - Vocabulário. Realizou-se análise de correlação entre idade, grau de severidade do desvio fonológico e resultados de referência do teste de vocabulário. RESULTADOS: as crianças de menor gravidade de desvio fonológico obtiveram resultados superiores às demais, apesar da maioria destes resultados serem não significantes. Crianças menores apresentaram desempenho inferior às maiores, o que era esperado. CONCLUSÕES: é possível pensar que a gravidade do desvio fonológico pode estar influenciando o desempenho das crianças desta amostra em uma prova de vocabulário expressivo.PURPOSE: to relate task performance of expressive vocabulary with the deviation severity, the age range and the reference values of the vocabulary testing used. METHODS: the sample was made up of 17 subjects with phonological deviation, with ages ranging between 3 years 5 months and 8 years 2 months. They were divided into four groups, based on the PCC analysis and classification regarding the severity grade according to Shriberg and Kwiatkowski (1982. This result allows for classifying the deviation into: severe, moderately-severe, medium-moderated and medium. The Test for Young Children ABFW - Vocabulary was applied. An analysis took place for correlation among age, severity grade for the phonological deviation and reference results of the

  4. COX-1 and COX-2 expression in feline oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A; Scase, T; Miller, J; Murphy, S; Sparkes, A; Adams, V

    2006-01-01

    This study demonstrated immunohistochemically the expression of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in feline oral squamous cell carcinoma (FOSCC), with primary polyclonal antibodies raised against human epitopes. COX-2 immunolabelling was intracytoplasmic and, in some neoplastic cells, perinuclear; it was demonstrated in a small proportion (tissues showed extensive nuclear and cytoplasmic COX-1 immunolabelling. Cytoplasmic COX-1 immunolabelling was less intense than nuclear labelling in neoplastic tissue. In the adjacent histologically normal oral mucosa, COX-2 immunolabelling was absent. The cytoplasmic and nuclear intensity and distribution of COX-1 immunolabelling was significantly higher in neoplastic tissue than in adjacent normal oral mucosa. The results indicate that COX-1 and COX-2 are overexpressed in FOSCC, but the clinical and pathophysiological significance of this finding remains to be determined.

  5. Gene expression changes in initiation and progression of oral squamous cell carcinomas revealed by laser microdissection and oligonucleotide microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumino, Jun; Uzawa, Narikazu; Okada, Norihiko; Miyaguchi, Ken; Mogushi, Kaoru; Takahashi, Ken-Ichiro; Sato, Hiroaki; Michikawa, Chieko; Nakata, Yoshimi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Amagasa, Teruo

    2013-02-01

    Oral carcinogenesis is a complex process involving multiple genes. However, the genetic changes involved in this process are not apparent in identical oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). According to pathological characteristics, samples of normal tissue, oral dysplastic lesions (ODLs), and invasive cancers were obtained from identical OSCCs using laser microdissection (LMD). Large-scale gene expression profiling was carried out on 33 samples derived from 11 OSCCs. We analyzed genes differentially expressed in normal tissues vs. ODLs and in ODLs vs. invasive tumors and identified 15 candidate genes with continuously increasing or decreasing expression during oral carcinogenesis. One of these genes, ISG15, was chosen for further characterization. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed that ISG15 expression consistently increased during oral tumorigenesis. An ISG15 high-expression level was significantly associated with poor prognosis (p = 0.027). In addition, patients with high-expression tumors had a poorer 5-year survival rate than patients with low expression levels (p = 0.019). In conclusion, we identified 15 genes with continuously increasing or decreasing expression during oral carcinogenesis. One of these, ISG15, is likely to be associated with both dysgenesis and tumorigenesis and may be a potential prognostic marker for oral cancer. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  6. p63 and E-cadherin Expression in Canine Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestrinho, L A; Pissarra, H; Faísca, P B; Bragança, M; Peleteiro, M C; Niza, M M R E

    2015-07-01

    The expression of p63 and E-cadherin was studied in 22 oral squamous cell carcinomas in the dog according to immunohistochemical techniques. The association between these markers and clinicopathologic parameters was assessed. All tumor cells studied showed enhanced p63 expression. Regarding E-cadherin expression, 17 of 22 cases (77.3%) showed decreased immunoreactivity, and in 13 of 22 cases (59.1%), its expression was cytoplasmic. Neither p63 nor E-cadherin expression patterns were associated with tumor size, bone invasion, or lymph node metastasis. p63 score was related to proliferating cell nuclear antigen proliferative index (P = .020). A statistically significant correlation between the expression patterns of these 2 markers was noted (P = .026). Furthermore, they were related with tumor grade. An atypical p63 labeling and a cytoplasmic E-cadherin staining were statistically related with a higher tumor grade (P = .022 and P = .017, respectively). These findings suggest that changes in p63 and E-cadherin expression are frequent events in oral squamous cell carcinoma in dogs.

  7. Regulation of osteoprotegerin expression by Notch signaling in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeeranan Manokawinchoke; Thanaphum Osathanon; Prasit Pavasant

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of Notch signaling on osteoprotegerin(OPG)expression in a human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line.Methods: Activation of Notch signaling was performed by seeding cells on Jagged1 immobilized surfaces. In other experiments, a g-secretase inhibitor was added to the culture medium to inhibit intracellular Notch signaling. OPG m RNA and protein were determined by real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. Finally, publicly available microarray database analysis was performed using connection up- or down-regulation expression analysis of microarrays software.Results: Jagged1-treatment of HSC-4 cells enhanced HES1 and HEY1 m RNA expression, confirming the intracellular activation of Notch signaling. OPG m RNA and protein levels were significantly suppressed upon Jagged1 treatment. Correspondingly, HSC-4 cells treated with a g-secretase inhibitor resulted in a significant reduction of HES1 and HEY1 m RNA levels, and a marked increase in OPG protein expression was observed.These results implied that Notch signaling regulated OPG expression in HSC-4 cells.However, Jagged1 did not alter OPG expression in another human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line(HSC-5) or a human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell line(HN22).Conclusions: Notch signaling regulated OPG expression in an HSC-4 cell line and this mechanism could be cell line specific.

  8. Expression and localization of aqua-glyceroporins AQP3 and AQP9 in rat oral epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda, Marlene; Hashimoto, Sadamitsu; Enokiya, Yasunobu; Matsuki-Fukushima, Miwako; Sasaki, Hodaka; Sakurai, Kaoru; Shimono, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of small integral membrane proteins made up of 6 hydrophobic, a-helical, membrane-spanning domains surrounding a highly selective aqueous pore. AQP3, AQP7, and AQP9, termed aqua-glyceroporins, are known to be involved in the transport of water, glycerol, and other small molecules. In this study, we investigated the expression and localization of aqua-glyceroporins in rat oral stratified squamous epithelia of the palate, the buccal mucosa, the inferior aspect of the tongue, and the oral floor by using RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, and immunogold electron microscopy. AQP3 and AQP9 mRNAs were expressed in whole oral epithelium. Immunostaining for AQP3 was recognized in each type of epithelium. The results suggest that AQP3 synthesis begins predominantly in the cytoplasm of the basal cells. During the process of epithelial cell differentiation, AQP3 protein appears to accumulate and be transported to the plasma membrane, from where it is incorporated into the cornified or surface layers. The intracellular localization of AQP3 appears to correlate with the differentiation of keratinocytes, suggesting that it acts as an enhancer of the physiological permeability barrier together with membrane coating granules. The distribution pattern of AQP9 was limited to the marginal areas of the basal and suprabasal layers, which was different from that of AQP3. This difference in distribution between AQP3 and AQP9 suggests that AQP9 in rat oral epithelia acts as a channel by facilitating glycerol uptake from the blood through the endothelial cells of the capillary vessels to the oral stratified squamous epithelium. AQP3 and AQP9 facilitate both transcellular osmotic water flow and glycerol transport as pore-like passive transporters in the keratinocytes of oral epithelia, and may play a key role in not only hydration and the permeability barrier, but also cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, development, and wound healing by generating ATP.

  9. Marine Navigational Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠灵

    2014-01-01

    Every industry has its professional terms or particular use of common words. The marine industry is no exception. This paper attempts to give a brief introduction to the elementary vocabularies related to marine industry from six aspects: types of ships;ship’s structure and equipment, manning, logbook, safety and organizations concerned. The corresponding Chinese terms is given simultaneously. It concludes that a good master of these vocabularies is useful and necessary for Chinese seafarers whose native language is not English.

  10. Vocabulary teaching strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐桂荣

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary has always been one of the significant issues related both with teachers and learners of foreign languages. How to teach vocabulary efficiency? Teachers should choose proper ways to instruct words. Many teachers often write new words they want to teach on the blackboard and then explain them one by one. It makes students feel bored. This paper will summarize some teaching approaches that are better on teaching English words.

  11. Fibroblast gene expression profile reflects the stage of tumour progression in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kue Peng; Cirillo, Nicola; Hassona, Yazan; Wei, Wenbin; Thurlow, Johanna K; Cheong, Sok Ching; Pitiyage, Gayani; Parkinson, E Ken; Prime, Stephen S

    2011-03-01

    Oral cancer is a highly aggressive malignancy with poor prognosis. This study examined the behaviour of fibroblast strains from normal oral mucosa, dysplastic epithelial tissue, and genetically stable (minimal copy number alterations-CNA; minimal loss of heterozygosity-LOH; wild-type p53; wild-type p16INK4A) and unstable (extensive CNA and LOH; inactivation of p53 and p16INK4A) oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Fibroblasts from genetically unstable OSCC relative to the other fibroblast subtypes grew more slowly and stimulated the invasion of a non-tumourigenic keratinocyte cell line into fibroblast-rich collagen gels. To understand these findings, genome-wide transcriptional profiles were generated using the GeneChip(®) cDNA whole transcript microarray platform. Principal component analysis showed that the fibroblasts could be distinguished according to the stage of tumour development. Tumour progression was associated with down-regulation of cell cycle- and cytokinesis-related genes and up-regulation of genes encoding transmembrane proteins including cell adhesion molecules. Gene expression was validated in independent fibroblast strains using qRT-PCR. Gene connectivity and interactome-transcriptome associations were determined using a systems biology approach to interrogate the gene expression data. Clusters of gene signatures were identified that characterized genetically unstable and stable OSCCs relative to each other and to fibroblasts from normal oral mucosa. The expression of highly connected genes associated with unstable OSCCs, including those that encode α-SMA and the integrin α6, correlated with poor patient prognosis in an independent dataset of head and neck cancer. The results of this study demonstrate that fibroblasts from unstable OSCCs represent a phenotypically distinguishable subset that plays a major role in oral cancer biology. Copyright © 2011 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The Acculturation in English vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严灵; 张华刚; 张凯

    2010-01-01

    The thesis is concerned with the acculturation in English words.More specifically,some consideration will be given to the why and how of learning culture.It will be demonstrated that learning a foreign language is not tantamount to giving a homily on syntactic structures or learning new vocabulary and expressions,but mainly incorporates,or should incorporate,some cultural elements,which are intertwined with language itself.The main premise of the paper is that apart from enhancing and enriching communicative competence,cultural competence can also lead to empathy and respect toward different cultures as well as promote objectivity and cultural perspicacity.

  13. Serum vitamin D levels of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and expression of vitamin D receptor in oral precancerous lesions and OSCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetindis, Marcel; Biegner, Thorsten; Lehman, Max; Munz, Adelheid; Teriete, Peter; Reinert, Siegmar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Resistance to programmed cell death (apoptosis) is a crucial factor for the carcinogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Vitamin D (calcitriol) may overcome apoptosis resistance in tumor cells of OSCC. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression in oral precancerous lesions of OSCC has not been analyzed and serum vitamin D level seems to be a predictor of cancer development. Material and Methods: Expression of VDR was analyzed in normal oral mucosa (n=5), oral precursor lesions (simple hyperplasia, n=11; squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=35), and OSCC specimen (n=42) by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Moreover, serum vitamin D levels were measured by 25(OH)D3 (calcidiol) in patients with OSCC (n=42) and correlated with IHC results. Results: Expression of VDR was significantly increased in precancerous and OSCC compared with normal tissue. Compared with SIN I-III lesions VDR expression significantly decreased in OSCC. Severe vitamin D deficiency was detected in our OSCC patient cohort but there was no significant correlation analyzed between serum vitamin D levels and corresponding immunohistochemically detected VDR expression in OSCC. Conclusions: Our survey provides the first evidence of VDR expression in precancerous lesions of OSCC. Apoptosis induction of VDR+ cells in oral precancerous lesions and OSCC by natural vitamin D or synthetic vitamin D compounds could be useful for chemoprevention. Moreover, systemically and/or locally applied, these compounds may act as sensitizers for apoptosis mediated by radio-, and chemotherapy treatment in OSCC. Key words:Oral cancer, oral precancer, lichen planus, leukoplakia, apoptosis, serum 25(OH)D3, vitamin D receptor, chemoprevention, multistep carcinogenesis. PMID:25662556

  14. β-catenin expression in areca quid chewing-associated oral squamous cell carcinomas and upregulated by arecoline in human oral epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shiuan-Shinn; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Tsai, Lo-Lin; Chou, Ming-Chih; Chou, Ming-Yung; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2012-04-01

    Nuclear localization of β-catenin is known to associate with malignant transformation of many squamous cell carcinomas. The aim of this study was to compare β-catenin expression in normal human oral epithelium and areca quid chewing associated oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) and further to explore the potential mechanisms that may lead to induce β-catenin expression. A total of 40 areca quid chewing-associated OSCCs and 10 normal oral tissue biopsy samples without areca quid chewing were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The oral epithelial cell line GNM cells were challenged with arecoline, a major areca nut alkaloid, by using Western blot analysis. Furthermore, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase inhibitor PD98059, glutathione precursor N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin-A, p38 inhibitor SB203580, and phosphatidylinositaol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 were added to find the possible regulatory mechanisms. β-catenin expression was significantly higher in OSCC specimens than that in normal oral epithelial specimens (p Arecoline was found to elevate β-catenin expression in a dose-dependent manner (p arecoline-induced β-catenin expression (p arecoline is downregulated by PD98059, NAC, herbimycin-A, SB203580, and LY294002. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. New regulatory circuit controlling spatial and temporal gene expression in the sea urchin embryo oral ectoderm GRN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Enhu; Materna, Stefan C; Davidson, Eric H

    2013-10-01

    The sea urchin oral ectoderm gene regulatory network (GRN) model has increased in complexity as additional genes are added to it, revealing its multiple spatial regulatory state domains. The formation of the oral ectoderm begins with an oral-aboral redox gradient, which is interpreted by the cis-regulatory system of the nodal gene to cause its expression on the oral side of the embryo. Nodal signaling drives cohorts of regulatory genes within the oral ectoderm and its derived subdomains. Activation of these genes occurs sequentially, spanning the entire blastula stage. During this process the stomodeal subdomain emerges inside of the oral ectoderm, and bilateral subdomains defining the lateral portions of the future ciliary band emerge adjacent to the central oral ectoderm. Here we examine two regulatory genes encoding repressors, sip1 and ets4, which selectively prevent transcription of oral ectoderm genes until their expression is cleared from the oral ectoderm as an indirect consequence of Nodal signaling. We show that the timing of transcriptional de-repression of sip1 and ets4 targets which occurs upon their clearance explains the dynamics of oral ectoderm gene expression. In addition two other repressors, the direct Nodal target not, and the feed forward Nodal target goosecoid, repress expression of regulatory genes in the central animal oral ectoderm thereby confining their expression to the lateral domains of the animal ectoderm. These results have permitted construction of an enhanced animal ectoderm GRN model highlighting the repressive interactions providing precise temporal and spatial control of regulatory gene expression. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Gene expression of miRNA-138 and cyclin D1 in oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghallab, Noha A; Kasem, Rehab Fawzy; El-Ghani, Safa Fathy Abd; Shaker, Olfat G

    2017-03-08

    This study aimed to evaluate microRNA-138 (miR-138) gene expression and its target cyclin D1 (CCND1) gene and protein expression in oral lichen planus (OLP) mucosa in an attempt to investigate their possible roles in OLP immunopathogenesis. Sixty oral biopsy specimens were harvested from 30 healthy subjects and 30 OLP patients, subdivided into reticular, atrophic, and erosive groups (n = 10 each). Samples were subjected to quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis for quantification of miR-138 and CCND1 relative gene expression and immunohistochemical analysis to determine CCND1 protein expression. Samples from OLP patients had a significant underexpression of miR-138 gene and overexpression of CCND1 at both gene and protein levels compared to normal mucosa samples. The lowest levels of miR-138 expression were observed in atrophic and erosive OLP compared to reticular OLP, and the highest levels of CCND1 gene and protein expression were in atrophic OLP. An inverse correlation was demonstrated between the miR-138 expression and both CCND1 gene and protein expression in OLP patients. A significant positive correlation between CCND1 gene and protein expression was also observed. Downregulation of miR-138 increases the gene and protein expression of its potential target CCND1 in OLP mucosa which might have a pivotal role in the disease pathogenesis. This research implied that miR-138 may have a role in identification of symptomatic OLP lesions. MiR-138 might be considered as a potential tool in future OLP molecular therapy.

  17. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in oral submucous fibrosis: An immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Gauri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF is a form of pathological fibrosis affecting the oral mucosa. There is compelling evidence to implicate the habitual chewing of areca nut with the development of OSF. Because collagens are the major structural components of connective tissues, including oral submucosa, the composition of collagen within each tissue needs to be precisely regulated to maintain tissue integrity. Arecoline stimulates fibroblasts to increase the production of collagen by 150%. Aim: As the role of collagenase is implicated in cleaving the collagen under physical conditions, this study was carried out to evaluate the role of collagenase-1 (matrix metalloproteinase [MMP]-1 in a pathologic condition like OSF. Settings and Design: A total of 40 patients were included in the study, comprising of 30 OSF as Group 1 and 10 normal buccal mucosa tissue as Group 2. Materials and Methods: Both the groups were stained for MMP-1 by the immunohistochemical method using the streptavidin HRP-biotin labeling technique. MMP-1 expression intensity in the epithelium and connective tissue was decreased in Group 1 when compared to Group 2. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test of association was used to determine the difference in the expression of MMP-1 between OSF and normal buccal mucosa and among different histological gradings of OSF. Results: The results were statistically significant. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the expression of MMP-1 among different histological grades of OSF in Group 1.

  18. Expression of ATP6V1C1 during oral carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Alves, M G; Carta, C F L; Padín-Iruegas, M-E; Pérez-Sayáns, M; Suarez-Peñaranda, J M; Issa, J S; García-García, A; Almeida, J D

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the gene and protein expressions of V-type ATPase protein subunit C1 (ATP6V1C1) in cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and contralateral normal mucosa in smokers, nonsmokers and former smokers. Subjects were separated into five groups of 15: group 1, smokers with OSCC; group 2, normal contralateral mucosa of OSCC patients; group 3, chronic smokers; group 4, former smokers who had stopped smoking 1 year earlier; group 5, individuals who had never smoked. Exfoliative cytology specimens from oral mucosa of smokers, former smokers and nonsmokers showed normal gene and protein expression. We found significantly greater gene expression in the OSCC group than in the nonsmoker groups. No difference in gene expression was observed between normal contralateral mucosa and nonsmoker groups, smoker and nonsmoker groups or former smoker and nonsmoker groups. We observed intense immunostaining for ATP6V1C1 protein in all cases of OSCC and weak or no staining in smoker, former smoker and nonsmoker groups. Significantly greater expression of ATP6V1C1 protein was observed in the OSCC group compared to the other groups, which supports the role of ATP6V1C1 in effecting changes associated with oral cancer. Analysis of the mucosae of chronic smokers, former smokers and the normal contralateral mucosa of patients with OSCC showed unaltered ATP6V1C1 gene and protein expression. Early stages of carcinogenesis, represented by altered epithelium of chronic smokers, had neither gene nor protein alterations as seen in OSCC. Therefore, we infer that the changes in ATP6V1C1 occur during later stages of carcinogenesis. Our preliminary study provides a basis for future studies of using ATP6V1C1 levels for detecting early stage OSCC.

  19. Metallothionein gene expression is altered in oral cancer and may predict metastasis and patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazão-Silva, Marco T; Rodrigues, Maria Fernandes S; Eisenberg, Ana Lúcia A; Dias, Fernando L; de Castro, Luciana M; Nunes, Fábio D; Faria, Paulo R; Cardoso, Sérgio V; Loyola, Adriano M; de Sousa, Suzana C O M

    2015-09-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are proteins associated with the carcinogenesis and prognosis of various tumours. Previous studies have shown their potential as biomarkers in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Aiming to understand more clearly the function of MTs in OSCC we evaluated, for the first time, the gene expression profile of MTs in this neoplasm. Tissue samples from 35 cases of tongue and/or floor of mouth OSCC, paired with their corresponding non-neoplastic oral mucosa (NNOM), were retrieved (2007-09). All tissues were analysed for the following genes using TaqMan(®) reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays: MT1A, MT1B, MT1E, MT1F, MT1G, MT1H, MT1X, MT2A, MT3 and MT4. The expression of MT1B and MT1H was seldom detected in both OSCC and NNOM. A significant loss of MT1A, MT1X, MT3 and MT4 expression and gain of MT1F expression was observed in OSCC, compared to NNOM. Cases with MT1G down-regulation exhibited the worst prognoses. The up-regulation of MT1X was restricted to non-metastatic cases, whereas up-regulation of MT3 was related to cases with lymph node metastasis. Metallothionein mRNA expression is altered significantly in oral squamous cell carcinomas. The expression of MT1G, MT1X and MT3 may aid in the prognostic discrimination of OSCC cases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Expression of blood group-related glycoconjugates in the junctional and other oral epithelia of rodents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, I C; Dabelsteen, Erik; Rittman, G

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The junctional epithelium (JE) attaches the gingiva to the non-vital tooth surface and has other unusual properties which protect the underlying periodontal tissues. The JE differs from other gingival and oral epithelia in its unusual expression of cytokeratins typical of both...... stratifying and of simple epithelia, a phenotypic pattern possibly related to its specialized functions. METHODS: The patterns of differentiation of rodent gingival and other epithelia were examined using monoclonal antibodies against various glycoconjugates which are expressed on epithelial cell surfaces...

  1. 5-lipoxygenase expression in a brain damage model induced by chronic oral administration of aluminum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongquan Pan; Peng Zhang; Junqing Yang; Qiang Su

    2010-01-01

    A preliminary study has found that the 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, caffeic acid, has a marked protective effect on acute brain injury induced by intracerebroventricular microinjection of aluminum.In this experiment, chronic brain injury and neuronal degeneration model was established in rats by chronic oral administration of aluminum, and then intervened using caffeic acid. Results showed that caffeic acid can downregulate chronic aluminum overload-induced 5-lipoxygenase mRNA and protein expression, and repair the aluminum overload-induced hippocampal neuronal damage andspatial orientation impairment. It is suggested that direct intervention of 5-lipoxygenase expression has a neuroprotective role in the degeneration induced by chronic aluminum overload brain injury model.

  2. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in oral potentially malignant disorders: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Archana Venugopal; T.N. Uma Maheswari

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is an inducible enzyme. Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) are considered as the early tissue changes that happen due to various habits such as smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco or stress. This alteration in the tissues alters the expression of MMP-9. The rationale of the review is to know the expression of MMP-9 in OPMDs. Hand searching and electronic databases such as PubMed and ScienceDirect were done for mesh terms such as OPMDs and MMP-9. Eight...

  3. Mitochondrial assembly receptor expression is an independent prognosticator for patients with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan-Ye; Chen, Chang-Han; Chien, Chih-Yen; Lin, Wei-Che; Huang, Wan-Ting; Li, Shau-Hsuan

    2017-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the local renin-angiotensin system has been implicated in various malignancies. The mitochondrial assembly receptor is a newly identified receptor for angiotensin peptides, angiotensin-(1-7), and has an important role in the renin-angiotensin system. However, the role of the mitochondrial assembly receptor in the prognosis of cancer patients remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of mitochondrial assembly receptor signaling in the prognosis of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Mitochondrial assembly receptor immunohistochemistry was examined in 151 oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma patients and was correlated with treatment outcome. The functional relevance of the mitochondrial assembly receptor in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell lines was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays. Mitochondrial assembly receptor overexpression was significantly correlated with early pathological T classification ( p=0.029) and the absence of extracapsular spread ( p=0.039). Univariate analyses demonstrated that mitochondrial assembly receptor overexpression was significantly associated with superior overall survival ( p=0.012). In multivariate comparison, mitochondrial assembly receptor overexpression remained independently associated with superior overall survival ( p=0.008, hazard ratio=1.862). In vitro, angiotensin-(1-7) suppressed the cell growth in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma cells, and this response was reversed by the mitochondrial assembly receptor antagonist, A779. Mitochondrial assembly receptor expression is independently associated with the prognosis of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma patients. These findings suggest that mitochondrial assembly receptor signaling may be a promising novel target for oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma.

  4. Cyclin D1 Expression and Its Correlation with Histopathological Differentiation in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Saawarn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cyclin D1 regulates the G1 to S transition of cell cycle. Its deregulation or overexpression may lead to disturbance in the normal cell cycle control and tumour formation. Overexpression of cyclin D1 has been reported in various tumors of diverse histogenesis. This case control retrospective study was carried out to study the immunohistochemical reactivity and expression of cyclin D1 and its association with site, clinical staging, and histopathological differentiation of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Methods. Forty formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of biopsy specimens of oral squamous cell carcinoma were immunohistochemically evaluated for expression of cyclin D1. Results. Cyclin D1 expression was seen in 45% cases of OSCC. It did not correlate with site and clinical staging. Highest expression was seen in well-differentiated, followed by moderately differentiated, and poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas, with a statistically significant correlation. Conclusion. Cyclin D1 expression significantly increases with increase in differentiation.

  5. Characterization of an endogenous gene expressed in Aedes aegypti using an orally infectious recombinant sindbis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L. Cheng

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Sindbis virus expression vectors have been used successfully to express and silence genes of interest in vivo in several mosquito species, including Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Ae. triseriatus, Culex pipiens, Armigeres subalbatus and Anopheles gambiae. Here we describe the expression of an endogenous gene, defensin, in Ae. aegypti using the orally infectious Sindbis virus, MRE/3'2J expression vector. We optimized conditions to infect mosquito larvae per os using C6/36 Ae. albopictus cells infected with the recombinant virus to maximize virus infection and expression of defensin. Infection with the parental Sindbis virus (MRE/3'2J did not induce defensin expression. Mosquito larvae infected by ingestion of recombinant Sindbis virus-infected C6/36 cells expressed defensin when they emerged as adults. Defensin expression was observed by western analysis or indirect fluorescent assay in all developmental stages of mosquitoes infected with MRE/3'2J virus that contained the defensin insert. The multiplicity of infection of C6/36 cells and the quantity of infected cells consumed by larvae played an important role in defensin expression. Parental viruses, missing the defensin insert, and/or other defective interfering virus may have contributed to these observations.

  6. Analysis of KIT expression and KIT exon 11 mutations in canine oral malignant melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, A; Mori, T; Sakai, H; Murakami, M; Yanai, T; Hoshino, Y; Maruo, K

    2011-09-01

    KIT, a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase, is one of the specific targets for anti-cancer therapy. In humans, its expression and mutations have been identified in malignant melanomas and therapies using molecular-targeted agents have been promising in these tumours. As human malignant melanoma, canine malignant melanoma is a fatal disease with metastases and the poor response has been observed with all standard protocols. In our study, KIT expression and exon 11 mutations in dogs with histologically confirmed malignant oral melanomas were evaluated. Although 20 of 39 cases were positive for KIT protein, there was no significant difference between KIT expression and overall survival. Moreover, polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of KIT exon 11 in 17 samples did not detect any mutations and proved disappointing. For several reasons, however, KIT expression and mutations of various exons including exon 11 should be investigated in more cases.

  7. [Patients' preferences for nurses' nonverbal expressions of warmth during nursing rounds and administration of oral medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H S; Kim, M S

    1990-12-01

    Nursing involves deep human interpersonal relationships between nurses and patients. But in modern Korea, the nurse-patient relationship tends to be ritualistic and mechanestic. Patients usually express the hope that nurses be more tender and kind. Patients expect nurses to express their warmth especially through nonverbal behaviour. This study was conducted to identify patients' preferences for nurse's nonverbal expressions of warmth. Through the confirmation of these preferences, nurses may learn how to enhance their interpersonal relationships with patients. Subjects for the study were 73 patients who had been admitted to a university teaching hospital for at least three days and agreed to be interviewed by the investigator. The interactions were studied nonverbal expressions of warmth during nursing rounds and administration of oral medication. The interview schedule was especially designed by the investigator to measure the nurse's posture, the distance between the nurse and the patient, the nurse's eye contact, facial expression, hand motion and head nodding. Data analysis included frequencies, percentages and X2-test. The results of this study may be summerized as follows: 1. Patient's preferences for nurse's nonverbal expressions of warmth during nursing rounds. Preferred nurse's posture was sitting (50.7%) or standing (49.3%) opposite the patient. Preferred distance between the nurse and the patient was close to the bed (93.2%), less than 1m. Preferred eye contact was directed to the patient's eyes or their affected part (41.1%). Preferred facial expression was a smile (97.3%). Preferred hand motions were light gestures (41.1%). Patients preferred head nodding which approved their own opinions (69.9%). 2. Patient's preferences for nurse's nonverbal expressions of warmth during administration of oral medication. Preferred nurse's posture was standing and waiting to confirm that the medication had been taken (58.9%). Preferred distance from the patient was

  8. Vocabulary Knowledge and Vocabulary Use in Second Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark D.; Acevedo, Anthony; Mercado, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Research has consistently shown diversity of vocabulary to be an important indicator of second language (L2) writing development as well as L2 writing performance. These studies underscore the importance of vocabulary to L2 writing. However, they provide little to indicate what kind of vocabulary learners of English may need to know in order to…

  9. Vocabulary Knowledge and Vocabulary Use in Second Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark D.; Acevedo, Anthony; Mercado, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Research has consistently shown diversity of vocabulary to be an important indicator of second language (L2) writing development as well as L2 writing performance. These studies underscore the importance of vocabulary to L2 writing. However, they provide little to indicate what kind of vocabulary learners of English may need to know in order to…

  10. Talking about Cultural Elements in Vocabulary and English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jinjing

    2015-01-01

    By illustrating the significance of cultural elements in vocabulary and current situations in English vocabulary teaching,the author hope that English teachers can pay more attention to cultural elements behind the conceptual meanings of English words and change their method of teaching to motivate students' interest in vocabulary learning.

  11. Talking about Cultural Elements in Vocabulary and English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Jinjing

    2015-01-01

    By illustrating the significance of cultural elements in vocabulary and current situations in English vocabulary teaching,the author hope that English teachers can pay more attention to cultural elements behind the conceptual meanings of English words and change their method of teaching to motivate students’ interest in vocabulary learning.

  12. Vocabulary Plus: Comprehensive Vocabulary Instruction for English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Rhoda

    2010-01-01

    "Vocabulary Plus" is an interactive strategy which links vocabulary development with content area learning for English learners. This strategy uses interactive read-alouds of thematically- connected informational text matched to the grade-appropriate state standards and content of core subjects. When using "Vocabulary Plus",…

  13. General Reviews of Vocabulary Retention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper will try to review two important theories (repletion and retrieval) which are crucial for vocabulary retention. These two methods are well connected and each of them cannot lead to successful vocabulary retention without sensible utilization of the other.

  14. Molecular and phenotypic expression of decorin as modulator of angiogenesis in human potentially malignant oral lesions and oral squamous cell carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Nayak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Decorin is an extracellular matrix, multifunctional small proteoglycan molecule in tumor stroma that has been shown to be modulator of angiogenesis. No clinical data is available so far on decorin expression and survival outcome of oral cancer. Aim: The aim of the present study was to examine molecular and phenotypic expression of two angiogenesis modulators viz. decorin and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A in human potentially malignant oral lesions (PMOLs and oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC in relation to clinico-pathological variables and survival outcome. Materials and Methods: Tissue biopsies were obtained from 72 PMOLs, 108 OSCC and 52 healthy controls. The PMOLs included cases of leukoplakias and oral submucous fibrosis. Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies against decorin, VEGF-A and CD-31. Messenger-ribonucleic acid (mRNA expression was analyzed by using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: Cytoplasmic staining of decorin was observed in the basal layer of epithelium in 53 (73.61% cases of PMOLs and in peritumoral stroma in 55 (50.92% cases of OSCC. None of the cases showed nuclear expression of decorin. Decorin expression both at phenotypic and molecular level was found to be down-regulated from PMOLs to OSCC. Lymph node metastasis and reduced decorin expression independently correlated with overall survival in OSCC. VEGF-A expression had no significant impact on survival outcome. Conclusion: Micro vessel density and VEGF-A expression were significantly associated with reduced decorin expression in tumor stroma suggesting, decorin as angiogenic modulator in OSCC. Down-regulation of decorin expression and the presence of lymph node metastasis were adverse factor independently affecting overall survival in OSCC.

  15. Cytokeratin and protein expression patterns in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity provide evidence for two distinct pathogenetic pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frohwitter, Gesche; Buerger, Horst; van Diest, Paul J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075281775; Korsching, Eberhard; Kleinheinz, Johannes; Fillies, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity is a morphological heterogeneous disease. Various cytokeratin (CK) expression patterns with different prognostic values have been described, but little is known concerning the underlying biological cell mechanisms. Therefore, the present study investi

  16. Ghrelin promotes oral tumor cell proliferation by modifying GLUT1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Dominik; Reckenbeil, Jan; Wenghoefer, Matthias; Stark, Helmut; Frentzen, Matthias; Allam, Jean-Pierre; Novak, Natalija; Frede, Stilla; Götz, Werner; Probstmeier, Rainer; Meyer, Rainer; Winter, Jochen

    2016-03-01

    In our study, ghrelin was investigated with respect to its capacity on proliferative effects and molecular correlations on oral tumor cells. The presence of all molecular components of the ghrelin system, i.e., ghrelin and its receptors, was analyzed and could be detected using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. To examine cellular effects caused by ghrelin and to clarify downstream-regulatory mechanisms, two different oral tumor cell lines (BHY and HN) were used in cell culture experiments. Stimulation of either cell line with ghrelin led to a significantly increased proliferation. Signal transduction occurred through phosphorylation of GSK-3β and nuclear translocation of β-catenin. This effect could be inhibited by blocking protein kinase A. Glucose transporter1 (GLUT1), as an important factor for delivering sufficient amounts of glucose to tumor cells having high requirements for this carbohydrate (Warburg effect) was up-regulated by exogenous and endogenous ghrelin. Silencing intracellular ghrelin concentrations using siRNA led to a significant decreased expression of GLUT1 and proliferation. In conclusion, our study describes the role for the appetite-stimulating peptide hormone ghrelin in oral cancer proliferation under the particular aspect of glucose uptake: (1) tumor cells are a source of ghrelin. (2) Ghrelin affects tumor cell proliferation through autocrine and/or paracrine activity. (3) Ghrelin modulates GLUT1 expression and thus indirectly enhances tumor cell proliferation. These findings are of major relevance, because glucose uptake is assumed to be a promising target for cancer treatment.

  17. Microarray Analysis of Bisphenol A-induced Changes in Gene Expression in Human Oral Epithelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keisuke SEKI; Ryosuke KOSHI; Naoyuki SUGANO; Shigeyuki MASUTANI; Naoto YOSHINUMA; CUI SHI

    2007-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a common ingredient in dental materials. However, its potential adverse effects on the oral cavity are unknown. The purpose of this study is to identify the genes responding to BPA in a human oral epithelial cell line using DNA microarray. Of the 10,368 genes examined, changes in mRNA levels were detected in seven genes: five were up-regulated and two were down-regulated. The expression levels of the calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L-type, alpha lC subunit (CACNA1C), cell death activator CIDE-3 (CIDE-3), haptoglobin-related protein (HPR), importin 4 (IPO4), and POU domain, class 2 and spermatogenesis-associated, serine-rich 2 (SPATS2) and HSPC049 protein (HSPC049) were significantly down-regulated. The detailed knowledge of the changes in gene expression obtained using microarray technology will provide a basis for further elucidating the molecular mechanisms of the toxic effects of BPA in the oral cavity.

  18. Her2 expression and gene amplification is rarely detectable in patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanken, Henning; Gaudin, Robert; Gröbe, Alexander; Fraederich, Meike; Eichhorn, Wolfgang; Smeets, Ralf; Simon, Ronald; Sauter, Guido; Grupp, Katharina; Izbicki, Jacob R; Sehner, Susanne; Heiland, Max; Blessmann, Marco

    2014-04-01

    Her2 (ErbB2) transforms cells when overexpressed and is an important therapeutic target in breast cancer. Contrary to breast cancer, studies on Her2 overexpression and gene amplification in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck region described largely different results. This study was undertaken to learn more on the prevalence and clinical significance of HER2 amplification and overexpression in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Her2 expression and gene amplification was analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on two tissue microarrays composed of 427 squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck region and 222 oral squamous cell carcinomas. Results were compared with clinicopathological features. Her2 expression and gene amplification was rarely detectable in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck region and unrelated to tumor phenotype or survival of the patients with oral squamous carcinoma. Our results demonstrate that Her2 protein and gene amplification was only detectable in a small subset of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck region as well as oral squamous cell carcinomas. However, it can be speculated that those few patients with Her2 overexpressing and gene amplificated tumors may possibly benefit from an anti-Her2 therapy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Microarray analysis of bisphenol A-induced changes in gene expression in human oral epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Keisuke; Koshi, Ryosuke; Sugano, Naoyuki; Masutani, Shigeyuki; Yoshinuma, Naoto; Ito, Koichi

    2007-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a common ingredient in dental materials. However, its potential adverse effects on the oral cavity are unknown. The purpose of this study is to identify the genes responding to BPA in a human oral epithelial cell line using DNA microarray. Of the 10,368 genes examined, changes in mRNA levels were detected in seven genes: five were up-regulated and two were down-regulated. The expression levels of the calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L-type, alpha 1C subunit (CACNA1C), cell death activator CIDE-3 (CIDE-3), haptoglobin-related protein (HPR), importin 4 (IPO4), and POU domain, class 2 and transcription factor 3 (POU2F3) were significantly up-regulated in the cells exposed to 100 mM BPA. The spermatogenesis-associated, serine-rich 2 (SPATS2) and HSPC049 protein (HSPC049) were significantly down-regulated. The detailed knowledge of the changes in gene expression obtained using microarray technology will provide a basis for further elucidating the molecular mechanisms of the toxic effects of BPA in the oral cavity.

  20. How to Enlarge Productive Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘菁

    2015-01-01

    Haycraft defined receptive vocabulary as "words that the student recognizes and understands when they occur in a text, but which he cannot produce correctly", while productive vocabulary is "words which the student understands can pronounce correctly and use constructively in speaking and writing" (1978:44).In English language teaching practice, students' productive vocabulary size lags far behind there ceptive vocabulary size. Based on the SLA theories, many reasons caused this problem and some solutions will be discussed.

  1. Immunohistochemical expression of budding uninhibited by benzimidazole related 1 in leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taneeru Sravya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Budding uninhibited by benzimidazole related 1 (BUBR1 is an important protein in the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint. Alterations in expression of BUBR1 have been reported in many premalignant and malignant lesions. Aim: To compare the expression of BUBR1 with respect to the normal mucosa and degree of dysplasia in oral leukoplakia (OL and also with respect to different histopathological grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Materials and Methods: Neutral buffered formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens 30 each of normal, OL and OSCC tissue were included in this study. The expression of BUBR1 was detected using immunohistochemistry (IHC. The scores obtained were subjected to ANOVA test. Results: Significant correlation was found in immunostaining between normal, dysplasia and OSCC groups with a P value of 0.00001. The expression of BUBR1 was significant when compared with different degrees of dysplasia and in different histopathological grades of OSCC with a P value of 0.00001. Conclusion: Higher IHC scores were obtained with increased histopathological grades of OL and OSCC suggesting its role as a prognostic indicator.

  2. Induction of type XVI collagen expression facilitates proliferation of oral cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzinger, Sabine; Grässel, Susanne; Dowejko, Albert; Reichert, Torsten E; Bauer, Richard J

    2011-03-01

    Type XVI collagen belongs to the family of fibril-associated collagens with interrupted triple helices (FACIT). Recently, high affinity to integrin alpha1beta1 has been shown allowing cells expressing those integrins to attach and spread on recombinant type XVI collagen. Here, we show that type XVI collagen is overexpressed in dysplastic areas of mucosal epithelium from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. Induction of its expression in OSCC cell lines (COLXVI cells) leads to an increased expression of Kindlin-1. Moreover, we demonstrate a significantly increased Kindlin-1/beta1-integrin interaction. Additionally, we detected a higher number of activated beta1-integrins in COLXVI cells and found a neo-expression of alpha1 integrin subunit on these cells. FACS analysis revealed a significantly higher amount of COLXVI cells in S-phase and G2/M-phase 6h after synchronisation leading to a markedly higher proliferation activity. Blocking beta1-integrins with a specific antibody resulted in reduced proliferation of COLXVI cells. In summary, we demonstrate that overexpression of type XVI collagen in aberrant oral keratinocytes leads to Kindlin-1 induction, increased Kindlin-1/beta1-integrin interaction, integrin activation and subsequently to a proliferative cellular phenotype.

  3. Oral Immunization of Mice With Vaccine of Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium Expressing Helicobacter pylori Urease B Subunit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING-LONG YANG; WEN-CHAO LIU; WU-WEI YANG; DONG ZHONG; YU-HU LIU; JING-DONG ZHANG; JIAN-HUI JIANG; SHAN-SHAN LI

    2005-01-01

    Objective To prepare the live recombinant vaccine of attenuated Salmonella typhimurium SL3261 expressing Helicobacterpylori (H. pylori) B subunit (UreB) and to determine whether it could be used as an oral vaccine against H. pylori infection. Methods Using genomic DNA of H. pylori Sydney strain (SS1) as template, the H. pylori UreB gene fragment was amplified by PCR and subcloned into the expression vector pTC01. The recombinant plasmid pTC01-UreB was then transferred into LB5000 to obtain modified forms, and further conversed into the attenuated Salmonella typhimurium SL3261 to obtain recombinant SL3261/pCT01-UreB as an oral immunization reagent, which was then used to orally immunize Balb/c mice twice at a three-week interval. Twelve weeks later, anti-UreB IgA antibodies in intestinal fluid and IgG antibodies in sera were determined by ELISA. The relating data in control groups (including body weight, gastric inflammation, etc.) were also collected. Results The sequencing analysis showed that the UreB gene fragment amplified by PCR was consistent with the sequence of the H. pylori UreB gene. The restriction enzyme digestion revealed that the correct pTC01-UreB was obtained.SDS-PAGE and Western blot showed that a 61KD protein was expressed in SL3261/pTC01-UreB, which could be recognized by anti-H. pylori UreB antiserum and was absent in the control containing only Salmonella typhimurium SL3261 strain. The multiple oral immunization with SL3261/pTC01-UreB could significantly induce H. pylori specific mucosal IgA response as well as serum IgG responses. IFN-γ and IL-10 levels were significantly increased in SL3261/pTC01-UreB group, and no obvious side effect and change in gastric inflammation were observed. Conclusion The attenuated vaccine of Salmonella typhimurium expressing H. pylori UreB can be used as an oral vaccine against H. pylori infection.

  4. Water Quality Vocabulary Development and Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, B. A.; Yu, J.; Cox, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Semantic descriptions of observed properties and associated units of measure are fundamental to understanding of environmental observations, including groundwater, surface water and marine water quality. Semantic descriptions can be captured in machine-readable ontologies and vocabularies, thus providing support for the annotation of observation values from the disparate data sources with appropriate and accurate metadata, which is critical for achieving semantic interoperability. However, current stand-alone water quality vocabularies provide limited support for cross-system comparisons or data fusion. To enhance semantic interoperability, the alignment of water-quality properties with definitions of chemical entities and units of measure in existing widely-used vocabularies is required. Modern ontologies and vocabularies are expressed, organized and deployed using Semantic Web technologies. We developed an ontology for observed properties (i.e. a model for expressing appropriate controlled vocabularies) which extends the NASA/TopQuadrant QUDT ontology for Unit and QuantityKind with two additional classes and two properties (see accompanying paper by Cox, Simons and Yu). We use our ontology to populate the Water Quality vocabulary with a set of individuals of each of the four key classes (and their subclasses), and add appropriate relationships between these individuals. This ontology is aligned with other relevant stand-alone Water Quality vocabularies and domain ontologies. Developing the Water Quality vocabulary involved two main steps. First, the Water Quality vocabulary was populated with individuals of the ObservedProperty class, which was determined from a census of existing datasets and services. Each ObservedProperty individual relates to other individuals of Unit and QuantityKind (taken from QUDT where possible), and to IdentifiedObject individuals. As a large fraction of observed water quality data are classified by the chemical substance involved, the

  5. Frequency of p53 gene mutation and protein expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Nighat; Atique, Muhammad; Ahmed, Sohaib; Ali Bukhari, Syed Gulzar

    2014-10-01

    To determine the frequency of p53 gene mutation and protein expression in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) and to establish correlation between the two. Analytical study. Histopathology Department and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, from May 2010 to May 2011. Thirty diagnosed cases of OSCC were selected by consecutive sampling. Seventeen were retrieved from the record files of the AFIP, and 13 fresh/frozen sections were selected from patients reporting to the Oral Surgery Department, Armed Forces Institute of Dentistry (AFID). Gene p53 mutation was analyzed in all the cases using PCRSSCP analysis. DNA was extracted from the formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections and fresh/frozen sections. DNA thus extracted was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. The amplified products were denatured and finally analyzed by gel electrophoresis. Gene mutation was detected as electrophoretic mobility shift. The immunohistochemical marker p53 was applied to the same 30 cases and overexpression of protein p53 was recorded. Immunohistochemical expression of marker p53 was positive in 67% [95% Confidence Interval (CI) 48.7-80.9] of the cases. Mutations of the p53 gene were detected in 23% (95% CI 11.5-41.2) of the OSCC. No statistically significant correlation was found between p53 gene mutation and protein p53 expression (rs=-0.057, p=0.765). A substantial number of patients have p53 gene mutation (23%) and protein p53 expression (67%) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).

  6. Teaching Vocabulary across the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintz, William P.

    2011-01-01

    Learning vocabulary is an important instructional aim for teachers in all content areas in middle grades schools. Recent research, however, indicates that vocabulary instruction may be problematic because many teachers are not "confident about best practice in vocabulary instruction and at times don't know where to begin to form an instructional…

  7. VEGF-A immunohistochemical and mRNA expression in tissues and its serum levels in potentially malignant oral lesions and oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Seema; Goel, Madhu Mati; Chandra, Saumya; Bhatia, Vikram; Mehrotra, Divya; Kumar, Sandeep; Makker, Annu; Rath, S K; Agarwal, S P

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether the estimation of circulating Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) levels by ELISA could be used as surrogate of VEGF-A expression in tissues of pre-malignant oral lesions (PMOLs) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) as compared to that in healthy controls. The study samples comprised of tissue and blood samples from 60 PMOLs, 60 OSCC, and 20 healthy controls. Serum VEGF-A levels were determined by an ELISA based assay (Quantikine human VEGF; R & D System, Minneapolis USA). Tissue VEGF-A expression and microvessel density (MVD) were assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using antibodies against VEGF-A and CD-34 on formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue sections. VEGF-A mRNA expression was analyzed by real-time PCR in snap frozen tissues. Serum VEGF-A levels and immunohistochemical VEGF-A expression were significantly high in PMOLs and OSCC in comparison with controls. VEGF mRNA gene expression showed more than 50-fold increase in PMOLs and OSCC. VEGF-A levels in serum correlated in a linear fashion with the tissue expression in oral pre-malignant and malignant lesions, suggesting that the serum levels may serve as surrogate material for tissue expression of VEGF-A.

  8. Somatosensory Modulation of Salivary Gene Expression and Oral Feeding in Preterm Infants: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Steven Michael; Maron, Jill Lamanna; Alterovitz, Gil; Song, Dongli; Wilson, Bernard Joseph; Jegatheesan, Priya; Govindaswami, Balaji; Lee, Jaehoon; Rosner, Austin Oder

    2017-06-14

    Despite numerous medical advances in the care of at-risk preterm neonates, oral feeding still represents one of the first and most advanced neurological challenges facing this delicate population. Objective, quantitative, and noninvasive assessment tools, as well as neurotherapeutic strategies, are greatly needed in order to improve feeding and developmental outcomes. Pulsed pneumatic orocutaneous stimulation has been shown to improve nonnutritive sucking (NNS) skills in preterm infants who exhibit delayed or disordered nipple feeding behaviors. Separately, the study of the salivary transcriptome in neonates has helped identify biomarkers directly linked to successful neonatal oral feeding behavior. The combination of noninvasive treatment strategies and transcriptomic analysis represents an integrative approach to oral feeding in which rapid technological advances and personalized transcriptomics can safely and noninvasively be brought to the bedside to inform medical care decisions and improve care and outcomes. The study aimed to conduct a multicenter randomized control trial (RCT) to combine molecular and behavioral methods in an experimental conceptualization approach to map the effects of PULSED somatosensory stimulation on salivary gene expression in the context of the acquisition of oral feeding habits in high-risk human neonates. The aims of this study represent the first attempt to combine noninvasive treatment strategies and transcriptomic assessments of high-risk extremely preterm infants (EPI) to (1) improve oral feeding behavior and skills, (2) further our understanding of the gene ontology of biologically diverse pathways related to oral feeding, (3) use gene expression data to personalize neonatal care and individualize treatment strategies and timing interventions, and (4) improve long-term developmental outcomes. A total of 180 extremely preterm infants from three neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) will be randomized to receive either PULSED or

  9. Expression of p53 in the Tumor and Oral Epithelium in Patients with Cancer of Mouth and Pharynx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos, Fabiane Dittrich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Expressive percent of patients with oral and oral pharynx carcinomas presents with overexpression of protein p53 induced by tobacco, alcohol and radiotherapy. Objective: To describe the p53 expression in areas of the normal mucosa adjacent to the tumor and in mouth and pharynx carcinomas. Method: Prospective study with clinical follow-up of one year of 24 patients with oral and oral pharynx spinocellular carcinoma. We performed biopsies in the neoplasm and areas of the normal mucosa adjacent to the tumor, before and 9 months following radiotherapy and an immunohistochemical study of p53 expression. Results: Before radiotherapy, there was a change to the p53 expression in 20 out of the 24 biopsies made in the neoplasm and in 14 in those of normal mucosa adjacent to the tumor. Eleven patients died 1 year before clinical follow-up. From the 2 initial patients with increase of p53 after radiotherapy it remained increased in 7 in the neoplasm region and in 6 in the normal mucosa regions. We noticed association of p53 with smoking and tumor stage (p < 5%, but not with the degree of cellular differentiation and alcoholism. Conclusion: The increase to the p53 expression was viewed both in the neoplasm region and in the normal mucosa in most patients with oral and oral pharynx carcinoma before and after radiotherapy. There was a statistically significant correlation of the p53 expression with smoking and neoplasm stage.

  10. Effects of aging on apoptosis gene expression in oral mucosal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Octavio A; Novak, M John; Kirakodu, Sreenatha; Stromberg, Arnold J; Shen, Shu; Orraca, Luis; Gonzalez-Martinez, Janis; Ebersole, Jeffrey L

    2013-03-01

    Apoptotic processes are important for physiologic renewal of an intact epithelial barrier and contribute some antimicrobial resistance for bacteria and viruses, as well as anti-inflammatory effects that benefits the mucosa. The oral cavity presents a model of host-bacterial interactions at mucosal surfaces, in which a panoply of microorganisms colonizes various niches in the oral cavity and creates complex multispecies biofilms that challenge the gingival tissues. This report details gene expression in apoptotic pathways that occur in oral mucosal tissues across the lifespan, using a nonhuman primate model. Macaca mulatta primates from 2 to 23 years of age (n = 23) were used in a cross-sectional study to obtain clinical healthy gingival tissues specimens. Further, mRNA was prepared and evaluated using the Affymetrix Rhesus GeneChip and 88 apoptotic pathway genes were evaluated. The results identified significant positive correlations with age in 12 genes and negative correlations with an additional five genes. The gene effects were predicted to alter apoptosis receptor levels, extrinsic apoptotic pathways through caspases, cytokine effects on apoptotic events, Ca(+2)-induced death signaling, cell cycle checkpoints, and potential effects of survival factors. Both the positively and negatively correlated genes within the apoptotic pathways provided evidence that healthy tissues in aging animals exhibit decreased apoptotic potential compared to younger animals. The results suggested that decreased physiologic apoptotic process in the dynamic septic environment of the oral mucosal tissues could increase the risk of aging tissues to undergo destructive disease processes through dysregulated inflammatory responses to the oral microbial burden.

  11. γ-Synuclein Expression Is a Malignant Index in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, J C; Chiang, M T; Lee, C H; Liu, S Y; Chiu, K C; Chou, Y T; Huang, R Y; Huang, S M; Shieh, Y S

    2016-04-01

    Dysregulation of γ-synuclein (SNCG) has been reported in many cancers; however, its role in cancer development is still controversial. Here, we examined the potential involvement of DNA methylation in regulating SNCG and its role in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We used 8 OSCC cell lines to investigate SNCG methylation and expression. SNCG methylation was examination by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and bisulfate sequencing. Cells showing a high degree of SNCG methylation were treated with 5-aza (methylation inhibitor), and changes in their methylation and expression profiles were analyzed. Functional effects of SNCG in OSCC were examined by its overexpression and knockdown. Additionally, methylation and expression of SNCG in OSCC tissues were investigated and correlated with clinicopathologic features. All OSCC cells showed detectable SNCG expression at the mRNA and protein levels. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and bisulfate sequencing revealed high SNCG expression in SCC25 cells with the unmethylated allele, and their 15 CpG islands were unmethylated. The methylated allele was detected only in OEC-M1 cells exhibiting low SNCG expression, and their CpG islands were partially methylated. 5-aza treatment in OEC-M1 cells attenuated methylation and restored SNCG expression. SNCG overexpression increased colony forming, migration, and invasion abilities in OEC-M1 cells. Silencing SNCG in SCC25 cells suppressed these behaviors. All 25 tumor-adjacent normal tissues were negative for SNCG immunostaining. SNCG upregulation was frequently observed in dysplastic and OSCC tissues. Positive SNCG expression was found in 45% (37 of 82) OSCC tissues. Positive SNCG expression in OSCC significantly correlated with cancer staging and lymph node metastasis. However, SNCG methylation did not correlate with its expression and clinicopathologic variables in OSCC tissues. DNA methylation may participate in regulating SNCG expression in some OSCC

  12. Expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 enzyme in the tissue samples of patients with various clinicopathological stages of oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Aruldoss

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2 enzyme in the tissue samples of patients with various clinicopathological stages of oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Materials and Methods: The samples for the study were divided into 4 groups. Group A comprised 20 healthy individuals with no habits. Twenty healthy individuals with habitual tobacco usage and no oral lesions were included in Group B. Twenty cases of leukoplakia diagnosed clinically and histopathologically were included in Group C. Staging was done using the modified classification and staging system of oral leukoplakia. Twenty cases of OSCC diagnosed clinically and histopathologically were included in Group D. Immunohistochemical staining was done on these 80 samples (paraffin blocks for COX-2 expression by indirect method using polymer based Horseradish peroxidase system. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman′s rank correlation test. Results: Significant and proportional increase of COX-2 staining was noted with the increase in the severity of dysplasia. Eighty percent of OSCC expressed COX-2, increasing in its intensity of staining with the decrease in differentiation. Seventy five percent of leukoplakia showed positive COX-2 expression. Only 15% of positive controls were COX-2 positive. No normal mucosa showed positive expression of COX-2. Conclusion: High expression of COX-2 is seen in advanced stages of leukoplakia and OSCC. Hence, COX-2 enzyme increases cell proliferation, promotes angiogenesis and inhibits immune surveillance in carcinogenesis; it can be an early detection marker in oral leukoplakia and a prognostic marker of OSCC.

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF VOCABULARY JOURNAL IN TEACHING STUDENTS’ VOCABULARY MASTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Rakhmawati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research is to find out the influence of vocabulary journal as media in teaching student vocabulary at the eighth grade students of SMP Al-Fajar. The quantitative method was conducted and this research is a population research, because all the member of population is taken as sample, which consisted of 30 students of eighth grade. To collect the data, the writer used pre-test and post-test, then the vocabulary test was used as the research instrument. To know whether there is an influence, the writer analyzed the data by using paired-sample T-test.The result shows that there is significant influence of vocabulary journal in teaching students’ vocabulary mastery.Keywords: Influence, vocabulary journal, students’ vocabulary mastery

  14. Anti-microbial peptide gene expression during oral vaccination: analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simuyandi, M; Kapulu, M; Kelly, P

    2016-11-01

    We have observed previously that micronutrient supplementation ameliorated suppression of α-defensin expression during diarrhoea. However, how interactions between anti-microbial peptide (AMP) expression and diarrhoeal disease are altered by micronutrient supplementation remain unclear. Using oral vaccination as a model of intestinal infection, we measured changes in AMP expression during multiple micronutrient supplementation. In the first part, volunteers underwent duodenal jejunal biopsy before and at 1, 2, 4 or 7 days after administration of one of three live, attenuated oral vaccines against rotavirus, typhoid and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. In the second part, participants were randomized to receive a multiple micronutrient supplement or placebo for 6 weeks before undergoing intestinal biopsy, vaccination against typhoid and rebiopsy after 14 days. Expression of human alpha-defensin (HD)5, HD6, hBD1, hBD2 and LL-37 was measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Taken together, the bacterial vaccines, but not rotavirus vaccine, reduced HD5 expression (P = 0·02, signed-rank test) and reduced LL-37 expression in seven of the eight individuals whose biopsies had expression prevaccination (P = 0·03). hBD2 was not detected. In the controlled trial, HD5 and HD6 expression after vaccination was lower [median ratio 0·5, interquartile range (IQR) = 0·07-2·2 and 0·58, IQR = 0·13-2·3, respectively] than before vaccination. There was no significant effect detected of micronutrient supplementation on expression of HD5, HD6, hBD1 or LL-37. We conclude that live attenuated bacterial vaccines, but not rotavirus vaccine, can reduce intestinal α-defensins, and typhoid vaccine reduced LL-37 expression. We found no evidence that micronutrient supplementation in the short term had any impact on anti-microbial peptide expression. © 2016 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Immunology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  15. The dynamics of gene expression changes in a mouse model of oral tumorigenesis may help refine prevention and treatment strategies in patients with oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Jean-Philippe; Tortereau, Antonin; Caulin, Carlos; Le Texier, Vincent; Lavergne, Emilie; Thomas, Emilie; Chabaud, Sylvie; Perol, David; Lachuer, Joël; Lang, Wenhua; Hong, Waun Ki; Goudot, Patrick; Lippman, Scott M; Bertolus, Chloé; Saintigny, Pierre

    2016-06-14

    A better understanding of the dynamics of molecular changes occurring during the early stages of oral tumorigenesis may help refine prevention and treatment strategies. We generated genome-wide expression profiles of microdissected normal mucosa, hyperplasia, dysplasia and tumors derived from the 4-NQO mouse model of oral tumorigenesis. Genes differentially expressed between tumor and normal mucosa defined the "tumor gene set" (TGS), including 4 non-overlapping gene subsets that characterize the dynamics of gene expression changes through different stages of disease progression. The majority of gene expression changes occurred early or progressively. The relevance of these mouse gene sets to human disease was tested in multiple datasets including the TCGA and the Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer project. The TGS was able to discriminate oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) from normal oral mucosa in 3 independent datasets. The OSCC samples enriched in the mouse TGS displayed high frequency of CASP8 mutations, 11q13.3 amplifications and low frequency of PIK3CA mutations. Early changes observed in the 4-NQO model were associated with a trend toward a shorter oral cancer-free survival in patients with oral preneoplasia that was not seen in multivariate analysis. Progressive changes observed in the 4-NQO model were associated with an increased sensitivity to 4 different MEK inhibitors in a panel of 51 squamous cell carcinoma cell lines of the areodigestive tract. In conclusion, the dynamics of molecular changes in the 4-NQO model reveal that MEK inhibition may be relevant to prevention and treatment of a specific molecularly-defined subgroup of OSCC.

  16. Reading comprehension in adolescents with ADHD: exploring the poor comprehender profile and individual differences in vocabulary and executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinussen, Rhonda; Mackenzie, Genevieve

    2015-03-01

    The overall objective of this study was to investigate reading comprehension in youth with and without a prior diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The first goal was to determine whether youth with and without ADHD matched in word reading ability exhibited differences in reading comprehension proficiency. The next goal was to determine whether good and poor comprehenders within the ADHD subgroup differed from each other on language and academic achievement measures. The third objective was to examine whether word recognition or oral vocabulary knowledge mediated the effect of ADHD symptoms on reading comprehension performance. Youth with ADHD scored significantly lower than the comparison youth on a standardized measure of reading comprehension. Relative to good comprehenders with ADHD, poor comprehenders with ADHD exhibited weaknesses in expressive vocabulary, mathematical reasoning, written expression, and exhibited more executive function (EF) difficulties as reported by the teacher. Expressive vocabulary and word reading, but not teacher EF ratings, accounted for unique variance in reading comprehension performance and mediated the relationship between ADHD symptoms and reading comprehension. Implications for further research and educational practice are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Facilitating vocabulary acquisition of young English language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo-Neris, Mirza J; Jackson, Carla Wood; Goldstein, Howard

    2010-07-01

    This study examined whether English-only vocabulary instruction or English vocabulary instruction enhanced with Spanish bridging produced greater word learning in young Spanish-speaking children learning English during a storybook reading intervention while considering individual language characteristics. Twenty-two Spanish-speaking children learning English (ages 4-6) who participated in a summer education program for migrant families were randomly assigned to receive 2 weeks of each instruction: (a) word expansions in English or (b) English readings with word expansions in Spanish. Researcher-created measures of target vocabulary were administered, as were English and Spanish standardized measures of language proficiency and vocabulary. Results revealed significant improvement in naming, receptive knowledge, and expressive definitions for those children who received Spanish bridging. Spanish expansions produced the greatest gains in the children's use of expressive definitions. Initial language proficiency in both languages was found to affect participants' gains from intervention, as those with limited skills in both languages showed significantly less vocabulary growth than those with strong skills in Spanish. Additional benefits to using Spanish expansions in vocabulary instruction were observed. Future research should explore additional ways of enhancing the vocabulary growth of children with limited skills in both languages in order to support and strengthen the child's first language and promote second language acquisition.

  18. Nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) expression in histologically normal margins of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelatto, Rosana; Itoiz, María-Elina; Guiñazú, Natalia; Piccini, Daniel; Gea, Susana; López-de Blanc, Silvia

    2014-05-01

    The activity of Nitric Oxide Synthase 2 (NOS2) was found in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) but not in normal mucosa. Molecular changes associated to early carcinogenesis have been found in mucosa near carcinomas, which is considered a model to study field cancerization. The aim of the present study is to analyze NOS2 expression at the histologically normal margins of OSCC. Eleven biopsy specimens of OSCC containing histologically normal margins (HNM) were analyzed. Ten biopsies of normal oral mucosa were used as controls. The activity of NOS2 was determined by immunohistochemistry. Salivary nitrate and nitrite as well as tobacco and alcohol consumption were also analyzed. The Chi-squared test was applied. Six out of the eleven HNM from carcinoma samples showed positive NOS2 activity whereas all the control group samples yielded negative (p=0.005). No statistically significant association between enzyme expression and tobacco and/or alcohol consumption and salivary nitrate and nitrite was found. NOS2 expression would be an additional evidence of alterations that may occur in a state of field cancerization before the appearance of potentially malignant morphological changes.

  19. Vocabulary Teaching Strategies in College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱荣

    2009-01-01

    We all focus on the students' abilities of listening, speaking, wading, writing and translating in college teaching. But actually, it is nothing without vocabulary. Thus, vocabulary teaching is an essential part in English teaching. However, seme traditional teaching takes vocabuhury out from the context, which costs a lot of time and energy, but students are involved in the dull circle of memorizing to forgetting to memorizing again. Finally, they lose their patience on English learning and maybe give it up. In this paper, we discuss some vocabulary teaching strategies, so as to help the memorizing of vocabulary and enhance the efficiency of vocabulary teaching and learning.

  20. Multifocal Epithelial Hyperplasia of Oral Cavity Expressing HPV 16 Gene: A Rare Entity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhat, M. P. V.; Raja Lakshmi, Chintamaneni; Sai Madhavi, N.; Bhavana, Sujana Mulk; Sarat, Gummadapu; Ramamohan, Kodali

    2013-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare contagious disease caused by human papilloma virus. Usually HPV involves either cutaneous or mucosal surfaces, whereas concomitant mucocutaneous involvement is extremely rare. We report such a unique case of multifocal epithelial hyperplasia involving multiple sites of oral cavity along with skin lesions in a 65-year-old female. We also discuss the probable multifactorial etiology and variable clinical presentations of the lesions, including evidence of HPV 16 expression, as detected by polymerase chain reaction. The present report illustrates the need for careful examination and prompt diagnosis of the disease, as it might be associated with high risk genotypes such as HPV 16 and 18. PMID:24455323

  1. Vocabulary Instruction in Commonly Used Kindergarten Core Reading Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Tanya S.; Neuman, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which commonly used core reading curricular materials supported research-based pedagogical features for oral vocabulary instruction in kindergarten. A document analysis was completed for 12 weeks of instructional materials from the teacher's editions of the 4 most widely used curricula.…

  2. HIF1-Alpha Expression Predicts Survival of Patients with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Marcelo; Mercante, Ana Maria da Cunha; Louro, Iúri Drumond; Gonçalves, Antônio José; de Carvalho, Marcos Brasilino; da Silva, Eloiza Helena Tajara; da Silva, Adriana Madeira Álvares

    2012-01-01

    Background Oral squamous cell carcinoma is an important cause of death and morbidity wordwide and effective prognostic markers are still to be discovered. HIF1α protein is associated with hypoxia response and neovascularization, essential conditions for solid tumors survival. The relationship between HIF1α expression, tumor progression and treatment response in head and neck cancer is still poorly understood. Patients and Methods In this study, we investigated HIF1α expression by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays and its relationship with clinical findings, histopathological results and survival of 66 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lower mouth. Results Our results demonstrated that high HIF1α expression is associated with local disease-free survival, independently from the choice of treatment. Furthermore, high expression of HIF1α in patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy was associated with survival, therefore being a novel prognostic marker in squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth. Additionally, our results showed that MVD was associated with HIF1α expression and local disease relapse. Conclusion These findings suggest that HIF1α expression can be used as a prognostic marker and predictor of postoperative radiotherapy response, helping the oncologist choose the best treatment for each patient. PMID:23028863

  3. EMMPRIN expression in oral squamous cell carcinomas: correlation with tumor proliferation and patient survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Luís Silva; Delgado, Maria Leonor; Ricardo, Sara; Garcez, Fernanda; do Amaral, Barbas; Pacheco, José Júlio; Lopes, Carlos; Bousbaa, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to explore the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) expression in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC), and its relation with the proliferative tumor status of OSCC. We examined EMMPRIN and Ki-67 proteins expression by immunohistochemistry in 74 cases with OSCC. Statistical analysis was conducted to examine their clinicopathological and prognostic significance in OSCC. EMMPRIN membrane expression was observed in all cases, with both membrane and cytoplasmic tumor expression in 61 cases (82.4%). EMMPRIN overexpression was observed in 56 cases (75.7%). Moderately or poorly differentiated tumors showed EMMPRIN overexpression more frequently than well-differentiated tumors (P = 0.002). Overexpression of EMMPRIN was correlated with high Ki-67 expression (P = 0.004). In the multivariate analysis, EMMPRIN overexpression reveals an adverse independent prognostic value for cancer-specific survival (CSS) (P = 0.034). Our results reveal that EMMPRIN protein is overexpressed in more than two-thirds of OSCC cases, especially in high proliferative and less differentiated tumors. The independent value of EMMPRIN overexpression in CSS suggests that this protein could be used as an important biological prognostic marker for patients with OSCC. Moreover, the high expression of EMMPRIN makes it a possible therapeutic target in OSCC patients.

  4. Modelling Vocabulary Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meara, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes some simple simulation models of vocabulary attrition. The attrition process is modelled using a random autonomous Boolean network model, and some parallels with real attrition data are drawn. The paper argues that applying a complex systems approach to attrition can provide some important insights, which suggest that real…

  5. Building Your Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ScottThornbury

    2004-01-01

    “I'm not 100% convinced that memorizing the dictionary is the best way of improving your vocabulary,” says the character played by Hugh Grant in Woody Allen's film Small Time Crooks.Yet why not?Ifyou could memorize the dictionary-or even

  6. Podoplanin expression in tumor-free resection margins of oral squamous cell carcinomas: an immunohistochemical and fractal analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritescu, C; Raica, M; Pirici, D; Simionescu, C; Mogoanta, L; Stinga, A C; Stinga, A S; Ribatti, D

    2010-06-01

    Podoplanin is involved in tumorigenesis and cancer progression in head and neck malignancies and its expression is not restricted to lymphatic vessel endothelium. The aim of this study was to establish podoplanin expression in the tumor-free resection margins of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) and to evaluate the geometric complexity of the lymphatic vessels in oral mucosa by utilizing fractal analysis. As concerns the podoplanin expression in noncancerous tissue, forty tumor-free resection margins from OSCCs were investigated utilizing immunohistochemistry for D2-40 antibody and image densitometry analysis. Podoplanin expression was extremely low in basal cells, especially in resection margins of OSCCs developed in the lower lip regions. However, a highly variable D2-40 expression in tumor-free resection margins associated with hyperplastic or dysplastic lesions was identified. Moreover, podoplanin expression also extended to the basal layer of the lower lip skin appendages, the myoepithelial cells of acini and ducts of minor salivary glands, and other structures from the oral cavity. As concerns the study of the density and complexity of oral lymphatic vessels architecture by means of immunohistochemistry (D2-40, CD31 and Ki-67 antibodies) and fractal analysis, we demonstrated that in normal oral mucosa the geometry of the lymphatic vessels was less complex at the level of the lower lip compared to the anterior part of the oral floor mucosa or the tongue. A comparative analysis between the normal and pathological aspects revealed statistically significant differences between the fractal dimension (FD) of the vessels' outline, especially in the tongue. Fractal analysis proved an increasing lymphatic network complexity from normal to premalignant oral mucosal lesions, providing additional prognostic information in oral malignant tumors.

  7. Reading vocabulary knowledge and deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, P

    1996-01-01

    With respect to reading vocabulary knowledge and deafness, this article addresses two broad questions: (1) Why is vocabulary knowledge related to reading comprehension ability? (2) How is reading vocabulary (i.e., word meanings) acquired? The article argues that the answers to these questions are best addressed by a vocabulary acquisition model labeled the knowledge model. In essence, this model asserts that both breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge are critical. It is necessary to teach vocabulary, especially to poor readers, who are not likely to derive many word meanings from the use of context during natural or deliberate reading situations. On the basis of theoretical and research syntheses, the article offers implications for vocabulary instruction for deaf children and adolescents.

  8. The Relationship between Anger Expression and Its Indices and Oral Lichen Planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdipour, Masoumeh; Taghavi Zenouz, Ali; Farnam, Alireza; Attaran, Rana; Farhang, Sara; Safarnavadeh, Maryam; Gholizadeh, Narges; Azari-Marhabi, Saranaz

    2016-05-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common inflammatory disease with unknown etiology. Depression, stress and anxiety are psychological factors that their influence on the expression of lichen planus by affecting the immune system's function has been confirmed. There is a probable relationship between anger and OLP expression. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the association of "anger" and OLP. In this descriptive study 95 subjects were included in 3 groups. A: patients with oral lichen planus, B: positive control, C: negative control. Anger and its indices were assessed by the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (STAXI-2) questionnaire, and pain was measured via the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The collected data were analyzed statistically using SPSS 18 software. The lichen planus and positive control groups bore higher total anger index (AX index) values compared with the negative control. Comparing anger expression-in (AXI) among the lichen planus and negative control groups revealed higher grades in lichen planus group. Evaluating the pain severity index (VAS) data and anger indices in lichen planus group, Spearman's Rank Correlation Test revealed a significant correlation between TAngR (reactional anger traits) and pain severity. The findings of this study indicated that there was a significant correlation between anger control and suppression of lichen planus development. On the other hand, the patients with more severe pain mostly expressed their anger physically. Based on the findings, we can make the claim that anger suppression and its control-in (gathering tension) may play a role in the development of lichen planus as a known psychosomatic disorders.

  9. Immunohistochemical analysis of tenascin expression in different grades of oral submucous fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalaj Tak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Tenascin, a glycoprotein, is one of the major constituents of extracellular matrix, which may function in organizing the stroma in normal and pathological conditions. The study aimed to correlate the structural organization of tenascin with the pathological progression of disease from early, moderate and advanced changes in oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF. Study Design: A retrospective cross-sectional immunohistochemical (IHC analysis of OSMF cases was performed. Total 70 slide samples were prepared for the study from 35 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks with 10 each from histologically proven and graded as early, moderate and advanced OSMF and 5 of normal oral mucosa. The IHC sections were analyzed for the intensity and pattern of tenascin expression at the junction of epithelium and connective tissue (ECJ and deeper connective tissue (CT, as well as presence or absence of staining around inflammatory cells, fibroblast and endothelial cells using anti-human tenascin. Result: Most of the OSMF cases showed retention of antigen at ECJ and in deeper CT. Its expression varied in different grades as well as around inflammatory cells, fibroblast and endothelial cells in same tissue section. Highly significant P values of 0.001 and 0.003 were obtained for tenascin intensity and pattern, respectively, at ECJ in different OSMF grades. In addition, for the expression of tenascin pattern in deeper CT among different OSMF grades, a significant P value of 0.018 was obtained. Conclusion: A differential expression of tenascin was observed with the progression of disease. The expression of tenascin as bright and continuous deposition at ECJ in early and moderate stages of OSMF signifies either proliferative organization within the overlying epithelium or an epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. However, a weak immunoreactivity of tenascin at ECJ was observed in advanced stage of OSMF.

  10. The Level of Spoken Vocabulary Used by University English Professors and Its Effect on Students

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    Omid Zarei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It seems that the vocabulary knowledge of Iranian university students for English translation is below minimal comprehension. One possible factor affecting the vocabulary knowledge of students is the oral input presented by professors in their classes. This research seeks to analyze the role of oral input in vocabulary learning. For this reason, twenty- three content courses from B.A. English translation syllabus were selected. Hence, the professors` lectures were recorded and then transcribed. Next the data was analyzed with Range 32, the software developed by Paul Nation. The findings revealed that almost ninety percent of the oral vocabulary items used by professors were in the first 1000 word families that are the most frequent words in English. Moreover, the results showed that the level of vocabulary items used by professors did not change over the past semesters. Therefore, it is clear that one of the possible reasons for students’ inadequate vocabulary knowledge is lack of rich oral input, because students do not have sufficiently strong motivation to work harder to comprehend their instructors. The results of this research bring into focus the need for more systematic preparation and presentation of the vocabulary items in the course syllabus.

  11. Gestural development and its relation to a child's early vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraljević, Jelena Kuvač; Cepanec, Maja; Simleša, Sanja

    2014-05-01

    Gesture and language are tightly connected during the development of a child's communication skills. Gestures mostly precede and define the way of language development; even opposite direction has been found. Few recent studies have focused on the relationship between specific gestures and specific word categories, emphasising that the onset of one gesture type predicts the onset of certain word categories or of the earliest word combinations. The aim of this study was to analyse predicative roles of different gesture types on the onset of first word categories in a child's early expressive vocabulary. Our data show that different types of gestures predict different types of word production. Object gestures predict open-class words from the age of 13 months, and gestural routines predict closed-class words and social terms from 8 months. Receptive vocabulary has a strong mediating role for all linguistically defined categories (open- and closed-class words) but not for social terms, which are the largest word category in a child's early expressive vocabulary. Accordingly, main contribution of this study is to define the impact of different gesture types on early expressive vocabulary and to determine the role of receptive vocabulary in gesture-expressive vocabulary relation in the Croatian language. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Oral vaccination of mice against rodent malaria with recombinant expressing MSP-119

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hong Zhang; Pei-Hong Jiang; Ning-Jun Li; Mi Shi; Weida Huang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To construct the recombinant Lactococcus lactis as oral delivery vaccination against malaria.METHODS: The C-terminal 19-ku fragments of MSP1(MSP-119) of Plasmodium yoelii265-BY was expressed in L. lactis and the recombinant L. lactis was administered orally to BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. After seven interval vaccinations within 4 wk, the mice were challenged with P.yoelii 265-BY parasites of erythrocytic stage. The protective efficacy of recombinant L.lactiswas evaluated.RESULTS: The peak parasitemias in average for the experiment groups of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were 0.8±0.4% and 20.8±26.5%, respectively, and those of their control groups were 12.0±0.8% and 60.8±9.6%, respectively. None of the BALB/c mice in both experimental group and control group died during the experiment.However, all the C57BL/6 mice in the control group died within 23 d and all the vaccinated mice survived well.CONCLUSION: The results imply the potential of recombinant L.lactis as oral delivery vaccination against malaria.

  13. Expression of E-cadherin and involucrin in leukoplakia and oral cancer: an immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Alessandra Dutra da; Maraschin, Bruna Jalfim; Laureano, Natalia Koerich; Daroit, Natália; Brochier, Fernanda; Bündrich, Leonardo; Visioli, Fernanda; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki

    2017-03-06

    To assess the immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical correlation of adhesion (E-cadherin) and cell differentiation (involucrin) molecules in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Cytological samples and biopsies were obtained from male and female patients aged over 30 years with oral leukoplakia (n = 30) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (n = 22). Cell scrapings and the biopsy were performed at the site of the lesion and histological slides were prepared for the immunocytochemical analysis of exfoliated oral mucosal cells and for the immunohistochemical analysis of biopsy tissues using E-cadherin and involucrin. Spearman's correlation and kappa coefficients were used to assess the correlation and level of agreement between the techniques. Immunostaining for E-cadherin and involucrin by both techniques was similar in the superficial layers of the histological sections compared with cell scrapings. However, there was no statistical correlation and agreement regarding the immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical expression of E-cadherin and involucrin in oral leukoplakia (R = 0.01, p = 0.958) (Kappa = 0.017, p = 0.92) or in oral squamous cell carcinoma (R = 0.26, p = 0.206) (Kappa = 0.36, p = 0.07). The immunoexpression of E-cadherin and involucrin in tissues is consistent with the expression patterns observed in exfoliated oral mucosal cells, despite the lack of a statistically significant correlation. There is an association of the histopathological characteristics of leukoplakia with the expression E-cadherin and of the microscopic aspects of oral squamous cell carcinoma with immunohistochemical expression of involucrin.

  14. Expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers at the invasive front of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Cristina Melo Carneiro COSTA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is one of the most common malignances. In epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, epithelial cells switch to mesenchymal-like cells exhibiting high mobility. This migratory phenotype is significant during tumor invasion and metastasis. Objective : The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of the EMT markers E-cadherin, N-cadherin and vimentin in OSCC. Material and Methods : Immunohistochemical detection of E-cadherin, N-cadherin and vimentin was performed on 20 OSCC samples. Differences in the expression of each protein at the invasive front (IF and in the central/superficial areas (CSA of the tumor were assessed. Differences in the expression of each protein at the IF of both histologically high- and low-invasive OSCCs were evaluated. Associations among expression of proteins at the IF were assessed. Correlations between the expression levels of each protein at the IF and the tumor stage and clinical nodal status were also evaluated. Results : Reduced expression of E-cadherin was detected in 15 samples (75%. E-cadherin expression was reduced at the IF when compared to the CSA and in high-invasive tumors when compared to low-invasive tumors. All samples were negative for N-cadherin, even though one sample showed an inconspicuous expression. Positive expression of vimentin was observed in 6 samples (30%. Nevertheless, there was no difference in vimentin expression between the IF and the CSA regions or between the low- and high-invasive tumors. Furthermore, no association was observed among protein expression levels at the IF. Finally, no correlations were observed between each protein’s expression levels and tumor stage or clinical nodal status. Conclusions : Reduced E-cadherin expression at the IF and its association with histological invasiveness suggest that this protein is a noteworthy EMT marker in OSCC. Although vimentin was also detected as an EMT marker, its expression was neither limited to

  15. Listening Comprehension, Oral Expression, Reading Comprehension, and Written Expression: Related yet Unique Language Systems in Grades 1, 3, 5, and 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    Age-normed tests of listening comprehension, oral expression, reading comprehension, and written expression were administered in Grades 1 (n = 128), 3, and 5, or 3 (n = 113), 5, and 7. Confirmatory factor analyses compared 1- and 4-factor models at each grade level and supported a 4-factor model of language by ear, mouth, eye, and hand. Multiple…

  16. Immunohistochemical expression of p53, p16 and hTERT in oral squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Correa Abrahao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Oral carcinogenesis is a multi-step process. One possible step is the development of potentially malignant disorders known as leukoplakia and erytroplakia. The objective of this study was to use immunohistochemistry to analyze the patterns of expression of the cell-cycle regulatory proteins p53 and p16INK4a in potentially malignant disorders (PMD of the oral mucosa (with varying degrees of dysplasia and in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC to correlate them with the expression of telomerase (hTERT. Fifteen PMD and 30 OSCC tissue samples were analyzed. Additionally, 5 cases of oral epithelial hyperplasia (OEH were added to analyze clinically altered mucosa presenting as histological hyperplasia without dysplasia. p53 positivity was observed in 93.3% of PMD, in 63.3% of OSCC and in 80% of OEH. Although there was no correlation between p53 expression and the grade of dysplasia, all cases with severe dysplasia presented p53 suprabasal immunoexpression. p16INK4a expression was observed in 26.7% of PMD, in 43.3% of OSCC and in 2 cases of OEH. The p16INK4a expression in OEH, PMD and OSCC was unable to differentiate non-dysplastic from dysplastic oral epithelium. hTERT positivity was observed in all samples of OEH and PMD and in 90% of OSCC. The high hTERT immunoexpression in all three lesions indicates that telomerase is present in clinically altered oral mucosa but does not differentiate hyperplastic from dysplastic oral epithelium. In PMD of the oral mucosa, the p53 immunoexpression changes according to the degree of dysplasia by mechanisms independent of p16INK4a and hTERT.

  17. A Comparison of Collection Techniques for Gene Expression Analysis of Human Oral Taste Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Nicholas Steven; Liu, Dongli; Shaw, Jan; Hannan, Garry; Duesing, Konsta; Keast, Russell

    2016-01-01

    Variability in human taste perception is associated with both genetic and environmental factors. The influence of taste receptor expression on this variability is unknown, in part, due to the difficulty in obtaining human oral tissue that enables quantitative expression measures of taste genes. In a comparison of six current techniques (Oragene RNeasy Kit, Isohelix swab, Livibrush cytobrush, tongue saliva, cheek saliva collection, and fungiform papillae biopsy), we identify the fungiform papillae biopsy is the optimal sampling technique to analyse human taste gene expression. The fungiform papillae biopsy resulted in the highest RNA integrity, enabling amplification of all the assessed taste receptor genes (TAS1R1, TAS1R2, TAS1R3, SCNN1A and CD36) and taste tissue marker genes (NCAM1, GNAT3 and PLCβ2). Furthermore, quantitative expression was observed in a subset of taste genes assessed from the saliva collection techniques (cheek saliva, tongue saliva and Oragene RNA kit). These saliva collection techniques may be useful as a non-invasive alternative sampling technique to the fungiform papillae biopsy. Identification of the fungiform papillae biopsy as the optimal collection method will facilitate further research into understanding the effect of gene expression on variability in human taste perception.

  18. A Comparison of Collection Techniques for Gene Expression Analysis of Human Oral Taste Tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Steven Archer

    Full Text Available Variability in human taste perception is associated with both genetic and environmental factors. The influence of taste receptor expression on this variability is unknown, in part, due to the difficulty in obtaining human oral tissue that enables quantitative expression measures of taste genes. In a comparison of six current techniques (Oragene RNeasy Kit, Isohelix swab, Livibrush cytobrush, tongue saliva, cheek saliva collection, and fungiform papillae biopsy, we identify the fungiform papillae biopsy is the optimal sampling technique to analyse human taste gene expression. The fungiform papillae biopsy resulted in the highest RNA integrity, enabling amplification of all the assessed taste receptor genes (TAS1R1, TAS1R2, TAS1R3, SCNN1A and CD36 and taste tissue marker genes (NCAM1, GNAT3 and PLCβ2. Furthermore, quantitative expression was observed in a subset of taste genes assessed from the saliva collection techniques (cheek saliva, tongue saliva and Oragene RNA kit. These saliva collection techniques may be useful as a non-invasive alternative sampling technique to the fungiform papillae biopsy. Identification of the fungiform papillae biopsy as the optimal collection method will facilitate further research into understanding the effect of gene expression on variability in human taste perception.

  19. Analysis of angiogenic markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma-gene and protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Susanne; Sielker, Sonja; Purcz, Nikolai; Sproll, Christoph; Acil, Yahya; Kleinheinz, Johannes

    2015-06-05

    Therapeutic strategies attacking oral squamous cell carcinoma have not essentially succeeded to improve long-term prognosis and overall survival over the last decades. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to illuminate the molecular regulation of angiogenesis in this tumour entity in order to demask novel markers of prognosis or therapeutic approach. A panel of significant transcriptional alterations in angiogenic genes of 83 cancer samples was established by comparison to 30 samples of healthy oral mucosa with microarray technique. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to trace the signalling cascade from gene to protein level. A distinctive expression profile of VEGFA, EFNB2, PECAM1/CD31, ANGPT1 and ANGPT2 was revealed: VEGFA, EFNB2, and ANGPT2 were found overexpressed in 84 % to 95 % of tumour samples. In contrast, the expression of CD31 and ANGPT1 was downregulated in 80 % to 95 % of tumour samples. IHC confirmed results of the microarray analysis. Tumours with lymphatic spread showed higher gene expression rates of VEGFA, EFNB2 and ANGPT2 in moderately differentiated tumours and of VEGFA and EFNB2 in small tumours, respectively. The ANGPT1/ ANGPT2 transcription ratio was found decreased in larger tumours and especially in tumours without lymphatic spread. A characteristic expression profile of angiogenic markers was established. The specific overexpression of EFNB2 in small tumours with lymphatic spread and the typical decrease of the ANGPT1/ ANGPT2 ratio in larger tumours give weight to EFNB2 and angiopoietins as prognostic factors and potential therapeutic targets.

  20. Validity of a Parent-Report Measure of Vocabulary and Grammar for Spanish-Speaking Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thal, Donna; Jackson-Maldonado, Donna; Acosta, Dora

    2000-01-01

    The validity of the Fundacion MacArthur Inventaria de Habilidades Communicativas: Palabras y Enuciados was examined with twenty 20- and nineteen 28-month-old, typically developing, monolingual, Spanish-speaking children in Mexico. Results indicated validity for assessing expressive vocabulary in 20-month-olds and expressive vocabulary and grammar…

  1. The pace of vocabulary growth helps predict later vocabulary skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Meredith L; Raudenbush, Stephen W; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words--some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (socioeconomic status [SES], parent input, child gesture) of vocabulary growth between 14 and 46 months (n = 62) and then uses growth estimates to predict children's vocabulary at 54 months. Velocity and acceleration in vocabulary development at 30 months predicted later vocabulary, particularly for children from low-SES backgrounds. Understanding the pace of early vocabulary growth thus improves our ability to predict school readiness and may help identify children at risk for starting behind.

  2. Dynamic changes in the gene expression profile during rat oral carcinogenesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shuyun; Zhang, Ji; Du, Yanzhi; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Zengtong; Lou, Jianing

    2016-03-01

    The typical progression of oral cancer is from hyperplastic epithelial lesions through dysplasia to invasive carcinoma. It is important to investigate malignant oral cancer progression and development in order to determine useful approaches of prevention of dysplastic lesions. The present study aimed to gain insights into the underlying molecular mechanism of oral carcinogenesis by establishing a rat model of oral carcinogenesis using 4‑nitroquinoline 1‑oxide. Subsequently, transcription profile analysis using an integrating microarray was performed. The dynamic gene expression changes of the six stages of rat oral carcinogenesis (normal, mild epithelial dysplasia, moderate dysplasia, severe dysplasia, carcinoma in situ and oral squamous cell carcinomas) were analyzed using component plane presentations (CPP)‑self‑organizing map (SOM). Six genes were verified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity assay kit. Numerous differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified during rat oral carcinogenesis. CPP‑SOM determined that these DEGs were primarily enriched during cell cycle, apoptosis, inflammatory response and tricarboxylic acid cycle, indicating the coordinated regulation of molecular networks. In addition, the expression of specific DEGs, such as janus kinase 3, cyclin‑dependent kinase A‑1, B‑cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia/lymphoma 2‑like 2, nuclear factor‑κB, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1A, cyclin D1 and SDH were identified to have high concordance with the results from microarray data. The current study demonstrated that oral carcinogenesis is a multi‑step and multi‑gene process, with a distinct pattern alteration along a continuum of malignant transformation. In addition, this comprehensive investigation provided a theoretical basis for the understanding of the molecular alterations associated with oral carcinogenesis.

  3. A comparison of finger language,vocabulary formation and sentence expression in Chinese and Japanese sign languages%中日手语手指语、词汇构成和句式表达的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓梅; 王惠

    2011-01-01

    通过对中日手语的界定,分析了两国手语在手指语、词汇构成、句式表达等方面的异同点,便于学习者理解和掌握中日手语的基本知识,对中日两国聋人之间的沟通和交流起到促进作用。%Through defining Chinese and Japanese sign languages,this article analyzes the similarities and differences in Chinese and Japanese sign languages,including finger language,vocabulary formation and sentence expression,which will be beneficial for learners

  4. Association of pituitary tumor transforming gene expression with early oral tumorigenesis and malignant progression of precancerous lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Li-Jen; Hsu, Yi-Hsin; Yu, Chuan-Hang; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Jhan, Jing-Ru; Chang, Lien-Cheng; Lin, Jing-Jer; Lou, Pei-Jen

    2011-05-01

    Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG1) is overexpressed in many types of human cancers and is involved in late-stage tumor progression. The role of PTTG1 in initiating tumorigenesis is unclear. PTTG1 expression was assessed in precancerous lesions and squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity (OSCC). The association between the protein expression and clinicopathologic parameters was analyzed. The expression level of PTTG1 upon carcinogen treatment was also investigated. PTTG1 was overexpressed in both precancerous lesions and OSCC. The expression of PTTG1 was associated with carcinogen exposure in vivo and in vitro. PTTG1 overexpression was an independent factor for oral cancer development in precancerous lesions. This study provides the first evidence that PTTG1 is involved in the early stages of oral tumorigenesis. Carcinogen exposure may cause the initial induction of PTTG1 expression in oral precancerous lesions. PTTG1 overexpression is a potential prognosticator for malignant progression of oral precancerous lesions. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A sputum gene expression signature predicts oral corticosteroid response in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthon, Bronwyn S; Gibson, Peter G; Wood, Lisa G; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley K; Baines, Katherine J

    2017-06-01

    Biomarkers that predict responses to oral corticosteroids (OCS) facilitate patient selection for asthma treatment. We hypothesised that asthma patients would respond differently to OCS therapy, with biomarkers and inflammometry predicting response.Adults with stable asthma underwent a randomised controlled cross-over trial of 50 mg prednisolone daily for 10 days (n=55). A six-gene expression biomarker signature (CLC, CPA3, DNASE1L3, IL1B, ALPL and CXCR2) in induced sputum, and eosinophils in blood and sputum were assessed and predictors of response were investigated (changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (ΔFEV1), six-item Asthma Control Questionnaire score (ΔACQ6) or exhaled nitric oxide fraction (ΔFeNO)).At baseline, responders to OCS (n=25) had upregulated mast cell CPA3 gene expression, poorer lung function, and higher sputum and blood eosinophils. Following treatment, CLC and CPA3 gene expression was reduced, whereas DNASE1L3, IL1B, ALPL and CXCR2 expression remained unchanged. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed the six-gene expression biomarker signature as a better predictor of clinically significant responses to OCS than blood and sputum eosinophils.The six-gene expression signature including eosinophil and Th2 related mast cell biomarkers showed greater precision in predicting OCS response in stable asthma. Thus, a novel sputum gene expression signature highlights an additional role of mast cells in asthma, and could be a useful measurement to guide OCS therapy in asthma. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  6. Gene expression profile of oral squamous cell carcinomas from Sri Lankan betel quid users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhr, Mai Lill; Dysvik, Bjarte; Bruland, Ove; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Amaratunga, Asoka N; Jonassen, Inge; Vasstrand, Endre N; Ibrahim, Salah O

    2007-11-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the major health problems in Sri Lanka and the disease is associated with the habit of Betel Quid (BQ) chewing. Using 35k oligo microarrays, we analyzed the gene expression profile of 15 Sri Lankan patients diagnosed with OSCCs and pair-wised normal controls and correlated the findings with the clinicopathological data. Following the recording of the scanned array images and data analysis, results for selected candidate genes were verified using QRT-PCR. Upon analysis, a total of 263 genes [71 (27%) of unknown functions previously not reported in OSCCs and 192 (73%) of known functions] were found as differentially expressed between tumors and controls. For the genes with known functions, 66 (34%; such as COL4A1, MMP1, MMP3, PLAU, SPARC and KRT19) were previously reported in OSCC and for the remaining 126 (66%; such as CD47, APOL3, RRAGC, BPIL1 and AZGP1) this is the first report in OSCCs. Hierarchical clustering of the differentially expressed 263 genes grouped the samples into several clusters with the larger one being dominated by tumors of stage 3 and 4. Two cases (a verrucous SCC and an advanced SCC), did not cluster with any of the other samples. We found two main biological pathways (cell communication and integrin-mediated cell adhesion) and 5 gene ontology categories (transcription regulator activity, structural molecule activity, intracellular signaling, cytoskeleton and signal transduction) of relevance to the OSCCs examined. Results from the QRT-PCR verified the results from the microarray experiment. This study provides valuable information on gene expression profile of OSCCs of habitual users of BQ from Sri Lanka. Of particular interest were the list of genes of known and unknown functions and the two biological pathways that we suggest as candidate genes in oral cancers associated with BQ chewing in Southeast Asia, in particular Sri Lanka. The suggested candidate genes might be used as molecular biomarkers

  7. The effect of vocabulary notebooks on vocabulary acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Bozkurt, Neval

    2007-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Bilkent University, 2007. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2007. Includes bibliographical references leaves 82-87 This study investigated the effectiveness of vocabulary notebooks on vocabulary acquisition, and the attitudes of teachers and learners towards keeping vocabulary notebooks. The study was conducted with the participation of 60 pre-intermediate level students, divided into one treatment ...

  8. Systemic immune responses to oral administration of recombinant attenuated Salmonella typhimurium expressing Helicobacter pyloriurease in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Feng Liu; Jia-Lu Hu; Qi-Zheng Quan; Zi-Qin Sun; Yao-Jun Wang; Feng Qi

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether attenuated Salmonellatyphimurium producing Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori) urease subunit B (UreB) could induce systemic immune responses against H pylori infection.METHODS: Attenuated S. typhimurium SL3261 was used as a live carrier of plasmid pTC01-UreB, which encodes recombinant H pylori UreB protein. Balb/c mice were given oral immunization with two doses of SL3261/pTC01-UreBat a 3-wk interval. Twelve weeks after oral immunization of mice, serum IgG antibodies were evaluated by ELISA assay. Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin 10 (IL-10)in the supernatant of spleen cell culture were also assessed by ELISA.RESULTS: After oral immunization of mice, serum specific IgG antibodies against UreB in vaccine group were much higher than that in PBS and native Salmonella SL3261control groups (A450, 0.373±0.100 vs 0.053±0.022, 0.142±0.039, respectively, P<0.01). Moreover, IFN-γ in vaccine group was on average 167.53±29.93 pg/mL, which showed a significant increase vs that of PBS control group (35.68±3.55 pg/mL, P<0.01). There was also a tremendous increase of IL-L0 in vaccine group compared to PBS and SL3261 control groups (275.13±27.65 pg/mL vs 56.00±7.15 pg/mL, 68.02±15.03 pg/mL, respectively, P<0.01). In addition, no obvious side effects in mice and no change in gastric inflammation were observed. CONCLUSION: The multiple oral immunizations with the attenuated S. typhimurium expressing H pylori UreB could induce significant systemic immune responses, suggesting it may be used as oral vaccine against H pylori infection.

  9. Use of archived biopsy specimens to study gene expression in oral mucosa from chemotherapy-treated cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougeot, Jean-Luc C; Mougeot, Farah K B; Peterson, Douglas E; Padilla, Ricardo J; Brennan, Michael T; Lockhart, Peter B

    2013-05-01

    Oral mucositis caused by cancer chemotherapy can result in significant clinical complications. There is a strategic need to accelerate the delineation of the pathobiology. This proof-of-principle study was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of studying archived oral mucosal specimens to further delineate oral mucositis pathobiology. Twenty-nine formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of 25-year-old oral mucosa autopsy specimens from cancer chemotherapy patients were studied. Standardized technology was utilized, including RNA isolation and amplification, array hybridization, and gene expression analysis. A predominance of DNA damage in buccal mucosal basal keratinocytes was observed. Data comparing basal cells from buccal vs. gingival mucosa identified differential gene expression of host responses in relation to pathways relevant to oral mucositis pathogenesis, including responses to cancer-associated inflammation. This proof-of-principle study demonstrated that archived oral mucosal specimens may be a potentially valuable resource for the study of oral mucositis in cancer patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The association between perinatal testosterone concentration and early vocabulary development: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollier, Lauren P; Mattes, Eugen; Maybery, Murray T; Keelan, Jeffrey A; Hickey, Martha; Whitehouse, Andrew J O

    2013-02-01

    Prenatal exposure to testosterone is known to affect fetal brain maturation and later neurocognitive function. However, research on the effects of prenatal testosterone exposure has been limited by indirect measures of testosterone and small unrepresentative samples. This study investigated whether bioavailable testosterone (BioT) concentrations in umbilical cord blood are associated with expressive vocabulary development, in a large birth cohort. Cord blood samples were taken immediately after delivery and expressive vocabulary was measured at two years of age using the language development survey (LDS). BioT concentration significantly predicted vocabulary size in males (n=197), such that higher concentrations were associated with lower LDS scores, indicating smaller vocabulary. This relationship between BioT concentrations and vocabulary at aged 2 years was not observed in girls (n=176). Higher circulating prenatal testosterone concentrations at birth may be associated with reduced vocabulary in early childhood among boys.

  11. VOCABULARY AND LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrudan Cristiana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have looked at the difference between teaching language structure and teaching vocabulary. We have discussed how counts of frequency alone are not enough to determine what words should be taught. We have seen that knowing a word means more than just knowing its meaning. Even that is problematical since meaning includes sense relations and context, for example. To know a word we also need to know about its use, how it is formed and what grammatical behavior it provokes. Above all, in this paper, we have approached the idea of how vocabulary teaching and learning need to be emphasized in order for students to be competent language users.

  12. English Vocabulary Memorizing Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯首慧

    2014-01-01

    With the high-speed development of society, English has already become a university language and learning English is the basic requirement to learners. Vocabulary learning is one of the key factors in English Learning. This paper focuses on the vocabulary memories strategies.%随着社会高速发展,对任何学习者来说,掌握英语,这个世界性语言是学习中最基本的要求。词汇学习当然是英语学习中关键因素之一。本文将侧重介绍词汇记忆的策略。

  13. [Anglicisms in the German medical vocabulary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleyer, F

    1985-01-01

    In view of an ever-increasing infiltration of the German medical vocabulary by Britishisms and Americanisms, a linguistic attempt was made to categorize this phraseology as follows: more or less incorporated terminology, "internationalized" terms, identical translations, unnecessary use of English expressions instead of German synonyms, borrowing from the English with an alteration of the original meaning, and German neologisms on the basis of English vocabular material. Specimens from all these categories are enumerated.

  14. Direct and indirect control of oral ectoderm regulatory gene expression by Nodal signaling in the sea urchin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Enhu; Materna, Stefan C; Davidson, Eric H

    2012-09-15

    The Nodal signaling pathway is known from earlier work to be an essential mediator of oral ectoderm specification in the sea urchin embryo, and indirectly, of aboral ectoderm specification as well. Following expression of the Nodal ligand in the future oral ectoderm during cleavage, a sequence of regulatory gene activations occur within this territory which depend directly or indirectly on nodal gene expression. Here we describe additional regulatory genes that contribute to the oral ectoderm regulatory state during specification in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, and show how their spatial expression changes dynamically during development. By means of system wide perturbation analyses we have significantly improved current knowledge of the epistatic relations among the regulatory genes of the oral ectoderm. From these studies there emerge diverse circuitries relating downstream regulatory genes directly and indirectly to Nodal signaling. A key intermediary regulator, the role of which had not previously been discerned, is the not gene. In addition to activating several genes earlier described as targets of Nodal signaling, the not gene product acts to repress other oral ectoderm genes, contributing crucially to the bilateral spatial organization of the embryonic oral ectoderm. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The electric vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheils, James

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1600s, the developments in the understanding of electrical phenomena have frequently altered the models and metaphors used by physicists to describe and explain their experiments. However, to this day, certain relics of past theories still drench the vocabulary of the subject, serving as distracting fog for future students. This article attempts, through historical illumination, to shine through the mist of electrostatic terminology and offer a clearer view of the classical model of electricity.

  16. Features of Medical English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翠萍

    2015-01-01

    Medical English is relatively more difficult than general English,especially its vocabulary.Those medical English words are long and complex,making it hard to remember.But medical English vocabulary has its own features,which would help us in learning vocabulary.On the basis of many medical English materials,the paper explores the features of etymology,affixes and roots of medical English.

  17. Features of Medical English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翠萍

    2015-01-01

    Medical English is relatively more difficult than general English,especially its vocabulary.Those medical English words are long and complex,making it hard to remember. But medical English vocabulary has its own features,which would help us in learning vocabulary.On the basis of many medical English materials,the paper explores the features of etymology,affixes and roots of medical English.

  18. Summarizing Vocabularies in the Global Semantic Web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Zhang; Gong Cheng; Wei-Yi Ge; Yu-Zhong Qu

    2009-01-01

    In the Semantic Web, vocabularies are defined and shared among knowledge workers to describe linked data for scientific, industrial or daily life usage. With the rapid growth of online vocabularies, there is an emergent need for approaches helping users understand vocabularies quickly. In this paper, we study the summarization of vocabularies to help users understand vocabularies. Vocabulary summarization is based on the structural analysis and pragmatics statistics in the global Semantic Web. Local Bipartite Model and Expanded Bipartite Model of a vocabulary are proposed to characterize the structure in a vocabulary and links between vocabularies. A structural importance for each RDF sentence in the vocabulary is assessed using link analysis. Meanwhile, pragmatics importance of each RDF sentence is assessed using the statistics of instantiation of its terms in the Semantic Web. Summaries are produced by extracting important RDF sentences in vocabularies under a re-ranking strategy. Preliminary experiments show that it is feasible to help users understand a vocabulary through its summary.

  19. Enhancing vocabulary acquisition by encouraging extensive reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚亚芳

    2012-01-01

    Current situation of vocabulary teaching The importance of vocabulary in learning a second or foreign language has been widely acknowledged and the findings of a sea of research studies have convinced us to regard vocabulary k nowledge as a

  20. Learners' independent records of vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Leeke, Philip

    1999-01-01

    Handbooks recommend a variety of quite complicated procedures for learning and remembering vocabulary, but most learners only engage in very simple procedures. The aim of this project was to establish a basis for identifying optimal vocabulary recording procedures by finding out what learners...... currently do. We administered a questionnaire, interviewed learners who said that they kept vocabulary records of some kind and examined their records. Two-thirds had given up making vocabulary lists on entering the L2 environment and/or starting to read extensively, but several made interesting lists...

  1. Oral immunogenicity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus antigen expressed in transgenic banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hui-Ting; Chia, Min-Yuan; Pang, Victor Fei; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling

    2013-04-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a persistent threat of economically significant influence to the swine industry worldwide. Recombinant DNA technology coupled with tissue culture technology is a viable alternative for the inexpensive production of heterologous proteins in planta. Embryogenic cells of banana cv. 'Pei chiao' (AAA) have been transformed with the ORF5 gene of PRRSV envelope glycoprotein (GP5) using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and have been confirmed. Recombinant GP5 protein levels in the transgenic banana leaves were detected and ranged from 0.021%-0.037% of total soluble protein. Pigs were immunized with recombinant GP5 protein by orally feeding transgenic banana leaves for three consecutive doses at a 2-week interval and challenged with PRRSV at 7 weeks postinitial immunization. A vaccination-dependent gradational increase in the elicitation of serum and saliva anti-PRRSV IgG and IgA was observed. Furthermore, significantly lower viraemia and tissue viral load were recorded when compared with the pigs fed with untransformed banana leaves. The results suggest that transgenic banana leaves expressing recombinant GP5 protein can be an effective strategy for oral delivery of recombinant subunit vaccines in pigs and can open new avenues for the production of vaccines against PRRSV.

  2. Weaknesses in semantic, syntactic and oral language expression contribute to reading difficulties in Chinese dyslexic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao-Yun; Ho, Connie Suk-Han

    2014-02-01

    The present study examined the role of weaknesses in some language skills for the reading difficulties among Chinese dyslexic children. Thirty Chinese dyslexic children were compared with 30 chronological age (CA) controls and 30 reading-level (RL) controls on a number of language and reading measures. The results showed that Chinese dyslexic children performed significantly worse than the CA controls but similarly to the RL controls in many of the linguistic measures except that the dyslexic group also performed significantly less well than the RL group in semantic skills and syntactic skills on multiple modifiers. The dyslexic children were found to have difficulties in semantic processing, syntactic skills and oral language expression as compared with the CA controls, which were also found to predict their performance in word recognition and/or sentence comprehension. In addition, measures of semantic discrimination, advanced syntactic word order, and oral narrative also significantly predicted the group membership of having or not having dyslexia. These findings suggest that weaknesses in some semantic and advanced syntactic skills are the potential source of poor word and sentence reading in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Implications of the present findings for the identification of dyslexia were discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. A study of Ki-67 expression and its clinicopathological determinants in nondysplastic oral leukoplakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Krishnendu; Mandal, Rupali; Sarkar, Badal Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Context: Oral cancer is the third most prevalent malignancy in India. Leukoplakia is its most common precursor lesion. Aims: This study aimed at evaluation of the Ki-67 expression and thereby detection of the dysplastic potential in histopathologically nondysplastic oral leukoplakia (OL). Secondarily, another purpose was to correlate various clinicopathological factors with the labeling indices (LIs) of Ki-67 in those cases as well. Settings and Design: In total, 97 OL cases were examined. Relevant clinical and demographic information was retrieved from the pro forma, prefilled by the patients themselves during their first visit. Subjects and Methods: Ki-67 immunohistochemical staining was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Its LIs were calculated and correlated with different clinicopathological parameters using statistical software SPSS version 16.0. Results: 58.8% (57 cases) lesions exhibited a Ki-67 positivity of ≤5%, and 25.8% (25 cases) lesions exhibited it in the range of 6%–25%. Only 15 (15.4%) patches were stained positively between 26% and 60%. Patients’ age beyond 50 years, nonhomogeneous leukoplakia, and tobacco addiction were the significant risk factors for high Ki-67 scores (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Ki-67 is an essential immunohistochemical marker for epithelial dysplasia in OL, especially when the conventional histopathology fails to appreciate the same. In this purpose, Ki-67 labeling on a routine basis delivers the most convenient results for patients aged above 50 years, and/or addicted to tobacco products, and/or suffering from nonhomogeneous patches. PMID:27994417

  4. Storage Temperature Alters the Expression of Differentiation-Related Genes in Cultured Oral Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utheim, Tor Paaske; Islam, Rakibul; Fostad, Ida G; Eidet, Jon R; Sehic, Amer; Olstad, Ole K; Dartt, Darlene A; Messelt, Edward B; Griffith, May; Pasovic, Lara

    2016-01-01

    Storage of cultured human oral keratinocytes (HOK) allows for transportation of cultured transplants to eye clinics worldwide. In a previous study, one-week storage of cultured HOK was found to be superior with regard to viability and morphology at 12°C compared to 4°C and 37°C. To understand more of how storage temperature affects cell phenotype, gene expression of HOK before and after storage at 4°C, 12°C, and 37°C was assessed. Cultured HOK were stored in HEPES- and sodium bicarbonate-buffered Minimum Essential Medium at 4°C, 12°C, and 37°C for one week. Total RNA was isolated and the gene expression profile was determined using DNA microarrays and analyzed with Partek Genomics Suite software and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Differentially expressed genes (fold change > 1.5 and P expression of cultures stored at 4°C and 12°C clustered close to the unstored control cultures. Cultures stored at 37°C displayed substantial change in gene expression compared to the other groups. In comparison with 12°C, 2,981 genes were differentially expressed at 37°C. In contrast, only 67 genes were differentially expressed between the unstored control and the cells stored at 12°C. The 12°C and 37°C culture groups differed most significantly with regard to the expression of differentiation markers. The Hedgehog signaling pathway was significantly downregulated at 37°C compared to 12°C. HOK cultures stored at 37°C showed considerably larger changes in gene expression compared to unstored cells than cultured HOK stored at 4°C and 12°C. The changes observed at 37°C consisted of differentiation of the cells towards a squamous epithelium-specific phenotype. Storing cultured ocular surface transplants at 37°C is therefore not recommended. This is particularly interesting as 37°C is the standard incubation temperature used for cell culture.

  5. On Vocabulary Acquisition by Chinese Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔莉; 南二丽

    2006-01-01

    It is admitted that vocabulary acquisition, as the smallest unit in English leaning, is the most basic, decisive yet difficult part. Yet vocabulary acquisition has always obsessed and fascinated Chinese learners of English. This paper mainly presents a discussion of English vocabulary acquisition by Chinese learners in the respect of vocabulary size and correct use. Through the analysis of the problems existing in the present vocabulary learning and teaching, author also presents some learning strategies to expand vocabulary size.

  6. Multifocal Epithelial Hyperplasia of Oral Cavity Expressing HPV 16 Gene: A Rare Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. V. Prabhat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare contagious disease caused by human papilloma virus. Usually HPV involves either cutaneous or mucosal surfaces, whereas concomitant mucocutaneous involvement is extremely rare. We report such a unique case of multifocal epithelial hyperplasia involving multiple sites of oral cavity along with skin lesions in a 65-year-old female. We also discuss the probable multifactorial etiology and variable clinical presentations of the lesions, including evidence of HPV 16 expression, as detected by polymerase chain reaction. The present report illustrates the need for careful examination and prompt diagnosis of the disease, as it might be associated with high risk genotypes such as HPV 16 and 18.

  7. Development of oral expression self-efficacy belief scale for pre-service teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytunga OĞUZ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a scale to identify the oral expression self-efficacy beliefs of pre-service teachers. The participants of this study consist of 426 students studying in faculty of education. During the process of the scale development, related literature was reviewed, a pool of items was created, experts’ opinions’ were collected, a pilot study was carried out and reliability and validity of the scale were measured. As a result of the exploratory (EFA and confirmatory (CFA factor analyses, the scale was determined to have 29 items. Factor loadings were valued from .50 to .76. Item-total correlation of the scale ranged from .30 to .69. The scale was identified to be one-dimensional which had a structure of 4 factors. Total variance explained by these four factors was 52%. χ2/df ratio was found to be 3.05 as a result of CFA. According the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, the goodness of fix indexes were calculated as follows: CFI=.97, IFI=.97, SRMR=.06, RMSEA=.07 (90%, GA=.065; .074. The distinctiveness of the items was found to be significant as a result of 27% sub group and 27 % super group independent groups t-test. It was determined that the scale has one dimension but four factors. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of the factors were calculated to range from .70 to .89. Cronbach’s alpha of the total scale was calculated as .94. As a result of these findings, it can be asserted that the scale is a - valid and reliable tool that can be used to identify the oral expression self-efficacy beliefs of pre-service teachers.

  8. Discussion on English Vocabulary and Description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Lan; Zhang Shiying

    2013-01-01

    Compared with the study of Grammar, syntax, the description on vocabulary is comparatively slower than them. The related theories of vocabulary description have fast developed since the 1980s and 1990s have experienced a growing interest in vocabulary learning and teaching----The vocabulary size, text coverage, word list, meaning of vocabulary in context, and collocation have been discovered and described, which helped new insights in arrange of different research fields have all added to our understanding of vocabulary development. Vocabulary acquisition research, based on vocabulary description, has established itself as a central research focus for language acquisition researchers and contributed to the focus of practical teaching and learning in English.

  9. The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Nasser; Mortazavi, Fariba

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size of Iranian university EFL students. Participants in the present study were a total of 67 EFL learners, studying at Shiraz Azad University as senior English Translation students. The instruments utilized for data collection were three tests: A…

  10. Problems of Controlled Vocabulary versus Uncontrolled Vocabulary in Subject Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-chen Chen

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is mainly to survey the centennial controversy between controlled vocabulary v. uncontrolled vocabulary of subject indexing in the western library and information society. We also discuss the related problems in Chinese information retrieval systems and analyze the factors affecting their performance. [Article content in Chinese

  11. The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Nasser; Mortazavi, Fariba

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size of Iranian university EFL students. Participants in the present study were a total of 67 EFL learners, studying at Shiraz Azad University as senior English Translation students. The instruments utilized for data collection were three tests: A…

  12. Improving Vocabulary of English Language Learners through Direct Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Meghan; Feng, Jay

    2016-01-01

    This is a report of a professional development project. The purpose of the project was to provide professional development to teachers in vocabulary instructional strategies and to examine vocabulary acquisition of English language learners. The participants were 8 second grade ELL students and 6 second grade teachers. The eight second grade…

  13. Early Vocabulary Development of Australian Indigenous Children: Identifying Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad M. Farrant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study sought to increase our understanding of the factors involved in the early vocabulary development of Australian Indigenous children. Data from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children were available for 573 Indigenous children (291 boys who spoke English (M=37.0 months, SD=5.4 months, at wave 3. Data were also available for 86 children (51 boys who spoke an Indigenous language (M=37.1 months, SD=6.0 months, at wave 3. As hypothesised, higher levels of parent-child book reading and having more children’s books in the home were associated with better English vocabulary development. Oral storytelling in Indigenous language was a significant predictor of the size of children’s Indigenous vocabulary.

  14. Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression is upregulated in oral submucous fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We tested the hypothesis that inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS modulates angiogenesis in human models and this information could be extrapolated in elucidating the pathophysiology of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF. A hypothesis which looks inadequate, but is deep rooted in literature is the epithelial alteration ("atrophy" seen in OSF and the events that lead to its causation. This aspect was tried to be addressed and an alternative pathogenetic pathway for the disease is proposed. Materials and Methods: This immunohistochemical study sought to investigate the expression of iNOS in OSF samples (n= 30 a using monospecific antibody (SC- 2050, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc to the protein and also to correlate it with different grades of epithelial dysplasia associated with the disease. Twenty (20 healthy adults acted as controls. Results: iNOS staining was not demonstrated in normal oral epithelium. In oral epithelial dysplasia, staining was seen in all cases (100% in the basal layers of the epithelium and in 30% of cases it extended into the parabasal compartments as well. iNOS staining was uniformly positive in moderate dysplasia with an increase in intensity and distribution noted as the severity of dysplasia progressed. There were highly significant differences in overall positivity for iNOS in epithelium between cases and controls (Mann-Whitney U = 11.000, Wilcoxon W = 221.00, P = 0.000. Significant comparisons were made of mild Vs moderate dysplasia (Mann-Whitney U = 48.000, P = 0.014 Conclusions: This study supports our earlier morphological assessment (image analysis of the nature of vascularity in OSF mucosa. The significant vasodilation noticed in these cases argues against the concept of ischemic atrophy of the epithelium. This observation of vascularity and iNOS expression helped to explain the vasodilation noticed (sinusoids in this disease; NO being a net vasodilator. The mechanism of activation of iNOS in dysplasia is

  15. Elevated Snail Expression Mediates Tumor Progression in Areca Quid Chewing-Associated Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma via Reactive Oxygen Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shiuan-Shinn; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Yu, Cheng-Chia; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2013-01-01

    Background Snail is an important transcription factor implicated in several tumor progression and can be induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Areca quid chewing is a major risk factor of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Therefore, we hypothesize that the major areca nut alkaloid arecoline may induce Snail via ROS and involve in the pathogenesis of areca quid chewing-associated OSCC. Methodology/Principal Finding Thirty-six OSCC and ten normal oral epithelium specimens were examined by immunohistochemistry and analyzed by the clinico-pathological profiles. Cytotoxicity, 2′, 7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay, and western blot were used to investigate the effects of arecoline in human oral keratinocytes (HOKs) and oral epithelial cell line OECM-1 cells. In addition, antioxidants N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), curcumin, and epigallocatechin-3 gallate (EGCG) were added to find the possible regulatory mechanisms. Initially, Snail expression was significantly higher in OSCC specimens (pArecoline enhanced the generation of intracellular ROS at the concentration higher than 40 µg/ml (pArecoline was also found to induced Snail expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner (parecoline induced Snail expression (pArecoline-upregulated Snail expression may be mediated by ROS generation. In addition, arecoline induced Snail expression was downregulated by NAC, curcumin, and EGCG. PMID:23874481

  16. Vesnarinone downregulates CXCR4 expression via upregulation of Krüppel-like factor 2 in oral cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchida Daisuke

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have demonstrated that the stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1; CXCL12/CXCR4 system is involved in the establishment of lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. Chemotherapy is a powerful tool for the treatment of oral cancer, including oral SCC; however, the effects of chemotherapeutic agents on the expression of CXCR4 are unknown. In this study, we examined the expression of CXCR4 associated with the chemotherapeutic agents in oral cancer cells. Results The expression of CXCR4 was examined using 3 different chemotherapeutic agents; 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, and vesnarinone (3,4-dihydro-6-[4-(3,4-dimethoxybenzoyl-1-piperazinyl]-2-(1H-quinolinone in B88, a line of oral cancer cells that exhibits high levels of CXCR4 and lymph node metastatic potential. Of the 3 chemotherapeutic agents that we examined, only vesnarinone downregulated the expression of CXCR4 at the mRNA as well as the protein level. Vesnarinone significantly inhibited lymph node metastasis in tumor-bearing nude mice. Moreover, vesnarinone markedly inhibited 2.7-kb human CXCR4 promoter activity, and we identified the transcription factor, Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2, as a novel vesnarinone-responsive molecule, which was bound to the CXCR4 promoter at positions -300 to -167 relative to the transcription start site. The forced-expression of KLF2 led to the downregulation of CXCR4 mRNA and impaired CXCR4 promoter activity. The use of siRNA against KLF2 led to an upregulation of CXCR4 mRNA. Conclusion These Results indicate that vesnarinone downregulates CXCR4 via the upregulation of KLF2 in oral cancer.

  17. Expression of hMSH2 protein of the human DNA mismatch repair system in oral lichen planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Lichen planus is a mucocutaneous disease of inflammatory nature and unknown etiology. It is characterized by a cell-mediated immunological response to induced antigenic change in skin and/or mucosa. The possible malignant transformation of lichen planus remains a subject of controversial discussions in the literature. hMSH2 is one of the human DNA mismatch repair (hMMR genes and it plays an important role in reducing mutation and maintaining genomic stability. hMSH2 alterations have been reported in oral squamous cell carcinoma and there are evidences suggesting the association between oral lichen planus and squamous cell carcinoma. In this study, we aim to investigate the immunolocalization of hMSH2 protein in oral lichen planus compared to oral normal mucosa epithelium. We examined the expression of hMSH2 protein by immunohistochemistry in twenty-six cases of oral lichen planus. Clinically, 12 of them were categorized into reticular subtype and 14 were atrophic/erosive. Ten cases of normal mucosa were added to the control group. Results showed that the percentage of positive cells to hMSH2 was smaller in reticular (46.54%; p=0,006 and atrophic/erosive (48.79%; p=0,028 subtypes of oral lichen planus compared to normal mucosa (61.29%. The reduced expression of hMSH2 protein in oral lichen planus suggests that this lesion is more susceptible to mutation and therefore facilitate the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  18. Correlation of STATs family expression in oral lichen planus tissue with peripheral blood PD-1 and PD-L1 expression as well as immune function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Zhang; Ying Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the correlation of STATs family expression in oral lichen planus tissue with peripheral blood PD-1 and PD-L1 expression as well as immune function.Methods:A total of 47 patients diagnosed with oral lichen planus in our hospital between May 2015 and March 2016 were selected as the oral lichen planus group (OLP group) of the study, and healthy volunteers receiving physical examination during the same period were selected as the control group of the study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected to detect the expression of PD-1, PD-L1 and immune cell surface marker molecules, serum was collected to detect the content of Th1 and Th2 cytokines as well as immunoglobulin, and oral lichen planus lesion tissue and adjacent normal tissue were collected to determine STATs family expression. Results: p-STAT1, p-STAT3 and p-STAT5a expression in lesion tissue were significantly higher than those in normal tissue while p-STAT2, p-STAT4 and p-STAT5b expression were not significantly different from those in normal tissue; PD-1 and PD-L1 mRNA expression as well as the mean fluorescence intensity of CD19+ in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of OLP group were significantly higher than those of control group and positively correlated with p-STAT1, p-STAT3 and p-STAT5a expression while the mean fluorescence intensity of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD16+CD56+ were significantly lower than those of control group and negatively correlated with p-STAT1, p-STAT3 and p-STAT5a expression; serum IFN-γ and IL-2 content of OLP group were significantly lower than those of control group and negatively correlated with p-STAT1, p-STAT3 and p-STAT5a expression while IL-4, IL-10, IgG, IgM and IgA content were significantly higher than those of control group and positively correlated with p-STAT1, p-STAT3 and p-STAT5a expression.Conclusion: p-STAT1, p-STAT3 and p-STAT5a expression abnormally increase in oral lichen planus tissues, and the Th1/Th2 cellular immunity and humoral

  19. Nicotine-induced expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor in oral epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Satoshi; Gojoubori, Takahiro; Tsunoda, Kou; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Asano, Masatake; Goke, Eiji; Koshi, Ryosuke; Sugano, Naoyuki; Yoshinuma, Naoto; Komiyama, Kazuo; Ito, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine use is one of the most important risk factors for the development of cardiovascular and periodontal diseases. Numerous reports have suggested the possible contribution of disturbed lipid metabolism for the development of both disease groups. Despite these observations, little is known about the relationship between tobacco smoking and the development of these diseases. Our previous microarray data revealed that nicotine induced low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) expression in oral epithelial cells (OECs). The aim of the present study was to confirm nicotine-mediated LDLR induction and to elucidate the signaling mechanisms leading to the augmented expression of LDLR in OECs. LDLR and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit expression was detected by real-time PCR. The production of LDLR was demonstrated by immunofluorescence staining. nAChR-mediated LDLR induction was examined by pre-incubation of the cells with its specific inhibitor, α-bungarotoxin (α-BTX). The functional importance of transcription factor specific protein 1 (Sp1) was examined by luciferase assay, mithramycin pre-incubation or by small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection. The specific binding of Sp1 to R3 region of LDLR 5'-untranslated region was demonstrated with electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and streptavidin-agarose precipitation assay followed by western blotting. The results confirmed that nicotine induced LDLR expression at the transcriptional level. Nicotine was sensed by nAChR and the signal was transduced by Sp1 which bound to the R3 region of LDLR gene. Augmented production of LDLR in the gingival epithelial cells was further demonstrated by immunofluorescence staining using the gingival tissues obtained from the smoking patients. Taken together, the results suggested that nicotine might contribute to the development of both cardiovascular and periodontal diseases by inducing the LDLR in OECs thereby disturbing lipid metabolism.

  20. Nicotine-induced expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor in oral epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Ito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nicotine use is one of the most important risk factors for the development of cardiovascular and periodontal diseases. Numerous reports have suggested the possible contribution of disturbed lipid metabolism for the development of both disease groups. Despite these observations, little is known about the relationship between tobacco smoking and the development of these diseases. Our previous microarray data revealed that nicotine induced low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR expression in oral epithelial cells (OECs. The aim of the present study was to confirm nicotine-mediated LDLR induction and to elucidate the signaling mechanisms leading to the augmented expression of LDLR in OECs. METHODS AND RESULTS: LDLR and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR subunit expression was detected by real-time PCR. The production of LDLR was demonstrated by immunofluorescence staining. nAChR-mediated LDLR induction was examined by pre-incubation of the cells with its specific inhibitor, α-bungarotoxin (α-BTX. The functional importance of transcription factor specific protein 1 (Sp1 was examined by luciferase assay, mithramycin pre-incubation or by small interfering RNA (siRNA transfection. The specific binding of Sp1 to R3 region of LDLR 5'-untranslated region was demonstrated with electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA and streptavidin-agarose precipitation assay followed by western blotting. The results confirmed that nicotine induced LDLR expression at the transcriptional level. Nicotine was sensed by nAChR and the signal was transduced by Sp1 which bound to the R3 region of LDLR gene. Augmented production of LDLR in the gingival epithelial cells was further demonstrated by immunofluorescence staining using the gingival tissues obtained from the smoking patients. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the results suggested that nicotine might contribute to the development of both cardiovascular and periodontal diseases by inducing the LDLR in

  1. Strategies for teaching and learning vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Teng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article presents an overview of current research on second language vocabulary learning and proposes eight strategies for teaching and learning vocabulary. First, to facilitate effective vocabulary teaching, choosing high-frequency words is essential. Teachers of vocabulary also need to add explicit, intentional teaching to incidental learning. In addition, vocabulary learning strategies including morphological awareness and lexical inference provides a platform by which learners can improve both receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge. This article also suggests that productive vocabulary knowledge needs more attention than receptive vocabulary knowledge, and that available textbooks seldom address vocabulary sufficiently. In summary, it is very important for all learners and teachers to acknowledge that learning vocabulary is incremental in nature, and we should develop a principled, long-term program for teaching and learning vocabulary.

  2. Essential French Vocabulary Teach Yourself

    CERN Document Server

    Saint-Thomas, Noel

    2010-01-01

    Essential French Vocabulary is the course for you if you need help with your study of French. This fully revised edition of our best-selling course now comes with free downloadable audio support containing hints on how to learn vocabulary effectively.

  3. Teaching Vocabulary for Peace Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Francisco Gomes

    2002-01-01

    Shows English-as-a-Second-Language educators how vocabulary teaching can become humanizingly meaningful through the use of techniques inspired by some of the interdependent traditions to peace, and to make a plea for ESL teachers and learners to humanize their repertoires of best practices in vocabulary teaching and learning. (Author/VWL)

  4. Methods of Enlarging English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁小航

    2012-01-01

      In order to enlarge English vocabulary , we need to have some methods. I’d like to share my experience with begin⁃ners how I enlarge English vocabulary when when I am learning English. It is a long process and needs hard work and patience.

  5. The State of Vocabulary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairrell, Angela; Rupley, William; Simmons, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-four studies were included in this systematic review of vocabulary research literature. The review corroborates the findings of past studies that several strategies have emerged that increase students' vocabulary knowledge. Findings further reinforce the National Reading Panel's recommendations regarding the context and magnitude of studies…

  6. Reading, Dictionaries, and Vocabulary Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppescu, Stuart; Day, Richard R.

    1993-01-01

    The usefulness of bilingual dictionaries for vocabulary learning was examined with 293 Japanese university students studying English as a foreign language. Students who used a dictionary during reading scored significantly better on a vocabulary test than those who did not, but there was evidence for differential item functioning. (25 references)…

  7. Inquiry experiences and the development of science vocabulary and concepts with English language learners (ELLs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Tammy Deneene

    The primary objective of this project was to analyze the change in use of academic science vocabulary and conceptual understanding of erosion by the ELLs participating in the Math, Science and Language (MSL) camp conducted in 2008. The researcher examined archival data in the form of student journals collected during the MSL camp of 2008. Current assessments are not developed to assess both vocabulary development and conceptual understanding. The researcher developed a new assessment tool named JASTO that allowed assessment of both vocabulary and conceptual understanding parallel to one another. JASTO was used to analyze the science journals of the MSL camp of 2008. Data indicate an increase in conceptual understanding of the erosion topic. Some students expressed their understanding using everyday vocabulary and others using academic vocabulary. The type of vocabulary usage was dependent on the English language proficiency of the student.

  8. VOCABULARY AND LANGUAGE TEACHING

    OpenAIRE

    Abrudan Cristiana

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we have looked at the difference between teaching language structure and teaching vocabulary. We have discussed how counts of frequency alone are not enough to determine what words should be taught. We have seen that knowing a word means more than just knowing its meaning. Even that is problematical since meaning includes sense relations and context, for example. To know a word we also need to know about its use, how it is formed and what grammatical behavior it provokes. Above ...

  9. Tectonic Vocabulary & Materialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Beim, Anne; Bundgaard, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    By referring to the fundamental question of how we unite aesthetics and technology – tectonic theory is necessarily a focal point in the development of the architectural discipline. However, a critical reconsideration of the role of tectonic theory seems necessary when facing the present everyday...... architectural practice. In this matter the paper focuses on the need to juxtapose theoretical studies, to bring the present vocabulary of the tectonic further, as well as to spur further practical experiments enabling theory to materialize in the everyday of the current practice....

  10. Tectonic Vocabulary & Materialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Beim, Anne; Bundgaard, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    to establish a Nordic Network for Research and Teaching in Tectonics is currently forming. This paper seeks to jointly reflect upon these initiatives in order to bring them further, with the intention to clad a discourse on the future of tectonic architectural research that addresses the conditions of everyday...... architectural practice. In this matter the paper focuses on the need to juxtapose theoretical studies, to bring the present vocabulary of the tectonic further, as well as to spur further practical experiments enabling theory to materialize in the everyday of the current practice....

  11. Effects of an Automated Vocabulary and Comprehension Intervention: An Early Efficacy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Elizabeth J.; Goldstein, Howard; Sherman, Amber; Noe, Sean; Tabbah, Rhonda; Ziolkowski, Robyn; Schneider, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that oral language skills in preschool, including vocabulary and comprehension, predict later reading proficiency and that substantial differences in oral language skills exist when children enter school. Although explicit instruction embedded in storybooks is a promising intervention approach, high-fidelity implementation…

  12. Do infant vocabulary skills predict school-age language and literacy outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Fiona J; Reen, Gurpreet; Plunkett, Kim; Nation, Kate

    2015-08-01

    Strong associations between infant vocabulary and school-age language and literacy skills would have important practical and theoretical implications: Preschool assessment of vocabulary skills could be used to identify children at risk of reading and language difficulties, and vocabulary could be viewed as a cognitive foundation for reading. However, evidence to date suggests predictive ability from infant vocabulary to later language and literacy is low. This study provides an investigation into, and interpretation of, the magnitude of such infant to school-age relationships. Three hundred British infants whose vocabularies were assessed by parent report in the 2nd year of life (between 16 and 24 months) were followed up on average 5 years later (ages ranged from 4 to 9 years), when their vocabulary, phonological and reading skills were measured. Structural equation modelling of age-regressed scores was used to assess the strength of longitudinal relationships. Infant vocabulary (a latent factor of receptive and expressive vocabulary) was a statistically significant predictor of later vocabulary, phonological awareness, reading accuracy and reading comprehension (accounting for between 4% and 18% of variance). Family risk for language or literacy difficulties explained additional variance in reading (approximately 10%) but not language outcomes. Significant longitudinal relationships between preliteracy vocabulary knowledge and subsequent reading support the theory that vocabulary is a cognitive foundation of both reading accuracy and reading comprehension. Importantly however, the stability of vocabulary skills from infancy to later childhood is too low to be sufficiently predictive of language outcomes at an individual level - a finding that fits well with the observation that the majority of 'late talkers' resolve their early language difficulties. For reading outcomes, prediction of future difficulties is likely to be improved when considering family

  13. Core vocabulary of young children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckers, Stijn R J M; Van Zaalen, Yvonne; Van Balkom, Hans; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a core vocabulary list for young children with intellectual disabilities between 2 and 7 years of age because data from this population are lacking in core vocabulary literature. Children with Down syndrome are considered one of the most valid reference groups for researching developmental patterns in children with intellectual disabilities; therefore, spontaneous language samples of 30 Dutch children with Down syndrome were collected during three different activities with multiple communication partners (free play with parents, lunch- or snack-time at home or at school, and speech therapy sessions). Of these children, 19 used multimodal communication, primarily manual signs and speech. Functional word use in both modalities was transcribed. The 50 most frequently used core words accounted for 67.2% of total word use; 16 words comprised core vocabulary, based on commonality. These data are consistent with similar studies related to the core vocabularies of preschoolers and toddlers with typical development, although the number of nouns present on the core vocabulary list was higher for the children in the present study. This finding can be explained by manual sign use of the children with Down syndrome and is reflective of their expressive vocabulary ages.

  14. Decreased gene expression of human beta-defensin-1 in the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenghoefer, M.H.; Pantelis, A.; Dommisch, H.; Reich, R.; Martini, M.; Allam, J.P.; Novak, N.; Berge, S.; Jepsen, S.; Winter, J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the gene expression of human beta-defensin-1, -2, -3 (hBD-1, -2, -3), interleukin-1beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and cyclooxygenase-2 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) compared to benign and premalignant lesions as well as healthy controls. Biopsies

  15. Towards modeling expressed emotions in oral history interviews: Using verbal and nonverbal signals to track personal narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet P.; Westerhof, Gerben J.; Lamers, Sanne M.A.; Jong, de Franciska

    2014-01-01

    The article aims to model the verbal and prosodic features of emotional expression in interviews to investigate the potential for synergy between scholarly fields that have the narrative as object of study. Using a digital collection of oral history interviews that contains narrative aspects address

  16. Development of Orally Bioavailable Therapeutics by the Chloroplast Expression System to Counter Muscle Degeneration, Weakness, and Fibrosis in DMD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Counter Muscle Degeneration, Weakness, and Fibrosis in DMD PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Elisabeth Barton CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Florida...Development of Orally Bioavailable Therapeutics by the Chloroplast Expression System to Counter Muscle Degeneration, Weakness, and Fibrosis in DMD 5b...Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Patients with DMD suffer from progressive muscle weakness and

  17. Decreased gene expression of human beta-defensin-1 in the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenghoefer, M.H.; Pantelis, A.; Dommisch, H.; Reich, R.; Martini, M.; Allam, J.P.; Novak, N.; Berge, S.; Jepsen, S.; Winter, J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the gene expression of human beta-defensin-1, -2, -3 (hBD-1, -2, -3), interleukin-1beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and cyclooxygenase-2 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) compared to benign and premalignant lesions as well as healthy controls. Biopsies

  18. EXEL; Experience for Children in Learning. Parent-Directed Activities to Develop: Oral Expression, Visual Discrimination, Auditory Discrimination, Motor Coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrmann, Polly; Millman, Joan

    The activities collected in this handbook are planned for parents to use with their children in a learning experience. They can also be used in the classroom. Sections contain games designed to develop visual discrimination, auditory discrimination, motor coordination and oral expression. An objective is given for each game, and directions for…

  19. Expression of a Splice Variant of CYP26B1 in Betel Quid-Related Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ka-Wo; Hsu, Cheng-Chieh; Chen, Jeff Yi-Fu; Wang, Yan-Hsiung; Wang, Hui-Min David; Huang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Betel quid (BQ) is a psychostimulant, an addictive substance, and a group 1 carcinogen that exhibits the potential to induce adverse health effects. Approximately, 600 million users chew a variety of BQ. Areca nut (AN) is a necessary ingredient in BQ products. Arecoline is the primary alkaloid in the AN and can be metabolized through the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Full-length CYP26B1 is related to the development of oral pharyngeal cancers. We investigated whether a splice variant of CYP26B1 is associated with the occurrence of ROS related oral and pharyngeal cancer. Cytotoxicity assays were used to measure the effects of arecoline on cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to evaluate the expression of the CYP26B1 splice variant. The CYP26B1 splice variant exhibited lower expression than did full-length CYP26B1 in the human gingival fibroblast-1 and Ca9-22 cell models. Increased expression of the CYP26B1 splice variant was observed in human oral cancer tissue compared with adjacent normal tissue, and increased expression was observed in patients at a late tumor stage. Our results suggested that the CYP26B1 splice variant is associated with the occurrence of BQ-related oral cancer. PMID:25114974

  20. Expression of a Splice Variant of CYP26B1 in Betel Quid-Related Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Ho Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Betel quid (BQ is a psychostimulant, an addictive substance, and a group 1 carcinogen that exhibits the potential to induce adverse health effects. Approximately, 600 million users chew a variety of BQ. Areca nut (AN is a necessary ingredient in BQ products. Arecoline is the primary alkaloid in the AN and can be metabolized through the cytochrome P450 (CYP superfamily by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Full-length CYP26B1 is related to the development of oral pharyngeal cancers. We investigated whether a splice variant of CYP26B1 is associated with the occurrence of ROS related oral and pharyngeal cancer. Cytotoxicity assays were used to measure the effects of arecoline on cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to evaluate the expression of the CYP26B1 splice variant. The CYP26B1 splice variant exhibited lower expression than did full-length CYP26B1 in the human gingival fibroblast-1 and Ca9-22 cell models. Increased expression of the CYP26B1 splice variant was observed in human oral cancer tissue compared with adjacent normal tissue, and increased expression was observed in patients at a late tumor stage. Our results suggested that the CYP26B1 splice variant is associated with the occurrence of BQ-related oral cancer.

  1. Preschoolers' vocabulary acquisition in Chile: the roles of socioeconomic status and quality of home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohndorf, Regina T; Vermeer, Harriet J; Cárcamo, Rodrigo A; Mesman, Judi

    2017-09-21

    Preschoolers' vocabulary acquisition sets the stage for later reading ability and school achievement. This study examined the role of socioeconomic status (SES) and the quality of the home environment of seventy-seven Chilean majority and Mapuche minority families from low and lower-middle-class backgrounds in explaining individual differences in vocabulary acquisition of their three-and-a-half-year-old children. Additionally, we investigated whether the relation between SES and receptive and expressive vocabulary was mediated by the quality of the home environment as the Family Investment Model suggests. The quality of the home environment significantly predicted receptive and expressive vocabulary above and beyond ethnicity, SES, parental caregiver status, and quantity of daycare. Furthermore, the quality of the home environment mediated the relation between SES and expressive and receptive vocabulary acquisition.

  2. Immunohistochemical Expression of CD105 and TGF-β1 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Adjacent Apparently Normal Oral Mucosa and its Correlation With Clinicopathologic Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Sindhu; Nayak, Ramakant; Bhat, Kishore; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S; Babji, Deepa

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) is essential for its growth, invasion, and metastasis. This entails a shift in the balance between proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors. CD105 and TGF-β1 are 2 such proangiogenic factors wherein CD105 exerts its angiogenic effect by binding to and modulating the TGF-β1 pathway. A total of 50 resected specimens of OSCC were considered. One tissue specimen was taken from tumor proper and another specimen from adjacent apparently normal mucosa (AANM). Both tissues were immunohistochemically stained using CD105 and TGF-β1 antibodies. The expression of each antibody was individually assessed and then compared. Pearson χ test was used for statistical comparison of expression. CD105 was significantly expressed in OSCC as compared with AANM and also correlated with increasing TNM stage. The mean microvessel density was higher in OSCC. TGF-β1 was significantly expressed in epithelium of OSCC as compared with AANM. On comparing expression of TGF-β1 and CD105, 79.54% of endothelial cells expressed positivity for both molecules. Both CD105 and TGF-β1 were increased in OSCC, although based on our results CD105 alone can be used as a prognostic marker. On the basis of immunohistochemical expression of CD105 and TGF-β1 in endothelial cells, our results demonstrate that CD105 acts as one of the receptors of TGF-β1 on endothelial cells and induces the angiogenic pathway in OSCC.

  3. Receptive Vocabulary in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Cross-Sectional Developmental Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kover, Sara T.; McDuffie, Andrea S.; Hagerman, Randi J.; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    In light of evidence that receptive language may be a relative weakness for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this study characterized receptive vocabulary profiles in boys with ASD using cross-sectional developmental trajectories relative to age, nonverbal cognition, and expressive vocabulary. Participants were 49 boys with ASD…

  4. The Influence of Spelling Ability on Vocabulary Choices When Writing for Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Emma; Connelly, Vincent; Barnett, Anna L.

    2016-01-01

    Spelling is a prerequisite to expressing vocabulary in writing. Research has shown that children with dyslexia are hesitant spellers when composing. This study aimed to determine whether the hesitant spelling of children with dyslexia, evidenced by frequent pausing, affects vocabulary choices when writing. A total of 31 children with dyslexia,…

  5. The Influence of Spelling Ability on Vocabulary Choices When Writing for Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Emma; Connelly, Vincent; Barnett, Anna L.

    2016-01-01

    Spelling is a prerequisite to expressing vocabulary in writing. Research has shown that children with dyslexia are hesitant spellers when composing. This study aimed to determine whether the hesitant spelling of children with dyslexia, evidenced by frequent pausing, affects vocabulary choices when writing. A total of 31 children with dyslexia,…

  6. Alterações no vocabulário expressivo de crianças com desvio fonológico Expressive vocabulary deficits of children with phonological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Bolli Mota

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar os processos de substituição mais frequentes e os campos conceituais mais alterados em uma prova de vocabulário expressivo de crianças com desvio fonológico, relacionando-os com a gravidade do desvio fonológico destas crianças. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi composta por 44 sujeitos com desvio fonológico, com idades entre três anos e cinco meses e oito anos e seis meses. Neste estudo, foram utilizados dados extraídos de bancos de dados de projetos de pesquisa em andamento no Centro de Estudos de Linguagem e Fala da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. A amostra foi dividida em quatro grupos (grave, moderado-grave, leve-moderado e leve, de acordo com a gravidade do desvio fonológico, determinada através do cálculo do Percentual de Consoantes Corretas. Foi aplicado o teste de linguagem infantil ABFW - Vocabulário. Após, realizou-se análise de correlação entre os processos de substituição e os campos conceituais com a gravidade do desvio fonológico. RESULTADOS: O processo de substituição "co-hipônimo" é o mais utilizado pelas crianças, independente do grau de gravidade. Observou-se também que crianças pertencentes ao grau médio-moderado realizam maior quantidade relevante de processos de substituição. No campo conceitual "locais" encontrou-se maior número de crianças com alteração, sendo que o grau médio-moderado foi o que mais apresentou campos conceituais alterados. CONCLUSÕES: O grau médio-moderado é o que mais apresenta dificuldade em prova de vocabulário expressivo, o processo de substituição mais realizado é o uso de co-hipônimo e o campo conceitual "locais" é o que mais apresenta alteração pelas crianças de um modo geral.PURPOSE: To verify the most frequent substitution processes and the most altered semantic fields presented by children with phonological disorders on an expressive vocabulary test, establishing a possible correlation of these deficits with the severity of their

  7. RNA-binding protein CELF1 promotes tumor growth and alters gene expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Reniqua P; Talwar, Sudha; Hazard, E Starr; Hill, Elizabeth G; Palanisamy, Viswanathan

    2015-12-22

    The RNA binding protein CELF1 (also known as CUGBP1) is emerging as a critical regulator of cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis. Here, to provide a global prospective of CELF1 regulation of oral squamous cell carcinoma, we performed RNA-sequencing in oral cancer cells and CELF1 overexpression analysis in non-malignant human oral keratinocytes. Our approaches identified 1283 mRNAs differentially regulated as a function of CELF1 expression and more importantly CELF1 promoted alternative splicing of several target pre-mRNAs, which are known to be involved in various cancer biological processes. Overexpression of CELF1 in non-malignant human oral keratinocytes protected cells against oxidative damage and altered gene expression patterns. Finally, we provide evidence that reduction of CELF1 protein using a xenograft tumorigenesis mouse model decreased tumor growth. Altogether, these data provided a comprehensive view of the CELF1 mRNA regulatory network in oral cancer and suggests that CELF1 and/or its target mRNAs are viable candidates for therapeutic intervention.

  8. Effective Strategies for Turning Receptive Vocabulary into Productive Vocabulary in EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, Avan Kamal Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary acquisition has been a main concern of EFL English teachers and learners. There have been tons of research to examine the student's level of receptive vocabulary and productive vocabulary, but no research has conducted on how turning receptive vocabulary into productive vocabulary. This study has reported the impact of the teaching…

  9. FL Vocabulary Learning of Undergraduate English Majors in Western China: Perspective, Strategy Use and Vocabulary Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baicheng

    2009-01-01

    The present study, by use of questionnaire and vocabulary tests, has investigated the foreign language vocabulary learning situation of 481 undergraduates in terms of their perspective of vocabulary learning, strategy use and vocabulary size. Based on the questionnaire investigation and vocabulary level tests, the characteristics of the subjects'…

  10. Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Arabic Vocabulary Size among Pre-University Students in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharudin, Harun; Ismail, Zawawi

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size are among the main factors that help determine how students learn second language vocabulary. The present study was an attempt to exploring the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and Arabic vocabulary size of 742 pre-university in "Religious High School" (SMKA) and…

  11. Gene expression in uninvolved oral mucosa of OSCC patients facilitates identification of markers predictive of OSCC outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohavanichbutr, Pawadee; Houck, John; Doody, David R; Wang, Pei; Mendez, Eduardo; Futran, Neal; Upton, Melissa P; Holsinger, F Christopher; Schwartz, Stephen M; Chen, Chu

    2012-01-01

    Oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) are among the most common cancers worldwide, with approximately 60% 5-yr survival rate. To identify potential markers for disease progression, we used Affymetrix U133 plus 2.0 arrays to examine the gene expression profiles of 167 primary tumor samples from OSCC patients, 58 uninvolved oral mucosae from OSCC patients and 45 normal oral mucosae from patients without oral cancer, all enrolled at one of the three University of Washington-affiliated medical centers between 2003 to 2008. We found 2,596 probe sets differentially expressed between 167 tumor samples and 45 normal samples. Among 2,596 probe sets, 71 were significantly and consistently up- or down-regulated in the comparison between normal samples and uninvolved oral samples and between uninvolved oral samples and tumor samples. Cox regression analyses showed that 20 of the 71 probe sets were significantly associated with progression-free survival. The risk score for each patient was calculated from coefficients of a Cox model incorporating these 20 probe sets. The hazard ratio (HR) associated with each unit change in the risk score adjusting for age, gender, tumor stage, and high-risk HPV status was 2.7 (95% CI: 2.0-3.8, p = 8.8E-10). The risk scores in an independent dataset of 74 OSCC patients from the MD Anderson Cancer Center was also significantly associated with progression-free survival independent of age, gender, and tumor stage (HR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.2, p = 0.008). Gene Set Enrichment Analysis showed that the most prominent biological pathway represented by the 71 probe sets was the Integrin cell surface interactions pathway. In conclusion, we identified 71 probe sets in which dysregulation occurred in both uninvolved oral mucosal and cancer samples. Dysregulation of 20 of the 71 probe sets was associated with progression-free survival and was validated in an independent dataset.

  12. The Challenge of Effective Vocabulary Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cárdenas B. Melba Libia

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Helping students develop vocabulary competence is one of the main challenges English language teachers face. This paper addresses the main aspects we should consider when planning and developing lessons in terms of vocabulary improvement. To achieve that objective, we will analyse the linguistic background and principles of vocabulary teaching and learning, as well as some ways of opening up vocabulary.

  13. Second Language Vocabulary Growth at Advanced Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Meral

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the receptive vocabulary growth of advanced EFL learners in an English-medium degree programme. The study used the Vocabulary Size Test in a cross-sectional design to measure the vocabulary size of learners at various stages of study. The effect of word frequency on vocabulary development and the presence of an…

  14. Techniques for Vocabulary Teaching in Elementary English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽华

    2004-01-01

    All teachers know very well how important vocabulary is in learning language, but, for many years, vocabulary has all been neglected in language teaching. In this essay will try to introduce some practical and effective methods in presenting, practising,and consolidating vocabulary in elementary level in which, I wish, the elementary teachers may get some inspiration for their vocabulary teaching.

  15. For ELLs: Vocabulary beyond the Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Nancy S.; Truxaw, Mary P.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a classroom teacher discusses ambiguities in mathematics vocabulary and strategies for ELL students in building understanding. The authors note that mathematics vocabulary may be more difficult to learn than other academic vocabulary for several reasons: (1) definitions are filled with technical vocabulary, symbols, and diagrams;…

  16. Detection of EBV Infection and Gene Expression in Oral Cancer from Patients in Taiwan by Microarray Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yu Yen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus is known to cause nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Although oral cavity is located close to the nasal pharynx, the pathogenetic role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV in oral cancers is unclear. This molecular epidemiology study uses EBV genomic microarray (EBV-chip to simultaneously detect the prevalent rate and viral gene expression patterns in 57 oral squamous cell carcinoma biopsies (OSCC collected from patients in Taiwan. The majority of the specimens (82.5% were EBV-positive that probably expressed coincidently the genes for EBNAs, LMP2A and 2B, and certain structural proteins. Importantly, the genes fabricated at the spots 61 (BBRF1, BBRF2, and BBRF3 and 68 (BDLF4 and BDRF1 on EBV-chip were actively expressed in a significantly greater number of OSCC exhibiting exophytic morphology or ulceration than those tissues with deep invasive lesions (P=.0265 and .0141, resp.. The results may thus provide the lead information for understanding the role of EBV in oral cancer pathogenesis.

  17. Looking in the mouth for noninvasive gene expression-based methods to detect oral, oropharyngeal, and systemic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Guy R; Adami, Alexander J

    2012-01-01

    Noninvasive diagnosis, whether by sampling body fluids, body scans, or other technique, has the potential to simplify early cancer detection. A classic example is Pap smear screening, which has helped to reduce cervical cancer 75% over the last 50 years. No test is error-free; the real concern is sufficient accuracy combined with ease of use. This paper will discuss methods that measure gene expression or epigenetic markers in oral cells or saliva to diagnose oral and pharyngeal cancers, without requiring surgical biopsy. Evidence for lung and other distal cancer detection is also reviewed.

  18. Elevated snail expression mediates tumor progression in areca quid chewing-associated oral squamous cell carcinoma via reactive oxygen species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiuan-Shinn Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Snail is an important transcription factor implicated in several tumor progression and can be induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS. Areca quid chewing is a major risk factor of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Therefore, we hypothesize that the major areca nut alkaloid arecoline may induce Snail via ROS and involve in the pathogenesis of areca quid chewing-associated OSCC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Thirty-six OSCC and ten normal oral epithelium specimens were examined by immunohistochemistry and analyzed by the clinico-pathological profiles. Cytotoxicity, 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay, and western blot were used to investigate the effects of arecoline in human oral keratinocytes (HOKs and oral epithelial cell line OECM-1 cells. In addition, antioxidants N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, curcumin, and epigallocatechin-3 gallate (EGCG were added to find the possible regulatory mechanisms. Initially, Snail expression was significantly higher in OSCC specimens (p<0.05. Elevated Snail expression was associated with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.031 and poor differentiation (p = 0.017. Arecoline enhanced the generation of intracellular ROS at the concentration higher than 40 µg/ml (p<0.05. Arecoline was also found to induced Snail expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner (p<0.05. Treatment with NAC, curcumin, and EGCG markedly inhibited arecoline induced Snail expression (p<0.05. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that Snail overexpression in areca quid chewing-associated OSCC is associated with tumors differentiation and lymph node metastasis. Arecoline-upregulated Snail expression may be mediated by ROS generation. In addition, arecoline induced Snail expression was downregulated by NAC, curcumin, and EGCG.

  19. Bacterial antigen expression is an important component in inducing an immune response to orally administered Salmonella-delivered DNA vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle E Gahan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of Salmonella to deliver heterologous antigens from DNA vaccines is a well-accepted extension of the success of oral Salmonella vaccines in animal models. Attenuated S. typhimurium and S. typhi strains are safe and efficacious, and their use to deliver DNA vaccines combines the advantages of both vaccine approaches, while complementing the limitations of each technology. An important aspect of the basic biology of the Salmonella/DNA vaccine platform is the relative contributions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression in production of the vaccine antigen. Gene expression in DNA vaccines is commonly under the control of the eukaryotic cytomegalovirus (CMV promoter. The aim of this study was to identify and disable putative bacterial promoters within the CMV promoter and evaluate the immunogenicity of the resulting DNA vaccine delivered orally by S. typhimurium. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The results reported here clearly demonstrate the presence of bacterial promoters within the CMV promoter. These promoters have homology to the bacterial consensus sequence and functional activity. To disable prokaryotic expression from the CMV promoter a series of genetic manipulations were performed to remove the two major bacterial promoters and add a bacteria transcription terminator downstream of the CMV promoter. S. typhimurium was used to immunise BALB/c mice orally with a DNA vaccine encoding the C-fragment of tetanus toxin (TT under control of the original or the modified CMV promoter. Although both promoters functioned equally well in eukaryotic cells, as indicated by equivalent immune responses following intramuscular delivery, only the original CMV promoter was able to induce an anti-TT specific response following oral delivery by S. typhimurium. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that prokaryotic expression of the antigen and co-delivery of this protein by Salmonella are at least partially responsible for the successful

  20. DSpace and customized controlled vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skourlas, C.; Tsolakidis, A.; Kakoulidis, P.; Giannakopoulos, G.

    2015-02-01

    The open source platform of DSpace could be defined as a repository application used to provide access to digital resources. DSpace is installed and used by more than 1000 organizations worldwide. A predefined taxonomy of keyword, called the Controlled Vocabulary, can be used for describing and accessing the information items stored in the repository. In this paper, we describe how the users can create, and customize their own vocabularies. Various heterogeneous items, such as research papers, videos, articles and educational material of the repository, can be indexed in order to provide advanced search functionality using new controlled vocabularies.

  1. Vocabulary in SLA Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    HUSTON, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1980's, vocabulary acquisition has been one of the most actively researched aspects of SLA (Lightbown & Spada, 2006). Four factors emerge in an investigation of the development of the role of L2 vocabulary learning in SLA. First, successive SLA theories marginalized vocabulary, often emphasizing the importance of grammar. Second, a growing body of empirical research showed the efficiency and effectiveness of direct vocabulary teaching. Third, overestimates of L1 vocabulary size led ...

  2. Krüppel-like factors 4 and 5 expression and their involvement in differentiation of oral carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Masaki; Chiba, Tadashige; Matsuoka, Takanori; Mihara, Nozomi; Kawashiri, Shuichi; Imai, Kazushi

    2015-01-01

    Proliferation-differentiation balance of epithelial cells is regulated by Krüppel-like factors (KLF) 4 and 5, and the unbalanced expression relates to carcinoma progression. However, little is known about the expression and role in oral carcinomas. This study examined expression of KLF4 and KLF 5 in the carcinomas by immunohistochemistry (n = 67) and the involvement in proliferation and differentiation of carcinoma cells. KLF4 was detected in keratinizing carcinoma cells and KLF5 in non-keratinizing cells. KLF4 staining declined in the patient with lymph node metastasis (P carcinoma progression through the dedifferentiation of carcinoma cells.

  3. A Single Oral Administration of Theaflavins Increases Energy Expenditure and the Expression of Metabolic Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Kudo

    Full Text Available Theaflavins are polyphenols found in black tea, whose physiological activities are not well understood. This study on mice evaluated the influence of a single oral administration of theaflavins on energy metabolism by monitoring the initial metabolic changess in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue (BAT. Oxygen consumption (VO2 and energy expenditure (EE were increased significantly in mice treated with theaflavin rich fraction (TF compared with the group administered vehicle alone. There was no difference in locomotor activity. Fasting mice were euthanized under anesthesia before and 2 and 5, 20-hr after treatment with TF or vehicle. The mRNA levels of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α in BAT were increased significantly 2-hr after administration ofTF. The levels of UCP-3 and PGC-1α in the gastrocnemius muscle were increased significantly 2 and 5-hr after administration of TF. The concentration of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK 1α was also increased significantly in the gastrocnemius 2 and 5-hr after treatment with TF. These results indicate that TF significantly enhances systemic energy expenditure, as evidenced by an increase in expression of metabolic genes.

  4. Gene Expression Signatures of Lymph Node Metastasis in Oral Cancer: Molecular Characteristics and Clinical Significances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiqiang; Kolokythas, Antonia; Wang, Jianguang; Huang, Hongzhang; Zhou, Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    Even though lymph node metastasis accounts for the vast majority of cancer death in patients with oral cancer (OC), the molecular mechanisms of lymph node metastasis remain elusive. Genome-wide microarray analyses and functional studies in vitro and in vivo, along with detailed clinical observations, have identified a number of molecules that may contribute to lymph node metastasis. These include lymphangionenic cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, basement membrane-interacting molecules, matrix enzymes and relevant downstream signaling pathways. However, defined gene signatures from different studies are highly variable, which hinders their translation to clinically relevant applications. To date, none of the identified signatures or molecular biomarkers has been successfully implemented as a diagnostic or prognostic tool applicable to routine clinical practice. In this review, we will first introduce the significance of lymph node metastasis in OC, and clinical/experimental evidences that support the underlying molecular mechanisms. We will then provide a comprehensive review and integrative analysis of the existing gene expression studies that aim to identify the metastasis-related signatures in OC. Finally, the remaining challenges will be discussed and our insights on future directions will be provided. PMID:21709736

  5. THE EFFICIENCY OF VOCABULARY TEACHING METHODS IN TURKİSH LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükran DİLİDÜZGÜN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Realising communication requires senders’ vocabulary knowledge to use correct words to transfer their ideas to receivers. The more vocabulary one has the more capable one is to express oneself and to comprehend messages. A little vocabulary is enough for daily affairs, but people need to get vocabulary education officially to improve their cognivite development, and intellectual thinking. This education is limited to the vocabulary in Turkish coursebooks. Therefore, the vocabulary in coursebooks ought to be taught via the methods which enable ones to store it in long term memory and retrieve when needed. This study aims to evaluate Turkish coursebooks in the context of vocabulary teaching methods and to propose activities in the light of findings to contribute to the field. Firstly, the vocabulary teaching methods in the 6th grade Turkish coursebook taken as sample have been classified in a descriptive manner. After that, these methods have been evaluated in the context of retrival levels of students applying a vocabulary test prepared with the words chosen randomly from the 6th level Turkish coursebook to 180 7th grade students from all over Turkey who studied the same book in the previous year to determine the effiency of the methods used.

  6. Vocabularies of happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Bratu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to explore through interviews the vocabularies of happiness that interviewees invoke in face-to-face interactions to account for their happiness or lack thereof and, especially, for the (unhappiness of others. In other words, how do respondents present their own or others’ happiness – be they close or distant acquaintances, or people in general, in an interview conversation? Also, what understanding of others do these accounts make visible? This work embraces a discursive psychological (DP perspective, focusing on how different versions of happiness are being put together by respondents presenting themselves as competent and credible individuals, while at the same time positioning themselves in a moral order of happiness.

  7. English-French bilingual children’s phonological awareness and vocabulary skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PiYu Chiang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examined the relationship between English-speaking children’s vocabulary skills in English and in French and their phonological awareness skills in both languages. Forty-four kindergarten-aged children attending French immersion programs were administered a receptive vocabulary test, an expressive vocabulary test and a phonological awareness test in English and French. Results showed that French phonological awareness was largely explained by English phonological awareness, consistent with previous findings that phonological awareness skills transfer across languages. However, there was a small unique contribution from French expressive vocabulary size to French phonological awareness. The importance of vocabulary skills to the development of phonological awareness is discussed.

  8. Validity of a parent-report measure of vocabulary and grammar for Spanish-speaking toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thal, D; Jackson-Maldonado, D; Acosta, D

    2000-10-01

    The validity of the Fundación MacArthur Inventario del Desarrollo de Habilidades Comunicativas: Palabras y Enunciados (IDHC:PE) was examined with twenty 20- and nineteen 28-month-old, typically developing, monolingual, Spanish-speaking children living in Mexico. One measure of vocabulary (number of words) and two measures of grammar (mean of the three longest utterances and grammatical complexity score) from the IDHC:PE were compared to behavioral measures of vocabulary (number of different words from a language sample and number of objects named in a confrontation naming task) and one behavioral measure of grammar (mean length of utterance from a language sample). Only vocabulary measures were assessed in the 20-month-olds because of floor effects on the grammar measures. Results indicated validity for assessing expressive vocabulary in 20-month-olds and expressive vocabulary and grammar in 28-month-olds.

  9. Atypical Cross-Modal Profiles and Longitudinal Associations Between Vocabulary Scores in Initially Minimally Verbal Children With ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woynaroski, Tiffany; Yoder, Paul; Watson, Linda R

    2016-02-01

    We tested the relative levels (i.e., age equivalencies) of concurrent cross-modality (receptive and expressive) vocabulary and the relative strength of the longitudinal, cross-modality associations between early and later vocabulary sizes in minimally verbal preschoolers with ASD. Eighty-seven children participated. Parent-reported vocabulary was assessed at four periods separated by 4 months each. Expressive age equivalent scores were higher than receptive age equivalent scores at all four periods. Cross-lagged panel analysis was used to rule out common, but trivial, explanations for differences between the longitudinal associations of interest. Key associations were tested across intervals that varied from 8 to 12 months. In two of the three tested panels, the associations between early expressive vocabulary size and later receptive vocabulary size were stronger than the associations between early receptive vocabulary size and later expressive vocabulary size, providing evidence that is consistent with the hypothesis that expressive vocabulary size drives receptive vocabulary size in minimally verbal preschoolers with ASD.

  10. Expression of NF-κB and IL-6 in oral precancerous and cancerous lesions: An immunohistochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitakis, Nikolaos; Sfakianou, Aikaterini; Avgoustidis, Dimitrios; Sklavounou-Andrikopoulou, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of NF-κB and IL-6 in oral premalignant and malignant lesions and to investigate their possible correlation with the presence of subepithelial inflammation. Material and Methods Thirty two oral premalignant lesions, clinically compatible with leukoplakia or erythroplakia, were investigated. Microscopically, 11 of them showed hyperkeratosis and acanthosis (epithelial hyperplasia) and 21 showed dysplasia of varying degrees. Nine cases of OSCC and four control cases of normal oral mucosa were also included in the study. Immunohistochemical staining with NF-κB (p65) and IL-6 was performed. IL-6 and nuclear NF-κB staining were assessed as positive or negative. For cytoplasmic localization of NF-κB, a total score combining intensity and percentage of positive epithelial cells was additionally calculated. The presence of inflammation was also recorded. Results Intensity and total scores for NF-κΒ cytoplasmic immunostaining showed a statistically significant gradual increase from normal mucosa to OSCC (p=0.012 and p=0.026 respectively). Non-statistically significant increased NF-κΒ nuclear localization was detected in dysplasias and OSCCs. Positive statistical correlation was detected between the presence of inflammation and IL-6 expression (p=0.015). No correlation between NF-κΒ and IL-6 was detected. Conclusions NF-κΒ is activated in the early stages of oral carcinogenesis. IL-6 may have an NF-κΒ-independent role, possibly through regulation of the inflammatory response. Key words:NF-κB, IL-6, immunohistochemistry, oral squamous cell carcinoma, oral precancerous lesion. PMID:26595830

  11. Transition of Immunohistochemical Expression of E-Cadherin and Vimentin from Premalignant to Malignant Lesions of Oral Cavity and Oropharynx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kafil Akhtar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We sought to study the expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers E-cadherin and vimentin in precancerous lesions of the oral cavity and oropharynx and to use the specific pattern of expression to predict invasiveness. Methods: This cross-sectional study looked at 87 cases of oral and oropharyngeal lesions obtained between December 2012 and November 2014 in the Department of Pathology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, India. Fifty-three biopsies from the buccal mucosa, tongue, and pharynx and 34 resected oral specimens were evaluated for premalignant and malignant lesions using hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical stains. Immunohistochemical expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin and mesenchymal marker vimentin was evaluated wherever possible. Slides were examined for staining pattern (cytoplasmic or membrane, proportion, and intensity of staining of tumor cells. Patients follow-up and therapy related changes were also studied. Results: There were 64 premalignant and 23 malignant cases in our study with 65 (74.7% cases seen in males and 22 (25.3% cases seen in females. The majority of malignant cases, (n = 15; 64.2% were seen in the fifth and sixth decades of life while most of the premalignant lesions (n = 36; 56.4% were seen in the fourth and fifth decade. Amongst the 64 premalignant oral lesions, leukoplakia comprised of 14 cases (21.9%, of which three cases had associated mild to moderate dysplasia. The majority of premalignant lesions showed strong E-cadherin expression and decreased expression of vimentin with negative and weak expression in both dysplasias and carcinoma in situ (p = 0.013. E-cadherin expression was significantly reduced in invasive carcinomas compared to dysplasias and carcinoma in situ and the difference in immunoreactivity was statistically significant (p < 0.050. Vimentin expression increased as the tumor progressed from dysplasias to carcinoma in

  12. Oral immune priming with Bacillus thuringiensis induces a shift in the gene expression of Tribolium castaneum larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Jenny M; Milutinović, Barbara; Peuß, Robert; Behrens, Sarah; Esser, Daniela; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schulenburg, Hinrich; Kurtz, Joachim

    2017-04-26

    The phenomenon of immune priming, i.e. enhanced protection following a secondary exposure to a pathogen, has now been demonstrated in a wide range of invertebrate species. Despite accumulating phenotypic evidence, knowledge of its mechanistic underpinnings is currently very limited. Here we used the system of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum and the insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to further our molecular understanding of the oral immune priming phenomenon. We addressed how ingestion of bacterial cues (derived from spore supernatants) of an orally pathogenic and non-pathogenic Bt strain affects gene expression upon later challenge exposure, using a whole-transcriptome sequencing approach. Whereas gene expression of individuals primed with the orally non-pathogenic strain showed minor changes to controls, we found that priming with the pathogenic strain induced regulation of a large set of distinct genes, many of which are known immune candidates. Intriguingly, the immune repertoire activated upon priming and subsequent challenge qualitatively differed from the one mounted upon infection with Bt without previous priming. Moreover, a large subset of priming-specific genes showed an inverse regulation compared to their regulation upon challenge only. Our data demonstrate that gene expression upon infection is strongly affected by previous immune priming. We hypothesise that this shift in gene expression indicates activation of a more targeted and efficient response towards a previously encountered pathogen, in anticipation of potential secondary encounter.

  13. Gypenosides causes DNA damage and inhibits expression of DNA repair genes of human oral cancer SAS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kung-Wen; Chen, Jung-Chou; Lai, Tung-Yuan; Yang, Jai-Sing; Weng, Shu-Wen; Ma, Yi-Shih; Tang, Nou-Ying; Lu, Pei-Jung; Weng, Jing-Ru; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2010-01-01

    Gypenosides (Gyp) are the major components of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino, a Chinese medical plant. Recently, Gyp has been shown to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in many human cancer cell lines. However, there is no available information to address the effects of Gyp on DNA damage and DNA repair-associated gene expression in human oral cancer cells. Therefore, we investigated whether Gyp induced DNA damage and DNA repair gene expression in human oral cancer SAS cells. The results from flow cytometric assay indicated that Gyp-induced cytotoxic effects led to a decrease in the percentage of viable SAS cells. The results from comet assay revealed that the incubation of SAS cells with Gyp led to a longer DNA migration smear (comet tail) when compared with control and this effect was dose-dependent. The results from real-time PCR analysis indicated that treatment of SAS cells with 180 mug/ml of Gyp for 24 h led to a decrease in 14-3-3sigma, DNA-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase (DNAPK), p53, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) and breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA1) mRNA expression. These observations may explain the cell death caused by Gyp in SAS cells. Taken together, Gyp induced DNA damage and inhibited DNA repair-associated gene expressions in human oral cancer SAS cells in vitro.

  14. [Expression of human insulin in lactic acid bacteria and its oral administration in non-obese diabetic mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si-Wei; Zhong, Jin; Huan, Lian-Dong

    2007-12-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an auto-immune disease while oral administrating its autoantigens could be a treatment of T1DM. To express human insulin gene (ins) in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for oral vaccine, ins gene was replaced by LAB bias codon and an 8-amino-acid-residue linker peptide forming a beta-turn was designed to link insulin chain A and B. After synthesized by primer annealing method, the whole ins gene was fused with signal peptide sequence SP(Usp45), subcloned into a LAB secretory expressive vector pSW501 and then introduced to Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) MG1363 and Lactobacillus casei (Lb. casei ) ATCC27092 respectively. Western blot showed that the expression product (SP(Usp45)-INS protein) targeted mainly at the cell wall while little was found in cytoplasm or supernatant. The highest expression level emerged in exponential phase when the optical density at 600nm of the culture was 0.4. The culture of the recombinant strain Lb. casei/pSW501 was administered to non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice orally. ELISA and Western blot results showed that the recombinant strain could induce SP(Usp45)-INS-specific antibodies and raise IL-4 level (38.583 +/- 2.083 pg/mL, P < 0.05) in the mice' s sera. Expression of insulin in the food-grade vehicle LAB could induce oral immune tolerance in NOD mice and protect it from pancreas injury, suggesting it might be a new way to the treatment of T1DM.

  15. Learners' independent records of vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Leeke, Philip

    1999-01-01

    Handbooks recommend a variety of quite complicated procedures for learning and remembering vocabulary, but most learners only engage in very simple procedures. The aim of this project was to establish a basis for identifying optimal vocabulary recording procedures by finding out what learners...... currently do. We administered a questionnaire, interviewed learners who said that they kept vocabulary records of some kind and examined their records. Two-thirds had given up making vocabulary lists on entering the L2 environment and/or starting to read extensively, but several made interesting lists...... to be bilingual and single-word focused. The optimal listing procedures are those which represent a compromise between linguistically and psychologically effective practices and the amount of investment learners are actually prepared to put in. It is important to distinguish records made in class, which should...

  16. Expressão do colágeno I em carcinomas epidermóides da cavidade oral Collagen type I expression in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Botelho Martins

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A matriz extracelular no carcinoma epidermóide da cavidade oral sofre modificações qualitativas e quantitativas durante a sua progressão. Estas alterações parecem possibilitar os processos de invasão e metástase que caracterizam as neoplasias malignas e são mais evidentes na interface tumor-hospedeiro. No nosso estudo, 23 biópsias incisionais de carcinomas epidermóides de diversas localizações da cavidade oral foram classificadas segundo o sistema de graduação histológica preconizado por Anneroth et al.¹ (1987. Foram utilizadas as colorações pela H. E. e a do tipo picrosirius, específica para colágeno. A expressão imuno-histoquímica do colágeno tipo I foi analisada em lesões com diferentes escores histológicos de malignidade. Pôde-se concluir que o colágeno apresenta diferentes padrões morfológicos, histoquímicos e imuno-histoquímicos em lesões com altos e baixos escores de malignidade.An analysis of the extracellular matrix at the invasive front of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity may improve the understanding of tumour cell matrix interactions during malignancy growth. Alterations in collagen I expression may influence cellular invasion and metastasis. In this work, 23 cases of squamous cell carcinoma were submitted to the Anneroth's malignancy grading system¹. H. E. and sirius red staining were used. Immunohistochemical expression of collagen type I protein was observed in different malignancy scores. As a result, it was observed that the extracellular matrix in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity shows different patterns of collagen I expression in low and high scores of malignancy.

  17. Increased expression of virulence attributes in oral Candida albicans isolates from human immunodeficiency virus-positive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mane, Arati; Gaikwad, Shraddha; Bembalkar, Shilpa; Risbud, Arun

    2012-02-01

    Oral candidiasis caused by Candida albicans is recognized as one of the most frequent opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. The overall severity and chronicity of oral candidiasis has been attributed exclusively to the HIV-induced immune deficiency of the affected individuals but not to the virulence factors of the pathogen, i.e. C. albicans. However, genotypic and phenotypic studies have suggested that HIV infection might be associated with preferential selection of C. albicans strains with altered virulence determinants, leading to colonization with Candida populations that are better able to cause disease in these immunologically compromised hosts. If this process of selection is indeed related to pathogenicity, it may be possible to measure alterations in different virulence factors produced by C. albicans in HIV-infected patients. To evaluate this hypothesis, the present work was undertaken to determine simultaneously the expression of five virulence factors in oral C. albicans isolates colonizing and infecting HIV-positive and -negative individuals. The significance of genotypes in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis was also elucidated. Oral swabs were collected from 335 consecutive individuals (210 HIV-positive and 125 HIV-negative). Virulence factors and genotypes were determined for all the C. albicans strains isolated. The results showed significantly increased expression of proteinase, phospholipase and haemolytic activities, as well as a greater ability to adhere, in isolates from HIV-positive compared with HIV-negative individuals (Pvirulence factor expression in isolates colonizing or infecting HIV-positive individuals were seen. Genotype A was the predominant type (71.3 %); however, a relationship could not be established between the genotypes and the virulence factors, or with clinical infection. These data support the concept of preferential C. albicans strain selection with altered virulence

  18. Inhibition of TGF-β and EGF pathway gene expression and migration of oral carcinoma cells by mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue 1

    OpenAIRE

    Ohyama, Y.; Kawamoto, Y.; Chiba, T.; Maeda, G.; Sakashita, H; Imai, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Expression of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue 1 (MALT1) is inactivated in oral carcinoma patients with worse prognosis. However, the role in carcinoma progression is unknown. Unveiling genes under the control of MALT1 is necessary to understand the pathology of carcinomas. Methods: Gene data set differentially transcribed in MALT1-stably expressing and -marginally expressing oral carcinoma cells was profiled by the microarray analysis and subjected to the pathway analysis. Migra...

  19. Immunohistochemical Analysis Using Antipodocalyxin Monoclonal Antibody PcMab-47 Demonstrates Podocalyxin Expression in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itai, Shunsuke; Yamada, Shinji; Kaneko, Mika K; Harada, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yukinari

    2017-09-05

    Podocalyxin is a CD34-related type I transmembrane protein that is highly glycosylated with N-glycan, O-glycan, and keratan sulfate. Podocalyxin was originally found in the podocytes of rat kidney and is reportedly expressed in many types of tumors, including brain tumors, colorectal cancers, and breast cancers. Overexpression of podocalyxin is an independent predictor of progression, metastasis, and poor outcome. We recently immunized mice with recombinant human podocalyxin, which was produced using LN229 glioblastoma cells, and produced a novel antipodocalyxin monoclonal antibody (mAb), PcMab-47, which reacts with endogenous podocalyxin-expressing cancer cell lines and normal cell lines independent of glycosylation in Western blot, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemical analyses. In this study, we performed immunohistochemical analysis against oral cancers using PcMab-47. PcMab-47-stained oral squamous cell carcinoma cells in a cytoplasmic pattern and detected 26/38 (68.4%) of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells on tissue microarrays. These results indicate that PcMab-47 is useful in detecting podocalyxin of oral cancers for immunohistochemical analysis.

  20. Student-Created Vocabulary Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Donald

    2016-01-01

    In this paper is described a preliminary study at a Japanese university on student affect toward self-created vocabulary tests. In order to foster greater learner autonomy in their vocabulary study, students were tasked with selecting words they wished to learn and creating their own tests using a template provided by the teacher. At the end of the course, a survey examining student attitudes toward the activity was conducted with 140 participants. The results were encouraging as they indicat...

  1. TOEFL IBT vocabulary flash review

    CERN Document Server

    Llc, Learning Express

    2014-01-01

    The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) measures the English proficiency of people whose native language isn't English. This portable guide features 600 essential TOEFL vocabulary flashcards, bound in a convenient book format, with definitions, sample sentences, synonyms, and pronunciation. The cards include the most-tested vocabulary on the exam. The perfect companion to any TOEFL study plan, this book is pocket-sized for portability and great for study anywhere, anytime!

  2. Reduced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis after intranasal and oral administration of recombinant lactobacilli expressing myelin antigens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B.M. Maassen (Kitty); J.D. Laman (Jon); C. van Holten-Neelen; L. Hoogteijling (L.); L. Groenewegen (Lizet); L. Visser (Lizette); M.M. Schellekens (M.); W.G. Boersma (Wim); H.J.H.M. Claassen (Eric)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractOral administration of autoantigens is a safe and convenient way to induce peripheral T-cell tolerance in autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS). To increase the efficacy of oral tolerance induction and obviate the need for large-scale purification of human myelin proteins, we

  3. Reduced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis after intranasal and oral administration of recombinant lactobacilli expressing meyelin antigens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen, C.B.M.; Holten-Neelen, van J.C.P.A.; Groenewegen, L.; Hoogteijling, L.; Visser, L.; Boersma, W.J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Oral administration of autoantigens is a safe and convenient way to induce peripheral T-cell tolerance in autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS). To increase the efficacy of oral tolerance induction and obviate the need for large-scale purification of human myelin proteins, we use genetica

  4. Effects of aging in the expression of NOD-like receptors and inflammasome-related genes in oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersole, J L; Kirakodu, S; Novak, M J; Exposto, C R; Stromberg, A J; Shen, S; Orraca, L; Gonzalez-Martinez, J; Gonzalez, O A

    2016-02-01

    The molecular changes underlying the higher risk of chronic inflammatory disorders during aging remain incompletely understood. Molecular variations in the innate immune response related to recognition and interaction with microbes at mucosal surfaces could be involved in aging-related inflammation. We developed an ontology analysis of 20 nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) and seven inflammasome-related genes (IRGs) in healthy and inflamed/periodontitis oral mucosal tissues from young, adolescent, adult, and aged non-human primates (Macaca mulatta) using the GeneChip(®) Rhesus Macaque Genome array. Validation of some of the significant changes was done by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The expression of NLRB/NAIP, NLRP12, and AIM2 increased with aging in healthy mucosa whereas NLRC2/NOD2 expression decreased. Although higher expression levels of some NLRs were generally observed with periodontitis in adult mucosal tissues (e.g. NLRB/NAIP, NLRP5, and NLRX1), various receptors (e.g. NLRC2/NOD2 and NLRP2) and the inflammasome adaptor protein ASC, exhibited a significant reduction in expression in aged periodontitis tissues. Accordingly, the expression of NLR-activated innate immune genes, such as HBD3 and IFNB1, was impaired in aged but not adult periodontitis tissues. Both adult and aged tissues showed significant increase in interleukin-1β expression. These findings suggest that the expression of a subset of NLRs appears to change with aging in healthy oral mucosa, and that aging-related oral mucosal inflammation could involve an impaired regulation of the inflammatory and antimicrobial response associated with downregulation of specific NLRs and IRGs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Leptin acts on neoplastic behavior and expression levels of genes related to hypoxia, angiogenesis, and invasiveness in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrinho Santos, Eliane Macedo; Guimarães, Talita Antunes; Santos, Hércules Otacílio; Cangussu, Lilian Mendes Borborema; de Jesus, Sabrina Ferreira; Fraga, Carlos Alberto de Carvalho; Cardoso, Claudio Marcelo; Santos, Sérgio Henrique Souza; de Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; Guimarães, André Luiz Sena; Farias, Lucyana Conceição

    2017-05-01

    Leptin, one of the main hormones controlling energy homeostasis, has been associated with different cancer types. In oral cancer, its effect is not well understood. We investigated, through in vitro and in vivo assays, whether leptin can affect the neoplastic behavior of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Expression of genes possibly linked to the leptin pathway was assessed in leptin-treated oral squamous cell carcinoma cells and also in tissue samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral mucosa, including leptin, leptin receptor, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha, E-cadherin, matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, Col1A1, Ki67, and mir-210. Leptin treatment favored higher rates of cell proliferation and migration, and reduced apoptosis. Accordingly, leptin-treated oral squamous cell carcinoma cells show decreased messenger RNA caspase-3 expression, and increased levels of E-cadherin, Col1A1, matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and mir-210. In tissue samples, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha messenger RNA and protein expression of leptin and leptin receptor were high in oral squamous cell carcinoma cases. Serum leptin levels were increased in first clinical stages of the disease. In animal model, oral squamous cell carcinoma-induced mice show higher leptin receptor expression, and serum leptin level was increased in dysplasia group. Our findings suggest that leptin seems to exert an effect on oral squamous cell carcinoma cells behavior and also on molecular markers related to cell proliferation, migration, and tumor angiogenesis.

  6. HOXA1 is overexpressed in oral squamous cell carcinomas and its expression is correlated with poor prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitu Carolina

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HOX genes encode homeodomain-containing transcription factors involved in the regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation during embryogenesis. However, members of this family demonstrated oncogenic properties in some malignancies. The present study investigated whether genes of the HOXA cluster play a role in oral cancer. Methods In order to identify differentially expressed HOXA genes, duplex RT-PCR in oral samples from healthy mucosa and squamous cell carcinoma was used. The effects of HOXA1 on proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion, invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and anchorage-independent growth were assessed in cells with up- and down-regulation of HOXA1. Immunohistochemical analysis using a tissue microarray (TMA containing 127 oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC was performed to determine the prognostic role of HOXA1 expression. Results We showed that transcripts of HOXA genes are more abundant in OSCC than in healthy oral mucosa. In particular, HOXA1, which has been described as one of the HOX members that plays an important role in tumorigenesis, was significantly more expressed in OSCCs compared to healthy oral mucosas. Further analysis demonstrated that overexpression of HOXA1 in HaCAT human epithelial cells promotes proliferation, whereas downregulation of HOXA1 in human OSCC cells (SCC9 cells decreases it. Enforced HOXA1 expression in HaCAT cells was not capable of modulating other events related to tumorigenesis, including apoptosis, adhesion, invasion, EMT and anchorage-independent growth. A high number of HOXA1-positive cells was significantly associated with T stage, N stage, tumor differentiation and proliferative potential of the tumors, and was predictive of poor survival. In multivariate analysis, HOXA1 was an independent prognostic factor for OSCC patients (HR: 2.68; 95% CI: 1.59-2.97; p = 0.026. Conclusion Our findings indicate that HOXA1 may contribute to oral carcinogenesis

  7. Increased expression of Lin28B associates with poor prognosis in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tianfu; Jia, Jun; Xiong, Xuepeng; He, Haijun; Bu, Linlin; Zhao, Zhili; Huang, Congfa; Zhang, Wenfeng

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies showed that incomplete cell reprogramming can transform cells into tumour-like cells. Lin28A is associated with fibroblast and sarcoma cell reprogramming, whereas its homologue Lin28B is associated with hematopoietic cell reprogramming. This study aimed to investigate the expression and prognostic difference between Lin28A and Lin28B in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Expression level was assessed by immunohistochemistry and staining location was confirmed by immunofluorescence. Prognostic values were analysed and compared by the Kaplan-Meier analysis and uni and multivariate Cox regression models. Besides, in vitro cell assays and in vivo nude mice xenograft were used to demonstrate the influence of increased Lin28B expression in OSCC. Lin28A and Lin28B expression increased in OSCC, and co-expression of Lin28A and Lin28B showed no significant association with patient prognosis. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with high Lin28B but not Lin28A expression had lower overall survival (OS) rates than those with low Lin28B expression. Further Univariate analysis showed that patients with increased Lin28B expression had shorter disease-free survival (DFS) and shorter OS, while multivariate analysis showed Lin28B overexpression with TNM stage predicted poor prognosis in patients with OSCC. Besides, stable expressing Lin28B in oral cancer cells promoted cell migration, invasion, colony formation, in vivo proliferation and increased the expression of cancer suppressor miRNA let-7 targeted genes IL-6, HMGA2, the EMT markers Snail and Twist, the angiogenesis inducer VEGF, and the apoptosis inhibitor Survivin. These combined results indicate that Lin28B is a novel marker for predicting prognosis in patients with OSCC and may be a therapeutic target.

  8. Increased expression of Lin28B associates with poor prognosis in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianfu Wu

    Full Text Available Recent studies showed that incomplete cell reprogramming can transform cells into tumour-like cells. Lin28A is associated with fibroblast and sarcoma cell reprogramming, whereas its homologue Lin28B is associated with hematopoietic cell reprogramming. This study aimed to investigate the expression and prognostic difference between Lin28A and Lin28B in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Expression level was assessed by immunohistochemistry and staining location was confirmed by immunofluorescence. Prognostic values were analysed and compared by the Kaplan-Meier analysis and uni and multivariate Cox regression models. Besides, in vitro cell assays and in vivo nude mice xenograft were used to demonstrate the influence of increased Lin28B expression in OSCC. Lin28A and Lin28B expression increased in OSCC, and co-expression of Lin28A and Lin28B showed no significant association with patient prognosis. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with high Lin28B but not Lin28A expression had lower overall survival (OS rates than those with low Lin28B expression. Further Univariate analysis showed that patients with increased Lin28B expression had shorter disease-free survival (DFS and shorter OS, while multivariate analysis showed Lin28B overexpression with TNM stage predicted poor prognosis in patients with OSCC. Besides, stable expressing Lin28B in oral cancer cells promoted cell migration, invasion, colony formation, in vivo proliferation and increased the expression of cancer suppressor miRNA let-7 targeted genes IL-6, HMGA2, the EMT markers Snail and Twist, the angiogenesis inducer VEGF, and the apoptosis inhibitor Survivin. These combined results indicate that Lin28B is a novel marker for predicting prognosis in patients with OSCC and may be a therapeutic target.

  9. Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) expression and bone invasion by oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchimochi, Makoto; Kameta, Ayako; Harada, Mikiko; Okada, Yasuo; Katagiri, Masataka [The Nippon Dental Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry at Niigata

    1999-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) indirectly stimulates osteoclastic bone resorption through osteoblasts in humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. We reported that the serum concentration of PTHrP elevated in terminal stage patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in 1996. Therefore, PTHrP is a candidate for direct bone resorption factor released from the tumor tissue. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the correlation between the direct bone invasion by oral SCC and PTHrP expression. The serum C-PTHrP concentration was measured in 53 patients with oral SCC. The immunohistochemical study using PTHrP (labeled streptoavidin-biotin method, 38-64 monoclonal and 1-34 polyclonal antibody) was performed in 53 biopsy specimens. The bone invasion was assessed by using panoramic radiographs and bone scintigrams ({sup 99m}Tc-MDP). The mean serum C-PTHrP concentration in the bone invasion identified group was 43.1{+-}17.2 pmol/1. In the non-bone invasion group it was 42.0{+-}18.0 pmol/1. No significant correlation was found between serum C-PTHrP levels and bone invasion or between PTHrP (1-34) and (38-64) expression in tumors and bone invasion. These results showed that there is no relationship between PTHrP expression in the biopsy specimen and direct bone invasion. Since the expression of PTHrP in the tumor tissue attached to the bone or surgical specimens has not been investigated, it is still unclear if PTHrP plays a role in direct bone resorption by oral SCC. (author)

  10. Vocabularies for description of accessibility issues in multimodal user interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Obrenovic; R. Troncy (Raphael); L. Hardman (Lynda)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn previous work, we proposed a unified approach for describing multimodal human-computer interaction and interaction constraints in terms of sensual, motor, perceptual and cognitive functions of users. In this paper, we extend this work by providing formalised vocabularies that express

  11. Early productive vocabulary predicts academic achievement 10 years later

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bleses, Dorthe; Makransky, Guido; Dale, Philip

    2016-01-01

    We use a longitudinal design to examine associations for 2,120 16-30 months old children between early expressive vocabulary and later reading and math outcomes in the 6th Grade based on a large and diverse sample of Danish children. Educational outcomes, in particular decoding and reading...... comprehension, can be predicted from an early vocabulary measure as early as 16 months with effect sizes (in proportion of variance accounted for) comparable to one year’s mean growth in reading scores. The findings confirm in a relatively large population based study that late talkers are at risk for later...

  12. Acquisition of Expert/Non-Expert Vocabulary from Reformulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Edwige; Grabar, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Technical medical terms are complicated to be correctly understood by non-experts. Vocabulary, associating technical terms with layman expressions, can help in increasing the readability of technical texts and their understanding. The purpose of our work is to build this kind of vocabulary. We propose to exploit the notion of reformulation following two methods: extraction of abbreviations and of reformulations with specific markers. The segments associated thanks to these methods are aligned with medical terminologies. Our results allow to cover over 9,000 medical terms and show precision of extractions between 0.24 and 0.98. The results and analyzed and compared with the existing work.

  13. Gene expression profiling reveals biological pathways responsible for phenotypic heterogeneity between UK and Sri Lankan oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Anas A; Sims, Andrew H; Prime, Stephen S; Paterson, Ian; Murray, Paul G; Lopes, Victor R

    2015-03-01

    It is well recognized that oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cases from Asia that are associated with betel quid chewing are phenotypically distinct to those from Western countries that are predominantly caused by smoking/drinking, but the molecular basis of these differences are largely unknown. The aim of this study is to examine gene expression, related carcinogenic pathways and molecular processes that might be responsible for the phenotypic heterogeneity of OSCC between UK and Sri Lankan population groups. We have compared the gene expression profiles of OSCCs and normal oral mucosal tissues from both Sri Lankan and UK individuals using Affymetrix gene expression arrays. The generated data was interrogated using significance analysis of microarrays and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). The gene expression profiles of UK and Sri Lankan OSCC are similar in many respects to other oral cancer expression profiles reported in the literature and were mainly similar to each other. However, genes involved in tumor invasion, metastasis and recurrence were more obviously associated with UK tumors as opposed to those from Sri Lanka. The development of OSCCs in both UK and Sri Lankan populations appears largely mediated by similar biological pathways despite the differences related to race, ethnicity, lifestyle, and/or exposure to environmental carcinogens. However, IPA revealed a highly activated "Cell-mediated Immune Response" in Sri Lankan normal and tumor samples relative to UK cohorts. It seems likely, therefore, that any future attempts to personalize treatment for OSCC patients will need to be different in Western and Asian countries to reflect differences in gene expression and the immune status of the patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Screening of crucial long non-coding RNAs in oral epithelial dysplasia by serial analysis of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, X; Wei, Y B; Tian, G; Tang, Z; Gao, J Y; Xu, X G

    2015-10-02

    Oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) is a premalignant lesion of the oral mucosa. Considering the poor 5-year survival rate of oral cancer, further investigation is needed in order to determine the pathogenesis of OED. In the present study, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) data from patients with OED were compared to normal controls to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs). SAGE data were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus, and included samples from patients with mild, moderate, or severe dysplasia. The DEGs were identified using the edgeR software package and functional-enrichment analysis was performed with the DAVID (https://david.ncifcrf.gov/) software program. The co-expression network was constructed using the CoExpress software and target genes of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were predicted according to the proximity between the lncRNAs and mRNAs in the genome. A total of 517 DEGs were identified, including 409 mRNAs and 108 lncRNAs. Functional-enrichment analysis showed that mRNAs and lncRNAs involved in epithelial cell differentiation, epithelium development, and epidermal cell differentiation were significantly enriched in the DEGs. Thirty-eight potential regulatory relationships were unveiled between lncRNAs and mRNAs, and two subnetworks were discovered by analyzing the topological properties of the co-expression network. In conclusion, we have identified key mRNAs and lncRNAs in OED, and these findings may aid in understanding the pathogenesis of OED and advance potential future treatments.

  15. Effects of individualized word retrieval in kindergarten vocabulary intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damhuis, C.M.P.; Segers, P.C.J.; Scheltinga, F.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of adaptive word retrieval intervention on a classroom vocabulary program on children's vocabulary acquisition in kindergarten. In the experimental condition, word retrieval was provided in a classroom vocabulary program, combining implicit and explicit vocabulary

  16. Vocabulary Facilitates Speech Perception in Children With Hearing Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Kelsey E; Walker, Elizabeth A; Kirby, Benjamin; McCreery, Ryan W

    2017-08-16

    We examined the effects of vocabulary, lexical characteristics (age of acquisition and phonotactic probability), and auditory access (aided audibility and daily hearing aid [HA] use) on speech perception skills in children with HAs. Participants included 24 children with HAs and 25 children with normal hearing (NH), ages 5-12 years. Groups were matched on age, expressive and receptive vocabulary, articulation, and nonverbal working memory. Participants repeated monosyllabic words and nonwords in noise. Stimuli varied on age of acquisition, lexical frequency, and phonotactic probability. Performance in each condition was measured by the signal-to-noise ratio at which the child could accurately repeat 50% of the stimuli. Children from both groups with larger vocabularies showed better performance than children with smaller vocabularies on nonwords and late-acquired words but not early-acquired words. Overall, children with HAs showed poorer performance than children with NH. Auditory access was not associated with speech perception for the children with HAs. Children with HAs show deficits in sensitivity to phonological structure but appear to take advantage of vocabulary skills to support speech perception in the same way as children with NH. Further investigation is needed to understand the causes of the gap that exists between the overall speech perception abilities of children with HAs and children with NH.

  17. Effects of multimedia vocabulary instruction on adolescents with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Michael J; Deshler, Donald D; Lloyd, John Wills

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study is to investigate the effects of using content acquisition podcasts (CAPs), an example of instructional technology, to provide vocabulary instruction to adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD). A total of 279 urban high school students, including 30 with LD in an area related to reading, were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions with instruction occurring at individual computer terminals over a 3-week period. Each of the four conditions contained different configurations of multimedia-based instruction and evidence-based vocabulary instruction. Dependent measures of vocabulary knowledge indicated that students with LD who received vocabulary instruction using CAPs through an explicit instructional methodology and the keyword mnemonic strategy significantly outperformed other students with LD who were taught using the same content, but with multimedia instruction that did not adhere to a specific theoretical design framework. Results for general education students mirrored those for students with LD. Students also completed a satisfaction measure following instruction with multimedia and expressed overall agreement that CAPs are useful for learning vocabulary terms.

  18. How Children with Normal Hearing and Children with a Cochlear Implant Use Mentalizing Vocabulary and Other Evaluative Expressions in Their Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, Kerttu; Ryder, Nuala

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the use of mental state and emotion terms and other evaluative expressions in the story generation of 65 children (aged 2-8 years) with normal hearing (NH) and 11 children (aged 3-7 years) using a cochlear implant (CI). Children generated stories on the basis of sets of sequential pictures. The stories of the children with CI…

  19. Largescale Transcriptomics Analysis Suggests Over-Expression of BGH3, MMP9 and PDIA3 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuan; Shao, Fangyang; Pi, Weidong; Shi, Cong; Chen, Yujia; Gong, Diping; Wang, Bingjie; Cao, Zhiwei; Tang, Kailin

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been reported as the most prevalent cancer of the head and neck region, while early diagnosis remains challenging. Here we took a comprehensive bioinformatics study on microarray data of 326 OSCC clinical samples with control of 165 normal tissues. The cell interaction pathways of ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion were found to be significantly regulated in OSCC samples. Further analysis of the topological properties and expression consistency identified that three hub genes in the gene interaction network, MMP9, PDIA3 and BGH3, were consistently up-expressed in OSCC samples. When being validated on additional microarray datasets of 41 OSCC samples, the validation rate of over-expressed BGH3, MMP9, and PDIA3 reached 90%, 90% and 84% respectively. At last, immuno-histochemical assays were done to test the protein expression of the three genes on newly collected clinical samples of 35 OSCC, 20 samples of pre-OSCC stage, and 12 normal oral mucosa specimens. Their protein expression levels were also found to progressively increase from normal mucosa to pre-OSCC stage and further to OSCC (ANOVA p = 0.000), suggesting their key roles in OSCC pathogenesis. Based on above solid validation, we propose BGH3, MMP9 and PDIA3 might be further explored as potential biomarkers to aid OSCC diagnosis.

  20. Repair genes expression profile of MLH1, MSH2 and ATM in the normal oral mucosa of chronic smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Mônica Ghislaine Oliveira; Carta, Celina Faig Lima; de Barros, Patrícia Pimentel; Issa, Jaqueline Scholz; Nunes, Fábio Daumas; Almeida, Janete Dias

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chronic smoking on the expression profile of the repair genes MLH1, MSH2 and ATM in the normal oral mucosa of chronic smokers and never smokers. The sample consisted of thirty exfoliative cytology smears per group obtained from Smokers and Never Smokers. Total RNA was extracted and expression of the MLH1, MSH2 and ATM genes were evaluated by quantitative real-time and immunocytochemistry. The gene and protein expression data were correlated to the clinical data. Gene expression was analyzed statistically using the Student t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient, with pexpression of MLH1, MSH2, ATM and age, number of cigarettes consumed per day, time of smoking during life, smoking history or levels of CO in expired air. The expression of genes and proteins related to DNA repair mechanism MLH1, MSH2 and ATM in the normal oral mucosa of chronic smokers was reduced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Expression of E-cadherin in primary oral squamous cell carcinoma and metastatic lymph nodes: An immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Gurkiran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: E-cadherin plays an important role in cell-to-cell adhesion and cell motility and its loss is associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC progression. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of E-cadherin in various grades of OSCC and to correlate changes in the expression between these various grades and metastatic lymph nodes. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemistry (IHC was used to detect E-cadherin expression in normal oral mucosa, primary OSCC ( n = 37, and metastatic lymph nodes ( n = 10. E-cadherin immunoreactivity was correlated with grades of differentiation and with clinicopathological features. Results: E-cadherin immunoreactivity was found to inversely correlate with the loss of cell differentiation. The expression of E-cadherin decreased significantly in advanced cases of OSCC. However, increase in E-cadherin immunoreactivity was seen in early lesions, that is, in well differentiated ( n = 9 and moderately differentiated OSCC ( n = 13. Furthermore, E-cadherin was negative in majority of metastatic lymph nodes (7/10. Conclusions: Loss of the cell adhesion and E-cadherin plays an important role in progression of OSCC, that is, down regulation of its expression is associated with de-differentiation and metastasis.

  2. Largescale Transcriptomics Analysis Suggests Over-Expression of BGH3, MMP9 and PDIA3 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan He

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC has been reported as the most prevalent cancer of the head and neck region, while early diagnosis remains challenging. Here we took a comprehensive bioinformatics study on microarray data of 326 OSCC clinical samples with control of 165 normal tissues. The cell interaction pathways of ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion were found to be significantly regulated in OSCC samples. Further analysis of the topological properties and expression consistency identified that three hub genes in the gene interaction network, MMP9, PDIA3 and BGH3, were consistently up-expressed in OSCC samples. When being validated on additional microarray datasets of 41 OSCC samples, the validation rate of over-expressed BGH3, MMP9, and PDIA3 reached 90%, 90% and 84% respectively. At last, immuno-histochemical assays were done to test the protein expression of the three genes on newly collected clinical samples of 35 OSCC, 20 samples of pre-OSCC stage, and 12 normal oral mucosa specimens. Their protein expression levels were also found to progressively increase from normal mucosa to pre-OSCC stage and further to OSCC (ANOVA p = 0.000, suggesting their key roles in OSCC pathogenesis. Based on above solid validation, we propose BGH3, MMP9 and PDIA3 might be further explored as potential biomarkers to aid OSCC diagnosis.

  3. Early Vocabulary in Relation to Gender, Bilingualism, Type, and Duration of Childcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarova, M.; Brielmann, A. A.; Wolf, C.; Rinker, T.; Burke, T; Baayen, H.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the predictive value of child-related and environmental characteristics for early lexical development. The German productive vocabulary of 51 2-year-olds (27 girls), assessed via parental report, was analyzed taking children’s gender, the type of early care they experienced, and their mono- versus bilingual language composition into consideration. The children were from an educationally homogeneous group of families and state-regulated daycare facilities with high structural quality. All investigated subgroups exhibited German vocabulary size within the expected normative range. Gender differences in vocabulary composition, but not in size, were observed. There were no general differences in vocabulary size or composition between the 2 care groups. An interaction between the predictors gender and care arrangement showed that girls without regular daycare experience before the age of 2 years had a somewhat larger vocabulary than all other investigated subgroups of children. The vocabulary size of the 2-year-old children in daycare correlated positively with the duration of their daycare experience prior to testing. The small subgroup of bilingual children investigated exhibited slightly lower but still normative German expressive vocabulary size and a different vocabulary composition compared to the monolingual children. This study expands current knowledge about relevant predictors of early vocabulary. It shows that in the absence of educational disadvantages the duration of early daycare experience of high structural quality is positively associated with vocabulary size but also points to the fact that environmental characteristics, such as type of care, might affect boys’ and girls’ early vocabulary in different ways. PMID:28127412

  4. Comparison of two reading feedback strategies in improving the oral and written language performance of children with language-learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Linda K

    2003-02-01

    Twelve school-age children with language-learning disabilities (LLD) participated in a study comparing the effects of two reading feedback strategies for improving their oral and written language performance. Children were matched for age, disability, gender, and general reading performance. Participants were assigned to one of three study groups, Treatment 1 (T1), Treatment 2 (T2), or Control (C). Children were pre- and posttested on standardized tests of reading and oral vocabulary. T1 and T2 participated in 6 weeks of reading intervention. T1 used traditional decoding-based feedback strategies, and T2 used meaning-based feedback strategies, termed Communicative Reading Strategies (CRS). Significant differences across groups were found for reading comprehension, oral reading, and expressive vocabulary measures. Pairwise comparisons indicated that T2 performed significantly better than T1 and C on reading comprehension at posttest. Though not reaching levels of significance, T2 made greater gains than T1 and C on oral reading and expressive vocabulary measures. Results are discussed with implications for using CRS (T2) with school-age poor readers.

  5. Capsule expression in Streptococcus mitis modulates interaction with oral keratinocytes and alters susceptibility to human antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukke, H V; Engen, S A; Schenck, K; Petersen, F C

    2016-08-01

    Streptococcus mitis is a colonizer of the oral cavity and the nasopharynx, and is closely related to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Both species occur in encapsulated and unencapsulated forms, but in S. mitis the role of the capsule in host interactions is mostly unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine how capsule expression in S. mitis can modulate interactions with the host with relevance for colonization. The S. mitis type strain, as well as two mutants of the type strain, an isogenic capsule deletion mutant, and a capsule switch mutant expressing the serotype 4 capsule of S. pneumoniae TIGR4, were used. Wild-type and capsule deletion strains of S. pneumoniae TIGR4 were included for comparison. We found that capsule production in S. mitis reduced adhesion to oral and lung epithelial cells. Further, exposure of oral epithelial cells to encapsulated S. mitis resulted in higher interleukin-6 and CXCL-8 transcription levels relative to the unencapsulated mutant. Capsule expression in S. mitis increased the sensitivity to human neutrophil peptide 1-3 but reduced the sensitivity to human β-defensin-3 and cathelicidin. This was in contrast with S. pneumoniae in which capsule expression has been generally associated with increased sensitivity to human antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Collectively, these findings indicate that capsule expression in S. mitis is important in modulating interactions with epithelial cells, and is associated with increased or reduced susceptibility to AMPs depending on the nature of the AMP.

  6. Relationship between autophagy-related genes Beclin-1 and MAP1LC3 expression and biological characteristics of oral cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Dong Li; Xiao-Chen Sun; Xin-Mei Li; Jia-Wei Gu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the relationship between autophagy-related genes Beclin-1 and MAP1LC3 expression and biological characteristics of oral cancer. Methods:Oral cancer tissues and precancerous tissues were collected to detect mRNA expression levels of Beclin-1 and MAP1LC3;tongue cancer cell lines CTST-2 and primary epithelial cells of normal buccal mucosa were cultured to detect mRNA expression levels of autophagy marker molecues (Beclin-1 and MAP1LC3), pro-apoptosis genes (P53 and Caspase-3) and anti-apoptosis genes (Survivin, Bcl-2 and Bmi-1). Results:mRNA contents of Beclin-1 and MAP1LC3 in tongue cancer, buccal mucosa cancer, gingival cancer and mouth floor cancer tissues were significantly lower than those in corresponding precancerous tissues; mRNA contents of Beclin-1 and MAP1LC3 in tongue cancer cells CTST-2 were lower than those in normal mucosal cells;mRNA contents of P53 and Caspase-3 in tongue cancer cells CTST-2 were lower than those in normal mucosal cells and positively correlated with mRNA contents of Beclin-1 and MAP1LC3; mRNA contents of survivin, Bcl-2 and Bmi-1 in CTST-2 were higher than those in normal mucosal cells and negatively correlated with mRNA contents of Beclin-1 and MAP1LC3. Conclusion:Expression levels of autophagy-related genes Beclin-1 and MAP1LC3 abnormally reduce in oral cancer and have significant correlation with the expression of pro-apoptosis genes and anti-apoptosis genes of cancer cells.

  7. Toll-like receptor 9 mediates oral bacteria-induced IL-8 expression in gingival epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngsook; Jo, Ah-ram; Jang, Da Hyun; Cho, Yong-Joon; Chun, Jongsik; Min, Byung-Moo; Choi, Youngnim

    2012-07-01

    Previously, we reported that various oral bacteria regulate interleukin (IL)-8 production differently in gingival epithelial cells. The aim of this study was to characterize the pattern recognition receptor(s) that mediate bacteria-induced IL-8 expression. Among ligands that mimic bacterial components, only a Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 ligand enhanced IL-8 expression as determined by ELISA. Both normal and immortalized human gingival epithelial (HOK-16B) cells expressed TLR9 intracellularly and showed enhanced IL-8 expression in response to CpG-oligonucleotide. The ability of eight strains of four oral bacterial species to induce IL-8 expression in HOK-16B cells, and their invasion capacity were examined in the absence or presence of 2% human serum. The ability of purified bacterial DNA (bDNA) to induce IL-8 was also examined. Six out of eight strains increased IL-8 production in the absence of serum. Usage of an endosomal acidification blocker or a TLR9 antagonist inhibited the IL-8 induction by two potent strains. In the presence of serum, many strains lost the ability to induce IL-8 and presented substantially reduced invasion capacity. The IL-8-inducing ability of bacteria in the absence or presence of serum showed a strong positive correlation with their invasion index. The IL-8-inducing ability of bacteria in the absence of human serum was also correlated with the immunostimulatory activity of its bDNA. The observed immunostimulatory activity of the bDNA could not be linked to its CpG motif content. In conclusion, oral bacteria induce IL-8 in gingival epithelial cells through TLR9 and the IL-8-inducing ability depends on the invasive capacity and immunostimulating DNA.

  8. The role of E-cadherin down-regulation in oral cancer: CDH1 gene expression and epigenetic blockage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannone, G; Santoro, A; Feola, A; Bufo, P; Papagerakis, P; Lo Muzio, L; Staibano, S; Ionna, F; Longo, F; Franco, R; Aquino, G; Contaldo, M; De Maria, S; Serpico, R; De Rosa, A; Rubini, C; Papagerakis, S; Giovane, A; Tombolini, V; Giordano, A; Caraglia, M; Di Domenico, M

    2014-01-01

    The prognosis of the oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients remains very poor, mainly due to their high propensity to invade and metastasize. E-cadherin reduced expression occurs in the primary step of oral tumour progression and gene methylation is a mode by which the expression of this protein is regulated in cancers. In this perspective, we investigated E-cadherin gene (CDH1) promoter methylation status in OSCC and its correlation with Ecadherin protein expression, clinicopathological characteristics and patient outcome. Histologically proven OSCC and paired normal mucosa were analyzed for CDH1 promoter methylation status and E-cadherin protein expression by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Colocalization of E-cadherin with epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) was evidenced by confocal microscopy and by immunoprecipitation analyses. This study indicated E-cadherin protein down-regulation in OSCC associated with protein delocalization from membrane to cytoplasm. Low E-cadherin expression correlated to aggressive, poorly differentiated, high grade carcinomas and low patient survival. Moreover, protein down-regulation appeared to be due to E-cadherin mRNA downregulation and CDH1 promoter hypermethylation. In an in vitro model of OSCC the treatment with EGF caused internalization and co-localization of E-cadherin with EGFR and the addition of demethylating agents increased E-cadherin expression. Low E-Cadherin expression is a negative prognostic factor of OSCC and is likely due to the hypermethylation of CDH1 promoter. The delocalization of E-cadherin from membrane to cytoplasm could be also due to the increased expression of EGFR in OSCC and the consequent increase of E-cadherin co-internalization with EGFR.

  9. Induction of Oral Tolerance with Transgenic Plants Expressing Antigens for Prevention/Treatment of Autoimmune, Allergic and Inflammatory Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shengwu; Liao, Yu-Cai; Jevnikar, Anthony M

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and incidence of autoimmune and allergic diseases have increased dramatically over the last several decades, especially in the developed world. The treatment of autoimmune and allergic diseases is typically with the use of non-specific immunosuppressive agents that compromise the integrity of the host immune system and therefore, increase the risk of infections. Antigenspecific immunotherapy by reinstating immunological tolerance towards self antigens without compromising immune functions is a much desired goal for the treatment of autoimmune and allergic diseases. Mucosal administration of antigen is a long-recognized method of inducing antigen-specific immune tolerance known as oral tolerance, which is viewed as having promising potential in the treatment of autoimmune and allergic diseases. Plant-based expression and delivery of recombinant antigens provide a promising new platform to induce oral tolerance, having considerable advantages including reduced cost and increased safety. Indeed, in recent years the use of tolerogenic plants for oral tolerance induction has attracted increasing attention, and considerable progress has been made. This review summarizes recent advances in using plants to deliver tolerogens for induction of oral tolerance in the treatment of autoimmune, allergic and inflammatory diseases.

  10. Orally delivered thioketal nanoparticles loaded with TNF-α-siRNA target inflammation and inhibit gene expression in the intestines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D. Scott; Dalmasso, Guillaume; Wang, Lixin; Sitaraman, Shanthi V.; Merlin, Didier; Murthy, Niren

    2010-11-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) directed against proinflammatory cytokines have the potential to treat numerous diseases associated with intestinal inflammation; however, the side-effects caused by the systemic depletion of cytokines demands that the delivery of cytokine-targeted siRNAs be localized to diseased intestinal tissues. Although various delivery vehicles have been developed to orally deliver therapeutics to intestinal tissue, none of these strategies has demonstrated the ability to protect siRNA from the harsh environment of the gastrointestinal tract and target its delivery to inflamed intestinal tissue. Here, we present a delivery vehicle for siRNA, termed thioketal nanoparticles (TKNs), that can localize orally delivered siRNA to sites of intestinal inflammation, and thus inhibit gene expression in inflamed intestinal tissue. TKNs are formulated from a polymer, poly-(1,4-phenyleneacetone dimethylene thioketal), that degrades selectively in response to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, when delivered orally, TKNs release siRNA in response to the abnormally high levels of ROS specific to sites of intestinal inflammation. Using a murine model of ulcerative colitis, we demonstrate that orally administered TKNs loaded with siRNA against the proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) diminish TNF-α messenger RNA levels in the colon and protect mice from ulcerative colitis.

  11. The combination of SMAD4 expression and histological grade of dysplasia is a better predictor for the malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Rong-Hui; Song, Xiao-Meng; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Li, Jiang; Mao, Li

    2013-01-01

    Oral leukoplakia (OL) is the most common premalignancy in the oral cavity and can progress to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). SMAD4 is a tumor suppressor implicated in multiple cancer types including OSCC. To assess the role of SMAD4 in oral leukoplakia malignant transformation, the authors investigated SMAD4 expression patterns in OL and OSCC using a highly specific antibody and correlated the patterns with the risk of malignant transformation oral leukoplakia. Immunohistochemistry and a quantitative imaging system were used to measure SMAD4 expression in OL from 88 OL patients, including 22 who later went through malignant transformation, and their OSCC counterpart. Forty-three (48.9%) of the 88 OL patients had strong SMAD4 expression. SMAD4 expression had no significant correlation with patients' clinicopathological parameters. Interestingly, 17 (39.5%) of the 43 OL lesions with strong SMAD4 expression went through malignant transformation whereas only 5 (11.1%) of the 45 OL lesions with weak SMAD4 expression did so (p = 0.002). The SMAD4 expression in OL was much higher than that in their OSCC counterpart. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the combination of SMAD4 expression and histological grade of dysplasia (p = 0.007) is a better predictor for the malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia. In the multivariate analysis, both SMAD4 expression and grade of dysplasia were identified as independent factors for OL malignant transformation risk (p = 0.013 and 0.021, respectively). It was concluded that high SMAD4 expression may be indicative of an early carcinogenic process in OL and serve as an independent biomarker in assessing malignant transformation risk in patients with OL, and the combination of SMAD4 expression and histological grade of dysplasia is a better predictor for the malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia.

  12. The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary breadth and depth knowledge. One hundred and fifty first-year university students in China took the Vocabulary Levels Test, a meaning recall task, and the Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge Test. The first two tests were used to elicit two types of vocabulary…

  13. The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary breadth and depth knowledge. One hundred and fifty first-year university students in China took the Vocabulary Levels Test, a meaning recall task, and the Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge Test. The first two tests were used to elicit two types of vocabulary…

  14. Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge and Their Effects on L2 Vocabulary Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardakçi, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge have been studied from many different perspectives, but the related literature lacks serious studies dealing with their effects on vocabulary profiles of EFL learners. In this paper, with an aim to fill this gap, the relative effects of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge on L2 vocabulary profiles…

  15. Regulation of NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome gene expression levels in gingival fibroblasts by oral biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostanci, Nagihan; Meier, Andre; Guggenheim, Bernhard; Belibasakis, Georgios N

    2011-01-01

    Periodontal disease is an inflammatory condition that destroys the tooth-supporting tissues. The inflammation is initiated by oral bacteria in the form of multi-species biofilms, and is dominated by cytokines of the IL-1 family. IL-1 activation and processing is regulated by Caspase-1, within intracellular protein complexes, known as "inflammasomes". The present study employed culture supernatants of in vitro supragingival and subgingival biofilms, to challenge human GF cultures for 6h. The gene expression of inflammasome complex components was investigated by TaqMan qPCR. NLRP1 expression was not affected, whereas NLRP2 was not expressed. Supragingival biofilm challenge increased the expression of Caspase-1, the adaptor ASC, AIM2, as well as IL-1β and IL-18, but did not affect NLRP3 expression. Subgingival biofilm challenge enhanced Caspase-1, ASC, AIM2, IL-1β and IL-18 gene expression at lower concentrations, followed by their down-regulation at higher concentrations, which was also evident for NLRP3 expression. Hence, supragingival and subgingival biofilms differentially regulate the gene expressions of NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasomes and their down-stream IL-1 targets. Increased inflammasome transcription in response to supragingival biofilms is commensurate with early inflammatory events in periodontal disease, whereas decreased transcription in response to subgingival biofilms corroborates the dampening of host immune responses, in favour of pathogen survival and persistence.

  16. A Study of explicit and implicit Enhancement on L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Senor High School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓云

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary plays a prominent role in the second language acquisition of high school students. The new Curriculum Standard requires that students should master as many as 3300 words as well as 400-500 useful expressions and fixed collocation, which brings a great challenge to our vocabulary teaching in high schools. The present study aims at investigating differential effects of explicit and implicit enhancement on L2 vocabulary acquisition in senor high school in order to help teachers realize how to select and apply the most suitable way to the vocabulary instruction so as to improve students’ efficiency in the vocabulary retention.Based on the theory of depth of information processing by Craik and Lockhart (1972), the thesis mainly deals with 3 main aspects just as follows:First,the different effects of explicit enhancement and implicit enhancement on high school students’ vocabulary acquisition. Second, the different effects of explicit enhancement and implicit enhancement on the receptive vocabulary knowledge and productive knowledge.Third,the different effects on vocabulary retention, especially in short-term memory and long-term memory.

  17. Development and transfer of vocabulary knowledge in Spanish-speaking language minority preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, J Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J; Kleuver, Cherie G; Farver, Joann M

    2016-09-01

    In this study we evaluated the predictive validity of conceptual scoring. Two independent samples of Spanish-speaking language minority preschoolers (Sample 1: N = 96, mean age = 54·51 months, 54·3% male; Sample 2: N = 116, mean age = 60·70 months, 56·0% male) completed measures of receptive, expressive, and definitional vocabulary in their first (L1) and second (L2) languages at two time points approximately 9-12 months apart. We examined whether unique L1 and L2 vocabulary at time 1 predicted later L2 and L1 vocabulary, respectively. Results indicated that unique L1 vocabulary did not predict later L2 vocabulary after controlling for initial L2 vocabulary. An identical pattern of results emerged for L1 vocabulary outcomes. We also examined whether children acquired translational equivalents for words known in one language but not the other. Results indicated that children acquired translational equivalents, providing partial support for the transfer of vocabulary knowledge across languages.

  18. p53 Expression Helps Identify High Risk Oral Tongue Pre- malignant Lesions and Correlates with Patterns of Invasive Tumour Front and Tumour Depth in Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveka, Thangaraj Soundara; Shyamsundar, Vidyarani; Krishnamurthy, Arvind; Ramani, Pratibha; Ramshankar, Vijayalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) is the most common oral cancer subtype with a maximum propensity for regional spread. Our objective was to study if p53 expression might have any correlation with aggressive patterns of invasion within oral tongue cancers as well as with the histologically identified degree of oral tongue dysplasia. p53 immunoexpression was studied using immunohistochemistry in early staged OTSCCs (n=155), oral tongue dysplasias, (n=29) and oral tongue normal specimens (n=10) and evaluated for correlations with histological and clinicopathological parameters. Our study (n=194) showed a pattern of p53 expression increasing with different grades of tongue dysplasia to different grades of invasive OTSCC (p=0.000). Among the OTSCC tumours, positive p53 expression was seen in 43.2% (67/155) and a higher p53 labelling index was significantly associated with increased Bryne's grade of the tumour invasive front (p=0.039) and increased tumour depth (p=0.018). Among the OTSCC patients with tobacco habits, (n=91), a higher p53 labelling index was significantly associated with increased risk of local recurrence (p=0.025) and with lymphovascular space involvement (p=0.014). Evaluation of p53 through varying degrees of dysplasia to oral tongue cancer indicates that p53 expression is linked to aggressive features of oral tongue cancers and tongue precancers entailing a closer monitoring in positive cases. Among the OTSCCs, p53 expression is associated with tumour aggressiveness correlating with increased grading of invasive tumour front and tumour depth.

  19. Discussion on English Vocabulary and Description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈岚; 代显华

    2013-01-01

      Compared with the study of Grammar, syntax, the description on vocabulary is comparatively slower than them. The related theories of vocabulary description have fast developed since the 1980s and 1990s have experienced a growing interest in vocabulary learning and teaching----The vocabulary size, text coverage, word list, meaning of vocabulary in context, and collocation have been discovered and described, which helped new insights in arrange of different research fields have all added to our understanding of vocabulary development. Vocabulary acquisition research, based on vocabulary description, has established itself as a central research focus for language acquisition researchers and contributed to the focus of practical teaching and learning in College English.

  20. The Choice of Effective Vocabulary Learning Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建芳

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to make a comparison between good and poor language learners in the use of vocabulary learning strategies.It will introduce some helpful vocabulary learning strategies to help those frustrated Chinese college non-English major learners.

  1. Human Pharmacokinetics of High Dose Oral Curcumin and Its Effect on Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression in Healthy Male Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uros Klickovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 has been proposed to exert pharmacological benefits by its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. HO-1 expression may be affected by the GT length polymorphism in the promoter region of the HO-1 gene. We investigated the inducibility of HO-1 by orally administered curcumin in healthy male subjects and its correlation with the GT length polymorphism. Methods. In an open label uncontrolled phase-1 pilot study, ten male subjects received 12 g of oral curcumin. To investigate the effects of the GT length polymorphism on the inducibility of HO-1, five subjects with homozygous short and five with homozygous long GT genotypes were studied. Plasma concentrations of curcumin, bilirubin, HO-1 mRNA, and protein expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were analyzed over 48 hours. Results. At a detection limit of 1 µg/mL curcumin could not be detected in plasma of any subject. Compared to baseline, HO-1 mRNA and protein levels were not induced in PBMCs at any time point up to 48 hours. There was no correlation between any of the parameters and GT length polymorphism. Conclusions. Oral curcumin administration has low bioavailability and does not induce HO-1 on mRNA or protein level in PBMCs.

  2. Expression Analysis of SPARC/Osteonectin in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients: From Saliva to Surgical Specimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Aquino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, with approximately 540,000 new cases annually worldwide. The molecular mechanisms related to the pathogenesis of this disease are still poorly understood. The discovery of a molecular marker that allows the early detection of this cancer, which can be easily identified in biological samples, such as saliva, without intervening in advanced stages, is a challenge. Numerous studies have identified a panel of molecular markers differently expressed in OSCC and normal oral mucosa. In particular, it was found an aberrant expression of matricellular glycoprotein SPARC. SPARC is involved in normal tissue remodeling, regulating the deposition of extracellular matrix, but also in neoplastic transformation. In fact, aberrant SPARC expression was detected both in stromal cells associated with cancer and in tumor cells. The aim of our study was the evaluation of SPARC on a retrospective series of 119 OSCC cases and the validation of the obtained data on a prospective series of 27 patients with OSCC, of whom we have previously collected saliva, and smeared material. The obtained results were correlated with each other and with clinical pathological parameters at our disposal. The study demonstrated a prognostic value of SPARC, especially with regard to its expression in the stroma surrounding OSCC (P < 0.05.

  3. Homeobox gene expression profile indicates HOXA5 as a candidate prognostic marker in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodini, Camila Oliveira; Xavier, Flávia Caló Aquino; Paiva, Katiúcia Batista Silva; De Souza Setúbal Destro, Maria Fernanda; Moyses, Raquel Ajub; Michaluarte, Pedro; Carvalho, Marcos Brasilino; Fukuyama, Erica Erina; Tajara, Eloiza Helena; Okamoto, Oswaldo Keith; Nunes, Fabio Daumas

    2012-04-01

    The search for molecular markers to improve diagnosis, individualize treatment and predict behavior of tumors has been the focus of several studies. This study aimed to analyze homeobox gene expression profile in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) as well as to investigate whether some of these genes are relevant molecular markers of prognosis and/or tumor aggressiveness. Homeobox gene expression levels were assessed by microarrays and qRT-PCR in OSCC tissues and adjacent non-cancerous matched tissues (margin), as well as in OSCC cell lines. Analysis of microarray data revealed the expression of 147 homeobox genes, including one set of six at least 2-fold up-regulated, and another set of 34 at least 2-fold down-regulated homeobox genes in OSCC. After qRT-PCR assays, the three most up-regulated homeobox genes (HOXA5, HOXD10 and HOXD11) revealed higher and statistically significant expression levels in OSCC samples when compared to margins. Patients presenting lower expression of HOXA5 had poorer prognosis compared to those with higher expression (P=0.03). Additionally, the status of HOXA5, HOXD10 and HOXD11 expression levels in OSCC cell lines also showed a significant up-regulation when compared to normal oral keratinocytes. Results confirm the presence of three significantly upregulated (>4-fold) homeobox genes (HOXA5, HOXD10 and HOXD11) in OSCC that may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of these tumors. Moreover, since lower levels of HOXA5 predict poor prognosis, this gene may be a novel candidate for development of therapeutic strategies in OSCC.

  4. Review of L2 Vocabulary Acquisition Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周先军

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary is important in language and language acquisition, but it did not catch as much attention as it deserved for a long time. In this thesis, I’ll go through changes of vocabulary studied in linguistics and language teaching as well as rise of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies. Several aspects of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies will then be reviewed.Issues that need to be further studied will at last be put forward.

  5. Vocabulary Is a Key to English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢翌春

    2008-01-01

    Vocabulary size is an important criterion to measure one's English proficiency. More words mean more freedom in language use. To many English learners, language skill remains difficult due to insufficient vocabulary. Both learners and teachers should be active to find an appropriate way to improve that condition. So it is necessary to know the feature of vocabulary and some effective ways to enlarge vocabulary size.

  6. Considerations on Carrying Out Vocabulary Teaching Efficiently

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴白音那

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses current situations and some problems with vocabulary leaning confronted by students (especially Mongolian students) in Inner Mongolian, which should be solved urgently since the requirements of College English Teaching Curriculum are increasing, and it points out the improvement of vocabulary teaching strategies should become college English teachers' main concern. Finally, interesting methods of presenting vocabulary and effective ways of checking students' vocabulary are suggested ...

  7. Review of L2 Vocabulary Acquisition Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周先军

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary is important in language and language acquisition, but it did not catch as much attention as it deserved for a long time. In this thesis, I’ll go through changes of vocabulary studied in linguistics and language teaching as well as rise of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies. Several aspects of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies will then be reviewed .Issues that need to be further studied will at last be put forward.

  8. Oral delivery of Acid Alpha Glucosidase epitopes expressed in plant chloroplasts suppresses antibody formation in treatment of Pompe mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jin; Sherman, Alexandra; Doerfler, Phillip A.; Byrne, Barry J.; Herzog, Roland W.; Daniell, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Summary Deficiency of acid alpha glucosidase (GAA) causes Pompe disease in which the patients systemically accumulate lysosomal glycogen in muscles and nervous systems, often resulting in infant mortality. Although enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is effective in treating patients with Pompe disease, formation of antibodies against rhGAA complicates treatment. In this report, we investigated induction of tolerance by oral administration of GAA expressed in chloroplasts. Because full-length GAA could not be expressed, N-terminal 410-amino acids of GAA (as determined by T-cell epitope mapping) were fused with the transmucosal carrier CTB. Tobacco transplastomic lines expressing CTB-GAA were generated through site-specific integration of transgenes into the chloroplast genome. Homoplasmic lines were confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Despite low-level expression of CTB-GAA in chloroplasts, yellow or albino phenotype of transplastomic lines was observed due to binding of GAA to a chloroplast protein that has homology to mannose-6 phosphate receptor. Oral administration of the plant-made CTB-GAA fusion protein even at 330-fold lower dose (1.5 μg) significantly suppressed immunoglobulin formation against GAA in Pompe mice injected with 500 μg rhGAA per dose, with several-fold lower titre of GAA-specific IgG1 and IgG2a. Lyophilization increased CTB-GAA concentration by 30-fold (up to 190 μg per g of freeze-dried leaf material), facilitating long-term storage at room temperature and higher dosage in future investigations. This study provides the first evidence that oral delivery of plant cells is effective in reducing antibody responses in ERT for lysosomal storage disorders facilitating further advances in clinical investigations using plant cell culture system or in vitro propagation. PMID:26053072

  9. Single Exposure of Human Oral Mucosa Fibroblasts to Ultraviolet B Radiation Reduces Proliferation and Induces COX-2 Expression and Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Boza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The lip vermillion constitutes a transition tissue, between oral mucosa and skin, where oral mucosal cells from epithelial and connective tissue compartments are exposed to ultraviolet (UV sunlight. Fibroblasts are abundant resident cells of the connective tissue which are key regulators of extracellular matrix composition, as well as, epithelial and endothelial cell function. UVB light, an inherent component of sunlight, causes several alterations in skin fibroblasts, including premature senescence and increased cyclooxygenase (COX-2 expression. To assess if UVB irradiation had similar effects on fibroblasts derived from human oral mucosa (HOM, primary cultures of HOM fibroblasts were irradiated with a single dose of 30 or 60 mJ/cm²of UVB light or sham-irradiated. Fibroblast proliferation was assessed from 3 to 48 hrs after UVB-irradiation utilizing [³H]-thymidine incorporation and MTT assays. In addition, COX-2 mRNA expression was detected by RT-PCR, and PGE2 production was assessed using enzyme immunoassay from 0.5 to 24 hrs after UVB-irradiation. The results showed a significant decrease in proliferation of UVB-irradiated HOM fibroblasts as compared to controls as measured by both [³H]-thymidine incorporation and MTT assays (p<0.001. HOM fibroblasts had increased COX-2 mRNA expression at 0.5 and 12 hrs after irradiation, and PGE2 production was elevated at 12 and 24 hrs post-irradiation as compared to controls (p<0.05. The results showed an inhibitory effect of a single dose of UVB irradiation on HOM fibroblast proliferation with an increase in COX-2 expression and activation. Therefore, photodamaged fibroblasts may play and important role in the pathogenesis of UV-induced lesions of the lip.

  10. Teachers’ Vocabulary Developing Educational Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lea

    From a perspective of teachers’ continuing professional development (CPD) this paper considers the importance of the influence of teachers’ vocabulary in relation to their understanding and development of teaching practices. As the teacher spends most of her/his career teaching inside the classroom...... educational systems, teacher agency is an important issue. If teacher agencyis understood as the teachers’ active contribution to shaping their work and its conditions – for the overall quality of education (Biesta et al. 2015) then there may be a case for focusing on the development of teacher’s vocabulary...... interview techniqu, 2007) to examine the teachers’ ‘practical reasoning’, to develop (elicitation and reconstruction) a ‘practical argument’ (following: Fenstermacher & Richardson 1993), which points to a process of five premises. In the data collecting and in the analysis of the teachers’ vocabulary...

  11. Children reading spoken words: interactions between vocabulary and orthographic expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Signy; Wang, Hua-Chen; de Lissa, Peter; Robidoux, Serje; Nation, Kate; Castles, Anne

    2017-07-12

    There is an established association between children's oral vocabulary and their word reading but its basis is not well understood. Here, we present evidence from eye movements for a novel mechanism underlying this association. Two groups of 18 Grade 4 children received oral vocabulary training on one set of 16 novel words (e.g., 'nesh', 'coib'), but no training on another set. The words were assigned spellings that were either predictable from phonology (e.g., nesh) or unpredictable (e.g., koyb). These were subsequently shown in print, embedded in sentences. Reading times were shorter for orally familiar than unfamiliar items, and for words with predictable than unpredictable spellings but, importantly, there was an interaction between the two: children demonstrated a larger benefit of oral familiarity for predictable than for unpredictable items. These findings indicate that children form initial orthographic expectations about spoken words before first seeing them in print. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://youtu.be/jvpJwpKMM3E. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Perfecting Language: Experimenting with Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absalom, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    One of the thorniest aspects of teaching languages is developing students' vocabulary, yet it is impossible to be "an accurate and highly communicative language user with a very small vocabulary" (Milton, 2009, p. 3). Nation (2006) indicates that more vocabulary than previously thought is required to function well both at spoken and…

  13. Vocabulary Pruning for Improved Context Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    of term relevancy, when pruning the vocabularies. With reduced vocabularies documents are classified using a latent semantic indexing representation and a probabilistic neural network classifier. Reducing the bag-of-words vocabularies with 90%-98%, we find consistent classification improvement using two...

  14. Pruning the vocabulary for better context recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    of term relevancy, when pruning the vocabularies. With reduced vocabularies, documents are classified using a latent semantic indexing representation and a probabilistic neural network classifier. Reducing the bag-of-words vocabularies with 90%-98%, we find consistent classification improvement using two...

  15. Teachers' Technology Use in Vocabulary Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilickaya, Ferit; Krajka, Jaroslaw

    2010-01-01

    It cannot be denied that vocabulary learning is central to learning a language, be it a mother tongue or the second/foreign language. According to Nunan (1991), learning vocabulary in the very early stages is more fundamental than grammar, since without vocabulary one would not be able to use the structures and functions for effective…

  16. Vocabulary Teaching Based on Semantic-Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangru, Cao

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary is an indispensable part of language and it is of vital importance for second language learners. Wilkins (1972) points out: "without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed." Vocabulary teaching has experienced several stages characterized by grammatical-translation method, audio-lingual…

  17. Vocabulary Expansion in Modern Standard Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Louise

    1997-01-01

    Examines the discrepancy between spoken and written vocabularies in modern standard Chinese (MSC) textbooks that contributes to slow vocabulary development, and outlines a teaching technique to extend students' vocabulary using the ideographic nature of MSC characters rather than phonetic learning to increase efficient use of vocabulary…

  18. Vocabulary of Toddlers Who Are Late Talkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Shafer, Valerie L.; Fahey, Katlin J.; Kaden, Elyssa R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand vocabulary characteristics in toddlers who are late talkers (LT) as compared with age-matched (AM) and vocabulary-matched (VM) peers. The semantic categories (e.g., animals, foods, toys) and the percentage of nouns, verbs, and closed-class words in the vocabularies of 36 toddlers (12 LT, 12 AM, 12 VM)…

  19. How to develop vocabulary learning strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董振

    2010-01-01

    @@ Due to limited class time,students will not be able to learn all the vocabulary simply from class teaching.Thus we need to help students develop items vocabulary learning strategies so that they can effectively acquire more vocabulary on their own,especially outside the class.Below are some strategies.

  20. Learning Strategies in Acquisition of Medical Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田俊英; 蒋东坡

    2016-01-01

    Medical vocabulary consists of so many words and terms.Medical students are often terrified by large vocabulary.The paper aimed to analyze the problems lie in acquisition of medical vocabulary,review literature of learning strategies of medical vocabulary,and offers a few simple rules for students to follow to facilitate their acquisition of medical vocabulary.

  1. Listening Vocabulary: Embracing Forgotten Aural Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an innovation in the teaching and learning of vocabulary in English as a Foreign Language classes. Whereas vocabulary coverage in classrooms and textbooks traditionally focuses on lists of target words in printed form, this article promotes the notion of "aural vocabulary" as an important part of…

  2. Vocabulary Levels and Size of Malaysian Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harji, Madhubala Bava; Balakrishnan, Kavitha; Bhar, Sareen Kaur; Letchumanan, Krishnaveni

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary is a fundamental requirement of language acquisition, and its competence enables independent reading and effective language acquisition. Effective language use requires adequate level of vocabulary knowledge; therefore, efforts must be made to identify students' vocabulary base for greater efficiency and competency in the language.…

  3. Academic Listening: A Source of Vocabulary Acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Karina

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study of the acquisition of English-as-a-Foreign-Language vocabulary through academic listening. Explored the effects of EFL proficiency and lecture comprehension on vocabulary acquisition as well as the relationship between vocabulary gain and the following factors: frequency of occurrence, types of word, type of word elaboration, and…

  4. Cultivating Pragmatic Competence in English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘果果

    2007-01-01

    vocabulary is one of the most important elements of the language. It is closely related with context and pragmatic. This paper intends to find out some effective method of vocabulary teaching under the pragmatic principles, exploring how to improve pragmatic competence of students in English vocabulary teaching.

  5. Teacher's Role in English Vocabulary Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵新颜

    2009-01-01

    Vocabulary is the basis for learning any language.Anyone who wants to learn a language well faces the challenge of enlarging his/her vocabulary effectively.From six aspects,this paper discusses what teachers should do to help their students with vocabulary acquisition.

  6. The Theory of Meaning on Language Philosophy in Vocabulary Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周茜

    2014-01-01

    The theory of meaning is the focus of philosophy of language, which involves the meaning that words and phrases ex-press. At the same time, it also includes the meaning that sentences express. By researching the theory of meaning of philosophy of language, people absorb merits among different schools, and study how the theory of meaning is reflected in second language acquisition, especially in vocabulary acquisition.

  7. Comparison of Gene Expression in Peri-implant Soft Tissue and Oral Mucosal Tissue by Microarray Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makabe, Yasushi; Sasaki, Hodaka; Mori, Gentaro; Sekine, Hideshi; Yoshinari, Masao; Yajima, Yasutomo

    2015-01-01

    Implant placement entails disruption of the epithelial continuity, which can lead to various complications. Therefore, the area of mucosal penetration is of particular interest clinically. The goal of the present study was to compare gene expression in peri-implant soft tissue (PIST) with that in oral mucosal tissue (OMT) using microarray analysis, and to investigate which genes were specifically expressed in PIST. The bilateral upper first molars were extracted from 4-week-old rats and titanium alloy implants placed only in the left-side extraction sockets. Four weeks after surgery, samples were harvested from the left-side PIST and right-side OMT and total RNA samples isolated. Microarray analysis was used to compare gene expression in PIST and OMT, which was then confirmed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemical staining was also performed to confirm protein level expression. The number of genes expressed with more than a twofold change in PIST compared with OMT was 1,102, of which 750 genes were upregulated and 352 genes were downregulated. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of three selected genes-Ceacam1, Ifitm1, and MUC4-were more significantly expressed in PIST than in OMT(P microarray analysis showed that, because of implant placement, 750 genes were upregulated in PIST compared with OMT. CEACAM1, IFITM1, and MUC4 were specifically upregulated in PIST.

  8. Instruments for oral disease-intervention strategies : recombinant Lactobacillus casei expressing tetanus toxin fragment C for vaccination or myelin proteins for oral tolerance induction in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen, C.B.M.; Laman, J.D.; Heijne den Bak-Glashouwer, M.J.; Tielen, F.J.; Holten-Neelen, J.C.P.A. van; Hoogteijling, L.; Antonissen, C.; Leer, R.J.; Pouwels, P.H.; Boersma, W.J.A.; Shaw, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    Lactobacillus strains possess properties that make them attractive candidates as vehicles for oral administration of therapeutics. In this report we describe the construction and analysis of recombinant Lactobacillus casei applicable in oral vaccination against an infectious disease (tetanus) and in

  9. Instruments for oral disease-intervention strategies : recombinant Lactobacillus casei expressing tetanus toxin fragment C for vaccination or myelin proteins for oral tolerance induction in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen, C.B.M.; Laman, J.D.; Heijne den Bak-Glashouwer, M.J.; Tielen, F.J.; Holten-Neelen, J.C.P.A. van; Hoogteijling, L.; Antonissen, C.; Leer, R.J.; Pouwels, P.H.; Boersma, W.J.A.; Shaw, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    Lactobacillus strains possess properties that make them attractive candidates as vehicles for oral administration of therapeutics. In this report we describe the construction and analysis of recombinant Lactobacillus casei applicable in oral vaccination against an infectious disease (tetanus) and in

  10. Retraction: erbB expression changes in ethanol and 7,12- dimethylbenz (a)anthracene-induced oral carcinogenesis. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2013 Mar 1;18(2):e325-31

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia Carranca, A; Zentero Galindo, E; Jimenez Farfan, MD; Hernandez Guerrero, JC

    2014-01-01

    ... (a)anthracene-induced oral carcinogenesis. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2013 Mar 1;18(2):e325-31.) corresponding to Western blots have not been found and the voluntary alteration of this figure is evident...

  11. WORD ASSOCIATIONS IN VOCABULARY LEARNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    With the widespread adoption of new college Englishtextbooks,vocabulary learning seems a more important taskthan ever before for college students.This paper is about aresearch on how to help students learn English words moremeaningfully and enlarge their vocabulary more efficiently.This paper first discusses word meaning,concept,andconcept network,then explores the associative network of wordsand their associations,which corresponds to English lexicalrelations.The lexical network can be realized onto a computer tobenefit students in their learning.

  12. Effects of phenylbutazone on gene expression of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 in the oral, glandular gastric, and bladder mucosae of healthy horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Jorge E; Aleman, Monica; Anderson, Jonathan D; Fiack, Ciara; Snyder, Jack R

    2012-01-01

    To assess gene expressions of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 in oral, glandular gastric, and urinary bladder mucosae and determine the effect of oral administration of phenylbutazone on those gene expressions in horses. 12 healthy horses. Horses were allocated to receive phenylbutazone or placebo (6 horses/group); 1 placebo-treated horse with a cystic calculus was subsequently removed from the study, and those data were not analyzed. In each horse, the stomach and urinary bladder were evaluated for ulceration via endoscopy before and after experimental treatment. Oral, glandular gastric, and urinary bladder mucosa biopsy specimens were collected by use of a skin punch biopsy instrument (oral) or transendoscopically (stomach and bladder) before and after administration of phenylbutazone (4.4 mg/kg, p.o., q 12 h) in corn syrup or placebo (corn syrup alone) for 7 days. Cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 gene expressions were determined (via quantitative PCR techniques) in specimens collected before and after the 7-day treatment period and compared within and between groups. Prior to commencement of treatment, biopsy specimens from 7 horses were used to compare gene expressions among tissues. The cyclooxygenase-1 gene was expressed in all tissues collected. The cyclooxygenase-2 gene was expressed in the glandular gastric and bladder mucosae but not in the oral mucosa. Cyclooxygenase gene expressions were unaffected by phenylbutazone administration. Cyclooxygenase-2 was constitutively expressed in glandular gastric and bladder mucosae but not in the oral mucosa of healthy horses. Oral administration of phenylbutazone at the maximum recommended dosage daily for 7 days did not affect cyclooxygenase-1 or -2 gene expression.

  13. 口腔白斑及口腔鳞状细胞癌中Livin和Caspase-3蛋白表达研究%Expression of Livin and Caspase- 3 protein in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    随丽娜

    2011-01-01

    Objective Study the expressions of Livin and caspase -3 proteins in the normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Methods Expression of Livin and caspase- 3 protein were detected by immunohistochemistry S -P methods in the normal oral mucosa,oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Results Positive rates of Livin protein in the normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma were 20.00%, 33.33% and 86.49%; Positive rates of caspase-3 protein in the normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma were 100%, 83.33% and 43.24%. The expression of caspase -3 protein was obviously negative related to livin protein (P < 0.05 ). Conclusions Deletion of Caspase - 3 protein and abnormal expression of survivin protein were related to OLK cancer, and early detection of them can help to identify OLK cancer.%目的 研究Livin和caspase-3蛋白在正常口腔黏膜、口腔白斑和口腔鳞状细胞癌中的表达.方法 免疫组化SP法检测正常口腔黏膜、口腔白斑和口腔鳞状细胞癌中Livin和easpase-3蛋白的表达.结果 Livin蛋白在正常口腔黏膜、口腔白斑和口腔鳞状细胞癌中的表达率为20%、33.33%和86.49%;caspase-3蛋白在正常口腔黏膜、口腔白斑和口腔鳞状细胞癌中的表达率为100%、83.33%和43.24%;caspase-3蛋白表达与iivin蛋白表达有明显的负相关关系(P<0.05).结论 Caspase-3的缺失和Livin的高表达与口腔白斑癌变的发生发展相关,两者联合检测有助于早期识别口腔白斑癌变.

  14. Co-Expression of TWIST1 and ZEB2 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Is Associated with Poor Survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yink Heay Kong

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is an aggressive disease accounting for more than 260,000 cancer cases diagnosed and 128,000 deaths worldwide. A large majority of cancer deaths result from cancers that have metastasized beyond the primary tumor. The relationship between genetic changes and clinical outcome can reflect the biological events that promote cancer's aggressive behavior, and these can serve as molecular markers for improved patient management and survival. To this end, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT is a major process that promotes tumor invasion and metastasis, making EMT-related proteins attractive diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry to study the expression of a panel of transcription factors (TWIST1, SNAI1/2, ZEB1 and ZEB2 and other genes intimately related to EMT (CDH1 and LAMC2 at the invasive tumor front of OSCC tissues. The association between the expression of these proteins and clinico-pathological parameters were examined with Pearson Chi-square and correlation with survival was analyzed using Kaplan Meier analysis. Our results demonstrate that there was a significant differential expression of CDH1, LAMC2, SNAI1/2 and TWIST1 between OSCC and normal oral mucosa (NOM. Specifically, CDH1 loss was significantly associated with Broder's grading, while diffused LAMC2 was similarly associated with non-cohesive pattern of invasion. Notably, co-expression of TWIST1 and ZEB2 in OSCC was significantly associated with poorer overall survival, particularly in patients without detectable lymph node metastasis. This study demonstrates that EMT-related proteins are differentially expressed in OSCC and that the co-expression of TWIST1 and ZEB2 could be of clinical value in identifying patients with poor survival for appropriate patient management.

  15. Investigating Use of a Parent Report Tool to Measure Vocabulary Development in Deaf Greek-Speaking Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktapoti, Maria; Okalidou, Areti; Kyriafinis, George; Petinou, Kakia; Vital, Victor; Herman, Rosalind

    2016-01-01

    Objective: There are very few measures of language development in spoken Greek that can be used with young deaf children. This study investigated the use of Cyprus Lexical List (CYLEX), a receptive and expressive vocabulary assessment based on parent report that has recently been adapted to Standard Greek, to measure the vocabulary development of…

  16. Prevalence of HPV and EBV infection and their relationship with the p53 and PCNA expression in oral carcinoma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayahindara Veitía

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Infection caused by potentially oncogenic viruses, such as HPV and EBV, favors the role of certain oncoproteins that can induce dysplasias and malignant lesions. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of HPV and EBV and their relation with the expression of p53 and PCNA in patients with oral carcinoma. Methodology: Twenty-seven oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC were evaluated; DNA extraction was conducted using the QIAamp DNA mini kit; viral detection was obtained using the INNO-LiPA kit for HPV, and nested PCR was used for EBV. The evaluation of molecular markers was performed through immunohistochemical staining. Results: The mean age of the patients was 60.55±13.94 years, and 52% of these were female. Of the patients, 59% were tobacco users and 63% were alcohol consumers. HPV was detected in 70% of the patients with the predominance of genotype 16 (60%. As for EBV infection, it was observed in 59% of cases. p53 and PCNA immunopositivity corresponded to 44% and 59%, respectively. The tongue was the anatomical location with highest positivity for both viruses as well as for the expression of molecular markers. The 48% of the cases presented infection by both viruses. Conclusion: HPV and EBV infection together with the expression of p53 and PCNA were more frequently observed in advanced stages of the disease, suggesting a more relevant role in the progression than in tumor genesis.

  17. Units of Oral Expression and Language Learning in Small Group Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygate, Martin

    1988-01-01

    Reviews previous research and presents and analyzes data regarding some possible connections between small group oral interaction and language learning. Data show that communicative interaction is far more sensitive and significant to learners' needs and abilities than are other forms of language work. (CB)

  18. Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule expression predicts lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, M. van den; Takes, R.P.; Blokpoel-deRuyter, M.; Slootweg, P.J.; Kempen, L.C.L.T. van

    2010-01-01

    Lymphatic metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is important for prognosis and clinical decision making concerning the treatment of the neck but may be difficult to detect. Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM), has been shown to correlate with prognosis or tumor grade in dif

  19. Differential expression of integrins and laminin-5 in normal oral epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, A K; Dabelsteen, Erik; Schou, S

    1997-01-01

    of different integrins and laminin-5 was studied in oral epithelium to characterize regional variations in these adhesion molecules. Monoclonal antibodies directed against alpha 2-alpha 6 beta 1/alpha 6 beta 4 and laminin-5 were examined in cryopreserved biopsies of normal mucosa by immunohistochemistry...

  20. SERPINE1 and SMA expression at the invasive front predict extracapsular spread and survival in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanda, J; Triantafyllou, A; Liloglou, T; Kalirai, H; Lloyd, B; Hanlon, R; Shaw, R J; Sibson, D R; Risk, J M

    2014-11-25

    Extracapsular spread (ECS) in cervical lymph nodes is the single-most prognostic clinical variable in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), but diagnosis is possible only after histopathological examination. A promising biomarker in the primary tumour, alpha smooth muscle actin (SMA) has been shown to be highly prognostic, however, validated biomarkers to predict ECS prior to primary treatment are not yet available. In 102 OSCC cases, conventional imaging was compared with pTNM staging. SERPINE1, identified from expression microarray of primary tumours as a potential biomarker for ECS, was validated through mRNA expression, and by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on a tissue microarray from the same cohort. Similarly, expression of SMA was also compared with its association with ECS and survival. Expression was analysed separately in the tumour centre and advancing front; and prognostic capability determined using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Immunohistochemistry indicated that both SERPINE1 and SMA expression at the tumour-advancing front were significantly associated with ECS (PSMA+/SERPINE1+ expression in combination was highly significantly associated with poor survival (PSMA were superior to MRI for the detection of ECS (sensitivity: SERPINE1: 95%; SMA: 82%; combination: 81%). A combination of SMA and SERPINE1 IHC offer potential as prognostic biomarkers in OSCC. Our findings suggest that biomarkers at the invasive front are likely to be necessary in prediction of ECS or in therapeutic stratification.

  1. On the Use of Synonyms in Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏卫华

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary in any language is a complex system. Groups of words with synonymous relationship are known as synonyms. A language with a long history has rich vocabulary. English is extremely rich in synonyms because of historical reasons. Each group of synonyms has the same or very close basic meaning. That’s the basis of forming synonyms.The discrimination of synonyms plays an important role in communication and expression of ideas. It can improve one’s language ability such as reading, writing and speaking. It can have different expressions of objective things and avoid repetition of the same word. So it can make the English conversation and writing more lively. It can avoid expressing too frankly. The correct use of synonyms can have a better effect on modification.

  2. Bone-Invasive Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Cats: Pathology and Expression of Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C. K.; Tannehill-Gregg, S. H.; Wolfe, T. D.; Rosol, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common oral tumor in cats. There is no effective treatment, and the average duration of survival after diagnosis is only 2 months. Feline OSCC is frequently associated with osteolysis; however, the mechanisms responsible are unknown. The objective of this study was to characterize the epidemiology and pathology of bone-invasive OSCC in cats and to determine the expression of select bone resorption agonists. In sum, 451 cases of feline OSCC were evaluated. There was no sex or breed predisposition, although there were more intact cats in the OSCC group compared to the control group. Gingiva was the most common site, followed by the sublingual region and tongue. Cats with lingual OSCC were younger (mean, 11.9 years) compared to cats with gingival OSCC (mean, 13.6 years). In addition to osteolysis, there was periosteal new bone formation, osseous metaplasia of tumor stroma, and direct apposition of OSCC to fragments of bone, suggestive of bone-binding behavior. Eighty-two cases were selected for immunohistochemical detection of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). Specimens with osteolysis had increased PTHrP expression and nuclear localization, compared to OSCC without osteolysis. Thirty-eight biopsies of OSCC with osteolysis were evaluated for tumor necrosis factor α expression, and only 4 biopsies had such expression in a small proportion of tumor cells. Increased tumor expression of PTHrP and increased localization of PTHrP to the nucleus were associated with osteolysis and may play an important role in bone resorption and tumor invasion in cats with OSCC. PMID:20940448

  3. One Complicated Extended Family: The Influence of Alphabetic Knowledge and Vocabulary on Phonemic Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellette, Gene P.; Haley, Allyson

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated possible sources of individual differences in early explicit, smaller segment phonological awareness. In particular, the unique contributions of oral vocabulary and alphabetic knowledge to phonemic awareness acquisition were examined across the first year of school. A total of 57 participants were tested in kindergarten…

  4. The Development of Vocabulary in Spanish Children with Down Syndrome: Comprehension, Production, and Gestures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeote, Miguel; Sebastian, Eugenia; Checa, Elena; Rey, Rocio; Soto, Pilar

    2011-01-01

    Background: Our main purpose was to compare the lexical development of Spanish children with Down syndrome (DS) and children with typical development (TD) to investigate the relationship between cognitive and vocabulary development in comprehension and oral and gestural production. Method: Participants were 186 children with DS and 186 children…

  5. Suri-English basic vocabulary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Suri, also known as Surma, are agropastoralists living in the semiarid lowland area of the Kafa Administrative Region of Ethiopia. The Suri language belongs to the South-East Surmic (SES) language group within the Eastern Sudanic family of Nilo-Saharan. The Suri-English vocabulary presented here

  6. BUILDING VOCABULARY USING POP SONGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    author Rahmatika Kayyis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to find out whether there is a significant difference between the vocabulary mastery of first semester students taughtusing English pop songs and that taught without using English pop songs as a medium. This study involved 64 students of first semesterof STKIP Muhammadiyah Pringsewu Lampung in the academic year of 2012/2013 as the objects of the study. The result of the study shows there is a significant difference in the student’s vocabulary mastery between the experimental group who are taughtusing English pop songs and that taught without using English pop songs as a medium.The mean of post test score of the experimental group is 16.93 while the mean score of the control group is 14.54. The result of t-test shows that t-observed value which is higher than the t-value of the table (2.572>1.99, with a probability value of 0.008 which is lower than the significance level (0.008 < 0.05. In conclusion, the use of English pop songscould improve the students’ vocabulary mastery.Keywords: Vocabulary, English Pop Songs

  7. Interactive Approaches for Vocabulary Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Grace Hui Chin

    2009-01-01

    Vocabulary acquisition research has been paid attention these years (e.g. Beck, McKeown & McCaslin, 1983; Harley, 1996; Huckin, Haynes, & Coady, 1993; Zahar, Cobb & Spada, 2001). A serious methodologies had been reported, including applying learner dictionaries (Nesi, 1999; Tribble, 2003), using forms of visual glossing (Al-Seghayer,…

  8. Transformation of Words into Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, H. Naseema; Rajan, Premalatha

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the significance of a word and the changes it undergoes in its form when it is placed in the hierarchy of grammatical constituents thereby forming a new word termed as vocabulary. This change or transformation is the result of affixations. Transformation becomes essential as the words learnt cannot be used as such in a…

  9. Is There an "Academic Vocabulary"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Ken; Tse, Polly

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the notion of "academic vocabulary": the assumption that students of English for academic purposes (EAP) should study a core of high frequency words because they are common in an English academic register. We examine the value of the term by using Cox-head's (2000) Academic Word List (AWL) to explore the distribution of its…

  10. Analyzing the Expression Level and Cellular Location of the Tip-1 Protein in Oral Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Mansoursamaei

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is the sixth most common cancer in the world and accounts for approximately 4% of all cancers and 2% of all cancer death.The single most important factor in the prevention of the disease is early detection although, due to increased risk of secondary malignancy, survival remains poor with only a 25% 5 years survival. Both hereditary and environmental factors have been shown to have a productive role in this disease. For example, although chronic exposure of oral epithelium to tobacco smoke and alcohol are amongst the most important aetiological factors, it is now becoming realized that infection with high risk types of human papilloma virus (HPV are also involved as causative agent in a subset of this disease. All of these OSCC associated factors are known to promote genetic instability in the target oral epithelial cells. Work in our laboratories has indicated that the Tax interacting protein 1 (Tip-1 is also a target for the HPV 16 E6 protein may play an important role in controlling genetic instability during the oncogenic process (Hampson L., et al unpublished. So far 14 oral cancer cell lines have been grown in cell culture and RNA extracted from these. Tip-1 transcript levels were analyzed in this material by Northern blotting and competitive template quantitative PCR, which showed that Tip-1 levels were higher in some, cell lines than others (4 high, 6 moderate, 4 low level. Cell ploidy was determined by FACS analysis of propidium iodide stained cells, which showed that out of all the OSCC cell lines tested the cell line (BICR 68 had the greatest numbers of polyploid cells and also had the highest expression of Tip-1 RNA.

  11. Genes involved in epithelial differentiation and development are differentially expressed in oral and genital lichen planus epithelium compared to normal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Karin; Coates, Philip J; Ebrahimi, Majid; Nylander, Elisabet; Wahlin, Ylva Britt; Nylander, Karin

    2014-09-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic mucocutaneous disease with unknown cause. Patients with LP often have both oral and genital lesions, but these conditions are often considered as separate diseases and treated accordingly. To find out which genes are differently expressed in mucosal LP compared to normal mucosa and establish whether oral and genital LP are in fact the same disease, whole genome expression analysis was performed on epithelium from 13 patients diagnosed with oral and/or genital LP and normal controls. For confirmation of keratin 4 and corneodesmosin expression, quantitative reverse-transcription PCR and immunohistochemistry were used. Many genes involved in epithelial development and differentiation are differently expressed in epithelium from LP compared to normal epithelium. Several of the differentially expressed genes are common for oral and genital LP and the same biological processes are altered which supports the fact that oral and genital LP are manifestations of the same disease. The change in gene expression indicates that differentiation is altered leading to changes in the epithelial barrier.

  12. Oral lichen sclerosus expressing extracellular matrix proteins and IgG4-positive plasma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Aquino Xavier, Flavia Calo; Prates, Alisio Alves; Gurgel, Clarissa Araujo; De Souza, Tulio Geraldo; Andrade, Rodrigo Guimaraes; Goncalves Ramos, Eduardo Antonio; Pedreira Ramalho, Luciana Maria; Dos Santos, Jean Nunes

    2014-09-16

    Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a mucocutaneous disease with uncommon oral involvement. The etiology is not yet well understood, but LS has been associated with autoimmune, genetic, and immunological factors. We report a 47-year-old man with LS that exhibited an asymptomatic white plaque with red patches on the maxillary alveolar mucosa extending to the labial mucosa. He had no other skin disease. Positive immunostaining for tenascin and scarcity of fibronectin suggested extracellular matrix reorganization. Elastin immunostaining indicated a reduction of elastic fibers. Immunoexpression of collagen IV in blood vessels and its absence in the epithelial basement membrane, together with diffuse MMP-9 immunoexpression, suggested altered proteolytic activity. Mast cell staining bordering areas of sclerosis indicated a possible role in the synthesis of collagen. IgG4 positivity in plasma cells suggested a role in the fibrogenesis. This is an unusual presentation of oral LS and we discuss immunohistochemical findings regarding cellular and extracellular matrix components.

  13. Multifocal Epithelial Hyperplasia of Oral Cavity Expressing HPV 16 Gene: A Rare Entity

    OpenAIRE

    M. P. V. Prabhat; Chintamaneni Raja Lakshmi; Sai Madhavi, N.; Sujana Mulk Bhavana; Gummadapu Sarat; Kodali Ramamohan

    2013-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare contagious disease caused by human papilloma virus. Usually HPV involves either cutaneous or mucosal surfaces, whereas concomitant mucocutaneous involvement is extremely rare. We report such a unique case of multifocal epithelial hyperplasia involving multiple sites of oral cavity along with skin lesions in a 65-year-old female. We also discuss the probable multifactorial etiology and variable clinical presentations of the lesions, including evidence of...

  14. Gene expression patterns through oral squamous cell carcinoma development: PD-L1 expression in primary tumor and circulating tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Costa, Joao Paulo; de Carvalho, Alex Fiorini; da Silveira, da Giorgia Gobbi; Amaya, Peter; Wu, Yongqi; Park, Kyoung-Joo Jenny; Gigliola, Mabel Pinilla; Lustberg, Maryam; Buim, Marcilei Eliza Cavicchioli; Ferreira, Elisa Napolitano; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Chalmers, Jeffrey J; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Carraro, Dirce Maria; Ribeiro-Silva, Alfredo

    2015-08-28

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common tumor of the oral cavity and has been associated with poor prognosis. Scarce prognostic markers are available for guiding treatment and/or sub-classifying patients. This study aims to identify biomarkers by searching for genes whose expression is increased or decreased during tumor progression (through T1 to T4 stages). Thirty-six samples from all tumor size stages (from T1 to T4) were analyzed using cDNA microarrays. Selected targets were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and in circulating tumor cells by immunofluorescence and Nanostring. Correlation was shown between PD-L1 and tumor size and lymph node metastasis, HOXB9 and tumor size, BLNK and perineural invasion, and between ZNF813 and perineural invasion. PD-L1 positivity was an independent prognostic factor in this cohort (p = 0.044, HH = 0.426). In CTCs from patients with locally advanced OSCC, we found a strong cytoplasmatic expression of PD-L1. PD-L1 is a ligand of PD-1 and is believed to limit T cell activity in inflammatory responses and limit autoimmune diseases. We demonstrated an important role for PD-L1 in primary tumors according to tumor size, and in disease specific survival. Therefore, we could further determine individuals with PD-L1+ CTCs, and possibly follow treatment using CTCs.

  15. Oral N-acetylcysteine reduces bleomycin-induced lung damage and mucin Muc5ac expression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, M; Ruíz, A; Cerdá, M; Martinez-Losa, M; Cortijo, J; Santangelo, F; Serrano-Mollar, A; Llombart-Bosch, A; Morcillo, E J

    2003-12-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis, therefore antioxidants may be of therapeutic value. Clinical work indicates that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may be beneficial in this disease. The activity of this antioxidant was examined on bleomycin-induced lung damage, mucus secretory cells hyperplasia and mucin Muc5ac gene expression in rats. NAC (3 mmol x kg(-1) x day(-1)) or saline was given orally to Sprague-Dawley rats for 1 week prior to a single intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (2.5 U x kg(-1)) and for 14 days postinstillation. NAC decreased collagen deposition in bleomycin-exposed rats (hydroxyproline content was 4,257+/-323 and 3,200+/-192 microg x lung(-1) in vehicle- and NAC-treated rats, respectively) and lessened the fibrotic area assessed by morphometric analysis. The bleomycin-induced increases in lung tumour necrosis factor-alpha and myeloperoxidase activity were reduced by NAC treatment. The numbers of mucus secretory cells in airway epithelium, and the Muc5ac messenger ribonucleic acid and protein expression, were markedly augmented in rats exposed to bleomycin. These changes were significantly reduced in NAC-treated rats. These results indicate that bleomycin increases the number of airway secretory cells and their mucin production, and that oral N-acetylcysteine improved pulmonary lesions and reduced the mucus hypersecretion in the bleomycin rat model.

  16. Lipoprotein lipase expression, serum lipid and tissue lipid deposition in orally-administered glycyrrhizic acid-treated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ton So

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome (MetS is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities comprising visceral obesity, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance (IR. With the onset of IR, the expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL, a key regulator of lipoprotein metabolism, is reduced. Increased activation of glucocorticoid receptors results in MetS symptoms and is thus speculated to have a role in the pathophysiology of the MetS. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA, the bioactive constituent of licorice roots (Glycyrrhiza glabra inhibits 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 that catalyzes the activation of glucocorticoids. Thus, oral administration of GA is postulated to ameliorate the MetS. Results In this study, daily oral administration of 50 mg/kg of GA for one week led to significant increase in LPL expression in the quadriceps femoris (p p > 0.05 of the GA-treated rats compared to the control. Decrease in adipocyte size (p > 0.05 in both the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots accompanies such selective induction of LPL expression. Consistent improvement in serum lipid parameters was also observed, with decrease in serum free fatty acid, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol but elevated HDL-cholesterol (p > 0.05. Histological analysis using tissue lipid staining with Oil Red O showed significant decrease in lipid deposition in the abdominal muscle and quadriceps femoris (p p > 0.05. Conclusion Results from this study may imply that GA could counteract the development of visceral obesity and improve dyslipidaemia via selective induction of tissue LPL expression and a positive shift in serum lipid parameters respectively, and retard the development of IR associated with tissue steatosis.

  17. Oral vaccination with salmonella simultaneously expressing Yersinia pestis F1 and V antigens protects against bubonic and pneumonic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinghong; Hinnebusch, B Joseph; Trunkle, Theresa; Bosio, Catharine M; Suo, Zhiyong; Tighe, Mike; Harmsen, Ann; Becker, Todd; Crist, Kathryn; Walters, Nancy; Avci, Recep; Pascual, David W

    2007-01-15

    The gut provides a large area for immunization enabling the development of mucosal and systemic Ab responses. To test whether the protective Ags to Yersinia pestis can be orally delivered, the Y. pestis caf1 operon, encoding the F1-Ag and virulence Ag (V-Ag) were cloned into attenuated Salmonella vaccine vectors. F1-Ag expression was controlled under a promoter from the caf1 operon; two different promoters (P), PtetA in pV3, PphoP in pV4, as well as a chimera of the two in pV55 were tested. F1-Ag was amply expressed; the chimera in the pV55 showed the best V-Ag expression. Oral immunization with Salmonella-F1 elicited elevated secretory (S)-IgA and serum IgG titers, and Salmonella-V-Ag(pV55) elicited much greater S-IgA and serum IgG Ab titers than Salmonella-V-Ag(pV3) or Salmonella-V-Ag(pV4). Hence, a new Salmonella vaccine, Salmonella-(F1+V)Ags, made with a single plasmid containing the caf1 operon and the chimeric promoter for V-Ag allowed the simultaneous expression of F1 capsule and V-Ag. Salmonella-(F1+V)Ags elicited elevated Ab titers similar to their monotypic derivatives. For bubonic plague, mice dosed with Salmonella-(F1+V)Ags and Salmonella-F1-Ag showed similar efficacy (>83% survival) against approximately 1000 LD(50) Y. pestis. For pneumonic plague, immunized mice required immunity to both F1- and V-Ags because the mice vaccinated with Salmonella-(F1+V)Ags protected against 100 LD(50) Y. pestis. These results show that a single Salmonella vaccine can deliver both F1- and V-Ags to effect both systemic and mucosal immune protection against Y. pestis.

  18. Constitutive Expression of the Vi Polysaccharide Capsular Antigen in Attenuated Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Oral Vaccine Strain CVD 909

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin Yuan; Noriega, Fernando R.; Galen, James E.; Barry, Eileen; Levine, Myron M.

    2000-01-01

    Live oral Ty21a and parenteral Vi polysaccharide vaccines provide significant protection against typhoid fever, albeit by distinct immune mechanisms. Vi stimulates serum immunoglobulin G Vi antibodies, whereas Ty21a, which does not express Vi, elicits humoral and cell-mediated immune responses other than Vi antibodies. Protection may be enhanced if serum Vi antibody as well as cell-mediated and humoral responses can be stimulated. Disappointingly, several new attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi oral vaccines (e.g., CVD 908-htrA and Ty800) that elicit serum O and H antibody and cell-mediated responses following a single dose do not stimulate serum Vi antibody. Vi expression is regulated in response to environmental signals such as osmolarity by controlling the transcription of tviA in the viaB locus. To investigate if Vi antibodies can be stimulated if Vi expression is rendered constitutive, we replaced PtviA in serovar Typhi vaccine CVD 908-htrA with the constitutive promoter Ptac, resulting in CVD 909. CVD 909 expresses Vi even under high-osmolarity conditions and is less invasive for Henle 407 cells. In mice immunized with a single intranasal dose, CVD 909 was more immunogenic than CVD 908-htrA in eliciting serum Vi antibodies (geometric mean titer of 160 versus 49, P = 0.0007), whereas O antibody responses were virtually identical (geometric mean titer of 87 versus 80). In mice challenged intraperitoneally with wild-type serovar Typhi 4 weeks after a single intranasal immunization, the mortality of those immunized with CVD 909 (3 of 8) was significantly lower than that of control mice (10 of 10, P = 0.043) or mice given CVD 908-htrA (9 of 10, P = 0.0065). PMID:10899868

  19. Upregulation of Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression in Areca-quid-chewing-associated Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiuan-Shinn Lee

    2008-05-01

    Conclusion: Taken together, these results suggest that HO-1 expression is significantly upregulated in OSCC from areca quid chewers, and arecoline may be responsible for enhanced HO-1 expression in vivo. The compounds of cigarette smoke may act synergistically in the pathogenesis of areca-quid-chewing-associated OSCC. The regulation of HO-1 expression induced by arecoline is critically dependent on intracellular GSH concentration.

  20. Consciência fonológica e vocabulário expressivo em crianças com aquisição típica da linguagem e com desvio fonológico Phonological awareness and expressive vocabulary in children with normal language acquisition and with phonological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tassiana Isabel Kaminski

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar o desempenho em vocabulário expressivo e consciência fonológica entre crianças com desvio fonológico e com aquisição típica da linguagem e analisar a influência da idade neste desempenho. MÉTODO: os participantes foram divididos em grupos de controle (GC e estudo (GE e apresentavam idades entre cinco e sete anos. Foram aplicados os testes de vocabulário expressivo e consciência fonológica, e foi realizada análise estatística dos dados. RESULTADOS: as crianças do GE, de uma maneira geral, atingiram um desempenho inferior aos participantes do GC nas tarefas analisadas. As crianças do GE de cinco e do GE de sete anos apresentaram alguns resultados significativamente inferiores ao GC; porém não houve diferenças entre os grupos de seis anos. Ao comparar o desempenho das crianças com os valores de referência, as crianças de cinco anos, de ambos os grupos, apresentaram dificuldades nas mesmas tarefas, de vocabulário expressivo e consciência fonológica, com variações de complexidade. Os sujeitos de seis e sete anos mostraram dificuldades apenas em vocabulário expressivo. CONCLUSÃO: as crianças com desvio fonológico apresentaram um desempenho inferior em algumas habilidades de vocabulário e consciência fonológica quando comparadas às crianças com desenvolvimento típico. Pode-se concluir ainda que existe influência da idade no desempenho destas habilidades para ambos os grupos, pois, com o aumento da idade, os participantes apresentaram dificuldades apenas em vocabulário e não mais em consciência fonológica.PURPOSE: to compare the performance of children with phonological disorder and with typical language acquisition through tests of expressive vocabulary and phonological awareness, and to evaluate the age influence. METHOD: subjects divided into control group (CG and study group (SG; aged between five and seven years old; tests of expressive vocabulary and phonological awareness were applied

  1. Child shyness and peer likeability: The moderating role of pragmatics and vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Hoi Shan; Elliott, John M

    2017-06-20

    The association between shyness and children's likeability by peers was examined, with pragmatic difficulty and receptive and expressive vocabularies as moderators. Participants were 164 preschoolers (72 boys, 92 girls) between 52 and 79 months old in Singapore. A cross-informant methodology was used, with peers and teachers contributing to separate peer likeability ratings. The findings highlighted a conceptual distinction between peer- and teacher-rated likeability by peers. For the latter only, a 3-way interaction involving shyness, vocabulary, and pragmatic difficulty was found, indicating that for shy children with low vocabulary scores, those who experienced less pragmatic difficulty tended to be seen by teachers as more well-liked by peers than those with more pragmatic difficulty. This suggests that pragmatic skills may serve a protective function especially for shy children with poor vocabulary skills. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Child shyness is related to poorer peer acceptance and social competence Expressive vocabulary and pragmatic competence each has a buffering effect for shy children What the present study adds? Shyness is related to poorer peer likeability as assessed by teachers Shyness is unrelated to peer likeability as assessed by same- or different-sex peers Pragmatic skills buffer the effects of teacher-rated shyness only for children with poor receptive and expressive vocabularies The buffering effect of language ability is shown in a multilingual educational context. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Small Vocabulary with Saliency Matching for Video Copy Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Tang, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    of vocabulary. BoW descriptors under a small vocabulary can be both robust and efficient, while keeping high recall rate compared with large vocabulary. However, the high false positives exists in small vocabulary also limits its application. To address this problem in small vocabulary, we propose a novel...

  3. On the Application of Games in Junior English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖芳萍

    2015-01-01

    <正>Vocabulary,pronunciation and grammar are the three essential components of language,vocabulary being the building material of languages.The famous linguist Wilkins said,"Without grammar,very little can be conveyed;without vocabulary,nothing can be conveyed."The importance of vocabulary is strongly manifested.Therefore,vocabulary teaching has been the focus of

  4. Molecular Portrait of Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma Shown by Integrative Meta-Analysis of Expression Profiles with Validations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangaraj, Soundara Viveka; Shyamsundar, Vidyarani; Krishnamurthy, Arvind; Ramani, Pratibha; Ganesan, Kumaresan; Muthuswami, Muthulakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Oral Tongue Squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC), the most frequently affected oral cancer sub-site, is associated with a poor therapeutic outcome and survival despite aggressive multi- modality management. Till date, there are no established biomarkers to indicate prognosis and outcome in patients presenting with tongue cancer. There is an urgent need for reliable molecular prognostic factors to enable identification of patients with high risk of recurrence and treatment failure in OTSCC management. In the current study, we present the meta-analysis of OTSCC microarray based gene expression profiles, deriving a comprehensive molecular portrait of tongue cancer biology, showing the relevant genes and pathways which can be pursued further to derive novel, tailored therapeutics as well as for prognostication. We have studied 5 gene expression profiling data sets available on exclusively oral tongue subsite comprising of sample size; n = 190, consisting of 111 tumors and 79 normals. The meta- analysis results showed 2405 genes differentially regulated comparing OTSCC tumor and normal. The top up regulated genes were found to be involved in Extracellular matrix degradation (ECM) and Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) pathways. The top down regulated genes were found to be involved in detoxication pathways. We validated the results in clinical samples (n = 206), comprising of histologically normals (n = 10), prospective (n = 29) and retrospective (n = 167) OTSCC by evaluating MMP9 and E-cadherin gene expression by qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Consistent with meta-analysis results, MMP9 mRNA expression was significantly up regulated in OTSCC primary tumors compared to normals. MMP9 protein over expression was found to be a significant predictor of poor prognosis, disease recurrence and poor Disease Free Survival (DFS) in OTSCC patients. Analysis by univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard model showed patients with loss of E-cadherin expression in OTSCC

  5. Subcellular Expression of Mammary Serine Proteinase Inhibitor (MASPIN in Locally Advance Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samina Zaheer

    2014-08-01

    Conclusions: MASPIN expression was observed in the majority of OSCC. However, it was localized to the cytoplasm of tumor cells in all cases. Loss of MASPIN expression was observed more frequently in poorly differentiated cancers. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(4.000: 213-216

  6. MUC1 and Toll-like receptor-2 expression in burning mouth syndrome and oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kho, Hong-Seop; Chang, Ji-Youn; Kim, Yoon-Young; Kim, Yongdae

    2013-07-01

    Expression levels of MUC1 and TLR-2 were evaluated in burning mouth syndrome (BMS) patients and compared with those of controls and oral lichen planus (OLP) patients. The relationships between the expression levels of MUC1 and TLR-2 and levels of salivary pro-inflammatory cytokines were also investigated. Ten female BMS and ten female OLP patients were included. Ten female age-matched volunteers served as controls. RNA was isolated from stimulated whole saliva samples. Real-time PCR was used to quantify MUC1 and TLR-2 mRNA levels relative to β-actin and GAPDH mRNA levels. The clarified supernatants of saliva samples were used to measure IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels. The level of blood contamination in saliva samples was also determined. There were significant increases in MUC1 transcripts in BMS patients compared with OLP patients (1.766-fold) as well as controls (1.840-fold). There was no significant difference in TLR-2 expression among the groups. The OLP patients showed significantly higher levels of IL-6 and blood contamination in saliva than other groups. The levels of MUC1 or TLR-2 expression did not correlate significantly with the levels of cytokines or blood contamination in saliva. MUC1 may play a role in the development and/or progression of BMS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. DAP1 high expression increases risk of lymph node metastases in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M; Maia, L L; Silva, C V M; Peterle, G T; Mercante, A M C; Nunes, F D; Carvalho, M B; Tajara, E H; Louro, I D; Silva-Conforti, A M A

    2015-09-08

    Death-associated protein 1 (DAP1) is a member of the DAP family. Its expression is associated with cell growth and normal death of the neoplastic cells, regulated by the mammalian target of the rapamycin protein. Activated DAP1 negatively regulates autophagy, which has been associated with the development and progression of several diseases, such as cancer, and with prognosis and survival of diverse tumor types. Therefore, in this study we analyzed DAP1 expression in 54 oral squamous cell carcinoma tumor samples and in 20 non-tumoral margins by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that DAP1 is more frequently expressed in tumor tissues compared with marginal non-tumoral cells. Additionally, high DAP1 expression is associated with a 4-fold increase in the risk of lymph node metastases. Our results suggest that the DAP1 protein can be used as a potential marker of lymph node metastases predisposition, helping define the best therapy for each patient to minimize risk of developing metastases.

  8. YAP Regulates the Expression of Hoxa1 and Hoxc13 in Mouse and Human Oral and Skin Epithelial Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Zhao, Shuangyun; Lin, Qingjie

    2015-01-01

    Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a Hippo signaling transcriptional coactivator that plays pivotal roles in stem cell proliferation, organ size control, and tumor development. The downstream targets of YAP have been shown to be highly context dependent. In this study, we used the embryonic mouse tooth germ as a tool to search for the downstream targets of YAP in ectoderm-derived tissues. Yap deficiency in the dental epithelium resulted in a small tooth germ with reduced epithelial cell proliferation. We compared the gene expression profiles of embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) Yap conditional knockout and YAP transgenic mouse tooth germs using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) and further confirmed the differentially expressed genes using real-time PCR and in situ hybridization. We found that YAP regulates the expression of Hoxa1 and Hoxc13 in oral and dental epithelial tissues as well as in the epidermis of skin during embryonic and adult stages. Sphere formation assay suggested that Hoxa1 and Hoxc13 are functionally involved in YAP-regulated epithelial progenitor cell proliferation, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay implies that YAP may regulate Hoxa1 and Hoxc13 expression through TEAD transcription factors. These results provide mechanistic insights into abnormal YAP activities in mice and humans. PMID:25691658

  9. YAP regulates the expression of Hoxa1 and Hoxc13 in mouse and human oral and skin epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Zhao, Shuangyun; Lin, Qingjie; Wang, Xiu-Ping

    2015-04-01

    Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a Hippo signaling transcriptional coactivator that plays pivotal roles in stem cell proliferation, organ size control, and tumor development. The downstream targets of YAP have been shown to be highly context dependent. In this study, we used the embryonic mouse tooth germ as a tool to search for the downstream targets of YAP in ectoderm-derived tissues. Yap deficiency in the dental epithelium resulted in a small tooth germ with reduced epithelial cell proliferation. We compared the gene expression profiles of embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) Yap conditional knockout and YAP transgenic mouse tooth germs using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) and further confirmed the differentially expressed genes using real-time PCR and in situ hybridization. We found that YAP regulates the expression of Hoxa1 and Hoxc13 in oral and dental epithelial tissues as well as in the epidermis of skin during embryonic and adult stages. Sphere formation assay suggested that Hoxa1 and Hoxc13 are functionally involved in YAP-regulated epithelial progenitor cell proliferation, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay implies that YAP may regulate Hoxa1 and Hoxc13 expression through TEAD transcription factors. These results provide mechanistic insights into abnormal YAP activities in mice and humans.

  10. Analysis of gene expression in white blood cells of cattle orally challenged with bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panelli, Simona; Strozzi, Francesco; Capoferri, Rossana; Barbieri, Ilaria; Martinelli, Nicola; Capucci, Lorenzo; Lombardi, Guerino; Williams, John L

    2011-01-01

    Bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE) is one of the recently discovered atypical forms of BSE, which is transmissible to primates, and may be the bovine equivalent of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD) in humans. Although it is transmissible, it is unknown whether BASE is acquired through infection or arises spontaneously. In the present study, the gene expression of white blood cells (WBCs) from 5 cattle at 1 yr after oral BASE challenge was compared with negative controls using a custom microarray containing 43,768 unique gene probes. In total, 56 genes were found to be differentially expressed between BASE and control animals with a log fold change of 2 or greater. Of these, 39 were upregulated in BASE animals, while 17 were downregulated. The majority of these genes are related to immune function. In particular, BASE animals appeared to have significantly modified expression of genes linked to T- and B-cell development and activation, and to inflammatory responses. The potential impacts of these gene expression changes are described.

  11. Aberrant DNA hypermethylation-silenced SOX21-AS1 gene expression and its clinical importance in oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Mei; Wang, Tsung-Han; Chen, Hung-Chih; Li, Sung-Chou; Lee, Ming-Chien; Liou, Huei-Han; Liu, Pei-Feng; Tseng, Yu-Kai; Shiue, Yow-Ling; Ger, Luo-Ping; Tsai, Kuo-Wang

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are more than 200 nucleotides in length and lack transcriptional ability. The biological function of lncRNAs in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the dysfunction of lncRNA in OSCC. We analyzed the transcriptome profiles of human OSCC tissues and paired adjacent normal tissues from two patients through a next-generation sequencing approach. A total of 14 lncRNAs were upregulated (fold change ≥3) and 13 were downregulated (fold change ≤-3) in OSCC tissues compared with the adjacent normal tissues. SOX21-AS1 was subjected to further analysis, revealing that the expression levels of SOX21-AS1 significantly decreased in OSCC compared with the adjacent normal tissue. The promoter activity of SOX21-AS1 was obviously suppressed by in vitro methylation. The DNA methylation status of the SOX21-AS1 promoter was analyzed using combined bisulfite restriction analysis, revealing that the aberrant promoter hypermethylation of SOX21-AS1 was observed frequently in OSCC tissues. The effects of SOX21-AS1 on cell proliferation and invasion were examined through transient transfection. Our data showed that SOX21-AS1 could significantly suppress oral cancer cell growth and invasion. Furthermore, the low expression level of SOX21-AS1 was significantly correlated with an advanced stage (P = 0.047), large tumor size (P = 0.033), and poor disease-specific survival in OSCC patients (P = 0.002). SOX21-AS1 was identified as susceptible dysfunction correlated with promoter hypermethylation in OSCC. Low SOX21-AS1 expression may be an adverse prognostic biomarker for OSCC.

  12. Induction of protective immune responses against challenge of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae by oral administration with Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing Apx toxins in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Min-Kyoung; Kang, Mi Lan; Jung, Myung Hwan; Cha, Seung-Bin; Lee, Won-Jung; Kim, Jung-Mi; Kim, Dae-Hyuk; Yoo, Han Sang

    2013-01-15

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, a highly contagious endemic disease of pigs worldwide, inducing significant economic losses worldwide. Apx toxins, which are correlated with the virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae, were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its possible use as an oral vaccine has been confirmed in our previous studies using a murine model. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that oral immunization using S. cerevisiae expressing either ApxI or ApxII could protect pigs against A. pleuropneumoniae as an effective way of inducing both mucosal and systemic immune responses. The surface-displayed ApxIIA#5 expressing S. cerevisiae was selected as an oral vaccine candidate by finding on induction of higher immune responses in mice after oral vaccination. The surface-displayed ApxIIA#5 expressing S. cerevisiae and the ApxIA expressing S. cerevisiae were developed to serve as an oral vaccine in pigs. The vaccinated pigs showed higher specific IgG- and IgA-related antibody activities than the non-treated control and vector control pigs. Additionally, the induced immune responses were found to protect pigs infected with A. pleuropneumoniae according to the analysis of clinical signs and the gross and microscopic pulmonary lesions. These results suggested that the surface-displayed ApxIIA#5 and ApxIA in S. cerevisiae might be a potential oral vaccine to protect pigs against porcine pleuropneumonia. Thus the present study is expected to contribute to the development of a live oral vaccine against porcine pleuropneumonia as an alternative to current conventional vaccines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Vocabulary, Grammar, Sex, and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscoso Del Prado Martín, Fermín

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the changes in our language abilities along the lifespan is a crucial step for understanding the aging process both in normal and in abnormal circumstances. Besides controlled experimental tasks, it is equally crucial to investigate language in unconstrained conversation. I present an information-theoretical analysis of a corpus of dyadic conversations investigating how the richness of the vocabulary, the word-internal structure (inflectional morphology), and the syntax of the utterances evolves as a function of the speaker's age and sex. Although vocabulary diversity increases throughout the lifetime, grammatical diversities follow a different pattern, which also differs between women and men. Women use increasingly diverse syntactic structures at least up to their late fifties, and they do not deteriorate in terms of fluency through their lifespan. However, from age 45 onward, men exhibit a decrease in the diversity of the syntactic structures they use, coupled with an increased number of speech disfluencies. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  14. Effects of oral creatine and resistance training on myogenic regulatory factor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Darryn S; Rosene, John M

    2003-06-01

    This study examined 12 wk of creatine (Cr) supplementation and heavy resistance training on skeletal muscle creatine kinase (M-CK) mRNA expression and the mRNA and protein expression of the myogenic regulatory factors Myo-D, myogenin, MFR-4, and Myf5. Twenty-two untrained males were randomly assigned to either a control (CON), placebo (PLC), or Cr (CRT) group in a double-blind fashion. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after training. PLC and CRT trained thrice weekly using 3 sets of 6-8 repetitions at 85-90% 1-RM on the leg press, knee extension, and knee curl exercises. CRT ingested 6 g.d-1 of Cr for 12 wk while PLC consumed the equal amount of placebo. After training, M-CK mRNA expression, as well as myogenin and MRF-4 mRNA and protein expression, were found to be significantly greater for CRT compared with PLC and CON, whereas PLC was also significantly different from CON (P 0.05). M-CK mRNA was correlated with myogenin (r = 0.916) and MRF-4 (r = 0.883) protein (P resistance training, Cr supplementation increases M-CK mRNA expression, likely due to concomitant increases in the expression of myogenin and MRF-4. Therefore, increases in myogenin and MRF-4 mRNA and protein may play a role in increasing myosin heavy chain expression, already shown to occur with Cr supplementation.

  15. Seven-CpG-based prognostic signature coupled with gene expression predicts survival of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sipeng; Wang, Guanrong; Shi, Qianwen; Zhang, Ruyang; Zhao, Yang; Wei, Yongyue; Chen, Feng; Christiani, David C

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation has started a recent revolution in genomics biology by identifying key biomarkers for multiple cancers, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), the most common head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. A multi-stage screening strategy was used to identify DNA-methylation-based signatures for OSCC prognosis. We used The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data as training set which were validated in two independent datasets from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). The correlation between DNA methylation and corresponding gene expression and the prognostic value of the gene expression were explored as well. The seven DNA methylation CpG sites were identified which were significantly associated with OSCC overall survival. Prognostic signature, a weighted linear combination of the seven CpG sites, successfully distinguished the overall survival of OSCC patients and had a moderate predictive ability for survival [training set: hazard ratio (HR) = 3.23, P = 5.52 × 10(-10), area under the curve (AUC) = 0.76; validation set 1: HR = 2.79, P = 0.010, AUC = 0.67; validation set 2: HR = 3.69, P = 0.011, AUC = 0.66]. Stratification analysis by human papillomavirus status, clinical stage, age, gender, smoking status, and grade retained statistical significance. Expression of genes corresponding to candidate CpG sites (AJAP1, SHANK2, FOXA2, MT1A, ZNF570, HOXC4, and HOXB4) was also significantly associated with patient's survival. Signature integrating of DNA methylation, gene expression, and clinical information showed a superior ability for prognostic prediction (AUC = 0.78). Prognostic signature integrated of DNA methylation, gene expression, and clinical information provides a better prognostic prediction value for OSCC patients than that with clinical information only.

  16. Suri-English basic vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    Abbink, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Suri, also known as Surma, are agropastoralists living in the semiarid lowland area of the Kafa Administrative Region of Ethiopia. The Suri language belongs to the South-East Surmic (SES) language group within the Eastern Sudanic family of Nilo-Saharan. The Suri-English vocabulary presented here was compiled during research carried out in southwestern Ethiopia, particularly in the village of Makara, between December 1991 and June 1992, and in October 1992. It incorporates two unpublished ...

  17. Desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bjork, RA; Kroll, JF

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 by the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois. In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is underst...

  18. IMPROVING VOCABULARY TEACHING IN INTENSIVE READING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    IntroductionIn China,intensive reading is the main method for teaching English.One feature of the textbooks isthat they all have large quantities of new words in each text,so vocabulary is one of the mostimportant aspects of this course.Recently,I conducted a survey among students who entered thePetroleum University in Shandong.To the question‘What is the greatest problem in your Englishstudies?’,82 out of the t00 students answered-vocabulary.This,to some extent,suggests that ourapproaches to vocabulary teaching should be improved.This article explores more effective ways toteach vocabulary.It suggests the idea of classifying and grouping vocabulary items and how to teachthem differently.A series of task-based activities are recommended to present and review vocabulary.

  19. Identification of reliable reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in oral squamous cell carcinomas compared to adjacent normal tissues in the F344 rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xinjian; McCormick, David L

    2016-08-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) induced in F344 rats by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) demonstrate considerable phenotypic similarity to human oral cancers and the model has been widely used for carcinogenesis and chemoprevention studies. Molecular characterization of this model needs reliable reference genes (RGs) to avoid false- positive and -negative results for proper interpretation of gene expression data between tumor and adjacent normal tissues. Microarray analysis of 11 pairs of OSCC and site-matched phenotypically normal oral tissues from 4-NQO-treated rats identified 10 stably expressed genes in OSCC compared to adjacent normal tissues (p>0.5, CVexpression analysis. We successfully identified Hsp90ab1 as a stable RG in 4-NQO-induced OSCC compared to adjacent normal tissues in F344 rats. The combination of two stably expressed genes may be a better option for gene normalization in tissue samples.

  20. MiR-21 expression in the tumor stroma of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedbäck, Nora; Jensen, David H; Specht, Lena;

    2014-01-01

    RNA-21 (miR-21) is the most consistently overexpressed miRNA in several types of cancer, and it might be a useful clinical biomarker and therapeutic target. To better understand the role of miR-21 in OSCC, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue samples from 86 patients with primary OSCC were analyzed by in situ...... hybridization. We found that miR-21 was primarily expressed in the tumor stroma and in some tumor-associated blood vessels with no expression in the adjacent normal epithelia or stroma. Using image analysis, we quantitatively estimated miR-21 expression levels specifically in the stroma of a cohort of OSCC...... samples. These miR-21 levels significantly correlated with disease free survival with the highest levels being located in the stroma. Stromal miR-21 expression was independently associated with a poorer prognosis, even after adjusting for clinical parameters (perineural invasion and N...

  1. The Sources of the English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shujun

    2015-01-01

    Lexicology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the study of the vocabulary of a given language. This paper begins with the question: What are the two approaches to the study of English lexicology? Then talk about the position and character of the English language in the Indo-European family. After this,the paper would on the way to explain the sources of the English vocabulary and different characters of different periods of English vocabulary.

  2. Development of an integrated energy vocabulary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niehoff, R.T.

    1976-02-01

    Vocabularies from 10 information systems were employed in this attempt to establish an integrated energy vocabulary. A broad definition of energy was formulated and used as a selection criterion. The resulting product, to be printed under separate cover, contains 30,000 terms and 55,000 cross references. It is felt that the integrated vocabulary, when printed, will aid both energy researchers and information scientists using both manual and on-line systems.

  3. The Influence of Contexts on Vocabulary Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高春梅

    2014-01-01

    In vocabulary testing, whether to adopt context is a heat-debated topic. In the article, an experiment is designed to in⁃vestigate what is the effect of zero context and sentence context on the vocabulary testing? And how do the different kinds of context in vocabulary affect the subjects’performance? The experimental result demonstrates that sentence do play an important role in helping text-takers to figure out the correct meaning or target words.

  4. Advanced Teaching Strategies of College English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭萍

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary teaching is an important part in English teaching, which purpose is to foster students to use learned words to conduct language communication, increasing the capability of language using in daily life. This paper analyzes the present condition and exposes the problems existing in English vocabulary teaching and learning, then, puts forward some scientific, effective strategies for the education of English vocabulary. I hope these teaching strategies can help teachers improve their teaching methods and help English learners acquire knowledge easily and efficiently.

  5. Detection of Epstein-Barr virus genome and latent infection gene expression in normal epithelia, epithelial dysplasia, and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Kentaro; Noguchi, Yoshihiro; de Rivera, Michelle Wendoline Garcia-Niño; Hoshino, Miyako; Sakashita, Hideaki; Yamada, Tsutomu; Inoue, Harumi; Miyazaki, Yuji; Nozaki, Tadashige; González-López, Blanca Silvia; Ide, Fumio; Kusama, Kaoru

    2016-03-01

    A relationship between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and cancer of lymphoid and epithelial tissues such as Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), gastric carcinoma, and oral cancer has been reported. EBV is transmitted orally and infects B cells and epithelial cells. However, it has remained uncertain whether EBV plays a role in carcinogenesis of oral mucosal tissue. In the present study, we detected the EBV genome and latent EBV gene expression in normal mucosal epithelia, epithelial dysplasia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) to clarify whether EBV is involved in carcinogenesis of the oral cavity. We examined 333 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples (morphologically normal oral mucosa 30 samples, gingivitis 32, tonsillitis 17, oral epithelial dysplasia 83, OSCC 150, and NPC 21). EBV latent infection genes (EBNA-2, LMP-1) were detected not only in OSCC (50.2 %, 10.7 %) but also in severe epithelial dysplasia (66.7 %, 44.4 %), mild to moderate epithelial dysplasia (43.1 %, 18.5 %), gingivitis (78.1 %, 21.9 %), and normal mucosa (83.3 %, 23.3 %). Furthermore, the intensity of EBV latent infection gene expression (EBER, LMP-1) was significantly higher in severe epithelial dysplasia (94.4 %, 72.2 %) than in OSCC (34.7 %, 38.7 %). These results suggest that EBV latent infection genes and their increased expression in severe epithelial dysplasia might play an important role in the dysplasia-carcinoma sequence in the oral cavity.

  6. Expression of MMP-1/PAR-1 and patterns of invasion in oral squamous cell carcinoma as potential prognostic markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan HX

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hai-Xia Fan,1 Yan Chen,1 Bo-Xiong Ni,1 Shan Wang,1 Miao Sun,2 Dong Chen,2 Jin-Hua Zheng11Department of Anatomy, Basic Medical Science College, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Stomatological Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1 degrades type I collagen of the extracellular matrix and also activates protease activated receptor (PAR-1 to induce angiogenesis. The aims of this study were to evaluate microvessel density (MVD and the expression of PAR-1 and MMP-1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC specimens with different patterns of invasion (POI and to evaluate their association with clinical outcomes.Methods: Seventy-four surgically obtained oral SCC samples were classified by POI according to hematoxylin-eosin staining. MVD and the localization and intensity of PAR-1 and MMP-1 expression were detected by immunohistochemistry.Results: Of the 74 oral SCC samples, 18, 5, 34, and 17 showed type I, II, III, and IV POI, respectively. MVD and expression levels of MMP-1 and PAR-1 differed between POI types I–II and POI types III–IV. Patients with low tumor expression of MMP-1 and PAR-1 and low MVD had a longer survival time than those with high tumor expression of MMP-1 and PAR-1. Moreover, the survival time of patients with POI types III–IV was shorter than that of patients with POI types I–II.Conclusion: POI combined with expression levels of MMP-1 and PAR-1 may be a valuable tool for assessing the clinical prognosis of patients with oral SCC.Keywords: oral squamous cell carcinoma, pattern of invasion, immunohistochemistry, clinical outcomes

  7. The Dimensional Approach to Vocabulary Testing: What Can We ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vocabulary constitutes an important component of language and its study has ... what testing under this approach has contributed to the teaching of vocabulary. ... of vocabulary size has led to standardisation of methods, as well as insight into ...

  8. Output-Based Instruction, Learning Styles and Vocabulary Learning in the EFL Context of Iran

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    Behnaz Rastegar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Language learners' productive role in teaching and learning processes has recently been the focus of attention. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the effect of oral vs. written output-based instruction on English as a foreign language (EFL learners' vocabulary learning with a focus on reflective vs. impulsive learning styles. To this end, 131 learners were chosen among 182 learners by taking Nelson vocabulary proficiency test. Next, the participants received a valid Persian version of reflective thinking (Kember et al., 2000 and Barratt, Patton and Stanford (1975 BIS (Barratt’s Impulsiveness Scale 11 impulsiveness questionnaires, based on which both experimental groups were divided into impulsive and reflective subgroups, but the control group consisted of both impulsive and reflective learners. After 15 sessions of intervention and based on the results through one-way ANOVA and independent t-test it was concluded that both oral output and written output had significant effect on vocabulary learning of reflective and impulsive EFL Learners. It was also observed that the effect of both oral output and written output on impulsive (oral group’s mean=21.04; written groups’ mean= 21.75 learners and reflective learners (oral groups’ mean=22.38; written group’s mean: 22.23 is not significantly different. Pedagogical implications are discussed.

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Receptive Vocabulary Breadth Knowledge Growth and Vocabulary Fluency Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2014-01-01

    This article reports results of a longitudinal study of vocabulary breadth knowledge growth, vocabulary fluency development, and the relationship between the two. We administered two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT; Nation 1983; Nation 1990; Schmitt et al. 2001) to 300 students at a Chinese university at three different time points…

  10. A Corpus Analysis of Vocabulary Coverage and Vocabulary Learning Opportunities within a Children's Story Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Extensive reading for second language learners have been widely documented over the past few decades. However, few studies, if any, have used a corpus analysis approach to analyze the vocabulary coverage within a single-author story series, its repetition of vocabulary, and the incidental and intentional vocabulary learning opportunities therein.…

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Receptive Vocabulary Breadth Knowledge Growth and Vocabulary Fluency Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2014-01-01

    This article reports results of a longitudinal study of vocabulary breadth knowledge growth, vocabulary fluency development, and the relationship between the two. We administered two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT; Nation 1983; Nation 1990; Schmitt et al. 2001) to 300 students at a Chinese university at three different time points…

  12. Assessing the Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategy Use and Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Feng

    2015-01-01

    This study is an attempt to explore the correlation between direct and indirect vocabulary learning strategies along with the depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge. To this end, a sample of 145 low proficiency students who learn English as a Foreign Language (EFL) completed a questionnaire concerning vocabulary learning strategy use.…

  13. Protection of Macrobrachium rosenbergii against white tail disease by oral administration of bacterial expressed and encapsulated double-stranded RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen Kumar, Singaiah; Karunasagar, Indrani; Karunasagar, Iddya

    2013-09-01

    White tail disease (WTD) of cultured Macrobrachium rosenbergii is caused by M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and an extra small virus (XSV), both present together, and the mortality rate can be as high as 100% within 2 or 3 days of infection. Possible protection of M. rosenbergii against WTD by oral administration of bacterial expressed and encapsulated double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) was studied. Juvenile M. rosenbergii were fed with the feed coated with inactivated bacteria encapsulated dsRNA of MrNV and XSV genes individually and in combination for 7 days followed by challenge with WTD causing agents at 24 h and 72 h post-feeding. Test animals fed with a combination of dsRNA of MrNV and XSV capsid genes showed the highest relative percent survival (RPS) when compared to other treatments with RPS of 80% and 75% at 24 and 72 h respectively. One hundred percent mortality was observed in test animals fed with control dsRNA coated feed. Although in the literature, injection is the most common method used to deliver dsRNA, this study shows that oral administration is effective, feasible and economical.

  14. Listening Comprehension, Oral Expression, Reading Comprehension, and Written Expression: Related Yet Unique Language Systems in Grades 1, 3, 5, and 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W; Abbott, Robert D

    2010-08-01

    Age-normed tests of Listening Comprehension, Oral Expression, Reading Comprehension, and Written Expression were administered in grades 1 (n=128), 3, and 5 or 3 (n=113), 5, and 7. Confirmatory factor analyses compared one- and four- factor models at each grade level and supported a four- factor model of Language by Ear, Mouth, Eye, and Hand. Multiple regressions identified which of the three other language skills explained unique variance in each of the four language skill outcomes and provided additional evidence that language is not a single skill. Individuals' ipsative scores (amount that the standard score for age on each language measure deviated from individual's mean for all four measures) showed that 25% to 30% of individuals showed relative strengths or weaknesses (+ or - 1 SD) in specific language skills, but only 7% were stable across grades 3 and 5. Findings are discussed in reference to (a) theoretical implications for idea comprehension and expression via language by ear, mouth, eye, and hand, and (b) educational applications of observed developmental and individual differences for general, special, and gifted education.

  15. Vocabulary services to support scientific data interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Simon; Mills, Katie; Tan, Florence

    2013-04-01

    Shared vocabularies are a core element in interoperable systems. Vocabularies need to be available at run-time, and where the vocabularies are shared by a distributed community this implies the use of web technology to provide vocabulary services. Given the ubiquity of vocabularies or classifiers in systems, vocabulary services are effectively the base of the interoperability stack. In contemporary knowledge organization systems, a vocabulary item is considered a concept, with the "terms" denoting it appearing as labels. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) formalizes this as an RDF Schema (RDFS) application, with a bridge to formal logic in Web Ontology Language (OWL). For maximum utility, a vocabulary should be made available through the following interfaces: * the vocabulary as a whole - at an ontology URI corresponding to a vocabulary document * each item in the vocabulary - at the item URI * summaries, subsets, and resources derived by transformation * through the standard RDF web API - i.e. a SPARQL endpoint * through a query form for human users. However, the vocabulary data model may be leveraged directly in a standard vocabulary API that uses the semantics provided by SKOS. SISSvoc3 [1] accomplishes this as a standard set of URI templates for a vocabulary. Any URI comforming to the template selects a vocabulary subset based on the SKOS properties, including labels (skos:prefLabel, skos:altLabel, rdfs:label) and a subset of the semantic relations (skos:broader, skos:narrower, etc). SISSvoc3 thus provides a RESTFul SKOS API to query a vocabulary, but hiding the complexity of SPARQL. It has been implemented using the Linked Data API (LDA) [2], which connects to a SPARQL endpoint. By using LDA, we also get content-negotiation, alternative views, paging, metadata and other functionality provided in a standard way. A number of vocabularies have been formalized in SKOS and deployed by CSIRO, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) and their

  16. Detection of HPV DNA and immunohistochemical expression of cell cycle proteins in oral carcinoma in a population of brazilian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilene Calazans Soares

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV DNA and viral types in 33 cases of oral squamous cells carcinoma (OSCC and compared the immunohistochemical expression of the cell-cycle markers p21 and pRb between cases of the disease with and without HPV. DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue and amplified by PCR for the detection of HPV DNA. Viral typing was performed by dot blot hybridization. Immunohistochemistry was performed by the streptavidinbiotin technique. HPV DNA was detected in 11 (33.33% of the 33 cases. The prevalent viral type was HPV 18 (81.81%. A significant association was observed between the presence of HPV and immunohistochemical expression of pRb, but not between p21 expression and the presence of the virus. The low frequency of detection of HPV DNA in OSCC suggests a possible participation of the virus in the development and progression of only a subgroup of these tumors.

  17. 3-Deazaneplanocin A suppresses aggressive phenotype-related gene expression in an oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatta, Mitsutoki; Naganuma, Kaori; Kato, Kenichi; Yamazaki, Jun

    In tumor tissues, alterations of gene expression caused by aberrant epigenetic modifications confer phenotypic diversity on malignant cells. Although 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep) has been shown to reactivate tumor suppressor genes in several cancer cells, it remains unclear whether DZNep attenuates the malignant phenotypes of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of DZNep on the expression of genes related to aggressive phenotypes, such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition, in OSCC cells. We found that DZNep reduced the cellular levels of polycomb group proteins (EZH2, SUZ12, BMI1, and RING1A) and the associated trimethylation of Lys27 on histone H3 and monoubiquitination of Lys119 on histone H2A in the poorly differentiated OSCC cell line SAS. Immunocytochemical staining demonstrated that DZNep induced the reorganization of filamentous actin and the membrane localization of E-cadherin associated with cell-cell adhesions. We also found an inhibitory effect of DZNep on cell proliferation using a WST assay. Finally, quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that genes involved in the aggressive phenotypes (TWIST2, EGFR, ACTA2, TGFB1, WNT5B, and APLIN) were down-regulated, whereas epithelial phenotype genes (CDH1, CLDN4, IVL, and TGM1) were up-regulated in SAS cells treated with DZNep. Collectively, our findings suggest that DZNep reverses the aggressive characteristics of OSCC cells through the dynamic regulation of epithelial plasticity via the reprogramming of gene expression patterns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Piroxicam inhibits Masitinib-induced cyclooxygenase 2 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Kusum; Alexander, Mary; Cekanova, Maria

    2014-08-01

    Development and characterization of animal models for human cancers is important for the improvement of diagnosis and therapy. The oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) of domestic animals resembles human OSCC in many aspects; thus, cell lines derived from OSCC of cats and dogs are a valuable model for human OSCC. We characterized 1 feline OSCC (FeOSCC-Sidney) and 1 canine OSCC (K9OSCC-Abby) cell line and compared their characteristics with human OSCC cell line hSCC-25. We calculated the doubling time of the new OSCC cell lines and evaluated the expression profiles of cancer-related markers and cell-cycle proteins such as c-kit, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor, cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2, and p27 by immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis. We evaluated the effects of novel receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (Masitinib, AB1010) and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug piroxicam on the previously mentioned OSCC cells. Interestingly, AB1010 increased expression levels of COX-2 in all tested OSCCs. Cotreatment of piroxicam with Masitinib significantly inhibited cell proliferation of OSCC as compared to either drug alone through the c-kit and AKT signaling pathways. Piroxicam inhibited Masitinib-induced COX-2 expression in all tested OSCCs. Therefore, targeting these two signaling pathways simultaneously was more efficient for inhibition of OSCCs across these species.

  19. Effect of orally administered collagen hydrolysate on gene expression profiles in mouse skin: a DNA microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Chisato; Ito, Kyoko; Ichikawa, Satomi; Morifuji, Masashi; Nakai, Yuji; Ishijima, Tomoko; Abe, Keiko; Kawahata, Keiko

    2015-08-01

    Dietary collagen hydrolysate has been hypothesized to improve skin barrier function. To investigate the effect of long-term collagen hydrolysate administration on the skin, we evaluated stratum corneum water content and skin elasticity in intrinsically aged mice. Female hairless mice were fed a control diet or a collagen hydrolysate-containing diet for 12 wk. Stratum corneum water content and skin elasticity were gradually decreased in chronologically aged control mice. Intake of collagen hydrolysate significantly suppressed such changes. Moreover, we used DNA microarrays to analyze gene expression in the skin of mice that had been administered collagen hydrolysate. Twelve weeks after the start of collagen intake, no significant differences appeared in the gene expression profile compared with the control group. However, 1 wk after administration, 135 genes were upregulated and 448 genes were downregulated in the collagen group. This suggests that gene changes preceded changes of barrier function and elasticity. We focused on several genes correlated with functional changes in the skin. Gene Ontology terms related to epidermal cell development were significantly enriched in upregulated genes. These skin function-related genes had properties that facilitate epidermal production and differentiation while suppressing dermal degradation. In conclusion, our results suggest that altered gene expression at the early stages after collagen administration affects skin barrier function and mechanical properties. Long-term oral intake of collagen hydrolysate improves skin dysfunction by regulating genes related to production and maintenance of skin tissue.

  20. Oral Cnm-positive Streptococcus Mutans Expressing Collagen Binding Activity is a Risk Factor for Cerebral Microbleeds and Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Isao; Kuriyama, Nagato; Miyatani, Fumitaro; Nomura, Ryota; Naka, Shuhei; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Ihara, Masafumi; Iwai, Komei; Matsui, Daisuke; Ozaki, Etsuko; Koyama, Teruhide; Nishigaki, Masaru; Yamamoto, Toshiro; Tamura, Aiko; Mizuno, Toshiki; Akazawa, Kentaro; Takada, Akihiro; Takeda, Kazuo; Yamada, Kei; Nakagawa, Masanori; Tanaka, Tokutaro; Kanamura, Narisato; Friedland, Robert P.; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are an important risk factor for stroke and dementia. We have shown that the collagen binding surface Cnm protein expressed on cnm-positive Streptococcus mutans is involved in the development of CMBs. However, whether the collagen binding activity of cnm-positive S. mutans is related to the nature of the CMBs or to cognitive impairment is unclear. Two-hundred seventy nine community residents (70.0 years) were examined for the presence or absence of cnm-positive S. mutans in the saliva by PCR and collagen binding activity, CMBs, and cognitive function were evaluated. Cnm-positive S. mutans was detected more often among subjects with CMBs (p CMBs was significantly higher (odds ratio = 14.3) in the group with S. mutans expressing collagen binding activity, as compared to the group without that finding. Deep CMBs were more frequent (67%) and cognitive function was lower among subjects with cnm-positive S. mutans expressing collagen binding activity. This work supports the role of oral health in stroke and dementia and proposes a molecular mechanism for the interaction. PMID:27934941