WorldWideScience

Sample records for vocabulary knowledge comprehension

  1. The Impact of Vocabulary Knowledge Level on EFL Reading Comprehension

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    Shima Kameli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the impact of vocabulary knowledge level on reading comprehension performance among EFL language learners. The ultimate intention was to determine the association between levels of vocabulary knowledge and to clarify the relationship among vocabulary knowledge on reading comprehension performance of EFL Iranian students on subtest of VLT and IELTS. Quantitative data were collected from 220 EFL Iranian adult students at the beginning of second semester of 2011 in private English language institute (BAHAR, Shiraz, Iran. The Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT and Reading Comprehension Test (IELTS were performed in one session as research instruments. The findings indicated that there were positive relationships among different levels of vocabulary test and also test scores on vocabulary size/breadth of vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension. Keywords: vocabulary level, vocabulary size/breadth, reading comprehension

  2. The Relationship between Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵旭

    2015-01-01

    Having a large vocabulary is a key in learning a foreign language successfully.The present study attempts to investigate the relationship between depth of vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension.DVK relates to how well one knows a word and it is the quality of one’s knowledge about a word.It involves a good number of aspects representing

  3. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES AS PREDICTORS OF READING COMPREHENSION AND VOCABULARY KNOWLEDGE

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    Abbas Ali Zarei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate types of Multiple Intelligences as predictors of reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge. To meet this objective, a 60-item TOEFL test and a 90-item multiple intelligences questionnaire were distributed among 240 male and female Iranians studying English at Qazali and Parsian Universities in Qazvin. Data were analyzed using a multiple regression procedure. The result of the data analysis indicated that musical, interpersonal, kinesthetic, and logical intelligences were predicators of reading comprehension. Moreover, musical, verbal, visual, kinesthetic and natural intelligences made significant contributions to predicting vocabulary knowledge.   Key words: Multiple intelligences, reading comprehension, vocabulary knowledge.

  4. Conceptual Coherence, Comprehension, and Vocabulary Acquisition: A Knowledge Effect?

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    Cervetti, Gina N.; Wright, Tanya S.; Hwang, HyeJin

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has documented the role of readers' existing topic knowledge in supporting students' comprehension of text; yet, we know less about how to build students' knowledge in order to support comprehension and vocabulary learning. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that knowledge can be built and leveraged simultaneously in…

  5. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES AS PREDICTORS OF READING COMPREHENSION AND VOCABULARY KNOWLEDGE

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Ali Zarei; Nima Shokri Afshar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate types of Multiple Intelligences as predictors of reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge. To meet this objective, a 60-item TOEFL test and a 90-item multiple intelligences questionnaire were distributed among 240 male and female Iranians studying English at Qazali and Parsian Universities in Qazvin. Data were analyzed using a multiple regression procedure. The result of the data analysis indicated that musical, interpersonal, kin...

  6. Conceptualization of Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge with Academic Reading Comprehension

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    Hasan, Md. Kamrul; Shabdin, Ahmad Affendi

    2016-01-01

    The present study embodies a conceptual framework, and it studies the concept regarding the depth of vocabulary knowledge. Literature review is employed as a foundation for developing the conceptual framework for the present study. The current study suggests that different dimensions of depth of vocabulary knowledge, namely paradigmatic relations,…

  7. Vocabulary and Grammar Knowledge in Second Language Reading Comprehension: A Structural Equation Modeling Study

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    Zhang, Dongbo

    2012-01-01

    Using structural equation modeling analysis, this study examined the contribution of vocabulary and grammatical knowledge to second language reading comprehension among 190 advanced Chinese English as a foreign language learners. Vocabulary knowledge was measured in both breadth (Vocabulary Levels Test) and depth (Word Associates Test);…

  8. Vocabulary and Syntactic Knowledge Factors in 5th Grade Students’ Reading Comprehension

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    Kouider MOKHTARI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined 5th grade students’ levels of vocabulary knowledge and syntactic awareness relative to their reading comprehension performance. The aim was to explore the contributions of vocabulary and syntactic awareness as potential sources of reading comprehension difficulty for these readers. Overall, we found that both vocabulary knowledge and syntactic awareness contributed in significant yet unique ways to students’ reading comprehension performance. Students who showed weaknesses in vocabulary and syntax also performed poorly on measures of reading comprehension. Additionally, we found that syntactic awareness explained a small amount of additional variance in reading comprehension beyond what was explained by vocabulary. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of research and practice addressing the relationships among syntax, vocabulary, and reading comprehension for more and less skilled readers.

  9. Developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension: a latent change score modeling study.

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    Quinn, Jamie M; Wagner, Richard K; Petscher, Yaacov; Lopez, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    The present study followed a sample of first-grade (N = 316, Mage = 7.05 at first test) through fourth-grade students to evaluate dynamic developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Using latent change score modeling, competing models were fit to the repeated measurements of vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension to test for the presence of leading and lagging influences. Univariate models indicated growth in vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension was determined by two parts: constant yearly change and change proportional to the previous level of the variable. Bivariate models indicated previous levels of vocabulary knowledge acted as leading indicators of reading comprehension growth, but the reverse relation was not found. Implications for theories of developmental relations between vocabulary and reading comprehension are discussed.

  10. Vocabulary and Syntactic Knowledge Factors in 5th Grade Students' Reading Comprehension

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    Mokhtari, Kouider; Niederhauser, Dale S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined 5th grade students' levels of vocabulary knowledge and syntactic awareness relative to their reading comprehension performance. The aim was to explore the contributions of vocabulary and syntactic awareness as potential sources of reading comprehension difficulty for these readers. Overall, we found that both vocabulary…

  11. Developmental Relations between Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension: A Latent Change Score Modeling Study

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    Quinn, Jamie M.; Wagner, Richard K.; Petscher, Yaacov; Lopez, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    The present study followed a sample of first-grade (N = 316, M[subscript age] = 7.05 at first test) through fourth-grade students to evaluate dynamic developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Using latent change score modeling, competing models were fit to the repeated measurements of vocabulary knowledge and…

  12. Developmental Relations between Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension: A Latent Change Score Modeling Study

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    Quinn, Jamie M.; Wagner, Richard K.; Petscher, Yaacov; Lopez, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    The present study followed a sample of first-grade (N = 316, M[subscript age] = 7.05 at first test) through fourth-grade students to evaluate dynamic developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Using latent change score modeling, competing models were fit to the repeated measurements of vocabulary knowledge and…

  13. An In-Depth Investigation into the Relationship between Vocabulary Knowledge and Academic Listening Comprehension

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    Teng, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted in the context of learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL) with the purpose of assessing the roles of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge in academic listening comprehension. The Vocabulary Size Test (VST, Nation & Beglar, 2007) and the Word Associates Test (WAT, Read, 2004) were administered to…

  14. Vocabulary knowledge

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    严爽

    2016-01-01

    Knowing a word refers to more than just a matter of knowing its form, meaning, pronunciation and spelling. It also refers to one's knowledge of the relationships the word is involved in, such as its collocations, semantic associations and so on. Words are not isolated entities. This paper focuses on vocabulary knowledge and helps us get an idea of what needs to be learned and the process of English vocabulary learning.

  15. Assessing the Depth and Breadth of Vocabulary Knowledge with Listening Comprehension

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    Teng, Feng

    2014-01-01

    This study was inspired by Qian (1999) and Staehr (2009) and researched 88 Chinese learners who had already passed the College English Test 4 (CET). These learners volunteered to participate in the study regarding the depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge and its relationship with listening comprehension, which was assessed by analyzing the…

  16. Modeling the Relations Among Morphological Awareness Dimensions, Vocabulary Knowledge, and Reading Comprehension in Adult Basic Education Students.

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    Tighe, Elizabeth L; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This study extended the findings of Tighe and Schatschneider (2015) by investigating the predictive utility of separate dimensions of morphological awareness as well as vocabulary knowledge to reading comprehension in adult basic education (ABE) students. We competed two- and three-factor structural equation models of reading comprehension. A three-factor model of real word morphological awareness, pseudoword morphological awareness, and vocabulary knowledge emerged as the best fit and accounted for 79% of the reading comprehension variance. The results indicated that the constructs contributed jointly to reading comprehension; however, vocabulary knowledge was the only potentially unique predictor (p = 0.052), accounting for an additional 5.6% of the variance. This study demonstrates the feasibility of applying a latent variable modeling approach to examine individual differences in the reading comprehension skills of ABE students. Further, this study replicates the findings of Tighe and Schatschneider (2015) on the importance of differentiating among dimensions of morphological awareness in this population.

  17. Modeling the Relations Among Morphological Awareness Dimensions, Vocabulary Knowledge, and Reading Comprehension in Adult Basic Education Students

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    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This study extended the findings of Tighe and Schatschneider (2015) by investigating the predictive utility of separate dimensions of morphological awareness as well as vocabulary knowledge to reading comprehension in adult basic education (ABE) students. We competed two- and three-factor structural equation models of reading comprehension. A three-factor model of real word morphological awareness, pseudoword morphological awareness, and vocabulary knowledge emerged as the best fit and accounted for 79% of the reading comprehension variance. The results indicated that the constructs contributed jointly to reading comprehension; however, vocabulary knowledge was the only potentially unique predictor (p = 0.052), accounting for an additional 5.6% of the variance. This study demonstrates the feasibility of applying a latent variable modeling approach to examine individual differences in the reading comprehension skills of ABE students. Further, this study replicates the findings of Tighe and Schatschneider (2015) on the importance of differentiating among dimensions of morphological awareness in this population. PMID:26869981

  18. Reading vocabulary knowledge and deafness.

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    Paul, P

    1996-01-01

    With respect to reading vocabulary knowledge and deafness, this article addresses two broad questions: (1) Why is vocabulary knowledge related to reading comprehension ability? (2) How is reading vocabulary (i.e., word meanings) acquired? The article argues that the answers to these questions are best addressed by a vocabulary acquisition model labeled the knowledge model. In essence, this model asserts that both breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge are critical. It is necessary to teach vocabulary, especially to poor readers, who are not likely to derive many word meanings from the use of context during natural or deliberate reading situations. On the basis of theoretical and research syntheses, the article offers implications for vocabulary instruction for deaf children and adolescents.

  19. Lexical Inference in L2: Predictive Roles of Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Skill beyond Reading Comprehension

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    Prior, Anat; Goldina, Anna; Shany, Michal; Geva, Esther; Katzir, Tami

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the predictive roles of L2 vocabulary knowledge and L2 word reading skills in explaining individual differences in lexical inferencing in the L2. Participants were 53 Israeli high school students who emigrated from the former Soviet Union, and spoke Russian as an L1 and Hebrew as an L2. L2 vocabulary knowledge and…

  20. The Relation of Morphological Awareness and Syntactic Awareness to Adults' Reading Comprehension: Is Vocabulary Knowledge a Mediating Variable?

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    Guo, Ying; Roehrig, Alysia D.; Williams, Rihana S.

    2011-01-01

    The authors' goal was to examine the structural relationships among vocabulary knowledge, morphological awareness, syntactic awareness, and reading comprehension in English-speaking adults. Structural equation analysis of data collected from 151 participants revealed that morphological awareness affected reading comprehension directly. Syntactic…

  1. Scaffolding and co-operative learning : Effects on reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge in English as a foreign language

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    Wachyunni, Sri

    2015-01-01

    For university students in Indonesia, English reading comprehension, which partially depends on vocabulary knowledge, is key to success in academic achievement. The current study was set up to compare the effect of two commonly known teaching interventions during a whole semester to improve reading

  2. Scaffolding and co-operative learning : Effects on reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge in English as a foreign language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wachyunni, Sri

    2015-01-01

    For university students in Indonesia, English reading comprehension, which partially depends on vocabulary knowledge, is key to success in academic achievement. The current study was set up to compare the effect of two commonly known teaching interventions during a whole semester to improve reading

  3. Core Academic Language Skills: Moving beyond Vocabulary Knowledge to Predict Reading Comprehension

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    Uccelli, Paola; Galloway, Emily Phillips; Kim, Ha Yeon; Barr, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a longstanding awareness of academic language as a pedagogically-relevant research area, the construct of academic language proficiency--understood as a more comprehensive set of skills than just academic vocabulary--has remained only vaguely specified. This study examines the potential--for both research and practice--of a more inclusive…

  4. The Role of Word Decoding, Vocabulary Knowledge and Meta-Cognitive Knowledge in Monolingual and Bilingual Low-Achieving Adolescents' Reading Comprehension

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    van Steensel, Roel; Oostdam, Ron; van Gelderen, Amos; van Schooten, Erik

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analysed the relationships between word decoding, vocabulary knowledge, meta-cognitive knowledge and reading comprehension in low-achieving adolescents and examined whether the strength of these relationships differed between Grade 7 and 9 students and between monolingual and bilingual students. Tests were administered to 328…

  5. A Study on the Relationship between Breadth Of Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵旭

    2015-01-01

    British linguist Wilkins(1972)points out,"Without grammar,little can be conveyed;without vocabulary,nothing can be conveyed."Grammar provides the overall patterns,and vocabulary is the material to put in the patterns.Zimmerman(1997)also stated the idea that vocabulary is central to language.So vocabulary is the building material

  6. The Effect of Prior Definitional Instruction of Targeted Vocabulary in German Texts on Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension,

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    1998-01-01

    sich ver*sndelt . vha transforms himself 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 51 *enn er sich d’e Maske überstülpt when he dons the mask 2 0. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 52...vocabulary acquisition (pp. 7-17). Hillsdale, N. J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. Coady, J. (1993). Research on ESL /EFL vocabulary...proficiency in ESL readers. In T. Huckin, M. Haynes, & J. Coady (Eds.), Second language reading and vocabulary learning (pp. 217-228). Norwood, N

  7. The impact of vocabulary knowledge on reading comprehension ability of Iranian English learners receiving reciprocal teaching and cooperative grouping intervention program

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    Naeemeh Kharaghani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of vocabulary knowledge on reading comprehension ability of Iranian English language learners receiving reciprocal teaching and cooperative grouping intervention program. To this aim, 80 students participated in the vocabulary test as the pre-test and they were asked to fill out the questionnaire. Then, they were distributed in four groups. Control groups (A & B received the typical instruction of reading comprehension. On the other hand, experimental groups (A & B received the intervention program. At the end of the course, all the students took part in the vocabulary test as the post-test and they were also asked to fill out the questionnaire provided for them after the post-test. The results were analyzed by the use of a series of independent –sample t-tests and MANOVA. It was found out there was relationship between vocabulary knowledge and the level of motivation in reading comprehension skill of Iranian EFL learner.

  8. How word decoding, vocabulary and prior topic knowledge predict reading comprehension. A study of language-minority students in Norwegian fifth grade classrooms.

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    Rydland, Veslemøy; Aukrust, Vibeke Grøver; Fulland, Helene

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the contribution of word decoding, first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) vocabulary and prior topic knowledge to L2 reading comprehension. For measuring reading comprehension we employed two different reading tasks: Woodcock Passage Comprehension and a researcher-developed content-area reading assignment (the Global Warming Test) consisting of multiple lengthy texts. The sample included 67 language-minority students (native Urdu or native Turkish speakers) from 21 different fifth grade classrooms in Norway. Multiple regression analyses revealed that word decoding and different facets of L2 vocabulary explained most of the variance in Woodcock Passage Comprehension, but a smaller proportion of variance in the Global Warming Test. For the Global Warming Test, prior topic knowledge was the most influential predictor. Furthermore, L2 vocabulary depth appeared to moderate the contribution of prior topic knowledge to the Global Warming Test in this sample of language minority students.

  9. Vocabulary Knowledge Is a Critical Determinant of the Difference in Reading Comprehension Growth between First and Second Language Learners

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    Lervag, Arne; Aukrust, Vibeke Grover

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study examines the role of decoding and vocabulary skills as longitudinal predictors of reading comprehension in young first (L1) and second (L2) language learners. Methods: Two-group latent growth models were used to assess differences in growth and predictions of growth between the 198 L1 and 90 L2 language learners. Results: L1…

  10. Development of Metaphor and Metonymy Comprehension: Receptive Vocabulary and Conceptual Knowledge

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    Rundblad, Gabriella; Annaz, Dagmara

    2010-01-01

    Figurative language, such as metaphor and metonymy are common in our daily communication. This is one of the first studies to investigate metaphor and metonymy comprehension using a developmental approach. Forty-five typically developing individuals participated in a metaphor-metonymy verbal comprehension task incorporating 20 short…

  11. The Impact of Gloss Types on Reading Comprehension, Vocabulary Gain and Vocabulary Retention: A Comparative Study

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    Atefeh Elekaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The significance and impact of vocabulary learning in reading comprehension and L2 language learning are apparent to teachers, researchers and language learners. Moreover, glosses are found as one of the most effective strategies regarding vocabulary retention. Therefore, the present study attempted to investigate the effect of different types of glosses on reading comprehension, vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. To this end, 140 Iranian EFL learners learning English were selected and were divided into four groups (footnote gloss group, interlinear gloss group, marginal gloss group, and glossary group. They were required to read a text and answer four reading comprehension questions. In addition, one immediate vocabulary post-test and one delayed vocabulary post-test were taken in order to investigate learners' vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. In order to analyze the data, one one-way ANOVA and one MANOVA were run. The results of one-way ANOVA revealed that participants who received interlinear glosses significantly outperformed the other groups regarding comprehending the text. Moreover, the immediate vocabulary post-test was conducted immediately after reading test and the delayed post-test was administered after four weeks. The results of MANOVA indicated that the group which received interlinear glosses outperformed the other groups in both vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. The present study has implications for teachers and learners. Teachers can find better methods to teach new reading passages as well as vocabulary items. Also, glosses help learners to have a better comprehension of difficult passages and they facilitate learning. Moreover, learners can enhance their vocabulary knowledge with the help of glosses. Keywords: footnote gloss, interlinear gloss, marginal gloss, glossary, Iranian EFL learners, reading comprehension, vocabulary gain, vocabulary retention

  12. The Contribution of Vocabulary Knowledge and Spelling to the Reading Comprehension of Adolescents Who Are and Are Not English Language Learners.

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    Reed, Deborah K; Petscher, Yaacov; Foorman, Barbara R

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the contributions of vocabulary and spelling to the reading comprehension of students in grades 6-10 who were and were not classified as English language learners. Results indicate that vocabulary accounted for greater between-grade differences and unique variance (ΔR(2) = .11 to .31) in comprehension as compared to spelling (ΔR(2) = .01 to .09). However, the contribution of spelling to comprehension was higher in the upper grade levels included in this cross-sectional analysis and functioned as a mediator of the impact of vocabulary knowledge at all levels. The direct effect of vocabulary was strong but lower in magnitude at each successive grade level from .58 in grade 6 to .41 in grade 10 while the indirect effect through spelling increased in magnitude at each successive grade level from .09 in grade 6 to .16 in grade 10. There were no significant differences between the language groups in the magnitude of the indirect impact, suggesting both groups of students relied more on both sources of lexical information in higher grades as compared to students in lower grades.

  13. The Effects of Vocabulary Knowledge and Dictionary Use on EFL Reading Performance

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    Shen, Zhifa

    2013-01-01

    The present study mainly investigated the effects of vocabulary knowledge and dictionary use on EFL reading performance. The results show that scores on vocabulary size, specific vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension are highly and positively correlated. Scores on specific vocabulary knowledge are more closely correlated with reading…

  14. Beyond breadth: The contributions of vocabulary depth to reading comprehension among skilled readers.

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    Binder, Katherine S; Cote, Nicole Gilbert; Lee, Cheryl; Bessette, Emily; Vu, Huong

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the relationships among vocabulary breadth, vocabulary depth, reading comprehension, and reading rate among college-aged students. While the relationships of some of these variables have been explored in previous research, the current study's focus on the role of vocabulary depth on the literacy measures within a sample of skilled readers is new and produced several interesting findings. First, consistent with the hypotheses, both vocabulary breadth and depth were significantly correlated with reading comprehension and reading rate. Second, while both types of vocabulary knowledge explained unique variance in reading comprehension, only vocabulary breadth explained unique variance in reading rate. Finally, although vocabulary breadth was significantly correlated with both of the vocabulary depth measures, the two depth measures were not significantly correlated with each other. This work implies that a strong depth of vocabulary affects reading comprehension, in addition to the well-established relationship between vocabulary breadth and comprehension.

  15. Vocabulary Plus: Comprehensive Vocabulary Instruction for English Learners

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    Frumkin, Rhoda

    2010-01-01

    "Vocabulary Plus" is an interactive strategy which links vocabulary development with content area learning for English learners. This strategy uses interactive read-alouds of thematically- connected informational text matched to the grade-appropriate state standards and content of core subjects. When using "Vocabulary Plus",…

  16. The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge

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    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary breadth and depth knowledge. One hundred and fifty first-year university students in China took the Vocabulary Levels Test, a meaning recall task, and the Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge Test. The first two tests were used to elicit two types of vocabulary…

  17. The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge

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    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary breadth and depth knowledge. One hundred and fifty first-year university students in China took the Vocabulary Levels Test, a meaning recall task, and the Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge Test. The first two tests were used to elicit two types of vocabulary…

  18. Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge and Their Effects on L2 Vocabulary Profiles

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    Bardakçi, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge have been studied from many different perspectives, but the related literature lacks serious studies dealing with their effects on vocabulary profiles of EFL learners. In this paper, with an aim to fill this gap, the relative effects of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge on L2 vocabulary profiles…

  19. The Interplay between Text-Based Vocabulary Size and Reading Comprehension of Turkish EFL Learners

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    Güngör, Fatih; Yayli, Demet

    2016-01-01

    Reading is an indispensable skill for learners who desire success throughout their academic lives, and vocabulary knowledge is a sine qua non companion of reading comprehension. Despite being inextricably related entities, very little has been written about the necessary vocabulary coverage to understand an expository text and its equivalent in…

  20. Investigating the Relationship between Vocabulary Knowledge and Academic Reading Performance: An Assessment Perspective.

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    Qian, David D.

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted in the context of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) research to conceptually validate the roles of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge in reading comprehension in academic settings and to empirically evaluate a test measuring three elements of the depth dimension of vocabulary knowledge, including,…

  1. Measuring Second Language Vocabulary Knowledge Using a Temporal Method

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    Tanabe, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The present study addressed the role of speed as a factor in tests of second language (L2) vocabulary knowledge, presupposing that speed of performance is important in actual language use. Research questions were: (a) Do learners with a larger vocabulary size answer faster on an L2 vocabulary breadth test than smaller vocabulary sized learners?;…

  2. Vocabulary Knowledge and Vocabulary Use in Second Language Writing

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    Johnson, Mark D.; Acevedo, Anthony; Mercado, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Research has consistently shown diversity of vocabulary to be an important indicator of second language (L2) writing development as well as L2 writing performance. These studies underscore the importance of vocabulary to L2 writing. However, they provide little to indicate what kind of vocabulary learners of English may need to know in order to…

  3. Vocabulary Knowledge and Vocabulary Use in Second Language Writing

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    Johnson, Mark D.; Acevedo, Anthony; Mercado, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Research has consistently shown diversity of vocabulary to be an important indicator of second language (L2) writing development as well as L2 writing performance. These studies underscore the importance of vocabulary to L2 writing. However, they provide little to indicate what kind of vocabulary learners of English may need to know in order to…

  4. The Impact of Attrition on Vocabulary Knowledge among Saudi Teachers

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    Alharthi, Thamer

    2014-01-01

    This two-year longitudinal study tracks the extent of vocabulary attrition among Arabic-speaking English graduate teachers. Data were collected through pre-post tests of receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge. The results showed drastic attrition in vocabulary knowledge soon after the end of formal instruction followed by slight gain,…

  5. Elementary Preservice Teachers' Science Vocabulary: Knowledge and Application

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    Carrier, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Science vocabulary knowledge plays a role in understanding science concepts, and science knowledge is measured in part by correct use of science vocabulary (Lee et al. in "J Res Sci Teach" 32(8):797-816, 1995). Elementary school students have growing vocabularies and many are learning English as a secondary language or depend on schools to learn…

  6. Progressive Achievement Tests in Reading: Comprehension & Vocabulary. Teacher's Handbook. Second Edition.

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    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    The teacher handbook for Progressive Achievement Tests (PATs) in Reading presents an overall description of these survey tests in reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge for school years 3 to 9. There are two alternative forms of each test: (1) the Reading Comprehension tests are designed to measure two major aspects of reading skills…

  7. Elementary Preservice Teachers' Science Vocabulary: Knowledge and Application

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    Carrier, Sarah J.

    2013-03-01

    Science vocabulary knowledge plays a role in understanding science concepts, and science knowledge is measured in part by correct use of science vocabulary (Lee et al. in J Res Sci Teach 32(8):797-816, 1995). Elementary school students have growing vocabularies and many are learning English as a secondary language or depend on schools to learn academic English. Teachers must have a clear understanding of science vocabulary in order to communicate and evaluate these understandings with students. The present study measured preservice teachers' vocabulary knowledge during a science methods course and documented their use of science vocabulary during peer teaching. The data indicate that the course positively impacted the preservice teachers' knowledge of select elementary science vocabulary; however, use of science terms was inconsistent in microteaching lessons. Recommendations include providing multiple vocabulary instruction strategies in teacher preparation.

  8. A Longitudinal Study of Receptive Vocabulary Breadth Knowledge Growth and Vocabulary Fluency Development

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    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2014-01-01

    This article reports results of a longitudinal study of vocabulary breadth knowledge growth, vocabulary fluency development, and the relationship between the two. We administered two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT; Nation 1983; Nation 1990; Schmitt et al. 2001) to 300 students at a Chinese university at three different time points…

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Receptive Vocabulary Breadth Knowledge Growth and Vocabulary Fluency Development

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    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2014-01-01

    This article reports results of a longitudinal study of vocabulary breadth knowledge growth, vocabulary fluency development, and the relationship between the two. We administered two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT; Nation 1983; Nation 1990; Schmitt et al. 2001) to 300 students at a Chinese university at three different time points…

  10. Assessing the Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategy Use and Vocabulary Knowledge

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    Teng, Feng

    2015-01-01

    This study is an attempt to explore the correlation between direct and indirect vocabulary learning strategies along with the depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge. To this end, a sample of 145 low proficiency students who learn English as a Foreign Language (EFL) completed a questionnaire concerning vocabulary learning strategy use.…

  11. Vocabulary Knowledge of Deaf and Hearing Postsecondary Students

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    Sarchet, Thomastine; Marschark, Marc; Borgna, Georgianna; Convertino, Carol; Sapere, Patricia; Dirmyer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Deaf children generally are found to have smaller English vocabularies than hearing peers, although studies involving children with cochlear implants have suggested that the gap may decrease or disappear with age. Less is known about the vocabularies of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) postsecondary students or how their vocabulary knowledge relates…

  12. Measuring Teachers' Knowledge of Vocabulary Development and Instruction

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    Duguay, Annie; Kenyon, Dorry; Haynes, Erin; August, Diane; Yanosky, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development of an instrument to measure teachers' knowledge of vocabulary development and instruction, the Teacher Knowledge of Vocabulary Survey (TKVS). This type of knowledge has become increasingly important as all classroom teachers are expected to help students meet language and literacy standards that include…

  13. Receptive vocabulary knowledge tests: Their potential importance for planning a well-balanced vocabulary component of a language program

    OpenAIRE

    Wakeling, Elliott

    2015-01-01

    iii Abstract Nation and Webb (2011) state ‘Testing is one of the major jobs of the vocabulary teacher, because without good information about our learners’ vocabulary knowledge, we cannot do the most important job of planning a well-balanced program’ (p. 219). This paper evaluated different receptive vocabulary knowledge tests and assessed their potential to help a teacher plan a well-balanced vocabulary program. The Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT) was selected to assess the vocabulary kno...

  14. Size and depth of vocabulary knowledge: what the research shows

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    When discussing vocabulary, a distinction is often made between size of vocabulary (number of known words) and depth of knowledge (how well those words are known). However, the relationship between the two constructs is still unclear. Some scholars argue that there is little real difference between the two, while regression analyses show that depth typically adds unique explanatory power compared to size alone. Ultimately, the relationship between size and depth of vocabulary knowledge depend...

  15. The relevance of receptive vocabulary in reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalom, Ana Flávia de Oliveira; Soares, Aparecido José Couto; Cárnio, Maria Silvia

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the performance of students from the 5th year of primary school, with and without indicatives of reading and writing disorders, in receptive vocabulary and reading comprehension of sentences and texts, and to verify possible correlations between both. This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the institution (no. 098/13). Fifty-two students in the 5th year from primary school, with and without indicatives of reading and writing disorders, and from two public schools participated in this study. After signing the informed consent and having a speech therapy assessment for the application of inclusion criteria, the students were submitted to a specific test for standardized evaluation of receptive vocabulary and reading comprehension. The data were studied using statistical analysis through the Kruskal-Wallis test, analysis of variance techniques, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient with level of significance to be 0.05. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (was constructed in which reading comprehension was considered as gold standard. The students without indicatives of reading and writing disorders presented a better performance in all tests. No significant correlation was found between the tests that evaluated reading comprehension in either group. A correlation was found between reading comprehension of texts and receptive vocabulary in the group without indicatives. In the absence of indicatives of reading and writing disorders, the presence of a good range of vocabulary highly contributes to a proficient reading comprehension of texts.

  16. The effect of different types of hypertext annotations on vocabulary recall, text comprehension, and knowledge transfer in learning from scientific texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallen, Erik Stanley

    The instructional uses of hypertext and multimedia are widespread but there are still many questions about how to maximize learning from these technologies. The purpose of this research was to determine whether providing learners with a basic science text in addition to hypertext annotations, designed to support the cognitive processes of selection, organization, and integration (Mayer, 1997), would result in different types of learning. Learning was measured using instruments designed to measure learning corresponding to each of the three processes. For the purposes of this study, selection-level learning was defined analogous to Bloom's (Bloom, 1956) knowledge level of learning and was measured with a recognition test. Organization-level learning was defined analogous to Bloom's (1956) comprehension-level of learning and was measured with a short-answer recall test. Integration-level learning was defined analogous to Bloom's (1956) levels of analysis and synthesis and was measured with a transfer test. In experiment one, participants read a text describing how cell phones work and viewed either no annotations (control), or annotations designed to support the selection, organization, or integration of information. As predicted, participants who viewed the selection-level annotations did significantly better than control participants on the recognition test. Results indicate that, for this group of novice learners, lower-level annotations were the most helpful for all levels of learning. In experiment two, participants read the text and viewed either no annotations (control) or combinations of annotations including selection and organization, organization and integration, or selection and integration. No significant differences were found between groups in these experiments. The results are discussed in terms of both multimedia learning theory and text comprehension theory and a new visualization of the generative theory of multimedia learning is offered.

  17. Improving Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Attitudes in 4th Grade Students Through Direct Vocabulary Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Deborah J.

    A program was designed and implemented to improve vocabulary knowledge and attitudes toward reading by focusing on direct vocabulary instruction. The targeted population consisted of 23 fourth grade students in a middle-class suburb north of Chicago. The community is very multicultural, so many of the students speak English as a second language.…

  18. The Effect of Using Vocabulary Flash Card on Iranian Pre-University Students' Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komachali, Maryam Eslahcar; Khodareza, Mohammadreza

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of using vocabulary flash card on Iranian pre-university students' vocabulary knowledge. The participants of the study comprised 50 female learners. They were randomly assigned into two homogeneous groups each consisting of 25 learners. The control group received the traditional treatment…

  19. Vocabulary test Strategies used by the Students to answer Vocabulary Test the Reading Comprehension of TOEFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyatman Suyatman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Test of English as a foreign Language or TOEFL is a standardized test of English for non-native speaker. It consists of three parts or three sections of tests. In Reading Comprehension test, it consists of vocabulary test. To get better result of score, it needs strategies. The purposes of this study are to know the strategies used by the students to answer the vocabulary test on reading section of TOEFL, to know the most strategy used by the students, to know the least strategy used by the students and to know the distribution of strategies used by the students to answer the Vocabulary test of Reading Comprehension of the TOEFL. The researcher used descriptive qualitative research. The subject was twelve students. The instrument was questionnaire that consisted of thirty questions. Data analyzes technique was by using mean score. The result of the research showed that; (1 students used all strategies to answer the vocabulary test of reading comprehension of TOEFL. (2 the most strategies used by the students was ‘Looking for contextual clues to the meaning of unknown words.(3 the least strategy used by the students to answer vocabulary test was ‘Developing a new vocabulary study system, and (4 the distribution of the strategy number 1 was 3.88,strategy number 2 was 3.61, number 3 was 2.94, number four was 2.91, strategy number 5 was3.88, strategy number six was 3.47, strategy number seven was 3.69, strategy number eight was 3.02, strategy number nine was 3.00 and the last strategy was 3.13.

  20. Examining the Underlying Dimensions of Morphological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Mercedes; Muse, Andrea; Wagner, Richard K.; Foorman, Barbara; Petscher, Yaacov; Schatschneider, Christopher; Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Bishop, M. Denise

    2015-01-01

    We report results from two studies on the underlying dimensions of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge in elementary-aged children. In Study 1, 99 fourth-grade students were given multiple measures of morphological awareness and vocabulary. A single factor accounted for individual differences in all morphology and vocabulary…

  1. Examining the Underlying Dimensions of Morphological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Mercedes; Muse, Andrea; Wagner, Richard K.; Foorman, Barbara; Petscher, Yaacov; Schatschneider, Christopher; Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Bishop, M. Denise

    2015-01-01

    We report results from two studies on the underlying dimensions of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge in elementary-aged children. In Study 1, 99 fourth-grade students were given multiple measures of morphological awareness and vocabulary. A single factor accounted for individual differences in all morphology and vocabulary…

  2. Vocabulary knowledge predicts lexical processing: Evidence from a group of participants with diverse educational backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mainz, N.; Shao, Z.; Brysbaert, M.; Meyer, A.S.

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is central to a speaker's command of their language. In previous research, greater vocabulary knowledge has been associated with advantages in language processing. In this study, we examined the relationship between individual differences in vocabulary and language processing

  3. The Effect of Teaching Vocabulary through Semantic Mapping on EFL Learners' Awareness of the Affective Dimensions of Deep Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilforoushan, Somayeh

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the effect of teaching vocabulary through semantic mapping on the awareness of two affective dimensions, evaluation and potency dimensions of deep vocabulary knowledge as well as the general vocabulary knowledge of EFL students. Sixty intermediate EFL female adult learners participated in this study; they were chosen among 90…

  4. A Quantile Regression Approach to Understanding the Relations Between Morphological Awareness, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension in Adult Basic Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the joint and unique contributions of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge at five reading comprehension levels in Adult Basic Education (ABE) students. We introduce the statistical technique of multiple quantile regression, which enabled us to assess the predictive utility of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge at multiple points (quantiles) along the continuous distribution of reading comprehension. To demonstrate the efficacy of our multiple quantile regression analysis, we compared and contrasted our results with a traditional multiple regression analytic approach. Our results indicated that morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge accounted for a large portion of the variance (82-95%) in reading comprehension skills across all quantiles. Morphological awareness exhibited the greatest unique predictive ability at lower levels of reading comprehension whereas vocabulary knowledge exhibited the greatest unique predictive ability at higher levels of reading comprehension. These results indicate the utility of using multiple quantile regression to assess trajectories of component skills across multiple levels of reading comprehension. The implications of our findings for ABE programs are discussed. PMID:25351773

  5. The Role of Primary Caregiver Vocabulary Knowledge in the Development of Bilingual Children's Vocabulary Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buac, Milijana; Gross, Megan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined the impact of environmental factors (socioeconomic status [SES], the percent of language exposure to English and to Spanish, and primary caregivers' vocabulary knowledge) on bilingual children's vocabulary skills. Method: Vocabulary skills were measured in 58 bilingual children between the ages of 5…

  6. The Effect of Vocabulary Self-Selection Strategy and Input Enhancement Strategy on the Vocabulary Knowledge of Iranian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudi, Golfam

    2017-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate empirically the effect of Vocabulary Self-Selection strategy and Input Enhancement strategy on the vocabulary knowledge of Iranian EFL Learners. After taking a diagnostic pretest, both experimental groups enrolled in two classes. Learners who practiced Vocabulary Self-Selection were allowed to…

  7. IV. NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB): measuring language (vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Richard C; Slotkin, Jerry; Manly, Jennifer J; Blitz, David L; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Schnipke, Deborah; Wallner-Allen, Kathleen; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Gleason, Jean Berko; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Adams, Marilyn Jager; Weintraub, Sandra

    2013-08-01

    Mastery of language skills is an important predictor of daily functioning and health. Vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding are relatively quick and easy to measure and correlate highly with overall cognitive functioning, as well as with success in school and work. New measures of vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding (in both English and Spanish) were developed for the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB). In the Toolbox Picture Vocabulary Test (TPVT), participants hear a spoken word while viewing four pictures, and then must choose the picture that best represents the word. This approach tests receptive vocabulary knowledge without the need to read or write, removing the literacy load for children who are developing literacy and for adults who struggle with reading and writing. In the Toolbox Oral Reading Recognition Test (TORRT), participants see a letter or word onscreen and must pronounce or identify it. The examiner determines whether it was pronounced correctly by comparing the response to the pronunciation guide on a separate computer screen. In this chapter, we discuss the importance of language during childhood and the relation of language and brain function. We also review the development of the TPVT and TORRT, including information about the item calibration process and results from a validation study. Finally, the strengths and weaknesses of the measures are discussed.

  8. Examining Multiple Dimensions of Word Knowledge for Content Vocabulary Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervetti, Gina N.; Tilson, Jennifer L.; Castek, Jill; Bravo, Marco A.; Trainin, Guy

    2012-01-01

    This study traces the development of a vocabulary measure designed to assess multiple types of word knowledge. The assessment, which was administered in conjunction with a science unit about weather and the water cycle for third-and-fourth graders, included items for six knowledge types--recognition, definition, classification/example, context,…

  9. Cultural Knowledge in News Comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the main lines of the design and the findings of a reception study on news comprehension. This empirical study is a comparison of the comprehension processes of Danes and French Canadians over a set of news texts from both countries. Comprehension is explored from a cultural...... perspective, through the lens of cognition and pragmatics, revealing the role played by cultural knowledge in comprehension and the underlying relationship between a text and its intended audience. It is argued that recipients ‘problematise’ the news texts, a process by which the texts answer questions...... that take their roots in the cultural knowledge of the recipients....

  10. The Effects of Comprehensive Vocabulary Instruction on Title I Students' Metacognitive Word-Learning Skills and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubliner, Shira; Smetana, Linda

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a multifaceted, metacognitive vocabulary intervention on the reading comprehension and vocabulary achievement of fifth-grade children in one of California's lowest performing Title I schools. Instruction was comprehensive, designed to facilitate encoding of student-selected words, mastery of clarifying…

  11. A Quantile Regression Approach to Understanding the Relations among Morphological Awareness, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension in Adult Basic Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the joint and unique contributions of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge at five reading comprehension levels in adult basic education (ABE) students. We introduce the statistical technique of multiple quantile regression, which enabled us to assess the predictive utility of morphological…

  12. The Effect of Speed Reading Instruction on Japanese High School Students' English Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Paul; Myskow, Gordon; Hattori, Takahiko

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a six-month course in speed reading in three areas of reading proficiency development: 1) general reading comprehension, 2) knowledge of high-frequency vocabulary, and 3) reading-rate and accuracy. The participants (N = 105) were Japanese students studying English as a foreign language in Grade 10 at a…

  13. Enhancing Social Studies Vocabulary and Comprehension for 7th Grade English Language Learners: Findings from Two Experimental Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Sharon; Martinez, Leticia R.; Reutebuch, Colleen K.; Carlson, Coleen D.; Thompson, Sylvia L.; Franci, David J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors identified instructional practices associated with improved outcomes for English language learners (ELLs): (1) research-based vocabulary and concept instruction, (2) the use of media to build comprehension and concept knowledge, (3) the use of graphic organizers, and (4) structured peer-pairings. The purpose of our two studies was to…

  14. Enhancing Social Studies Vocabulary and Comprehension for Seventh-Grade English Language Learners: Findings from Two Experimental Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Sharon; Martinez, Leticia R.; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia; Reutebuch, Colleen K.; Carlson, Coleen D.; Francis, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Two experimental studies to improve vocabulary knowledge and comprehension were conducted in 7th-grade social studies classes with English language learners (ELLs). Two different nonoverlapping samples of classes of 7th-grade students (N = 381 and N = 507) were randomly assigned at the classroom (i.e., section) level to a social studies…

  15. Hypertext Annotation: Effects of Presentation Formats and Learner Proficiency on Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning in Foreign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Jung; Yen, Jung-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    This study extends current knowledge by exploring the effect of different annotation formats, namely in-text annotation, glossary annotation, and pop-up annotation, on hypertext reading comprehension in a foreign language and vocabulary acquisition across student proficiencies. User attitudes toward the annotation presentation were also…

  16. Effects of Morphological Awareness on Second Language Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, Fatma Demiray

    2017-01-01

    This research has analysed the impact of morphological treatment in English morphological awareness task. The main aim of this study is to understand the relationship between morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge of university preparatory class students. In second language learning environment, fifty-two preparatory class students have…

  17. Semantic Structure in Vocabulary Knowledge Interacts With Lexical and Sentence Processing in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovsky, Arielle; Ellis, Erica M; Evans, Julia L; Elman, Jeffrey L

    2016-11-01

    Although the size of a child's vocabulary associates with language-processing skills, little is understood regarding how this relation emerges. This investigation asks whether and how the structure of vocabulary knowledge affects language processing in English-learning 24-month-old children (N = 32; 18 F, 14 M). Parental vocabulary report was used to calculate semantic density in several early-acquired semantic categories. Performance on two language-processing tasks (lexical recognition and sentence processing) was compared as a function of semantic density. In both tasks, real-time comprehension was facilitated for higher density items, whereas lower density items experienced more interference. The findings indicate that language-processing skills develop heterogeneously and are influenced by the semantic network surrounding a known word. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. The Relationship between Vocabulary Size and Reading Comprehension of ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Engku Haliza Engku; Sarudin, Isarji; Muhamad, Ainon Jariah

    2016-01-01

    There are many factors that contribute to one's ability to read effectively. Vocabulary size is one important factor that enhances reading comprehension. The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between students' reading comprehension skills and their vocabulary size. A total of 129 pre-university students undergoing an intensive…

  19. The Determination of Hierarchies among TOEFL Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kyle; And Others

    A study was undertaken to identify the prerequisite relations (or hierarchies among the items) existing in the item responses of a sample of 86 foreign students who took the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) vocabulary and reading comprehension test, Form 3JTF1. The form contains 30 vocabulary items and 30 reading comprehension items.…

  20. Developing Reading Comprehension and Academic Vocabulary for English Language Learners through Science Content: A Formative Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada, Ana; Rutherford, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    This formative experiment explored the extent to which two instructional frameworks that varied in the explicitness of academic vocabulary instruction, comprehension strategy instruction, and supports for student autonomy influenced reading comprehension, vocabulary acquisition, perceptions of autonomy supports, and reading engagement in…

  1. The NIFSTD and BIRNLex Vocabularies: Building Comprehensive Ontologies for Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bug, William J.; Ascoli, Giorgio A.; Grethe, Jeffrey S.; Gupta, Amarnath; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Laird, Angela R.; Larson, Stephen D.; Rubin, Daniel; Shepherd, Gordon M.; Turner, Jessica A.; Martone, Maryann E.

    2009-01-01

    A critical component of the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) project is a consistent, flexible terminology for describing and retrieving neuroscience-relevant resources. Although the original NIF specification called for a loosely structured controlled vocabulary for describing neuroscience resources, as the NIF system evolved, the requirement for a formally structured ontology for neuroscience with sufficient granularity to describe and access a diverse collection of information became obvious. This requirement led to the NIF standardized (NIFSTD) ontology, a comprehensive collection of common neuroscience domain terminologies woven into an ontologically consistent, unified representation of the biomedical domains typically used to describe neuroscience data (e.g., anatomy, cell types, techniques), as well as digital resources (tools, databases) being created throughout the neuroscience community. NIFSTD builds upon a structure established by the BIRNLex, a lexicon of concepts covering clinical neuroimaging research developed by the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN) project. Each distinct domain module is represented using the Web Ontology Language (OWL). As much as has been practical, NIFSTD reuses existing community ontologies that cover the required biomedical domains, building the more specific concepts required to annotate NIF resources. By following this principle, an extensive vocabulary was assembled in a relatively short period of time for NIF information annotation, organization, and retrieval, in a form that promotes easy extension and modification. We report here on the structure of the NIFSTD, and its predecessor BIRNLex, the principles followed in its construction and provide examples of its use within NIF. PMID:18975148

  2. Recall of general and medical vocabulary and text structure knowledge: An experimental study of English for Medical Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarein-Dolab S

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: A 3-unit course is dedicated to general language in medical universities and the vocabulary and text structure of the courses have usually no relation to medical language. We examine whether teaching general language will be as effective as medical language as assessed through recall of general and medical vocabulary and text structure knowledge. Methods: an experimental study was designed, in that, the third year students who had participated in the 3-unit general language classes in the first year of their General Practitioner (GP program were selected and sat for a 60 MCQ tests. The 60 MCQ tests consisted of 30 questions of general language, 25 vocabulary and 5 comprehension questions and also 30 questions of medical language, 25 technical and semi-technical vocabulary and 5 comprehension questions. In all, 145 medical students attended the exam which took 40 minutes to accomplish. Results: The results of the study indicated that memory retention was significantly lower in general language than medical language. The technical and semi-technical vocabulary items were significantly better recalled and the medical text was significantly better understood by the participants. Conclusion: A 3-unit course in general language may be a futile effort since the students will not be exposed to the same vocabulary and text structure knowledge in later years of their GP program. It is recommended that the focus of all the university English courses be on the medical language. Key words: Medical Vocabulary, English For Specific Purposes, ESP

  3. Influence of Native Language Vocabulary and Topic Knowledge on Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning in Health Care Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Foresee Drumhiller

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Adults attending short, language for specific purpose courses may have expertise not utilized in general foreign language courses. The present study investigates two factors that may influence the acquisition of medical Spanish vocabulary in such persons: native English vocabulary size and topic knowledge. Forty-four health care workers attended 12 hr of medical Spanish instruction. Prior to instruction, the Nelson–Denny Vocabulary Test, a Medical Spanish vocabulary test, and an English Medical Terminology Test (an indicator of topic knowledge were administered. The Medical Spanish Vocabulary Test was readministered at posttest. Individually, both English medical terminology knowledge and English vocabulary size were significant predictors of medical Spanish vocabulary acquisition, but English medical terminology knowledge explained most of the variance in medical Spanish vocabulary acquisition. The results are discussed in terms of the impact of expert memory organization on the ability to learn new labels in a second language. A curricular shift toward content-centered vocabulary in language for specific purpose courses may be advantageous for some groups of foreign language learners.

  4. Building Word Knowledge: Opportunities for Direct Vocabulary Instruction in General Education for Students with Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzek, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    Direct vocabulary instruction is 1 critical component of reading instruction. Although most students in the elementary grades need to continue building their vocabulary knowledge, students with reading difficulties are at the greatest risk of falling further behind each year in vocabulary and concept knowledge without effective instruction. This…

  5. Students' Perceptions of Vocabulary Knowledge and Learning in a Middle School Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick L.; Concannon, James P.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated eighth-grade science students' (13-14-year-olds) perceptions of their vocabulary knowledge, learning, and content achievement. Data sources included pre- and posttest of students' perceptions of vocabulary knowledge, students' perceptions of vocabulary and reading strategies surveys, and a content achievement test.…

  6. Influence of Native Language Vocabulary and Topic Knowledge on Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning in Health Care Providers

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Foresee Drumhiller; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.

    2013-01-01

    Adults attending short, language for specific purpose courses may have expertise not utilized in general foreign language courses. The present study investigates two factors that may influence the acquisition of medical Spanish vocabulary in such persons: native English vocabulary size and topic knowledge. Forty-four health care workers attended 12 hr of medical Spanish instruction. Prior to instruction, the Nelson–Den...

  7. Investigating Arabic Academic Vocabulary Knowledge Among Middle School Pupils: Receptive Versus Productive Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhoul, Baha

    2017-08-01

    The current study attempted to investigate the development of Arabic academic vocabulary knowledge among middle-school Arabic native speakers, taking into account the socioeconomic status of the Arab population in Israel. For this purpose, Arabic academic word list was developed, mapping the required academic words that are needed for adequate coping with informational texts as appearing in the different content areas text-books. Six-hundred Arabic speaking middle school pupils from the different areas in Israel, representing the different Arab subgroups: general Arab community, Druze and Bedouins, have participated in the current study. Two academic vocabulary tests, including receptive and productive academic vocabulary evaluation tests, were administrated to the students across the different age groups (7th, 8th and 9th). The results pointed to no significant difference between 7th and 9th grade in academic vocabulary knowledge. In contrast, significant difference was encountered between the different Arab sub-groups where the lowest scores were noted among the Bedouin sub-group, characterized by the lowest SES. When comparing receptive and productive academic vocabulary knowledge between 7th and 9th grade, the results pointed to improvement in receptive academic knowledge towards the end of middle school but not on the productive knowledge level. In addition, within participants' comparison indicated a gap between the pupils' receptive and productive vocabulary. The results are discussed in relation to the existing scientific literature and to its implication of both research and practice in the domain of Arabic literacy development.

  8. Exploring a Comprehensive Model for Early Childhood Vocabulary Instruction: A Design Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. Christine; Christ, Tanya; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2014-01-01

    Addressing a critical need for effective vocabulary practices in early childhood classrooms, we conducted a design experiment to achieve three goals: (1) developing a comprehensive model for early childhood vocabulary instruction, (2) examining the effectiveness of this model, and (3) discerning the contextual conditions that hinder or facilitate…

  9. Enhancing students’ vocabulary knowledge using the Facebook environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kamarul Kabilan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effectiveness of using Facebook in enhancing vocabulary knowledge among Community College students. Thirty-three (33 Community College students are exposed to the use of Facebook as an environment of learning and enhancing their English vocabulary. They are given a pre-test and a post-test and the findings indicate that students perform significantly better in the post-test compared to the pre-test. It appears that Facebook could be considered as a supplementary learning environment or learning platform or a learning tool; with meaningful and engaging activities that require students to collaborate, network and functions as a community of practice, particularly for introverted students with low proficiency levels and have low self-esteem.

  10. Reading comprehension in adolescents with ADHD: exploring the poor comprehender profile and individual differences in vocabulary and executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinussen, Rhonda; Mackenzie, Genevieve

    2015-03-01

    The overall objective of this study was to investigate reading comprehension in youth with and without a prior diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The first goal was to determine whether youth with and without ADHD matched in word reading ability exhibited differences in reading comprehension proficiency. The next goal was to determine whether good and poor comprehenders within the ADHD subgroup differed from each other on language and academic achievement measures. The third objective was to examine whether word recognition or oral vocabulary knowledge mediated the effect of ADHD symptoms on reading comprehension performance. Youth with ADHD scored significantly lower than the comparison youth on a standardized measure of reading comprehension. Relative to good comprehenders with ADHD, poor comprehenders with ADHD exhibited weaknesses in expressive vocabulary, mathematical reasoning, written expression, and exhibited more executive function (EF) difficulties as reported by the teacher. Expressive vocabulary and word reading, but not teacher EF ratings, accounted for unique variance in reading comprehension performance and mediated the relationship between ADHD symptoms and reading comprehension. Implications for further research and educational practice are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Building Vocabulary Knowledge in Preschoolers through Shared Book Reading and Gameplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassinger-Das, Brenna; Ridge, Katherine; Parker, Amira; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Dickinson, David K.

    2016-01-01

    This study moves beyond previous investigations to examine whether an educational intervention combining shared book reading with a vocabulary game increases children's vocabulary knowledge. Four-year-olds (N = 44) were randomly assigned to dyads in either an intervention (shared book reading plus vocabulary review game) or comparison condition…

  12. Method and Application of Comprehensive Knowledge Discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHA Zongyao; BIAN Fuling

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes the principle of comprehensive knowledge discovery. Unlike most of the current knowledge discovery methods, the comprehensive knowledge discovery considers both the spatial relations and attributes of spatial entities or objects. We introduce the theory of spatial knowledge expression system and some concepts including comprehensive knowledge discovery and spatial union information table(SUIT). In theory, SUIT records all information contained in the studied objects, but in reality, because of the complexity and varieties of spatial relations,only those factors of interest to us are selected. In order to find out the comprehensive knowledge from spatial databases, an efficient comprehensive knowledge discovery algorithm called recycled algorithm (RAR) is suggested.

  13. Effects of Video Caption Modes on English Listening Comprehension and Vocabulary Acquisition Using Handheld Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ching-Kun; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chang, Yu-Tzu; Chang, Chih-Kai

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of different display modes of video captions on mobile devices, including non-caption, full-caption, and target-word modes, on the English comprehension and vocabulary acquisition of fifth graders. During the one-month experiment, the status of the students' English listening comprehension and vocabulary…

  14. Effects of Online Academic Lectures on ESL Listening Comprehension, Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition, and Strategy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smidt, Esther; Hegelheimer, Volker

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates how authentic web-delivered video can inform ESL online instruction and enhance the incidental acquisition of vocabulary and listening comprehension. A total of 24 adult learners of English as a Second Language enrolled in a listening comprehension class at a major Midwestern university participated in the study. The…

  15. Vocabulary Knowledge Predicts Lexical Processing: Evidence from a Group of Participants with Diverse Educational Backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Mainz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary knowledge is central to a speaker's command of their language. In previous research, greater vocabulary knowledge has been associated with advantages in language processing. In this study, we examined the relationship between individual differences in vocabulary and language processing performance more closely by (i using a battery of vocabulary tests instead of just one test, and (ii testing not only university students (Experiment 1 but young adults from a broader range of educational backgrounds (Experiment 2. Five vocabulary tests were developed, including multiple-choice and open antonym and synonym tests and a definition test, and administered together with two established measures of vocabulary. Language processing performance was measured using a lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, vocabulary and word frequency were found to predict word recognition speed while we did not observe an interaction between the effects. In Experiment 2, word recognition performance was predicted by word frequency and the interaction between word frequency and vocabulary, with high-vocabulary individuals showing smaller frequency effects. While overall the individual vocabulary tests were correlated and showed similar relationships with language processing as compared to a composite measure of all tests, they appeared to share less variance in Experiment 2 than in Experiment 1. Implications of our findings concerning the assessment of vocabulary size in individual differences studies and the investigation of individuals from more varied backgrounds are discussed.

  16. Vocabulary Knowledge Predicts Lexical Processing: Evidence from a Group of Participants with Diverse Educational Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainz, Nina; Shao, Zeshu; Brysbaert, Marc; Meyer, Antje S

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is central to a speaker's command of their language. In previous research, greater vocabulary knowledge has been associated with advantages in language processing. In this study, we examined the relationship between individual differences in vocabulary and language processing performance more closely by (i) using a battery of vocabulary tests instead of just one test, and (ii) testing not only university students (Experiment 1) but young adults from a broader range of educational backgrounds (Experiment 2). Five vocabulary tests were developed, including multiple-choice and open antonym and synonym tests and a definition test, and administered together with two established measures of vocabulary. Language processing performance was measured using a lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, vocabulary and word frequency were found to predict word recognition speed while we did not observe an interaction between the effects. In Experiment 2, word recognition performance was predicted by word frequency and the interaction between word frequency and vocabulary, with high-vocabulary individuals showing smaller frequency effects. While overall the individual vocabulary tests were correlated and showed similar relationships with language processing as compared to a composite measure of all tests, they appeared to share less variance in Experiment 2 than in Experiment 1. Implications of our findings concerning the assessment of vocabulary size in individual differences studies and the investigation of individuals from more varied backgrounds are discussed.

  17. Matthew effects in young readers: reading comprehension and reading experience aid vocabulary development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Kate; Oakhill, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The authors report data from a longitudinal study of the reading development of children who were assessed in the years of their 8th, 11th, 14th, and 16th birthdays. They examine the evidence for Matthew effects in reading and vocabulary between ages 8 and 11 in groups of children identified with good and poor reading comprehension at 8 years. They also investigate evidence for Matthew effects in reading and vocabulary between 8 and 16 years, in the larger sample. The poor comprehenders showed reduced growth in vocabulary compared to the good comprehenders, but not in word reading or reading comprehension ability. They also obtained lower scores on measures of out-of-school literacy. Analyses of the whole sample revealed that initial levels of reading experience and reading comprehension predicted vocabulary at ages 11, 14, and 16 after controlling for general ability and vocabulary skills when aged 8. The authors discuss these findings in relation to the influence of reading on vocabulary development.

  18. Assessing children's vocabulary skills: from word knowledge to word-learning potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, R V; DeThorne, L S

    2000-01-01

    Knowledge of word meanings and the ability to use words are fundamental to nearly every interaction of every day. Beginning long before formal schooling, vocabulary skills underpin many aspects of communicative, social, and academic well-being. Thus, evaluation of vocabulary knowledge and use is central to any complete assessment of language proficiency. We have advanced in our use of vocabulary assessment significantly since Binet and Simon first used vocabulary tests to measure cognitive proficiency. We have a repertoire of informative tools and strategies from which vocabulary assessment protocols can be fashioned. Current assessment approaches integrate multiple sources of information. They also look beyond existing word knowledge toward word-learning potential. Integrated and dynamic approaches can provide a rich way to ascertain young children's vocabulary abilities and aptitudes.

  19. The Influence of Electronic Dictionaries on Vocabulary Knowledge Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Mojtaba; Davoudi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary learning needs special strategies in language learning process. The use of dictionaries is a great help in vocabulary learning and nowadays the emergence of electronic dictionaries has added a new and valuable resource for vocabulary learning. The present study aims to explore the influence of Electronic Dictionaries (ED) Vs. Paper…

  20. You Are Your Words: Modeling Students' Vocabulary Knowledge with Natural Language Processing Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Laura K.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigates the degree to which the lexical properties of students' essays can inform stealth assessments of their vocabulary knowledge. In particular, we used indices calculated with the natural language processing tool, TAALES, to predict students' performance on a measure of vocabulary knowledge. To this end, two corpora were…

  1. Effects of Reading Strategies and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge on Turkish EFL Learners' Text Inferencing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakir, Abdulvahit; Ünaldi, Ihsan; Arslan, Fadime Yalçin; Kiliç, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of foreign language teaching and learning, reading strategies, depth of vocabulary knowledge and text inferencing skills have not been researched extensively. This study tries to fill this gap by analyzing the effects of reading strategies used by Turkish EFL learners and their depth of vocabulary knowledge on their text…

  2. Modeling Vocabulary Loss——Approach leading to a comprehensive analysis of vocabulary attrition?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Ⅰ.Introduction The article the author has chosen entitling itself as Modeling Vocabulary Loss (Applied Linguistics,2004) is composed by Prof.Paul Meara from University of Wales Swansea.The reason has been chosen here is definitely not because of the tentative move

  3. Receptive vocabulary knowledge and motivation in CLIL and EFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Fernández Fontecha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL is a widely researched approach to foreign language learning and teaching. One of the pillars of CLIL is the concept of motivation. Some studies have focused on exploring motivation within CLIL, however there has not been much discussion about the connection between motivation, or other affective factors, and each component of foreign language learning. Hence, given two groups of learners with the same hours of EFL instruction, the main objective of this research is to determine whether there exists any kind of interaction between the number of words learners know receptively and their motivation towards English as a Foreign Language (EFL. Most students in both groups were highly motivated. No relationship was identified between the receptive vocabulary knowledge and the general motivation for the secondary graders but a positive significant relationship was found for the primary CLIL graders. Several reasons will be adduced.

  4. Content Area Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Students' vocabulary knowledge is a significant predictor of their overall comprehension. The Common Core State Standards are raising the expectations for word learning and there are now 4 distinct standards related to vocabulary as well as expectations in other standards, including content areas. To address these expectations, teachers need…

  5. Modality, Vocabulary Size and Question Type as Mediators of Listening Comprehension Skill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VICTORIA A. MURPHY; JUAN JR. T. CASTILLO

    2013-01-01

    Most studies that have investigated the relationship between lexical knowledge and listening performance have used vocabulary assessments administered in the visual modality (e .g . , Mecartty , 2000 ) . However , the outcomes of vocabulary tests might vary as a function of the modality in which they are carried out ( e .g . Milton& Hopkins , 2005 , 2007 ) . Aural knowledge of words might be particularly important in listening , therefore using visually measured lexical knowledge as a predictor of listening performance could be problematic . To explore this issue , 51 English as a second language (L 2 ) learners from a vocational training institute in Hong Kong aged between 18 and 19 were given two different versions of the X Lex vocabulary test:( 1 ) the visual X Lex (Meara&Milton , 2003 ) and (2) the Aural Lex (Milton&Hopkins , 2005) . The listening sub-test of the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) was also administered to measure participants�listening performance . The results indicated that (1) participants scored higher in the X Lex than the Aural Lex; ( 2 ) the Aural Lex was a stronger predictor of listening performance than the X Lex;( 3 ) participants�proficiency in aural vocabulary influenced performance on the listening test . These results suggest that visual measurements of lexical knowledge may not as accurately reflect the learners�aural knowledge of words and therefore , the modality in which (lexical) knowledge is assessed when estimating vocabulary as a predictor of other skills needs to be considered .

  6. The Role of Comprehension Monitoring, Theory of Mind, and Vocabulary Depth in Predicting Story Comprehension and Recall of Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Katherine; del Río, Francisca

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that preschoolers' story comprehension is influenced by several basic as well as complex cognitive and linguistic processes. Among the abilities known to be relevant for young children's understanding of stories are the size of their vocabulary, their inference-making ability, and their working memory. In this study,…

  7. The Effects of English/Language Arts Academic Vocabulary Alignment on Elementary Student Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Stacey Michelle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide professional development in vocabulary instructional practices and analyze the impact on student achievement. This quasi-experimental study utilized the PLC to curriculum map English/Language Arts state academic vocabulary words in K-4 into each of the four nine-weeks. The first through fourth grade…

  8. Do Language Proficiency and Lecture Comprehension Matter? OpenCourseWare Lectures for Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Chih; Yang, Hui-Chi

    2012-01-01

    Open source lectures not only provide knowledge-seekers with convenient ways to obtain knowledge and information, they also serve as potential language learning resources that provide extensive language input and repeated exposure to vocabulary within specific topics or disciplines. This current study aims to examine the relationship between…

  9. The Use of Humourous Texts in Improving ESL Learners' Vocabulary Comprehension and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabidin, Nursyafiqah Binti

    2015-01-01

    Successful language acquisition requires extensive word knowledge. However, learners are reportedly unable to increase their word knowledge due to insufficient meaningful input in the language classrooms. This paper intended to present another tool to encourage learners' vocabulary development. It examined the effect(s) of using short narrative…

  10. Do Language Proficiency and Lecture Comprehension Matter? OpenCourseWare Lectures for Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Chih; Yang, Hui-Chi

    2012-01-01

    Open source lectures not only provide knowledge-seekers with convenient ways to obtain knowledge and information, they also serve as potential language learning resources that provide extensive language input and repeated exposure to vocabulary within specific topics or disciplines. This current study aims to examine the relationship between…

  11. The Yes/No Test as a Measure of Receptive Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochida, Akira; Harrington, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Performance on the Yes/No test (Huibregtse et al., 2002) was assessed as a predictor of scores on the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT), a standard test of receptive second language (L2) vocabulary knowledge (Nation, 1990). The use of identical items on both tests allowed a direct comparison of test performance, with alternative methods for scoring the…

  12. Self-reported reading as a predictor of vocabulary knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratheeba, N; Krashen, S

    2013-10-01

    25 engineering students in India, who were highly motivated to improve their English, filled out a questionnaire about their reading habits in English and took a demanding vocabulary test based on words taken from preparation books for the Graduate Records Examination. The correlation between reading habits and vocabulary was substantial (r = .78).

  13. Comparison of Video and Text Narrative Presentations on Comprehension and Vocabulary Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podszebka, Darcy; Conklin, Candee; Apple, Mary; Windus, Amy

    A study investigated the effect of video and narrative presentations on children's comprehension and vocabulary acquisition. Participants were students in four heterogeneously grouped eighth-grade English classes (n=16, 22, 21, and 11) in a rural school district in southwestern New York. The short story selected was Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's…

  14. A Place for Content Literacy: Incorporating Vocabulary and Comprehension Strategies in the High School Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misulis, Katherine E.

    2011-01-01

    To help students learn and apply science content, teachers can embed content literacy instruction within science instruction. This involves teaching the content and the literacy skills students need to learn that content, such as vocabulary and comprehension. In this article, the author provides tips on how to incorporate content literacy…

  15. Captioned Instructional Video: Effects on Content Comprehension, Vocabulary Acquisition and Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    BavaHarji, Madhubala; Alavi, Zhinoos Kamal; Letchumanan, Krishnaveni

    2014-01-01

    This experimental design study examined the effects of viewing captioned instructional videos on EFL learners' content comprehension, vocabulary acquisition and language proficiency. It also examined the participants' perception of viewing the captioned instructional videos. The 92 EFL students in two classes, who were undertaking the "Tape…

  16. Effects of an Automated Vocabulary and Comprehension Intervention: An Early Efficacy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Elizabeth J.; Goldstein, Howard; Sherman, Amber; Noe, Sean; Tabbah, Rhonda; Ziolkowski, Robyn; Schneider, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that oral language skills in preschool, including vocabulary and comprehension, predict later reading proficiency and that substantial differences in oral language skills exist when children enter school. Although explicit instruction embedded in storybooks is a promising intervention approach, high-fidelity implementation…

  17. The Effects of Hypertext Gloss on Comprehension and Vocabulary Retention under Incidental and Intentional Learning Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandieh, Zeinab; Jafarigohar, Manoochehr

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated comprehension, immediate and delayed vocabulary retention under incidental and intentional learning conditions via computer mediated hypertext gloss. One hundred and eighty four (N = 184) intermediate students of English as a foreign language at an English school participated in the study. They were randomly assigned…

  18. The Development of Vocabulary in Spanish Children with Down Syndrome: Comprehension, Production, and Gestures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeote, Miguel; Sebastian, Eugenia; Checa, Elena; Rey, Rocio; Soto, Pilar

    2011-01-01

    Background: Our main purpose was to compare the lexical development of Spanish children with Down syndrome (DS) and children with typical development (TD) to investigate the relationship between cognitive and vocabulary development in comprehension and oral and gestural production. Method: Participants were 186 children with DS and 186 children…

  19. The effects of captioning texts and caption ordering on L2 listening comprehension and vocabulary learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Alikhani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of captioned texts on second/foreign (L2 listening comprehension and vocabulary gains using a computer multimedia program. Additionally, it explored the caption ordering effect (i.e. captions displayed during the first or second listening, and the interaction of captioning order with the L2 proficiency level of language learners in listening comprehension and vocabulary performance. To these ends, a computer software program was designed and 200 EFL learners (100 high-intermediate and 100 low-intermediate level students were asked to participate in the experiment. They were randomly assigned into four groups: captioned (listening to texts twice with captions, noncaptioned (listening to texts twice without captions, first captioned (listening to texts first with captions and then without captions, and second captioned (listening to texts first without captions and then with captions groups. They listened to four audio texts (i.e. short stories twice and took the listening and vocabulary tests, administered through the software. Results from t-tests and two-way ANOVAs showed that the captioned stories were more effective than the non-captioned ones. Moreover, the caption ordering had no significant effect on the participants' L2 listening comprehension and vocabulary performance. Finally, L2 proficiency level differences did not affect performance derived from caption ordering.

  20. Lexical Testing and the Reliability of the Modified Vocabulary Knowledge Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbita Tan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights some of the vocabulary tests available, and reports the reliability of the modified Vocabulary Knowledge Scale (VKS (Rosszell, 2007. Although there is no consensus as to what actually constitutes vocabulary knowledge, the notion that it is made up of receptive knowledge (words recognised or known when seen or heard and productive knowledge (words appropriately used when we write or speak is widely accepted. Lexical testing is important for various reasons, chiefly to determine reading ability which requires the use of a size test, and to monitor overall vocabulary development which necessitates the use of a test measuring both receptive and productive knowledge (for instance, the modified VKS. The modified VKS was pilot-tested on 28 university-level Malaysian remedial English language learners and analysed for ‘reliability as stability over similar samples’. Data analyses returned values indicating the test to be reliable, thus presenting it as a feasible option for use among similar cohorts. This is of significance to scholars, researchers, language instructors and curriculum designers intending to employ the test in their own research, classrooms and literacy programmes.Keywords: lexical testing, receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge, modified Vocabulary Knowledge Scale, reliability, tertiary learners 

  1. Numbers and prior knowledge in sentence comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Macizo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated whether the comprehension of sentences that contained numerical information could benefit from presenting numbers in Arabic format and from using prior knowledge. Participants read sentences including numbers (Arabic digits or number words while the comprehension accuracy was evaluated. In addition, the sentences were biased or unbiased by people's prior knowledge about quantities. The results showed better comprehension for sentences that contained Arabic digits as compared to number words. Moreover, biased sentences were understood more accurately than unbiased sentences. These results indicate that information about magnitude in sentence context is comprehended better when quantities are presented in Arabic format and when they are associated with participants' world knowledge.

  2. Finding patterns and learning words: Infant phonotactic knowledge is associated with vocabulary size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf Estes, Katharine; Gluck, Stephanie Chen-Wu; Grimm, Kevin J

    2016-06-01

    Native language statistical regularities about allowable phoneme combinations (i.e., phonotactic patterns) may provide learners with cues to support word learning. The current research investigated the association between infants' native language phonotactic knowledge and their word learning progress, as measured by vocabulary size. In the experiment, 19-month-old infants listened to a corpus of nonce words that contained novel phonotactic patterns. All words began with "illegal" consonant clusters that cannot occur in native (English) words. The rationale for the task was that infants with fragile phonotactic knowledge should exhibit stronger learning of the novel illegal phonotactic patterns than infants with robust phonotactic knowledge. We found that infants with smaller vocabularies showed stronger phonotactic learning than infants with larger vocabularies even after accounting for general cognition. We propose that learning about native language structure may promote vocabulary development by providing a foundation for word learning; infants with smaller vocabularies may have weaker support from phonotactics than infants with larger vocabularies. Furthermore, stored vocabulary knowledge may promote the detection of phonotactic patterns even during infancy.

  3. The Relationship Between Expressive Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Skills for Adult Struggling Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ryan; Greenberg, Daphne; Gore, Jacqueline Laures; Pae, Hye K.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined expressive vocabulary and its relationship to reading skills for 232 native English-speaking adults who read between the third- and fifth-grade levels. The Boston Naming Test (BNT; Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 2001) was used to measure expressive vocabulary. Participants scored lower than the normative sample of adults on all aspects of the test; they had fewer spontaneously correct answers, and were not helped by stimulus or phonemic cues. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that expressive vocabulary accounted for significant variance in both reading comprehension and exception word reading, but not for general word reading or nonword reading. PMID:24778459

  4. Nonword Repetition and Vocabulary Knowledge as Predictors of Children's Phonological and Semantic Word Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlof, Suzanne M; Patten, Hannah

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the unique and shared variance that nonword repetition and vocabulary knowledge contribute to children's ability to learn new words. Multiple measures of word learning were used to assess recall and recognition of phonological and semantic information. Fifty children, with a mean age of 8 years (range 5-12 years), completed experimental assessments of word learning and norm-referenced assessments of receptive and expressive vocabulary knowledge and nonword repetition skills. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses examined the variance in word learning that was explained by vocabulary knowledge and nonword repetition after controlling for chronological age. Together with chronological age, nonword repetition and vocabulary knowledge explained up to 44% of the variance in children's word learning. Nonword repetition was the stronger predictor of phonological recall, phonological recognition, and semantic recognition, whereas vocabulary knowledge was the stronger predictor of verbal semantic recall. These findings extend the results of past studies indicating that both nonword repetition skill and existing vocabulary knowledge are important for new word learning, but the relative influence of each predictor depends on the way word learning is measured. Suggestions for further research involving typically developing children and children with language or reading impairments are discussed.

  5. Enhancing Vocabulary Development and Reading Comprehension through Metacognitive Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubukcu, Feryal

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a study of the teacher trainees in an English department who have received instruction in metacognitive awareness for reading comprehension. Metacognition or "thinking about thinking" involves the awareness and regulation of thinking processes. Metacognitive strategies are those strategies which require students to…

  6. Development and transfer of vocabulary knowledge in Spanish-speaking language minority preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, J Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J; Kleuver, Cherie G; Farver, Joann M

    2016-09-01

    In this study we evaluated the predictive validity of conceptual scoring. Two independent samples of Spanish-speaking language minority preschoolers (Sample 1: N = 96, mean age = 54·51 months, 54·3% male; Sample 2: N = 116, mean age = 60·70 months, 56·0% male) completed measures of receptive, expressive, and definitional vocabulary in their first (L1) and second (L2) languages at two time points approximately 9-12 months apart. We examined whether unique L1 and L2 vocabulary at time 1 predicted later L2 and L1 vocabulary, respectively. Results indicated that unique L1 vocabulary did not predict later L2 vocabulary after controlling for initial L2 vocabulary. An identical pattern of results emerged for L1 vocabulary outcomes. We also examined whether children acquired translational equivalents for words known in one language but not the other. Results indicated that children acquired translational equivalents, providing partial support for the transfer of vocabulary knowledge across languages.

  7. World Knowledge in Children's Sentence Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Yuki

    1993-01-01

    Sentence comprehension is more than a syntactically autonomous issue and relies on the clues that are not part of the grammar. This paper considers "world knowledge," in this case prior knowledge of the story being read, as one such clue. In section 1, "reversibility" of sentences is discussed. "Sentence ambiguity" is discussed in section 2.…

  8. Relationship between Prior Knowledge and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaal, Noureldin Mohamed; Sase, Amal Saleh

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between prior knowledge and reading comprehension in second language among postgraduate students in UPM. Participants in the study were 20 students who have the same level in English as a second language from several faculties. On the basis of a prior-knowledge questionnaire and test, students were…

  9. Vocabulary Knowledge of Children With Cochlear Implants: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily

    2016-04-01

    This article employs meta-analysis procedures to evaluate whether children with cochlear implants demonstrate lower spoken-language vocabulary knowledge than peers with normal hearing. Of the 754 articles screened and 52 articles coded, 12 articles met predetermined inclusion criteria (with an additional 5 included for one analysis). Effect sizes were calculated for relevant studies and forest plots were used to compare differences between groups of children with normal hearing and children with cochlear implants. Weighted effect size averages for expressive vocabulary measures (g = -11.99; p vocabulary measures (g = -20.33; p vocabulary knowledge than children with normal hearing. Additional analyses confirmed the value of comparing vocabulary knowledge of children with hearing loss to a tightly matched (e.g., socioeconomic status-matched) sample. Age of implantation, duration of implantation, and chronological age at testing were not significantly related to magnitude of weighted effect size. Findings from this analysis represent a first step toward resolving discrepancies in the vocabulary knowledge literature.

  10. The Relationship between Phonological Memory, L2 Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Size of Iranian High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Ghazanfar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Phonological memory (PM is viewed as one of the key elements in language learning. The present study was an effort to investigate the relationship between PM, reading comprehension, and vocabulary size of Iranian high school EFL learners. The participants were 58 high school freshmen and senior students. Administering Oxford Quick Placement Test (QPT, the participants were divided into two groups of proficiency, i.e. elementary and lower intermediate. Afterwards, two measures of PM, namely nonword repetition (NWRP and nonword recognition (NWRC tests, a reading comprehension test, and Schmitt’s vocabulary levels test were administered. The results showed a significant relationship between reading comprehension, vocabulary size, and PM measures at both levels of proficiency. Moreover, the regression analyses showed that NWRC can be a better predictor of L2 learners’ performance on reading comprehension at the lower intermediate level, and NWRC was found to be a better predictor of vocabulary size for both groups of language proficiency.

  11. Improving listening comprehension skills relying on metacognitive strategies - focus on vocabulary and specific l2 instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerotijević-Tišma Danica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at investigating the application of an instructional method specifically focused on the expansion of metacognitive awareness and its effect on Serbian EFL students’ listening comprehension. The current study is a follow-up research of a similar study by Vandergrift and Tafaghodtari (2010. However, we sought to expand the previous research by investigating the relationship between the students’ current level of L2 (target language vocabulary and listening test scores. Our study likewise differed in the sample of participants, the target language, teaching and testing material used, and the duration of the very experiment. To answer the proposed research questions we conducted an experiment with 57 Serbian secondary school EFL (English as a Foreign Language learners divided into experimental (n=27 and control group (n=30. The results of the pre- and post-tests of the two groups showed the beneficial effects of developing metacognitive strategies and the strong positive correlation between the level of vocabulary and listening comprehension. The paper underlines important pedagogical implications especially regarding the enhancement of metacognitive awareness and vocabulary proficiency of students in order to improve performance on listening comprehension tasks.

  12. Using a Corpus in an EFL Classroom to Develop Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    峰松, 和子; MINEMATSU, Kazuko

    2014-01-01

    A corpus is a collection of written or spoken texts, which is stored on a computer. Thispaper examines whether or not a corpus can be used to develop depth of vocabularyknowledge in an EFL classroom. The advantages of using a corpus lie in its authenticity anduse of abundant examples. This suggest that a corpus could be used in fruitful ways tobroaden or deepen learners’ vocabulary. This paper focuses on the latter: developing depthof vocabulary knowledge. Data-driven learning (DLL) is one me...

  13. Related General-Vocabulary Knowledge Transfers to Learning Technical Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, William R.

    2015-01-01

    In a classroom experiment during the first week of an introductory psychology course, randomly assigned students received a pretest and then a brief training on the definitions of general-vocabulary words either related (e.g., "facilitation") or unrelated (e.g., "rendition") to 16 technical terms (e.g., "social…

  14. Impact of Using CALL on Iranian EFL Learners' Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Melor Md; Salehi, Hadi; Amini, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) integration in EFL contexts has intensified noticeably in recent years. This integration might be in different ways and for different purposes such as vocabulary acquisition, grammar learning, phonology, writing skills, etc. More explicitly, this study is an attempt to explore the effect of using CALL on…

  15. Orthographic Knowledge and Lexical Form Influence Vocabulary Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

    2017-03-01

    Many adults struggle with second language acquisition, but learn new native-language words relatively easily. We investigated the role of sublexical native-language patterns on novel word acquisition. Twenty English monolinguals learned 48 novel written words in five repeated testing blocks. Half were orthographically wordlike (e.g., nish, high neighborhood density and high segment/bigram frequency), while half were not (e.g., gofp, low neighborhood density and low segment/bigram frequency). Participants were faster and more accurate at recognizing and producing wordlike items, indicating a native-language similarity benefit. Individual differences in memory and vocabulary size influenced learning, and error analyses indicated that participants extracted probabilistic information from the novel vocabulary. Results suggest that language learners benefit from both native-language overlap and regularities within the novel language.

  16. Receptive vocabulary and semantic knowledge in children with SLI and children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Glynis; Briscoe, Josie; Ang, Su-Yin; Brown, Heather; Hermena, Ehab; Kapikian, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Receptive vocabulary and associated semantic knowledge were compared within and between groups of children with specific language impairment (SLI), children with Down syndrome (DS), and typically developing children. To overcome the potential confounding effects of speech or language difficulties on verbal tests of semantic knowledge, a novel task was devised based on picture-based semantic association tests used to assess adult patients with semantic dementia. Receptive vocabulary, measured by word-picture matching, of children with SLI was weak relative to chronological age and to nonverbal mental age but their semantic knowledge, probed across the same lexical items, did not differ significantly from that of vocabulary-matched typically developing children. By contrast, although receptive vocabulary of children with DS was a relative strength compared to nonverbal cognitive abilities (p vocabulary and depth of semantic knowledge. Overall, these data challenge the integrity of semantic-conceptual development in DS and imply that contemporary theories of semantic cognition should also seek to incorporate evidence from atypical conceptual development.

  17. Using graphic organizers to enhance students' science vocabulary and comprehension of nonfiction science text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Edna

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of Frayer Model and the Hierarchical Organizer as a literacy strategy to improve ninth grade students' science vocabulary and comprehension of non-fictions text in Environmental Science course. The study implemented a sequential explanatory methodology design that included quantitative and qualitative instruments. The research sample consisted of one hundred and two (102) high school environmental science students entering the ninth grade for the first time. The two treatment groups each consisted of thirty-five (35) students, and the control group consisted of 32 students. Treatment group one used the Frayer Model; treatment group two used Hierarchical Organizer and the control group used the traditional teaching methods without the use of a graph organizer. The investigator taught both treatment groups and the control group to ensure reliability. The two treatment groups were taught using graphic organizers as the main lesson plan tool and the control group was taught using guided notes lecture with PowerPoint. A pretest and post-test were administered to each student. Student test scores were evaluated to determine whether knowledge gains differed between the treatment groups and the control group. It was found that the use of graphic organizer instruction was significantly better for student achievement when compared to the use of PowerPoint instruction and that there was much more interaction between student and teacher during the graphic organizer lessons. The delivery of the lesson by the use of graphic organizers seemed to promote more success than the use of the PowerPoint and lecture.

  18. Beyond Comprehension: We Have yet to Adopt a Common Core Curriculum that Builds Knowledge Grade by Grade--But We Need to

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, E. D., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Most of today's reading programs rest on faulty ideas about reading comprehension. The author argues that comprehension is not a general skill; it relies on having relevant vocabulary and knowledge. He explains the need for a fact-filled, knowledge-building curriculum. He suggests that states should adopt a common core curriculum that builds…

  19. Field Dependence/Independence Cognitive Styles: Are They Significant At Different Levels Of Vocabulary Knowledge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rostampour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive styles influence the performance of language learners and can predict their success in the process of language learning. Considering field dependence/independence cognitive styles, this study aims at determining if they are significant in English vocabulary knowledge. A number of EFL university students took part in the study. The investigation was done through using Vocabulary Size Test (VST (Nation, 2007 and the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT (Witkin, Oltman, Raskin, and Karp, 1971. Using the Vocabulary Size Test (VST, the participants were divided into three groups of high, mid, and low. Moreover, with respect to the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT, they were divided into two groups, field dependents and field independents. Mean score comparison revealed there was a credible and meaningful relationship between field dependence/independence cognitive styles and total vocabulary knowledge. It was also indicated there was a significant relationship between field dependence/independence cognitive styles and vocabulary knowledge in the high and mid groups. Finally, based on the findings, teachers should take learners’ individual differences into consideration so that they could adopt and apply teaching methods in line with the learners’ various cognitive styles.   

  20. Academic Language Knowledge and Comprehension of Science Text for English Language Learners and Fluent English-Speaking Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sandy Ming-San

    As an initial step toward understanding which features of academic language make science-based expository text difficult for students with different English language proficiency (ELP) designations, this study investigated fifth-grade students' thoughts on text difficulty, their knowledge of the features of academic language, and the relationship between academic language and reading comprehension. Forty-five fifth-grade students participated in the study; 18 students were classified as English language learners (ELLs) and 27 students were fluent-English speakers. Participants read two science passages, answered comprehension questions, and engaged in a retrospective interview which probed their knowledge on the academic language features of vocabulary, grammar, and discourse. Qualitative analysis was used to code students' thoughts about the challenges to reading comprehension and to identify the challenges that were related to academic language. Quantitative analyses were conducted to examine whether students' knowledge of academic language features and reading comprehension differed by students' ELP designations, as well as to investigate the relationship between students' knowledge of academic language features and reading comprehension. Results for the qualitative analysis revealed that students found difficult vocabulary, reading abilities, and prior knowledge as the greatest challenges to comprehending the science passages. Results from the quantitative analyses indicated that ELL students' knowledge of academic vocabulary, grammar, discourse knowledge, and reading comprehension (as measured by multiple-choice questions) were significantly lower than the fluent-English speaking students. The results also indicated that vocabulary, not grammar or discourse features, was significantly related to students' comprehension scores. The results have implications for understanding the features of academic language that influence students' comprehension of expository

  1. The learner as lexicographer: using monolingual and bilingual corpora to deepen vocabulary knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina HMELJAK SANGAWA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning vocabulary is one of the most challenging tasks faced by learners with a non-kanji background when learning Japanese as a foreign language. However, learners are often not aware of the range of different aspects of word knowledge they need in order to successfully use Japanese. This includes not only the spoken and written form of a word and its meaning, but also morphological, grammatical, collocational, connotative and pragmatic knowledge as well as knowledge of social constraints to be observed. In this article, we present some background data on the use of dictionaries among students of Japanese at the University of Ljubljana, a selection of resources and a series of exercises developed with the following aims: a to foster greater awareness of the different aspects of Japanese vocabulary, both from a monolingual and a contrastive perspective, b to learn about tools and methods that can be applied in different contexts of language learning and language use, and c to develop strategies for learning new vocabulary, reinforcing knowledge about known vocabulary, and effectively using this knowledge in receptive and productive language tasks.

  2. The Comparative Effects of Comprehensible Input, Output and Corrective Feedback on the Receptive Acquisition of L2 Vocabulary Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowbakht, Mohammad; Shahnazari, Mohammadtaghi

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the comparative effects of comprehensible input, output and corrective feedback on the receptive acquisition of L2 vocabulary items were investigated. Two groups of beginning EFL learners participated in the study. The control group received comprehensible input only, while the experimental group received input and was…

  3. Toddlers learn words in a foreign language: the role of native vocabulary knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Melissa; Woodward, Amanda L

    2012-03-01

    The current study examined monolingual English-speaking toddlers' (N=50) ability to learn word-referent links from native speakers of Dutch versus English, and second, whether children generalized or sequestered their extensions when terms were tested by a subsequent speaker of English. Overall, children performed better in the English than in the Dutch condition; however, children with high native vocabularies successfully selected the target object for terms trained in fluent Dutch. Furthermore, children with higher vocabularies did not indicate their comprehension of Dutch terms when subsequently tested by an English speaker whereas children with low vocabulary scores responded at chance levels to both the original Dutch speaker and the second English speaker. These findings demonstrate that monolingual toddlers with proficiency in their native language are capable of learning words outside of their conventional system and may be sensitive to the boundaries that exist between language systems.

  4. The relationship between vocabulary knowledge and the reading and science achievement of fifth-grade students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Jennifer Dawn

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and the reading and science achievement of fifth-grade students. Models were developed and tested using multiple linear regression (MLR) to determine whether vocabulary knowledge is a statistically significant predictor of reading and science. A model was tested for reading achievement, and a model was tested for science achievement. Other independent variables in the models included socioeconomic status, ethnicity, gender, status as an English-language learner, status as a special education student, classification as gifted/talented, history of retention, and migrant status. Archival data from fifth-grade students in a large, urban public school district were used in the analyses. Both models were found to be statistically significant (p vocabulary was a statistically significant predictor for both reading achievement (B = .571, p vocabulary to reading achievement confirmed past research. The role of reading vocabulary in science achievement revealed a significant, if modest, relationship. In addition, findings pointed out the significance of variables such as history of retention, gender, and status as an English-language learner. Conclusions from the study, pedagogical implications, and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  5. Contrasting contributions of phonological short-term memory and long-term knowledge to vocabulary learning in a foreign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoura, Elvira V; Gathercole, Susan E

    2005-01-01

    The contributions of phonological short-term memory and existing foreign vocabulary knowledge to the learning of new words in a second language were compared in a sample of 40 Greek children studying English at school. The children's speed of learning new English words in a paired-associate learning task was strongly influenced by their current English vocabulary, but was independent of phonological memory skill, indexed by nonword repetition ability. However, phonological memory performance was closely linked to English vocabulary scores. The findings suggest that in learners with considerable familiarity with a second language, foreign vocabulary acquisition is mediated largely by use of existing knowledge representations.

  6. Teaching and Learning Morphology: A Reflection on Generative Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Shane

    2012-01-01

    Students' knowledge of morphology can play a critical role in vocabulary development, and by extension, reading comprehension and writing. This reflection describes the nature of this knowledge and how it may be developed through the examination of generative vocabulary knowledge and the role of the spelling system in developing this knowledge. In…

  7. Bilingual Vocabulary Knowledge and Arrival Age among Japanese Heritage Language Students at "Hoshuukoo"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yoshiko; Calder, Toshiko M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines bilingual vocabulary knowledge in relation to arrival age among first language (L1) Japanese students attending "hoshuukoo" (i.e., supplementary academic schools for Japanese-speaking children) in the United States. It also examines the relationship between L1 Japanese and English as a second language (L2), as…

  8. Influential Factors in Incomplete Acquisition and Attrition of Young Heritage Speakers' Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibi, Khadijeh; Boers, Frank

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates whether young heritage speakers, either simultaneous or sequential bilinguals, have limited vocabulary knowledge in their family language compared to matched monolingual counterparts and, if so, what factors help to account for this difference. These factors include age, age at emigration, length of emigration, frequency of…

  9. One Complicated Extended Family: The Influence of Alphabetic Knowledge and Vocabulary on Phonemic Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellette, Gene P.; Haley, Allyson

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated possible sources of individual differences in early explicit, smaller segment phonological awareness. In particular, the unique contributions of oral vocabulary and alphabetic knowledge to phonemic awareness acquisition were examined across the first year of school. A total of 57 participants were tested in kindergarten…

  10. Influential Factors in Incomplete Acquisition and Attrition of Young Heritage Speakers' Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibi, Khadijeh; Boers, Frank

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates whether young heritage speakers, either simultaneous or sequential bilinguals, have limited vocabulary knowledge in their family language compared to matched monolingual counterparts and, if so, what factors help to account for this difference. These factors include age, age at emigration, length of emigration, frequency of…

  11. The Impact of CLIL on L2 Vocabulary Development and Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthou, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines whether students involved in CLIL are able to learn content through the medium of L2 and simultaneously exhibit significant gains in L2 vocabulary knowledge. Two experiments were set up in two public primary schools. Two groups of 6th grade students participated in each experiment. The first group was taught three 80-minute…

  12. Effects of a virtual platform in reading comprehension and vocabulary: An alternative to improve reading abilities in Elementary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Thorne

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Given, on the one hand, the poor results obtained by Peruvian children in the national and international reading assessments. And on the other hand, the increased investment intechnology for schools in the country, this study aimed to develop and test an online tool to improve reading comprehension. In order to do this, the reading comprehension strategies and vocabulary activities from the research-based digital environment ICON were adapted to design the platform LEO. A total of 88 fifth graders from urban middle-to-low-income private schools from Lima participated in this quasi-experimental study, which involved acontrol group and a treatment group that participated in a 12-week teacher-mediated digital intervention. All participants were administered reading and vocabulary assessments pre and post intervention. Results revealed that students who participated in the intervention achieved higher comprehension scores for narrative texts and higher vocabulary scores than those of the control group.

  13. Word knowledge in the crowd: Measuring vocabulary size and word prevalence in a massive online experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuleers, Emmanuel; Stevens, Michaël; Mandera, Paweł; Brysbaert, Marc

    2015-01-01

    We use the results of a large online experiment on word knowledge in Dutch to investigate variables influencing vocabulary size in a large population and to examine the effect of word prevalence-the percentage of a population knowing a word-as a measure of word occurrence. Nearly 300,000 participants were presented with about 70 word stimuli (selected from a list of 53,000 words) in an adapted lexical decision task. We identify age, education, and multilingualism as the most important factors influencing vocabulary size. The results suggest that the accumulation of vocabulary throughout life and in multiple languages mirrors the logarithmic growth of number of types with number of tokens observed in text corpora (Herdan's law). Moreover, the vocabulary that multilinguals acquire in related languages seems to increase their first language (L1) vocabulary size and outweighs the loss caused by decreased exposure to L1. In addition, we show that corpus word frequency and prevalence are complementary measures of word occurrence covering a broad range of language experiences. Prevalence is shown to be the strongest independent predictor of word processing times in the Dutch Lexicon Project, making it an important variable for psycholinguistic research.

  14. Assessing reading comprehension with narrative and expository texts: Dimensionality and relationship with fluency, vocabulary and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sandra; Cadime, Irene; Viana, Fernanda L; Chaves-Sousa, Séli; Gayo, Elena; Maia, José; Ribeiro, Iolanda

    2017-02-01

    Reading comprehension assessment should rely on valid instruments that enable adequate conclusions to be taken regarding students' reading comprehension performance. In this article, two studies were conducted to collect validity evidence for the vertically scaled forms of two Tests of Reading Comprehension for Portuguese elementary school students in the second to fourth grades, one with narrative texts (TRC-n) and another with expository ones (TRC-e). Two samples of 950 and 990 students participated in Study 1, the study of the dimensionality of the TRC-n and TRC-e forms, respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses provided evidence of an acceptable fit for the one-factor solution for all test forms. Study 2 included 218 students to collect criterion-related validity. The scores obtained in each of the test forms were significantly correlated with the ones obtained in other reading comprehension measures and with the results obtained in oral reading fluency, vocabulary and working memory tests. Evidence suggests that the test forms are valid measures of reading comprehension. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Studies of Danish L2 learners’ vocabulary knowledge and the lexical richness of their written production in English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Birgit; Danelund, Lise

    2015-01-01

    A number of lexical studies report a strong correlation between L2 learners’ vocabulary size and depth and their writing skills. Three Danish empirical studies explore this relationship further by looking at the vocabulary knowledge of young upper-secondary school learners of English...... and their written productions with a focus on the lexical richness of their L2 writing. The first study investigates the learners’ receptive vocabulary level (Nation’s VLT) and their lexical error production in free written compositions. The second study looks at the learners’ productive vocabulary size (Laufer...... and Nation’s PLT), and the vocabulary profiles of their compositions in terms of lexical variation and sophistication. The last study combines a focus on receptive (Nation’s VLT) and productive vocabulary (Laufer and Nation’s PLT) and a word association task (Meara and Fitzpatrick’s Lex 30) with a lexical...

  16. Morphological Awareness Intervention: Improving Spelling, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension for Adult Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangs, Kathryn E; Binder, Katherine S

    2016-01-01

    Adult Basic Education programs are under pressure to develop and deliver instruction that promotes rapid and sustained literacy development. We describe a novel approach to a literacy intervention that focuses on morphemes, which are the smallest meaningful units contained in words. We argue that if you teach learners that big words are comprised of smaller components (i.e., morphemes), you will provide those students with the skills to figure out the meanings of new words. Research with children has demonstrated that teaching them about morphemes improves word recognition, spelling, vocabulary, and comprehension (Bowers & Kirby, 2009; Kirk & Gillon, 2009; Nunes, Bryant, & Olsson, 2003). Our hope is that this type of intervention will be successful with adult learners, too.

  17. Examining the Effects of Independent MALL on Vocabulary Recall and Listening Comprehension: An Exploratory Case Study of Preschool Children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Terantino, Joe

    ... learning. In addition, the study identies the characteristics of the participants (n = 7) preferred apps and aims to determine if the participants were able to make gains in vocabulary recall and listening comprehension aer a six-month period of independent language learning. The results of this study indicate that the children and their parents establi...

  18. The Effect of the Integration of Corpora in Reading Comprehension Classrooms on English as a Foreign Language Learners' Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordani, Yahya

    2013-01-01

    This study used a randomized pretest-posttest control group design to examine the effect of the integration of corpora in general English courses on the students' vocabulary development. To enhance the learners' lexical repertoire and thereby improve their reading comprehension, an online corpus-based approach was integrated into 42 hours of…

  19. Effects of Interactive versus Simultaneous Display of Multimedia Glosses on L2 Reading Comprehension and Incidental Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türk, Emine; Erçetin, Gülcan

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effects of interactive versus simultaneous display of visual and verbal multimedia information on incidental vocabulary learning and reading comprehension of learners of English with lower proficiency levels. In the interactive display condition, learners were allowed to select the type of multimedia information whereas the…

  20. Effects of Visible and Invisible Hyperlinks on Vocabulary Acquisition and Reading Comprehension for High- and Average-Foreign Language Achievers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia R. Nikolova

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of visible and invisible links for annotated words in a computer module for learning French on the vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension of two types of students – high – and average-achievers. Two hundred and sixty four second-semester students of French were identified as high- or average-achievers. Each type of students was then randomly assigned to two groups – with visible or invisible hyperlinks. All students were instructed to read a short passage in French (181 words for general comprehension and allowed to consult the annotated words (made visible by bold face for the visible links group as much as they needed. The students took a vocabulary pretest and an immediate and delayed (two weeks vocabulary and reading comprehension posttest. The results of the study showed that average- achievers benefited more from the visible links for vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension than high-achievers. The results are discussed in light of second language acquisition and gifted-student theories and suggestions for future research are made.

  1. Beyond Vocabulary: Exploring Cross-Disciplinary Academic-Language Proficiency and Its Association with Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uccelli, Paola; Galloway, Emily Phillips; Barr, Christopher D.; Meneses, Alejandra; Dobbs, Christina L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a long-standing awareness of academic language as a pedagogically relevant research area, the construct of academic-language proficiency, understood as a more comprehensive set of skills than just academic vocabulary, has remained vaguely specified. In this study, we explore a more inclusive operationalization of an academic-language…

  2. From Research to Practice: The Effect of Multi-Component Vocabulary Instruction on Increasing Vocabulary and Comprehension Performance in Social Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Graham

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to demonstrate the effect of implementing multi-component vocabulary strategy instruction in fourth grade social studies. Curriculum was designed for a six-week period and was intended to actively engage students and reinforce retention of word meanings in isolation and in context. Teachers were randomly chosen for assignment to the intervention and/or to the comparison group. The study included 375 fourth-grade students from 3 different districts and 5 schools. The student population consisted of 29 classes taught by 23 different teachers. Two different vocabulary and comprehension measures were administered, and results were analyzed using difference score analyses and repeated measures ANOVAs. Outcomes were consistent across both administered measures. Although student scores improved in both the group receiving the intervention and the group receiving regular classroom instruction, findings indicated that the group receiving the intervention showed greater gains and persisted longer than in the comparison classrooms.

  3. Science and Literacy: Incorporating Vocabulary, Reading Comprehension, Research Methods, and Writing into the Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieser, K.; Carlson, C.; Bering, E. A.; Slagle, E.

    2012-12-01

    Part of preparing the next generation of STEM researchers requires arming these students with the requisite literacy and research skills they will need. In a unique collaboration, the departments of Physics (ECE) and Psychology at the University of Houston have teamed up with NASA in a grant to develop a supplemental curriculum for elementary (G3-5) and middle school (G6-8) science teachers called Mars Rover. During this six week project, students work in teams to research the solar system, the planet Mars, design a research mission to Mars, and create a model Mars Rover to carry out this mission. Targeted Language Arts skills are embedded in each lesson so that students acquire the requisite academic vocabulary and research skills to enable them to successfully design their Mars Rover. Students learn academic and scientific vocabulary using scientifically based reading research. They receive direct instruction in research techniques, note-taking, summarizing, writing and other important language skills. The interdisciplinary collaboration empowers students as readers, writers and scientists. After the curriculum is completed, a culminating Mars Rover event is held at a local university, bringing students teams in contact with real-life scientists who critique their work, ask questions, and generate excite about STEM careers. Students have the opportunity to showcase their Mars Rover and to orally demonstrate their knowledge of Mars. Students discover the excitement of scientific research, STEM careers, important research and writing tools in a practical, real-life setting.

  4. The Effects of Vocabulary Instructions on Students' Reading Comprehension across Cognitive Styles in ESP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumawati, Eny; Widiati, Utami

    2017-01-01

    Many scholars in language learning and teaching agree that vocabulary plays a vital role in a language learning. However, the way the vocabulary is presented to language learners, whether explicitly or implicitly, becomes central discussion in language literature. This study investigated the effect of explicit and implicit vocabulary instructions…

  5. Comparative Studies on the Roles of Linguistic Knowledge and Sentence Processing Speed in L2 Listening and Reading Comprehension in an EFL Tertiary Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Eunjou

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the relative contributions of vocabulary knowledge, grammar knowledge, and processing speed to second language listening and reading comprehension. Seventy-five Korean university students participated in the study. Results showed the three tested components had a significant portion of shared variance in explaining…

  6. L2 Vocabulary Knowledge in and out of Context: Is It the Same for Reading and Listening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zeeland, Hilde

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of second language (L2) vocabulary research focuses on learners' knowledge of isolated word forms. However, it is unclear to what extent this knowledge can be used as an indicator of knowledge in context (i.e. reading and listening). This study aims to shed light on this issue by comparing ESL learners' knowledge of the meaning…

  7. Analysis of the effect of specific vocabulary instruction on high school chemistry students' knowledge and understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrosse, Peggy

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of specific vocabulary instruction on high school chemistry students' knowledge and understanding. Students might be able to formally recite a definition for a term without actually having understood the meaning of the term and its connection to other terms or to related concepts. Researchers (Cassels & Johnstone, 1983; Gabel, 1999; Johnstone, 1991) have been studying the difficulty students have in learning science, particularly chemistry. Gabel (1999) suggests that, "while research into misconceptions (also known as alternative conceptions) and problem-solving has dominated the field for the past 25 years, we are no closer to a solution that would improve the teaching and learning of chemistry" (P. 549). Gabel (1999) relates the difficulty in learning chemistry to use of language. She refers to student difficulty both with words that have more than one meaning in English and with words that are used to mean one idea in chemistry and another idea in every day language. The Frayer Model, a research-based teaching strategy, is a graphic organizer which students use to create meaningful definitions for terms in context (Frayer, Frederick, & Klausmeier, 1969). It was used as the treatment---the specific vocabulary instruction---in this research study. The researcher collected and analyzed data to answer three research questions that focused on the effect of using the Frayer model (a graphic organizer) on high school students' knowledge and understanding of academic language used in chemistry. The research took place in a New England high school. Four intact chemistry classes provided the student participants; two classes were assigned to the treatment group (TG) and two classes were assigned to the control group (CG). The TG received vocabulary instruction on 14 chosen terms using the Frayer Model. The CG received traditional vocabulary instruction with no special attention to the 14 terms selected for this study

  8. Bridging the Vocabulary Gap: What the Research Tells Us about Vocabulary Instruction in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine

    2010-01-01

    It is important for children to develop knowledge of words' meanings from a young age because vocabulary development has an impact on their reading comprehension and academic success as they get older. Some children come to school knowing far fewer words than others. Hart and Risley studied young children's vocabulary development and found that…

  9. Study orientation and knowledge of basic vocabulary in Mathematics in the primary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthie van der Walt

    2009-09-01

    mathematics on secondary and tertiary levels. The aim of this research was to investigate the extent to which the performance in study orientation (Study Orientation questionnaire in Mathematics (Primary and knowledge of basic vocabulary/terminology in mathematics (Mathematics Vocabulary (Primary (vocabulary as one aspect of language in Mathematics of Grade 4 to 7 learners predict performance in mathematics (Basic Mathematics (Primary. Three standardised questionnaires were administered, namely the Study Orientation questionnaire in Mathematics (Primary, or SOM(P, Mathematics Vocabulary (Primary or (MV(P, and Basic Mathematics (Primary or BM(P. The participants consisted of learners in Grade 4 to 7 (n = 1 103 in North-West Province with respectively Afrikaans, English and Tswana as their home language. Results from the data, by calculating intercorrelations and stepwise regression, confirmed that learners’ performance in mathematics (BM(P can be predicted through their performance in the knowledge of basic vocabulary in mathematics (MV(P, their “maths” anxiety, study attitude towards and study habits in mathematics (SOM(P. The results can be implemented to improve learners’ performance in mathematics when teachers identify inadequate knowledge of basic vocabulary in mathematics as well as study orientation (for example, “maths” anxiety, study attitude towards and study habits in mathematics in the early years of schooling. Learners’ scores can be checked to identify those requiring aid, support, remediation and/or counselling. An analysis of individual answers (particularly those where learner’s replies differ significantly in respect of the answers usually given by good achievers in mathematics could be extremely useful. Enculturing learners to the vocabulary of mathematical language is an aspect of instruction that needs specific attention. The three questionnaires, which are administered in this research, provide mathematics teachers with standardised

  10. Students' Metacomprehension Knowledge: Components That Predict Comprehension Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabrucky, Karen M.; Moore, DeWayne; Agler, Lin-Miao Lin; Cummings, Andrea M.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we assessed students' metacomprehension knowledge and examined the components of knowledge most related to comprehension of expository texts. We used the Revised Metacomprehension Scale (RMCS) to investigate the relations between students' metacomprehension knowledge and comprehension performance. Students who evaluated and…

  11. The Role of Vocabulary Depth in Predicting Reading Comprehension among English Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Children in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, C. Patrick; Silverman, Rebecca D.; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Montecillo, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of vocabulary depth in reading comprehension among a diverse sample of monolingual and bilingual children in grades 2-4. Vocabulary depth was defined as including morphological awareness, awareness of semantic relations, and syntactic awareness. Two hundred ninety-four children from 3 schools in a…

  12. The Effectiveness of the Comprehension Hypothesis: A Review on the Current Research on Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponniah, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The Comprehension Hypothesis (CH) is the most powerful hypothesis in the field of Second Language Acquisition despite the presence of the rivals the skill-building hypothesis, the output hypothesis, and the interaction hypothesis. The competing hypotheses state that consciously learned linguistic knowledge is a necessary step for the development…

  13. The effects of using authentic texts in German language teaching on writing skills and vocabulary knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stipančević Ana I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the use of modern textbooks and teaching materials in German language teaching, school and university students continue to have difficulty in applying their knowledge of the language and in understanding authentic language. Even after studying German at school for as long as eight years, students are frequently unable to apply their knowledge of the language in written and oral communication. One of the major problems and shortcomings of German language teaching is that learners of German, unlike learners of English, are not exposed to authentic language input, which is important for stimulating subconscious, and therefore more rapid and efficient, language acquisition. The aim of our research was to assess the effects of using authentic texts in German language teaching on students' writing skills and vocabulary knowledge. An experimental study was conducted at the Novi Sad Faculty of Philosophy in the period October 2014 - June 2015 among students of an elective A2 level German language course. The findings indicate that the use of authentic texts in teaching has positive effects both on writing skills and on vocabulary knowledge. The results obtained from the experimental student group suggest a need for greater use of authentic texts in German language teaching, with the aim of developing language competences as well as tolerance and openness towards the foreign and the different, which is not always possible when using textbook texts.

  14. A Russian Keyword Spotting System Based on Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition and Linguistic Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Smirnov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the key concepts of a word spotting system for Russian based on large vocabulary continuous speech recognition. Key algorithms and system settings are described, including the pronunciation variation algorithm, and the experimental results on the real-life telecom data are provided. The description of system architecture and the user interface is provided. The system is based on CMU Sphinx open-source speech recognition platform and on the linguistic models and algorithms developed by Speech Drive LLC. The effective combination of baseline statistic methods, real-world training data, and the intensive use of linguistic knowledge led to a quality result applicable to industrial use.

  15. Examining Child and Word Characteristics in Vocabulary Learning of Struggling Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleman, Amy M.; Steacy, Laura M.; Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Compton, Donald L.

    2017-01-01

    Although instruction has been shown to be effective at increasing vocabulary knowledge and comprehension, factors most important for promoting the acquisition of novel vocabulary are less known. In addition, few vocabulary studies have utilized models that simultaneously take into account child-level, word-level, and instructional factors to…

  16. Influence of Three Teaching Strategies on Korean EFL Students' Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Cheongsook

    2009-01-01

    This research examined the effectiveness of three different learning strategies on Korean EFL students' vocabulary comprehension and retention: context, semantic mapping, and word lists. 116 college freshmen were placed into one of the three treatments of vocabulary instruction. Subjects were tested on varying levels of vocabulary knowledge using…

  17. The Role of Vocabulary Size in Predicting Performance on TOEFL Reading Item Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Seyyed Mohammad; Akbarian, Is'haaq

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to examine a) whether vocabulary knowledge, captured in the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT), is related to the performance on the five types of reading comprehension items tested in TOEFL, i.e., Guessing Vocabulary, Main Idea, Inference, Reference, and Stated Detail; and b) whether EFL learners with different levels of vocabulary…

  18. The Role of Vocabulary Size in Predicting Performance on TOEFL Reading Item Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Seyyed Mohammad; Akbarian, Is'haaq

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to examine a) whether vocabulary knowledge, captured in the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT), is related to the performance on the five types of reading comprehension items tested in TOEFL, i.e., Guessing Vocabulary, Main Idea, Inference, Reference, and Stated Detail; and b) whether EFL learners with different levels of vocabulary…

  19. eVoc Strategies: 10 Ways to Use Technology to Build Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Bridget; Grisham, Dana L.

    2011-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is key to comprehension and expression. For students in the intermediate grades, the need for breadth and depth of vocabulary accelerates as they encounter more challenging academic texts in print and on the Internet. Drawing on research-based principles of vocabulary instruction and multimedia learning, this article presents…

  20. Measuring Vocabulary: An overview of four types of vocabulary tests

    OpenAIRE

    Helga Hilmarsdóttir 1985

    2010-01-01

    In this essay four types of vocabulary tests are examined and the focus is on the variety in vocabulary tests. The main incentive with writing this essay was to make an overview of vocabulary measurement tools and to examine whether there existed a standardized vocabulary test. In the first chapter an attempt is made to answer the question of what vocabulary knowledge is. Receptive and productive knowledge of vocabulary is discussed as well as the distinction of vocabulary into breadth and...

  1. Word Association Knowledge and Vocabulary Retention%词汇联想义知识与词汇记忆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛婷

    2005-01-01

    词汇量的大小一直是英语学习者所关心的,也是衡量英语学习者英语水平高低的重要指标之一,所以英语学习者也尝试各种方法来扩大词汇量.本文讨论的是词汇的一个方面,即词汇联想义知识在词汇记忆、扩大词汇量方面的作用.通过实验证明词汇联想义知识与词汇量的相关性较高,因此,词汇教学过程中应该引导学生同时开发词汇的深度及广度.%Vocabulary size has always been a big concern for the English learners.It is also one of the most important parameters to measure one's English level.English learners make every effort to build up their vocabulary.In this paper,one aspect of vocabulary,that is word association knowledge has been proved to facilitate vocabulary retention,to enlarge one's vocabulary size.Therefore,both the width and depth of vocabulary should be integrated into vocabulary teaching.

  2. Comprehension of figurative language in Taiwanese children with autism: The role of theory of mind and receptive vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Su-Fen; Oi, Manabu; Taguchi, Aiko

    2015-01-01

    First-order theory of mind (ToM) is necessary for comprehension of metaphors, and second-order ToM is necessary for comprehension of irony. This study investigated the role of ToM and language ability in comprehending figurative language in 50 Taiwanese children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs) compared with 50 typically developing children. Results showed that the No-ToM HFASDs group performed worse than the first-order ToM HFASDs group and the second-order ToM HFASDs group in comprehension of metaphors, irony, sarcasm and indirect reproach, but not for indirect request. Receptive vocabulary correlated only with metaphor comprehension. The volatility of results seen among studies in terms of the relationship between ToM and figurative language comprehension is discussed.

  3. En peril. Un jeu de vocabulaire et de connaissance generale = Jeopardy. A Game of Vocabulary and General Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Robert M.

    "En peril," a variation of the television game show "Jeopardy," is a team or individual quiz game designed for use in the French language classroom. The game calls for a knowledge of thematic or topical vocabulary, drills a wide range of interrogative constructions, tests general knowledge and cultural information about the target country or…

  4. Metacognitive and language-specific knowledge in native and foreign language reading comprehension: an emprical study among Dutch students in grades 6, 8 and 10

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, R.; Hulstijn, J.; Bossers, B.

    1998-01-01

    This article gives the results of a study among 685 students in grades 6, 8 and 10 in the Netherlands to whom we administered grade-appropriate measures of reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge in their native language (NL), Dutch, as well as, in grades 8 and 10, in English as a foreign lan

  5. Metacognitive and language-specific knowledge in native and foreign language reading comprehension: an emprical study among Dutch students in grades 6, 8 and 10

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, R.; Hulstijn, J.; Bossers, B.

    1998-01-01

    This article gives the results of a study among 685 students in grades 6, 8 and 10 in the Netherlands to whom we administered grade-appropriate measures of reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge in their native language (NL), Dutch, as well as, in grades 8 and 10, in English as a foreign lan

  6. 商务英语词汇知识与词汇习得策略的相关性研究%A Correlation Study of Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Business English Vocabulary Knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧; 谢道兵

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size as well as in-depth vocabulary knowledge of 100 college students. Through exams on vocabulary size and in-depth vocabulary knowledge, this paper aims to find out the correlation between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size,and the correlation between vocabulary learning strategies and in-depth vocabulary knowledge.%本研究调查了100名大学生的词汇习得策略,并通过词汇量及词汇深度知识测试卷等工具,运用定量和定性分析的方法探讨了词汇习得策略与词汇广度和深度知识之间的相关性。结果证实:一学生重视重复,轻语境;学习观念和策略使用有差异;交际活动少。二词汇知识的各个层面及其运用能力之间存在不平衡性;接受性词汇知识习得大于产出性词汇知识习得。三某些词汇学习策略与词汇的深度和广度知识存在着一定的相关性。

  7. Activating Junior Secondary School Students’ Prior Knowledge for the Development of Vocabulary, Concepts and Mathematics through Instructional Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olu Oyinloye

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the activation of students’ prior knowledge for the development of vocabulary, concepts and mathematics. It has been observed that many secondary school students are not performing well in the examination conducted by the West African Examinations Council and National Examinations Council of Nigeria. The situation became worrisome because of the dwindling performance of students in English Language and Mathematics which are compulsory subjects for securing admission into tertiary institutions in Nigeria. Four research questions were formulated and translated to test whether a significant difference exist between students’ achievement in comprehension in English Language and Mathematics before and after the treatment. The study is a quasi experimental which involves two hundred and sixty students selected through random sampling technique. The experimental sessions lasted six weeks. The experimental groups were engaged in collaborative work in smaller groups where they discussed issues related to the new topics using their prior knowledge. Experimental and control groups were given pre-test before the commencement of the study and achievement test after the experiment. The data collected was subjected to t-test statistics and the findings of the study show that the students in the experimental group performed better than those in the control group.

  8. Technology-enhanced storytelling stimulating parent-child interaction and preschool children's vocabulary knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepe, R.C.; Molenaar, I.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2017-01-01

    Preschool children's vocabulary mainly develops verbal through interaction. Therefore, the technology-enhanced storytelling (TES) activity Jeffy's Journey is developed to support parent-child interaction and vocabulary in preschool children. TES entails shared verbal storytelling supported by a

  9. Stereotypes override grammar: Social knowledge in sentence comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinaro, Nicola; Su, Jui-Ju; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have provided evidence for the automaticity and immediacy with which stereotypical knowledge affects our behavior. However, less is known about how such social knowledge interacts with linguistic cues during comprehension. In this ERP sentence processing study we took advantage of the rich grammatical gender morphology of Spanish to explore the processing of role nouns in which stereotype and grammatical cues were simultaneously manipulated, in a factorial design. We show that stereotypical knowledge overrides syntactic cues, highlighting the immediacy with which stereotype knowledge is activated during language comprehension and supporting proposals claiming that social knowledge impacts on language processing differently from other forms of semantics.

  10. Effects of Hierarchy Vocabulary Exercises on English Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Ying; Hsu, Wei Shu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of hierarchy vocabulary exercises and copying vocabulary exercises on EFL students' vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension. Two specific factors were probed: (a) vocabulary gains and retention from different exercises; (b) reading comprehension performance through different…

  11. Do Knowledge Arrangements Affect Student Reading Comprehension of Genetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jen-Yi; Tung, Yu-Neng; Hwang, Bi-Chi; Lin, Chen-Yung; Che-Di, Lee; Chang, Yung-Ta

    2014-01-01

    Various sequences for teaching genetics have been proposed. Three seventh-grade biology textbooks in Taiwan share similar key knowledge assemblages but have different knowledge arrangements. To investigate the influence of knowledge arrangements on student understanding of genetics, we compared students' reading comprehension of the three texts…

  12. Do Knowledge Arrangements Affect Student Reading Comprehension of Genetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jen-Yi; Tung, Yu-Neng; Hwang, Bi-Chi; Lin, Chen-Yung; Che-Di, Lee; Chang, Yung-Ta

    2014-01-01

    Various sequences for teaching genetics have been proposed. Three seventh-grade biology textbooks in Taiwan share similar key knowledge assemblages but have different knowledge arrangements. To investigate the influence of knowledge arrangements on student understanding of genetics, we compared students' reading comprehension of the three…

  13. Do Knowledge Arrangements Affect Student Reading Comprehension of Genetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jen-Yi; Tung, Yu-Neng; Hwang, Bi-Chi; Lin, Chen-Yung; Che-Di, Lee; Chang, Yung-Ta

    2014-01-01

    Various sequences for teaching genetics have been proposed. Three seventh-grade biology textbooks in Taiwan share similar key knowledge assemblages but have different knowledge arrangements. To investigate the influence of knowledge arrangements on student understanding of genetics, we compared students' reading comprehension of the three texts…

  14. Students' Proficiency and Textual Computer Gloss Use in Facilitating Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Mohamad A.; Sim, Tam S.; Su'ad A.

    2014-01-01

    Learning vocabulary forms a major part for any language learner. Apart from direct teaching of vocabulary, language teachers are always searching for ways to increase their students' vocabulary to enable them to use the language more effectively. Therefore, this study sets out to investigate whether the use of computer textual glosses can aid…

  15. Activating Background Knowledge in Reading Comprehension Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Deborah Wells; Rayford, Lawrence

    1987-01-01

    Indicates that a broad age range of students can use some purpose questions as cues to activate background knowledge. Suggest topic familiarity, amount of information presented, and the presence of genre clues as text features affecting schema activation. (NKA)

  16. Home Language Will Not Take Care of Itself: Vocabulary Knowledge in Trilingual Children in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieszkowska, Karolina; Łuniewska, Magdalena; Kołak, Joanna; Kacprzak, Agnieszka; Wodniecka, Zofia; Haman, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Language input is crucial for language acquisition and especially for children's vocabulary size. Bilingual children receive reduced input in each of their languages, compared to monolinguals, and are reported to have smaller vocabularies, at least in one of their languages. Vocabulary acquisition in trilingual children has been largely understudied; only a few case studies have been published so far. Moreover, trilingual language acquisition in children has been rarely contrasted with language outcomes of bilingual and monolingual peers. We present a comparison of trilingual, bilingual, and monolingual children (total of 56 participants, aged 4;5-6;7, matched one-to-one for age, gender, and non-verbal IQ) in regard to their receptive and expressive vocabulary (measured by standardized tests), and relative frequency of input in each language (measured by parental report). The monolingual children were speakers of Polish or English, while the bilinguals and trilinguals were migrant children living in the United Kingdom, speaking English as a majority language and Polish as a home language. The trilinguals had another (third) language at home. For the majority language, English, no differences were found across the three groups, either in the receptive or productive vocabulary. The groups differed, however, in their performance in Polish, the home language. The trilinguals had lower receptive vocabulary than the monolinguals, and lower productive vocabulary compared to the monolinguals. The trilinguals showed similar lexical knowledge to the bilinguals. The bilinguals demonstrated lower scores than the monolinguals, but only in productive vocabulary. The data on reported language input show that input in English in bilingual and trilingual groups is similar, but the bilinguals outscore the trilinguals in relative frequency of Polish input. Overall, the results suggest that in the majority language, multilingual children may develop lexical skills similar to those of

  17. Home Language Will Not Take Care of Itself: Vocabulary Knowledge in Trilingual Children in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Mieszkowska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Language input is crucial for language acquisition and especially for children’s vocabulary size. Bilingual children receive reduced input in each of their languages, compared to monolinguals, and are reported to have smaller vocabularies, at least in one of their languages. Vocabulary acquisition in trilingual children has been largely understudied; only a few case studies have been published so far. Moreover, trilingual language acquisition in children has been rarely contrasted with language outcomes of bilingual and monolingual peers. We present a comparison of trilingual, bilingual, and monolingual children (total of 56 participants, aged 4;5–6;7, matched one-to-one for age, gender, and non-verbal IQ in regard to their receptive and expressive vocabulary (measured by standardized tests, and relative frequency of input in each language (measured by parental report. The monolingual children were speakers of Polish or English, while the bilinguals and trilinguals were migrant children living in the United Kingdom, speaking English as a majority language and Polish as a home language. The trilinguals had another (third language at home. For the majority language, English, no differences were found across the three groups, either in the receptive or productive vocabulary. The groups differed, however, in their performance in Polish, the home language. The trilinguals had lower receptive vocabulary than the monolinguals, and lower productive vocabulary compared to the monolinguals. The trilinguals showed similar lexical knowledge to the bilinguals. The bilinguals demonstrated lower scores than the monolinguals, but only in productive vocabulary. The data on reported language input show that input in English in bilingual and trilingual groups is similar, but the bilinguals outscore the trilinguals in relative frequency of Polish input. Overall, the results suggest that in the majority language, multilingual children may develop lexical skills

  18. The Effects of a Web-Based Vocabulary Development Tool on Student Reading Comprehension of Science Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Thompson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The complexities of reading comprehension have received increasing recognition in recent years. In this realm, the power of vocabulary in predicting cognitive challenges in phonological, orthographic, and semantic processes is well documented. In this study, we present a web-based vocabulary development tool that has a series of interactive displays, including a list of the 50 most frequent words in a particular text, Google image and video results for any combination of those words, definitions, and synonyms for particular words from the text, and a list of sentences from the text in which particular words appear. Additionally, we report the results of an experiment that was performed working collaboratively with middle school science teachers from a large urban district in the United States. While this experiment did not show a significant positive effect of this tool on reading comprehension in science, we did find that girls seem to score worse on a reading comprehension assessment after using our web-based tool. This result could reflect prior research that suggests that some girls tend to have a negative attitude towards technology due to gender stereotypes that give girls the impression that they are not as good as boys in working with computers.

  19. The Comparative Effects of Comprehensible Input, Output and Corrective Feedback on the Receptive Acquisition of L2 Vocabulary Items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nowbakht

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the comparative effects of comprehensible input, output and corrective feedback on the receptive acquisition of L2 vocabulary items were investigated. Two groups of beginning EFL learners participated in the study. The control group received comprehensible input only, while the experimental group received input and was required to produce written output. They also received corrective feedback on their lexical errors if any. This could result in the production of modified output. The results of the study indicated that (a the group which produced output and received feedback (if necessary outperformed the group which only received input in the post-test, (b within the experimental group, feedback played a greater role in learners’ better performance than output, (c also a positive correlation between the amount of feedback an individual learner received, and his overall performance in the post-test; and also between the amount of feedback given for a specific word and the correct responses given to its related item in the post-test was found.  The findings of this study provide evidence for the role of output production along with receiving corrective feedback in enhancing L2 processing by drawing further L2 learners’ attention to their output which in turn may result in improving their receptive acquisition of L2 words. Furthermore, as the results suggested, feedback made a more contribution to L2 development than output. Keywords: comprehensible input, output, interaction, corrective feedback, modified output, receptive vocabulary acquisition

  20. An Assessment of the Vocabulary Knowledge of Students in the Final Year of Secondary Education. Is Their Vocabulary Extensive Enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Olmos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Several research studies have proven a direct relationship between the amount of words known by a foreign language student and his/her language proficiency. Therefore, knowing the amount of words that our students are acquainted with would help teachers to predict their general ability in the foreign language. The aim of this study is to determine the vocabulary size of a group final year students in a High School in Murcia. The instrument used to measure students’ vocabulary size was Nation’s Vocabulary Levels Test. This test has been validated on successive occasions. A total number of 49 students sat the exam in the case of the first test containing the 1000 and 2000 levels; and 38 sat the second test. The results obtained were poorer than expected.Numerosas investigaciones han probado la existencia de una relación directa entre la cantidad de palabras que conoce el estudiante de idiomas y su fluidez en los mismos. Es por esto que conocer la cantidad de palabras que nuestros estudiantes conocen en la lengua que están estudiando nos ayudaría a poder predecir sus habilidades generales en el idioma. El objetivo de este estudio es determinar la cantidad de vocabulario que conocen un grupo de estudiantes de último año de bachillerato en un instituto de Murcia. El instrumento usado para medir el vocabulario que los estudiantes conocen es el examen de niveles desarrollado por Nation. Este test ha sido validado en varias ocasiones. Un total de 49 estudiantes hicieron el examen de los niveles 1000 y 2000 y 38 hicieron el segundo examen. Los resultados obtenidos están por debajo de lo que se esperaba.

  1. Semantic Competitor Priming within and across Languages: The Interplay of Vocabulary Knowledge, Learning Experience and Working Memory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Li; MacWhinney, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports three studies of bilingual lexical processing, using the semantic competitor priming (SCP) method of Lee and Williams (2001). Study 1 found a trend of within-language SCP effect for Chinese-English bilinguals with both higher and lower levels of vocabulary knowledge. There was also a cross-language SCP effect, but this was…

  2. The Influence of Background Knowledge on Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Zhi-xin

    2013-01-01

    English has never been of more importance in our society than today. However,reading is often considered the most diffi⁃cult in terms of literacy, accuracy and efficiency. Generally speaking, improving reading skills requires more time of training than improving listening and speaking. Reading comprehension, a complicated psycholinguistic process, is an interactive process be⁃tween the reader’s background knowledge and the text. This essay considers that background knowledge is the key factor affecting reading comprehension.

  3. Word Knowledge in a Theory of Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Charles; Stafura, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    We reintroduce a wide-angle view of reading comprehension, the Reading Systems Framework, which places word knowledge in the center of the picture, taking into account the progress made in comprehension research and theory. Within this framework, word-to-text integration processes can serve as a model for the study of local comprehension…

  4. Online Independent Vocabulary Learning Experience of Hong Kong University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Tang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In response to the limited vocabulary size of its undergraduates, an independent vocabulary learning platform, VLearn was designed and launched in a university in Hong Kong. As an elearning environment that supports self-directed vocabulary learning of Chinese learners, the primary aim of VLearn is to equip users with appropriate knowledge and skills for vocabulary expansion. This paper introduces the contents of VLearn, and the theoretical underpinnings of its design. It also reports on the vocabulary learning experience of its users during an eight week evaluation study. Suggestions are made on how independent vocabulary building at higher education, as well as comprehensive vocabulary instruction at early years could be supported by means of technology.

  5. The dynamics of L2 vocabulary development: A case study of receptive and productive knowledge A dinâmica do desenvolvimento do vocabulário L2: Um estudo de caso do conhecimento receptivo e produtivo

    OpenAIRE

    Tal Caspi; Wander Lowie

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have shown that the transfer of receptive L2 vocabulary into production is far from linear, whether production is elicited by a task or spontaneous. The nature and causes of this gap between receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge have been widely debated. This article attempts a novel approach to this topic by investigating vocabulary knowledge development in a detailed case study. Four knowledge levels of ESL vocabulary are traced across time during a 36-week period of in...

  6. Do Nimble Hands Make for Nimble Lexicons? Fine Motor Skills Predict Knowledge of Embodied Vocabulary Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggate, Sebastian P.; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2014-01-01

    Theories and research in embodied cognition postulate that cognition grounded in action enjoys a processing advantage. Extending this theory to the study of how fine motor skills (FMS) link to vocabulary development in preschool children, the authors investigated FMS and vocabulary in 76 preschoolers. Building on previous research, they…

  7. An Investigation of the Mathematics-Vocabulary Knowledge of First-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Sarah R.; Nelson, Gena

    2017-01-01

    Competency with mathematics requires use of numerals and symbols as well as an understanding and use of mathematics vocabulary (e.g., "add," "more," "triangle"). Currently, no measures exist in which the primary function is to gauge mathematics-vocabulary understanding. We created a 64-item mathematics-vocabulary…

  8. Do Nimble Hands Make for Nimble Lexicons? Fine Motor Skills Predict Knowledge of Embodied Vocabulary Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggate, Sebastian P.; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2014-01-01

    Theories and research in embodied cognition postulate that cognition grounded in action enjoys a processing advantage. Extending this theory to the study of how fine motor skills (FMS) link to vocabulary development in preschool children, the authors investigated FMS and vocabulary in 76 preschoolers. Building on previous research, they…

  9. Generating Vocabulary Knowledge for At-Risk Middle School Readers: Contrasting Program Effects and Growth Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Joshua F.; Rolland, Rebecca Givens; Branum-Martin, Lee; Snow, Catherine E.

    2014-01-01

    We tested whether urban middle-school students from mostly low-income homes had improved academic vocabulary when they participated in a freely available vocabulary program, Word Generation (WG). To understand how this program may support students at risk for long-term reading difficulty, we examined treatment interactions with baseline…

  10. Technology-Enhanced Storytelling Stimulating Parent-Child Interaction and Preschool Children's Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teepe, R. C.; Molenaar, I.; Verhoeven, L.

    2017-01-01

    Preschool children's vocabulary mainly develops verbal through interaction. Therefore, the technology-enhanced storytelling (TES) activity Jeffy's Journey is developed to support parent-child interaction and vocabulary in preschool children. TES entails shared verbal storytelling supported by a story structure and real-time visual, auditory and…

  11. Near or far: The effect of spatial distance and vocabulary knowledge on word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Emma L; Perry, Lynn K; Scott, Emilly J; Horst, Jessica S

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the role of spatial distance in word learning. Two-year-old children saw three novel objects named while the objects were either in close proximity to each other or spatially separated. Children were then tested on their retention for the name-object associations. Keeping the objects spatially separated from each other during naming was associated with increased retention for children with larger vocabularies. Children with a lower vocabulary size demonstrated better retention if they saw objects in close proximity to each other during naming. This demonstrates that keeping a clear view of objects during naming improves word learning for children who have already learned many words, but keeping objects within close proximal range is better for children at earlier stages of vocabulary acquisition. The effect of distance is therefore not equal across varying vocabulary sizes. The influences of visual crowding, cognitive load, and vocabulary size on word learning are discussed.

  12. A dynamic developmental link between verbal comprehension-knowledge (Gc) and reading comprehension: verbal comprehension-knowledge drives positive change in reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Matthew R; Turek, Joshua J

    2012-12-01

    Intelligence and general academic achievement have a well-established relation, but the interrelated development of the two constructs over time is less well-known. In this study, the dynamic developmental relation between verbal comprehension-knowledge (Gc) and reading comprehension was examined by applying bivariate dual change score models (McArdle, 2009) to longitudinal data collected from children aged 9 through 15 who were part of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (NICHD SECCYD). A unidirectional dynamic link was found in which higher levels of prior Gc led to increased positive change in reading comprehension scores. This unidirectional link was not altered by including intelligence measured at 24-months, SES, sex, basic reading, and reading volume as time-invariant covariates. Gc is a leading indicator of reading comprehension and should be considered when developing and monitoring long-term reading comprehension interventions for children. Copyright © 2012 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 3cixty: Building comprehensive knowledge bases for city exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Troncy, Raphaël; Rizzo, Giuseppe; Jameson, Anthony; Corcho, Oscar; Plu, Julien; Palumbo, Enrico; Ballesteros Hermida, Juan Carlos; Spirescu, Adrian; Kuhn, Kai-Dominik; Barbu, Catalin; Rossi, Matteo; Celino, Irene; Agarwal, Rachit; Scanu, Christian; Valla, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Planning a visit to Expo Milano 2015 or simply touring in Milan are activities that require a certain amount of a priori knowledge of the city. In this paper, we present the process of building such comprehensive knowledge bases that contain descriptions of events and activities, places and sights, transportation facilities as well as social activities, collected from numerous static, near-and real-time local and global data providers, including hyper local sources suc...

  14. Generalized event knowledge activation during online sentence comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metusalem, Ross; Kutas, Marta; Urbach, Thomas P.; Hare, Mary; McRae, Ken; Elman, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that knowledge of real-world eventsplays an important role inguiding online language comprehension. The present study addresses the scope of event knowledge activation during the course of comprehension, specifically investigating whether activation is limited to those knowledge elements that align with the local linguistic context.The present study addresses this issue by analyzing event-related brain potentials (ERPs) recorded as participants read brief scenariosdescribing typical real-world events. Experiment 1 demonstratesthat a contextually anomalous word elicits a reduced N400 if it is generally related to the described event, even when controlling for the degree of association of this word with individual words in the preceding context and with the expected continuation. Experiment 2 shows that this effect disappears when the discourse context is removed.These findings demonstrate that during the course of incremental comprehension, comprehenders activate general knowledge about the described event, even at points at which this knowledge would constitute an anomalous continuation of the linguistic stream. Generalized event knowledge activationcontributes to mental representations of described events, is immediately available to influence language processing, and likely drives linguistic expectancy generation. PMID:22711976

  15. The concurrent use of three implicit measures (eye movements, pupillometry, and event-related potentials) to assess receptive vocabulary knowledge in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Kerry; Coderre, Emily; Bosley, Laura; Buz, Esteban; Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Gordon, Barry

    2016-03-01

    Recent years have seen the advent and proliferation of the use of implicit techniques to study learning and cognition. One such application is the use of event-related potentials (ERPs) to assess receptive vocabulary knowledge. Other implicit assessment techniques that may be well-suited to other testing situations or to use with varied participant groups have not been used as widely to study receptive vocabulary knowledge. We sought to develop additional implicit techniques to study receptive vocabulary knowledge that could augment the knowledge gained from the use of the ERP technique. Specifically, we used a simple forced-choice paradigm to assess receptive vocabulary knowledge in normal adult participants using eye movement monitoring (EM) and pupillometry. In the same group of participants, we also used an N400 semantic incongruity ERP paradigm to assess their knowledge of two groups of words: those expected to be known to the participants (high-frequency, familiar words) and those expected to be unknown (low-frequency, unfamiliar words). All three measures showed reliable differences between the known and unknown words. EM and pupillometry thus may provide insight into receptive vocabulary knowledge similar to that from ERPs. The development of additional implicit assessment techniques may increase the feasibility of receptive vocabulary testing across a wider range of participant groups and testing situations, and may make the conduct of such testing more accessible to a wider range of researchers, clinicians, and educators.

  16. The Effects of Extensive Reading via E-Books on Tertiary Level EFL Students' Reading Attitude, Reading Comprehension, and Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Neng; Chen, Shu-Chu; Chen, Shu-Hui Eileen; Wey, Shyh-Chyi

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of extensive reading of e-books on tertiary level EFL students' English reading attitude, reading comprehension and vocabulary. Eighty-nine participants were assigned in two groups, with 46 students in the experimental group and the other 43 students in the control group. In addition to a traditional…

  17. Uneven Profiles: Language Minority Learners' Word Reading, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Lesaux, Nonie K.; Crosson, Amy C.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Pierce, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    English reading comprehension skill development was examined in a group of 87 native Spanish-speakers developing English literacy skills, followed from fourth through fifth grade. Specifically, the effects of Spanish (L1) and English (L2) oral language and word reading skills on reading comprehension were investigated. The participants showed average word reading skills and below average comprehension skills, influenced by low oral language skills. Structural equation modeling confirmed that ...

  18. Uneven Profiles: Language Minority Learners' Word Reading, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesaux, Nonie K.; Crosson, Amy C.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Pierce, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    English reading comprehension skill development was examined in a group of 87 native Spanish-speakers developing English literacy skills, followed from fourth through fifth grade. Specifically, the effects of Spanish (L1) and English (L2) oral language and word reading skills on reading comprehension were investigated. The participants showed…

  19. Uneven Profiles: Language Minority Learners' Word Reading, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesaux, Nonie K.; Crosson, Amy C.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Pierce, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    English reading comprehension skill development was examined in a group of 87 native Spanish-speakers developing English literacy skills, followed from fourth through fifth grade. Specifically, the effects of Spanish (L1) and English (L2) oral language and word reading skills on reading comprehension were investigated. The participants showed…

  20. Prior knowledge and reading comprehension ability of deaf adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D; Paul, P; Smith, J

    1997-01-01

    Fifty-one severely to profoundly deaf students (mean dB hearing loss = 89) were randomly assigned to two groups that differed by the type of probes (short or long) used to elicit prior knowledge (PK). PK scores were used to predict reading comprehension (RC), which was assessed by students' responses to three types of questions: test-explicit (TE), text-implicit (TI), and script-implicit (SI). Multiple regression models with PK scores and scores from a standardized achievement test (Stanford Achievement Test - Hearing Impaired Version, reading subtest) were also used to predict RC. The regression model showed that, for the group pretested with an in-depth, or long, probe of PK, the best predictor of RC was the ability to answer TE and SI questions. We present discussions of the observed differences in comprehension as a function of long and short knowledge probes and the use of three question types, together with implications for instruction.

  1. Examining the Role of Concentration, Vocabulary and Self-Concept in Listening and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgramm, Christine; Suter, Nicole; Göksel, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Listening is regarded as a key requirement for successful communication and is fundamentally linked to other language skills. Unlike reading, it requires both hearing and processing information in real-time. We therefore propose that the ability to concentrate is a strong predictor of listening comprehension. Using structural equation modeling,…

  2. Examining the Role of Concentration, Vocabulary and Self-Concept in Listening and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgramm, Christine; Suter, Nicole; Göksel, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Listening is regarded as a key requirement for successful communication and is fundamentally linked to other language skills. Unlike reading, it requires both hearing and processing information in real-time. We therefore propose that the ability to concentrate is a strong predictor of listening comprehension. Using structural equation modeling,…

  3. Developing Vocabulary and Conceptual Knowledge for Low-Income Preschoolers: A Design Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Susan B.; Dwyer, Julie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this design experiment was to research, test, and iteratively derive principles of word learning and word organization that could help to theoretically advance our understanding of vocabulary development for low-income preschoolers. Six Head Start teachers in morning and afternoon programs and their children (N = 89) were selected…

  4. The Impact of Vocabulary Knowledge on Reading, Writing and Proficiency Scores of EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakoç, Dilek; Köse, Gül Durmusoglu

    2017-01-01

    This study is an attempt to clarify the incremental and multidimensional nature of foreign language vocabulary development and its relation to the participants' reading and writing performances and general language ability of English as a foreign language (EFL). With this principle aim, the current study investigated the relationship between…

  5. Development and Transfer of Vocabulary Knowledge in Spanish-Speaking Language Minority Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, J. Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Kleuver, Cherie G.; Farver, Joann M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the predictive validity of conceptual scoring. Two independent samples of Spanish-speaking language minority preschoolers (Sample 1: N = 96, mean age = 54.51 months, 54.3% male; Sample 2: N = 116, mean age = 60·70 months, 56.0% male) completed measures of receptive, expressive, and definitional vocabulary in their first…

  6. What's in a Word? Morphological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge in Three Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Shu, Hua; Fletcher, Paul; Stokes, Stephanie F.; Wong, Anita; Leung, Kawai

    2008-01-01

    Understanding how words are created is potentially a key component to being able to learn and understand new vocabulary words. However, research on morphological awareness is relatively rare. In this study, over 660 preschool-aged children from three language groups (Cantonese, Mandarin, and Korean speakers) in which compounding morphology is…

  7. Vocabulary Learning Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Craven, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    The prominent role of vocabulary knowledge in second or foreign language learning has been recently recognized by theorists and researchers in the field. This article aims to provide a digest of recent research on vocabulary learning strategies specifically in the English as a foreign language context in Japan. In Japan where there is minimal exposure to English in daily life and where word knowledge is often tested, teachers should be informing learners about vocabulary learning strategies a...

  8. Building vocabulary knowledge and phonological awareness skills in children with specific language impairment through hybrid language intervention: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Natalie; Lee, Kerrie; Baker, Elise

    2008-01-01

    Preschool and early school-aged children with specific language impairment not only have spoken language difficulties, but also are at risk of future literacy problems. Effective interventions targeting both spoken language and emergent literacy skills for this population are limited. This paper reports a feasibility study of a hybrid language intervention approach that targets vocabulary knowledge and phonological awareness skills within the context of oral narrative, storybook reading, and drill-based games. This study also reports on two novel, experimental assessments that were developed to expand options for measuring changes in lexical skills in children. Seventeen children with specific language impairment participated in a pilot within-group evaluation of a hybrid intervention programme. The children's performance at pre- and post-intervention was compared on a range of clinical and experimental assessment measures targeting both spoken language and phonological awareness skills. Each child received intervention for six one-hour sessions scheduled on a weekly basis. Intervention sessions focused on training phonological awareness skills as well as lexical-semantic features of words within the context of oral and storybook narrative and drill-based games. The children significantly improved on clinical measures of phonological awareness, spoken vocabulary and oral narrative. Lexical-semantic and sublexical vocabulary knowledge also significantly improved on the experimental measures used in the study. The results of this feasibility study suggest that a larger scale experimental trial of an integrated spoken language and emergent literacy intervention approach for preschool and early school-aged children with specific language impairment is warranted.

  9. The Predictor Factor of Reading Comprehension Performance in English as a Foreign Language: Breadth or Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Kameli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored the association among vocabulary breadth/size, depth/quality of vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension in English as a foreign language. The main intention of this research was to  explore the association of vocabulary knowledge depth/quality and reading comprehension performance. This study was also intended to find out which aspects of vocabulary knowledge, breadth/size or depth/quality, has more significant association with determining EFL learners’ reading comprehension performance. The Vocabulary Level Test (VLT, Word Associates Test (WAT, and Reading Comprehension test (IELTS have been administered among all the respondents. The participants were 220 adult male and female EFL learners who were learning English in advanced level in BAHAR institute, Shiraz, Iran. The findings revealed that 1 test  scores on vocabulary size/ breadth, depth/ quality of vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension were  positively correlated, 2 vocabulary size/ breadth was a stronger predictor of reading comprehension than depth/ Quality of vocabulary knowledge.

  10. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development.

  11. KD4v: Comprehensible Knowledge Discovery System for Missense Variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Tien-Dao; Rusu, Alin; Walter, Vincent; Linard, Benjamin; Poidevin, Laetitia; Ripp, Raymond; Moulinier, Luc; Muller, Jean; Raffelsberger, Wolfgang; Wicker, Nicolas; Lecompte, Odile; Thompson, Julie D; Poch, Olivier; Nguyen, Hoan

    2012-07-01

    A major challenge in the post-genomic era is a better understanding of how human genetic alterations involved in disease affect the gene products. The KD4v (Comprehensible Knowledge Discovery System for Missense Variant) server allows to characterize and predict the phenotypic effects (deleterious/neutral) of missense variants. The server provides a set of rules learned by Induction Logic Programming (ILP) on a set of missense variants described by conservation, physico-chemical, functional and 3D structure predicates. These rules are interpretable by non-expert humans and are used to accurately predict the deleterious/neutral status of an unknown mutation. The web server is available at http://decrypthon.igbmc.fr/kd4v.

  12. TEACHING VOCABULARY THROUGH SENTENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    irfan tosuncuoglu

    2015-12-01

    Almost every teacher is certain about that vocabulary is an important facet of learning a second language. It may be more important than grammar, at least in so far as this concerns communication , and particularly in the early stages when learners seem to understand that amassing a basic vocabulary is very important to fluency in another language. As a rule, receptive vocabulary exceeds productive vocabulary and why listening with comprehension and speaking with comprehension are two very different things—the latter a more difficult cognitive process than the former. Furthermore, vocabulary acquisition is highly idiosyncratic and depends largely on the learner and her or his individual learning styles and cognitive abilities. No two people learn alike. In particular, as understanding and fluency increases,  individual interests and even needs will change, which then requires teacher-assisted guidance and remediation vis-à-vis the compilation of a specified and nuanced vocabulary that is tailored to the learner’s more practical linguistic needs, whatever these might be. In this case, new vocabulary items are more likely to be recalled and communicative. Essential to such an approach to teaching vocabulary acquisition, it is argued here, is exposure to authentic language, that is, reading, writing, listening, and speaking in class that both engages the visual, tactile, and aural-oral senses and imprints. In the case of texts, it is paramount that the comprehension level be such that the learner can guestimate with a nigh degree of accuracy the meaning and proper usage of new vocabulary items without a dictionary and thus from their context. And the more often these new vocabulary items appear, the more likely it is that their full meaning will be understood and committed to memory.  For that reason we wanted to make use of sentences in vocabulary teaching.

  13. How to Improve English Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓珊

    2013-01-01

      Comprehension is the base of reading and also the purpose of reading. Improving reading comprehension is one of the most important tasks in English study. Only mastering English basic knowledge, accumulating rich vocabulary and using proper reading strategies and techniques can reading comprehension be improved effectively.

  14. Strategies for teaching and learning vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Teng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article presents an overview of current research on second language vocabulary learning and proposes eight strategies for teaching and learning vocabulary. First, to facilitate effective vocabulary teaching, choosing high-frequency words is essential. Teachers of vocabulary also need to add explicit, intentional teaching to incidental learning. In addition, vocabulary learning strategies including morphological awareness and lexical inference provides a platform by which learners can improve both receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge. This article also suggests that productive vocabulary knowledge needs more attention than receptive vocabulary knowledge, and that available textbooks seldom address vocabulary sufficiently. In summary, it is very important for all learners and teachers to acknowledge that learning vocabulary is incremental in nature, and we should develop a principled, long-term program for teaching and learning vocabulary.

  15. Phonological awareness, reading skills, and vocabulary knowledge in children who use cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Caitlin M; de Jong, Kenneth; Pisoni, David B

    2012-01-01

    In hearing children, reading skills have been found to be closely related to phonological awareness. We used several standardized tests to investigate the reading and phonological awareness skills of 27 deaf school-age children who were experienced cochlear implant users. Approximately two-thirds of the children performed at or above the level of their hearing peers on the phonological awareness and reading tasks. Reading scores were found to be strongly correlated with measures of phonological awareness. These correlations remained the same when we statistically controlled for potentially confounding demographic variables such as age at testing and speech perception skills. However, these correlations decreased even after we statistically controlled for vocabulary size. This finding suggests that lexicon size is a mediating factor in the relationship between the children's phonological awareness and reading skills, a finding that has also been reported for typically developing hearing children.

  16. Is a Pink Cow Still a Cow? Individual Differences in Toddlers' Vocabulary Knowledge and Lexical Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Lynn K; Saffran, Jenny R

    2016-04-05

    When a toddler knows a word, what does she actually know? Many categories have multiple relevant properties; for example, shape and color are relevant to membership in the category banana. How do toddlers prioritize these properties when recognizing familiar words, and are there systematic differences among children? In this study, toddlers viewed pairs of objects associated with prototypical colors. On some trials, objects were typically colored (e.g., Holstein cow and pink pig); on other trials, colors were switched (e.g., pink cow and Holstein-patterned pig). On each trial, toddlers were directed to find a target object. Overall, recognition was disrupted when colors were switched, as measured by eye movements. Moreover, individual differences in vocabularies predicted recognition differences: Toddlers who say fewer shape-based words were more disrupted by color switches. "Knowing" a word may not mean the same thing for all toddlers; different toddlers prioritize different facets of familiar objects in their lexical representations.

  17. The Anatomy of the Role of Morphological Awareness in Chinese Character Learning: The Mediation of Vocabulary and Semantic Radical Knowledge and the Moderation of Morpheme Family Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Duo; Li, Hong; Wong, Kwok Shing Richard

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the mediating roles of syllable awareness, orthographic knowledge, and vocabulary skills and the moderating role of morpheme family size in the association between morphological awareness and Chinese character reading were investigated with 176 second-grade Hong Kong Chinese children. In the path analyses, the results…

  18. Child Characteristics by Science Instruction Interactions in Second and Third Grade and Their Relation to Students' Content-Area Knowledge, Vocabulary, and Reading Skill Gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Rice, Diana C.; Canto, Angela I.; Southerland, Sherry A.; Underwood, Phyllis; Kaya, Sibel; Fishman, Barry; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2012-01-01

    The associations among second- and third-grade students' content-area knowledge, vocabulary, and reading gains and the science instruction they received were examined in this exploratory longitudinal study. We also asked whether there were child characteristics x instruction interaction effects on students' content-area literacy. Second graders (n…

  19. Individual differences in text comprehension as a function of test anxiety and prior knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnaert, A E

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between reading comprehension and comprehension monitoring with undergraduates (223 women, 69 men). Further, the effect of test anxiety and of prior knowledge on reading comprehension and on comprehension monitoring was examined in groups of students of equal

  20. Individual differences in text comprehension as a function of test anxiety and prior knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnaert, A E

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between reading comprehension and comprehension monitoring with undergraduates (223 women, 69 men). Further, the effect of test anxiety and of prior knowledge on reading comprehension and on comprehension monitoring was examined in groups of students of equal

  1. 简论对外汉语初级综合课词汇教学%A Study on Vocabulary Teaching in Comprehensive Course of Elementary Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘田

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary teaching is one of the major parts in comprehensive Chinese courses to foreigners. This paper puts forward that vocabulary teaching should be the focus in Teaching Chinese as a Second Language, and analyses the relationship between vocabulary teaching and grammar teaching. The paper also develops some principles (e.g. multidimensional perspective, etc.) which are strongly recommended to be followed in language teaching.%近些年探讨对外汉语词汇教学的文章发表了不少,但从满足教学实践的需要上来看,这方面的研究还需要进一步拓展和深化。本文强调了词汇教学在初级阶段综合课整体教学中的地位和作用,充分讨论了词汇教学和语法教学的关系问题,总结了词汇教学过程中应该遵循的几个基本原则。

  2. Summarizing Vocabularies in the Global Semantic Web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Zhang; Gong Cheng; Wei-Yi Ge; Yu-Zhong Qu

    2009-01-01

    In the Semantic Web, vocabularies are defined and shared among knowledge workers to describe linked data for scientific, industrial or daily life usage. With the rapid growth of online vocabularies, there is an emergent need for approaches helping users understand vocabularies quickly. In this paper, we study the summarization of vocabularies to help users understand vocabularies. Vocabulary summarization is based on the structural analysis and pragmatics statistics in the global Semantic Web. Local Bipartite Model and Expanded Bipartite Model of a vocabulary are proposed to characterize the structure in a vocabulary and links between vocabularies. A structural importance for each RDF sentence in the vocabulary is assessed using link analysis. Meanwhile, pragmatics importance of each RDF sentence is assessed using the statistics of instantiation of its terms in the Semantic Web. Summaries are produced by extracting important RDF sentences in vocabularies under a re-ranking strategy. Preliminary experiments show that it is feasible to help users understand a vocabulary through its summary.

  3. Counting ability in Down syndrome: The comprehension of the one-to-one correspondence principle and the role of receptive vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu-Mendoza, Roberto A; Arias-Trejo, Natalia

    2017-10-01

    The authors investigated whether children with Down's syndrome (DS) who have not started to produce number words understand the one-to-one correspondence principle (Experiment 1), and they looked at the relationship between number word knowledge and receptive vocabulary (Experiment 2). Sixteen children with DS who did not recite the count list participated in Experiment 1, along with 2 comparison groups: 1 of 16 children with DS who recited up to 10, paired by chronological age, and another of 16 typically developing children paired by their ability to recite the list. The understanding of the principle was evaluated by a preferential looking task. Children saw 1 of 2 conditions. In the number condition, they heard number words and in the beep condition they heard computerized beeps. In both conditions, children saw videos depicting counting events that were principle-consistent or principle-inconsistent. Experiment 2 evaluated 25 children with DS using the Give-a-Number task and the Receptive Vocabulary subtest of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-III. In Experiment 1, children in the number condition preferred principle-consistent videos, independent of their ability to recite the count list. Experiment 2 showed a strong correlation between number word knowledge and receptive vocabulary scores, independent of chronological age. The results suggest that the difficulty of children with DS in acquiring counting ability might not reflect a lack of understanding of the one-to-one correspondence principle, but might instead be related to vocabulary development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. The impact of using student-dictated oral review stories on science vocabulary, content knowledge, and non-fiction writing skills of first grade students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishoff, Sandra Wells

    The purpose of this study was to determine if using an intervention called Student Dictated Oral Review Stories (SDORS) had an effect on science vocabulary usage and content knowledge for ninety-three students in six first grade classrooms and the subgroup of economically disadvantaged students in a mid-sized north Texas school district. The five science units involved in the study were written incorporating the strand of physical science. Data from pre- and posttests from each unit and an end-of-study assessment were compiled and analyzed. This study also looked at integration of science with literacy through analysis of students' science journal writings. Journal writings were analyzed for vocabulary usage and non-fiction writing skills of capitalization and punctuation. Average sentence length was also analyzed for Units 1--5 of the treatment group. It was anticipated that the outcomes of this study would allow school districts and curriculum writers to determine how to best integrate key concepts and important vocabulary with literacy particularly in the area of science. Results from the study showed significant differences in the end-of-study assessment, vocabulary usage as evidenced in journal writings, and average sentence length. Although there was gain over time for every student in the study in vocabulary and content knowledge, these gains could not be attributed to the intervention. This study also hoped to establish whether students were using science vocabulary routinely in their discussions and their writings and were building and continually assessing their own schemas about scientific concepts through using Student Dictated Oral Review Stories.

  5. Enhancement of Automatization through Vocabulary Learning Using CALL: Can Prompt Language Processing Lead to Better Comprehension in L2 Reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takeshi; Matsunuma, Mitsuyasu; Suzuki, Akio

    2013-01-01

    Our study aims to optimize a multimedia application for vocabulary learning for English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Our study is based on the concept that difficulty in reading a text in a second language is due to the need for more working memory for word decoding skills, although the working memory must also be used for text comprehension…

  6. Do infant vocabulary skills predict school-age language and literacy outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Fiona J; Reen, Gurpreet; Plunkett, Kim; Nation, Kate

    2015-08-01

    Strong associations between infant vocabulary and school-age language and literacy skills would have important practical and theoretical implications: Preschool assessment of vocabulary skills could be used to identify children at risk of reading and language difficulties, and vocabulary could be viewed as a cognitive foundation for reading. However, evidence to date suggests predictive ability from infant vocabulary to later language and literacy is low. This study provides an investigation into, and interpretation of, the magnitude of such infant to school-age relationships. Three hundred British infants whose vocabularies were assessed by parent report in the 2nd year of life (between 16 and 24 months) were followed up on average 5 years later (ages ranged from 4 to 9 years), when their vocabulary, phonological and reading skills were measured. Structural equation modelling of age-regressed scores was used to assess the strength of longitudinal relationships. Infant vocabulary (a latent factor of receptive and expressive vocabulary) was a statistically significant predictor of later vocabulary, phonological awareness, reading accuracy and reading comprehension (accounting for between 4% and 18% of variance). Family risk for language or literacy difficulties explained additional variance in reading (approximately 10%) but not language outcomes. Significant longitudinal relationships between preliteracy vocabulary knowledge and subsequent reading support the theory that vocabulary is a cognitive foundation of both reading accuracy and reading comprehension. Importantly however, the stability of vocabulary skills from infancy to later childhood is too low to be sufficiently predictive of language outcomes at an individual level - a finding that fits well with the observation that the majority of 'late talkers' resolve their early language difficulties. For reading outcomes, prediction of future difficulties is likely to be improved when considering family

  7. Teaching Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard-Clouston, M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary is central to English language teaching. Without sufficient vocabulary, students cannot understand others or express their own ideas. Teachers who find the task of teaching English vocabulary a little daunting are not alone! This book presents important issues from recent vocabulary research and theory so that teachers may approach…

  8. Teaching Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard-Clouston, M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary is central to English language teaching. Without sufficient vocabulary, students cannot understand others or express their own ideas. Teachers who find the task of teaching English vocabulary a little daunting are not alone! This book presents important issues from recent vocabulary research and theory so that teachers may approach…

  9. Linking open vocabularies

    CERN Document Server

    Greifender, Elke; Seadle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Linked Data (LD), Linked Open Data (LOD) and generating a web of data, present the new knowledge sharing frontier. In a philosophical context, LD is an evolving environment that reflects humankinds' desire to understand the world by drawing on the latest technologies and capabilities of the time. LD, while seemingly a new phenomenon did not emerge overnight; rather it represents the natural progression by which knowledge structures are developed, used, and shared. Linked Open Vocabularies is a significant trajectory of LD. Linked Open Vocabularies targets vocabularies that have traditionally b

  10. World Knowledge in Computational Models of Discourse Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stefan L.; Koppen, Mathieu; Noordman, Leo G. M.; Vonk, Wietske

    2008-01-01

    Because higher level cognitive processes generally involve the use of world knowledge, computational models of these processes require the implementation of a knowledge base. This article identifies and discusses 4 strategies for dealing with world knowledge in computational models: disregarding world knowledge, "ad hoc" selection, extraction from…

  11. Effects of a Supplemental Vocabulary Intervention on the Word Knowledge of Kindergarten Students at Risk for Language and Literacy Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Susan M.; Coyne, Michael D.; McCoach, D. Betsy; Zipoli, Richard; Pullen, Paige C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a vocabulary intervention designed to supplement research-based classroom vocabulary instruction, implemented with students who may be at risk for language and learning difficulties. Participants included 43 kindergarten students who received research-based classroom vocabulary…

  12. The Significance of Background Knowledge on Students’English Listen-ing Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红梅; 杨红敏

    2014-01-01

    The background knowledge has the stimulating function in English listening comprehension;it can reduce the psycho-logical pressure before listening, strengthen the confidence and enhance the predictive ability. Therefore, the paper mainly discuss-es the importance and influences of linguistic background knowledge and non-linguistic background knowledge in listening com-prehension. The author also gives some suggestions on teaching English listening according to the analysis of significances of back-ground knowledge in the paper.

  13. A Study of the Correlation between Vocabulary Size and Reading Comprehension%非英语专业大学生词汇知识与阅读理解水平相关性实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘胜男; 丘晓媛

    2012-01-01

      The present study aims to probe into the relationship between college students’ vocabulary sizes and their reading comprehension levels. The subjects were 47 junior college students from Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine. Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT) was used to test students’ receptive vocabulary size; Reading Test (from TOEFL) was used to test students’ reading comprehension levels. SPSS/PASW Statistics 18 and“Pearson correlation” were applied to analyze the relationship between subjects’ vocabulary sizes and their reading comprehension levels. When the subjects read English articles of non-specialty, the highly-frequently used vocabulary had high correlation with reading comprehension levels; while the low-frequency vocabulary had comparatively low correlation with reading comprehension. The results suggest that grasping vocabulary of higher frequency plays significant role in improving reading comprehension of non-specialty articles.%  为研究非英语专业大学生英语词汇量与阅读理解水平之间的关系,选取广州中医药大学47名三年级本科生为受试对象。一方面以词汇水平测试(Vocabulary Levels Test,缩略形式VLT)(全英版本)测试受试对象接受性词汇量(receptive vocabulary size),另一方面以阅读测试检测受试对象阅读理解能力,并使用皮尔逊相关系数(Pearson correlation)分析受试对象词汇水平与阅读能力之间的关系。研究结果显示:英语高频词汇量与阅读能力显著相关,而低频词汇量与阅读能力相关性不明显。这表明积累高频词汇量对提高普通阅读能力起着重要作用

  14. Towards evidence-based writing decisions: The Knowledge Base Comprehensible Text

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentz, Leo; Pander Maat, Henk; Sanders, Ted

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper introduces the Knowledge Base Comprehensible Text, a digital resource containing 702 studies on comprehension and usability of text and discourse, published between 1980 and 2010. The paper explains which publications were included in the knowledge base, how they were collected,

  15. Examining the Contributions of Syntactic Awareness and Syntactic Knowledge to Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimo, Danielle; Apel, Kenn; Fountain, Treeva

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect(s) of syntactic knowledge and syntactic awareness on adolescents' reading comprehension. Method: One hundred and seventy-nine, 9th and 10th grade students' syntactic awareness, syntactic knowledge and reading comprehension skills were assessed. In addition, other known contributors to…

  16. Examining the Contributions of Syntactic Awareness and Syntactic Knowledge to Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimo, Danielle; Apel, Kenn; Fountain, Treeva

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect(s) of syntactic knowledge and syntactic awareness on adolescents' reading comprehension. Method: One hundred and seventy-nine, 9th and 10th grade students' syntactic awareness, syntactic knowledge and reading comprehension skills were assessed. In addition, other known contributors to…

  17. Intervention in Comprehension and Memory Strategies: Knowledge and Use of Text Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Jose A.; Carretero, Mario

    1995-01-01

    A reading comprehension instructional program designed to improve knowledge and use of the text structure was analyzed in two complementary studies involving 72 high school students. Readers trained in the program demonstrated improved comprehension and were able to transfer their knowledge to other texts. (SLD)

  18. Podcast-Mediated Language Learning: Levels of Podcast Integration and Developing Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Mahboubeh; Mohammadi, Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    Podcasting is being exploited incrementally by teachers as a tool for presenting educational content and encouraging language learning outside traditional classrooms. This paper reports on an investigation of three levels of podcast integration sustaining on the Iranian learner's lexical knowledge learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL). The…

  19. Online Text Processing: A Study of Iranian EFL Learners' Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangar, Abbas Ali; Izadi, Mehri

    2015-01-01

    The internet has developed into an important source of knowledge in recent times. It is used not just for engaging and entertaining users, but also for promoting language learning, especially for English as a Second/Foreign Language (ESL and EFL) learners spending long hours using internet, 85% of all web pages are in English. This experimental…

  20. Construction of Vocabulary Knowledge Acquisition and Semantic Computing Platform%词汇知识获取及语义计算平台的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴林

    2013-01-01

    设计并实现一个词汇知识获取及语义计算平台VKASCP,以及自然语言处理所需要的基础功能模块.系统主要功能模块包括合成词识别、合成词词性标注及分词修正、主题词提取、词汇语义计算,以及基于主题词集的自动文摘和文本相似度计算.VKASCP融文本语料库、词汇知识库于一体,为词汇知识获取及语义计算提供了一个良好的研究平台,并为今后构建词汇语义知识库打下了坚实的基础.%This paper designs and implements a vocabulary knowledge acquisition and semantic computing platform; VKASCP, and achieves the basic function of the natural language processing modules. The main function modules include compound-word recognition, compound-word part-of-speech tagging and word segmentation modification, keyword extraction, vocabulary semantic computing, automatic summarization method based on thematic term set, text similarity computing based on thematic term set. VKASCP intergrates the text corpus and vocabulary knowledge base, provides a good platform for the vocabulary knowledge acquisition and semantic computing, and lays a solid foundation to build a lexical semantic knowledge base for the future.

  1. Capturing the complexity: Content, type, and amount of instruction and quality of the classroom learning environment synergistically predict third graders’ vocabulary and reading comprehension outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Spencer, Mercedes; Day, Stephanie L.; Giuliani, Sarah; Ingebrand, Sarah W.; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined classrooms as complex systems that affect students’ literacy learning through interacting effects of content and amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction along with the global quality of the classroom-learning environment. We observed 27 third grade classrooms serving 315 target students using two different observation systems. The first assessed instruction at a more micro-level; specifically, the amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction defined by the type of instruction, role of the teacher, and content. The second assessed the quality of the classroom-learning environment at a more macro level focusing on classroom organization, teacher responsiveness, and support for vocabulary and language. Results revealed that both global quality of the classroom learning environment and time individual students spent in specific types of literacy instruction covering specific content interacted to predict students’ comprehension and vocabulary gains whereas neither system alone did. These findings support a dynamic systems model of how individual children learn in the context of classroom literacy instruction and the classroom-learning environment, which can help to improve observations systems, advance research, elevate teacher evaluation and professional development, and enhance student achievement. PMID:25400293

  2. Capturing the complexity: Content, type, and amount of instruction and quality of the classroom learning environment synergistically predict third graders' vocabulary and reading comprehension outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Spencer, Mercedes; Day, Stephanie L; Giuliani, Sarah; Ingebrand, Sarah W; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J

    2014-08-01

    We examined classrooms as complex systems that affect students' literacy learning through interacting effects of content and amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction along with the global quality of the classroom-learning environment. We observed 27 third grade classrooms serving 315 target students using two different observation systems. The first assessed instruction at a more micro-level; specifically, the amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction defined by the type of instruction, role of the teacher, and content. The second assessed the quality of the classroom-learning environment at a more macro level focusing on classroom organization, teacher responsiveness, and support for vocabulary and language. Results revealed that both global quality of the classroom learning environment and time individual students spent in specific types of literacy instruction covering specific content interacted to predict students' comprehension and vocabulary gains whereas neither system alone did. These findings support a dynamic systems model of how individual children learn in the context of classroom literacy instruction and the classroom-learning environment, which can help to improve observations systems, advance research, elevate teacher evaluation and professional development, and enhance student achievement.

  3. Verbal Comprehension Ability in Aphasia: Demographic and Lexical Knowledge Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis G. Simos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Assessment of sentence-level auditory comprehension can be performed with a variety of tests varying in response requirements. A brief and easy to administer measure, not requiring an overt verbal or a complex motor response, is essential in any test battery for aphasia. Objective. The present study examines the clinical utility of receptive language indices for individuals with aphasia based on the Comprehension of Instructions in Greek (CIG, a variant of the Token Test, and the Greek version of PPVT-R. Methods. Normative data from a large community sample of Greek adults aged 46–80 years was available on both measures. A word-level-independent measure of auditory comprehension was computed as the standard score difference between the two tests and used to compare patients with and without comprehension deficits as indicated by their Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination profile. Results and Conclusions. Indices of internal consistency and test-retest reliability were very good. Education and age effects on performance were significant, with the former being stronger. The potential clinical utility of differential ability indices (contrasting sentence- and word-level auditory comprehension tests is discussed.

  4. Linguistic knowledge, fluency and metacognitive knowledge as components of reading comprehension in adolescent low achievers: differences between monolinguals and bilinguals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trapman, M.J.W.; Van Gelderen, Amos; Van Steensel, Roel; Van Schooten, Erik; Hulstijn, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigate the role of linguistic knowledge, fluency and meta-cognitive knowledge in Dutch reading comprehension of monolingual and bilingual adolescent academic low achievers in the Netherlands. Results show that these components are substantially associated with reading comprehen

  5. Vocabulary notebooks

    OpenAIRE

    KOZETA HYSO

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary notebooks are one way of promoting learner independence. Introducing vocabulary notebooks to provide the learners with an area of language learning where they could be given a relatively high level of independence that would build their confidence in their ability to act independently in terms of vocabulary learning. This article is focused on the effectiveness of keeping the vocabulary notebooks to empower the learner’s independence on their foreign language learning and also to e...

  6. Visualizing Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary can become tedious and a chore if it is approached as such. By making art terms and vocabulary meaningful, students will remember and use them for years to come. In this article, the author describes two vocabulary review projects that work wonderfully and create great works of art: (1) cursive creature rubbings; and (2) bubbling bodies…

  7. Visualizing Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary can become tedious and a chore if it is approached as such. By making art terms and vocabulary meaningful, students will remember and use them for years to come. In this article, the author describes two vocabulary review projects that work wonderfully and create great works of art: (1) cursive creature rubbings; and (2) bubbling bodies…

  8. Pre-Existing Background Knowledge Influences Socioeconomic Differences in Preschoolers' Word Learning and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaefer, Tanya; Neuman, Susan B.; Pinkham, Ashley M.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the current study is to explore the influence of knowledge on socioeconomic discrepancies in word learning and comprehension. After establishing socioeconomic differences in background knowledge (Study 1), the authors presented children with a storybook that incorporates this knowledge (Study 2). Results indicated that middle-income…

  9. Content Schemata and Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiKe

    2004-01-01

    For students of non-English majors in China, reading ability has been considered as one of the most important skills that they should acquire. However, teachers of English often complain that students reading in English seem to read with less comprehension and slower speed than expected. It is true that their failure is due to inadequate knowledge of vocabulary and

  10. Academic Listening: A Source of Vocabulary Acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Karina

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study of the acquisition of English-as-a-Foreign-Language vocabulary through academic listening. Explored the effects of EFL proficiency and lecture comprehension on vocabulary acquisition as well as the relationship between vocabulary gain and the following factors: frequency of occurrence, types of word, type of word elaboration, and…

  11. Explicit Vocabulary Instruction in an English Content-Area Course with University Student Teachers: When Comprehensible Input Needs to Be Comprehended

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimas, Héctor Manuel Serna

    2011-01-01

    This action research study explores explicit vocabulary instruction in an L2 (English) content-area course with a group of university student teachers. The study reviews several positions on the treatment of vocabulary in L2 contexts. The researcher takes up the teaching of explicit vocabulary through class activities and the students' completion…

  12. CastorDB: a comprehensive knowledge base for Ricinus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattoo Bharat B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ricinus communis is an industrially important non-edible oil seed crop, native to tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Although, R. communis genome was assembled in 4X draft by JCVI, and is predicted to contain 31,221 proteins, the function of most of the genes remains to be elucidated. A large amount of information of different aspects of the biology of R. communis is available, but most of the data are scattered one not easily accessible. Therefore a comprehensive resource on Castor, Castor DB, is required to facilitate research on this important plant. Findings CastorDB is a specialized and comprehensive database for the oil seed plant R. communis, integrating information from several diverse resources. CastorDB contains information on gene and protein sequences, gene expression and gene ontology annotation of protein sequences obtained from a variety of repositories, as primary data. In addition, computational analysis was used to predict cellular localization, domains, pathways, protein-protein interactions, sumoylation sites and biochemical properties and has been included as derived data. This database has an intuitive user interface that prompts the user to explore various possible information resources available on a given gene or a protein. Conclusion CastorDB provides a user friendly comprehensive resource on castor with particular emphasis on its genome, transcriptome, and proteome and on protein domains, pathways, protein localization, presence of sumoylation sites, expression data and protein interacting partners.

  13. CastorDB: a comprehensive knowledge base for Ricinus communis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Ricinus communis is an industrially important non-edible oil seed crop, native to tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Although, R. communis genome was assembled in 4X draft by JCVI, and is predicted to contain 31,221 proteins, the function of most of the genes remains to be elucidated. A large amount of information of different aspects of the biology of R. communis is available, but most of the data are scattered one not easily accessible. Therefore a comprehensive resource on Castor, Castor DB, is required to facilitate research on this important plant. Findings CastorDB is a specialized and comprehensive database for the oil seed plant R. communis, integrating information from several diverse resources. CastorDB contains information on gene and protein sequences, gene expression and gene ontology annotation of protein sequences obtained from a variety of repositories, as primary data. In addition, computational analysis was used to predict cellular localization, domains, pathways, protein-protein interactions, sumoylation sites and biochemical properties and has been included as derived data. This database has an intuitive user interface that prompts the user to explore various possible information resources available on a given gene or a protein. Conclusion CastorDB provides a user friendly comprehensive resource on castor with particular emphasis on its genome, transcriptome, and proteome and on protein domains, pathways, protein localization, presence of sumoylation sites, expression data and protein interacting partners. PMID:21914200

  14. Prior Knowledge in EFL Reading Comprehension: Omani Teachers’ Perspectives & Classroom Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Al-Jahwari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated three main aspects related to prior knowledge in EFL reading comprehension in Oman: teachers' view of the role of prior knowledge, the instructional strategies they use for activating students' prior knowledge, and the difficulties they face when activating students' prior knowledge. To this end, three instruments were used: a questionnaire, an observation checklist, and a semi-structured interview. The findings of the study showed a strong agreement of the role of prior knowledge in text comprehension, a heavy reliance on a limited number of techniques and a clear attribution of the difficulties to sources such as students’ limited linguistic competence and lack of adequate teacher training on schema theory and its instructional techniques. In light of the findings, some implications for EFL teachers, in-service teachers training, and for curriculum development are given. Keywords: prior knowledge, schema, classroom strategies, reading comprehension

  15. Mental Lexicon, Working Memory and L2 (English Vocabulary in Polish Students with and without Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Łockiewicz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to examine the relationship between access to the mental lexicon, working memory and knowledge of English (L2 vocabulary. Analyses were undertaken amongst monolingual speakers of Polish (26 with dyslexia, 24 without who studied English as a second language as part of their compulsory educational programme at school. We assumed that students with dyslexia would manifest deficits in access to the mental lexicon and verbal working memory, and would have a limited L2 vocabulary. We also assumed that better access to the mental lexicon facilitates knowledge of English (L2 vocabulary, and that this relationship is present in both the criterion and the control group. All of the students participated in both parts of the assessment, the group part (i.e., questionnaire, IQ test, two vocabulary tasks and the individual part (i.e., psychological measures: verbal working memory, RAN, verbal fluency, and single word reading in L1 task. We found that students with dyslexia exhibited deficits in the speed of access to data from the mental lexicon. The predictive function of memory for vocabulary was more conspicuous in the control group; in the criterion group, the result might constitute a risk factor for L2 vocabulary acquisition in dyslexia, which may manifest with increased proficiency in word knowledge. Poor vocabulary knowledge renders the L2 learning experience difficult, as it impairs students’ reading comprehension, writing and conversational skills.

  16. Individual Differences in Reading Comprehension Gains from Assisted Reading Practice: Pre Existing Conditions, Vocabulary Acquisition, and Amounts of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shany, Michal; Biemiller, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a study of the effects of assisted reading practice (Shany & Biemiller, 1995). In this paper we examined the original data to find factors affecting gains in reading comprehension. We contrasted 14 children who had below median gains in reading comprehension and 15 who had above median gains. There were no significant correlations…

  17. Integration of word meaning and world knowledge in language comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagoort, Peter; Hald, Lea; Bastiaansen, Marcel; Petersson, Karl Magnus

    2004-04-16

    Although the sentences that we hear or read have meaning, this does not necessarily mean that they are also true. Relatively little is known about the critical brain structures for, and the relative time course of, establishing the meaning and truth of linguistic expressions. We present electroencephalogram data that show the rapid parallel integration of both semantic and world knowledge during the interpretation of a sentence. Data from functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the left inferior prefrontal cortex is involved in the integration of both meaning and world knowledge. Finally, oscillatory brain responses indicate that the brain keeps a record of what makes a sentence hard to interpret.

  18. State of knowledge on amaranth grain: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselato-Sousa, Valéria Maria; Amaya-Farfán, Jaime

    2012-04-01

    Amaranth grain is a highly nutritional pseudocereal with a superior amount of proteins when compared to true cereals. It is a reasonably well-balanced food with functional properties that have been shown to provide medicinal benefits. The health benefits attributed include decreasing plasma cholesterol levels, stimulating the immune system, exerting an antitumor activity, reducing blood glucose levels and improving conditions of hypertension and anemia. In addition, it has been reported to possess anti-allergic and antioxidant activities. The present article provides a comprehensive overview of amaranth grain that focuses on recent research reporting its use in the clinical practice and its possible benefits to human health.

  19. Engaging Minds, Enhancing Comprehension and Constructing Knowledge through Visual Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Garcia, Ana; Villegas, Joaquin

    Advance organizers are used to teach specific contexts with different levels of complexity. Regardless of the educational level or context, the advance organizer (graphic organizer) is a tool that helps the learner connect the known to the unknown and remember the knowledge gained. To help in understanding this process, a case study was developed…

  20. Reading Thematically Related Texts to Develop Knowledge and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelzheiser, Lynn; Hallgren-Flynn, Laura; Connors, Margaret; Scanlon, Donna

    2014-01-01

    When literacy instruction uses books selected on the basis of thematic content, it can foster the attainment of literacy goals while developing readers' knowledge. This paper provides a rationale for the use of thematically-related texts in literacy instruction and describes some thematic units that have been a part of literacy intervention…

  1. The contribution of phonological knowledge, memory, and language background to reading comprehension in deaf populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshorn, Elizabeth A.; Dye, Matthew W. G.; Hauser, Peter; Supalla, Ted R.; Bavelier, Daphne

    2015-01-01

    While reading is challenging for many deaf individuals, some become proficient readers. Little is known about the component processes that support reading comprehension in these individuals. Speech-based phonological knowledge is one of the strongest predictors of reading comprehension in hearing individuals, yet its role in deaf readers is controversial. This could reflect the highly varied language backgrounds among deaf readers as well as the difficulty of disentangling the relative contribution of phonological versus orthographic knowledge of spoken language, in our case ‘English,’ in this population. Here we assessed the impact of language experience on reading comprehension in deaf readers by recruiting oral deaf individuals, who use spoken English as their primary mode of communication, and deaf native signers of American Sign Language. First, to address the contribution of spoken English phonological knowledge in deaf readers, we present novel tasks that evaluate phonological versus orthographic knowledge. Second, the impact of this knowledge, as well as memory measures that rely differentially on phonological (serial recall) and semantic (free recall) processing, on reading comprehension was evaluated. The best predictor of reading comprehension differed as a function of language experience, with free recall being a better predictor in deaf native signers than in oral deaf. In contrast, the measures of English phonological knowledge, independent of orthographic knowledge, best predicted reading comprehension in oral deaf individuals. These results suggest successful reading strategies differ across deaf readers as a function of their language experience, and highlight a possible alternative route to literacy in deaf native signers. Highlights: 1. Deaf individuals vary in their orthographic and phonological knowledge of English as a function of their language experience. 2. Reading comprehension was best predicted by different factors in oral deaf and

  2. Metacomprehension Knowledge and Comprehension of Expository and Narrative Texts among Younger and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin-Miao; Moore, DeWayne; Zabrucky, Karen M.

    2000-01-01

    Adults with graduate education (60 aged 23-25, 60 aged 61-84) completed comprehension tasks on expository and narrative texts. Score on the Metacomprehension Knowledge Scale reliably predicted performance and self-perception of their comprehension. Age differences involved different components of metacomprehension. Metacomprehension predicted…

  3. Relations among Personal Initiative and the Development of Reading Strategy Knowledge and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Greta J.; Fay, Doris; Spörer, Nadine

    2017-01-01

    Reading comprehension is a self-regulated activity that depends on the proactive effort of the reader. Therefore, the authors studied the effects of personal initiative (PI) on the development of reading comprehension, mediated by reading strategy knowledge. Structural equation modelling was applied to a longitudinal study with two data waves…

  4. Improving Content Knowledge and Comprehension for English Language Learners: Findings from a Randomized Control Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Sharon; Martinez, Leticia R.; Wanzek, Jeanne; Roberts, Greg; Swanson, Elizabeth; Fall, Anna-Mária

    2017-01-01

    Supporting the reading comprehension and content knowledge acquisition of English language learners (ELs) requires instructional practices that continue beyond developing the foundational skills of reading. In particular, the challenges ELs face highlight the importance of teaching reading comprehension practices in the middle grades through…

  5. Knowledge, Writing, and Language Outcomes for a Reading Comprehension and Writing Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Linda H.; Davison, Megan Dunn; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Miller, Carol A.; Glutting, J. James

    2013-01-01

    Many students struggle with gaining knowledge and writing about content text material and therefore require effective intervention. In a randomized controlled trial study, 77 low-achieving fourth-grade students received reading comprehension instruction or reading comprehension plus writing instruction or were assigned to a no-treatment control.…

  6. Vocabulary Is Important for Some, but Not All Reading Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Jessie; Nation, Kate; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2007-01-01

    Although there is evidence for a close link between the development of oral vocabulary and reading comprehension, less clear is whether oral vocabulary skills relate to the development of word-level reading skills. This study investigated vocabulary and literacy in 81 children aged 8 to 10 years. In regression analyses, vocabulary accounted for…

  7. Gesture comprehension, knowledge and production in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, M; Rénier, J; Anicet, L; Pasquier, F; Mackowiak-Cordoliani, M A

    2012-07-01

      Although apraxia is a typical consequence of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the profile of apraxic impairments is still subject to debate. Here, we analysed apraxia components in patients with AD with mild-to-moderate or moderately severe dementia.   Thirty-one patients were included. We first evaluated simple gestures, that is, the imitation of finger and hand configurations, symbolic gestures (recognition, production on verbal command and imitation), pantomimes (recognition, production on verbal command, imitation and production with the object), general knowledge and complex gestures (tool-object association, function-tool association, production of complex actions and knowledge about action sequences). Tests for dementia (Mini Mental State Examination and the Dementia Rating Scale), language disorders, visual agnosia and executive function were also administered.   Compared with controls, patients showed significant difficulties (P ≤ 0.01) in subtests relating to simple gestures (except for the recognition and imitation of symbolic gestures). General knowledge about tools, objects and action sequences was less severely impaired. Performance was frequently correlated with the severity of dementia. Multiple-case analyses revealed that (i) the frequency of apraxia depended on the definition used, (ii) ideomotor apraxia was more frequent than ideational apraxia, (iii) conceptual difficulties were slightly more frequent than production difficulties in the early stage of AD and (iv) difficulties in gesture recognition were frequent (especially for pantomimes).   Patients with AD can clearly show gesture apraxia from the mild-moderate stage of dementia onwards. Recognition and imitation disorders are relatively frequent (especially for pantomimes). We did not find conceptual difficulties to be the main problem in early-stage AD. © 2012 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2012 EFNS.

  8. Effects of Adapted Dialogic Reading on Oral Language and Vocabulary Knowledge of Latino Preschoolers at Risk for English Language Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Vivian I.; Lo, Ya-Yu; Godfrey-Hurrell, Kristi; Swart, Katie; Baker, Doris Luft

    2015-01-01

    In this single-case design study, we examined the effects of an adapted dialogic reading intervention on the oral language and vocabulary skills of four Latino preschool children who were at risk for English language delays. We used adapted dialogic reading strategies in English and two literacy games that included a rapid naming activity and…

  9. The Effects of Multimedia Learning on Thai Primary Pupils' Achievement in Size and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingjit, Mathukorn

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to obtain more insight regarding the effect of multimedia learning on third grade of Thai primary pupils' achievement in Size and Depth Vocabulary of English. A quasi-experiment is applied using "one group pretest-posttest design" combined with "time series design," as well as data triangulation. The sample…

  10. Analysis the Effectiveness of Three Online Vocabulary Flashcard Websites on L2 Learners' Level of Lexical Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chin-Wen

    2015-01-01

    This study compared and contrasted 64 Taiwanese college freshmen's perceptions of and attitudes toward three online vocabulary flashcard websites, Quizlet, Study Stack, and Flashcard Exchange. Four types of data were collected in two freshmen English classes in a university in Taiwan from February to April 2013. Data included online flashcard…

  11. The Level of Spoken Vocabulary Used by University English Professors and Its Effect on Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Zarei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It seems that the vocabulary knowledge of Iranian university students for English translation is below minimal comprehension. One possible factor affecting the vocabulary knowledge of students is the oral input presented by professors in their classes. This research seeks to analyze the role of oral input in vocabulary learning. For this reason, twenty- three content courses from B.A. English translation syllabus were selected. Hence, the professors` lectures were recorded and then transcribed. Next the data was analyzed with Range 32, the software developed by Paul Nation. The findings revealed that almost ninety percent of the oral vocabulary items used by professors were in the first 1000 word families that are the most frequent words in English. Moreover, the results showed that the level of vocabulary items used by professors did not change over the past semesters. Therefore, it is clear that one of the possible reasons for students’ inadequate vocabulary knowledge is lack of rich oral input, because students do not have sufficiently strong motivation to work harder to comprehend their instructors. The results of this research bring into focus the need for more systematic preparation and presentation of the vocabulary items in the course syllabus.

  12. The Effect of Orthographic Knowledge on Word Identification and Reading Comprehension of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Khalili Sabet

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to employ orthographic knowledge enhancement as a tool in order to determine its efficiency in improving Iranian EFL learners’ reading comprehension. Orthographic knowledge can be defined as one’s familiarity with the general spelling rules of a language, or the ability to defer those letter combinations that are permissible form those that are not, which makes it an exceptional requirement for effective word identification and as a result successful reading comprehension skill. In doing so, 55 male and female students learning English at pre-intermediate level in a language institute in Astaneh, Guilan, Iran were randomly selected and were equally divided into an experimental and a control group. A researcher-made reading comprehension test followed by multiple-choice items as well as a word identification measure was given to both groups as a pre-test, and then the experimental group received the treatment in eighteen 30-minute sessions, in which the instructor taught skills to enhance students’ orthographic knowledge. Meanwhile, the control group did not receive any specific treatment. Finally the post-test, which was the same as the pre-test was administered. Their scores were calculated through computer softwares. The results indicated that raising orthographic knowledge results in significant improvement in both word identification and reading comprehension. The findings of this study can benefit EFL learners in improving their reading comprehension skill. Keywords: Orthographic knowledge, Word Identification, Reading comprehension, Iranian EFL Learners

  13. Prior Knowledge, Reading Skill, and Text Cohesion in the Comprehension of Science Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozuru, Yasuhiro; Dempsey, Kyle; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how text features (i.e., cohesion) and individual differences (i.e., reading skill and prior knowledge) contribute to biology text comprehension. College students with low and high levels of biology knowledge read two biology texts, one of which was high in cohesion and the other low in cohesion. The two groups were similar in…

  14. Can Prior Knowledge Hurt Text Comprehension? An Answer Borrowed from Plato, Aristotle, and Descartes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Lawrence B.

    Taking a philosophical approach based on what Plato, Aristotle, and Descartes said about knowledge, this paper addresses some of the murkiness in the conceptual space surrounding the issue of whether prior knowledge does or does not facilitate text comprehension. Specifically, the paper first develops a non-exhaustive typology of cases in which…

  15. The State of Vocabulary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairrell, Angela; Rupley, William; Simmons, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-four studies were included in this systematic review of vocabulary research literature. The review corroborates the findings of past studies that several strategies have emerged that increase students' vocabulary knowledge. Findings further reinforce the National Reading Panel's recommendations regarding the context and magnitude of studies…

  16. Vocabulary Levels and Size of Malaysian Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harji, Madhubala Bava; Balakrishnan, Kavitha; Bhar, Sareen Kaur; Letchumanan, Krishnaveni

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary is a fundamental requirement of language acquisition, and its competence enables independent reading and effective language acquisition. Effective language use requires adequate level of vocabulary knowledge; therefore, efforts must be made to identify students' vocabulary base for greater efficiency and competency in the language.…

  17. The Effects of Pre Modified Input, Interactionally Modified Input, and Modified Output on EFL Learners' Comprehension of New Vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Zinat; Pazhakh, AbdolReza

    2012-01-01

    The present study was an attempt to investigate the effects of premodified input, interactionally modified input and modified output on 80 EFL learners' comprehension of new words. The subjects were randomly assigned into four groups of pre modified input, interactionally modified input, modified output and unmodified (control) groups. Each group…

  18. The contribution of phonological knowledge, memory, and language background to reading comprehension in deaf populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ann Hirshorn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available While reading is challenging for many deaf individuals, some become proficient readers. Yet we do not know the component processes that support reading comprehension in these individuals. Speech-based phonological knowledge is one of the strongest predictors of reading comprehension in hearing individuals, yet its role in deaf readers is controversial. This could reflect the highly varied language backgrounds among deaf readers as well as the difficulty of disentangling the relative contribution of phonological versus orthographic knowledge of spoken language, in our case ‘English’, in this population. Here we assessed the impact of language experience on reading comprehension in deaf readers by recruiting oral deaf individuals, who use spoken English as their primary mode of communication, and deaf native signers of American Sign Language. First, to address the contribution of spoken English phonological knowledge in deaf readers, we present novel tasks that evaluate phonological versus orthographic knowledge. Second, the impact of this knowledge, as well as verbal short-term memory and long-term memory skills, on reading comprehension was evaluated. The best predictor of reading comprehension differed as a function of language experience, with long-term memory, as measured by free recall, being a better predictor in deaf native signers than in oral deaf. In contrast, the measures of English phonological knowledge, independent of orthographic knowledge, best predicted reading comprehension in oral deaf individuals. These results suggest successful reading strategies differ across deaf readers as a function of their language experience, and highlight a possible alternative route to literacy in deaf native signers.

  19. Developmental Relations between Reading Comprehension and Reading Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijselaar, Marloes M. L.; Swart, Nicole M.; Steenbeek-Planting, Esther G.; Droop, Mienke; Verhoeven, Ludo; de Jong, Peter F.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary, and working memory were administered. A structural…

  20. Developmental relations between reading comprehension and reading strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijselaar, M.M.L.; Swart, N.M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.; Droop, W.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Jong, P.F. de

    2017-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary,

  1. Neural bases of event knowledge and syntax integration in comprehension of complex sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaia, Evie; Newman, Sharlene

    2015-01-01

    Comprehension of complex sentences is necessarily supported by both syntactic and semantic knowledge, but what linguistic factors trigger a readers' reliance on a specific system? This functional neuroimaging study orthogonally manipulated argument plausibility and verb event type to investigate cortical bases of the semantic effect on argument comprehension during reading. The data suggest that telic verbs facilitate online processing by means of consolidating the event schemas in episodic memory and by easing the computation of syntactico-thematic hierarchies in the left inferior frontal gyrus. The results demonstrate that syntax-semantics integration relies on trade-offs among a distributed network of regions for maximum comprehension efficiency.

  2. Mind wandering during film comprehension: The role of prior knowledge and situational interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Kristopher; Mills, Caitlin; D'Mello, Sidney

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the occurrence and factors that influence mind wandering (MW) in the domain of film comprehension. The cascading model of inattention assumes that a stronger mental representation (i.e., a situation model) during comprehension results in less MW. Accordingly, a suppression hypothesis suggests that MW would decrease as a function of having the knowledge of the plot of a film prior to viewing, because the prior-knowledge would help to strengthen the situation model during comprehension. Furthermore, an interest-moderation hypothesis would predict that the suppression effect of prior-knowledge would only emerge when there was interest in viewing the film. In the current experiment, 108 participants either read a short story that depicted the plot (i.e., prior-knowledge condition) or read an unrelated story of equal length (control condition) prior to viewing the short film (32.5 minutes) entitled The Red Balloon. Participants self-reported their interest in viewing the film immediately before the film was presented. MW was tracked using a self-report method targeting instances of MW with metacognitive awareness. Participants in the prior-knowledge condition reported less MW compared with the control condition, thereby supporting the suppression hypothesis. MW also decreased over the duration of the film, but only for those with prior-knowledge of the film. Finally, prior-knowledge effects on MW were only observed when interest was average or high, but not when interest was low.

  3. Vocabulary Growth and Reading Development across the Elementary School Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van; Vermeer, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    The associations between vocabulary growth and reading development were examined longitudinally for a representative sample of Dutch children throughout the elementary school period. Data on basic and advanced vocabulary, word decoding, and reading comprehension were collected across the different

  4. Vocabulary Growth and Reading Development across the Elementary School Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van; Vermeer, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    The associations between vocabulary growth and reading development were examined longitudinally for a representative sample of Dutch children throughout the elementary school period. Data on basic and advanced vocabulary, word decoding, and reading comprehension were collected across the different g

  5. Reading Comprehension of Informative Texts in Secondary School: A Focus on Direct and Indirect Effects of Reader's Prior Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarchi, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Text comprehension plays a fundamental role in the processes of acquisition, sharing, and construction of knowledge. Most definitions share the focus on the interaction between text and reader's prior knowledge. In this paper both direct and indirect effects of prior knowledge on reading comprehension have been analyzed, along with other…

  6. Reading comprehension in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Glynis; Brown, Heather; Main, Elizabeth

    Two studies aimed to investigate the reading comprehension abilities of 14 readers with Down syndrome aged 6 years 8 months to 13 years relative to those of typically developing children matched on word reading ability, and to investigate how these abilities were associated with reading accuracy, listening comprehension, phonological awareness and vocabulary knowledge. Study 1 confirmed significantly poorer passage-reading comprehension than the typically developing group. In an experimental task, readers with Down syndrome understood fewer written sentences than the typical group and, contrary to prediction, received no advantage from printed sentences compared to spoken sentences, despite the lower memory load. Reading comprehension was associated with listening comprehension, word reading and phonological awareness in DS. Vocabulary knowledge was also associated with reading comprehension, mediated by word reading and nonverbal cognitive abilities. Study 2 investigated the longitudinal relationships between reading and language measures in the readers with DS over around 22 months. Time 1 listening comprehension and phonological awareness predicted Time 2 reading comprehension but there was no evidence that reading or reading comprehension predicted Time 2 language scores or phonological awareness, and no evidence that readers had acquired greater depth of vocabulary.

  7. Measuring Reading Comprehension of Content Area Texts Using an Assessment of Knowledge Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Marcia H.; Guthrie, John T.

    2015-01-01

    The authors outline results of 3 studies conducted to examine the structure of disciplinary knowledge from reading measured through proximity data. In Study 1, 168 third-grade students were asked to read a science text and rate the relationships of keywords from the passage. From these ratings, comprehension scores were calculated that related…

  8. The Effect of Schematic Knowledge on Iranian EFL Learner’s Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Ostad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of variables influence the way a learner comprehends a reading passage, one of which is prior knowledge. This study examines this variable to discover its effect on the reading comprehension ability of Iranian EFL learners. The data was elicited from sixty-eight intermediate level students who were studying English as a foreign language in a private language institute in Rasht, a city in the north of Iran. After an English Proficiency test, they were divided in two groups, an experimental group and a control one. A pre-test was administered to both groups. Consequently, the experimental group received the treatment. Finally, a post-test was administered to both groups in order to find out the differences between two groups. The experimental group outperformed the control group. It was concluded that schematic knowledge has a noticeable significance on improving the reading comprehension skill of Iranian EFL Learners. Therefore, the activation of schematic knowledge prior to the reading process can be a useful method in teaching reading comprehension in language classes. Keywords: schematic knowledge, EFL learners, reading comprehension

  9. Improving Reading Comprehension and Social Studies Knowledge among Middle School Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Elizabeth; Wanzek, Jeanne; Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Fall, Ana-Mari

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the efficacy of a content knowledge and reading comprehension treatment implemented by eighth-grade general education social studies teachers among students with disabilities included in the classes. Data on students with disabilities across 2 years of study were combined for the analysis presented here. Students in…

  10. Comprehension of University Texts: Effects of Domain-Knowledge and Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Gema; Goikoetxea, Edurne

    2014-01-01

    Our aim is to evaluate reading comprehension strategies based on empirical evidence and applicable to undergraduate students. Our hypotheses were that domain-knowledge or summary would have more influence on local, global, and inferential questions than rereading-question-answering instruction. Results of Experiment 1 were mixed in terms of…

  11. Navigation and Comprehension of Digital Expository Texts: Hypertext Structure, Previous Domain Knowledge, and Working Memory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burin, Debora I.; Barreyro, Juan P.; Saux, Gastón; Irrazábal, Natalia C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In contemporary information societies, reading digital text has become pervasive. One of the most distinctive features of digital texts is their internal connections via hyperlinks, resulting in non-linear hypertexts. Hypertext structure and previous knowledge affect navigation and comprehension of digital expository texts. From the…

  12. The Contribution of Knowledge about Anaphors, Organisational Signals and Refutations to Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, J. Ricardo; Bustos, Andrea; Sánchez, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Expository texts contain rhetorical devices that help readers to connect text ideas (within a text and with prior knowledge) and to monitor reading. Rhetorical competence addresses readers' skill in detecting, understanding and using these devices. We examined the contribution of rhetorical competence to reading comprehension on two groups of 11-…

  13. Navigation and Comprehension of Digital Expository Texts: Hypertext Structure, Previous Domain Knowledge, and Working Memory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burin, Debora I.; Barreyro, Juan P.; Saux, Gastón; Irrazábal, Natalia C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In contemporary information societies, reading digital text has become pervasive. One of the most distinctive features of digital texts is their internal connections via hyperlinks, resulting in non-linear hypertexts. Hypertext structure and previous knowledge affect navigation and comprehension of digital expository texts. From the…

  14. The influence of lexical-access ability and vocabulary knowledge on measures of speech recognition in noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaandorp, Marre W; De Groot, Annette M B; Festen, Joost M; Smits, Cas; Goverts, S Theo

    2016-01-01

    The main objective was to investigate the effect of linguistic abilities (lexical-access ability and vocabulary size) on different measures of speech-in-noise recognition in normal-hearing listeners with various levels of language proficiency. Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were measured for sentences in steady-state (SRTstat) and fluctuating noise (SRTfluc), and for digit-triplets in steady-state noise (DIN). Lexical-access ability was measured with a lexical-decision test and a word-naming test. Vocabulary size was also measured. For the SRT, keyword scoring and sentence scoring were compared. To introduce variation in linguistic abilities, three groups of 24 young normal-hearing listeners were included: higher-educated native, lower-educated native, and higher-educated non-native listeners. Lexical-access ability was most accurately measured with combined results of lexical decision and word naming. Lexical-access ability explained 60% of the variance in SRT. The effect of linguistic abilities on SRTs was up to 5.6 dB for SRTstat and 8 dB for SRTfluc. Using keyword scoring reduced this effect by approximately 1.5 dB. For DIN the effect of linguistic ability was less than 1 dB. Lexical-access ability is an important predictor of SRTs in normal-hearing listeners. These results are important to consider in the interpretation of speech-in-noise scores of hearing-impaired listeners.

  15. Linguistic Knowledge, Fluency and Meta-Cognitive Knowledge as Components of Reading Comprehension in Adolescent Low Achievers: Differences between Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapman, Mirjam; van Gelderen, Amos; van Steensel, Roel; van Schooten, Erik; Hulstijn, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigate the role of linguistic knowledge, fluency and meta-cognitive knowledge in Dutch reading comprehension of monolingual and bilingual adolescent academic low achievers in the Netherlands. Results show that these components are substantially associated with reading comprehension. However, their role appears to be different…

  16. Linguistic Knowledge, Fluency and Meta-Cognitive Knowledge as Components of Reading Comprehension in Adolescent Low Achievers: Differences between Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapman, Mirjam; van Gelderen, Amos; van Steensel, Roel; van Schooten, Erik; Hulstijn, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigate the role of linguistic knowledge, fluency and meta-cognitive knowledge in Dutch reading comprehension of monolingual and bilingual adolescent academic low achievers in the Netherlands. Results show that these components are substantially associated with reading comprehension. However, their role appears to be different…

  17. Creating Vocabulary Item Types That Measure Students' Depth of Semantic Knowledge. Research Report. ETS RR-14-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Paul; Lawless, René R.; Li, Chen; Sabatini, John; Bejar, Isaac I.; O'Reilly, Tenaha

    2014-01-01

    We expect that word knowledge accumulates gradually. This article draws on earlier approaches to assessing depth, but focuses on one dimension: richness of semantic knowledge. We present results from a study in which three distinct item types were developed at three levels of depth: knowledge of common usage patterns, knowledge of broad topical…

  18. Why and How EFL Students Learn Vocabulary in Parliamentary Debate Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice M. Aclan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary, the backbone of any language including English, is foundational for listening, speaking, reading and writing. These four macro-skills are necessary not only in gaining knowledge as English is the language to access major information sources particularly the World Wide Web but also in the demanding globalized workplace. Vocabulary is seen to be learned better when it is contextualized thus language teachers should design communicative activities such as debate. However, debate, being more known as a competitive rather than a classroom activity worldwide, has not been explored yet for its potential to develop vocabulary among EFL/ESL students although it has been identified for its power in developing communication skills in general as well as critical thinking and other soft skills. Thus, this qualitative study was conducted to explore why and how EFL students learn vocabulary in classroom debate. The data were gathered through end-of-course evaluation and focus group interview with seven participants from the Middle East, African and ASEAN countries. The findings show that students learned vocabulary due to debate’s interactive nature requiring contextualized and meaningful language use from preparation to actual debate. EFL students described how they learned vocabulary through debate which has implications for SLA and language teaching.   Keywords: Noticing hypothesis, Comprehensible input, Incomprehensible input, Vocabulary building strategies

  19. Early-adolescents' reading comprehension and the stability of the middle school classroom-language environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez, Perla B; Lesaux, Nonie K

    2015-04-01

    This study examined teachers' language use across the school year in 6th grade urban middle-school classrooms (n = 24) and investigated the influence of this classroom-based linguistic input on the reading comprehension skills of the students (n = 851; 599 language minority learners and 252 English-only) in the participating classrooms. Analysis of speech transcripts revealed substantial variability in teachers' use of sophisticated vocabulary and total amount of talk and that individual teacher's language use was consistent across the school year. Analyses using Hierarchical Linear Modeling showed that when controlling for students' reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge at the start of the year, teachers' use of sophisticated vocabulary was significantly related to students' reading comprehension outcomes, as was the time spent on vocabulary instruction. These findings suggest that the middle school classroom language environment plays a significant role in the reading comprehension of adolescent learners. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The Effects of Vocabulary Breadth and Depth on English Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Kirby, John R.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between two dimensions of vocabulary knowledge, that is, breadth of vocabulary (the number of words known) and depth of vocabulary (the richness of word knowledge), and their effects on different aspects of English reading in Chinese high school students learning English as a second language. Two hundred and…

  1. The Effects of Vocabulary Breadth and Depth on English Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Kirby, John R.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between two dimensions of vocabulary knowledge, that is, breadth of vocabulary (the number of words known) and depth of vocabulary (the richness of word knowledge), and their effects on different aspects of English reading in Chinese high school students learning English as a second language. Two hundred and…

  2. A comprehensive model for executing knowledge management audits in organizations: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmoradi, Leila; Ahmadi, Maryam; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Piri, Zakieh; Gohari, Mahmood Reza

    2015-01-01

    A knowledge management audit (KMA) is the first phase in knowledge management implementation. Incomplete or incomprehensive execution of the KMA has caused many knowledge management programs to fail. A study was undertaken to investigate how KMAs are performed systematically in organizations and present a comprehensive model for performing KMAs based on a systematic review. Studies were identified by searching electronic databases such as Emerald, LISA, and the Cochrane library and e-journals such as the Oxford Journal and hand searching of printed journals, theses, and books in the Tehran University of Medical Sciences digital library. The sources used in this study consisted of studies available through the digital library of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences that were published between 2000 and 2013, including both Persian- and English-language sources, as well as articles explaining the steps involved in performing a KMA. A comprehensive model for KMAs is presented in this study. To successfully execute a KMA, it is necessary to perform the appropriate preliminary activities in relation to the knowledge management infrastructure, determine the knowledge management situation, and analyze and use the available data on this situation.

  3. The role of action knowledge in the comprehension of artefacts--a PET study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, I; Gade, A

    2002-01-01

    and two naming tasks divided by category (natural objects vs artefacts). The left PMv (BA 6/44) was more activated by the categorization task for artefacts than by the categorization task for natural objects and the naming task for artefacts. However, the left PMv was not associated with the contrast...... between the naming task for artefacts and the naming task for natural objects nor with the processing of artefacts in general. If the PMv does mediate action knowledge, these results suggest that action knowledge does not contribute directly to the comprehension of artefacts but may support...

  4. Transition from Doubt to Knowledge and Comprehension of the Mind itself in Descartes’ Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlyas Altuner

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Descartes uses skepticism as a method in seeking the truth and afterwards he arrives at the knowledge of truth by conception cogito which is an intuitive proposition. Comprehension of the mind itself is asserted from which ego cannot be cut from thinking, and this conception is based on the existence of God which does exist to be contained in the mind conceptually. God is stated the most perfect being which does rescue from doubt and show its real being it.

  5. VOCABULARY STRATEGIES AND VOCABULARY LEARNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This research is a comparative study of Chinese EFLgradutes′vocabulary strategies applied in their EGeneralAP(English for General Academic Purposes)and ESpecialAP(English for Special Academic Purpose)learning.Participantswere the first-year graduates of non-English major in ChinaPharmaceutical University(N=102).The present study uses ataxonomy of strategies developed by O’Malley and Chamot(1990),which was modified to more accurately reflectvocabulary strategies(altogether 31 sub-strategy variables within16 strategies).Analysis through SAS(Statistic Analysis System)on the collected date has revealed that:1)Learners apply more types of vocabulary stategies inEGeneralAP than in ESpecialAP vocabulary learning.2)Translation and Extensive Reading gain higher frequencyof application in ESpecialAP learning.3)11 vocabulary strategies strongly predict EGeneralAPvocabulary achievement and only 6 strategies strongly predictESpecialAp vocabulary achievement.At the end of the paper,some practical suggestions aremade for EFL graduate teachers to adjust their teaching targetand methods.

  6. Implicit and Explicit Cognitive Processes in Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ender, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Studies on vocabulary acquisition in second language learning have revealed that a large amount of vocabulary is learned without an overt intention, in other words, incidentally. This article investigates the relevance of different lexical processing strategies for vocabulary acquisition when reading a text for comprehension among 24 advanced…

  7. A RESEARCH INTO THE EFFECT OF BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE ON BUSINESS ENGLISH READING COMPREHENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    With the arrival of the new millennium,the demand fortalented people with both professional knowledge and excellentlanguage abilities is getting stronger and stronger.For business major students,reading is paramount inBusiness English teaching and learning.And their reading abilityis often assessed by a text of reading comprehension.However,from my experience as a college teacher ofBusiness English,I have noticed some problems among studentswho have little knowledge of business.They seem to readBusiness English materials at a slower rate and with lessunderstanding than general English materials.Then there is the question:is Business English reading"simply"a problem of language competence? Or are there anyother more important factors?This article is an investigation into the effect of backgroundknowledge on Business English reading comprehension.Thestudy attempts to assess to what extent L2 readers might beaffected because of their lack of a background schematapresupposed by the author by comparing the test results of twopassages comparable in language lightness or heaviness.Morecomparable passages like these can be used in investigating intothe rival effects of background knowledge and linguisticcompetence.The implications of comprehension theory for L2pedagogy are discussed and suggestions for Business Englishteaching is put forward.

  8. VOCABULARY TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES IN SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Teodorescu

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting various strategies and techniques used in vocabulary teaching and learning while reassessing the importance and role of vocabulary knowledge in second language acquisition. Lexical knowledge has proven to be central to communicative competence and to the acquisition of a second language. Besides, vocabulary knowledge involves much more than knowledge of single words, but knowledge of how words work together to achieve a communicative function.

  9. VOCABULARY TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES IN SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Teodorescu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting various strategies and techniques used in vocabulary teaching and learning while reassessing the importance and role of vocabulary knowledge in second language acquisition. Lexical knowledge has proven to be central to communicative competence and to the acquisition of a second language. Besides, vocabulary knowledge involves much more than knowledge of single words, but knowledge of how words work together to achieve a communicative function.

  10. VOCABULARY TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES IN SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Teodorescu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting various strategies and techniques used in vocabulary teaching and learning while reassessing the importance and role of vocabulary knowledge in second language acquisition. Lexical knowledge has proven to be central to communicative competence and to the acquisition of a second language. Besides, vocabulary knowledge involves much more than knowledge of single words, but knowledge of how words work together to achieve a communicative function.

  11. 谈初中英语情境词汇教学%Vocabulary Teaching and Learning in Context in Junior Schools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丽玲

    2011-01-01

    本文研究目的是为了调查情境词汇教学对词汇知识和阅读的效果。其结论是这种方法不仅可以提高学生们学习词汇的兴趣,而且可以增加词汇量。%The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of teaching vocabulary in context on both vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension for junior students. It is concluded that the application of teaching vocabulary in context is effective. This method can not only raise students' interest in learning vocabulary, but also enlarge their vocabulary.

  12. IMPACT OF THE CONCEPTUAL CARTOGRAPHY AS A COMPREHENSIVE STRATEGY ON KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Silvano Hernández-Mosqueda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: training high-level human capital due to current and emerging educational trends require new approaches to teaching. Objective: to analyze the impact of the conceptual mapping as a strategy for knowledge management. Methods: Quantitative under experimental design and application of the test t of Student. Results: inferential statistics showed the existence of significant values in the test performed, which allowed determine the range of probability of success that the use of conceptual cartography has a strategy for knowledge management. Discussion: the pedagogical mediation from the socioformation approach improves the process of comprehensive knowledge management so it is important to promote changes in teaching and academic management to ensure the success of professionals facing changing globalized world.

  13. Advanced Teaching Strategies of College English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭萍

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary teaching is an important part in English teaching, which purpose is to foster students to use learned words to conduct language communication, increasing the capability of language using in daily life. This paper analyzes the present condition and exposes the problems existing in English vocabulary teaching and learning, then, puts forward some scientific, effective strategies for the education of English vocabulary. I hope these teaching strategies can help teachers improve their teaching methods and help English learners acquire knowledge easily and efficiently.

  14. Language and Cognitive Predictors of Text Comprehension: Evidence from Multivariate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Using data from children in South Korea (N = 145, M[subscript age] = 6.08), it was determined how low-level language and cognitive skills (vocabulary, syntactic knowledge, and working memory) and high-level cognitive skills (comprehension monitoring and theory of mind [ToM]) are related to listening comprehension and whether listening…

  15. Direct and mediated effects of language and cognitive skills on comprehension of oral narrative texts (listening comprehension) for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2016-01-01

    We investigated component language and cognitive skills of oral language comprehension of narrative texts (i.e., listening comprehension). Using the construction-integration model of text comprehension as an overarching theoretical framework, we examined direct and mediated relations of foundational cognitive skills (working memory and attention), foundational language skills (vocabulary and grammatical knowledge), and higher-order cognitive skills (inference, theory of mind, and comprehension monitoring) to listening comprehension. A total of 201 first grade children in South Korea participated in the study. Structural equation modeling results showed that listening comprehension is directly predicted by working memory, grammatical knowledge, inference, and theory of mind and is indirectly predicted by attention, vocabulary, and comprehension monitoring. The total effects were .46 for working memory, .07 for attention, .30 for vocabulary, .49 for grammatical knowledge, .31 for inference, .52 for theory of mind, and .18 for comprehension monitoring. These results suggest that multiple language and cognitive skills make contributions to listening comprehension, and their contributions are both direct and indirect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reading comprehension skills of young adults with childhood diagnoses of dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransby, Marilyn J; Swanson, H Lee

    2003-01-01

    This study explores the contribution of cognitive processes to comprehension skills in adults who suffered from childhood developmental dyslexia (CD). The performance of adults with CD (ages 17 to 23), chronological age-matched (CA) adults, and reading level-matched (RL) children was compared on measures of phonological processing, naming speed, working memory (WM), general knowledge, vocabulary, and comprehension. The results showed that adults with CD scored lower on measures of phonological processing, naming speed, WM, general knowledge, and vocabulary when compared to CA readers but were comparable to RL children on the majority of process measures. Phonological processing, naming speed, vocabulary, general knowledge, and listening comprehension contributed independent variance to reading comprehension accuracy, whereas WM, intelligence, phonological processing, and listening comprehension contributed independent variance to comprehension fluency. Adults with CD scored lower than CA adults and higher than RL children on measures of lexical processing, WM, and listening comprehension when word recognition and intelligence were partialed from the analysis. In summary, constraints in phonological processing and naming speed mediate only some of the influence of high-order processes on reading comprehension. Furthermore, adults with CD experience difficulties in WM, listening comprehension, and vocabulary independently of their word recognition problems and intellectual ability.

  17. Developing Mathematical Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Eula Ewing; Orme, Michelle P.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of mathematical vocabulary, difficulties students encounter in learning this vocabulary, and some instructional strategies. Two general methods for teaching vocabulary are discussed: context and explicit vocabulary instruction. The methods are summarized as they apply to mathematical vocabulary instruction and…

  18. The rationale, development, and standardization of a basic word vocabulary test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, H J

    1974-04-01

    The results of the studies to date indicate that the Basic Word Vocabulary Test provides a range of items in terms of item difficulty levels useful in printed form from about the third grade to the highest educational levels. Since pictorial and orally given vocabulary tests are used from about ages 2 to 8 years, further work should be done to extend the scale downward so that a single comprehensive vocabulary scale ranging from age 2 years to the highest level of verbal development is available for general use. Validation studies should also be conducted with other well-known intelligence tests so that scores can be compared. Alternate forms need to be developed to allow for longitudinal studies of growth and development. The use of a single standard of measurement of vocabulary development, suitable over a wide range of age and ability levels, by different investigators should materially aid in comparing results across studies and samples and lead to more consistent findings, advances in knowledge, and wider application of findings in practical circumstances, The findings presented in this report indicate that the Basic Word Vocabulary Test adequately measures basic word knowledge acquisition and development. The BWVT is suitable for evaluation of individuals and for use in making group comparisons in levels of basic word knowledge attainment, growth, and development.

  19. Dental caries is correlated with knowledge of comprehensive food education in Japanese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekuni, Daisuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Furuta, Michiko; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Kojima, Azusa; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, the "Food Education Basic Law" (The Basic Law on Shokuiku, food education) was enacted in 2005. The comprehensive food education programs, namely Shokuiku, aim to improve dietary practices to reduce lifestyle-related diseases. Dental caries is one of the diseases associated with inappropriate dietary habits. Thus, food education may influence the prevalence of dental caries. However, there are no data regarding the association between public based-food education and dental caries. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between knowledge about comprehensive food education (Shokuiku) and dental caries experience in Japanese university students. A total of 2,184 students (1,240 men, 944 women), aged 18-20 years, were examined. They had attended the Shokuiku program while in junior/senior high school. The numbers of teeth present, and decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) (dental caries experience) were recorded. Additional information was collected via a questionnaire regarding knowledge about food education, dietary habits and oral health behavior. Of the students, 315 men (20.7%) and 345 women (52.8%) reported that they know and can explain the meaning and content of the word "Shokuiku". After adjusting for potential confounding factors, subjects who did not have knowledge about Shokuiku had higher adjusted odds ratio (OR) for dental caries experience (DMFT >0) than those who had (adjusted OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.02-1.48; pfood education in university students correlates with low prevalence of dental caries.

  20. WISC-III subtests of similarities, vocabulary and comprehension: objective or subjective scoring? / Subtestes semelhanças, vocabulário e compreensão do WISC-III: pontuação objetiva ou subjetiva?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia Marques de Figueiredo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In all psychological tests, scoring should be of concern for examiners because the accuracy of results depends, at some extent, on the quality of the correction. This work aims to examine the correction, by different psychologists, of the scores for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III subtests of Similarities, Vocabulary and Comprehension since these are the subtests where examiner's subjectivity seemingly most influences scoring. Forty two psychologists from different states in Brazil participated in this study. They corrected the answers of six test protocols randomly selected from a standardization sample for the Brazilian context. Taking as reference the total scores, the Vocabulary subtest showed greater variability in score, followed by the Comprehension one. Considering the total number of items tested in each subtest, Similarities had the highest agreement among raters. The results showed that all the three subtests involve subjectivity on behalf of the examiner to score the answers. Continuing in this study, we also aim to determine test reliability based on interrater agreement.

  1. Palula Vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this volume is to provide a complement to Towards a grammatical description of Palula (Liljegren 2008). The 1460 main entries included in the present work are limited to those lexical items that are cited or exemplified in the aforementioned work. The work is the result of linguistic research in and with the Palula community (Pakistan). It contains much of the basic vocabulary used in today's Palula, presented along with illustrative example sentences, grammatical informat...

  2. Influence of prior knowledge and interest on fourth- and fifth-grade passage comprehension on the Qualitative Reading Inventory-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Mary Kristen; Kamhi, Alan G

    2014-10-01

    In 2 experiments, we examined the influence of prior knowledge and interest on 4th- and 5th-grade students' passage comprehension scores on the Qualitative Reading Inventory-4 (QRI-4) and 2 experimenter-constructed passages. In Experiment 1, 4th- and 5th-grade students were administered 4 Level 4 passages or 4 Level 5 passages from the QRI-4. Prior knowledge was assessed by key concept questions from the QRI-4. Interest was rated on a 5-point scale. In Experiment 2, 4th- and 5th-grade students were administered 2 passages from the QRI-4 and 2 experimenter-constructed passages. One general question was used to assess prior knowledge, and 3 measures were used to assess interest. Prior knowledge as measured by key concept questions on the QRI-4 or a general question had minimal impact on passage comprehension. More important, only one third of the prior knowledge questions on the QRI-4 were related to a comprehension question. When these question pairs were analyzed, having prior knowledge was still not predictive of comprehension performance. Interest level had minimal impact on comprehension performance. This study's findings raise concerns about the usefulness of prior knowledge assessments on the QRI-4. Interest had little impact on comprehension performance. Educational implications are discussed.

  3. Building Foundational and Vocabulary Knowledge in the Common Core, K-8: Developmentally-Grounded Instruction about Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Shane

    2015-01-01

    How young children's and older students' knowledge of words develops--their structure, their meanings, how they work in context--is reflected in the Common Core English Language Arts expectations. Meeting these expectations for each learner requires that we teach in a developmentally-responsive manner. This includes our being familiar with the…

  4. Chinese EFL Undergraduates Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Their Effects upon Reading Comprehension%大学生英语词汇学习策略及其对阅读理解的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江洪涛

    2012-01-01

    通过问卷和测试调查了大学本科学生英语词汇学习策略使用情况及其对阅读理解的影响。164名非英语专业学生参加了词汇学习策略问卷调查和英语阅读理解测试。描述性统计结果表明:被试总体英语词汇学习策略使用情况为中性;在决定、社会、记忆、认知和元认知五种策略中,被试使用元认知策略频率最高,社会策略频率最低。多元回归分析显示:五种策略中,只有社会策略对阅读理解有贡献。以上研究结果对大学英语教学有着重要启示。%By questionnaire investigation and reading comprehension test, this paper explores Chinese EFL undergraduate' use of vocabulary learning strategies and their effects upon reading comprehension. 164 Chinese EFL undergraduates participated in a vocabulary learning strategies questionnaire and CET-4 reading comprehension test. Descriptive statistics revealed that Chinese EFL undergraduates proved to be medium strategy users who used meta-cognitive strategies most frequently and social strategies least frequently among five categories of strategies. Multiple regression analysis showed that only social strategy contributed to reading comprehension. There are important implications for the above results.

  5. Incidental Acquisition of Vocabulary by Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponniah, R. Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of reading on vocabulary development with adult ESL students at the National Institute of Technology (Trichirappalli, India). The researcher analyzes the performance of the students who devoted their time to reading, and the students who learned consciously the meaning of words to develop their vocabulary knowledge.…

  6. Review Article: Instructed Second Language Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    This article overviews current research on second language vocabulary learning. It concludes that a large vocabulary is necessary to function in English: 8000-9000 word families for reading, and perhaps as many as 5000-7000 families for oral discourse. In addition, a number of word knowledge aspects need to be learned about each lexical item.…

  7. Effects of Morphological Instruction on Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Peter N.; Kirby, John R.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of a 20-session intervention targeting morphological word structure on vocabulary knowledge were investigated in four Grade 4 and 5 classes, assigned randomly to treatment and control conditions. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling for initial vocabulary showed significant instructional effects on morphological analysis and…

  8. English Vocabulary Instruction for English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyak, Patrick C.; Bauer, Eurydice Bouchereau

    2009-01-01

    In this column Manyak and Bauer summarize key research addressing the English vocabulary development of English learners (ELs) and distill implications for instructional practice. First, the authors discuss several key studies that demonstrate the limitation of many ELs' English vocabulary knowledge and the negative impact of this limitation on…

  9. Fostering Academic Vocabulary Use in Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun-Mercer, Nicole; Zimmerman, Cheryl Boyd

    2015-01-01

    Though research has established a relationship between vocabulary knowledge and academic success and identified features to guide the L2 word learner through academic tasks (see Nation, 2013), less is known regarding student perceptions of academic vocabulary and the conscious decision-making process of these learners while they are writing. In…

  10. The Effects of Techniques of Vocabulary Portfolio on L2 Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Abbas Ali; Baftani, Fahimeh Nasiri

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of different techniques of vocabulary portfolio including word map, word wizard, concept wheel, visual thesaurus, and word rose on L2 vocabulary comprehension and production, a sample of 75 female EFL learners of Kish Day Language Institute in Karaj, Iran were selected. They were in five groups and each group received…

  11. The effect of comprehensive sexual education program on sexual health knowledge and sexual attitude among college students in southwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chi, X.; Hawk, S.T.; Winter, S.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a comprehensive sexual education program for college students in Southwest China (a) improved sexual health knowledge in reproduction, contraception, condom use, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV; (b) increased accepting attitudes toward

  12. The effect of comprehensive sexual education program on sexual health knowledge and sexual attitude among college students in Southwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chi, Xinli; Hawk, Skyler T; Winter, Sam; Meeus, Wim

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a comprehensive sexual education program for college students in Southwest China (a) improved sexual health knowledge in reproduction, contraception, condom use, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV; (b) increased accepting attitudes toward

  13. Online Independent Vocabulary Learning Experience of Hong Kong University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Eunice; Chung, Edsoulla; Li, Eddy; Yeung, Steven

    2016-01-01

    In response to the limited vocabulary size of its undergraduates, an independent vocabulary learning platform, VLearn was designed and launched in a university in Hong Kong. As an e-learning environment that supports self-directed vocabulary learning of Chinese learners, the primary aim of VLearn is to equip users with appropriate knowledge and…

  14. The Creation and Validation of a Listening Vocabulary Levels Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Stuart; Kramer, Brandon; Beglar, David

    2015-01-01

    An important gap in the field of second language vocabulary assessment concerns the lack of validated tests measuring aural vocabulary knowledge. The primary purpose of this study is to introduce and provide preliminary validity evidence for the Listening Vocabulary Levels Test (LVLT), which has been designed as a diagnostic tool to measure…

  15. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Vocabulary and Reading Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Richard K.; Keenan, Janice M.; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Coventry, William L.; Corley, Robin; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Hulslander, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Genetic and environmental relations between vocabulary and reading skills were explored longitudinally from preschool through Grades 2 and 4. At preschool there were strong shared-environment and weak genetic influences on both vocabulary and print knowledge but substantial differences in their source. Separation of etiology for vocabulary and…

  16. The Effectiveness of a Supplemental Pre-Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Na Young

    2013-01-01

    Oral vocabulary is a strong predictor of young children's later reading development. Many children enter kindergarten with weak vocabulary knowledge and could benefit from an extra level or higher tier of intentional instruction in vocabulary that supplements the Tier 1 core curriculum in language. Recent findings from research developing a…

  17. Teaching Vocabulary through Poetry in an EFL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Baki; Mohammadzadeh, Behbood

    2012-01-01

    This study has been conducted to investigate the effectiveness of using poetry to teach vocabulary in a foreign language classroom. It aims to find answers to two research questions (1) "Do the learners enhance more extensive vocabulary knowledge by means of poetry-based vocabulary teaching activities than the traditional coursebook…

  18. Vocabulary acquisition in deaf and hard-of-hearing children: Research and interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, D.; Wauters, L.N.; Willemsen, M.; Knoors, H.E.T.

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is fundamental to communication, language learning, and acquiring knowledge of the world. Deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children face considerable challenges in acquiring age-appropriate vocabulary knowledge. The enhancement of children’s vocabulary knowledge is therefore one

  19. A Critique of Mark D. Allen's "The Preservation of Verb Subcategory Knowledge in a Spoken Language Comprehension Deficit"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmerer, David

    2008-01-01

    Allen [Allen, M. (2005). "The preservation of verb subcategory knowledge in a spoken language comprehension deficit." "Brain and Language, 95", 255-264.] reports a single patient, WBN, who, during spoken language comprehension, is still able to access some of the syntactic properties of verbs despite being unable to access some of their semantic…

  20. k-Neighborhood decentralization: a comprehensive solution to index the UMLS for large scale knowledge discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yang; Lu, Kewei; James, Stephen L; Borlawsky, Tara B; Huang, Kun; Payne, Philip R O

    2012-04-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) is the largest thesaurus in the biomedical informatics domain. Previous works have shown that knowledge constructs comprised of transitively-associated UMLS concepts are effective for discovering potentially novel biomedical hypotheses. However, the extremely large size of the UMLS becomes a major challenge for these applications. To address this problem, we designed a k-neighborhood Decentralization Labeling Scheme (kDLS) for the UMLS, and the corresponding method to effectively evaluate the kDLS indexing results. kDLS provides a comprehensive solution for indexing the UMLS for very efficient large scale knowledge discovery. We demonstrated that it is highly effective to use kDLS paths to prioritize disease-gene relations across the whole genome, with extremely high fold-enrichment values. To our knowledge, this is the first indexing scheme capable of supporting efficient large scale knowledge discovery on the UMLS as a whole. Our expectation is that kDLS will become a vital engine for retrieving information and generating hypotheses from the UMLS for future medical informatics applications.

  1. Motivating Students to Learn Biology Vocabulary with Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boriana Marintcheva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Timely learning of specialized science vocabulary is critical for building a solid knowledge base in any scientific discipline. To motivate students to dedicate time and effort mastering biology vocabulary, I have designed a vocabulary exercise utilizing the popular web encyclopedia Wikipedia. The exercise creates an opportunity for students to connect the challenge of vocabulary learning to a prior positive experience of self-guided learning using a content source they are familiar and comfortable with.

  2. Using Explicit Instruction to Promote Vocabulary Learning for Struggling Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, D. Bruce; Mraz, Maryann; Nichols, William D.; Rickelman, Robert J.; Wood, Karen D.

    2009-01-01

    Research supports the need for active vocabulary learning across grade levels and subject areas to help increase readers' comprehension of diverse texts that they encounter. Given the increasing emphasis on decoding and reading comprehension, the relative importance of vocabulary instruction has been diminished in recent years. The authors argue…

  3. Components of Story Comprehension and Strategies to Support Them in Hearing and Deaf or Hard of Hearing Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Susan; Oakhill, Jane

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we review the skills that have been found to be related to good story comprehension in novice readers with normal hearing and describe the relative weight each plays. The relationship between effective story comprehension and lower level skills (such as syntactic awareness and vocabulary knowledge) is considered, and the casual…

  4. TEACHING VOCABULARY LEARNING STRATEGIES IN CLASSROOM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangWentao

    2004-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is one component of language skills such as reading and writing and enables language learners to more appropriate language use. 13ecause of the features of vocabulary learning, which is wide coverage in content and time, teaching vocabulary should base on learners previous knowledge and arouse their motivation to .further learning. Teaching language learning strategy in class can help studentsmore consciously monitor their learning, learn autonomously and become independent learner. Hence teacher should attach great importance to the instruction of voeabalary learnig strategies to students in classroom. This paper discusses theoretically the function and application of teaching learning strategy in vocabulary learning and also provides an applicable class sample to teach some vocabulary learning strategies to students.

  5. The Incremental Variance of Morphological Knowledge to Reading Comprehension in Grades 3-10 beyond Prior Reading Comprehension, Spelling, and Text Reading Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foorman, Barbara R.; Petscher, Yaacov; Bishop, M. Denise

    2012-01-01

    We know that knowledge of word structure--morphology--relates to reading, but there is limited research on its unique contribution to reading comprehension, especially with students in middle and high schools and with the nesting of students within classrooms taken into account. In this study with 4780 students in grades 3 to 10, we examined how…

  6. Accessing word meaning: Semantic word knowledge and reading comprehension in Dutch monolingual and bilingual fifth-graders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, M.

    2013-01-01

    Word knowledge is one of the key elements in reading comprehension and by extension in school success. At the same time, it is not quite clear which components of lexical knowledge play a role in reading. Is it enough to recognize the words we read? Do we need an in-depth understanding of their mean

  7. Research on English vocabulary teaching based on frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Shi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The key to accurately grasp the semantics in the context is to grasp the vocabularies. Only mastering a lot of vocabularies, many methods will be available in the process of English vocabulary learning and memory, of which English vocabulary teaching based on frequency gradually becomes an English vocabulary learning method recognized by everyone. In English teaching process, this paper makes the current English learning form a more systematic and comprehensive context theory through the questionnaires and application for English context and frequency method in English teaching process, thus proposing a feasible teaching method for the overall grasp of English language.

  8. The Challenge of Validation: Assessing the Performance of a Test of Productive Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Tess; Clenton, Jon

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the performance of a vocabulary test designed to measure second language productive vocabulary knowledge.The test, Lex30, uses a word association task to elicit vocabulary, and uses word frequency data to measure the vocabulary produced. Here we report firstly on the reliability of the test as measured by a test-retest study, a…

  9. The Type of Vocabulary Learning Strategies Used by ESL Students in University Putra Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Azadeh; Mustapha, Ghazali Bin

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important challenges that learners will face during the process of second language learning is learning vocabulary. Vocabulary has been recognized as crucial to language use in which insufficient vocabulary knowledge of the learners led to difficulties in second language learning. Thus, in the case of learning the vocabulary in…

  10. The Knowledge Program: an innovative, comprehensive electronic data capture system and warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzan, Irene; Speck, Micheal; Dopler, Chris; Urchek, John; Bielawski, Kay; Dunphy, Cheryl; Jehi, Lara; Bae, Charles; Parchman, Alandra

    2011-01-01

    Data contained in the electronic health record (EHR) present a tremendous opportunity to improve quality-of-care and enhance research capabilities. However, the EHR is not structured to provide data for such purposes: most clinical information is entered as free text and content varies substantially between providers. Discrete information on patients' functional status is typically not collected. Data extraction tools are often unavailable. We have developed the Knowledge Program (KP), a comprehensive initiative to improve the collection of discrete clinical information into the EHR and the retrievability of data for use in research, quality, and patient care. A distinct feature of the KP is the systematic collection of patient-reported outcomes, which is captured discretely, allowing more refined analyses of care outcomes. The KP capitalizes on features of the Epic EHR and utilizes an external IT infrastructure distinct from Epic for enhanced functionality. Here, we describe the development and implementation of the KP.

  11. Vocabulary services to support scientific data interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Simon; Mills, Katie; Tan, Florence

    2013-04-01

    Shared vocabularies are a core element in interoperable systems. Vocabularies need to be available at run-time, and where the vocabularies are shared by a distributed community this implies the use of web technology to provide vocabulary services. Given the ubiquity of vocabularies or classifiers in systems, vocabulary services are effectively the base of the interoperability stack. In contemporary knowledge organization systems, a vocabulary item is considered a concept, with the "terms" denoting it appearing as labels. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) formalizes this as an RDF Schema (RDFS) application, with a bridge to formal logic in Web Ontology Language (OWL). For maximum utility, a vocabulary should be made available through the following interfaces: * the vocabulary as a whole - at an ontology URI corresponding to a vocabulary document * each item in the vocabulary - at the item URI * summaries, subsets, and resources derived by transformation * through the standard RDF web API - i.e. a SPARQL endpoint * through a query form for human users. However, the vocabulary data model may be leveraged directly in a standard vocabulary API that uses the semantics provided by SKOS. SISSvoc3 [1] accomplishes this as a standard set of URI templates for a vocabulary. Any URI comforming to the template selects a vocabulary subset based on the SKOS properties, including labels (skos:prefLabel, skos:altLabel, rdfs:label) and a subset of the semantic relations (skos:broader, skos:narrower, etc). SISSvoc3 thus provides a RESTFul SKOS API to query a vocabulary, but hiding the complexity of SPARQL. It has been implemented using the Linked Data API (LDA) [2], which connects to a SPARQL endpoint. By using LDA, we also get content-negotiation, alternative views, paging, metadata and other functionality provided in a standard way. A number of vocabularies have been formalized in SKOS and deployed by CSIRO, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) and their

  12. Language skills and nonverbal cognitive processes associated with reading comprehension in deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daza, María Teresa; Phillips-Silver, Jessica; Ruiz-Cuadra, María del Mar; López-López, Francisco

    2014-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship between language skills (vocabulary knowledge and phonological awareness), nonverbal cognitive processes (attention, memory and executive functions) and reading comprehension in deaf children. Participants were thirty prelingually deaf children (10.7 ± 1.6 years old; 18 boys, 12 girls), who were classified as either good readers or poor readers by their scores on two reading comprehension tasks. The children were administered a rhyme judgment task and seven computerized neuropsychological tasks specifically designed and adapted for deaf children to evaluate vocabulary knowledge, attention, memory and executive functions in deaf children. A correlational approach was also used to assess the association between variables. Although the two groups did not show differences in phonological awareness, good readers showed better vocabulary and performed significantly better than poor readers on attention, memory and executive functions measures. Significant correlations were found between better scores in reading comprehension and better scores on tasks of vocabulary and non-verbal cognitive processes. The results suggest that in deaf children, vocabulary knowledge and nonverbal cognitive processes such as selective attention, visuo-spatial memory, abstract reasoning and sequential processing may be especially relevant for the development of reading comprehension.

  13. Linked Vocabulary API for the Earth Sciences Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zednik, S.; Fox, P. A.; Fu, L.; West, P.; Ma, X.

    2014-12-01

    The Linked Vocabulary API is a specification for publishing RESTful APIs of vocabularies represented in the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) as Linked Data on the web. This work began as part of the Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning Vocabularies (CMSPV) project in response to the need for a standard manner for agencies to publish and consume hierarchical vocabularies on the web. The RESTful architecture of the API provides a simple mechanism for consumption of full vocabularies, single vocabulary terms, related terms, and searches on terms. The Linked Data nature of the API promotes interoperability by exposing vocabulary resources as resolvable URIs that may be referenced from other vocabularies or sources of Linked Data and by allowing the published vocabulary to contain references as links to terms from other vocabularies. The Linked Vocabulary API is formally defined in a Linked Data API specification and may be deployed using standard implementations of the Linked Data API such as the Epimorphics Linked Data API (ELDA). Recent presentations of work done with the Linked Vocabulary API as part of the CMSPV project have resulted in the API receiving growing interest from the broader scientific community. In this contribution we present the Linked Vocabulary API design and deployment process.

  14. English Vocabulary Teaching Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary is very necessary in language teaching and acquisition.If students have a certain amount of vocabulary,they will overcome many difficulties in reading.listening、 speaking and writing.In vocabulary teaching,scholars have been working hard to find better ways.This paper attempts to find how to improve students’ enthusiasm of learning vocabulary and teach vocabulary more successfully and effectively.

  15. The effects of activating prior topic and metacognitive knowledge on text comprehension scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostons, Danny; van der Werf, Margaretha

    2015-01-01

    Background Research on prior knowledge activation has consistently shown that activating learners' prior knowledge has beneficial effects on learning. If learners activate their prior knowledge, this activated knowledge serves as a framework for establishing relationships between the knowledge they

  16. VOCABULARY TEACHING FOR NON—ENGLISH MAJORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    Introduction "How can we enlarge the students’ vocabulary?" This is a very essential problem in the teaching of Enslish as a foreign language for non-English majors in our college. Firstly, their English level is low, They are not only lack of linguistic patterns, grammar rules, but also vocabulary, Secondly, they have only three hours of intensive reading every week, They should pass 2-grade college English examination through two years studying of English. Thirdly, botn the teachers and students are in very passive position in English language teaching and learning. Almost every lesson begins with vocabulary, then text reading comprehension, and exercises, which based on the traditional method.

  17. Student Approaches to Learning Chinese Vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, I-Ping P.

    2005-01-01

    This research focuses on the strategies that native English speakers use as they learn to speak and write Chinese vocabulary words in the first year of an elementary Chinese class. The main research question was: what strategies do native English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese use to learn Chinese vocabulary words in their speaking and writing? The study was conducted at a medium-sized comprehensive university in the Southeastern U.S. The study drew from concepts and theories in s...

  18. Lexical access and vocabulary development in very young bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Bialystok, Ellen; Blaye, Agnes; Polonia, Alexandra; Yott, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This study compares lexical access and expressive and receptive vocabulary development in monolingual and bilingual toddlers. More specifically, the link between vocabulary size, production of translation equivalents, and lexical access in bilingual infants was examined as well as the relationship between the Communicative Development Inventories and the Computerized Comprehension Task. Twenty-five bilingual and 18 monolingual infants aged 24 months participated in this study. The results revealed significant differences between monolingual and bilinguals’ expressive vocabulary size in L1 but similar total vocabularies. Performance on the Computerized Comprehension Task revealed no differences between the two groups on measures of both reaction time and accuracy, and a strong convergent validity of the Computerized Comprehension Task with the Communicative Development Inventories was observed for both groups. Bilinguals with a higher proportion of translation equivalents in their expressive vocabulary showed faster access to words in the Computerized Comprehension Task. PMID:24761135

  19. Lexical access and vocabulary development in very young bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Bialystok, Ellen; Blaye, Agnes; Polonia, Alexandra; Yott, Jessica

    2013-02-01

    This study compares lexical access and expressive and receptive vocabulary development in monolingual and bilingual toddlers. More specifically, the link between vocabulary size, production of translation equivalents, and lexical access in bilingual infants was examined as well as the relationship between the Communicative Development Inventories and the Computerized Comprehension Task. Twenty-five bilingual and 18 monolingual infants aged 24 months participated in this study. The results revealed significant differences between monolingual and bilinguals' expressive vocabulary size in L1 but similar total vocabularies. Performance on the Computerized Comprehension Task revealed no differences between the two groups on measures of both reaction time and accuracy, and a strong convergent validity of the Computerized Comprehension Task with the Communicative Development Inventories was observed for both groups. Bilinguals with a higher proportion of translation equivalents in their expressive vocabulary showed faster access to words in the Computerized Comprehension Task.

  20. Linguistic knowledge, processing speed, and metacognitive knowledge in first- and second-language reading comprehension : A componential analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gelderen, Amos; Schoonen, Rob; de Glopper, Kees; Hulstijn, Jan; Simis, Annegien; Snellings, Patrick; Stevenson, Marie

    2004-01-01

    The authors report results of a study into the role of components of first-language (L1; Dutch) and second-language (L2; English) reading comprehension. Differences in the contributions of components of L1 and L2 reading comprehension are analyzed, in particular processing speed in L1 and L2. Findin

  1. Linguistic knowledge, processing speed and metacognitive knowledge in first and second language reading comprehension; a componential analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Gelderen; R. Schoonen; K. de Glopper; J. Hulstijn; A. Simis; P. Snellings; M. Stevenson

    2004-01-01

    The authors report results of a study into the role of components of first-language (L1; Dutch) and second-language (L2; English) reading comprehension. Differences in the contributions of components of L1 and L2 reading comprehension are analyzed, in particular processing speed in L1 and L2. Findin

  2. Linguistic knowledge, processing speed and metacognitive knowledge in first and second language reading comprehension; a componential analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gelderen, A.; Schoonen, R.; de Glopper, K.; Hulstijn, J.; Simis, A.; Snellings, P.; Stevenson, M.

    2004-01-01

    The authors report results of a study into the role of components of first-language (L1; Dutch) and second-language (L2; English) reading comprehension. Differences in the contributions of components of L1 and L2 reading comprehension are analyzed, in particular processing speed in L1 and L2. Findin

  3. Linguistic knowledge, processing speed, and metacognitive knowledge in first- and second-language reading comprehension : A componential analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gelderen, Amos; Schoonen, Rob; de Glopper, Kees; Hulstijn, Jan; Simis, Annegien; Snellings, Patrick; Stevenson, Marie

    2004-01-01

    The authors report results of a study into the role of components of first-language (L1; Dutch) and second-language (L2; English) reading comprehension. Differences in the contributions of components of L1 and L2 reading comprehension are analyzed, in particular processing speed in L1 and L2. Findin

  4. e-Vocabulary and e-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-María Fernández-Pampillón

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A vocabulary is a linguistic resource that helps manage, query and retrieve information and/or knowledge via words. If vocabularies are built and used in electronic format, they are referred as e-vocabularies. E-vocabularies have been used in Education to help teachers and students to, amongst many issues, (1 comprehend and relate the concepts and the objects of a given knowledge domain; (2 understand and learn languages, be they specialized or not; and (3 identify, describe and query knowledge and digital educational resources. Despite its utility, it is in this field where vocabularies seem to be less systematically developed, known, studied, analyzed, compared and/or linked. For this reason, we thought it was an opportunity to edit a dedicated volume with real experiences concerning the construction, use and evaluation of electronic vocabularies relating to education, and their application to the Internet and e-learning. The result is, finally, this Special Issue with five papers that represent part of the current state-of-the-art in the construction and use of e-vocabularies and education.

  5. Involving Parents in a Summer Book Reading Program to Promote Reading Comprehension, Fluency, and Vocabulary in Grade 3 and Grade 5 Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagan, Stephanie; Sénéchal, Monique

    2014-01-01

    In this research, parents and children participated in a comprehensive book reading intervention designed to improve children's literacy. Over eight weeks during the summer, children in the intervention condition were encouraged to read one book weekly and parents were trained to foster reading comprehension. Forty-eight Grades 3 and 5 children…

  6. Examining the Role of Vocabulary Depth, Cross-Linguistic Transfer, and Types of Reading Measures on the Reading Comprehension of Latino Bilinguals in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leider, Christine Montecillo; Proctor, C. Patrick; Silverman, Rebecca D.; Harring, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Given the increase of bilingual students in the K-12 public school system, understanding reading comprehension performance, especially among this population, has been a major focal point in the research literature. This study explores the nature of reading comprehension among a sample of 123 Spanish-English bilingual elementary students. We add to…

  7. A harmonized vocabulary for soil observed properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Bruce; Wilson, Peter; Cox, Simon; Vleeshouer, Jamie

    2014-05-01

    Interoperability of soil data depends on agreements concerning models, schemas and vocabularies. However, observed property terms are often defined during different activities and projects in isolation of one another, resulting in data that has the same scope being represented with different terms, using different formats and formalisms, and published in various access methods. Significantly, many soil property vocabularies conflate multiple concepts in a single term, e.g. quantity kind, units of measure, substance being observed, and procedure. Effectively, this bundles separate information elements into a single slot. We have developed a vocabulary for observed soil properties by adopting and extending a previously defined water quality vocabulary. The observed property model separates the information elements, based on the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Observations & Measurements model and extending the NASA/TopQuadrant 'Quantities, Units, Dimensions and Types' (QUDT) ontology. The imported water quality vocabulary is formalized using the Web Ontology Language (OWL). Key elements are defined as sub-classes or sub-properties of standard Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) elements, allowing use of standard vocabulary interfaces. For the soil observed property vocabulary, terms from QUDT and water quality are used where possible. These are supplemented with additional unit of measure (Unit), observed property (ScaledQuantityKind) and substance being observed (SubstanceOrTaxon) vocabulary entries required for the soil properties. The vocabulary terms have been extracted from the Australian Soil and Land Survey Field Handbook and Australian Soil Information Transfer and Evaluation System (SITES) vocabularies. The vocabulary links any chemical substances to items from the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) ontology. By formalizing the model for observable properties, and clearly labelling the separate elements, soil property observations may

  8. Multi-perspective Approaches of Vocabulary Teaching and Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣

    2016-01-01

    It is universally acknowledged that vocabulary is an essential component in language system. Nevertheless, in English teaching practice, imparting grammatical knowledge is highly emphasized but the vocabulary teaching is given little attention. In second language acquisition, proper application of vocabulary in communication is one of the important and difficult points for students. The paper aims to discuss the current problems in vocabulary teaching and learning, advocate a multi-perspective approach in teaching vocabulary so as to enhance the accuracy and fluency of language output, promote students’pragmatic and cross-cultural communicative competence and lay a solid foundation for their life-long learning.

  9. The Role of Inference Making and Other Language Skills in the Development of Narrative Listening Comprehension in 4-6-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepola, Janne; Lynch, Julie; Laakkonen, Eero; Silven, Maarit; Niemi, Pekka

    2012-01-01

    In this two-year longitudinal study, we sought to examine the developmental relationships among early narrative listening comprehension and language skills (i.e., vocabulary knowledge, sentence memory, and phonological awareness) and the roles of these factors in predicting narrative listening comprehension at the age of 6 years. We also sought to…

  10. It Is More than Knowledge Seeking: Examining the Effects of OpenCourseWare Lectures on Vocabulary Acquisition in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui-Chi; Sun, Yu-Chih

    2013-01-01

    OpenCourseWare (OCW) has received increasing attention over the past few years in higher education. These courses provide appealing opportunities to view classes taught in well-established universities worldwide. The current study aims to examine how OCW lectures can serve as authentic learning materials to facilitate vocabulary acquisition for…

  11. The Effect of Vocabulary Flooding Technique on Iranian EFL Elementary Learners’ Vocabulary Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touran Ahour

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find out the effect of using vocabulary flooding technique on Iranian EFL elementary learners’ vocabulary learning at the recognition level. A pretest-posttest control group design was used in this quasi-experimental research. The study was conducted at a secondary school in Sahand, a city located in the East-Azerbaijan province in Iran. Four intact grade-three classes were considered for the study. A KET test was administered and based on its results, two classes were selected as the homogenous ones, which were randomly assigned into the vocabulary flooding (experimental and no vocabulary flooding (control groups, each with 30 students. After the vocabulary recognition pretest, supplementary vocabulary teaching was used as the treatment in both groups. In the Experimental group, the target words were presented and practiced in flooding form, that is, in six or more sentences, while in the Control group, students were taught and practiced in only one sentence. After the treatment, two posttests (immediate and delayed were conducted in both groups. The results of the One-way within-subjects and between-subjects Repeated-Measures ANOVA revealed that there were statistically significant differences within and between the experimental and control groups in the three vocabulary recognition tests. It was found that the participants’ receptive vocabulary knowledge was improved in the experimental group as a result of using vocabulary flooding technique. The implications are provided for the syllabus designers, textbook writers and EFL teachers.

  12. Number-Concept Acquisition and General Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negen, James; Sarnecka, Barbara W.

    2012-01-01

    How is number-concept acquisition related to overall language development? Experiments 1 and 2 measured number-word knowledge and general vocabulary in a total of 59 children, ages 30-60 months. A strong correlation was found between number-word knowledge and vocabulary, independent of the child's age, contrary to previous results (D. Ansari et…

  13. Comprehension Challenges in the Fourth Grade: The Roles of Text Cohesion, Text Genre, and Readers' Prior Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Danielle S.; Ozuru, Yasuhiro; Floyd, Randy G.

    2011-01-01

    We examined young readers' comprehension as a function of text genre (narrative, science), text cohesion (high, low), and readers' abilities (reading decoding skills and world knowledge). The overarching purpose of this study was to contribute to our understanding of the "fourth grade slump". Children in grade 4 read four texts,…

  14. The Development of Antonym Knowledge in American Sign Language (ASL) and Its Relationship to Reading Comprehension in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novogrodsky, Rama; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine; Fish, Sarah; Hoffmeister, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    It is unknown if the developmental path of antonym knowledge in deaf children increases continuously with age and correlates with reading comprehension, as it does in hearing children. In the current study we tested 564 students aged 4-18 on a receptive multiple-choice American Sign Language (ASL) antonym test. A subgroup of 138 students aged 7-18…

  15. The effect of comprehensive sexual education program on sexual health knowledge and sexual attitude among college students in southwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chi, X.; Hawk, S.T.; Winter, S.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a comprehensive sexual education program for college students in Southwest China (a) improved sexual health knowledge in reproduction, contraception, condom use, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV; (b) increased accepting attitudes toward lesbian

  16. The effect of comprehensive sexual education program on sexual health knowledge and sexual attitude among college students in Southwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chi, Xinli; Hawk, Skyler T; Winter, Sam; Meeus, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a comprehensive sexual education program for college students in Southwest China (a) improved sexual health knowledge in reproduction, contraception, condom use, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV; (b) increased accepting attitudes toward lesbian

  17. Teaching English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝丹

    2014-01-01

    Grammar provides the overall patterns, and vocabulary is the material to put in the patterns. Without grammar we can convey a little, but without vocabulary we can convey nothing. Vocabulary teaching is an indispensable part of English curriculum. Art is a kind of creation. Teaching vocabulary artistically can make teachers and students build up created consciousness in teaching and learning vocabulary activities and teachers put their experience and emotions towards beauty into teaching activities to raise general vocabulary teaching activities to appreciation of beauty and creative activities, convert bitter into happy, tense into ease. Thus the non-intellectual factors like motive, interest, emotion, self-confidence and so on can be developed naturally and they will elaborate a great part in English vocabulary teaching. At the same time, the relationship between teachers and students can get improved fundamentally furthest and it pushes vocabulary teaching powerfully in turn.

  18. The Effects of Activating Prior Topic and Metacognitive Knowledge on Text Comprehension Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostons, Danny; van der Werf, Greetje

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research on prior knowledge activation has consistently shown that activating learners' prior knowledge has beneficial effects on learning. If learners activate their prior knowledge, this activated knowledge serves as a framework for establishing relationships between the knowledge they already possess and new information provided to…

  19. Improving Vocabulary Skills of Kindergarten Students through a Multi-Tier Instructional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuticelli, Mari; Coyne, Michael D.; Ware, Sharon M.; Oldham, Ashley; Loftus Rattan, Susan

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing need for the inclusion of direct, explicit vocabulary instruction in the early elementary grades. Young children are entering school with a wide range of early literacy experiences, including vocabulary knowledge. Those students who are limited in their vocabulary knowledge are at a greater risk for later language and reading…

  20. An Investigation of Comprehension Processes among Adolescent English Learners with Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesaux, Nonie K.; Harris, Julie Russ

    2017-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examines the reading skills and processes of early adolescent Latino English learners demonstrating below-average reading comprehension performance (N = 41, mean age = 13 years). Standardized measures were used to estimate participants' word reading and vocabulary knowledge, and interviews were conducted to examine reading…

  1. Concrete and relational vocabulary: comparison between Williams and Smith-Magenis syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garayzábal Heinze, Elena; Osório, Ana; Lens, María; Sampaio, Adriana

    2014-12-01

    We compared the performance of two clinical groups, Williams syndrome (WS) and Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), in terms of concrete and relational vocabulary. We analyzed (a) whether the WS group had an advantage in concrete vocabulary when compared to the SMS group, as good concrete vocabulary knowledge is considered a hallmark of WS; (b) if spatial processing difficulties in WS would be reflected specifically in their knowledge of relational spatial vocabulary; (c) if a specific vocabulary profile could be outlined for SMS. Our results show similar performances on receptive concrete and relational vocabulary in both groups. However, and as anticipated, performance on relational space concepts was significantly lower in the WS group.

  2. Rote Memorization of Vocabulary and Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weidong; Dai, Weiping

    2011-01-01

    Rote memorization of vocabulary has long been a common way for Chinese students to learn lexical items. Cultural, educational background and traditional teaching practice in China are identified to be the factors that contribute to many students' heavy reliance on memorization as their sole approach to vocabulary learning. In addition to rote…

  3. On Vocabulary Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑洁

    2013-01-01

    An efficient vocabulary learning strategy can supply students with exact meanings and usage of words. There are many differences between Chinese and English,so the result of memorizing vocabulary by rote is always not good. The paper holds the Incidental Vocabulary Learning to improve the English ability.

  4. Vocabulary Acquisition in L2: Does CALL Really Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averianova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Language competence in various communicative activities in L2 largely depends on the learners' size of vocabulary. The target vocabulary of adult L2 learners should be between 2,000 high frequency words (a critical threshold) and 10,000 word families (for comprehension of university texts). For a TOEIC test, the threshold is estimated to be…

  5. Preventing a Vocabulary Lag: What Lessons Are Learned from Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinatra, Richard; Zygouris-Coe, Vicky; Dasinger, Sheryl B.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses why early and sustained vocabulary development is important for listening and reading comprehension development and presents findings from 8 studies implemented with children of mostly low socioeconomic status in settings from day care to first grade. Program interventions were based on learning new vocabulary developed out…

  6. Vocabulary Growth and Reading Development across the Elementary School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Ludo; van Leeuwe, Jan; Vermeer, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The associations between vocabulary growth and reading development were examined longitudinally for a representative sample of Dutch children throughout the elementary school period. Data on basic and advanced vocabulary, word decoding, and reading comprehension were collected across the different grades. The results showed significant progress on…

  7. Heat waves and morbidity: current knowledge and further direction-a comprehensive literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; Gu, Shaohua; Bi, Peng; Yang, Jun; Liu, Qiyong

    2015-05-18

    In the past few decades, several devastating heat wave events have significantly challenged public health. As these events are projected to increase in both severity and frequency in the future, it is important to assess the relationship between heat waves and the health indicators that can be used in the early warning systems to guide the public health response. Yet there is a knowledge gap in the impact of heat waves on morbidity. In this study, a comprehensive review was conducted to assess the relationship between heat waves and different morbidity indicators, and to identify the vulnerable populations. The PubMed and ScienceDirect database were used to retrieve published literature in English from 1985 to 2014 on the relationship between heat waves and morbidity, and the following MeSH terms and keywords were used: heat wave, heat wave, morbidity, hospital admission, hospitalization, emergency call, emergency medical services, and outpatient visit. Thirty-three studies were included in the final analysis. Most studies found a short-term negative health impact of heat waves on morbidity. The elderly, children, and males were more vulnerable during heat waves, and the medical care demand increased for those with existing chronic diseases. Some social factors, such as lower socioeconomic status, can contribute to heat-susceptibility. In terms of study methods and heat wave definitions, there remain inconsistencies and uncertainties. Relevant policies and guidelines need to be developed to protect vulnerable populations. Morbidity indicators should be adopted in heat wave early warning systems in order to guide the effective implementation of public health actions.

  8. What Is Going on During Vocabulary Lessons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Mott

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been 9 years since the Congressionally appointed National Reading Panel made recommendations for literacy instruction that comprise a five-component framework of phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. Vocabulary, a critical pillar of literacy, has reciprocal and correlational relationships with reading achievement. The researchers piloted an observational instrument to determine the methods and materials K-3 teachers use to teach vocabulary in today’s classrooms. This brief evaluates a vocabulary observation tool the researchers developed to gather information from early childhood classroom settings in the midsouth region of the United States. Understanding materials utilized in various contexts will enable practitioners and researchers to address the significant disparity between vocabulary “haves and have-nots.” An examination of the instrument was conducted (n = 18 raters at 3 ratings apiece for 45 trials to determine reliability and validity of observations. Reliability was addressed via training with discussion and resolution of ratings from video of vocabulary instruction. Validity was analyzed via multidimensional scaling (MDS to visually portray ratings along the dimensions of student or teacher control. From this data, we were able to determine the number of possible senses (auditory, visual, kinesthetic, smell, and taste students used. Results indicated observer ratings (n = 45 clustered or separated material-type consistently indicating variance along both dimensions. The researchers are currently applying this piloted instrument in a large-scale study to depict teachers’ vocabulary material use. Understanding vocabulary materials and contexts of their use may lead to more effective vocabulary curriculum, instruction, and assessment.

  9. Measuring receptive vocabulary size : reliability and validity of the yes/no vocabulary test for French-speaking learners of Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eyckmans, June

    2004-01-01

    The relatively recent upsurge of the role of vocabulary in foreign language acquisition has gone hand in hand with a growing interest in vocabulary testing. Learners need a certain amount of vocabulary knowledge in order to be able to operate independently in the target language. The size of a one's

  10. Measuring receptive vocabulary size : reliability and validity of the yes/no vocabulary test for French-speaking learners of Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eyckmans, June

    2004-01-01

    The relatively recent upsurge of the role of vocabulary in foreign language acquisition has gone hand in hand with a growing interest in vocabulary testing. Learners need a certain amount of vocabulary knowledge in order to be able to operate independently in the target language. The size of a one's

  11. The Effectiveness of Strategies-based Instruction on Postgraduates' English Vocabulary Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蕾

    2008-01-01

    This ten-week quasi-experimental study was undertaken to explore the effectiveness of strategies-based vocabulary instruction on English vocabulary learning of postgraduate learners.By the questionnaires and vocabulary tests administered before and after the instruction, the experimental group and the control group were compared to find out whether reading comprehension plus SBI method was more effective than reading only method in postgraduates' English vocabulary learning.

  12. Early vocabulary development in children with bilateral cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välimaa, Taina; Kunnari, Sari; Laukkanen-Nevala, Päivi; Lonka, Eila

    2017-06-16

    Children with unilateral cochlear implants (CIs) may have delayed vocabulary development for an extended period after implantation. Bilateral cochlear implantation is reported to be associated with improved sound localization and enhanced speech perception in noise. This study proposed that bilateral implantation might also promote early vocabulary development. Knowledge regarding vocabulary growth and composition in children with bilateral CIs and factors associated with it may lead to improvements in the content of early speech and language intervention and family counselling. To analyse the growth of early vocabulary and its composition during the first year after CI activation and to investigate factors associated with vocabulary growth. The participants were 20 children with bilateral CIs (12 boys; eight girls; mean age at CI activation = 12.9 months). Vocabulary size was assessed with the Finnish version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) Infant Form and compared with normative data. Vocabulary composition was analysed in relation to vocabulary size. Growth curve modelling was implemented using a linear mixed model to analyse the effects of the following variables on early vocabulary growth: time, gender, maternal education, residual hearing with hearing aids, age at first hearing aid fitting and age at CI activation. Despite clear vocabulary growth over time, children with bilateral CIs lagged behind their age norms in receptive vocabulary during the first 12 months after CI activation. In expressive vocabulary, 35% of the children were able to catch up with their age norms, but 55% of the children lagged behind them. In receptive and expressive vocabularies of 1-20 words, analysis of different semantic categories indicated that social terms constituted the highest proportion. Nouns constituted the highest proportion in vocabularies of 101-400 words. The proportion of verbs remained below 20% and the proportion of function words and

  13. The Effect of Vocabulary Cluster on Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners' Vocabulary Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud KhaliliSabet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to inspect the possible effects of vocabulary cluster on Iranian Intermediate EFL learners' vocabulary achievement. It was based on the comparison between semantically and thematically –related sets to find out which type of vocabulary learning cluster was more effective on learners vocabulary learning. Sixty intermediate EFL learners were selected based on their performance on OPT test and then were randomly assigned into three groups each containing 20 subjects (one control and two experimental groups. Quasi-experimental design was used in which Pre-test and post-test were administered to collect data. The researcher employed Nations word level test as the pre-test to examine the participants' initial knowledge of common words. The experimental group (A worked on thematic clustering, while experimental group (B received instruction on semantic clustering and the control group received placebo. Next, all participants took part in vocabulary size test to evaluate the vocabulary achievement of the participants. The scores obtained from pre-test and post-test were analyzed through running paired sample t-test, and one-way ANOVA. The results indicated that the experimental group (B which received semantically related sets outperformed the control group & the experimental group (A which received thematically related sets. This may have significant implications for language instructors, syllabus designers, and learners to make more advancement in vocabulary learning process through employing vocabulary cluster.

  14. Taxonomies Support Preschoolers’ Knowledge Acquisition from Storybooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley M. Pinkham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For young children, storybooks may serve as especially valuable sources of new knowledge. While most research focuses on how extratextual comments influence knowledge acquisition, we propose that children’s learning may also be supported by the specific features of storybooks. More specifically, we propose that texts that invoke children’s knowledge of familiar taxonomic categories may support learning by providing a conceptual framework through which prior knowledge and new knowledge can be readily integrated. In this study, 60 5-year olds were read a storybook that either invoked their knowledge of a familiar taxonomic category (taxonomic storybook or focused on a common thematic grouping (traditional storybook. Following the book-reading, children’s vocabulary acquisition, literal comprehension, and inferential comprehension were assessed. Children who were read the taxonomic storybook demonstrated greater acquisition of target vocabulary and comprehension of factual content than children who were read the traditional storybook. Inferential comprehension, however, did not differ across the two conditions. We argue for the importance of careful consideration of book features and storybook selection in order to provide children with every opportunity to gain the knowledge foundational for successful literacy development.

  15. Comprehensive knowledge of HIV among women in rural Mozambique: development and validation of the HIV knowledge 27 scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampa, Philip J; Skinner, Shannon L; Patricio, Sérgio R; Rothman, Russell L; Vermund, Sten H; Audet, Carolyn M

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between HIV knowledge and HIV-related behaviors in settings like Mozambique has been limited by a lack of rigorously validated measures. A convenience sample of women seeking prenatal care at two clinics were administered an adapted, orally-administered, 27 item HIV-knowledge scale, the HK-27. Validation analyses were stratified by survey language (Portuguese and Echuabo). Kuder-Richardson (KR-20) coefficients estimated internal reliability. Construct validity was assessed with bivariate associations between HK-27 scores (% correct) and selected participant characteristics. The association between knowledge, self-reported HIV testing, and HIV infection were evaluated with multivariable logistic regression. Participants (N = 348) had a median age of 24; 188 spoke Portuguese, and 160 spoke Echuabo. Mean HK-27 scores were higher for Portuguese-speaking participants than Echuabo-speaking participants (68% correct vs. 42%, p0.8) for scales in both languages. Higher HK-27 scores were significantly (p≤0.05) correlated with more education, more media items in the home, a history of HIV testing, and participant work outside of the home for women of both languages. HK-27 scores were independently associated with completion of HIV testing in multivariable analysis (per 1% correct: aOR:1.02, 95%CI:0.01-0.03, p = 0.01), but not with HIV infection. HK-27 is a reliable and valid measure of HIV knowledge among Portuguese and Echuabo-speaking Mozambican women. The HK-27 demonstrated significant knowledge deficits among women in the study, and higher scores were associated with higher HIV testing probability. Future studies should evaluate the role of the HK-27 in longitudinal studies and in other populations.

  16. Comprehensive knowledge of HIV among women in rural Mozambique: development and validation of the HIV knowledge 27 scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J Ciampa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationship between HIV knowledge and HIV-related behaviors in settings like Mozambique has been limited by a lack of rigorously validated measures. METHODS: A convenience sample of women seeking prenatal care at two clinics were administered an adapted, orally-administered, 27 item HIV-knowledge scale, the HK-27. Validation analyses were stratified by survey language (Portuguese and Echuabo. Kuder-Richardson (KR-20 coefficients estimated internal reliability. Construct validity was assessed with bivariate associations between HK-27 scores (% correct and selected participant characteristics. The association between knowledge, self-reported HIV testing, and HIV infection were evaluated with multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Participants (N = 348 had a median age of 24; 188 spoke Portuguese, and 160 spoke Echuabo. Mean HK-27 scores were higher for Portuguese-speaking participants than Echuabo-speaking participants (68% correct vs. 42%, p0.8 for scales in both languages. Higher HK-27 scores were significantly (p≤0.05 correlated with more education, more media items in the home, a history of HIV testing, and participant work outside of the home for women of both languages. HK-27 scores were independently associated with completion of HIV testing in multivariable analysis (per 1% correct: aOR:1.02, 95%CI:0.01-0.03, p = 0.01, but not with HIV infection. CONCLUSIONS: HK-27 is a reliable and valid measure of HIV knowledge among Portuguese and Echuabo-speaking Mozambican women. The HK-27 demonstrated significant knowledge deficits among women in the study, and higher scores were associated with higher HIV testing probability. Future studies should evaluate the role of the HK-27 in longitudinal studies and in other populations.

  17. Systematic Replication of the Effects of a Supplementary, Technology-Assisted, Storybook Intervention for Preschool Children with Weak Vocabulary and Comprehension Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Charles R.; Carta, Judith J.; Kelley, Elizabeth S.; Guerrero, Gabriela; Kong, Na Young; Atwater, Jane; Goldstein, Howard

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, Spencer, Goldstein, Sherman, et al. reported the promising effects of a supplemental, technology-assisted, storybook intervention (Tier 2) containing embedded instruction targeting the oral language learning of preschool children at risk for delays. We sought to advance knowledge of the intervention by replicating it in a new sample and…

  18. Systematic Replication of the Effects of a Supplementary, Technology-Assisted, Storybook Intervention for Preschool Children with Weak Vocabulary and Comprehension Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Charles R.; Carta, Judith J.; Kelley, Elizabeth S.; Guerrero, Gabriela; Kong, Na Young; Atwater, Jane; Goldstein, Howard

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, Spencer, Goldstein, Sherman, et al. reported the promising effects of a supplemental, technology-assisted, storybook intervention (Tier 2) containing embedded instruction targeting the oral language learning of preschool children at risk for delays. We sought to advance knowledge of the intervention by replicating it in a new sample and…

  19. Orthography facilitates vocabulary learning for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rebecca; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can use orthography to facilitate vocabulary learning, as is the case for typically developing (TD) children. Forty-one children aged 7-12 years, 20 with a formal diagnosis of ASD and 21 TD peers, were taught 16 low-frequency concrete science words, such as "breccia". Half of the stimuli had the written word presented alongside a picture of the target item (orthography present: OP) while the remaining items were taught with orthography absent (OA). During the learning phase, eye movements were recorded; there were no group differences in the time spent fixating the written form. Production, comprehension, and recognition of orthographic forms of new words were assessed immediately after learning and again after a 24-hour delay. The vocabulary learning of both groups was facilitated by the presence of orthography. Overall, the groups did not differ in comprehension of new words or recognition of new orthographic forms, although the children with ASD demonstrated superior phonological learning (as measured by a picture naming task) relative to TD peers. Additionally, both groups retained or increased new knowledge after 24 hours. The results suggest that presenting the written form during oral vocabulary teaching will enhance learning and provide a mechanism for children with ASD to increase word knowledge despite potential limitations in social learning.

  20. Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Sexual Behavior among University Students in Ambo, Central Ethiopia: Implication to Improve Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekariyas Sahile

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ethiopia has one of the lowest HIV prevalence rates in East Africa, but there are still more than one million people estimated to be living with HIV in Ethiopia. This study was aimed at assessing the comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual behavior among university students. Methodology. A cross-sectional comparative study was done with quantitative and qualitative data collection with a stratified sampling technique. The quantitative data were edited, coded, entered, and analyzed using SPSS software version 20. Result. Both comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention method were higher in the intervention group (75.8% and 48.5% than comparative group (68.6% and 42.5% which had a significant difference (P<0.05. Life time sexual intercourse was higher in the intervention group (40.8% as compared to the comparative group (34.6%. But sexual condom utilization in the past 12 months was higher in the intervention group (73.2% as compared to the comparative group (56.9% which had a significant difference (P<0.05. Similarly, history of sexual transmitted disease report was higher in the comparative group (6.3% as compared to the intervention (4.6%. Among sexual experience respondents in the last 12 months, 32% of them in the intervention and 35.5% of them in the comparative group have had multiple sexual partners. Conclusion. The intervention group had higher comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS and condom utilization. But a higher percentage of students were engaged in risky sexual behavior. Therefore, emphasis should be given on designing different strategy to reduce risky sexual behavior and increase comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge.

  1. Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Sexual Behavior among University Students in Ambo, Central Ethiopia: Implication to Improve Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahile, Zekariyas; Mekuria, Mulugeta; Yared, Abenezer

    2015-01-01

    Background. Ethiopia has one of the lowest HIV prevalence rates in East Africa, but there are still more than one million people estimated to be living with HIV in Ethiopia. This study was aimed at assessing the comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual behavior among university students. Methodology. A cross-sectional comparative study was done with quantitative and qualitative data collection with a stratified sampling technique. The quantitative data were edited, coded, entered, and analyzed using SPSS software version 20. Result. Both comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention method were higher in the intervention group (75.8% and 48.5%) than comparative group (68.6% and 42.5%) which had a significant difference (P sexual intercourse was higher in the intervention group (40.8%) as compared to the comparative group (34.6%). But sexual condom utilization in the past 12 months was higher in the intervention group (73.2%) as compared to the comparative group (56.9%) which had a significant difference (P sexual transmitted disease report was higher in the comparative group (6.3%) as compared to the intervention (4.6%). Among sexual experience respondents in the last 12 months, 32% of them in the intervention and 35.5% of them in the comparative group have had multiple sexual partners. Conclusion. The intervention group had higher comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS and condom utilization. But a higher percentage of students were engaged in risky sexual behavior. Therefore, emphasis should be given on designing different strategy to reduce risky sexual behavior and increase comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge.

  2. Improving Elementary School Students’ English Vocabulary Through Local Cultural Content Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Manurung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Elementary students of a certain public school in Indonesia had difficulties in learning English. One of the crucial problems was learning English vocabulary. In an attempt to help the students learn and improve English vocabulary, the researchers decided to use CAR to teach English vocabulary with local cultural content materials. The aim of this study was to investigate how the teaching of English vocabulary with local cultural content materials contributed to the improvement of the students’ English vocabulary mastery. The topics covered in the materials were selected based on schemata theory. Vocabulary learning process was done through several activities provided in the materials: classroom and outside vocabulary learning. The results showed that the teaching of local cultural content materials have contributed to the improvement of the Elementary students’ vocabulary mastery. The schematic knowledge found in the familiar topics has aroused the students’ interest and motivation in learning English vocabulary. Students who were more familiar with the topics could respond to the vocabulary learning better than those who were not familiar with. The vocabulary mastery was more successful only if the students participated in both classroom and outside vocabulary learning process. Keywords: Vocabulary Mastery, Vocabulary Improvement, Local Cultural Content Materials, Vocabulary Learning, Schemata

  3. Cross-Language Associations in the Development of Preschoolers' Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Michelle F; Bohlmann, Natalie L; Palacios, Natalia A

    The increasing population of dual language learners (DLLs) entering preschool classrooms highlights a continued need for research on the development of dual language acquisition, and specifically vocabulary skills, in this age group. This study describes young DLL children's (N = 177) vocabulary development in both English and Spanish simultaneously, and how vocabulary skills in each language relate to one another, during a contextual shift that places greater emphasis on the acquisition of academic English language skills. Findings demonstrated that DLL preschoolers made gains in vocabulary in both languages with more change evidenced in receptive, in comparison to expressive, vocabulary as well as in English in comparison to Spanish. When examining whether children's vocabulary scores in one language at the beginning of preschool interact with their vocabulary scores in the other language to predict vocabulary growth, no significant associations were found for receptive vocabulary. In contrast, the interaction between initial English and Spanish expressive vocabulary scores was negatively related to growth in English expressive vocabulary. This cross-language association suggests that children who have low expressive vocabulary skills in both languages tend to grow faster in their English expressive vocabulary. The study extends previous work on dual language development by examining growth in expressive and receptive vocabulary in both English and Spanish. It also provides suggestions for future work to inform a more comprehensive understanding of DLL children's development in both languages.

  4. Cross-Language Associations in the Development of Preschoolers’ Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Michelle F.; Bohlmann, Natalie L.; Palacios, Natalia A.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing population of dual language learners (DLLs) entering preschool classrooms highlights a continued need for research on the development of dual language acquisition, and specifically vocabulary skills, in this age group. This study describes young DLL children's (N = 177) vocabulary development in both English and Spanish simultaneously, and how vocabulary skills in each language relate to one another, during a contextual shift that places greater emphasis on the acquisition of academic English language skills. Findings demonstrated that DLL preschoolers made gains in vocabulary in both languages with more change evidenced in receptive, in comparison to expressive, vocabulary as well as in English in comparison to Spanish. When examining whether children's vocabulary scores in one language at the beginning of preschool interact with their vocabulary scores in the other language to predict vocabulary growth, no significant associations were found for receptive vocabulary. In contrast, the interaction between initial English and Spanish expressive vocabulary scores was negatively related to growth in English expressive vocabulary. This cross-language association suggests that children who have low expressive vocabulary skills in both languages tend to grow faster in their English expressive vocabulary. The study extends previous work on dual language development by examining growth in expressive and receptive vocabulary in both English and Spanish. It also provides suggestions for future work to inform a more comprehensive understanding of DLL children's development in both languages. PMID:26807002

  5. The effect of comprehensive sexual education program on sexual health knowledge and sexual attitude among college students in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xinli; Hawk, Skyler T; Winter, Sam; Meeus, Wim

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a comprehensive sexual education program for college students in Southwest China (a) improved sexual health knowledge in reproduction, contraception, condom use, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV; (b) increased accepting attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transsexual individuals; and (c) altered participants' attitudes toward premarital sex and monogamy. The program used diverse teaching methods, providing 6 sessions over a period of 9 weeks about sexual health knowledge and sexual attitudes to college students (age 18-26 years) in Southwest China. Sexual health knowledge and sexual attitudes of 80 comprehensive sexual education class students (education group) and 92 general mental health education class students (control group) were measured at baseline, the end of course (posttest), and 3 weeks after the end of course (follow-up). There were significant effects of the program on (a) sexual health knowledge, including reproductive health, contraception, condom use, and HIV/AIDS and (b) positive attitudes toward sexual minorities, although these changes may require further reinforcement. In contrast, the program did not alter students' attitudes about premarital sex or monogamy. The results are discussed in terms of recommendations of sex education in China and future directions for research.

  6. Tagging vs. Controlled Vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine; Petras, Vivien

    2015-01-01

    elements like core bibliographic data, controlled vocabulary terms, reviews, and tags to the retrieval performance. Our comparison is done using a test collection of over 2 million book records with information elements from Amazon, the British Library, the Library of Congress, and LibraryThing. We find...... that tags and controlled vocabulary terms do not actually outperform each other consistently, but seem to provide complementary contributions: some information needs are best addressed using controlled vocabulary terms whereas other are best addressed using tags....

  7. NASA thesaurus aeronautics vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The controlled vocabulary used by the NASA Scientific and Technical Information effort to index documents in the area of aeronautics is presented. The terms comprise a subset of the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus and its supplements issued through the end of 1990. The Aeronautics Vocabulary contains over 4700 terms presented in a hierarchical display format. In addition to aeronautics per se, the vocabulary covers supporting terminology from areas such as fluid dynamics, propulsion engineering, and test facilities and instrumentation.

  8. Vocabulary Acquisition through Direct and Indirect Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Maki; Foo, Thomas Chow Voon

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary learning has long been considered as one of the essential components for developing language learning. However, language learners are required to not just concern about memorizing definitions but also integrating vocabulary meaning into their present knowledge. Many strategies such as direct or indirect ones may be integrated to enhance…

  9. Vocabulary Strategies that Work: Do This-Not that!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfong, Lori

    2013-01-01

    Update your vocabulary practices to meet the Common Core and improve students' word knowledge! This new, clearly-structured guide shows you how. It's packed with engaging, research-based, classroom-ready strategies for teaching vocabulary. Topics include: (1) Selecting meaningful words for direct instruction; (2) Strategies for engaging students…

  10. Redefining Vocabulary: The New Learning Strategy for Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander-Shea, Aimee

    2011-01-01

    Although vocabulary development is an important part of the social studies curriculum, vocabulary activities are often inadequate, leaving students with cursory knowledge of terms. Worse still is the fact that many of the most critical words demarcating the field are not included in those activities. Therefore, a transformation from viewing…

  11. Teaching Academic Vocabulary to Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Kristen D.; Sanchez, Victoria; Flynn, Lindsay J.; O'Connor, Rollanda E.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the efforts of a U.S. History teacher to directly teach word meanings using the "robust vocabulary instruction" (RVI) approach, because research supports this method as a way to improve vocabulary knowledge for a range of students, including adolescents reading below grade level (i.e., struggling readers) and…

  12. Food and Feed Commodity Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Feed Vocabulary was developed to consolidate all the major OPP Commodity Vocabularies into one standardized vocabulary. The EPA-preferred term is the only term that can be used in setting tolerances.

  13. Working memory contributions to reading comprehension components in middle childhood children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysochoou, Elisavet; Bablekou, Zoe; Tsigilis, Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    This study examined working memory contributions to reading comprehension subskills in Greek children (mean age 9 years, 1 month). The phonological loop of the Baddeley and Hitch working memory model was assessed with 3 recall tasks (words, nonwords, and digits) and a word list matching task. The central executive (CE) was assessed with 3 tasks (listening, counting, and backward digit recall). Participants were also given a receptive vocabulary task, a reading fluency task, and written stories accompanied by comprehension questions. Canonical correlation analyses showed that the comprehension variables were related to the CE rather than the phonological loop measures. CE functions were more strongly associated with elaborative inference generation (involving significant offline processing) and comprehension control (involving metacognitive monitoring). Smaller yet significant associations were observed between the CE and the necessary inference and literal comprehension measures, whereas a moderate relationship was found in the case of the simile comprehension variable. Among the CE variables, listening recall demonstrated the highest loading on the canonical function, followed by moderate yet significant counting and backward digit recall loadings. Vocabulary was found to fully mediate several associations between working memory and comprehension measures; however, the relationship between listening recall and elaborative inferences was partly mediated. Reading fluency and, on several occasions, Greek vocabulary knowledge did not mediate the relationships between CE measures and comprehension skills assessed. This study demonstrates the usefulness of CE measures for identifying young children's possible difficulties in carrying out specific reading comprehension processes.

  14. Inhibiting Natural Knowledge in Fourth Graders: Towards a Comprehensive Test Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoof, Jo; Janssen, Rianne; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2015-01-01

    While understanding rational numbers forms an essential part of mathematical literacy, research has repeatedly shown that they form a stumbling block in education. A big source of difficulty is the inappropriate application of natural number knowledge. The research literature points at three main aspects where natural number knowledge is…

  15. Quality of children's knowledge representations in digital text comprehension: Evidence from pathfinder networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fesel, S.S.; Segers, P.C.J.; Clariana, R.B.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2015-01-01

    Children in primary school read digital texts for school purposes while current research has shown that forming a coherent knowledge structure of such texts is challenging. We compared the quality of ninety 6th grade children's knowledge structures after the reading of four different hierarchically

  16. Quality of children's knowledge representations in digital text comprehension: Evidence from pathfinder networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fesel, S.S.; Segers, P.C.J.; Clariana, R.B.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2015-01-01

    Children in primary school read digital texts for school purposes while current research has shown that forming a coherent knowledge structure of such texts is challenging. We compared the quality of ninety 6th grade children's knowledge structures after the reading of four different hierarchically

  17. Vocabulary Breadth and Field Dependence/Independence Cognitive Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Nassim Golaghaei

    2011-01-01

    This article is primarily bidirectional in that it is concerned with two fields of cognitive styles of field-dependency/independency on one hand and breadth of vocabulary knowledge on the other hand. In other word, this research is primarily intended to investigate the nature of the students' vocabulary knowledge in the field of passive and active knowledge of L2 words as a whole with regard to their preferred cognitive style of field dependency/independency. A group of 60 undergraduate stude...

  18. Cognitive Correlates of Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Phillips, Beth

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to understand cognitive foundations of oral language comprehension (i.e., listening comprehension), we examined how inhibitory control, theory of mind, and comprehension monitoring are uniquely related to listening comprehension over and above vocabulary and age. A total of 156 children in kindergarten and first grade from…

  19. Spelling Ability in College Students Predicted by Decoding, Print Exposure, and Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocal, Turkan; Ehri, Linnea

    2017-01-01

    This study examines students' exposure to print, vocabulary and decoding as predictors of spelling skills. Participants were 42 college students (Mean age 22.5, SD = 7.87; 31 females and 11 males). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that most of the variance in spelling was explained by vocabulary knowledge. When vocabulary was entered first…

  20. Acquisition of Vocabulary by Dint of Unique Strategies: Indispensible for Fostering English Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, G. Rexlin

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary is the gateway to knowledge that unlocks the doors of sublime ideas to the readers. The competency on the lexical items of language plays a significant role in learning a new concept. Any learner who has excellent command over the use of vocabulary excels in his/her study of different subjects. Vocabulary learning is one of the…

  1. Spelling Ability in College Students Predicted by Decoding, Print Exposure, and Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocal, Turkan; Ehri, Linnea

    2017-01-01

    This study examines students' exposure to print, vocabulary and decoding as predictors of spelling skills. Participants were 42 college students (Mean age 22.5, SD = 7.87; 31 females and 11 males). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that most of the variance in spelling was explained by vocabulary knowledge. When vocabulary was entered first…

  2. Domestic Research on Breadth of Productive Vocabulary Knowledge in L2 Writing:Review and Reflection%国内二语写作产出性词汇广度研究的回顾与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何微微

    2016-01-01

    It is comparatively late for Chinese linguistic scholars to begin researching on Breadth of productive vo-cabulary knowledge in L2 writing. Based on literature review, this article analyzes the current situation of its research tendencies, contents and instruments, and then proposes some thoughts of further improvement in such aspects as re-search evaluation, instruments and statistical techniques.%国内二语写作产出性词汇广度研究相对较晚,通过文献回顾的基础上分析国内该领域研究成果在基本趋势、研究内容和研究工具方面的现状,提出有待在研究成果评价、研究工具和统计方法方面进一步完善。

  3. Fundamental Vocabulary Selection Based on Word Familiarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Kasahara, Kaname; Kanasugi, Tomoko; Amano, Shigeaki

    This paper proposes a new method for selecting fundamental vocabulary. We are presently constructing the Fundamental Vocabulary Knowledge-base of Japanese that contains integrated information on syntax, semantics and pragmatics, for the purposes of advanced natural language processing. This database mainly consists of a lexicon and a treebank: Lexeed (a Japanese Semantic Lexicon) and the Hinoki Treebank. Fundamental vocabulary selection is the first step in the construction of Lexeed. The vocabulary should include sufficient words to describe general concepts for self-expandability, and should not be prohibitively large to construct and maintain. There are two conventional methods for selecting fundamental vocabulary. The first is intuition-based selection by experts. This is the traditional method for making dictionaries. A weak point of this method is that the selection strongly depends on personal intuition. The second is corpus-based selection. This method is superior in objectivity to intuition-based selection, however, it is difficult to compile a sufficiently balanced corpora. We propose a psychologically-motivated selection method that adopts word familiarity as the selection criterion. Word familiarity is a rating that represents the familiarity of a word as a real number ranging from 1 (least familiar) to 7 (most familiar). We determined the word familiarity ratings statistically based on psychological experiments over 32 subjects. We selected about 30,000 words as the fundamental vocabulary, based on a minimum word familiarity threshold of 5. We also evaluated the vocabulary by comparing its word coverage with conventional intuition-based and corpus-based selection over dictionary definition sentences and novels, and demonstrated the superior coverage of our lexicon. Based on this, we conclude that the proposed method is superior to conventional methods for fundamental vocabulary selection.

  4. A Model of Communicative Teaching and Learning of English Vocabulary Through Interactive Actin vities

    OpenAIRE

    Sahraini Sahraini

    2015-01-01

    Teaching English vocabulary is very important, and it is more than just presenting and introducing new vocabulary to the students. Knowing words is not only memorizing them, but the students need to understand the meaning of the word in context and how the words are used. This can be achieved through correct vocabulary instruction which should involve vocabulary selection, word knowledge, and techniques. The needs of prospective teachers in mastering English both spoken and written, and the a...

  5. A critique of Mark D. Allen's "the preservation of verb subcategory knowledge in a spoken language comprehension deficit".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmerer, David

    2008-07-01

    Allen [Allen, M. (2005). The preservation of verb subcategory knowledge in a spoken language comprehension deficit. Brain and Language, 95, 255-264.] reports a single patient, WBN, who, during spoken language comprehension, is still able to access some of the syntactic properties of verbs despite being unable to access some of their semantic properties. Allen claims that these findings challenge linguistic theories which assume that much of the syntactic behavior of verbs can be predicted from their meanings. I argue, however, that this conclusion is not supported by the data for two reasons: first, Allen focuses on aspects of verb syntax that are not claimed to be influenced by verb semantics; and second, he ignores aspects of verb syntax that are claimed to be influenced by verb semantics.

  6. Discussion about English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenxia Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Vocabulary becomes more and more crucial in English learning.The article depicts six main domains about the mastery and enlargement of vocabulary,and they are motivation and aim,major fields,word,ways,radiation,and concrete execution respectively.

  7. Building Mathematics Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarik, Madeline

    2010-01-01

    Although mathematics is visual language of symbols and numbers it is also expressed and explained through written and spoken words. For students to excel in mathematics, they must recognize, comprehend and apply the requisite vocabulary. Thus, vocabulary instruction is as critical in content areas as it is in language arts. It is especially…

  8. The Superlearning of Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmer, H. Thompson

    1983-01-01

    Describes the use of Georgi Lozanov's technique using rhythm, breathing, music, and meditation to bring about hypermnesia, or supermemory, to teach vocabulary to 15 university students. Reviews students' vocabulary gains, as seen in pre- and post-test scores, and describes how some students implemented superlearning techniques with their own…

  9. Vocabularies in the VO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A. J. G.; Gray, N.; Ounis, I.

    2009-09-01

    There are multiple vocabularies and thesauri within astronomy, of which the best known are the 1993 IAU Thesaurus and the keyword list maintained by A&A, ApJ and MNRAS. The IVOA has agreed on a standard for publishing vocabularies, based on the W3C skos standard, to allow greater automated interaction with them, in particular on the Web. This allows links with the Semantic Web and looks forward to richer applications using the technologies of that domain. Vocabulary-aware applications can benefit from improvements in both precision and recall when searching for bibliographic or science data, and lightweight intelligent filtering for services such as VOEvent streams. In this paper we present two applications, the Vocabulary Explorer and its companion the Mapping Editor, which have been developed to support the use of vocabularies in the Virtual Observatory. These combine Semantic Web and Information Retrieval technologies to illustrate the way in which formal vocabularies might be used in a practical application, provide an online service which will allow astronomers to explore and relate existing vocabularies, and provide a service which translates free text user queries into vocabulary terms.

  10. Vocabulary Intervention for School-age Children with Language Impairment: A Review of Evidence and Good Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Sara C; Mills, Monique T

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence to support direct vocabulary intervention practices for primary school-age children with language impairment (LI). A rationale for providing direct vocabulary intervention for children with LI is outlined by reviewing typical and atypical vocabulary acquisition, evidence of instructional strategies from research in mainstream and special education is summarised, and suggestions for vocabulary intervention activities that facilitate deep word knowledge are provided. Suggestions for choosing appropriate vocabulary, using strategies during direct intervention, and conducting activities that increase depth of vocabulary knowledge are included.

  11. Predicting individual differences in reading comprehension: a twin study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, Laurie; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; DeThorne, Laura S.; Justice, Laura M.; Schatschneider, Chris; Thompson, Lee A.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the Simple View of reading from a behavioral genetic perspective. Two aspects of word decoding (phonological decoding and word recognition), two aspects of oral language skill (listening comprehension and vocabulary), and reading comprehension were assessed in a twin sample at age 9. Using latent factor models, we found that overlap among phonological decoding, word recognition, listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension was primarily due to genetic influences. Shared environmental influences accounted for associations among word recognition, listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension. Independent of phonological decoding and word recognition, there was a separate genetic link between listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension and a specific shared environmental link between vocabulary and reading comprehension. There were no residual genetic or environmental influences on reading comprehension. The findings provide evidence for a genetic basis to the “Simple View” of reading. PMID:20814768

  12. Predicting individual differences in reading comprehension: a twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlaar, Nicole; Cutting, Laurie; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dethorne, Laura S; Justice, Laura M; Schatschneider, Chris; Thompson, Lee A; Petrill, Stephen A

    2010-12-01

    We examined the Simple View of reading from a behavioral genetic perspective. Two aspects of word decoding (phonological decoding and word recognition), two aspects of oral language skill (listening comprehension and vocabulary), and reading comprehension were assessed in a twin sample at age 9. Using latent factor models, we found that overlap among phonological decoding, word recognition, listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension was primarily due to genetic influences. Shared environmental influences accounted for associations among word recognition, listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension. Independent of phonological decoding and word recognition, there was a separate genetic link between listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension and a specific shared environmental link between vocabulary and reading comprehension. There were no residual genetic or environmental influences on reading comprehension. The findings provide evidence for a genetic basis to the "Simple View" of reading.

  13. Elementary Students' Acquisition of Academic Vocabulary Through Engineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugelmass, Rachel

    This study examines how STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) inquiry-based learning through a hands-on engineering design can be beneficial in helping students acquire academic vocabulary. This research took place in a second grade dual- language classroom in a public, suburban elementary school. English language learners, students who speak Spanish at home, and native English speakers were evaluated in this study. Each day, students were presented with a general academic vocabulary focus word during an engineering design challenge. Vocabulary pre-tests and post-tests as well as observation field notes were used to evaluate the student's growth in reading and defining the focus academic vocabulary words. A quiz and KSB (knowledge and skill builder) packet were used to evaluate students' knowledge of science and math content and engineering design. The results of this study indicate that engineering design is an effective means for teaching academic vocabulary to students with varying levels of English proficiency.

  14. Crosslinguistic Developmental Consistency in the Composition of Toddlers’ Internal State Vocabulary: Evidence from Four Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental state language, emerging in the second and third years of life in typically developing children, is one of the first signs of an explicit psychological understanding. While mental state vocabulary may serve a variety of conversational functions in discourse and thus might not always indicate psychological comprehension, there is evidence for genuine references to mental states (desires, knowledge, beliefs, and emotions early in development across languages. This present study presents parental questionnaire data on the composition of 297 toddler-aged (30-to 32-month-olds children’s internal state vocabulary in four languages: Italian, German, English, and French. The results demonstrated that across languages expressions for physiological states (e.g., hungry and tired were among the most varied, while children’s vocabulary for cognitive entities (e.g., know and think proved to be least varied. Further, consistent with studies on children’s comprehension of these concepts, across languages children’s mastery of volition terms (e.g., like to do and want preceded their mastery of cognition terms. These findings confirm the cross-linguistic consistency of children’s emerging expression of abstract psychological concepts.

  15. WORD ORIGIN HELPS EXPAND LEARNERS’ VOCABULARY A VOCABULARY TEACHING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Word origin (motivation deals with the connection between name and sense, explaining how a word originated. With the knowledge of how words are originated, learners can grasp a word easier and thus expand their vocabulary more quickly. The introduction to word origin (motivation by teachers can also help the learners gain interest in the process of learning and learn more about the cultural and historical background of the English-speaking countries. This paper tries to clarify this method of teaching from four aspects: onomatopoeia, word formation, cultural and historical background and cognitive linguistics.

  16. The Differential Effects of Two Vocabulary Instruction Methods on EFL Word Learning: A Study into Task Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Elke

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effect of two vocabulary instruction treatments on word retention by 56 EFL learners. In particular, it focuses on the differential effects of a message-oriented treatment (reading text and answering comprehension questions) and a vocabulary-oriented treatment (reading text and performing two vocabulary tasks) on learners'…

  17. [P.A.I.S., a personal medical information system. A comprehensive medical knowledge base].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münch, E

    1994-06-01

    The electronic medical knowledge data base DOPIS is a compliation of knowledge from various special fields of medicine. Using uniform nomenclature, the data are presented on demand as they would be in a book chapter. Concise updates can be performed at low cost. The primary structure of the concept is the division of medical knowledge into data banks on diagnosis, literature, medication and pharmacology, as well as so-called electronic textbooks. All data banks and electronic textbooks are connected associatively. Visual information is obtained via the image data bank connected to the diagnosis data bank and the electronic books. Moreover, DOPIS has an integrated patient findings system, as well as an image processing and archiving system with research values enabling research functions. The diagnosis and literature data banks can be modified by the user or author, or fed with their own data (a so-called Expert System Shell). For authors from special fields working on the project, an extra Medical Electronic Publishing System has been developed and made available for the electronic textbooks. The model for the knowledge data base has been developed in the field of ENT, the programme implemented and initially ENT data have been stored.

  18. Sex differences in foreign language text comprehension : The role of interests and prior knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bugel, K; Buunk, BP

    1996-01-01

    The scores obtained by female students on the national foreign language examinations in the Netherlands have been slightly but consistently lower than those of male students. The present research among 2980 high school students tested the hypothesis that, owing to sex differences in prior knowledge

  19. WWC Review of the Report “Improving Reading Comprehension and Social Studies Knowledge in Middle School.” What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The study reviewed in this paper examined the effects of the instructional practice “Promoting Acceleration of Comprehension and Content Through Text” (“PACT”), an approach that aims to improve social studies content knowledge and reading comprehension. This study took place in two middle schools in a near-urban district in Texas. Study authors…

  20. Interactive College English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敏

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary learning is the foundation of language learning and the security to realize the language communication. However, vocabulary learning for many students is a difficulty which is hard to pass across. This paper attempts to explore the present vocabulary teaching reform, which aims to establish a teaching method that is to help students develop vocabulary learn-ing interest with the game.

  1. Supplements to Traditional Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    布亚男

    2012-01-01

      In a word, Vocabulary plays an indispensable part in language proficiency and provides much of the basis of how wel learns language, so it cannot be ignored. I discussed Schools’ viewpoints on the vocabulary teaching ,Reason for forgetting, Traditional approach to vocabulary teaching, supplements to vocabulary teaching,the author hope the above content can offer some hints for language learners.

  2. Association between Knowledge about Comprehensive Food Education and Increase in Dental Caries in Japanese University Students: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Ekuni, Daisuke; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Yamane, Mayu; Kataoka, Kota; Taniguchi-Tabata, Ayano; Mizuno, Hirofumi; Miyai, Hisataka; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

    2016-02-25

    In Japan, comprehensive food education (shokuiku) programs are carried out with the aim of improving dietary practices and thereby reducing the incidence of lifestyle-related diseases, including dental caries. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the association between knowledge about shokuiku and the increase in dental caries among Japanese university students who had attended a shokuiku program while in junior/senior high school. A total of 562 students volunteered to undergo oral examinations over a three-year follow-up period, during which the number of cases of dental caries were recorded. Additional information was collected using a questionnaire survey regarding knowledge about shokuiku, dietary habits, and oral health behaviors. In logistic regression analysis, males who lacked knowledge about shokuiku had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (odds ratio (OR), 2.00; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-3.58; p = 0.019). On the other hand, among females, those who frequently consumed sugar-sweetened soft drinks had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.05-3.42; p = 0.035). These results suggest that having no knowledge about shokuiku is associated with a risk of increase in dental caries in Japanese male university students.

  3. Association between Knowledge about Comprehensive Food Education and Increase in Dental Caries in Japanese University Students: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneyoshi Kunitomo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In Japan, comprehensive food education (shokuiku programs are carried out with the aim of improving dietary practices and thereby reducing the incidence of lifestyle-related diseases, including dental caries. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the association between knowledge about shokuiku and the increase in dental caries among Japanese university students who had attended a shokuiku program while in junior/senior high school. A total of 562 students volunteered to undergo oral examinations over a three-year follow-up period, during which the number of cases of dental caries were recorded. Additional information was collected using a questionnaire survey regarding knowledge about shokuiku, dietary habits, and oral health behaviors. In logistic regression analysis, males who lacked knowledge about shokuiku had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (odds ratio (OR, 2.00; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.12–3.58; p = 0.019. On the other hand, among females, those who frequently consumed sugar-sweetened soft drinks had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.05–3.42; p = 0.035. These results suggest that having no knowledge about shokuiku is associated with a risk of increase in dental caries in Japanese male university students.

  4. Tagging behaviour with support from controlled vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Høj, Anne Lyhne; Madsen, Line Nørgaard

    2011-01-01

    The paper investigates how knowledge structures from a controlled vocabulary affect tagging. The study is a comparative analysis of tags assigned in two tagging systems, a simple tagging system (control system) that provides suggestions from two tag clouds (all users tags and my tags) and an enha...

  5. Vocabulary Games: More than Just Wordplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzutti, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Games offer more than just fun and play, and the analyses suggest that varying vocabulary activities is important if learners are to practice all the aspects of word knowledge. However, despite all the evidence, just claiming that playing games is a good way to practice the language is often not enough to win the argument. Because author Nico…

  6. Cultural Connotation in English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangJiying

    2004-01-01

    As an English language teacher with years of teaching experience, I have gradually recognized this fact that foreign language instruction and its vocabulary learn/rig should be closely combined with learning the knowledge of cultural contents of target language. Unfortunately, only a small number of teachers realize that teaching culture is very

  7. The Importance of Vocabulary for Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marisa T.

    2012-01-01

    A major component of literacy is "vocabulary," or the words employed by a language or in a field of knowledge. Understanding novel words and concepts is important for young students as they are confronted with a great deal of new terminology in the passages they read, especially in content areas such as science. Science is a discipline that relies…

  8. A Study on Vocabulary Differences between American English and British English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高怡菡; 刘芳

    2014-01-01

    This paper starts from the important component of a language, namely vocabulary, in which differences between AE and BE are comprehensively observed and analyzed. In this paper, comparisons are made to explore the characteristics of the two varieties of English respectively rather than to judge which is superior to the other. This will help us to obtain a better understand-ing of the English language, to facilitate the expression of it, to improve the capacity of using it, and to enrich the knowledge about it.

  9. The effects of an interactive instructional strategy for enhancing reading comprehension and content area learning for students with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, C S; Anders, P L; Filip, D; Jaffe, L E

    1989-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of an interactive vocabulary instructional strategy, semantic-feature analysis (SFA), on the content area text comprehension of adolescents with learning disabilities. Prior to reading a social studies text, students in resource classes either completed a relationship chart as part of the SFA condition or used the dictionary to write definitions and sentences as part of the contrast condition. Passage comprehension was measured on a multiple-choice test consisting of two types of items, vocabulary and conceptual. Comprehension was measured immediately following teaching and again 6 months after teaching. Prior knowledge for the content of the passage served as a covariate. Results indicated that students in the SFA instructional condition had significantly greater measured comprehension immediately following and 6 months after initial teaching. These results are discussed in relation to concept-driven, interactive strategies for teaching content and facilitating text comprehension.

  10. IMPACT OF THE CONCEPTUAL CARTOGRAPHY AS A COMPREHENSIVE STRATEGY ON KNOWLEDGE

    OpenAIRE

    José Silvano Hernández-Mosqueda; Sergio Tobón-Tobón

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: training high-level human capital due to current and emerging educational trends require new approaches to teaching. Objective: to analyze the impact of the conceptual mapping as a strategy for knowledge management. Methods: Quantitative under experimental design and application of the test t of Student. Results: inferential statistics showed the existence of significant values in the test performed, which allowed determine the range of probability of success that the use of con...

  11. The Truth Before and After: Brain Potentials Reveal Automatic Activation of Event Knowledge during Sentence Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwland, Mante S

    2015-11-01

    How does knowledge of real-world events shape our understanding of incoming language? Do temporal terms like "before" and "after" impact the online recruitment of real-world event knowledge? These questions were addressed in two ERP experiments, wherein participants read sentences that started with "before" or "after" and contained a critical word that rendered each sentence true or false (e.g., "Before/After the global economic crisis, securing a mortgage was easy/harder"). The critical words were matched on predictability, rated truth value, and semantic relatedness to the words in the sentence. Regardless of whether participants explicitly verified the sentences or not, false-after-sentences elicited larger N400s than true-after-sentences, consistent with the well-established finding that semantic retrieval of concepts is facilitated when they are consistent with real-world knowledge. However, although the truth judgments did not differ between before- and after-sentences, no such sentence N400 truth value effect occurred in before-sentences, whereas false-before-sentences elicited an enhanced subsequent positive ERPs. The temporal term "before" itself elicited more negative ERPs at central electrode channels than "after." These patterns of results show that, irrespective of ultimate sentence truth value judgments, semantic retrieval of concepts is momentarily facilitated when they are consistent with the known event outcome compared to when they are not. However, this inappropriate facilitation incurs later processing costs as reflected in the subsequent positive ERP deflections. The results suggest that automatic activation of event knowledge can impede the incremental semantic processes required to establish sentence truth value.

  12. Longitudinal Predictors of Spelling and Reading Comprehension in Chinese as an L1 and English as an L2 in Hong Kong Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wong, Anita; Shu, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Predictors of age 10 spelling and reading comprehension skills in both Chinese and English from vocabulary knowledge, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and word reading at age 8 were tested in this longitudinal study of 141 Hong Kong Chinese children learning to read English as a second language. The correlation between…

  13. Does EFL Readers' Lexical and Grammatical Knowledge Predict Their Reading Ability? Insights from a Perceptron Artificial Neural Network Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryadoust, Vahid; Baghaei, Purya

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between reading comprehension and lexical and grammatical knowledge among English as a foreign language students by using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN). There were 825 test takers administered both a second-language reading test and a set of psychometrically validated grammar and vocabulary tests.…

  14. Does EFL Readers' Lexical and Grammatical Knowledge Predict Their Reading Ability? Insights from a Perceptron Artificial Neural Network Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryadoust, Vahid; Baghaei, Purya

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between reading comprehension and lexical and grammatical knowledge among English as a foreign language students by using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN). There were 825 test takers administered both a second-language reading test and a set of psychometrically validated grammar and vocabulary tests.…

  15. Semantic Web-based Vocabulary Broker for Open Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschel, B.; Neher, G.; Iyemori, T.; Murayama, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Koyama, Y.; King, T. A.; Galkin, I. A.; Fung, S. F.; Wharton, S.; Cecconi, B.

    2016-12-01

    Keyword vocabularies are used to tag and to identify data of science data repositories. Such vocabularies consist of controlled terms and the appropriate concepts, such as GCMD1 keywords or the ESPAS2 keyword ontology. The Semantic Web-based mash-up of domain-specific, cross- or even trans-domain vocabularies provides unique capabilities in the network of appropriate data resources. Based on a collaboration between GFZ3, the FHP4, the WDC for Geomagnetism5 and the NICT6 we developed the concept of a vocabulary broker for inter- and trans-disciplinary data detection and integration. Our prototype of the Semantic Web-based vocabulary broker uses OSF7 for the mash-up of geo and space research vocabularies, such as GCMD keywords, ESPAS keyword ontology and SPASE8 keyword vocabulary. The vocabulary broker starts the search with "free" keywords or terms of a specific vocabulary scheme. The vocabulary broker almost automatically connects the different science data repositories which are tagged by terms of the aforementioned vocabularies. Therefore the mash-up of the SKOS9 based vocabularies with appropriate metadata from different domains can be realized by addressing LOD10 resources or virtual SPARQL11 endpoints which maps relational structures into the RDF format12. In order to demonstrate such a mash-up approach in real life, we installed and use a D2RQ13 server for the integration of IUGONET14 data which are managed by a relational database. The OSF based vocabulary broker and the D2RQ platform are installed at virtual LINUX machines at the Kyoto University. The vocabulary broker meets the standard of a main component of the WDS15 knowledge network. The Web address of the vocabulary broker is http://wdcosf.kugi.kyoto-u.ac.jp 1 Global Change Master Directory2 Near earth space data infrastructure for e-science3 German Research Centre for Geosciences4 University of Applied Sciences Potsdam5 World Data Center for Geomagnetism Kyoto6 National Institute of Information and

  16. Adults with poor reading skills: How lexical knowledge interacts with scores on standardized reading comprehension tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Millions of adults in the United States lack the necessary literacy skills for most living wage jobs. For students from adult learning classes, we used a lexical decision task to measure their knowledge of words and we used a decision-making model (Ratcliff's, 1978, diffusion model) to abstract the mechanisms underlying their performance from their RTs and accuracy. We also collected scores for each participant on standardized IQ tests and standardized reading tests used commonly in the education literature. We found significant correlations between the model's estimates of the strengths with which words are represented in memory and scores for some of the standardized tests but not others. The findings point to the feasibility and utility of combining a test of word knowledge, lexical decision, that is well-established in psycholinguistic research, a decision-making model that supplies information about underlying mechanisms, and standardized tests. The goal for future research is to use this combination of approaches to understand better how basic processes relate to standardized tests with the eventual aim of understanding what these tests are measuring and what the specific difficulties are for individual, low-literacy adults. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Reading Comprehension Level and Development in Native and Language Minority Adolescent Low Achievers: Roles of Linguistic and Metacognitive Knowledge and Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapman, Mirjam; van Gelderen, Amos; van Schooten, Erik; Hulstijn, Jan

    2017-01-01

    In a longitudinal design, we measured 50 low-achieving adolescents' reading comprehension development from Grades 7 to 9. There were 24 native Dutch and 26 language minority students. In addition, we assessed the roles of (a) linguistic knowledge, (b) metacognitive knowledge, and (c) reading fluency in predicting both the level and growth of…

  18. Reading Comprehension Level and Development in Native and Language Minority Adolescent Low Achievers: Roles of Linguistic and Metacognitive Knowledge and Fluency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trapman, M.; Gelderen, A.J.S. van; Schooten, E.J. van; Hulstijn, J.

    2016-01-01

    In a longitudinal design, we measured 50 low-achieving adolescents’ reading comprehension development from Grades 7 to 9. There were 24 native Dutch and 26 language minority students. In addition, we assessed the roles of (a) linguistic knowledge, (b) metacognitive knowledge, and (c) reading fluency

  19. 基于网络批改的写作训练与词汇深度知识习得培养的研究%A Study of Writing Practice with Net-based Grading System and Acquisition Vocabulary Depth Knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏玉洁

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary acquisition is one of the focus of foreign teaching and learning ,mainly because of the fact that the limited acquisition of vocabulary knowledge hinders the learners’language output and blocks their language devel-opment. In addition ,under the system of the traditional foreign language teaching in China ,how to effectively promote the students’vocabulary acquisition against the limited faculty is what the contemporary foreign language educators aim to resolve. On the basis of summarizing and analyzing horizontally and vertically the subjects’writings ,it aims to know the subjects’vocabulary depth knowledge , provide reference for current college English teaching , and further improve the students’vocabulary width and depth knowledge.%词汇的习得是外语教学的重心之一,很大的原因在于词汇知识的有限性对学习者的语言产出形成阻碍,影响语言能力的发展。另外在国内传统的外语教学体制下,如何在有限的师资力量的前提下有效地提高学生的词汇知识习得是当前外语教育者一直致力解决的目标。通过对写作进行横向和纵向的归纳与分析,可以从一个方面了解学习者的词汇认识的深度,从而对当前的大学英语教学提供参考与借鉴。

  20. Patient knowledge, perceptions, and acceptance of generic medicines: a comprehensive review of the current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alrasheedy AA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alian A Alrasheedy,1 Mohamed Azmi Hassali,1 Kay Stewart,2 David CM Kong,2 Hisham Aljadhey,3 Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim,4 Saleh Karamah Al-Tamimi1 1Discipline of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; 2Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 3Medication Safety Research Chair, Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar Background: Generic medicines have the same quality, safety, and efficacy as their counterpart original brand medicines. Generic medicines provide the same therapeutic outcomes but at a much cheaper cost, so are promoted in many countries to contain pharmaceutical expenditure and sustain the health care system. Thus, the perspective of patients and medicine consumers as end users of these medicines is an important factor to enhance the use and utilization of generic medicines. The objective of this paper is to review patients’ and consumers’ knowledge, perceptions, acceptance, and views of generic medicines in the current literature. Methods: An extensive literature search was performed in several databases, namely Scopus, PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Proquest, and the Wiley online library, to identify relevant studies published in the English literature for the period 1990–2013. Results: A total of 53 studies were included in the review, comprising 24 studies from Europe, ten from North America, six from Asia, five from Australia and New Zealand, five from the Middle East, one from Africa, one from Latin America, and one from the Caribbean region. A large body of literature has reported misconceptions and negative perceptions about generic medicines on the part of patients and medicine consumers. Moreover, although it is reported in almost all countries, the percentage of consumers who had

  1. Reciprocal Effects of Self-Regulation, Semantic Knowledge, and Reading Comprehension in Early Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Day, Stephanie L; Phillips, Beth; Sparapani, Nicole; Ingebrand, Sarah W; McLean, Leigh; Barrus, Angela; Kaschak, Michael P

    2016-11-01

    Many assume that cognitive and linguistic processes, such as semantic knowledge (SK) and self-regulation (SR), subserve learned skills like reading. However, complex models of interacting and bootstrapping effects of SK, SR, instruction, and reading hypothesize reciprocal effects. Testing this "lattice" model with children (n = 852) followed from first to second grade (5.9-10.4 years of age) revealed reciprocal effects for reading and SR, and reading and SK, but not SR and SK. More effective literacy instruction reduced reading stability over time. Findings elucidate the synergistic and reciprocal effects of learning to read on other important linguistic, self-regulatory, and cognitive processes; the value of using complex models of development to inform intervention design; and how learned skills may influence development during middle childhood.

  2. SECOND LANGUAGE VOCABULARY ASSESSMENT: CURRENT PRACTICES AND NEW DIRECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Read

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys some current developments in second language vocabulary assessment, with particular attention to the ways in which computer corpora can provide better quality information about the frequency of words and how they are used in specific contexts. The relative merits of different word lists are discussed, including the Academic Word List and frequency lists derived from the British National Corpus. Word frequency data is needed for measures of vocabulary size, such as the Yes/No format, which is being developed and used for a variety of purposes. The paper also reviews work on testing depth of knowledge of vocabulary, where rather less progress has been made, both in defining depth as a construct and in developing tests for practical use. Another important perspective is the use of vocabulary within particular contexts of use or registers, and recent corpus research is extending our understanding of the lexical features of academic registers. This provides a basis for assessing learners’ ability to deploy their vocabulary knowledge effectively for functional communication in specific academic contexts. It is concluded that, while current tests of vocabulary knowledge are valuable for certain purposes, they need to be complemented by more contextualised measures of vocabulary use.

  3. Marine Navigational Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠灵

    2014-01-01

    Every industry has its professional terms or particular use of common words. The marine industry is no exception. This paper attempts to give a brief introduction to the elementary vocabularies related to marine industry from six aspects: types of ships;ship’s structure and equipment, manning, logbook, safety and organizations concerned. The corresponding Chinese terms is given simultaneously. It concludes that a good master of these vocabularies is useful and necessary for Chinese seafarers whose native language is not English.

  4. Vocabulary teaching strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐桂荣

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary has always been one of the significant issues related both with teachers and learners of foreign languages. How to teach vocabulary efficiency? Teachers should choose proper ways to instruct words. Many teachers often write new words they want to teach on the blackboard and then explain them one by one. It makes students feel bored. This paper will summarize some teaching approaches that are better on teaching English words.

  5. The Teaching of EFL Vocabulary in The Indonesian Context: The State of The Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been extensive literature on the teaching of vocabulary of English as a foreign language (EFL vocabulary in the Indonesian context. However, a comprehensive analysis on the teaching of EFL vocabulary in this country has been a rare endeavour. This article aims to underpin various issues of the teaching of EFL vocabulary and relate them to a wider context of second/foreign language vocabulary teaching and review results of research as well as current practices of EFL vocabulary teaching and learning in the Indonesian context. It is expected that this article could provide an outline of the teaching of EFL vocabulary and some recommendations for future research and practices.

  6. The Teaching of EFL Vocabulary in the Indonesian Context: The State Of The Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been extensive literature on the teaching of vocabulary of English as a foreign language (EFL vocabulary in the Indonesian context. However, a comprehensive analysis on the teaching of EFL vocabulary in this country has been a rare endeavour. This article aims to underpin various issues of the teaching of EFL vocabulary and relate them to a wider context of second/foreign language vocabulary teaching and review results of research as well as current practices of EFL vocabulary teaching and learning in the Indonesian context. It is expected that this article could provide an outline of the teaching of EFL vocabulary and some recommendations for future research and practices

  7. Controlled Vocabulary Service Application for Environmental Data Store

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, P.; Piasecki, M.; Lovell, R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we present a controlled vocabulary service application for Environmental Data Store (EDS). The purpose for such application is to help researchers and investigators to archive, manage, share, search, and retrieve data efficiently in EDS. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is used in the application for the representation of the controlled vocabularies coming from EDS. The controlled vocabularies of EDS are created by collecting, comparing, choosing and merging controlled vocabularies, taxonomies and ontologies widely used and recognized in geoscience/environmental informatics community, such as Environment ontology (EnvO), Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontology, CUAHSI Hydrologic Ontology and ODM Controlled Vocabulary, National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI), National Water Information System (NWIS) codes, EPSG Geodetic Parameter Data Set, WQX domain value etc. TemaTres, an open-source, web -based thesaurus management package is employed and extended to create and manage controlled vocabularies of EDS in the application. TemaTresView and VisualVocabulary that work well with TemaTres, are also integrated in the application to provide tree view and graphical view of the structure of vocabularies. The Open Source Edition of Virtuoso Universal Server is set up to provide a Web interface to make SPARQL queries against controlled vocabularies hosted on the Environmental Data Store. The replicas of some of the key vocabularies commonly used in the community, are also maintained as part of the application, such as General Multilingual Environmental Thesaurus (GEMET), NetCDF Climate and Forecast (CF) Standard Names, etc.. The application has now been deployed as an elementary and experimental prototype that provides management, search and download controlled vocabularies of EDS under SKOS framework.

  8. The Application of Corpus-based Teaching Approach to Medical English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞君; 王连柱; 王兰英

    2009-01-01

    Insufficient vocabulary has become a barrier to reading comprehension and translation in the process of ME (medical English) study to the third-year students at medical universities or colleges.The current study was designed to investigate corpus- based teaching ap-proach to enlarging students'vocabulary in the course of higher learning of ML (medical literature).The study was carried out from 2006.9 to 2008.9 among third -year medical students in our college.Students were encouraged to augment their vocabulary by active practice,intensive learning,and comprehensive learning respectively through discovering study by using self-made ME corpuses (90,000 words).In doing so, their vocabulary was enlarged by actively using the essential vocabulary,attaching more attention to the difficult technical vocabulary,and getting familiar with medical terms,which eliminated their language barrier,improved their integrated language proficiency,and developed their sense of achievement.

  9. [Negotiating knowledge and power: the National Policy for Comprehensive Men's Healthcare and the Brazilian Society of Urology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Rita Flores; Birman, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to demonstrate the negotiations and disputes between different kinds of knowledge and power in the history of the Brazilian National Policy for Comprehensive Men's Healthcare based on the creation in 2008 of the Technical Area for Men's Health within the Ministry of Health's Department of Strategic Programs. We observed the Brazilian Society of Urology's position as the policy was being drawn up, including the discourse adopted, based on interviews held with managers from the Ministry of Health and the assistant representative of the United Nations Population Fund in Brazil. We analyzed the visibility of the male body in signs of resistance to the interventions of biopower in the expression of the right to health.

  10. Vocabulary Development of Junior Teens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Nikonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the communicative competence formation of young adolescents in the secondary school at the Russian language lessons. The author maintains that the key element of the above problem is the vocabulary development guaranteeing both comprehension and verbal expression formation – oral and written. The theoretical part of the research explores different word functions: nominal, communicative, text generating and semantic. The correlation between the mental development level and lexical semantic system formation is emphasized. The age specific features of junior teens are listed: rising interest to various life spheres and activi- ties, capability of formulating opinions and judgments, self-awareness, formation of values. The relationship complexity stimulates vocabulary development of 10 to 12 year-old children; however, the process requires peda- gogical facilitation.The monitoring of speech development proves the necessity of commutative competence formation of the fifth- and sixth-year pupils. The paper presents the model of communicative competence development and its approbation results received for the junior adolescents. 

  11. Vocabulary Development of Junior Teens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Nikonova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the communicative competence formation of young adolescents in the secondary school at the Russian language lessons. The author maintains that the key element of the above problem is the vocabulary development guaranteeing both comprehension and verbal expression formation – oral and written. The theoretical part of the research explores different word functions: nominal, communicative, text generating and semantic. The correlation between the mental development level and lexical semantic system formation is emphasized. The age specific features of junior teens are listed: rising interest to various life spheres and activi- ties, capability of formulating opinions and judgments, self-awareness, formation of values. The relationship complexity stimulates vocabulary development of 10 to 12 year-old children; however, the process requires peda- gogical facilitation.The monitoring of speech development proves the necessity of commutative competence formation of the fifth- and sixth-year pupils. The paper presents the model of communicative competence development and its approbation results received for the junior adolescents. 

  12. More than words: Contending semiotic systems and the role of disciplinary knowledge in specialized text comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Parodi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Comprehending multisemiotic texts has become a demanding task in all disciplinary domains, not only academic but also professional. Reading tables, pictures, graphs and words, as a whole or separately, is a challenge that most students must face. Nowadays there exists limited research available combining descriptive and experimental data on this field of study. In this paper, we help fill this gap by combining linguistic corpus descriptions and experimental designs in order to assess reading capacity of university students. The general objective of the paper was to determine if it was possible to comprehend a passage from a disciplinary genre (Monetary Policy Report, MPR through a single predominant semiotic system. In order to achieve this objective, an experiment with three versions of a text was designed: (a the original text (verbal and graphs, (b the text with predominance of graphs, and (c the text with predominance of the verbal system. The participants were 151 students of a university program in the field of Economics in Chile. They were divided into two groups: first and third year university students respectively. Overall results show no statistically significant differences between the three conditions of the experiment for each group. Nonetheless, there are significant differences between the reading scores of both groups, particularly, when the texts were composed predominantly of only one semiotic system (verbal or graphs. No differences were determined in the texts that required an integrated reading of verbal and graph systems. Results indicate that students with a higher level of disciplinary insertion (third-year students were able to comprehend information coded solely through graphs or words and produced a summary that contained the core semantic meaning of the texts given. These findings show that reading graphs is a skill that students acquire during instruction in specialized programs, by increasing their knowledge of

  13. Tracing Children's Vocabulary Development from Preschool through the School-Age Years: An 8-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over…

  14. The Effects of Play-Based Intervention on Vocabulary Acquisition by Preschoolers at Risk for Reading and Language Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Ragan H.; Hardy, Jessica K.; Kaiser, Ann P.

    2017-01-01

    Closing the vocabulary gap for young children at risk for reading and language delays due to low socioeconomic status may have far reaching effects, as the relationship between early vocabulary knowledge and later academic achievement has been well-established. Vocabulary instruction for young children at risk for reading and language delays…

  15. Tracing Children's Vocabulary Development from Preschool through the School-Age Years: An 8-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over…

  16. The Role of Home and School Factors in Predicting English Vocabulary among Bilingual Kindergarten Children in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, L. Quentin

    2011-01-01

    Research in monolingual populations indicate that vocabulary knowledge is essential to reading achievement, but how vocabulary develops in bilingual children has been understudied. The current study investigated the role of home and school factors in predicting English vocabulary among 284 bilingual kindergartners (168 Chinese, 65 Malay, 51…

  17. Individual differences in very young Chinese children’s English vocabulary breadth and semantic depth : Internal and external factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, He; Steinkrauss, Rasmus; Wieling, Martijn; de Bot, Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the English vocabulary development of 43 very young child EFL learners (age 3;2-6;2) in China. They were tested twice for vocabulary breadth (reception and production) and semantic depth (paradigmatic and syntagmatic vocabulary knowledge). The development of the English vocabular

  18. CancerResource: a comprehensive database of cancer-relevant proteins and compound interactions supported by experimental knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Jessica; Meinel, Thomas; Dunkel, Mathias; Murgueitio, Manuela S; Adams, Robert; Blasse, Corinna; Eckert, Andreas; Preissner, Saskia; Preissner, Robert

    2011-01-01

    During the development of methods for cancer diagnosis and treatment, a vast amount of information is generated. Novel cancer target proteins have been identified and many compounds that activate or inhibit cancer-relevant target genes have been developed. This knowledge is based on an immense number of experimentally validated compound-target interactions in the literature, and excerpts from literature text mining are spread over numerous data sources. Our own analysis shows that the overlap between important existing repositories such as Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD), Therapeutic Target Database (TTD), Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base (PharmGKB) and DrugBank as well as between our own literature mining for cancer-annotated entries is surprisingly small. In order to provide an easy overview of interaction data, it is essential to integrate this information into a single, comprehensive data repository. Here, we present CancerResource, a database that integrates cancer-relevant relationships of compounds and targets from (i) our own literature mining and (ii) external resources complemented with (iii) essential experimental and supporting information on genes and cellular effects. In order to facilitate an overview of existing and supporting information, a series of novel information connections have been established. CancerResource addresses the spectrum of research on compound-target interactions in natural sciences as well as in individualized medicine; CancerResource is available at: http://bioinformatics.charite.de/cancerresource/.

  19. Tagging behaviour with support from controlled vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Høj, Anne Lyhne; Madsen, Line Nørgaard

    2011-01-01

    The paper investigates how knowledge structures from a controlled vocabulary affect tagging. The study is a comparative analysis of tags assigned in two tagging systems, a simple tagging system (control system) that provides suggestions from two tag clouds (all users tags and my tags) and an enha......The paper investigates how knowledge structures from a controlled vocabulary affect tagging. The study is a comparative analysis of tags assigned in two tagging systems, a simple tagging system (control system) that provides suggestions from two tag clouds (all users tags and my tags...... vocabulary might help taggers in being more specific in their tagging, allowing more precise information searching based on user tags. In addition, the results indicate that structured controlled suggestions might encourage taggers to add synonym variations enhancing the variety and number of access points....... Furthermore, controlled vocabularies might be useful for automatic spell checking. Future study should explore in what direction the different kinds of suggestions lead the tagger and whether it is possible to identify scope or patterns between related tags from the two systems....

  20. The Inspiration of Tacit Knowledge Theory to the English Vocabulary Teaching in Chinese Adult Education%默会知识理论对我国成人教育英语词汇教学的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于翠红; 张拥政

    2011-01-01

    The idiosyncrasies of adult students determine that there exist both advantages and disadvantages in their English study.Guided by the theory of tacit knowledge,adult students can better blend the English study into their daily occupation and life,positively enhancing the actual effect of vocabulary study and revealing theoretical value as well as practical meaning to current adult education.%成人学生群体的特质决定了成人英语学习既有有利因素也有不利因素。用默会知识理论指导成人英语词汇学习,可以更好地将英语学习融入成人的职业和生活,提高词汇学习的实效性,对当前成人教育的开展,在理论和实践上具有一定的指导意义。