WorldWideScience

Sample records for vocabulary level increased

  1. Vocabulary Levels and Size of Malaysian Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harji, Madhubala Bava; Balakrishnan, Kavitha; Bhar, Sareen Kaur; Letchumanan, Krishnaveni

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary is a fundamental requirement of language acquisition, and its competence enables independent reading and effective language acquisition. Effective language use requires adequate level of vocabulary knowledge; therefore, efforts must be made to identify students' vocabulary base for greater efficiency and competency in the language.…

  2. Increasing Middle School Students’ Vocabulary through Extensive Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何小庆

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses how to increase middle school English learners’ vocabulary through reading.Vocabulary is a core component of language proficiency and provides much of the basis of how well learners speak,listen,read,and write.Without an extensive vocabulary and strategies for acquiring new vocabulary,middle school students often feel discouraged during their study.They will lose their interests in English day by day.So it’s very important for middle school English learners to develop their vocabulary efficiently.There are many ways to enlarge vocabulary.In this article we will focus on improving middle school English learners’ vocabulary by extensive reading.

  3. The Impact of Vocabulary Knowledge Level on EFL Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Kameli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the impact of vocabulary knowledge level on reading comprehension performance among EFL language learners. The ultimate intention was to determine the association between levels of vocabulary knowledge and to clarify the relationship among vocabulary knowledge on reading comprehension performance of EFL Iranian students on subtest of VLT and IELTS. Quantitative data were collected from 220 EFL Iranian adult students at the beginning of second semester of 2011 in private English language institute (BAHAR, Shiraz, Iran. The Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT and Reading Comprehension Test (IELTS were performed in one session as research instruments. The findings indicated that there were positive relationships among different levels of vocabulary test and also test scores on vocabulary size/breadth of vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension. Keywords: vocabulary level, vocabulary size/breadth, reading comprehension

  4. Teaching Techniques: Physical Vocabulary in the Beginner-Level Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiullo, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    After having success with this warm-up activity in his theater classes, the author adapted it for his beginner-level English classes, knowing his students would appreciate the opportunity to move around. The activity allows students to create their own physical interpretation of a vocabulary word, which increases their ability to remember it…

  5. Second Language Vocabulary Growth at Advanced Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Meral

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the receptive vocabulary growth of advanced EFL learners in an English-medium degree programme. The study used the Vocabulary Size Test in a cross-sectional design to measure the vocabulary size of learners at various stages of study. The effect of word frequency on vocabulary development and the presence of an…

  6. The Creation and Validation of a Listening Vocabulary Levels Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Stuart; Kramer, Brandon; Beglar, David

    2015-01-01

    An important gap in the field of second language vocabulary assessment concerns the lack of validated tests measuring aural vocabulary knowledge. The primary purpose of this study is to introduce and provide preliminary validity evidence for the Listening Vocabulary Levels Test (LVLT), which has been designed as a diagnostic tool to measure…

  7. Assessing Reliability of Two Versions of Vocabulary Levels Tests in Iranian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazidi, Aso; Saeb, Fateme

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the equivalence and reliability of the two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test in an Iranian context. This study was motivated by the fact that the Vocabulary Levels test is increasingly being used in Iran for both research and pedagogical purposes without having been checked for validity and reliability in this context. The…

  8. Selecting Level-Specific Specialized Vocabulary Using Statistical Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chujo, Kiyomi; Utiyama, Masao

    2006-01-01

    To find an easy-to-use, automated tool to identify technical vocabulary applicable to learners at various levels, nine statistical measures were applied to the 7.3-million-word "commerce and finance" component of the British National Corpus. The resulting word lists showed that each statistical measure extracted a different level of specialized…

  9. Academic literacy of South African higher education level students: Does vocabulary size matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déogratias Nizonkiza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the extent to which vocabulary size matters in academic literacy. Participants (first-year students at North-West University were administered the Vocabulary Levels Test (Schmitt, Schmitt and Clapham 2001. Scores from the test were used to estimate students’ vocabulary size and were subsequently mapped onto the levels distinguished by the Test of Academic Literacy Levels (TALL. Estimates show that, on average, the vocabulary size of first-year students at North-West University is approximately 4,500 word families, a size large enough to allow them to follow lectures in English. Furthermore, students with large vocabularies were found to have higher academic literacy proficiency, which establishes a strong relationship between vocabulary size and academic literacy. This relationship was also observed at the different word frequency bands the Vocabulary Levels Test consists of. These results support previous findings which established a relationship between vocabulary size and reading (cf. Nation 2006, and between vocabulary size and overall language proficiency (cf. Beglar 2010, Meara and Buxton 1987, Meara and Jones 1988, Nation and Beglar 2007, which could be extended to academic literacy. Furthermore, a stronger relationship between vocabulary size and academic literacy was found towards more infrequent word bands, indicating that infrequent word bands may best predict academic literacy. On the basis of these findings, we discuss possible strategies to adopt in order to assist some first-years with expanding their vocabularies

  10. Does Studying Vocabulary in Smaller Sets Increase Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Tatsuya; Webb, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of part and whole learning on the acquisition of second language (L2, English) vocabulary. In whole learning, the materials to be learned are repeated in one large block, whereas, in part learning, the materials are divided into smaller blocks and repeated. Experiment 1 compared the effects of the following…

  11. Does Studying Vocabulary in Smaller Sets Increase Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Tatsuya; Webb, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of part and whole learning on the acquisition of second language (L2, English) vocabulary. In whole learning, the materials to be learned are repeated in one large block, whereas, in part learning, the materials are divided into smaller blocks and repeated. Experiment 1 compared the effects of the following…

  12. English Vocabulary Acquisition of Bilingual Learners at the Primary and Secondary Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pholsward, Ruja; Boonprasitt, Donrutai

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports research findings of English vocabulary acquisition of bilingual learners at the levels of Primary 6 and Secondary 3 at Satit Bilingual School of Rangsit University. The purpose was to find out the extent to which learners at these levels have acquired English vocabulary to communicate their ideas about themselves and their…

  13. The Relationship between Learner Autonomy and Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Iranian EFL Learners with Different Language Proficiency Level

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim Azimi Mohammad Abadi; Abdollah Baradaran

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary learning is incredibly noteworthy to English language acquisition. It is unfeasible for a learner to communicate without the required vocabulary. In high education levels, learners are habitually forced to become autonomous and make conscious effort to learn vocabulary outside of the classroom. Consequently, the autonomy of the learners plays an important role in developing and enhancing their vocabulary. Learner autonomy is a huge assistance for learners in vocabulary learning sin...

  14. Morphological awareness and vocabulary development among kindergartners with different ability levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Gloria; Walton, Patrick; Roberts, William

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to investigate the growth of vocabulary and morphological awareness over time in the context of an intervention for kindergartners with different ability levels in these skills. Participants in this exploratory study were 108 children from schools serving socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Results indicated that children significantly improved their morphological awareness skills and vocabulary over a period of 4 months ( eta(p)(2) = .61 for morphological awareness and eta(p)(2) = .53 for vocabulary), with the greatest gains made by children who were initially low on these measures. Morphological awareness and vocabulary skills were reciprocally related; each made a unique contribution to growth in the other. The results suggest that it may be beneficial to combine instruction in vocabulary and morphological awareness and that kindergarten teachers can successfully do so with guidance.

  15. Vocabulary notebooks

    OpenAIRE

    KOZETA HYSO

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary notebooks are one way of promoting learner independence. Introducing vocabulary notebooks to provide the learners with an area of language learning where they could be given a relatively high level of independence that would build their confidence in their ability to act independently in terms of vocabulary learning. This article is focused on the effectiveness of keeping the vocabulary notebooks to empower the learner’s independence on their foreign language learning and also to e...

  16. Vocabulary Materials and Study Strategies at Advanced Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a quasi-experimental study of the effect of different vocabulary study materials and strategies used by upper-intermediate English as a foreign language students in higher education. Students were assigned a selection of 163 words from the Academic Word List and were provided with different types of study materials. They were…

  17. The Level of Spoken Vocabulary Used by University English Professors and Its Effect on Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Zarei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It seems that the vocabulary knowledge of Iranian university students for English translation is below minimal comprehension. One possible factor affecting the vocabulary knowledge of students is the oral input presented by professors in their classes. This research seeks to analyze the role of oral input in vocabulary learning. For this reason, twenty- three content courses from B.A. English translation syllabus were selected. Hence, the professors` lectures were recorded and then transcribed. Next the data was analyzed with Range 32, the software developed by Paul Nation. The findings revealed that almost ninety percent of the oral vocabulary items used by professors were in the first 1000 word families that are the most frequent words in English. Moreover, the results showed that the level of vocabulary items used by professors did not change over the past semesters. Therefore, it is clear that one of the possible reasons for students’ inadequate vocabulary knowledge is lack of rich oral input, because students do not have sufficiently strong motivation to work harder to comprehend their instructors. The results of this research bring into focus the need for more systematic preparation and presentation of the vocabulary items in the course syllabus.

  18. THE VOCABULARY LEARNING STRATEGIES USED BY UUM STUDENTS IN RELATION TO THEIR PROFICIENCY LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noraziah Mohd Amin

    2013-04-01

    Abstract  This thesis is concerned with the vocabulary learning strategies used by Band 1 and Band 4 undergraduate students of Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM.  The objectives of this descriptive study were to survey the vocabulary learning strategies used by the respondents and to determine to what extent their use of the strategies was influenced by their proficiency level. The instrument employed in the study was a questionnaire developed by Lachini (2007 based on Cottrell’s classification of learning strategies. It consists of five categories of vocabulary learning strategies: creative, reflective, effective, active and motivated. The responses of 100 Band 1 and 100 Band 4 students to the questionnaire were examined on the frequency of their use of the vocabulary learning strategies. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in terms of the frequency of use between Band 1 and Band 4 participants as  the majority of both groups employed most of the strategies either ‘a little’ or ‘often’. The findings of the study perhaps could help instructors to facilitate the learning of English vocabulary by UUM students and other students at large.    Keywords: The vocabulary learning strategies, proficiency levels

  19. Assessing Reliability of Two Versions of Vocabulary Levels Tests in Iranian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aso Bayazidi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the equivalence and reliability of the two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test in an Iranian context. This study was motivated by the fact that the Vocabulary Levels test is increasingly being used in Iran for both research and pedagogical purposes without having been checked for validity and reliability in this context. The equivalence and reliability of the two versions of the test were examined through the parallel-form approach to reliability in Classical True Score theory. Seventy-five intermediate learners of English as a foreign language at the Iran Language Institute took the two versions of the test with one week interval between the two administrations in a counterbalanced fashion. To examine the equivalence of the two versions, the means and variances of the scores obtained for the two tests were compared using paired-sample t-test and one-way ANOVA, respectively. The results of the analyses indicated that the difference between the means of the two versions was significant, and the two versions cannot be considered as parallel forms. To assess the reliability of the two versions, the correlation between the scores obtained from them was estimated using Pearson Product Moment correlation. The results of the analyses showed that the two versions are highly correlated and are reliable tests. It is concluded that the two versions should not be treated as equivalent in longitudinal and gain score studies.

  20. TEACHING VOCABULARY THROUGH SENTENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    irfan tosuncuoglu

    2015-12-01

    Almost every teacher is certain about that vocabulary is an important facet of learning a second language. It may be more important than grammar, at least in so far as this concerns communication , and particularly in the early stages when learners seem to understand that amassing a basic vocabulary is very important to fluency in another language. As a rule, receptive vocabulary exceeds productive vocabulary and why listening with comprehension and speaking with comprehension are two very different things—the latter a more difficult cognitive process than the former. Furthermore, vocabulary acquisition is highly idiosyncratic and depends largely on the learner and her or his individual learning styles and cognitive abilities. No two people learn alike. In particular, as understanding and fluency increases,  individual interests and even needs will change, which then requires teacher-assisted guidance and remediation vis-à-vis the compilation of a specified and nuanced vocabulary that is tailored to the learner’s more practical linguistic needs, whatever these might be. In this case, new vocabulary items are more likely to be recalled and communicative. Essential to such an approach to teaching vocabulary acquisition, it is argued here, is exposure to authentic language, that is, reading, writing, listening, and speaking in class that both engages the visual, tactile, and aural-oral senses and imprints. In the case of texts, it is paramount that the comprehension level be such that the learner can guestimate with a nigh degree of accuracy the meaning and proper usage of new vocabulary items without a dictionary and thus from their context. And the more often these new vocabulary items appear, the more likely it is that their full meaning will be understood and committed to memory.  For that reason we wanted to make use of sentences in vocabulary teaching.

  1. How to Increase the English Vocabulary%如何提高英语词汇量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文辛

    2011-01-01

    The vocabulary ib an important component ot the language and the foundation to learn h,nglish. In Lnglish learning, in order to effectively increase the vocabulary, we must pay attention to methods and techniques, and find out ways to memorize based on different types of English words. This article discusses how to guide students in memorizing English words with activity and fun based on mastering word-building from the relationship between vocabulary terms, consolidating and expanding the vocabulary to improve English proficiency.%词汇是语言的一个重要组成部分,是学好英语的基础,在英语学习中,要想有效地增加词汇量就必须讲究方法与技巧,根据英语单词的不同属类,寻找出记忆单词的方法.本文探讨了如何引导学生在掌握构词法的基础上,从词汇关系等方面积极、主动、有趣地记忆单词,巩固、扩大词汇量,从而提高英语水平.

  2. Exploring the Relationship between Receptive and Productive Vocabulary Sizes and Their Increased Use by Azerbaijani English Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiyeva, Konul

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the results of two studies on receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge of first-year English majors in an English-medium degree programme. The aim of the study is to answer these research questions: (1) to what extent do the receptive and productive vocabulary sizes of English majors increase after a year of…

  3. An Investigation of Vocabulary Learning Strategies by Iranian EFL Students in Different Proficiency Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Jafari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find out the various strategies used in learning vocabularies among Iranian EFL learners in three different proficiency levels (beginner, intermediate and advanced in Zanjan province. The vocabulary learning strategies which have been used in this research include determination, social, memory, cognitive, and meta-cognitive which follow Schmitt’s taxonomy. 110 students were randomly selected from two language institutes in Zanjan. Schmitt’s (1997 Vocabulary Learning Strategies’ questionnaire was administered to the learners with three proficiency levels. Then, descriptive statistics and Anova were utilized to analyze the data. Descriptive statistics revealed that the participants of the study regardless of their proficiency levels were generally medium strategy users who used all these strategies moderately except for the determination strategies that were used in high level. In addition, basic learners used all different types of strategies more frequently than intermediate and advanced learners. By comparing two other proficiency levels, advanced learners used determination strategies and meta-cognitive strategies more frequently than intermediate learners, while social, memory and cognitive strategies were used more frequently by Intermediates. In order to perceive if the results were statistically significant, Anova for between group mean differences was conducted. It revealed the fact that there is no significant difference among learners with different proficiency levels in application of determination and meta-cognitive strategies while the learners with lower proficiency level used social, memory and cognitive strategies more frequently, that is, these three strategies were used more frequently by basic, intermediate and advanced learners respectively. Keywords: Vocabulary learning strategies, Language learning strategies, Vocabulary learning strategy questionnaire

  4. Up Close and Personal: A Case Study of Three University-Level Second Language Learners' Vocabulary Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Rebecca; Dean, Julie; Tomaš, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    This study examines vocabulary-learning experiences of three advanced-level, university English as a second language (ESL) students. Through a case study approach, the researchers explore these second language learners' experiences with completing vocabulary-specific requirements for their ESL courses, focusing on their independent study outside…

  5. The Relationship between Learner Autonomy and Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Iranian EFL Learners with Different Language Proficiency Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Azimi Mohammad Abadi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary learning is incredibly noteworthy to English language acquisition. It is unfeasible for a learner to communicate without the required vocabulary. In high education levels, learners are habitually forced to become autonomous and make conscious effort to learn vocabulary outside of the classroom. Consequently, the autonomy of the learners plays an important role in developing and enhancing their vocabulary. Learner autonomy is a huge assistance for learners in vocabulary learning since it provides the learners with numerous diverse privileges such as independency from teacher. The researcher investigated whether there is any statistically significant relationship between learner autonomy and vocabulary learning strategies use in Iranian EFL learners with different language proficiency levels. To meet the above purpose, a total number of 190 male and female EFL learners participated in this study. The methodology underlying this study was quantitative (thorough the administration of two questionnaires and two language proficiency test – TOEFL for advanced group, and Nelson for intermediate level. The quantitative data was analyzed using a set of correlational analysis revealing a significant positive correlation between learner autonomy and vocabulary learning strategies use in high proficient group, and a significant positive relationship between these two constructs in low proficient group, however not as strong as in the advanced group. Keywords: Learner Autonomy, Vocabulary Learning Strategies, EFL Learner

  6. Using Assistive Technology to Increase Vocabulary Acquisition and Engagement for Students with Learning Disabilities in the High School Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemrod, Tal

    There is a growing recognition of the importance and effectiveness of instruction in the STEM subjects, including science. The movement towards increased requirements and expectations in science presents a challenge to both students and teachers as many students with Learning Disabilities (LD) often particularly struggle in their science classes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of an assistive technology (AT) intervention targeting the acquisition of science vocabulary for adolescents with LD in a general education secondary biology classroom. Participants for this study included 3 secondary students with LD who were enrolled in a biology class. An alternating treatment design was used to compare the effects of a keyword mnemonic vocabulary intervention via index cards or iPod touch on student, vocabulary acquisition, academic engagement and disruptive behavior. All students' acquired the content vocabulary equally well during both conditions. When using the AT, students' engagement increased compared to baseline conditions. It was clear that the students had a strong interest in using AT to increase their grades and engagement, however the teachers had little access and training on using AT to support their students with disabilities.

  7. Techniques to improve the vocabulary of the students at the college level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sripada Pushpa Nagini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper suggests effective techniques to improve the vocabulary of the students in English as a Second Language context based on an experimental study. The study was conducted in India (South Asia, in an Engineering college for freshmen in the age group of eighteen to nineteen years. The paper makes a comparison of two vocabulary teaching strategies and the results show that explicit vocabulary teaching is more effective than implicit vocabulary teaching. The experimental group also showed greater involvement as they enjoyed doing reading and vocabulary exercises than the control group that did only reading activities. The study makes an important contribution to the existing research as it recommends focused vocabulary teaching by suggesting various techniques for teaching vocabulary.

  8. Examining Child and Word Characteristics in Vocabulary Learning of Struggling Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleman, Amy M.; Steacy, Laura M.; Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Compton, Donald L.

    2017-01-01

    Although instruction has been shown to be effective at increasing vocabulary knowledge and comprehension, factors most important for promoting the acquisition of novel vocabulary are less known. In addition, few vocabulary studies have utilized models that simultaneously take into account child-level, word-level, and instructional factors to…

  9. Content validity study on The Vocabulary and Grammar of the Translator Test- Level 2(English)of CATTI%Content validity study on The Vocabulary and Grammar of the Translator Test-Level 2(English)of CATTI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏扬舫; 万璐

    2015-01-01

    The launch of the China Accreditation Test for Translators and Interpreters (CATTI)is a professional qualification test for would-be translators.This paper is to do the research on the content validity of vocabulary and grammar of the translator test- Level 2(English)of CATTI from 2011 to 2012.

  10. Content validity study on The Vocabulary and Grammar of the Translator Test- Level 2(English)of CATTI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏扬舫; 万璐

    2015-01-01

    The launch of the China Accreditation Test for Translators and Interpreters(CATTI)is a professional qualification test for would-be translators.This paper is to do the research on the content validity of vocabulary and grammar of the translator test-Level 2(English)of CATTI from 2011 to 2012.

  11. Vocabulary is an appropriate measure of premorbid intelligence in a sample with heterogeneous educational level in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Maira Okada; Nitrini, Ricardo; Yassuda, Mônica Sanches; Brucki, Sonia Maria Dozzi

    2014-01-01

    Crystallized intelligence refers to one's knowledge base and can be measured by vocabulary tests. Fluid intelligence is related to nonverbal aspects of intelligence, depends very little on previously acquired knowledge, and can be measured by tests such as Block Design (BD) and Raven Colored Matrices (RCM). Premorbid intelligence quotient (IQ) refers to one's intellectual ability level previous to the onset of disorders like mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and it is important to estimate disease severity. The objective was to compare performance in tests that measure crystallized and fluid intelligence in healthy subjects and patients with amnestic MCI (aMCI) and AD. One hundred forty-four participants (aMCI (n = 38), AD (n = 45), and healthy controls (n = 61)) were submitted to neuropsychological tests (WAIS-III vocabulary, BD, and RCM). There were significant among groups, except for vocabulary, indicating a relative stability of crystallized intelligence in the continuum from normal to pathological cognitive decline. Vocabulary seems to be stable during the progression of the disease and useful as a measure of premorbid intelligence, that is, to estimate previous function in relation to the level of education and, as a collateral measure of cognition in people with low education.

  12. Vocabulary Is an Appropriate Measure of Premorbid Intelligence in a Sample with Heterogeneous Educational Level in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Okada de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crystallized intelligence refers to one’s knowledge base and can be measured by vocabulary tests. Fluid intelligence is related to nonverbal aspects of intelligence, depends very little on previously acquired knowledge, and can be measured by tests such as Block Design (BD and Raven Colored Matrices (RCM. Premorbid intelligence quotient (IQ refers to one’s intellectual ability level previous to the onset of disorders like mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer’s disease (AD and it is important to estimate disease severity. The objective was to compare performance in tests that measure crystallized and fluid intelligence in healthy subjects and patients with amnestic MCI (aMCI and AD. One hundred forty-four participants (aMCI (n=38, AD (n=45, and healthy controls (n=61 were submitted to neuropsychological tests (WAIS-III vocabulary, BD, and RCM. There were significant among groups, except for vocabulary, indicating a relative stability of crystallized intelligence in the continuum from normal to pathological cognitive decline. Vocabulary seems to be stable during the progression of the disease and useful as a measure of premorbid intelligence, that is, to estimate previous function in relation to the level of education and, as a collateral measure of cognition in people with low education.

  13. Using Explicit Instruction to Promote Vocabulary Learning for Struggling Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, D. Bruce; Mraz, Maryann; Nichols, William D.; Rickelman, Robert J.; Wood, Karen D.

    2009-01-01

    Research supports the need for active vocabulary learning across grade levels and subject areas to help increase readers' comprehension of diverse texts that they encounter. Given the increasing emphasis on decoding and reading comprehension, the relative importance of vocabulary instruction has been diminished in recent years. The authors argue…

  14. Teaching Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard-Clouston, M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary is central to English language teaching. Without sufficient vocabulary, students cannot understand others or express their own ideas. Teachers who find the task of teaching English vocabulary a little daunting are not alone! This book presents important issues from recent vocabulary research and theory so that teachers may approach…

  15. Teaching Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard-Clouston, M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary is central to English language teaching. Without sufficient vocabulary, students cannot understand others or express their own ideas. Teachers who find the task of teaching English vocabulary a little daunting are not alone! This book presents important issues from recent vocabulary research and theory so that teachers may approach…

  16. Vocabulary relearning in semantic dementia: Positive and negative consequences of increasing variability in the learning experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Paul; Clarke, Natasha; Jones, Roy W; Noonan, Krist A

    2015-09-01

    Anomia therapy typically aims to improve patients' communication ability through targeted practice in naming a set of particular items. For such interventions to be of maximum benefit, the use of trained (or relearned) vocabulary must generalise from the therapy setting into novel situations. We investigated relearning in three patients with semantic dementia, a condition that has been associated with poor generalisation of relearned vocabulary. We tested two manipulations designed to improve generalisation of relearned words by introducing greater variation into the learning experience. In the first study, we found that trained items were retained more successfully when they were presented in a variety of different sequences during learning. In the second study, we found that training items using a range of different pictured exemplars improved the patients' ability to generalise words to novel instances of the same object. However, in one patient this came at the cost of inappropriate over-generalisations, in which trained words were incorrectly used to name semantically or visually similar objects. We propose that more variable learning experiences benefit patients because they shift responsibility for learning away from the inflexible hippocampal learning system and towards the semantic system. The success of this approach therefore depends critically on the integrity of the semantic representations of the items being trained. Patients with naming impairments in the context of relatively mild comprehension deficits are most likely to benefit from this approach, while avoiding the negative consequences of over-generalisation.

  17. Field Dependence/Independence Cognitive Styles: Are They Significant At Different Levels Of Vocabulary Knowledge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rostampour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive styles influence the performance of language learners and can predict their success in the process of language learning. Considering field dependence/independence cognitive styles, this study aims at determining if they are significant in English vocabulary knowledge. A number of EFL university students took part in the study. The investigation was done through using Vocabulary Size Test (VST (Nation, 2007 and the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT (Witkin, Oltman, Raskin, and Karp, 1971. Using the Vocabulary Size Test (VST, the participants were divided into three groups of high, mid, and low. Moreover, with respect to the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT, they were divided into two groups, field dependents and field independents. Mean score comparison revealed there was a credible and meaningful relationship between field dependence/independence cognitive styles and total vocabulary knowledge. It was also indicated there was a significant relationship between field dependence/independence cognitive styles and vocabulary knowledge in the high and mid groups. Finally, based on the findings, teachers should take learners’ individual differences into consideration so that they could adopt and apply teaching methods in line with the learners’ various cognitive styles.   

  18. Effective Strategies for Turning Receptive Vocabulary into Productive Vocabulary in EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, Avan Kamal Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary acquisition has been a main concern of EFL English teachers and learners. There have been tons of research to examine the student's level of receptive vocabulary and productive vocabulary, but no research has conducted on how turning receptive vocabulary into productive vocabulary. This study has reported the impact of the teaching…

  19. FL Vocabulary Learning of Undergraduate English Majors in Western China: Perspective, Strategy Use and Vocabulary Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baicheng

    2009-01-01

    The present study, by use of questionnaire and vocabulary tests, has investigated the foreign language vocabulary learning situation of 481 undergraduates in terms of their perspective of vocabulary learning, strategy use and vocabulary size. Based on the questionnaire investigation and vocabulary level tests, the characteristics of the subjects'…

  20. From Research to Practice: The Effect of Multi-Component Vocabulary Instruction on Increasing Vocabulary and Comprehension Performance in Social Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Graham

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to demonstrate the effect of implementing multi-component vocabulary strategy instruction in fourth grade social studies. Curriculum was designed for a six-week period and was intended to actively engage students and reinforce retention of word meanings in isolation and in context. Teachers were randomly chosen for assignment to the intervention and/or to the comparison group. The study included 375 fourth-grade students from 3 different districts and 5 schools. The student population consisted of 29 classes taught by 23 different teachers. Two different vocabulary and comprehension measures were administered, and results were analyzed using difference score analyses and repeated measures ANOVAs. Outcomes were consistent across both administered measures. Although student scores improved in both the group receiving the intervention and the group receiving regular classroom instruction, findings indicated that the group receiving the intervention showed greater gains and persisted longer than in the comparison classrooms.

  1. Visualizing Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary can become tedious and a chore if it is approached as such. By making art terms and vocabulary meaningful, students will remember and use them for years to come. In this article, the author describes two vocabulary review projects that work wonderfully and create great works of art: (1) cursive creature rubbings; and (2) bubbling bodies…

  2. Visualizing Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary can become tedious and a chore if it is approached as such. By making art terms and vocabulary meaningful, students will remember and use them for years to come. In this article, the author describes two vocabulary review projects that work wonderfully and create great works of art: (1) cursive creature rubbings; and (2) bubbling bodies…

  3. Techniques for Vocabulary Teaching in Elementary English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽华

    2004-01-01

    All teachers know very well how important vocabulary is in learning language, but, for many years, vocabulary has all been neglected in language teaching. In this essay will try to introduce some practical and effective methods in presenting, practising,and consolidating vocabulary in elementary level in which, I wish, the elementary teachers may get some inspiration for their vocabulary teaching.

  4. The Role of Context and Cognitive Effort in Vocabulary Learning: A Study of Intermediate-Level Learners of Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golonka, Ewa; Bowles, Anita; Silbert, Noah; Kramasz, Debra; Blake, Charles; Buckwalter, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Despite years of research on vocabulary learning and teaching, relatively little is known about strategies for effective mastery of vocabulary in less commonly taught languages. The current study focuses on English native speakers studying Modern Standard Arabic to identify effective ways to present and learn new vocabulary using tasks varying in…

  5. Use of tactual materials on the achievement of content specific vocabulary and terminology acquisition within an intermediate level science curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Brian H.

    In this quasi-experimental study, the researcher investigated the effectiveness of three tactual strategies and one non-tactual strategy of content specific vocabulary acquisition. Flash cards, task cards, and learning wheels served as the tactual strategies, and vocabulary review sheets served as a non-tactual strategy. The sample (n=85) consisted of all middle school students in a small high performing middle school located in the northern suburbs of New York City. All of the vocabulary words and terms came from the New York State Intermediate Level Science Core Curriculum. Pre-tests and post-tests were used to collect the data. A repeated measures ANOVA was conducted on the gain scores from each of the treatments. Multiple paired sample t-tests were conducted to analyze the results. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine if there was a variance between the academic achievement levels of the students, gender, and grade level for each of the treatments. All of the treatments significantly improved the science achievement of the students, but significance was found between them. Significance was found between the achievement groups with the above average students attaining a higher mean on the pre-test and post-test for each treatment, whereas the below average students had the lowest mean on both assessments. The sixth grade students showed significant improvement over the seventh grade students while using the flash cards (p=.004) and learning wheel (p=.007). During the learning wheel treatment, the males scored significantly better (p=.021) than the females on the pre-test and post-test. During the worksheet treatment, significance (p=.034) was found between gender and achievement group. The below average male students had the greatest gain from the pre-test to the post-test, but the post-test mean was still the lowest of the groups. Limitations, implications for future research and current practice are discussed. Key words are: flash cards, task cards

  6. The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary breadth and depth knowledge. One hundred and fifty first-year university students in China took the Vocabulary Levels Test, a meaning recall task, and the Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge Test. The first two tests were used to elicit two types of vocabulary…

  7. The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary breadth and depth knowledge. One hundred and fifty first-year university students in China took the Vocabulary Levels Test, a meaning recall task, and the Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge Test. The first two tests were used to elicit two types of vocabulary…

  8. The effect of vocabulary notebooks on vocabulary acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Bozkurt, Neval

    2007-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Bilkent University, 2007. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2007. Includes bibliographical references leaves 82-87 This study investigated the effectiveness of vocabulary notebooks on vocabulary acquisition, and the attitudes of teachers and learners towards keeping vocabulary notebooks. The study was conducted with the participation of 60 pre-intermediate level students, divided into one treatment ...

  9. The Effects of Extensive Reading via E-Books on Tertiary Level EFL Students' Reading Attitude, Reading Comprehension, and Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Neng; Chen, Shu-Chu; Chen, Shu-Hui Eileen; Wey, Shyh-Chyi

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of extensive reading of e-books on tertiary level EFL students' English reading attitude, reading comprehension and vocabulary. Eighty-nine participants were assigned in two groups, with 46 students in the experimental group and the other 43 students in the control group. In addition to a traditional…

  10. Hyperestrogenemia and increased blood mercury level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2012-01-01

    Hyperestrogenemia is an important reproductive hormone abnormality. This condition is not common in male patients. In this report, the author presents a case study on hyperestrogenemia with increased blood mercury level. The metalloestrogen phenomenon is discussed.

  11. Receptive vocabulary knowledge tests: Their potential importance for planning a well-balanced vocabulary component of a language program

    OpenAIRE

    Wakeling, Elliott

    2015-01-01

    iii Abstract Nation and Webb (2011) state ‘Testing is one of the major jobs of the vocabulary teacher, because without good information about our learners’ vocabulary knowledge, we cannot do the most important job of planning a well-balanced program’ (p. 219). This paper evaluated different receptive vocabulary knowledge tests and assessed their potential to help a teacher plan a well-balanced vocabulary program. The Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT) was selected to assess the vocabulary kno...

  12. Vocabulary knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严爽

    2016-01-01

    Knowing a word refers to more than just a matter of knowing its form, meaning, pronunciation and spelling. It also refers to one's knowledge of the relationships the word is involved in, such as its collocations, semantic associations and so on. Words are not isolated entities. This paper focuses on vocabulary knowledge and helps us get an idea of what needs to be learned and the process of English vocabulary learning.

  13. The State of Vocabulary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairrell, Angela; Rupley, William; Simmons, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-four studies were included in this systematic review of vocabulary research literature. The review corroborates the findings of past studies that several strategies have emerged that increase students' vocabulary knowledge. Findings further reinforce the National Reading Panel's recommendations regarding the context and magnitude of studies…

  14. Considerations on Carrying Out Vocabulary Teaching Efficiently

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴白音那

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses current situations and some problems with vocabulary leaning confronted by students (especially Mongolian students) in Inner Mongolian, which should be solved urgently since the requirements of College English Teaching Curriculum are increasing, and it points out the improvement of vocabulary teaching strategies should become college English teachers' main concern. Finally, interesting methods of presenting vocabulary and effective ways of checking students' vocabulary are suggested ...

  15. Vocabulary Expansion in Modern Standard Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Louise

    1997-01-01

    Examines the discrepancy between spoken and written vocabularies in modern standard Chinese (MSC) textbooks that contributes to slow vocabulary development, and outlines a teaching technique to extend students' vocabulary using the ideographic nature of MSC characters rather than phonetic learning to increase efficient use of vocabulary…

  16. Once upon a time, there was a fabulous funambulist…: what children learn about the "high-level" vocabulary they encounter while listening to stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston-Price, Carmel; Howe, Jodie A; Lintern, Natalie J

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that listening to stories supports vocabulary growth in preschool and school-aged children and that lexical entries for even very difficult or rare words can be established if these are defined when they are first introduced. However, little is known about the nature of the lexical representations children form for the words they encounter while listening to stories, or whether these are sufficiently robust to support the child's own use of such "high-level" vocabulary. This study explored these questions by administering multiple assessments of children's knowledge about a set of newly-acquired vocabulary. Four- and six-year-old children were introduced to nine difficult new words (including nouns, verbs and adjectives) through three exposures to a story read by their class teacher. The story included a definition of each new word at its first encounter. Learning of the target vocabulary was assessed by means of two tests of semantic understanding-a forced choice picture-selection task and a definition production task-and a grammaticality judgment task, which asked children to choose between a syntactically-appropriate and syntactically-inappropriate usage of the word. Children in both age groups selected the correct pictorial representation and provided an appropriate definition for the target words in all three word classes significantly more often than they did for a matched set of non-exposed control words. However, only the older group was able to identify the syntactically-appropriate sentence frames in the grammaticality judgment task. Further analyses elucidate some of the components of the lexical representations children lay down when they hear difficult new vocabulary in stories and how different tests of word knowledge might overlap in their assessment of these components.

  17. A Study on Vocabulary Learning Strategies by Tertiary - level Non - English Majors%本科学生英语词汇学习策略调查与研究(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安孝婕; 郭少华

    2011-01-01

    Learning vocabulary is the main problem met by many tertiary - level students in the process of learning English. The paper aims at exploring vocabulary learning strategies used by high - proficiency students and low - proficiency students. The findings indicate that effective vocabulary learning strategies will facilitate vocabulary learning and are helpful to autonomous vocabulary development.%本科学生在英语学习过程中遇到的一个主要问题就是词汇学习。本文旨在研究高分组学生与低分组学生在学习词汇时所使用的学习策略。结果表明,有效的词汇学习策略能促进词汇学习并有助于学生自主学习能力的培养。

  18. VOCABULARY STRATEGIES AND VOCABULARY LEARNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This research is a comparative study of Chinese EFLgradutes′vocabulary strategies applied in their EGeneralAP(English for General Academic Purposes)and ESpecialAP(English for Special Academic Purpose)learning.Participantswere the first-year graduates of non-English major in ChinaPharmaceutical University(N=102).The present study uses ataxonomy of strategies developed by O’Malley and Chamot(1990),which was modified to more accurately reflectvocabulary strategies(altogether 31 sub-strategy variables within16 strategies).Analysis through SAS(Statistic Analysis System)on the collected date has revealed that:1)Learners apply more types of vocabulary stategies inEGeneralAP than in ESpecialAP vocabulary learning.2)Translation and Extensive Reading gain higher frequencyof application in ESpecialAP learning.3)11 vocabulary strategies strongly predict EGeneralAPvocabulary achievement and only 6 strategies strongly predictESpecialAp vocabulary achievement.At the end of the paper,some practical suggestions aremade for EFL graduate teachers to adjust their teaching targetand methods.

  19. Vocabulary Is Important for Some, but Not All Reading Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Jessie; Nation, Kate; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2007-01-01

    Although there is evidence for a close link between the development of oral vocabulary and reading comprehension, less clear is whether oral vocabulary skills relate to the development of word-level reading skills. This study investigated vocabulary and literacy in 81 children aged 8 to 10 years. In regression analyses, vocabulary accounted for…

  20. Prodrug Approach for Increasing Cellular Glutathione Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Cacciatore

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduced glutathione (GSH is the most abundant non-protein thiol in mammalian cells and the preferred substrate for several enzymes in xenobiotic metabolism and antioxidant defense. It plays an important role in many cellular processes, such as cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. GSH deficiency has been observed in aging and in a wide range of pathologies, including neurodegenerative disorders and cystic fibrosis (CF, as well as in several viral infections. Use of GSH as a therapeutic agent is limited because of its unfavorable biochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. Several reports have provided evidence for the use of GSH prodrugs able to replenish intracellular GSH levels. This review discusses different strategies for increasing GSH levels by supplying reversible bioconjugates able to cross the cellular membrane more easily than GSH and to provide a source of thiols for GSH synthesis.

  1. Podcast-Mediated Language Learning: Levels of Podcast Integration and Developing Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Mahboubeh; Mohammadi, Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    Podcasting is being exploited incrementally by teachers as a tool for presenting educational content and encouraging language learning outside traditional classrooms. This paper reports on an investigation of three levels of podcast integration sustaining on the Iranian learner's lexical knowledge learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL). The…

  2. PROMOTING INCIDENTAL VOCABULARY LEARNING THROUGH VERBAL DRAMATIZATION OF WORDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Looi-Chin Ch’ng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that explicit teaching of vocabulary is often practised in English as a Second Language (ESL classrooms, it has been proven to be rather ineffective, largely because words are not taught in context. This has prompted the increasing use of incidental vocabulary learning approach, which emphasises on repeated readings as a source for vocabulary learning. By adopting this approach, this study aims to investigate students’ ability in learning vocabulary incidentally via verbal dramatization of written texts. In this case, readers’ theatre (RT is used as a way to allow learners to engage in active reading so as to promote vocabulary learning. A total of 160 diploma students participated in this case study and they were divided equally into two groups, namely classroom reading (CR and RT groups. A proficiency test was first conducted to determine their vocabulary levels. Based on the test results, a story was selected as the reading material in the two groups. The CR group read the story through a normal reading lesson in class while the RT group was required to verbally dramatize the text through readers’ theatre activity. Then, a post-test based on vocabulary levels was carried out and the results were compared. The findings revealed that incidental learning was more apparent in the RT group and their ability to learn words from the higher levels was noticeable through higher accuracy scores. Although not conclusive, this study has demonstrated the potential of using readers’ theatre as a form of incidental vocabulary learning activity in ESL settings.

  3. A Longitudinal Study of Receptive Vocabulary Breadth Knowledge Growth and Vocabulary Fluency Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2014-01-01

    This article reports results of a longitudinal study of vocabulary breadth knowledge growth, vocabulary fluency development, and the relationship between the two. We administered two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT; Nation 1983; Nation 1990; Schmitt et al. 2001) to 300 students at a Chinese university at three different time points…

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Receptive Vocabulary Breadth Knowledge Growth and Vocabulary Fluency Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2014-01-01

    This article reports results of a longitudinal study of vocabulary breadth knowledge growth, vocabulary fluency development, and the relationship between the two. We administered two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT; Nation 1983; Nation 1990; Schmitt et al. 2001) to 300 students at a Chinese university at three different time points…

  5. Developing Mathematical Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Eula Ewing; Orme, Michelle P.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of mathematical vocabulary, difficulties students encounter in learning this vocabulary, and some instructional strategies. Two general methods for teaching vocabulary are discussed: context and explicit vocabulary instruction. The methods are summarized as they apply to mathematical vocabulary instruction and…

  6. Analysis the Effectiveness of Three Online Vocabulary Flashcard Websites on L2 Learners' Level of Lexical Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chin-Wen

    2015-01-01

    This study compared and contrasted 64 Taiwanese college freshmen's perceptions of and attitudes toward three online vocabulary flashcard websites, Quizlet, Study Stack, and Flashcard Exchange. Four types of data were collected in two freshmen English classes in a university in Taiwan from February to April 2013. Data included online flashcard…

  7. Reading is FUNdamental: The effect of a reading programme on vocabulary development in a high poverty township school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Scheepers

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of the vocabulary of grade 7 learners in a reading project currently underway at a school in Atteridgeville, a township on the outskirts of Pretoria. A library has been established at the school and teachers throughout the school attend workshops designed to heighten their awareness of the value of reading and the importance of vocabulary, and to provide them with strategies to facilitate the development of reading. This paper focuses on the vocabulary development of grade 7 learners – they are in the senior phase of primary school and will soon be entering high school where they will be faced with more academic vocabulary in context-reduced textbooks. Learners’ vocabulary was tested early in the year and then again towards the end to assess whether increased access to books and reading had had an effect on vocabulary growth. Results revealed that learners at the project school showed a lack of vocabulary, even at the end of the study period, not only in terms of academic words but also high frequency words. Extensive reading alone is clearly not enough – learners need explicit vocabulary instruction: in order to read successfully at high school level, learners need a working knowledge of academic vocabulary, and this knowledge is developed by reading – but learners cannot read successfully without an adequate basic high-frequency vocabulary.

  8. Palula Vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this volume is to provide a complement to Towards a grammatical description of Palula (Liljegren 2008). The 1460 main entries included in the present work are limited to those lexical items that are cited or exemplified in the aforementioned work. The work is the result of linguistic research in and with the Palula community (Pakistan). It contains much of the basic vocabulary used in today's Palula, presented along with illustrative example sentences, grammatical informat...

  9. The Use of Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Teaching Turkish as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Sami; Iscan, Adem; Karagoz, Beytullah; Birol, Gülnur

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary learning is the basis of the language learning process in teaching Turkish as a second language. Vocabulary learning strategies need to be used in order for vocabulary learning to take place effectively. The use of vocabulary learning strategies facilitates vocabulary learning and increases student achievement. Each student uses a…

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF TEACHING ENGLISH VOCABULARY USING VCD LEARNING TO THE KINDERGARTEN LEVEL IN SMART AND FUN COMMUNICATIVE ENGLISH COURSE SAMARINDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhwanul Ahsan Faryabi MUJA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The researcher used VCD Learning to help kindergarten level students Smart and Fun Communicative English Program Samarinda on learning English vocabulary. The contents were relevant to the vocabulary for students in kindergarten level of Smart and Fun Samarinda.This study was aimed finding whether there was significance difference between experimental and control groups and whether there was significant difference between post experimental and control groups. It is a kind of experimental research. This study’s design was two group-pretest-treatment-posttest design. The population of this study was 60 students. The researcher took 40 students from two classes as the sample of this study. Then, took other 20 students as try out test respondents. The test was tried out to 20 respondents consisted of 30 items. After being analyzed, its reliability coefficient was 0.462. The experimental group’s mean score on the post-test was 80.17 while on control group was 70.67. After analyzing the two mean scores by using the program of SPSS 16.0, it was found that the difference significance value between the two mean scores t - computed 4.068 was higher than t - table 2.093 with the level of significant 5%. The computation showed that the two groups’ mean scores of significantly differed. Thus, the alternative hypothesis (Ha is accepted and the Null Hypothesis (Ho is rejected. It could be concluded that there was significant difference of English vocabulary achievement among students of kindergarten level of Smart and Fun by using VCD Learning.

  11. Paradoxical sleep deprivation increases plasma endothelin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.D. Palma

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The endothelins (ET-1, 2 and 3 constitute a family of 21 amino acid peptides with potent biological activities. ET-1 is one of the most potent endogenous vasoconstrictors so far identified and its increased concentration in plasma appears to be closely related to the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension as well as to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. OSA patients exhibit repetitive episodes of apnea and hypopnea that result in hypoxia and consecutive arousals. These patients are chronically sleep deprived, which may aggravate the hypertensive features, since literature data show that sleep deprivation results in hypertension both in humans and in animals. Based on the reported relationship between ET-1, hypertension and sleep deprivation consequences, the purpose of the present study was to determine plasma ET concentrations in paradoxical sleep-deprived animals. Male Wistar rats, 3 to 4 months old (N = 10 per group, were deprived of sleep for 24 and 96 h by the platform technique and plasma ET-1/2 was measured by radioimmunoassay. Analysis of plasma revealed that 96 h of sleep deprivation induced a significant increase in ET-1/2 release (6.58 fmol/ml compared to control (5.07 fmol/ml. These data show that sleep deprivation altered plasma ET-1/2 concentrations, suggesting that such an increase may participate in the genesis of arterial hypertension and cardiorespiratory changes observed after sleep deprivation.

  12. English Vocabulary Teaching Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary is very necessary in language teaching and acquisition.If students have a certain amount of vocabulary,they will overcome many difficulties in reading.listening、 speaking and writing.In vocabulary teaching,scholars have been working hard to find better ways.This paper attempts to find how to improve students’ enthusiasm of learning vocabulary and teach vocabulary more successfully and effectively.

  13. Vocabulary size and auditory word recognition in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Franzo; Mahr, Tristan; Schneeberg, Alissa; Edwards, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Recognizing familiar words quickly and accurately facilitates learning new words, as well as other aspects of language acquisition. This study used the visual world paradigm with semantic and phonological competitors to study lexical processing efficiency in 2-5 year-old children. Experiment 1 found this paradigm was sensitive to vocabulary-size differences. Experiment 2 included a more diverse group of children who were tested in their native dialect (either African American English or Mainstream American English). No effect of stimulus dialect was observed,. Results showed that vocabulary size was a better predictor of eye gaze patterns than maternal education, but that maternal education level had a moderating effect; as maternal education level increased, vocabulary size was less predictive of lexical processing efficiency.

  14. Advanced Teaching Strategies of College English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭萍

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary teaching is an important part in English teaching, which purpose is to foster students to use learned words to conduct language communication, increasing the capability of language using in daily life. This paper analyzes the present condition and exposes the problems existing in English vocabulary teaching and learning, then, puts forward some scientific, effective strategies for the education of English vocabulary. I hope these teaching strategies can help teachers improve their teaching methods and help English learners acquire knowledge easily and efficiently.

  15. A Study on the Vocabulary Size of First-Year College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董丽莉

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary, as the information carrier, plays an indispensable role of language. Likely, vocabulary learning is a signifi-cant part in English learning, so vocabulary acquisition becomes one of the hottest SLA research fields. This study tests the vo-cabulary size of 61 first-year students in Jiangsu Maritime Institute by applying the adjusted Nation's Vocabulary Level Test (VLT), laying basis for further researches and studies on vocabulary acquisition and development of those students.

  16. Early Vocabulary Development of Australian Indigenous Children: Identifying Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad M. Farrant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study sought to increase our understanding of the factors involved in the early vocabulary development of Australian Indigenous children. Data from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children were available for 573 Indigenous children (291 boys who spoke English (M=37.0 months, SD=5.4 months, at wave 3. Data were also available for 86 children (51 boys who spoke an Indigenous language (M=37.1 months, SD=6.0 months, at wave 3. As hypothesised, higher levels of parent-child book reading and having more children’s books in the home were associated with better English vocabulary development. Oral storytelling in Indigenous language was a significant predictor of the size of children’s Indigenous vocabulary.

  17. Using Lemony Snicket to Bring Smiles to Your Vocabulary Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arter, Lisa Maxwell; Nilsen, Alleen Pace

    2009-01-01

    Vocabulary instruction is addressed on two levels in this article: 1) the importance of direct teaching and 2) using the books of a popular children's series as examples to support these vocabulary lessons. Also addressed are specific methods of turning classrooms into places where vocabulary instruction is effective and enjoyable. Elements of…

  18. The Role of Vocabulary in ESP Teaching and Leafing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wujiangwen; WangBinbin

    2004-01-01

    It's known to most second language learners that the acquisition of vocabulary is a fundamental and important component in the course of their learning. A good mastery of vocabulary is essential for ESL/EFL learners, especially for those who learn for specific purposes or expect to operate at an advanced level in English. 'It is wise to direct vocabulary

  19. The Effectiveness of a Supplemental Pre-Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Na Young

    2013-01-01

    Oral vocabulary is a strong predictor of young children's later reading development. Many children enter kindergarten with weak vocabulary knowledge and could benefit from an extra level or higher tier of intentional instruction in vocabulary that supplements the Tier 1 core curriculum in language. Recent findings from research developing a…

  20. Finding Middle Ground in Second Language Reading: Pedagogic Modifications that Increase Comprehensibility and Vocabulary Acquisition while Preserving Authentic Text Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    Using a quantitative approach, this study explores the use of textual elaboration as a modification option for literary texts in an intermediate-level Spanish as a second language (L2) course. The results suggest that, with elaborative modifications, literary texts could have an expanded role in L2 instruction for lower proficiency students, thus…

  1. Vocabulary Strategies for a Fourth Grade Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Gina

    2012-01-01

    For this project I worked with twelve of my fourth grade students from a local school in the southwestern part of Stokes County, North Carolina on increasing their vocabulary skills through the development and implementation of seven vocabulary strategies. During the Literature Review I came across the following seven strategies: Prediction;…

  2. Teaching English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝丹

    2014-01-01

    Grammar provides the overall patterns, and vocabulary is the material to put in the patterns. Without grammar we can convey a little, but without vocabulary we can convey nothing. Vocabulary teaching is an indispensable part of English curriculum. Art is a kind of creation. Teaching vocabulary artistically can make teachers and students build up created consciousness in teaching and learning vocabulary activities and teachers put their experience and emotions towards beauty into teaching activities to raise general vocabulary teaching activities to appreciation of beauty and creative activities, convert bitter into happy, tense into ease. Thus the non-intellectual factors like motive, interest, emotion, self-confidence and so on can be developed naturally and they will elaborate a great part in English vocabulary teaching. At the same time, the relationship between teachers and students can get improved fundamentally furthest and it pushes vocabulary teaching powerfully in turn.

  3. The Use of Vocabulary Learning Strategies by Senior High School Students of Different English Levels%不同水平高中生英语词汇学习策略的使用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢敏; 王秋凤

    2011-01-01

    词汇量是衡量英语水平的一个重要因素。本文通过对高三学生的调查,探讨不同水平的学生在词汇学习策略使用上的异同。结果表明,词汇量水平高的学生在整体策略使用频率上明显高于词汇量水平低的学生。另外,不同水平组的学生还表现出来一些共同特点,包括整体元认知策略水平低、缺乏合作学习意识、不善于利用网络等媒体资源等。本文分析了这些异同的原因并指出通过教学使学生掌握相应的词汇学习策略有助于他们水平的提高。%Vocabulary is one of the important factors to measure English level. This paper explores the similarities and dif- ferences of vocabulary learning strategy use by investigating 630 third-year senior high school students with different vocabulary. It finds out that students with wider vocabulary uses learning strategies more frequently than their counterparts with limited vo- cabulary. Meanwhile, students of different vocabulary levels show some commonalities in strategy use including low frequency in the use of metacognitive strategy, lack of cooperative sense in learning, and failure in utilizing media resources in learning vocab- ulary. The paper points out that teaching students to master correspondent strategies in learning vocabulary can help them im- prove their English level.

  4. Rote Memorization of Vocabulary and Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weidong; Dai, Weiping

    2011-01-01

    Rote memorization of vocabulary has long been a common way for Chinese students to learn lexical items. Cultural, educational background and traditional teaching practice in China are identified to be the factors that contribute to many students' heavy reliance on memorization as their sole approach to vocabulary learning. In addition to rote…

  5. On Vocabulary Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑洁

    2013-01-01

    An efficient vocabulary learning strategy can supply students with exact meanings and usage of words. There are many differences between Chinese and English,so the result of memorizing vocabulary by rote is always not good. The paper holds the Incidental Vocabulary Learning to improve the English ability.

  6. Measuring Vocabulary: An overview of four types of vocabulary tests

    OpenAIRE

    Helga Hilmarsdóttir 1985

    2010-01-01

    In this essay four types of vocabulary tests are examined and the focus is on the variety in vocabulary tests. The main incentive with writing this essay was to make an overview of vocabulary measurement tools and to examine whether there existed a standardized vocabulary test. In the first chapter an attempt is made to answer the question of what vocabulary knowledge is. Receptive and productive knowledge of vocabulary is discussed as well as the distinction of vocabulary into breadth and...

  7. Risk factors for children's receptive vocabulary development from four to eight years in the longitudinal study of Australian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L Taylor

    Full Text Available Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4-8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC. Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB, low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4-8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children

  8. Risk factors for children's receptive vocabulary development from four to eight years in the longitudinal study of Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine L; Christensen, Daniel; Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2013-01-01

    Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4-8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB), low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4-8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children's developmental outcomes

  9. Risk Factors for Children's Receptive Vocabulary Development from Four to Eight Years in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine L.; Christensen, Daniel; Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4–8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB), low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4–8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children's developmental

  10. The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Proficiency of English Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Filiz Yalçın Tılfarlıoğlu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to examine L2 learners’ VLS use habits and the relationship of VLS with their vocabulary proficiency levels. In addition, language learners’ beliefs about VLS in terms of usefulness were also studied to understand L2 learners’ VLS use habits more deeply. To examine these matters, a descriptive research design was employed. The participants included 252 preparatory students from different proficiency groups (Upper-Intermediate, Intermediate, Pre-Intermediate, Beginner at Gaziantep University Higher School of Foreign Languages. To collect the related data, they were given “Vocabulary Learning Strategies Questionnaire” and “Vocabulary Levels Test”. The data analyses were conducted by descriptive and inferential statistics. The results of the study showed that the participants used a wide range of VLS, and there was an overlap between their beliefs about VLS in terms of usefulness and how often they used them to a large extent. Secondly, Memory Strategies correlated positively with the participants’ academic and general vocabulary proficiency levels. However, there were also some differences among the proficiency groups about which specific VLS are correlated with their vocabulary proficiency levels. As to the regression analysis results, none of the VLS predicted participants’ vocabulary proficiency levels. Keywords: Vocabulary learning strategies, vocabulary proficiency, learner beliefs

  11. The Effect of Enhanced Storybook Interaction on Signing Deaf Children's Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trussell, Jessica W.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    The link between vocabulary and later literacy is well documented in the research base. One way children gain vocabulary is through incidental learning. Deaf or hard-of-hearing children (D/HH) often struggle with incidental learning and require vocabulary intervention to increase their lexicon. An effective vocabulary intervention is storybook…

  12. The Effect of Enhanced Storybook Interaction on Signing Deaf Children's Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trussell, Jessica W.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    The link between vocabulary and later literacy is well documented in the research base. One way children gain vocabulary is through incidental learning. Deaf or hard-of-hearing children (D/HH) often struggle with incidental learning and require vocabulary intervention to increase their lexicon. An effective vocabulary intervention is storybook…

  13. The Effect of Vocabulary Flooding Technique on Iranian EFL Elementary Learners’ Vocabulary Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touran Ahour

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find out the effect of using vocabulary flooding technique on Iranian EFL elementary learners’ vocabulary learning at the recognition level. A pretest-posttest control group design was used in this quasi-experimental research. The study was conducted at a secondary school in Sahand, a city located in the East-Azerbaijan province in Iran. Four intact grade-three classes were considered for the study. A KET test was administered and based on its results, two classes were selected as the homogenous ones, which were randomly assigned into the vocabulary flooding (experimental and no vocabulary flooding (control groups, each with 30 students. After the vocabulary recognition pretest, supplementary vocabulary teaching was used as the treatment in both groups. In the Experimental group, the target words were presented and practiced in flooding form, that is, in six or more sentences, while in the Control group, students were taught and practiced in only one sentence. After the treatment, two posttests (immediate and delayed were conducted in both groups. The results of the One-way within-subjects and between-subjects Repeated-Measures ANOVA revealed that there were statistically significant differences within and between the experimental and control groups in the three vocabulary recognition tests. It was found that the participants’ receptive vocabulary knowledge was improved in the experimental group as a result of using vocabulary flooding technique. The implications are provided for the syllabus designers, textbook writers and EFL teachers.

  14. Team Assisted Individualization (TAI Conveyed through Adobe Flash CS3 to Increase Participation and English Vocabulary Mastery for the Second Semester Students at Akademi Bahasa Balikpapan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rochman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Most lecturers were still rely on the lecturing method to deliver material, how they use the media (whiteboard, pictures, cards and their teaching methods are less than optimal and catch students’ attention, which degrade the quality of the learning process. The result of preliminary study shows that the previous English summative test score were still 50. It means that their score average was still for all the students in that Second Semester. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to instruction that can foster vocabulary development. The research design of this study was classroom action research, which focuses on a particular group of students in a certain classroom. The setting of the research was Akademi Bahasa Balikpapan. The subjects of the research were the second-semester students who took English vocabulary lesson. Data collection techniques adapted to the data to be obtained to determine students' achievement of English test by using Adobe Flash CS3 Media in vocabulary building project assessment in making animation collection that were contained with English sentences and their meanings. To determine the role of the student in the learning process with the assessment of the affective aspects of the observations obtained during the teaching and learning activities take place and the role of the student participation. The results showed that it could be concluded that the implementation of the Adobe Flash TAI strategy in teaching vocabulary could enhance the students’ Project on groups’ laptop in vocabulary the text. The observation checklist and field note proved the students’ involvement in text given.

  15. A Reassessment of Frequency and Vocabulary Size in L2 Vocabulary Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Norbert; Schmitt, Diane

    2014-01-01

    The high-frequency vocabulary of English has traditionally been thought to consist of the 2,000 most frequent word families, and low-frequency vocabulary as that beyond the 10,000 frequency level. This paper argues that these boundaries should be reassessed on pedagogic grounds. Based on a number of perspectives (including frequency and…

  16. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning Strategies on Iranian EFL Learners' Vocabulary Test Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimy, Ramin; Shams, Kiana

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of vocabulary learning strategies on Iranian EFL learners' vocabulary test score. To achieve this aim, fifty Intermediate level students from Kish English Institute were randomly selected from among fifteen classes after administering the Oxford Placement Test (OPT). Then, an intermediate level…

  17. A Reassessment of Frequency and Vocabulary Size in L2 Vocabulary Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Norbert; Schmitt, Diane

    2014-01-01

    The high-frequency vocabulary of English has traditionally been thought to consist of the 2,000 most frequent word families, and low-frequency vocabulary as that beyond the 10,000 frequency level. This paper argues that these boundaries should be reassessed on pedagogic grounds. Based on a number of perspectives (including frequency and…

  18. Using the Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy plus to Develop University EFL Students' Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodary, Manal Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to examine the effectiveness of using the Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy Plus (VSSPlus) on developing university EFL students' vocabulary learning. It adopted the quasi experimental design which included two groups design. The participants were first level students at Languages and Translation Department, Arar…

  19. 多样词汇能力与提高口语水平的相关性探究*%On the Pertinence between Diversity of Vocabulary and Level of Oral English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵娟

    2013-01-01

    According to the practical experience,this paper explores the pertinence between diversity of vo-cabulary and level of oral English.With a reference to Lewis’Lexical Approach,the author of this paper argues that it is important to combine the diversity of vocabulary input with context whereas the active out-put of vocabulary can improve oral English and activate the old vocabulary.%以高职高专英语专业口语课为实践载体,探讨了多样词汇能力与口语水平的相关性。借鉴Lewis的词块教学理论,指出结合语境有效输入多样性词汇的重要性,并强调了积极的词汇输出可以提高口语水平,激活已有词汇,巩固多样词汇能力。

  20. VOCABULARY TEACHING FOR NON—ENGLISH MAJORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    Introduction "How can we enlarge the students’ vocabulary?" This is a very essential problem in the teaching of Enslish as a foreign language for non-English majors in our college. Firstly, their English level is low, They are not only lack of linguistic patterns, grammar rules, but also vocabulary, Secondly, they have only three hours of intensive reading every week, They should pass 2-grade college English examination through two years studying of English. Thirdly, botn the teachers and students are in very passive position in English language teaching and learning. Almost every lesson begins with vocabulary, then text reading comprehension, and exercises, which based on the traditional method.

  1. Vocabulary Learning Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Craven, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    The prominent role of vocabulary knowledge in second or foreign language learning has been recently recognized by theorists and researchers in the field. This article aims to provide a digest of recent research on vocabulary learning strategies specifically in the English as a foreign language context in Japan. In Japan where there is minimal exposure to English in daily life and where word knowledge is often tested, teachers should be informing learners about vocabulary learning strategies a...

  2. Tagging vs. Controlled Vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine; Petras, Vivien

    2015-01-01

    elements like core bibliographic data, controlled vocabulary terms, reviews, and tags to the retrieval performance. Our comparison is done using a test collection of over 2 million book records with information elements from Amazon, the British Library, the Library of Congress, and LibraryThing. We find...... that tags and controlled vocabulary terms do not actually outperform each other consistently, but seem to provide complementary contributions: some information needs are best addressed using controlled vocabulary terms whereas other are best addressed using tags....

  3. NASA thesaurus aeronautics vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The controlled vocabulary used by the NASA Scientific and Technical Information effort to index documents in the area of aeronautics is presented. The terms comprise a subset of the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus and its supplements issued through the end of 1990. The Aeronautics Vocabulary contains over 4700 terms presented in a hierarchical display format. In addition to aeronautics per se, the vocabulary covers supporting terminology from areas such as fluid dynamics, propulsion engineering, and test facilities and instrumentation.

  4. Food and Feed Commodity Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Feed Vocabulary was developed to consolidate all the major OPP Commodity Vocabularies into one standardized vocabulary. The EPA-preferred term is the only term that can be used in setting tolerances.

  5. BUILDING VOCABULARY USING POP SONGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    author Rahmatika Kayyis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to find out whether there is a significant difference between the vocabulary mastery of first semester students taughtusing English pop songs and that taught without using English pop songs as a medium. This study involved 64 students of first semesterof STKIP Muhammadiyah Pringsewu Lampung in the academic year of 2012/2013 as the objects of the study. The result of the study shows there is a significant difference in the student’s vocabulary mastery between the experimental group who are taughtusing English pop songs and that taught without using English pop songs as a medium.The mean of post test score of the experimental group is 16.93 while the mean score of the control group is 14.54. The result of t-test shows that t-observed value which is higher than the t-value of the table (2.572>1.99, with a probability value of 0.008 which is lower than the significance level (0.008 < 0.05. In conclusion, the use of English pop songscould improve the students’ vocabulary mastery.Keywords: Vocabulary, English Pop Songs

  6. Does L1 Make a Difference? Evidence from the Receptive Vocabulary Size of Spanish and German EFL Primary School Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustin Llach, Maria Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The present paper explores and compares the receptive vocabulary sizes of two groups of learners of different native languages. One of the most widely used vocabulary size tests is the Vocabulary Levels Test designed by Nation. Some reservations have been raised in relation to the adequacy of the Vocabulary Levels Test to estimate the vocabulary…

  7. Teaching Specialized Vocabulary by Integrating a Corpus-Based Approach: Implications for ESP Course Design at the University Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Hsiao-I

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate how to integrate two in-house specialized corpora into a university-level English for Specific Purposes (ESP) course for nonnative speakers of English. The ESP course was an introductory level of wine tasting for Applied English Department students at a university specializing in hospitality in Taiwan.…

  8. The Effect of Vocabulary Cluster on Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners' Vocabulary Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud KhaliliSabet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to inspect the possible effects of vocabulary cluster on Iranian Intermediate EFL learners' vocabulary achievement. It was based on the comparison between semantically and thematically –related sets to find out which type of vocabulary learning cluster was more effective on learners vocabulary learning. Sixty intermediate EFL learners were selected based on their performance on OPT test and then were randomly assigned into three groups each containing 20 subjects (one control and two experimental groups. Quasi-experimental design was used in which Pre-test and post-test were administered to collect data. The researcher employed Nations word level test as the pre-test to examine the participants' initial knowledge of common words. The experimental group (A worked on thematic clustering, while experimental group (B received instruction on semantic clustering and the control group received placebo. Next, all participants took part in vocabulary size test to evaluate the vocabulary achievement of the participants. The scores obtained from pre-test and post-test were analyzed through running paired sample t-test, and one-way ANOVA. The results indicated that the experimental group (B which received semantically related sets outperformed the control group & the experimental group (A which received thematically related sets. This may have significant implications for language instructors, syllabus designers, and learners to make more advancement in vocabulary learning process through employing vocabulary cluster.

  9. Vocabulary of preschool children with typical language development and socioeducational variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Thaís Cristina da Freiria; Kuroishi, Rita Cristina Sadako; Mandrá, Patrícia Pupin

    2017-03-09

    To investigate the correlation between age, socioeconomic status (SES), and performance on emissive and receptive vocabulary tests in children with typical language development. The study sample was composed of 60 preschool children of both genders, aged 3 years to 5 years 11 months, with typical language development divided into three groups: G I (mean age=3 years 6 months), G II (mean age=4 years 4 months) and G III (mean age=5 years 9 months). The ABFW Child Language Test - Vocabulary and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) for emissive and receptive language were applied to the preschoolers. The socioeconomic classification questionnaire of the Brazilian Association of Survey Companies (ABEP) was applied to the preschoolers' parents/legal guardians. Data were analyzed according to the criteria of the aforementioned instruments and were arranged in Excel spreadsheet for Windows XP®. A multiple linear regression model was used, adopting a statistical significance level of 5%, to analyze the correlation between age, SES, and performance on the receptive and emissive vocabulary tests. In the ABEP questionnaire, participants were classified mostly into social level C (63.3%), followed by levels B (26.6%) and D (10%). The preschoolers investigated presented emissive and receptive vocabulary adequate for the age groups. No statistically significant difference was found for the variables age and SES regarding emissive and receptive vocabulary. Higher test scores were observed with increased age and SES, for social levels "B" compared with "D" and for "C" with "D". The variables age and socioeconomic status influenced the performance on emissive and receptive vocabulary tests in the study group.

  10. Early Hearing Detection and Vocabulary of Children With Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Sedey, Allison L; Wiggin, Mallene; Chung, Winnie

    2017-08-01

    To date, no studies have examined vocabulary outcomes of children meeting all 3 components of the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) guidelines (hearing screening by 1 month, diagnosis of hearing loss by 3 months, and intervention by 6 months of age). The primary purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of the current EHDI 1-3-6 policy on vocabulary outcomes across a wide geographic area. A secondary goal was to confirm the impact of other demographic variables previously reported to be related to language outcomes. This was a cross-sectional study of 448 children with bilateral hearing loss between 8 and 39 months of age (mean = 25.3 months, SD = 7.5 months). The children lived in 12 different states and were participating in the National Early Childhood Assessment Project. The combination of 6 factors in a regression analysis accounted for 41% of the variance in vocabulary outcomes. Vocabulary quotients were significantly higher for children who met the EHDI guidelines, were younger, had no additional disabilities, had mild to moderate hearing loss, had parents who were deaf or hard of hearing, and had mothers with higher levels of education. Vocabulary learning may be enhanced with system improvements that increase the number of children meeting the current early identification and intervention guidelines. In addition, intervention efforts need to focus on preventing widening delays with chronological age, assisting mothers with lower levels of education, and incorporating adults who are deaf/hard-of-hearing in the intervention process. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Discussion about English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenxia Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Vocabulary becomes more and more crucial in English learning.The article depicts six main domains about the mastery and enlargement of vocabulary,and they are motivation and aim,major fields,word,ways,radiation,and concrete execution respectively.

  12. Building Mathematics Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarik, Madeline

    2010-01-01

    Although mathematics is visual language of symbols and numbers it is also expressed and explained through written and spoken words. For students to excel in mathematics, they must recognize, comprehend and apply the requisite vocabulary. Thus, vocabulary instruction is as critical in content areas as it is in language arts. It is especially…

  13. The Superlearning of Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmer, H. Thompson

    1983-01-01

    Describes the use of Georgi Lozanov's technique using rhythm, breathing, music, and meditation to bring about hypermnesia, or supermemory, to teach vocabulary to 15 university students. Reviews students' vocabulary gains, as seen in pre- and post-test scores, and describes how some students implemented superlearning techniques with their own…

  14. Vocabularies in the VO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A. J. G.; Gray, N.; Ounis, I.

    2009-09-01

    There are multiple vocabularies and thesauri within astronomy, of which the best known are the 1993 IAU Thesaurus and the keyword list maintained by A&A, ApJ and MNRAS. The IVOA has agreed on a standard for publishing vocabularies, based on the W3C skos standard, to allow greater automated interaction with them, in particular on the Web. This allows links with the Semantic Web and looks forward to richer applications using the technologies of that domain. Vocabulary-aware applications can benefit from improvements in both precision and recall when searching for bibliographic or science data, and lightweight intelligent filtering for services such as VOEvent streams. In this paper we present two applications, the Vocabulary Explorer and its companion the Mapping Editor, which have been developed to support the use of vocabularies in the Virtual Observatory. These combine Semantic Web and Information Retrieval technologies to illustrate the way in which formal vocabularies might be used in a practical application, provide an online service which will allow astronomers to explore and relate existing vocabularies, and provide a service which translates free text user queries into vocabulary terms.

  15. Content Area Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Students' vocabulary knowledge is a significant predictor of their overall comprehension. The Common Core State Standards are raising the expectations for word learning and there are now 4 distinct standards related to vocabulary as well as expectations in other standards, including content areas. To address these expectations, teachers need…

  16. Vocabulary, Grammar, Sex, and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscoso Del Prado Martín, Fermín

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the changes in our language abilities along the lifespan is a crucial step for understanding the aging process both in normal and in abnormal circumstances. Besides controlled experimental tasks, it is equally crucial to investigate language in unconstrained conversation. I present an information-theoretical analysis of a corpus of dyadic conversations investigating how the richness of the vocabulary, the word-internal structure (inflectional morphology), and the syntax of the utterances evolves as a function of the speaker's age and sex. Although vocabulary diversity increases throughout the lifetime, grammatical diversities follow a different pattern, which also differs between women and men. Women use increasingly diverse syntactic structures at least up to their late fifties, and they do not deteriorate in terms of fluency through their lifespan. However, from age 45 onward, men exhibit a decrease in the diversity of the syntactic structures they use, coupled with an increased number of speech disfluencies. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  17. NASA thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The access vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The access vocabulary contains almost 42,000 entries that give increased access to the hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

  18. Research on Vocabularies of Business Interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰

    2014-01-01

    With increasingly international business activities, business English has already become main language tool of commu-nication. Many new business English vocabularies emerge. If interpreters want to assume business interpretation work successfully, he or she has to learn the meaning of these words and their features in business field. This essay will do some research around vo-cabularies of business interpretation from the characteristics of these words/phrases such as more abbreviations, professional termi-nology, polysemy and so on.

  19. Effects of Hierarchy Vocabulary Exercises on English Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Ying; Hsu, Wei Shu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of hierarchy vocabulary exercises and copying vocabulary exercises on EFL students' vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension. Two specific factors were probed: (a) vocabulary gains and retention from different exercises; (b) reading comprehension performance through different…

  20. Increased CSF levels of endorphines in chronic psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terenius, L; Wahlström, A; Lindström, L; Widerlöv, E

    1976-10-01

    The levels of two endorphines, endogenously occurring morphinomimetic peptides, were measured in serial samples of CSF from seven psychiatric patients. Four cases with chronic schizophrenia were studied before and after treatment with the antipsychotic agent clozapine (Leponex). Supernormal fraction II levels were found on at least one sampling occasion in each patient. Two patients, who responded well to clozapine treatment, showed a clear-cut drop in fraction II levels, whereas two patients showed increased levels which paralleled a deterioration of the schizophrenic symptoms. Three manic-depressive cases showed abnormally high levels of endorphine fraction I in the manic phase which declined during normal or depressed phases. Levels of fraction II varied in a less consistent manner and appeared to be at maximum during the apparently normal phases. Although preliminary, the data indicate that endorphines may reach supernormal levels in patients with chronic psychoses.

  1. [Increase of serum procalcitonin levels during a neuroleptic malignant syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabot, B; Pautas, E; Gatey, M; Perivier, S; Mahieux, F; Pinquier, C; Hausfater, P

    2009-01-01

    When fever occurs in a patient treated with a neuroleptic, the diagnosis of a neuroleptic malignant syndrome is difficult to differentiate to that of an infectious event. Among inflammation biomarkers of inflammation, serum procalcitonin levels increase both quickly and specifically during a bacterial infection. We report the first case of a neuroleptic malignant syndrome associated with a significant increase of serum procalcitonin levels, without concomitant septic syndrome. The neuroleptic malignant syndrome might be a non-infectious clinical situation associated with an increased serum procalcitonin concentration.

  2. Controlled Vocabulary Standards for Anthropological Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Emmelhainz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to outline the use of controlled vocabulary standards for qualitative datasets in cultural anthropology, which are increasingly held in researcher-accessible government repositories and online digital libraries. As a humanistic science that can address almost any aspect of life with meaning to humans, cultural anthropology has proven difficult for librarians and archivists to effectively organize. Yet as anthropology moves onto the web, the challenge of organizing and curating information within the field only grows. In considering the subject classification of digital information in anthropology, I ask how we might best use controlled vocabularies for indexing digital anthropological data. After a brief discussion of likely concerns, I outline thesauri which may potentially be used for vocabulary control in metadata fields for language, location, culture, researcher, and subject. The article concludes with recommendations for those existing thesauri most suitable to provide a controlled vocabulary for describing digital objects in the anthropological world.

  3. Increased BDNF levels in long-term bipolar disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Guimarães Barbosa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Bipolar disorder (BD is a prevalent, chronic and progressive illness. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF plays an important role in the pathophysiology of BD. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate BDNF plasma levels in BD patients with long term illness in comparison with controls. METHODS: 87 BD type I patients and 58 controls matched by age, gender and education level were enrolled in this study. All subjects were assessed by the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the patients by the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. The plasma levels of BDNF were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: On average, patients had suffered from BD for 23.4 years. In comparison with controls, BD patients with mania presented a 1.90-fold increase in BDNF plasma levels (p = .001, while BD patients in remission presented a 1.64-fold increase in BDNF plasma levels (p = .03. BDNF plasma levels were not influenced by age, length of illness or current medications. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that long-term BD patients exhibit increased circulating levels of BDNF.

  4. Interactive College English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敏

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary learning is the foundation of language learning and the security to realize the language communication. However, vocabulary learning for many students is a difficulty which is hard to pass across. This paper attempts to explore the present vocabulary teaching reform, which aims to establish a teaching method that is to help students develop vocabulary learn-ing interest with the game.

  5. Supplements to Traditional Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    布亚男

    2012-01-01

      In a word, Vocabulary plays an indispensable part in language proficiency and provides much of the basis of how wel learns language, so it cannot be ignored. I discussed Schools’ viewpoints on the vocabulary teaching ,Reason for forgetting, Traditional approach to vocabulary teaching, supplements to vocabulary teaching,the author hope the above content can offer some hints for language learners.

  6. Increased interleukin-13 levels in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Yuki; Inoue, Teruo; Nitto, Takeaki; Morooka, Toshifumi; Node, Koichi

    2009-01-24

    A great number of basic and clinical studies have demonstrated that inflammatory cytokines play an important role in development and progress of heart failure. However, there is limited information about allergic cytokine interleukin-13 (IL-13). The inflammatory responses mediated by allergic cytokines can cause significant morbidity and mortality when they become chronic. Therefore, we elucidated the role of IL-13 in the pathophysiology of chronic heart failure. We measured plasma IL-13 levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 110 patients with chronic heart failure and 20 control subjects. Plasma IL-13 levels were increased in heart failure patients, compared with the controls, in association with NYHA functional class. In addition, IL-13 levels were correlated positively with plasma levels of brain natriuretic peptide and C-reactive protein, and negatively with left ventricular ejection fraction. Plasma IL-13 levels may be useful for evaluating disease severity in chronic heart failure.

  7. Linking open vocabularies

    CERN Document Server

    Greifender, Elke; Seadle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Linked Data (LD), Linked Open Data (LOD) and generating a web of data, present the new knowledge sharing frontier. In a philosophical context, LD is an evolving environment that reflects humankinds' desire to understand the world by drawing on the latest technologies and capabilities of the time. LD, while seemingly a new phenomenon did not emerge overnight; rather it represents the natural progression by which knowledge structures are developed, used, and shared. Linked Open Vocabularies is a significant trajectory of LD. Linked Open Vocabularies targets vocabularies that have traditionally b

  8. The Role of Vocabulary Size in Predicting Performance on TOEFL Reading Item Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Seyyed Mohammad; Akbarian, Is'haaq

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to examine a) whether vocabulary knowledge, captured in the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT), is related to the performance on the five types of reading comprehension items tested in TOEFL, i.e., Guessing Vocabulary, Main Idea, Inference, Reference, and Stated Detail; and b) whether EFL learners with different levels of vocabulary…

  9. The Role of Vocabulary Size in Predicting Performance on TOEFL Reading Item Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Seyyed Mohammad; Akbarian, Is'haaq

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to examine a) whether vocabulary knowledge, captured in the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT), is related to the performance on the five types of reading comprehension items tested in TOEFL, i.e., Guessing Vocabulary, Main Idea, Inference, Reference, and Stated Detail; and b) whether EFL learners with different levels of vocabulary…

  10. The Influence of Psycholinguistic On the Vocabulary Learning of English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁慧

    2006-01-01

    @@ Learning English has become more and more popular in China.Those who have experience in leaning English, know that vocabulary, in the end, becomes one of the biggest problems in learning English, because vocabulary is the most essential element in communication, and to a great extent, it restricts one's communication competent.Since 1970s, vocabulary teaching has received increasing interest and drawn forth various views on how to do the job.

  11. Ontology Based Vocabulary Matching for Oceanographic Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Shepherd, Adam; Chandler, Cyndy; Arko, Robert; Leadbetter, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Data integration act as the preliminary entry point as we enter the era of big data in many scientific domains. However the reusefulness of various dataset has met the hurdle due to different initial of interests of different parties, therefore different vocabularies in describing similar or semantically related concepts. In this scenario it is vital to devise an automatic or semi-supervised algorithm to facilitate the convergence of different vocabularies. The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) seeks to increase data sharing across scientific domains and international boundaries by providing a forum to harmonize diverse regional data systems. ODIP participants from the US include the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program, whose mission is to capture, catalog, and describe the underway/environmental sensor data from US oceanographic research vessels and submit the data to public long-term archives. In an attempt to harmonize these regional data systems, especially vocabularies, R2R recognizes the value of the SeaDataNet vocabularies served by the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS) hosted at the British Oceanographic Data Centre as a trusted, authoritative source for describing many oceanographic research concepts such as instrumentation. In this work, we make use of the semantic relations in the vocabularies served by NVS to build a Bayesian network and take advantage of the idea of entropy in evaluating the correlation between different concepts and keywords. The performance of the model is evaluated against matching instruments from R2R against the SeaDataNet instrument vocabularies based on calculated confidence scores in the instrument pairings. These pairings with their scores can then be analyzed for assertion growing the interoperability of the R2R vocabulary through its links to the SeaDataNet entities.

  12. Increasing zinc levels in phytase-supplemented diets improves the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marjina Akter

    2017-09-02

    Sep 2, 2017 ... phytase in chicken diets improves the availability of Zn (Thiel et al., 1993; ... the effect of different levels of Zn on phytase activity and impact on broiler ... The EE was determined indirectly by the Soxhlet method for fat extraction. ..... increased amount of energy deposited in tissues validates NEp as a more ...

  13. Increased muscle interstitial levels of inflammatory cytokines in polymyalgia rheumatica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Frederik; Langberg, Henning; Galbo, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is characterized by aching of the proximal muscles and increased blood levels of markers of inflammation. Despite the muscle complaints, the current view is that symptoms are caused by inflammation in synovial structures. The purpose of this study was to elucidate...

  14. Towards engineering increased pantothenate (Vitamin B5) levels in plants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chakauya, E

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available was observed. In contrast plants expressing KPHMT had elevated pantothenate level in leaves, flowers siliques and seed in the range of 1.5 to 2.5 fold increase compared to the wild type plant. Seeds contained the highest vitamin content indicating...

  15. VOCABULARY PROBLEMS OF THE LIGHTLY MENTALLY RETARDED SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna KOSTIC

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The main research objectives are the problems in the vocabulary of school aged, lightly mentally retarded children. Results of the research indicate which are the most important factors that have impact of the vocabulary and language competence of these persons. The research variables are: sex, IQ, chronological age and school age. Comics-like stories were used as an examination instrument in this research. Their interpretation is helpful in determining the vocabulary level of every single examine. At the end of the research some suggestions are presented, whose goal is to enrich children's vocabulary.

  16. Increased isoprostane levels in oleic acid-induced lung injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Koichi [Department of Anesthesiology and Resuscitation, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Koizumi, Tomonobu, E-mail: tomonobu@shinshu-u.ac.jp [First Department of Internal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Tsushima, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Sumiko; Yokoyama, Toshiki [First Department of Internal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Nakagawa, Rikimaru [Department of Anesthesiology and Resuscitation, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Obata, Toru [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of DNA Medicine, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-10-16

    The present study was performed to examine a role of oxidative stress in oleic acid-induced lung injury model. Fifteen anesthetized sheep were ventilated and instrumented with a lung lymph fistula and vascular catheters for blood gas analysis and measurement of isoprostanes (8-epi prostaglandin F2{alpha}). Following stable baseline measurements, oleic acid (0.08 ml/kg) was administered and observed 4 h. Isoprostane was measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry with the isotope dilution method. Isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph were significantly increased 2 h after oleic acid administration and then decreased at 4 h. The percent increases in isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph at 2 h were significantly correlated with deteriorated oxygenation at the same time point, respectively. These findings suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of the pulmonary fat embolism-induced acute lung injury model in sheep and that the increase relates with the deteriorated oxygenation.

  17. An Investigation of the Impact of Small Group Direct Vocabulary Instruction on the Vocabulary Development of Kindergarten Children Living in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Katie A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which tri-weekly evidence-based vocabulary lessons implemented throughout the regular school day would increase kindergarten students' expressive and receptive vocabulary development, thus decreasing the vocabulary gap exhibited between low-income children and their more advantaged peers…

  18. Cross-Language Associations in the Development of Preschoolers' Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Michelle F; Bohlmann, Natalie L; Palacios, Natalia A

    The increasing population of dual language learners (DLLs) entering preschool classrooms highlights a continued need for research on the development of dual language acquisition, and specifically vocabulary skills, in this age group. This study describes young DLL children's (N = 177) vocabulary development in both English and Spanish simultaneously, and how vocabulary skills in each language relate to one another, during a contextual shift that places greater emphasis on the acquisition of academic English language skills. Findings demonstrated that DLL preschoolers made gains in vocabulary in both languages with more change evidenced in receptive, in comparison to expressive, vocabulary as well as in English in comparison to Spanish. When examining whether children's vocabulary scores in one language at the beginning of preschool interact with their vocabulary scores in the other language to predict vocabulary growth, no significant associations were found for receptive vocabulary. In contrast, the interaction between initial English and Spanish expressive vocabulary scores was negatively related to growth in English expressive vocabulary. This cross-language association suggests that children who have low expressive vocabulary skills in both languages tend to grow faster in their English expressive vocabulary. The study extends previous work on dual language development by examining growth in expressive and receptive vocabulary in both English and Spanish. It also provides suggestions for future work to inform a more comprehensive understanding of DLL children's development in both languages.

  19. Cross-Language Associations in the Development of Preschoolers’ Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Michelle F.; Bohlmann, Natalie L.; Palacios, Natalia A.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing population of dual language learners (DLLs) entering preschool classrooms highlights a continued need for research on the development of dual language acquisition, and specifically vocabulary skills, in this age group. This study describes young DLL children's (N = 177) vocabulary development in both English and Spanish simultaneously, and how vocabulary skills in each language relate to one another, during a contextual shift that places greater emphasis on the acquisition of academic English language skills. Findings demonstrated that DLL preschoolers made gains in vocabulary in both languages with more change evidenced in receptive, in comparison to expressive, vocabulary as well as in English in comparison to Spanish. When examining whether children's vocabulary scores in one language at the beginning of preschool interact with their vocabulary scores in the other language to predict vocabulary growth, no significant associations were found for receptive vocabulary. In contrast, the interaction between initial English and Spanish expressive vocabulary scores was negatively related to growth in English expressive vocabulary. This cross-language association suggests that children who have low expressive vocabulary skills in both languages tend to grow faster in their English expressive vocabulary. The study extends previous work on dual language development by examining growth in expressive and receptive vocabulary in both English and Spanish. It also provides suggestions for future work to inform a more comprehensive understanding of DLL children's development in both languages. PMID:26807002

  20. Marine Navigational Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠灵

    2014-01-01

    Every industry has its professional terms or particular use of common words. The marine industry is no exception. This paper attempts to give a brief introduction to the elementary vocabularies related to marine industry from six aspects: types of ships;ship’s structure and equipment, manning, logbook, safety and organizations concerned. The corresponding Chinese terms is given simultaneously. It concludes that a good master of these vocabularies is useful and necessary for Chinese seafarers whose native language is not English.

  1. Vocabulary teaching strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐桂荣

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary has always been one of the significant issues related both with teachers and learners of foreign languages. How to teach vocabulary efficiency? Teachers should choose proper ways to instruct words. Many teachers often write new words they want to teach on the blackboard and then explain them one by one. It makes students feel bored. This paper will summarize some teaching approaches that are better on teaching English words.

  2. Language understanding and vocabulary of early cochlear implanted children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Percy-Smith, Lone; Busch, Georg Walter; Sandahl, Minna;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with the level of language understanding, the level of receptive and active vocabulary, and to estimate effect-related odds ratios for cochlear implanted children's language level....

  3. Academic vocabulary in learner writing from extraction to analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Paquot, Magali

    2010-01-01

    Academic vocabulary is in fashion, as witnessed by the increasing number of books published on the topic. In the first part of this book, Magali Paquot scrutinizes the concept of academic vocabulary and proposes a corpus-driven procedure based on the criteria of keyness, range and evenness of distribution to select academic words that could be part of a common-core academic vocabulary syllabus. In the second part, the author offers a thorough analysis of academic vocabulary in the International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE) and describes the factors that account for learners difficulties in

  4. Placental Cadmium Levels Are Associated with Increased Preeclampsia Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Jessica E; Ray, Paul; Bodnar, Wanda; Cable, Peter H; Boggess, Kim; Offenbacher, Steven; Fry, Rebecca C

    2015-01-01

    Environmental exposure to heavy metals is a potentially modifiable risk factor for preeclampsia (PE). Toxicologically, there are known interactions between the toxic metal cadmium (Cd) and essential metals such as selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), as these metals can protect against the toxicity of Cd. As they relate to preeclampsia, the interaction between Cd and these essential metals is unknown. The aims of the present study were to measure placental levels of Cd, Se, and Zn in a cohort of 172 pregnant women from across the southeast US and to examine associations of metals levels with the odds of PE in a nested case-control design. Logistic regressions were performed to assess odds ratios (OR) for PE with exposure to Cd controlling for confounders, as well as interactive models with Se or Zn. The mean placental Cd level was 3.6 ng/g, ranging from 0.52 to 14.5 ng/g. There was an increased odds ratio for PE in relationship to placental levels of Cd (OR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.2). The Cd-associated OR for PE increased when analyzed in relationship to lower placental Se levels (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1-3.5) and decreased with higher placental Se levels (OR = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.5-1.9). Similarly, under conditions of lower placental Zn, the Cd-associated OR for PE was elevated (OR = 1.8; 95% CI: 0.8-3.9), whereas with higher placental Zn it was reduced (OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 0.8-2.0). Data from this pilot study suggest that essential metals may play an important role in reducing the odds of Cd-associated preeclampsia and that replication in a larger cohort is warranted.

  5. Pictures and Words: Spanish and English Vocabulary in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branum-Martin, Lee; Mehta, Paras D.; Francis, David J.; Foorman, Barbara R.; Cirino, Paul T.; Miller, Jon F.; Iglesias, Aquiles

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated the relation between Spanish and English vocabulary. Whereas previously reported correlations have revealed strong differences among types of vocabulary measures used and the ages of the students tested, no prior study had used a multilevel model to control for classroom-level differences. The current study used…

  6. Acquiring Vocabulary through Reading: Effects of Frequency and Contextual Richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahar, Rick; Cobb, Tom; Spada, Nina

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the number of times a word must be encountered in order to be learned and the types of contexts that are conducive to learning in a vocabulary acquisition study with Quebec school-aged English-as-a-Second-Language learners at five levels of proficiency. Learners read text and were tested on new vocabulary and learned and unlearned…

  7. Teaching Academic Vocabulary to Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Kristen D.; Sanchez, Victoria; Flynn, Lindsay J.; O'Connor, Rollanda E.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the efforts of a U.S. History teacher to directly teach word meanings using the "robust vocabulary instruction" (RVI) approach, because research supports this method as a way to improve vocabulary knowledge for a range of students, including adolescents reading below grade level (i.e., struggling readers) and…

  8. Increasing HDL-C levels with medication: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Roelof Aj; Jukema, J Wouter; Trompet, Stella

    2017-08-01

    To date, observational studies have repeatedly demonstrated an inverse association between HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and cardiovascular outcomes. Although the efficacy of established HDL-modifying treatment strategies have been examined in multiple large-scale phase III trials, findings from these experimental studies conflict with the hypothesis that HDL-C levels are atheroprotective. In this review, we describe the trial evidence to date, and attempt to place these results in the broader context of recent hypotheses for the association between HDL-C levels and clinical outcomes. Both translational and genetic studies are in line with the hypothesis that HDL-C levels do not hold causal importance for cardiovascular risk reduction. In addition to its possible role as a biomarker for other atherogenic lipoproteins, efforts should be made to elucidate HDLs' role in lipoprotein flux, which is increasingly being linked to surrogate outcomes of importance to cardiovascular epidemiology. In the future, it will be of great importance to link this measure of HDL functionality to clinical endpoints. Although trial evidence does not support an atheroprotective role of overall HDL-C plasma levels, HDL function/lipoprotein flux holds great promise for the development of novel therapeutic approaches.

  9. Infliximab Induces Increase in Triglyceride Levels in Psoriatic Arthritis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla R. Castro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate lipid profile changes after anti-TNF therapy in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA. Methods. Fifteen PsA patients (eight polyarticular, four oligoarticular, two axial, and one mutilating under infliximab were included. None had dyslipoproteinemia or previous statin use. Total cholesterol (TC and its fractions, inflammatory markers, and prednisone use were evaluated. Results. The comparisons of lipid levels between baseline and after three months (3M of anti-TNF therapy showed that there was a significant increase in mean triglycerides (117.8±49.7 versus 140.1±64.1 mg/dL, P=0.028 and VLDL-c (23.6±10.5 versus 28.4±13.7 mg/dL, P=0.019 levels. In contrast, there were no differences in the mean TC (P=0.28, LDL-c (P=0.42, and HDL-c (P=0.26 levels. Analysis of the frequencies of each lipid alteration at baseline and at 3M were alike (P>0.05. Positive correlations were found between VLDL-c and CRP (r=0.647, P=0.009 and between triglycerides and CRP (r=0.604, P=0.017 levels at 3M. ESR reduction was observed after 3M (P=0.04. Mean prednisone dose remained stable at beginning and at 3M (P=0.37. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that anti-TNF may increase TG and VLDL-c levels in PsA patients after three months.

  10. The Effect of Aural and Visual Storytelling on Vocabulary Retention of Iranian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin Afshar, Maryam; Mojavezi, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    EFL learners at all ages and proficiency levels are usually confronted with various problems in vocabulary learning and retention. This study sought to introduce strategies for improvement of vocabulary learning and retention. Therefore, the effects of using aural/visual storytelling on Iranian EFL learners' vocabulary learning and retention were…

  11. Influence of Three Teaching Strategies on Korean EFL Students' Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Cheongsook

    2009-01-01

    This research examined the effectiveness of three different learning strategies on Korean EFL students' vocabulary comprehension and retention: context, semantic mapping, and word lists. 116 college freshmen were placed into one of the three treatments of vocabulary instruction. Subjects were tested on varying levels of vocabulary knowledge using…

  12. Vocabulary and Grammar Knowledge in Second Language Reading Comprehension: A Structural Equation Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongbo

    2012-01-01

    Using structural equation modeling analysis, this study examined the contribution of vocabulary and grammatical knowledge to second language reading comprehension among 190 advanced Chinese English as a foreign language learners. Vocabulary knowledge was measured in both breadth (Vocabulary Levels Test) and depth (Word Associates Test);…

  13. A Study of English Vocabulary Comparing Eskimo and Caucasian Children. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orvik, James M.

    The purpose of this study is to assess the English vocabulary of Eskimo pupils entering a bilingual education program by establishing a normative criterion based on the vocabulary levels of children whose first language is English. The tests used, "Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices" and "English Receptive Vocabulary," bear out the anticipated…

  14. Social validation of vocabulary selection: ensuring stakeholder relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornman, Juan; Bryen, Diane Nelson

    2013-06-01

    The vocabulary needs of individuals who are unable to spell their messages continue to be of concern in the field of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). Social validation of vocabulary selection has been suggested as one way to improve the effectiveness and relevance of service delivery in AAC. Despite increased emphasis on stakeholder accountability, social validation is not frequently used in AAC research. This paper describes an investigation of the social validity of a vocabulary set identified in earlier research. A previous study used stakeholder focus groups to identify vocabulary that could be used by South African adults who use AAC to disclose their experiences as victims of crime or abuse. Another study used this vocabulary to create communication boards for use by adults with complex communication needs. In this current project, 12 South African adults with complex communication needs who use AAC systems used a 5-point Likert scale to score the importance of each of the previously identified 57 vocabulary items. This two-step process of first using stakeholder focus groups to identify vocabulary, and then having literate persons who use AAC provide information on social validity of the vocabulary on behalf of their peers who are illiterate, appears to hold promise as a culturally relevant vocabulary selection approach for sensitive topics such as crime and abuse.

  15. A Three Level Autonomous Software System for Increased Science Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P. I.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Landheim, R.

    2005-12-01

    The development of smart science instruments for autonomous operation (on Earth or in space) has the potential to increase science return and reduce the risk of experiment failure. When researchers are confronted with unexpected data/results of the experimental test system, they must determine whether the experimental setup has failed, or scientific discovery is being made. These two classes of events could have the same time series signature. To directly address this issue, we have developed a three-level software system referred to as E3, which consists of an engineering level, an experiment level, and an executive level. Each level of the software system is designed in a modular fashion using model based feedback controllers. The same feedback control mechanism is used for each level; the model itself determines the level. To determine if failure of the experimental setup can explain the data/results, researchers run calibration tests for hardware (e.g., sensors and actuators) as well as verify that the software (e.g., controls and analog to digital conversion routines) is running as planned. If anomalies are found, then modifications are made to the experimental setup, or the anomaly is accepted as the new baseline state of the instrument. The engineering level of the E3 software system is responsible for this process. To determine if scientific discovery, as opposed to failure, can explain the data/results, a researcher tries to explain the difference between the observed and expected results. These explanations are terms of the basic processes of nature to determine the rate limiting step(s) of a complex set of processes, where the flux could be due to heat transfer, mass transfer, momentum transfer, or chemical reaction processes. Once the differences are understood, modifications are made to the software control of the experiment, as well as to the model the researcher is building over the course of repeated experiments. The experiment level of the E3

  16. Pulpal and periodontal diseases increase triglyceride levels in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo; da Silva Facundo, Aguinaldo Cândido; Azuma, Mariane Maffei; Sumida, Dóris Hissako; Astolphi, Rafael Dias; Bomfim, Suely Regina Mogami; Narciso, Luís Gustavo; Gomes-Filho, João Eduardo

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate triglyceride and cholesterol levels in diabetic rats and their relationship with pulpal and periodontal diseases. Eighty male rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus, Wistar) were divided into the following eight groups comprising ten animals each: normal rats (G1), rats with pulpal diseases (G2), rats with periodontal diseases (G3), rats with both pulpal and periodontal diseases (G4), diabetic rats (G5), diabetic rats with pulpal diseases (G6), diabetic rats with periodontal diseases (G7), and diabetic rats with both periodontal and pulpal diseases (G8). Diabetes was induced by injecting streptozotocin, periapical lesions were induced by exposing pulpal tissue to the oral environment, and periodontal diseases were induced by periodontal ligature. The animals were killed after 30 days, and lipid profile was enzymatically measured using Trinder's method. The total assessed values were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey test (p triglyceride levels of diabetic rats with periodontal disease and of diabetic rats with both periodontal and pulpal diseases were significantly higher than those of normal rats and nondiabetic group rats, respectively. The differences in the cholesterol levels among the groups were not significant. We found that the association of pulpal and periodontal diseases with diabetes increased triglyceride levels in rats. Changes in lipid profile may be related to the presence of oral infections and diabetes.

  17. Serum levels of osteopontin are increased in SIRS and sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaschetto, Rosanna; Nicola, Stefania; Olivieri, Carlo; Boggio, Elena; Piccolella, Fabio; Mesturini, Riccardo; Damnotti, Federica; Colombo, Davide; Navalesi, Paolo; Della Corte, Francesco; Dianzani, Umberto; Chiocchetti, Annalisa

    2008-12-01

    In sepsis, dysregulation of the immune response leads to rapid multiorgan failure and death. Accurate and timely diagnosis is lifesaving and should discriminate sepsis from the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) caused by non-infectious agents. Osteopontin acts as an extracellular matrix component or a soluble cytokine in inflamed tissues. Its exact role in immune response and sepsis remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the role of osteopontin in SIRS and sepsis. Prospective, observational study. Intensive care unit of a university hospital. Fifty-six patients with SIRS or sepsis and 56 healthy subjects were enrolled. We analyzed the serum levels of osteopontin and TH1-TH2 cytokines and investigated the role of osteopontin on interleukin 6 secretion by monocytes. Serum osteopontin levels were strikingly higher in patients than in controls and in sepsis than in SIRS, and decreased during the resolution of both the disorders. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that osteopontin levels have discriminative power between SIRS and sepsis with an area under the curve of 0.796. Osteopontin levels directly correlated with those of interleukin 6 and in vitro, recombinant osteopontin increased interleukin 6 secretion by monocytes in both the absence and presence of high doses of lipopolysaccharide. These data suggest that osteopontin might be a mediator involved in the pathogenesis of SIRS and sepsis, possibly by supporting interleukin 6 secretion. 45. SIRS/Sepsis: clinical studies.

  18. Increased endogenous DNA oxidation correlates to increased iron levels in melanocytes relative to keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelle, Edward; Huang, Xi; Zhang, Qi; Pernodet, Nadine; Yarosh, Daniel B; Frenkel, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    The endogenous oxidative state of normal human epidermal melanocytes was investigated and compared to normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) in order to gain new insight into melanocyte biology. Previously, we showed that NHEKs contain higher levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) than melanocytes and that it can migrate from NHEKs to melanocytes by passive permeation. Nevertheless, despite lower concentrations of H2O2, we now report higher levels of oxidative DNA in melanocytes as indicated by increased levels of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG): 4.49 (±0.55 SEM) 8-oxo-dG/10(6) dG compared to 1.49 (±0.11 SEM) 8-oxo-dG/10(6) dG for NHEKs. An antioxidant biomarker, glutathione (GSH), was also lower in melanocytes (3.14 nmoles (±0.15 SEM)/cell) in comparison to NHEKs (5.98 nmoles (±0.33 SEM)/cell). Intriguingly, cellular bioavailable iron as measured in ferritin was found to be nearly fourfold higher in melanocytes than in NHEKs. Further, ferritin levels in melanocytes were also higher than in hepatocarcinoma cells, an iron-rich cell, and it indicates that higher relative iron levels may be characteristic of melanocytes. To account for the increased oxidative DNA and lower GSH and H2O2 levels that we observe, we propose that iron may contribute to higher levels of oxidation by reacting with H2O2 through a Fenton reaction leading to the generation of DNA-reactive hydroxyl radicals. In conclusion, our data support the concept of elevated oxidation and high iron levels as normal parameters of melanocytic activity. We present new evidence that may contribute to our understanding of the melanogenic process and lead to the development of new skin care products.

  19. Can nursing students' confidence levels increase with repeated simulation activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Cynthia L; Connelly, Linda K

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, nursing faculty conducted a study with undergraduate nursing students on their satisfaction, confidence, and educational practice levels, as it related to simulation activities throughout the curriculum. The study was a voluntary survey conducted on junior and senior year nursing students. It consisted of 30 items based on the Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning and the Educational Practices Questionnaire (Jeffries, 2012). Mean averages were obtained for each of the 30 items from both groups and were compared using T scores for unpaired means. The results showed that 8 of the items had a 95% confidence level and when combined the items were significant for p confidence and active learning. Based on these findings, it can be assumed that repeated simulation experiences can lead to an increase in student confidence and active learning.

  20. Exercise increases serum fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cuevas-Ramos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 increases glucose uptake. It is unknown if FGF21 serum levels are affected by exercise. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This was a comparative longitudinal study. Anthropometric and biochemical evaluation were carried out before and after a bout of exercise and repeated after two weeks of daily supervised exercise. The study sample was composed of 60 sedentary young healthy women. The mean age was 24±3.7 years old, and the mean BMI was 21.4±7.0 kg/m². The anthropometric characteristics did not change after two weeks of exercise. FGF21 levels significantly increased after two weeks of exercise (276.8 ng/l (142.8-568.6 vs. (460.8 (298.2-742.1, p<0.0001. The delta (final-basal log of serum FGF21, adjusted for BMI, showed a significant positive correlation with basal glucose (r = 0.23, p = 0.04, mean maximal heart rate (MHR (r = 0.54, p<0.0001, mean METs (r = 0.40, p = 0.002, delta plasma epinephrine (r = 0.53, p<0.0001 and delta plasma FFAs (r = 0.35, p = 0.006. A stepwise linear regression model showed that glucose, MHR, METs, FFAs, and epinephrine, were factors independently associated with the increment in FGF21 after the exercise program (F = 4.32; r² = 0.64, p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Serum FGF21 levels significantly increased after two weeks of physical activity. This increment correlated positively with clinical parameters related to the adrenergic and lipolytic response to exercise. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01512368.

  1. Efficiency of fisheries is increasing at the ecosystem level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Nis Sand; Burgess, Matthew G; Andersen, Ken Haste

    2017-01-01

    Managing fisheries presents trade-offs between objectives, for example yields, profits, minimizing ecosystem impact, that have to be weighed against one another. These trade-offs are compounded by interacting species and fisheries at the ecosystem level. Weighing objectives becomes increasingly......-scale win-wins, especially with respect to conservation and profits, may still be common; and (iii) single-species assessment approaches may overestimate the availability of win-wins by failing to account for trade-offs across interacting species...

  2. Vocabulary Knowledge and Vocabulary Use in Second Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark D.; Acevedo, Anthony; Mercado, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Research has consistently shown diversity of vocabulary to be an important indicator of second language (L2) writing development as well as L2 writing performance. These studies underscore the importance of vocabulary to L2 writing. However, they provide little to indicate what kind of vocabulary learners of English may need to know in order to…

  3. Vocabulary Knowledge and Vocabulary Use in Second Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark D.; Acevedo, Anthony; Mercado, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Research has consistently shown diversity of vocabulary to be an important indicator of second language (L2) writing development as well as L2 writing performance. These studies underscore the importance of vocabulary to L2 writing. However, they provide little to indicate what kind of vocabulary learners of English may need to know in order to…

  4. Talking about Cultural Elements in Vocabulary and English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jinjing

    2015-01-01

    By illustrating the significance of cultural elements in vocabulary and current situations in English vocabulary teaching,the author hope that English teachers can pay more attention to cultural elements behind the conceptual meanings of English words and change their method of teaching to motivate students' interest in vocabulary learning.

  5. Talking about Cultural Elements in Vocabulary and English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Jinjing

    2015-01-01

    By illustrating the significance of cultural elements in vocabulary and current situations in English vocabulary teaching,the author hope that English teachers can pay more attention to cultural elements behind the conceptual meanings of English words and change their method of teaching to motivate students’ interest in vocabulary learning.

  6. Vocabulary Plus: Comprehensive Vocabulary Instruction for English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Rhoda

    2010-01-01

    "Vocabulary Plus" is an interactive strategy which links vocabulary development with content area learning for English learners. This strategy uses interactive read-alouds of thematically- connected informational text matched to the grade-appropriate state standards and content of core subjects. When using "Vocabulary Plus",…

  7. Transgenic cells with increased plastoquinone levels and methods of use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayre, Richard T.; Subramanian, Sowmya; Cahoon, Edgar

    2016-12-27

    Disclosed herein are transgenic cells expressing a heterologous nucleic acid encoding a prephenate dehydrogenase (PDH) protein, a heterologous nucleic acid encoding a homogentisate solanesyl transferase (HST) protein, a heterologous nucleic acid encoding a deoxyxylulose phosphate synthase (DXS) protein, or a combination of two or more thereof. In particular examples, the disclosed transgenic cells have increased plastoquinone levels. Also disclosed are methods of increasing cell growth rates or production of biomass by cultivating transgenic cells expressing a heterologous nucleic acid encoding a PDH protein, a heterologous nucleic acid encoding an HST protein, a heterologous nucleic acid encoding a DXS protein, or a combination of two or more thereof under conditions sufficient to produce cell growth or biomass.

  8. Transgenic cells with increased plastoquinone levels and methods of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, Richard T.; Subramanian, Sowmya; Cahoon, Edgar

    2016-12-27

    Disclosed herein are transgenic cells expressing a heterologous nucleic acid encoding a prephenate dehydrogenase (PDH) protein, a heterologous nucleic acid encoding a homogentisate solanesyl transferase (HST) protein, a heterologous nucleic acid encoding a deoxyxylulose phosphate synthase (DXS) protein, or a combination of two or more thereof. In particular examples, the disclosed transgenic cells have increased plastoquinone levels. Also disclosed are methods of increasing cell growth rates or production of biomass by cultivating transgenic cells expressing a heterologous nucleic acid encoding a PDH protein, a heterologous nucleic acid encoding an HST protein, a heterologous nucleic acid encoding a DXS protein, or a combination of two or more thereof under conditions sufficient to produce cell growth or biomass.

  9. Measuring Teachers' Knowledge of Vocabulary Development and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguay, Annie; Kenyon, Dorry; Haynes, Erin; August, Diane; Yanosky, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development of an instrument to measure teachers' knowledge of vocabulary development and instruction, the Teacher Knowledge of Vocabulary Survey (TKVS). This type of knowledge has become increasingly important as all classroom teachers are expected to help students meet language and literacy standards that include…

  10. VOCABULARY GUIDE OF COGNATE WORDS IN SPANISH AND ENGLISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KRIPPNER, STANLEY

    A VOCABULARY GUIDE OF COGNATE WORDS IN ENGLISH AND SPANISH IS PRESENTED. THE VALUE OF THE GUIDE RESTS ON THE ASSUMPTIONS THAT THE LEARNING OF SIMILAR WORDS IN BOTH LANGUAGES COULD CHANGE SPANISH-SPEAKING AMERICAN PUPILS' NEGATIVE ATTITUDE ABOUT ENGLISH AS WELL AS INCREASE THEIR VOCABULARY. WORDS IN THE "VELAZQUEZ SPANISH AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY" OF…

  11. Vocabulary Learning through Extensive Reading: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senoo, Yasuko; Yonemoto, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    The role and importance of reading in second language vocabulary learning have been discussed by many researchers because of the richness and variety of vocabulary in written texts compared to oral discourse (Horst, 2005; Nation, 2001). However, despite the recent increase of studies in this field, there are very few studies focusing on…

  12. VOCABULARY GUIDE OF COGNATE WORDS IN SPANISH AND ENGLISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KRIPPNER, STANLEY

    A VOCABULARY GUIDE OF COGNATE WORDS IN ENGLISH AND SPANISH IS PRESENTED. THE VALUE OF THE GUIDE RESTS ON THE ASSUMPTIONS THAT THE LEARNING OF SIMILAR WORDS IN BOTH LANGUAGES COULD CHANGE SPANISH-SPEAKING AMERICAN PUPILS' NEGATIVE ATTITUDE ABOUT ENGLISH AS WELL AS INCREASE THEIR VOCABULARY. WORDS IN THE "VELAZQUEZ SPANISH AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY" OF…

  13. Increased nociceptin/orphanin FQ plasma levels in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ferenc Szalay; Mónika B Hantos; Andrea Horvath; Peter L. Lakatos; Aniko Folhoffer; Kinga Dunkel; Dalma Hegedus; Kornélia Tekes

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The heptadecapeptide nociceptin alias orphanin FQ is the endogenous agonist of opioid receptor-like1 receptor.It is involved in modulation of pain and cognition. High blood level was reported in patients with acute and chronic pain,and in Wilson disease. An accidental observation led us to investigate nociceptin in hepatocellular carcinoma.METHODS: Plasma nociceptin level was measured by radioimmunoassay, aprotinin was used as protease inhibitor.Hepatocellular carcinoma was diagnosed by laboratory,ultrasound, other imaging, and confirmed by fine needle biopsy. Results were compared to healthy controls and patients with other chronic liver diseases.RESULTS: Although nociceptin levels were elevated in patients with Wilson disease (14.0±2.7 pg/mL, n=26),primary biliary cirrhosis (12.1±3.2 pg/mL, n=21) and liver cirrhosis (12.8±4.0 pg/mL, n=15) compared to the healthy controls (9.2±1.8 pg/mL, n=29, P<0.001 for each), in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma a ten-fold increase was found (105.9±14.4 pg/mL, n=29, P<0.0001). High plasma levels were found in each hepatocellular carcinoma patient including those with normal alpha fetoprotein and those with pain (104.9±14.9 pg/mL, n=12) and without (107.7±14.5pg/mL, n=6).CONCLUSION: A very high nociceptin plasma level seems to be an indicator for hepatocellular carcinoma. Further research is needed to clarify the mechanism and clinical significance of this novel finding.

  14. General Reviews of Vocabulary Retention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper will try to review two important theories (repletion and retrieval) which are crucial for vocabulary retention. These two methods are well connected and each of them cannot lead to successful vocabulary retention without sensible utilization of the other.

  15. Acute stress induces increases in salivary IL-10 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Yvette Z; Newton, Tamara L; Miller, James J; Lyle, Keith B; Fernandez-Botran, Rafael

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the stress-reactivity of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, in saliva and to determine how salivary IL-10 levels change in relation to those of IL-1β, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, following stress. Healthy young adults were randomly assigned to retrieve a negative emotional memory (n = 46) or complete a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (n = 45). Saliva samples were taken 10 min before (baseline) and 50 min after (post-stressor) onset of a 10-min stressor, and were assayed using a high sensitivity multiplex assay for cytokines. Measurable IL-10 levels (above the minimum detectable concentration) were found in 96% of the baseline samples, and 98% of the post-stressor samples. Flow rate-adjusted salivary IL-10 levels as well as IL-1β/IL-10 ratios showed moderate but statistically significant increases in response to stress. Measurement of salivary IL-10 and pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios may be useful, noninvasive tools, in stress research.

  16. Students' Proficiency and Textual Computer Gloss Use in Facilitating Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Mohamad A.; Sim, Tam S.; Su'ad A.

    2014-01-01

    Learning vocabulary forms a major part for any language learner. Apart from direct teaching of vocabulary, language teachers are always searching for ways to increase their students' vocabulary to enable them to use the language more effectively. Therefore, this study sets out to investigate whether the use of computer textual glosses can aid…

  17. Building Vocabulary Knowledge in Preschoolers through Shared Book Reading and Gameplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassinger-Das, Brenna; Ridge, Katherine; Parker, Amira; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Dickinson, David K.

    2016-01-01

    This study moves beyond previous investigations to examine whether an educational intervention combining shared book reading with a vocabulary game increases children's vocabulary knowledge. Four-year-olds (N = 44) were randomly assigned to dyads in either an intervention (shared book reading plus vocabulary review game) or comparison condition…

  18. How to Enlarge Productive Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘菁

    2015-01-01

    Haycraft defined receptive vocabulary as "words that the student recognizes and understands when they occur in a text, but which he cannot produce correctly", while productive vocabulary is "words which the student understands can pronounce correctly and use constructively in speaking and writing" (1978:44).In English language teaching practice, students' productive vocabulary size lags far behind there ceptive vocabulary size. Based on the SLA theories, many reasons caused this problem and some solutions will be discussed.

  19. Effects of increased CO{sub 2} levels on monsoons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherchi, Annalisa; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici and Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy); Alessandri, Andrea [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-07-15

    Increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration provided warmer atmospheric temperature and higher atmospheric water vapor content, but not necessarily more precipitation. A set of experiments performed with a state-of-the-art coupled general circulation model forced with increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration (2, 4 and 16 times the present-day mean value) were analyzed and compared with a control experiment to evaluate the effect of increased CO{sub 2} levels on monsoons. Generally, the monsoon precipitation responses to CO{sub 2} forcing are largest if extreme concentrations of carbon dioxide are used, but they are not necessarily proportional to the forcing applied. In fact, despite a common response in terms of an atmospheric water vapor increase to the atmospheric warming, two out of the six monsoons studied simulate less or equal summer mean precipitation in the 16 x CO{sub 2} experiment compared to the intermediate sensitivity experiments. The precipitation differences between CO{sub 2} sensitivity experiments and CTRL have been investigated specifying the contribution of thermodynamic and purely dynamic processes. As a general rule, the differences depending on the atmospheric moisture content changes (thermodynamic component) are large and positive, and they tend to be damped by the dynamic component associated with the changes in the vertical velocity. However, differences are observed among monsoons in terms of the role played by other terms (like moisture advection and evaporation) in shaping the precipitation changes in warmer climates. The precipitation increase, even if weak, occurs despite a weakening of the mean circulation in the monsoon regions (''precipitation-wind paradox''). In particular, the tropical east-west Walker circulation is reduced, as found from velocity potential analysis. The meridional component of the monsoon circulation is changed as well, with larger (smaller) meridional (vertical) scales. (orig.)

  20. [Increased serum PIVKA-II levels in hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, M; Takeda, K; Ohara, E; Nishimori, Y; Hisahara, T; Nishida, M; Sugiura, T

    2001-11-01

    PIVKA-II has been practically used as a tumor marker of hepatocellular carcinoma. On the other hand, increased serum PIVKA-II concentration was reported in a Japanese patient who had hyperthyroidism without liver diseases. To evaluate whether thyroid hormone is related with serum PIVKA-II, we examined serum PIVKA-II concentrations in patients with various thyroid diseases. Eight patients with Hashimoto disease, 24 patients with Graves' disease, and 8 healthy subjects were studied. There was no significant difference of serum PIVKA-II levels among the three groups. However, serum PIVKA-II concentrations(mean +/- SD mAU/ml) in hyperthyroidism(37 +/- 27) were significantly higher than those in hypothyroidism(16 +/- 9) and normal controls(12 +/- 4) (p PIVKA-II concentrations decreased in accordance with the decrease of serum FT4 concentrations. Our data indicate that serum PIVKA-II concentration was increased in patients with hyperthyroidism, but further in vivo studies are necessary to clarify the mechanism related to increased serum PIVKA-II by thyroid hormone.

  1. Teaching Vocabulary across the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintz, William P.

    2011-01-01

    Learning vocabulary is an important instructional aim for teachers in all content areas in middle grades schools. Recent research, however, indicates that vocabulary instruction may be problematic because many teachers are not "confident about best practice in vocabulary instruction and at times don't know where to begin to form an instructional…

  2. Predictability of Social-anamnestic Variables on Receptive Vocabulary and Cognitive Functioning of the Elderly Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahimagic, Amela; Zunic, Lejla Junuzovic; Rasidovic, Mirsada; Radic, Bojan; Kantic, Ahmet

    2016-12-01

    Aging, as an irrepressible biological process involves a series of physiological and pathological changes. The main aim of this study was to examine the correlation and predictability of receptive vocabulary and cognitive functioning of elderly people with anamnestic variables: chronological age, sex, level of formal education, marital status, years of work and retirement and years spent in an institution for the elderly. The sample of participants consisted of 120 elderly people, average age was 78 years, placed in institutional care for elderly people in four cities in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was three groups of variables: anamnestic, receptive vocabulary assessment, and cognitive assessments. A Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (MoCA) was used for the assessment of cognitive abilities. In order to estimate the receptive vocabulary Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III-HR) was used. Results of multiple regression analysis show that part of the variance of receptive language which is explained by the model (anamnestic variables) was 44.0% and of cognitive functioning was 33.7%. The biggest single contribution to explaining the development of receptive vocabulary was given by predictor variable of college education (β = 0.417) then variable university education (β = 0.293), while the smallest single contribution was given by variable secondary education (β = 0.167). The biggest single contribution to explaining the results of tests of cognitive function was given by predictor variable College education (β = 0.328) and variable unskilled (β = -0.229), which has a negative effect on the increase in recent cognitive functioning. Anamnestic variables were valid predictors of receptive vocabulary and cognitive functioning of elderly people. The highest individual contribution was given by variables describing the level of formal education of elderly.

  3. Increase in voice level and speaker comfort in lecture rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas; Gade, Anders Christian; Bellester, Gaspar Payá

    2009-01-01

    Teachers often suffer from health problems related to their voice. These problems are related to their working environment, including the acoustics of the lecture rooms. However, there is a lack of studies linking the room acoustic parameters to the voice produced by the speaker. In this pilot...... study, the main goals are to investigate whether objectively measurable parameters of the rooms can be related to an increase in the voice sound power produced by speakers and to the speakers’ subjective judgments about the rooms. In six different rooms with different sizes, reverberation times......, and other physical attributes, the sound power level produced by six speakers was measured. Objective room acoustic parameters were measured in the same rooms, including reverberation time and room gain, and questionnaires were handed out to people who had experience talking in the rooms. It is found...

  4. Increased Blood-Reelin-Levels in First Episode Schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hornig

    Full Text Available Reelin is an extracellular glycoprotein involved in several functions of brain development, synaptogenesis and dendritic proliferation. Numerous studies found perturbation in the reelin system and altered serum reelin levels in neuropsychiatric patients using the western blot procedure. In the international literature, this is the first study that made use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to analyze serum reelin protein concentration quantitatively.In order to study possible alterations in reelin blood levels in schizophrenia, we analyzed this signal in schizophrenic patients with a first episode hallucinatory and paranoid syndrome and control subjects in a pilot study design.We found increased blood reelin protein concentration in schizophrenic patients compared to healthy controls.Our findings point to a relevant role of reelin metabolism in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.Reelin could be a biomarker for the course of disease or psychopharmacological treatment.We conclude that the reelin protein blood concentration might be a relevant signal with respect to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  5. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Aline; Arnould, Cécile; Moussu, Chantal; Meurisse, Maryse; Constantin, Paul; Leterrier, Christine; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2015-11-30

    In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H) and from sham embryos (C) that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment.

  6. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Bertin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H and from sham embryos (C that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment.

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF VOCABULARY JOURNAL IN TEACHING STUDENTS’ VOCABULARY MASTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Rakhmawati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research is to find out the influence of vocabulary journal as media in teaching student vocabulary at the eighth grade students of SMP Al-Fajar. The quantitative method was conducted and this research is a population research, because all the member of population is taken as sample, which consisted of 30 students of eighth grade. To collect the data, the writer used pre-test and post-test, then the vocabulary test was used as the research instrument. To know whether there is an influence, the writer analyzed the data by using paired-sample T-test.The result shows that there is significant influence of vocabulary journal in teaching students’ vocabulary mastery.Keywords: Influence, vocabulary journal, students’ vocabulary mastery

  8. Elementary Students' Acquisition of Academic Vocabulary Through Engineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugelmass, Rachel

    This study examines how STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) inquiry-based learning through a hands-on engineering design can be beneficial in helping students acquire academic vocabulary. This research took place in a second grade dual- language classroom in a public, suburban elementary school. English language learners, students who speak Spanish at home, and native English speakers were evaluated in this study. Each day, students were presented with a general academic vocabulary focus word during an engineering design challenge. Vocabulary pre-tests and post-tests as well as observation field notes were used to evaluate the student's growth in reading and defining the focus academic vocabulary words. A quiz and KSB (knowledge and skill builder) packet were used to evaluate students' knowledge of science and math content and engineering design. The results of this study indicate that engineering design is an effective means for teaching academic vocabulary to students with varying levels of English proficiency.

  9. Acquiring Foreign Language Vocabulary Through Meaningful Linguistic Context: Where is the Limit to Vocabulary Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Garza, Bernardo; Harris, Richard Jackson

    2017-04-01

    The present studies examined the effects of varying degrees of unfamiliar vocabulary within written discourse on individuals' abilities to use linguistic context for the purposes of translation and comprehension (i.e., lexical inferencing). Prose varied in the number of foreign words introduced into each sentence (e.g., 0 through 7 content words per sentence). Furthermore, Krashen's Input Hypothesis and the Evaluation component of the Involvement Load Hypothesis were tested to determine the degree at which non-comprehensible input hinders the ability of a learner to successfully use linguistic context for translation and comprehension. Results indicated that, as the number of foreign words per sentence, i.e., non-comprehensible input, increased the ability to successfully translate foreign words and create situational models for comprehension begins to decrease especially beyond five unfamiliar words per sentence. This result suggests that there is an optimal level of effectiveness in the use of a linguistic context strategy for learning foreign language vocabulary, but also that there is a limit to the strategy's effectiveness. Implications and applications to the field of foreign language learning are discussed.

  10. Preliminary Study on Metacognition and English Specialized Four Levels of Vocabulary Teaching%元认知与英语专业四级词汇教学初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆

    2015-01-01

    元认知作为一种对学习本身的认知和控制能从根本上帮助学习者监管自己的认知活动,英语专业四级考试的重要环节就是词汇的准备。但是学生们除了简单的机械性重复很难有更好的办法。因此元认知与英语专业四级词汇的结合就为大学英语专业的学生提供了很好的学习方法,更能帮助学生通过英语专业的四级考试。%Metacognitive as a kind of cognitive learning and control itself can learn fundamentally help monitoring their cogni-tive activities.An important part of English specialized four levels of tests is that the vocabulary preparation.But in addition to mechanical simple repetition the students is very difficult to have a better way.Therefore metacognition and English specialized four levels of vocabulary provides a good way of learning for university students of English,which can help students to pass TEM4.

  11. Vocabulary Teaching Strategies in College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱荣

    2009-01-01

    We all focus on the students' abilities of listening, speaking, wading, writing and translating in college teaching. But actually, it is nothing without vocabulary. Thus, vocabulary teaching is an essential part in English teaching. However, seme traditional teaching takes vocabuhury out from the context, which costs a lot of time and energy, but students are involved in the dull circle of memorizing to forgetting to memorizing again. Finally, they lose their patience on English learning and maybe give it up. In this paper, we discuss some vocabulary teaching strategies, so as to help the memorizing of vocabulary and enhance the efficiency of vocabulary teaching and learning.

  12. Learning Vocabulary in Group Work in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Le Pham Hoai

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated learning vocabulary in group work at university in Vietnam. The students were studied in two kinds of group settings, "unassisted" and "assisted", the first consisting of five students from the same class level and the second of four from the same class and a student from a higher class. Differences were…

  13. Learning Vocabulary in Group Work in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Le Pham Hoai

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated learning vocabulary in group work at university in Vietnam. The students were studied in two kinds of group settings, "unassisted" and "assisted", the first consisting of five students from the same class level and the second of four from the same class and a student from a higher class. Differences were observed in both…

  14. Effectiveness of Structural Method of Teaching Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behlol, Malik; Dad, Hukam

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted to find out the effectiveness of structural method of teaching vocabulary in English subject at secondary level. The population of the study was the students of secondary classes studying in Federal Government schools of Islamabad District. Purposive and random sampling techniques were applied to select the school, teachers…

  15. Increased levels of inosine in a mouse model of inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestwich, Erin G; Mangerich, Aswin; Pang, Bo; McFaline, Jose L; Lonkar, Pallavi; Sullivan, Matthew R; Trudel, Laura J; Taghizedeh, Koli; Dedon, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    One possible mechanism linking inflammation with cancer involves the generation of reactive oxygen, nitrogen and halogen species by activated macrophages and neutrophils infiltrating sites of infection or tissue damage, with these chemical mediators causing damage that ultimately leads to cell death and mutation. To determine the most biologically deleterious chemistries of inflammation, we previously assessed products across the spectrum of DNA damage arising in inflamed tissues in the SJL mouse model nitric oxide over-production (Pang et al., Carcinogenesis 28: 1807–1813, 2007). Among the anticipated DNA damage chemistries, we observed significant changes only in lipid peroxidation-derived etheno adducts. We have now developed an isotope-dilution, liquid chromatography-coupled, tandem quadrupole mass spectrometric method to quantify representative species across the spectrum of RNA damage products predicted to arise at sites of inflammation, including nucleobase deamination (xanthosine, inosine), oxidation (8-oxoguanosine), and alkylation (1,N6-etheno-adenosine). Application of the method to liver, spleen, and kidney from the SJL mouse model revealed generally higher levels of oxidative background RNA damage than was observed in DNA in control mice. However, compared to control mice, RcsX treatment to induce nitric oxide overproduction resulted in significant increases only in inosine and only in the spleen. Further, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N-methylarginine, did not significantly affect the levels of inosine in control and RcsX-treated mice. The differences between DNA and RNA damage in the same animal model of inflammation point to possible influences from DNA repair, RcsX-induced alterations in adenosine deaminase activity, and differential accessibility of DNA and RNA to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as determinants of nucleic acid damage during inflammation. PMID:23506120

  16. Modelling Vocabulary Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meara, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes some simple simulation models of vocabulary attrition. The attrition process is modelled using a random autonomous Boolean network model, and some parallels with real attrition data are drawn. The paper argues that applying a complex systems approach to attrition can provide some important insights, which suggest that real…

  17. Building Your Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ScottThornbury

    2004-01-01

    “I'm not 100% convinced that memorizing the dictionary is the best way of improving your vocabulary,” says the character played by Hugh Grant in Woody Allen's film Small Time Crooks.Yet why not?Ifyou could memorize the dictionary-or even

  18. Reading vocabulary knowledge and deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, P

    1996-01-01

    With respect to reading vocabulary knowledge and deafness, this article addresses two broad questions: (1) Why is vocabulary knowledge related to reading comprehension ability? (2) How is reading vocabulary (i.e., word meanings) acquired? The article argues that the answers to these questions are best addressed by a vocabulary acquisition model labeled the knowledge model. In essence, this model asserts that both breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge are critical. It is necessary to teach vocabulary, especially to poor readers, who are not likely to derive many word meanings from the use of context during natural or deliberate reading situations. On the basis of theoretical and research syntheses, the article offers implications for vocabulary instruction for deaf children and adolescents.

  19. Increased levels of homocysteine in patients with ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sabiye; Akbulut; Emin; Altiparmak; Firdevs; Topal; Ersan; Ozaslan; Metin; Kucukazman; Ozlem; Yonem

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate serum levels of homocysteine (Hcys) and the risk that altered levels carry for thrombosis development in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. METHODS: 55 UC patients and 45 healthy adults were included. Hcys, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were measured in both groups. Clinical history and thrombo- embolic events were investigated. RESULTS: The average Hcys level in the UC patients was 13.3 ± 1.93 μmmol/L (range 4.60-87) and was higher than the average Hcys level of the control group whi...

  20. Acrylamide decreased dopamine levels and increased 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) levels in PC 12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareke, Eden; Lyn-Cook, Beverly D; Duhart, Helen; Newport, Glenn; Ali, Syed

    2009-07-17

    Acrylamide is a chemical known to produce neurotoxicity in animals, as well as in humans. The mechanism of acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity is not fully known. However, recent studies have revealed that acrylamide affects the dopaminergic system. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acrylamide on dopamine (DA) and the metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxy phenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillicacid (HVA), levels in Pheochromocytoma (PC 12) cells. In addition, the generation of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), measured by 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), was investigated as a possible mechanism in acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity. HPLC-coupled to electrochemical detection (ECD) was used to determine DA, DOPAC, HVA and 3-NT levels. Acrylamide (0.01-5mM) exposure produced a dose- and time (1-42h)-dependent decrease in DA levels. The decrease (P<0.05) in DA levels was noted at 24h after exposure to acrylamide. The study also revealed that 3-NT levels in PC 12 increased as a result of treatment with acrylamide. Thus, these data suggest that acrylamide-induced decrease in DA levels in PC 12 cells may be associated with peroxynitrite formation, measured as 3-NT levels.

  1. Deepening Kindergarteners' Science Vocabulary: A Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Allison Ward; Bryant, Camille Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Early, effective instruction to introduce both science vocabulary and general academic language may help children build a strong conceptual and linguistic foundation for later instruction. In this study, a design research intervention was employed to expose children to a variety of interrelated science content words to increase both the breadth…

  2. Improving new vocabulary learning in context

    OpenAIRE

    Colombia Ovalle María

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to help students increase their vocabulary learning in context because when learners participate in a special class with different activities and keep in mind the situation, they remember new words. The study was carried out in the action research method, and the activities provided to students encouraged learning and motivated them to practice English more.

  3. Standard controlled vocabulary for climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moine, Marie-Pierre; Pascoe, Charlotte; Guilyardi, Eric; Ford, Rupert

    2010-05-01

    The scope of climate modeling has grown tremendously in the last 10 years, resulting in a large variety of climate models, increasing complexity with more physical or chemical components and huge volumes of data sets (simulation outputs). While significant efforts to standardise the associated metadata (i.e. data describing data and models) have already been made in recent projects (e.g. CF standard names for CMIP3), detailed standards documentation of the models and experiments that created this data is still lacking. The EU METAFOR Project (http://metaforclimate.eu) is specifically addressing this issue by creating new metadata schemas in cooperation with existing standards in Earth System Modeling (Curator, GridSpec, CF convention, NumSim, etc.). Descriptions of climate simulations, of the data they produce, and of the numerical models used to perform these simulations are all within the scope of METAFOR and these descriptions are assembled in a common information model (the CIM). Of particular note is the metadata for numerical models that is found in the CIM. This paper presents the controlled vocabulary (CV) that has been collected by METAFOR to describe (in a common manner) the components of the numerical models developed by the different modeling centres. This vocabulary is used in the model part of the web-based questionnaire that METAFOR has developed in support of the upcoming IPCC exercise (the CMIP5 questionnaire). The methods to (1) establish standards for this vocabulary via interactions with climate scientists, (2) utilise the vocabulary in the web-based questionnaire and (3) process the vocabulary for ingestion in the Earth System Grid (ESG) portal, are described. Governance aspects of this new controlled vocabulary are also addressed.

  4. The pace of vocabulary growth helps predict later vocabulary skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Meredith L; Raudenbush, Stephen W; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words--some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (socioeconomic status [SES], parent input, child gesture) of vocabulary growth between 14 and 46 months (n = 62) and then uses growth estimates to predict children's vocabulary at 54 months. Velocity and acceleration in vocabulary development at 30 months predicted later vocabulary, particularly for children from low-SES backgrounds. Understanding the pace of early vocabulary growth thus improves our ability to predict school readiness and may help identify children at risk for starting behind.

  5. Vocabulary Development of Junior Teens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Nikonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the communicative competence formation of young adolescents in the secondary school at the Russian language lessons. The author maintains that the key element of the above problem is the vocabulary development guaranteeing both comprehension and verbal expression formation – oral and written. The theoretical part of the research explores different word functions: nominal, communicative, text generating and semantic. The correlation between the mental development level and lexical semantic system formation is emphasized. The age specific features of junior teens are listed: rising interest to various life spheres and activi- ties, capability of formulating opinions and judgments, self-awareness, formation of values. The relationship complexity stimulates vocabulary development of 10 to 12 year-old children; however, the process requires peda- gogical facilitation.The monitoring of speech development proves the necessity of commutative competence formation of the fifth- and sixth-year pupils. The paper presents the model of communicative competence development and its approbation results received for the junior adolescents. 

  6. Vocabulary Development of Junior Teens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Nikonova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the communicative competence formation of young adolescents in the secondary school at the Russian language lessons. The author maintains that the key element of the above problem is the vocabulary development guaranteeing both comprehension and verbal expression formation – oral and written. The theoretical part of the research explores different word functions: nominal, communicative, text generating and semantic. The correlation between the mental development level and lexical semantic system formation is emphasized. The age specific features of junior teens are listed: rising interest to various life spheres and activi- ties, capability of formulating opinions and judgments, self-awareness, formation of values. The relationship complexity stimulates vocabulary development of 10 to 12 year-old children; however, the process requires peda- gogical facilitation.The monitoring of speech development proves the necessity of commutative competence formation of the fifth- and sixth-year pupils. The paper presents the model of communicative competence development and its approbation results received for the junior adolescents. 

  7. Physiological workload reactions to increasing levels of task difficulty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, J.A.; Gaillard, A.W.K.

    1998-01-01

    The sensitivity of physiological measures to mental workload has been investigated in a flight simulator. Twelve pilots had to fly through a tunnel with different levels of difficulty. Additionally, they had to perform a memory task with four levels of difficulty. The easiest memory task was combine

  8. Estuaries May Face Increased Parasitism as Sea Levels Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-12-01

    Invertebrates in estuaries could be at a greater risk of parasitism as climate change causes sea levels to rise. A new paper published 8 December in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (doi:10.1073/pnas.1416747111) describes how rapid sea level rise in the Holocene affected the population of parasitic flatworms called trematodes.

  9. Physiological workload reactions to increasing levels of task difficulty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, J.A.; Gaillard, A.W.K.

    1998-01-01

    The sensitivity of physiological measures to mental workload has been investigated in a flight simulator. Twelve pilots had to fly through a tunnel with different levels of difficulty. Additionally, they had to perform a memory task with four levels of difficulty. The easiest memory task was

  10. Vocabulary Intervention for School-age Children with Language Impairment: A Review of Evidence and Good Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Sara C; Mills, Monique T

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence to support direct vocabulary intervention practices for primary school-age children with language impairment (LI). A rationale for providing direct vocabulary intervention for children with LI is outlined by reviewing typical and atypical vocabulary acquisition, evidence of instructional strategies from research in mainstream and special education is summarised, and suggestions for vocabulary intervention activities that facilitate deep word knowledge are provided. Suggestions for choosing appropriate vocabulary, using strategies during direct intervention, and conducting activities that increase depth of vocabulary knowledge are included.

  11. The effect of enhanced storybook interaction on signing deaf children's vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trussell, Jessica W; Easterbrooks, Susan R

    2014-07-01

    The link between vocabulary and later literacy is well documented in the research base. One way children gain vocabulary is through incidental learning. Deaf or hard-of-hearing children (D/HH) often struggle with incidental learning and require vocabulary intervention to increase their lexicon. An effective vocabulary intervention is storybook reading. When dialogic methods are added to storybook reading, the gains are greater than with traditional storybook reading. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an enhanced storybook reading intervention, which included scripted questions and picture prompts, on the vocabulary of young signing D/HH children. We utilized a multiple baseline across content probe design. We discovered a functional relation between the storybook intervention and picture vocabulary identification for several participants. This outcome offers insight into appropriate interventions to increase vocabulary for signing D/HH children.

  12. Desirable Difficulties in Vocabulary Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, Robert A; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-01-01

    In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is understood and produced. From each perspective we discuss evidence that supports the notion that difficulties in learning and imposed costs to language processing may produce benefits because they are likely to increase conceptual understanding. We then consider the consequences of these processes for actual second-language learning and suggest that some of the domain-general cognitive advantages that have been reported for proficient bilinguals may reflect difficulties imposed by the learning process, and by the requirement to negotiate cross-language competition, that are broadly desirable. As Alice Healy and her collaborators were perhaps the first to demonstrate, research on desirable difficulties in vocabulary and language learning holds the promise of bringing together research traditions on memory and language that have much to offer each other.

  13. FABP4 plasma levels are increased in familial combined hyperlipidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabré, Anna; Lázaro, Iolanda; Cofán, Montserrat; Jarauta, Estibaliz; Plana, Núria; Garcia-Otín, Angel L.; Ascaso, Juan F.; Ferré, Raimón; Civeira, Fernando; Ros, Emilio; Masana, Lluís

    2010-01-01

    The lipid profile of familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) shares some characteristics with atherogenic dyslipidemia seen in diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) appears to be a determinant of atherogenic dyslipidemia. We examined relationships between FABP4 plasma concentrations, dyslipidemia, and metabolic variables in patients with FCHL. We studied 273 unrelated FCHL patients and 118 control subjects. FABP4 was higher in FCHL than controls, with mean levels of 21.8 (10.1) μg/l and 19.2 (9.2) μg/l, respectively (adjusted P= 0.012). In FCHL, FABP4 correlated to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, insulin levels, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index (all P< 0.05), but not to lipid levels, whereas in obese patients, FABP4 correlated to triglyceride levels (r = 0.303, P= 0.014) and very low density lipoprotein size (r = 0.502, P = 0.001), as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance. Associations of FABP4 with BMI and waist circumference, but not with insulin levels, persisted in this subgroup. Plasma FABP4 does not influence the lipid phenotype of FCHL. In a small subgroup of obese FCHL, FABP4 levels were associated with triglyceride-rich lipoproteins independent of insulin resistance. These results support a hyperlipidemic mechanism of FCHL different from similar metabolic conditions where fat mass is strongly related to FABP4 and hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:20388924

  14. Hip Osteonecrosis Is Associated with Increased Plasma IL-33 Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinhui; Guo, Wanshou; Li, Zirong; Li, Shirui; Wang, Peng

    2017-01-01

    The recently discovered IL-33 as an IL-1 cytokine family member has been proved to be specifically released from osteonecrotic bones. We aimed to investigate the potential role of IL-33 in the development of osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH). Forty patients diagnosed with ONFH and forty age-, sex-, and body mass index- (BMI-) matched healthy subjects were included in this prospective study between March 2016 and September 2016. A commercially available ELISA kit was used to test the level of plasma IL-33. The IL-33 levels were compared among different ARCO stages, CJFH types, and etiology groups. Plasma IL-33 levels were significantly higher in the ONFH patients than that in the control subjects. The levels of IL-33 did not differ significantly among the ONFH patients with different ARCO stages. The IL-33 levels of patients with CJFH type L3 were significantly higher than that of patients with types L1 and L2. No significant differences were observed in IL-33 levels between steroid-induced, alcohol-induced, and idiopathic patients. Our findings seem to indicate that IL-33 effects may be detrimental during ONFH, which appeared to be associated with the prognosis of ONFH. The IL-33 deserves particular attention in the pathogenesis of ONFH. PMID:28167850

  15. VOCABULARY AND LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrudan Cristiana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have looked at the difference between teaching language structure and teaching vocabulary. We have discussed how counts of frequency alone are not enough to determine what words should be taught. We have seen that knowing a word means more than just knowing its meaning. Even that is problematical since meaning includes sense relations and context, for example. To know a word we also need to know about its use, how it is formed and what grammatical behavior it provokes. Above all, in this paper, we have approached the idea of how vocabulary teaching and learning need to be emphasized in order for students to be competent language users.

  16. English Vocabulary Memorizing Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯首慧

    2014-01-01

    With the high-speed development of society, English has already become a university language and learning English is the basic requirement to learners. Vocabulary learning is one of the key factors in English Learning. This paper focuses on the vocabulary memories strategies.%随着社会高速发展,对任何学习者来说,掌握英语,这个世界性语言是学习中最基本的要求。词汇学习当然是英语学习中关键因素之一。本文将侧重介绍词汇记忆的策略。

  17. The electric vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheils, James

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1600s, the developments in the understanding of electrical phenomena have frequently altered the models and metaphors used by physicists to describe and explain their experiments. However, to this day, certain relics of past theories still drench the vocabulary of the subject, serving as distracting fog for future students. This article attempts, through historical illumination, to shine through the mist of electrostatic terminology and offer a clearer view of the classical model of electricity.

  18. Ocean acidification increases fatty acids levels of larval fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Gil, Carlos; Catalán, Ignacio A; Palmer, Miquel; Faulk, Cynthia K; Fuiman, Lee A

    2015-07-01

    Rising levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are acidifying the oceans and producing diverse and important effects on marine ecosystems, including the production of fatty acids (FAs) by primary producers and their transfer through food webs. FAs, particularly essential FAs, are necessary for normal structure and function in animals and influence composition and trophic structure of marine food webs. To test the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on the FA composition of fish, we conducted a replicated experiment in which larvae of the marine fish red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) were reared under a climate change scenario of elevated CO2 levels (2100 µatm) and under current control levels (400 µatm). We found significantly higher whole-body levels of FAs, including nine of the 11 essential FAs, and altered relative proportions of FAs in the larvae reared under higher levels of CO2. Consequences of this effect of OA could include alterations in performance and survival of fish larvae and transfer of FAs through food webs.

  19. Features of Medical English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翠萍

    2015-01-01

    Medical English is relatively more difficult than general English,especially its vocabulary.Those medical English words are long and complex,making it hard to remember.But medical English vocabulary has its own features,which would help us in learning vocabulary.On the basis of many medical English materials,the paper explores the features of etymology,affixes and roots of medical English.

  20. Features of Medical English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翠萍

    2015-01-01

    Medical English is relatively more difficult than general English,especially its vocabulary.Those medical English words are long and complex,making it hard to remember. But medical English vocabulary has its own features,which would help us in learning vocabulary.On the basis of many medical English materials,the paper explores the features of etymology,affixes and roots of medical English.

  1. Using Computerized Bilingual Dictionaries To help Maximize English Vocabulary Learning at Japanese Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucky, John Paul

    2003-01-01

    Compares various computerized bilingual dictionaries for their relative effectiveness in helping Japanese college students at several language proficiency levels to access new English target vocabulary. (Author/VWL)

  2. Summarizing Vocabularies in the Global Semantic Web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Zhang; Gong Cheng; Wei-Yi Ge; Yu-Zhong Qu

    2009-01-01

    In the Semantic Web, vocabularies are defined and shared among knowledge workers to describe linked data for scientific, industrial or daily life usage. With the rapid growth of online vocabularies, there is an emergent need for approaches helping users understand vocabularies quickly. In this paper, we study the summarization of vocabularies to help users understand vocabularies. Vocabulary summarization is based on the structural analysis and pragmatics statistics in the global Semantic Web. Local Bipartite Model and Expanded Bipartite Model of a vocabulary are proposed to characterize the structure in a vocabulary and links between vocabularies. A structural importance for each RDF sentence in the vocabulary is assessed using link analysis. Meanwhile, pragmatics importance of each RDF sentence is assessed using the statistics of instantiation of its terms in the Semantic Web. Summaries are produced by extracting important RDF sentences in vocabularies under a re-ranking strategy. Preliminary experiments show that it is feasible to help users understand a vocabulary through its summary.

  3. Enhancing vocabulary acquisition by encouraging extensive reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚亚芳

    2012-01-01

    Current situation of vocabulary teaching The importance of vocabulary in learning a second or foreign language has been widely acknowledged and the findings of a sea of research studies have convinced us to regard vocabulary k nowledge as a

  4. Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aDepartment of Human Biology, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, South Africa ... (TAO) levels and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with that of .... –70 °C if not analysed on the day of collection and used within a.

  5. Learners' independent records of vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Leeke, Philip

    1999-01-01

    Handbooks recommend a variety of quite complicated procedures for learning and remembering vocabulary, but most learners only engage in very simple procedures. The aim of this project was to establish a basis for identifying optimal vocabulary recording procedures by finding out what learners...... currently do. We administered a questionnaire, interviewed learners who said that they kept vocabulary records of some kind and examined their records. Two-thirds had given up making vocabulary lists on entering the L2 environment and/or starting to read extensively, but several made interesting lists...

  6. On Vocabulary Acquisition by Chinese Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔莉; 南二丽

    2006-01-01

    It is admitted that vocabulary acquisition, as the smallest unit in English leaning, is the most basic, decisive yet difficult part. Yet vocabulary acquisition has always obsessed and fascinated Chinese learners of English. This paper mainly presents a discussion of English vocabulary acquisition by Chinese learners in the respect of vocabulary size and correct use. Through the analysis of the problems existing in the present vocabulary learning and teaching, author also presents some learning strategies to expand vocabulary size.

  7. Increased Cortisol and Cortisone Levels in Overweight Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lanling; Shen, Kangwei; Liu, Ping; Ye, Kan; Wang, Yu; Li, Chen; Kang, Xuejun; Song, Yuan

    2017-02-09

    BACKGROUND It has been unclear whether relatively high cortisol and cortisone levels are related to overweight in childhood, parental body mass index (BMI), and family dietary habits. The aim of this study was to compare cortisol and cortisone levels in urine and saliva from overweight and normal children, as well as correlations between children's BMI, parental BMI and family dietary behavior questionnaire score (QS). MATERIAL AND METHODS We analyzed the data from 52 overweight children and 53 age- and sex-matched normal-weight children aged 4-5 years. The concentrations of salivary cortisol (SF), salivary cortisone (SE), urinary cortisol (UF) and urinary cortisone (UE) were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The family dietary behavior QS was answered by the parent mainly responsible for the family diet. RESULTS Average cortisol and cortisone levels were significantly higher in overweight children. There was no significant difference in the ratio of cortisol to cortisone (Rcc) and the marker of 11b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) activities. The results displayed correlations among cortisol, cortisone, and Rcc. Positive correlations were weak-to-moderate between BMI and SF, SE, UF, and UE. There were correlations between BMI and maternal BMI (mBMI), and BMI was significantly associated with QS. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that cortisol and cortisone levels are associated with overweight in children, but the 11β-HSD2 activities showed no significant differences. Unhealthy family diet was associated with higher BMI, UF, and UE, and families with maternal overweight or obesity had a higher prevalence of children's overweight or obesity.

  8. Essential fructosuria: increased levels of fructose 3-phosphate in erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, A; Steinmann, B; Gitzelmann, R

    1992-01-01

    Erythrocytes of 3 adult siblings with essential fructosuria contained 45-200 mumol/l fructose 3-phosphate (Fru-3-P), i.e. 3-15 times the concentration in normal controls. Sorbitol 3-phosphate was also increased, but to a lesser degree. An oral load with 50 g of fructose produced an additional 40 mumol/l increase of erythrocyte Fru-3-P after 5 h. The rate of Fru-3-P formation by red cells in vitro was normal. HbA1 and HbA1c were normal. The suspected pathogenetic role of Fru-3-P in diabetic complications is questioned.

  9. Intracellular levels of calmodulin are increased in transformed cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; HONGQINGZHANG; 等

    1992-01-01

    By using Hoechst 33342,rabbit anti calmodulin antibody,FITC-labeled goat anti rabbit IgG and SR101(sulfo rhodamine 101)simultaneously to stain individual normal and transformed cells,the microspectrophotometric analysis demonstrated that 3 markers which represented the nucleus,calmodulin and total protein respectively,could be recognized in individualj cells without interference,The phase of the cell cycle was determined by DNA content(Hoechst 33342),We found that in transformed cells(NIH3T3) tsRSV-LA90,cultured at 33℃ and transformed C3H10T1/2 Cells),the ration of calmodulin to total protein (based on the phases of cell cycle)was higher than that in normal cells (NIH3T3 tsRSV-LA90 cells,cultured at 39℃ and C3H10T1/2 cells)in every cell cycle phase,This ration increased obviously only from G1 to S phase in either normal or transformed cells.The results showed that calmodulinreally increased during the transformation,and its increase was specific.In the meantime when cells proceeded from G1 to S.the intraceollular calmodulin content also increased specifically.

  10. Increase in voice level and speaker comfort in lecture rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas; Gade, Anders Christian; Bellester, Gaspar Payá

    2009-01-01

    Teachers often suffer from health problems related to their voice. These problems are related to their working environment, including the acoustics of the lecture rooms. However, there is a lack of studies linking the room acoustic parameters to the voice produced by the speaker. In this pilot......, and other physical attributes, the sound power level produced by six speakers was measured. Objective room acoustic parameters were measured in the same rooms, including reverberation time and room gain, and questionnaires were handed out to people who had experience talking in the rooms. It is found...

  11. Speaker comfort and increase of voice level in lecture rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas; Gade, Anders Christian; Bellester, G P

    2008-01-01

    the objectively measurable parameters of the rooms and the objective voice power produced by speakers. In rooms with different sizes, reverberation time and other physical attributes, the sound power levels produced by six speakers where measured while giving a short lecture. Relevant room acoustic parameters......Teachers often suffer health problems or tension related to their voice. These problems may be related to there working environment, including room acoustics of the lecture rooms which forces them to stress their voices. The present paper describes a first effort in finding relationships between...

  12. Discussion on English Vocabulary and Description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Lan; Zhang Shiying

    2013-01-01

    Compared with the study of Grammar, syntax, the description on vocabulary is comparatively slower than them. The related theories of vocabulary description have fast developed since the 1980s and 1990s have experienced a growing interest in vocabulary learning and teaching----The vocabulary size, text coverage, word list, meaning of vocabulary in context, and collocation have been discovered and described, which helped new insights in arrange of different research fields have all added to our understanding of vocabulary development. Vocabulary acquisition research, based on vocabulary description, has established itself as a central research focus for language acquisition researchers and contributed to the focus of practical teaching and learning in English.

  13. The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Nasser; Mortazavi, Fariba

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size of Iranian university EFL students. Participants in the present study were a total of 67 EFL learners, studying at Shiraz Azad University as senior English Translation students. The instruments utilized for data collection were three tests: A…

  14. Problems of Controlled Vocabulary versus Uncontrolled Vocabulary in Subject Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-chen Chen

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is mainly to survey the centennial controversy between controlled vocabulary v. uncontrolled vocabulary of subject indexing in the western library and information society. We also discuss the related problems in Chinese information retrieval systems and analyze the factors affecting their performance. [Article content in Chinese

  15. The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Nasser; Mortazavi, Fariba

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size of Iranian university EFL students. Participants in the present study were a total of 67 EFL learners, studying at Shiraz Azad University as senior English Translation students. The instruments utilized for data collection were three tests: A…

  16. Improving Vocabulary of English Language Learners through Direct Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Meghan; Feng, Jay

    2016-01-01

    This is a report of a professional development project. The purpose of the project was to provide professional development to teachers in vocabulary instructional strategies and to examine vocabulary acquisition of English language learners. The participants were 8 second grade ELL students and 6 second grade teachers. The eight second grade…

  17. Vocabulary Breadth and Field Dependence/Independence Cognitive Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Golaghaei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is primarily bidirectional in that it is concerned with two fields of cognitive styles of field-dependency/independency on one hand and breadth of vocabulary knowledge on the other hand. In other word, this research is primarily intended to investigate the nature of the students' vocabulary knowledge in the field of passive and active knowledge of L2 words as a whole with regard to their preferred cognitive style of field dependency/independency. A group of 60 undergraduate students majoring in the field of English Language Teaching was selected. They were then divided into two groups based on the basis of their preferred cognitive styles of field-dependency / independency. Four types of tests, the 1000 frequency word-level test, the passive version of vocabulary Levels Test, the Productive Version of the Vocabulary Levels Test, and the Group Imbedded Figures Test were administered to the participants. The conclusion drawn after the analysis of the data was that the fieldindependent group outperformed their field-dependent counterparts in dealing with both passive and productive vocabulary levels. Finally, the findings of this research could be interpreted as being supportive of the idea that the field-dependent/independent cognitive style could be considered as an effective factor influencing the learners' vocabulary learning in the field of second language acquisition.

  18. Increased levels of soluble CD163 in periodontitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detzen, Laurent; Chen, Steven C Y; Cheng, Bin; Papapanou, Panos N; Lalla, Evanthia

    2017-06-01

    Soluble CD163 (sCD163) has been implicated as a new biomarker in inflammatory conditions. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess CD163 levels systemically and locally in patients with chronic periodontitis. sCD163 levels were measured by ELISA in serum samples from 70 periodontitis and 70 periodontally healthy subjects, and in saliva samples in a subset of the population. Two gingival biopsies were harvested per subject from 20 periodontitis patients: one from a periodontally affected site, the other from a healthy site, and the relative expression of CD163 mRNA was assessed by real-time PCR. Serum sCD163 was significantly higher in periodontitis patients compared to periodontally healthy subjects (720.0 ± 330.6 ng/ml versus 510.7 ± 219.6 ng/ml, respectively; p CD163 gene expression was significantly higher in affected sites compared to unaffected sites in periodontitis patients, with a mean fold upregulation of 9.9 (STD: 15.3, p = .010). Our findings suggest that CD163 may be involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis and its link with systemic conditions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Receptive Vocabulary and Cognition of Elderly People in Institutional Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahimagic, Amela; Zunic, Lejla Junuzovic; Ibrahimagic, Omer C; Smajlovic, Dzevdet; Rasidovic, Mirsada

    2017-06-01

    Basic cognitive functions such as: alertness, working memory, long term memory and perception, as well as higher levels of cognitive functions like: speech and language, decision-making and executive functions are affected by aging processes. Relations between the receptive vocabulary and cognitive functioning, and the manifestation of differences between populations of elderly people based on the primary disease is in the focus of this study. To examine receptive vocabulary and cognition of elderly people with: verified stroke, dementia, verified stroke and dementia, and without the manifested brain disease. The sample consisted of 120 participants older than 65 years, living in an institution. A total of 26 variables was analyzed and classified into three groups: case history/anamnestic, receptive vocabulary assessment, and cognitive assessments. The interview with social workers, nurses and caregivers, as well as medical files were used to determine the anamnestic data. A Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (MoCA) was used for the assessment of cognition. In order to estimate the receptive vocabulary, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test was used. Mean raw score of receptive vocabulary is 161.58 (+-21:58 points). The best results for cognitive assessment subjects achieved on subscales of orientation, naming, serial subtraction, and delayed recall. Discriminative analysis showed the significant difference in the development of receptive vocabulary and cognitive functioning in relation to the primary disease of elderly people. The biggest difference was between subjects without manifested brain disease (centroid = 1.900) and subjects with dementia (centroid = -1754). There is a significant difference between elderly with stroke; dementia; stroke and dementia, and elderly people without manifested disease of the brain in the domain of receptive vocabulary and cognitive functioning. Variables of serial subtraction, standardized test results of receptive vocabulary

  20. Direct teaching and incidental learning of vocabulary: a further cycle of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Al-Homoud

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The current research compares two conditions of L2 vocabulary learning, i.e. explicit teaching and incidental learning. Forty-five female participants, majoring in English at Alimam Mohammad Ibn-Saud Islamic University, Saudi Arabia, took part in this research. They were divided into two groups: read plus (RP and read only (RO. Three levels of vocabulary knowledge (form recall, meaning recall, and meaning recognition were assessed. The results showed that both conditions cater for vocabulary learning, however the RP group had significantly outperformed their RO counterparts. Moreover, the results showed that vocabulary learning in this study followed the general tendency starting from a receptive level to a productive level. Finally, the results of the current study confirmed what Sonbul and Schmitt (2010 have arrived at. Key words: vocabulary knowledge, vocabulary learning, explicit (direct teaching, incidental learning, attrition, retention.

  1. Increased neurofilament light chain blood levels in neurodegenerative neurological diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Gaiottino

    Full Text Available Neuronal damage is the morphological substrate of persisting neurological disability. Neurofilaments (Nf are cytoskeletal proteins of neurons and their release into cerebrospinal fluid has shown encouraging results as a biomarker for neurodegeneration. This study aimed to validate the quantification of the Nf light chain (NfL in blood samples, as a biofluid source easily accessible for longitudinal studies.We developed and applied a highly sensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL based immunoassay for quantification of NfL in blood and CSF.Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD (30.8 pg/ml, n=20, Guillain-Barré-syndrome (GBS (79.4 pg/ml, n=19 or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS (95.4 pg/ml, n=46 had higher serum NfL values than a control group of neurological patients without evidence of structural CNS damage (control patients, CP (4.4 pg/ml, n=68, p<0.0001 for each comparison, p=0.002 for AD patients and healthy controls (HC (3.3 pg/ml, n=67, p<0.0001. Similar differences were seen in corresponding CSF samples. CSF and serum levels correlated in AD (r=0.48, p=0.033, GBS (r=0.79, p<0.0001 and ALS (r=0.70, p<0.0001, but not in CP (r=0.11, p=0.3739. The sensitivity and specificity of serum NfL for separating ALS from healthy controls was 91.3% and 91.0%.We developed and validated a novel ECL based sandwich immunoassay for the NfL protein in serum (NfL(Umea47:3; levels in ALS were more than 20-fold higher than in controls. Our data supports further longitudinal studies of serum NfL in neurodegenerative diseases as a potential biomarker of on-going disease progression, and as a potential surrogate to quantify effects of neuroprotective drugs in clinical trials.

  2. Moving Controlled Vocabularies into the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R.; Lowry, R. K.; Kokkinaki, A.

    2015-12-01

    One of the issues with legacy oceanographic data formats is that the only tool available for describing what a measurement is and how it was made is a single metadata tag known as the parameter code. The British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) has been supporting the international oceanographic community gain maximum benefit from this through a controlled vocabulary known as the BODC Parameter Usage Vocabulary (PUV). Over time this has grown to over 34,000 entries some of which have preferred labels with over 400 bytes of descriptive information detailing what was measured and how. A decade ago the BODC pioneered making this information available in a more useful form with the implementation of a prototype vocabulary server (NVS) that referenced each 'parameter code' as a URL. This developed into the current server (NVS V2) in which the parameter URL resolves into an RDF document based on the SKOS data model which includes a list of resource URLs mapped to the 'parameter'. For example the parameter code for a contaminant in biota, such as 'cadmium in Mytilus edulis', carries RDF triples leading to the entry for Mytilus edulis in the WoRMS and for cadmium in the ChEBI ontologies. By providing links into these external ontologies the information captured in a 1980s parameter code now conforms to the Linked Data paradigm of the Semantic Web, vastly increasing the descriptive information accessible to a user. This presentation will describe the next steps along the road to the Semantic Web with the development of a SPARQL end point1 to expose the PUV plus the 190 other controlled vocabularies held in NVS. Whilst this is ideal for those fluent in SPARQL, most users require something a little more user-friendly and so the NVS browser2 was developed over the end point to allow less technical users to query the vocabularies and navigate the NVS ontology. This tool integrates into an editor that allows vocabulary content to be manipulated by authorised users outside BODC

  3. Increased Pathological Worry Levels in Patients with Alopecia Areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak Sahin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Alopecia Areata (AA is a type of hair loss that has been considered to have associations with various psychiatric disorders. In this study, we aimed to compare pathological worry levels between patients with AA and healthy controls (HC. Material and Method: Sixty-three patients with AA and 90 HCs were included in the present study after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. The socio-demographic characteristics, some clinical characteristics, and the scores from the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ were compared between groups. Results: The demographic characteristics were found to be similar between groups except for gender. The family history of AA was significantly higher in the AA group. The mean score of PSWQ in the AA group was 44.02 ± 11.59, compared to 39.71 ± 7.77 in the HC group. The mean score of PSWQ was significantly higher in the AA group (t=-3.27, p= 0.001.Discussion: The present study is the first to compare pathological worry between patients with AA and HCs. We suggest that pathological worry should be more thoroughly investigated in patients with AA to improve their quality of life. Also, this can be an effective approach to targeting the patients who may develop anxiety disorder.

  4. Receptive vocabulary size of secondary spanish efl learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Canga Alonso

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper responds to the need of research on vocabulary knowledge in foreign language in secondary education in Spain. Thus, this research aims at investigating (i the receptive vocabulary knowledge of 49 girls and 43 boys, Spanish students learning English as a foreign language in a secondary school located in the north of Spain, and (ii its pedagogical implications for students’ understanding of written and spoken discourse in English (Adolphs & Schmitt 2004; Laufer 1992, 1997; Nation 2001. We used the 2,000 frequency band of the Vocabulary Level Test (VLT (Schmitt, Schmitt & Clapham, 2001, version 2 as the instrument to measure students’ receptive vocabulary knowledge. Our results reveal that the means of girls’ receptive vocabulary size is below 1,000 words, which agrees with the estimates proposed by López-Mezquita (2005 for Spanish students of the same age and educational level. On the contrary, the means for boys is slightly above 1,000 words, being the differences between boys’ and girls’ performance in the VLT statistically relevant. Our data also indicate that most of the students analysed in the present study could have problems to understand written and spoken discourse due to their low scores in the receptive vocabulary level test.

  5. Strategies for teaching and learning vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Teng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article presents an overview of current research on second language vocabulary learning and proposes eight strategies for teaching and learning vocabulary. First, to facilitate effective vocabulary teaching, choosing high-frequency words is essential. Teachers of vocabulary also need to add explicit, intentional teaching to incidental learning. In addition, vocabulary learning strategies including morphological awareness and lexical inference provides a platform by which learners can improve both receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge. This article also suggests that productive vocabulary knowledge needs more attention than receptive vocabulary knowledge, and that available textbooks seldom address vocabulary sufficiently. In summary, it is very important for all learners and teachers to acknowledge that learning vocabulary is incremental in nature, and we should develop a principled, long-term program for teaching and learning vocabulary.

  6. Essential French Vocabulary Teach Yourself

    CERN Document Server

    Saint-Thomas, Noel

    2010-01-01

    Essential French Vocabulary is the course for you if you need help with your study of French. This fully revised edition of our best-selling course now comes with free downloadable audio support containing hints on how to learn vocabulary effectively.

  7. Teaching Vocabulary for Peace Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Francisco Gomes

    2002-01-01

    Shows English-as-a-Second-Language educators how vocabulary teaching can become humanizingly meaningful through the use of techniques inspired by some of the interdependent traditions to peace, and to make a plea for ESL teachers and learners to humanize their repertoires of best practices in vocabulary teaching and learning. (Author/VWL)

  8. Methods of Enlarging English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁小航

    2012-01-01

      In order to enlarge English vocabulary , we need to have some methods. I’d like to share my experience with begin⁃ners how I enlarge English vocabulary when when I am learning English. It is a long process and needs hard work and patience.

  9. Reading, Dictionaries, and Vocabulary Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppescu, Stuart; Day, Richard R.

    1993-01-01

    The usefulness of bilingual dictionaries for vocabulary learning was examined with 293 Japanese university students studying English as a foreign language. Students who used a dictionary during reading scored significantly better on a vocabulary test than those who did not, but there was evidence for differential item functioning. (25 references)…

  10. VOCABULARY AND LANGUAGE TEACHING

    OpenAIRE

    Abrudan Cristiana

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we have looked at the difference between teaching language structure and teaching vocabulary. We have discussed how counts of frequency alone are not enough to determine what words should be taught. We have seen that knowing a word means more than just knowing its meaning. Even that is problematical since meaning includes sense relations and context, for example. To know a word we also need to know about its use, how it is formed and what grammatical behavior it provokes. Above ...

  11. Tectonic Vocabulary & Materialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Beim, Anne; Bundgaard, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    By referring to the fundamental question of how we unite aesthetics and technology – tectonic theory is necessarily a focal point in the development of the architectural discipline. However, a critical reconsideration of the role of tectonic theory seems necessary when facing the present everyday...... architectural practice. In this matter the paper focuses on the need to juxtapose theoretical studies, to bring the present vocabulary of the tectonic further, as well as to spur further practical experiments enabling theory to materialize in the everyday of the current practice....

  12. Nuclear engineering vocabulary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumont, X. [FRAMATOME, Dept. Corporate R and D, 92 - Paris-La-Defence (France); Andrieux, C. [CEA Saclay, Direction des Technologies de l' Information, DTI, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2001-07-01

    The members of the CSTNIN - the Special Commission for Nuclear Engineering Terminology and Neology - have just produced a Nuclear Engineering Vocabulary, published by SFEN. A 120-page document which, to date, includes 400 nuclear engineering terms or expressions. For each term or expression, this Glossary gives: the primary and secondary subject field in which it is applied, a possible abbreviation, its definition, a synonym if appropriate, any relevant comments, any associated word(s), the English equivalent, its status on the date of publication of the Glossary. (author)

  13. Tectonic Vocabulary & Materialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Beim, Anne; Bundgaard, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    to establish a Nordic Network for Research and Teaching in Tectonics is currently forming. This paper seeks to jointly reflect upon these initiatives in order to bring them further, with the intention to clad a discourse on the future of tectonic architectural research that addresses the conditions of everyday...... architectural practice. In this matter the paper focuses on the need to juxtapose theoretical studies, to bring the present vocabulary of the tectonic further, as well as to spur further practical experiments enabling theory to materialize in the everyday of the current practice....

  14. An Investigation Into College English Vocabulary Learning Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马慧

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the investigation into college English vocabulary learning strategies.The non-English major students should be instructed and encouraged by the teachers to apply various kinds of VLS that can facilitate their learning achievement because the versatile strategy use is not only a way to meet the increasing demand for vocabulary learning,but also a key to success in the learning of the English language.

  15. Do infant vocabulary skills predict school-age language and literacy outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Fiona J; Reen, Gurpreet; Plunkett, Kim; Nation, Kate

    2015-08-01

    Strong associations between infant vocabulary and school-age language and literacy skills would have important practical and theoretical implications: Preschool assessment of vocabulary skills could be used to identify children at risk of reading and language difficulties, and vocabulary could be viewed as a cognitive foundation for reading. However, evidence to date suggests predictive ability from infant vocabulary to later language and literacy is low. This study provides an investigation into, and interpretation of, the magnitude of such infant to school-age relationships. Three hundred British infants whose vocabularies were assessed by parent report in the 2nd year of life (between 16 and 24 months) were followed up on average 5 years later (ages ranged from 4 to 9 years), when their vocabulary, phonological and reading skills were measured. Structural equation modelling of age-regressed scores was used to assess the strength of longitudinal relationships. Infant vocabulary (a latent factor of receptive and expressive vocabulary) was a statistically significant predictor of later vocabulary, phonological awareness, reading accuracy and reading comprehension (accounting for between 4% and 18% of variance). Family risk for language or literacy difficulties explained additional variance in reading (approximately 10%) but not language outcomes. Significant longitudinal relationships between preliteracy vocabulary knowledge and subsequent reading support the theory that vocabulary is a cognitive foundation of both reading accuracy and reading comprehension. Importantly however, the stability of vocabulary skills from infancy to later childhood is too low to be sufficiently predictive of language outcomes at an individual level - a finding that fits well with the observation that the majority of 'late talkers' resolve their early language difficulties. For reading outcomes, prediction of future difficulties is likely to be improved when considering family

  16. Is Vocabulary Growth Influenced by the Relations among Words in a Language Learner's Vocabulary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailor, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Several recent studies have explored the applicability of the preferential attachment principle to account for vocabulary growth. According to this principle, network growth can be described by a process in which existing nodes recruit new nodes with a probability that is an increasing function of their connectivity within the existing network.…

  17. Interferon-beta increases systemic BAFF levels in multiple sclerosis without increasing autoantibody production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Chris J; Sellebjerg, Finn; Krakauer, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Treatment with interferon-beta (IFN-beta) increases B-cell activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF) expression in multiple sclerosis (MS), raising the concern that treatment of MS patients with IFN-beta may activate autoimmune B cells and stimulate the production of MS-associated au......Background: Treatment with interferon-beta (IFN-beta) increases B-cell activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF) expression in multiple sclerosis (MS), raising the concern that treatment of MS patients with IFN-beta may activate autoimmune B cells and stimulate the production of MS...

  18. Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Arabic Vocabulary Size among Pre-University Students in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharudin, Harun; Ismail, Zawawi

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size are among the main factors that help determine how students learn second language vocabulary. The present study was an attempt to exploring the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and Arabic vocabulary size of 742 pre-university in "Religious High School" (SMKA) and…

  19. The Challenge of Effective Vocabulary Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cárdenas B. Melba Libia

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Helping students develop vocabulary competence is one of the main challenges English language teachers face. This paper addresses the main aspects we should consider when planning and developing lessons in terms of vocabulary improvement. To achieve that objective, we will analyse the linguistic background and principles of vocabulary teaching and learning, as well as some ways of opening up vocabulary.

  20. For ELLs: Vocabulary beyond the Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Nancy S.; Truxaw, Mary P.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a classroom teacher discusses ambiguities in mathematics vocabulary and strategies for ELL students in building understanding. The authors note that mathematics vocabulary may be more difficult to learn than other academic vocabulary for several reasons: (1) definitions are filled with technical vocabulary, symbols, and diagrams;…

  1. [Anglicisms in the German medical vocabulary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleyer, F

    1985-01-01

    In view of an ever-increasing infiltration of the German medical vocabulary by Britishisms and Americanisms, a linguistic attempt was made to categorize this phraseology as follows: more or less incorporated terminology, "internationalized" terms, identical translations, unnecessary use of English expressions instead of German synonyms, borrowing from the English with an alteration of the original meaning, and German neologisms on the basis of English vocabular material. Specimens from all these categories are enumerated.

  2. Improving New Vocabulary Learning in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombia Ovalle María

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to help students increase their vocabulary learning in context because when learners participate in a special class with different activities and keep in mind the situation, they remember new words. The study was carried out in the action research method, and the activities provided to students encouraged learning and motivated them to practice English more.

  3. DSpace and customized controlled vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skourlas, C.; Tsolakidis, A.; Kakoulidis, P.; Giannakopoulos, G.

    2015-02-01

    The open source platform of DSpace could be defined as a repository application used to provide access to digital resources. DSpace is installed and used by more than 1000 organizations worldwide. A predefined taxonomy of keyword, called the Controlled Vocabulary, can be used for describing and accessing the information items stored in the repository. In this paper, we describe how the users can create, and customize their own vocabularies. Various heterogeneous items, such as research papers, videos, articles and educational material of the repository, can be indexed in order to provide advanced search functionality using new controlled vocabularies.

  4. Vocabulary in SLA Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    HUSTON, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1980's, vocabulary acquisition has been one of the most actively researched aspects of SLA (Lightbown & Spada, 2006). Four factors emerge in an investigation of the development of the role of L2 vocabulary learning in SLA. First, successive SLA theories marginalized vocabulary, often emphasizing the importance of grammar. Second, a growing body of empirical research showed the efficiency and effectiveness of direct vocabulary teaching. Third, overestimates of L1 vocabulary size led ...

  5. Vocabulary and Syntactic Knowledge Factors in 5th Grade Students’ Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouider MOKHTARI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined 5th grade students’ levels of vocabulary knowledge and syntactic awareness relative to their reading comprehension performance. The aim was to explore the contributions of vocabulary and syntactic awareness as potential sources of reading comprehension difficulty for these readers. Overall, we found that both vocabulary knowledge and syntactic awareness contributed in significant yet unique ways to students’ reading comprehension performance. Students who showed weaknesses in vocabulary and syntax also performed poorly on measures of reading comprehension. Additionally, we found that syntactic awareness explained a small amount of additional variance in reading comprehension beyond what was explained by vocabulary. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of research and practice addressing the relationships among syntax, vocabulary, and reading comprehension for more and less skilled readers.

  6. Developing and Evaluating an Adaptive Business English Self-Learning System for EFL Vocabulary Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Yen-Hui Wang

    2014-01-01

    This paper developed an adaptive Business English self-learning system for EFL vocabulary learning. The components of word reoccurrence and learner engagement have been built into the system where the amount of unknown word reexposure in various customized texts increases and vocabulary enhancement tasks are added to promote learner engagement with wanted words. To evaluate the system effectiveness on EFL vocabulary learning, the experimental group read system-screened texts with immediate an...

  7. Vocabularies of happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Bratu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to explore through interviews the vocabularies of happiness that interviewees invoke in face-to-face interactions to account for their happiness or lack thereof and, especially, for the (unhappiness of others. In other words, how do respondents present their own or others’ happiness – be they close or distant acquaintances, or people in general, in an interview conversation? Also, what understanding of others do these accounts make visible? This work embraces a discursive psychological (DP perspective, focusing on how different versions of happiness are being put together by respondents presenting themselves as competent and credible individuals, while at the same time positioning themselves in a moral order of happiness.

  8. THE EFFICIENCY OF VOCABULARY TEACHING METHODS IN TURKİSH LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükran DİLİDÜZGÜN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Realising communication requires senders’ vocabulary knowledge to use correct words to transfer their ideas to receivers. The more vocabulary one has the more capable one is to express oneself and to comprehend messages. A little vocabulary is enough for daily affairs, but people need to get vocabulary education officially to improve their cognivite development, and intellectual thinking. This education is limited to the vocabulary in Turkish coursebooks. Therefore, the vocabulary in coursebooks ought to be taught via the methods which enable ones to store it in long term memory and retrieve when needed. This study aims to evaluate Turkish coursebooks in the context of vocabulary teaching methods and to propose activities in the light of findings to contribute to the field. Firstly, the vocabulary teaching methods in the 6th grade Turkish coursebook taken as sample have been classified in a descriptive manner. After that, these methods have been evaluated in the context of retrival levels of students applying a vocabulary test prepared with the words chosen randomly from the 6th level Turkish coursebook to 180 7th grade students from all over Turkey who studied the same book in the previous year to determine the effiency of the methods used.

  9. Inquiry experiences and the development of science vocabulary and concepts with English language learners (ELLs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Tammy Deneene

    The primary objective of this project was to analyze the change in use of academic science vocabulary and conceptual understanding of erosion by the ELLs participating in the Math, Science and Language (MSL) camp conducted in 2008. The researcher examined archival data in the form of student journals collected during the MSL camp of 2008. Current assessments are not developed to assess both vocabulary development and conceptual understanding. The researcher developed a new assessment tool named JASTO that allowed assessment of both vocabulary and conceptual understanding parallel to one another. JASTO was used to analyze the science journals of the MSL camp of 2008. Data indicate an increase in conceptual understanding of the erosion topic. Some students expressed their understanding using everyday vocabulary and others using academic vocabulary. The type of vocabulary usage was dependent on the English language proficiency of the student.

  10. Learners' independent records of vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Leeke, Philip

    1999-01-01

    Handbooks recommend a variety of quite complicated procedures for learning and remembering vocabulary, but most learners only engage in very simple procedures. The aim of this project was to establish a basis for identifying optimal vocabulary recording procedures by finding out what learners...... currently do. We administered a questionnaire, interviewed learners who said that they kept vocabulary records of some kind and examined their records. Two-thirds had given up making vocabulary lists on entering the L2 environment and/or starting to read extensively, but several made interesting lists...... to be bilingual and single-word focused. The optimal listing procedures are those which represent a compromise between linguistically and psychologically effective practices and the amount of investment learners are actually prepared to put in. It is important to distinguish records made in class, which should...

  11. Student-Created Vocabulary Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Donald

    2016-01-01

    In this paper is described a preliminary study at a Japanese university on student affect toward self-created vocabulary tests. In order to foster greater learner autonomy in their vocabulary study, students were tasked with selecting words they wished to learn and creating their own tests using a template provided by the teacher. At the end of the course, a survey examining student attitudes toward the activity was conducted with 140 participants. The results were encouraging as they indicat...

  12. TOEFL IBT vocabulary flash review

    CERN Document Server

    Llc, Learning Express

    2014-01-01

    The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) measures the English proficiency of people whose native language isn't English. This portable guide features 600 essential TOEFL vocabulary flashcards, bound in a convenient book format, with definitions, sample sentences, synonyms, and pronunciation. The cards include the most-tested vocabulary on the exam. The perfect companion to any TOEFL study plan, this book is pocket-sized for portability and great for study anywhere, anytime!

  13. Dithiocarbamate fungicides increase intracellular Zn(2+) levels by increasing influx of Zn(2+) in rat thymic lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemoto-Kataoka, Yumiko; Oyama, Tomohiro M; Ishibashi, Hitoshi; Oyama, Yasuo

    2015-07-25

    Dithiocarbamate fungicides are used as alternative antifouling agents to highly toxic organotin antifouling agents, such as tri-n-butyltin and triphenyltin. There are some concerns regarding their environmental and health risks. It has been shown that tri-n-butyltin increases intracellular Zn(2+) levels of mammalian lymphocytes. Therefore, we examined the effects of dithiocarbamate fungicides (Ziram, Thiram, and Zineb) on rat thymic lymphocytes using a flow-cytometric technique to elucidate how these fungicides affect intracellular Zn(2+) levels. We further determined whether the agents increase intracellular Zn(2+) and/or Ca(2+), because both Zn(2+) and Ca(2+) are intracellular signals in lymphocytes, and excessive increases in their intracellular concentrations can have adverse effects. Dithiocarbamate fungicides increased intracellular Zn(2+) levels, without affecting intracellular Ca(2+) levels. Ziram was the most potent compound, increasing intracellular Zn(2+) levels via Zn(2+) influx. Ziram (1μM) greatly decreased the cellular nonprotein thiol content, and Zn(2+) chelators attenuated the Ziram-induced decrease. Ziram increased the population of annexin V-positive cells in a Zn(2+)-dependent manner. Therefore, we propose that dithiocarbamate fungicides induce Zn(2+) influx, resulting in an excessive elevation of intracellular Zn(2+) levels, leading to the induction of apoptosis. This study gives a basic insight into the mechanisms of dithiocarbamate fungicide-induced adverse events.

  14. Functional connectivity changes in second language vocabulary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi Saidi, Ladan; Perlbarg, Vincent; Marrelec, Guillaume; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélani; Benali, Habib; Ansaldo, Ana-Inés

    2013-01-01

    Functional connectivity changes in the language network (Price, 2010), and in a control network involved in second language (L2) processing (Abutalebi & Green, 2007) were examined in a group of Persian (L1) speakers learning French (L2) words. Measures of network integration that characterize the global integrative state of a network (Marrelec, Bellec et al., 2008) were gathered, in the shallow and consolidation phases of L2 vocabulary learning. Functional connectivity remained unchanged across learning phases for L1, whereas total, between- and within-network integration levels decreased as proficiency for L2 increased. The results of this study provide the first functional connectivity evidence regarding the dynamic role of the language processing and cognitive control networks in L2 learning (Abutalebi, Cappa, & Perani, 2005; Altarriba & Heredia, 2008; Leonard et al., 2011; Parker-Jones et al., 2011). Thus, increased proficiency results in a higher degree of automaticity and lower cognitive effort (Segalowitz & Hulstijn, 2005).

  15. Development of a Mandarin Expressive and Receptive Vocabulary Test for children using cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaopan; Wong, Lena L-N; Wong, Anita M-Y; Xi, Xin

    2013-10-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) provide children with profound hearing loss access to sounds and speech. Research on the effects of CI on speech and language development in mainland China is scarce due to the lack of standardized tests. This study aims at developing a vocabulary measure, the Mandarin Expressive and Receptive Vocabulary Test (MERVT), for pre-school children with CIs. Using responses from 102 normal-hearing preschool children, the initial vocabulary set was subjected to analyses to identify items with appropriate levels of difficulty and discrimination. Norms on 245 normal-hearing children aged 1;6 to 3;11 were later collected based on the final set of the items. Evaluation of the test's psychometric properties revealed good internal consistency. Significant correlations between the total MERVT scores and the Gesell Developmental Scale scores, between the MERVT expressive and receptive subtest scores and the total scores, and the gradual increase in MERVT scores with age, provided evidence of construct validity. Results from 29 children with CIs were also examined for evidence of the MERVT's construct validity. There was a significant correlation between these children's MERVT scores and their scores from an intelligence test. The MERVT scores increased with an increase in the duration of CI use and in chronological age. With good reliability and strong validity, the test is recommended for use in the monitoring of language development in children with CI.

  16. Collaborative Learning and Iranian EFL learners’ Vocabulary Improvement through Snowball and Word-Webbing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Afghari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was an attempt to look into the effect of collaborative learning on the learners’ improvement in vocabulary learning. Moreover, the learners’ attitudes about vocabulary learning were taken into account as well. The study was conducted with the participation of 30 intermediate Iranian EFL (English as a foreign language learners, who were studying in a private language institute. To collect the data, OPT (Oxford Placement Test was applied to check the learners’ proficiency level and meet the homogeneity requirements. Then, the learners took the vocabulary pre- and post-test to check the effectiveness of treatment sessions on the learners’ vocabulary learning. Semi-structured interview was also done to investigate the learners’ awareness regarding learning vocabularies before and after the treatment sessions. Findings showed that the applied collaborative techniques, i.e. word-webbing and snowball techniques paved the way for the experimental group to outperform the control group since improvement in vocabulary learning was found to be significant. Moreover, Qualitative results revealed the occurrence of positive changes in the learners’ attitudes about vocabulary learning since almost all the learners concurred that the above-mentioned collaborative techniques assisted them in their better speaking and, by having more interaction through group work, enjoyable environment was created for learning target vocabularies. It was suggested that collaborative instruction should be implemented in teaching vocabulary as it can pave the way for both teachers and learners to benefit from a communicative language classroom.

  17. Developing a Specialized Vocabulary Word List in a Composition Culinary Course through Lecture Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Nordin N. R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning to write in a composition culinary course is very challenging for L2 learners. The main barrier in writing proficiency within this discipline is the lack of vocabulary, specifically the lack of exposure towards specialized vocabulary. This study aims to provide a corpus of specialized vocabulary within a food writing course. By providing students with a word list of specialized vocabulary in the course, students may benefit by familiarizing with the language discourse which will aid in better comprehension of the course, and subsequently facilitate in their writing development. A compilation of all PowerPoint slides from one writing course was assembled and analyzed using the range and frequency program to identify the specialized vocabularies in a food writing course. The corpus was categorized using a four step rating scale, which identified 113 specialized vocabularies in food writing. The learning of specialized vocabulary specialized vocabulary is an important issue at the tertiary level in Malaysia, with educators’ realization of the importance of discourse proficiency in ESP programs, thus many more research is yielded on the many new issues on the teaching and learning of specialized vocabulary particularly within the academic and professional context.

  18. Effects of individualized word retrieval in kindergarten vocabulary intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damhuis, C.M.P.; Segers, P.C.J.; Scheltinga, F.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of adaptive word retrieval intervention on a classroom vocabulary program on children's vocabulary acquisition in kindergarten. In the experimental condition, word retrieval was provided in a classroom vocabulary program, combining implicit and explicit vocabulary

  19. Effects of a Multimedia Professional Development Package on Inclusive Science Teachers' Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Michael J.; Rodgers, Wendy J.; Romig, John Elwood; Lloyd, John Wills; Brownell, Mary T.

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is vital for students' success in school and beyond. However, students with disabilities and others who consistently score below their peers on various measures of vocabulary knowledge have difficulties in secondary-level content area courses. Because many students with disabilities are now educated primarily in general…

  20. Role-Play Game-Enhanced English for a Specific-Purpose Vocabulary-Acquisition Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fang-Chen; Chang, Ben

    2016-01-01

    With the advantages of an engaged and authentic role-play game (RPG), this study aims to develop an RPG-enhanced English for specific purposes (ESP) vocabulary-acquisition framework, providing teachers and students a systematic way to incorporate RPG into ESP learning. The framework is composed of five parts: goal, three-level vocabulary sets, RPG…

  1. The Relationship between Morphological Awareness and Vocabulary Size of EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Omid; Yakhabi, Masumeh

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge of Iranian high school students. Nation's Vocabulary Level Test (VLT) was used to test students' knowledge of words drawn from the 2000, 3000 and 5000 most frequent occurring word families. Two morphological awareness tasks (a morpheme…

  2. Vocabulary and Syntactic Knowledge Factors in 5th Grade Students' Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Kouider; Niederhauser, Dale S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined 5th grade students' levels of vocabulary knowledge and syntactic awareness relative to their reading comprehension performance. The aim was to explore the contributions of vocabulary and syntactic awareness as potential sources of reading comprehension difficulty for these readers. Overall, we found that both vocabulary…

  3. The Yes/No Test as a Measure of Receptive Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochida, Akira; Harrington, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Performance on the Yes/No test (Huibregtse et al., 2002) was assessed as a predictor of scores on the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT), a standard test of receptive second language (L2) vocabulary knowledge (Nation, 1990). The use of identical items on both tests allowed a direct comparison of test performance, with alternative methods for scoring the…

  4. Introduction to the Junior High School English Vocabulary Teaching Methods%浅谈初中英语词汇教学的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹有顺

    2014-01-01

    词汇是语言的三要素之一,如果没有词汇,任何形式的交流都无从谈起。有研究表明,一个人的词汇量越大,其阅读正确率就越高,其听力水平和写作水平也随之提高。由此可见,词汇是多么的重要。但是,词汇的学习却是大部分学生感到头疼的事情。因此,教师应当根据记忆规律和语言规律去有效地教学。根据教学实践和经验,就词汇教学的方法进行了探讨。%Vocabulary is one of the three elements of language, if there are no words, any form of communication is impossible. Research has shown that,the langer a person’s vocabulary,his reading accuracy is higher, the listening and writing level increases. Therefore, vocabulary how important it is. However, most students think vocabulary learning is the most headache thing. Therefore, teachers should according to the laws of memory and language to teach effectively.According to teaching practice and experience, the methods of vocabulary teaching are discussed.

  5. Developing and Evaluating an Adaptive Business English Self-Learning System for EFL Vocabulary Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Hui Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper developed an adaptive Business English self-learning system for EFL vocabulary learning. The components of word reoccurrence and learner engagement have been built into the system where the amount of unknown word reexposure in various customized texts increases and vocabulary enhancement tasks are added to promote learner engagement with wanted words. To evaluate the system effectiveness on EFL vocabulary learning, the experimental group read system-screened texts with immediate and repeated contacts with individuals’ unknown words and performed vocabulary tasks specific to those unknown words, while the control group read online texts without unknown word reoccurrence and vocabulary practice. After one semester, these two groups were measured by one online vocabulary test, and an online user satisfaction investigation was also administered to the experimental group. The study found that the experimental group reading customized texts to reexpose to previously encountered unknown words in different texts along with doing individualized vocabulary exercises performed significantly better in EFL vocabulary learning than the other group. It was also found that the system was appealing for the learners to show positive attitudes toward the use of the system. The study demonstrated that the constructed adaptive Business English self-learning system could effectively promote vocabulary growth.

  6. The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Proficiency of English Language Learners

    OpenAIRE

    F. Filiz Yalçın Tılfarlıoğlu; Yunus Bozgeyik

    2012-01-01

    The current study was carried out to examine L2 learners’ VLS use habits and the relationship of VLS with their vocabulary proficiency levels. In addition, language learners’ beliefs about VLS in terms of usefulness were also studied to understand L2 learners’ VLS use habits more deeply. To examine these matters, a descriptive research design was employed. The participants included 252 preparatory students from different proficiency groups (Upper-Intermediate, Intermediate, Pre-Intermediate, ...

  7. Self-awareness moderates the relation between maternal mental state language about desires and children's mental state vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taumoepeau, Mele; Ruffman, Ted

    2016-04-01

    In this intervention study, we tested the differential effect of talking about children's desires versus talking about others' thoughts and knowledge on children's acquisition of mental state vocabulary for children who did and did not have mirror self-recognition. In a sample of 96 mother-toddler dyads, each mother was randomly assigned a specially constructed, interactive lift-the-flap book to read to her child three times a week for 4 weeks. In the child desire condition the story elicited comments regarding the child's desires, and in the cognitive condition the story elicited the mother's comments about her own thoughts and knowledge while reading the story. Children's mirror self-recognition and mental state vocabulary were assessed at pre- and post-test. Children in the condition that focused on the child's desires showed a significantly greater increase in their mental state vocabulary; however, this effect was moderated by their levels of self-awareness, with children benefitting more from the intervention if they also showed self-recognition at pre-test. We argue that the combination of specific types of maternal talk and children's prior insights facilitates gains in children's mental state vocabulary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of English Vocabulary Learning Strategies by Thai Tertiary-Level Students in Relation to Fields of Study and Language-Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonkongsaen, Nathaya; Intaraprasert, Channarong

    2014-01-01

    The present study was intended to examine the effects of 1) fields of study (arts, business and science-oriented); and 2) language-learning experiences (whether limited or non-limited to formal classroom instructions) on the use of VLSs among Thai tertiary-level students. The participants were 905 Thai EFL students studying in the Northeast of…

  9. Vocabulary Instruction in Fifth Grade and Beyond: Sources of Word Learning and Productive Contexts for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford-Connors, Evelyn; Paratore, Jeanne R.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the vocabulary knowledge of young adolescent and adolescent students has been a focal point of educational research and many teacher professional development initiatives. Yet many teachers continue to use traditional, but generally ineffective, methods of classroom-based vocabulary instruction. Synthesizing the literature around the…

  10. Too Close for (Brain) Comfort: Improving Science Vocabulary Learning in the Middle Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Rebecca; Ray, Jenna; Goolkasian, Paula

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how researchers take a multidisciplinary approach to investigating how middle grades students learn science vocabulary. The authors investigated teaching strategies for increasing retention of science vocabulary with seventh graders and stumbled upon an interesting finding that was not even a target for their study, yet it…

  11. Translating Vocabulary Research to Social Studies Instruction: Before, during, and after Text-Reading Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairrell, Angela; Simmons, Deborah; Swanson, Elizabeth; Edmonds, Meaghan; Vaughn, Sharon; Rupley, William H.

    2011-01-01

    In the upper elementary grades, content-area text gains increasing importance as a primary source of reading and information. This article focuses on the specialized vocabulary demands of social studies texts and presents a framework of teaching and learning strategies based on vocabulary research. Strategies are introduced before, during, and…

  12. Reading Stories to Learn Math: Mathematics Vocabulary Instruction for Children with Early Numeracy Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassinger-Das, Brenna; Jordan, Nancy C.; Dyson, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The present study involved examining whether a storybook reading intervention targeting mathematics vocabulary, such as "equal," "more," and "less," and associated number concepts would increase at-risk children's vocabulary knowledge and number competencies. Children with early numeracy difficulties (N = 124) were…

  13. Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge and Their Effects on L2 Vocabulary Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardakçi, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge have been studied from many different perspectives, but the related literature lacks serious studies dealing with their effects on vocabulary profiles of EFL learners. In this paper, with an aim to fill this gap, the relative effects of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge on L2 vocabulary profiles…

  14. Discussion on English Vocabulary and Description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈岚; 代显华

    2013-01-01

      Compared with the study of Grammar, syntax, the description on vocabulary is comparatively slower than them. The related theories of vocabulary description have fast developed since the 1980s and 1990s have experienced a growing interest in vocabulary learning and teaching----The vocabulary size, text coverage, word list, meaning of vocabulary in context, and collocation have been discovered and described, which helped new insights in arrange of different research fields have all added to our understanding of vocabulary development. Vocabulary acquisition research, based on vocabulary description, has established itself as a central research focus for language acquisition researchers and contributed to the focus of practical teaching and learning in College English.

  15. The Choice of Effective Vocabulary Learning Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建芳

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to make a comparison between good and poor language learners in the use of vocabulary learning strategies.It will introduce some helpful vocabulary learning strategies to help those frustrated Chinese college non-English major learners.

  16. Developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension: a latent change score modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jamie M; Wagner, Richard K; Petscher, Yaacov; Lopez, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    The present study followed a sample of first-grade (N = 316, Mage = 7.05 at first test) through fourth-grade students to evaluate dynamic developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Using latent change score modeling, competing models were fit to the repeated measurements of vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension to test for the presence of leading and lagging influences. Univariate models indicated growth in vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension was determined by two parts: constant yearly change and change proportional to the previous level of the variable. Bivariate models indicated previous levels of vocabulary knowledge acted as leading indicators of reading comprehension growth, but the reverse relation was not found. Implications for theories of developmental relations between vocabulary and reading comprehension are discussed.

  17. 利用内隐和外显策略提升高中英语词汇教学水平%Using the Implicit and Explicit Strategies to Improve English Vocabulary Teaching Level in Senior High School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬平

    2014-01-01

    The author studied the literature in recent years about English vocabulary teaching,summarizes the main results of the research,and attempt to migrate to the teaching in senior high school English vocabulary,assist teachers and students to improve the English teaching effect.%通过研读近年来关于英语词汇教学的文献,总结了各研究的主要成果,并尝试迁移至高中英语词汇教学中,协助师生提升英语教学效率。

  18. Review of L2 Vocabulary Acquisition Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周先军

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary is important in language and language acquisition, but it did not catch as much attention as it deserved for a long time. In this thesis, I’ll go through changes of vocabulary studied in linguistics and language teaching as well as rise of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies. Several aspects of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies will then be reviewed.Issues that need to be further studied will at last be put forward.

  19. Vocabulary Is a Key to English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢翌春

    2008-01-01

    Vocabulary size is an important criterion to measure one's English proficiency. More words mean more freedom in language use. To many English learners, language skill remains difficult due to insufficient vocabulary. Both learners and teachers should be active to find an appropriate way to improve that condition. So it is necessary to know the feature of vocabulary and some effective ways to enlarge vocabulary size.

  20. Review of L2 Vocabulary Acquisition Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周先军

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary is important in language and language acquisition, but it did not catch as much attention as it deserved for a long time. In this thesis, I’ll go through changes of vocabulary studied in linguistics and language teaching as well as rise of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies. Several aspects of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies will then be reviewed .Issues that need to be further studied will at last be put forward.

  1. Vocabulary development in Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants and its relationship with speech perception abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Wong, Lena L N; Zhu, Shufeng; Xi, Xin

    2017-01-01

    China has the largest population of children with hearing impairments and cochlear implantation is gaining popularity there. However, the vocabulary development in this population is largely unexplored. This study examined early vocabulary outcomes, factors influencing early vocabulary development and the relationship between speech perception and vocabulary development in Mandarin-speaking children during the first year of cochlear implant use. A battery of vocabulary tests was administered to 80 children before implantation and 3, 6, and 12 months after implantation. Demographic information was obtained to evaluate their relationships with vocabulary outcomes. The Mandarin-speaking children, who received their cochlear implants before 3 years of age, developed vocabulary at a rate faster than that of their same-aged peers with normal hearing. Better pre-implant hearing levels, younger age at implantation, and higher maternal education level contributed to the early vocabulary development. The trajectories of speech perception development highly correlated with those of vocabulary development during 3 to 12 months of CI use. and Implications: These findings imply that the vocabulary development of children implanted before 3 years of age may catch up with that of their hearing peers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Teachers’ Vocabulary Developing Educational Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lea

    From a perspective of teachers’ continuing professional development (CPD) this paper considers the importance of the influence of teachers’ vocabulary in relation to their understanding and development of teaching practices. As the teacher spends most of her/his career teaching inside the classroom...... educational systems, teacher agency is an important issue. If teacher agencyis understood as the teachers’ active contribution to shaping their work and its conditions – for the overall quality of education (Biesta et al. 2015) then there may be a case for focusing on the development of teacher’s vocabulary...... interview techniqu, 2007) to examine the teachers’ ‘practical reasoning’, to develop (elicitation and reconstruction) a ‘practical argument’ (following: Fenstermacher & Richardson 1993), which points to a process of five premises. In the data collecting and in the analysis of the teachers’ vocabulary...

  3. Perfecting Language: Experimenting with Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absalom, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    One of the thorniest aspects of teaching languages is developing students' vocabulary, yet it is impossible to be "an accurate and highly communicative language user with a very small vocabulary" (Milton, 2009, p. 3). Nation (2006) indicates that more vocabulary than previously thought is required to function well both at spoken and…

  4. Vocabulary Pruning for Improved Context Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    of term relevancy, when pruning the vocabularies. With reduced vocabularies documents are classified using a latent semantic indexing representation and a probabilistic neural network classifier. Reducing the bag-of-words vocabularies with 90%-98%, we find consistent classification improvement using two...

  5. Pruning the vocabulary for better context recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    of term relevancy, when pruning the vocabularies. With reduced vocabularies, documents are classified using a latent semantic indexing representation and a probabilistic neural network classifier. Reducing the bag-of-words vocabularies with 90%-98%, we find consistent classification improvement using two...

  6. Teachers' Technology Use in Vocabulary Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilickaya, Ferit; Krajka, Jaroslaw

    2010-01-01

    It cannot be denied that vocabulary learning is central to learning a language, be it a mother tongue or the second/foreign language. According to Nunan (1991), learning vocabulary in the very early stages is more fundamental than grammar, since without vocabulary one would not be able to use the structures and functions for effective…

  7. Vocabulary Teaching Based on Semantic-Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangru, Cao

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary is an indispensable part of language and it is of vital importance for second language learners. Wilkins (1972) points out: "without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed." Vocabulary teaching has experienced several stages characterized by grammatical-translation method, audio-lingual…

  8. Vocabulary of Toddlers Who Are Late Talkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Shafer, Valerie L.; Fahey, Katlin J.; Kaden, Elyssa R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand vocabulary characteristics in toddlers who are late talkers (LT) as compared with age-matched (AM) and vocabulary-matched (VM) peers. The semantic categories (e.g., animals, foods, toys) and the percentage of nouns, verbs, and closed-class words in the vocabularies of 36 toddlers (12 LT, 12 AM, 12 VM)…

  9. How to develop vocabulary learning strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董振

    2010-01-01

    @@ Due to limited class time,students will not be able to learn all the vocabulary simply from class teaching.Thus we need to help students develop items vocabulary learning strategies so that they can effectively acquire more vocabulary on their own,especially outside the class.Below are some strategies.

  10. Learning Strategies in Acquisition of Medical Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田俊英; 蒋东坡

    2016-01-01

    Medical vocabulary consists of so many words and terms.Medical students are often terrified by large vocabulary.The paper aimed to analyze the problems lie in acquisition of medical vocabulary,review literature of learning strategies of medical vocabulary,and offers a few simple rules for students to follow to facilitate their acquisition of medical vocabulary.

  11. Listening Vocabulary: Embracing Forgotten Aural Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an innovation in the teaching and learning of vocabulary in English as a Foreign Language classes. Whereas vocabulary coverage in classrooms and textbooks traditionally focuses on lists of target words in printed form, this article promotes the notion of "aural vocabulary" as an important part of…

  12. Academic Listening: A Source of Vocabulary Acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Karina

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study of the acquisition of English-as-a-Foreign-Language vocabulary through academic listening. Explored the effects of EFL proficiency and lecture comprehension on vocabulary acquisition as well as the relationship between vocabulary gain and the following factors: frequency of occurrence, types of word, type of word elaboration, and…

  13. Cultivating Pragmatic Competence in English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘果果

    2007-01-01

    vocabulary is one of the most important elements of the language. It is closely related with context and pragmatic. This paper intends to find out some effective method of vocabulary teaching under the pragmatic principles, exploring how to improve pragmatic competence of students in English vocabulary teaching.

  14. Teacher's Role in English Vocabulary Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵新颜

    2009-01-01

    Vocabulary is the basis for learning any language.Anyone who wants to learn a language well faces the challenge of enlarging his/her vocabulary effectively.From six aspects,this paper discusses what teachers should do to help their students with vocabulary acquisition.

  15. Individual and developmental differences in preschoolers' categorization biases and vocabulary across tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Elizabeth A

    2017-01-01

    This study bridges prior research on young children's use of taxonomic versus thematic relations to categorize objects with prior research on their use of shared shape versus shared function to categorize artifacts. Specifically, this research examined associations in children's categorization tendencies across these two dichotomies, including assessments of individual differences, developmental trends, and vocabulary level. Preschoolers (3- to 5-year-olds) completed a receptive vocabulary assessment and two match-to-sample tasks: one pitting (superordinate) taxonomic and thematic relations against each other and one pitting shape and function similarity against each other. The results revealed individual and developmental variation in children's cross-task categorization biases, with a predominant tendency to focus on both thematic and function relations that became increasingly stronger with age. In 3- and 5-year-olds, function-based categorization was also positively associated with verb vocabulary. These findings demonstrate an emerging tendency to focus on relational information during the preschool years that, among other learning effects, may benefit verb acquisition. The results are discussed in terms of the real-time processing and developmental factors that might contribute to the development of strategies for learning about objects and categories during early childhood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. WORD ASSOCIATIONS IN VOCABULARY LEARNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    With the widespread adoption of new college Englishtextbooks,vocabulary learning seems a more important taskthan ever before for college students.This paper is about aresearch on how to help students learn English words moremeaningfully and enlarge their vocabulary more efficiently.This paper first discusses word meaning,concept,andconcept network,then explores the associative network of wordsand their associations,which corresponds to English lexicalrelations.The lexical network can be realized onto a computer tobenefit students in their learning.

  17. Higher triglyceride serum level increases atherosclerotic index in subjects 50-70 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martiem Mawi

    2016-04-01

    Higher triglyceride levels increase AI in subjects 50-70 years of age. Subjects with high serum triglyceride level but without symptoms of cardiovascular disease should be examined for the development of coronary artery blockage.

  18. The Contribution of Vocabulary Knowledge and Spelling to the Reading Comprehension of Adolescents Who Are and Are Not English Language Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Deborah K; Petscher, Yaacov; Foorman, Barbara R

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the contributions of vocabulary and spelling to the reading comprehension of students in grades 6-10 who were and were not classified as English language learners. Results indicate that vocabulary accounted for greater between-grade differences and unique variance (ΔR(2) = .11 to .31) in comprehension as compared to spelling (ΔR(2) = .01 to .09). However, the contribution of spelling to comprehension was higher in the upper grade levels included in this cross-sectional analysis and functioned as a mediator of the impact of vocabulary knowledge at all levels. The direct effect of vocabulary was strong but lower in magnitude at each successive grade level from .58 in grade 6 to .41 in grade 10 while the indirect effect through spelling increased in magnitude at each successive grade level from .09 in grade 6 to .16 in grade 10. There were no significant differences between the language groups in the magnitude of the indirect impact, suggesting both groups of students relied more on both sources of lexical information in higher grades as compared to students in lower grades.

  19. Image categorization based on spatial visual vocabulary model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuxin; He, Changqin; Guo, He; Feng, Zhen; Jia, Qi

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach to recognize scene categories by means of a novel method named spatial visual vocabulary. Firstly, we hierarchically divide images into sub regions and construct the spatial visual vocabulary by grouping the low-level features collected from every corresponding spatial sub region into a specified number of clusters using k-means algorithm. To recognize the category of a scene, the visual vocabulary distributions of all spatial sub regions are concatenated to form a global feature vector. The classification is obtained using LIBSVM, a support vector machine classifier. Our goal is to find a universal framework which is applicable to various types of features, so two kinds of features are used in the experiments: "V1-like" filters and PACT features. In almost all experimental cases, the proposed model achieves superior results. Source codes are available by email.

  20. Content Area Textbooks as Sources for Vocabulary Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the potential of content area textbooks as a lexical environment for incidental vocabulary learning. The two questions proposed are how many rarely-used words content area textbooks contain within a particular number of words, and how different or similar the frequency of rarely-used words is in the linguistic studies and non-linguistic studies textbooks. This study concludes that content area textbooks contain a relatively high frequency of words within Nat3 and Nat4 levels. The high percentage of rarely-used words indicates that content area textbooks are rich sources for vocabulary learning. The findings also suggest that different kinds of textbooks in the content courses can be rich lexical environments for the study of second language vocabulary

  1. A NEW ROLE FOR VOCABULARY IN COLLEGE ENGLISH TEACHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiHongwei

    2004-01-01

    Because of the great influence of Chinese culture on Englishteaching and learning in China, much importance is nowattached to vocabulary learning. While it is unlikely that thecommunicative approach will be adopted for those intermediateor advanced learners at college English level, a lexical approachcan be more suitable for college English education, wherevocabulary (lexical items ) is of great importance as it isconsidered institutionalized and collocated. In such anapproach, vocabulary begins to take on a new role of organizingthe target language in addition to being meaningful in itself.

  2. Diesterified nitrone rescues nitroso-redox levels and increases myocyte contraction via increased SR Ca(2+ handling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Traynham

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO and superoxide (O(2 (- are important cardiac signaling molecules that regulate myocyte contraction. For appropriate regulation, NO and O(2 (.- must exist at defined levels. Unfortunately, the NO and O(2 (.- levels are altered in many cardiomyopathies (heart failure, ischemia, hypertrophy, etc. leading to contractile dysfunction and adverse remodeling. Hence, rescuing the nitroso-redox levels is a potential therapeutic strategy. Nitrone spin traps have been shown to scavenge O(2 (.- while releasing NO as a reaction byproduct; and we synthesized a novel, cell permeable nitrone, 2-2-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrole 1-oxide (EMEPO. We hypothesized that EMEPO would improve contractile function in myocytes with altered nitroso-redox levels. Ventricular myocytes were isolated from wildtype (C57Bl/6 and NOS1 knockout (NOS1(-/- mice, a known model of NO/O(2 (.- imbalance, and incubated with EMEPO. EMEPO significantly reduced O(2 (.- (lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence and elevated NO (DAF-FM diacetate levels in NOS1(-/- myocytes. Furthermore, EMEPO increased NOS1(-/- myocyte basal contraction (Ca(2+ transients, Fluo-4AM; shortening, video-edge detection, the force-frequency response and the contractile response to β-adrenergic stimulation. EMEPO had no effect in wildtype myocytes. EMEPO also increased ryanodine receptor activity (sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+ leak/load relationship and phospholamban Serine16 phosphorylation (Western blot. We also repeated our functional experiments in a canine post-myocardial infarction model and observed similar results to those seen in NOS1(-/- myocytes. In conclusion, EMEPO improved contractile function in myocytes experiencing an imbalance of their nitroso-redox levels. The concurrent restoration of NO and O(2 (.- levels may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of various cardiomyopathies.

  3. Increased nicotianamine biosynthesis confers enhanced tolerance of high levels of metals, in particular nickel, to plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Suyeon; Takahashi, Michiko; Higuchi, Kyoko; Tsunoda, Kyoko; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Yoshimura, Etsuro; Mori, Satoshi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2005-01-01

    .... Nicotianamine synthase overexpression resulted in increased biosynthesis of nicotianamine in transgenic plants, which conferred enhanced tolerance of high levels of metals, particularly nickel, to plants...

  4. "It takes a village" to support the vocabulary development of children with multiple risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydar, Nazli; Küntay, Aylin C; Yagmurlu, Bilge; Aydemir, Nuran; Cankaya, Dilek; Göksen, Fatos; Cemalcilar, Zeynep

    2014-04-01

    Data from a nationally representative sample from Turkey (N = 1,017) were used to investigate the environmental factors that support the receptive vocabulary of 3-year-old children who differ in their developmental risk due to family low economic status and elevated maternal depressive symptoms. Children's vocabulary knowledge was strongly associated with language stimulation and learning materials in all families regardless of risk status. Maternal warmth and responsiveness supported vocabulary competence in families of low economic status only when maternal depressive symptoms were low. In families with the highest levels of risk, that is, with depression and economic distress jointly present, support by the extended family and neighbors for caring for the child protected children's vocabulary development against these adverse conditions. The empirical evidence on the positive contribution of extrafamilial support to young children's receptive vocabulary under adverse conditions allows an expansion of our current theorizing about influences on language development.

  5. Effective instructional design for web-based English vocabulary learning: Under the light of theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinçer Biçer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been exciting and serious progress in the field of computers for teaching English. Identification of the most effective methods is essential to make teaching and learning more efficient. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of using multiple content forms in web-based instruction on students’ English vocabulary learning. The study was conducted at the Compulsory Preparatory Program of a state university located in the Black Sea region of Turkey with 106 students. The factorial research design was used to conduct the study. Thus, the effect of using multiple content forms in web-based instruction on students’ English vocabulary learning was analyzed.The vocabulary level of students was measured with a web-based multiple choice English vocabulary achievement test. The measure of internal consistency of the English vocabulary achievement test was 0.966. The findings of this study indicate that, in vocabulary teaching, providing definitions in an audio format in English is more effective in teaching English vocabulary than providing the same definitions in an audio format in English accompanied with pictures. Mobile devices which eliminate the time and distance limitations can be used in further studies with developmental applications to investigate the effects on students’ English vocabulary learning.

  6. Do levels of perceived stress increase with increasing age after age 65? A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanovic-Thunström, Almira; Mossello, Enrico; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Fratiglioni, Laura; Wang, Hui-Xin

    2015-09-01

    psychological and health-related stressors often occur in advanced ages, but little is known about perceived stress in adults aged 65 and over. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that levels of perceived stress increase with increasing age and to detect factors that may account for the association. a dementia-free cohort of 1,656 adults aged 66-97 years living at home or in institutions, participating in the Swedish National Aging and Care study, Kungsholmen (SNAC-K) was assessed for levels of perceived stress using the 10-item perceived stress scale (PSS). prevalence of high stress according to the top tertile of the population (PSS score 20+) was 7.8% in adults aged 81+ years, 7.5% in adults aged 72-78 and 6.2% in adults aged 66 years (P = 0.020). More women than men reported high stress, 8.3 versus 5.4% (P = 0.001). Levels of stress increased with increasing age (P = 0.001) in the linear regression model. This association remained after adjustment for demographic and psychosocial factors, but no longer was present after adjusting for health-related factors. health-related stress is highly prevalent in older adults and seems to play an important role in the association between levels of perceived stress and age in older adults. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Stress from exercise in the below sea level environment causes an increase in serum testosterone levels in trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani Hani, I; El-Migdadi, F; Shotar, A; Abudheese, R; Bashir, N

    2001-01-01

    A comparative study (n = 20) of serum levels of leutinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T) between male trained athletes (high-school students, 16-18 years old) living in North and South Shouna in the Jordan Valley (JV), 320-360 meters below sea level, and those living in Ramtha and Irbid, 550-650 meters above sea level, was conducted in November, 1999. Serum levels of LH and T were also measured in these athletes following a 20 Km noncompetitive run. The air temperatures on the day of the experiment was comparable (25 degrees C in North and South Shouna versus 23 degrees C in Ramtha and Irbid). Before exercise, serum levels of LH and T in athletes of the below sea level environment (North and South Shouna) were similar to those levels in athletes of the above sea level environment (Ramtha and Irbid). Exercise caused a significant increase in serum levels of both LH and T only in athletes of North and South Shouna. It seems likely that the higher secretion of LH contributes, at least in part, for the higher serum levels of T following exercise. Taken together, these data suggest that exercise has an effect on LH and T secretion that is similar to that of fasting. And finally, the below sea level environmental factors, such as the high barometric pressure, as well as the genetic background of the athletes affect the pituitary and adrenal cortex as well as testicular tissue, resulting in the secretion of more LH and T.

  8. Learning Words for Life: Promoting Vocabulary in Dual Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillanders, Cristina; Castro, Dina C.; Franco, Ximena

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary development plays a critical role in young dual language learners' success in school. As teachers become aware of how they use language in the classroom, systematically teach specific words in a variety of ways, and learn about dual language learners' level of English acquisition and sociocultural experiences, they can help…

  9. Learning Words for Life: Promoting Vocabulary in Dual Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillanders, Cristina; Castro, Dina C.; Franco, Ximena

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary development plays a critical role in young dual language learners' success in school. As teachers become aware of how they use language in the classroom, systematically teach specific words in a variety of ways, and learn about dual language learners' level of English acquisition and sociocultural experiences, they can help…

  10. Acquisition of Expert/Non-Expert Vocabulary from Reformulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Edwige; Grabar, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Technical medical terms are complicated to be correctly understood by non-experts. Vocabulary, associating technical terms with layman expressions, can help in increasing the readability of technical texts and their understanding. The purpose of our work is to build this kind of vocabulary. We propose to exploit the notion of reformulation following two methods: extraction of abbreviations and of reformulations with specific markers. The segments associated thanks to these methods are aligned with medical terminologies. Our results allow to cover over 9,000 medical terms and show precision of extractions between 0.24 and 0.98. The results and analyzed and compared with the existing work.

  11. 英语专业高低年级学生商务英语词汇学习策略比较研究%A Comparative Study of Business English Vocabulary Learning Strategies among English Majors at Different Proficiency Levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文婕

    2012-01-01

    文章以英语专业62名一年级和62名三年级学生为调查对象,采用问卷、访谈等工具,探究英语专业学生商务英语词汇学习策略的总体情况,比较高低年级学生在商务英语词汇学习策略的使用上的异同。根据数据分析结果和商务英语词汇的特点,提出词汇学习策略培训和词块法教学在商务英语词汇学习中具有较强的可行性和有效性。%This paper reports an empirical study on various kinds of business English vocabulary acquisition strategies employed by the English majors at different proficiency levels. The subjects are the first-year and third-year English majors from Zhejiang Wanli University,and the instruments adopted included a questionnaire and interviews. Based on the results of data analysis and the features of business English vocabulary,it has been proposed that strategy instruction and word chunk will be effective in business English vocabulary acquisition.

  12. Suri-English basic vocabulary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Suri, also known as Surma, are agropastoralists living in the semiarid lowland area of the Kafa Administrative Region of Ethiopia. The Suri language belongs to the South-East Surmic (SES) language group within the Eastern Sudanic family of Nilo-Saharan. The Suri-English vocabulary presented here

  13. Interactive Approaches for Vocabulary Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Grace Hui Chin

    2009-01-01

    Vocabulary acquisition research has been paid attention these years (e.g. Beck, McKeown & McCaslin, 1983; Harley, 1996; Huckin, Haynes, & Coady, 1993; Zahar, Cobb & Spada, 2001). A serious methodologies had been reported, including applying learner dictionaries (Nesi, 1999; Tribble, 2003), using forms of visual glossing (Al-Seghayer,…

  14. Transformation of Words into Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, H. Naseema; Rajan, Premalatha

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the significance of a word and the changes it undergoes in its form when it is placed in the hierarchy of grammatical constituents thereby forming a new word termed as vocabulary. This change or transformation is the result of affixations. Transformation becomes essential as the words learnt cannot be used as such in a…

  15. Is There an "Academic Vocabulary"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Ken; Tse, Polly

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the notion of "academic vocabulary": the assumption that students of English for academic purposes (EAP) should study a core of high frequency words because they are common in an English academic register. We examine the value of the term by using Cox-head's (2000) Academic Word List (AWL) to explore the distribution of its…

  16. Near or far: The effect of spatial distance and vocabulary knowledge on word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Emma L; Perry, Lynn K; Scott, Emilly J; Horst, Jessica S

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the role of spatial distance in word learning. Two-year-old children saw three novel objects named while the objects were either in close proximity to each other or spatially separated. Children were then tested on their retention for the name-object associations. Keeping the objects spatially separated from each other during naming was associated with increased retention for children with larger vocabularies. Children with a lower vocabulary size demonstrated better retention if they saw objects in close proximity to each other during naming. This demonstrates that keeping a clear view of objects during naming improves word learning for children who have already learned many words, but keeping objects within close proximal range is better for children at earlier stages of vocabulary acquisition. The effect of distance is therefore not equal across varying vocabulary sizes. The influences of visual crowding, cognitive load, and vocabulary size on word learning are discussed.

  17. 12 CFR 263.85 - Establishment of increased capital level for specific institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... establish a capital level higher than the minimum specified in the Board's Capital Adequacy Guidelines for a... capital levels above those in the Board's Capital Adequacy Guidelines may be necessary and appropriate for... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment of increased capital level...

  18. Studies of Danish L2 learners’ vocabulary knowledge and the lexical richness of their written production in English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Birgit; Danelund, Lise

    2015-01-01

    A number of lexical studies report a strong correlation between L2 learners’ vocabulary size and depth and their writing skills. Three Danish empirical studies explore this relationship further by looking at the vocabulary knowledge of young upper-secondary school learners of English...... and their written productions with a focus on the lexical richness of their L2 writing. The first study investigates the learners’ receptive vocabulary level (Nation’s VLT) and their lexical error production in free written compositions. The second study looks at the learners’ productive vocabulary size (Laufer...... and Nation’s PLT), and the vocabulary profiles of their compositions in terms of lexical variation and sophistication. The last study combines a focus on receptive (Nation’s VLT) and productive vocabulary (Laufer and Nation’s PLT) and a word association task (Meara and Fitzpatrick’s Lex 30) with a lexical...

  19. The Role of Integrating Various Patterns of Activity Sequencing in Promoting the Receptive Vocabulary Size of EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlam Bouirane

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The motivation underlying this research is the poor receptive vocabulary size (RVS among third year students of English as a foreign language (EFL. The purpose is to report the efficiency of integrating various patterns of activity sequencing in promoting RVS through quasi-experimentation. The research used a questionnaire to collect the participants’ perceptions of vocabulary and vocabulary learning, and to neutralize the bias of individual variables. Next, the research used the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT to test the RVS at the beginning and end of the quasi-experiment. The questionnaire results revealed that the students have positive high perceptions of vocabulary and vocabulary learning activities. The VLT results showed significant differences in the RVS of the participants between the quasi-experiment phases.

  20. The Effect of Pictures and Sentence Examples on Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümmü Gülsüm Demir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Words are building blocks of a meaningful communication, which make them very significant in terms of languages. Vocabulary is always one of the most important grade when the point is foreign or second language learning and teaching. Many people must have seen images or pictures and sentence examples being used to enable learners to learn new vocabulary. Some think pictures are more efficient on vocabulary learning while others think the more efficient ones are sentences. The purpose of this study is to find which technique is more efficient; sentence examples or pictures. To find an answer to this question, 20 Turkish speaking, Uludağ University students, whose ages ranged from 18 to 25 and who studied English as a foreign language at least one term, participated in the study on the days between 22 and 30 April in 2016.  They did it in cafes, at Uludağ University and in a girls' dormitory, so we can say the majority of the participants were females. Their level were neither tested nor asked because there was no specific level demanded for participating in the research. Firstly, they were given a pre-test on which there were 20 English words with a blank next to each word. The participants were requested to write the Turkish translations or meanings of the 20 target words next to the words, in the blanks. Then, 10 of them have received paper on which there were pictures that represented the target words (Picture Group  and the other 10 have received paper on which there were sentence examples including the target words and their Turkish translations except for the target words’ translations (Sentence Group. The two groups examined the paper. Soon after, all of them were given the post-test which were the same as pre-test. They tried to write the Turkish translations or meanings of the target words again on the post-test. Their pre-test and post-test results were compared and the per cent of the gap between the results of the pre-test and

  1. Possible Increase in Serum FABP4 Level Despite Adiposity Reduction by Canagliflozin, an SGLT2 Inhibitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Furuhashi

    Full Text Available Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4/A-FABP/aP2 is secreted from adipocytes in association with catecholamine-induced lipolysis, and elevated serum FABP4 level is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Secreted FABP4 as a novel adipokine leads to insulin resistance via increased hepatic glucose production (HGP. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitors decrease blood glucose level via increased urinary glucose excretion, though HGP is enhanced. Here we investigated whether canagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, modulates serum FABP4 level.Canagliflozin (100 mg/day was administered to type 2 diabetic patients (n = 39 for 12 weeks. Serum FABP4 level was measured before and after treatment.At baseline, serum FABP4 level was correlated with adiposity, renal dysfunction and noradrenaline level. Treatment with canagliflozin significantly decreased adiposity and levels of fasting glucose and HbA1c but increased average serum FABP4 level by 10.3% (18.0 ± 1.0 vs. 19.8 ± 1.2 ng/ml, P = 0.008, though elevation of FABP4 level after treatment was observed in 26 (66.7% out of 39 patients. Change in FABP4 level was positively correlated with change in levels of fasting glucose (r = 0.329, P = 0.044, HbA1c (r = 0.329, P = 0.044 and noradrenaline (r = 0.329, P = 0.041 but was not significantly correlated with change in adiposity or other variables.Canagliflozin paradoxically increases serum FABP4 level in some diabetic patients despite amelioration of glucose metabolism and adiposity reduction, possibly via induction of catecholamine-induced lipolysis in adipocytes. Increased FABP4 level by canagliflozin may undermine the improvement of glucose metabolism and might be a possible mechanism of increased HGP by inhibition of SGLT2.UMIN-CTR Clinical Trial UMIN000018151.

  2. Possible Increase in Serum FABP4 Level Despite Adiposity Reduction by Canagliflozin, an SGLT2 Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhashi, Masato; Matsumoto, Megumi; Hiramitsu, Shinya; Omori, Akina; Tanaka, Marenao; Moniwa, Norihito; Yoshida, Hideaki; Ishii, Junnichi; Miura, Tetsuji

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4/A-FABP/aP2) is secreted from adipocytes in association with catecholamine-induced lipolysis, and elevated serum FABP4 level is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Secreted FABP4 as a novel adipokine leads to insulin resistance via increased hepatic glucose production (HGP). Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors decrease blood glucose level via increased urinary glucose excretion, though HGP is enhanced. Here we investigated whether canagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, modulates serum FABP4 level. Canagliflozin (100 mg/day) was administered to type 2 diabetic patients (n = 39) for 12 weeks. Serum FABP4 level was measured before and after treatment. At baseline, serum FABP4 level was correlated with adiposity, renal dysfunction and noradrenaline level. Treatment with canagliflozin significantly decreased adiposity and levels of fasting glucose and HbA1c but increased average serum FABP4 level by 10.3% (18.0 ± 1.0 vs. 19.8 ± 1.2 ng/ml, P = 0.008), though elevation of FABP4 level after treatment was observed in 26 (66.7%) out of 39 patients. Change in FABP4 level was positively correlated with change in levels of fasting glucose (r = 0.329, P = 0.044), HbA1c (r = 0.329, P = 0.044) and noradrenaline (r = 0.329, P = 0.041) but was not significantly correlated with change in adiposity or other variables. Canagliflozin paradoxically increases serum FABP4 level in some diabetic patients despite amelioration of glucose metabolism and adiposity reduction, possibly via induction of catecholamine-induced lipolysis in adipocytes. Increased FABP4 level by canagliflozin may undermine the improvement of glucose metabolism and might be a possible mechanism of increased HGP by inhibition of SGLT2. UMIN-CTR Clinical Trial UMIN000018151.

  3. Vocabulary and Sentence Structure in Emergent Spanish Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Dual language and bilingual education programs are increasing in number and popularity across the country. However, little information is available on how to teach children to read and write in Spanish. This article explores some of the similarities and differences in vocabulary and sentence structure in Spanish and English and considers the…

  4. Vocabulary and Sentence Structure in Emergent Spanish Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Dual language and bilingual education programs are increasing in number and popularity across the country. However, little information is available on how to teach children to read and write in Spanish. This article explores some of the similarities and differences in vocabulary and sentence structure in Spanish and English and considers the…

  5. The Effects of Reading Aloud on Vocabulary Development. Teacher Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings-Gongora, Brenda

    1993-01-01

    Examines the effects of training Spanish-speaking parents in read-aloud techniques on the Spanish vocabulary development of their children aged five and six. Although not statistically significant, the results seem to favor the group that received training for five weeks versus a control group. The training increased parental involvement and had…

  6. HOW TO EMPHASIZE THE STUDY OF ENGLISH ROOTS AND WORD-BUILDING FOR IMPROVING VOCABULARY TEACHING AT COLLEGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Hongyao

    2001-01-01

    Guiding college students to acquire an adequate vocabularyis an important task that is often neglected. The morevocabulary hat is mastered, the higher level a learner of Englishwill have. But in China, the traditional method of teachingvocabulary is learning by rote, and learners of foreign languagesare inclined to learn as much vocabulary as possible this wayregardless of whether these vocabulary is useful or not. Indeed,there are some disadvantageous factors hindering the studentsfrom expanding vocabulary rapidly and efficiently. We have todevelop a scientific method of teaching vocabulary exploringmethods of which is the key to this article.

  7. Small Vocabulary with Saliency Matching for Video Copy Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Tang, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    of vocabulary. BoW descriptors under a small vocabulary can be both robust and efficient, while keeping high recall rate compared with large vocabulary. However, the high false positives exists in small vocabulary also limits its application. To address this problem in small vocabulary, we propose a novel...

  8. On the Application of Games in Junior English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖芳萍

    2015-01-01

    <正>Vocabulary,pronunciation and grammar are the three essential components of language,vocabulary being the building material of languages.The famous linguist Wilkins said,"Without grammar,very little can be conveyed;without vocabulary,nothing can be conveyed."The importance of vocabulary is strongly manifested.Therefore,vocabulary teaching has been the focus of

  9. Vocabulary skills are well developed in university students with dyslexia: Evidence from multiple case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, Eddy; Casalis, Séverine; El Ahmadi, Abdessadek; Zira, Mélody; Poracchia-George, Florence; Colé, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Most studies in adults with developmental dyslexia have focused on identifying the deficits responsible for their persistent reading difficulties, but little is known on how these readers manage the intensive exposure to written language required to obtain a university degree. The main objective of this study was to identify certain skills, and specifically vocabulary skills, that French university students with dyslexia have developed and that may contribute to their literacy skills. We tested 20 university students with dyslexia and 20 normal readers (matched on chronological age, gender, nonverbal IQ, and level of education) in reading, phonological, vocabulary breadth (number of known words), and vocabulary depth (accuracy and precision) tasks. In comparing vocabulary measures, we used both Rasch model and single case study methodologies. Results on reading and phonological tasks confirmed the persistence of deficits in written word recognition and phonological skills. However, using the Rasch model we found that the two groups performed at the same level in the vocabulary breadth task, whereas dyslexics systematically outperformed their chronological age controls in the vocabulary depth task. These results are supplemented by multiple case studies. The vocabulary skills of French university students with dyslexia are well developed. Possible interpretations of these results are discussed.

  10. MULTIMEDIA LEARNING IMPLEMENTATION AND VOCABULARY MASTERY FOR ENHANCHING STUDENTS’ JAPANESE LANGUAGE READING SKILL AT SMKN 1 PURWOKERTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Haryono

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research is the implementation of the 2013 doctoral disertation report funded by DIKTI. The research is a part of IPTEKS scheme for community devotion that have strong relation to language education technology. It concern with the use of multimedia learning and vocabulary mastery on students’ Japanese language  reading skills at SMK 1 Purwokerto. The method is implemented experimentally by giving multimedia learning treatment such as Rosetta Stone and Tell Me More Japanese. Through some presentation with the use of those multimedia learning material, the purpose of this research is to know the extent to which the level of their vocabulary mastery and to encourage students in order to have an approriate skill to read Japanese documents. With the implementation of this multimedia learning training, graduate students of SMK Negeri I Purwokerto will be increased and for the future they have a good job at Japanese companies in Indonesia

  11. Strategies for Mitigating the Reduction in Economic Value of Variable Generation with Increasing Penetration Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan

    2014-03-03

    In this report, we evaluate individual options that have the potential to stem the decline in the marginal value of variable generation (VG) with increasing penetration levels. We focus only on the effectiveness of mitigation measures for wind and PV.

  12. Aerobic conditions increase isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway gene expression levels for carotenoid production in Enterococcus gilvus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagi, Tatsuro; Kobayashi, Miho; Nomura, Masaru

    2015-06-01

    Some lactic acid bacteria that harbour carotenoid biosynthesis genes (crtNM) can produce carotenoids. Although aerobic conditions can increase carotenoid production and crtNM expression levels, their effects on the pathways that synthesize carotenoid precursors such as mevalonate and isoprene are not completely understood. In this study, we investigated whether aerobic conditions affected gene expression levels involved in the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway that includes the mevalonate and isoprene biosynthesis pathways in Enterococcus gilvus using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR. NADH oxidase (nox) and superoxide dismutase (sod) gene expression levels were investigated as controls for aerobic conditions. The expression levels of nox and sod under aerobic conditions were 7.2- and 8.0-fold higher, respectively, than those under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic conditions concomitantly increased the expression levels of crtNM carotenoid biosynthesis genes. HMG-CoA synthase gene expression levels in the mevalonate pathway were only slightly increased under aerobic conditions, whereas the expression levels of HMG-CoA reductase and five other genes in the isoprene biosynthesis pathways were 1.2-2.3-fold higher than those under anaerobic conditions. These results demonstrated that aerobic conditions could increase the expression levels of genes involved in the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway via mevalonate in E. gilvus.

  13. Serum apolipoprotein e level is not increased in Alzheimer's disease : The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooter, A.J.C.; Knijff, P. de; Hofman, A.; Cruts, M.; Breteler, M.M.B.; Broeckhoven, C. van; Havekes, L.M.; Duijn, C.M. van

    1998-01-01

    The APOE*4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) is an important risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. It has been suggested that levels of apolipoprotein E (apoE) in plasma are increased in Alzheimer's disease. In this population-based study, we found that serum apoE levels were lower in

  14. Optimal dike investments under uncertainty and learning about increasing water levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van der T.D.; Ierland, van E.C.; Weikard, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Water level extremes for seas and rivers are crucial to determine optimal dike heights. Future development in extremes under climate change is, however, uncertain. In this paper, we explore impacts of uncertainty and learning about increasing water levels on dike investment. We extend previous work

  15. Increased Salivary Levels of 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine May Be a Marker for Disease Activity for Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Sezer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG is commonly used as a marker to evaluate oxidative DNA damage in disorders including chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory periodontal pathologies. In the current study we hypothesized that the level of 8-OHdG in saliva increases by the periodontal destruction severity determined by clinical parameters as clinical attachment level (CAL.

  16. Suri-English basic vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    Abbink, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Suri, also known as Surma, are agropastoralists living in the semiarid lowland area of the Kafa Administrative Region of Ethiopia. The Suri language belongs to the South-East Surmic (SES) language group within the Eastern Sudanic family of Nilo-Saharan. The Suri-English vocabulary presented here was compiled during research carried out in southwestern Ethiopia, particularly in the village of Makara, between December 1991 and June 1992, and in October 1992. It incorporates two unpublished ...

  17. Desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bjork, RA; Kroll, JF

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 by the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois. In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is underst...

  18. IMPROVING VOCABULARY TEACHING IN INTENSIVE READING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    IntroductionIn China,intensive reading is the main method for teaching English.One feature of the textbooks isthat they all have large quantities of new words in each text,so vocabulary is one of the mostimportant aspects of this course.Recently,I conducted a survey among students who entered thePetroleum University in Shandong.To the question‘What is the greatest problem in your Englishstudies?’,82 out of the t00 students answered-vocabulary.This,to some extent,suggests that ourapproaches to vocabulary teaching should be improved.This article explores more effective ways toteach vocabulary.It suggests the idea of classifying and grouping vocabulary items and how to teachthem differently.A series of task-based activities are recommended to present and review vocabulary.

  19. The Relationship Between Expressive Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Skills for Adult Struggling Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ryan; Greenberg, Daphne; Gore, Jacqueline Laures; Pae, Hye K.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined expressive vocabulary and its relationship to reading skills for 232 native English-speaking adults who read between the third- and fifth-grade levels. The Boston Naming Test (BNT; Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 2001) was used to measure expressive vocabulary. Participants scored lower than the normative sample of adults on all aspects of the test; they had fewer spontaneously correct answers, and were not helped by stimulus or phonemic cues. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that expressive vocabulary accounted for significant variance in both reading comprehension and exception word reading, but not for general word reading or nonword reading. PMID:24778459

  20. The Study of the Effects of Reading Factors on Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海燕

    2007-01-01

    To figure out the most robust factors influencing incidental vocabulary acquisition (IVA) performance, in this paper three reader variables are identified based on literature review, i.e., reading proficiency, sight vocabulary and content schema; and an investigation is conducted to search for their different impacts.After the analysis of the collected data by SPSS 10.0, the results suggested that individual difference in IVA is largely caused by the difference in reading ability and previous vocabulary knowledge.Therefore, to foster learners' IVA ability, EFL teachers need to help students develop independent reading strategies for IVA, provide material suitable to students' level and enrich their background knowledge.

  1. Acute aerobic exercise increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in elderly with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Flávia Gomes de Melo; Vital, Thays Martins; Stein, Angelica Miki; Arantes, Franciel José; Rueda, André Veloso; Camarini, Rosana; Teodorov, Elizabeth; Santos-Galduróz, Ruth Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate the involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Decreased BDNF levels may constitute a lack of trophic support and contribute to cognitive impairment in AD. The benefits of acute and chronic physical exercise on BDNF levels are well-documented in humans, however, exercise effects on BDNF levels have not been analyzed in older adults with AD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute aerobic exercise on BDNF levels in older adults with AD and to verify associations among BDNF levels, aerobic fitness, and level of physical activity. Using a controlled design, twenty-one patients with AD (76.3 ± 6.2 years) and eighteen healthy older adults (74.6 ± 4.7 years) completed an acute aerobic exercise. The outcomes included measures of BDNF plasma levels, aerobic fitness (treadmill grade, time to exhaustion, VO2, and maximal lactate) and level of physical activity (Baecke Questionnaire Modified for the Elderly). The independent t-test shows differences between groups with respect to the BDNF plasma levels at baseline (p = 0.04; t = 4.53; df = 37). In two-way ANOVA, a significant effect of time was found (p = 0.001; F = 13.63; df = 37), the aerobic exercise significantly increased BDNF plasma levels in AD patients and healthy controls. A significant correlation (p = 0.04; r = 0.33) was found between BDNF levels and the level of physical activity. The results of our study suggest that aerobic exercise increases BDNF plasma levels in patients with AD and healthy controls. In addition to that, BDNF levels had association with level of physical activity.

  2. Atypical Cross-Modal Profiles and Longitudinal Associations Between Vocabulary Scores in Initially Minimally Verbal Children With ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woynaroski, Tiffany; Yoder, Paul; Watson, Linda R

    2016-02-01

    We tested the relative levels (i.e., age equivalencies) of concurrent cross-modality (receptive and expressive) vocabulary and the relative strength of the longitudinal, cross-modality associations between early and later vocabulary sizes in minimally verbal preschoolers with ASD. Eighty-seven children participated. Parent-reported vocabulary was assessed at four periods separated by 4 months each. Expressive age equivalent scores were higher than receptive age equivalent scores at all four periods. Cross-lagged panel analysis was used to rule out common, but trivial, explanations for differences between the longitudinal associations of interest. Key associations were tested across intervals that varied from 8 to 12 months. In two of the three tested panels, the associations between early expressive vocabulary size and later receptive vocabulary size were stronger than the associations between early receptive vocabulary size and later expressive vocabulary size, providing evidence that is consistent with the hypothesis that expressive vocabulary size drives receptive vocabulary size in minimally verbal preschoolers with ASD.

  3. The Sources of the English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shujun

    2015-01-01

    Lexicology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the study of the vocabulary of a given language. This paper begins with the question: What are the two approaches to the study of English lexicology? Then talk about the position and character of the English language in the Indo-European family. After this,the paper would on the way to explain the sources of the English vocabulary and different characters of different periods of English vocabulary.

  4. Development of an integrated energy vocabulary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niehoff, R.T.

    1976-02-01

    Vocabularies from 10 information systems were employed in this attempt to establish an integrated energy vocabulary. A broad definition of energy was formulated and used as a selection criterion. The resulting product, to be printed under separate cover, contains 30,000 terms and 55,000 cross references. It is felt that the integrated vocabulary, when printed, will aid both energy researchers and information scientists using both manual and on-line systems.

  5. The Influence of Contexts on Vocabulary Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高春梅

    2014-01-01

    In vocabulary testing, whether to adopt context is a heat-debated topic. In the article, an experiment is designed to in⁃vestigate what is the effect of zero context and sentence context on the vocabulary testing? And how do the different kinds of context in vocabulary affect the subjects’performance? The experimental result demonstrates that sentence do play an important role in helping text-takers to figure out the correct meaning or target words.

  6. Effects of Text, Audio, and Graphic Aids in Multimedia Instruction for Vocabulary Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daesang Kim; David A Gilman

    2008-01-01

      This study is an investigation of the use of multimedia components such as visual text, spoken text, and graphics in a Web-based self-instruction program to increase learners' English vocabulary...

  7. Isoproterenol infusion increases level of consciousness during catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Daniel K; Aizer, Anthony; Linton, Patrick; Bloom, Marc; Rose, Emily; Chinitz, Larry

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of isoproterenol infusion on level of consciousness during ablation using total intravenous anesthesia. Seven patients undergoing total intravenous anesthesia for atrial fibrillation ablation were monitored for level of consciousness using bispectral EEG levels (BIS). Isoproterenol infusion was performed after the ablation during anesthesia. BIS levels prior to, during, and post-isoproterenol infusion were recorded and correlated to isoproterenol infusion doses. In all patients, BIS levels significantly increased during isoproterenol infusion (median BIS prior to infusion, 46; during infusion, 64 (p levels could again be reduced. Isoproterenol infusion alters consciousness level during total intravenous anesthesia for atrial fibrillation ablation. BIS monitoring is a novel way to modulate anesthesia during ablation to potentially optimize patient comfort and ablation success.

  8. Increased serum levels of sortilin are associated with depression and correlated with BDNF and VEGF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttenschøn, Henriette Nørmølle; Demontis, Ditte; Ollendorff, Mathias Kaas;

    2015-01-01

    measured by immunoassay, and potential determinants of the serum sortilin level were assessed by generalized linear models. Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured in previous studies. We identified a significant increase of serum...... sortilin levels in depressed individuals compared with controls (P = 0.0002) and significant positive correlation between serum sortilin levels and the corresponding levels of BDNF and VEGF. None of the genotyped SNPs were associated with depression. Additional analyses showed that the serum sortilin level...... was influenced by several other factors. Alcohol intake and body mass index, as well as depression, serum BDNF and serum VEGF were identified as predictors of serum sortilin levels in our final multivariate model. In conclusion, the results suggest a role of circulating sortilin in depression which may relate...

  9. The Effects of Semantic Mapping, Thematic Clustering, and Notebook Keeping on L2 Vocabulary Recognition and Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Abbas Ali; Adami, Saba

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of semantic mapping, thematic clustering, and notebook keeping on L2 vocabulary recognition and production, four groups of intermediate level learners in an EFL institute in Zanjan, Iran participated in the study. Three experimental groups consisted of semantic mapping, semantic feature analysis, and vocabulary notebook…

  10. Curriculum-Based Measurement in Science Learning: Vocabulary-Matching as an Indicator of Performance and Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espin, Christine A.; Busch, Todd W.; Lembke, Erica S.; Hampton, David D.; Seo, Kyounghee; Zukowski, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    The technical adequacy of curriculum-based measures in the form of short and simple vocabulary-matching probes to predict students' performance and progress in science at the secondary level was investigated. Participants were 198 seventh-grade students from 10 science classrooms. Curriculum-based measurements (CBM) were 5-min vocabulary-matching…

  11. An Examination of Growth in Vocabulary and Phonological Awareness in Early Childhood: An Individual Growth Model Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassano, Christina Marie

    2013-01-01

    The present study used individual growth modeling to examine the role of specific forms (i.e., receptive, expressive, and definitional vocabulary and grammatical skill) and levels of oral vocabulary skill (i.e., 25th, 50th, or 75th percentile) in phonological awareness growth during the preschool and kindergarten years. Sixty-one,…

  12. The Dimensional Approach to Vocabulary Testing: What Can We ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vocabulary constitutes an important component of language and its study has ... what testing under this approach has contributed to the teaching of vocabulary. ... of vocabulary size has led to standardisation of methods, as well as insight into ...

  13. A Corpus Analysis of Vocabulary Coverage and Vocabulary Learning Opportunities within a Children's Story Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Extensive reading for second language learners have been widely documented over the past few decades. However, few studies, if any, have used a corpus analysis approach to analyze the vocabulary coverage within a single-author story series, its repetition of vocabulary, and the incidental and intentional vocabulary learning opportunities therein.…

  14. Assessing the Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategy Use and Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Feng

    2015-01-01

    This study is an attempt to explore the correlation between direct and indirect vocabulary learning strategies along with the depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge. To this end, a sample of 145 low proficiency students who learn English as a Foreign Language (EFL) completed a questionnaire concerning vocabulary learning strategy use.…

  15. Increase in thyroid stimulating hormone levels in patients with gout treated with inhibitors of xanthine oxidoreductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Chinchilla, Sandra Pamela; Atxotegi, Joana; Urionagüena, Irati; Herrero-Beites, Ana Maria; Aniel-Quiroga, Maria Angeles

    2015-11-01

    Increase in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels over the upper normal limit has been reported in a small percentage of patients treated with febuxostat in clinical trials, but a mechanistic explanation is not yet available. In an observational parallel longitudinal cohort study, we evaluated changes in TSH levels in patients with gout at baseline and during urate-lowering treatment with febuxostat. Patients to be started on allopurinol who had a measurement of TSH in the 6-month period prior to baseline evaluation were used for comparison. TSH levels and change in TSH levels at 12-month follow-up were compared between groups. Patients with abnormal TSH levels or previous thyroid disease or on amiodarone were not included for analysis. Eighty-eight patients treated with febuxostat and 87 with allopurinol were available for comparisons. Patients to be treated with febuxostat had higher urate levels and TSH levels, more severe gout, and poorer renal function, but were similar regarding other characteristics. A similar rise in TSH levels was observed in both groups (0.4 and 0.5 µUI/mL for febuxostat and allopurinol, respectively); at 12-mo, 7/88 (7.9 %) of patients on febuxostat and 4/87 (3.4 %) of patients on allopurinol showed TSH levels over 0.5 µUI/mL. Doses prescribed (corrected for estimated glomerular filtration rate in the case if patients on allopurinol) and baseline TSH levels were determinants of TSH levels at 12-month follow-up. No impact on free T4 (fT4) levels was observed. Febuxostat, but also allopurinol, increased TSH levels in a dose-dependent way, thus suggesting rather a class effect than a drug effect, but with no apparent impact on either clinical or fT4 levels.

  16. The relevance of receptive vocabulary in reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalom, Ana Flávia de Oliveira; Soares, Aparecido José Couto; Cárnio, Maria Silvia

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the performance of students from the 5th year of primary school, with and without indicatives of reading and writing disorders, in receptive vocabulary and reading comprehension of sentences and texts, and to verify possible correlations between both. This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the institution (no. 098/13). Fifty-two students in the 5th year from primary school, with and without indicatives of reading and writing disorders, and from two public schools participated in this study. After signing the informed consent and having a speech therapy assessment for the application of inclusion criteria, the students were submitted to a specific test for standardized evaluation of receptive vocabulary and reading comprehension. The data were studied using statistical analysis through the Kruskal-Wallis test, analysis of variance techniques, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient with level of significance to be 0.05. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (was constructed in which reading comprehension was considered as gold standard. The students without indicatives of reading and writing disorders presented a better performance in all tests. No significant correlation was found between the tests that evaluated reading comprehension in either group. A correlation was found between reading comprehension of texts and receptive vocabulary in the group without indicatives. In the absence of indicatives of reading and writing disorders, the presence of a good range of vocabulary highly contributes to a proficient reading comprehension of texts.

  17. Reduction of soil carbon formation by tropospheric ozone under increased carbon dioxide levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loya, Wendy M; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Karberg, Noah J; King, John S; Giardina, Christian P

    2003-10-16

    In the Northern Hemisphere, ozone levels in the troposphere have increased by 35 per cent over the past century, with detrimental impacts on forest and agricultural productivity, even when forest productivity has been stimulated by increased carbon dioxide levels. In addition to reducing productivity, increased tropospheric ozone levels could alter terrestrial carbon cycling by lowering the quantity and quality of carbon inputs to soils. However, the influence of elevated ozone levels on soil carbon formation and decomposition are unknown. Here we examine the effects of elevated ozone levels on the formation rates of total and decay-resistant acid-insoluble soil carbon under conditions of elevated carbon dioxide levels in experimental aspen (Populus tremuloides) stands and mixed aspen-birch (Betula papyrifera) stands. With ambient concentrations of ozone and carbon dioxide both raised by 50 per cent, we find that the formation rates of total and acid-insoluble soil carbon are reduced by 50 per cent relative to the amounts entering the soil when the forests were exposed to increased carbon dioxide alone. Our results suggest that, in a world with elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, global-scale reductions in plant productivity due to elevated ozone levels will also lower soil carbon formation rates significantly.

  18. INCREASING THE LEVEL OF INFORMATION MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES OF ECONOMIC ENTITIES, OF THE SERVICE SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Krolivetskii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the chosen topic of the article is to increase the information level of innovation activity of economic entities of services and on this basis to provide the growth of their competitiveness, the effectiveness of the economic development management. Regulation of the information security level management system competitiveness of business entities and service industries increases the quality of the management decisions that promote sustainable economic development. The article gives a detailed analysis of the factors determining the possibilities and limitations that have a direct impact on the level of innovation activity of economic entities of services, such as: the level of skills, methods for collecting and recording information, the order of its systematization, etc. Contribution of the author in the development of the theme of the article is the definition of methodological campaigns creating organizational and economic conditions for information security management activities of economic entities of services, aimed at increasing competitiveness and quality of services.

  19. TREM-2 Receptor Expression Increases with 25(OHD Vitamin Serum Levels in Patients with Pulmonary Sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bucova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available TREM-1 and TREM-2 molecules are members of the TREM transmembrane glycoproteins. In our previous study we identified increased expressions of TREM-1 and TREM-2 receptors in pulmonary sarcoidosis (PS. Only a few studies concerning the association between vitamin D and TREM receptor expression can be found. The aim of our current study was to determine the association between the levels of an inactive form of 25(OHD vitamin and TREM-1 and TREM-2 receptor expressions. We have detected low levels of 25(OHD vitamin in 79% of PS patients. Only 21% of patients had normal serum level of 25(OHD vitamin with values clustered within the low-normal range. The most striking findings were the increased TREM-2 expressions on myeloid cells surfaces in BALF of PS patients with normal 25(OHD vitamin serum levels compared with those with its decreased levels. The total number of TREM-2 positive cells was 5.7 times higher and the percentage of TREM-2 positive cells was also significantly increased in BALF of PS patients with normal compared to PS patients with low 25(OHD vitamin serum levels. A significant correlation between total TREM-2 expression and vitamin D levels has been detected too. However, we have not detected similar differences in TREM-1expression and 25(OHD vitamin serum levels.

  20. Vocabulary services to support scientific data interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Simon; Mills, Katie; Tan, Florence

    2013-04-01

    Shared vocabularies are a core element in interoperable systems. Vocabularies need to be available at run-time, and where the vocabularies are shared by a distributed community this implies the use of web technology to provide vocabulary services. Given the ubiquity of vocabularies or classifiers in systems, vocabulary services are effectively the base of the interoperability stack. In contemporary knowledge organization systems, a vocabulary item is considered a concept, with the "terms" denoting it appearing as labels. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) formalizes this as an RDF Schema (RDFS) application, with a bridge to formal logic in Web Ontology Language (OWL). For maximum utility, a vocabulary should be made available through the following interfaces: * the vocabulary as a whole - at an ontology URI corresponding to a vocabulary document * each item in the vocabulary - at the item URI * summaries, subsets, and resources derived by transformation * through the standard RDF web API - i.e. a SPARQL endpoint * through a query form for human users. However, the vocabulary data model may be leveraged directly in a standard vocabulary API that uses the semantics provided by SKOS. SISSvoc3 [1] accomplishes this as a standard set of URI templates for a vocabulary. Any URI comforming to the template selects a vocabulary subset based on the SKOS properties, including labels (skos:prefLabel, skos:altLabel, rdfs:label) and a subset of the semantic relations (skos:broader, skos:narrower, etc). SISSvoc3 thus provides a RESTFul SKOS API to query a vocabulary, but hiding the complexity of SPARQL. It has been implemented using the Linked Data API (LDA) [2], which connects to a SPARQL endpoint. By using LDA, we also get content-negotiation, alternative views, paging, metadata and other functionality provided in a standard way. A number of vocabularies have been formalized in SKOS and deployed by CSIRO, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) and their

  1. Increasing nurse staffing levels in Belgian cardiac surgery centres: a cost-effective patient safety intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Heede, Koen; Simoens, Steven; Diya, Luwis; Lesaffre, Emmanuel; Vleugels, Arthur; Sermeus, Walter

    2010-06-01

    This paper is a report of a cost-effectiveness analysis from a hospital perspective of increased nurse staffing levels (to the level of the 75th percentile) in Belgian general cardiac postoperative nursing units. A previous study indicated that increasing nurse staffing levels in Belgian general cardiac postoperative nursing units was associated with lower mortality rates. Research is needed to compare the costs of increased nurse staffing levels with benefits of reducing mortality rates. Two types of average national costs were compared. A first calculation included the simulation of an increase in the number of nursing hours per patient day to the 75th percentile for nursing units staffed below that level. For the second calculation (the comparator) we used a 'do nothing' alternative. The most recent available data sources were used for the analysis. Results were expressed in the form of the additional costs per avoided death and the additional costs per life-year gained. The analysis used 2007 costing data. The costs of increasing nurse staffing levels to the 75th percentile in Belgian general cardiac postoperative nursing units amounted to euro1,211,022. Such nurse staffing levels would avoid an estimated number of 45.9 (95% confidence interval: 22.0-69.4) patient deaths per year and generate 458.86 (95% confidence interval: 219.93-693.79) life-years gained annually. This corresponds with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of euro26,372 per avoided death and euro2639 per life-year gained. Increasing nurse staffing levels appears to be a cost-effective intervention as compared with other cardiovascular interventions.

  2. Studies on English Vocabulary Learning Strategies of Three-year Business English Majors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fang-rong

    2008-01-01

    Vocabulary learning strategies have been studied by a lot of scholars and teachers to a different extent on language learner of different levels. Little research has been done on three-year .Business English majors. This study is intended to examine the vocabulary learning strategies applied by those students to their vocabulary learning during the course of English learning. This study is carried out in the form of doing a questionnaire among 117 three-year Business English majors. The collected data is analyzed in the computer by using the SPSS software. The result is that most of the students give up the concept and strategy of repetition and accept the concept of context and practicing. In addition, most of the students know how to make use of cognitive strategies to learn vocabulary. However, those students seldom employ metacognitive strategies and social/affective strategies to facilitate their vocabulary learning. In fight of these, some recommendations have given to those students to help them learn more vocabulary by appropriately using the vocabulary learning strategies.

  3. Examining the Impact of Vocabulary Strategy Training on Adult EFL Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiye Çiğdem AKTEKİN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of strategy instruction in vocabulary learning. To reach the goal of the study, 70 elementary level EFL learners at the Preparatory School of Mersin University were assigned as study and control groups. At the first stage of the study, through a Vocabulary Strategy Frequency Survey (Cohen, Oxford & Chi, 2002 and Taxonomy (Schmitt, 1997, conscious and/or unconscious use of vocabulary learning strategies in both groups was investigated. The study group received instruction on vocabulary learning strategies which was embedded to the course-book through a 10-week period. For the next stage, it was aimed to raise the teachers’ awareness of vocabulary strategy learning; therefore, discussion and feedback sessions were planned. For the follow-up stage of the study, 10 of the participant students who were then second grade medical students were interviewed in order to investigate the effects of strategy training after 2 academic years. Interviewees were asked about their opinions on strategy use during this period. The findings indicated that vocabulary strategy training can help students to learn and store more vocabulary.

  4. A tool for sharing annotated research data: the "Category 0" UMLS (Unified Medical Language System vocabularies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berman Jules J

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large biomedical data sets have become increasingly important resources for medical researchers. Modern biomedical data sets are annotated with standard terms to describe the data and to support data linking between databases. The largest curated listing of biomedical terms is the the National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS. The UMLS contains more than 2 million biomedical terms collected from nearly 100 medical vocabularies. Many of the vocabularies contained in the UMLS carry restrictions on their use, making it impossible to share or distribute UMLS-annotated research data. However, a subset of the UMLS vocabularies, designated Category 0 by UMLS, can be used to annotate and share data sets without violating the UMLS License Agreement. Methods The UMLS Category 0 vocabularies can be extracted from the parent UMLS metathesaurus using a Perl script supplied with this article. There are 43 Category 0 vocabularies that can be used freely for research purposes without violating the UMLS License Agreement. Among the Category 0 vocabularies are: MESH (Medical Subject Headings, NCBI (National Center for Bioinformatics Taxonomy and ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases-9-Clinical Modifiers. Results The extraction file containing all Category 0 terms and concepts is 72,581,138 bytes in length and contains 1,029,161 terms. The UMLS Metathesaurus MRCON file (January, 2003 is 151,048,493 bytes in length and contains 2,146,899 terms. Therefore the Category 0 vocabularies, in aggregate, are about half the size of the UMLS metathesaurus. A large publicly available listing of 567,921 different medical phrases were automatically coded using the full UMLS metatathesaurus and the Category 0 vocabularies. There were 545,321 phrases with one or more matches against UMLS terms while 468,785 phrases had one or more matches against the Category 0 terms. This indicates that when the two vocabularies are

  5. Deimination level and peptidyl arginine deiminase 2 expression are elevated in astrocytes with increased incubation temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez-Algeciras, Mabel; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K; Serra, Horacio M

    2015-09-01

    Astrocytes respond to environmental cues, including changes in temperatures. Increased deimination, observed in many progressive neurological diseases, is thought to be contributed by astrocytes. We determined the level of deimination and expression of peptidyl arginine deiminase 2 (PAD2) in isolated primary astrocytes in response to changes on either side (31°C and 41°C) of the optimal temperature (37°C). We investigated changes in the astrocytes by using a number of established markers and accounted for cell death with the CellTiter-Blue assay. We found increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, ALDH1L1, and J1-31, resulting from increased incubation temperature and increased expression of TSP1, S100β, and AQP4, resulting from decreased incubation temperature vs. optimal temperature, suggesting activation of different biochemical pathways in astrocytes associated with different incubation temperatures. Mass spectrometric analyses support such trends. The PAD2 level was increased only as a result of increased incubation temperature with a commensurate increased level of deimination. Actin cytoskeleton and iso[4]LGE, a lipid peroxidase modification, also showed an increase with higher incubation temperature. Altogether, these results suggest that temperature, as an environmental cue, activates astrocytes in a different manner on either side of the optimal temperature and that increase in deimination is associated only with the higher temperature side of the spectrum.

  6. Arsenic increased lipid peroxidation in rat tissues by a mechanism independent of glutathione levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, O; Carrizales, L; Yáñez, L; Mejía, J; Batres, L; Ortíz, D; Díaz-Barriga, F

    1995-01-01

    The role of lipid peroxidation in the mechanism of arsenic toxicity was investigated in female rats pretreated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a glutathione [GSH] inducer) or with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, a GSH depletor). Rats were challenged with sodium arsenite, and sacrificed 1 hr after this treatment. Results showed that arsenic decreased GSH levels and increased lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney, and heart, with a larger effect at 18.2 mg/kg than at 14.8 mg/kg for lipid peroxidation induction. In the liver of rats treated with arsenic, pretreatment with NAC increased the levels of GSH and decreased lipid peroxidation. In kidney and heart, NAC pretreatment protected the tissues against arsenic-induced depletion of GSH levels, but the same degree of protection was not found for lipid peroxidation induction. In its turn, BSO had an additive effect with arsenic in lowering the levels of GSH in the liver and kidney, but an inverse correlation between GSH levels and lipid peroxidation was found only in liver. Arsenic content in tissues of rats pretreated with NAC was lower than in rats treated only with arsenic. In rats with depleted levels of GSH (BSO-pretreated rats), a shift in arsenic tissue distribution was found, with higher levels in skin and lower levels in kidney. A clear tendency for a positive correlation between arsenic concentration and lipid peroxidation levels was found in liver, kidney, and heart. PMID:7621808

  7. The dynamics of L2 vocabulary development: A case study of receptive and productive knowledge A dinâmica do desenvolvimento do vocabulário L2: Um estudo de caso do conhecimento receptivo e produtivo

    OpenAIRE

    Tal Caspi; Wander Lowie

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have shown that the transfer of receptive L2 vocabulary into production is far from linear, whether production is elicited by a task or spontaneous. The nature and causes of this gap between receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge have been widely debated. This article attempts a novel approach to this topic by investigating vocabulary knowledge development in a detailed case study. Four knowledge levels of ESL vocabulary are traced across time during a 36-week period of in...

  8. Increase in Dickkopf-1 Serum Level in Recent Spondyloarthritis. Data from the DESIR Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocturne, Gaetane; Pavy, Stephan; Boudaoud, Saida; Seror, Raphaèle; Goupille, Philippe; Chanson, Philippe; van der Heijde, Désirée; van Gaalen, Floris; Berenbaum, Francis; Mariette, Xavier; Briot, Karine; Feydy, Antoine; Claudepierre, Pascal; Dieudé, Philippe; Nithitham, Joanne; Taylor, Kimberly E; Criswell, Lindsey A; Dougados, Maxime; Roux, Christian; Miceli-Richard, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    To investigate DKK-1 and SOST serum levels among patients with recent inflammatory back pain (IBP) fulfilling ASAS criteria for SpA and associated factors. The DESIR cohort is a prospective, multicenter French cohort of 708 patients with early IBP (duration >3 months and <3 years) suggestive of AxSpA. DKK-1 and SOST serum levels were assessed at baseline and were compared between the subgroup of patients fulfilling ASAS criteria for SpA (n = 486; 68.6%) and 80 healthy controls. Mean SOST serum levels were lower in ASAS+ patients than healthy controls (49.21 ± 25.9 vs. 87.8 ± 26 pmol/L; p<0.0001). In multivariate analysis, age (p = 5.4 10-9), CRP level (p<0.0001) and serum DKK-1 level (p = 0.001) were associated with SOST level. Mean DKK-1 serum levels were higher in axial SpA patients than controls (30.03 ± 15.5 vs. 11.6 ± 4.2 pmol/L; p<0.0001). In multivariate analysis, DKK-1 serum levels were associated with male gender (p = 0.03), CRP level (p = 0.006), SOST serum level (p = 0.002) and presence of sacroiliitis on radiography (p = 0.05). Genetic association testing of 10 SNPs encompassing the DKK-1 locus failed to demonstrate a significant contribution of genetics to control of DKK-1 serum levels. DKK-1 serum levels were increased and SOST levels were decreased among a large cohort of patients with early axial SpA compared to healthy controls. DKK-1 serum levels were mostly associated with biological inflammation and SOST serum levels.

  9. Increase in Dickkopf-1 Serum Level in Recent Spondyloarthritis. Data from the DESIR Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetane Nocturne

    Full Text Available To investigate DKK-1 and SOST serum levels among patients with recent inflammatory back pain (IBP fulfilling ASAS criteria for SpA and associated factors.The DESIR cohort is a prospective, multicenter French cohort of 708 patients with early IBP (duration >3 months and <3 years suggestive of AxSpA. DKK-1 and SOST serum levels were assessed at baseline and were compared between the subgroup of patients fulfilling ASAS criteria for SpA (n = 486; 68.6% and 80 healthy controls.Mean SOST serum levels were lower in ASAS+ patients than healthy controls (49.21 ± 25.9 vs. 87.8 ± 26 pmol/L; p<0.0001. In multivariate analysis, age (p = 5.4 10-9, CRP level (p<0.0001 and serum DKK-1 level (p = 0.001 were associated with SOST level. Mean DKK-1 serum levels were higher in axial SpA patients than controls (30.03 ± 15.5 vs. 11.6 ± 4.2 pmol/L; p<0.0001. In multivariate analysis, DKK-1 serum levels were associated with male gender (p = 0.03, CRP level (p = 0.006, SOST serum level (p = 0.002 and presence of sacroiliitis on radiography (p = 0.05. Genetic association testing of 10 SNPs encompassing the DKK-1 locus failed to demonstrate a significant contribution of genetics to control of DKK-1 serum levels.DKK-1 serum levels were increased and SOST levels were decreased among a large cohort of patients with early axial SpA compared to healthy controls. DKK-1 serum levels were mostly associated with biological inflammation and SOST serum levels.

  10. Increase in Dickkopf-1 Serum Level in Recent Spondyloarthritis. Data from the DESIR Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocturne, Gaetane; Pavy, Stephan; Boudaoud, Saida; Seror, Raphaèle; Goupille, Philippe; Chanson, Philippe; van der Heijde, Désirée; van Gaalen, Floris; Berenbaum, Francis; Mariette, Xavier; Briot, Karine; Feydy, Antoine; Claudepierre, Pascal; Dieudé, Philippe; Nithitham, Joanne; Taylor, Kimberly E.; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Dougados, Maxime; Roux, Christian; Miceli-Richard, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate DKK-1 and SOST serum levels among patients with recent inflammatory back pain (IBP) fulfilling ASAS criteria for SpA and associated factors. Methods The DESIR cohort is a prospective, multicenter French cohort of 708 patients with early IBP (duration >3 months and <3 years) suggestive of AxSpA. DKK-1 and SOST serum levels were assessed at baseline and were compared between the subgroup of patients fulfilling ASAS criteria for SpA (n = 486; 68.6%) and 80 healthy controls. Results Mean SOST serum levels were lower in ASAS+ patients than healthy controls (49.21 ± 25.9 vs. 87.8 ± 26 pmol/L; p<0.0001). In multivariate analysis, age (p = 5.4 10−9), CRP level (p<0.0001) and serum DKK-1 level (p = 0.001) were associated with SOST level. Mean DKK-1 serum levels were higher in axial SpA patients than controls (30.03 ± 15.5 vs. 11.6 ± 4.2 pmol/L; p<0.0001). In multivariate analysis, DKK-1 serum levels were associated with male gender (p = 0.03), CRP level (p = 0.006), SOST serum level (p = 0.002) and presence of sacroiliitis on radiography (p = 0.05). Genetic association testing of 10 SNPs encompassing the DKK-1 locus failed to demonstrate a significant contribution of genetics to control of DKK-1 serum levels. Conclusions DKK-1 serum levels were increased and SOST levels were decreased among a large cohort of patients with early axial SpA compared to healthy controls. DKK-1 serum levels were mostly associated with biological inflammation and SOST serum levels. PMID:26313358

  11. INCREASED TISSUE TRANSGLUTAMINASE LEVELS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED EPILEPTIFORM ACTIVITY IN ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY AMONG PATIENTS WITH CELIAC DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat IŞIKAY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background - Celiac disease is an autoimmune systemic disorder in genetically predisposed individuals precipitated by gluten ingestion. Objective - In this study, we aimed to determine asymptomatic spike-and-wave findings on electroencephalography in children with celiac disease. Methods - A total of 175 children with the diagnosis of celiac disease (study group and 99 age- and sex-matched healthy children as controls (control group were included in the study. In order to determine the effects of gluten free diet on laboratory and electroencephalography findings, the celiac group is further subdivided into two as newly-diagnosed and formerly-diagnosed patients. Medical histories of all children and laboratory findings were all recorded and neurologic statuses were evaluated. All patients underwent a sleep and awake electroencephalography. Results - Among 175 celiac disease patients included in the study, 43 were newly diagnosed while 132 were formerly-diagnosed patients. In electroencephalography evaluation of patients the epileptiform activity was determined in 4 (9.3% of newly diagnosed and in 2 (1.5% of formerly diagnosed patients; on the other hand the epileptiform activity was present in only 1 (1.0% of control cases. There was a statistically significant difference between groups in regards to the presence of epileptiform activity in electroencephalography. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that epileptiform activity in both sleep and awake electroencephalography were positively correlated with tissue transglutaminase levels (P=0.014 and P=0.019, respectively. Conclusion - We have determined an increased epileptiform activity frequency among newly-diagnosed celiac disease patients compared with formerly-diagnosed celiac disease patients and control cases. Moreover the tissue transglutaminase levels were also correlated with the presence of epileptiform activity in electroencephalography. Among newly diagnosed celiac disease patients

  12. A Forest Tent Caterpillar Outbreak Increased Resource Levels and Seedling Growth in a Northern Hardwood Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozendaal, Danaë M A; Kobe, Richard K

    2016-01-01

    In closed-canopy forests, gap formation and closure are thought to be major drivers of forest dynamics. Crown defoliation by insects, however, may also influence understory resource levels and thus forest dynamics. We evaluate the effect of a forest tent caterpillar outbreak on understory light availability, soil nutrient levels and tree seedling height growth in six sites with contrasting levels of canopy defoliation in a hardwood forest in northern lower Michigan. We compared resource levels and seedling growth of six hardwood species before, during and in the three years after the outbreak (2008-2012). Canopy openness increased strongly during the forest tent caterpillar outbreak in the four moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites. Total inorganic soil nitrogen concentrations increased in response to the outbreak in moderately and severely defoliated sites. The increase in total inorganic soil nitrogen was driven by a strong increase in soil nitrate, and tended to become stronger with increasing site defoliation. Seedling height growth increased for all species in the moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites, either during the outbreak year or in the year after the outbreak. Growth increases did not become stronger with increasing site defoliation, but were strongest in a moderately defoliated site with high soil nutrient levels. Growth increases tended to be strongest for the shade intolerant species Fraxinus americana and Prunus serotina, and the shade tolerant species Ostrya virginiana. The strong growth response of F. americana and P. serotina suggests that recurring forest tent caterpillar outbreaks may facilitate the persistence of shade intolerant species in the understory in the absence of canopy gaps. Overall, our results suggest that recurrent canopy defoliation resulting from cyclical forest insect outbreaks may be an additional driver of dynamics in temperate closed

  13. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan GholamReza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978 has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006 and future (2025-2100 time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3. The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21. The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82 between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  14. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, Gholamreza; Moghbel, Masumeh; Grab, Stefan

    2012-12-12

    The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978) has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006) and future (2025-2100) time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3). The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site) has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21). The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82) between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm) over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm) by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  15. The Impact of Gloss Types on Reading Comprehension, Vocabulary Gain and Vocabulary Retention: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Elekaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The significance and impact of vocabulary learning in reading comprehension and L2 language learning are apparent to teachers, researchers and language learners. Moreover, glosses are found as one of the most effective strategies regarding vocabulary retention. Therefore, the present study attempted to investigate the effect of different types of glosses on reading comprehension, vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. To this end, 140 Iranian EFL learners learning English were selected and were divided into four groups (footnote gloss group, interlinear gloss group, marginal gloss group, and glossary group. They were required to read a text and answer four reading comprehension questions. In addition, one immediate vocabulary post-test and one delayed vocabulary post-test were taken in order to investigate learners' vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. In order to analyze the data, one one-way ANOVA and one MANOVA were run. The results of one-way ANOVA revealed that participants who received interlinear glosses significantly outperformed the other groups regarding comprehending the text. Moreover, the immediate vocabulary post-test was conducted immediately after reading test and the delayed post-test was administered after four weeks. The results of MANOVA indicated that the group which received interlinear glosses outperformed the other groups in both vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. The present study has implications for teachers and learners. Teachers can find better methods to teach new reading passages as well as vocabulary items. Also, glosses help learners to have a better comprehension of difficult passages and they facilitate learning. Moreover, learners can enhance their vocabulary knowledge with the help of glosses. Keywords: footnote gloss, interlinear gloss, marginal gloss, glossary, Iranian EFL learners, reading comprehension, vocabulary gain, vocabulary retention

  16. Empagliflozin, via Switching Metabolism Toward Lipid Utilization, Moderately Increases LDL Cholesterol Levels Through Reduced LDL Catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, François; Mayoux, Eric; Brousseau, Emmanuel; Burr, Noémie; Urbain, Isabelle; Costard, Clément; Mark, Michael; Sulpice, Thierry

    2016-07-01

    In clinical trials, a small increase in LDL cholesterol has been reported with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. The mechanisms by which the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin increases LDL cholesterol levels were investigated in hamsters with diet-induced dyslipidemia. Compared with vehicle, empagliflozin 30 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks significantly reduced fasting blood glucose by 18%, with significant increase in fasting plasma LDL cholesterol, free fatty acids, and total ketone bodies by 25, 49, and 116%, respectively. In fasting conditions, glycogen hepatic levels were further reduced by 84% with empagliflozin, while 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and total cholesterol hepatic levels were 31 and 10% higher, respectively (both P catabolism of (3)H-cholesteryl oleate-labeled LDL injected intravenously by 20%, indicating that empagliflozin raises LDL levels through reduced catabolism. Unexpectedly, empagliflozin also reduced intestinal cholesterol absorption in vivo, which led to a significant increase in LDL- and macrophage-derived cholesterol fecal excretion (both P < 0.05 vs. vehicle). These data suggest that empagliflozin, by switching energy metabolism from carbohydrate to lipid utilization, moderately increases ketone production and LDL cholesterol levels. Interestingly, empagliflozin also reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption, which in turn promotes LDL- and macrophage-derived cholesterol fecal excretion.

  17. Mental Lexicon, Working Memory and L2 (English Vocabulary in Polish Students with and without Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Łockiewicz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to examine the relationship between access to the mental lexicon, working memory and knowledge of English (L2 vocabulary. Analyses were undertaken amongst monolingual speakers of Polish (26 with dyslexia, 24 without who studied English as a second language as part of their compulsory educational programme at school. We assumed that students with dyslexia would manifest deficits in access to the mental lexicon and verbal working memory, and would have a limited L2 vocabulary. We also assumed that better access to the mental lexicon facilitates knowledge of English (L2 vocabulary, and that this relationship is present in both the criterion and the control group. All of the students participated in both parts of the assessment, the group part (i.e., questionnaire, IQ test, two vocabulary tasks and the individual part (i.e., psychological measures: verbal working memory, RAN, verbal fluency, and single word reading in L1 task. We found that students with dyslexia exhibited deficits in the speed of access to data from the mental lexicon. The predictive function of memory for vocabulary was more conspicuous in the control group; in the criterion group, the result might constitute a risk factor for L2 vocabulary acquisition in dyslexia, which may manifest with increased proficiency in word knowledge. Poor vocabulary knowledge renders the L2 learning experience difficult, as it impairs students’ reading comprehension, writing and conversational skills.

  18. WORD ORIGIN HELPS EXPAND LEARNERS’ VOCABULARY A VOCABULARY TEACHING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Word origin (motivation deals with the connection between name and sense, explaining how a word originated. With the knowledge of how words are originated, learners can grasp a word easier and thus expand their vocabulary more quickly. The introduction to word origin (motivation by teachers can also help the learners gain interest in the process of learning and learn more about the cultural and historical background of the English-speaking countries. This paper tries to clarify this method of teaching from four aspects: onomatopoeia, word formation, cultural and historical background and cognitive linguistics.

  19. A harmonized vocabulary for soil observed properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Bruce; Wilson, Peter; Cox, Simon; Vleeshouer, Jamie

    2014-05-01

    Interoperability of soil data depends on agreements concerning models, schemas and vocabularies. However, observed property terms are often defined during different activities and projects in isolation of one another, resulting in data that has the same scope being represented with different terms, using different formats and formalisms, and published in various access methods. Significantly, many soil property vocabularies conflate multiple concepts in a single term, e.g. quantity kind, units of measure, substance being observed, and procedure. Effectively, this bundles separate information elements into a single slot. We have developed a vocabulary for observed soil properties by adopting and extending a previously defined water quality vocabulary. The observed property model separates the information elements, based on the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Observations & Measurements model and extending the NASA/TopQuadrant 'Quantities, Units, Dimensions and Types' (QUDT) ontology. The imported water quality vocabulary is formalized using the Web Ontology Language (OWL). Key elements are defined as sub-classes or sub-properties of standard Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) elements, allowing use of standard vocabulary interfaces. For the soil observed property vocabulary, terms from QUDT and water quality are used where possible. These are supplemented with additional unit of measure (Unit), observed property (ScaledQuantityKind) and substance being observed (SubstanceOrTaxon) vocabulary entries required for the soil properties. The vocabulary terms have been extracted from the Australian Soil and Land Survey Field Handbook and Australian Soil Information Transfer and Evaluation System (SITES) vocabularies. The vocabulary links any chemical substances to items from the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) ontology. By formalizing the model for observable properties, and clearly labelling the separate elements, soil property observations may

  20. Spontaneous trait inference and construal level theory: Psychological distance increases nonconscious trait thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Soyon; Uleman, James S; Trope, Yaacov

    2009-09-01

    Can psychological distance affect how much perceivers form spontaneous trait inferences (STI) from others' behaviors? On the basis of construal level theory (CLT) which posits that distant (vs. near) entities are represented more in terms of their abstract, global, and decontextualized features, we predicted that perceived distance would increase the tendency for perceivers to draw spontaneous trait inferences from behavioral information about actors. In two experiments, participants learned about people who were perceived as being distant or proximal to the self, and STI formation was subsequently assessed. We found that perceivers were more likely to form STIs about distant vs. near actors from the same behavioral information. These findings generalized across two distance dimensions: space and time. In addition, we found that priming individuals to adopt a high-level (vs. low-level) construal mindset also resulted in increased STI (Experiment 3). In sum, psychological distance facilitates STI formation, and this occurs via high-level construal of actors and their behaviors.

  1. Improving EFL Learners' Reading Levels through Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermelstein, Aaron David

    2014-01-01

    Today there is an increasing amount of research promoting the effectiveness of extensive reading (ER) towards increasing learners' vocabulary, comprehension, reading speed, and motivation towards reading. However, little has been done to measure the effects of ER on learners' reading levels. This quantitative study examined the effects of ER on…

  2. Stress-induced increases in brainstem amino acid levels are prevented by chronic sodium hydrosulfide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warenycia, M W; Kombian, S B; Reiffenstein, R J

    1990-01-01

    Neurotransmitter amino acid levels were measured in select brain regions of rats and mice after chronic treatment with sublethal doses of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). Brainstem aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, taurine and GABA levels increased in chronically but not acutely saline-treated rats. These increases may have been due to stress from frequent handling, and were prevented by chronic NaHS treatment (7.5 mg/kg ip every 8 hr for 3 consecutive days). In contrast, aspartate, glutamate and glutamine increased in female but not in male ICR mouse brainstems after once daily treatment with 7.0 mg/kg NaHS for 5 consecutive days. These effects of NaHS may indicate chronic low level H2S neurotoxicity. Differences between chronic and acute treatments, female and male responses, and treatment paradigms may complicate interpretations of such toxicity studies.

  3. DOPING LEVEL INCREASE OF POLY(3-METHYLTHIOPHENE) FILM DURING ELECTROCHEMICAL POLYMERIZATION PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-kun Xu; Gao-quan Shi; Feng-en Chen; Xiao-yin Hong

    2002-01-01

    The Raman spectra of poly(3-methylthiophene) (PMeT) films with different thicknesses, which have been electrochemically deposited on a flat stainless steel electrode surface by direct oxidation of 3-methylthiophene in boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BFEE) at a constant applied potential of 1.38 V (versus SCE), have been investigated by excitation with a 633-nm laser beam. The spectroscopic results demonstrated that the doping level of PMeT film was increasing during film growth. This finding was also confirmed by electrochemical examination. Moreover, the Raman bands assigned to radical cations and dications in doped PMeT films were found approximately at 1420 and 1400 cm-1,respectively. Radical cations and dications coexist on the backbone of PMeT as conductive species and their concentrations increase with the increase of doping level. Successive cyclic voltammetry was proved to be an effective approach to improving the doping level of as-grown thin compact PMeT film.

  4. From Single Words to Passages: Contextual Effects on Predictive Power of Vocabulary Measures for Assessing Reading Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, David D.

    2008-01-01

    In the last 15 years or so, language testing practitioners have increasingly favored assessing vocabulary in context. The discrete-point vocabulary measure used in the old version of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) has long been criticized for encouraging test candidates to memorize wordlists out of context although test items…

  5. High glucose levels reduce fatty acid oxidation and increase triglyceride accumulation in human placenta

    OpenAIRE

    Visiedo, Francisco; Bugatto, Fernando; Sánchez, Viviana; Cózar-Castellano, Irene; Bartha, Jose L.; Perdomo, Germán

    2013-01-01

    Placentas of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) exhibit an altered lipid metabolism. The mechanism by which GDM is linked to alterations in placental lipid metabolism remains obscure. We hypothesized that high glucose levels reduce mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and increase triglyceride accumulation in human placenta. To test this hypothesis, we measured FAO, fatty acid esterification, de novo fatty acid synthesis, triglyceride levels, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase...

  6. Low-molecular weight heparin increases circulating sFlt-1 levels and enhances urinary elimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Hagmann

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Preeclampsia is a devastating medical complication of pregnancy which leads to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. While the etiology of preeclampsia is unclear, human and animal studies suggest that excessive circulating levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine-kinase-1 (sFlt-1, an alternatively spliced variant of VEGF-receptor1, contribute to the signs and symptoms of preeclampsia. Since sFlt-1 binds to heparin and heparan sulfate proteoglycans, we hypothesized that the anticoagulant heparin, which is often used in pregnancy, may interfere with the levels, distribution and elimination of sFlt-1 in vivo. OBJECTIVE: We systematically determined serum and urine levels of angiogenic factors in preeclamptic women before and after administration of low molecular weight heparin and further characterized the interaction with heparin in biochemical studies. METHODS AND RESULTS: Serum and urine samples were used to measure sFlt-1 levels before and after heparin administration. Serum levels of sFlt-1 increased by 25% after heparin administration in pregnant women. The magnitude of the increase in circulating sFlt-1 correlated with initial sFlt-1 serum levels. Urinary sFlt-1 levels were also elevated following heparin administration and levels of elimination were dependent on the underlying integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier. Biochemical binding studies employing cation exchange chromatography revealed that heparin bound sFlt-1 had decreased affinity to negatively charged surfaces when compared to sFlt-1 alone. CONCLUSION: Low molecular weight heparin administration increased circulating sFlt1 levels and enhanced renal elimination. We provide evidence that both effects may be due to heparin binding to sFlt1 and masking the positive charges on sFlt1 protein.

  7. Carbon dioxide-induced anesthesia results in a rapid increase in plasma levels of vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Brian; Varon, Jack; Chait, Brian T; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2009-06-01

    Brief anesthesia, such as after exposure to high levels of carbon dioxide, prior to decapitation is considered a more humane alternative for the euthanasia of rodents, compared with use of decapitation alone. Studies of the levels of certain stress hormones in plasma such as corticosterone and ACTH have supported the use of this method of euthanasia in endocrinological and molecular studies. In the current study, rats were briefly exposed to a chamber filled with carbon dioxide until recumbent (20-25 sec), immediately killed via decapitation, and trunk blood collected; findings were compared with rats killed via decapitation with no exposure to carbon dioxide. RIAs were used to measure arginine vasopressin (AVP) and ACTH immunoreactivity (ir) in plasma. Whereas ACTH-ir levels remained steady after brief exposure to carbon dioxide (in accordance with results of other investigators), AVP-ir levels were increased by more than an order of magnitude. These results were confirmed by quantitative capillary-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, indicating this observation of rapid increase in plasma AVP-ir levels is not due to nonspecific recognition by the antibody used in the RIA. Likewise, using capillary-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we observed a rapid increase in plasma oxytocin levels after carbon dioxide exposure. These surprising findings have important implications for the design and interpretation of studies involving brief carbon dioxide exposure prior to decapitation as well as those with euthanasia resulting from carbon dioxide-induced asphyxiation.

  8. Increase of Expression Levels of Reporter Gene in Transgenic Tobaccos by Matrix Attachment Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The matrix attachment region (MAR) located downstream of Plastocyanin gene was isolated from the genome of pea. To study the effect of MARs on foreign gene expression in transgenic plants, T-DNA vector was constructed in which MARs flanked bothβ-glucuronidase(GUS) gene and selectable marker neomycin phosphotransferase (NPT-II) gene. The plant expression vectors were transferred into leaf discs via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation procedure. The result of GUS measurement showed that pea MAR could increase transgene expression level. The mean expression levels of GUS gene expression in population containing MARs could be increased twofold when compared with that of population without MARs.

  9. B lymphocyte stimulator levels in systemic lupus erythematosus: higher circulating levels in African American patients and increased production after influenza vaccination in patients with low baseline levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritterhouse, Lauren L; Crowe, Sherry R; Niewold, Timothy B; Merrill, Joan T; Roberts, Virginia C; Dedeke, Amy B; Neas, Barbara R; Thompson, Linda F; Guthridge, Joel M; James, Judith A

    2011-12-01

    To examine the relationship between circulating B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) levels and humoral responses to influenza vaccination in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, as well as the effect of vaccination on BLyS levels, and to investigate clinical and serologic features of SLE that are associated with elevated BLyS levels. Clinical history, disease activity measurements, and blood specimens were collected from 60 SLE patients at baseline and after influenza vaccination. Sera were tested for BLyS levels, lupus-associated autoantibodies, serum interferon-α (IFNα) activity, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), and humoral responses to influenza vaccination. Thirty percent of the SLE patients had elevated BLyS levels, with African American patients having higher BLyS levels than white patients (P = 0.006). Baseline BLyS levels in patients were not correlated with humoral responses to influenza vaccination (P = 0.863), and BLyS levels increased postvaccination only in the subset of patients with BLyS levels in the lowest quartile (P = 0.0003). Elevated BLyS levels were associated with increased disease activity, as measured by the SLE Disease Activity Index, physician's global assessment, and Systemic Lupus Activity Measure in white patients (P = 0.035, P = 0.016, and P = 0.018, respectively), but not in African Americans. Elevated BLyS levels were also associated with anti-nuclear RNP (P = 0.0003) and decreased 25(OH)D (P = 0.018). Serum IFNα activity was a significant predictor of elevated BLyS in a multivariate analysis (P = 0.002). Our findings indicate that African American patients with SLE have higher BLyS levels regardless of disease activity. Humoral response to influenza vaccination is not correlated with baseline BLyS levels in SLE patients, and only those patients with low baseline BLyS levels demonstrate an increased BLyS response after vaccination. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  10. Methylglyoxal increases dopamine level and leads to oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bingjie; Lin, Fankai; Peng, Lei; Ullah, Kaleem; Wu, Hanyan; Qing, Hong; Deng, Yulin

    2014-11-01

    More and more studies have suggested that methylglyoxal (MGO) induced by type-2 diabetes is related to Parkinson's disease (PD). However, little is known about the molecular mechanism. In this study, we explored the MGO toxicity in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Neurotoxicity of MGO was measured by mitochondrial membrane potential, malondialdehyde, and methylthiazoletetrazolium assays. The levels of dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (salsolinol) were detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. The expressions of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine transporter (DAT) were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The results showed that MGO induced an increase in TH and DAT expressions in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, while the levels of dopamine, DOPAC, and endogenous neurotoxin salsolinol also increased. Aminoguanidine (AG) is an inhibitor of MGO. It was found that AG could decrease the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level induced by MGO, but could not inhibit an increase of TH, DAT and dopamine. The increase of dopamine, DOPAC and salsolinol levels could lead to high ROS and mitochondrial damage. This study suggests that ROS caused by dopamine could contribute to the damage of dopaminergic neurons when MGO is increased during the course of diabetes.

  11. Pistachio intake increases high density lipoprotein levels and inhibits low-density lipoprotein oxidation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Nur; Aksoy, Mehmet; Bagci, Cahit; Gergerlioglu, H Serdar; Celik, Hakim; Herken, Emine; Yaman, Abdullah; Tarakcioglu, Mehmet; Soydinc, Serdar; Sari, Ibrahim; Davutoglu, Vedat

    2007-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that nuts have protective effects against coronary artery disease by improving lipid profile and inhibiting lipid oxidation. However, data about pistachio nuts are limited, and to our knowledge, there is no study investigating the effects of pistachio intake on lipid oxidation and serum antioxidant levels. This study, therefore, sought to determine the effects of pistachio intake on serum lipids and determine whether consumption of pistachio would alter serum antioxidant levels. Rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=12 for each): control group fed basic diet for 10 weeks and treated groups fed basic diet plus pistachio which constituted 20% and 40% of daily caloric intake, respectively. Consumption of pistachio as 20% of daily caloric intake increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and decreased total cholesterol (TC)/HDL ratio, compared with those not taking pistachio. However, TC, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels were unaffected by pistachio consumption. Consumption of pistachio as 20% of daily caloric intake increased serum paraoxonase activity by 35% and arylesterase activity by 60%, which are known to inhibit LDL cholesterol oxidation, compared with the control group. However, increased antioxidant activity was blunted when pistachio intake was increased to 40% of daily caloric intake. In conclusion, the present results show that consumption of pistachio as 20% of daily caloric intake leads to significant improvement in HDL and TC/HDL ratio and inhibits LDL cholesterol oxidation. These results suggest that pistachio may be beneficial for both prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease.

  12. Increased biogenic catecholamine and metabolite levels in two patients with malignant catatonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisijima K

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Koichi Nisijima Department of Psychiatry, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan Abstract: The pathophysiology of malignant catatonia, a rare life-threatening psychiatric syndrome, has not yet been elucidated. This paper reports on two patients with malignant catatonia who showed elevated urinary or plasma catecholamine levels. Patient 1 had high catecholamine and metabolite levels in a 24-hour urine sample, and patient 2 had elevated plasma catecholamine levels. These findings indicate the presence of peripheral sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity in malignant catatonia. Symptoms of autonomic dysfunction, including tachycardia, labile blood pressure, and diaphoresis, are typical features of malignant catatonia and may be related to the increased levels of biogenic amines in these cases. Although the findings in the present study cannot entirely explain the pathophysiology of malignant catatonia, they do indicate that hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system may be involved in the pathology of this condition. Keywords: malignant catatonia, catecholamine levels, neuroleptic malignant syndrome

  13. Serum Resistin Levels May Contribute to an Increased Risk of Acute Cerebral Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiao-Liu; Xu, Shi-Jun; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Xiu-Qing; Liu, Ting; Gao, Qiu-Yan; Qian, Qing-Qiang; Sun, Bao-Liang; Yang, Ming-Feng

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between serum resistin levels and acute cerebral infarction (ACI). PubMed, SpringerLink, Wiley, EBSCO, Ovid, Web of Science, Wanfang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and VIP databases (last updated search in October 2014) were exhaustively searched, and data from the eligible studies were extracted and analyzed to assess the association between serum resistin levels and ACI. STATA software (version 12.0, Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA) was utilized for data analysis. Ten studies including 1829 ACI patients and 1557 healthy controls were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Our major result revealed that ACI patients exhibited higher serum resistin levels compared with healthy controls. Asubgroup analysis based on ethnicity showed a significant association between serum resistin levels and ACI in Asians, but surprisingly not in Caucasians. The results of our meta-analysis suggest that serum resistin levels are associated with an increased risk of ACI.

  14. Increased FGF21 plasma levels in humans with sepsis and SIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariani, Karim; Drifte, Geneviève; Dunn-Siegrist, Irène; Pugin, Jérôme; Jornayvaz, François R

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a key regulator in glucose and lipid metabolism and its plasma levels have been shown to be increased not only in humans in different situations such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease but also in animal models of sepsis and pancreatitis. FGF21 is considered as a pharmacological candidate in conditions associated with insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to compare FGF21 plasma levels in patients with sepsis, in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and in healthy controls. We measured FGF21 plasma concentrations in 22 patients with established sepsis, in 11 with SIRS, and in 12 healthy volunteers. Here, we show that FGF21 levels were significantly higher in plasma obtained from patients with sepsis and SIRS in comparison with healthy controls. Also, FGF21 levels were significantly higher in patients with sepsis than in those with noninfectious SIRS. FGF21 plasma levels measured at study entry correlated positively with the APACHE II score, but not with procalcitonin levels, nor with C-reactive protein, classical markers of sepsis. Plasma concentrations of FGF21 peaked near the onset of shock and rapidly decreased with clinical improvement. Taken together, these results indicate that circulating levels of FGF21 are increased in patients presenting with sepsis and SIRS, and suggest a role for FGF21 in inflammation. Further studies are needed to explore the potential role of FGF21 in sepsis as a potential therapeutic target.

  15. Increased 5-hydroxymethylation levels in the sub ventricular zone of the Alzheimer's brain

    OpenAIRE

    Mastroeni, Diego; Chouliaras, Leonidas; Daniel L. Van den Hove; Nolz, Jennifer; Rutten, Bart P. F.; Delvaux, Elaine; Coleman, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    The subventricular zone (SVZ) is a site of neurogenesis in the aging brain, and epigenetic mechanisms have been implicated in regulating the “normal” distribution of new nerve cells into the existing cellular milieu. In a case-control study of human primary SVZ cultures and fixed tissue from the same individuals, we have found significant increases in DNA hydroxymethylation levels in the SVZ of Alzheimer's disease patients compared with nondiseased control subjects. We show that this increase...

  16. Nitric oxide donor NOC-5 increases XIAP and Aven level in Jurkat cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starikova, Elena G; Tashireva, L A; Novitsky, V V; Ryazantseva, N V

    2014-07-01

    Mitochondrial permeabilisation after NO donor application did not activate caspase-9. We have studied the X-linked apoptosis inhibitor (XIAP) and Aven protein content in NO-treated Jurkat cells. The level of both proteins increased in NO-treated cells. Thus the increase in XIAP and Aven content could be the cause of the lack of caspase-9 activity after mitochondrial permeabilisation in NO-treated Jurkat cells.

  17. Licochalcone A induces T24 bladder cancer cell apoptosis by increasing intracellular calcium levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinhui; Jiang, Jiangtao; Yang, Xinyan; Han, Jichun; Zheng, Qiusheng

    2016-07-01

    Licochalcone A (LCA) has been reported to significantly inhibit cell proliferation, increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and induce apoptosis of T24 human bladder cancer cells via mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-triggered signaling pathways. Based on these findings, the present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms by which LCA induces apoptosis of T24 cells. Cultured T24 cells were treated with LCA, and cell viability was measured using the sulforhodamine B assay. Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry with Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, and by fluorescent microscopy with Hoechst 33258 staining. The levels of intracellular free calcium ions were determined using Fluo-3 AM dye marker. Intracellular ROS levels were assessed using the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate probe assay. The mitochondrial membrane potential was measured using 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethyl benzimidazole carbocyanine iodide. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of B‑cell lymphoma (Bcl)‑extra large, Bcl‑2‑associated X protein, Bcl‑2‑interacting mediator of cell death, apoptotic protease activating factor‑1 (Apaf‑1), calpain 2, cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase (caspase)‑3, caspase‑4 and caspase‑9 were determined using reverse transcription semiquantitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses. Treatment with LCA inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of T24 cells, and increased intracellular Ca2+ levels and ROS production. Furthermore, LCA induced mitochondrial dysfunction, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and increased the mRNA expression levels of Apaf‑1, caspase‑9 and caspase‑3. Exposure of T24 cells to LCA also triggered calpain 2 and caspase‑4 activation, resulting in apoptosis. These findings indicated that LCA increased intracellular Ca2+ levels, which may be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, the ER stress pathway may be

  18. Projected carbon dioxide to increase grass pollen and allergen exposure despite higher ozone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertine, Jennifer M; Manning, William J; DaCosta, Michelle; Stinson, Kristina A; Muilenberg, Michael L; Rogers, Christine A

    2014-01-01

    One expected effect of climate change on human health is increasing allergic and asthmatic symptoms through changes in pollen biology. Allergic diseases have a large impact on human health globally, with 10-30% of the population affected by allergic rhinitis and more than 300 million affected by asthma. Pollen from grass species, which are highly allergenic and occur worldwide, elicits allergic responses in 20% of the general population and 40% of atopic individuals. Here we examine the effects of elevated levels of two greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2), a growth and reproductive stimulator of plants, and ozone (O3), a repressor, on pollen and allergen production in Timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.). We conducted a fully factorial experiment in which plants were grown at ambient and/or elevated levels of O3 and CO2, to simulate present and projected levels of both gases and their potential interactive effects. We captured and counted pollen from flowers in each treatment and assayed for concentrations of the allergen protein, Phl p 5. We found that elevated levels of CO2 increased the amount of grass pollen produced by ∼50% per flower, regardless of O3 levels. Elevated O3 significantly reduced the Phl p 5 content of the pollen but the net effect of rising pollen numbers with elevated CO2 indicate increased allergen exposure under elevated levels of both greenhouse gases. Using quantitative estimates of increased pollen production and number of flowering plants per treatment, we estimated that airborne grass pollen concentrations will increase in the future up to ∼200%. Due to the widespread existence of grasses and the particular importance of P. pratense in eliciting allergic responses, our findings provide evidence for significant impacts on human health worldwide as a result of future climate change.

  19. Exploring the effect of materials designed with augmented reality on language learners' vocabulary learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Solak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the motivational level of the participants in a language classroom towards course materials designed in accordance with augmented reality technology and to identify the correlation between academic achievement and motivational level. 130 undergraduate students from a state-run university in Turkey participated in this study and Turkish version of Material Motivational Survey was used to determine the undergraduate students’ motivational level about the materials which were designed with AR technology to teach English words at the elementary level. The results of this study suggested that AR technology materials had positive impact on increasing undergraduate students’ motivation towards vocabulary learning in language classroom. This study also signified that a positive significant correlation was found between academic achievement and the motivation in the use of AR technology in language classroom.

  20. Vocabulary Growth of the Advanced EFL Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Meral

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of two studies on the vocabulary growth of advanced learners of English as a foreign language in an English-medium degree programme. Growth in learners' written receptive and productive vocabularies was investigated in one cross-sectional and one longitudinal study over three years. The effect of word frequency on…

  1. Vocabulary Teaching in Action-Oriented Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunday, Rifat; Atmaca, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    The words are called as basic building blocks of language. It is impossible to discuss the language system without words. It is related to the vocabulary whether a language is rich or not. It is also related to the peoples' vocabulary to understand what is said and written or to express effectively their thoughts and their feelings verbally or in…

  2. Is Form-Focused Vocabulary Instruction Worthwhile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Beniko; Krashen, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Hearing stories can result in considerable incidental vocabulary development, for both first and second language acquisition (e.g. Elley 1992; Robbins and Ehri 1994; Senechal, LeFevre, Hudson and Lawson 1996). It has also been claimed, however, that direct instruction is more effective than incidental vocabulary acquisition and that combining both…

  3. Incidental Acquisition of Vocabulary by Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponniah, R. Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of reading on vocabulary development with adult ESL students at the National Institute of Technology (Trichirappalli, India). The researcher analyzes the performance of the students who devoted their time to reading, and the students who learned consciously the meaning of words to develop their vocabulary knowledge.…

  4. Teaching Vocabulary to Senior High School Student

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆梅

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with methods of teaching vocabulary to high school students. It mainly talks about that vocabulary learning should relate to cultural background, connotative meaning, and social meaning. In order to collect dependable and reasonable result, a survey was conducted in a high school. The result of survey shows that this method is acceptable.

  5. Vocabulary Growth of the Advanced EFL Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Meral

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of two studies on the vocabulary growth of advanced learners of English as a foreign language in an English-medium degree programme. Growth in learners' written receptive and productive vocabularies was investigated in one cross-sectional and one longitudinal study over three years. The effect of word frequency on…

  6. Toward the Automatic Identification of Sublanguage Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Stephanie W.; He, Shaoyi

    1993-01-01

    Describes the development of a method for the automatic identification of sublanguage vocabulary words as they occur in abstracts. Highlights include research relating to sublanguages and their vocabulary; domain terms; evaluation criteria, including recall and precision; and implications for natural language processing and information retrieval.…

  7. My World of Words: Building Vocabulary Lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MarcoPolo Education Foundation.

    This lesson uses students' areas of interest both in and out of school to generate personalized vocabulary lists. Working in small groups, grade 3 to 5 students select their own vocabulary words and research their meanings. In a culminating activity that uses text and illustration, each student will create a "My World of Words Journal." During…

  8. Review Article: Instructed Second Language Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    This article overviews current research on second language vocabulary learning. It concludes that a large vocabulary is necessary to function in English: 8000-9000 word families for reading, and perhaps as many as 5000-7000 families for oral discourse. In addition, a number of word knowledge aspects need to be learned about each lexical item.…

  9. Building Conceptual Understanding through Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupley, William H.; Nichols, William Dee; Mraz, Maryann; Blair, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Instructional design is an integral part of a balanced approach to teaching vocabulary instruction. This article presents several instructional procedures using research-based vocabulary strategies and explains how to design and adapt those strategies in order to reach desired learning outcomes. Emphasis is placed on research-based principles that…

  10. Vocabulary Memorizing Strategies by Chinese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei-dong; Dai, Wei-ping

    2012-01-01

    The findings of the study indicate that students prefer to engage in the vocabulary learning strategies that would be most appealing to them and that would entail less manipulation of the language. Of the four vocabulary memorizing strategies cited in the study (rote repetition, structural associations, semantic strategies, and mnemonic keyword…

  11. Helping Teachers Connect Vocabulary and Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, A. Susan

    2008-01-01

    A focus on mathematics vocabulary must be part of teachers' instructional plans to develop students' understanding of key ideas. The author presents examples from work with preservice teachers regarding two vocabulary strategies and other related activities that can be used by middle and high school mathematics teachers. (Contains 8 figures.)

  12. Effects of Morphological Instruction on Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Peter N.; Kirby, John R.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of a 20-session intervention targeting morphological word structure on vocabulary knowledge were investigated in four Grade 4 and 5 classes, assigned randomly to treatment and control conditions. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling for initial vocabulary showed significant instructional effects on morphological analysis and…

  13. English Vocabulary Instruction for English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyak, Patrick C.; Bauer, Eurydice Bouchereau

    2009-01-01

    In this column Manyak and Bauer summarize key research addressing the English vocabulary development of English learners (ELs) and distill implications for instructional practice. First, the authors discuss several key studies that demonstrate the limitation of many ELs' English vocabulary knowledge and the negative impact of this limitation on…

  14. Discussion on University English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关颖

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary is the foundation of language systems and the students' vocabulary ability directly affects their ability of lis⁃tening, speaking, reading, writing and translating.However, the traditional college English teaching of vocabulary can't meet the needs of memorizing words for students. Memorizing words is a heavy burden of students.Teaching practice shows that using the etymology of auxiliary teaching in the process of teaching can improve the students' learning interest and deepen their memory,al⁃so can improve the efficiency of vocabulary memory,which isnot only help students enlarge their vocabulary, but also can strengthen the students understand the English national cultures.In this paper, we start from the importance of vocabulary teach⁃ing and the present situation of college English vocabulary teaching,we talk about the feasibility of using etymology college Eng⁃lish vocabulary teaching strategies based on the etymology related knowledgein this paper in order to improve the English skills for students.

  15. Intentional Vocabulary Learning Using Digital Flashcards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hsiu-Ting

    2015-01-01

    As an attempt to follow through on the claims made by proponents of intentional vocabulary learning, the present study set out to examine whether and how digital flashcards can be incorporated into a university course to promote the vocabulary learning of English language learners. The overall research findings underscore the value of learning…

  16. Conceptual Metaphor and English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐立

    2013-01-01

      We can see how metaphors exist in everyday language, even if we may not always notice. Metaphor plays an important role in vocabulary teaching. In accordance with the analysis of the fundamental theories proposed by Lakoff&Johnson (1980), this thesis provides some suggestions which help English teachers improve vocabulary teaching strategies.

  17. Vocabulary Instruction for Second Language Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Deanna L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, research has consistently affirmed the importance of explicit vocabulary instruction for adult learners of English as a second language (ESL). Given the significant vocabulary demands faced by adult second language readers, ESL teachers must carefully target their instruction for maximum impact and to foster meaningful…

  18. Hypermedia and Vocabulary Acquisition for Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of multimedia as a delivery tool for enhancing vocabulary in second-language classrooms. The mixed method design focused on specific techniques to help students acquire Spanish vocabulary and communication skills. The theoretical framework for this study consisted of second language theories…

  19. Glossary of Social Studies Terms and Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Karen R., Comp.

    This glossary is a tool to help teachers better understand the language of social studies. It was not created to be a study guide for vocabulary tests, as learning social studies vocabulary is best done in context. The glossary is for use in conjunction with the social studies portion of Michigan's Clarifying Language in Michigan Benchmarks (MI…

  20. Mnemonic Vocabulary Instruction: Additional Effectiveness Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Joel R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Four experiments with 132 seventh graders, 162 eighth graders, 75 fourth graders, and 52 third graders compared the mnemonic keyword method with various other vocabulary learning strategies. Mnemonic keyword students outperformed sentence-context and free-study counterparts and generally outperformed others on tests of vocabulary usage. (SLD)

  1. The Choice of Effective Vocabulary Learning Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-fang

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to make a comparison between good and poor language learners in the use of vocabulary learning strat-egies. It will introduce some helpful vocabulary learning strategies to help those frustrated Chinese college non-English major learners.

  2. Fostering Academic Vocabulary Use in Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun-Mercer, Nicole; Zimmerman, Cheryl Boyd

    2015-01-01

    Though research has established a relationship between vocabulary knowledge and academic success and identified features to guide the L2 word learner through academic tasks (see Nation, 2013), less is known regarding student perceptions of academic vocabulary and the conscious decision-making process of these learners while they are writing. In…

  3. Vocabulary Growth of the Advanced EFL Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Meral

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of two studies on the vocabulary growth of advanced learners of English as a foreign language in an English-medium degree programme. Growth in learners' written receptive and productive vocabularies was investigated in one cross-sectional and one longitudinal study over three years. The effect of word…

  4. The Acculturation in English vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严灵; 张华刚; 张凯

    2010-01-01

    The thesis is concerned with the acculturation in English words.More specifically,some consideration will be given to the why and how of learning culture.It will be demonstrated that learning a foreign language is not tantamount to giving a homily on syntactic structures or learning new vocabulary and expressions,but mainly incorporates,or should incorporate,some cultural elements,which are intertwined with language itself.The main premise of the paper is that apart from enhancing and enriching communicative competence,cultural competence can also lead to empathy and respect toward different cultures as well as promote objectivity and cultural perspicacity.

  5. Sound Symbolism in Basic Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Wichmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between meanings of words and their sound shapes is to a large extent arbitrary, but it is well known that languages exhibit sound symbolism effects violating arbitrariness. Evidence for sound symbolism is typically anecdotal, however. Here we present a systematic approach. Using a selection of basic vocabulary in nearly one half of the world’s languages we find commonalities among sound shapes for words referring to same concepts. These are interpreted as due to sound symbolism. Studying the effects of sound symbolism cross-linguistically is of key importance for the understanding of language evolution.

  6. High serum ferritin levels increase the risk of hyperuricemia: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-nan; Xu, Chengfu; Xu, Lei; Yu, Chaohui; Miao, Min; Xie, Jianhong; Li, Youming

    2014-01-01

    To examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of serum ferritin levels with hyperuricemia. A cross-sectional and subsequently prospective study was performed among the employees of Zhenhai Refining and Chemical Company, Ningbo, China. In a cross-sectional study, the association between serum ferritin levels and the prevalence of hyperuricemia was analyzed. Subjects who were free of hyperuricemia at baseline were followed up annually to explore the prospective association between serum ferritin levels and hyperuricemia incidence. Of the 10,074 subjects enrolled at baseline, 1,731 (17.18%) fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of hyperuricemia. Subjects with hyperuricemia presented significantly higher serum ferritin levels, and the levels were positively correlated with the prevalence of hyperuricemia. During a total of 22,367 person-years of follow-up, 502 subjects developed hyperuricemia. The overall incidence of hyperuricemia for 1,000 person-years of follow-up was 22.4, ranging from 17.6 in subjects with baseline serum ferritin levels in the first quintile to 19.2, 21.7, 23.9, and 30.7 in subjects in quintiles 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively (p for trend serum ferritin levels were positively associated with the risk of incident hyperuricemia. Our cross-sectional and longitudinal results indicate that high serum ferritin levels increase the risk of hyperuricemia.

  7. Bilirubin Increases Insulin Sensitivity by Regulating Cholesterol Metabolism, Adipokines and PPARγ Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinfeng; Dong, Huansheng; Zhang, Yong; Cao, Mingjun; Song, Lili; Pan, Qingjie; Bulmer, Andrew; Adams, David B; Dong, Xiao; Wang, Hongjun

    2015-05-28

    Obesity can cause insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Moderate elevations in bilirubin levels have anti-diabetic effects. This study is aimed at determining the mechanisms by which bilirubin treatment reduces obesity and insulin resistance in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. DIO mice were treated with bilirubin or vehicle for 14 days. Body weights, plasma glucose, and insulin tolerance tests were performed prior to, immediately, and 7 weeks post-treatment. Serum lipid, leptin, adiponectin, insulin, total and direct bilirubin levels were measured. Expression of factors involved in adipose metabolism including sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP-1), insulin receptor (IR), and PPARγ in liver were measured by RT-PCR and Western blot. Compared to controls, bilirubin-treated mice exhibited reductions in body weight, blood glucose levels, total cholesterol (TC), leptin, total and direct bilirubin, and increases in adiponectin and expression of SREBP-1, IR, and PPARγ mRNA. The improved metabolic control achieved by bilirubin-treated mice was persistent: at two months after treatment termination, bilirubin-treated DIO mice remained insulin sensitive with lower leptin and higher adiponectin levels, together with increased PPARγ expression. These results indicate that bilirubin regulates cholesterol metabolism, adipokines and PPARγ levels, which likely contribute to increased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in DIO mice.

  8. Short communication: artificial ultraviolet B light exposure increases vitamin D levels in cow plasma and milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Jette; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Hymøller, Lone; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Kaas, Poul; Burild, Anders; Jäpelt, Rie Bak

    2015-09-01

    The number of dairy cows without access to pasture or sunlight is increasing; therefore, the content of vitamin D in dairy products is decreasing. Ultimately, declining vitamin D levels in dairy products will mean that dairy products are a negligible source of natural vitamin D for humans. We tested the ability of a specially designed UVB lamp to enhance the vitamin D3 content in milk from dairy cows housed indoors. This study included 16 cows divided into 4 groups. Each group was exposed daily to artificial UVB light simulating 1, 2, 3, or 4 h of summer sun at 56°N for 24 d, and the group with simulated exposure to 2 h of summer sun daily continued to be monitored for 73 d. We found a significant increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3) levels in plasma as well as vitamin D3 and 25OHD3 levels in milk after daily exposure for 24 d in all treatment groups. Extending daily exposure to artificial UVB light to 73 d did not lead to an increase of vitamin D3 or 25OHD3 level in the milk. In conclusion, the change in production facilities for dairy cows providing cows with no access to pasture and sunlight causes a decrease of vitamin D levels in dairy products. This decrease may be prevented by exposing cows to artificial UVB light in the stable.

  9. Patients with systemic vasculitis have increased levels of autoantibodies against oxidized LDL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swets, BP; Brouwer, DAJ; Tervaert, JWC

    2001-01-01

    Oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) is considered to play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis and increased levels of autoantibodies against oxidized LDL have been found in patients with various manifestations of atherosclerosis. Patients with vasculitis are prone to the d

  10. Increased ischemia-modified albumin and malondialdehyde levels in videothoracoscopic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mufide Oncel

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: We can conclude that elevation in MDA and IMA levels after videothoracoscopic surgery was caused by increased oxidative stress due to minimal ischemia-reperfusion injury after the infusion of CO2during the surgical process. Videothoracoscopic sympathectomy operation causes a decrease in NO production, and this should be taken in consideration when evaluating nitrosative stress in videothoracoscopic surgery.

  11. Short communication: Artificial ultraviolet B light exposure increases vitamin D levels in cow plasma and milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jette; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Hymøller, Lone

    2015-01-01

    The number of dairy cows without access to pasture or sunlight is increasing; therefore, the content of vitamin D in dairy products is decreasing. Ultimately, declining vitamin D levels in dairy products will mean that dairy products are a negligible source of natural vitamin D for humans. We tes...

  12. Acceptability and storage stability of pork products with increased levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, J.H.; Krol, B.

    1980-01-01

    Several batches of back bacon, belly bacon, Dutch-style cervelat sausage, pork loin roll, shoulder with fat, Bologna, Guelders ring sausage, Saxon liver sausage and luncheon meat were produced with increasing PUFA-levels using raw materials containing up to 30% linoleic acid in their fats. Only the

  13. [Familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis associated with Huntington chorea with increased aspartate level in the cerebrospinal fluid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blin, O; Samuel, D; Guieu, R; Pouget, J; Nieoullon, A; Serratrice, G

    1992-01-01

    We report the case of a patient who presented with both amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Huntington's disease. Interestingly, aspartate level was increased in the lumbar CSF. In vitro and in vivo studies have convincingly suggested that these two neurodegenerative diseases could be related to an excitotoxic mechanism.

  14. Increased cancer cell proliferation in prostate cancer patients with high levels of serum folate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: A recent clinical trial revealed that folic acid supplementation is associated with an increased incidence of prostate cancer (1). The present study evaluates serum and prostate tissue folate levels in men with prostate cancer, compared to histologically normal prostate glands from can...

  15. Plasma insulin levels are increased by sertraline in rats under oral glucose overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition and control of depression symptoms are important to increase patient compliance with treatment and to improve the quality of life of diabetic patients. Clinical studies indicate that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI are better antidepressants for diabetic patients than other drugs. However, preclinical trials have demonstrated that not all SSRI reduce plasma glucose levels. In fact, fluoxetine increases and sertraline decreases glycemia in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. In the present study we evaluated plasma insulin levels during fasting and after glucose overload after treatment with sertraline. Adult male Wistar rats were fasted and treated with saline or 30 mg/kg sertraline and submitted or not to glucose overload (N = 10. Blood was collected and plasma insulin was measured. The mean insulin levels were: fasting group: 25.9 ± 3.86, sertraline + fasting group: 31.10 ± 2.48, overload group: 34.1 ± 3.40, and overload + sertraline group: 43.73 ± 5.14 µU/ml. Insulinemia was significantly increased in the overload + sertraline group. There were no differences between the other groups. No difference in glucose/insulin ratios could be detected between groups. The overload + sertraline group was the only one in which a significant number of individuals exceeded the upper confidence limit of insulin levels. This study demonstrates that sertraline increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion without any change in peripheral insulin sensitivity.

  16. Acceptability and storage stability of pork products with increased levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, J.H.; Krol, B.

    1980-01-01

    Several batches of back bacon, belly bacon, Dutch-style cervelat sausage, pork loin roll, shoulder with fat, Bologna, Guelders ring sausage, Saxon liver sausage and luncheon meat were produced with increasing PUFA-levels using raw materials containing up to 30% linoleic acid in their fats. Only

  17. Respirometry increases cortisol levels in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss: implications for measurements of metabolic rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, L.; Rennie, M. D.; Svendsen, Jon Christian

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the extent to which chasing, handling and confining Oncorhynchus mykiss to a small respirometer chamber during respirometric experiments is stressful and affects metabolic measurements. The study observed increased cortisol levels in animals tested using a chase protocol...... and subsequent intermittent-flow respirometry, suggesting that this procedural treatment may stress animals...

  18. TEACHING VOCABULARY LEARNING STRATEGIES IN CLASSROOM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangWentao

    2004-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is one component of language skills such as reading and writing and enables language learners to more appropriate language use. 13ecause of the features of vocabulary learning, which is wide coverage in content and time, teaching vocabulary should base on learners previous knowledge and arouse their motivation to .further learning. Teaching language learning strategy in class can help studentsmore consciously monitor their learning, learn autonomously and become independent learner. Hence teacher should attach great importance to the instruction of voeabalary learnig strategies to students in classroom. This paper discusses theoretically the function and application of teaching learning strategy in vocabulary learning and also provides an applicable class sample to teach some vocabulary learning strategies to students.

  19. Increased DHT levels in androgenic alopecia have been selected for to protect men from prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Shiva

    2014-04-01

    Androgenic alopecia, a condition characterized by increased levels of DHT could have been selected for due to the benefits that prostaglandin D2 (PGD(2)) has on the prostate. A DHT metabolite can increase the transcription of prostaglandin D2 synthase through estrogen receptor beta. The increase of PGD(2) can decrease the risk of prostate cancer and proliferation of prostate cancer cells. Therefore, the mechanisms behind male pattern baldness may also curtail the advancement of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Increased 5-hydroxymethylation levels in the sub ventricular zone of the Alzheimer's brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Mastroeni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subventricular zone (SVZ is a site of neurogenesis in the aging brain, and epigenetic mechanisms have been implicated in regulating the “normal” distribution of new nerve cells into the existing cellular milieu. In a case-control study of human primary SVZ cultures and fixed tissue from the same individuals, we have found significant increases in DNA hydroxymethylation levels in the SVZ of Alzheimer's disease patients compared with nondiseased control subjects. We show that this increase in hydroxymethylation directly correlates to an increase in cellular proliferation in Alzheimer's disease precursor cells, which implicates the hydroxymethylation tag to a higher degree of cellular proliferation.

  1. Hyperprolactinemia during antipsychotics treatment increases the level of coagulation markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishioka M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Masamichi Ishioka, Norio Yasui-Furukori, Norio Sugawara, Hanako Furukori, Shuhei Kudo, Kazuhiko Nakamura Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, Japan Objective: The strong association between psychiatric patients who receive antipsychotics and the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE is known. Although previous reports suggest that hyperprolactinemia often increases markers of activated coagulation, few studies have examined the direct relationship between the prolactin level elevated by antipsychotics and activated markers of activated coagulation.Method: The participants included 182 patients with schizophrenia (male =89, female =93 who received antipsychotic treatments for at least 3 months. Markers of VTE (D-dimer, fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products, and thrombin–antithrombin complex and serum prolactin concentrations were measured.Results: Prolactin levels were significantly correlated with the logarithmic transformation of the D-dimer (r=0.320, P=0.002 and fibrin/fibrinogen degradation product levels (r=0.236, P=0.026 but not of the thrombin–antithrombin complex level (r=0.117, ns among men. However, no correlations were found between the VTE markers and prolactin levels among women. These results were confirmed using multiple regression analyses that included demographic factors and antipsychotic dosages. Conclusion: The current study indicates that hyperprolactinemia is associated with an increase in markers of activated coagulation among men receiving antipsychotics. This finding clinically implies that monitoring and modulating prolactin levels among men are important to decrease the risk of VTE. Keywords: prolactin, antipsychotics, venous thromboembolism

  2. Increased fibrinogen levels at diagnosis are associated with adverse outcome in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Martin D; Heini, Alexander D; Seipel, Katja; Mueller, Beatrice; Angelillo-Scherrer, Anne; Pabst, Thomas

    2016-06-15

    Increased plasma fibrinogen levels are associated with shortened overall survival (OS) in some solid tumor types. In contrast, the prognostic significance of varying fibrinogen levels in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) at diagnosis is unknown. In this study, we assessed the prognostic significance of fibrinogen levels in AML patients. In a comprehensive retrospective single-center study, we determined the survival rates of 375 consecutive AML patients undergoing at least one cycle of intensive chemotherapy induction treatment. Patients were dichotomized between low (high fibrinogen levels (≥4.1 g/L) at diagnosis of AML before initiation of treatment. Subsequently, quartile ranges were applied to analyze the association of varying fibrinogen levels on survival. We observed that the rates of complete remission, early death, and admission to intensive care unit were equal in the low versus high fibrinogen group. However, OS was significantly better in the low fibrinogen group (27.3 vs 13.5 months; p = 0.0009) as well as progression-free survival (12.3 vs 7.8 months; p = 0.0076). This survival difference remained significant in the multivariate analysis (p = 0.003). Assessing quartiles of fibrinogen values, we further confirmed this observation. Our data suggest that high fibrinogen levels at diagnosis of AML are associated with unfavorable OS and progression-free survival but not with increased mortality during induction treatment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Increasing occurrence of multiple sclerosis in women correlates to hygiene level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Cendrowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The increasing incidence of multiple sclerosis, particularly among women in Europe and North America, has a multifactorial aetiology. Method: The aim of the current study was to ascertain the relation between the hygiene level and occurrence of multiple sclerosis in women in Poland. The study was based on a large cohort of 14,200 multiple sclerosis individuals (male – 6,106, female – 8,094 who died in the years 1981–2010 in Poland. The female to male ratio (the F:M ratio in the multiple sclerosis group was calculated using the number of deaths per year. The rate of late mortality in infants (LMI per 1,000 live births yearly was used as a marker of the hygiene level. A correlation analysis was carried out between the rate of LMI and the F:M ratio in the multiple sclerosis cohort in the years 1981–2010. Demographic data were obtained from the Central Statistical Office in Warsaw. Results: The F:M ratio in the multiple sclerosis group evidently increased (range 1.08–1.79 in the years 1981–2010, showing increasing occurrence of multiple sclerosis in women (p < 0.0001. A significant, strong and inverse correlation was found between the marker of the hygiene level (LMI rate and the F:M ratio in the multiple sclerosis group over three decades: linear correlation coefficient by Pearson: r = –0.693, p < 0.0001. By contrast with this result, no correlation was established between the hygiene level marker and proportion of women to men in the general population on account of extremely low variance of the F:M ratio (0.000025. Conclusion: The improvement of the hygiene level showed association with the increasing occurrence of multiple sclerosis in women in the years 1981–2010. The higher the hygiene level was, the greater the occurrence of female multiple sclerosis in Poland.

  4. Arabic Vocabulary Learning Strategies Among Non-native Speakers: A Case of IIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Hanan Mustapha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the vocabulary learning strategies used by Arabic learners of the International Islamic University Malaysia. It also compares between the Arabic and non-Arabic majoring students in the use of these strategies. The total sample of this study was 248 university students from different level of studies. They answered a ‘Vocabulary Learning Strategies Questionnaire’ by Pavicic Takac (2008 which consisted of three different components: Formal strategies, self-initiated independent strategies and incidental strategies. Results indicated that Arabic learners used a variety of vocabulary learning strategies with translation being the most widely employed. No statistically significant difference was found between the Arabic and non-Arabic majoring students. The findings provide support for helping the students to utilize their mother tongue in a fruitful way to learn new vocabularies, as well as training both groups equally on how to use these strategies efficiently.

  5. Remifentanil Prevents Increases of Blood Glucose and Lactate Levels during Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaki, Tomohiro; Nawa, Yuko; Tamashiro, Keishi; Mizuno, Eri; Hirata, Naoyuki; Yamakage, Michiaki

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) can cause stress response that increases levels of cytokine and catecholamine in plasma, resulting in hyperglycemia. In adults, it has been demonstrated that remifentanil infusion during CPB could prevent increases of cytokine, catecholamine, and blood glucose levels, but such effects of remifentanil in children have not been elucidated. Aim: In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of remifentanil on blood glucose and lactate levels during CPB in children. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included children who underwent ventricular septal defect or atrial septal defect closure. Data for patients who did not receive, during CPB period, remifentanil infusion (non-Remi group) and patients who received remifentanil infusion at 0.5 μg/kg/min (Remi group) during CPB were used for analysis. Primary outcomes were lactate and blood glucose levels just before and after CPB. Data are presented as medians and interquartile ranges. Data were analyzed by the Mann–Whitney U-test and Chi-square test. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: During CPB, 13 and 11 patients were allocated into Remi and non-Remi groups, respectively. Pre-CPB lactate and blood glucose levels were not significantly different between the two groups, but post-CPB lactate and blood glucose levels in the Remi group were significantly lower than that in the non-Remi group. Conclusion: 0.5 μg/kg/min remifentanil infusion during CPB suppresses the increases of blood glucose and lactate levels in children. PMID:28074792

  6. Increased prolactin levels are associated with impaired processing speed in subjects with early psychosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Montalvo

    Full Text Available Hyperprolactinaemia, a common side effect of some antipsychotic drugs, is also present in drug-naïve psychotic patients and subjects at risk for psychosis. Recent studies in non-psychiatric populations suggest that increased prolactin may have negative effects on cognition. The aim of our study was to explore whether high plasma prolactin levels are associated with poorer cognitive functioning in subjects with early psychoses. We studied 107 participants: 29 healthy subjects and 78 subjects with an early psychosis (55 psychotic disorders with <3 years of illness, 23 high-risk subjects. Cognitive assessment was performed with the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Cognitive Battery, and prolactin levels were determined as well as total cortisol levels in plasma. Psychopathological status was assessed and the use of psychopharmacological treatments (antipsychotics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines recorded. Prolactin levels were negatively associated with cognitive performance in processing speed, in patients with a psychotic disorder and high-risk subjects. In the latter group, increased prolactin levels were also associated with impaired reasoning and problem solving and poorer general cognition. In a multiple linear regression analysis conducted in both high-risk and psychotic patients, controlling for potential confounders, prolactin and benzodiazepines were independently related to poorer cognitive performance in the speed of processing domain. A mediation analysis showed that both prolactin and benzodiazepine treatment act as mediators of the relationship between risperidone/paliperidone treatment and speed of processing. These results suggest that increased prolactin levels are associated with impaired processing speed in early psychosis. If these results are confirmed in future studies, strategies targeting reduction of prolactin levels may improve cognition in this population.

  7. Increased serum G72 protein levels in patients with schizophrenia: a potential candidate biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Esra Soydaş; Albayrak, Yakup; Aksoy, Nurkan; Şahin, Başak; Beyazyüz, Murat; Kuloğlu, Murat; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2017-04-01

    The product of the G72 gene is an activator of d-amino acid oxidase and has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Increased G72 protein levels may be associated with disturbed glutamatergic transmission and increased reactive oxygen species. Only one pilot study by Lin et al. has investigated the potential role of serum G72 protein levels as a biomarker for schizophrenia. In this study, we aimed to compare serum G72 protein levels between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls, and to retest the results of the previous pilot study. Materials and methods In total, 107 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria and 60 age-sex-matched healthy controls were included in the study. The groups were compared regarding serum G72 protein levels. The mean serum G72 protein values were 495.90±152.03 pg/ml in the schizophrenia group and 346.10±102.08 pg/ml in the healthy control group. The mean serum G72 protein level was significantly increased in the schizophrenia group compared with the healthy control group (t=-3.89, pschizophrenia and healthy control groups. It was determined that the cut-off value was 141.51 pg/ml with a sensitivity of 0.991 and a specificity of 0.821. We suggest that serum G72 protein levels may represent a candidate biomarker for schizophrenia and have confirmed the results of the previous preliminary study. Additional studies with larger sample sizes and the inclusion of first episode schizophrenia patients are required to clarify the reliability and validity of serum G72 protein levels as a biomarker for schizophrenia.

  8. Autism and increased paternal age related changes in global levels of gene expression regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Alter

    Full Text Available A causal role of mutations in multiple general transcription factors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism suggested that alterations in global levels of gene expression regulation might also relate to disease risk in sporadic cases of autism. This premise can be tested by evaluating for changes in the overall distribution of gene expression levels. For instance, in mice, variability in hippocampal-dependent behaviors was associated with variability in the pattern of the overall distribution of gene expression levels, as assessed by variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in the hippocampus. We hypothesized that a similar change in variance might be found in children with autism. Gene expression microarrays covering greater than 47,000 unique RNA transcripts were done on RNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL of children with autism (n = 82 and controls (n = 64. Variance in the distribution of gene expression levels from each microarray was compared between groups of children. Also tested was whether a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age, was associated with variance. A decrease in the variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in PBL was associated with the diagnosis of autism and a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age. Traditional approaches to microarray analysis of gene expression suggested a possible mechanism for decreased variance in gene expression. Gene expression pathways involved in transcriptional regulation were down-regulated in the blood of children with autism and children of older fathers. Thus, results from global and gene specific approaches to studying microarray data were complimentary and supported the hypothesis that alterations at the global level of gene expression regulation are related to autism and increased paternal age. Global regulation of transcription, thus, represents a possible point of convergence for multiple etiologies of autism and other

  9. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets....... The control diet was based on soybean meal. In the other three diets soybean meal was replaced with increasing levels of BPM, approximately 17%, 35%, and 50% of the nitrogen being derived from BPM. Blood samples from the jugular vein were taken when the body weights of the pigs were approximately 10 kg, 21 kg......, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver funtion were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively) with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended...

  10. Increased levels of carbonic anhydrase II in the developing Down syndrome brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palminiello, Sonia; Kida, Elizabeth; Kaur, Kulbir; Walus, Marius; Wisniewski, Krystyna E; Wierzba-Bobrowicz, Teresa; Rabe, Ausma; Albertini, Giorgio; Golabek, Adam A

    2008-01-23

    By using a proteomic approach, we found increased levels of carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) in the brain of Ts65Dn mice, a mouse model for Down syndrome (DS). Further immunoblot analyses showed that the levels of CA II are increased not only in the brain of adult Ts65Dn mice but also in the brain of infants and young children with DS. Cellular localization of the enzyme in human brain, predominantly in the oligodendroglia and primitive vessels in fetal brain and in the oligodendroglia and some GABAergic neurons postnatally, was similar in DS subjects and controls. Given the role of CA II in regulation of electrolyte and water balance and pH homeostasis, up-regulation of CA II may reflect a compensatory mechanism mobilized in response to structural/functional abnormalities in the developing DS brain. However, this up-regulation may also have an unfavorable effect by increasing susceptibility to seizures of children with DS.

  11. Increase of the indicators of physical development and level of physical preparedness of young weightlifters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovinov Iu.A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase of indexes of physical development is resulted, level of physical preparedness of young weightlifters which conduct preparation to championship of Ukraine on heavy athletics. 36 young weightlifters took participation in research. Age of sportsmen - 14 years. The indexes of physical development and level of physical preparedness of young weightlifters are investigational. The analysis of increase of general and special physical preparedness of young weightlifters is carried out by their comparison at the end of setup time. The indexes of physical development and physical preparedness of sportsmen are investigational on the index of Erismana and the analysis of indexes of durability of build is carried out. It is appraised, that the index of active mass of body of sportsmen is increased at the end of setup time - on 7,7 %.

  12. Effects of alprazolam on increases in hormonal and anxiety levels induced by meta-chlorophenylpiperazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevy, S; Brown, S L; Wetzler, S; Kotler, M; Molcho, A; Plutchik, R; van Praag, H M

    1994-09-01

    The effects of alprazolam, a triazolobenzodiazepine, on hormonal and behavioral responses induced by meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (MCPP), a serotonin receptor agonist, were investigated in 10 healthy men. Alprazolam (0.5 mg) or placebo was given 1 hour before MCPP (0.5 mg/kg) or placebo. Cortisol, prolactin, and growth hormone (GH) release, MCPP and alprazolam plasma levels, anxiety level, and panic symptoms were measured over 210 minutes. MCPP was found to increase cortisol, prolactin, GH, and anxiety levels. Alprazolam decreased cortisol and GH levels but had no effect on prolactin. When used in combination with MCPP, alprazolam blunted MCPP-induced cortisol and GH release, and it blocked the anxiogenic effects of MCPP.

  13. Documenting the Vocabulary of Astronomy Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Scott; Parrish, M.; Gay, P. L.

    2008-05-01

    Learning astronomy can be a life-long process, with the seeds of knowledge planted in K-12 classes blossoming in elective college courses to create adults who actively acquire astronomy content. One of the goals of many astronomy 101 courses is to prepare students to be intelligent consumers of mainstream astronomy content, including magazine articles, popular books, and online news. To meet this goal, astronomy educators need to understand what content is being presented in the media and what level vocabulary is being used. The most simplistic way to address this problem is to examine the topics covered and vocabulary used in mainstream astronomy blogs and news feeds. In this study we looked at a selection of prominent blogs and news feeds and we present a statistical study of the frequency different scientific terms are used and topics are addressed. To make this study possible, software to read in RSS feeds was created. This software had to meet the following design specifications: runs in a reasonable amount of time, removes all XML and HTML code from text, sees words with different capitalizations as the same word, ignores end of sentence or phrase punctuation without ignoring hyphens, and has an editable list of "common English words.” This code will be available after the conference at http://www.starstryder.com. Results of this study find that many of the primary topics of Astronomy 101 classes, such as the HR Diagram, are rarely mentioned in blogs and online news, while often de-emphasized topics, such as extra solar planets, cosmology, and high energy astrophysics, show up regularly.

  14. Low oxygen level increases proliferation and metabolic changes in bovine granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratsuki, Shogo; Hara, Tomotaka; Munakata, Yasuhisa; Shirasuna, Koumei; Kuwayama, Takehito; Iwata, Hisataka

    2016-12-05

    The present study addresses molecular backgrounds underlying low oxygen induced metabolic changes and 1.2-fold change in bovine granulosa cell (GCs) proliferation. RNA-seq revealed that low oxygen (5%) upregulated genes associated with HIF-1 and glycolysis and downregulated genes associated with mitochondrial respiration than that in high oxygen level (21%). Low oxygen level induced high glycolytic activity and low mitochondrial function and biogenesis. Low oxygen level enhanced GC proliferation with high expression levels of HIF-1, VEGF, AKT, mTOR, and S6RP, whereas addition of anti-VEGF antibody decreased cellular proliferation with low phosphorylated AKT and mTOR expression levels. Low oxygen level reduced SIRT1, whereas activation of SIRT1 by resveratrol increased mitochondrial replication and decreased cellular proliferation with reduction of phosphorylated mTOR. These results suggest that low oxygen level stimulates the HIF1-VEGF-AKT-mTOR pathway and up-regulates glycolysis, which contributes to GC proliferation, and downregulation of SIRT1 contributes to hypoxia-associated reduction of mitochondria and cellular proliferation.

  15. Elevated fasting insulin levels increase the risk of abdominal obesity in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Keun; Oh, Chang-Mo; Jung, Taegi; Choi, Young-Jun; Chung, Ju Youn; Ryoo, Jae-Hong

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether an elevated fasting insulin level predicts abdominal obesity. A cohort study was conducted with 13,707 non-obese Korean men. They were categorized into 4 groups according to the quartile of fasting insulin level, and followed up from 2005 to 2010. Incidence rates of obesity were compared among the 4 groups during follow-up, and a Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for abdominal obesity according to fasting insulin level. The overall incidence rate of obesity was 16.2%, but the rate increased in proportion to the fasting insulin level (quartiles 1-4: 9.8%, 12.4%, 16.9%, 25.5%, Pfasting insulin level in an unadjusted model. However, after adjustment for covariates, including baseline waist circumference (WC), only in the quartile 4 group was the statistical significance of the association maintained [quartile 2-4; abdominal obesity: 0.89 (0.76-1.02), 1.00 (0.86-1.14) and 1.24 (1.08-1.43), P for trend fasting insulin levels, an overall proportional relationship between fasting insulin level and incident abdominal obesity was not found. Additionally, this association was largely accounted for by baseline WC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Increased serum level of prolactin is related to autoantibody production in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Li, Q; Yang, X; Li, M

    2016-04-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is known to aid effector B cells and augment autoimmunity, but the role of PRL in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between the serum levels of PRL and autoantibody production in SLE. Blood levels of PRL, anti-double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) antibody, immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) were determined in samples from 30 adult patients with SLE and 25 healthy controls. The relationships between the serum level of PRL and SLE disease activity, as well as the titres of the ds-DNA antibody, IgM and IgG were determined. The serum level of PRL was higher in the SLE patients than in the healthy controls. PRL concentration increased during SLE flares-ups and decreased following disease remission. There was a positive correlation between the PRL concentration and serum levels of IgM, IgG and ds-DNA antibody titre. These data suggest that the serum level of PRL was closely related to the antibody production and disease activity of SLE patients. PRL concentration was dramatically reduced upon the remission of disease activity, indicating that PRL levels might be a promising predictor of SLE disease severity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Lithium increases nitric oxide levels in subjects with bipolar disorder during depressive episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Rafael T; Zanetti, Marcus V; Busatto, Geraldo F; Mouro, Margaret G; Zarate, Carlos A; Gattaz, Wagner F; Higa, Elisa M; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo

    2014-08-01

    Altered nitric oxide (NO) signaling has been associated with the pathophysiology of Bipolar Disorder (BD), directly affecting neurotransmitter release and synaptic plasticity cascades. Lithium has shown to regulate NO levels in preclinical models. However, no study has addressed peripheral NO levels in unmedicated BD. Also, lithium's effects on NO levels have not been studied in humans. Plasma NO was evaluated in subjects with BD I and II during a depressive episode (n = 26). Subjects had a score of ≥18 in the 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and were followed-up during a 6-week trial with lithium. Plasma NO levels were also compared to matched healthy controls (n = 28). NO was determined by chemiluminescence method. Lithium treatment significantly increased plasma NO levels after 6 weeks of treatment in comparison to baseline levels in bipolar depression (p = 0.016). Baseline NO levels during depressive episodes showed no difference when matching up to healthy controls (p = 0.66). The present findings suggest that lithium upregulates NO signaling in unmedicated BD with short illness duration. Further studies with larger samples are needed to confirm the effects of lithium on NO pathway and its association with synaptic plasticity and therapeutics of BD. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. The effect of systematic vocabulary instruction on the science achievement of fifth-grade students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebrock, Melanie M.

    2007-12-01

    grade science teachers and approximately 700 fifth grade students in a medium-sized (approximately 16,000 students) school district in southeast Texas participated in the study. The model of systematic vocabulary instruction applied in this study combined best practice from the fields of reading and science instruction. While the results indicated a statistically significant F-ratio (F = 13.22, p vocabulary instruction in science), the effect size (d = +0.13) did not imply educational significance. Based on this somewhat unsettled outcome, the usefulness of this assemblage of strategies may yet be proven as a valuable instructional model, or it may simply be abandoned as a step in the evolutionary progression toward a genome for instructional effectiveness in elementary science. Understanding the extent to which best practice vocabulary instruction from the field of literacy education may be balanced with inquiry instruction from the field of science education may begin to improve the deficient state of science education. Most especially at the elementary level, where teachers are more likely to be familiar with the pedagogy of reading than any other content area, a familiar approach lent different content may render increased effectiveness in teaching elementary science students.

  19. Predictors of WAIS-R vocabulary in late life: Differences by race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Ruth T; Midlarsky, Elizabeth

    2017-11-01

    Vocabulary scores tend to be significantly related to education in heterogeneous groups of older adults, even after controlling for confounding variables. However, there may be other factors that impinge on cognitive functioning for certain demographic groups, particularly those whose educational opportunities were limited, and who may have experienced considerable stress as a result of their minority status. This study sought to explore possible predictors of vocabulary scores among African American and White older adults. In this study, samples of African American (N = 165) and White (N = 146) community-dwelling older adults reported their level of education, perceived health status, and number of stressful life events, and were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) Vocabulary subtest. Among the White participants, level of education was the only significant predictor of vocabulary score after controlling for perceived health and exposure to stress. Among African American participants, education was also a significant predictor of vocabulary score. However perceived health and number of stressful life events were also significantly predictors of vocabulary score. Findings indicate that for certain cohorts of older adults, especially those who may have experienced stressful life circumstances and health disparities as a result of racial inequality, education may not be the only variable that predicts verbal intelligence. The importance of investigating cognitive functioning within a broader sociocultural context is discussed.

  20. Learning language in autism: maternal linguistic input contributes to later vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Janet; Nadig, Aparna

    2015-04-01

    It is well established that children with typical development (TYP) exposed to more maternal linguistic input develop larger vocabularies. We know relatively little about the linguistic environment available to children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and whether input contributes to their later vocabulary. Children with ASD or TYP and their mothers from English and French-speaking families engaged in a 10 min free-play interaction. To compare input, children were matched on language ability, sex, and maternal education (ASD n = 20, TYP n = 20). Input was transcribed, and the number of word tokens and types, lexical diversity (D), mean length of utterances (MLU), and number of utterances were calculated. We then examined the relationship between input and children's spoken vocabulary 6 months later in a larger sample (ASD: n = 19, 50-85 months; TYP: n = 44, 25-58 months). No significant group differences were found on the five input features. A hierarchical multiple regression model demonstrated input MLU significantly and positively contributed to spoken vocabulary 6 months later in both groups, over and above initial language levels. No significant difference was found between groups in the slope between input MLU and later vocabulary. Our findings reveal children with ASD and TYP of similar language levels are exposed to similar maternal linguistic environments regarding number of word tokens and types, D, MLU, and number of utterances. Importantly, linguistic input accounted for later vocabulary growth in children with ASD.

  1. Increased levels of circulating Annexin A5 in Familial Mediterranean fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovhannisyan Lilit P

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Familial Mediterranean fever is a genetic autoinflammatory disease most commonly affecting the ethnic groups originating from around the Mediterranean Sea. Apoptosis plays an important role in down-regulation of the inflammatory response by reducing the lifespan of activated immunocompetent cells. Thus, increased apoptosis may be associated with pathogenesis of familial Mediterranean fever. Methods In the present study we determined the serum levels of apoptotic marker, Annexin A5, in familial Mediterranean fever patients, within an attack and attack-free, in comparison to healthy subjects and assessed the influence of colchicine treatment on this parameter. In addition, in all study subjects serum levels of C-reactive protein and interleukine-1β, and the total leukocyte count were also determined. Results Our results demonstrated that pathogenesis of familial Mediterranean fever is characterized by the increased levels of circulating Annexin A5, which is higher in patients within the attack and which associate with the increased levels of C-reactive protein and interleukine-1β and total leukocyte count. Conclusions The results obtained indicate elevated rates of apoptosis of subpopulations of leukocytes involved in autoinflammation and recurrent episodes of fever in familial Mediterranean fever. It was also revealed that regular colchicine treatment sufficiently decreases the rate of apoptosis in familial Mediterranean fever patients by affecting the intensity of autoinflammatory reactions.

  2. Lead exposure suppressed ALAD transcription by increasing methylation level of the promoter CpG islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunping; Xu, Ming; Wang, Sumeng; Yang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Shourong; Zhang, Jingping; Liu, Qizhan; Sun, Yujie

    2011-05-30

    DNA methylation provides a plausible link between the environment and alterations in gene expression that may lead to disease phenotypes. Lead exposure can change DNA methylation status. Here, we hypothesized that the methylation of the ALAD gene promoter may play an important role in lead toxicity. To determine whether the methylation level of the ALAD promoter is associated with the risk of lead poisoning, we conducted a case-control study of 103 workers from a battery plant and 103 healthy volunteers with matching age and gender distribution. We employed real-time PCR and methylation-specific PCR (MSP) in cell models to determine the relationship between ALAD methylation level and transcription level. We found lead exposure to increase the ALAD gene methylation level and down-regulate ALAD transcription. The difference in methylation frequencies between exposures and controls was statistically significant (p=0.002), and individuals with methylated ALAD gene showed an increased risk of lead poisoning (adjusted OR=3.57, 95% CI, 1.55-8.18). This study suggests that the lead-exposure-induced increases in ALAD methylation may be involved in the mechanism of lead toxicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A cost for high levels of sperm competition in rodents: increased sperm DNA fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; García-Álvarez, Olga; Soler, Ana Josefa; Tourmente, Maximiliano; Garde, José Julián; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2016-03-16

    Sperm competition, a prevalent evolutionary process in which the spermatozoa of two or more males compete for the fertilization of the same ovum, leads to morphological and physiological adaptations, including increases in energetic metabolism that may serve to propel sperm faster but that may have negative effects on DNA integrity. Sperm DNA damage is associated with reduced rates of fertilization, embryo and fetal loss, offspring mortality, and mutations leading to genetic disease. We tested whether high levels of sperm competition affect sperm DNA integrity. We evaluated sperm DNA integrity in 18 species of rodents that differ in their levels of sperm competition using the sperm chromatin structure assay. DNA integrity was assessed upon sperm collection, in response to incubation under capacitating or non-capacitating conditions, and after exposure to physical and chemical stressors. Sperm DNA was very resistant to physical and chemical stressors, whereas incubation in non-capacitating and capacitating conditions resulted in only a small increase in sperm DNA damage. Importantly, levels of sperm competition were positively associated with sperm DNA fragmentation across rodent species. This is the first evidence showing that high levels of sperm competition lead to an important cost in the form of increased sperm DNA damage. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Oxidized low density lipoprotein increases RANKL level in human vascular cells. Involvement of oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazière, Cécile, E-mail: maziere.cecile@chu-amiens.fr [Biochemistry Laboratory, South Hospital University, René Laennec Avenue, Amiens 80000 (France); Salle, Valéry [Internal Medicine, North Hospital University, Place Victor Pauchet, Amiens 80000 (France); INSERM U1088 (EA 4292), SFR CAP-Santé (FED 4231), University of Picardie – Jules Verne (France); Gomila, Cathy; Mazière, Jean-Claude [Biochemistry Laboratory, South Hospital University, René Laennec Avenue, Amiens 80000 (France)

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •Oxidized LDL enhances RANKL level in human smooth muscle cells. •The effect of OxLDL is mediated by the transcription factor NFAT. •UVA, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and buthionine sulfoximine also increase RANKL level. •All these effects are observed in human fibroblasts and endothelial cells. -- Abstract: Receptor Activator of NFκB Ligand (RANKL) and its decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been shown to play a role not only in bone remodeling but also in inflammation, arterial calcification and atherosclerotic plaque rupture. In human smooth muscle cells, Cu{sup 2+}-oxidized LDL (CuLDL) 10–50 μg/ml increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and RANKL level in a dose-dependent manner, whereas OPG level was not affected. The lipid extract of CuLDL reproduced the effects of the whole particle. Vivit, an inhibitor of the transcription factor NFAT, reduced the CuLDL-induced increase in RANKL, whereas PKA and NFκB inhibitors were ineffective. LDL oxidized by myeloperoxidase (MPO-LDL), or other pro-oxidant conditions such as ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation, incubation with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis{sub ,} also induced an oxidative stress and enhanced RANKL level. The increase in RANKL in pro-oxidant conditions was also observed in fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Since RANKL is involved in myocardial inflammation, vascular calcification and plaque rupture, this study highlights a new mechanism whereby OxLDL might, by generation of an oxidative stress, exert a deleterious effect on different cell types of the arterial wall.

  5. Diffuse radiation increases global ecosystem-level water-use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, A. M.; Reichstein, M.; Cescatti, A.; Knohl, A.; Zaehle, S.

    2012-12-01

    Current environmental changes lead not only to rising atmospheric CO2 levels and air temperature but also to changes in air pollution and thus the light quality of the solar radiation reaching the land-surface. While rising CO2 levels are thought to enhance photosynthesis and closure of stomata, thus leading to relative water savings, the effect of diffuse radiation on transpiration by plants is less clear. It has been speculated that the stimulation of photosynthesis by increased levels of diffuse light may be counteracted by higher transpiration and consequently water depletion and drought stress. Ultimately, in water co-limited systems, the overall effect of diffuse radiation will depend on the sensitivity of canopy transpiration versus photosynthesis to diffuse light, i.e. whether water-use efficiency changes with relative levels of diffuse light. Our study shows that water-use efficiency increases significantly with higher fractions of diffuse light. It uses the ecosystem-atmosphere gas-exchange observations obtained with the eddy covariance method at 29 flux tower sites. In contrast to previous global studies, the analysis is based directly on measurements of diffuse radiation. Its effect on water-use efficiency was derived by analyzing the multivariate response of carbon and water fluxes to radiation and air humidity using a purely empirical approach based on artificial neural networks. We infer that per unit change of diffuse fraction the water-use efficiency increases up to 40% depending on diffuse fraction levels and ecosystem type. Hence, in regions with increasing diffuse radiation positive effects on primary production are expected even under conditions where water is co-limiting productivity.

  6. Xuezhikang Therapy Increases miR-33 Expression in Patients with Low HDL-C Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruihua Cao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. MicroRNA-33a and -b (miR-33a/b have been revealed to be posttranscriptional regulators of HDL metabolism. Xuezhikang (XZK is a marked natural HDL-raising polypill. We aim to evaluate the effects of XZK on the expression of circulating miR-33a/b in patients with low plasma HDL-C levels. Methods. A total of 42 participating patients with low baseline levels of HDL cholesterol were assigned to receive an XZK capsule, 600 mg twice daily for 6 months. The expression of circulating miR-33a/b was detected at baseline and after XZK therapy measured with quantitative reverse-transcription (RT polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results. The mean (SD HDL-C level after XZK treatment was 1.19 (0.13 mmol/L, representing an increase of 11.2% from baseline (P<0.001. Q-PCR analysis of plasma miRNAs revealed an increase in relative miR-33a/b expression with XZK treatment. The miR-33a expression was raised from 0.81 to 1.73 (P=0.012; miR-33b expression was increased from 1.2 to 2.75 (P<0.001. The changes of miR-33a and miR-33b were inversely related to the posttreatment LDL-C levels (r=-0.37, P=0.019; r=-0.33, P=0.035, resp.. Conclusion. In patients with low HDL-C levels, XZK therapy raised plasma levels of miR-33a and miR-33b, which may inhibit cellular cholesterol export and limit the HDL-raising effect of XZK.

  7. Genetic increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels enhances learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajo, Yukako; Miyamoto, Susumu; Nakano, Yoshikazu; Xue, Jing-Hui; Hori, Takuya; Yanamoto, Hiroji

    2008-11-19

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin, is known to promote neuronal differentiation stimulating neurite outgrowth in the developing CNS, and is also known to modulate synaptic plasticity, thereby contributing to learning and memory in the mature brain. Here, we investigated the role of increased levels of intracerebral BDNF in learning and memory function. Using genetically engineered transgenic BDNF overexpressing mice (RTG-BDNF), young adult, homozygous (+/+), heterozygous (+/-), or wild-type (-/-) littermates, we analyzed escape latency to a hidden-platform and swimming velocity in the Morris Water Maze test (MWM) with modifications for the mice. The MWM comprised 4 trials per day over 5 consecutive days (sessions) without prior or subsequent training. In a separate set of animals, BDNF protein levels in the cortex, thalamostriatum and the hippocampus were measured quantitatively using ELISA. In the BDNF (+/-) mice, the BDNF levels in the cortex, the thalamostriatum and the hippocampus were significantly high, compared to the wild-type littermates; 238%, 158%, and 171%, respectively (PBDNF levels in the BDNF (+/+) mice were not elevated. The BDNF (+/-), but not the (+/+) mice, demonstrated significantly shorter escape latency, shorter total path length in the MWM, and more frequent arrivals at the location where the platform had been placed previously in the probe trial, compared with the wild-type littermates (PBDNF-transgenic mice, increased BDNF levels in the brain were found to enhance spatial learning and memory function. Although it has been postulated that excessive BDNF is deteriorating for neuronal survival or neurite outgrowth, further investigations are needed to clarify the mechanism of paradoxical lack of increase in BDNF levels in the (+/+) mouse brain.

  8. Chronic lithium treatment increased intracellular S100ß levels in rat primary neuronal culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Emamghoreishi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available S100ß a neurotrophic factor mainly released by astrocytes, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder. Thus, lithium may exert its neuroprotective effects to some extent through S100ß. Furthermore, the possible effects of lithium on astrocytes as well as on interactions between neurons and astrocytes as a part of its mechanisms of actions are unknown. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of lithium on S100β in neurons, astrocytes and a mixture of neurons and astrocytes. Rat primary astrocyte, neuronal and mixed neuro-astroglia cultures were prepared from cortices of 18-day's embryos. Cell cultures were exposed to lithium (1mM or vehicle for 1day (acute or 7 days (chronic. RT-PCR and ELISA determined S100β mRNA and intra- and extracellular protein levels. Chronic lithium treatment significantly increased intracellular S100β in neuronal and neuro-astroglia cultures in comparison to control cultures (P<0.05. Acute and chronic lithium treatments exerted no significant effects on intracellular S100β protein levels in astrocytes, and extracellular S100β protein levels in three studied cultures as compared to control cultures. Acute and chronic lithium treatments did not significantly alter S100β mRNA levels in three studied cultures, compared to control cultures. Chronic lithium treatment increased intracellular S100ß protein levels in a cell-type specific manner which may favor its neuroprotective action. The findings of this study suggest that lithium may exert its neuroprotective action, at least partly, by increasing neuronal S100ß level, with no effect on astrocytes or interaction between neurons and astrocytes.

  9. Salicylic Acid Treatment Increases the Levels of Triterpene Glycosides in Black Cohosh (Actaea Racemosa) Rhizomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Capite, Annette; Lancaster, Tyler; Puthoff, David

    2016-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) serves as the host plant for the Appalachian azure butterfly, Celastrina neglectamajor. Overharvesting of Black cohosh for the dietary supplement industry may result in its extirpation, and may also cause the elimination of the dependent butterfly. One way to increase or maintain the number of host plants in forested environments would be to reduce the number harvested, for example by increasing the levels of the desired metabolites in Black cohosh rhizomes. The secondary metabolites actein and deoxyactein are triterpene glycosides and are among the compounds associated with the putative activity of Black cohosh extracts. Acetein and deoxyacetein are used to standardize Black cohosh supplements. To gain an understanding of mechanisms that may control actein and deoxyactein accumulation, Black cohosh rhizomes were treated with exogenous salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, or ethylene, or were mechanically wounded. Salicylic acid treatment significantly increased the levels of actein and deoxyactein in the rhizome of Black cohosh, suggesting that the synthesis of triterpene glycosides is controlled in part by salicylic acid. Using salicylic acid or related chemicals to increase the levels of actein and deoxyactein in rhizomes may help supply the supplement industry and, simultaneously, help conserve Black cohosh and species dependent upon it.

  10. Smoking is associated with increased levels of extracellular peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PAD2) in the lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Dres; Friberg Bruun Nielsen, Michael; Quisgaard Gaunsbaek, Maria

    2015-01-01

    lavage (BAL) fluid from smokers, but intracellularly located PAD cannot be responsible for citrullination of extracellular self-antigens. We aimed to establish a link between smoking and extracellular PAD2 in the lungs. METHODS: BAL fluid samples were obtained from 13 smokers and 11 nonsmoking controls...... fluids from smokers as compared to non-smokers (p=0.018). The PAD2 content correlated with the overall CRP levels (p=0.009) and cell count (p=0.016). CONCLUSIONS: This first demonstration of increased levels of extracellular PAD2 in the lungs of smokers supports the hypothesis that smoking promotes...

  11. Plasma adiponectin levels correlate positively with an increasing number of components of frailty in male elders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw-Shiun Tsai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Frailty is an important geriatric syndrome. Adiponectin is an important adipokine that regulates energy homeostasis. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between plasma adiponectin levels and frailty in elders. METHODS: The demographic data, body weight, metabolic and inflammatory parameters, including plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, c-reactive protein (CRP and adiponectin levels, were assessed. The frailty score was assessed using the Fried Frailty Index (FFI. RESULTS: The mean (SD age of the 168 participants [83 (49.4% men and 85 (50.6% women] was 76.86 (6.10 years. Judged by the FFI score, 42 (25% elders were robust, 92 (54.7% were pre-frail, and 34 (20.3% were frail. The mean body mass index was 25.19 (3.42 kg/m(2. The log-transformed mean (SD plasma adiponectin (µg/mL level was 1.00 (0.26. The log-transformed mean plasma adiponectin (µg/mL levels were 0.93 (0.23 in the robust elders, 1.00 (0.27 in the pre-frail elders, and 1.10 (0.22 in the frail elders, and the differences between these values were statistically significant (p  = 0.012. Further analysis showed that plasma adiponectin levels rose progressively with an increasing number of components of frailty in all participants as a whole (p for trend  = 0.024 and males (p for trend  = 0.037, but not in females (p for trend  = 0.223. CONCLUSION: Plasma adiponectin levels correlate positively with an increasing number of components of frailty in male elders. The difference between the sexes suggests that certain sex-specific mechanisms may exist to affect the association between adiponectin levels and frailty.

  12. Acute Physical Stress Increases Serum Levels of Specific microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Tadashi; Hashiyada, Masaki; Funayama, Masato

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA (miR) is non-coding small RNA that regulate mRNA at the post-transcriptional level by degradation or inhibition. To find physical stress markers, we developed a rat model involving a simple and complicated stress and measured serum miR levels. To demonstrate changes in serum miR levels when physical stress is applied, we constructed three stress modalities using rats: alcohol intake, treadmill running and restraint. After alcohol administration, the rats were made to run on a treadmill and some of the rats were further stressed by restraining with a 2 kg water bag immediately after the treadmill run. The rats were grouped as follows: control, run for 20 min, run for 90 min, run and restrained for 20 min, run and restrained for 90 min. Using total RNA extracted from sera, expression levels of eight miRs were measured by real-time PCR. The level of miR-199a was increased by 20 min stress procedures and the levels of miR-1, miR-24a and miR-133a/b were increased by 90 min stress procedures. No change in the levels of miR-208, miR-212 or miR-296-5p was seen under any stress conditions. There was no significant difference between a treadmill run only and a combination of treadmill run and being restrained by a 2 kg water bag. We demonstrated that a combination of these serum miRs might indicate the intensity of stress experienced.

  13. IGFBP-4 tumor and serum levels are increased across all stages of epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosig Rebecca A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to identify candidate serum biomarkers for the detection and surveillance of EOC. Based on RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis of patient-derived tumors, highly expressed secreted proteins were identified using a bioinformatic approach. Methods RNA-Seq was used to quantify papillary serous ovarian cancer transcriptomes. Paired end sequencing of 22 flash frozen tumors was performed. Sequence alignments were processed with the program ELAND, expression levels with ERANGE and then bioinformatically screened for secreted protein signatures. Serum samples from women with benign and malignant pelvic masses and serial samples from women during chemotherapy regimens were measured for IGFBP-4 by ELISA. Student's t Test, ANOVA, and ROC curves were used for statistical analysis. Results Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP-4 was consistently present in the top 7.5% of all expressed genes in all tumor samples. We then screened serum samples to determine if increased tumor expression correlated with serum expression. In an initial discovery set of 21 samples, IGFBP-4 levels were found to be elevated in patients, including those with early stage disease and normal CA125 levels. In a larger and independent validation set (82 controls, 78 cases, IGFBP-4 levels were significantly increased (p -5. IGFBP-4 levels were ~3× greater in women with malignant pelvic masses compared to women with benign masses. ROC sensitivity was 73% at 93% specificity (AUC 0.816. In women receiving chemotherapy, average IGFBP-4 levels were below the ROC-determined threshold and lower in NED patients compared to AWD patients. Conclusions This study, the first to our knowledge to use RNA-Seq for biomarker discovery, identified IGFBP-4 as overexpressed in ovarian cancer patients. Beyond this, these studies identified two additional intriguing findings. First, IGFBP-4 can be elevated in early stage disease without elevated CA125. Second, IGFBP-4

  14. Acarbose improves hypoglycaemia following gastric bypass surgery without increasing glucagon-like peptide 1 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderas, Juan Patricio; Ahuad, Jessica; Rubio, Lorena; Escalona, Manuel; Pollak, Felipe; Maiz, Alberto

    2012-04-01

    Postprandial hypoglycaemia is a severe complication of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP). Acarbose, an α-glucosidase inhibitor (AGI), is employed in its treatment. Several studies have shown that AGIs increase the postprandial levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). However, an excessive level of GLP-1 is one of the factors involved in the physiopathology of this condition. We analysed the effect of acarbose oral administration in eight RYBGP patients with clinically significant hypoglycaemia or dumping syndrome. Glucose, insulin and GLP-1 plasma levels in fasting and after ingestion of a standard meal (Ensure Plus®; 13 g protein, 50 g carbohydrate, 11 g fat) were measured. The test was repeated the following week with the oral administration of 100 mg of acarbose 15 min prior to the meal. Five patients developed asymptomatic hypoglycaemia during the test (glucose level <50 mg/dl) with inappropriately high insulin levels and exaggerated GLP-1 response. Acarbose ingestion avoided hypoglycaemia in all of the patients and increased the lowest plasma glucose level (46.4 ± 4.8 vs. 59.0 ± 2.6 mg/dl, p < 0.01). Acarbose ingestion decreased the area under the curve for serum insulin and GLP-1 levels at 15 min after the meal. Acarbose avoided postprandial hypoglycaemia following RYGBP by decreasing the hyperinsulinemic response. This was associated with a decrease in early GLP-1 secretion, in contrast to that observed in non-surgical subjects. This finding could be explained by the reduction of glucose load in the jejunum produced by the α-glucosidase inhibition, which is the main stimulus for GLP-1 secretion.

  15. Relationship between receptive vocabulary and the neural substrates for story processing in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, M Claire; Vannest, Jennifer; Maloney, Thomas C; Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Byars, Anna W; Holland, Scott K

    2015-03-01

    A left-lateralized fronto-temporo-parietal language network has been well-characterized in adults; however, the neural basis of this fundamental network has hardly been explored in the preschool years, despite this being a time for rapid language development and vocabulary growth. We examined the functional imaging correlates associated with vocabulary ability and narrative comprehension in 30 preschool children ages 3 to 5. Bilateral auditory cortex and superior temporal activation as well as left angular and supramarginal gyrus activation were observed during a passive listening-to-stories task. Boys showed greater activation than girls in the right anterior cingulate and right superior frontal gyrus (SFG). Finally, children with higher vocabulary scores showed increased grey matter left-lateralization and greater activation in bilateral thalamus, hippocampus, and left angular gyrus. This study is novel in its approach to relate left-hemisphere language regions and vocabulary scores in preschool-aged children using fMRI.

  16. Investigating an Intervention Program Linking Writing and Vocabulary Development for Homeless Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Sinatra

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The presented study investigated the effects of a four-week academic and activity – enriched summer program on vocabulary development and writing achievement of homeless children residing in traditional shelter facilities. When compared to controls the experimental students did not reveal gains in vocabulary and spelling as measured by two norm referenced tests. They did however demonstrate highly significant gains in writing ability based on the New York State standards criteria, reflecting five qualities of writing. On two project-developed instruments designed to measure improvement in book vocabulary and tennis skills, they showed significant increases based on analyses of their pre- and posttest scores. The program closed achievement gaps, fulfilled standards criteria, and may be the first of its kind in the homeless literature whereby students’ writing development was compared to matched controls as vocabulary development occurred based on literary readings.

  17. Relationship between Gender and Vocabulary Teaching Methodology among Iranian EFL Children: A Comparison of TPR and Direct Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazgol Nekoui Naeini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study intended to examine the impact of methodology on EFL vocabulary learning of elementary school boys and girls. To achieve this end, 40 elementary female and male students aged 9-10 were selected from among 60 students studying at a language institute in Isfahan, Iran. The students were selected based on the results of an overall language proficiency test as a placement test that had been prepared by the institute that identified students' level of proficiency. They were further divided into two experimental groups. Next, a pretest was used to identify the number of words students knew before treatment. The experimental group A learned vocabulary through Direct Method and in the experimental group B students learned vocabulary through Total Physical Response. After 12 weeks of instruction a post-test was administrated to measure and compare the results of vocabulary learning of two groups after treatment. The data collected were put to statistical analysis using SPSS. The results of t-test showed the positive effect of TPR on learners’ L2 vocabulary knowledge. With regard to the impact of gender on learners’ L2 vocabulary knowledge, findings revealed that there were not any statistically significant differences between the male and female learners’ vocabulary score. Keywords: Total physical response, direct method, gender, vocabulary, Iranian EFL learners

  18. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets......, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver funtion were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively) with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended...... to increase (P = 0.07) with increasing dietary BPM content. It was concluded that up to 50% of the nitrogen could be derived from BPM without affecting metabolic function, as reflected in the measured blood parameters....

  19. Learning vocabulary through a serious game in Primary Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heitink, Maaike Christine; Fisser, Petra; Voogt, Joke; McBride, Ron; Searson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the effect of a serious game on the vocabulary of students in primary education. 206 students and 10 teachers used the game during vocabulary lessons in three conditions: (a)online game and vocabulary instruction, (b)online game only, and (c)paper game and vocabulary instruction.

  20. Teaching Vocabulary to Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily; Douglas, W. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Despite poor vocabulary outcomes for children with hearing loss, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of specific vocabulary teaching methods on vocabulary learning for this group. The authors compared three vocabulary instruction conditions with preschool children with hearing loss: (a) explicit, direct instruction; (b) follow-in…