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Sample records for vocabulary knowledge age

  1. Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge and Their Effects on L2 Vocabulary Profiles

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    Bardakçi, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge have been studied from many different perspectives, but the related literature lacks serious studies dealing with their effects on vocabulary profiles of EFL learners. In this paper, with an aim to fill this gap, the relative effects of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge on L2 vocabulary profiles…

  2. The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge

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    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary breadth and depth knowledge. One hundred and fifty first-year university students in China took the Vocabulary Levels Test, a meaning recall task, and the Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge Test. The first two tests were used to elicit two types of vocabulary…

  3. Vocabulary test format and differential relations to age.

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    Bowles, Ryan P; Salthouse, Timothy A

    2008-06-01

    Although vocabulary tests are generally considered interchangeable, regardless of format, different tests can have different relations to age and to other cognitive abilities. In this study, 4 vocabulary test formats were examined: multiple-choice synonyms, multiple-choice antonyms, produce the definition, and picture identification. Results indicated that, although they form a single coherent vocabulary knowledge factor, the formats have different relations to age. In earlier adulthood, picture identification had the strongest growth, and produce the definition had the weakest. In later adulthood, picture identification had the strongest decline, and multiple-choice synonyms had the least. The formats differed in their relation to other cognitive variables, including reasoning, spatial visualization, memory, and speed. After accounting for the differential relations to other cognitive variables, differences in relation to age were eliminated with the exception of differences for the picture identification test. No theory of the aging of vocabulary knowledge fully explains these findings. These results suggest that using a single indicator of vocabulary may yield incomplete and somewhat misleading results about the aging of vocabulary knowledge.

  4. Assessing roles of vocabulary knowledge predominating in contextual clues

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    Patcharawadee Promduang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and the use of contextual clues and whether EFL learners who are well-equipped with reading skills are able to comprehend the text despite a low level of vocabulary knowledge. Therefore, the study focused on which vocabulary dimensions help students guess unfamiliar words. The study was carried out at Hatyai University in Thailand. The population of this study consisted of 34 undergraduates who were studying International Business English and had taken a course in reading techniques. The present study was conducted to conceptually validate the roles of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge to improve skills by contextual clue. Vocabulary Depth was specially employed to evaluate two dimensions namely Paradigmatic and Syntagmatic. The Schmitt and Clapham Vocabulary Level Test was used to test vocabulary breadth, while the vocabulary depth was implemented by Read’s Vocabulary Depth Test. Reading parts of the TOEFL were adopted for contextual clue items. There were two statistical analysis tools also implemented in this study: paired-sample t-test and bivariate correlation. First, in an attempt to find which vocabulary dimension predominates in guessing word meaning from the text, a paired-sample t-test was utilized to compare the difference of two vocabulary dimensions in reading part: vocabulary depth and contextual clues, and vocabulary breadth and contextual clues. Second, a bivariate correlation was used to find the degree of relationship between vocabulary knowledge and contextual clues. The consequences of this study identified empirical results that 1 there was a positive relationship between contextual clues and vocabulary depth, the reverse is true in vocabulary breadth. Moreover, vocabulary depth is more significantly crucial than breadth to enhance student’s ability to guess words’ meaning from the context.

  5. Investigating Arabic Academic Vocabulary Knowledge Among Middle School Pupils: Receptive Versus Productive Knowledge.

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    Makhoul, Baha

    2017-08-01

    The current study attempted to investigate the development of Arabic academic vocabulary knowledge among middle-school Arabic native speakers, taking into account the socioeconomic status of the Arab population in Israel. For this purpose, Arabic academic word list was developed, mapping the required academic words that are needed for adequate coping with informational texts as appearing in the different content areas text-books. Six-hundred Arabic speaking middle school pupils from the different areas in Israel, representing the different Arab subgroups: general Arab community, Druze and Bedouins, have participated in the current study. Two academic vocabulary tests, including receptive and productive academic vocabulary evaluation tests, were administrated to the students across the different age groups (7th, 8th and 9th). The results pointed to no significant difference between 7th and 9th grade in academic vocabulary knowledge. In contrast, significant difference was encountered between the different Arab sub-groups where the lowest scores were noted among the Bedouin sub-group, characterized by the lowest SES. When comparing receptive and productive academic vocabulary knowledge between 7th and 9th grade, the results pointed to improvement in receptive academic knowledge towards the end of middle school but not on the productive knowledge level. In addition, within participants' comparison indicated a gap between the pupils' receptive and productive vocabulary. The results are discussed in relation to the existing scientific literature and to its implication of both research and practice in the domain of Arabic literacy development.

  6. The Impact of Vocabulary Knowledge Level on EFL Reading Comprehension

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    Shima Kameli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the impact of vocabulary knowledge level on reading comprehension performance among EFL language learners. The ultimate intention was to determine the association between levels of vocabulary knowledge and to clarify the relationship among vocabulary knowledge on reading comprehension performance of EFL Iranian students on subtest of VLT and IELTS. Quantitative data were collected from 220 EFL Iranian adult students at the beginning of second semester of 2011 in private English language institute (BAHAR, Shiraz, Iran. The Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT and Reading Comprehension Test (IELTS were performed in one session as research instruments. The findings indicated that there were positive relationships among different levels of vocabulary test and also test scores on vocabulary size/breadth of vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension.

  7. Comparing Multidimensional and Continuum Models of Vocabulary Acquisition: An Empirical Examination of the Vocabulary Knowledge Scale

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    Stewart, Jeffrey; Batty, Aaron Olaf; Bovee, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Second language vocabulary acquisition has been modeled both as multidimensional in nature and as a continuum wherein the learner's knowledge of a word develops along a cline from recognition through production. In order to empirically examine and compare these models, the authors assess the degree to which the Vocabulary Knowledge Scale (VKS;…

  8. Measuring Teachers' Knowledge of Vocabulary Development and Instruction

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    Duguay, Annie; Kenyon, Dorry; Haynes, Erin; August, Diane; Yanosky, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development of an instrument to measure teachers' knowledge of vocabulary development and instruction, the Teacher Knowledge of Vocabulary Survey (TKVS). This type of knowledge has become increasingly important as all classroom teachers are expected to help students meet language and literacy standards that include…

  9. A study of students' beliefs about vocabulary knowledge and acquisition

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    Francis, Michelle Andersen

    Using the vocabulary of a discipline is important for students, especially in the sciences (Gee, 2003). Therefore, the extant literature has emphasized the need for more research on vocabulary knowledge and acquisition (Simpson, et al., 2004). This study investigated whether or not community college students' beliefs about vocabulary knowledge and acquisition changed as a result of a one-semester enrollment in a vocabulary-rich biology course. The rationale for the study, a review of the existing research underlying the study, the methodology of the study, and the results and conclusions of the study will be discussed.

  10. Contrasting effects of vocabulary knowledge on temporal and parietal brain structure across lifespan.

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    Richardson, Fiona M; Thomas, Michael S C; Filippi, Roberto; Harth, Helen; Price, Cathy J

    2010-05-01

    Using behavioral, structural, and functional imaging techniques, we demonstrate contrasting effects of vocabulary knowledge on temporal and parietal brain structure in 47 healthy volunteers who ranged in age from 7 to 73 years. In the left posterior supramarginal gyrus, vocabulary knowledge was positively correlated with gray matter density in teenagers but not adults. This region was not activated during auditory or visual sentence processing, and activation was unrelated to vocabulary skills. Its gray matter density may reflect the use of an explicit learning strategy that links new words to lexical or conceptual equivalents, as used in formal education and second language acquisition. By contrast, in left posterior temporal regions, gray matter as well as auditory and visual sentence activation correlated with vocabulary knowledge throughout lifespan. We propose that these effects reflect the acquisition of vocabulary through context, when new words are learnt within the context of semantically and syntactically related words.

  11. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES AS PREDICTORS OF READING COMPREHENSION AND VOCABULARY KNOWLEDGE

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    Abbas Ali Zarei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate types of Multiple Intelligences as predictors of reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge. To meet this objective, a 60-item TOEFL test and a 90-item multiple intelligences questionnaire were distributed among 240 male and female Iranians studying English at Qazali and Parsian Universities in Qazvin. Data were analyzed using a multiple regression procedure. The result of the data analysis indicated that musical, interpersonal, kinesthetic, and logical intelligences were predicators of reading comprehension. Moreover, musical, verbal, visual, kinesthetic and natural intelligences made significant contributions to predicting vocabulary knowledge.   Key words: Multiple intelligences, reading comprehension, vocabulary knowledge.

  12. Vocabulary knowledge predicts lexical processing: Evidence from a group of participants with diverse educational backgrounds

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    Mainz, N.; Shao, Z.; Brysbaert, M.; Meyer, A.S.

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is central to a speaker's command of their language. In previous research, greater vocabulary knowledge has been associated with advantages in language processing. In this study, we examined the relationship between individual differences in vocabulary and language processing

  13. Nonword Repetition and Vocabulary Knowledge as Predictors of Children's Phonological and Semantic Word Learning.

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    Adlof, Suzanne M; Patten, Hannah

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the unique and shared variance that nonword repetition and vocabulary knowledge contribute to children's ability to learn new words. Multiple measures of word learning were used to assess recall and recognition of phonological and semantic information. Fifty children, with a mean age of 8 years (range 5-12 years), completed experimental assessments of word learning and norm-referenced assessments of receptive and expressive vocabulary knowledge and nonword repetition skills. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses examined the variance in word learning that was explained by vocabulary knowledge and nonword repetition after controlling for chronological age. Together with chronological age, nonword repetition and vocabulary knowledge explained up to 44% of the variance in children's word learning. Nonword repetition was the stronger predictor of phonological recall, phonological recognition, and semantic recognition, whereas vocabulary knowledge was the stronger predictor of verbal semantic recall. These findings extend the results of past studies indicating that both nonword repetition skill and existing vocabulary knowledge are important for new word learning, but the relative influence of each predictor depends on the way word learning is measured. Suggestions for further research involving typically developing children and children with language or reading impairments are discussed.

  14. Do infant vocabulary skills predict school-age language and literacy outcomes?

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    Duff, Fiona J; Reen, Gurpreet; Plunkett, Kim; Nation, Kate

    2015-08-01

    Strong associations between infant vocabulary and school-age language and literacy skills would have important practical and theoretical implications: Preschool assessment of vocabulary skills could be used to identify children at risk of reading and language difficulties, and vocabulary could be viewed as a cognitive foundation for reading. However, evidence to date suggests predictive ability from infant vocabulary to later language and literacy is low. This study provides an investigation into, and interpretation of, the magnitude of such infant to school-age relationships. Three hundred British infants whose vocabularies were assessed by parent report in the 2nd year of life (between 16 and 24 months) were followed up on average 5 years later (ages ranged from 4 to 9 years), when their vocabulary, phonological and reading skills were measured. Structural equation modelling of age-regressed scores was used to assess the strength of longitudinal relationships. Infant vocabulary (a latent factor of receptive and expressive vocabulary) was a statistically significant predictor of later vocabulary, phonological awareness, reading accuracy and reading comprehension (accounting for between 4% and 18% of variance). Family risk for language or literacy difficulties explained additional variance in reading (approximately 10%) but not language outcomes. Significant longitudinal relationships between preliteracy vocabulary knowledge and subsequent reading support the theory that vocabulary is a cognitive foundation of both reading accuracy and reading comprehension. Importantly however, the stability of vocabulary skills from infancy to later childhood is too low to be sufficiently predictive of language outcomes at an individual level - a finding that fits well with the observation that the majority of 'late talkers' resolve their early language difficulties. For reading outcomes, prediction of future difficulties is likely to be improved when considering family

  15. Do infant vocabulary skills predict school-age language and literacy outcomes?

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    Duff, Fiona J; Reen, Gurpreet; Plunkett, Kim; Nation, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Background Strong associations between infant vocabulary and school-age language and literacy skills would have important practical and theoretical implications: Preschool assessment of vocabulary skills could be used to identify children at risk of reading and language difficulties, and vocabulary could be viewed as a cognitive foundation for reading. However, evidence to date suggests predictive ability from infant vocabulary to later language and literacy is low. This study provides an investigation into, and interpretation of, the magnitude of such infant to school-age relationships. Methods Three hundred British infants whose vocabularies were assessed by parent report in the 2nd year of life (between 16 and 24 months) were followed up on average 5 years later (ages ranged from 4 to 9 years), when their vocabulary, phonological and reading skills were measured. Results Structural equation modelling of age-regressed scores was used to assess the strength of longitudinal relationships. Infant vocabulary (a latent factor of receptive and expressive vocabulary) was a statistically significant predictor of later vocabulary, phonological awareness, reading accuracy and reading comprehension (accounting for between 4% and 18% of variance). Family risk for language or literacy difficulties explained additional variance in reading (approximately 10%) but not language outcomes. Conclusions Significant longitudinal relationships between preliteracy vocabulary knowledge and subsequent reading support the theory that vocabulary is a cognitive foundation of both reading accuracy and reading comprehension. Importantly however, the stability of vocabulary skills from infancy to later childhood is too low to be sufficiently predictive of language outcomes at an individual level – a finding that fits well with the observation that the majority of ‘late talkers’ resolve their early language difficulties. For reading outcomes, prediction of future difficulties is likely to

  16. Development and transfer of vocabulary knowledge in Spanish-speaking language minority preschool children.

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    Goodrich, J Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J; Kleuver, Cherie G; Farver, Joann M

    2016-09-01

    In this study we evaluated the predictive validity of conceptual scoring. Two independent samples of Spanish-speaking language minority preschoolers (Sample 1: N = 96, mean age = 54·51 months, 54·3% male; Sample 2: N = 116, mean age = 60·70 months, 56·0% male) completed measures of receptive, expressive, and definitional vocabulary in their first (L1) and second (L2) languages at two time points approximately 9-12 months apart. We examined whether unique L1 and L2 vocabulary at time 1 predicted later L2 and L1 vocabulary, respectively. Results indicated that unique L1 vocabulary did not predict later L2 vocabulary after controlling for initial L2 vocabulary. An identical pattern of results emerged for L1 vocabulary outcomes. We also examined whether children acquired translational equivalents for words known in one language but not the other. Results indicated that children acquired translational equivalents, providing partial support for the transfer of vocabulary knowledge across languages.

  17. The Effects of Vocabulary Knowledge and Dictionary Use on EFL Reading Performance

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    Shen, Zhifa

    2013-01-01

    The present study mainly investigated the effects of vocabulary knowledge and dictionary use on EFL reading performance. The results show that scores on vocabulary size, specific vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension are highly and positively correlated. Scores on specific vocabulary knowledge are more closely correlated with reading…

  18. Enhancing students’ vocabulary knowledge using the Facebook environment

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Kamarul Kabilan; Tuti Zalina Mohamed Ernes Zahar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of using Facebook in enhancing vocabulary knowledge among Community College students. Thirty-three (33) Community College students are exposed to the use of Facebook as an environment of learning and enhancing their English vocabulary. They are given a pre-test and a post-test and the findings indicate that students perform significantly better in the post-test compared to the pre-test. It appears that Facebook could be considered as a supplementary l...

  19. The Effect of Vocabulary Self-Selection Strategy and Input Enhancement Strategy on the Vocabulary Knowledge of Iranian EFL Learners

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    Masoudi, Golfam

    2017-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate empirically the effect of Vocabulary Self-Selection strategy and Input Enhancement strategy on the vocabulary knowledge of Iranian EFL Learners. After taking a diagnostic pretest, both experimental groups enrolled in two classes. Learners who practiced Vocabulary Self-Selection were allowed to…

  20. VOCABULARY PROBLEMS OF THE LIGHTLY MENTALLY RETARDED SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN

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    Vesna KOSTIC

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The main research objectives are the problems in the vocabulary of school aged, lightly mentally retarded children. Results of the research indicate which are the most important factors that have impact of the vocabulary and language competence of these persons. The research variables are: sex, IQ, chronological age and school age. Comics-like stories were used as an examination instrument in this research. Their interpretation is helpful in determining the vocabulary level of every single examine. At the end of the research some suggestions are presented, whose goal is to enrich children's vocabulary.

  1. The Impact of Teacher Study Groups in Vocabulary on Teaching Practice, Teacher Knowledge, and Student Vocabulary Knowledge: A Large-Scale Replication Study

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    Jayanthi, Madhavi; Dimino, Joseph; Gersten, Russell; Taylor, Mary Jo; Haymond, Kelly; Smolkowski, Keith; Newman-Gonchar, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this replication study was to examine the impact of the Teacher Study Group (TSG) professional development in vocabulary on first-grade teachers' knowledge of vocabulary instruction and observed teaching practice, and on students' vocabulary knowledge. Sixty-two schools from 16 districts in four states were randomly assigned to…

  2. Linking vocabulary to imagery: Improving science knowledge through multimedia design

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    Adler, Tracy R.

    This qualitative study looked at the vocabulary development of four urban sixth-grade students as they used laser disk and computer technologies to view images and then connect those images to textual definitions through multimedia design. Focusing on three science content areas (the water cycle, the rock cycle, and the web of life), students worked in pairs to create their own multimedia stacks that focused on the prescribed vocabulary. Using a combination of text, images, and audio, students demonstrated their understanding of content vocabulary words and how these words are interconnects within a science topic. Further, the study examined the impact that linking images to vocabulary and textual definitions has on helping students memorize definitions of the science content words. It was found that the use of imagery had a positive affect on the students' ability to identify textual definitions and vocabulary words, though it did not have a great impact on their later recall of word/definition connections. In addition, by designing their own multimedia artifacts, students were able to connect the vocabulary and images within a specific content area and explain their function within a broader science concept. The results of this study were inconclusive as to the impact this activity had on the students' ability to transfer their knowledge to correctly answering questions similar to the ones they see on their state proficiency exam.

  3. Vocabulary knowledge mediates the link between socioeconomic status and word learning in grade school.

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    Maguire, Mandy J; Schneider, Julie M; Middleton, Anna E; Ralph, Yvonne; Lopez, Michael; Ackerman, Robert A; Abel, Alyson D

    2018-02-01

    The relationship between children's slow vocabulary growth and the family's low socioeconomic status (SES) has been well documented. However, previous studies have often focused on infants or preschoolers and primarily used static measures of vocabulary at multiple time points. To date, there is no research investigating whether SES predicts a child's word learning abilities in grade school and, if so, what mediates this relationship. In this study, 68 children aged 8-15 years performed a written word learning from context task that required using the surrounding text to identify the meaning of an unknown word. Results revealed that vocabulary knowledge significantly mediated the relationship between SES (as measured by maternal education) and word learning. This was true despite the fact that the words in the linguistic context surrounding the target word are typically acquired well before 8 years of age. When controlling for vocabulary, word learning from written context was not predicted by differences in reading comprehension, decoding, or working memory. These findings reveal that differences in vocabulary growth between grade school children from low and higher SES homes are likely related to differences in the process of word learning more than knowledge of surrounding words or reading skills. Specifically, children from lower SES homes are not as effective at using known vocabulary to build a robust semantic representation of incoming text to identify the meaning of an unknown word. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Age of acquisition effects in vocabulary learning.

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    Palmer, Shekeila D; Havelka, Jelena

    2010-11-01

    Two experiments examined whether the age of acquisition (AoA) of a concept influences the speed at which native English speakers are able to name pictures using a newly acquired second language (L2) vocabulary. In Experiment 1, participants were taught L2 words associated with pictures. In Experiment 2 a second group of participants were taught the same words associated with L1 translations. Following training both groups performed a picture naming task in which they were asked to name pictures using the newly acquired words. Significant AoA effects were observed only in Experiment 1, in that participants were faster at naming pictures representing early acquired relative to late acquired concepts. The results suggest that the AoA of a concept can exert influence over processing which is independent of the AoA of the word form. The results also indicate that different training methods may lead to qualitative differences in the nature of the links formed between words and concepts during the earliest stages of second language learning. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of Native Language Vocabulary and Topic Knowledge on Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning in Health Care Providers

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    Marcia Foresee Drumhiller

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Adults attending short, language for specific purpose courses may have expertise not utilized in general foreign language courses. The present study investigates two factors that may influence the acquisition of medical Spanish vocabulary in such persons: native English vocabulary size and topic knowledge. Forty-four health care workers attended 12 hr of medical Spanish instruction. Prior to instruction, the Nelson–Denny Vocabulary Test, a Medical Spanish vocabulary test, and an English Medical Terminology Test (an indicator of topic knowledge were administered. The Medical Spanish Vocabulary Test was readministered at posttest. Individually, both English medical terminology knowledge and English vocabulary size were significant predictors of medical Spanish vocabulary acquisition, but English medical terminology knowledge explained most of the variance in medical Spanish vocabulary acquisition. The results are discussed in terms of the impact of expert memory organization on the ability to learn new labels in a second language. A curricular shift toward content-centered vocabulary in language for specific purpose courses may be advantageous for some groups of foreign language learners.

  6. How is their word knowledge growing? Exploring Grade 3 vocabulary in South African township schools

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    Elizabeth J. Pretorius

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we report on a study that examined the active and receptive English vocabulary of two different groups of Grade 3 learners in South African township schools. The groups consisted of English Home Language (HL learners in the Western Cape and Xhosa HL and English First Additional Language (FAL learners in the Eastern Cape. The purpose was to document their different vocabulary trajectories during Grade 3. The Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey was used to measure the active vocabulary levels of 118 learners at the beginning and the end of the school year. Another 284 learners from the same eight Grade 3 classes participated in a receptive vocabulary test at the end of the year. This test assessed their knowledge of the 60 most frequent words that occur in South Africa Grade 4 English textbooks. Results showed that although the HL learners knew almost double the number of words their English FAL peers did, both groups of learners increased their active word knowledge through the year by about 9%. Regarding their receptive vocabulary, the English FAL learners on average only knew 27% of the most frequent words at the end of their Grade 3. No significant gender differences were found. Learners in both language groups who were above their grade age had significantly lower scores than their younger peers. This confirms findings that children who start school with weak language skills tend to stay weak. Finally, initial active vocabulary knowledge was found to be a strong predictor of vocabulary development during the school year.

  7. Understanding Teachers' Pedagogical Knowledge In ESL Vocabulary Teaching

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    Maizatulliza Muhamad

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In communicative language teaching classrooms, one of the main emphases is on students’ ability to use the target language for real life purposes. To achieve this goal, teachers may have to ensure that students have adequate vocabulary to express their feelings and ideas. Previous research on vocabulary teaching and learning tends to be quantitative in nature focusing on testing the effectiveness of some techniques. This research study however, is an attempt to understand teachers’ pedagogical systems that influence their practice in actual classroom interactions during vocabulary teaching and learning. In-depth interviews and classroom observations with two experienced Malaysian ESL teachers were conducted. The interviews highlighted the teachers’ beliefs as well as challenges they faced with regards to vocabulary teaching and learning. The classroom observations revealed that their practice was very much a reflection of their own beliefs, based on their own experience as students as well as teachers. The results of this study showcased the fact that teachers operate within the spectrum of their pedagogical knowledge.

  8. The Role of Receptive Vocabulary Knowledge in Advanced EFL Listening Comprehension

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    Atas, Ufuk

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study that investigates the role of vocabulary knowledge in listening comprehension with 33 advanced Turkish learners of English as a foreign language. The Vocabulary Levels Test (Schmitt, Schmitt & Clapham, 2001) is used to measure the vocabulary knowledge of the participants and a standardized listening test…

  9. Students' Perceptions of Vocabulary Knowledge and Learning in a Middle School Science Classroom

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    Brown, Patrick L.; Concannon, James P.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated eighth-grade science students' (13-14-year-olds) perceptions of their vocabulary knowledge, learning, and content achievement. Data sources included pre- and posttest of students' perceptions of vocabulary knowledge, students' perceptions of vocabulary and reading strategies surveys, and a content achievement test.…

  10. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES AS PREDICTORS OF READING COMPREHENSION AND VOCABULARY KNOWLEDGE

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    Abbas Ali Zarei; Nima Shokri Afshar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate types of Multiple Intelligences as predictors of reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge. To meet this objective, a 60-item TOEFL test and a 90-item multiple intelligences questionnaire were distributed among 240 male and female Iranians studying English at Qazali and Parsian Universities in Qazvin. Data were analyzed using a multiple regression procedure. The result of the data analysis indicated that musical, interpersonal, kin...

  11. Semantic representation of CDC-PHIN vocabulary using Simple Knowledge Organization System.

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    Zhu, Min; Mirhaji, Parsa

    2008-11-06

    PHIN Vocabulary Access and Distribution System (VADS) promotes the use of standards based vocabulary within CDC information systems. However, the current PHIN vocabulary representation hinders its wide adoption. Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is a W3C draft specification to support the formal representation of Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS) within the framework of the Semantic Web. We present a method of adopting SKOS to represent PHIN vocabulary in order to enable automated information sharing and integration.

  12. Enhancing students’ vocabulary knowledge using the Facebook environment

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    Muhammad Kamarul Kabilan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effectiveness of using Facebook in enhancing vocabulary knowledge among Community College students. Thirty-three (33 Community College students are exposed to the use of Facebook as an environment of learning and enhancing their English vocabulary. They are given a pre-test and a post-test and the findings indicate that students perform significantly better in the post-test compared to the pre-test. It appears that Facebook could be considered as a supplementary learning environment or learning platform or a learning tool; with meaningful and engaging activities that require students to collaborate, network and functions as a community of practice, particularly for introverted students with low proficiency levels and have low self-esteem.

  13. Semantic Structure in Vocabulary Knowledge Interacts with Lexical and Sentence Processing in Infancy

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    Borovsky, Arielle; Ellis, Erica M.; Evans, Julia L.; Elman, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Although the size of a child's vocabulary associates with language-processing skills, little is understood regarding how this relation emerges. This investigation asks whether and how the structure of vocabulary knowledge affects language processing in English-learning 24-month-old children (N = 32; 18 F, 14 M). Parental vocabulary report was used…

  14. Vocabulary and Receptive Knowledge of English Collocations among Swedish Upper Secondary School Students

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    Bergström, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the vocabulary and receptive collocation knowledge in English among Swedish upper secondary school students. The primary material consists of two vocabulary tests, one collocation test, and a background questionnaire. The first research question concerns whether the students who receive a major part of their education in English have a higher level of vocabulary and receptive collocation knowledge in English than those who are taught primarily in Swedish. T...

  15. Vocabulary Knowledge Predicts Lexical Processing: Evidence from a Group of Participants with Diverse Educational Backgrounds

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    Nina Mainz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary knowledge is central to a speaker's command of their language. In previous research, greater vocabulary knowledge has been associated with advantages in language processing. In this study, we examined the relationship between individual differences in vocabulary and language processing performance more closely by (i using a battery of vocabulary tests instead of just one test, and (ii testing not only university students (Experiment 1 but young adults from a broader range of educational backgrounds (Experiment 2. Five vocabulary tests were developed, including multiple-choice and open antonym and synonym tests and a definition test, and administered together with two established measures of vocabulary. Language processing performance was measured using a lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, vocabulary and word frequency were found to predict word recognition speed while we did not observe an interaction between the effects. In Experiment 2, word recognition performance was predicted by word frequency and the interaction between word frequency and vocabulary, with high-vocabulary individuals showing smaller frequency effects. While overall the individual vocabulary tests were correlated and showed similar relationships with language processing as compared to a composite measure of all tests, they appeared to share less variance in Experiment 2 than in Experiment 1. Implications of our findings concerning the assessment of vocabulary size in individual differences studies and the investigation of individuals from more varied backgrounds are discussed.

  16. Vocabulary Knowledge Predicts Lexical Processing: Evidence from a Group of Participants with Diverse Educational Backgrounds

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    Mainz, Nina; Shao, Zeshu; Brysbaert, Marc; Meyer, Antje S.

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is central to a speaker's command of their language. In previous research, greater vocabulary knowledge has been associated with advantages in language processing. In this study, we examined the relationship between individual differences in vocabulary and language processing performance more closely by (i) using a battery of vocabulary tests instead of just one test, and (ii) testing not only university students (Experiment 1) but young adults from a broader range of educational backgrounds (Experiment 2). Five vocabulary tests were developed, including multiple-choice and open antonym and synonym tests and a definition test, and administered together with two established measures of vocabulary. Language processing performance was measured using a lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, vocabulary and word frequency were found to predict word recognition speed while we did not observe an interaction between the effects. In Experiment 2, word recognition performance was predicted by word frequency and the interaction between word frequency and vocabulary, with high-vocabulary individuals showing smaller frequency effects. While overall the individual vocabulary tests were correlated and showed similar relationships with language processing as compared to a composite measure of all tests, they appeared to share less variance in Experiment 2 than in Experiment 1. Implications of our findings concerning the assessment of vocabulary size in individual differences studies and the investigation of individuals from more varied backgrounds are discussed. PMID:28751871

  17. Effects of Reading Strategies and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge on Turkish EFL Learners' Text Inferencing Skills

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    Çakir, Abdulvahit; Ünaldi, Ihsan; Arslan, Fadime Yalçin; Kiliç, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of foreign language teaching and learning, reading strategies, depth of vocabulary knowledge and text inferencing skills have not been researched extensively. This study tries to fill this gap by analyzing the effects of reading strategies used by Turkish EFL learners and their depth of vocabulary knowledge on their text…

  18. Receptive and Productive Vocabulary Learning: The Effects of Reading and Writing on Word Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stuart

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of receptive and productive vocabulary learning on word knowledge. Japanese students studying English as a foreign language learned target words in three glossed sentences and in a sentence production task in two experiments. Five aspects of vocabulary knowledge--orthography, syntax, association, grammatical…

  19. Vocabulary and syntactic knowledge factors in 5th grade students’ reading comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouider Mokhtari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined 5th grade students’ levels of vocabulary knowledge and syntactic awareness relative to their reading comprehension performance. The aim was to explore the contributions of vocabulary and syntactic awareness as potential sources of reading comprehension difficulty for these readers. Overall, we found that both vocabulary knowledge and syntactic awareness contributed in significant yet unique ways to students’ reading comprehension performance. Students who showed weaknesses in vocabulary and syntax also performed poorly on measures of reading comprehension. Additionally, we found that syntactic awareness explained a small amount of additional variance in reading comprehension beyond what was explained by vocabulary. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of research and practice addressing the relationships among syntax, vocabulary, and reading comprehension for more and less skilled readers.

  20. Self-reported reading as a predictor of vocabulary knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratheeba, N; Krashen, S

    2013-10-01

    25 engineering students in India, who were highly motivated to improve their English, filled out a questionnaire about their reading habits in English and took a demanding vocabulary test based on words taken from preparation books for the Graduate Records Examination. The correlation between reading habits and vocabulary was substantial (r = .78).

  1. The Key to Enhancing Students' Mathematical Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccomini, Paul J.; Sanders, Sharon; Jones, Julie

    2008-01-01

    The importance of learning mathematical vocabulary is vital for the development of proficiency in mathematics. In an effort to improve students' mathematical performance, educators must use research-validated instructional methods to teach important mathematical vocabulary. Mnemonic instruction is a set of evidenced-based strategies used to…

  2. An In-Depth Investigation into the Relationship between Vocabulary Knowledge and Academic Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted in the context of learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL) with the purpose of assessing the roles of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge in academic listening comprehension. The Vocabulary Size Test (VST, Nation & Beglar, 2007) and the Word Associates Test (WAT, Read, 2004) were administered to…

  3. Vocabulary and Syntactic Knowledge Factors in 5th Grade Students' Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Kouider; Niederhauser, Dale S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined 5th grade students' levels of vocabulary knowledge and syntactic awareness relative to their reading comprehension performance. The aim was to explore the contributions of vocabulary and syntactic awareness as potential sources of reading comprehension difficulty for these readers. Overall, we found that both vocabulary…

  4. The Relationship between Three Measures of L2 Vocabulary Knowledge and L2 Listening and Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Junyu; Matthews, Joshua

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the constructs that underpin three different measures of vocabulary knowledge and investigates the degree to which these three measures correlate with, and are able to predict, measures of second language (L2) listening and reading. Word frequency structured vocabulary tests tapping "receptive/orthographic (RecOrth)…

  5. Home Language Will Not Take Care of Itself: Vocabulary Knowledge in Trilingual Children in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieszkowska, Karolina; Łuniewska, Magdalena; Kołak, Joanna; Kacprzak, Agnieszka; Wodniecka, Zofia; Haman, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Language input is crucial for language acquisition and especially for children's vocabulary size. Bilingual children receive reduced input in each of their languages, compared to monolinguals, and are reported to have smaller vocabularies, at least in one of their languages. Vocabulary acquisition in trilingual children has been largely understudied; only a few case studies have been published so far. Moreover, trilingual language acquisition in children has been rarely contrasted with language outcomes of bilingual and monolingual peers. We present a comparison of trilingual, bilingual, and monolingual children (total of 56 participants, aged 4;5-6;7, matched one-to-one for age, gender, and non-verbal IQ) in regard to their receptive and expressive vocabulary (measured by standardized tests), and relative frequency of input in each language (measured by parental report). The monolingual children were speakers of Polish or English, while the bilinguals and trilinguals were migrant children living in the United Kingdom, speaking English as a majority language and Polish as a home language. The trilinguals had another (third) language at home. For the majority language, English, no differences were found across the three groups, either in the receptive or productive vocabulary. The groups differed, however, in their performance in Polish, the home language. The trilinguals had lower receptive vocabulary than the monolinguals, and lower productive vocabulary compared to the monolinguals. The trilinguals showed similar lexical knowledge to the bilinguals. The bilinguals demonstrated lower scores than the monolinguals, but only in productive vocabulary. The data on reported language input show that input in English in bilingual and trilingual groups is similar, but the bilinguals outscore the trilinguals in relative frequency of Polish input. Overall, the results suggest that in the majority language, multilingual children may develop lexical skills similar to those of

  6. Home Language Will Not Take Care of Itself: Vocabulary Knowledge in Trilingual Children in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Mieszkowska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Language input is crucial for language acquisition and especially for children’s vocabulary size. Bilingual children receive reduced input in each of their languages, compared to monolinguals, and are reported to have smaller vocabularies, at least in one of their languages. Vocabulary acquisition in trilingual children has been largely understudied; only a few case studies have been published so far. Moreover, trilingual language acquisition in children has been rarely contrasted with language outcomes of bilingual and monolingual peers. We present a comparison of trilingual, bilingual, and monolingual children (total of 56 participants, aged 4;5–6;7, matched one-to-one for age, gender, and non-verbal IQ in regard to their receptive and expressive vocabulary (measured by standardized tests, and relative frequency of input in each language (measured by parental report. The monolingual children were speakers of Polish or English, while the bilinguals and trilinguals were migrant children living in the United Kingdom, speaking English as a majority language and Polish as a home language. The trilinguals had another (third language at home. For the majority language, English, no differences were found across the three groups, either in the receptive or productive vocabulary. The groups differed, however, in their performance in Polish, the home language. The trilinguals had lower receptive vocabulary than the monolinguals, and lower productive vocabulary compared to the monolinguals. The trilinguals showed similar lexical knowledge to the bilinguals. The bilinguals demonstrated lower scores than the monolinguals, but only in productive vocabulary. The data on reported language input show that input in English in bilingual and trilingual groups is similar, but the bilinguals outscore the trilinguals in relative frequency of Polish input. Overall, the results suggest that in the majority language, multilingual children may develop lexical skills

  7. Receptive Vocabulary Knowledge in Low-Functioning Autism as Assessed by Eye Movements, Pupillary Dilation, and Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    screening questionnaire for Asperger Syndrome and other high-functioning autism spectrum disorders in school age children. Journal of Autism ...Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0404 TITLE: Receptive Vocabulary Knowledge in Low-Functioning Autism as Assessed by Eye Movements, Pupillary...Knowledge in Low-Functioning Autism as Assessed by Eye- Movements, Pupillary Dilation, and Event-Related Potentials 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0404

  8. Developing a Vocabulary Size Test Measuring Two Aspects of Receptive Vocabulary Knowledge: Visual versus Aural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Kazumi; Iso, Tatsuo; Nadasdy, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Testing learners' English proficiency is central to university English classes in Japan. This study developed and implemented a set of parallel online receptive aural and visual vocabulary tests that would predict learners' English proficiency. The tests shared the same target words and choices--the main difference was the presentation of the…

  9. Digital Games, Songs and Flashcards and their Effects on Vocabulary Knowledge of Iranian Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Taghizadeh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate (a the effect of digital games, songs, and flashcards on vocabulary knowledge of Iranian EFL preschool learners and (b the young learners‟ performance on mid-course tests of vocabulary with different topics. The participants included 350 preschool female learners in Oshnaviyeh, a town in Western Azarbaijan Province and were divided into three tablet, song, and traditional groups. Pre and post-tests of vocabulary and four mid-course tests based, on the learnt vocabularies, were administered during the research. The materials also consisted of a digital game, 16 songs, a structured student book, a workbook, and 60 flashcards. The analysis of the data revealed that there was no significant difference in the vocabulary knowledge of preschool learners who learnt vocabularies via games, songs, and flashcards. The results also showed that there was a significant difference in the three groups‟ mid-course tests with different topics. The findings recommend that using different techniques in the classroom considering learners‟ interest and needs can improve vocabulary knowledge of young learners.

  10. Impact of Using CALL on Iranian EFL Learners' Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Melor Md; Salehi, Hadi; Amini, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) integration in EFL contexts has intensified noticeably in recent years. This integration might be in different ways and for different purposes such as vocabulary acquisition, grammar learning, phonology, writing skills, etc. More explicitly, this study is an attempt to explore the effect of using CALL on…

  11. The learner as lexicographer: using monolingual and bilingual corpora to deepen vocabulary knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina HMELJAK SANGAWA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning vocabulary is one of the most challenging tasks faced by learners with a non-kanji background when learning Japanese as a foreign language. However, learners are often not aware of the range of different aspects of word knowledge they need in order to successfully use Japanese. This includes not only the spoken and written form of a word and its meaning, but also morphological, grammatical, collocational, connotative and pragmatic knowledge as well as knowledge of social constraints to be observed. In this article, we present some background data on the use of dictionaries among students of Japanese at the University of Ljubljana, a selection of resources and a series of exercises developed with the following aims: a to foster greater awareness of the different aspects of Japanese vocabulary, both from a monolingual and a contrastive perspective, b to learn about tools and methods that can be applied in different contexts of language learning and language use, and c to develop strategies for learning new vocabulary, reinforcing knowledge about known vocabulary, and effectively using this knowledge in receptive and productive language tasks.

  12. Contrasting contributions of phonological short-term memory and long-term knowledge to vocabulary learning in a foreign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoura, Elvira V; Gathercole, Susan E

    2005-01-01

    The contributions of phonological short-term memory and existing foreign vocabulary knowledge to the learning of new words in a second language were compared in a sample of 40 Greek children studying English at school. The children's speed of learning new English words in a paired-associate learning task was strongly influenced by their current English vocabulary, but was independent of phonological memory skill, indexed by nonword repetition ability. However, phonological memory performance was closely linked to English vocabulary scores. The findings suggest that in learners with considerable familiarity with a second language, foreign vocabulary acquisition is mediated largely by use of existing knowledge representations.

  13. Jump-Start Your Middle School Students' Background Knowledge and Vocabulary Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Elizabeth; Williams-Rossi, Dara

    2012-01-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in increasingly diverse classrooms is helping students develop the "knowledge and language of science to communicate scientific explanations and ideas" (NRC 1996, p. 144). In this article, the authors share one of their favorite methods for incorporating and reinforcing science vocabulary instruction in…

  14. Assessing the Depth and Breadth of Vocabulary Knowledge with Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Feng

    2014-01-01

    This study was inspired by Qian (1999) and Staehr (2009) and researched 88 Chinese learners who had already passed the College English Test 4 (CET). These learners volunteered to participate in the study regarding the depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge and its relationship with listening comprehension, which was assessed by analyzing the…

  15. Field Dependence/Independence Cognitive Styles: Are They Significant at Different Levels of Vocabulary Knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostampour, Mohammad; Niroomand, Seyyedeh Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive styles influence the performance of language learners and can predict their success in the process of language learning. Considering field dependence/independence cognitive styles, this study aims at determining if they are significant in English vocabulary knowledge. A number of EFL university students took part in the study. The…

  16. The Effects of Receptive and Productive Learning of Word Pairs on Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    English as a foreign language students in Japan learned target words in word pairs receptively and productively. Five aspects of vocabulary knowledge--orthography, association, syntax, grammatical functions, and meaning and form--were each measured by receptive and productive tests. The study uses an innovative methodology in that each target word…

  17. Investigating the Efficacy of a Preschool Vocabulary Intervention Designed to Increase Vocabulary Size and Conceptual Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Julie C.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation study investigated the efficacy of a supplementary preschool embedded multimedia curriculum that was designed to increase one type of conceptual knowledge: taxonomic categories. Named the World of Words (WOW), this curriculum focused on teaching the properties and concepts associated with seven taxonomic categories and providing…

  18. An overview of the age factor and its pedagogical implications for vocabulary acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Exp??sito Morillas, Mar??a del Pilar

    2011-01-01

    This?? research?? deals with??the??age??effects??on??the??acquisition??of??vocabulary??as??a??second??language??in??an??instructed??setting.??The??literature??review??on??the??age??factor??in??reference?? to?? vocabulary?? acquisition??shows?? an?? advantage?? of?? the??late starters?? over the?? early??starters?? in?? instructed?? settings.?? However,?? early??starters?? surpass?? late starters?? in??naturalistic?? settings?? in?? the?? long??run?? when?? the?? basic?? conditions??are??fulfi...

  19. The Awareness of Morphemic Knowledge for Young Adults' Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varatharajoo, Chandrakala; Asmawi, Adelina Binti; Abdallah, Nabeel; Abedalaziz, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The study explored the awareness of morphemic knowledge among young adult learners in the ESL context. Morphological Relatedness Test and Morphological Structure Test (adapted from Curinga, 2014) were two important tools used to assess the students' morphemic knowledge in this study. The tests measured the students' ability to reflect and…

  20. Challenges of Testing Deep Word Knowledge of Vocabulary: Which ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal for Language Teaching ... Results indicate that (i) ESL students outperform their EFL counterparts of comparable class level, (ii) aspects of deep word knowledge among both higher education EFL and ESL students ... Furthermore, teaching implications aimed to foster deep word knowledge growth are discussed.

  1. The Contribution of Vocabulary Knowledge and Semantic Orthographic Fluency to Text Quality through Elementary School in Catalan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Cristina; Tolchinsky, Liliana

    2018-01-01

    Building a text is a multidimensional endeavor. Writers must work simultaneously on the content of the text, its discursive organization, the structure of the sentences, and the individual words themselves. Knowledge of vocabulary is central to this endeavor. This study intends (1) to trace the development of writer's vocabulary depth, their…

  2. Studies of Danish L2 learners’ vocabulary knowledge and the lexical richness of their written production in English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Birgit; Danelund, Lise

    2015-01-01

    A number of lexical studies report a strong correlation between L2 learners’ vocabulary size and depth and their writing skills. Three Danish empirical studies explore this relationship further by looking at the vocabulary knowledge of young upper-secondary school learners of English...... analysis of written essays from learners across two educational levels. All studies show a surprisingly low level of receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge for the pupils tested. Moreover, the lexical analyses of the texts reveal that the learners do not exploit the vocabulary resources they have...... in their written production. Even the high-level learners, who have more L2 vocabulary, are using a “playing-it-safe strategy”, relying on familiar high-frequent lexical items in their writing. The results are discussed in light of the meaning-based teaching approaches used in Danish EFL classrooms and the lack...

  3. Effect of Content Schema, Vocabulary Knowledge, and Reading Comprehension on Translation Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Kafipour

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Schemata refer to all kinds of knowledge which are gained throughout the lifetime. Few studies tried to integrate schema theory and the next two crucial factors in translation and learning which are vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Thus, the present research aimed at delineating the potential effect of these three factors on translation performance of Iranian undergraduate students majoring in translator training. To this end, 172 Iranian undergraduate students majoring in translator training were selected based on two-step cluster sampling. To collect data, the participants answered a set of 6 open-ended questions to measure the students’ content schema along with a vocabulary size test, reading comprehension test, and translation task. To analyze data, Pearson correlation coefficient as well as stepwise multiple regressions was conducted through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 17. Data analysis indicated that the independent variables significantly correlated with translation performance. In addition, multiple regressions analysis specified reading comprehension as the main contributing variable and content schema as the second in students’ translation performance. It also showed that vocabulary knowledge could not be a predicting factor in translation performance of the learners; the reason may refer to the inseparable component of their translation task that is dictionary. The results highlighted the role of content schema in translation performance of the learners.

  4. Vocabulary acquisition in deaf and hard-of-hearing children: Research and interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, D.; Wauters, L.N.; Willemsen, M.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Marschark, M.; Spencer, P.E.

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is fundamental to communication, language learning, and acquiring knowledge of the world. Deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children face considerable challenges in acquiring age-appropriate vocabulary knowledge. The enhancement of children's vocabulary knowledge is therefore one

  5. Analysis of the effect of specific vocabulary instruction on high school chemistry students' knowledge and understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrosse, Peggy

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of specific vocabulary instruction on high school chemistry students' knowledge and understanding. Students might be able to formally recite a definition for a term without actually having understood the meaning of the term and its connection to other terms or to related concepts. Researchers (Cassels & Johnstone, 1983; Gabel, 1999; Johnstone, 1991) have been studying the difficulty students have in learning science, particularly chemistry. Gabel (1999) suggests that, "while research into misconceptions (also known as alternative conceptions) and problem-solving has dominated the field for the past 25 years, we are no closer to a solution that would improve the teaching and learning of chemistry" (P. 549). Gabel (1999) relates the difficulty in learning chemistry to use of language. She refers to student difficulty both with words that have more than one meaning in English and with words that are used to mean one idea in chemistry and another idea in every day language. The Frayer Model, a research-based teaching strategy, is a graphic organizer which students use to create meaningful definitions for terms in context (Frayer, Frederick, & Klausmeier, 1969). It was used as the treatment---the specific vocabulary instruction---in this research study. The researcher collected and analyzed data to answer three research questions that focused on the effect of using the Frayer model (a graphic organizer) on high school students' knowledge and understanding of academic language used in chemistry. The research took place in a New England high school. Four intact chemistry classes provided the student participants; two classes were assigned to the treatment group (TG) and two classes were assigned to the control group (CG). The TG received vocabulary instruction on 14 chosen terms using the Frayer Model. The CG received traditional vocabulary instruction with no special attention to the 14 terms selected for this study

  6. Do Hours Spent Viewing Television at Ages 3 and 4 Predict Vocabulary and Executive Functioning at Age 5?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart D.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the impact of television viewing at ages 3 and 4 on vocabulary and at age 5 on executive functioning in the context of home learning environment and parental scaffolding. Children (N = 263) were seen in the lab when they were 3 years old and then again at ages 4 and 5. Parents completed measures assessing child television viewing and…

  7. Vocabulary knowledge, phonological representations and phonological sensitivity in Spanish-speaking low-and middle-SES preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Diuk

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among vocabulary knowledge, phonological representations and phonological sensitivity in 80 Spanish-speaking preschool children from middle- and low-SES families. Significant social class differences were obtained on all tasks except syllable matching. Regression analyses were carried out to test the predictive power of vocabulary knowledge and accuracy of phonological representations on the phonological sensitivity measures. Receptive vocabulary predicted rhyme identification. Syllable matching was predicted by a task tapping accuracy of phonological representations. The fact that rhyme identification was predicted by vocabulary knowledge but syllable matching was predicted by a measure tapping accuracy of phonological representations in both groups suggests that early lexical development sets the stage for the development of the lower levels of phonological sensitivity but identification of smaller units requires more accurate and segmented phonological representations.

  8. A Russian Keyword Spotting System Based on Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition and Linguistic Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Smirnov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the key concepts of a word spotting system for Russian based on large vocabulary continuous speech recognition. Key algorithms and system settings are described, including the pronunciation variation algorithm, and the experimental results on the real-life telecom data are provided. The description of system architecture and the user interface is provided. The system is based on CMU Sphinx open-source speech recognition platform and on the linguistic models and algorithms developed by Speech Drive LLC. The effective combination of baseline statistic methods, real-world training data, and the intensive use of linguistic knowledge led to a quality result applicable to industrial use.

  9. Reexamining the Relationship between Verbal Knowledge Background and Keyword Training for Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogben; Lawson

    1997-07-01

    The literature on keyword training presents a confusing picture of the usefulness of the keyword method for foreign language vocabulary learning by students with strong verbal knowledge backgrounds. This paper reviews research which notes the existence of conflicting sets of findings concerning the verbal background-keyword training relationship and presents the results of analyses which argue against the assertion made by McDaniel and Pressley (1984) that keyword training will have minimal effect on students with high verbal ability. Findings from regression analyses of data from two studies did not show that the relationship between keyword training and immediate recall performance was moderated by verbal knowledge background. The disparate sets of findings related to the keyword training-verbal knowledge relationship and themes emerging from other research suggest that this relationship requires further examination.

  10. Individual Differences in Very Young Chinese Children's English Vocabulary Breadth and Semantic Depth: Internal and External Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, He; Steinkrauss, Rasmus; Wieling, Martijn; de Bot, Kees

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the English vocabulary development of 43 very young child English as a foreign language (FL) learners (age 3.2-6.2) in China. They were tested twice for vocabulary breadth (reception and production) and semantic depth (paradigmatic and syntagmatic vocabulary knowledge). The development of the English vocabulary knowledge…

  11. Study orientation and knowledge of basic vocabulary in Mathematics in the primary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthie van der Walt

    2009-09-01

    mathematics on secondary and tertiary levels. The aim of this research was to investigate the extent to which the performance in study orientation (Study Orientation questionnaire in Mathematics (Primary and knowledge of basic vocabulary/terminology in mathematics (Mathematics Vocabulary (Primary (vocabulary as one aspect of language in Mathematics of Grade 4 to 7 learners predict performance in mathematics (Basic Mathematics (Primary. Three standardised questionnaires were administered, namely the Study Orientation questionnaire in Mathematics (Primary, or SOM(P, Mathematics Vocabulary (Primary or (MV(P, and Basic Mathematics (Primary or BM(P. The participants consisted of learners in Grade 4 to 7 (n = 1 103 in North-West Province with respectively Afrikaans, English and Tswana as their home language. Results from the data, by calculating intercorrelations and stepwise regression, confirmed that learners’ performance in mathematics (BM(P can be predicted through their performance in the knowledge of basic vocabulary in mathematics (MV(P, their “maths” anxiety, study attitude towards and study habits in mathematics (SOM(P. The results can be implemented to improve learners’ performance in mathematics when teachers identify inadequate knowledge of basic vocabulary in mathematics as well as study orientation (for example, “maths” anxiety, study attitude towards and study habits in mathematics in the early years of schooling. Learners’ scores can be checked to identify those requiring aid, support, remediation and/or counselling. An analysis of individual answers (particularly those where learner’s replies differ significantly in respect of the answers usually given by good achievers in mathematics could be extremely useful. Enculturing learners to the vocabulary of mathematical language is an aspect of instruction that needs specific attention. The three questionnaires, which are administered in this research, provide mathematics teachers with standardised

  12. Adapting a receptive vocabulary test for preschool-aged Greek-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okalidou, Areti; Syrika, Asimina; Beckman, Mary E; Edwards, Jan R

    2011-01-01

    Receptive vocabulary is an important measure for language evaluations. Therefore, norm-referenced receptive vocabulary tests are widely used in several languages. However, a receptive vocabulary test has not yet been normed for Modern Greek. To adapt an American English vocabulary test, the Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test-II (ROWPVT-II), for Modern Greek for use with Greek-speaking preschool children. The list of 170 English words on ROWPVT-II was adapted by (1) developing two lists (A and B) of Greek words that would match either the target English word or another concept corresponding to one of the pictured objects in the four-picture array; and (2) determining a developmental order for the chosen Greek words for preschool-aged children. For the first task, adult word frequency measures were used to select the words for the Greek wordlist. For the second task, 427 children, 225 boys and 202 girls, ranging in age from 2;0 years to 5;11 years, were recruited from urban and suburban areas of Greece. A pilot study of the two word lists was performed with the aim of comparing an equal number of list A and list B responses for each age group and deriving a new developmental list order. The relative difficulty of each Greek word item, that is, its accuracy score, was calculated by taking the average proportion of correct responses across ages for that word. Subsequently, the word accuracy scores in the two lists were compared via regression analysis, which yielded a highly significant relationship (R(2) = 0.97; p word item from the two lists was a better fit. Finally, new starting levels (basals) were established for preschool ages. The revised word list can serve as the basis for adapting a receptive vocabulary test for Greek preschool-aged children. Further steps need to be taken when testing larger numbers of 2;0 to 5;11-year-old children on the revised word list for determination of norms. This effort will facilitate early identification and remediation

  13. Technology-enhanced storytelling stimulating parent–child interaction and preschool children's vocabulary knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepe, R.C.; Molenaar, I.; Verhoeven, L.

    2016-01-01

    Preschool children's vocabulary mainly develops verbal through interaction. Therefore, the technology-enhanced storytelling (TES) activity Jeffy's Journey is developed to support parent–child interaction and vocabulary in preschool children. TES entails shared verbal storytelling supported by a

  14. Technology-enhanced storytelling stimulating parent-child interaction and preschool children's vocabulary knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepe, R.C.; Molenaar, I.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2017-01-01

    Preschool children's vocabulary mainly develops verbal through interaction. Therefore, the technology-enhanced storytelling (TES) activity Jeffy's Journey is developed to support parent-child interaction and vocabulary in preschool children. TES entails shared verbal storytelling supported by a

  15. Factors affecting vocabulary acquisition at age 2 in children born between 23 and 28 weeks' gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Louise; Peacock, Janet L; Calvert, Sandra A; Greenough, Anne; Marlow, Neil

    2007-08-01

    Language development is often slower in preterm children compared with their term peers. We investigated factors associated with vocabulary acquisition at 2 years in a cohort of children born at 28 weeks' gestation or less. For children entered into the United Kingdom Oscillation Study, language development was evaluated by using the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories score, completed by parents as part of a developmental questionnaire. The effect of demographic, neonatal, socioeconomic factors, growth, and disability were investigated using multifactorial random effects modelling. Questionnaires were returned by 288 participants (148 males, 140 females). The mean number of words vocalized was 42 (SD 29). Multifactorial analysis showed only four factors were significantly associated with vocabulary acquisition. These were: (1) level of disability (mean words: no disability, 45; other disability, 38; severe disability, 30 [severe disability is defined as at least one extreme response in one of the following clinical domains: neuromotor, vision, hearing, communication, or other physical disabilities]; 95% confidence interval [CI] for the difference between no and severe disability 7- 23); (2) sex (39 males, 44 females; 95% CI 0.4-11); (3) length of hospital stay (lower quartile, 47; upper quartile, 38; 95% CI -12 to -4); and (4) weight SD score at 12 months (lower quartile, 39; upper quartile, 44; 95% CI 1-9). There was no significant association between gestational age and vocabulary after multifactorial analysis. There was no significant effect of any socioeconomic factor on vocabulary acquisition. We conclude that clinical factors, particularly indicators of severe morbidity, dominate the correlates of vocabulary acquisition at age 2 in children born very preterm.

  16. Scaffolding and co-operative learning : Effects on reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge in English as a foreign language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wachyunni, Sri

    2015-01-01

    For university students in Indonesia, English reading comprehension, which partially depends on vocabulary knowledge, is key to success in academic achievement. The current study was set up to compare the effect of two commonly known teaching interventions during a whole semester to improve reading

  17. The Relation of Morphological Awareness and Syntactic Awareness to Adults' Reading Comprehension: Is Vocabulary Knowledge a Mediating Variable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Roehrig, Alysia D.; Williams, Rihana S.

    2011-01-01

    The authors' goal was to examine the structural relationships among vocabulary knowledge, morphological awareness, syntactic awareness, and reading comprehension in English-speaking adults. Structural equation analysis of data collected from 151 participants revealed that morphological awareness affected reading comprehension directly. Syntactic…

  18. Do Nimble Hands Make for Nimble Lexicons? Fine Motor Skills Predict Knowledge of Embodied Vocabulary Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggate, Sebastian P.; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2014-01-01

    Theories and research in embodied cognition postulate that cognition grounded in action enjoys a processing advantage. Extending this theory to the study of how fine motor skills (FMS) link to vocabulary development in preschool children, the authors investigated FMS and vocabulary in 76 preschoolers. Building on previous research, they…

  19. Technology-Enhanced Storytelling Stimulating Parent-Child Interaction and Preschool Children's Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teepe, R. C.; Molenaar, I.; Verhoeven, L.

    2017-01-01

    Preschool children's vocabulary mainly develops verbal through interaction. Therefore, the technology-enhanced storytelling (TES) activity Jeffy's Journey is developed to support parent-child interaction and vocabulary in preschool children. TES entails shared verbal storytelling supported by a story structure and real-time visual, auditory and…

  20. The Effects of STEM PBL on Students' Mathematical and Scientific Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Ali; Boedeker, Peter; Capraro, Robert M.; Capraro, Mary M.

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary is at the surface level of language usage; thus, students need to develop mathematical and scientific vocabulary to be able to explicitly communicate their mathematical and scientific reasoning with others. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) and the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) have both created…

  1. Spelling Ability in College Students Predicted by Decoding, Print Exposure, and Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocal, Turkan; Ehri, Linnea

    2017-01-01

    This study examines students' exposure to print, vocabulary and decoding as predictors of spelling skills. Participants were 42 college students (Mean age 22.5, SD = 7.87; 31 females and 11 males). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that most of the variance in spelling was explained by vocabulary knowledge. When vocabulary was entered first…

  2. The concurrent use of three implicit measures (eye movements, pupillometry, and event-related potentials) to assess receptive vocabulary knowledge in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Kerry; Coderre, Emily; Bosley, Laura; Buz, Esteban; Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Gordon, Barry

    2016-03-01

    Recent years have seen the advent and proliferation of the use of implicit techniques to study learning and cognition. One such application is the use of event-related potentials (ERPs) to assess receptive vocabulary knowledge. Other implicit assessment techniques that may be well-suited to other testing situations or to use with varied participant groups have not been used as widely to study receptive vocabulary knowledge. We sought to develop additional implicit techniques to study receptive vocabulary knowledge that could augment the knowledge gained from the use of the ERP technique. Specifically, we used a simple forced-choice paradigm to assess receptive vocabulary knowledge in normal adult participants using eye movement monitoring (EM) and pupillometry. In the same group of participants, we also used an N400 semantic incongruity ERP paradigm to assess their knowledge of two groups of words: those expected to be known to the participants (high-frequency, familiar words) and those expected to be unknown (low-frequency, unfamiliar words). All three measures showed reliable differences between the known and unknown words. EM and pupillometry thus may provide insight into receptive vocabulary knowledge similar to that from ERPs. The development of additional implicit assessment techniques may increase the feasibility of receptive vocabulary testing across a wider range of participant groups and testing situations, and may make the conduct of such testing more accessible to a wider range of researchers, clinicians, and educators.

  3. Early vocabulary development in children with bilateral cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välimaa, Taina; Kunnari, Sari; Laukkanen-Nevala, Päivi; Lonka, Eila

    2018-01-01

    Children with unilateral cochlear implants (CIs) may have delayed vocabulary development for an extended period after implantation. Bilateral cochlear implantation is reported to be associated with improved sound localization and enhanced speech perception in noise. This study proposed that bilateral implantation might also promote early vocabulary development. Knowledge regarding vocabulary growth and composition in children with bilateral CIs and factors associated with it may lead to improvements in the content of early speech and language intervention and family counselling. To analyse the growth of early vocabulary and its composition during the first year after CI activation and to investigate factors associated with vocabulary growth. The participants were 20 children with bilateral CIs (12 boys; eight girls; mean age at CI activation = 12.9 months). Vocabulary size was assessed with the Finnish version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) Infant Form and compared with normative data. Vocabulary composition was analysed in relation to vocabulary size. Growth curve modelling was implemented using a linear mixed model to analyse the effects of the following variables on early vocabulary growth: time, gender, maternal education, residual hearing with hearing aids, age at first hearing aid fitting and age at CI activation. Despite clear vocabulary growth over time, children with bilateral CIs lagged behind their age norms in receptive vocabulary during the first 12 months after CI activation. In expressive vocabulary, 35% of the children were able to catch up with their age norms, but 55% of the children lagged behind them. In receptive and expressive vocabularies of 1-20 words, analysis of different semantic categories indicated that social terms constituted the highest proportion. Nouns constituted the highest proportion in vocabularies of 101-400 words. The proportion of verbs remained below 20% and the proportion of function words and

  4. Near or far: The effect of spatial distance and vocabulary knowledge on word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Emma L; Perry, Lynn K; Scott, Emilly J; Horst, Jessica S

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the role of spatial distance in word learning. Two-year-old children saw three novel objects named while the objects were either in close proximity to each other or spatially separated. Children were then tested on their retention for the name-object associations. Keeping the objects spatially separated from each other during naming was associated with increased retention for children with larger vocabularies. Children with a lower vocabulary size demonstrated better retention if they saw objects in close proximity to each other during naming. This demonstrates that keeping a clear view of objects during naming improves word learning for children who have already learned many words, but keeping objects within close proximal range is better for children at earlier stages of vocabulary acquisition. The effect of distance is therefore not equal across varying vocabulary sizes. The influences of visual crowding, cognitive load, and vocabulary size on word learning are discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Knowledge Building: Reinventing Education for the Knowledge Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Donald N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the Knowledge Age and how economic factors are causing educators to rethink and reinvent education. Two key factors in education in the Knowledge Age will be education for an economy of innovation, and the increasing virtualization of education. We present knowledge building pedagogy as a model for education in the Knowledge…

  6. Effects of bilingualism on vocabulary, executive functions, age of dementia onset, and regional brain structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasquoine, Philip Gerard

    2016-11-01

    To review the current literature on the effects of bilingualism on vocabulary, executive functions, age of dementia onset, and regional brain structure. PubMed and PsycINFO databases were searched (from January 1999 to present) for relevant original research and review articles on bilingualism (but not multilingualism) paired with each target neuropsychological variable published in English. A qualitative review of these articles was conducted. It has long been known that mean scores of bilinguals fall below those of monolinguals on vocabulary and other language, but not visual-perceptual, format cognitive tests. Contemporary studies that have reported higher mean scores for bilinguals than monolinguals on executive function task-switching or inhibition tasks have not always been replicated, leading to concerns of publication bias, statistical flaws, and failures to match groups on potentially confounding variables. Studies suggesting the onset of Alzheimer's disease occurred about 4 years later for bilinguals versus monolinguals have not been confirmed in longitudinal, cohort, community-based, incidence studies that have used neuropsychological testing and diagnostic criteria to establish an age of dementia diagnosis. Neuroimaging studies of regional gray and white matter volume in bilinguals versus monolinguals show inconsistencies in terms of both the regions of difference and the nature of the difference. Resolving inconsistencies in the behavioral data is necessary before searching in the brain for neuroanatomical correlation. Comparisons of balanced versus language-dominant groups within the same ethnoculture combined with objective measurement of bilingualism could better match groups on potentially confounding variables. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Mutual Exclusivity Develops as a Consequence of Abstract Rather than Particular Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikova, Marina; Mattock, Karen; Monaghan, Padraic

    2016-01-01

    Mutual exclusivity (ME) refers to the assumption that there are one-to-one relations between linguistic forms and their meanings. It is used as a word-learning strategy whereby children tend to map novel labels to unfamiliar rather than familiar referents. Previous research has indicated a relation between ME and vocabulary development, which…

  8. Individual differences in very young Chinese children’s English vocabulary breadth and semantic depth : Internal and external factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, He; Steinkrauss, Rasmus; Wieling, Martijn; de Bot, Cornelis

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the English vocabulary development of 43 very young child EFL learners (age 3;2-6;2) in China. They were tested twice for vocabulary breadth (reception and production) and semantic depth (paradigmatic and syntagmatic vocabulary knowledge). The development of the English

  9. Racial Differences in Attitudes toward Aging, Aging Knowledge, and Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrieri, Robert C.; Kurth, Maria L.

    2018-01-01

    The present study assessed knowledge of aging, attitudes toward aging, ageism, and contact with older adults in a sample of 271 Non-Hispanic White and African-American undergraduates. Research examining racial differences in knowledge of aging, attitudes toward aging, ageism, and contact with older adults has been sparse. Results for the current…

  10. Strategies for teaching and learning vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Teng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article presents an overview of current research on second language vocabulary learning and proposes eight strategies for teaching and learning vocabulary. First, to facilitate effective vocabulary teaching, choosing high-frequency words is essential. Teachers of vocabulary also need to add explicit, intentional teaching to incidental learning. In addition, vocabulary learning strategies including morphological awareness and lexical inference provides a platform by which learners can improve both receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge. This article also suggests that productive vocabulary knowledge needs more attention than receptive vocabulary knowledge, and that available textbooks seldom address vocabulary sufficiently. In summary, it is very important for all learners and teachers to acknowledge that learning vocabulary is incremental in nature, and we should develop a principled, long-term program for teaching and learning vocabulary.

  11. Using Vocabulary Notebooks for Vocabulary Acquisition and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiner, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is recognized as an essential element for second language acquisition and reading comprehension. One known way to encourage and support vocabulary development amongst second language learners is keeping a vocabulary notebook. The primary purpose of the present study was to document two aspects of student teachers' own…

  12. Early Vocabulary, Parental Education, and the Frequency of Shared Reading as Predictors of Toddler's Vocabulary and Grammar at Age 2;7: A Slovenian Longitudinal CDI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Fekonja-Peklaj, Urška; Socan, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study, carried out on a sample of Slovenian-speaking toddlers, was to analyze developmental changes and stability in early vocabulary development; to establish relations between toddler's vocabulary and grammar; and to analyze the effects of parental education and the frequency of shared reading on toddlers' vocabulary…

  13. Using an Online Vocabulary Memorization Tool versus Traditional Vocabulary Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Bakla

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to reveal what Memrise, an online vocabulary study tool, can offer to upper-intermediate EFL learners compared to traditional vocabulary exercises in L2 vocabulary learning. Two groups of upper-intermediate learners (N=80 were randomly assigned to the experimental group and the control group and were given the Vocabulary Knowledge Scale, VKS for short, as the pre-test and post-test. The participants in both groups were exposed to the target vocabulary items in the same reading text. While those in the experimental group created list of target vocabulary items collaboratively in Memrise and then studied the sets individually, the learners in the control group did traditional vocabulary exercises. The results of the post-tests indicated that there was a significant difference between the control group and the experimental group in favor of the experimental group. The researchers discuss possible pedagogical implications of this significant finding for EFL vocabulary instruction.

  14. The Impact of Using Student-Dictated Oral Review Stories on Science Vocabulary, Content Knowledge, and Non-Fiction Writing Skills of First Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishoff, Sandra Wells

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if using an intervention called Student Dictated Oral Review Stories (SDORS) had an effect on science vocabulary usage and content knowledge for ninety-three students in six first grade classrooms and the subgroup of economically disadvantaged students in a mid-sized north Texas school district. The…

  15. The Anatomy of the Role of Morphological Awareness in Chinese Character Learning: The Mediation of Vocabulary and Semantic Radical Knowledge and the Moderation of Morpheme Family Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Duo; Li, Hong; Wong, Kwok Shing Richard

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the mediating roles of syllable awareness, orthographic knowledge, and vocabulary skills and the moderating role of morpheme family size in the association between morphological awareness and Chinese character reading were investigated with 176 second-grade Hong Kong Chinese children. In the path analyses, the results…

  16. Longitudinal Predictors of Vocabulary Knowledge in Turkish Children: The Role of Maternal Warmth, Inductive Reasoning, and Children's Inhibitory Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekerim, Muge; Selcuk, Bilge

    2018-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study investigated the social and cognitive precursors of vocabulary knowledge in 239 Turkish preschoolers both concurrently (Time 1 [T1] Mage = 53.29 months, SD = 10.19) and subsequently 1 year later (Time 2 [T2] Mage = 65.40 months, SD = 10.55). We examined the role of parenting behaviors by focusing on emotional…

  17. Linking open vocabularies

    CERN Document Server

    Greifender, Elke; Seadle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Linked Data (LD), Linked Open Data (LOD) and generating a web of data, present the new knowledge sharing frontier. In a philosophical context, LD is an evolving environment that reflects humankinds' desire to understand the world by drawing on the latest technologies and capabilities of the time. LD, while seemingly a new phenomenon did not emerge overnight; rather it represents the natural progression by which knowledge structures are developed, used, and shared. Linked Open Vocabularies is a significant trajectory of LD. Linked Open Vocabularies targets vocabularies that have traditionally b

  18. PUS in turbulent times II - A shifting vocabulary that brokers inter-disciplinary knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suerdem, Ahmet; Bauer, Martin W; Howard, Susan; Ruby, Luke

    2013-01-01

    To reflect further on 20 years of the journal, we present a lexicographic and bibliometric study of all papers published in Public Understanding of Science (PUS). Lexicographical analysis of the vocabulary of 465 abstracts shows five classes of associated concepts in two periods, 1992-2001 and 2002-2010. The concern for public attitudes and mass media coverage remains on the card; while language has shifted from 'public understanding' to 'public engagement' and environmental concerns have waned then waxed. The bibliometric analysis traces the position of PUS in the inter-citation network of 165 related journals (ISI Web of Science citation database), grouped into 10 disciplines for the purpose of this analysis. Indicators derived from network logic show that the established position of PUS has been stable since 1997. PUS serves a varied brokerage role as gatekeeper into and liaison maker between disciplines. Its inter-citation network position allows PUS to perform inter-disciplinary boundary spanning work that offers a safe space for experimentation with ideas.

  19. Vocabulary growth rate from preschool to school-age years is reflected in the connectivity of the arcuate fasciculus in 14-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Mengmeng; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Zhao, Jingjing; Song, Shuang; Zhou, Wei; Gong, Gaolang; McBride, Catherine; Ramus, Franck; Shu, Hua

    2018-02-06

    The acquisition of language involves the functional specialization of several cortical regions. Connectivity between these brain regions may also change with the development of language. Various studies have demonstrated that the arcuate fasciculus was essential for language function. Vocabulary learning is one of the most important skills in language acquisition. In the present longitudinal study, we explored the influence of vocabulary development on the anatomical properties of the arcuate fasciculus. Seventy-nine Chinese children participated in this study. Between age 4 and age 10, they were administered the same vocabulary task repeatedly. Following a previous study, children's vocabulary developmental trajectories were clustered into three subgroups (consistently good, catch-up, consistently poor). At age 14, diffusion tensor imaging data were collected. Using ROI-based tractography, the anterior, posterior and direct segments of the bilateral arcuate fasciculus were delineated in each child's native space. Group comparisons showed a significantly reduced fractional anisotropy in the left arcuate fasciculus of children in the consistently poor group, in particular in the posterior and direct segments of the arcuate fasciculus. No group differences were observed in the right hemisphere, nor in the left anterior segment. Further regression analyses showed that the rate of vocabulary development, rather than the initial vocabulary size, was a specific predictor of the left arcuate fasciculus connectivity. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Predicting vocabulary growth in children with and without specific language impairment: a longitudinal study from 2;6 to 21 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Mabel L; Hoffman, Lesa

    2015-04-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) often have vocabulary impairments. This study evaluates longitudinal growth in a latent trait of receptive vocabulary in affected and unaffected children ages 2;6 (years;months) to 21 years and evaluates as possible predictors maternal education, child gender, and nonverbal IQ. A sample of 519 participants (240 with SLI; 279 unaffected) received an average of 7 annual assessments for a total of 3,012 latent trait Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) observations. Unconditional and conditional multilevel growth models were estimated to evaluate growth trajectories and predictor relationships over time. Children with SLI had lower levels of receptive vocabulary throughout the age range assessed. They did not close the gap with age peers. Children with higher nonverbal IQs had better PPVT performance, as did children of mothers with higher education. Child gender showed an advantage for young girls that leveled out with age and then became an advantage for boys from ages 10 to 21 years. All children's rate of vocabulary acquisition slowed around 12 years of age. The outcomes of the study have implications for hypothesized causal pathways for individual differences; predictions differ for children under 5 years, 6-10 years, and later ages.

  1. German Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Virginia M.

    This article discusses in general terms derivational aspects of English vocabulary. Citing examples of Anglo-Saxon origin, the author provides a glimpse into the nature of the interrelatedness of English, German, and French vocabulary. (RL)

  2. Facilitating linguistically diverse parents to enhance toddler's vocabulary development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepe, R.C.; Molenaar, I.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Oostdam, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The aim is to investigate effects of a Dutch FLP on linguistically diverse children's vocabulary, specifically curriculumbased and general vocabulary. Moreover, we investigate additional effects including technology-enhanced activities in a FLP. Theoretical background Vocabulary knowledge in

  3. Evolutionary model with genetics, aging, and knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillos, Armando Ticona; de Oliveira, Paulo Murilo

    2004-02-01

    We represent a process of learning by using bit strings, where 1 bits represent the knowledge acquired by individuals. Two ways of learning are considered: individual learning by trial and error, and social learning by copying knowledge from other individuals or from parents in the case of species with parental care. The age-structured bit string allows us to study how knowledge is accumulated during life and its influence over the genetic pool of a population after many generations. We use the Penna model to represent the genetic inheritance of each individual. In order to study how the accumulated knowledge influences the survival process, we include it to help individuals to avoid the various death situations. Modifications in the Verhulst factor do not show any special feature due to its random nature. However, by adding years to life as a function of the accumulated knowledge, we observe an improvement of the survival rates while the genetic fitness of the population becomes worse. In this latter case, knowledge becomes more important in the last years of life where individuals are threatened by diseases. Effects of offspring overprotection and differences between individual and social learning can also be observed. Sexual selection as a function of knowledge shows some effects when fidelity is imposed.

  4. The Contribution of Vocabulary Knowledge and Spelling to the Reading Comprehension of Adolescents Who Are and Are Not English Language Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Deborah K; Petscher, Yaacov; Foorman, Barbara R

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the contributions of vocabulary and spelling to the reading comprehension of students in grades 6-10 who were and were not classified as English language learners. Results indicate that vocabulary accounted for greater between-grade differences and unique variance (Δ R 2 = .11 to .31) in comprehension as compared to spelling (Δ R 2 = .01 to .09). However, the contribution of spelling to comprehension was higher in the upper grade levels included in this cross-sectional analysis and functioned as a mediator of the impact of vocabulary knowledge at all levels. The direct effect of vocabulary was strong but lower in magnitude at each successive grade level from .58 in grade 6 to .41 in grade 10 while the indirect effect through spelling increased in magnitude at each successive grade level from .09 in grade 6 to .16 in grade 10. There were no significant differences between the language groups in the magnitude of the indirect impact, suggesting both groups of students relied more on both sources of lexical information in higher grades as compared to students in lower grades.

  5. Encyclopedic Memory: Long-Term Memory Capacity for Knowledge Vocabulary in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieury, Alain; Lorant, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    This article is a synthesis of unpublished and published experiments showing that elementary memory scores (words and pictures immediate recall; delayed recall, recognition), which are very sensitive to aging and in pharmacological protocols, have little or no correlation with school achievement. The alternative assumption developed is that school…

  6. The Co-Occurring Development of Executive Function Skills and Receptive Vocabulary in Preschool-Aged Children: A Look at the Direction of the Developmental Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Christina; Barata, M. Clara; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    Despite consensus in the developmental literature regarding the role of executive function (EF) skills in supporting the development of language skills during the preschool years, we know relatively little about the associations between EF skills, including all EF components, and vocabulary skills among preschool-aged children. In this paper, we…

  7. Facilitating vocabulary acquisition of young English language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo-Neris, Mirza J; Jackson, Carla Wood; Goldstein, Howard

    2010-07-01

    This study examined whether English-only vocabulary instruction or English vocabulary instruction enhanced with Spanish bridging produced greater word learning in young Spanish-speaking children learning English during a storybook reading intervention while considering individual language characteristics. Twenty-two Spanish-speaking children learning English (ages 4-6) who participated in a summer education program for migrant families were randomly assigned to receive 2 weeks of each instruction: (a) word expansions in English or (b) English readings with word expansions in Spanish. Researcher-created measures of target vocabulary were administered, as were English and Spanish standardized measures of language proficiency and vocabulary. Results revealed significant improvement in naming, receptive knowledge, and expressive definitions for those children who received Spanish bridging. Spanish expansions produced the greatest gains in the children's use of expressive definitions. Initial language proficiency in both languages was found to affect participants' gains from intervention, as those with limited skills in both languages showed significantly less vocabulary growth than those with strong skills in Spanish. Additional benefits to using Spanish expansions in vocabulary instruction were observed. Future research should explore additional ways of enhancing the vocabulary growth of children with limited skills in both languages in order to support and strengthen the child's first language and promote second language acquisition.

  8. Rapid word-learning in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired children: effects of age, receptive vocabulary, and high-frequency amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, A L; Lewis, D E; Hoover, B M; Stelmachowicz, P G

    2005-12-01

    This study examined rapid word-learning in 5- to 14-year-old children with normal and impaired hearing. The effects of age and receptive vocabulary were examined as well as those of high-frequency amplification. Novel words were low-pass filtered at 4 kHz (typical of current amplification devices) and at 9 kHz. It was hypothesized that (1) the children with normal hearing would learn more words than the children with hearing loss, (2) word-learning would increase with age and receptive vocabulary for both groups, and (3) both groups would benefit from a broader frequency bandwidth. Sixty children with normal hearing and 37 children with moderate sensorineural hearing losses participated in this study. Each child viewed a 4-minute animated slideshow containing 8 nonsense words created using the 24 English consonant phonemes (3 consonants per word). Each word was repeated 3 times. Half of the 8 words were low-pass filtered at 4 kHz and half were filtered at 9 kHz. After viewing the story twice, each child was asked to identify the words from among pictures in the slide show. Before testing, a measure of current receptive vocabulary was obtained using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III). The PPVT-III scores of the hearing-impaired children were consistently poorer than those of the normal-hearing children across the age range tested. A similar pattern of results was observed for word-learning in that the performance of the hearing-impaired children was significantly poorer than that of the normal-hearing children. Further analysis of the PPVT and word-learning scores suggested that although word-learning was reduced in the hearing-impaired children, their performance was consistent with their receptive vocabularies. Additionally, no correlation was found between overall performance and the age of identification, age of amplification, or years of amplification in the children with hearing loss. Results also revealed a small increase in performance for both

  9. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE 5E MODEL STAGES TO BUILD STUDENTS’ VOCABULARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rochman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There are stages of human to learn something. In early ages, they will learn simplest things to the complicated ones. A learning process of human is started with and introductory and it tries to connect with their prior knowledge to the new one. Children begin to curious about what they want to know and start to make some questions about what they want to know. In the process of finding the answers of their own questions, they will interact with others and try to share the knowledge in this process. The result of this study illustrates that the implementation of the 5E model in teaching vocabulary that can enhance the students’ vocabulary achievement and successfully encourages them to actively and enthusiastically take part in the teaching-learning process of vocabulary through group task. Keywords: implementation, vocabulary, vocabulary course, and 5E model

  10. Effects of Adapted Dialogic Reading on Oral Language and Vocabulary Knowledge of Latino Preschoolers at Risk for English Language Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Vivian I.; Lo, Ya-Yu; Godfrey-Hurrell, Kristi; Swart, Katie; Baker, Doris Luft

    2015-01-01

    In this single-case design study, we examined the effects of an adapted dialogic reading intervention on the oral language and vocabulary skills of four Latino preschool children who were at risk for English language delays. We used adapted dialogic reading strategies in English and two literacy games that included a rapid naming activity and…

  11. Does Set for Variability Mediate the Influence of Vocabulary Knowledge on the Development of Word Recognition Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunmer, William E.; Chapman, James W.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that vocabulary influences word recognition skills indirectly through "set for variability", the ability to determine the correct pronunciation of approximations to spoken English words. One hundred forty children participating in a 3-year longitudinal study were administered reading and…

  12. Analysis the Effectiveness of Three Online Vocabulary Flashcard Websites on L2 Learners' Level of Lexical Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chin-Wen

    2015-01-01

    This study compared and contrasted 64 Taiwanese college freshmen's perceptions of and attitudes toward three online vocabulary flashcard websites, Quizlet, Study Stack, and Flashcard Exchange. Four types of data were collected in two freshmen English classes in a university in Taiwan from February to April 2013. Data included online flashcard…

  13. Serial-order short-term memory predicts vocabulary development: evidence from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Anne-Lise; Majerus, Steve

    2010-03-01

    Serial-order short-term memory (STM), as opposed to item STM, has been shown to be very consistently associated with lexical learning abilities in cross-sectional study designs. This study investigated longitudinal predictions between serial-order STM and vocabulary development. Tasks maximizing the temporary retention of either serial-order or item information were administered to kindergarten children aged 4 and 5. At age 4, age 5, and from age 4 to age 5, serial-order STM capacities, but not item STM capacities, were specifically associated with vocabulary development. Moreover, the increase of serial-order STM capacity from age 4 to age 5 predicted the increase of vocabulary knowledge over the same time period. These results support a theoretical position that assumes an important role for serial-order STM capacities in vocabulary acquisition.

  14. Profiling vocabulary acquisition in Irish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Ciara; Fletcher, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Investigations into early vocabulary development, including the timing of the acquisition of nouns, verbs and closed-class words, have produced conflicting results, both within and across languages. Studying vocabulary development in Irish can contribute to this area, as it has potentially informative features such as a VSO word order, and semantically rich prepositions. This study used a parent report adapted for Irish, to measure vocabulary development longitudinally for children aged between 1,04 and 3,04. The findings indicated that the children learned closed-class words at relatively smaller vocabulary sizes compared to children acquiring other languages, and had a strong preference for nouns.

  15. Multicomponent view of vocabulary acquisition: An investigation with primary grade children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2017-10-01

    The role of working memory in vocabulary acquisition has been well established in the literature. In this study, we proposed and empirically tested the multicomponent view of vocabulary acquisition, which states that multiple language and cognitive skills are involved to facilitate phonological and semantic representations needed for vocabulary acquisition. Working memory and attention were hypothesized to be directly and indirectly related to vocabulary, whereas inference and morphosyntactic knowledge were hypothesized to be directly related to vocabulary (measured by the Picture Vocabulary Test of the Woodcock-Johnson III battery). Results from 262 kindergartners using path analysis revealed that all the multiple cognitive and language skills were directly related to vocabulary after controlling for age, gender, racial/ethnic backgrounds, socioeconomic status (as measured by free or reduced-price lunch eligibility), and each other. Furthermore, working memory and attention also made indirect contributions via inference and morphosyntactic knowledge. Total effects (beta weights), accounting for direct and indirect effects, were .33 for working memory, .23 for attention, .18 for inference, and .18 for morphosyntactic knowledge. These results indicate that although working memory is important, contributions of other language and cognitive skills should be considered in vocabulary acquisition. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Number-concept acquisition and general vocabulary development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negen, James; Sarnecka, Barbara W

    2012-11-01

    How is number-concept acquisition related to overall language development? Experiments 1 and 2 measured number-word knowledge and general vocabulary in a total of 59 children, ages 30-60 months. A strong correlation was found between number-word knowledge and vocabulary, independent of the child's age, contrary to previous results (D. Ansari et al., 2003). This result calls into question arguments that (a) the number-concept creation process is scaffolded mainly by visuo-spatial development and (b) that language only becomes integrated after the concepts are created (D. Ansari et al., 2003). Instead, this may suggest that having a larger nominal vocabulary helps children learn number words. Experiment 3 shows that the differences with previous results are likely due to changes in how the data were analyzed. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. The Dimensional Approach to Vocabulary Testing: What Can We ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1999), i.e. vocabulary size, depth, and receptive-productive knowledge/skills, has influenced test design for measuring L2/FL vocabulary acquisition. This article aims to describe the major vocabulary tests along the vocabulary dimensions and ...

  18. English Language Learners' Nonword Repetition Performance: The Influence of Age, L2 Vocabulary Size, Length of L2 Exposure, and L1 Phonology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Tamara Sorenson; Paradis, Johanne

    2016-02-01

    This study examined individual differences in English language learners' (ELLs) nonword repetition (NWR) accuracy, focusing on the effects of age, English vocabulary size, length of exposure to English, and first-language (L1) phonology. Participants were 75 typically developing ELLs (mean age 5;8 [years;months]) whose exposure to English began on average at age 4;4. Children spoke either a Chinese language or South Asian language as an L1 and were given English standardized tests for NWR and receptive vocabulary. Although the majority of ELLs scored within or above the monolingual normal range (71%), 29% scored below. Mixed logistic regression modeling revealed that a larger English vocabulary, longer English exposure, South Asian L1, and older age all had significant and positive effects on ELLs' NWR accuracy. Error analyses revealed the following L1 effect: onset consonants were produced more accurately than codas overall, but this effect was stronger for the Chinese group whose L1s have a more limited coda inventory compared with English. ELLs' NWR performance is influenced by a number of factors. Consideration of these factors is important in deciding whether monolingual norm referencing is appropriate for ELL children.

  19. Knowledge of Aging and Life Satisfaction among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Neil C.; Friedrich, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    Four hundred young-, middle-, and old-old adults responded to a battery of quizzes dealing with life satisfaction and objective aging knowledge in the physical, psychological, and social domains. Analyses incorporated domains of aging knowledge, life satisfaction, age, gender, and demographic variables. Both means difference and regression…

  20. Early Vocabulary in Relation to Gender, Bilingualism, Type, and Duration of Childcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarova, M; Brielmann, A A; Wolf, C; Rinker, T; Burke, T; Baayen, H

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the predictive value of child-related and environmental characteristics for early lexical development. The German productive vocabulary of 51 2-year-olds (27 girls), assessed via parental report, was analyzed taking children's gender, the type of early care they experienced, and their mono- versus bilingual language composition into consideration. The children were from an educationally homogeneous group of families and state-regulated daycare facilities with high structural quality. All investigated subgroups exhibited German vocabulary size within the expected normative range. Gender differences in vocabulary composition, but not in size, were observed. There were no general differences in vocabulary size or composition between the 2 care groups. An interaction between the predictors gender and care arrangement showed that girls without regular daycare experience before the age of 2 years had a somewhat larger vocabulary than all other investigated subgroups of children. The vocabulary size of the 2-year-old children in daycare correlated positively with the duration of their daycare experience prior to testing. The small subgroup of bilingual children investigated exhibited slightly lower but still normative German expressive vocabulary size and a different vocabulary composition compared to the monolingual children. This study expands current knowledge about relevant predictors of early vocabulary. It shows that in the absence of educational disadvantages the duration of early daycare experience of high structural quality is positively associated with vocabulary size but also points to the fact that environmental characteristics, such as type of care, might affect boys' and girls' early vocabulary in different ways.

  1. Students' Knowledge of Aging and Career Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun, Man Wai

    2012-01-01

    The increased number of older adults attributes to a rising need for future professionals to work in gerontology. Understanding the influence of students' career choices is important. A qualitative study was conducted after students' taking a gerontology course to explore students' knowledge and career preference in gerontology. The results were…

  2. Age of Bilingual Exposure Is Related to the Contribution of Phonological and Semantic Knowledge to Successful Reading Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasińska, Kaja K; Petitto, Laura-Ann

    2018-01-01

    Bilingual children's reading as a function of age of first bilingual language exposure (AoE) was examined. Bilingual (varied AoE) and monolingual children (N = 421) were compared in their English language and reading abilities (6-10 years) using phonological awareness, semantic knowledge, and reading tasks. Structural equation modeling was applied to determine how bilingual AoE predicts reading outcomes. Early exposed bilinguals outperformed monolinguals on phonological awareness and word reading. Phonology and semantic (vocabulary) knowledge differentially predicted reading depending on the bilingual experience and AoE. Understanding how bilingual experiences impact phonological awareness and semantic knowledge, and in turn, impact reading outcomes is relevant for our understanding of what language and reading skills are best to focus on, and when, to promote optimal reading success. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  3. Age differences in suggestibility to contradictions of demonstrated knowledge: the influence of prior knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umanath, Sharda

    2016-11-01

    People maintain intact general knowledge into very old age and use it to support remembering. Interestingly, when older and younger adults encounter errors that contradict general knowledge, older adults suffer fewer memorial consequences: Older adults use fewer recently-encountered errors as answers for later knowledge questions. Why do older adults show this reduced suggestibility, and what role does their intact knowledge play? In three experiments, I examined suggestibility following exposure to errors in fictional stories that contradict general knowledge. Older adults consistently demonstrated more prior knowledge than younger adults but also gained access to even more across time. Additionally, they did not show a reduction in new learning from the stories, indicating lesser involvement of episodic memory failures. Critically, when knowledge was stably accessible, older adults relied more heavily on that knowledge compared to younger adults, resulting in reduced suggestibility. Implications for the broader role of knowledge in aging are discussed.

  4. Replication Studies: Vocabulary Knowledge in Relation to Memory and Analysis--An Approximate Replication of Milton's (2007) Study on Lexical Profiles and Learning Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an approximate replication of Milton's (2007) study on lexical profiles and learning style. Milton investigated the assumption that more frequent words are acquired before less frequent ones. Using a vocabulary recognition test ("X-Lex") to measure vocabulary size, Milton found that L2 English group profiles show…

  5. Development of Morphological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge in Spanish-Speaking Language Minority Learners: A Parallel Process Latent Growth Curve Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Michael J.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2012-01-01

    Despite acknowledgement of the limited English vocabularies demonstrated by many language minority (LM) learners, few studies have identified skills that relate to variation in vocabulary growth in this population. This study investigated the concurrent development of morphological awareness (i.e., students' understanding of complex words as…

  6. Predicting Contextual Informativeness for Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelner, Adam; Soterwood, Jeanine; Nessaiver, Shalev; Adlof, Suzanne

    2018-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is essential to educational progress. High quality vocabulary instruction requires supportive contextual examples to teach word meaning and proper usage. Identifying such contexts by hand for a large number of words can be difficult. In this work, we take a statistical learning approach to engineer a system that predicts…

  7. [Lexical development. The construction of different vocabulary tests used in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptok, M; Kühn, D; Miller, S

    2014-04-01

    During first language acquisition (L1), children need to gather knowledge about the speech sounds and grammar of their mother tongue. Furthermore, communication skills require an adequate vocabulary. Individual profiles of vocabulary acquisition can vary considerably. However, actively using around 50 words by the age of 24 months is considered a milestone in first language acquisition. This is usually followed by the so-called vocabulary spurt, a rapid increase in lexical knowledge. This article provides an overview of the theories of lexical development and discusses how the acquisition of vocabulary may be explained. A selective literature search was conducted in PubMed and Scopus. Current textbooks were also considered. In order to acquire new words, a child has to identify what the new string of speech sounds refers to. The child has to construct a valid concept of the word and subsequently store both word and concept into long-term memory. Several theories have been put forward to explain lexicon organization, the acquisition of concepts and the mechanisms underlying the so-called fast mapping phenomenon in particular. All of these attempt to explain the phenomenon of lexicon acquisition in terms of a model scheme. In the context of the fast mapping mechanism, constraints and assumptions, cognitive, intentionalist and emergence-based theories are discussed. Knowledge of the different theories of vocabulary acquisition is mandatory to understand the construction of the tests used to assess vocabulary skills in clinical practice and to apply these appropriately.

  8. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, H. Robert; Stone, J. E.

    1990-01-01

    The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised assesses standard American English receptive vocabulary in individuals, both handicapped and nonhandicapped, ages 2 to 40. This paper describes the test's administration, summation of data, standardization, reliability, and validity. (JDD)

  9. The second-language vocabulary trajectories of Turkish immigrant children in Norway from ages five to ten: the role of preschool talk exposure, maternal education, and co-ethnic concentration in the neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydland, Veslemøy; Grøver, Vibeke; Lawrence, Joshua

    2014-03-01

    Little research has explored how preschools can support children's second-language (L2) vocabulary development. This study keenly followed the progress of twemty-six Turkish immigrant children growing up in Norway from preschool (age five) to fifth grade (age ten). Four different measures of preschool talk exposure (amount and diversity of teacher-led group talk and amount and diversity of peer talk), as well as the demographic variables of maternal education and co-ethnic concentration in the neighborhood, were employed to predict the children's L2 vocabulary trajectories. The results of growth analyses revealed that maternal education was the only variable predicting children's vocabulary growth during the elementary years. However, teacher-led talk, peer talk, and neighborhood predicted children's L2 vocabulary skills at age five, and these differences were maintained up to age ten. This study underscores the importance of both preschool talk exposure (teacher-led talk and peer talk) and demographic factors on L2 learners' vocabulary development.

  10. Aging management: Control of the knowledge data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeckle, F., E-mail: fs@amtec.de [Amtec Services, Hoher Steg 13, 74348 Laufen (Germany); Rothenhoefer, H. [Amtec Services, Hoher Steg 13, 74348 Laufen (Germany); Koenig, G. [EnBW Kernkraft, Kernkraftwerk Neckarwestheim, 74380 Neckarwestheim (Germany)

    2014-04-01

    Aging management is part of the safety management system in NPP Neckarwestheim, Germany. The central goal of aging management is to increase knowledge about aging mechanisms acting on systems, structures and components (SSC), steadily. Comprehensive knowledge is a pre-requisite to guard against aging related systematic failures. To increase knowledge it is necessary to gather and evaluate data of different departments, systematically. While a nuclear power plant is in service numerous events may occur which are related to aging and may have an influence on the quality of SSC. Relevant events may be malfunction, maintenance results, operational experience, results of surveillance or events in other utilities. It is important to evaluate these events concerning the aspect of aging, regularly, and to decide which measures are required to prevent similar unexpected events in the future. In some cases the new experience has to be assigned to comparable SSC. These evaluations and the necessary measures as well as the tracking of their effectiveness are performed by an aging management team that meets every 3 months. The resulting knowledge data base (aging management data base) supports the application of the PDCA cycle and provides an overview and fast access to all quality documents related to each SSC including surveillance measures and results. It simplifies the generation of annual status reports which demonstrate the efficiency of aging management. Finally, the procedure can be extended to SSC which are important for the availability of the plant and thus take a step forward from aging management to plant life management.

  11. Motivating Students to Learn Biology Vocabulary with Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boriana Marintcheva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Timely learning of specialized science vocabulary is critical for building a solid knowledge base in any scientific discipline. To motivate students to dedicate time and effort mastering biology vocabulary, I have designed a vocabulary exercise utilizing the popular web encyclopedia Wikipedia. The exercise creates an opportunity for students to connect the challenge of vocabulary learning to a prior positive experience of self-guided learning using a content source they are familiar and comfortable with.

  12. The Second-Language Vocabulary Trajectories of Turkish Immigrant Children in Norway from Ages Five to Ten: The Role of Preschool Talk Exposure, Maternal Education, and Coethnic Concentration in the Neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydland, Veslemoy; Grover, Vibeke; Lawrence, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Little research has explored how preschools can support children's second-language (L2) vocabulary development. This study keenly followed the progress of twenty-six Turkish immigrant children growing up in Norway from preschool (age five) to fifth grade (age ten). Four different measures of preschool talk exposure (amount and diversity of…

  13. Tune in to the Tone: Lexical Tone Identification is Associated with Vocabulary and Word Recognition Abilities in Young Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; Tong, Xiuhong; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Lexical tone is one of the most prominent features in the phonological representation of words in Chinese. However, little, if any, research to date has directly evaluated how young Chinese children's lexical tone identification skills contribute to vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. The present study distinguished lexical tones from segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness in order to estimate the unique contribution of lexical tone in early vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. A sample of 199 Cantonese children aged 5-6 years was assessed on measures of lexical tone identification, segmental phonological awareness, morphological awareness, nonverbal ability, vocabulary knowledge, and Chinese character recognition. It was found that lexical tone awareness and morphological awareness were both associated with vocabulary knowledge and character recognition. However, there was a significant relationship between lexical tone awareness and both vocabulary knowledge and character recognition, even after controlling for the effects of age, nonverbal ability, segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness. These findings suggest that lexical tone is a key factor accounting for individual variance in young children's lexical acquisition in Chinese, and that lexical tone should be considered in understanding how children learn new Chinese vocabulary words, in either oral or written forms.

  14. Exploring vocabulary language in action

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, Dee

    2013-01-01

    Routledge Introductions to Applied Linguistics is a series of introductory level textbooks covering the core topics in Applied Linguistics, primarily designed for those beginning postgraduate studies, or taking an introductory MA course as well as advanced undergraduates. Titles in the series are also ideal for language professionals returning to academic study. The books take an innovative 'practice to theory' approach, with a 'back-to-front' structure. This leads the reader from real-world problems and issues, through a discussion of intervention and how to engage with these concerns, before finally relating these practical issues to theoretical foundations. Additional features include tasks with commentaries, a glossary of key terms, and an annotated further reading section. Vocabulary is the foundation of language and language learning and as such, knowledge of how to facilitate learners’ vocabulary growth is an indispensable teaching skill and curricular component. Exploring Vocabulary is designed t...

  15. The Impact of Gloss Types on Reading Comprehension, Vocabulary Gain and Vocabulary Retention: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Elekaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The significance and impact of vocabulary learning in reading comprehension and L2 language learning are apparent to teachers, researchers and language learners. Moreover, glosses are found as one of the most effective strategies regarding vocabulary retention. Therefore, the present study attempted to investigate the effect of different types of glosses on reading comprehension, vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. To this end, 140 Iranian EFL learners learning English were selected and were divided into four groups (footnote gloss group, interlinear gloss group, marginal gloss group, and glossary group. They were required to read a text and answer four reading comprehension questions. In addition, one immediate vocabulary post-test and one delayed vocabulary post-test were taken in order to investigate learners' vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. In order to analyze the data, one one-way ANOVA and one MANOVA were run. The results of one-way ANOVA revealed that participants who received interlinear glosses significantly outperformed the other groups regarding comprehending the text. Moreover, the immediate vocabulary post-test was conducted immediately after reading test and the delayed post-test was administered after four weeks. The results of MANOVA indicated that the group which received interlinear glosses outperformed the other groups in both vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. The present study has implications for teachers and learners. Teachers can find better methods to teach new reading passages as well as vocabulary items. Also, glosses help learners to have a better comprehension of difficult passages and they facilitate learning. Moreover, learners can enhance their vocabulary knowledge with the help of glosses.

  16. Hearing experience and receptive vocabulary development in deaf children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Mary K; Pisoni, David B

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated receptive vocabulary delay in deaf children with cochlear implants. Participants were 23 children with profound hearing loss, ages 6-14 years, who received a cochlear implant between ages 1.4 and 6 years. Duration of cochlear implant use ranged from 3.7 to 11.8 years. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Third Edition (PPVT-III) data were analyzed first by examining children's errors for evidence of difficulty in specific lexical content areas, and second by calculating standard scores with reference to hearing age (HA) (i.e., chronological age [CA]--age at implantation) rather than CA. Participants showed evidence of vocabulary understanding across all PPVT-III content categories with no strong evidence of disproportionate numbers of errors in any specific content area despite below-average mean standard scores. However, whereas mean standard scores were below the test mean established for hearing children when based on CA, they were within the average range for hearing children when calculated based on HA. Thus, children's vocabulary knowledge was commensurate with years of cochlear implant experience, providing support for the role of spoken language experience in vocabulary acquisition.

  17. Influence of age on community health worker's knowledge and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of age on community health worker's knowledge and service provision for maternal, newborn, and child health in Morogoro region, Tanzania. ... However there was a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in marital status, education levels, use of English language, number of dependants, and income from ...

  18. Awareness, Knowledge, and Concern about Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimarolli, Verena R.; Laban-Baker, Allie; Hamilton, Wanda S.; Stuen, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)--a common eye disease causing vision loss--can be detected early through regular eye-health examinations, and measures can be taken to prevent visual decline. Getting eye examinations requires certain levels of awareness, knowledge, and concern related to AMD. However, little is known about AMD-related…

  19. Powerful Vocabulary Acquisition through Texts Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hasannejad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate if dual version reading comprehension had a positive effect on Intermediate EFL students’ general vocabulary acquisition, receptive and productive knowledge of vocabulary and students’ synonymous power of words. Two groups were selected - the experimental group and the control group. The study included: (1 four pretests (2 the dual version reading comprehension, and (3 four posttests. It was found that there was no significant difference between the two groups of students on the pretests. However there was a significant difference between the two groups of the students on the posttests. Overall, the dual version reading comprehension vocabulary-learning made the experimental group learners outperformed the control groups in terms of their performance on four types of vocabulary tests. This indicates that students following dual version reading comprehension were more successful in vocabulary acquisition, and developing their receptive knowledge of vocabulary, transferring their receptive knowledge in to the productive knowledge and enhancing the memorization of the synonymous words.

  20. It Is More than Knowledge Seeking: Examining the Effects of OpenCourseWare Lectures on Vocabulary Acquisition in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui-Chi; Sun, Yu-Chih

    2013-01-01

    OpenCourseWare (OCW) has received increasing attention over the past few years in higher education. These courses provide appealing opportunities to view classes taught in well-established universities worldwide. The current study aims to examine how OCW lectures can serve as authentic learning materials to facilitate vocabulary acquisition for…

  1. Early Home Language Use and Later Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the association between early patterns of home language use (age 4.5 years) and vocabulary growth (ages 4.5 to 12 years) in English and Spanish for 180 Spanish-speaking language minority learners followed from ages 4.5 to 12 years. Standardized measures of vocabulary were administered to children from ages 4.5 to…

  2. Online Independent Vocabulary Learning Experience of Hong Kong University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Tang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In response to the limited vocabulary size of its undergraduates, an independent vocabulary learning platform, VLearn was designed and launched in a university in Hong Kong. As an elearning environment that supports self-directed vocabulary learning of Chinese learners, the primary aim of VLearn is to equip users with appropriate knowledge and skills for vocabulary expansion. This paper introduces the contents of VLearn, and the theoretical underpinnings of its design. It also reports on the vocabulary learning experience of its users during an eight week evaluation study. Suggestions are made on how independent vocabulary building at higher education, as well as comprehensive vocabulary instruction at early years could be supported by means of technology.

  3. WORD ORIGIN HELPS EXPAND LEARNERS’ VOCABULARY A VOCABULARY TEACHING APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Li Jing

    2012-01-01

    Word origin (motivation) deals with the connection between name and sense, explaining how a word originated. With the knowledge of how words are originated, learners can grasp a word easier and thus expand their vocabulary more quickly. The introduction to word origin (motivation) by teachers can also help the learners gain interest in the process of learning and learn more about the cultural and historical background of the English-speaking countries. This paper tries to clarify this method ...

  4. Japanese Vocabulary Acquisition by Learners in Three Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Dan P.

    2008-01-01

    This study is an investigation of the development of vocabulary knowledge during study abroad (SA), intensive domestic immersion (IM) and academic-year formal classroom (AY) learning. Its focus was the growth of vocabulary knowledge in Japanese--a language where little SA research has been conducted to date. Unlike most studies addressing…

  5. Examining Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition by Person-and Item-Level Factors in Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jennifer LeeAnn

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is central to the process of reading comprehension (Cromely & Azevedo, 2007; Stahl & Nagy, 2005; Stanovich, 1986). The majority of our vocabulary knowledge is postulated to come from the process of incidental vocabulary acquisition (IVA) while reading (Nagy & Anderson, 1984). Prior studies have estimated an average…

  6. Quantity and structure of word knowledge across adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salthouse, Timothy A

    2014-09-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal data from moderately large samples of healthy adults confirmed prior findings of age-related declines in measures of the quantity of word knowledge beginning around age 65. Additional analyses were carried out to investigate the interrelations of different types of vocabulary knowledge at various periods in adulthood. Although the organizational structures were similar in adults of different ages, scores on tests with different formats had weaker relations to a higher-order vocabulary construct beginning when adults were in their 60's. The within-person dispersion among different vocabulary test scores was also greater after about 65 years of age. The discovery of quantitative decreases in amount of knowledge occurring at about the same age as qualitative shifts in the structure of knowledge raises the possibility that the two types of changes may be causally linked.

  7. EST Vocabulary Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia D.S. Bell

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at contributing to the investigation on the instruction of EST (English for Science and Technology vocabulary, in terms of receptive use of the language. It evaluates the effectiveness of two teaching approaches to the acquisition of vocabulary. The first approach consisted of teaching vocabulary through the use of dictionaries, where the words were merely translated into the learners’ L1 or defined in the target language thus promoting superficial level of word processing. The second approach employed activities promoting deep level of word processing. Data were analysed quantitatively. Results indicated that the two approaches seem to have some equipotentiality, as far as EST vocabulary is concerned.

  8. Food and Feed Commodity Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Feed Vocabulary was developed to consolidate all the major OPP Commodity Vocabularies into one standardized vocabulary. The EPA-preferred term is the only term that can be used in setting tolerances.

  9. Osteoporosis: knowledge and practices among females of reproductive age group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrees, Z.; Zakir, U.; Khushdil, A.; Shehzadi, H.

    2017-01-01

    To assess the knowledge of osteoporosis and evaluation of the practice of osteoporosis preventive measures, among females of reproductive age group. Methodology: A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was undertaken from September 2015 to February 2016 on 174 females (age range 15-49 years) from Military Hospital and Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan through non- probability convenient sampling. Females with any metabolic, muscular or diagnosed bone disease were excluded from the study. The self -administered questionnaire consisted of questions regarding basic demographics, knowledge and practice of preventive factors related to osteoporosis. Result: Majority (86.8%) females knew about osteoporosis. 80% considered major risk factor to be low calcium intake. Regarding practices, 44.3% of women practiced daily intake of milk in their diet, 69.5 % females practiced physical activity like walking on daily basis and 65.5% have direct exposure of sunlight but only 12.1% of women used calcium supplements. Conclusion: The study revealed that majority of the women knew about osteoporosis and its risk factors but many of them were not practicing appropriate lifestyle and dietary habits to decrease their risk of osteoporosis. Thus, there is a need of standardized approach to promote healthy behaviors to decrease the risk of osteoporosis before menopause. (author)

  10. Improving Elementary School Students’ English Vocabulary Through Local Cultural Content Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Manurung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Elementary students of a certain public school in Indonesia had difficulties in learning English. One of the crucial problems was learning English vocabulary. In an attempt to help the students learn and improve English vocabulary, the researchers decided to use CAR to teach English vocabulary with local cultural content materials. The aim of this study was to investigate how the teaching of English vocabulary with local cultural content materials contributed to the improvement of the students’ English vocabulary mastery. The topics covered in the materials were selected based on schemata theory. Vocabulary learning process was done through several activities provided in the materials: classroom and outside vocabulary learning. The results showed that the teaching of local cultural content materials have contributed to the improvement of the Elementary students’ vocabulary mastery. The schematic knowledge found in the familiar topics has aroused the students’ interest and motivation in learning English vocabulary. Students who were more familiar with the topics could respond to the vocabulary learning better than those who were not familiar with. The vocabulary mastery was more successful only if the students participated in both classroom and outside vocabulary learning process. Keywords: Vocabulary Mastery, Vocabulary Improvement, Local Cultural Content Materials, Vocabulary Learning, Schemata

  11. Effects of nonfiction guided interactive read-alouds and think-alouds on fourth grader's depth of content area science vocabulary knowledge and comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Tania Tamara

    Effects of nonfiction guided interactive read-alouds and think-alouds as a supplement to basal science textbooks on three vocabulary measures, definitions, examples, and characteristics, and one multiple-choice comprehension measure were assessed for 127 fourth graders over three time periods: pretest, posttest, and a 2-week delayed posttest. Two of three fourth-grade elementary science teachers implemented a series of 12 content-enhanced guided interactive scripted lessons. Two of these teachers implemented two treatments each. The first condition employed basal science textbooks as the text for guided interactive read-alouds and think-alouds while the second treatment employed basal science textbooks in conjunction with nonfiction text sets as the texts for guided interactive read-alouds and think-alouds. The third teacher, guided by traditional lesson plans, provided students with silent independent reading instruction using basal science textbooks. Multivariate analyses of variance and analyses of variance tests showed that mean scores for both treatment groups significantly improved on definitions and characteristics measures at posttest and either stabilized or slightly declined at delayed posttest. The treatment-plus group lost considerably on the examples posttest measure. The treatment group improved mean scores on the examples posttest measure, outperforming the treatment-plus group and the control group. Alternately, the control group significantly improved on the delayed posttest examples measure. Additionally, the two groups implementing guided interactive read-alouds and think-alouds performed better than the independent reading group on multiple-choice comprehension measures at posttest and sustained those gains 2 weeks later on delayed posttests. Findings maintain the incremental nature of vocabulary acquisition and development research and emphasize the roles of listening and speaking as critical features for integrating vocabulary into long

  12. Swimming in New Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Kerri; Buck, Gayle

    2017-01-01

    This article describes an informal program in one school where grade K-1 students learn a variety of new science vocabulary words relating to animal characteristics. The students are introduced to a new group of animals and their characteristics through storytelling, games, discussion, and crafts (see Table 1, p. 34). The new vocabulary words are…

  13. Vocabularies in the VO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A. J. G.; Gray, N.; Ounis, I.

    2009-09-01

    There are multiple vocabularies and thesauri within astronomy, of which the best known are the 1993 IAU Thesaurus and the keyword list maintained by A&A, ApJ and MNRAS. The IVOA has agreed on a standard for publishing vocabularies, based on the W3C skos standard, to allow greater automated interaction with them, in particular on the Web. This allows links with the Semantic Web and looks forward to richer applications using the technologies of that domain. Vocabulary-aware applications can benefit from improvements in both precision and recall when searching for bibliographic or science data, and lightweight intelligent filtering for services such as VOEvent streams. In this paper we present two applications, the Vocabulary Explorer and its companion the Mapping Editor, which have been developed to support the use of vocabularies in the Virtual Observatory. These combine Semantic Web and Information Retrieval technologies to illustrate the way in which formal vocabularies might be used in a practical application, provide an online service which will allow astronomers to explore and relate existing vocabularies, and provide a service which translates free text user queries into vocabulary terms.

  14. Vocabulary Acquisition through Direct and Indirect Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Maki; Foo, Thomas Chow Voon

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary learning has long been considered as one of the essential components for developing language learning. However, language learners are required to not just concern about memorizing definitions but also integrating vocabulary meaning into their present knowledge. Many strategies such as direct or indirect ones may be integrated to enhance…

  15. EFL Vocabulary Acquisition through Word Cards: Student Perceptions and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Darrell

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge plays an important role in second language proficiency, and learners need to acquire thousands of words in order to become proficient in the target language. As numerous studies have shown that incidental vocabulary acquisition is not sufficient on its own, it is clear that learners must devote considerable time and effort to…

  16. Teaching Academic Vocabulary to Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Kristen D.; Sanchez, Victoria; Flynn, Lindsay J.; O'Connor, Rollanda E.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the efforts of a U.S. History teacher to directly teach word meanings using the "robust vocabulary instruction" (RVI) approach, because research supports this method as a way to improve vocabulary knowledge for a range of students, including adolescents reading below grade level (i.e., struggling readers) and…

  17. Effects of Hierarchy Vocabulary Exercises on English Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Ying; Hsu, Wei Shu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of hierarchy vocabulary exercises and copying vocabulary exercises on EFL students' vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension. Two specific factors were probed: (a) vocabulary gains and retention from different exercises; (b) reading comprehension performance through different…

  18. Expressive Vocabulary in Young Children with Down Syndrome: From Research to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumin, Libby; Councill, Cheryl; Goodman, Mina

    1999-01-01

    Expressive vocabulary was studied in 130 children (ages 1 to 5 years) with Down syndrome. Although there was continuous growth in expressive referential vocabulary from birth through 5 years, age 5 was found to be an important developmental marker for multiword combinations and grammatical vocabulary. (Author/CR)

  19. Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition as Student Performance Determinant in Undergraduate Research Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Joyce

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge plays an important role in determining a person's language proficiency level. This study investigates the role vocabulary plays in determining students' performance within research modules at private higher education institutions (HEIs). The discipline-specific vocabulary in this study includes target words, sampled from an…

  20. The Influence of the Intermediary System of Cognition on Vocabulary Acquisition for Chinese English-Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yanyan

    2009-01-01

    In the article, the author tries to find out the main factors that affect the subject's vocabulary acquisition by an investigation. It is concluded that vocabulary acquisition models and strategies are something external, what really works upon vocabulary acquisition is the intermediary system of cognition including the knowledge structure and…

  1. Vocabulary Learning Strategies Used by Medical Students: Croatian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Rogulj

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to be able to fully develop their academic and professional competencies, medical doctors (MDs need to be highly proficient in English, which, among other things, implies the acquisition of vocabulary as an essential part of language knowledge. The current study aims at exploring vocabulary learning strategies (VLS employed by freshman and sophomore medical students at the University of Split School of Medicine, Croatia. In particular, it focuses on (a most and least frequently used VLS; (b relationship between VLS subscales and different types of vocabulary knowledge; (c differences in the mean strategy use between male and female students, and among low-, middle- and high-scoring students. The instruments used in the research were adapted version of the VLS Questionnaire (Pavičić Takač, 2008, p.152 and a vocabulary test designed by the author. The results indicate that medical students use a core inventory of VLS, whereby showing preference for the category of self-initiated vocabulary learning (SI-IVL strategies and some individual formal vocabulary learning (FVL and spontaneous vocabulary learning (SVL strategies. Although students were not in favour of FVL at the level of the category as a whole, the results showed that the more frequently they employed FVL strategies, the better they scored on vocabulary tasks measuring controlled-productive type of vocabulary knowledge. Correlations revealed that female students used SI-IVL and FVL strategies significantly more often than their male counterparts. Results also suggest that there are no statistically significant differences in the mean VLS use among low-, middle- and high-scoring students. In conclusion, the results of this study provide a preliminary insight into the VLS used by medical students and their effect on students' vocabulary learning outcomes as well as into differences by gender and vocabulary proficiency. Since findings have proved rather inconclusive, these

  2. Vocabulary Control for Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, F. W.

    This book deals with properties of vocabularies for indexing and searching document collections; the construction, organization, display, and maintenance of these vocabularies; and the vocabulary as a factor affecting the performance of retrieval systems. Most of the text is concerned with vocabularies for post-coordinate retrieval systems, with…

  3. WORD ORIGIN HELPS EXPAND LEARNERS’ VOCABULARY A VOCABULARY TEACHING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Word origin (motivation deals with the connection between name and sense, explaining how a word originated. With the knowledge of how words are originated, learners can grasp a word easier and thus expand their vocabulary more quickly. The introduction to word origin (motivation by teachers can also help the learners gain interest in the process of learning and learn more about the cultural and historical background of the English-speaking countries. This paper tries to clarify this method of teaching from four aspects: onomatopoeia, word formation, cultural and historical background and cognitive linguistics.

  4. Is vocabulary growth influenced by the relations among words in a language learner's vocabulary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailor, Kevin M

    2013-09-01

    Several recent studies have explored the applicability of the preferential attachment principle to account for vocabulary growth. According to this principle, network growth can be described by a process in which existing nodes recruit new nodes with a probability that is an increasing function of their connectivity within the existing network. The current study combined subjective estimates of the age of acquisition (AoA) and associations among words in a large corpus to estimate the organization of semantic knowledge at multiple points in vocabulary growth. Consistent with previous studies, the number of connections or relations among words followed a power law distribution in which relatively few words were highly connected with other words and most words were connected to relatively few words. In addition, the growth in the number of connections of a word was a linear function of its initial number of connections, and the ratio of connections to any two words was relatively constant over time. Finally, number of connections to known words was a reliable predictor of a word's AoA. All of these findings can be shown to be consistent with the preferential attachment principle. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Elementary Students' Acquisition of Academic Vocabulary Through Engineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugelmass, Rachel

    This study examines how STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) inquiry-based learning through a hands-on engineering design can be beneficial in helping students acquire academic vocabulary. This research took place in a second grade dual- language classroom in a public, suburban elementary school. English language learners, students who speak Spanish at home, and native English speakers were evaluated in this study. Each day, students were presented with a general academic vocabulary focus word during an engineering design challenge. Vocabulary pre-tests and post-tests as well as observation field notes were used to evaluate the student's growth in reading and defining the focus academic vocabulary words. A quiz and KSB (knowledge and skill builder) packet were used to evaluate students' knowledge of science and math content and engineering design. The results of this study indicate that engineering design is an effective means for teaching academic vocabulary to students with varying levels of English proficiency.

  6. Cross-Language Associations in the Development of Preschoolers' Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Michelle F; Bohlmann, Natalie L; Palacios, Natalia A

    The increasing population of dual language learners (DLLs) entering preschool classrooms highlights a continued need for research on the development of dual language acquisition, and specifically vocabulary skills, in this age group. This study describes young DLL children's ( N = 177) vocabulary development in both English and Spanish simultaneously, and how vocabulary skills in each language relate to one another, during a contextual shift that places greater emphasis on the acquisition of academic English language skills. Findings demonstrated that DLL preschoolers made gains in vocabulary in both languages with more change evidenced in receptive, in comparison to expressive, vocabulary as well as in English in comparison to Spanish. When examining whether children's vocabulary scores in one language at the beginning of preschool interact with their vocabulary scores in the other language to predict vocabulary growth, no significant associations were found for receptive vocabulary. In contrast, the interaction between initial English and Spanish expressive vocabulary scores was negatively related to growth in English expressive vocabulary. This cross-language association suggests that children who have low expressive vocabulary skills in both languages tend to grow faster in their English expressive vocabulary. The study extends previous work on dual language development by examining growth in expressive and receptive vocabulary in both English and Spanish. It also provides suggestions for future work to inform a more comprehensive understanding of DLL children's development in both languages.

  7. Cross-Language Associations in the Development of Preschoolers’ Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Michelle F.; Bohlmann, Natalie L.; Palacios, Natalia A.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing population of dual language learners (DLLs) entering preschool classrooms highlights a continued need for research on the development of dual language acquisition, and specifically vocabulary skills, in this age group. This study describes young DLL children's (N = 177) vocabulary development in both English and Spanish simultaneously, and how vocabulary skills in each language relate to one another, during a contextual shift that places greater emphasis on the acquisition of academic English language skills. Findings demonstrated that DLL preschoolers made gains in vocabulary in both languages with more change evidenced in receptive, in comparison to expressive, vocabulary as well as in English in comparison to Spanish. When examining whether children's vocabulary scores in one language at the beginning of preschool interact with their vocabulary scores in the other language to predict vocabulary growth, no significant associations were found for receptive vocabulary. In contrast, the interaction between initial English and Spanish expressive vocabulary scores was negatively related to growth in English expressive vocabulary. This cross-language association suggests that children who have low expressive vocabulary skills in both languages tend to grow faster in their English expressive vocabulary. The study extends previous work on dual language development by examining growth in expressive and receptive vocabulary in both English and Spanish. It also provides suggestions for future work to inform a more comprehensive understanding of DLL children's development in both languages. PMID:26807002

  8. Flooding Vocabulary Gaps to Accelerate Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabham, Edna; Buskist, Connie; Henderson, Shannon Coman; Paleologos, Timon; Baugh, Nikki

    2012-01-01

    Students entering school with limited vocabularies are at a disadvantage compared to classmates with robust knowledge of words and meanings. Teaching a few unrelated words at a time is insufficient for catching these students up with peers and preparing them to comprehend texts they will encounter across the grades. This article presents…

  9. Tagging vs. Controlled Vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine; Petras, Vivien

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of social tagging has sparked a great deal of debate on whether tags could replace or improve upon professional metadata as descriptors of books and other information objects. In this paper we present a large-scale empirical comparison of the contributions of individual information...... that tags and controlled vocabulary terms do not actually outperform each other consistently, but seem to provide complementary contributions: some information needs are best addressed using controlled vocabulary terms whereas other are best addressed using tags....

  10. Shyness, Vocabulary and Children's Reticence in Saudi Arabian Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, W. Ray; Badawood, Asma

    2009-01-01

    The aims of the present study are to examine whether preschool children's scores on a standardized test of vocabulary mediate or moderate the relation between shyness and reticence and to test whether any influence of vocabulary would be found for both teacher and parent assessments of shyness. Participants were 108 children (50 males), mean age,…

  11. Core vocabulary of young children with Down syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deckers, S.R.J.M.; Zaalen, Y. van; Balkom, L.J.M. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a core vocabulary list for young children with intellectual disabilities between 2 and 7 years of age because data from this population are lacking in core vocabulary literature. Children with Down syndrome are considered one of the most valid reference groups

  12. Service Learning: Flooding Students with Vocabulary through Read Alouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Kerry; Thompson, Judith

    2014-01-01

    In the spirit of the Steven Stahl 600 Book Kid Challenge, 90 preservice teachers engaged children in 36 read-aloud sessions for a vocabulary improvement service learning project. This article describes how the preservice teachers used narrative and informational books as a vehicle for rare-word vocabulary exposure for children ages 8-12.

  13. LEXICAL KNOWLEDGE IN INSTRUCTED LANGUAGE LEARNING: THE EFFECTS OF AGE AND EXPOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Miralpeix

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyse the possible effects of Age of Onset (AO, Cognitive Maturity (Age at Testing-AT- and Amount of Exposure (AE on the productive vocabularies of learners of English as a Foreign Language (FL. Three groups of bilingual Catalan/Spanish students were tested towards the end of Secondary Education. The groups differed in AO (8 vs. 11 years, AT (16 vs.17 and AE (726 vs. 800 hours. They performed four different tasks: three oral (an interview, a storytelling and a roleplay and one written (a composition. The tasks were analysed with measures extrinsic to the learners’ production. Firstly, their Lexical Frequency Profiles were computed with VocabProfile (Nation, 1995. Secondly, P_Lex (Meara, 2001 was used to assess the lexical richness of the texts. Furthermore, Anglo-Saxon and Greco-Latin Cognate indices were obtained for each of the tasks. Results show that an early AO does not necessarily suppose an advantage for Early Starters (ES, as Late Starters’ (LS productive vocabularies are very similar to those of their younger peers.

  14. "Catching the Knowledge Wave" Redefining Knowledge for the Post-Industrial Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Over the last five years, people have heard a great deal about something called the Knowledge Society. The term "knowledge" is appearing in places they would not have expected to see it a decade or so ago. The media is full of references to the knowledge economy and the knowledge revolution; business discussions now routinely talk about knowledge…

  15. Medical and Psychology Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Aging and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Rachel J.; Zweig, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    The current study surveys medical and doctoral psychology students (N = 100) from an urban northeastern university regarding knowledge and attitudes toward elderly sexuality and aging using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale, and measures of interest in gerontology, academic/clinical exposure to aging and…

  16. Task complexity, student perceptions of vocabulary learning in EFL, and task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Lowyck, Joost; Sercu, Lies; Elen, Jan

    2013-03-01

    The study deepened our understanding of how students' self-efficacy beliefs contribute to the context of teaching English as a foreign language in the framework of cognitive mediational paradigm at a fine-tuned task-specific level. The aim was to examine the relationship among task complexity, self-efficacy beliefs, domain-related prior knowledge, learning strategy use, and task performance as they were applied to English vocabulary learning from reading tasks. Participants were 120 second-year university students (mean age 21) from a Chinese university. This experiment had two conditions (simple/complex). A vocabulary level test was first conducted to measure participants' prior knowledge of English vocabulary. Participants were then randomly assigned to one of the learning tasks. Participants were administered task booklets together with the self-efficacy scales, measures of learning strategy use, and post-tests. Data obtained were submitted to multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and path analysis. Results from the MANOVA model showed a significant effect of vocabulary level on self-efficacy beliefs, learning strategy use, and task performance. Task complexity showed no significant effect; however, an interaction effect between vocabulary level and task complexity emerged. Results from the path analysis showed self-efficacy beliefs had an indirect effect on performance. Our results highlighted the mediating role of self-efficacy beliefs and learning strategy use. Our findings indicate that students' prior knowledge plays a crucial role on both self-efficacy beliefs and task performance, and the predictive power of self-efficacy on task performance may lie in its association with learning strategy use. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Semantic Web-based Vocabulary Broker for Open Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschel, B.; Neher, G.; Iyemori, T.; Murayama, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Koyama, Y.; King, T. A.; Galkin, I. A.; Fung, S. F.; Wharton, S.; Cecconi, B.

    2016-12-01

    Keyword vocabularies are used to tag and to identify data of science data repositories. Such vocabularies consist of controlled terms and the appropriate concepts, such as GCMD1 keywords or the ESPAS2 keyword ontology. The Semantic Web-based mash-up of domain-specific, cross- or even trans-domain vocabularies provides unique capabilities in the network of appropriate data resources. Based on a collaboration between GFZ3, the FHP4, the WDC for Geomagnetism5 and the NICT6 we developed the concept of a vocabulary broker for inter- and trans-disciplinary data detection and integration. Our prototype of the Semantic Web-based vocabulary broker uses OSF7 for the mash-up of geo and space research vocabularies, such as GCMD keywords, ESPAS keyword ontology and SPASE8 keyword vocabulary. The vocabulary broker starts the search with "free" keywords or terms of a specific vocabulary scheme. The vocabulary broker almost automatically connects the different science data repositories which are tagged by terms of the aforementioned vocabularies. Therefore the mash-up of the SKOS9 based vocabularies with appropriate metadata from different domains can be realized by addressing LOD10 resources or virtual SPARQL11 endpoints which maps relational structures into the RDF format12. In order to demonstrate such a mash-up approach in real life, we installed and use a D2RQ13 server for the integration of IUGONET14 data which are managed by a relational database. The OSF based vocabulary broker and the D2RQ platform are installed at virtual LINUX machines at the Kyoto University. The vocabulary broker meets the standard of a main component of the WDS15 knowledge network. The Web address of the vocabulary broker is http://wdcosf.kugi.kyoto-u.ac.jp 1 Global Change Master Directory2 Near earth space data infrastructure for e-science3 German Research Centre for Geosciences4 University of Applied Sciences Potsdam5 World Data Center for Geomagnetism Kyoto6 National Institute of Information and

  18. E-Book as Facilitator of Vocabulary Acquisition: Support of Adults, Dynamic Dictionary and Static Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korat, Ofra; Levin, Iris; Atishkin, Shifra; Turgeman, Merav

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of three facilitators: adults' support, dynamic visual vocabulary support and static visual vocabulary support on vocabulary acquisition in the context of e-book reading. Participants were 144 Israeli Hebrew-speaking preschoolers (aged 4-6) from middle SES neighborhoods. The entire sample read the e-book without a…

  19. Predicting Expressive Vocabulary Acquisition in Children with Intellectual Disabilities: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandereet, Joke; Maes, Bea; Lembrechts, Dirk; Zink, Inge

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study's objectives were to describe expressive vocabulary acquisition in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and to examine specific pre- and early linguistic behaviors used to request and comment, chronological age, cognitive skills, and vocabulary comprehension as predictors of expressive vocabulary. Method: This study…

  20. Predicting expressive vocabulary acquisition in children with intellectual disabilities: a 2-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandereet, Joke; Maes, Bea; Lembrechts, Dirk; Zink, Inge

    2010-12-01

    This study's objectives were to describe expressive vocabulary acquisition in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and to examine specific pre- and early linguistic behaviors used to request and comment, chronological age, cognitive skills, and vocabulary comprehension as predictors of expressive vocabulary. This study included 36 children with ID, age 3;00 (years;months) to 6;05, with an average initial expressive vocabulary of 67 words. Expressive vocabulary acquisition was longitudinally followed over a 2-year period based on 4-monthly administrations of the Dutch version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory/Words and Gestures (I. Zink & M. Lejaegere, 2002). Specific pre- and early linguistic behaviors used to request and comment as well as cognitive skills and vocabulary comprehension were measured at baseline. Individual growth modeling indicated that vocabulary comprehension was the only unique predictor of initial expressive vocabulary. Subsequent vocabulary growth was uniquely predicted by proportion of bimodal gesture + vocalization comments, chronological age, and cognitive skills. The results of this study underscore the great heterogeneity in expressive vocabulary skills in children with ID. The importance of prelinguistic communication, chronological age, cognitive skills, and vocabulary comprehension for explaining differences in expressive vocabulary skills is discussed.

  1. Techniques to improve the vocabulary of the students at the college level

    OpenAIRE

    Sripada Pushpa Nagini; Cherukuri Mani Ramana

    2016-01-01

    The paper suggests effective techniques to improve the vocabulary of the students in English as a Second Language context based on an experimental study. The study was conducted in India (South Asia), in an Engineering college for freshmen in the age group of eighteen to nineteen years. The paper makes a comparison of two vocabulary teaching strategies and the results show that explicit vocabulary teaching is more effective than implicit vocabulary teaching. The experimental group also showed...

  2. Controlled Vocabulary Service Application for Environmental Data Store

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, P.; Piasecki, M.; Lovell, R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we present a controlled vocabulary service application for Environmental Data Store (EDS). The purpose for such application is to help researchers and investigators to archive, manage, share, search, and retrieve data efficiently in EDS. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is used in the application for the representation of the controlled vocabularies coming from EDS. The controlled vocabularies of EDS are created by collecting, comparing, choosing and merging controlled vocabularies, taxonomies and ontologies widely used and recognized in geoscience/environmental informatics community, such as Environment ontology (EnvO), Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontology, CUAHSI Hydrologic Ontology and ODM Controlled Vocabulary, National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI), National Water Information System (NWIS) codes, EPSG Geodetic Parameter Data Set, WQX domain value etc. TemaTres, an open-source, web -based thesaurus management package is employed and extended to create and manage controlled vocabularies of EDS in the application. TemaTresView and VisualVocabulary that work well with TemaTres, are also integrated in the application to provide tree view and graphical view of the structure of vocabularies. The Open Source Edition of Virtuoso Universal Server is set up to provide a Web interface to make SPARQL queries against controlled vocabularies hosted on the Environmental Data Store. The replicas of some of the key vocabularies commonly used in the community, are also maintained as part of the application, such as General Multilingual Environmental Thesaurus (GEMET), NetCDF Climate and Forecast (CF) Standard Names, etc.. The application has now been deployed as an elementary and experimental prototype that provides management, search and download controlled vocabularies of EDS under SKOS framework.

  3. Vocabulary Growth in College-Level Students’ Narrative Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham ZYAD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The nature and size of vocabulary significantly determine quality in a given piece of writing. It therefore follows that an extensive vocabulary repertoire is a key factor to success in academic life. Most certainly, this explains the vast amount of scholarly attention that has been invested in this line of research. In this regard, a wide array of studies have provided evidence suggesting that human assessors of writing quality are substantially influenced by the range and sophistication of the vocabulary used by L2 learners. The studies that offered such evidence used different measurement tools to evaluate the nature and/or size of L2 learners’ vocabulary. However, very few studies have attempted to chart vocabulary knowledge across different college-level proficiency levels in narrative writing productions in the Moroccan context. To contribute to this debate, the present study aims to investigate university L2 learners’ vocabulary knowledge across three proficiency levels from two post-secondary institutions. More specifically, this cross-sectional study operationalized vocabulary knowledge in terms of diversity and sophistication in order to chart growth in the lexical repertoire of 90 participants. Data analysis showed that the participants displayed different levels of vocabulary knowledge. In terms of lexical diversity, second-year students’ vocabulary was as diverse as third-year students but it was not as sophisticated. Nonetheless, sophistication did not differentiate first- and second-year students but it did differentiate between second- and third-year students. Additionally, diversity and sophistication were both good markers of difference between first- and second-year students. The implications of the findings will be discussed.

  4. Knowledge of Zika virus disease among reproductive-age women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GC Michael

    disease but became a global public health emergency when strong associations were ... net, one of the benefits of focused antenatal care. To our knowledge ..... when most people are still outdoors.8 In our study a majority of the participants.

  5. Modelling vocabulary development among multilingual children prior to and following the transition to school entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Andrea A. N.; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Jacques, Sophie; Séguin, Jean R.

    2017-01-01

    Differences between monolingual and multilingual vocabulary development have been observed but few studies provide a longitudinal perspective on vocabulary development before and following school entry. This study compares vocabulary growth profiles of 106 multilingual children to 211 monolingual peers before and after school entry to examine whether: (1) school entry coincides with different rates of vocabulary growth compared to prior to school entry, (2) compared to monolingual peers, multilingual children show different vocabulary sizes or rates of vocabulary growth, (3) the age of onset of second-language acquisition for multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth, and (4) the sociolinguistic context of the languages spoken by multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth. Results showed increases in vocabulary size across time for all children, with a steeper increase prior to school entry. A significant difference between monolingual and multilingual children who speak a minority language was observed with regards to vocabulary size at school entry and vocabulary growth prior to school entry, but growth rate differences were no longer present following school entry. Taken together, results suggest that which languages children speak may matter more than being multilingual per se. PMID:29354017

  6. Modelling vocabulary development among multilingual children prior to and following the transition to school entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Andrea A N; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Jacques, Sophie; Séguin, Jean R

    2018-01-01

    Differences between monolingual and multilingual vocabulary development have been observed but few studies provide a longitudinal perspective on vocabulary development before and following school entry. This study compares vocabulary growth profiles of 106 multilingual children to 211 monolingual peers before and after school entry to examine whether: (1) school entry coincides with different rates of vocabulary growth compared to prior to school entry, (2) compared to monolingual peers, multilingual children show different vocabulary sizes or rates of vocabulary growth, (3) the age of onset of second-language acquisition for multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth, and (4) the sociolinguistic context of the languages spoken by multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth. Results showed increases in vocabulary size across time for all children, with a steeper increase prior to school entry. A significant difference between monolingual and multilingual children who speak a minority language was observed with regards to vocabulary size at school entry and vocabulary growth prior to school entry, but growth rate differences were no longer present following school entry. Taken together, results suggest that which languages children speak may matter more than being multilingual per se.

  7. Undergraduate Attitudes toward the Elderly: The Role of Knowledge, Contact and Aging Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Linda J.; Johnson, James

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge, anxiety, and attitudes about the elderly were assessed in 113 university students using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Anxiety about Aging Scale, and the Fraboni Scale on Ageism. No significant differences in knowledge or anxiety based on age or gender were found in the sample. Female participants in the sample were found to be…

  8. Human simulations of vocabulary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, J; Gleitman, H; Gleitman, L; Lederer, A

    1999-12-07

    The work reported here experimentally investigates a striking generalization about vocabulary acquisition: Noun learning is superior to verb learning in the earliest moments of child language development. The dominant explanation of this phenomenon in the literature invokes differing conceptual requirements for items in these lexical categories: Verbs are cognitively more complex than nouns and so their acquisition must await certain mental developments in the infant. In the present work, we investigate an alternative hypothesis; namely, that it is the information requirements of verb learning, not the conceptual requirements, that crucially determine the acquisition order. Efficient verb learning requires access to structural features of the exposure language and thus cannot take place until a scaffolding of noun knowledge enables the acquisition of clause-level syntax. More generally, we experimentally investigate the hypothesis that vocabulary acquisition takes place via an incremental constraint-satisfaction procedure that bootstraps itself into successively more sophisticated linguistic representations which, in turn, enable new kinds of vocabulary learning. If the experimental subjects were young children, it would be difficult to distinguish between this information-centered hypothesis and the conceptual change hypothesis. Therefore the experimental "learners" are adults. The items to be "acquired" in the experiments were the 24 most frequent nouns and 24 most frequent verbs from a sample of maternal speech to 18-24-month-old infants. The various experiments ask about the kinds of information that will support identification of these words as they occur in mother-to-child discourse. Both the proportion correctly identified and the type of word that is identifiable changes significantly as a function of information type. We discuss these results as consistent with the incremental construction of a highly lexicalized grammar by cognitively and pragmatically

  9. THE VOCABULARY TEACHING AND VOCABULARY LEARNING: PERCEPTION, STRATEGIES, AND INFLUENCES ON STUDENTS' VOCABULARY MASTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Nur Asyiah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary plays pivotal role in foreign language learning. However, vocabulary teaching and vocabulary learning in TEFL seems to be neglected. The study was aimed to investigate how vocabulary teaching and learning are perceived by teacher and students, strategies to teach and learn the vocabulary, and also influences of students’ vocabulary learning strategy on their vocabulary mastery. Accordingly, a mix method design was employed to one English teacher and 30 junior high school students to reveal the issues being investigated. The findings showed that both teacher and students have positive response on vocabulary teaching and learning. Concerning strategies, it was found that teacher mostly employed Fully-contextual strategy, meanwhile Determination and Metacognitive strategy were found as the most favored VLS chosen by students. The study also confirmed that there is a significant relationship between students’ vocabulary learning strategy and their vocabulary mastery (r-value Discovery = .023 and r-value Consolidating = .000, p<.05. It is recommended for EFL teachers to give a bigger portion to vocabulary in the EFL teaching and to teach vocabulary using the combination of fully-contextual and de-contextual strategy. It is also suggested to introduce students to various kinds of vocabulary learning strategies.  

  10. Reflections on the transformation of education for the knowledge age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene SCARDAMALIA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available New knowledge media provide new opportunities and means for addressing fundamental problems in education. But there are now so many designs for educational environments that choosing between them is difficult. Advancing the state of the art will require greater clarity regarding different possibilities and the ways in which designs reflect different underlying theoretical frameworks and research bases.  This article highlights a particular form of online environment, a knowledge building environment (KBE, and contrasts it with online environments designed more specifically for course delivery, computer-mediated projects, and distance learning. Although a KBE can be used for these purposes, its distinctive strengths emerge in contexts—educational and other—where the emphasis is on knowledge creation and sustained idea improvement.

  11. Reading vocabulary in children with and without hearing loss: the roles of task and word type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, Karien M; Tellings, Agnes; Verhoeven, Ludo; Schreuder, Robert

    2013-04-01

    To address the problem of low reading comprehension scores among children with hearing impairment, it is necessary to have a better understanding of their reading vocabulary. In this study, the authors investigated whether task and word type differentiate the reading vocabulary knowledge of children with and without severe hearing loss. Seventy-two children with hearing loss and 72 children with normal hearing performed a lexical and a use decision task. Both tasks contained the same 180 words divided over 7 clusters, each cluster containing words with a similar pattern of scores on 8 word properties (word class, frequency, morphological family size, length, age of acquisition, mode of acquisition, imageability, and familiarity). Whereas the children with normal hearing scored better on the 2 tasks than the children with hearing loss, the size of the difference varied depending on the type of task and word. Performance differences between the 2 groups increased as words and tasks became more complex. Despite delays, children with hearing loss showed a similar pattern of vocabulary acquisition as their peers with normal hearing. For the most precise assessment of reading vocabulary possible, a range of tasks and word types should be used.

  12. Knowledge and the ageing employee: a research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christiaan Stam

    2009-01-01

    Our ageing population is the result of two demographic trends: decreasing fertility levels and higher life expectancy. As a corollary to these demographic trends, the working population is ageing and shrinking at the same time. This development will affect the performance of organizations in the

  13. the librarian in the knowledge age: the nigerian perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    This paper presents a picture of how scientific and technological words can be created in Hausa through compounding and derivational ... were borrowed and adopted, and some have. English extended meanings. Secondly, the critics tend to forget that science is a universal knowledge which no one single nation, in.

  14. Practical examples of how knowledge management is addressed in Point Lepreau heat transport ageing management programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slade, J.; Gendron, T.; Greenlaw, G.

    2009-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, New Brunswick Power Nuclear implemented a Management System Process Model at the Point Lepreau Generating Station that provides the basic elements of a knowledge management program. As noted by the IAEA, the challenge facing the nuclear industry now is to make improvements in knowledge management in areas that are more difficult to implement. Two of these areas are: increasing the value of existing knowledge, and converting tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge (knowledge acquisition). This paper describes some practical examples of knowledge management improvements in the Point Lepreau heat transport system ageing management program. (author)

  15. First-year university students’ receptive and productive use of academic vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déogratias Nizonkiza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores academic vocabulary knowledge, operationalised through the Academic Word List, among first-year higher education students. Both receptive and productive knowledge and the proportion between the two are examined. Results show that while receptive knowledge is readily acquired by first-year students, productive knowledge lags behind and remains problematic. This entails that receptive knowledge is much larger than productive knowledge, which confirms earlier indications that receptive vocabulary knowledge is larger than productive knowledge for both academic vocabulary (Zhou 2010 and general vocabulary (cf. Laufer 1998, Webb 2008, among others. Furthermore, results reveal that the ratio between receptive and productive knowledge is slightly above 50%, which lends empirical support to previous findings that the ratio between the two aspects of vocabulary knowledge can be anywhere between 50% and 80% (Milton 2009. This finding is extended here to academic vocabulary; complementing Zhou’s (2010 study that investigated the relationship between the two aspects of vocabulary knowledge without examining the ratio between them. On the basis of these results, approaches that could potentially contribute to fostering productive knowledge growth are discussed. Avenues worth exploring to gain further insight into the relationship between receptive and productive knowledge are also suggested.

  16. The Effects of Play-Based Intervention on Vocabulary Acquisition by Preschoolers at Risk for Reading and Language Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Ragan H.; Hardy, Jessica K.; Kaiser, Ann P.

    2017-01-01

    Closing the vocabulary gap for young children at risk for reading and language delays due to low socioeconomic status may have far reaching effects, as the relationship between early vocabulary knowledge and later academic achievement has been well-established. Vocabulary instruction for young children at risk for reading and language delays…

  17. Exploring Taiwanese Students' Perceptions of Active Explicit Vocabulary Instruction: A Case Study in an English Medium Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I-Chia

    2018-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is considered important in second and foreign language learning because learners' insufficient vocabulary has been consistently reported as a significant problem in their achievement of second-language (L2) learning. Despite of numerous vocabulary studies, few of them have implemented a learner-centered and interactive…

  18. The Role of Home and School Factors in Predicting English Vocabulary among Bilingual Kindergarten Children in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, L. Quentin

    2011-01-01

    Research in monolingual populations indicate that vocabulary knowledge is essential to reading achievement, but how vocabulary develops in bilingual children has been understudied. The current study investigated the role of home and school factors in predicting English vocabulary among 284 bilingual kindergartners (168 Chinese, 65 Malay, 51…

  19. Analyses of Receptive and Productive Korean EFL Vocabulary: Computer-Based Vocabulary Learning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Scott Sungki

    2013-01-01

    The present research study investigated the effects of 8 versions of a computer-based vocabulary learning program on receptive and productive knowledge levels of college students. The participants were 106 male and 103 female Korean EFL students from Kyungsung University and Kwandong University in Korea. Students who participated in versions of…

  20. General practitioners' knowledge of ageing and attitudes towards older people in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanni; Xiao, Lily Dongxia; Ullah, Shahid; Deng, Lanlan

    2015-06-01

    To explore general practitioners (GPs)knowledge of ageing, attitudes towards older people and factors affecting their knowledge and attitudes in a Chinese context. Four hundred GPs were surveyed using the Chinese version of the Aging Semantic Differential (CASD) and the Chinese version of the Facts on Aging Quiz (CFAQ1) scale. The CASD scores indicated that GPs had a neutral attitude towards older people. The CFAQ1 scores indicated a low level of knowledge about ageing. GPs' awareness of the mental and social facts of ageing was poorer compared to that of physical facts. Male GPs had a significantly higher negative bias score than female GPs. No other variables had a statistically significant influence on knowledge and attitudes. The findings suggest the need for education interventions for GPs regarding knowledge of ageing and also provide evidence to guide future development of continuing medical programs for this group of medical doctors. © 2013 ACOTA.

  1. Vocabulary by Gamification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, Tara L.; Grabner-Hagen, Melissa M.

    2018-01-01

    Gamification uses game elements such as quests, challenges, levels, and rewards to motivate and engage students in the classroom. Given the engagement that students feel during gameplay, it is sensible to include elements of game design to motivate students and create a space for comprehensive vocabulary instruction. Designing a gamified…

  2. Teaching Vocabulary in Colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnoinska, Anna

    1998-01-01

    Describes one teacher's use of color to make classroom instruction more interesting. Techniques included using colored paper for handouts, conducting an experiment to see whether the use of colors could enhance students' memory power, and using colored flashcards to teach vocabulary. (Author/VWL)

  3. Age-related variations of visuo-motor adaptation beyond explicit knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert eHeuer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Visuo-motor adaptation suffers at older working age. The age-related decline of behavioural adjustments is accompanied by reduced explicit knowledge of the visuo-motor transformation. It disappears when explicit knowledge is kept constant across the age range, except for particularly high levels of explicit knowledge. According to these findings, at older adult age both the acquisition of explicit knowledge and its application for strategic corrections become poorer. Recently it has been posited that visuo-motor adaptation can involve model-free reinforcement mechanisms of learning in addition to model-based mechanisms. We tested whether age-related declines of reinforcement learning can also contribute to the age-related changes of visuo-motor adaptation. Therefore we enhanced the contribution of reinforcement learning to visuo-motor adaptation by way of introducing salient markers of success and failure during practice. With such modified practice conditions, there were residual age-related variations of behavioural adjustments at all levels of explicit knowledge, even when explicit knowledge was absent. The residual age-related variations were observed for practiced target directions only, but not for new target directions. These findings are consistent with an age-related decline of model-free reinforcement learning as a third factor in the age-related decline of visuo-motor adaptation. Under practice conditions, which spur model-free reward-based learning, this factor adds to the decrements of the acquisition of explicit knowledge and its use for strategic corrections.

  4. The Relationship between Interpersonal Intelligence, Reading Activity and Vocabulary Learning among Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Hajebi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to describe the relationship between Interpersonal Intelligence and the learners' vocabulary learning through teaching reading activity so as to see whether this type of intelligence contributes to better vocabulary learning and whether there is any significant relationship between the performance of participants with interpersonal intelligence and their vocabulary learning in reading activity or not. This quantitative study consisted of a vocabulary test, a reading passage, an English proficiency test and a Multiple Intelligences questionnaire followed the study. A pre- test and post -test were conducted to get the differences in the students‟ post- test vocabulary score and their pre- test vocabulary score served as their gain score in vocabulary knowledge through reading. The comparison between the students‟ scores showed that there was no significant difference in the final performance of two groups. Therefore, this study doesn‟t support the idea of relationship between interpersonal intelligence and vocabulary learning through reading, but as a positive point, the present study indicated that reading texts can greatly assist the learners in developing the level of their vocabulary knowledge. This study proved to be useful for Iranian EFL learners and also EFL teachers can adopt the technique in their classes to advance their students' language learning. A comparison of the results after the next course cycle will then allow us to assess the effects of enhancing vocabulary knowledge, which would not be possible without reading texts.

  5. A Scale for the Assessment of Attitudes and Knowledge Regarding Sexuality in the Aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Charles B.

    This paper presents the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale (ASKAS), an instrument designed to assess the particular aspects of sexual knowledge and attitudes as they relate to the aged. Development of ASKAS items from a survey of existant physiological research on sexuality in older adults and a review of social-psychological writing on…

  6. Adaptation of a Vocabulary Test from British Sign Language to American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Wolfgang; Roy, Penny; Morgan, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the adaptation process of a vocabulary knowledge test for British Sign Language (BSL) into American Sign Language (ASL) and presents results from the first round of pilot testing with 20 deaf native ASL signers. The web-based test assesses the strength of deaf children's vocabulary knowledge by means of different mappings of…

  7. Examining Listening Previewing as a Classwide Strategy to Promote Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Renee O.; Musti-Rao, Shobana; Hale, Andrea D.; McGuire, Shannon; Hailley, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Classwide instructional strategies to improve not only reading fluency but also comprehension and vocabulary knowledge are essential for student reading success. The current study examined the immediate effects of two classwide listening previewing strategies on reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge. Twenty-one, fourth-grade general…

  8. Vocabulary Acquisition without Adult Explanations in Repeated Shared Book Reading: An Eye Movement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mary Ann; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2013-01-01

    When preschoolers listen to storybooks, are their eye movements related to their vocabulary acquisition in this context? This study addressed this question with 36 four-year-old French-speaking participants by assessing their general receptive vocabulary knowledge and knowledge of low-frequency words in 3 storybooks. These books were read verbatim…

  9. How Many Words Do We Know? Practical Estimates of Vocabulary Size Dependent on Word Definition, the Degree of Language Input and the Participant’s Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brysbaert, Marc; Stevens, Michaël; Mandera, Paweł; Keuleers, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the literature and a large scale crowdsourcing experiment, we estimate that an average 20-year-old native speaker of American English knows 42,000 lemmas and 4,200 non-transparent multiword expressions, derived from 11,100 word families. The numbers range from 27,000 lemmas for the lowest 5% to 52,000 for the highest 5%. Between the ages of 20 and 60, the average person learns 6,000 extra lemmas or about one new lemma every 2 days. The knowledge of the words can be as shallow as knowing that the word exists. In addition, people learn tens of thousands of inflected forms and proper nouns (names), which account for the substantially high numbers of ‘words known’ mentioned in other publications. PMID:27524974

  10. Intelligence, Belief in the Paranormal, Knowledge of Probability and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart-Hamilton, Ian; Nayak, Laxman; Priest, Lee

    2006-01-01

    In young adults, preparedness to accept improbable events as planned rather than due to chance is predictive of the level of belief in the paranormal, possibly underpinned by lower intelligence levels (Musch and Ehrenberg, 2002). The present study, using a sample of 73 older participants aged 60-84 years failed to find any relationship between…

  11. Exploratory study of Australian aged care staff knowledge and attitudes of later life sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Hui; Jones, Cindy; Osborne, Debora

    2017-06-01

    To explore aged care staff knowledge and attitudes towards later life sexuality and attitudes about intimacy in people with dementia. Fifty-two care staff working in two aged care facilities with secure dementia care units were recruited. Knowledge and attitudes on later life sexuality and attitudes towards later life sexuality in people with dementia were surveyed using the Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale and the selected eight items of the Staff Attitudes about Intimacy and Dementia, respectively. The results indicated that aged care staff knowledge of later life sexuality is inadequate, but attitudes towards later life sexuality and about intimacy and dementia were relatively permissive. Improving aged care staff knowledge of later life sexuality is needed. Continuing education and training should provide to support the expression of later life sexuality including those with dementia. © 2017 AJA Inc.

  12. Vocabulary Breadth and Field Dependence/Independence Cognitive Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Golaghaei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is primarily bidirectional in that it is concerned with two fields of cognitive styles of field-dependency/independency on one hand and breadth of vocabulary knowledge on the other hand. In other word, this research is primarily intended to investigate the nature of the students' vocabulary knowledge in the field of passive and active knowledge of L2 words as a whole with regard to their preferred cognitive style of field dependency/independency. A group of 60 undergraduate students majoring in the field of English Language Teaching was selected. They were then divided into two groups based on the basis of their preferred cognitive styles of field-dependency / independency. Four types of tests, the 1000 frequency word-level test, the passive version of vocabulary Levels Test, the Productive Version of the Vocabulary Levels Test, and the Group Imbedded Figures Test were administered to the participants. The conclusion drawn after the analysis of the data was that the fieldindependent group outperformed their field-dependent counterparts in dealing with both passive and productive vocabulary levels. Finally, the findings of this research could be interpreted as being supportive of the idea that the field-dependent/independent cognitive style could be considered as an effective factor influencing the learners' vocabulary learning in the field of second language acquisition.

  13. The pace of vocabulary growth helps predict later vocabulary skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words—some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (SES, parent input, child gesture) of vocabulary growth between 14 and 46 months (n=62), and then uses growth estimates to predict children's vocabulary at 54 months. Velocity and acceleration in vocabulary development at 30 months predicted later vocabulary, particularly for children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Understanding the pace of early vocabulary growth thus improves our ability to predict school readiness, and may help identify children at risk for starting behind. PMID:22235920

  14. Connectivism: A knowledge learning theory for the digital age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, John Gerard Scott

    2016-10-01

    The emergence of the internet, particularly Web 2.0 has provided access to the views and opinions of a wide range of individuals opening up opportunities for new forms of communication and knowledge formation. Previous ways of navigating and filtering available information are likely to prove ineffective in these new contexts. Connectivism is one of the most prominent of the network learning theories which have been developed for e-learning environments. It is beginning to be recognized by medical educators. This article aims to examine connectivism and its potential application. The conceptual framework and application of connectivism are presented along with an outline of the main criticisms. Its potential application in medical education is then considered. While connectivism provides a useful lens through which teaching and learning using digital technologies can be better understood and managed, further development and testing is required. There is unlikely to be a single theory that will explain learning in technological enabled networks. Educators have an important role to play in online network learning.

  15. The effect of vocabulary notebooks on vocabulary acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Bozkurt, Neval

    2007-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Bilkent University, 2007. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2007. Includes bibliographical references leaves 82-87 This study investigated the effectiveness of vocabulary notebooks on vocabulary acquisition, and the attitudes of teachers and learners towards keeping vocabulary notebooks. The study was conducted with the participation of 60 pre-intermediate level students, divided into one treatment ...

  16. Examining continuity of early expressive vocabulary development: the generation R study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, Jens; Rescorla, Leslie; Schenk, Jacqueline J; Schmidt, Henk G; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Raat, Hein; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2011-06-01

    The authors investigated continuity and discontinuity of vocabulary skills in a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Mothers of 3,759 children completed the Dutch version of the MacArthur Short Form Vocabulary Checklist (Zink & Lejaegere, 2003) at 18 months and a Dutch translation of the Language Development Survey (Rescorla, 1989) at 30 months. At both ages, expressive vocabulary delay was defined as vocabulary scores vocabulary development at both ages, 6.2% were "late bloomers," 6.0% had late onset expressive vocabulary delay, and 2.6% had persistent expressive vocabulary delay. Word production and comprehension at 18 months explained 11.5% of the variance in 30-month vocabulary scores, with low birth weight, child age, gender and ethnicity, maternal age and education, and parenting stress explaining an additional 6.2%. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify biological, demographic, and psychological factors associated with each of the vocabulary delay outcome groups relative to the typically developing group. Although multiple perinatal, demographic, and maternal psychosocial factors significantly predicted vocabulary skills at 30 months, positive predictive value and sensitivity were low. Future studies should address to what extent additional factors, such as brain maturation and genetic influences, can improve the prediction and understanding of continuity and discontinuity of language delay.

  17. Clinicians' ability, motivation, and opportunity to acquire and transfer knowledge: An age-driven perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profili, Silvia; Sammarra, Alessia; Dandi, Roberto; Mascia, Daniele

    2017-11-08

    Many countries are seeing a dramatic increase in the average age of their clinicians. The literature often highlights the challenges of high replacement costs and the need for strategies to retain older personnel. Less discussed are the potential pitfalls of knowledge acquisition and transfer that accompany this aging issue. We propose a conceptual framework for understanding how clinicians' age interact with ability, motivation, and opportunity to predict clinical knowledge transfer and acquisition in health care organizations. This study integrates life-span development perspectives with the ability-motivation-opportunity framework to develop a number of testable propositions on the interaction between age and clinicians' ability, motivation, and opportunity to acquire and transfer clinical knowledge. We posit that the interaction between ability (the knowledge and skills to acquire knowledge), motivation (the willingness to acquire and transfer knowledge), and opportunity (resources required for acquiring and transferring knowledge) is a determinant of successful knowledge management. We also suggest that clinicians' age-and more specifically, the cognitive and motivational changes that accompany aging-moderates these relationships. This study contributes to existing research by offering a set of testable propositions for future research. These propositions will hopefully encourage empirical research into this important topic and lead to guidelines for reducing the risks of organizational knowledge loss due to aging. We suggest several ways that health care organizations can tailor managerial practices in order to help capitalize on the knowledge-based resources held by their younger and older clinicians. Such initiatives may affect employees' ability (e.g., by providing specific training programs), motivation (e.g., by expanding subjective perceptions of future time at work), and opportunities (e.g., by providing mentoring, reverse mentoring, and coaching

  18. Consolidation of vocabulary during sleep: The rich get richer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Emma; Gaskell, M Gareth; Weighall, Anna; Henderson, Lisa

    2017-06-01

    Sleep plays a role in strengthening new words and integrating them with existing vocabulary knowledge, consistent with neural models of learning in which sleep supports hippocampal transfer to neocortical memory. Such models are based on adult research, yet neural maturation may mean that the mechanisms supporting word learning vary across development. Here, we propose a model in which children may capitalise on larger amounts of slow-wave sleep to support a greater demand on learning and neural reorganisation, whereas adults may benefit from a richer knowledge base to support consolidation. Such an argument is reinforced by the well-reported "Matthew effect", whereby rich vocabulary knowledge is associated with better acquisition of new vocabulary. We present a meta-analysis that supports this association between children's existing vocabulary knowledge and their integration of new words overnight. Whilst multiple mechanisms likely contribute to vocabulary consolidation and neural reorganisation across the lifespan, we propose that contributions of existing knowledge should be rigorously examined in developmental studies. Such research has potential to greatly enhance neural models of learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Postponing aging and prolonging life expectancy with the knowledge-based economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjuhan, Ulo

    2012-04-01

    People are interested in the aging phenomenon and hope that scientists are doing as much as they can to solve the mysteries of aging. However, this is not the case. A lot of knowledge is produced for local interests in curing specific disorders; aging is studied much less. Today's economy is undergoing a transition to a knowledge-based economy. Knowledge of aging should be integrated into the economies of contemporary societies. Aging research and intervention can ensure better health, primarily among middle-aged and older people, and prolong life. There are many reasons why postponing aging and rejuvenation research is not as widespread as it should be. Developed countries should create economic stimuli for such studies and intervention.

  20. Preschool-aged children’s understanding of gratitude: Relations with emotion and mental state knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Developmental precursors to children’s early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children were tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of gratitude-eliciting situations. A model-building path analysis approach was used to examine longitudinal relations among early emotion and mental state knowledge and later understanding of gratitude. Children with a better early understanding of emotions and mental states understand more about gratitude. Mental state knowledge at age 4 mediated the relation between emotion knowledge at age 3 and gratitude understanding at age 5. The current study contributes to the scant literature on the early emergence of children’s understanding of gratitude. PMID:23331105

  1. Motivation, strategy, and English as a foreign language vocabulary learning: A structural equation modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yining; Lin, Chin-Hsi; Zhang, Dongbo; Choi, Yunjeong

    2017-03-01

    In spite of considerable advancements in our understanding of the different factors involved in achieving vocabulary-learning success, the overall pattern and interrelationships of critical factors involved in L2 vocabulary learning - particularly, the mechanisms through which learners regulate their motivation and learning strategies - remain unclear. This study examined L2 vocabulary learning, focusing on the joint influence of different motivational factors and learning strategies on the vocabulary breadth of adolescent learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) in China. The participants were 107 tenth graders (68 females, 39 males) in China. The data were collected via two questionnaires, one assessing students' motivation towards English-vocabulary learning and the other their English vocabulary-learning strategies, along with a test measuring vocabulary breadth. Structural equation modelling (SEM) indicated that learning strategy partially mediated the relationship between motivation (i.e., a composite score of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation) and vocabulary learning. Separate SEM analyses for intrinsic (IM) and extrinsic motivation (EM) revealed that there were significant and positive direct and indirect effects of IM on vocabulary knowledge; and while EM's direct effect over and above that of learning strategies did not achieve significance, its indirect effect was significant and positive. The findings suggest that vocabulary-learning strategies mediate the relationship between motivation and vocabulary knowledge. In addition, IM may have a greater influence on vocabulary learning in foreign-language contexts. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Knowledge, attitude and behavior regarding osteoporosis among women in three age groups: Shariati hospital, Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaghaz kanani R.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis threatens the aged population especially the menopausal women and can lead to life long disability and death. Appropriate knowledge and behavior have an important role in prevention of osteoporosis. In this study the knowledge, attitude and behavior of women regarding osteoporosis is assessed and compared in different age groups.Methods: This cross sectional study includes 390 women in reproductive, premenopausal and menopausal age groups who had come to Shariati hospital clinics and each had answered the designed questionnaire. The questionnaires were scored and analyzed. Women's knowledge, attitude and behavior were assessed and compared by X2 test in the three age groups and P<0.05 was considered significant.Results: 15-30% of women didn't know what osteoporosis is and in 380 of them attitude or behavior was not good. Education had a significant effect on knowledge of women in reproductive and premenopausal ages (P=0.002, 0.04 respectively, but had no effect on their attitude or behavior. Age had a significant effect on knowledge and attitude (P=0.001 but had no effect on behavior. Age had significant effect on the knowledge that exercise can prevent osteoporosis (P=0.014 but not on attitude or behavior. Age had no effect on knowledge, attitude or behavior of daily calcium intake to prevent osteoporosis. (P=0.123, 0.12, 0.153 respectively 93% to 95% of women thought the risks of osteoporosis are less than cardiovascular disease or breast cancer.Conclusions: 15-30% of women didn't know what osteoporosis is. The total knowledge about osteoporosis was low. Although 22-75% of women younger than 54 years old had knowledge about the predisposing factors but their attitude or behavior was not good.

  3. A cross-language study of decontextualized vocabulary comprehension in toddlerhood and kindergarten readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Margaret; Smolak, Erin; Liu, Yushuang; Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Zesiger, Pascal

    2018-04-05

    Recent studies demonstrate that emerging literacy depends on earlier language achievement. Importantly, most extant work focuses on parent-reported production prior to 30 months of age. Of interest is whether and how directly assessed vocabulary comprehension in the 2nd year of life supports vocabulary and kindergarten readiness in the 4th year. We first contrasted orthogonal indices of parent-reported production and directly assessed vocabulary comprehension and found that comprehension was a stronger predictor of child outcomes. We then assessed prediction from vocabulary comprehension controlling for maternal education, preschool attendance, and child sex. In 3 studies early, decontextualized vocabulary comprehension emerged as a significant predictor of 4th year language and kindergarten readiness accounting for unique variance above demographic control variables. Further we found that the effect of early vocabulary on 4th year kindergarten readiness was not mediated by 4th year vocabulary. This pattern of results emerged in English monolingual children (N = 48) and replicated in French monolingual (N = 58) and French-English bilingual children (N = 34). Our findings suggest that early, decontextualized vocabulary may provide a platform for the establishment of a conceptual system that supports both later vocabulary and kindergarten readiness, including the acquisition of a wide range of concepts including print and number. Differences between parent-reported and directly assessed vocabulary and the mechanisms by which decontextualized vocabulary may contribute to conceptual development are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Gabriele Stein. Developing Your English Vocabulary: A Systematic New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël Abecassis

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Gabriele Stein is professor of English linguistics at the University of Heidelberg in Germany and has published widely on lexicography and lexicology. The objective of this book is twofold: to compile a lexical core and to maximise the skills of language students by developing ways of expanding this core. It is intended to function as a teaching aid for teachers of English as well as a self-study book for learners of English as a second language. Lexical knowledge is a crucial part of language acquisition and depends on different external factors such as the age and profession of the learner, his/her goals, expectations and needs in learning a language. Beck et al. (2002 have demonstrated the small extent of the emphasis on the acquisition vocabulary in school curricula.

  5. Improving Vocabulary of English Language Learners through Direct Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Meghan; Feng, Jay

    2016-01-01

    This is a report of a professional development project. The purpose of the project was to provide professional development to teachers in vocabulary instructional strategies and to examine vocabulary acquisition of English language learners. The participants were 8 second grade ELL students and 6 second grade teachers. The eight second grade…

  6. Nurses' knowledge and attitudes towards aged sexuality: validity and internal consistency of the Dutch version of the Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahieu, Lieslot; de Casterlé, Bernadette Dierckx; Van Elssen, Kim; Gastmans, Chris

    2013-11-01

    This paper reports a study testing the content and face validity and internal consistency of the Dutch version of the Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale. The ability of older residents to sexually express themselves is known to be influenced by the knowledge and attitudes of nursing home staff towards later-life sexuality. Although the Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale is a widely used instrument to measure this, there is no validated, Dutch translation available. Instrument development. Following a standard forward/backward translation into Dutch, the scale was further adapted for use in Flemish nursing home settings. Content and face validity and user-friendliness were assessed. The psychometric properties were determined by means of an exploratory study. Data were collected from March-April 2011 at eight Flemish nursing homes. Reliability was assessed using internal consistency and item-total correlations. Both subscales of the Flemish adaptation showed acceptable content validity. The face validity and user-friendliness were deemed favourable with hardly any remarks given by the expert panel. The Cronbach's α was 0.80 and 0.88 for the knowledge and attitude subscales, respectively. The item-total correlations ranged from 0.21-0.48 for the knowledge section and from 0.09-0.68 for the attitude subscale. We conclude from our study that the Dutch version of the scale has acceptable to good psychometric properties. The Flemish adaptation therefore seems to be a valuable instrument for studying nursing staff's knowledge and attitudes towards aged sexuality in Flanders. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Total and Conceptual Vocabulary in Spanish–English Bilinguals From 22 to 30 Months: Implications for Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Core, Cynthia; Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Señor, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Vocabulary assessment holds promise as a way to identify young bilingual children at risk for language delay. This study compares 2 measures of vocabulary in a group of young Spanish–English bilingual children to a single-language measure used with monolingual children. Method Total vocabulary and conceptual vocabulary were used to measure mean vocabulary size and growth in 47 Spanish–English bilingually developing children from 22 to 30 months of age based on results from the MacArthur–Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI; Fenson et al., 1993) and the Inventario del Desarrollo de Habilidades Comunicativas (Jackson-Maldonado et al., 2003). Bilingual children’s scores of total vocabulary and conceptual vocabulary were compared with CDI scores for a control group of 56 monolingual children. Results The total vocabulary measure resulted in mean vocabulary scores and average rate of growth similar to monolingual growth, whereas conceptual vocabulary scores were significantly smaller and grew at a slower rate than total vocabulary scores. Total vocabulary identified the same proportion of bilingual children below the 25th percentile on monolingual norms as the CDI did for monolingual children. Conclusion These results support the use of total vocabulary as a means of assessing early language development in young bilingual Spanish–English speaking children. PMID:24023382

  8. Nurses' knowledge and attitudes toward aged sexuality in Flemish nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahieu, Lieslot; de Casterlé, Bernadette Dierckx; Acke, Jolien; Vandermarliere, Hanne; Van Elssen, Kim; Fieuws, Steffen; Gastmans, Chris

    2016-09-01

    Admission to a nursing home does not necessarily diminish an older person's desire for sexual expression and fulfillment. Given that nursing staff directly and indirectly influence the range of acceptable sexual expressions of nursing home residents, their knowledge and attitudes toward aged sexuality can have far-reaching effects on both the quality of care they provide to residents and the self-image and well-being of these residents. To investigate nursing staff's knowledge and attitudes toward aged sexuality, to determine whether certain sociodemographic factors of the nursing staff relate to their knowledge and attitudes toward later-life sexuality, and to examine the relationship between knowledge and attitudes. Descriptive cross-sectional survey study. The administered questionnaire collected sociodemographic data and data from an adapted, Dutch version of the Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale. Data were collected from November 2011 through April 2012. A total of 43 geographically dispersed nursing homes in Flanders, Belgium, participated. Out of a potential research sample of 2228 nursing staff respondents, 1166 participated. The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medicine of the KU Leuven. Nursing staff appeared to be moderately knowledgeable about aged sexuality and displayed a rather positive attitude toward sexuality in older people. Significant relationships between various variables were found both at univariable and multivariable levels. Knowledge and attitudes proved to be positively related, indicating that a higher level of knowledge of aged sexuality is associated with a more positive attitude toward sexuality in later life. Research findings are discussed within a broader international context. There is room for improvement for both nursing staff's knowledge and attitudes toward aged sexuality. This might be aided by appropriate educational interventions. Our results identified different target groups

  9. Age-Group and Gender Differences in Stroke Knowledge in an Israeli Jewish Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Semyon; Itzhaki, Michal; Koton, Silvia

    Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability and the fifth leading cause of death in Israel. Knowledge of stroke warning signs has been linked to early seeking of medical help. Little is known about knowledge of stroke warning signs in Israeli Jewish adults. Stroke knowledge was examined among Jewish Israeli adults. Using a structured questionnaire, registered nurses interviewed a convenience sample of the respondents, 18 years or older, with no stroke history. Stroke knowledge and demographics were examined by 3 age groups (64 years) in men and women. In total, 1137 Jewish Israelis were interviewed, 457 (40.2%) men and 680 women (59.8%); 493 (43.4%) were younger than 45 years, 541 (47.6%) were aged 45 to 64 years, and 102 (9%) were older than 64 years; 1 (0.1%) did not report age. On average, each interview lasted for 25 to 30 minutes. Participants younger than 45 years showed the lowest knowledge of stroke cause. Women younger than 45 years were less likely to identify at least 2 stroke warning signs. Participants younger than 45 years were less likely to identify at least 2 risk factors, compared with participants aged 45 to 64 years and older than 64 years. Women younger than 45 years were less likely to identify at least 2 stroke prevention strategies. Participants younger than 45 years showed the lowest levels of stroke knowledge. The highest stroke knowledge was found in the 45 to 64 years age group. Stroke knowledge among different age groups was similar in both genders. Educational campaigns aimed at increasing knowledge of stroke among the general population and targeting the younger population are recommended.

  10. Vocabulary Constraint on Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sutarsyah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This case study was carried out in the English Education Department of State University of Malang. The aim of the study was to identify and describe the vocabulary in the reading text and to seek if the text is useful for reading skill development. A descriptive qualitative design was applied to obtain the data. For this purpose, some available computer programs were used to find the description of vocabulary in the texts. It was found that the 20 texts containing 7,945 words are dominated by low frequency words which account for 16.97% of the words in the texts. The high frequency words occurring in the texts were dominated by function words. In the case of word levels, it was found that the texts have very limited number of words from GSL (General Service List of English Words (West, 1953. The proportion of the first 1,000 words of GSL only accounts for 44.6%. The data also show that the texts contain too large proportion of words which are not in the three levels (the first 2,000 and UWL. These words account for 26.44% of the running words in the texts.  It is believed that the constraints are due to the selection of the texts which are made of a series of short-unrelated texts. This kind of text is subject to the accumulation of low frequency words especially those of content words and limited of words from GSL. It could also defeat the development of students' reading skills and vocabulary enrichment.

  11. Longitudinal analysis of receptive vocabulary growth in young Spanish English-speaking children from migrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Carla Wood; Schatschneider, Christopher; Leacox, Lindsey

    2014-01-01

    The authors of this study described developmental trajectories and predicted kindergarten performance of Spanish and English receptive vocabulary acquisition of young Latino/a English language learners (ELLs) from socioeconomically disadvantaged migrant families. In addition, the authors examined the extent to which gender and individual initial performance in Spanish predict receptive vocabulary performance and growth rate. The authors used hierarchical linear modeling of 64 children's receptive vocabulary performance to generate growth trajectories, predict performance at school entry, and examine potential predictors of rate of growth. The timing of testing varied across children. The ELLs (prekindergarten to 2nd grade) participated in 2-5 testing sessions, each 6-12 months apart. The ELLs' average predicted standard score on an English receptive vocabulary at kindergarten was nearly 2 SDs below the mean for monolingual peers. Significant growth in the ELLs' receptive vocabulary was observed between preschool and 2nd grade, indicating that the ELLs were slowly closing the receptive vocabulary gap, although their average score remained below the standard score mean for age-matched monolingual peers. The ELLs demonstrated a significant decrease in Spanish receptive vocabulary standard scores over time. Initial Spanish receptive vocabulary was a significant predictor of growth in English receptive vocabulary. High initial Spanish receptive vocabulary was associated with greater growth in English receptive vocabulary and decelerated growth in Spanish receptive vocabulary. Gender was not a significant predictor of growth in either English or Spanish receptive vocabulary. ELLs from low socioeconomic backgrounds may be expected to perform lower in English compared with their monolingual English peers in kindergarten. Performance in Spanish at school entry may be useful in identifying children who require more intensive instructional support for English vocabulary

  12. Nuclear engineering vocabulary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, X.; Andrieux, C.

    2001-01-01

    The members of the CSTNIN - the Special Commission for Nuclear Engineering Terminology and Neology - have just produced a Nuclear Engineering Vocabulary, published by SFEN. A 120-page document which, to date, includes 400 nuclear engineering terms or expressions. For each term or expression, this Glossary gives: the primary and secondary subject field in which it is applied, a possible abbreviation, its definition, a synonym if appropriate, any relevant comments, any associated word(s), the English equivalent, its status on the date of publication of the Glossary. (author)

  13. Physiological Aspects of Aging. Module A-5. Block A. Basic Knowledge of the Aging Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Dexter; Cap, Orest

    This instructional module on physiological aspects of aging is one in a block of 10 modules designed to provide the human services worker who works with older adults with basic information regarding the aging process. An introduction provides an overview of the module content. A listing of general objectives follows. Nine sections present…

  14. Learners' independent records of vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Leeke, Philip

    1999-01-01

    Handbooks recommend a variety of quite complicated procedures for learning and remembering vocabulary, but most learners only engage in very simple procedures. The aim of this project was to establish a basis for identifying optimal vocabulary recording procedures by finding out what learners...

  15. Acquiring, Teaching, and Testing Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarg, Mats

    1997-01-01

    Argues that treatment of foreign language vocabulary will vary predictably according to whether the instructional activity is based on a structural or a lexical/collocational view of language. Notes that in a structural approach, vocabulary learning is primarily a frequency- and input-based individual endeavor, while the lexical approach is more…

  16. Tobacco use, knowledge and attitude among Malaysians age 18 and above.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, K H; Sumarni, M G; Amal, N M; Hanjeet, K; Wan Rozita, W M; Norhamimah, A

    2009-04-01

    This study aims to determine the level of knowledge and to understand their attitude towards smoking and secondly to determine how sociodemographic background, smoking status and knowledge on the health risks of smoking contribute toward the development of such attitude. A total of 10,545 respondents age 18 years and above across Malaysia were interviewed. Results indicated that level of knowledge and attitude varied by gender, education level, smoking status, age, ethnicity and smoker category. Smokers' low education, poor knowledge on the dangers of smoking and being males had more positive or greater impact on their attitudes towards smoking. Formulation and implementation of a holistic programme aimed at increasing knowledge and attitude change that accounts for sociodemographic background of the population is recommended in order to bring down smoking rates and thus reduce smoking related health problems in this country.

  17. Core vocabulary of young children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckers, Stijn R J M; Van Zaalen, Yvonne; Van Balkom, Hans; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a core vocabulary list for young children with intellectual disabilities between 2 and 7 years of age because data from this population are lacking in core vocabulary literature. Children with Down syndrome are considered one of the most valid reference groups for researching developmental patterns in children with intellectual disabilities; therefore, spontaneous language samples of 30 Dutch children with Down syndrome were collected during three different activities with multiple communication partners (free play with parents, lunch- or snack-time at home or at school, and speech therapy sessions). Of these children, 19 used multimodal communication, primarily manual signs and speech. Functional word use in both modalities was transcribed. The 50 most frequently used core words accounted for 67.2% of total word use; 16 words comprised core vocabulary, based on commonality. These data are consistent with similar studies related to the core vocabularies of preschoolers and toddlers with typical development, although the number of nouns present on the core vocabulary list was higher for the children in the present study. This finding can be explained by manual sign use of the children with Down syndrome and is reflective of their expressive vocabulary ages.

  18. School-Age Children Talk about Chess: Does Knowledge Drive Syntactic Complexity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined language productivity and syntactic complexity in school-age children in relation to their knowledge of the topic of discussion--the game of chess. Method: Children (N = 32; mean age = 10;11 [years;months]) who played chess volunteered to be interviewed by an adult examiner who had little or no experience playing…

  19. Preschool-Aged Children's Understanding of Gratitude: Relations with Emotion and Mental State Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Developmental precursors to children's early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children was tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of…

  20. A Mobile Game-Based English Vocabulary Practice System Based on Portfolio Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting-Ting; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2017-01-01

    English learning has become a vital educational strategy in many non-English-speaking countries. Vocabulary is a critical element for language learners. Therefore, developing sufficient vocabulary knowledge enables effective communication. However, learning a foreign language is difficult and stressful. In addition, memorizing English vocabulary…

  1. Why and How EFL Students Learn Vocabulary in Parliamentary Debate Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aclan, Eunice M.; Aziz, Noor Hashima Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary, the backbone of any language including English, is foundational for listening, speaking, reading and writing. These four macro-skills are necessary not only in gaining knowledge as English is the language to access major information sources particularly the World Wide Web but also in the demanding globalized workplace. Vocabulary is…

  2. Increasing the Vocabulary Acquisition Rate for Third Grade English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergrass, Jennifer D.

    2017-01-01

    Given the ongoing demographic transformations of U.S classrooms, knowledge of the strategies teachers use to address the vocabulary needs of English language learners (ELLs) is central for improving student outcomes. The problem in a Georgia school system was that ELLs were not building grade-level appropriate vocabulary at a pace comparable to…

  3. The Effects of Pre-Learning Vocabulary on Reading Comprehension and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stuart A.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of pre-learning vocabulary on reading comprehension and writing. Japanese students studying English as a foreign language (EFL) learned word pairs receptively and productively; four tests were used to measure reading comprehension, writing, and receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge. The findings suggest…

  4. Reading Vocabulary in Children with and without Hearing Loss: The Roles of Task and Word Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, Karien M.; Tellings, Agnes; Verhoeven, Ludo; Schreuder, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To address the problem of low reading comprehension scores among children with hearing impairment, it is necessary to have a better understanding of their reading vocabulary. In this study, the authors investigated whether task and word type differentiate the reading vocabulary knowledge of children with and without severe hearing loss.…

  5. Predicting growth in English and French vocabulary: The facilitating effects of morphological and cognate awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Nadia; Hipfner-Boucher, Kathleen; Chen, Xi

    2017-07-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of morphological and cognate awareness to the development of English and French vocabulary knowledge among young minority and majority language children who were enrolled in a French immersion program. Participating children (n = 75) were assessed in English and French on measures of morphological awareness, cognate awareness, and vocabulary knowledge from Grades 1 to 3. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to investigate linear trends in English and French vocabulary growth for minority and majority language children and to identify metalinguistic contributions to Grade 1 and Grade 3 English and French vocabulary performance and rate of growth. Results demonstrated a similar pattern of prediction for both groups of children. English and French morphological awareness and French-English cognate awareness significantly predicted concurrent and longitudinal vocabulary development after controlling for nonverbal reasoning, phonological awareness, and word identification. The contributions of morphological awareness to English vocabulary and cognate awareness to French vocabulary strengthened between Grades 1 and 2. These findings highlight the emerging importance of morphological and cognate awareness in children's vocabulary development and suggest that these metalinguistic factors can serve to broaden the vocabulary repertoire of children who enter school with limited language proficiency. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Sibship size, sibling cognitive sensitivity, and children's receptive vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prime, Heather; Pauker, Sharon; Plamondon, André; Perlman, Michal; Jenkins, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between sibship size and children's vocabulary as a function of quality of sibling interactions. It was hypothesized that coming from a larger sibship (ie, 3+ children) would be related to lower receptive vocabulary in children. However, we expected this association to be moderated by the level of cognitive sensitivity shown by children's next-in-age older siblings. Data on 385 children (mean age = 3.15 years) and their next-in-age older siblings (mean age = 5.57 years) were collected and included demographic questionnaires, direct testing of children's receptive vocabulary, and videos of mother-child and sibling interactions. Sibling dyads were taped engaging in a cooperative building task and tapes were coded for the amount of cognitive sensitivity the older sibling exhibited toward the younger sibling. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted and showed an interaction between sibship size and sibling cognitive sensitivity in the prediction of children's receptive vocabulary; children exposed to large sibships whose next-in-age older sibling exhibited higher levels of cognitive sensitivity were less likely to show low vocabulary skills when compared with those children exposed to large sibships whose siblings showed lower levels of cognitive sensitivity. Children who show sensitivity to the cognitive needs of their younger siblings provide a rich environment for language development. The negative impact of large sibships on language development is moderated by the presence of an older sibling who shows high cognitive sensitivity.

  7. Knowledge about factors that influence fertility among Australians of reproductive age: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarberg, Karin; Setter, Tracey; Norman, Robert J; Holden, Carol A; Michelmore, Janet; Johnson, Louise

    2013-02-01

    To explore knowledge about the effects on fertility of age, obesity, smoking, and timing of intercourse among Australians of reproductive age. Telephone survey of a representative sample of Australians. Not applicable. Australians aged 18 to 45 years who wish to have a child or another child now or in the future. None. Knowledge about the effect on fertility of age, obesity, smoking, and timing of intercourse. A total of 462 interviews were conducted. The majority of respondents underestimated, by about 10 years, the age at which male and female fertility starts to decline. Only one in four correctly identified that female fertility starts to decline before age 35, and one in three identified that male fertility starts to decline before age 45. Most (59%) were aware that female obesity and smoking affect fertility, but fewer recognized that male obesity (30%) and smoking (36%) also influence fertility. Almost 40% of respondents had inadequate knowledge of when in the menstrual cycle a woman is most likely to conceive. Considerable knowledge gaps about modifiable factors that affect fertility were identified. These are targeted in a national education campaign to promote awareness of factors that influence fertility. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Test Your Knowledge of Internet Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Vicki Smith

    1998-01-01

    Answers common questions about the Internet, i.e., what it is, its components, and the definitions of its various features. Questions include what Web pages and browsers are, and the definitions of URLs, ISPs, home pages, search engines, and hyperlinks. (GR)

  9. Crosslinguistic Developmental Consistency in the Composition of Toddlers’ Internal State Vocabulary: Evidence from Four Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental state language, emerging in the second and third years of life in typically developing children, is one of the first signs of an explicit psychological understanding. While mental state vocabulary may serve a variety of conversational functions in discourse and thus might not always indicate psychological comprehension, there is evidence for genuine references to mental states (desires, knowledge, beliefs, and emotions early in development across languages. This present study presents parental questionnaire data on the composition of 297 toddler-aged (30-to 32-month-olds children’s internal state vocabulary in four languages: Italian, German, English, and French. The results demonstrated that across languages expressions for physiological states (e.g., hungry and tired were among the most varied, while children’s vocabulary for cognitive entities (e.g., know and think proved to be least varied. Further, consistent with studies on children’s comprehension of these concepts, across languages children’s mastery of volition terms (e.g., like to do and want preceded their mastery of cognition terms. These findings confirm the cross-linguistic consistency of children’s emerging expression of abstract psychological concepts.

  10. Effective Strategies for Turning Receptive Vocabulary into Productive Vocabulary in EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, Avan Kamal Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary acquisition has been a main concern of EFL English teachers and learners. There have been tons of research to examine the student's level of receptive vocabulary and productive vocabulary, but no research has conducted on how turning receptive vocabulary into productive vocabulary. This study has reported the impact of the teaching…

  11. Second Language Vocabulary Growth at Advanced Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Meral

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the receptive vocabulary growth of advanced EFL learners in an English-medium degree programme. The study used the Vocabulary Size Test in a cross-sectional design to measure the vocabulary size of learners at various stages of study. The effect of word frequency on vocabulary development and the presence of an…

  12. Vocabulary Facilitates Speech Perception in Children With Hearing Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Kelsey E; Walker, Elizabeth A; Kirby, Benjamin; McCreery, Ryan W

    2017-08-16

    We examined the effects of vocabulary, lexical characteristics (age of acquisition and phonotactic probability), and auditory access (aided audibility and daily hearing aid [HA] use) on speech perception skills in children with HAs. Participants included 24 children with HAs and 25 children with normal hearing (NH), ages 5-12 years. Groups were matched on age, expressive and receptive vocabulary, articulation, and nonverbal working memory. Participants repeated monosyllabic words and nonwords in noise. Stimuli varied on age of acquisition, lexical frequency, and phonotactic probability. Performance in each condition was measured by the signal-to-noise ratio at which the child could accurately repeat 50% of the stimuli. Children from both groups with larger vocabularies showed better performance than children with smaller vocabularies on nonwords and late-acquired words but not early-acquired words. Overall, children with HAs showed poorer performance than children with NH. Auditory access was not associated with speech perception for the children with HAs. Children with HAs show deficits in sensitivity to phonological structure but appear to take advantage of vocabulary skills to support speech perception in the same way as children with NH. Further investigation is needed to understand the causes of the gap that exists between the overall speech perception abilities of children with HAs and children with NH.

  13. Developing a Maturity Model for Knowledge Management (KM) in the Digital Age

    OpenAIRE

    Thornley, Clare; Carcary, Marian; Connolly, Niall; O'Duffy, Michael; Pierce, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper arises from a work-in-progress academia/industry collaborative research project to develop a knowledge management (KM) maturity model as a component (critical capability) of the IT Capability Maturity Framework (IT-CMF). The aim of the project is to develop a knowledge management (KM) maturity model that is ‘fit for purpose’ for organisations in the digital age. In undertaking this work it became clear that, outside of the fundamental challenges of KM, new significant challenges an...

  14. Vocabularies of happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Bratu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to explore through interviews the vocabularies of happiness that interviewees invoke in face-to-face interactions to account for their happiness or lack thereof and, especially, for the (unhappiness of others. In other words, how do respondents present their own or others’ happiness – be they close or distant acquaintances, or people in general, in an interview conversation? Also, what understanding of others do these accounts make visible? This work embraces a discursive psychological (DP perspective, focusing on how different versions of happiness are being put together by respondents presenting themselves as competent and credible individuals, while at the same time positioning themselves in a moral order of happiness.

  15. DSpace and customized controlled vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skourlas, C.; Tsolakidis, A.; Kakoulidis, P.; Giannakopoulos, G.

    2015-02-01

    The open source platform of DSpace could be defined as a repository application used to provide access to digital resources. DSpace is installed and used by more than 1000 organizations worldwide. A predefined taxonomy of keyword, called the Controlled Vocabulary, can be used for describing and accessing the information items stored in the repository. In this paper, we describe how the users can create, and customize their own vocabularies. Various heterogeneous items, such as research papers, videos, articles and educational material of the repository, can be indexed in order to provide advanced search functionality using new controlled vocabularies.

  16. Early Math Trajectories: Low-Income Children's Mathematics Knowledge From Ages 4 to 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R; Hofer, Kerry G; Farran, Dale C

    2017-09-01

    Early mathematics knowledge is a strong predictor of later academic achievement, but children from low-income families enter school with weak mathematics knowledge. An early math trajectories model is proposed and evaluated within a longitudinal study of 517 low-income American children from ages 4 to 11. This model includes a broad range of math topics, as well as potential pathways from preschool to middle grades mathematics achievement. In preschool, nonsymbolic quantity, counting, and patterning knowledge predicted fifth-grade mathematics achievement. By the end of first grade, symbolic mapping, calculation, and patterning knowledge were the important predictors. Furthermore, the first-grade predictors mediated the relation between preschool math knowledge and fifth-grade mathematics achievement. Findings support the early math trajectories model among low-income children. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. Using Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition to Enrich the Students Vocabulary Mastery

    OpenAIRE

    Asmayanti, St

    2015-01-01

    The research aimed to find out the improvement the students'vocabulary in terms of improving their understanding about of nouns and adjectives. To explain the increase, the researcher used a classroom action research (CAR) which was conducted in two cycles in which each cycle consisted of four meetings.The subject was the students at the eight grade of SMP Askari Pallangga Gowa. The number of samples consisted of 37 students. The research findings indicated that using Incidental Vocabulary Ac...

  18. Validity of a parent vocabulary checklist for young Spanish speaking children of Mexican immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiberson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of the current investigation was to examine the concurrent and predictive validity of a parent vocabulary checklist with young Spanish speaking children of Mexican immigrants. This study implemented a longitudinal approach. Nineteen families participated when children were 15-16 months of age, and then again at 30-32 months of age. The Spanish version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory (Inventarios del Desarrollo de Habilidades Communicativas, INV) and spontaneous language samples collected during naturalistic play were used to examine the relationship between observed and reported vocabulary. Vocabulary reported through the INV-II and vocabulary observed at 30-32 months were significantly correlated, suggesting that the INV-II captures a valid representation of vocabulary at this age. Comparatively, vocabulary reported on the INV-I, was not correlated with observed vocabulary at 15-16 months of age or reported or observed vocabulary at 30-32 months of age. These results suggest that the INV-I, when used with 14-16-month-olds, demonstrates limited concurrent and predictive validity. Implications for the clinical use of the INV-I and INV-II are presented.

  19. The Longitudinal Study of Aging in Human Young Adults: Knowledge Gaps and Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E; Belsky, Daniel W; Danese, Andrea; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2017-02-01

    To prevent onset of age-related diseases and physical and cognitive decline, interventions to slow human aging and extend health span must eventually be applied to people while they are still young and healthy. Yet most human aging research examines older adults, many with chronic disease, and little is known about aging in healthy young humans. This article explains how this knowledge gap is a barrier to extending health span and puts forward the case that geroscience should invest in researching the pace of aging in young adults. As one illustrative example, we describe an initial effort to study the pace of aging in a young-adult birth cohort by using repeated waves of biomarkers collected across the third and fourth decades to quantify the pace of coordinated physiological deterioration across multiple organ systems (eg, pulmonary, periodontal, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, metabolic, and immune function). Findings provided proof of principle that it is possible to quantify individual variation in the pace of aging in young adults still free of age-related diseases. This article articulates research needs to improve longitudinal measurement of the pace of aging in young people, to pinpoint factors that slow or speed the pace of aging, to compare pace of aging against genomic clocks, to explain slow-aging young adults, and to apply pace of aging in preventive clinical trials of antiaging therapies. This article puts forward a research agenda to fill the knowledge gap concerning lifelong causes of aging. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Nouns and verbs in the vocabulary acquisition of Italian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, Laura; Fasolo, Mirco

    2007-11-01

    The vocabulary development of 24 Italian children aged between 1;4 and 1;6 at the beginning of the study was longitudinally monitored on a monthly basis using the Italian version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory drawn up by their mothers. This study analyzes data from children for whom two sampling stages were available; the first corresponding to a vocabulary size as close as possible to 200 words (mean 217, range 167-281), the second to a vocabulary size ranging from 400 to 650 words (mean 518, range 416-648). The children's vocabulary composition was analyzed by calculating, for each sampling stage, the percentage of common nouns, verbs and closed-class words. The increase in percentage points of the various lexical items between the first and second sampling stages was also analyzed. Data confirmed the predominance of nouns over verbs and closed-class words at both sampling stages, while verbs and closed-class words showed a higher percentage increase than nouns. The results provide evidence that children who reached the first sampling point at an earlier age had a higher percentage of nouns than children who reached the same stage at an older age. However, in the passage from the first to the second sampling point no relationship emerged between a style of acquisition based on the acquisition of nouns and an increase in the rate of vocabulary growth.

  1. Building English Vocabulary through Roots, Prefixes and Suffixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtbasi, Metin

    2015-01-01

    Semantics, the study of the meaning of words, is the sum of the basic elements of four skills, namely, reading, writing, speaking and listening effectively. The knowledge of vocabulary words in lexico-semantics, on the other hand, is essential in every grade level, subject area and assessment for every student. In order to improve students'…

  2. Peek, Peak, Pique: Using Homophones to Teach Vocabulary (and Spelling!).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryle, Marilyn Bogusch

    2000-01-01

    Argues that regular homophone practice enhances vocabulary knowledge, spelling skills, pronunciation ability, and overall reading proficiency. Describes how card games played with decks of homophones helped to accomplish these things. Notes particular benefits of homophone games to English-as-a-second-language students, and outlines key advantages…

  3. Double subtitles as an effective tool for vocabulary learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazareva, Elena; Loerts, Hanneke

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate if and how the mere minimal exposure to subtitled audio-visual input in an unknown language can enhance incidental vocabulary learning. Three experimental conditions were compared in which native Dutch participants with no prior knowledge of the target language

  4. Automatic Identification of Nutritious Contexts for Learning Vocabulary Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostow, Jack; Gates, Donna; Ellison, Ross; Goutam, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is crucial to literacy development and academic success. Previous research has shown learning the meaning of a word requires encountering it in diverse informative contexts. In this work, we try to identify "nutritious" contexts for a word--contexts that help students build a rich mental representation of the word's…

  5. TOEFL IBT vocabulary flash review

    CERN Document Server

    Llc, Learning Express

    2014-01-01

    The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) measures the English proficiency of people whose native language isn't English. This portable guide features 600 essential TOEFL vocabulary flashcards, bound in a convenient book format, with definitions, sample sentences, synonyms, and pronunciation. The cards include the most-tested vocabulary on the exam. The perfect companion to any TOEFL study plan, this book is pocket-sized for portability and great for study anywhere, anytime!

  6. Individualized early prediction of familial risk of dyslexia : A study of infant vocabulary development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Ao; Wijnen, Frank; Koster, Charlotte; Schnack, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    We examined early vocabulary development in children at familial risk (FR) of dyslexia and typically developing (TD) children between 17 and 35 months of age. We trained a support vector machine to classify TD and FR using these vocabulary data at the individual level. The Dutch version of the

  7. Exploring Expressive Vocabulary Variability in Two-Year-Olds: The Role of Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Jayne; Klee, Thomas; Stokes, Stephanie F.; Moran, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored whether measures of working memory ability contribute to the wide variation in 2-year-olds' expressive vocabulary skills. Method: Seventy-nine children (aged 24-30 months) were assessed by using standardized tests of vocabulary and visual cognition, a processing speed measure, and behavioral measures of verbal working…

  8. Maternal Correlates of Growth in Toddler Vocabulary Production in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Barbara Alexander; Rowe, Meredith L.; Singer, Judith D.; Snow, Catherine E.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of growth in toddlers' vocabulary production between the ages of 1 and 3 years by analyzing mother-child communication in 108 low-income families. Individual growth modeling was used to describe patterns of growth in children's observed vocabulary production and predictors of initial status and between-person…

  9. Living conditions and receptive vocabulary of children aged two to five years Condições de vida e vocabulário receptivo em crianças de dois a cinco anos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sílvia Basílio

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the receptive vocabulary of children aged between two years and six months and five years and eleven months who were attending childcare centers and kindergarten schools. METHODS: An analytical cross-sectional study was carried out in the municipality of Embu, Southeastern Brazil. The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and analysis of factors associated with children's performance were applied. The sample consisted of 201 children of both genders, aged between two and six years. Statistical analysis was performed using multivariate analysis and logistic regression model. The dependent variable analyzed was test performance and the independent variables were child's age, mother's level of education and family socio-demographic characteristics. RESULTS: It was observed that 44.3% of the children had performances in the test that were below what would be expected for their age. The factors associated with the best performances in the test were child's age (OR=2.4; 95% CI: 1.6-3.5 and mother's education level (OR= 3.2; 95% CI: 1.3-7.4. CONCLUSIONS: Mother's education level is important for child's language development. Settings such as childcare and kindergarten schools are protective factors for child development in families of low income and education.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o vocabulário receptivo de crianças de dois anos e seis meses a cinco anos e 11 meses que freqüentam creches e pré-escolas. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal e analítico realizado no município de Embu, Estado de São Paulo. Utilizou-se o Teste de Vocabulário por Imagem Peabody e análise de fatores associados ao desempenho. A amostra foi constituída de 201 crianças de ambos os sexos, com idade entre dois e seis anos. Foram realizados análise multivariada e modelo de regressão logística. A variável dependente analisada foi o desempenho no teste e as variáveis independentes foram a idade da criança, tempo de escolaridade e série, e caracter

  10. Knowledge and Morality of School-Age Children and Adolescents Regarding Environmental Issues and Moral Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestena, Carla Luciane Blum; Piske, Fernanda Hellen Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    A research gap exists with regard to the analysis of school children and adolescents' awareness on environmental issues. Current investigation analyzes data of 240 children and adolescents, aged between 8 and 14 years, within different school contexts in the mid-southern region of Brazil, on their knowledge level and moral judgment on solid…

  11. Reading is FUNdamental: The effect of a reading programme on vocabulary development in a high poverty township school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheepers, Ruth

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of the vocabulary of grade 7 learners in a reading project currently underway at a school in Atteridgeville, a township on the outskirts of Pretoria. A library has been established at the school and teachers throughout the school attend workshops designed to heighten their awareness of the value of reading and the importance of vocabulary, and to provide them with strategies to facilitate the development of reading. This paper focuses on the vocabulary development of grade 7 learners – they are in the senior phase of primary school and will soon be entering high school where they will be faced with more academic vocabulary in context-reduced textbooks. Learners’ vocabulary was tested early in the year and then again towards the end to assess whether increased access to books and reading had had an effect on vocabulary growth. Results revealed that learners at the project school showed a lack of vocabulary, even at the end of the study period, not only in terms of academic words but also high frequency words. Extensive reading alone is clearly not enough – learners need explicit vocabulary instruction: in order to read successfully at high school level, learners need a working knowledge of academic vocabulary, and this knowledge is developed by reading – but learners cannot read successfully without an adequate basic high-frequency vocabulary.

  12. Knowledge brokering for healthy aging: a scoping review of potential approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eerd, Dwayne; Newman, Kristine; DeForge, Ryan; Urquhart, Robin; Cornelissen, Evelyn; Dainty, Katie N

    2016-10-19

    Developing a healthcare delivery system that is more responsive to the future challenges of an aging population is a priority in Canada. The World Health Organization acknowledges the need for knowledge translation frameworks in aging and health. Knowledge brokering (KB) is a specific knowledge translation approach that includes making connections between people to facilitate the use of evidence. Knowledge gaps exist about KB roles, approaches, and guiding frameworks. The objective of the scoping review is to identify and describe KB approaches and the underlying conceptual frameworks (models, theories) used to guide the approaches that could support healthy aging. Literature searches were done in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, EBM reviews (Cochrane Database of systematic reviews), CINAHL, and SCOPUS, as well as Google and Google Scholar using terms related to knowledge brokering. Titles, abstracts, and full reports were reviewed independently by two reviewers who came to consensus on all screening criteria. Documents were included if they described a KB approach and details about the underlying conceptual basis. Data about KB approach, target stakeholders, KB outcomes, and context were extracted independently by two reviewers. Searches identified 248 unique references. Screening for inclusion revealed 19 documents that described 15 accounts of knowledge brokering and details about conceptual guidance and could be applied in healthy aging contexts. Eight KB elements were detected in the approaches though not all approaches incorporated all elements. The underlying conceptual guidance for KB approaches varied. Specific KB frameworks were referenced or developed for nine KB approaches while the remaining six cited more general KT frameworks (or multiple frameworks) as guidance. The KB approaches that we found varied greatly depending on the context and stakeholders involved. Three of the approaches were explicitly employed in the context of health aging. Common elements

  13. Early Vocabulary Development in Rural and Urban Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vogt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (short version into three languages spoken in Southern Mozambique. The tool was adapted to study vocabulary development among children of 12 to 25 months of age in two communities: a rural, monolingual Changana speaking community and an urban bilingual Ronga and Portuguese speaking community. We present a norming study carried out with the adaptation, as well as a validation study. The norming study revealed various predictors for reported expressive and receptive vocabulary size. These predictors include age, socioeconomic status, reported health problems, caregiving practices, and location. The validation of the CDI among a small sample in both communities shows positive correlations between the reported expressive vocabulary scores and children’s recorded word production. We conclude that the adapted CDI is useful for research purposes and could be used as a template for adaptations into other languages from similar cultures.

  14. Reconciliation of patient/doctor vocabulary in a structured resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapi Nzali, Mike Donald; Aze, Jérôme; Bringay, Sandra; Lavergne, Christian; Mollevi, Caroline; Optiz, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Today, social media is increasingly used by patients to openly discuss their health. Mining automatically such data is a challenging task because of the non-structured nature of the text and the use of many abbreviations and the slang terms. Our goal is to use Patient Authored Text to build a French Consumer Health Vocabulary on breast cancer field, by collecting various kinds of non-experts' expressions that are related to their diseases and then compare them to biomedical terms used by health care professionals. We combine several methods of the literature based on linguistic and statistical approaches to extract candidate terms used by non-experts and to link them to expert terms. We use messages extracted from the forum on ' cancerdusein.org ' and a vocabulary dedicated to breast cancer elaborated by the Institut National Du Cancer. We have built an efficient vocabulary composed of 192 validated relationships and formalized in Simple Knowledge Organization System ontology.

  15. Once upon a time, there was a fabulous funambulist…: what children learn about the “high-level” vocabulary they encounter while listening to stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston-Price, Carmel; Howe, Jodie A.; Lintern, Natalie J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that listening to stories supports vocabulary growth in preschool and school-aged children and that lexical entries for even very difficult or rare words can be established if these are defined when they are first introduced. However, little is known about the nature of the lexical representations children form for the words they encounter while listening to stories, or whether these are sufficiently robust to support the child's own use of such “high-level” vocabulary. This study explored these questions by administering multiple assessments of children's knowledge about a set of newly-acquired vocabulary. Four- and six-year-old children were introduced to nine difficult new words (including nouns, verbs and adjectives) through three exposures to a story read by their class teacher. The story included a definition of each new word at its first encounter. Learning of the target vocabulary was assessed by means of two tests of semantic understanding—a forced choice picture-selection task and a definition production task—and a grammaticality judgment task, which asked children to choose between a syntactically-appropriate and syntactically-inappropriate usage of the word. Children in both age groups selected the correct pictorial representation and provided an appropriate definition for the target words in all three word classes significantly more often than they did for a matched set of non-exposed control words. However, only the older group was able to identify the syntactically-appropriate sentence frames in the grammaticality judgment task. Further analyses elucidate some of the components of the lexical representations children lay down when they hear difficult new vocabulary in stories and how different tests of word knowledge might overlap in their assessment of these components. PMID:24570670

  16. Once upon a time, there was a fabulous funambulist...: What children learn about the ‘high-level’ vocabulary they encounter while listening to stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmel eHouston-Price

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that listening to stories supports vocabulary growth in preschool and school-aged children and that lexical entries for even very difficult or rare words can be established if these are defined when they are first introduced. However, little is known about the nature of the lexical representations children form for the words they encounter while listening to stories, or whether these are sufficiently robust to support the child’s own use of such ‘high-level’ vocabulary. This study explored these questions by administering multiple assessments of children’s knowledge about a set of newly-acquired vocabulary. Four- and 6-year-old children were introduced to nine difficult new words (including nouns, verbs and adjectives through three exposures to a story read by their class teacher. The story included a definition of each new word at its first encounter. Learning of the target vocabulary was assessed by means of two tests of semantic understanding – a forced choice picture-selection task and a definition production task – and a grammaticality judgment task, which asked children to choose between a syntactically-appropriate and syntactically-inappropriate usage of the word. Children in both age groups selected the correct pictorial representation and provided an appropriate definition for the target words in all three word classes significantly more often than they did for a matched set of non-exposed control words. However, only the older group was able to identify the syntactically-appropriate sentence frames in the grammaticality judgment task. Further analyses elucidate some of the components of the lexical representations children lay down when they hear difficult new vocabulary in stories and how different tests of word knowledge might overlap in their assessment of these components.

  17. Once upon a time, there was a fabulous funambulist…: what children learn about the "high-level" vocabulary they encounter while listening to stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston-Price, Carmel; Howe, Jodie A; Lintern, Natalie J

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that listening to stories supports vocabulary growth in preschool and school-aged children and that lexical entries for even very difficult or rare words can be established if these are defined when they are first introduced. However, little is known about the nature of the lexical representations children form for the words they encounter while listening to stories, or whether these are sufficiently robust to support the child's own use of such "high-level" vocabulary. This study explored these questions by administering multiple assessments of children's knowledge about a set of newly-acquired vocabulary. Four- and six-year-old children were introduced to nine difficult new words (including nouns, verbs and adjectives) through three exposures to a story read by their class teacher. The story included a definition of each new word at its first encounter. Learning of the target vocabulary was assessed by means of two tests of semantic understanding-a forced choice picture-selection task and a definition production task-and a grammaticality judgment task, which asked children to choose between a syntactically-appropriate and syntactically-inappropriate usage of the word. Children in both age groups selected the correct pictorial representation and provided an appropriate definition for the target words in all three word classes significantly more often than they did for a matched set of non-exposed control words. However, only the older group was able to identify the syntactically-appropriate sentence frames in the grammaticality judgment task. Further analyses elucidate some of the components of the lexical representations children lay down when they hear difficult new vocabulary in stories and how different tests of word knowledge might overlap in their assessment of these components.

  18. Effects of multimedia vocabulary instruction on adolescents with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Michael J; Deshler, Donald D; Lloyd, John Wills

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study is to investigate the effects of using content acquisition podcasts (CAPs), an example of instructional technology, to provide vocabulary instruction to adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD). A total of 279 urban high school students, including 30 with LD in an area related to reading, were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions with instruction occurring at individual computer terminals over a 3-week period. Each of the four conditions contained different configurations of multimedia-based instruction and evidence-based vocabulary instruction. Dependent measures of vocabulary knowledge indicated that students with LD who received vocabulary instruction using CAPs through an explicit instructional methodology and the keyword mnemonic strategy significantly outperformed other students with LD who were taught using the same content, but with multimedia instruction that did not adhere to a specific theoretical design framework. Results for general education students mirrored those for students with LD. Students also completed a satisfaction measure following instruction with multimedia and expressed overall agreement that CAPs are useful for learning vocabulary terms. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.

  19. Students (ages 6, 10, and 15 years in six countries knowledge of animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Patrick

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the knowledge students (ages 6, 10, and 15 years have of animals from a cross-cultural perspective. Students from six countries (Brazil, England, Finland, Iceland, Portugal, and the United States of America were asked to free-list as many animals as possible and state where they had seen or learned about the animals. The results were analyzed and they indicate that 1 Students are aware of animals. 2 Students are more aware of mammals as examples of animals. 3 There is a globally shared folk biological knowledge of animals. 4 Students learn about animals during sociocultural interactions. The educational implications are discussed.

  20. Knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the spleen throughout Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, George K; Koutsouflianiotis, Konstantinos N; Nitsa, Zoi; Demesticha, Theano; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of knowledge regarding the anatomy and physiology of the spleen throughout Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages is described, and general perceptions about this organ during different eras along this time line are presented. The original words of great physicians from the period of time stretching from Ancient Egypt to the Avicennan era are quoted and discussed to demonstrate how knowledge of the spleen has evolved and to present the theories that dominated each era. Furthermore, theories about illnesses relating to the spleen are reported, which show how this organ was perceived-in terms of its function and anatomy-during each era.

  1. Curriculum Q-Learning for Visual Vocabulary Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Zaidi, Ahmed H.; Moore, Russell; Briscoe, Ted

    2017-01-01

    The structure of curriculum plays a vital role in our learning process, both as children and adults. Presenting material in ascending order of difficulty that also exploits prior knowledge can have a significant impact on the rate of learning. However, the notion of difficulty and prior knowledge differs from person to person. Motivated by the need for a personalised curriculum, we present a novel method of curriculum learning for vocabulary words in the form of visual prompts. We employ a re...

  2. HIV/AIDS transmission knowledge among adolescents aged 11 years from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Helen; González-Chica, David Alejandro; Menezes, Ana M B; Hallal, Pedro C; Araújo, Cora L P; Dumith, Samuel C

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the effect of demographic, socioeconomic, educational and family variables on HIV/AIDS knowledge among adolescents aged 11 years. 3,949 adolescents born in Pelotas (Brazil). HIV/AIDS knowledge was assessed through a self-administered questionnaire and measured through five questions about HIV transmission: heterosexual intercourse, homosexual intercourse, needle sharing, open-mouth kissing and hugging someone with AIDS. All the analyses were adjusted based on a hierarchical model, using Poisson regression with robust adjustment of variance. Prevalence of wrong answers to the examined questions were 17.2% for heterosexual transmission, 44.1% for homosexual intercourse, 34.9% for needle sharing, 25.6% for kiss on the mouth and 16.2% for hugging someone with AIDS. In adjusted analysis, lower knowledge levels were more prevalent among boys, adolescents with lower socioeconomic status and with less maternal education level, among those who had not talked about sex with mother and without sexual education lessons at school. Knowledge was not associated with school type (public or private), skin color or talk about sex with father. Providing information to adolescents is essential to improve knowledge about HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, especially among young males, with lower socioeconomic status and with lower maternal education level. Public policies aimed to reducing HIV infection should consider maternal and school relevance to improve knowledge on adolescents.

  3. Diet, nutritional knowledge and health status of urban middle-aged Malaysian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pon, L W; Noor-Aini, M Y; Ong, F B; Adeeb, N; Seri, S S; Shamsuddin, K; Mohamed, A L; Hapizah, N; Mokhtar, A; Wan, H Wh

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess nutritional and health status as well as nutritional knowledge in urban middle-aged Malaysian women. The impact of menopause on diet and health indices was also studied. The study included 360 disease free women, non users of HRT,aged > or =45 years with an intact uterus recruited from November 1999 to October 2001. Personal characteristics, anthropometric measurements and blood sample were acquired followed by clinical examination. Nutrient intake and nutritional knowledge was determined by a quantitative FFQ and KAP. The findings showed that urban middle-aged women, aged 51.65+/-5.40 years had energy intakes (EI) 11% below RDA, consisting of 53% carbohydrates, 15% protein and a 32% fat which declined with age. The sample which comprised of 42.5% postmenopausal women had a satisfactory diet and healthy lifestyle practices. Premenopausal women consumed more dietary fat (6%) with other aspects of diet comparable to the postmenopausal women. Iron intake was deficient in premenopausal women, amounting to 56% RDA contributing to a 26% prevalence of anaemia. Overall, calcium intake reached 440 mg daily but dairy products were not the main source. The postmenopaused had a more artherogenic lipid profile with significantly higher total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C, but more premenopausal women were overweight/obese (49% versus 35%). EI was the strongest predictor for BMI and waist circumference (WC), with WC itself an independent predictor of fasting blood sugar and TC with BMI strongly affecting glucose tolerance. High nutritional knowledge was seen in 39% whereas 20% had poor knowledge. Newspapers and magazines, followed by the subject's social circle, were the main sources of nutritional information. Nutritional knowledge was positively associated with education, household income, vitamin/ mineral supplementation and regular physical activity but inversely related to TC. In conclusion, middle-aged urban women had an adequate diet

  4. INCIDENTAL VOCABULARY LEARNING THROUGH READING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Warzecha, M.A. TESOL

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the following paper is to take a closer look at the benefits of incidental learning through reading, with a specific focus on vocabulary acquisition. The teaching of vocabulary has traditionally been an explicit process where the target vocabulary is taken out of context and taught separately. However, this kind of explicit teaching and learning may only take into account a form-meaning connection. Therefore, this paper explores research on incidental learning and specifically looks at what it takes to acquire new vocabulary incidentally through reading while considering the coverage rates of texts, how many words must be known already from the text, how many repetitions it takes to learn a word, types of texts that promote learning, and the effects of pairing students‘ reading with learner tasks. After reviewing many studies, it can be concluded that more reading is better. More specifically, extensive reading of chosen novels at an appropriate level and interest to the students showed important gains in vocabulary. In addition, readings that were supplemented with additional activities that focused on both form and meaning showed an even higher increase in word retention.

  5. Addressing ageing of the workforce issues by enabling knowledge management systems with social networks analysis capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perisic, I.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: A method of addressing ageing of the workforce and knowledge transfer issues, especially in the area of potential loss of knowledge, is presented through the integration of social networks analysis capabilities within knowledge management systems. In the context of the ageing of the workforce, a key component is the identification of not only the individuals that are about to retire, but also the knowledge and the knowledge transfer capabilities that they will take with them they do so. This loss impacts decisions made about human resources 'supply side' programs such as education, but also programs for building 'communities of practices' within the IAEA community to foster development and research across regions and countries. Within this context, an integrated social network analysis component provides the ability to map out the network of knowledge on any specific topic. The stability of the network itself is a measure of the robustness of the knowledge within the selected IAEA community. Further, the network, by identifying 'brokers' and 'bridges', pinpoints key weaknesses that have to be addressed. In the case of ageing of the workforce, balancing, stabilizing and building redundancies within this social network is key to maintaining a safe nuclear policy. The core of the method relies on a system that has a holistic view of the body of knowledge accumulated within the IAEA community. For scalability issues, this system cannot replicate the plethora of potential sources of information, but rather has to harvest from each of them a set of metadata which in turn enables the knowledge management system. This metadata is defined and stored in a way to allow the rendering of a complete picture stored within the sub-systems. A key component used by the social network analysis component is, of course, the name of all individuals tied to any knowledge object within the database, but also their affiliation, country, seniority or 'age to retirement' (when

  6. Addressing ageing of the workforce issues by enabling knowledge management systems with social networks analysis capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perisic, I.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: A method of addressing ageing of the workforce and knowledge transfer issues, especially in the area of potential loss of knowledge, is presented through the integration of social networks analysis capabilities within knowledge management systems. In the context of the ageing of the workforce, a key component is the identification of not only the individuals that are about to retire, but also the knowledge and the knowledge transfer capabilities that they will take with them they do so. This loss impacts decisions made about human resources 'supply side' programs such as education, but also programs for building 'communities of practices' within the IAEA community to foster development and research across regions and countries. Within this context, an integrated social network analysis component provides the ability to map out the network of knowledge on any specific topic. The stability of the network itself is a measure of the robustness of the knowledge within the selected IAEA community. Further, the network, by identifying 'brokers' and 'bridges', pinpoints key weaknesses that have to be addressed. In the case of ageing of the workforce, balancing, stabilizing and building redundancies within this social network is key to maintaining a safe nuclear policy. The core of the method relies on a system that has a holistic view of the body of knowledge accumulated within the IAEA community. For scalability issues, this system cannot replicate the plethora of potential sources of information, but rather has to harvest from each of them a set of metadata which in turn enables the knowledge management system. This metadata is defined and stored in a way to allow the rendering of a complete picture stored within the subsystems. A key component used by the social network analysis component is, of course, the name of all individuals tied to any knowledge object within the database, but also their affiliation, country, seniority or 'age to retirement' (when

  7. Exploring Expressive Vocabulary Variability in Two-Year-Olds: The Role of Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Jayne; Klee, Thomas; Stokes, Stephanie F; Moran, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    This study explored whether measures of working memory ability contribute to the wide variation in 2-year-olds' expressive vocabulary skills. Seventy-nine children (aged 24-30 months) were assessed by using standardized tests of vocabulary and visual cognition, a processing speed measure, and behavioral measures of verbal working memory and phonological short-term memory. Strong correlations were observed between phonological short-term memory, verbal working memory, and expressive vocabulary. Speed of spoken word recognition showed a moderate significant correlation with expressive vocabulary. In a multivariate regression model for expressive vocabulary, the most powerful predictor was a measure of phonological short-term memory (accounting for 66% unique variance), followed by verbal working memory (6%), sex (2%), and age (1%). Processing speed did not add significant unique variance. These findings confirm previous research positing a strong role for phonological short-term memory in early expressive vocabulary acquisition. They also extend previous research in two ways. First, a unique association between verbal working memory and expressive vocabulary in 2-year-olds was observed. Second, processing speed was not a unique predictor of variance in expressive vocabulary when included alongside measures of working memory.

  8. Lexical characteristics of expressive vocabulary in toddlers with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kover, Sara T; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2014-08-01

    Vocabulary is a domain of particular challenge for many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent research has drawn attention to ways in which lexical characteristics relate to vocabulary acquisition. The current study tested the hypothesis that lexical characteristics account for variability in vocabulary size of young children with ASD, applying the extended statistical learning theory of vocabulary delay in late talkers (Stokes, Kern, & Dos Santos, 2012) to toddlers with ASD. Parents reported the words produced by toddlers with ASD (n = 57; age 21-37 months) or toddlers without ASD (n = 41; age 22-26 months) on the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories. The average phonological neighborhood density, word frequency, and word length of each toddler's lexicon were calculated. These lexical characteristics served as predictors of vocabulary size. Findings differed for toddlers with and without ASD and according to subsamples. Word length was the most consistent predictor of vocabulary size for toddlers with ASD. Distinct relationships between lexical characteristics and vocabulary size were observed for toddlers with and without ASD. Experimental studies on distributional cues to vocabulary acquisition are needed to inform what is known about mechanisms of learning in neurodevelopmental disorders.

  9. [Attrition and poor performance in general practice training: age, competence and knowledge play a role].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Margit I; Kuyvenhoven, Marijke M; Zuithoff, N P A Peter; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Pieters, H M Ron

    2011-01-01

    To investigate which determinants are related to poor performance and forced attrition in the first year residency in general practice (GP). Observational retrospective cohort study. We collected data relating to personal characteristics such as age, sex and clinical experience from residents who started the GP training in Utrecht, the Netherlands, in the period March 2005-August 2007. We also collected competence scores from the domains 'medical expertise', 'doctor-patient communication' and 'professionalism', as well as scores on a national GP knowledge test. The outcome measures were 'poor performance' and 'forced attrition'. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse correlations between personal characteristics, competence scores on the 3 domains and knowledge scores in the first trimester on the one hand and poor performance or forced attrition on the other. 215 residents started the GP training. In the first trimester a quarter of the residents had an insufficient score in 1 or more of the domains. Competence scores were mutually correlated, but did not correlate with the knowledge score. 18 residents showed poor performance and 3 were forced to stop their training. Poor performance and forced attrition were correlated with age (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 1.1; 95% CI: 1.0-1.3), insufficient knowledge (adjusted OR: 8.9; 3.0-26.3) and medical expertise (adjusted OR: 2.1; 1.1-4.0) at the beginning of the training. Age, insufficient knowledge of general practice, and insufficient competence in the domain of 'medical expertise' at the beginning of the training are risk factors for poor performance by residents and attrition from their GP training.

  10. Vocabulary and working memory in children fit with hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Derek J; McGregor, Karla K; Bentler, Ruth A

    2012-02-01

    To determine whether children with mild-to-moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss (CHL) present with disturbances in working memory and whether these disturbances relate to the size of their receptive vocabularies. Children 6 to 9 years of age participated. Aspects of working memory were tapped by articulation rate, forward and backward digit span in the auditory and visual modalities, Corsi span, parent surveys, and a sequential encoding task. Articulation rate, digit spans, and Corsi spans were also administered in low-level broadband noise. CHL and children with normal hearing (CNH) demonstrated auditory advantage in forward serial recall. CHL demonstrated slower articulation rates than CNH, but similar memory spans. CHL with poor executive function presented with poorer performance on the Corsi span task. The presence of background noise had no effect on performance in either group. CHL presented with significantly smaller receptive vocabularies than their CNH peers. Across groups, receptive vocabulary size was positively correlated with digit span in quiet, Corsi span in noise, and articulation rate. In the presence of mild-to-moderately severe hearing loss, children demonstrated resilient working memory systems. For all children, working memory and vocabulary were related; that is, children with poorer working memory had smaller vocabulary sizes.

  11. Ageing research on vertebrates shows knowledge gaps and opportunities for species conservation and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor

    is constant when species reach maturity. The implications of these assumptions have strong consequences not only in the development of evolutionary theories of ageing and population ecology but also in species conservation. By modeling mortality of different species of vertebrates we show that different...... models are needed to explore the diversity of mortality trajectories in animals. However, our state of demographic knowledge even for vertebrates is by far deficient to incorporate the effects on age. Exploring 13 available datasets on vertebrate life histories traits, our results show surprising figures...

  12. Learning Vocabulary through Paper and Online-Based Glossary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Novita Sari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of teaching glossary and personality traits on vocabulary learning. Two groups of students who had different personality (extroverted and introverted were exposed to two types of glosses: paper and online-based glossary. The two groups underwent two-month treatment. Prior to and after the treatment, each group was given pre and posttest. In calculating the data, two-way ANOVA was used. The results of the study showed that extroverted students learned vocabulary better through paper-based glossary, while introverted students learned vocabulary better through online-based. Further research needs to be conducted to determine whether age influences the use of teaching glossary or not

  13. Vocabulary and Working Memory in Children Fit with Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Derek J.; McGregor, Karla K.; Bentler, Ruth A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether children with mild-to-moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss (CHL) present with disturbances in working memory and whether these disturbances relate to the size of their receptive vocabularies. Method: Children 6 to 9 years of age participated. Aspects of working memory were tapped by articulation rate, forward…

  14. The Impact of a Systematic and Explicit Vocabulary Intervention in Spanish with Spanish-Speaking English Learners in First Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cena, Johanna; Baker, Doris Luft; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Baker, Scott K.; Park, Yonghan; Smolkowski, Keith

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a 15-min daily explicit vocabulary intervention in Spanish on expressive and receptive vocabulary knowledge and oral reading fluency in Spanish, and on language proficiency in English. Fifty Spanish-speaking English learners who received 90 min of Spanish reading instruction in an early transition model were…

  15. A Dual Coding View of Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoski, Mark

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical perspective on acquiring sight vocabulary and developing meaningful vocabulary is presented. Dual Coding Theory assumes that cognition occurs in two independent but connected codes: a verbal code for language and a nonverbal code for mental imagery. The mixed research literature on using pictures in teaching sight vocabulary is…

  16. English-French bilingual children’s phonological awareness and vocabulary skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PiYu Chiang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examined the relationship between English-speaking children’s vocabulary skills in English and in French and their phonological awareness skills in both languages. Forty-four kindergarten-aged children attending French immersion programs were administered a receptive vocabulary test, an expressive vocabulary test and a phonological awareness test in English and French. Results showed that French phonological awareness was largely explained by English phonological awareness, consistent with previous findings that phonological awareness skills transfer across languages. However, there was a small unique contribution from French expressive vocabulary size to French phonological awareness. The importance of vocabulary skills to the development of phonological awareness is discussed.

  17. Vulnerability and Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Female Traders of Reproductive Age in Enugu, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeako, LC; Ekwueme, OC; Ezegwui, HU; Okeke, TOC

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) constitute major public health concern and enigma. A comprehensive knowledge of the modes of transmission is necessary to evolve an effective preventive strategy. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the vulnerability, knowledge and prevention of STIs among female traders of reproductive age in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out on female traders aged 15-49 years at Ogbete Main Market, Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. Data was analyzed using Epi-Info 2000 version 3.3.1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta USA) was used to analyze the data and results were presented in tabular form. Results: A total of 200 female traders of reproductive age participated in the study. The mean (standard deviation) age was 26 (7.4) years. 16% (32/200) were adolescents. Knowledge of specific STIs was highest for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome 90% (130/200). Parents were poor sources of information as only 28.5% (57/200) respondents heard about STIs from their parents compared with 46% (92/200) from friends and peers. Risk factors identified were multiple sexual partners 75.5% (151/200), non-use of condoms 62% (124/200) and early debut 58% (116/200). Majority 67.5% (135/200) were aware that STIs could be treated by a visit to the doctor while 21.5% (43/200) preferred traditional/herbal healers. Conclusion: The inclusion of health education in schools’ curricula to ensure that adolescents are adequately aware of STIs, their modes of transmission, prevention and treatment before embarking on any vocation out-of-school is advocated. PMID:24669343

  18. Women with epilepsy in childbearing age: Pregnancy-related knowledge, information sources, and antiepileptic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Latica; Sruk, Ana; Bielen, Ivan

    2018-03-01

    Pregnancy-related issues in epilepsy (PRIE) are essential for management of epilepsy in women. We conducted a study among women with epilepsy (WWE) aged 15-45years about their knowledge, sources, and needs for information regarding PRIE, which included their current antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) usage. Women with epilepsy, visitors of Croatian Association for Epilepsy webpage, were offered an online questionnaire, and 200 responses were analyzed. The mean number of correct answers about PRIE was 3.5 out of 5. Main predictors of knowledge on PRIE were a prior consultation with a neurologist and higher usage of books/brochures. A prior neurologist consultation on PRIE was stated by 45% of subjects. As the preferred future mode of being informed on PRIE, majority of women (61%) chooses their neurologist, 22% written materials distributed by a neurologist, and only 13% Internet. Levetiracetam was the most commonly used AED (34.5%). Valproate was used by 26%, and of those 59% stated no previous consultation on PRIE with their neurologist. In summary, we believe our study shows that knowledge of PRIE among WWE in their childbearing age is unsatisfactory, as are the neurologist consultation rates about PRIE. Our results demonstrate that, despite modern technologies, educational activities should be based on neurologist consultations and providing the patients with appropriate written materials. This is especially true for the relatively large proportion of women still taking valproate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Child Care Providers' Knowledge About Dental Injury First Aid in Preschool-age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, Kristine L; Rainchuso, Lori; Boyd, Linda D; Giblin, Lori

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess child care providers' level of knowledge of first aid management and attitudes towards dental injuries among preschool-age children within Fairfield County, Connecticut and Boston, Massachusetts. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study used a web-based, validated questionnaire adapted from several studies with permission from authors. A panel of 5 dental experts determined the relevance of the questions and overall content (I-CVI range 0.8-1; S-CVI = 0.95). The 28 question survey included demographics, level of knowledge, attitudes about traumatic dental injuries, emergency management, and 2 case study questions on management of luxation and tooth fracture. Survey data was coded and analyzed for associations and trends using STATA® statistics/data analysis software v. 11.2. Results: A total of 100 child care providers completed the online questionnaire. Eighty-four percent self-reported little to no knowledge about dental injury management. Sixty percent of child care providers agreed that they are responsible for managing dental injuries. Approximately two-thirds of child care providers reported not feeling adequately informed about dental injuries, with 77% expressing interest in receiving more information. Conclusions: The majority of child care providers' do not have the knowledge to perform adequate first aid following a dental injury. Professional development on first aid for dental injuries is recommended among this workforce population. Copyright © 2017 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  20. BUILDING VOCABULARY USING POP SONGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    author Rahmatika Kayyis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to find out whether there is a significant difference between the vocabulary mastery of first semester students taughtusing English pop songs and that taught without using English pop songs as a medium. This study involved 64 students of first semesterof STKIP Muhammadiyah Pringsewu Lampung in the academic year of 2012/2013 as the objects of the study. The result of the study shows there is a significant difference in the student’s vocabulary mastery between the experimental group who are taughtusing English pop songs and that taught without using English pop songs as a medium.The mean of post test score of the experimental group is 16.93 while the mean score of the control group is 14.54. The result of t-test shows that t-observed value which is higher than the t-value of the table (2.572>1.99, with a probability value of 0.008 which is lower than the significance level (0.008 < 0.05. In conclusion, the use of English pop songscould improve the students’ vocabulary mastery.Keywords: Vocabulary, English Pop Songs

  1. Organizing Vocabulary (Open to Suggestion).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Dorothy J.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a technique for vocabulary instruction in which students complete a chart by providing two synonyms, an antonym, and the pronunciation of a given word. Reports that, even though the chart is easy to complete, students using it began to think both critically and creatively. (RS)

  2. USING ENGLISH SONGS TO INCREASE EARLY STUDENTS’ VOCABULARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Fachraini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood is a child in the age of 0-6 years. In this age, the development and growth of physical and mental of children develop rapidly. Meanwhile, the aspects developed in early childhood education are: religious and moral values, physical (consisting of gross motor, fine motor and physical health, cognitive (consisting of general knowledge and science, concepts, shapes, colors, sizes and patterns, number concepts, symbols of numbers and letters, language (consisting of accepting language, expressing language and script and emotional social. Language skills are one of the aspects which are developed at this age. Therefore, researchers intend to examine the level of mastery of the language of children through the song. This study aims to improve the vocabulary of early childhood, where this result affects the children’s ability to speak a foreign language in the future. This study is a Classroom Action Research, which aims to improve the ability of children English by using songs on the student group B TK Takrimah Tungkob Aceh Besar. This classroom action research is conducted in three cycles; each cycle consists of four stages: planning, action, observation, and reflection. Moreover, in analyzing the data, the researcher used descriptive method, that is analyzed data implemented since learning and developed during the process of reflection until process of report preparation. Data collection techniques used in this study include: interview, and observation of teaching and learning activities. Data analysis techniques consisted of three activities, namely data reduction, data presentation and conclusion drawing. The results showed that 64% of students can mentioned correctly alphabet in English in the first cycle. Furthermore, 80% of students have known and can properly name a few nouns in English in the second cycle. Furthermore, in the third cycle, 88% of students have been able to use the noun in the form of a simple sentence. Based

  3. Design Basis Knowledge Management for New Build Projects & Ageing Plants - A Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weightman, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Summary: • KM for Design Basis of New and Ageing nuclear facilities is at a crossroads; • Needs leadership, vision, cultural change and resources; • Outcome of this workshop is vital; • Information is not knowledge; • Knowledge includes the WHAT, the HOW, the WHY, the Environment and, importantly, Application; • In general, Industry and Regulators are behind the curve; • Develop and apply the principles rigorously; • Keep it simple - focus first on Leadership, values (e.g. questioning attitude), culture, and prioritise – risk informed; • KM is a complex organic creature and needs to be nurtured, fed, learn, grow, evolve in response to a changing environment, and discharge what is not needed to prosper

  4. Computer Multimedia Assisted English Vocabulary Teaching Courseware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Yue

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available English vocabulary is often regarded as the most boring link in English learning. However, English vocabulary is the basis of all aspects of English learning. Therefore, enriching the process of English vocabulary learning and stimulating the interest of English vocabulary learning are the keys to the reform of English vocabulary teaching. The computer multimedia is developing and popularizing rapidly with the rapid development of informationization and networking, which plays its role in more and more fields. The application of multimedia technology in the field of teaching is no longer strange. This paper mainly studied the design of computer multimedia assisted English vocabulary teaching courseware. First of all, this paper gave an overview of computer multimedia technology from the aspects of concept, characteristics, development and application situation, which cited and analyzed the cognitive learning theory and memory law. Under the guidance of scientific laws and in combination with the requirement analysis and pattern construction of English vocabulary teaching, this paper realized the module design, style design and database design of English vocabulary courseware. Finally, the content of English vocabulary teaching courseware was demonstrated, and its application effect was verified through the combination of subjective evaluation and objective evaluation. This article has an important guiding significance for stimulating students’ interest in English vocabulary learning and enhancing the quality of vocabulary teaching.

  5. Effects of domain knowledge, working memory capacity, and age on cognitive performance: an investigation of the knowledge-is-power hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrick, David Z; Engle, Randall W

    2002-06-01

    Domain knowledge facilitates performance in many cognitive tasks. However, very little is known about the interplay between domain knowledge and factors that are believed to reflect general, and relatively stable, characteristics of the individual. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the interplay between domain knowledge and one such factor: working memory capacity. Adults from wide ranges of working memory capacity, age, and knowledge about the game of baseball listened to, and then answered questions about, simulated radio broadcasts of baseball games. There was a strong facilitative effect of preexisting knowledge of baseball on memory performance, particularly for information judged to be directly relevant to the baseball games. However, there was a positive effect of working memory capacity on memory performance as well, and there was no indication that domain knowledge attenuated this effect. That is, working memory capacity contributed to memory performance even at high levels of domain knowledge. Similarly, there was no evidence that domain knowledge attenuated age-related differences (favoring young adults) in memory performance. We discuss implications of the results for understanding proficiency in cognitive domains from an individual-differences perspective. Copyright 2001 Elsevier Science (USA).

  6. Facilitating vocabulary learning through metacognitive strategy training and learning journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Luz Trujillo Becerra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a mixed- method action research study carried out with participants from three public high schools in different regions in Colombia: Bogotá, Orito and Tocaima.  The overall aim of this study was to analyze whether training in the use of metacognitive strategies (MS through learning journals could improve the participants’ vocabulary learning. The data, collected mainly through students’ learning journals, teachers’ field notes, questionnaires and mind maps, was analyzed following the principles of grounded theory. The results suggested that the training helped participants to develop metacognitive awareness of their vocabulary learning process and their lexical competence regarding daily routines.  Participants also displayed some improvements in critical thinking and self-directed attitudes that could likewise benefit their vocabulary learning. Finally, the study proposes that training in metacognitive and vocabulary strategies should be implemented in language classrooms to promote a higher degree of student control over learning and to facilitate the transference of these strategies to other areas of knowledge.

  7. Effects of Aging and Domain Knowledge on Usability in Small Screen Devices for Diabetes Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero Valdez, André; Ziefle, Martina; Horstmann, Andreas; Herding, Daniel; Schroeder, Ulrik

    Technology acceptance has become a key concept for the successful rollout of technical devices. Though the concept is intensively studied for nearly 20 years now, still, many open questions remain. This especially applies to technology acceptance of older users, which are known to be very sensitive to suboptimal interfaces and show considerable reservations towards the usage of new technology. Mobile small screen technology increasingly penetrates health care and medical applications. This study investigates impacts of aging, technology expertise and domain knowledge on user interaction using the example of diabetes. For this purpose user effectiveness and efficiency have been measured on a simulated small screen device and related to user characteristics, showing that age and technology expertise have a big impact on usability of the device. Furthermore, impacts of user characteristics and success during the trial on acceptance of the device were surveyed and analyzed.

  8. The Role of E-Vocabularies in the Description and Retrieval of Digital Educational Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Fernández-Pampillón

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Vocabularies are linguistic resources that make it possible to access knowledge through words. They can constitute a mechanism to identify, describe, explore, and access all the digital resources with informational content pertaining to a specific knowledge domain. In this regard, they play a key role as systems for the representation and organization of knowledge in environments in which content is created and used in a collaborative and free manner, as is the case of social wikis and blogs on the Internet or educational content in e-learning environments. In e-learning environments, electronic vocabularies (e-vocabularies constitute a mechanism for conceptual representation of digital educational resources. They enable human and software agents either to locate and interpret resource content in large digital repositories, including the web, or to use them (vocabularies as an educational resource by itself to learn a discipline terminology. This review article describes what e-vocabularies are, what they are like, how they are used, how they work, and what they contribute to the retrieval of digital educational resources. The goal is to contribute to a clearer view of the concepts which we regard as crucial to understand e-vocabularies and their use in the field of e-learning to describe and retrieve digital educational resources.

  9. Longitudinal vocabulary development in Australian urban Aboriginal children: Protective and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, K; Eadie, P; Descallar, J; Comino, E; Kemp, L

    2017-11-01

    Vocabulary is a key component of language that can impact on children's future literacy and communication. The gap between Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children's reading and academic outcomes is well reported and similar to Indigenous/non-Indigenous gaps in other nations. Determining factors that influence vocabulary acquisition over time and may be responsive to treatment is important for improving Aboriginal children's communication and academic outcomes. To determine what factors influence Australian urban Aboriginal children's receptive vocabulary acquisition and whether any of these are risks or protective for vocabulary development. One hundred thirteen Aboriginal children in South Western Sydney from the longitudinal birth cohort Gudaga study were assessed on The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test multiple times: 3 years, just prior to school entry, at the end of the first and second years of formal schooling. Multilevel models were used to determine the effects of 13 fixed and manipulable maternal, child, and family variables drawn from previous research. Higher maternal education was found to be protective at 3 years and over time. The number of children in urban Australian Aboriginal households made an impact on vocabulary development and this varied over time. From 3 to 6 years, those with early poor non-verbal cognitive skills had vocabulary skills that remained below those with stronger non-verbal skills at 3 years. Girls exhibit an earlier advantage in vocabulary acquisition, but this difference is not sustained after 4 years of age. The risk and protective factors for vocabulary development in Australian Aboriginal children are similar to those identified in other studies with some variation related to the number of children in the home. In this limited set of predictors, maternal education, gender, non-verbal cognitive skills, and the number of children in households were all shown to impact on the acquisition of vocabulary to 3

  10. Poor knowledge of age-related fertility decline and assisted reproduction among healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Désirée; Vassena, Rita; Prat, Andrés; Vernaeve, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    Reproduction is a matter of concern for individuals and society due to the postponement of childbearing, and healthcare professionals are the main source of information and counselling. This study aims to evaluate how knowledgeable healthcare professionals are about fertility and assisted reproduction, and to explore attitudes towards social oocyte freezing. A cross-sectional study was performed with 201 professionals (gynaecologists, physicians and nurses) from four public centres in Spain. Participants completed a survey about fertility, IVF, oocyte donation (OD) and social oocyte freezing, between May 2013 and March 2014. Reported mean age limits for pregnancy were 39.5 ± 4.5 (spontaneously), 43.7 ± 5.2 (IVF) and 49.0 ± 6.5 (OD). Gynaecologists reported a younger limit for spontaneous and IVF pregnancies (P 39, compared with 77.3% of other physicians and 72.9% of nurses. Regarding social oocyte freezing, 41.8% of gynaecologists thought it should be offered to every young woman, versus 62.7% of other physicians and 48.9% of nurses (P = 0.041). In conclusion, gynaecologists are more knowledgeable about fertility and assisted reproduction, while more restrictive towards social oocyte freezing. Knowledge and attitudes could influence the quality of information and counselling given to patients. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comprehending product warning information: age-related effects and the roles of memory, inferencing, and knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Holly E; Fisk, Arthur D; Rogers, Wendy A

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine if age affects comprehension for explicit and implied warning information and, if so, to reveal the nature of such effects. Experiment 1 measured younger (18-23 years) and older (65-75 years) adults' comprehension for real-world warnings via a verification test presented immediately after reading the warnings or after a delay. In Experiment 2, younger (18-22 years) and older (64-76 years) participants also read fabricated warnings that were inconsistent with real-world knowledge. In both experiments, older adults frequently failed to infer the correct hazard and safety information. The older adults also had trouble understanding warning information even when it was explicitly stated (when no inferences were required), especially when memory demands were high and product-specific knowledge could not be used. That many of the older adults did not understand commonly used product warnings indicates that the wording on many household products is not conducive to being understood by everyone who uses them. Actual or potential applications of this research include the recommendation that designers of product labels, warnings, and instructions should consider minimizing memory load and maximizing opportunities for knowledge application when designing consumer warnings.

  12. Vocabulary skills are well developed in university students with dyslexia: Evidence from multiple case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, Eddy; Casalis, Séverine; El Ahmadi, Abdessadek; Zira, Mélody; Poracchia-George, Florence; Colé, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Most studies in adults with developmental dyslexia have focused on identifying the deficits responsible for their persistent reading difficulties, but little is known on how these readers manage the intensive exposure to written language required to obtain a university degree. The main objective of this study was to identify certain skills, and specifically vocabulary skills, that French university students with dyslexia have developed and that may contribute to their literacy skills. We tested 20 university students with dyslexia and 20 normal readers (matched on chronological age, gender, nonverbal IQ, and level of education) in reading, phonological, vocabulary breadth (number of known words), and vocabulary depth (accuracy and precision) tasks. In comparing vocabulary measures, we used both Rasch model and single case study methodologies. Results on reading and phonological tasks confirmed the persistence of deficits in written word recognition and phonological skills. However, using the Rasch model we found that the two groups performed at the same level in the vocabulary breadth task, whereas dyslexics systematically outperformed their chronological age controls in the vocabulary depth task. These results are supplemented by multiple case studies. The vocabulary skills of French university students with dyslexia are well developed. Possible interpretations of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Knowledges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2012-01-01

    Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works...... and reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus...... as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism...

  14. Why and How EFL Students Learn Vocabulary in Parliamentary Debate Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice M. Aclan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary, the backbone of any language including English, is foundational for listening, speaking, reading and writing. These four macro-skills are necessary not only in gaining knowledge as English is the language to access major information sources particularly the World Wide Web but also in the demanding globalized workplace. Vocabulary is seen to be learned better when it is contextualized thus language teachers should design communicative activities such as debate. However, debate, being more known as a competitive rather than a classroom activity worldwide, has not been explored yet for its potential to develop vocabulary among EFL/ESL students although it has been identified for its power in developing communication skills in general as well as critical thinking and other soft skills. Thus, this qualitative study was conducted to explore why and how EFL students learn vocabulary in classroom debate. The data were gathered through end-of-course evaluation and focus group interview with seven participants from the Middle East, African and ASEAN countries. The findings show that students learned vocabulary due to debate’s interactive nature requiring contextualized and meaningful language use from preparation to actual debate. EFL students described how they learned vocabulary through debate which has implications for SLA and language teaching.   Keywords: Noticing hypothesis, Comprehensible input, Incomprehensible input, Vocabulary building strategies

  15. Aging and Memory as Discrimination: Influences of Encoding Specificity, Cue Overload, and Prior Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    From the perspective of memory-as-discrimination, whether a cue leads to correct retrieval simultaneously depends on the cue’s relationship to (a) the memory target and (b) the other retrieval candidates. A corollary of the view is that increasing encoding-retrieval match may only help memory if it improves the cue’s capacity to discriminate the target from competitors. Here, age differences in this discrimination process were assessed by manipulating the overlap between cues present at encoding and retrieval orthogonally with cue–target distinctiveness. In Experiment 1, associative memory differences for cue–target sets between young and older adults were minimized through training and retrieval efficiency was assessed through response time. In Experiment 2, age-group differences in associative memory were left to vary and retrieval efficiency was assessed through accuracy. Both experiments showed age-invariance in memory-as-discrimination: cues increasing encoding-retrieval match did not benefit memory unless they also improved discrimination between the target and competitors. Predictions based on the age-related associative deficit were also supported: prior knowledge alleviated age-related associative deficits (Experiment 1), and increasing encoding-retrieval match benefited older more than young adults (Experiment 2). We suggest that the latter occurred because older adults’ associative memory deficits reduced the impact of competing retrieval candidates—hence the age-related benefit was not attributable to encoding-retrieval match per se, but rather it was a joint function of an increased probability of the cue connecting to the target combined with a decrease in competing retrieval candidates. PMID:27831714

  16. Aging and memory as discrimination: Influences of encoding specificity, cue overload, and prior knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badham, Stephen P; Poirier, Marie; Gandhi, Navina; Hadjivassiliou, Anna; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2016-11-01

    From the perspective of memory-as-discrimination, whether a cue leads to correct retrieval simultaneously depends on the cue's relationship to (a) the memory target and (b) the other retrieval candidates. A corollary of the view is that increasing encoding-retrieval match may only help memory if it improves the cue's capacity to discriminate the target from competitors. Here, age differences in this discrimination process were assessed by manipulating the overlap between cues present at encoding and retrieval orthogonally with cue-target distinctiveness. In Experiment 1, associative memory differences for cue-target sets between young and older adults were minimized through training and retrieval efficiency was assessed through response time. In Experiment 2, age-group differences in associative memory were left to vary and retrieval efficiency was assessed through accuracy. Both experiments showed age-invariance in memory-as-discrimination: cues increasing encoding-retrieval match did not benefit memory unless they also improved discrimination between the target and competitors. Predictions based on the age-related associative deficit were also supported: prior knowledge alleviated age-related associative deficits (Experiment 1), and increasing encoding-retrieval match benefited older more than young adults (Experiment 2). We suggest that the latter occurred because older adults' associative memory deficits reduced the impact of competing retrieval candidates-hence the age-related benefit was not attributable to encoding-retrieval match per se, but rather it was a joint function of an increased probability of the cue connecting to the target combined with a decrease in competing retrieval candidates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Characteristics of Early Vocabulary and Grammar Development in Slovenian-Speaking Infants and Toddlers: A CDI-Adaptation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Fekonja-Peklaj, Urska; Podlesek, Anja

    2013-01-01

    A large body of research shows that vocabulary does not develop independently of grammar, representing a better predictor of the grammatical complexity of toddlers' utterances than age. This study examines for the first time the characteristics of vocabulary and grammar development in Slovenian-speaking infants and toddlers using the Slovenian…

  18. Vocabulary of preschool children with typical language development and socioeducational variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Thaís Cristina da Freiria; Kuroishi, Rita Cristina Sadako; Mandrá, Patrícia Pupin

    2017-03-09

    To investigate the correlation between age, socioeconomic status (SES), and performance on emissive and receptive vocabulary tests in children with typical language development. The study sample was composed of 60 preschool children of both genders, aged 3 years to 5 years 11 months, with typical language development divided into three groups: G I (mean age=3 years 6 months), G II (mean age=4 years 4 months) and G III (mean age=5 years 9 months). The ABFW Child Language Test - Vocabulary and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) for emissive and receptive language were applied to the preschoolers. The socioeconomic classification questionnaire of the Brazilian Association of Survey Companies (ABEP) was applied to the preschoolers' parents/legal guardians. Data were analyzed according to the criteria of the aforementioned instruments and were arranged in Excel spreadsheet for Windows XP®. A multiple linear regression model was used, adopting a statistical significance level of 5%, to analyze the correlation between age, SES, and performance on the receptive and emissive vocabulary tests. In the ABEP questionnaire, participants were classified mostly into social level C (63.3%), followed by levels B (26.6%) and D (10%). The preschoolers investigated presented emissive and receptive vocabulary adequate for the age groups. No statistically significant difference was found for the variables age and SES regarding emissive and receptive vocabulary. Higher test scores were observed with increased age and SES, for social levels "B" compared with "D" and for "C" with "D". The variables age and socioeconomic status influenced the performance on emissive and receptive vocabulary tests in the study group.

  19. Desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bjork, RA; Kroll, JF

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 by the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois. In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is underst...

  20. Counting ability in Down syndrome: The comprehension of the one-to-one correspondence principle and the role of receptive vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu-Mendoza, Roberto A; Arias-Trejo, Natalia

    2017-10-01

    The authors investigated whether children with Down's syndrome (DS) who have not started to produce number words understand the one-to-one correspondence principle (Experiment 1), and they looked at the relationship between number word knowledge and receptive vocabulary (Experiment 2). Sixteen children with DS who did not recite the count list participated in Experiment 1, along with 2 comparison groups: 1 of 16 children with DS who recited up to 10, paired by chronological age, and another of 16 typically developing children paired by their ability to recite the list. The understanding of the principle was evaluated by a preferential looking task. Children saw 1 of 2 conditions. In the number condition, they heard number words and in the beep condition they heard computerized beeps. In both conditions, children saw videos depicting counting events that were principle-consistent or principle-inconsistent. Experiment 2 evaluated 25 children with DS using the Give-a-Number task and the Receptive Vocabulary subtest of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-III. In Experiment 1, children in the number condition preferred principle-consistent videos, independent of their ability to recite the count list. Experiment 2 showed a strong correlation between number word knowledge and receptive vocabulary scores, independent of chronological age. The results suggest that the difficulty of children with DS in acquiring counting ability might not reflect a lack of understanding of the one-to-one correspondence principle, but might instead be related to vocabulary development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Ageing management and knowledge base for safe long-term operation of japanese light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimura, N.

    2008-01-01

    There are 55 operating commercial light water reactor plants (32 BWRs and 23 PWRs) in Japan. Twelve (12) plants have been operating for more than 30 years. Utility companies are required to perform an 'Ageing Management Technical Assessment' be-fore the end of 30 years operation of each plant. The assessments for each plant have been evaluated by the Nuclear and Industry Safety Agency (NISA) of the Ministry of Economy Trade and Industry (WTI) for these 12 plants. The Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organisation (JNES) has compiled Technical Review Manuals for six major degradation phenomena for the evaluation of Ageing Management Technical Assessment. A 'Road-map for Ageing and Plant Life Management' was established in 2005 by the Special Committee in the Atomic Energy Society of Japan under the commission from the JNES. Within the framework of the road-map, the major research and development fields are divided into the following four categories: 1) engineering information systems; 2) research and development of technologies for inspection, evaluation and repair of the components and materials; 3) development of codes and standards; 4) synthesised maintenance engineering. Continuous revision of the 'Strategy Maps for Ageing Management and Safe Long-term Operation' has been performed under the Coordinating Committee of Ageing Management to promote research and development activities by industries, government and academia, effectively and efficiently. Systematic development of the information basis for database and knowledge-base has been undertaken in addition to the development of codes and standards by academic societies through intensive domestic safety research collaborations and international collaboration. (author)

  2. Vocabulary Mastery by Using Storytelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sektalonir Oscarini Bhakti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:  This research investigated 80 students of Diploma III Architecture of Samarinda State Polytechnic to see their vocabularies mastery trough storytelling. Telling the stories is one of the best way to find out the students' English Mastery. Some obstacles are also found in learning English trough performing storytelling in the class such as the suitable material and text for the students, the lack of ability of the students and the teacher in conducting story as well as the readiness and the nervousness of the storytellers. As an English lecturer, the researcher also finds that how to improve vocabularies is one of the students' problems in learning English.  It is proved when the students are asked to tell a story in front of the class. In this research, the students needed telling stories before they had the English vocabulary test.  From the test, it could be concluded that the highest score was 92 got by one (1 student while the lowest score was 46 got by one (1 student.  Meanwhile, the average score was 78 that classified fair (B.  There were two (2 students who got below 50 that classified Fail. The results show that even the students' English mastery were satisfied but the students still need to practice how to tell the story in a good way so that they will master in all aspects. Keywords: Samarinda State Polytechnic, Students' Mastery, Storytelling

  3. Promoting Second Language Learners’ Vocabulary Learning Strategies: Can Autonomy and Critical Thinking Make a Contribution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mania Nosratinia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the findings of previous studies which highlight the role of vocabulary knowledge in English as a Foreign Language/English as a Second Language (EFL/ESL learners’ learning process, this study investigated the relationship among EFL learners’ Critical Thinking (CT, Autonomy (AU, and choice of Vocabulary Learning Strategies (VLS. To fulfill the purpose of this study, 100 male and female undergraduate EFL learners, between the ages of 18 and 25 (Mage = 21 were randomly selected. These participants, who were receiving formal instruction by means of English as the main language along with learners’ first language, were asked to complete three questionnaires, estimating their CT, AU, and VLS. Analyzing the collected data by Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient revealed significant relationships between participants' AU and CT, CT and VLS, and AU and VLS. Furthermore, a linear regression through the stepwise method revealed that between CT and AU, AU is the best predictor of VLS. The findings of this provide EFL teachers, EFL learners, and syllabus designers with insights into the nature of VLS and the way it can be promoted through other internal factors.

  4. Knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test and its relation with female age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Nara Sibério Pinho; Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Nicolau, Ana Izabel Oliveira; Oriá, Mônica Oliveira Batista; Pinheiro, Patricia Neyva da Costa; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra

    2016-06-14

    to verify the association among the knowledge attitude and practice of women in relation to the smear test and the age range. a cross-sectional research was undertaken, associated with the knowledge, attitude and practice survey at a Primary Health Care service. The sample consisted of 775 women, distributed in three age ranges: adolescent, young and elderly. although high rates of inappropriate knowledge were found in all age ranges, it was significantly higher among the adolescents (p=0.000). A similar trend was found in the attitude component, with percentages of inappropriateness in adolescence that drop as age advances (p=0.000). Nevertheless, no statistical difference among the groups was found in terms of practice (p=0.852). the study demonstrated a relation between the age range and knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test. verificar a associação entre o conhecimento, atitude e prática de mulheres em relação ao exame colpocitológico e a faixa etária. trata-se de pesquisa de corte transversal associada ao inquérito conhecimento, atitude e prática, em uma Unidade de Atenção Primária à Saúde. A amostra foi composta por 775 mulheres, distribuídas em três faixas etárias: adolescentes, jovens e idosas. embora o conhecimento inadequado tenha tido altas taxas em todas as faixas etárias, foi significativamente superior entre as adolescentes (p=0,000). Tendência semelhante no componente atitude por apresentar percentuais de inadequabilidade na adolescência e decair com o avançar da idade (p=0,000). Todavia, não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos quanto à prática (p=0,852). o estudo demonstrou relação entre a faixa etária e o conhecimento, a atitude e a prática do exame colpocitológico. verificar la asociación entre el conocimiento, la actitud y práctica de mujeres con relación a la prueba colpocitológica y el rango de edad. se trata de investigación trasversal asociada a la encuesta conocimiento, actitud y pr

  5. Examining Preschoolers' Nutrition Knowledge Using a Meal Creation and Food Group Classification Task: Age and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Shayla C.; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.

    2010-01-01

    Eating behaviours begin to develop during early childhood, but relatively little is known about preschoolers' nutrition knowledge. The current study examined age and gender differences in this knowledge using two tasks: food group classification and the creation of unhealthy, healthy and preferred meals. Sixty-nine three- to six-year-old children…

  6. Knowledge for unintentional injury and risky behavior among the school-age children in Changsha city of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lingyun; Liu, Minhui; Li, Li; Fang, Zhengqing; Xiao, Hongling; Wu, Ying; Xia, Yanping

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the current status on knowledge for unintentional injury and risky behavior among school-age children in Changsha, China, and to provide scientific evidence for the preventive strategies.
 A cross-sectional study was conducted on 866 students who were between 6 and 12 years old in Changsha. Two primary schools were selected by stratified cluster random sampling from all primary schools of Changsha city to collect the information regarding knowledge for unintentional injury and risky behavior occurring in the 6-month period before the survey.
 The mean score for knowledge of unintentional injury was 11.83±2.38. The levels of knowledge for unintentional injury differed significantly in child's age, parents' education background and child's injury history (Pchild's knowledge level was correlated with child's age, mother's education, child's injury history. The mean score for risky behavior was 17.61±10.35. The levels of risky behavior differed significantly in child's gender, father's age to have the child, parents' marriage status, whom does/do child live with, child's injury history and medical history since the birthday (Pchild's injury history, parents' marriage status, child's gender. There was no significant correlation between knowledge and risky behavior (P>0.05).
 It is a common phenomenon in school-age children who are lack of the knowledge for unintentional injury and risky behavior. This study provides useful information on the risk factors for unintentional injury and risky behavior, which would be significant for prevention program.

  7. Orthographic facilitation in oral vocabulary acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Jessie; Bishop, Dorothy V M; Nation, Kate

    2009-10-01

    An experiment investigated whether exposure to orthography facilitates oral vocabulary learning. A total of 58 typically developing children aged 8-9 years were taught 12 nonwords. Children were trained to associate novel phonological forms with pictures of novel objects. Pictures were used as referents to represent novel word meanings. For half of the nonwords children were additionally exposed to orthography, although they were not alerted to its presence, nor were they instructed to use it. After this training phase a nonword-picture matching posttest was used to assess learning of nonword meaning, and a spelling posttest was used to assess learning of nonword orthography. Children showed robust learning for novel spelling patterns after incidental exposure to orthography. Further, we observed stronger learning for nonword-referent pairings trained with orthography. The degree of orthographic facilitation observed in posttests was related to children's reading levels, with more advanced readers showing more benefit from the presence of orthography.

  8. Reading Stories to Learn Math: Mathematics Vocabulary Instruction for Children with Early Numeracy Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassinger-Das, Brenna; Jordan, Nancy C; Dyson, Nancy

    2015-12-01

    The present study involved examining whether a storybook reading intervention targeting mathematics vocabulary, such as "equal," "more," and "less," and associated number concepts would increase at-risk children's vocabulary knowledge and number competencies. Children with early numeracy difficulties (N = 124) were recruited from kindergarten classes in four schools. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a storybook number competencies (SNC) intervention, a number sense intervention, or a business-as-usual control. Interventions were carried out in groups of four children over 8 weeks (24 thirty-minute sessions). Findings demonstrated that the SNC intervention group outperformed the other groups on measures of mathematics vocabulary, both in terms of words that were closely aligned to the intervention and those that were not. There was no effect of the SNC intervention, however, on general mathematics measures, suggesting a need to provide the mathematics vocabulary work along with more intensive instruction in number concepts.

  9. Storytelling: Enhancing Vocabularies For Cerebral Palsy Students

    OpenAIRE

    Aprilina, Raita Gina

    2015-01-01

    This paper reported on a study concerned with teaching vocabulary using storytelling technique in one of SLBs in Bandung. This study aimed to find out the cerebral palsy students' ability in English vocabulary before and after the treatment, and to find out whether storytelling significantly improved English vocabulary of students with cerebral palsy. This study used an experimental method with single subject research with A-B-A design which involved two participants. This study revealed that...

  10. Using Song to Improve Students’ Vocabulary Mastery

    OpenAIRE

    Muflihah, Tatik

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary mastery is one of the requirements for students to be able to communicate both in spoken and written. There are many ways to improve students’ vocabulary mastery used by the language teacher. This paper aims to examine the use of English song to motivate students in learning English. In addition, this concerns on the use of English song to improve students’ vocabulary mastery. The respondents were fifteen elementary students of community groups of orphans An-nur Surabaya. The data ...

  11. Vocabulary Pruning for Improved Context Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    Language independent `bag-of-words' representations are surprisingly effective for text classification. The representation is high dimensional though, containing many non-consistent words for text categorization. These non-consistent words result in reduced generalization performance of subsequent...... of term relevancy, when pruning the vocabularies. With reduced vocabularies documents are classified using a latent semantic indexing representation and a probabilistic neural network classifier. Reducing the bag-of-words vocabularies with 90%-98%, we find consistent classification improvement using two...

  12. The Survey on Knowledge of Shiraz District Health Volunteers Over Healthy Life Style in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Saffari

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The education promotion of elderly health is an Important preference of health that should be planned for it. Several problems of elderly are supposed to be due to life style so the community education of healthy life style should be considered. The appropriate approach to achieve those objectives is to use of female health volunteers for transformation of this education to families. Methods & Materials: To determine the level of knowledge of health voluntaries about healthy life style for prevention of problems in elderly period, in Shiraz. Method & Materials: In a cross-sectional study, 320 health voluntaries were selected by randomized method. The sample size was calculated with the results.  A pilot study on one hundred with use of a questionnaire contain of 5 demographic questions and 32 questions about life style including nutrition, prevention of disease, oral health's and health advices. They filled the questionaries' and the data were entered in EPI 2002 software and were analyzed by descriptive tests. Results: The mean age all of 320 health were 33.7 years, with standard deviation of 8.6 years. The knowledge level of them in health advices were 15% weak, 66.9% medium and 18.2% well. In oral health 21.6% well, 61.3% medium & 7.2% well. In prevention of disease 37% weak, 62.2% medium and 9% well, in nutrition 24.6% weak, 69.3% medium and 5.9% well. Overall the level of knowledge of health volunteers about life style were 20.9% weak, 65.5% medium and 13.8% well. Conclusion: In the aim achieving to their approaches program of health, volunteers was started by Ministry of Health in 1990. This program was performed by the aim of health promotion in these group with participation of themselves. Till now they have trained in the recognition of health problems and healthy approach to them. So, the volunteers transfer their knowledge to community specially to under their coverage. At present the health problems are not only due to

  13. Employers' knowledge and attitudes regarding organizational policy toward workers caring for aging family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Ruth; Lowenstein, Ariela; Prilutzky, Dana; Halperin, Dafna

    2011-04-01

    The study examined employers' knowledge of and attitudes toward working carers who care for aging family members. The study was based on the ecological model. One hundred employers were interviewed using structured questionnaires and 13 employers by additional in-depth interviews. Both research instruments included areas of disruption to the organization, existing policies, and feasibility as to developing appropriate policies to support working carers. Results show that caregiving caused a disruption in workers' functioning mainly by being absent, leaving work early, and coming to work late. Usually, there was "no policy," and half of the employers did not support introducing such a policy. Women managers in public organizations, who had less seniority and less previous experience with working-carers, tended to be more positive about supportive policies. Recommendations are included.

  14. Knowledge and beliefs concerning early childhood caries from mothers of children ages zero to 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Marina Sousa; Romano, Ana Regina; Dos Santos, Iná da Silva; Cenci, Maximiliano Sergio

    2014-01-01

    This study's purpose was to assess mothers' knowledge and beliefs about early childhood caries (ECC) etiology and prevention. This cross-sectional study targeted mothers (N=277) of zero- to 12-month-olds visiting 12 public health care centers in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Information on causes of and recommendations to prevent ECC, as well as socioeconomic and demographic variables, was collected. Chi-square, univariate, and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed (Pinfluence caries in their children. None reported the role of micro-organisms and lack of fluoride in the caries etiology. These findings highlight the importance of providing preventive orientation to the mothers regarding early childhood caries. Information on age of first dental visit should be emphasized, especially among mothers with more than one child and low-income families.

  15. Event-related potentials during word mapping to object shape predict toddlers’ vocabulary size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina eBorgström

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available What role does attention to different object properties play in early vocabulary development? This longitudinal study using event-related potentials in combination with behavioral measures investigated 20- and 24-month-olds’ (n = 38; n = 34; overlapping n = 24 ability to use object shape and object part information in word-object mapping. The N400 component was used to measure semantic priming by images containing shape or detail information. At 20 months, the N400 to words primed by object shape varied in topography and amplitude depending on vocabulary size, and these differences predicted productive vocabulary size at 24 months. At 24 months, when most of the children had vocabularies of several hundred words, the relation between vocabulary size and the N400 effect in a shape context was weaker. Detached object parts did not function as word primes regardless of age or vocabulary size, although the part-objects were identified behaviorally. The behavioral measure, however, also showed relatively poor recognition of the part-objects compared to the shape-objects. These three findings provide new support for the link between shape recognition and early vocabulary development.

  16. The Technology and its Incidence in the Society of Knowledge in School Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Margarita Martínez De Padrón

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The essay to present bases its content on the impact that is causing the use of information technology and communication in the knowledge society of school age, specifically in the Venezuelan Primary Education. It is emphasized in the development of the same, the participation of the teacher before the utility of these means and the orientation that this one offers to the students. Likewise, the public policies on ICT and education offered by the Venezuelan Government, the possession of ICT in homes and the impact of new technologies on the daily work of children and adolescents in primary education are highlighted. Along the same, the conditions are specified to be able to develop a significant technological learning and its connection with the achievement of a collective intelligence. It is worth noting that the essay sees the situation in relation to the aforementioned technologies and the challenges faced by the teacher to make the most of learning and to make the knowledge society well-known among school children.

  17. Knowledge of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Effects of age, locality, occupation, media and sports participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Results: Misconceptions about TBI were reported by participants, irrespective of gender, locality, occupation, or history of sports participation. There were no significant differences in knowledge scores across these demographic groups. In particular, healthcare and education workers did not score any higher than other occupations. At least 40% of respondents answered either incorrectly or “I don’t know” on items related to gender differences, the utility of neuroimaging, and patient insight into their impairments. For those in non-medical, professional occupations, the older they were the less they knew about TBI (r = -.299, p = 0.009. In contrast, a positive correlation (r = 0.268, p = 0.018 was found between age and TBI knowledge for workers in healthcare or education. Conclusions: Misconceptions about TBI are present in Australia and are consistent across genders, localities, occupations and sport participation groups. A concern is that risk for misconceptions is not lower in healthcare or education professions. This suggests that professional development for groups most likely to be the frontline referral resources and supports for head injured children and adults may require further training.

  18. Comparing Teacher-Directed and Computer-Assisted Instruction of Elementary Geography Place Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsbury, Denise E.

    2006-01-01

    Increased knowledge of geographic place name vocabulary continues to be important to student academic success. Place knowledge is a vital part of students' learning to be responsible citizens by helping them become more conscious of the world around them and preparing the world around them and preparing them to enter a global workplace. This study…

  19. Recommendations for Recognizing Video Events by Concept Vocabularies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibian, A.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Representing videos using vocabularies composed of concept detectors appears promising for generic event recognition. While many have recently shown the benefits of concept vocabularies for recognition, studying the characteristics of a universal concept vocabulary suited for representing events is

  20. Knowledge on practice of weaning among the mothers with infant below six months of age in Salem, Tamilnadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dhanasekaran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Weaning is essential to child nutrition, which reduce infant mortality rate and related malnutrition with healthy feeding practice. Hence the mothers are expected to be knowledgeable on weaning.Objectives: To assess the knowledge on practice of weaning, to compare the knowledge on practice and to find out association between the knowledge scores of mothers with infant below 6 months with selected demographic variables.Materials and Methods: A descriptive design with cross sectional survey approach was undertaken to assess the knowledge on practice of weaning mothers with infant below 6 months of age in selected hospital, Salem, Tamil Nadu. Fifty mothers were selected by purposive sampling technique and data was collected by using structured interview schedule from 06/11/14 to 20/11/14.Results: Demographic characteristics reveal that highest percentage (84 % of them belongs to the Hindu religion and had one child below the 6 months of the age. Comparisons of the knowledge score with demography highest mean and SD in relation to family income Rs 4001 - 6000 shows that (14.7 ± 1.16. The Overall Mean knowledge score was (11.5 ± 3.26and (50 % revealing average knowledge. However there was significant association between knowledge score and education & type of family (P = 0.0151 & P = 0.0091 revealing that maximum demographic variables do not affected the level of knowledge.Conclusion: The overall knowledge is average. However lowest percentage in the areas of “principles of feeding and storage” and “age of introducing on weaning” were attention seeking, implying the necessity to improve the knowledge in regard to prevent malnutrition.JCMS Nepal. 2015;11(1: 12-16

  1. Measuring growth in bilingual and monolingual children's english productive vocabulary development: the utility of combining parent and teacher report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagh, Shaher Banu; Pan, Barbara Alexander; Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined growth in the English productive vocabularies of bilingual and monolingual children between ages 24 and 36 months and explored the utility and validity of supplementing parent reports with teacher reports to improve the estimation of children's vocabulary. Low-income, English-speaking and English/Spanish-speaking parents and Early Head Start and Head Start program teachers completed the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory, Words and Sentences for 85 children. Results indicate faster growth rates for monolingual than for bilingual children and larger vocabularies for bilingual children who spoke mostly English than mostly Spanish at home. Parent-teacher composite reports, like parent reports, significantly related to children's directly assessed productive vocabulary at ages 30 and 36 months, but parent reports fit the model better. Implications for vocabulary assessment are discussed.

  2. The nuclear power industry's ageing workforce: Transfer of knowledge to the next generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    This report is intended primarily for senior and middle level managers in nuclear power plant operating organizations. It is intended to provide them practical information they can use to improve the transfer of knowledge from the current generation of NPP operating organization personnel to the next generation in an effective manner. The information provided in this report is based upon the experience of Member State operating organizations as well as other related industries. In September 2000, the IAEA held a technical meeting on the topic of an ageing workforce and declining educational infrastructures. The proceedings of this meeting were distributed on CD-ROM as Working Material. Several recent IAEA meetings including a senior level meeting held in June 2002 in Vienna and a technical session of the IAEA General Conference in September 2002 addressed methods of knowledge transfer. This is the first IAEA report published on this specific topic. In 2000, the IAEA Technical Working Group on the Training and Qualification of NPP Personnel (TWG-T and Q) suggested that the IAEA should develop a publication on the definition of core competencies to be maintained by an NPP operating organization. The TWG-T and Q suggested that this TECDOC should provide additional detail beyond that specified in the recently revised Safety Guide NS-G-2.8, Recruitment, Qualification and Training of Personnel for Nuclear Power Plants. This task was included in the approved programme for 2002-2003. In March 2001, IAEA-TECDOC-1204, A Systematic Approach to Human Performance Improvement: Training Solutions was published. This TECDOC provides a comprehensive list of core competencies. These competencies provide the additional detail beyond that specified in Safety Guide NS-G-2.8 that the TWG-T and Q had suggested. The aspect of core competencies that is not addressed in IAEA-TECDOC-1204 is how to effectively transfer these competencies to the generation that replaces the workforce that

  3. Oral vocabulary training program for Spanish third-graders with low socio-economic status: A randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Gomes-Koban

    Full Text Available Although the importance of vocabulary training in English speaking countries is well recognized and has been extensively studied, the same is not true for Spanish-few evidence based vocabulary studies for Spanish-speaking children have been reported. Here, two rich oral vocabulary training programs (definition and context, based on literature about vocabulary instruction for English-speaking children, were developed and applied in a sample of 100 Spanish elementary school third-graders recruited from areas of predominantly low socio-economic status (SES. Compared to an alternative read-aloud method which served as the control, both explicit methods were more effective in teaching word meanings when assessed immediately after the intervention. Nevertheless, five months later, only the definition group continued to demonstrate significant vocabulary knowledge gains. The definition method was more effective in specifically teaching children word meanings and, more broadly, in helping children organize and express knowledge of words. We recommend the explicit and rich vocabulary instruction as a means to fostering vocabulary knowledge in low SES children.

  4. Academic Vocabulary Learning in First Through Third Grade in Low-Income Schools: Effects of Automated Supplemental Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Howard; Ziolkowski, Robyn A; Bojczyk, Kathryn E; Marty, Ana; Schneider, Naomi; Harpring, Jayme; Haring, Christa D

    2017-11-09

    This study investigated cumulative effects of language learning, specifically whether prior vocabulary knowledge or special education status moderated the effects of academic vocabulary instruction in high-poverty schools. Effects of a supplemental intervention targeting academic vocabulary in first through third grades were evaluated with 241 students (6-9 years old) from low-income families, 48% of whom were retained for the 3-year study duration. Students were randomly assigned to vocabulary instruction or comparison groups. Curriculum-based measures of word recognition, receptive identification, expressive labeling, and decontextualized definitions showed large effects for multiple levels of word learning. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that students with higher initial Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Fourth Edition scores (Dunn & Dunn, 2007) demonstrated greater word learning, whereas students with special needs demonstrated less growth in vocabulary. This model of vocabulary instruction can be applied efficiently in high-poverty schools through an automated, easily implemented adjunct to reading instruction in the early grades and holds promise for reducing gaps in vocabulary development.

  5. Sound Symbolism in Basic Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Wichmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between meanings of words and their sound shapes is to a large extent arbitrary, but it is well known that languages exhibit sound symbolism effects violating arbitrariness. Evidence for sound symbolism is typically anecdotal, however. Here we present a systematic approach. Using a selection of basic vocabulary in nearly one half of the world’s languages we find commonalities among sound shapes for words referring to same concepts. These are interpreted as due to sound symbolism. Studying the effects of sound symbolism cross-linguistically is of key importance for the understanding of language evolution.

  6. Knowledge and Awareness of Age Related Eye Diseases: a Population-Based Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Katibeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine general awareness and knowledge about cataracts, glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy (DR, as common avoidable causes of blindness in an Iranian population. Methods: This cross-sectional population-based survey was performed on residents over 45 years of age in Tehran. The sampling frame was the list of all landline phone numbers registered by the Telecommunications Center of Iran, through which systematic random sampling was performed. Data was collected by phone-call interviews and completing a semi-structured questionnaire. Awareness was defined as whether the respondent had ever heard of the disease. Knowledge was assessed by realizing different aspects of each disease. Results: Of a total of 1,084 eligible people including 574 (52.9% women and 510 (47.1% men were included and 957 subjects (response rate, 88.3% completed the interview. Awareness regarding glaucoma, cataract and DR was 46.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]:43.4 -49.8%, 82.9% (95% CI: 80.5 -85.3% and 86.2% (95% CI: 84-88.4%. In addition, 19.2% (95% CI: 16.7 -21.7%, 57.3% (95% CI: 54.2-60.4% and 72% (95% CI: 69.2 -74.8% of respondents could give at least a basic definition of the mentioned diseases, respectively. Only 22.6% (95% CI: 20-25.2% and 41.6% (95% CI: 38.5-44.7% realized glaucoma and DR as a treatable condition; in contrast, 77.2% (95% CI: 74.5-79.9% categorized cataract as treatable. Only 19% and 7.1% knew that DR and glaucoma may commence without any apparent symptoms. Conclusion: Compared with cataract and DR, most participants had limited information about glaucoma. In addition, few of the respondents were familiar with the initial symptoms of DR and glaucoma.

  7. Efficacy of Using Vocabulary Flashcards in Braille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaiano, Mackenzie E.; Lloyd, Blair P.; Hatton, Deborah D.

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a study that examined whether vocabulary flashcards facilitate spelling acquisition. The study was designed to evaluate whether students who are blind can learn to spell words accurately and incidentally when academic vocabulary instruction is used. Auditory information was provided prior to the introduction of a flashcard,…

  8. Intentional Vocabulary Learning Using Digital Flashcards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hsiu-Ting

    2015-01-01

    As an attempt to follow through on the claims made by proponents of intentional vocabulary learning, the present study set out to examine whether and how digital flashcards can be incorporated into a university course to promote the vocabulary learning of English language learners. The overall research findings underscore the value of learning…

  9. Hypermedia and Vocabulary Acquisition for Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of multimedia as a delivery tool for enhancing vocabulary in second-language classrooms. The mixed method design focused on specific techniques to help students acquire Spanish vocabulary and communication skills. The theoretical framework for this study consisted of second language theories…

  10. Tuning in to Vocabulary Frequency in Coursebooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, Richard

    2012-01-01

    For second language learners vocabulary growth is of major importance, and for many learners commercially published coursebooks will be the source of this vocabulary learning. In this preliminary study, input from three levels of the coursebook series "New English File" (Oxenden and Latham-Koenig, 2006; Oxenden, Latham-Koenig, and Seligson, 2004,…

  11. Vocabulary Growth of the Advanced EFL Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Meral

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of two studies on the vocabulary growth of advanced learners of English as a foreign language in an English-medium degree programme. Growth in learners' written receptive and productive vocabularies was investigated in one cross-sectional and one longitudinal study over three years. The effect of word frequency on…

  12. Knowledge about osteoporosis in women of child bearing age (15-49 years) attending fauji foundation hospital rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wazir, A.; Ali, F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge on symptoms, risk factors, preventive measures and treatment options for regarding osteoporosis in healthy women of child bearing age (15-49 years) accompanying patients, in Fauji Foundation Hospital (FFH) Rawalpindi. Study Design: Cross sectional survey. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in FFH Rawalpindi from February 2015 to October 2015. Material and Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted using a validated questionnaire i.e. OKAT (Osteoporosis Knowledge Assessment Tool) from 385 women attending OPDs of Fauji Foundation Hospital Rawalpindi, for a period of Feb-August 2015. The data was analyzed using SPSS (version 21). Mean knowledge scores were calculated and compared with socio demographic variables. Results: Total knowledge score mean was 8 (total max score achieved 14). Mean scores were found for knowledge regarding symptoms 0.85 (total score 2), and treatment options were 0.82 (total score 2) for the disease. Comparison of knowledge scores between respondents of different age, residential status (p<=0.009), and educational status (p<=0.056) was found statistically significant. Conclusion: Women lacked knowledge regarding osteoporosis, especially older uneducated ones, belonging to lower socioeconomic class residing in villages. Community based educational interventional programs targeting this population can help reduce the knowledge gap and contribute towards disease prevention. (author)

  13. PROFILING THE VOCABULARY OF NEWS TEXTS AS CAPACITY BUILDING FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Astika

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The importance of vocabulary in reading has been discussed extensively in the literature. Researchers claim that vocabulary is essential and has a central role in comprehension.   Development in ICT and easy access to information from the internet necessitate language teachers to have relevant knowledge and skills to utilize pedagogical tools to use authentic online materials for learning purposes.  One of such a tool is the Vocabulary Profiler that can be used to categorize lexical words in a text into different frequency levels: high, low, and academic word list. This paper discusses how to use the Vocabulary Profiler to classify words in a text into the different categories.  The utilization of this tool can significantly alleviate the workload of teachers in selecting vocabulary in  reading text which is conventionally based on teachers’ intuition and perception. The sample text in this paper was selected from VOA website which may not be found in the textbooks currently used at schools. The paper ends with some implication for teaching about vocabulary selection.

  14. Technologies and practices for maintaining and publishing earth science vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Simon; Yu, Jonathan; Williams, Megan; Giabardo, Fabrizio; Lowe, Dominic

    2015-04-01

    Shared vocabularies are a key element in geoscience data interoperability. Many organizations curate vocabularies, with most Geologic Surveys having a long history of development of lexicons and authority tables. However, their mode of publication is heterogeneous, ranging from PDFs and HTML web pages, spreadsheets and CSV, through various user-interfaces, and public and private APIs. Content maintenance ranges from tightly-governed and externally opaque, through various community processes, all the way to crowd-sourcing ('folksonomies'). Meanwhile, there is an increasing expectation of greater harmonization and vocabulary re-use, which create requirements for standardized content formalization and APIs, along with transparent content maintenance and versioning. We have been trialling a combination of processes and software dealing with vocabulary formalization, registration, search and linking. We use the Simplified Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) to provide a generic interface to content. SKOS is an RDF technology for multi-lingual, hierarchical vocabularies, oriented around 'concepts' denoted by URIs, and thus consistent with Linked Open Data. SKOS may be mixed in with classes and properties from specialized ontologies which provide a more specific interface when required. We have developed a suite of practices and techniques for conversion of content from the source technologies and styles into SKOS, largely based on spreadsheet manipulation before RDF conversion, and SPARQL afterwards. The workflow for each vocabulary must be adapted to match the specific inputs. In linked data applications, two requirements are paramount for user confidence: (i) the URI that denotes a vocabulary item is persistent, and should be dereferenceable indefinitely; (ii) the history and status of the resource denoted by a URI must be available. This is implemented by the Linked Data Registry (LDR), originally developed for the World Meteorological Organization and the UK

  15. Teaching in the Knowledge Society: Education in the Age of Insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Andy

    This book discusses challenges facing teachers in the knowledge society today, focusing on the changing world and the changing work of teaching. Seven chapters discuss: (1) "Teaching for the Knowledge Society: Educating for Ingenuity" (e.g., profiting from, developing, and teaching for the knowledge society); (2) "Teaching Beyond…

  16. Relation of Knowledge and Performance in Boys' Tennis: Age and Expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Sue L.; Thomas, Jerry R.

    1989-01-01

    Examined 10- to 13-year-old boys' development of knowledge structure and sport performance in tennis by comparing skills and knowledge of experts and novices. Experts focused on higher concepts and exhibited greater decision-making ability because of their more highly developed knowledge structure. (SAK)

  17. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding conception and fertility: a population-based survey among reproductive-age United States women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundsberg, Lisbet S; Pal, Lubna; Gariepy, Aileen M; Xu, Xiao; Chu, Micheline C; Illuzzi, Jessica L

    2014-03-01

    To assess overall knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to conception and fertility among reproductive-age women in the United States. Online survey of a cross-sectional sample of 1,000 women. United States, March 2013. Women aged 18-40 years. None. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding selected topics in reproductive health. Forty percent of women across all age groups expressed concerns about their ability to conceive. Yet one-third of women were unaware of adverse implications of sexually transmitted infections, obesity, or irregular menses for procreative success, and one-fifth were unaware of the effects of aging. Approximately 40% were unfamiliar with the ovulatory cycle. Overall, younger women (18-24 years) demonstrated less knowledge regarding conception, fertility, and ovulation, whereas older women tended to believe in common myths and misconceptions. Respondents in all age groups identified women's health care providers (75%) and Web sites (40%) as top sources of reproductive health-related information; however, engagement with providers on specific factors affecting fertility is sparse. Knowledge regarding ovulation, fertility, and conception is limited among this sample of reproductive-age US women. Future initiatives should prioritize improved provider engagement and accurate information dissemination in Web-based venues. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Knowledge and behaviour of parents in relation to the oral and dental health of children aged 4-6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElKarmi, R; Shore, E; O'Connell, A

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate baseline knowledge and behaviour of parents with regard to the oral and dental health of their young children. Following ethical approval, six urban and rural schools were identified. Questionnaires were distributed to the parents of pupils (children aged 4-6 years). The questionnaire included several questions evaluating parental knowledge and behaviour of oral and dental health issues in their children. Each question was assigned a score of either 0 or 1 being inconsistent or consistent with current paediatric guidelines giving a maximum score of 6 for knowledge and 7 for behaviour. Chi-square analysis was used to analyse associations among variables. Parental knowledge varied widely among parents and across questions; however, 70.2 % of parents had scores greater than 3 (range 0-6). The majority of parents (65.8 %) also had scores greater than 3 (range 0-7) for behaviour. Deficiencies were noted in oral hygiene practices; very few parents brushed their child's teeth and were not aware of the recommended age of the first dental visit at 1 year (Age 1 visit). Parents without free medical care demonstrated high levels of knowledge (P parents thought that the information available to them on the oral health of their young children was insufficient. Parents appeared to have limited knowledge regarding the dental and oral health of their young children. This study indicates a need for improved education for parents, particularly in toothbrushing behaviour and use of toothpaste. Education strategies tailored to the Irish population should be explored.

  19. COMPUTING THE VOCABULARY DEMANDS OF L2 READING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Cobb

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic computing can make two important contributions to second language (L2 reading instruction. One is to resolve longstanding research issues that are based on an insufficiency of data for the researcher, and the other is to resolve related pedagogical problems based on insufficiency of input for the learner. The research section of the paper addresses the question of whether reading alone can give learners enough vocabulary to read. When the computer’s ability to process large amounts of both learner and linguistic data is applied to this question, it becomes clear that, for the vast majority of L2 learners, free or wide reading alone is not a sufficient source of vocabulary knowledge for reading. But computer processing also points to solutions to this problem. Through its ability to reorganize and link documents, the networked computer can increase the supply of vocabulary input that is available to the learner. The development section of the paper elaborates a principled role for computing in L2 reading pedagogy, with examples, in two broad areas, computer-based text design and computational enrichment of undesigned texts.

  20. EXPANDING ACADEMIC VOCABULARY WITH AN INTERACTIVE ON-LINE DATABASE

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    Marlise Horst

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available University students used a set of existing and purpose-built on-line tools for vocabulary learning in an experimental ESL course. The resources included concordance, dictionary, cloze-builder, hypertext, and a database with interactive self-quizzing feature (all freely available at www.lextutor.ca. The vocabulary targeted for learning consisted of (a Coxhead's (2000 Academic Word List, a list of items that occur frequently in university textbooks, and (b unfamiliar words students had met in academic texts and selected for entry into the class database. The suite of tools were designed to foster retention by engaging learners in deep processing, an aspect that is often described as missing in computer exercises for vocabulary learning. Database entries were examined to determine whether context sentences supported word meanings adequately and whether entered words reflected the unavailability of cognates in the various first languages of the participants. Pre- and post-treatment performance on tests of knowledge of words targeted for learning in the course were compared to establish learning gains. Regression analyses investigated connections between use of specific computer tools and gains.

  1. Making healthy food choices using nutrition facts panels. The roles of knowledge, motivation, dietary modifications goals, and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lisa M Soederberg; Cassady, Diana L

    2012-08-01

    Nutrition facts panels (NFPs) contain a rich assortment of nutrition information and are available on most food packages. The importance of this information is potentially even greater among older adults due to their increased risk for diet-related diseases, as well as those with goals for dietary modifications that may impact food choice. Despite past work suggesting that knowledge and motivation impact attitudes surrounding and self-reported use of NFPs, we know little about how (i.e., strategies used) and how well (i.e., level of accuracy) younger and older individuals process NFP information when evaluating healthful qualities of foods. We manipulated the content of NFPs and, using eye tracking methodology, examined strategies associated with deciding which of two NFPs, presented side-by-side, was healthier. We examined associations among strategy use and accuracy as well as age, dietary modification status, knowledge, and motivation. Results showed that, across age groups, those with dietary modification goals made relatively more comparisons between NFPs with increasing knowledge and motivation; but that strategy effectiveness (relationship to accuracy) depended on age and motivation. Results also showed that knowledge and motivation may protect against declines in accuracy in later life and that, across age and dietary modification status, knowledge mediates the relationship between motivation and decision accuracy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Making Healthy Food Choices Using Nutrition Facts Panels: The Roles of Knowledge, Motivation, Dietary Modifications Goals, and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, Diana L.

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition facts panels (NFPs) contain a rich assortment of nutrition information and are available on most food packages. The importance of this information is potentially even greater among older adults due to their increased risk for diet-related diseases, as well as those with goals for dietary modifications that may impact food choice. Despite past work suggesting that knowledge and motivation impact attitudes surrounding and self-reported use of NFPs, we know little about how (i.e., strategies used) and how well (i.e., level of accuracy) younger and older individuals process NFP information when evaluating healthful qualities of foods. We manipulated the content of NFPs and, using eye tracking methodology, examined strategies associated with deciding which of two NFPs, presented side-by-side, was healthier. We examined associations among strategy use and accuracy as well as age, dietary modification status, knowledge, and motivation. Results showed that, across age groups, those with dietary modification goals made relatively more comparisons between NFPs with increasing knowledge and motivation; but that strategy effectiveness (relationship to accuracy) depended on age and motivation. Results also showed that knowledge and motivation may protect against declines in accuracy in later life and that, across age and dietary modification status, knowledge mediates the relationship between motivation and decision accuracy. PMID:22524999

  3. Peruvian mothers' knowledge and recognition of pneumonia in children under 5 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Augusto Gálvez

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess Peruvian mothers' knowledge and recognition of pneumonia in children under 5 years of age, the mothers' attitude toward seeking medical help if they had a child with signs of pneumonia, and their perception of a Government of Peru pneumonia campaign. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 501 mothers were selected randomly from 20 low-income communities of the metropolitan area of Lima, Peru, and were interviewed between June and August 2000. Using SPSS software, descriptive statistics were applied to summarize the demographic data and the data regarding the mothers' knowledge of pneumonia and recognition of signs of the disease. Cross-tabulations and chi-squares were done to assess relationships between variables and to make comparisons. Results. About 84% of the mothers said that they knew what pneumonia is. Most believed that pneumonia is dangerous. A majority (58.7% indicated that pneumonia is caused by lack of parental care. Only 28.9% believed that a virus causes the disease. More than 80% correctly picked rapid breathing and/or chest retraction from a list of possible signs and symptoms of pneumonia, and 94.6% said they were ready to take their child to the closest health center if they thought their child had pneumonia. Although 57.1% said they had heard about the Government of Peru pneumonia campaign, 69.3% of these mothers said they could not recall the motto of the campaign. Mothers who reported having heard of the campaign through TV were more likely than other mothers to correctly recognize the two major signs of pneumonia presented in the campaign. Conclusions. Although the percentage of mothers believing they can recognize pneumonia through rapid breathing and chest retraction seems to have increased in recent years, there is still a sizable percentage of mothers who remain uninformed about pneumonia and its possible fatal consequences. Efforts need to continue to educate Peruvian mothers about the causes

  4. The association between visual, nonverbal cognitive abilities and speech, phonological processing, vocabulary and reading outcomes in children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lindsey; Anderson, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the possibility that specific nonverbal, visual cognitive abilities may be associated with outcomes after pediatric cochlear implantation. The study therefore examined the relationship between visual sequential memory span and visual sequential reasoning ability, and a range of speech, phonological processing, vocabulary knowledge, and reading outcomes in children with cochlear implants. A cross-sectional, correlational design was used. Sixty-six children aged 5 to 12 years completed tests of visual memory span and visual sequential reasoning, along with tests of speech intelligibility, phonological processing, vocabulary knowledge, and word reading ability (the outcome variables). Auditory memory span was also assessed, and its relationship with the other variables examined. Significant, positive correlations were found between the visual memory and reasoning tests, and each of the outcome variables. A series of regression analyses then revealed that for all the outcome variables, after variance attributable to the age at implantation was accounted for, visual memory span and visual sequential reasoning ability together accounted for significantly more variance (up to 25%) in each outcome measure. These findings have both clinical and theoretical implications. Clinically, the findings may help improve the identification of children at risk of poor progress after implantation earlier than has been possible to date as the nonverbal tests can be administered to children as young as 2 years of age. The results may also contribute to the identification of children with specific learning or language difficulties as well as improve our ability to develop intervention strategies for individual children based on their specific cognitive processing strengths or difficulties. Theoretically, these results contribute to the growing body of knowledge about learning and development in deaf children with cochlear implants.

  5. Associations of gender and age groups on the knowledge and use of drug information resources by American pharmacists

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    Carvajal MJ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To explore knowledge and use of drug information resources by pharmacists and identify patterns influenced by gender and age-group classification. Methods: A survey questionnaire was mailed nationwide to 1,000 practitioners working in community (n = 500 and hospital (n = 500 settings who answer drug information questions as part of their expected job responsibilities. Responses pertaining to drug information resource use and knowledge of different types of drug-related queries, resource media preferences, and perceived adequacy of resources maintained in the pharmacy were analyzed by gender and age group. The t statistic was used to test for significant differences of means and percentages between genders and between age groups. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize other findings.Results: Gender and age group classification influenced patterns of knowledge and use of drug information resources by pharmacists. They also affected pharmacists’ perceptions of the most common types of questions prompting them to consult a drug information reference, as well as the resources consulted. Micromedex, exclusively available in electronic format, was the most commonly consulted resource overall by pharmacists. Lexi-Comp Online was the leading choice by women, preferred over Micromedex, but was not one of the top two resources selected by men. Conclusion: This study successfully identified the influence of gender and age-group classification in assessing drug information resource knowledge and use of general and specific types of drug-related queries.

  6. Associations of gender and age groups on the knowledge and use of drug information resources by American pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Manuel J; Clauson, Kevin A; Gershman, Jennifer; Polen, Hyla H

    2013-04-01

    To explore knowledge and use of drug information resources by pharmacists and identify patterns influenced by gender and age-group classification. A survey questionnaire was mailed nationwide to 1,000 practitioners working in community (n = 500) and hospital (n = 500) settings who answer drug information questions as part of their expected job responsibilities. Responses pertaining to drug information resource use and knowledge of different types of drug-related queries, resource media preferences, and perceived adequacy of resources maintained in the pharmacy were analyzed by gender and age group. The t statistic was used to test for significant differences of means and percentages between genders and between age groups. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize other findings. Gender and age group classification influenced patterns of knowledge and use of drug information resources by pharmacists. They also affected pharmacists' perceptions of the most common types of questions prompting them to consult a drug information reference, as well as the resources consulted. Micromedex, exclusively available in electronic format, was the most commonly consulted resource overall by pharmacists. Lexi-Comp Online was the leading choice by women, preferred over Micromedex, but was not one of the top two resources selected by men. This study successfully identified the influence of gender and age-group classification in assessing drug information resource knowledge and use of general and specific types of drug-related queries.

  7. EDMODO AS A MEDIA TO TEACH VOCABULARY

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    Sutrisno Sadji Evenddy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at intoducing how to use Edmodo to teach vocabulary. Vocabulary is a component of English language. When we are speaking and writing, we need to master vocabulary related to certain topic. Therefore vocabulary is important thing in learning language. But, mastering English vocabularies is not easy. Teacher needs a media to make an interesting teaching-learning process. One of the most accepted trends in the field of teaching vocabulary in a foreign language teaching is Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL. CALL has several applications that can be used by the teachers in teaching vocabulary. Computer and mobile telephone internet allow immediate connection to a server. In the internet browser the teachers and students can browse Edmodo. One of media is Edmodo. Edmodo is one of social media which can be operated by students, teachers or lecturers, and parents. It is able to be used to post various assignments and students’ learning achievement, actual discussion topics, video, appointments, and to facilitate students’ polls which are related to teaching learning process.

  8. Learning vocabulary through a serious game in Primary Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heitink, Maaike Christine; Fisser, Petra; Voogt, Joke; McBride, Ron; Searson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the effect of a serious game on the vocabulary of students in primary education. 206 students and 10 teachers used the game during vocabulary lessons in three conditions: (a)online game and vocabulary instruction, (b)online game only, and (c)paper game and vocabulary instruction.

  9. Effects of Individualized Word Retrieval in Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damhuis, Carmen M. P.; Segers, Eliane; Scheltinga, Femke; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of adaptive word retrieval intervention on a classroom vocabulary program on children's vocabulary acquisition in kindergarten. In the experimental condition, word retrieval was provided in a classroom vocabulary program, combining implicit and explicit vocabulary instructions. Children performed extra word retrieval…

  10. Teaching Vocabulary to Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily; Douglas, W. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Despite poor vocabulary outcomes for children with hearing loss, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of specific vocabulary teaching methods on vocabulary learning for this group. The authors compared three vocabulary instruction conditions with preschool children with hearing loss: (a) explicit, direct instruction; (b) follow-in…

  11. A Research on Vocabulary Teaching Strategies and Students’ Mastery

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    Tian Yuan; Liu Bingbing

    2013-01-01

    By means of questionnaire and quantitative research, this article aims at investigating the effects on students’ mastery of vocabulary by studying teachers’ adoption of seven kinds of common vocabulary teaching strategies and the usage of analyzing strategies in intensive English in order to improve vocabulary teaching strategies and to help enlarge students’ vocabulary.

  12. Mobile English Vocabulary Learning Based on Concept-Mapping Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Numerous researchers in education recognize that vocabulary is essential in foreign language learning. However, students often encounter vocabulary that is difficult to remember. Providing effective vocabulary learning strategies is therefore more valuable than teaching students a large amount of vocabulary. The purpose of this study was to…

  13. Conceptual scoring of receptive and expressive vocabulary measures in simultaneous and sequential bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Megan; Buac, Milijana; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2014-11-01

    The authors examined the effects of conceptual scoring on the performance of simultaneous and sequential bilinguals on standardized receptive and expressive vocabulary measures in English and Spanish. Participants included 40 English-speaking monolingual children, 39 simultaneous Spanish-English bilingual children, and 19 sequential bilingual children, ages 5-7. The children completed standardized receptive and expressive vocabulary measures in English and also in Spanish for those who were bilingual. After the standardized administration, bilingual children were given the opportunity to respond to missed items in their other language to obtain a conceptual score. Controlling for group differences in socioeconomic status (SES), both simultaneous and sequential bilingual children scored significantly below monolingual children on single-language measures of English receptive and expressive vocabulary. Conceptual scoring removed the significant difference between monolingual and simultaneous bilingual children in the receptive modality but not in the expressive modality; differences remained between monolingual and sequential bilingual children in both modalities. However, in both bilingual groups, conceptual scoring increased the proportion of children with vocabulary scores within the average range. Conceptual scoring does not fully ameliorate the bias inherent in single-language standardized vocabulary measures for bilingual children, but the procedures employed here may assist in ruling out vocabulary deficits, particularly in typically developing simultaneous bilingual children.

  14. Age of Bilingual Exposure Is Related to the Contribution of Phonological and Semantic Knowledge to Successful Reading Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinska, Kaja K.; Petitto, Laura-Ann

    2018-01-01

    Bilingual children's reading as a function of age of first bilingual language exposure (AoE) was examined. Bilingual (varied AoE) and monolingual children (N = 421) were compared in their English language and reading abilities (6-10 years) using phonological awareness, semantic knowledge, and reading tasks. Structural equation modeling was applied…

  15. Advertisement and knowledge of tobacco products among Ellisras rural children aged 11 to 18 years: Ellisras Longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monyeki, K.D.; Kemper, H.C.G.; Amusa, L.O.; Motshwane, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tobacco products use is the leading cause of chronic diseases morbidity and mortality. This study explores an exposure to tobacco advertisements factors and knowledge, an association with snuff/pipe usage and cigarette smoking among Ellisras rural children aged between 11 to 18

  16. The Development of Logico-Mathematical Knowledge in a Block-Building Activity at Ages 1-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamii, Constance; Miyakawa, Yoko; Kato, Yasuhiko

    2004-01-01

    To study the developmental interrelationships among various aspects of logico-mathematical knowledge, 80 one- to 4-year-olds were individually asked to build "something tall" with 20 blocks. Percentages of new and significant behaviors increased with age and were analyzed in terms of the development of logico-mathematical relationships. It was…

  17. The end of the art connoisseur? Experts and knowledge production in the visual arts in the digital age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal); F.R.R. Vermeylen (Filip)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn this digital age, declarations surface on the death of the expert and the democratization of information. Crowd wisdom is seen as the new guide in constructing and evaluating knowledge. In the context of the art world, this tension between the amateurs and the experts becomes

  18. How to describe grammar and vocabulary in ELT

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    Liu, Dilin

    2013-01-01

    Language description plays an important role in language learning/teaching because it often determines what specific language forms, features, and usages are taught and how. A good understanding of language description is vital for language teachers and material writers and should constitute an important part of their knowledge. This book provides a balanced treatment of both theory and practice. It focuses on some of the most important and challenging grammar and vocabulary usage questions. Using these questions as examples, it shows how theory can inform practice and how grammar and vocab

  19. Mothers' labeling responses to infants' gestures predict vocabulary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Janet; Masur, Elise Frank

    2015-11-01

    Twenty-nine infants aged 1;1 and their mothers were videotaped while interacting with toys for 18 minutes. Six experimental stimuli were presented to elicit infant communicative bids in two communicative intent contexts - proto-declarative and proto-imperative. Mothers' verbal responses to infants' gestural and non-gestural communicative bids were coded for object and action labels. Relations between maternal labeling responses and infants' vocabularies at 1;1 and 1;5 were examined. Mothers' labeling responses to infants' gestural communicative bids were concurrently and predictively related to infants' vocabularies, whereas responses to non-gestural communicative bids were not. Mothers' object labeling following gestures in the proto-declarative context mediated the association from infants' gesturing in the proto-declarative context to concurrent noun lexicons and was the strongest predictor of subsequent noun lexicons. Mothers' action labeling after infants' gestural bids in the proto-imperative context predicted infants' acquisition of action words at 1;5. Findings show that mothers' responsive labeling explain specific relations between infants' gestures and their vocabulary development.

  20. Impact of Training Deep Vocabulary Learning Strategies on Vocabulary Retention of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Es-hagi Sardroud

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the overall tendency of foreign language learners to use mechanical strategies of rote rehearsal in vocabulary learning and their resistance towards use of 'deep' vocabulary learning strategies, namely contextual guessing, Keyword Method, metacognitive strategy, and semantic mapping, this study intended (a to explore what impact the instruction of these deep strategies, on vocabulary retention of 32 post-intermediate adult EFL Iranian learners, (b to determine how the variable of gender influences the vocabulary retention of students after receiving training in these strategies. To this end, on the basis of a strategy-based model of instruction–CALLA (Chamot & O'Malley, 1994, the experimental group received training in using 'deep' vocabulary learning strategies while the control group received only the common method of vocabulary teaching. After the treatment, following factorial design, the performance of the participants in the teacher-made vocabulary test as posttest was analyzed statistically.  The results indicated higher vocabulary retention for the experimental group, and it was revealed that female students were more receptive to strategy training. This study provides evidence for confirmation of 'depth of processing' hypothesis and the emerging theory about the impact of gender on effective strategy teaching and use, and it recommends incorporation of teaching these 'deep' strategies of vocabulary learning into EFL classrooms.

  1. Cybertext Redux: Using Digital Game-Based Learning to Teach L2 Vocabulary, Reading, and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, David O.; Shelton, Brett E.; McInnis, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The essay reports on a mixed-methods study using an interactive fiction (IF) game to teach German vocabulary, reading, and culture to university students. The study measured knowledge retention and transfer, and evaluated the attitudes of students toward the game. The results tentatively indicate that contextualized, immersive role play may have…

  2. Resolving Controlled Vocabulary in DITA Markup: A Case Example in Agroforestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschocke, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to address the issue of matching controlled vocabulary on agroforestry from knowledge organization systems (KOS) and incorporating these terms in DITA markup. The paper has been selected for an extended version from MTSR'11. Design/methodology/approach: After a general description of the steps taken to harmonize controlled…

  3. The Shakespeare in All of Us: A Monumental, Multitudinous, Premeditated Approach to Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Jennifer Ann

    2011-01-01

    Shakespeare, who worked actively with words through punning, playing, and inventing, serves as the model for students to experience a deepening knowledge of vocabulary and love of words. Through instructional activities aimed at increasing word play, word exposure, and word consciousness, students gain the verbal capacity needed to understand…

  4. Latin Revived: Source-Based Vocabulary Lessons Courtesy of Harry Potter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Nilsen, Don L. F.

    2006-01-01

    Teachers can build on students' familiarity with and respect for the Harry Potter books to create source-based vocabulary lessons. The idea is to work with the Latin roots that J. K. Rowling uses to create original names for places, people, and magical charms and then to extend students' knowledge through exploration of additional English words…

  5. Vocabulary Learning on Learner-Created Content by Using Web 2.0 Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Omer

    2015-01-01

    The present research examined the use of Web 2.0 tools to improve students' vocabulary knowledge at the School of Foreign Languages, Gaziantep University. Current studies in literature mostly deal with descriptions of students' attitudes towards the reasons for the use of web-based platforms. However, integrating usual classroom environment with…

  6. Promoting Word Consciousness to Close the Vocabulary Gap in Young Word Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Sabina Rak; Gámez, Perla B.; Coyne, Michael D.; McCoach, D. Betsy; Cólon, Ingrid T.; Ware, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    A proposed avenue for increasing students' vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension is instruction that promotes students' enthusiasm and attention to words, referred to as "word consciousness". This study seeks to investigate, at the utterance level, whether and how word consciousness talk is used in classrooms with young word…

  7. A Meta-Analysis of Vocabulary Learning Strategies of EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematollahi, Batoul; Behjat, Fatemeh; Kargar, Ali Asghar

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary learning is one of the crucial matters in second language learning. There is a vast body of research in this field which has been done by famous researchers around the world, but still there is no specific solution for extending lexical knowledge in the best way. Therefore, we have conducted a meta-analysis on a body of 30 research…

  8. Variables Predicting Foreign Language Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Acquisition in a Linear Hypermedia Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, Yavuz

    2007-01-01

    Factors predicting vocabulary learning and reading comprehension of advanced language learners of English in a linear multimedia text were investigated in the current study. Predictor variables of interest were multimedia type, reading proficiency, learning styles, topic interest and background knowledge about the topic. The outcome variables of…

  9. Second Language Incidental Vocabulary Learning: The Effect of Online Textual, Pictorial, and Textual Pictorial Glosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrokni, Seyyed Abdollah

    2009-01-01

    This empirical study investigates the effect of online textual, pictorial, and textual pictorial glosses on the incidental vocabulary learning of 90 adult elementary Iranian EFL learners. The participants were selected from a pool of 140 volunteers based on their performance on an English placement test as well as a knowledge test of the target…

  10. A Vocabulary Analysis of the Restaurant Menus

    OpenAIRE

    MIHUT Silvia

    2010-01-01

    The present paper explores the genre of restaurant menus by analyzing existing online lists of breakfast, lunch and dinner options. It shows that a menu is a reflection of the restaurant itself and its vocabulary, whether formal, casual or playful, matches the restaurant concept, location or theme. In addition to providing the food and drink items, menus can also be used to offer other information to the customers. The restaurant menu vocabulary describes the owner/chef's philosophy about foo...

  11. Ontology Based Vocabulary Matching for Oceanographic Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Shepherd, Adam; Chandler, Cyndy; Arko, Robert; Leadbetter, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Data integration act as the preliminary entry point as we enter the era of big data in many scientific domains. However the reusefulness of various dataset has met the hurdle due to different initial of interests of different parties, therefore different vocabularies in describing similar or semantically related concepts. In this scenario it is vital to devise an automatic or semi-supervised algorithm to facilitate the convergence of different vocabularies. The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) seeks to increase data sharing across scientific domains and international boundaries by providing a forum to harmonize diverse regional data systems. ODIP participants from the US include the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program, whose mission is to capture, catalog, and describe the underway/environmental sensor data from US oceanographic research vessels and submit the data to public long-term archives. In an attempt to harmonize these regional data systems, especially vocabularies, R2R recognizes the value of the SeaDataNet vocabularies served by the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS) hosted at the British Oceanographic Data Centre as a trusted, authoritative source for describing many oceanographic research concepts such as instrumentation. In this work, we make use of the semantic relations in the vocabularies served by NVS to build a Bayesian network and take advantage of the idea of entropy in evaluating the correlation between different concepts and keywords. The performance of the model is evaluated against matching instruments from R2R against the SeaDataNet instrument vocabularies based on calculated confidence scores in the instrument pairings. These pairings with their scores can then be analyzed for assertion growing the interoperability of the R2R vocabulary through its links to the SeaDataNet entities.

  12. Does frequency count? Parental input and the acquisition of vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Judith C; Dale, Philip S; Li, Ping

    2008-08-01

    Studies examining factors that influence when words are learned typically investigate one lexical category or a small set of words. We provide the first evaluation of the relation between input frequency and age of acquisition for a large sample of words. The MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory provides norming data on age of acquisition for 562 individual words collected from the parents of children aged 0 ; 8 to 2 ; 6. The CHILDES database provides estimates of frequency with which parents use these words with their children (age: 0 ; 7-7 ; 5; mean age: 36 months). For production, across all words higher parental frequency is associated with later acquisition. Within lexical categories, however, higher frequency is related to earlier acquisition. For comprehension, parental frequency correlates significantly with the age of acquisition only for common nouns. Frequency effects change with development. Thus, frequency impacts vocabulary acquisition in a complex interaction with category, modality and developmental stage.

  13. BUSINESS ENGLISH WORD GAMES – A WELCOMED VOCABULARY TEACHING TECHNIQUE

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    Ioana Claudia Horea

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducing vocabulary has never been very problematic nor a doubt generating aspect in teaching a language, at least not in respect of what has to be done actually along this part of the lesson or how this stage should be approached. It cannot be said that it has ever been too much of a challenge, but rather a simple and straightforward phase in the economy of the English class. Business English vocabulary teaching methods have to make allowance for the specificity of the field, though. Thus, much consideration has to be given to the way Business English lexical units are introduced so that the technique used could produce the desired results into the students: acquisition of specific terminology, assimilation of meanings and development of skills that shall ensure accurate usage of the terms in the future. After an experimental semester, most adequate class approaches to serve the purposes abovementioned proved to be – rather non-academic, it may be argued – the word games. The current study presents the detailed steps of two distinct teaching methods used and the comparative results obtained with the two groups of students submitted to the experiment. Along the Business English courses in one semester, there were four vocabulary introduction lessons. The nonconformist technique of word games was implemented to one of the two groups of students while the other was taught the regular style. The comparative study focused on several aspects, from the observation of the class reactions and participation along the process of teaching, i.e. response to the didactic process during each class, to the checking of the effects of both types of implementation, namely assessing assimilation of the previously taught material in terms of knowledge of vocabulary and correct interpretation, by random tests and by final test results. If teaching methodologies regularly claim that the general to particular approach is the most effective, here a vice

  14. In search of the best technique for vocabulary acquisition

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    Mohammad Mohseni-Far

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Teade plagiaadi kohta / Report of an Act of Plagiarism (6. mai 2012 / 6 May, 2012ERÜ aastaraamatus 4 (2008 lk 121–138 ilmunud Mohammad Mohseni-Far'i artikli "In Search of the Best Technique for Vocabulary Acquisition" näol on tegemist iseenda plagiaadiga. Sama artikkel on 2008. a ilmunud lisaks ERÜ aastaraamatule veel KAKS KORDA ligilähedases sõnastuses ning ligilähedase pealkirjaga. Kuna autor on tegelnud sõnastuse muutmisega, siis järelikult on tegemist teadliku plagiaadiga. Vt ka Check for Plagiarism On the Web.We are sorry to inform that Mohammad Mohseni-Far, the author of 'In Search of the Best Technique for Vocabulary Acquisition' published in ERÜ aastaraamat / EAAL yearbook, Vol. 4 (2008 pp. 121–138, has published the same article TWICE in another journal just by changing the title and a few wordings. The plagiarism is verified, using the Check for Plagiarism On the Web.A Cognitively-oriented Encapsulation of Strategies Utilized for Lexical Development: In search of a flexible and highly interactive curriculum. – Porta Linguarum 9 (2008, 35–42. Techniques and Strategies Utilized for Vocabulary Acquisition: the necessity to design a multifaceted framework with an instructionally wise equilibrium. – Porta Linguarum 8 (2007, 137–152.ERÜ aastaraamatu toimetus / Editors of the EAAL yearbook***The present study is intended to critically examine vocabulary learning/acquisition techniques within second/foreign language context. Accordingly, the purpose of this survey is to concentrate particularly on the variables connected with lexical knowledge and establish a fairly all-inclusive framework which comprises and expounds on the most significant strategies and relevant factors within the vocabulary acquisition context. At the outset, the study introduces four salient variables; learner, task and strategy serve as a general structure of inquiry (Flavell’s cognitive model, 1992. Besides, the variable of context

  15. Fertility-related knowledge and information-seeking behaviour among people of reproductive age: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarberg, Karin; Zosel, Rebecca; Comoy, Caroline; Robertson, Sarah; Holden, Carol; Deeks, Mandy; Johnson, Louise

    2017-06-01

    Some potentially modifiable factors adversely affect fertility and pregnancy health. To inform a fertility health promotion programme, this study investigated fertility knowledge and information-seeking behaviour among people of reproductive age. This was a qualitative study involving six focus group discussions with women and men who intended to have children in the future and eight paired interviews with couples who were actively trying to conceive. Participants (n = 74) themselves generally claimed 'low' to 'average' levels of knowledge about fertility. Most of them overestimated women's reproductive lifespan and had limited knowledge about the 'fertile window' of the menstrual cycle. The Internet was a common source of fertility-related information and social media was viewed as a potential effective avenue for dissemination of messages about fertility and how to protect it. Most participants agreed that primary health care providers, such as general practitioners (GPs), are well placed to provide information regarding fertility and pregnancy health. This study identified several gaps in knowledge among people of reproductive age about factors that influence fertility and pregnancy health negatively. Addressing these knowledge gaps in school curricula, primary care and health promotion would assist people to realize their reproductive goals and reduce the risk of infertility and adverse obstetric outcomes.

  16. VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT OF KINDERGARTEN STUDENTS OF APPLE TREE PRE-SCHOOL SAMARINDA BY USING FLASHCARDS

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    Nadia Mustika Rachmita

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This present study aimed to investigate 14 kindergarten students of Apple Tree pre-school Samarinda with various ability toward their English vocabularies development by flashcards. A Class Action Research was applied in this study. The data was collected through observation checklist, sequence of cycles and interview transcript. Then, building on the analysis of the collected data, it further discusses the vocabulary development of YL and provides suggestions for TEYL. This study revealed that; (1 most of the students developed their English vocabularies gradually by flashcards. (2 These result indicated that TEYL especially kindergarten students by using flashcards could give significant vocabularies development in learning process. Flashcards is one of the simplest and effective teaching materials for teaching YL vocabulary due to the fact that flashcards are categorized based on themes with full colored pictures which attractive for YL. As this study showed the students were engaged with the topics given since the teachers used flashcards to teach English vocabulary. It was difficult to make engagement with YL in English teaching and learning because YL have different mood, self-motivation, and self-confidence which influenced to the willingness in grasping the lesson. Finally, through this based-picture learning, the students indicated that their progress in vocabulary development although this phenomena was commonly happened in TEFL for YL that lead to teaching method done by English teachers who are required to do more innovation toward their teaching method, to develop sufficient knowledge and to use proper teaching media.        

  17. DESIGNING AND BUILDING EXERCISE MODEL OF TECHNICAL ENGLISH VOCABULARIES USING CALL (COMPUTER ASSISTED LANGUAGE LEARNING

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    Yogi Widiawati

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The research is aimed to assist and facilitate the students of Electrical and Electronics Department of Politeknik Negeri Jakarta (State Polytechnics of Jakarta, Indonesia, in learning technical English vocabulary. As technical students, they study ESP (English for Specific Purposes and they find some obstacles in memorizing technical vocabularies which are very important in order to read and understand manual books for laboratory and workshop. Some English technical vocabularies among others are “generate”, “pile”, “bench”, et cetera. The research outcome is software which will be beneficial for technical students, especially electrical and electronics students. This software can be used to practice their vocabulary skills, so they will be more skillful and knowledgeable. This software is designed by using the program of Rapid E-Learning Suite Version 5.2 and Flash CS3. The software practice contains some exercises on reading text and reading comprehension questions and presented with the multiple answers. This software is handy and flexible because students can bring it anywhere and be studied anytime. It is handy because this software is put and saved in CD (compact disc, so the students can take it with them anywhere and anytime they want to learn. In other words, they have flexibility to learn and practice English Technical Vocabularies. As a result, the students are found one of the ways to overcome their problems of memorizing vocabularies. The product is a kind of software which is easily used and portable so that the students can use the software anywhere and anytime. It consists of 3 (three sections of exercises. At the end of each exercise, the students are evaluated automatically by looking at the scoring system. These will encourage them to get good score by repeating it again and again. So the technical words are not problem for them. Furthermore, the students can practice technical English vocabulary both at home and

  18. THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON VOCABULARY LEARNING

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    Sim Monica-Ariana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at investigating the impact of computer and social media in improving students’ knowledge of English language namely vocabulary acquisition (focused on Facebook with intermediate and upper intermediate first and second year ELT students in Economics at the Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Oradea. Social media technologies take on many different forms including magazines, Internet forums, weblogs, social blogs, wikis, social networks, podcasts, pictures, videos etc. Technologies cover blogging, picture-sharing, wall-posting, music-sharing just to name a few. Nowadays Facebook technology seems to play an important part for the social life of so many becoming more and more popular as a main means of communication, that it could also meet an educational need. Thus it could play a distinguished role in foreign language learning and teaching. Several studies investigate using different technologies in learning and teaching, in particular, foreign language learning. Still, rare studies were interested precisely in the role of Facebook in learning foreign languages. In this study was intended to assess the role and effectiveness of Facebook use in vocabulary learning. Particularly, the research attempts to answer the question: Can social media affect students’ development and progress in the foreign language?’ In order to discover the answer to this question of the study, a project based on Facebook for the experimental group was conceived. It was assumed that significant differences were to be found between the groups using social media for learning purposes and those who did not in developing vocabulary knowledge. The study was conducted with a number of 127 students of the Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Oradea, 1st and 2nd year students following the specializations: International Business, Management, Marketing, Finances studying in the academic year 2013-2014. The development in each group was measured

  19. Development and Initial Reliability Testing of NAK-50+: A Nutrition Attitude and Knowledge Questionnaire for Adults 50+ Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducak, Kate; Keller, Heather

    2016-03-01

    Few questionnaires to test nutrition knowledge and attitudes of older adults living independently in the community have been developed and tested to assess self-management tools such as Nutri-eSCREEN and other education programs. This study is a first step in the development of a questionnaire designed to evaluate the nutrition knowledge and attitudes of independent older adults (NAK-50+). The steps involved in this study were: (i) drafting initial questions based on the content of the Nutri-eSCREEN education material, (ii) using cognitive interviewing to determine if these questions were understandable and relevant (n = 9 adults ≥50 years of age), and (iii) completing test-retest reliability in a convenient community sample (n = 60 adults ≥50 years of age). Intra-class coefficients (ICC) and kappa were used to determine reliability. A 33-item questionnaire resulted from this development and analysis. ICC for the total score was 0.68 indicating good agreement and thus initial reliability. NAK-50+ is a face valid and reliable questionnaire that assesses nutrition knowledge and attitudes in independent adults aged ≥50 years. Further work to determine construct validity and to refine the questionnaire is warranted. Availability of the questionnaire for this age group will support rigorous evaluation of education and self-management interventions for this segment of the population.

  20. Mothers' knowledge about EPI and its relation with age-appropriate vaccination of infants in peri-urban Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Nazish; Siddiqi, Azfar-e-alam; Nisar, Nighat; Khan, Altaf

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the relation between the knowledge of mothers about EPI vaccinations and their infant's coverage. Effect of other socio-demographic variables on mothers' knowledge and child's coverage was also assessed. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, utilizing World Health Organization's thirty-cluster sampling strategy. All households with at least one infant were considered eligible. After obtaining verbal consent, the mother was interviewed to assess her knowledge and attitudes towards EPI vaccination. Infant's coverage status was verified by checking EPI card or verbal inquiry. A knowledge score was developed by summing all correct answers. A total of 210 mothers (7 per cluster) were identified and interviewed. The number and proportion of mothers correctly identifying the seven EPI diseases were as follows; Tuberculosis 57 (27.1%), Diphtheria 53 (25.2%), Pertussis 71 (33.8%), Tetanus 70 (33.3%), Measles 85 (40.5%), Polio 91 (43.3%) and Hepatitis B 65 (31.0%). Only ninety four (44.8%) children were appropriately vaccinated for their age. In the multivariate model, mothers' knowledge was not significantly associated with appropriate vaccination of their children (p = 0.22), however, mothers' education was found to be significant (p Mothers' knowledge about EPI vaccination in peri-urban Karachi was quite low and not associated with their children's EPI coverage. Mothers' educational status, however, was significantly associated with Child's coverage. This finding depicts a better health seeking behaviour of a more educated mother.

  1. Adult age differences in memory in relation to availability and accessibility of knowledge-based schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuckle, T Y; Vanderleck, V F; Harsany, M; Lapidus, S

    1990-03-01

    Three experiments investigated whether, over adulthood, the use of schemas to process and remember new information increases (developmental shift hypothesis), decreases (production deficiency hypothesis) or remains constant (age-invariance hypothesis). Effects of schema access were studied by having young, middle-aged, and old music experts and nonexperts recall information that was relevant or irrelevant to music (Experiment 1) and by comparing young and old participants' memory for prose passages when they knew or did not know the subject of the passage (Experiments 2 and 3). In each case, schema access facilitated memory equally across age levels, supporting the age-invariance hypothesis and implying that the basic structures and operations of memory do not necessarily change with age. Possible limits on the independence of age and schema utilization were considered in relation to the conditions under which each of the two alternative hypotheses might hold.

  2. Developmental changes in maternal education and minimal exposure effects on vocabulary in English- and Spanish-learning toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Margaret; DeAnda, Stephanie; Arias-Trejo, Natalia; Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Zesiger, Pascal

    2017-12-01

    The current research follows up on two previous findings: that children with minimal dual-language exposure have smaller receptive vocabularies at 16months of age and that maternal education is a predictor of vocabulary when the dominant language is English but not when it is Spanish. The current study extends this research to 22-month-olds to assess the developmental effects of minimal exposure and maternal education on direct and parent-report measures of vocabulary size. The effects of minimal exposure on vocabulary size are no longer present at 22months of age, whereas maternal education effects remain but only for English speakers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Vocabulary Theatre: A Peer-Teaching Approach for Academic Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Elizabeth; Sinatra, Richard; Eschenauer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This mixed methods counterbalanced study compared the gain score means of two different approaches to vocabulary acquisition--Vocabulary Theater (VT) and Teacher Directed Instruction (TDI) for 8th grade students from three schools in New York. The purpose of the study was to explore the effects of a peer teaching approach on students' vocabulary…

  4. A case study of a vocabulary strategy in a high school class of special education students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevost, Jill K.

    In the United States, almost 7000 students drop out of high school every day and the most common reason is academic failure. The economic, social, and emotional cost of dropping out of high school are enormous. Vocabulary knowledge is essential for students to grasp the concepts of a content area and there has been little research reported for scaffolding vocabulary learning in content classes. The purpose of this study was to investigate a vocabulary instructional strategy in a high school biology class. The research questions focused on understanding the vocabulary instructional strategy and student perception of the strategy. This was an evaluative case study using a convenience sample of a college preparatory biology class of special education students. Participants included eight males and two females who were identified as having learning, emotional or health disabilities with average to low average intelligence. Informal interviews, observations, school records, student and teacher artifacts and rich description were used for data triangulation. Analysis involved coding and grouping data by category, and identification of relationships between categories. Three themes emerged from this study: Students believed the strategy helped them to learn vocabulary, the strategy gave direction to instruction, and the strategy can be difficult to implement. The skill level of our future work force and the health of our society is linked to our nation's high school graduation rate. Development of instructional strategies that result in student academic success will improve our high school graduation rate which will result in positive social change.

  5. A Model of Communicative Teaching and Learning of English Vocabulary Through Interactive Actin vities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahraini Sahraini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Teaching English vocabulary is very important, and it is more than just presenting and introducing new vocabulary to the students. Knowing words is not only memorizing them, but the students need to understand the meaning of the word in context and how the words are used. This can be achieved through correct vocabulary instruction which should involve vocabulary selection, word knowledge, and techniques. The needs of prospective teachers in mastering English both spoken and written, and the ability to teach using English as the language of instruction in the teaching and learning process in the classroom is very important. They also need the skills to teach English effectively and enjoyable to make the students have confident to use English communicatively. Deciding an interesting method for students is also an English teachers’ job to do. In this paper the writer tries to design a model of teaching and learning of English vocabulary through interactive activities. By using a lot of interactive activities, hopefully the students are able to practice to communicate by using English in oral and written.

  6. Expanding the Circle of Knowledge: Reconceptualizing Successful Aging Among North American Older Indigenous Peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Jessica E; Grenier, Amanda

    2017-03-01

    Indigenous older peoples' voices and experiences remain largely absent in the dominant models and critical scholarship on aging and late life. This article examines the relevance of the model of successful aging for Indigenous peoples in North America. This article presents the results of a review of the published conceptual literature on successful aging among Indigenous peoples. Our intent was to explore the current state of the field of successful aging among Indigenous peoples and suggest dimensions that may be more reflective of Indigenous voices and experiences that leads to a more inclusive model of successful aging. Based on our review, we suggest four dimensions that may broaden understandings of successful aging to be more inclusive of Indigenous older people: health and wellness, empowerment and resilience, engagement and behavior, and connectedness. Our review suggests that Indigenous peoples' voices and experiences are beginning to be included in academic literature on successful aging. However, we suggest that understandings of successful aging be broadened based on our summative findings and a process of community involvement. Such processes can lead to the development of models that are more inclusive to a wide range of older people, including Indigenous older peoples. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. COMPUTER-ASSISTED VOCABULARY LEARNING: THE POWER OF GAMING ON STUDENTS’ ENGLISH VOCABULARY ACHIEVEMENT

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    Yune Andryani Pinem

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to find out whether the power of gaming contributed to vocabulary learning and gave significant upgrading in students‘ vocabulary scores through its comparison to the dull and routine vocabulary learning. The subjects, two groups of Indonesian students, were tested in a pre-test before joining two different methods of vocabulary learning, and finally were tested in a post-test. Data were collected from the students‘ pre-test and post-test scores. From the comparison of these two groups‘ data, the output proved that the vocabulary class using ―Little Shop of Treasure‖ online games was better in boosting students‘ scores.

  8. Anatomical traces of vocabulary acquisition in the adolescent brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, HweeLing; Devlin, Joseph T; Shakeshaft, Clare; Stewart, Lauren H; Brennan, Amanda; Glensman, Jen; Pitcher, Katherine; Crinion, Jenny; Mechelli, Andrea; Frackowiak, Richard S J; Green, David W; Price, Cathy J

    2007-01-31

    A surprising discovery in recent years is that the structure of the adult human brain changes when a new cognitive or motor skill is learned. This effect is seen as a change in local gray or white matter density that correlates with behavioral measures. Critically, however, the cognitive and anatomical mechanisms underlying these learning-related structural brain changes remain unknown. Here, we combined brain imaging, detailed behavioral analyses, and white matter tractography in English-speaking monolingual adolescents to show that a critical linguistic prerequisite (namely, knowledge of vocabulary) is proportionately related to relative gray matter density in bilateral posterior supramarginal gyri. The effect was specific to the number of words learned, regardless of verbal fluency or other cognitive abilities. The identified region was found to have direct connections to other inferior parietal areas that separately process either the sounds of words or their meanings, suggesting that the posterior supramarginal gyrus plays a role in linking the basic components of vocabulary knowledge. Together, these analyses highlight the cognitive and anatomical mechanisms that mediate an essential language skill.

  9. The Effectiveness of Digital Game-Based Vocabulary Learning: A Framework-Based View of Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng-Hua; Tseng, Wen-Ta; Hsiao, Tsung-Yuan

    2018-01-01

    This study presents the results of a meta-analytic study about the effects of digital game-based learning (DGBL) on vocabulary. The results of the study showed that the effects of DGBL on vocabulary learning may vary with game design features (Q = 5.857, df = 1, p = 0.016), but not with learners' age (Q = 0.906, df = 1, p = 0.341) or linguistic…

  10. Expressive vocabulary and auditory processing in children with deviant speech acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintas, Victor Gandra; Mezzomo, Carolina Lisbôa; Keske-Soares, Márcia; Dias, Roberta Freitas

    2010-01-01

    expressive vocabulary and auditory processing in children with phonological disorder. to compare the performance of children with phonological disorder in a vocabulary test with the parameters indicated by the same test and to verify a possible relationship between this performance and auditory processing deficits. participants were 12 children diagnosed with phonological disorders, with ages ranging from 5 to 7 years, of both genders. Vocabulary was assessed using the ABFW language test and the simplified auditory processing evaluation (sorting), Alternate Dichotic Dissyllable - Staggered Spondaic Word (SSW), Pitch Pattern Sequence (PPS) and the Binaural Fusion Test (BF). considering performance in the vocabulary test, all children obtained results with no significant statistical. As for the auditory processing assessment, all children presented better results than expected; the only exception was on the sorting process testing, where the mean accuracy score was of 8.25. Regarding the performance in the other auditory processing tests, the mean accuracy averages were 6.50 in the SSW, 10.74 in the PPS and 7.10 in the BF. When correlating the performance obtained in both assessments, considering p>0.05, the results indicated that, despite the normality, the lower the value obtained in the auditory processing assessment, the lower the accuracy presented in the vocabulary test. A trend was observed for the semantic fields of "means of transportation and professions". Considering the classification categories of the vocabulary test, the SP (substitution processes) were the categories that presented the higher significant increase in all semantic fields. there is a correlation between the auditory processing and the lexicon, where vocabulary can be influenced in children with deviant speech acquisition.

  11. Methods for structuring scientific knowledge from many areas related to aging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhavoronkov, Alex; Cantor, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Aging and age-related disease represents a substantial quantity of current natural, social and behavioral science research efforts. Presently, no centralized system exists for tracking aging research projects across numerous research disciplines. The multidisciplinary nature of this research complicates the understanding of underlying project categories, the establishment of project relations, and the development of a unified project classification scheme. We have developed a highly visual database, the International Aging Research Portfolio (IARP), available at AgingPortfolio.org to address this issue. The database integrates information on research grants, peer-reviewed publications, and issued patent applications from multiple sources. Additionally, the database uses flexible project classification mechanisms and tools for analyzing project associations and trends. This system enables scientists to search the centralized project database, to classify and categorize aging projects, and to analyze the funding aspects across multiple research disciplines. The IARP is designed to provide improved allocation and prioritization of scarce research funding, to reduce project overlap and improve scientific collaboration thereby accelerating scientific and medical progress in a rapidly growing area of research. Grant applications often precede publications and some grants do not result in publications, thus, this system provides utility to investigate an earlier and broader view on research activity in many research disciplines. This project is a first attempt to provide a centralized database system for research grants and to categorize aging research projects into multiple subcategories utilizing both advanced machine algorithms and a hierarchical environment for scientific collaboration.

  12. The Influence of Age-Related Differences in Prior Knowledge and Attentional Refreshing Opportunities on Episodic Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaiza, Vanessa M; Rhodes, Matthew G; Anglin, Julia

    2015-09-01

    The assumption that working memory (WM) is embedded within long-term memory suggests that the effectiveness of switching information between activated states in WM (i.e., attentional refreshing) may depend on whether that information is semantically relevant. Given that older adults often have greater general knowledge than younger adults, age-related deficits in episodic memory (EM) could be ameliorated by studying information that has existing semantic representations compared with unknown information. Younger and older adults completed a modified operation span task that varied the number of refreshing opportunities. The memoranda used were equally known to younger and older adults (neutral words; e.g., father), better known to older adults than younger adults (dated words; e.g., mirth), or unknown to both groups (unknown words; e.g., cobot). Results for immediate and delayed recall indicated an age-related improvement for dated memoranda and no age difference for unknown memoranda. Furthermore, refreshing opportunities predicted delayed recall of neutral memoranda more strongly for younger adults than older adults, whereas older adults' recall advantage for dated memoranda was explained by their prior knowledge and not refreshing opportunities. The results suggest that older adults' EM deficits could potentially be ameliorated by incorporating their superior knowledge to supplement relatively ineffective attentional refreshing in WM. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Knowledge and practices related to sexually transmitted infections among women of reproductive age living in Katanga slum, Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawagi, Faith; Mpimbaza, Arthur; Mukisa, John; Serwadda, Patrick; Kyalema, Samuel; Kizza, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) still stand as one of the commonest health problems affecting women of reproductive age. The knowledge and practices of STIs, among susceptible populations such as women of reproductive age, living in slums like Katanga in Kampala Uganda need to be established. This was a cross-sectional study with 339 participants in Katanga slum. Data was collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire, entered and analysed using SPSS version 17.0. Data was summarized using frequencies for categorical data and medians for continuous data. Majority of the participants (71.9%) were ≥25years with a mean age of 28.0(SD ±7.0) years. The commonest symptoms known to the participants were genital itching (60%) and genital rash (14.5%). Most mentioned multiple partners (63.7%) and unprotected sex (50.7%) as predisposing factors to STIs. Knowledge on methods of prevention was high (92.3%) however, 18.8% were found positive for STIs using the syndromic approach and 82% mentioned having suffered from STIs in the past 6 months more than once. Most participants did not know about the systemic effects of STIs to their health and didnot follow the appropriate behavior patterns despite being knowledgeable about the various methods of prevention of STIs.

  14. ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE PACEMAKER ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN THE AGE OF THE NEW ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Ficoń

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents information challenges of the new economy enterprises in the field of efficient use of resources information stored in the information and communication systems. Modern companies are inundated with an avalanche of information in the form of elementary con-text-source data with little usefulness in making business decisions. This phenomenon is to counteract modern technologies, data extraction and compression of information among developed within the engineering know-between (Knowledge Engineering. Were discussed in detail three selected methods of OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing, DM (Data Mining and BI (Business Intelligence is increasingly used on virtual platforms Cloud Computing. Intelligent selection of information source and dedicated personalization business knowledge is a huge challenge to the entire sector IT and requires radical solutions conceptual and technological.

  15. LEARNING VOCABULARY THROUGH COLOURFUL PUZZLE GAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risca Dwiaryanti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary plays an important role because it links to the four skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Those aspects should be integrated in teaching and learning process of English. However, the students must be able to know the meaning of each word or vocabulary of English in order to master the four skills. It is as a mean to create a sentence in daily communication to show someone’s feeling, opinion, idea, desire, etc. So that, both speakers understand what the other speaker mean. However, English as a second language in Indonesia seems very hard for the students to master vocabulary of English. It makes them not easy to be understood directly and speak fluently. The students, sometimes, get difficulties in understanding, memorizing the meaning of the vocabulary, and getting confused in using the new words. There must be an effective strategy to attract students’ interest, break the boredom, and make the class more lively. Based on the writer experience, Colourful Puzzle Game is able to make the students learn vocabulary quickly. It needs teacher’s creativity to create the materials of this game based on the class condition. The teacher just need a game board made from colourful papers, write any command and prohibition words on it. A dice is a tool to decide where the player should stop based on the number. Some pins as counter as sign of each player.

  16. Enriching Students’ Vocabulary Mastery Using Graphic Organizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaifudin Latif Darmawan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This action research is carried out to (1 identify whether graphic organizers enrich student’s vocabulary mastery; and (2 to describe the classroom situation when graphic organizers are employed in instructional process of vocabulary. The research is conducted in two cycles from March to May 2016/2017 in the eight years of SMP Muhammadiyah Sekampung, East lampung. The procedure of the research consists of identifying the problem, planning the action, implementing the action, observing the action, and reflecting the result of the research. Qualitative data are collected through interview, observation, questionnaire, and research diary. Quantitative data are collected through test. To analyze qualitative data, the researcher used constant comparative method. It consists of four steps: (1 comparing incidents applicable to each category; (2 Integrating categories and their properties; (3 delimiting the theory; (4 Writing the theory. Meanwhile, to analyze quantitative data, the researcher employed descriptive statistic.    The result of the research shows that using graphic organizers can enrich students’ vocabulary mastery and classroom situation. The improvement on students’ vocabulary included; a the students are able to speak English; b the students are able to understand the meaning of the text as they have a lot of vocabularies. The improvement of the classroom situation; (a students come on time in the class (b students are more motivated to join the class (c Students pay more attention in the instructional process (d students’ participation in responding the questions are high.

  17. [Evaluation of temporality semantic knowledge in normal aging and in mild and moderate stages of Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivasseau Jonveaux, T; Batt, M; Empereur, F; Braun, M; Trognon, A

    2015-04-01

    Episodic and semantic processes are involved in temporality used in daily life. Episodic memory permits one to place an event on the time axis, while semantic memory makes us aware of the time segmentation and its symbolic representation. Memory of the knowledge connected to the passing of time is materialized on the calendar and can be seen symbolically on the dial of a clock. In AD, semantic memory processes are preserved longer than processes related to episodic memory. We wonder whether the specific field of knowledge about time is altered during AD. We validated a specific evaluation with a control group (354 healthy subjects). Then we applied this battery to assess AD patients to appreciate the feasibility of this tool for this population. We then compared 22 AD patients with a control group matched for age, sex and educational level. Our clinical scale of temporal semantic knowledge consists of four parts: (a) hour reading with a.m. and p.m. hours; (b) using a clock: 12 clock faces with the hour numbers already placed: the patient draws hour and minute hands for various hours; (c) temporal segmentation: exploration of the knowledge on daytime scale and of the calendar; (d) time duration estimation: calculate how long the interview has lasted after indicating the time of its beginning and its end, then the time between 10.40 to 12.00. While age and educational level had an influence on all the scores, in the two groups control and patients, gender did not. Temporal segmentation, independent of the cultural level, revealed the best acquired knowledge in our control population. All the scores differentiated patients from control subjects. The temporal semantic knowledge correlated with the AD severity seemed to be correlated with the attention, verbal comprehension, and some components of executive functions, but was not related to the clock drawing test result. Depression did not have any influence on this scale in our AD group. The temporal semantic knowledge

  18. Key Vocabulary Learning Strategies in ESP And EGP Course Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Akbari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of research evidence is showing the advantages of using certain skills and behaviours called language learning strategies in general and vocabulary learning strategies (VLSs in particular in the process of L2 acquisition. University students who require reading English texts in their fields of study have to expand their vocabulary knowledge in a much more efficient way than ordinary ESL/EFL learners.  And ELT course books are a good place to incorporate learner training in this regard. The purpose of this study is to see how vocabulary learning strategies are treated in both the book designer's claims section and the exercises of English for Specific Purposes (ESP course books for students of medicine and para-medicine on the one hand and English for General Purposes (EGP course book used commonly by these students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran on the other. In other words, the specified course books were analyzed based on the insights gained from VLS research to gauge the extent to which they have incorporated VLSs and training in using them. These books were published under the supervision of the center for studying and compiling university books in humanities (SAMT. Based on the review of the relevant literature, three key strategies were identified and an analytic framework was devised. The framework was then applied to the course books. It was found that the treatments in the specified course books were deemed unlikely to improve students’ abilities with these important skills and strategies.

  19. Parenting Supports for Early Vocabulary Development: Specific Effects of Sensitivity and Stimulation through Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallotton, Claire; Mastergeorge, Ann; Foster, Tricia; Decker, Kalli B.; Ayoub, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Growing recognition of disparities in early childhood language environments prompt examination of parent-child interactions which support vocabulary. Research links parental sensitivity and cognitive stimulation to child language, but has not explicitly contrasted their effects, nor examined how effects may change over time. We examined maternal sensitivity and stimulation throughout infancy using two observational methods – ratings of parents’ interaction qualities, and coding of discrete parenting behaviors - to assess the relative importance of these qualities to child vocabulary over time, and determine whether mothers make related changes in response to children’s development. Participants were 146 infants and mothers, assessed when infants were 14, 24, and 36 months. At 14 months, sensitivity had a stronger effect on vocabulary than did stimulation, but the effect of stimulation grew throughout toddlerhood. Mothers’ cognitive stimulation grew over time, whereas sensitivity remained stable. While discrete parenting behaviors changed with child age, there was no evidence of trade-offs between sensitive and stimulating behaviors, and no evidence that sensitivity moderated the effect of stimulation on child vocabulary. Findings demonstrate specificity of timing in the link between parenting qualities and child vocabulary which could inform early parent interventions, and supports a reconceptualization of the nature and measurement of parental sensitivity. PMID:28111526

  20. Vocabulary Learning as the Predictor of Third-Grader EFL Learners’ Achievement: A Case for Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jahangard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to formulate a model to predict the performance of Iranian high school third-graders on the End of the Course Achievement (ECA tests through their performance on the vocabulary tests, which were administered throughout the course. To meet this end, thirty two learners – aging seventeen to nineteen, all male – participated in the study which took nine months to complete. Their linguistic abilities were approximately at Intermediate-Mid level according to the ACTFL proficiency guidelines (1998. The sampling procedure was the intact group method. 333 lexical items were taught to the learners in the decontextualized paired-associate
    translation method. The classes were held two hours a week in a nine-month course of time. Six sets of vocabulary tests were administered and every learner’s average was calculated. The learners’ scores on the ECA tests and their average scores on the vocabulary tests were analyzed through the regression analysis procedure to derive a model that could reliably predict the learners’ ECA scores through their average performance on the vocabulary scores. The analysis yielded the following
    formula: (AVERAGE VOCABULARY × 0.713 + 2.871± [3.1].

  1. Early language processing efficiency predicts later receptive vocabulary outcomes in children born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchman, Virginia A; Adams, Katherine A; Loi, Elizabeth C; Fernald, Anne; Feldman, Heidi M

    2016-01-01

    As rates of prematurity continue to rise, identifying which preterm children are at increased risk for learning disabilities is a public health imperative. Identifying continuities between early and later skills in this vulnerable population can also illuminate fundamental neuropsychological processes that support learning in all children. At 18 months adjusted age, we used socioeconomic status (SES), medical variables, parent-reported vocabulary, scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (third edition) language composite, and children's lexical processing speed in the looking-while-listening (LWL) task as predictor variables in a sample of 30 preterm children. Receptive vocabulary as measured by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (fourth edition) at 36 months was the outcome. Receptive vocabulary was correlated with SES, but uncorrelated with degree of prematurity or a composite of medical risk. Importantly, lexical processing speed was the strongest predictor of receptive vocabulary (r = -.81), accounting for 30% unique variance. Individual differences in lexical processing efficiency may be able to serve as a marker for information processing skills that are critical for language learning.

  2. Comparative Difficulties with Non-Scientific General Vocabulary and Scientific/Medical Terminology in English as a Second Language (ESL) Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heming, Thomas A; Nandagopal, Shobha

    2012-11-01

    Medical education requires student comprehension of both technical (scientific/medical) and non-technical (general) vocabulary. Our experience with "English as a second language" (ESL) Arab students suggested they often have problems comprehending scientific statements because of weaknesses in their understanding of non-scientific vocabulary. This study aimed to determine whether ESL students have difficulties with general vocabulary that could hinder their understanding of scientific/medical texts. A survey containing English text was given to ESL students in the premedical years of an English-medium medical school in an Arabic country. The survey consisted of sample questions from the Medical College Admission Test (USA). Students were instructed to identify all unknown words in the text. ESL students commenced premedical studies with substantial deficiencies in English vocabulary. Students from English-medium secondary schools had a selective deficiency in scientific/medical terminology which disappeared with time. Students from Arabic-medium secondary schools had equal difficulty with general and scientific/medical vocabulary. Deficiencies in both areas diminished with time but remained even after three years of English-medium higher education. Typically, when teaching technical subjects to ESL students, attention is focused on subject-unique vocabulary and associated modifiers. This study highlights that ESL students also face difficulties with the general vocabulary used to construct statements employing technical words. Such students would benefit from increases in general vocabulary knowledge.

  3. Knowledge of ageing phenomenons of materials used in the PWR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vancon, D.; Meyzaud, Y.; Soulat, P.

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear power plants with PWR type reactors are planned to work during forty years and are the subject of studies aiming to check their integrity during all their life. The materials used to the fabrication of the components can be submitted different stress. The temperature, the mechanical constraints, the irradiation are examples of stress which can make the materials getting old. This text presents three themes: the ageing by irradiation, the thermal ageing and the corrosion, and their principle industrial consequences. (N.C.)

  4. Water Quality Vocabulary Development and Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, B. A.; Yu, J.; Cox, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Semantic descriptions of observed properties and associated units of measure are fundamental to understanding of environmental observations, including groundwater, surface water and marine water quality. Semantic descriptions can be captured in machine-readable ontologies and vocabularies, thus providing support for the annotation of observation values from the disparate data sources with appropriate and accurate metadata, which is critical for achieving semantic interoperability. However, current stand-alone water quality vocabularies provide limited support for cross-system comparisons or data fusion. To enhance semantic interoperability, the alignment of water-quality properties with definitions of chemical entities and units of measure in existing widely-used vocabularies is required. Modern ontologies and vocabularies are expressed, organized and deployed using Semantic Web technologies. We developed an ontology for observed properties (i.e. a model for expressing appropriate controlled vocabularies) which extends the NASA/TopQuadrant QUDT ontology for Unit and QuantityKind with two additional classes and two properties (see accompanying paper by Cox, Simons and Yu). We use our ontology to populate the Water Quality vocabulary with a set of individuals of each of the four key classes (and their subclasses), and add appropriate relationships between these individuals. This ontology is aligned with other relevant stand-alone Water Quality vocabularies and domain ontologies. Developing the Water Quality vocabulary involved two main steps. First, the Water Quality vocabulary was populated with individuals of the ObservedProperty class, which was determined from a census of existing datasets and services. Each ObservedProperty individual relates to other individuals of Unit and QuantityKind (taken from QUDT where possible), and to IdentifiedObject individuals. As a large fraction of observed water quality data are classified by the chemical substance involved, the

  5. Expository text comprehension: for which readers does knowledge of connectives contribute the most?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welie, C; Schoonen, R; Kuiken, F; van den Bergh, H.H.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined whether knowledge of connectives contributes uniquely to expository text comprehension above and beyond reading fluency, general vocabulary knowledge and metacognitive knowledge. Furthermore, it was examined whether this contribution differs for readers with different

  6. The New Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III: An Illusion of Unbiased Assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Ida J

    2000-10-01

    This article examines whether changes in the ethnic minority composition of the standardization sample for the latest edition of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III, Dunn & Dunn, 1997) can be used as the sole explanation for children's better test scores when compared to an earlier edition, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R, Dunn & Dunn, 1981). Results from a comparative analysis of these two test editions suggest that other factors may explain improved performances. Among these factors are the number of words and age levels sampled, the types of words and pictures used, and characteristics of the standardization sample other than its ethnic minority composition. This analysis also raises questions regarding the usefulness of converting scores from one edition to the other and the type of criteria that could be used to evaluate whether the PPVT-III is an unbiased test of vocabulary for children from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds.

  7. Low-SES children's eyewitness memory: the effects of verbal labels and vocabulary skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yoojin; Kulkofsky, Sarah; Debaran, Francisco; Wang, Qi; Hart, Sybil L

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the verbal labels procedure and vocabulary skills on low-socioeconomic status (SES) preschool children's eyewitness memory. Children (N = 176) aged 3-5 years witnessed a conflict event and were then questioned about it in either a standard or a verbal labels interview. Findings revealed that children with higher rather than lower vocabulary skills produced more complete and accurate memories. Children who were given the verbal labels interview recalled more information, which included both correct and incorrect details. Overall, the verbal labels procedure did not improve children's performance on direct questions, but children with low vocabulary skills answered direct questions more accurately if they were given the verbal labels interview than when they were not. Implications of the findings for memory performance of low-SES children are discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The effect of mind mapping on listening comprehension and vocabulary in early childhood education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, M.P.; van der Wilt, F.M.; van Kruistum, C.J.; van der Veen, Chiel

    2017-01-01

    In a quasi-experimental study with a pre-posttest design we examined the effect of a mind mapping intervention on listening comprehension and vocabulary of preschoolers (aged 4-6) in the Netherlands. Two classes (n=39) participated in the study. In the intervention condition (n=17) the teacher

  9. Conceptual Scoring and Classification Accuracy of Vocabulary Testing in Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Jissel B.; Peña, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of single-language and conceptual scoring on the vocabulary performance of bilingual children with and without specific language impairment. We assessed classification accuracy across 3 scoring methods. Method: Participants included Spanish-English bilingual children (N = 247) aged 5;1 (years;months) to…

  10. The Impact of the "First Language First" Model on Vocabulary Development among Preschool Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the role of the "First Language First" model for preschool bilingual education in the development of vocabulary depth. The languages studied were Russian (L1) and Hebrew (L2) among bilingual children aged 4-5 years in Israel. According to this model, the children's first language of…

  11. Vocabulary Development in European Portuguese: A Replication Study Using the Language Development Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Leslie; Nyame, Josephine; Dias, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Our objective was to replicate previous cross­linguistic findings by comparing Portuguese and U.S. children with respect to (a) effects of language, gender, and age on vocabulary size; (b) lexical composition; and (c) late talking. Method: We used the Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989) with children (18-35 months) learning…

  12. Readers, Players, and Watchers: EFL Students' Vocabulary Acquisition through Digital Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated vocabulary acquisition through a commercial digital video game compared to a traditional pencil-and-paper treatment. Chosen through cluster sampling, 241 male high school students (age 12-18) participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to one of the following groups. The first group, called Readers,…

  13. The Keyword Method of Foreign Vocabulary Learning: An Investigation of Its Generalizability. Working Paper No. 270.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Michael; And Others

    In five experiments, college-age students of differing foreign language-learning abilities were asked to learn Latin word translations to determine the effectiveness of the keyword method of foreign language vocabulary learning. The Latin words were the types for which it has been argued that the keyword method effects would be maximized (the…

  14. Early Maternal Employment and Children's Vocabulary and Inductive Reasoning Ability: A Dynamic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühhirt, Michael; Klein, Markus

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between early maternal employment history and children's vocabulary and inductive reasoning ability at age 5, drawing on longitudinal information on 2,200 children from the Growing Up in Scotland data. Prior research rarely addresses dynamics in maternal employment and the methodological ramifications of…

  15. Learning vocabulary through a serious game in Primary Education

    OpenAIRE

    Heitink, Maaike Christine; Fisser, Petra; Voogt, Joke; McBride, Ron; Searson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the effect of a serious game on the vocabulary of students in primary education. 206 students and 10 teachers used the game during vocabulary lessons in three conditions: (a)online game and vocabulary instruction, (b)online game only, and (c)paper game and vocabulary instruction. Both immediate learning and retention effects were examined. Additionally a student questionnaire and teacher interview regarding their experiences has been employed. Results show a significant le...

  16. The Cognitive Reserve Model in the Development of Delirium: The Successful Aging After Elective Surgery Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizginer, Sevdenur; Marcantonio, Edward; Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Shafi, Mouhsin; Schmitt, Eva M; Inouye, Sharon K; Jones, Richard N

    2017-11-01

    We evaluated the role of cognitive and brain reserve markers in modifying the risk of postoperative delirium associated with a pathophysiologic marker. The Successful Aging after Elective Surgery study (SAGES) enrolled 556 adults age ≥70 years without dementia scheduled for major surgery. Patients were assessed preoperatively and daily during hospitalization for delirium. We used C-reactive protein (CRP) as a pathophysiologic marker of inflammation, previously associated with delirium. Markers of reserve included vocabulary knowledge, education, cognitive activities, occupation type and complexity, head circumference, intracranial volume, and leisure activities. Vocabulary knowledge, cognitive activities, and education significantly modified the association of CRP and postoperative delirium ( P delirium associated with lower grade inflammatory processes, supporting the role of reserve in delirium.

  17. Türk Dili Edebiyatı ve Türkçe Öğretmeni Adaylarının Sözcük Dağarcıklarının Değerlendirilmesi ve Günlük Yaşamlarına Yansımaları Evaluation of Turkish Literature and Turkish Language Teaching Majors’ Vocabulary Knowledge and Its Effect on Their Daily Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma SUSAR KIRMIZI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary knowledge includes all the words one acquires duringhis or her lifetime. In terms of first language education, the active wordsused improve vocabulary knowledge. One has the ability to expresshim/herself as much as his or her vocabulary allows. The aim of thisstudy is to evaluate university students‟ vocabulary knowledge and todetermine how their vocabulary knowledge affects their daily life. In thisstudy, qualitative and quantitative research methods were usedtogether. The study was conducted with 3rd and 4th year students(n=204 at the Turkish Language and Literature Department of theFaculty of Science and Literature and the Turkish Language TeachingDepartment of the Faculty of Education, Pamukkale University, Denizli.To measure the students‟ vocabulary knowledge on Republican periodliterature, five texts of the period were used. For identifying the sample,convenient sampling was employed in the study. Firstly, a vocabularypool was created including the words in the texts and the ones that thestudents should know, then it was tried to determine to what extentthey know these words. In addition to this, to identify the effect ofstudents‟ vocabulary knowledge on their daily life, “semi-structuredinterview form” was used. The written forms including the students‟opinions were evaluated in the study as the qualitative data set. In thestudy, three most frequent unknown words are „şekva‟ (complaint,„müstevlî‟ (occupant, and „müsavat‟ (equality. The students at theFaculty of Education think that vocabulary knowledge is, in general,necessary for having a respectable social status. The students use thenew words they have learnt in poetry, prose, exams or a different type ofwriting, or even writing online. Sözcük dağarcığı yaşam boyunca edinilen kelimelerin tümüdür. Ana dili eğitimi açısından önemli olan öğrenende, kullanılan aktif sözcük dağarcığı geliştirmektir. Kişi kullandığı s

  18. Natural fertility, infertility and the role of medically assisted reproduction: The knowledge amongst women of reproductive age in North Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Nicole K; Coffey, Anne; Woods, Cindy; de Costa, Caroline

    2018-04-16

    The demand for medically assisted reproduction continues to increase, with more women encountering challenges with fertility. Due to misconceptions and gaps in knowledge, women are often unaware of the risks related to delayed childbearing. Lack of understanding of natural fertility, infertility and the role of medically assisted reproduction can lead to emotional suffering and changes in family plans. To assess the understanding and knowledge that women of reproductive age in North Queensland have regarding natural fertility, infertility and the role of medically assisted reproduction. Data were collected from 120 women (30 nurses, 30 teachers, 30 university students and 30 Technical and Further Education students) via the distribution of a structured questionnaire. Participants were surveyed in person about their personal plans and opinions, knowledge about natural fertility, infertility and medically assisted reproduction, and their preferred source of information. Participants demonstrated suboptimal knowledge levels throughout all sections of the questionnaire, in particular when asked about medically assisted reproduction. When asked to identify their main source of information, 'friends and family' was the most popular choice. Results from this North Queensland study add to the existing international literature, highlighting the widespread nature of the problem. Without adequate understanding of natural fertility, the risks of infertility, and the role and limitations of medically assisted reproduction, women make uninformed decisions. Development of local reproductive health education programs need to be instigated in response. © 2018 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  19. Are age and gender associated to tobacco use and knowledge among general practitioners?: Results of a survey in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigid Unim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess knowledge and opinions of Italian general practitioners about the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions and physicians' attitudes in addressing tobacco-related issues. METHODS: The survey was carried out through a questionnaire administered to general practitioners (GPs attending a medical refresher course. 133 Italian GPs participated in the study with a mean age of 51.4 years (SD = 6.2. RESULTS: The GPs had good knowledge about the predictors of smoking onset, pharmacotherapies for tobacco cessation and the clinical guidelines recommendations. Wrong answers were encountered for the prevalence of smokers in Italy, the Fagerstrom Test for nicotine dependence and minimal advice. Females were more subjected to higher knowledge about tobacco, and at lower risk to be a smoker/ex smoker. Furthermore, physicians > 50 years old living in northern Italy had higher knowledge score. CONCLUSIONS: Physician education on tobacco counseling is associated to increased comfort and practice in advising patients who smoke. Tobacco cessation training might increase the success rate of helping patients to quit smoking.

  20. Nutritional knowledge and habits of adolescents aged 9 to 13 years in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: a crosssectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yateem, Nabeel; Rossiter, Rachel

    2017-10-30

    Good nutritional knowledge and behaviour among adolescents is important to avoid health problems that can continue into adulthood. This cross-sectional study aimed to provide baseline data on nutritional knowledge and eating habits of adolescents in Sharjah. Data were collected from 300 adolescents aged 9-13 years attending 4 private schools using a validated self-administered questionnaire. Most students (86%) had poor nutritional knowledge, especially in key areas: nutritional terms, what constitutes healthy snacks and foods, daily nutritional requirements and components of food (e.g. fibre, fat, sugar). Only 34% of the students had healthy eating behaviour: 33% had eaten none or 1 vegetable only in the previous week, 25% had eaten unhealthy snacks 3 or more times, 19% had eaten frequently or daily at fast food outlets, and 36% had skipped breakfast frequently or daily. Culturally-specific, school-based educational interventions are warranted to build sound nutritional knowledge among adolescents and motivate the diet and behaviour changes needed to promote health throughout the lifespan.

  1. Socioeconomic status, parental education, vocabulary and language skills of children who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richels, Corrin G; Johnson, Kia N; Walden, Tedra A; Conture, Edward G

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the possible relation between standardized measures of vocabulary/language, mother and father education, and a composite measure of socioeconomic status (SES) for children who do not stutter (CWNS) and children who stutter (CWS). Participants were 138 CWNS and 159 CWS between the ages of 2;6 and 6;3 and their families. The Hollingshead Four Factor Index of Social Position (i.e., Family SES) was used to calculate SES based on a composite score consisting of weighted values for paternal and maternal education and occupation. Statistical regression analyses were conducted to investigate the relation between parental education and language and vocabulary scores for both the CWNS and CWS. Correlations were calculated between parent education, Family SES, and stuttering severity (e.g., SSI-3 score, % words stuttered). Results indicated that maternal education contributed the greatest amount of variance in vocabulary and language scores for the CWNS and for participants from both groups whose Family SES was in the lowest quartile of the distribution. However, paternal education generally contributed the greatest amount of variance in vocabulary and language scores for the CWS. Higher levels of maternal education were associated with more severe stuttering in the CWS. Results are generally consistent with existing literature on normal language development that indicates maternal education is a robust predictor of the vocabulary and language skills of preschool children. Thus, both father and mothers' education may impact the association between vocabulary/language skills and childhood stuttering, leading investigators who empirically study this association to possibly re-assess their participant selection (e.g., a priori control of parental education) and/or data analyses (e.g., post hoc covariation of parental education). The reader will be able to: (a) describe the influence of socioeconomic status on the development of

  2. Vocabulary Intervention for Adolescents with Language Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Hilary; Henry, Lucy; Müller, Lisa-Maria; Joffe, Victoria L.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Language disorder and associated vocabulary difficulties can persist into adolescence, and can impact on long-term life outcomes. Previous reviews have shown that a variety of intervention techniques can successfully enhance students' vocabulary skills; however, none has investigated vocabulary intervention specifically for adolescents…

  3. Crossword Puzzles as a Learning Tool for Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orawiwatnakul, Wiwat

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Since vocabulary is a key basis on which reading achievement depends, various vocabulary acquisition techniques have become pivotal. Among the many teaching approaches, traditional or otherwise, the use of crossword puzzles seems to offer potential and a solution for the problem of learning vocabulary. Method: This study was…

  4. Implicit and Explicit Cognitive Processes in Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ender, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Studies on vocabulary acquisition in second language learning have revealed that a large amount of vocabulary is learned without an overt intention, in other words, incidentally. This article investigates the relevance of different lexical processing strategies for vocabulary acquisition when reading a text for comprehension among 24 advanced…

  5. Vocabulary and Health Care Information Technology: State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, James J.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the controlled medical vocabularies available today and some of the reasons why they have failed to meet the needs of application developers. Topics include standard vocabularies, including International Classification of Diseases and Medical Subject Headings; uses of vocabularies in medical computing; current research; and remaining…

  6. Aging and Memory as Discrimination: Influences of Encoding Specificity, Cue Overload, and Prior Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Badham, S. P.; Poirier, M.; Gandhi, N.; Hadjivassiliou, A.; Maylor, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    From the perspective of memory-as-discrimination, whether a cue leads to correct retrieval simultaneously depends on the cue?s relationship to (a) the memory target and (b) the other retrieval candidates. A corollary of the view is that increasing encoding-retrieval match may only help memory if it improves the cue?s capacity to discriminate the target from competitors. Here, age differences in this discrimination process were assessed by manipulating the overlap between cues present at encod...

  7. The Politics of Transparency and the Calibration of Knowledge in the Digital Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Flyverbom, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the complex work of human actors and technologies that goes into producing that which appears to us as ‘transparent’. Drawing on studies of governance and surveillance, affordance theory, actor-network theory and sociological work on numbers, we analyse the role played...... the organizing properties of specific mediating technologies. We argue that mediating technologies, conceptualized here as disclosure devices, have distinctive organizing properties that are important to scrutinize. They play a central role in attempts to shed light on objects, subjects and practices...... by mediating technologies in the production of transparency and relate it to the question of how knowledge is created, recycled and modified in organizational settings. This perspective is largely absent from existing research on transparency, which construes transparency as unmediated or fails to investigate...

  8. Current knowledge and trends in age-related macular degeneration: today's and future treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez-Montoya, Raul; Oliver, Scott C N; Olson, Jeffrey L; Fine, Stuart L; Mandava, Naresh; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo

    2013-09-01

    To address the most dynamic and current issues concerning today's treatment options and promising research efforts regarding treatment for age-related macular degeneration. This review is aimed to serve as a practical reference for more in-depth reviews on the subject. An online review of the database PubMed and Ovid were performed, searching for the key words age-related macular degeneration, AMD, VEGF, treatment, PDT, steroids, bevacizumab, ranibizumab, VEGF-trap, radiation, combined therapy, as well as their compound phrases. The search was limited to articles published since 1985. All returned articles were carefully screened, and their references were manually reviewed for additional relevant data. The web page www.clinicaltrials.gov was also accessed in search of relevant research trials. A total of 363 articles were reviewed, including 64 additional articles extracted from the references. At the end, only 160 references were included in this review. Treatment for age-related macular degeneration is a very dynamic research field. While current treatments are mainly aimed at blocking vascular endothelial growth factor, future treatments seek to prevent vision loss because of scarring. Promising efforts have been made to address the dry form of the disease, which has lacked effective treatment.

  9. Desires, Need, Perceptions, and Knowledge of Assisted Reproductive Technologies of HIV-Positive Women of Reproductive Age in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimeng; Margolese, Shari; Yudin, Mark H; Raboud, Janet M; Diong, Christina; Hart, Trevor A; Shapiro, Heather M; Librach, Cliff; Gysler, Matt; Loutfy, Mona R

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to assess the desire, need, perceptions, and knowledge of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) for women living with HIV (WLWHIV) and determine correlates of ART knowledge desire. WLWHIV of reproductive age were surveyed using the survey instrument "The HIV Pregnancy Planning Questionnaire" at HIV/AIDS service organizations across Ontario, Canada. Of our cohort of 500 WLWHIV, median age was 38, 88% were previously pregnant, 78% desired more information regarding ART, 59% were open to the idea of receiving ART, 39% felt they could access a sperm bank, and 17% had difficulties conceiving (self-reported). Age, African ethnicity, and residence in an urban center were correlated with desire for more ART information. Of participants, 50% wanted to speak to an obstetrician/gynecologist regarding pregnancy planning, and 74% regarded physicians as a main source of fertility service information. While the majority of participants in our cohort desire access to ART information, most do not perceive these services as readily accessible. Healthcare practitioners were viewed as main sources of information regarding fertility services and need to provide accurate information regarding access. Fertility service professionals need to be aware of the increasing demand for ART among WLWHIV.

  10. A comparison of nutrition knowledge, attitudes and dairy consumption of school children according to age and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Colić Barić

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides traditional nutrients, milk and dairy products contain some health promoting components. The aim of this study was to detect the frequency and preferences among dairy products in school children according to age and gender. The subjects were 234 healthy children at age 10-11 years and 14-15 years from two primary schools in Zagreb. Number of participants was well balanced according to age and gender. Dietary data were collected using specially designed food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. By additional questionnaire some anthropometric parameters as well as food preferences, attitudes and nutrition knowledge on milk and dairy products were collected. According to the results the intake of milk is significantly different (p< 0.05 to gender but not to age. 91 % children consume milk, 2.3 cups/day in average. Soft drinks, fruit juices, beverages and similar drinks are consumed more often than milk. Pudding and ice cream had the highest frequency among dairy products consumed. Milk and dairy frequency intake according to age and gender are still not significantly different. Children mostly consume fresh milk (68.7%. Girls at age 14-15 years consume light milk ( ≤1.6 % fat more than younger children and boys at the same age. 86 % of children is well informed about nutritional facts linked to milk and dairy products and they are mostly educate by parents. Among anthropometric parameters a statistically significant difference (p<0.05 was observed in height with regard to gender, only among older children, and for both height and, weight and body mass indeks (BMI with regard to age.

  11. Vocabulary learning benefits from REM after slow-wave sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterink, Laura J; Westerberg, Carmen E; Paller, Ken A

    2017-10-01

    Memory reactivation during slow-wave sleep (SWS) influences the consolidation of recently acquired knowledge. This reactivation occurs spontaneously during sleep but can also be triggered by presenting learning-related cues, a technique known as targeted memory reactivation (TMR). Here we examined whether TMR can improve vocabulary learning. Participants learned the meanings of 60 novel words. Auditory cues for half the words were subsequently presented during SWS in an afternoon nap. Memory performance for cued versus uncued words did not differ at the group level but was systematically influenced by REM sleep duration. Participants who obtained relatively greater amounts of REM showed a significant benefit for cued relative to uncued words, whereas participants who obtained little or no REM demonstrated a significant effect in the opposite direction. We propose that REM after SWS may be critical for the consolidation of highly integrative memories, such as new vocabulary. Reactivation during SWS may allow newly encoded memories to be associated with other information, but this association can include disruptive linkages with pre-existing memories. Subsequent REM sleep may then be particularly beneficial for integrating new memories into appropriate pre-existing memory networks. These findings support the general proposition that memory storage benefits optimally from a cyclic succession of SWS and REM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of Education on School-aged Children's Knowledge of and Participation in "The Choking Game".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Kendall; Raingruber, Bonnie; Butler, Eric; Wilson, Machelle

    2016-06-01

    To better understand school-aged children's awareness of and attitudes about the Choking Game (TCG). To determine if education can increase awareness of the risk of injury when playing TCG and to determine if education can decrease interest in TCG participation. Anonymous pre- and post-education surveys. Two middle/high schools; one in Utah and one in California. 291 participants (163 in Utah, 128 in California) aged 9-18, 68% under age 15, 32% 15 and older; 65% white, 35% non-white; 52% female, 48% male. 76% of participants knew about TCG, of those 62% heard about it at school. 32% knew someone who had played, and twelve (4%) had played, usually with others. Most frequently cited as reasons for participation were curiosity, peer pressure, and competition. School was the most common location for playing. In California education significantly increased risk awareness, and significant positive attitude changes were observed regarding interest in playing TCG. Utah participants also exhibited attitude changes in the desired direction (less interest in playing TCG, would warn friends, and realized it was not safe to stop breathing), although results were not statistically significant, possibly due to previous education and four recent and highly publicized TCG deaths in the community. Results indicate that interactive, standardized, and skills-based education can increase student awareness of TCG risks and decrease interest in participation. Students reported that the schools were often where they first heard about TCG and where TCG was commonly played. Educators and associated health care professionals should therefore be encouraged to provide preventative education as part of school curricula.

  13. Book Review: Knowledge in the Age of Digital Capitalism: An Introduction to Cognitive Materialism by Mariano Zukerfeld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Zimmermann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Rainer E. Zimmermann reviews Mariano Zukerfeld's Knowledge in the Age of Digital Capitalism. An Introduction to Cognitive Materialism, University of Westminster Press, London, 2017, 272 pp., paperback and open access, gratis e-book. There are several aspects of innovative thoughts in this text as to recent developments, in particular concerning the manifold occasions of more or less hidden layers of exploitation originating in the use of digital technology, and mainly based on un-remunerated activities. All this speaks very much in favour of reading this book; only minor objections have to be made that should not prevent a profitable reading.

  14. The Impact of Vocabulary Enhancement Activities on Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention among Male and Female EFL Learners in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafi-Nejad, Maryam; Raftari, Shohreh; Bijami, Maryam; Khavari, Zahra; Ismail, Shaik Abdul Malik Mohamed; Eng, Lin Siew

    2014-01-01

    In general, incidental vocabulary acquisition is represented as the "picking up" of new vocabularies when students are engaged in a variety of reading, listening, speaking, or writing activities. Research has shown when learners read extensively incidental vocabulary acquisition happens. Many EFL students cannot be involved in reading…

  15. Word Lists for Vocabulary Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard-Clouston, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Within the communicative approach, often the assumption has been that with the right exposure, students will simply "pick up" the vocabulary required for learning and using English, and thus there is no need to focus on or teach it. Yet, as many teachers can attest, this is frequently not the case, and there have been recent efforts to…

  16. Shared Reading to Build Vocabulary and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Ted

    2010-01-01

    The author presents four approaches to shared reading that he used with first through third graders in a high-needs, urban elementary school with a large population of students from immigrant homes. Using sociocultural and cognitive constructivist principles, the author shows how these approaches built students' academic vocabulary and…

  17. Enhanced Context Recognition by Sensitivity Pruned Vocabularies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    a latent semantic indexing representation and a probabilistic neural network classifier. Pruning the vocabularies to approximately 20% of the original size, we find consistent context recognition enhancement for two mid size data-sets for a range of training set sizes. We also study the applicability...

  18. Vocabulary of CPH Theory and Modern Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Daei Kasmaei, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Wherefore CPH theory was presented? There are various theories in physics, but nature is unique. This is not nature's problem that we have various theories; nature obeys simple and unique law. So, we should improve our understanding of physical phenomena and unify theories. There is a compare brief...... of CPH Theory (Creative Particles of Higgs Theory) and modern physics in this vocabulary....

  19. Working Memory and Distributed Vocabulary Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Paul W. B.; Baddeley, Alan D.

    1998-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that individual differences in immediate-verbal-memory span predict success in second-language vocabulary acquisition. In the two-session study, adult subjects learned 56 English-Finnish translations. Tested one week later, subjects were less likely to remember those words they had difficulty learning, even though they had…

  20. Pictures Improve Memory of SAT Vocabulary Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Melva; Finkelstein, Arleen

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that students can improve their memory of Scholastic Aptitude Test vocabulary words by associating the words with corresponding pictures taken from magazines. Finds that long-term recall of words associated with pictures was higher than recall of words not associated with pictures. (RS)

  1. Semantic Boggle: A Game for Vocabulary Acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toma, Irina; Alexandru, Cristina-Elena; Dascalu, Mihai; Dessus, Philippe; Trausan-Matu, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Learning a new language is a difficult endeavor, the main encountered problem being vocabulary acquisition. The learning process can be improved through visual representations of coherent contexts, best represented in serious games. The game described in this paper, Semantic Boggle, is a serious

  2. Personalization of Reading Passages Improves Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, Michael; Collins-Thompson, Kevyn; Callan, Jamie; Eskenazi, Maxine; Juffs, Alan; Wilson, Lois

    2010-01-01

    The REAP tutoring system provides individualized and adaptive English as a Second Language vocabulary practice. REAP can automatically personalize instruction by providing practice readings about topics that match interests as well as domain-based, cognitive objectives. While most previous research on motivation in intelligent tutoring…

  3. Towards a Southern African English Defining Vocabulary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    of parameters, such as avoiding synonyms and antonyms, to determine which words are necessary to write definitions in a concise and simple way. It has been found that existing defining vocabularies lack certain words that would make definitions more accessible to southern African learners, and therefore there is a need ...

  4. Four Practical Principles for Enhancing Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyak, Patrick C.; Von Gunten, Heather; Autenrieth, David; Gillis, Carolyn; Mastre-O'Farrell, Julie; Irvine-McDermott, Elizabeth; Baumann, James F.; Blachowicz, Camille L. Z.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents four practical principles that lead to enhanced word-meaning instruction in the elementary grades. The authors, a collaborative team of researchers and classroom teachers, identified and developed these principles and related instructional activities during a three-year vocabulary instruction research project. The principles…

  5. Notes on an Environmental Pollution Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Science Information Exchange.

    This vocabulary covering the field of environmental pollution was compiled by the staff of the Science Information Exchange, Smithsonian Institution. The view of the approach is to include an outline-classification all physical, life, and social science aspects of environmental pollution, trying to achieve a balance in the representation of each…

  6. Teaching Vocabulary to English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Sharilyn Fox

    2009-01-01

    This study determined if the vocabulary gap for English Language Learners (ELLs) and their peers could be bridged through providing home interventions with multiple exposures to words, definitions, model sentences and context. Ninety-one first grade students from a public school in Southern California with a 95% ELL population were researched. ELL…

  7. Knowledge discovery in ophthalmology: analysis of wet form of age-related macular degeneration treatment outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulińska, Magdalena; Tataj, Emanuel; Mulawka, Jan J.; Szaflik, Jerzy

    2009-06-01

    Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD), according to epidemiological data, is a main reason of social blindness among elderly people in developed countries. There are two forms of AMD: dry and wet. The first one is of good prognosis with low possibility of serious visual deterioration, while the second one usually leads to quick and severe visual impairment. The aim of our investigations is to analyse results of so called real-life treatment of wet AMD. We analysed outcomes of our patients treated with intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF drugs: Lucentis (61 patients) and Avastin (78 patients). We analysed changes in visual acuity (functional effect) and central retinal thickness (anatomic effect). Both drugs occurred to be efficient in treatment of wet form of AMD, however results were more satisfying in patients with better baseline visual acuity. In our approach we used R environment - an integrated suite of software facilities for data analysis and graphics.

  8. Developing semantic networks : Individual differences in Dutch monolingual and bilingual children’s semantic knowledge and reading comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spätgens, T.M.

    2018-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is a fundamental requirement for school success, not least because of its importance for the acquisition of literacy skills. However, the acquisition of word knowledge entails more than simply extending vocabulary size. In this dissertation, three other aspects of word knowledge

  9. Selective deficits in episodic feeling of knowing in ageing: a novel use of the general knowledge task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morson, Suzannah M; Moulin, Chris J A; Souchay, Céline

    2015-05-01

    Failure to recall an item from memory can be accompanied by the subjective experience that the item is known but currently unavailable for report. The feeling of knowing (FOK) task allows measurement of the predictive accuracy of this reflective judgement. Young and older adults were asked to provide answers to general knowledge questions both prior to and after learning, thus measuring both semantic and episodic memory for the items. FOK judgements were made at each stage for all unrecalled responses, providing a measure of predictive accuracy for semantic and episodic knowledge. Results demonstrated a selective effect of age on episodic FOK resolution, with older adults found to have impaired episodic FOK accuracy while semantic FOK accuracy remained intact. Although recall and recognition measures of episodic memory are equivalent between the two age groups, older adults may have been unable to access contextual details on which to base their FOK judgements. The results suggest that older adults are not able to accurately predict future recognition of unrecalled episodic information, and consequently may have difficulties in monitoring recently encoded memories. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Evolving Knowledge in Pharmacologic Treatments of Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubrane Daguet, Gisèle; Risard-Gasiorowski, Sarah; Massamba, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Modern retinal drug therapy is a result of the recent challenges and breakthroughs in chemistry, physics, genetics, cell biology and biotechnologies. Specific pharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic characteristics of a drug are of major importance and contribute to its ability to penetrate targeted ocular tissues in order to result in effective therapeutic concentrations. In addition, the drugs should maintain a prolonged time of activity and be safe with minimal local and systemic toxicity. The transporter vehicle or drug delivery system is crucial in order to enhance ocular tissue penetration and establish controlled drug release. Administration methods should be local, thereby reducing systemic side effects, and, ideally, treatment should be noninvasive. Within the group of so-called classic therapies, the use of pharmacologic treatments has become widespread for most severe retinal diseases. Thereby, ocular therapy of diseases like exudative age-related macular degeneration has improved markedly. Moreover, new metabolic pathways have been identified, new molecules have emerged, new synthesis technologies have been discovered, and new formulae conceived. These developments have opened new avenues for limiting disease progression. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Clinical vocabulary as a boundary object in multidisciplinary care management of multiple chemical sensitivity, a complex and chronic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampalli, Tara; Shepherd, Michael; Duffy, Jack

    2011-04-14

    Research has shown that accurate and timely communication between multidisciplinary clinicians involved in the care of complex and chronic health conditions is often challenging. The domain knowledge for these conditions is heterogeneous, with poorly categorized, unstructured, and inconsistent clinical vocabulary. The potential of boundary object as a technique to bridge communication gaps is explored in this study. A standardized and controlled clinical vocabulary was developed as a boundary object in the domain of a complex and chronic health condition, namely, multiple chemical sensitivity, to improve communication among multidisciplinary clinicians. A convenience sample of 100 patients with a diagnosis of multiple chemical sensitivity, nine multidisciplinary clinicians involved in the care of patients with multiple chemical sensitivity, and 36 clinicians in the community participated in the study. Eighty-two percent of the multidisciplinary and inconsistent vocabulary was standardized using the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine - Clinical Terms (SNOMED(®) CT as a reference terminology. Over 80% of the multidisciplinary clinicians agreed on the overall usefulness of having a controlled vocabulary as a boundary object. Over 65% of clinicians in the community agreed on the overall usefulness of the vocabulary. The results from this study are promising and will be further evaluated in the domain of another complex chronic condition, ie, chronic pain. The study was conducted as a preliminary analysis for developing a boundary object in a heterogeneous domain of knowledge.

  12. The relationship between peer conflict resolution knowledge and peer victimization in school-age children across the language continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Wenonah N; Skarakis-Doyle, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Peer victimization, or bullying, has been identified as a significant child health priority and children with language impairment (LI) are among those who are vulnerable. Given the mandate of educators to provide support for all students who are bullied regardless of language status, research is needed that integrates the study of risk factors for peer victimization among children who are developing typically and children who have LI. Accordingly, this preliminary study explored the degree to which one potential risk factor, peer conflict resolution knowledge, was related to peer victimization in children across the language continuum, and considered whether or not individual differences in language ability influenced that relationship. Participants included 17 girls and 15 boys aged 9-12 years with a wide range of language abilities, six meeting criteria for LI. Participants completed a hypothetical peer conflict resolution task and a measure of peer victimization. Correlational analyses revealed very different patterns of relationships for boys and girls. Whereas boys' reports of peer victimization were meaningfully related to how they responded to hypothetical peer conflicts, girls' reports were most strongly associated with language ability. These preliminary findings suggest that it is important to consider gender when conceptualizing how factors such as peer conflict resolution knowledge might influence children's risk of being bullied. Readers will be able to: (1) provide a definition of peer victimization and give examples of different forms of peer victimization; (2) recognize that inadequate peer conflict resolution knowledge may be a risk factor for peer victimization; (3) describe the relationships between peer conflict resolution knowledge, language ability, and peer victimization in this study, and explain how these relationships differed for boys and girls; and (4) identify at least three opportunities for future research that would help to clarify

  13. No difference in stroke knowledge between Korean adherents to traditional and western medicine – the AGE study: an epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Su-Yong

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective stroke intervention and risk reduction depend on the general public's awareness and knowledge of stroke. In Korea, where both traditional Oriental medicine and Western medicine are practiced, estimates of the general public's awareness and knowledge of stroke are poor. The present study sought to describe the inception cohort of the Ansan Geriatric Study (AGE study and to determine baseline stroke awareness and preferred medical treatment for stroke in this Korean sample. Methods A total of 2,767 subjects selected randomly from the Ansan Geriatric Study in South Korea were questioned about stroke. Their answers were compared with their sociodemographic data and other variables. Results Only 44.8% of participants correctly identified stroke as a vascular disease in the human brain. Sudden numbness or weakness was the most frequently identified stroke warning sign (60.2%. Hypertension (66.7% and mental stress (62.2% were most frequently identified as stroke risk factors. The contributions of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease to stroke were underestimated; they were identified as risk factors by 28.3% and 18.6% of participants, respectively. The predictors for poor knowledge of stroke warning signs and risk factors were similar irrespective of preference for Western or Oriental medical treatment, and included those with lower levels of education and inaccurate definition of stroke. Television and radio (40.3% were the most frequent sources of stroke information for both groups. Conclusion This study shows that knowledge of stroke is similar among Koreans with preferences for either Western or Oriental medical treatment and that misunderstandings about stroke are common among the Korean elderly. In order to prevent and manage stroke effectively, public health education regarding basic concepts of stroke is necessary. This should target those with a lower level of education and a misunderstanding of the

  14. Knowledge of obstetric danger signs among child bearing age women in Goba district, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogale, Daniel; Markos, Desalegn

    2015-03-29

    Awareness of the danger signs of obstetric complications is the essential first step in accepting appropriate and timely referral to obstetric and newborn care. Ethiopia is a country where maternal morbidity and mortality is high and little is known about knowledge level of reproductive age women on obstetric danger signs. The aim of the study was to assess knowledge of obstetric danger signs among mothers delivered in the last 12 months in Goba district, Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Goba district. The study included 562 recently delivered women from 9 kebeles (the smallest administrative unit). A safe motherhood questionnaire developed by the Maternal and Neonatal Program of JHPIEGO, an affiliate of John Hopkins University was used to collect data. Binary and multiple logistic regressions were done to explore factors determining maternal knowledge on obstetric danger signs. Variables having P-value of less than or equal to 0.05 on binary logistic regression were the candidate for multiple logistic regressions. Statistical significance was declared at P < 0.05. One hundred seventy nine (31.9%), 152 (27%) and 124 (22.1%) of study participants knew at least three key danger signs during pregnancy, delivery and postpartum period, respectively. As compared to women who did not attended Anti Natal Care service during their pregnancy, those who attend ANC were 2.56 times and 2.54 times more likely to know obstetric danger signs during pregnancy and child birth (AOR = 2.56 and 95% CI: 1.24-5.25) and (AOR = 2.54 and 95% CI: 1.14-5.66), respectively. This study showed low level of knowledge of obstetric danger signs during pregnancy, child birth and postpartum period among women in Goba district. This indicates the large proportions of pregnant women who do not have the knowledge are likely to delay in deciding to seek care. ANC follow up was a significant factor for knowledge about obstetric danger signs occurring during

  15. Verbal short-term memory and vocabulary learning in polyglots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagno, C; Vallar, G

    1995-02-01

    Polyglot and non-polyglot Italian subjects were given tests assessing verbal (phonological) and visuo-spatial short-term and long-term memory, general intelligence, and vocabulary knowledge in their native language. Polyglots had a superior level of performance in verbal short-term memory tasks (auditory digit span and nonword repetition) and in a paired-associate learning test, which assessed the subjects' ability to acquire new (Russian) words. By contrast, the two groups had comparable performance levels in tasks assessing general intelligence, visuo-spatial short-term memory and learning, and paired-associate learning of Italian words. These findings, which are in line with neuropsychological and developmental evidence, as well as with data from normal subjects, suggest a close relationship between the capacity of phonological memory and the acquisition of foreign languages.

  16. IV. NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB): measuring language (vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Richard C; Slotkin, Jerry; Manly, Jennifer J; Blitz, David L; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Schnipke, Deborah; Wallner-Allen, Kathleen; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Gleason, Jean Berko; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Adams, Marilyn Jager; Weintraub, Sandra

    2013-08-01

    Mastery of language skills is an important predictor of daily functioning and health. Vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding are relatively quick and easy to measure and correlate highly with overall cognitive functioning, as well as with success in school and work. New measures of vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding (in both English and Spanish) were developed for the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB). In the Toolbox Picture Vocabulary Test (TPVT), participants hear a spoken word while viewing four pictures, and then must choose the picture that best represents the word. This approach tests receptive vocabulary knowledge without the need to read or write, removing the literacy load for children who are developing literacy and for adults who struggle with reading and writing. In the Toolbox Oral Reading Recognition Test (TORRT), participants see a letter or word onscreen and must pronounce or identify it. The examiner determines whether it was pronounced correctly by comparing the response to the pronunciation guide on a separate computer screen. In this chapter, we discuss the importance of language during childhood and the relation of language and brain function. We also review the development of the TPVT and TORRT, including information about the item calibration process and results from a validation study. Finally, the strengths and weaknesses of the measures are discussed. © 2013 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. Engaging in vocabulary learning in science: the promise of multimodal instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Dianna; Brock, Cynthia; Morrison, Jennifer D.

    2018-02-01

    To a science 'outsider', science language often appears unnecessarily technical and dense. However, scientific language is typically used with the goal of being concise and precise, which allows those who regularly participate in scientific discourse communities to learn from each other and build upon existing scientific knowledge. One essential component of science language is the academic vocabulary that characterises it. This mixed-methods study investigates middle school students' (N = 59) growth in academic vocabulary as it relates to their teacher's instructional practices that supported academic language development. Students made significant gains in their production of general academic words, t(57) = 2.32, p = .024 and of discipline-specific science words, t(57) = 3.01, p = .004 in science writing. Results from the qualitative strand of this inquiry contextualised the students' learning of academic vocabulary as it relates to their teacher's instructional practices and intentions as well as the students' perceptions of their learning environment. These qualitative findings reveal that both the students and their teacher articulated that the teacher's intentional use of resources supported students' academic vocabulary growth. Implications for research and instruction with science language are shared.

  18. The Role of Consulting a Dictionary in Reading and Vocabulary Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Fraser

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article reviews recent research on consulting a dictionary in L2 reading and vocabulary learning. From the perspective of cognitive learning theory, the author re-evaluates the limited role that has often been accorded to dictionary consulting. It is noted that, among the three available lexical processing strategies (inferencing, consulting and ignoring, learners tend to use consulting infrequently and selectively and also to differ among each other in their strategy use. Consulting in combination with inferencing is shown to have the greatest positive effect on performance in L2 reading and vocabulary learning, although consulting is found to slow down task completion. Excerpts from think-aloud protocols illustrate the potential contribution of strategic dictionary use to the cognitive processes required for vocabulary acquisition: attention to form-meaning connections, rehearsal of words for storage in long-term memory and elaboration of associations with other knowledge. Among the pedagogical implications of these findings is the need for training in lexical processing strategies in order to help learners use the dictionary effectively and accurately in L2 reading comprehension and vocabulary learning.

  19. The Relationship between Phonological Memory, Receptive Vocabulary, and Fast Mapping in Young Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Shelley

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed the fast mapping performance of children with specific language impairment (SLI) across the preschool to kindergarten age span in relation to their phonological memory and vocabulary development. Method: Fifty-three children diagnosed with SLI and 53 children with normal language (NL) matched for age and gender (30…

  20. The Impact of Topic Interest, L2 Proficiency, and Gender on EFL Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition through Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunjung; Pulido, Diana

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of topic interest, alongside L2 proficiency and gender, on L2 vocabulary acquisition through reading. A repeated-measures design was used with 135 Korean EFL students. Control variables included topic familiarity, prior target-word knowledge, and target-word difficulty (word length, class, and concreteness).…

  1. Enhancing Social Studies Vocabulary and Comprehension for Seventh-Grade English Language Learners: Findings from Two Experimental Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Sharon; Martinez, Leticia R.; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia; Reutebuch, Colleen K.; Carlson, Coleen D.; Francis, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Two experimental studies to improve vocabulary knowledge and comprehension were conducted in 7th-grade social studies classes with English language learners (ELLs). Two different nonoverlapping samples of classes of 7th-grade students (N = 381 and N = 507) were randomly assigned at the classroom (i.e., section) level to a social studies…

  2. Enhancing Social Studies Vocabulary and Comprehension for 7th Grade English Language Learners: Findings from Two Experimental Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Sharon; Martinez, Leticia R.; Reutebuch, Colleen K.; Carlson, Coleen D.; Thompson, Sylvia L.; Franci, David J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors identified instructional practices associated with improved outcomes for English language learners (ELLs): (1) research-based vocabulary and concept instruction, (2) the use of media to build comprehension and concept knowledge, (3) the use of graphic organizers, and (4) structured peer-pairings. The purpose of our two studies was to…

  3. Use of standard vocabulary services in validation of water resources data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jonathan; Cox, Simon; Ratcliffe, David

    2010-05-01

    must be commensurate with the observed property type Validation of data submitted in WDTF uses a two-pass approach. First, syntax and structural validation is performed by standard XML Schema validation tools. Second, validation of contextual constraints and code list checking is performed using a hybrid method combining context-sensitive rule-based validation (allowing the rules to be expressed within a given context) and semantic vocabulary services. Schematron allows rules to incorporate assertions of XPath expressions to access and constrain element content, therefore enabling contextual constraints. Schematron is also used to perform element cardinality checking. The vocabularies or code lists are formalized in SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organization System), an RDF-based language. SKOS provides mechanisms to define concepts, associate them with (multi-lingual) labels or terms, and record thesaurus-like relationships between them. The vocabularies are managed in a RDF database or semantic triple store. Querying is implemented as a semantic vocabulary service, with an http-based API that allows queries to be issued from rules written in Schematron. WDTF has required development and deployment of some ontologies whose scope is much more general than this application, in particular covering 'observed properties' and 'units of measure', which also have to be related to each other and consistent with the dimensional analysis. Separation of the two validation passes reflects the separate governance and stability of the structural and content rules, and allows an organisation's business rules to be moved out of the XML schema definition and the XML schema to be reused by other businesses with their own specific rules. With the general approach proven, harmonization opportunities with more generic services are being explored, such as the GEMET API for SKOS, developed by the European Environment Agency. Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank the AUSCOPE team for

  4. Advertisement and knowledge of tobacco products among Ellisras rural children aged 11 to 18 years: Ellisras Longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monyeki, Kotsedi D; Kemper, Han C G; Amusa, Lateef O; Motshwane, Marcus

    2013-08-02

    Tobacco products use is the leading cause of chronic diseases morbidity and mortality. This study explores an exposure to tobacco advertisements factors and knowledge, an association with snuff/pipe usage and cigarette smoking among Ellisras rural children aged between 11 to 18 years. A total of 1654 subjects (854 boys and 800 girls) who were part of the Ellisras Longitudinal Study completed the questionnaire. A significant (p advertising tobacco products among the Ellisras rural boys (17% boys and 12.8% for girls, p advertisements of tobacco products on the TV screens, videos or movies. Exposure to tobacco products advertisements was high among Ellisras rural children. Though tobacco products legislation exists in South Africa, efforts should be taken by the health professionals to emphasize the danger of using tobacco products even among the illiterate. Teachers and parents should refrain from advertising tobacco products at schools and at homes.

  5. Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior Toword Periodontal Health Among Males and Females Students Aged (16-18 Years in Erbil City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahida Rassul Hussein

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: periodontal disease conceder as a malty inflammatory disease may be a source of systemic inflammation because oral health is important for appearance and sense of well-being overall health. So cleaning the mouth by brushing and flossing to prevent gum disease is important. The current study was conducted to clarify the knowledge, attitude, and behavior in relation to periodontal health status among male and female students in Erbil city.   Materials and Methods: a questionnaire of periodontal health of knowledge, attitudes, and behavior was allocated on 480 (240 males and 240 females school students ran- domly, aged 16–18 year, in Erbil city. Data were collected by means of 23 close-ended questionnaires.   Results: 85% of male and 90% of female knew that brushing prevents gingivitis. 55.4% of the male student, 62.1 of female student thought that using dental floss prevent periodontal disease. While (26.7% of male and 22.1% of female would visit a dentist in case of gum pain. (81.3% of male and 97.5 of female thought that regular visits to the dentist necessary (p≤0.0004. Males reported 25% of twice a day tooth brushing while female reported 42.9% of twice a day tooth brushing (p≤0.025.   Toothbrush and toothpaste were still the most commonly used oral hygiene aids among male (74.6% and female (91.7% students (p≤0.0015 used tooth brush and tooth paste commonly as oral hygiene aids.   Conclusions: present study shows that our students have positive knowledge, attitude and negative behavior to word periodontal health.  

  6. Food fortification knowledge in women of child-bearing age at Nkowankowa township in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

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    Selekane A. Motadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, there is evidence that three micronutrients deficiencies are of public health concern among children. They are vitamin A, iodine and iron deficiencies. Communities particularly affected are those in situations where poverty, unemployment, civil unrest, war and exploitation remain endemic. Malnutrition is an impediment to productivity, economic growth and poverty eradication. It is estimated that 32% of the global burden would be removed by eliminating malnutrition, including micronutrients deficiencies. Setting: The study was carried out in NkowaNkowa township of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Aim: The main objective was to determine the women’s knowledge on food fortification. Methods: The study design was descriptive. The snowballing method was used to identify women of child-bearing age. Data were collected from 120 participants using a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic, general questions on women’s knowledge on food fortification. The questionnaire was administered by the researcher using the local language Xitsonga. Results: The findings of the study revealed that a majority of 204 (57.0% of the participants were able to define food fortification correctly while 257 (72.0% of the participants knew which foods are fortified as well as the benefits of a food fortification programme. The majority (252 [70.0%] of the participants knew that maize meal is one of the food vehicle used for fortification in South Africa. Conclusion: Most of the questions were answered correctly by more than 50.0% of the participants. The researcher deduced that the study participants are knowledgeable about food fortification based on the response given in relation to the programme.

  7. The neglected heart of science policy (revisited): Balancing knowledge and action in an age of science and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parris, A. S.; Ferguson, D. B.

    2016-12-01

    In the U.S., the need for effective scientist-decision maker engagement is explicitly endorsed at the highest levels of national science policy-making, including the annual research and development priorities memo of the Executive Office for fiscal year 2017. The call from the Executive Office formalizes a long-standing recognition, among a minority of scientists and practitioners, that the public value of research activities may be enhanced through engagement between scientists and decision makers. However, engagement is often embedded in research efforts, despite the fact that the ability to foster relationships and improve knowledge exchange has progressed primarily through boundary spanning efforts. Consequently, sound practice for engagement is not adequately considered in the design of new institutions, programs, and career development tracks. This gap illustrates a lack of formal learning in science policy and is critical because engagement and, specifically, co-production of knowledge are proving effective in adapting to global change. We examined over 10 different case studies spanning urban planning, natural resource management, and water management. In each case, deliberate strategies were employed to encourage decision maker-scientist engagement, including the formation of new organizations, innovative design of research projects, and training and education for professionals to participate in engagement efforts. Individual cases reveal several outcomes, including but not limited to: increased awareness of risk; information that enabled adaptation or resilience choices; exchange between decision makers from different sectors leading to more coordinated responses to natural resource impacts; and mediation for responsible use of science. Collectively, the body of evidence suggests that engagement may be most important not necessarily in reconciling supply and demand for science, but rebalancing knowledge and action in an age of science and technology.

  8. The relationship between Iranian EFL learners’ self-regulatory vocabulary strategy use and their vocabulary size

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    Seyed Mohammad Reza Amirian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulation is referred to as learners’ self-generated ideas and actions which are systematically directed towards achieving educational goals and require learners’ active participation in the learning process (Zimmerman & Bandura, 1994. The present study investigated the relationship between Iranian EFL students’ self-regulation capacity for vocabulary learning and their vocabulary size. For this purpose, the researchers made use of two main instruments: the self-regulation capacity in vocabulary learning scale developed by Tseng et al. (2006 consisting of five subscales of commitment, metacognitive, emotion, satiation and environment control, and a bilingual vocabulary size test developed and validated by Karami (2012. The results of the data analysis revealed no significant relationship between the two variables measured by these instruments. However, the results of the multiple regressions indicated that the metacognitive control compared to the other subscales made a better contribution to the prediction of learners’ vocabulary size. In addition, based on the analysis of variance (ANOVA, which examined and compared the self-regulatory strategy use of learners in different experience groups, the first year students had a higher mean score in their self-regulation capacity, which can possibly be attributed to the strategies they have learnt in their Study Skills courses. Finally, it was suggested that teachers must try to develop self-regulatory power in the learners because their creative effort and informed decisions in trying to improve their own learning are highly important.

  9. Middle-aged women's decisions about body weight management: needs assessment and testing of a knowledge translation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Dawn; Jull, Janet; Beach, Sarah; Dumas, Alex; Strychar, Irene; Adamo, Kristi; Brochu, Martin; Prud'homme, Denis

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to assess middle-aged women's needs when making body weight management decisions and to evaluate a knowledge translation tool for addressing their needs. A mixed-methods study used an interview-guided theory-based survey of professional women aged 40 to 65 years. The tool summarized evidence to address their needs and enabled women to monitor actions taken. Acceptability and usability were reported descriptively. Sixty female participants had a mean body mass index of 28.0 kg/m(2) (range, 17.0-44.9 kg/m(2)), and half were premenopausal. Common options for losing (82%) or maintaining (18%) weight included increasing physical activity (60%), eating healthier (57%), and getting support (40%). Decision-making involved getting information on options (52%), soliciting others' decisions/advice (20%), and being self-motivated (20%). Preferred information sources included written information (97%), counseling (90%), and social networking websites (43%). Five professionals (dietitian, personal trainer, occupational therapist, and two physicians) had similar responses. Of 53 women sent the tool, 27 provided acceptability feedback. They rated it as good to excellent for information on menopause (96%), body weight changes (85%), and managing body weight (85%). Most would tell others about it (81%). After 4 weeks of use, 25 women reported that the wording made sense (96%) and that the tool had clear instructions (92%) and was easy to use across time (88%). The amount of information was rated as just right (64%), but the tool had limited space for responding (72%). When making decisions about body weight management, women's needs were "getting information" and "getting support." The knowledge translation tool was acceptable and usable, but further evaluation is required.

  10. Atomic Energy Control Board vocabulary - preliminary edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolet, D.

    1995-09-01

    This preliminary edition was prepared at the Board's request to help it establish a standardized terminology. It was produced by scanning the 99 French and English documents listed at the end of this Vocabulary. The documents include legislation concerning atomic energy and the transportation of radioactive materials, as well as the Board's publications, such as the Consultative Documents, Regulatory Documents and Notices. The terms included from the following areas are: radiation protection, reactor technology, nuclear fuel cycle, radioactive material packaging and transportation, radioactive waste management, uranium mines, and medical and industrial applications of radioelements. Also included are the titles of publications and the names of organizations and units. The vocabulary contains 2,589 concepts, sometimes accompanied by definitions, contexts or usage examples. Where terms have been standardized by the Canadian Committee for the Standardization of Nuclear Terminology, this has been indicated. Where possible, we have verified the terms using the TERMIUM, the Government of Canada Linguistic Data Bank. (author)

  11. Some Techniques for Teaching Vocabulary. ERIC Focus Reports on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, Number 27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Joseph; Patin, Paul

    Discussion of techniques for teaching vocabulary in language programs centers on five major areas: (1) "knowing" the word, (2) selection of vocabulary, (3) grading vocabulary for presentation, (4) teaching methods, and (5) vocabulary expansion in advanced levels. Theory of vocabulary instruction is largely supported by writings of Nelson Brooks,…

  12. The Use of Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Teaching Turkish as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Sami; Iscan, Adem; Karagoz, Beytullah; Birol, Gülnur

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary learning is the basis of the language learning process in teaching Turkish as a second language. Vocabulary learning strategies need to be used in order for vocabulary learning to take place effectively. The use of vocabulary learning strategies facilitates vocabulary learning and increases student achievement. Each student uses a…

  13. Russian Language Development Assessment as a Standardized Technique for Assessing Communicative Function in Children Aged 3–9 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prikhoda N.A.,

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the Russian Language Development Assessment, a standardized individual diagnostic tool for children aged from 3 to 9 that helps to assess the following components of a child’s communicative function: passive vocabulary, expressive vocabulary, knowledge of semantic constructs with logical, temporal and spatial relations, passive perception and active use of syntactic and morphological features of words in a sentence, active and passive phonological awareness, active and passive knowledge of syntactic structures and categories. The article provides descriptions of content and diagnostic procedures for all 7 subtests included in the assessment (Passive Vocabulary, Active Vocabulary, Linguistic Operators, Sentence structure, Word Structure, Phonology, Sentence Repetition. Basing on the data collected in the study that involved 86 first- graders of a Moscow school, the article analyzes the internal consistency and construct validity of each subtest of the technique. It concludes that the Russian Language Development Assessment technique can be of much use both in terms of diagnostic purposes and in supporting children with ASD taking into account the lack of standardized tools for language and speech development assessment in Russian and the importance of this measure in general.

  14. [The early expressive vocabulary size in simultaneous bilingual growing-up infants - a diagnostic relevant criterion?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiese-Himmel, C; Sellner, L; Bockmann, A-K

    2013-08-01

    Bilingual young children's early expressive vocabulary size and its composition (as one domain of the language development) should be examined to find out whether children with a risk for delayed language development may be identified in this way. 30 bilingual kindergarten infants from Berlin (with simultaneous language acquisition; second language German) and 30 monolingual German infants from the greater areas of Stuttgart and Heidelberg were pair matched (mean chronological age 22.5 [SD 3.1] months; min 16; max 26). The German expressive vocabulary checklist Elternfragebogen zur Wort-schatzentwicklung im frühen Kindesalter (ELAN; Bockmann & Kiese-Himmel, 2006) was filled out by all parents. In addition, parents of bilingual infants completed the adaption of the German vocabulary checklist Sprachbeurteilung durch Eltern (SBE-2-KT; v. Suchodoletz & Sachse, 2008) for the second mother tongue. The monolinguals' word sum in the ELAN (145.7; SD 75.8) differed significantly (p=0.001) from the bilinguals' word sum (78.3; SD 78.9 words). In contrast, bilinguals did not significantly differ in their overall expressive vocabulary size (ELAN+SBE-2-KT: 101.2; SD 77.0 words) from their monolingual counterparts (ELAN). Because bilinguals had a similar sized overall early vocabulary (both languages) like monolingual German-learning infants, the diagnostic criterion to identify late talkers with 24 months of age (less than 50 German words and no word combinations) should not be applied to bilingually infants with simultaneously double language acquisition. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Modality of Input and Vocabulary Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Sydorenko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of input modality (video, audio, and captions, i.e., on-screen text in the same language as audio on (a the learning of written and aural word forms, (b overall vocabulary gains, (c attention to input, and (d vocabulary learning strategies of beginning L2 learners. Twenty-six second-semester learners of Russian participated in this study. Group one (N = 8 saw video with audio and captions (VAC; group two (N = 9 saw video with audio (VA; group three (N = 9 saw video with captions (VC. All participants completed written and aural vocabulary tests and a final questionnaire.The results indicate that groups with captions (VAC and VC scored higher on written than on aural recognition of word forms, while the reverse applied to the VA group. The VAC group learned more word meanings than the VA group. Results from the questionnaire suggest that learners paid most attention to captions, followed by video and audio, and acquired most words by associating them with visual images. Pedagogical implications of this study are that captioned video tends to aid recognition of written word forms and the learning of word meaning, while non-captioned video tends to improve listening comprehension as it facilitates recognition of aural word forms.

  16. Risk factors for low receptive vocabulary abilities in the preschool and early school years in the longitudinal study of Australian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Christensen

    Full Text Available Receptive vocabulary development is a component of the human language system that emerges in the first year of life and is characterised by onward expansion throughout life. Beginning in infancy, children's receptive vocabulary knowledge builds the foundation for oral language and reading skills. The foundations for success at school are built early, hence the public health policy focus on reducing developmental inequalities before children start formal school. The underlying assumption is that children's development is stable, and therefore predictable, over time. This study investigated this assumption in relation to children's receptive vocabulary ability. We investigated the extent to which low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years was associated with low receptive vocabulary ability at 8 years, and the predictive utility of a multivariate model that included child, maternal and family risk factors measured at 4 years. The study sample comprised 3,847 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC. Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate risks for low receptive vocabulary ability from 4-8 years and sensitivity-specificity analysis was used to examine the predictive utility of the multivariate model. In the multivariate model, substantial risk factors for receptive vocabulary delay from 4-8 years, in order of descending magnitude, were low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years, low maternal education, and low school readiness. Moderate risk factors, in order of descending magnitude, were low maternal parenting consistency, socio-economic area disadvantage, low temperamental persistence, and NESB status. The following risk factors were not significant: One or more siblings, low family income, not reading to the child, high maternal work hours, and Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander ethnicity. The results of the sensitivity-specificity analysis showed that a well

  17. Incidental Vocabulary Learning in Second Language Acquisition: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falcon Dario Restrepo Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This literature review aims to analyze previous studies that address the incidental learning of vocabulary in second language acquisition. The articles included in this literature review look into the understanding of vocabulary learning through incidental means, the relationship of reading and incidental vocabulary learning, and the strategies and tasks that promote the incidental learning of vocabulary. The findings show that L2 learners develop much of their vocabulary by incidental means through exposure to words in informative contexts. Moreover, this exposure is promoted by reading, and enhanced through multimodal glosses. Further research may focus on listening for higher lexical retention rates, the circumstances that allow incidental learning of multi-word phrases and collocations, and the use of technology-based methods for incidental vocabulary acquisition.

  18. The vocabulary profile of Slovak children with primary language impairment compared to typically developing Slovak children measured by LITMUS-CLT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapalková, Svetlana; Slančová, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    This study compared a sample of children with primary language impairment (PLI) and typically developing age-matched children using the crosslinguistic lexical tasks (CLT-SK). We also compared the PLI children with typically developing language-matched younger children who were matched on the basis of receptive vocabulary. Overall, statistical testing showed that the vocabulary of the PLI children was significantly different from the vocabulary of the age-matched children, but not statistically different from the younger children who were matched on the basis of their receptive vocabulary size. Qualitative analysis of the correct answers revealed that the PLI children showed higher rigidity compared to the younger language-matched children who are able to use more synonyms or derivations across word class in naming tasks. Similarly, an examination of the children's naming errors indicated that the language-matched children exhibited more semantic errors, whereas PLI children showed more associative errors.

  19. The effect of shared book reading on the acquisition of expressive vocabulary of a 7 year old who uses AAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Gloria; Dukhovny, Elena

    2008-05-01

    Children who have poor expressive vocabularies are at risk of further language delays and reading comprehension difficulties, which will significantly impact their educational achievement. The role of shared book reading in supporting vocabulary growth continues to receive empirical attention in the field of communication disorders. This single-subject study analyzes the effect of an intervention program based on shared book reading in a girl with no functional speech who used augmentative and alternative communication. The study included three literacy activities, a prereading activity to stimulate the girl's prior knowledge about the topic, a shared reading activity, and a postreading activity to assess and support language comprehension. Our findings suggest that the activities and elicitation techniques used by the clinician had a positive effect on the participant's expressive vocabulary.

  20. Affix Meaning Knowledge in First Through Third Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Kenn; Henbest, Victoria Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    We examined grade-level differences in 1st- through 3rd-grade students' performance on an experimenter-developed affix meaning task (AMT) and determined whether AMT performance explained unique variance in word-level reading and reading comprehension, beyond other known contributors to reading development. Forty students at each grade level completed an assessment battery that included measures of phonological awareness, receptive vocabulary, word-level reading, reading comprehension, and affix meaning knowledge. On the AMT, 1st-grade students were significantly less accurate than 2nd- and 3rd-grade students; there was no significant difference in performance between the 2nd- and 3rd-grade students. Regression analyses revealed that the AMT accounted for 8% unique variance of students' performance on word-level reading measures and 6% unique variance of students' performance on the reading comprehension measure, after age, phonological awareness, and receptive vocabulary were explained. These results provide initial information on the development of affix meaning knowledge via an explicit measure in 1st- through 3rd-grade students and demonstrate that affix meaning knowledge uniquely contributes to the development of reading abilities above other known literacy predictors. These findings provide empirical support for how students might use morphological problem solving to read unknown multimorphemic words successfully.