WorldWideScience

Sample records for vocabulary fluency word

  1. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity)—how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word reading fluency and reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word reading fluency and reading comprehension. We examined (1) developmentally changing relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension; (2) the relation of reading comprehension to text reading fluency; (3) unique emergent literacy predictors (i.e., phonological awareness, orthographic awareness, morphological awareness, letter name knowledge, vocabulary) of text reading fluency vs. word reading fluency; and (4) unique language and cognitive predictors (e.g., vocabulary, grammatical knowledge, theory of mind) of text reading fluency vs. reading comprehension. These questions were addressed using longitudinal data (two timepoints; Mean age = 5;24 & 6;08) from Korean-speaking children (N = 143). Results showed that listening comprehension was related to text reading fluency at time 2, but not at time 1. At both times text reading fluency was related to reading comprehension, and reading comprehension was related to text reading fluency over and above word reading fluency and listening comprehension. Orthographic awareness was related to text reading fluency over and above other emergent literacy skills and word reading fluency. Vocabulary and grammatical knowledge were independently related to text reading fluency and reading comprehension whereas theory of mind was related to reading comprehension, but not text reading fluency. These results reveal developmental nature of relations and mechanism of text reading fluency in reading development. PMID:26435550

  2. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity)-how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word reading fluency and reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word reading fluency and reading comprehension. We examined (1) developmentally changing relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension; (2) the relation of reading comprehension to text reading fluency; (3) unique emergent literacy predictors (i.e., phonological awareness, orthographic awareness, morphological awareness, letter name knowledge, vocabulary) of text reading fluency vs. word reading fluency; and (4) unique language and cognitive predictors (e.g., vocabulary, grammatical knowledge, theory of mind) of text reading fluency vs. reading comprehension. These questions were addressed using longitudinal data (two timepoints; Mean age = 5;24 & 6;08) from Korean-speaking children (N = 143). Results showed that listening comprehension was related to text reading fluency at time 2, but not at time 1. At both times text reading fluency was related to reading comprehension, and reading comprehension was related to text reading fluency over and above word reading fluency and listening comprehension. Orthographic awareness was related to text reading fluency over and above other emergent literacy skills and word reading fluency. Vocabulary and grammatical knowledge were independently related to text reading fluency and reading comprehension whereas theory of mind was related to reading comprehension, but not text reading fluency. These results reveal developmental nature of relations and mechanism of text reading fluency in reading development.

  3. Repeated Measurement of Divers’ Word Fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    function (Fillskov & Boll, -V 1981). One type of test with clinical significance reflects Word Fluency (Borkowski, Benton & Spreen, 1967; Lezak, 1983). Word...Fluency is "the facility to produce words that fit one or more structural, phonetic , or orthographic restrictions that are not relevant to the meaning...toxic chemical exposure (Anger, 1984) and closed head injury (Borkowski et al, 1967). Word Fluency reflects mild linguistic deficits in expressive speech

  4. Transformation of Words into Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, H. Naseema; Rajan, Premalatha

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the significance of a word and the changes it undergoes in its form when it is placed in the hierarchy of grammatical constituents thereby forming a new word termed as vocabulary. This change or transformation is the result of affixations. Transformation becomes essential as the words learnt cannot be used as such in a…

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Receptive Vocabulary Breadth Knowledge Growth and Vocabulary Fluency Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2014-01-01

    This article reports results of a longitudinal study of vocabulary breadth knowledge growth, vocabulary fluency development, and the relationship between the two. We administered two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT; Nation 1983; Nation 1990; Schmitt et al. 2001) to 300 students at a Chinese university at three different time points…

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Receptive Vocabulary Breadth Knowledge Growth and Vocabulary Fluency Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2014-01-01

    This article reports results of a longitudinal study of vocabulary breadth knowledge growth, vocabulary fluency development, and the relationship between the two. We administered two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT; Nation 1983; Nation 1990; Schmitt et al. 2001) to 300 students at a Chinese university at three different time points…

  7. WORD ASSOCIATIONS IN VOCABULARY LEARNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    With the widespread adoption of new college Englishtextbooks,vocabulary learning seems a more important taskthan ever before for college students.This paper is about aresearch on how to help students learn English words moremeaningfully and enlarge their vocabulary more efficiently.This paper first discusses word meaning,concept,andconcept network,then explores the associative network of wordsand their associations,which corresponds to English lexicalrelations.The lexical network can be realized onto a computer tobenefit students in their learning.

  8. Effects of individualized word retrieval in kindergarten vocabulary intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damhuis, C.M.P.; Segers, P.C.J.; Scheltinga, F.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of adaptive word retrieval intervention on a classroom vocabulary program on children's vocabulary acquisition in kindergarten. In the experimental condition, word retrieval was provided in a classroom vocabulary program, combining implicit and explicit vocabulary

  9. My World of Words: Building Vocabulary Lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MarcoPolo Education Foundation.

    This lesson uses students' areas of interest both in and out of school to generate personalized vocabulary lists. Working in small groups, grade 3 to 5 students select their own vocabulary words and research their meanings. In a culminating activity that uses text and illustration, each student will create a "My World of Words Journal." During…

  10. WORD ORIGIN HELPS EXPAND LEARNERS’ VOCABULARY A VOCABULARY TEACHING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Word origin (motivation deals with the connection between name and sense, explaining how a word originated. With the knowledge of how words are originated, learners can grasp a word easier and thus expand their vocabulary more quickly. The introduction to word origin (motivation by teachers can also help the learners gain interest in the process of learning and learn more about the cultural and historical background of the English-speaking countries. This paper tries to clarify this method of teaching from four aspects: onomatopoeia, word formation, cultural and historical background and cognitive linguistics.

  11. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity)—how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word reading fluency and reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word reading fluency and reading comprehension. We examined (1) developmentally changing relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension; (2) the relation of reading comprehension to text readi...

  12. Fundamental Vocabulary Selection Based on Word Familiarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Kasahara, Kaname; Kanasugi, Tomoko; Amano, Shigeaki

    This paper proposes a new method for selecting fundamental vocabulary. We are presently constructing the Fundamental Vocabulary Knowledge-base of Japanese that contains integrated information on syntax, semantics and pragmatics, for the purposes of advanced natural language processing. This database mainly consists of a lexicon and a treebank: Lexeed (a Japanese Semantic Lexicon) and the Hinoki Treebank. Fundamental vocabulary selection is the first step in the construction of Lexeed. The vocabulary should include sufficient words to describe general concepts for self-expandability, and should not be prohibitively large to construct and maintain. There are two conventional methods for selecting fundamental vocabulary. The first is intuition-based selection by experts. This is the traditional method for making dictionaries. A weak point of this method is that the selection strongly depends on personal intuition. The second is corpus-based selection. This method is superior in objectivity to intuition-based selection, however, it is difficult to compile a sufficiently balanced corpora. We propose a psychologically-motivated selection method that adopts word familiarity as the selection criterion. Word familiarity is a rating that represents the familiarity of a word as a real number ranging from 1 (least familiar) to 7 (most familiar). We determined the word familiarity ratings statistically based on psychological experiments over 32 subjects. We selected about 30,000 words as the fundamental vocabulary, based on a minimum word familiarity threshold of 5. We also evaluated the vocabulary by comparing its word coverage with conventional intuition-based and corpus-based selection over dictionary definition sentences and novels, and demonstrated the superior coverage of our lexicon. Based on this, we conclude that the proposed method is superior to conventional methods for fundamental vocabulary selection.

  13. The Contributions of Vocabulary and Letter Writing Automaticity to Word Reading and Spelling for Kindergartners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Puranik, Cynthia; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Gruelich, Luana

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we examined the relation between alphabet knowledge fluency (letter names and sounds) and letter writing automaticity, and unique relations of letter writing automaticity and semantic knowledge (i.e., vocabulary) to word reading and spelling over and above code-related skills such as phonological awareness and alphabet…

  14. Effects of Individualized Word Retrieval in Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damhuis, Carmen M. P.; Segers, Eliane; Scheltinga, Femke; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of adaptive word retrieval intervention on a classroom vocabulary program on children's vocabulary acquisition in kindergarten. In the experimental condition, word retrieval was provided in a classroom vocabulary program, combining implicit and explicit vocabulary instructions. Children performed extra word retrieval…

  15. Vocabulary Instruction: Software Flashcards vs. Word Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Mansouri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to language learning, vocabulary learning is the main activity focused on. Vocabulary learning is the main problem and also the goal of new language learners. It is one of the major problems that language learners encounter during learning a new language. Krashen (1989 (cited in Tokac, 2005 points out the role of vocabulary in a language by stating that most of the meaning in a language is carried by words. This is why people visiting a foreign country prefer to take their dictionaries with them rather than grammar books. And on the other hand, nowadays everything is connected to technology and language learning and teaching is not an exception. As Stockwell (2007 cites, vocabulary has been one of the most commonly taught language areas through technology in recent years. Integration of computer and second/foreign language teaching is admired by many researchers. It is clear that technology can help enhance the degree of vocabulary learning, but the point is that which computer assisted vocabulary learning can work better and would be more efficient? In this paper we will discuss and analyze the usage of two kinds of different ways of using technology and see which of the methods will work better. A comparison between vocabulary software flashcard and word clouds (Wordle on vocabulary learning (retention will be compared by the researcher. We will see that using which method will encourage learners more and they will do better with which kind of using technology? The study is carried out in Iran on 44 English learners. The result is really surprising. Both of the groups were interested in technology, but one group did really better. Keywords: CALL, CAVL, Software flashcard, Word Clouds, Wordle, Vocabulary learning

  16. Vocabulary Instruction: Software Flashcards vs. Word Clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Vahid Mansouri

    2015-01-01

    When it comes to language learning, vocabulary learning is the main activity focused on. Vocabulary learning is the main problem and also the goal of new language learners. It is one of the major problems that language learners encounter during learning a new language. Krashen (1989) (cited in Tokac, 2005) points out the role of vocabulary in a language by stating that most of the meaning in a language is carried by words. This is why people visiting a foreign country prefer to take their dic...

  17. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text-reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity): how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word-reading fluency, reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word-reading fluency and reading comprehension. The study examined (a) developmentally changing relations…

  18. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text-reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity): how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word-reading fluency, reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word-reading fluency and reading comprehension. The study examined (a) developmentally changing relations…

  19. The Effects of Word Walls and Word Wall Activities on the Reading Fluency of First Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmine, Joanne; Schiesl, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Reading fluency is the ability to read orally with speed and efficiency, including word recognition, decoding, and comprehension (Chard & Pikulski, 2005). Able readers achieve fluency as they recognize words with speed and build upon them to aid in comprehension (Pumfrey & Elliott, 1990). One way to help students achieve fluency is through the use…

  20. VOCABULARY GUIDE OF COGNATE WORDS IN SPANISH AND ENGLISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KRIPPNER, STANLEY

    A VOCABULARY GUIDE OF COGNATE WORDS IN ENGLISH AND SPANISH IS PRESENTED. THE VALUE OF THE GUIDE RESTS ON THE ASSUMPTIONS THAT THE LEARNING OF SIMILAR WORDS IN BOTH LANGUAGES COULD CHANGE SPANISH-SPEAKING AMERICAN PUPILS' NEGATIVE ATTITUDE ABOUT ENGLISH AS WELL AS INCREASE THEIR VOCABULARY. WORDS IN THE "VELAZQUEZ SPANISH AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY" OF…

  1. VOCABULARY GUIDE OF COGNATE WORDS IN SPANISH AND ENGLISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KRIPPNER, STANLEY

    A VOCABULARY GUIDE OF COGNATE WORDS IN ENGLISH AND SPANISH IS PRESENTED. THE VALUE OF THE GUIDE RESTS ON THE ASSUMPTIONS THAT THE LEARNING OF SIMILAR WORDS IN BOTH LANGUAGES COULD CHANGE SPANISH-SPEAKING AMERICAN PUPILS' NEGATIVE ATTITUDE ABOUT ENGLISH AS WELL AS INCREASE THEIR VOCABULARY. WORDS IN THE "VELAZQUEZ SPANISH AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY" OF…

  2. The Relation of Word Reading Fluency Initial Level and Gains with Reading Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jean Louise M.; Cummings, Kelli D.; Nese, Joseph F. T.; Alonzo, Julie; Fien, Hank; Baker, Scott K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research brief is to present results from a study investigating the relation between word reading fluency (both initial level and fall-winter gain scores), passage reading fluency, and reading comprehension. Word reading fluency data were collected in the fall and winter; outcome measures were administered in the spring of…

  3. Towards very large vocabulary word recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waibel, A.

    1982-11-01

    In this paper, preliminary considerations and some experimental results are presented in an effort to design Very Large Vocabulary Recognition (VLVR) systems. We will first consider the applicability of current recognition techniques and argue their inadequacy for VLVR. Possible alternate strategies will be explored and their potential usefulness statistically evaluated. Our results indicate that suprasegmental cues such as syllabification, stress patterns, rhythmic patterns, rhythmic patterns and the voiced - unvoiced patterns in the syllables of a word provide powerful mechanisms for search space reduction. Suprasegmental feature could thus operate in a complementary fashion to segmental features.

  4. The Question of Teaching Vocabulary: Which Words? In What Ways?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of vocabulary for comprehension, Wilhelm asks two key questions: "which words do I teach and how should I teach them?" Through years of trial and error, Wilhelm has adopted these principles to answer "which words": teach "important" words students will see and use again; words necessary to conceptual understanding; words…

  5. The Effects of Word Walls and Word Wall Activities on the Reading Fluency of First Grade Students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joanne Jasmine; Pamela Schiesl

    2009-01-01

    .... This article describes an action research project designed to improve reading fluency of first grade students by investigating the use of word walls and word wall activities during station time over a four-week period...

  6. Vocabulary Word Instruction for Students Who Read Braille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaiano, Mackenzie E.; Compton, Donald L.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Lloyd, Blair P.

    2016-01-01

    The association made between the meaning, spelling, and pronunciation of a word has been shown to help children remember the meanings of words. The present study addressed whether the presence of a target word in Braille during instruction facilitated vocabulary learning more efficiently than an auditory-only instructional condition. The authors…

  7. Automatic Identification of Nutritious Contexts for Learning Vocabulary Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostow, Jack; Gates, Donna; Ellison, Ross; Goutam, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is crucial to literacy development and academic success. Previous research has shown learning the meaning of a word requires encountering it in diverse informative contexts. In this work, we try to identify "nutritious" contexts for a word--contexts that help students build a rich mental representation of the word's…

  8. The Effect of Word Frequency on Judgments of Learning: Contributions of Beliefs and Processing Fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaoyu; Li, Ping; Li, Xinyu; Zhang, Yuchi; Cao, Wei; Cao, Liren; Li, Weijian

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that word frequency affects judgments of learning (JOLs). Specifically, people give higher JOLs for high-frequency (HF) words than for low-frequency (LF) words. However, the exact mechanism underlying this effect is largely unknown. The present study replicated and extended previous work by exploring the contributions of processing fluency and beliefs to the word frequency effect. In Experiment 1, participants studied HF and LF words and made immediate JOLs. The findings showed that participants gave higher JOLs for HF words than for LF ones, reflecting the word frequency effect. In Experiment 2a (measuring the encoding fluency by using self-paced study time) and Experiment 2b (disrupting perceptual fluency by presenting words in an easy or difficult font style), we evaluated the contribution of processing fluency. The findings of Experiment 2a revealed no significant difference in self-paced study time between HF and LF words. The findings of Experiment 2b showed that the size of word frequency effect did not decrease or disappear even when presenting words in a difficult font style. In Experiment 3a (a questionnaire-based study) and Experiment 3b (making pre-study JOLs), we evaluated the role of beliefs in this word frequency effect. The results of Experiment 3a showed that participants gave higher estimates for HF as compared to LF words. That is, they estimated that hypothetical participants would better remember the HF words. The results of Experiment 3b showed that participants gave higher pre-study JOLs for HF than for LF words. These results across experiments suggested that people's beliefs, not processing fluency, contribute substantially to the word frequency effect on JOLs. However, considering the validation of the indexes reflecting the processing fluency in the current study, we cannot entirely rule out the possible contribution of processing fluency. The relative contribution of processing fluency and beliefs to word

  9. Assessing children's vocabulary skills: from word knowledge to word-learning potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, R V; DeThorne, L S

    2000-01-01

    Knowledge of word meanings and the ability to use words are fundamental to nearly every interaction of every day. Beginning long before formal schooling, vocabulary skills underpin many aspects of communicative, social, and academic well-being. Thus, evaluation of vocabulary knowledge and use is central to any complete assessment of language proficiency. We have advanced in our use of vocabulary assessment significantly since Binet and Simon first used vocabulary tests to measure cognitive proficiency. We have a repertoire of informative tools and strategies from which vocabulary assessment protocols can be fashioned. Current assessment approaches integrate multiple sources of information. They also look beyond existing word knowledge toward word-learning potential. Integrated and dynamic approaches can provide a rich way to ascertain young children's vocabulary abilities and aptitudes.

  10. Words as "Lexical Units" in Learning/Teaching Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almela, Moisés; Sanchez, Aquilino

    2007-01-01

    One of the genuine contributions of theoretical linguistics to the interdisciplinary field of applied linguistics is to elucidate the nature of "what should be taught" and "how it should be taught". Traditionally, the input supplied in vocabulary teaching has consisted either of word lists (most often) or of words-in-context…

  11. Word Parts and a Systematic Approach to Medical Vocabulary Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田俊英; 蒋东坡

    2016-01-01

    This paper outlines four word parts of medical vocabulary—roots,prefixes,suffixes,and linking vowels(usually o)and put forward a systematic approach to medical vocabulary learning.To develop a high degree of proficiency in learning medical vocabulary,it is advisable to learn the basic roots and affixes so as to make informed guesses regarding the meanings of unfamiliar medical vocabulary.

  12. Strategy Effects on Word Searching in Japanese Letter Fluency Tests: Evidence from the NIRS Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatta, Takeshi; Kanari, Ayano; Mase, Mitsuhito; Nagano, Yuko; Shirataki, Tatsuaki; Hibino, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    Strategy effects on word searching in the Japanese letter fluency test were investigated using the Near-infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS). Participants were given a Japanese letter fluency test and they were classified into two types of strategy users, based on analysis of their recorded verbal responses. One group, AIUEO-order strategy users, employed…

  13. The interaction between vocabulary size and phonotactic probability effects on children's production accuracy and fluency in nonword repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jan; Beckman, Mary E; Munson, Benjamin

    2004-04-01

    Adults' performance on a variety of tasks suggests that phonological processing of nonwords is grounded in generalizations about sublexical patterns over all known words. A small body of research suggests that children's phonological acquisition is similarly based on generalizations over the lexicon. To test this account, production accuracy and fluency were examined in nonword repetitions by 104 children and 22 adults. Stimuli were 22 pairs of nonwords, in which one nonword contained a low-frequency or unattested two-phoneme sequence and the other contained a high-frequency sequence. For a subset of these nonword pairs, segment durations were measured. The same sound was produced with a longer duration (less fluently) when it appeared in a low-frequency sequence, as compared to a high-frequency sequence. Low-frequency sequences were also repeated with lower accuracy than high-frequency sequences. Moreover, children with smaller vocabularies showed a larger influence of frequency on accuracy than children with larger vocabularies. Taken together, these results provide support for a model of phonological acquisition in which knowledge of sublexical units emerges from generalizations made over lexical items.

  14. Word knowledge in the crowd: Measuring vocabulary size and word prevalence in a massive online experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuleers, Emmanuel; Stevens, Michaël; Mandera, Paweł; Brysbaert, Marc

    2015-01-01

    We use the results of a large online experiment on word knowledge in Dutch to investigate variables influencing vocabulary size in a large population and to examine the effect of word prevalence-the percentage of a population knowing a word-as a measure of word occurrence. Nearly 300,000 participants were presented with about 70 word stimuli (selected from a list of 53,000 words) in an adapted lexical decision task. We identify age, education, and multilingualism as the most important factors influencing vocabulary size. The results suggest that the accumulation of vocabulary throughout life and in multiple languages mirrors the logarithmic growth of number of types with number of tokens observed in text corpora (Herdan's law). Moreover, the vocabulary that multilinguals acquire in related languages seems to increase their first language (L1) vocabulary size and outweighs the loss caused by decreased exposure to L1. In addition, we show that corpus word frequency and prevalence are complementary measures of word occurrence covering a broad range of language experiences. Prevalence is shown to be the strongest independent predictor of word processing times in the Dutch Lexicon Project, making it an important variable for psycholinguistic research.

  15. Word Lists for Vocabulary Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard-Clouston, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Within the communicative approach, often the assumption has been that with the right exposure, students will simply "pick up" the vocabulary required for learning and using English, and thus there is no need to focus on or teach it. Yet, as many teachers can attest, this is frequently not the case, and there have been recent efforts to…

  16. Acquisition of a 250-word vocabulary through a tactile vocoder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, P L; Frost, B J; Mason, J L; Chung, K

    1985-04-01

    In a previous experiment [P. L. Scilley, "Evaluation of a vibrotactile auditory prosthetic device for the profoundly deaf," unpublished Masters thesis, Queen's University, Kingston, Canada (1980)] two normal subjects learned to identify 70 and 150 words, respectively, using the Queen's Tactile Vocoder. In the present experiment, the most advanced subject continued word learning until a tactile vocabulary of 250 words was acquired. At this point randomized tests were given to obtain an indication of final performance level. From these data conditional probabilities of correct response for each stimulus word and significant confusions were obtained, which provides insight into the advantages and present limitations of the tactile vocoder.

  17. PROMOTING INCIDENTAL VOCABULARY LEARNING THROUGH VERBAL DRAMATIZATION OF WORDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Looi-Chin Ch’ng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that explicit teaching of vocabulary is often practised in English as a Second Language (ESL classrooms, it has been proven to be rather ineffective, largely because words are not taught in context. This has prompted the increasing use of incidental vocabulary learning approach, which emphasises on repeated readings as a source for vocabulary learning. By adopting this approach, this study aims to investigate students’ ability in learning vocabulary incidentally via verbal dramatization of written texts. In this case, readers’ theatre (RT is used as a way to allow learners to engage in active reading so as to promote vocabulary learning. A total of 160 diploma students participated in this case study and they were divided equally into two groups, namely classroom reading (CR and RT groups. A proficiency test was first conducted to determine their vocabulary levels. Based on the test results, a story was selected as the reading material in the two groups. The CR group read the story through a normal reading lesson in class while the RT group was required to verbally dramatize the text through readers’ theatre activity. Then, a post-test based on vocabulary levels was carried out and the results were compared. The findings revealed that incidental learning was more apparent in the RT group and their ability to learn words from the higher levels was noticeable through higher accuracy scores. Although not conclusive, this study has demonstrated the potential of using readers’ theatre as a form of incidental vocabulary learning activity in ESL settings.

  18. Vocabulary size and auditory word recognition in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Franzo; Mahr, Tristan; Schneeberg, Alissa; Edwards, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Recognizing familiar words quickly and accurately facilitates learning new words, as well as other aspects of language acquisition. This study used the visual world paradigm with semantic and phonological competitors to study lexical processing efficiency in 2-5 year-old children. Experiment 1 found this paradigm was sensitive to vocabulary-size differences. Experiment 2 included a more diverse group of children who were tested in their native dialect (either African American English or Mainstream American English). No effect of stimulus dialect was observed,. Results showed that vocabulary size was a better predictor of eye gaze patterns than maternal education, but that maternal education level had a moderating effect; as maternal education level increased, vocabulary size was less predictive of lexical processing efficiency.

  19. Examining Multiple Dimensions of Word Knowledge for Content Vocabulary Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervetti, Gina N.; Tilson, Jennifer L.; Castek, Jill; Bravo, Marco A.; Trainin, Guy

    2012-01-01

    This study traces the development of a vocabulary measure designed to assess multiple types of word knowledge. The assessment, which was administered in conjunction with a science unit about weather and the water cycle for third-and-fourth graders, included items for six knowledge types--recognition, definition, classification/example, context,…

  20. Learning Words for Life: Promoting Vocabulary in Dual Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillanders, Cristina; Castro, Dina C.; Franco, Ximena

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary development plays a critical role in young dual language learners' success in school. As teachers become aware of how they use language in the classroom, systematically teach specific words in a variety of ways, and learn about dual language learners' level of English acquisition and sociocultural experiences, they can help…

  1. Learning Words for Life: Promoting Vocabulary in Dual Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillanders, Cristina; Castro, Dina C.; Franco, Ximena

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary development plays a critical role in young dual language learners' success in school. As teachers become aware of how they use language in the classroom, systematically teach specific words in a variety of ways, and learn about dual language learners' level of English acquisition and sociocultural experiences, they can help…

  2. The Word Writing CAFE: Assessing Student Writing for Complexity, Accuracy, and Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Dorothy J.

    2005-01-01

    The Word Writing CAFE is a new assessment tool designed for teachers to evaluate objectively students' word-writing ability for fluency, accuracy, and complexity. It is designed to be given to the whole class at one time. This article describes the development of the CAFE and provides directions for administering and scoring it. The author also…

  3. Using Incremental Rehearsal for Building Fluency of Sight Words for Children with a Learning Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldawish, Abeer

    2017-01-01

    Incremental Rehearsal (IR) is an effective, evidence-based intervention for teaching words that uses high repetition and a high ratio of unknown and known items. The purpose of the present research study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using Incremental Rehearsal to improve the fluency in reading sight words for three elementary students…

  4. The Word Writing CAFE: Assessing Student Writing for Complexity, Accuracy, and Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Dorothy J.

    2005-01-01

    The Word Writing CAFE is a new assessment tool designed for teachers to evaluate objectively students' word-writing ability for fluency, accuracy, and complexity. It is designed to be given to the whole class at one time. This article describes the development of the CAFE and provides directions for administering and scoring it. The author also…

  5. Children reading spoken words: interactions between vocabulary and orthographic expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Signy; Wang, Hua-Chen; de Lissa, Peter; Robidoux, Serje; Nation, Kate; Castles, Anne

    2017-07-12

    There is an established association between children's oral vocabulary and their word reading but its basis is not well understood. Here, we present evidence from eye movements for a novel mechanism underlying this association. Two groups of 18 Grade 4 children received oral vocabulary training on one set of 16 novel words (e.g., 'nesh', 'coib'), but no training on another set. The words were assigned spellings that were either predictable from phonology (e.g., nesh) or unpredictable (e.g., koyb). These were subsequently shown in print, embedded in sentences. Reading times were shorter for orally familiar than unfamiliar items, and for words with predictable than unpredictable spellings but, importantly, there was an interaction between the two: children demonstrated a larger benefit of oral familiarity for predictable than for unpredictable items. These findings indicate that children form initial orthographic expectations about spoken words before first seeing them in print. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://youtu.be/jvpJwpKMM3E. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Using an iPad® App to Improve Sight Word Reading Fluency for At-Risk First Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musti-Rao, Shobana; Lo, Ya-yu; Plati, Erin

    2015-01-01

    We used a multiple baseline across word lists design nested within a multiple baseline across participants design to examine the effects of instruction delivered using an iPad® app on sight word fluency and oral reading fluency of six first graders identified as at risk for reading failure. In Study 1, three students participated in…

  7. Training Reading Fluency in Dysfluent Readers with High Reading Accuracy: Word Specific Effects but Low Transfer to Untrained Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Verena; Ebner, Eva Maria; Wimmer, Heinz; Landerl, Karin

    2004-01-01

    The outcome of a training study attempting to increase German speaking poor readers' reading fluency is reported. The aim of the training was to help children establish orthographic representations for a limited set of training words as well as for high-frequency onset clusters. A sample of 20 dysfluent readers (8 to 11 years) received a …

  8. Word Reading Efficiency, Text Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension among Chinese Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangying; Sawaki, Yasuyo; Sabatini, John

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among word reading efficiency, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension for adult English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Data from 185 adult Chinese EFL learners preparing to take the Test-of-English-as-a-Foreign-Language[TM] (TOEFL[R]) were analyzed in this study. The participants completed a…

  9. Word Reading Efficiency, Text Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension among Chinese Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangying; Sawaki, Yasuyo; Sabatini, John

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among word reading efficiency, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension for adult English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Data from 185 adult Chinese EFL learners preparing to take the Test-of-English-as-a-Foreign-Language[TM] (TOEFL[R]) were analyzed in this study. The participants completed a…

  10. Effects of Word Prediction on Writing Fluency for Students with Physical Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezei, Peter J.; Heller, Kathryn Wolff

    2012-01-01

    Many students with physical disabilities have difficulty with writing fluency due to motor limitations. One type of assistive technology that has been developed to improve writing speed and accuracy is word prediction software, although there is a paucity of research supporting its use for individuals with physical disabilities. This study used an…

  11. Building Fluency, Word-Recognition Ability, and Confidence in Struggling Readers: The Poetry Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfong, Lori G.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a strategy called the Poetry Academy used to boost reading skills in elementary school students. The Poetry Academy paired struggling readers with a community volunteer to read poetry on a weekly schedule to practice fluency, work on word recognition abilities, and build confidence. A research study took…

  12. Neurocognitive mechanisms of learning to read: print tuning in beginning readers related to word-reading fluency and semantics but not phonology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard-Moscicka, Aleksandra K; Jost, Lea B; Raith, Margit; Maurer, Urs

    2015-01-01

    During reading acquisition children learn to recognize orthographic stimuli and link them to phonology and semantics. The present study investigated neurocognitive processes of learning to read after one year of schooling. We aimed to elucidate the cognitive processes underlying neural tuning for print that has been shown to play an important role for reading and dyslexia. A 128-channel EEG was recorded while 68 (Swiss-)German monolingual first grade children (mean age: 7.6) performed a one-back task with different types of letter and false-font strings. Print tuning was indexed by the N1 difference in the ERPs between German words and false-font strings, while the N1 lexicality effect was indexed by the difference between German words and pseudowords. In addition, we measured reading fluency, rapid automatized naming, phonological awareness, auditory memory span, and vocabulary. After one year of formal reading instruction N1 print tuning was clearly present at the group level, and could be detected at the individual level in almost 90% of the children. The N1 lexicality effect, however, could not be reliably found. On the cognitive level, next to word-reading fluency, vocabulary was also associated with N1 print tuning, but not measures reflecting phonological processing. These results demonstrate the presence of print tuning in the first year of reading acquisition and its development at the individual level. Moreover, individual differences in print tuning are not only related to word-reading fluency, but also to semantic knowledge, indicating that at early stages of learning to read the top-down modulation of print tuning is semantic rather than phonological in nature.

  13. BUSINESS ENGLISH WORD GAMES – A WELCOMED VOCABULARY TEACHING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Claudia Horea

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducing vocabulary has never been very problematic nor a doubt generating aspect in teaching a language, at least not in respect of what has to be done actually along this part of the lesson or how this stage should be approached. It cannot be said that it has ever been too much of a challenge, but rather a simple and straightforward phase in the economy of the English class. Business English vocabulary teaching methods have to make allowance for the specificity of the field, though. Thus, much consideration has to be given to the way Business English lexical units are introduced so that the technique used could produce the desired results into the students: acquisition of specific terminology, assimilation of meanings and development of skills that shall ensure accurate usage of the terms in the future. After an experimental semester, most adequate class approaches to serve the purposes abovementioned proved to be – rather non-academic, it may be argued – the word games. The current study presents the detailed steps of two distinct teaching methods used and the comparative results obtained with the two groups of students submitted to the experiment. Along the Business English courses in one semester, there were four vocabulary introduction lessons. The nonconformist technique of word games was implemented to one of the two groups of students while the other was taught the regular style. The comparative study focused on several aspects, from the observation of the class reactions and participation along the process of teaching, i.e. response to the didactic process during each class, to the checking of the effects of both types of implementation, namely assessing assimilation of the previously taught material in terms of knowledge of vocabulary and correct interpretation, by random tests and by final test results. If teaching methodologies regularly claim that the general to particular approach is the most effective, here a vice

  14. Examining Child and Word Characteristics in Vocabulary Learning of Struggling Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleman, Amy M.; Steacy, Laura M.; Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Compton, Donald L.

    2017-01-01

    Although instruction has been shown to be effective at increasing vocabulary knowledge and comprehension, factors most important for promoting the acquisition of novel vocabulary are less known. In addition, few vocabulary studies have utilized models that simultaneously take into account child-level, word-level, and instructional factors to…

  15. Diagnostic utility of the Thurstone Word Fluency Test in neuropsychological evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, M G; Heaton, R K; Lehman, R A; Hulihan, D

    1982-12-01

    Previous research has found that verbal associative fluency tasks are sensitive to the presence of cerebral lesions and more sensitive to frontal lobe and left hemisphere lesions than to other focal lesions. The present study investigated the diagnostic utility of the Thurstone Word Fluency Test (TWFT), a test of written verbal fluency, in detecting and localizing cerebral lesions. Using results from 203 brain-damaged and 134 normal subjects, we found that TWFT performance is affected by cerebral damage generally. At the same time, it is more impaired by frontal than by nonfrontal, by left than by right hemisphere, and by left frontal than by right frontal lesions. This test does not discriminate focal frontal from diffuse lesions. Stepwise discriminant function analyses indicated that the TWFT adds to the Halstead-Reitan Battery in discriminating focal frontal from nonfrontal lesions, but not in discriminating left hemisphere from right hemisphere lesions. Only markedly impaired TWFT performances had lateralizing significance.

  16. Assessing reading comprehension with narrative and expository texts: Dimensionality and relationship with fluency, vocabulary and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sandra; Cadime, Irene; Viana, Fernanda L; Chaves-Sousa, Séli; Gayo, Elena; Maia, José; Ribeiro, Iolanda

    2017-02-01

    Reading comprehension assessment should rely on valid instruments that enable adequate conclusions to be taken regarding students' reading comprehension performance. In this article, two studies were conducted to collect validity evidence for the vertically scaled forms of two Tests of Reading Comprehension for Portuguese elementary school students in the second to fourth grades, one with narrative texts (TRC-n) and another with expository ones (TRC-e). Two samples of 950 and 990 students participated in Study 1, the study of the dimensionality of the TRC-n and TRC-e forms, respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses provided evidence of an acceptable fit for the one-factor solution for all test forms. Study 2 included 218 students to collect criterion-related validity. The scores obtained in each of the test forms were significantly correlated with the ones obtained in other reading comprehension measures and with the results obtained in oral reading fluency, vocabulary and working memory tests. Evidence suggests that the test forms are valid measures of reading comprehension. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Reading Development in Upper Elementary Language Minority Readers of Hebrew: The Specific Challenge of Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar-Yames, Daphna; Prior, Anat

    2017-01-01

    We examined reading proficiency, focusing on fluency, in 56 Russian-speaking language minority (LM) students and 56 native Hebrew-speaking (NH) peers. Fifth-grade students completed measures of Hebrew reading accuracy and fluency from word to text level as well as phonological awareness (PA), RAN and vocabulary. LM students read single words less…

  18. An Examination of the Relation of Nonsense Word Fluency Initial Status and Gains to Reading Outcomes for Beginning Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fien, Hank; Park, Yonghan; Baker, Scott K.; Smith, Jean L. Mercier; Stoolmiller, Mike; Kame'enui, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    A theory-based approach was used to investigate the relations among Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF) initial skill status in the fall of first grade, NWF growth across the school year, and end-of-year oral reading fluency and reading comprehension (RC) skill. Hypotheses were anchored to Perfetti's verbal efficiency theory and the role of automaticity…

  19. Overcoming duality: the fused bousfieldian function for modeling word production in verbal fluency tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlen, Felicitas; Fromm, Ortwin; Vonberg, Isabelle; Klostermann, Fabian

    2016-10-01

    Word production is generally assumed to occur as a function of a broadly interconnected language system. In terms of verbal fluency tasks, word production dynamics can be assessed by analyzing respective time courses via curve fitting. Here, a new generalized fitting function is presented by merging the two dichotomous classical Bousfieldian functions into one overarching power function with an adjustable shape parameter. When applied to empirical data from verbal fluency tasks, the error of approximation was significantly reduced while also fulfilling the Bayesian information criterion, suggesting a superior overall application value. Moreover, the approach identified a previously unknown logarithmic time course, providing further evidence of an underlying lexical network structure. In view of theories on lexical access, the corresponding modeling differentiates task-immanent lexical suppression from automatic lexical coactivation. In conclusion, our approach indicates that process dynamics result from an increasing cognitive effort to suppress automatic network functions.

  20. Romanian Words of Arabic Origin: Scientific and Technical Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Rata

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There are 141 Romanian words of Arabic origin acquired either directly from Arabic or else indirectly by passing from Arabic into other languages and then into Romanian. Most entered one or more of the Romance languages before entering Romanian. To qualify for this list, a word must be reported in etymology dictionaries as having descended from Arabic. Words associated with the Islamic religion are omitted. Archaic and rare words are also omitted. Given the nature of the journal in which the paper is to be published, the author selected for analysis only about 126 terms belonging to the scientific and technical vocabulary: Adobe, alambic, albatros, alcalin, alchimie, alcool, alfalfa, algebră, algoritm, alidadă, alizarină, amalgam, ambră, anil, antimoniu, azimuth, azur, benjoin, bezoar, bor, cafea, calibre, camfor, carat, carciofoi, caric, cârmâz, carob, chimie, cifru, coton, curcuma, cuşcuş, erg, falafel, fanfară, felucă, fenec, gazelă, gerbil, girafă, halva, hamada, humus, iasomie, jar, julep, kaliu, lac, lămâie, lazurit, liliac, lime, marcasit, masicot, mizenă, muson, nadir, natriu, papagal, rachetă, realgar, sabkha, safari, şah, sandarac, şaorma, şerbet, sirop, sodium, şofran, sorbet, spanac, sumac, tabac, tahân, taifun, talc, tamarin(d, tangerină, tar, tară, tarhon, tarif, tasă, ţechin, ton, varan, zahăr, zenith, zero, zircon, etc. Some of them are obsolescent, but a large number are in everyday use and have been so well assimilated into Romanian that they have produced other words through derivation and composition, or they have acquired new meanings.

  1. Orthographic Mapping in the Acquisition of Sight Word Reading, Spelling Memory, and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehri, Linnea C.

    2014-01-01

    Orthographic mapping (OM) involves the formation of letter-sound connections to bond the spellings, pronunciations, and meanings of specific words in memory. It explains how children learn to read words by sight, to spell words from memory, and to acquire vocabulary words from print. This development is portrayed by Ehri (2005a) as a sequence of…

  2. Near or far: The effect of spatial distance and vocabulary knowledge on word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Emma L; Perry, Lynn K; Scott, Emilly J; Horst, Jessica S

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the role of spatial distance in word learning. Two-year-old children saw three novel objects named while the objects were either in close proximity to each other or spatially separated. Children were then tested on their retention for the name-object associations. Keeping the objects spatially separated from each other during naming was associated with increased retention for children with larger vocabularies. Children with a lower vocabulary size demonstrated better retention if they saw objects in close proximity to each other during naming. This demonstrates that keeping a clear view of objects during naming improves word learning for children who have already learned many words, but keeping objects within close proximal range is better for children at earlier stages of vocabulary acquisition. The effect of distance is therefore not equal across varying vocabulary sizes. The influences of visual crowding, cognitive load, and vocabulary size on word learning are discussed.

  3. Training reading fluency in dysfluent readers with high reading accuracy: word specific effects but low transfer to untrained words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Verena; Ebner, Eva Maria; Wimmer, Heinz; Landerl, Karin

    2004-06-01

    The outcome of a training study attempting to increase German speaking poor readers' reading fluency is reported. The aim of the training was to help children establish orthographic representations for a limited set of training words as well as for high-frequency onset clusters. A sample of 20 dysfluent readers (8-11 years) received a computerized training of repeated reading of a limited set of 32 training words over a period of up to 25 days. Each day training words were presented up to six times with a special emphasis on the onset segment. Post-tests were carried out one and five weeks after the last training day. A considerable decrease in reading times could be achieved for the trained words that remained stable for both post-tests, however, even for the limited set of training words a remarkable amount of repetitions did not lead to age adequate word recognition speed. Generalization to untrained words starting with a trained onset cluster (transfer words) was statistically reliable but small.

  4. Finding patterns and learning words: Infant phonotactic knowledge is associated with vocabulary size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf Estes, Katharine; Gluck, Stephanie Chen-Wu; Grimm, Kevin J

    2016-06-01

    Native language statistical regularities about allowable phoneme combinations (i.e., phonotactic patterns) may provide learners with cues to support word learning. The current research investigated the association between infants' native language phonotactic knowledge and their word learning progress, as measured by vocabulary size. In the experiment, 19-month-old infants listened to a corpus of nonce words that contained novel phonotactic patterns. All words began with "illegal" consonant clusters that cannot occur in native (English) words. The rationale for the task was that infants with fragile phonotactic knowledge should exhibit stronger learning of the novel illegal phonotactic patterns than infants with robust phonotactic knowledge. We found that infants with smaller vocabularies showed stronger phonotactic learning than infants with larger vocabularies even after accounting for general cognition. We propose that learning about native language structure may promote vocabulary development by providing a foundation for word learning; infants with smaller vocabularies may have weaker support from phonotactics than infants with larger vocabularies. Furthermore, stored vocabulary knowledge may promote the detection of phonotactic patterns even during infancy.

  5. The Influence of Word Characteristics on the Vocabulary of Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Min Kyung; Storkel, Holly L.; Lee, Jaehoon; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the effects of phonotactic probability, word length, word frequency, and neighborhood density on the words known by children with cochlear implants (CIs) varying in vocabulary outcomes in a retrospective analysis of a subset of data from a longitudinal study of hearing loss. Generalized linear mixed modeling…

  6. Supporting Preschoolers' Vocabulary Learning: Using a Decision-Making Model to Select Appropriate Words and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine

    2012-01-01

    Young children learn new vocabulary with great agility and speed, but their learning is dependent on the range of words they are exposed to. Teachers can naturally facilitate children's vocabulary learning using a variety of strategies, including making conversation and posing thoughtful questions. But there is also an important role for direct…

  7. Nonword Repetition and Vocabulary Knowledge as Predictors of Children's Phonological and Semantic Word Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlof, Suzanne M; Patten, Hannah

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the unique and shared variance that nonword repetition and vocabulary knowledge contribute to children's ability to learn new words. Multiple measures of word learning were used to assess recall and recognition of phonological and semantic information. Fifty children, with a mean age of 8 years (range 5-12 years), completed experimental assessments of word learning and norm-referenced assessments of receptive and expressive vocabulary knowledge and nonword repetition skills. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses examined the variance in word learning that was explained by vocabulary knowledge and nonword repetition after controlling for chronological age. Together with chronological age, nonword repetition and vocabulary knowledge explained up to 44% of the variance in children's word learning. Nonword repetition was the stronger predictor of phonological recall, phonological recognition, and semantic recognition, whereas vocabulary knowledge was the stronger predictor of verbal semantic recall. These findings extend the results of past studies indicating that both nonword repetition skill and existing vocabulary knowledge are important for new word learning, but the relative influence of each predictor depends on the way word learning is measured. Suggestions for further research involving typically developing children and children with language or reading impairments are discussed.

  8. Reading Big Words: Instructional Practices to Promote Multisyllabic Word Reading Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toste, Jessica R.; Williams, Kelly J.; Capin, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Poorly developed word recognition skills are the most pervasive and debilitating source of reading challenges for students with learning disabilities (LD). With a notable decrease in word reading instruction in the upper elementary grades, struggling readers receive fewer instructional opportunities to develop proficient word reading skills, yet…

  9. Semantic Processing of Out-Of-Vocabulary Words in a Spoken Dialogue System

    CERN Document Server

    Boros, M; Gallwitz, F; Noeth, E; Niemann, H; Boros, Manuela; Aretoulaki, Maria; Gallwitz, Florian; Noeth, Elmar; Niemann, Heinrich

    1997-01-01

    One of the most important causes of failure in spoken dialogue systems is usually neglected: the problem of words that are not covered by the system's vocabulary (out-of-vocabulary or OOV words). In this paper a methodology is described for the detection, classification and processing of OOV words in an automatic train timetable information system. The various extensions that had to be effected on the different modules of the system are reported, resulting in the design of appropriate dialogue strategies, as are encouraging evaluation results on the new versions of the word recogniser and the linguistic processor.

  10. Event-related potentials during word mapping to object shape predict toddlers’ vocabulary size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina eBorgström

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available What role does attention to different object properties play in early vocabulary development? This longitudinal study using event-related potentials in combination with behavioral measures investigated 20- and 24-month-olds’ (n = 38; n = 34; overlapping n = 24 ability to use object shape and object part information in word-object mapping. The N400 component was used to measure semantic priming by images containing shape or detail information. At 20 months, the N400 to words primed by object shape varied in topography and amplitude depending on vocabulary size, and these differences predicted productive vocabulary size at 24 months. At 24 months, when most of the children had vocabularies of several hundred words, the relation between vocabulary size and the N400 effect in a shape context was weaker. Detached object parts did not function as word primes regardless of age or vocabulary size, although the part-objects were identified behaviorally. The behavioral measure, however, also showed relatively poor recognition of the part-objects compared to the shape-objects. These three findings provide new support for the link between shape recognition and early vocabulary development.

  11. Pictures and Words: Spanish and English Vocabulary in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branum-Martin, Lee; Mehta, Paras D.; Francis, David J.; Foorman, Barbara R.; Cirino, Paul T.; Miller, Jon F.; Iglesias, Aquiles

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated the relation between Spanish and English vocabulary. Whereas previously reported correlations have revealed strong differences among types of vocabulary measures used and the ages of the students tested, no prior study had used a multilevel model to control for classroom-level differences. The current study used…

  12. Manipulating letter fluency for words alters electrophysiological correlates of recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Heather D; Paller, Ken A

    2013-12-01

    The mechanisms that give rise to familiarity memory have received intense research interest. One current topic of debate concerns the extent to which familiarity is driven by the same fluency sources that give rise to certain implicit memory phenomena. Familiarity may be tied to conceptual fluency, given that familiarity and conceptual implicit memory can exhibit similar neurocognitive properties. However, familiarity can also be driven by perceptual factors, and its neural basis under these circumstances has received less attention. Here we recorded brain potentials during recognition testing using a procedure that has previously been shown to encourage a reliance on letter information when assessing familiarity for words. Studied and unstudied words were derived either from two separate letter pools or a single letter pool ("letter-segregated" and "normal" conditions, respectively) in a within-subjects contrast. As predicted, recognition accuracy was higher in the letter-segregated relative to the normal condition. Electrophysiological analyses revealed parietal old-new effects from 500-700 ms in both conditions. In addition, a topographically dissociable occipital old-new effect from 300-700 ms was present in the letter-segregated condition only. In a second experiment, we found that similar occipital brain potentials were associated with confident false recognition of words that shared letters with studied words but were not themselves studied. These findings indicate that familiarity is a multiply determined phenomenon, and that the stimulus dimensions on which familiarity is based can moderate its neural correlates. Conceptual and perceptual contributions to familiarity vary across testing circumstances, and both must be accounted for in theories of recognition memory and its neural basis. © 2013.

  13. What Can Neighbourhood Density Effects Tell Us about Word Learning? Insights from a Connectionist Model of Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takac, Martin; Knott, Alistair; Stokes, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of neighbourhood density (ND) on vocabulary size in a computational model of vocabulary development. A word has a high ND if there are many words phonologically similar to it. High ND words are more easily learned by infants of all abilities (e.g. Storkel, 2009; Stokes, 2014). We present a neural network…

  14. Incremental Learning of Difficult Words in Story Contexts: The Role of Spelling and Pronouncing New Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadasy, Patricia F.; Sanders, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    In this exploratory study we examine the value of exposure to the spelling and pronunciation of word forms when introducing the meanings of new and difficult vocabulary words. Kindergarten English learners were randomly assigned to one of two types of storybook reading delivered by tutors. Students in both treatments listened to short stories…

  15. Teaching Vocabulary: Within the Context of Literature and Reading or through Isolated Word Lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetis, Anna

    This study was conducted to determine which method for vocabulary instruction was most beneficial: learning words through the context of literature and reading or through isolated word lists. Subjects, 45 high school students taking Freshman English, were divided into 2 groups. All students were studying Charles Dickens' novel "Great…

  16. What's in a Word? Morphological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge in Three Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Shu, Hua; Fletcher, Paul; Stokes, Stephanie F.; Wong, Anita; Leung, Kawai

    2008-01-01

    Understanding how words are created is potentially a key component to being able to learn and understand new vocabulary words. However, research on morphological awareness is relatively rare. In this study, over 660 preschool-aged children from three language groups (Cantonese, Mandarin, and Korean speakers) in which compounding morphology is…

  17. The Relationship between Vocabulary and Word Reading among Head Start Spanish-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Dixon, L. Quentin; Quiroz, Blanca; Chen, Si

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between vocabulary and word reading across Spanish and English. One hundred and seventeen 4- to 5-year-old Spanish-English bilingual children attending Head Start programs in the United States were tested for their Spanish and English word reading twice, 5 months apart.…

  18. The Relationship between Vocabulary and Word Reading among Head Start Spanish-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Dixon, L. Quentin; Quiroz, Blanca; Chen, Si

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between vocabulary and word reading across Spanish and English. One hundred and seventeen 4- to 5-year-old Spanish-English bilingual children attending Head Start programs in the United States were tested for their Spanish and English word reading twice, 5 months apart.…

  19. The Word Frequency Effect on Second Language Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    This study examines several linguistic factors as possible contributors to perceived word difficulty in second language learners in an experimental setting. The investigated factors include: (1) frequency of word usage in the first language, (2) word length, (3) number of syllables in a word, and (4) number of consonant clusters in a word. Word…

  20. Collaborative Learning and Iranian EFL learners’ Vocabulary Improvement through Snowball and Word-Webbing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Afghari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was an attempt to look into the effect of collaborative learning on the learners’ improvement in vocabulary learning. Moreover, the learners’ attitudes about vocabulary learning were taken into account as well. The study was conducted with the participation of 30 intermediate Iranian EFL (English as a foreign language learners, who were studying in a private language institute. To collect the data, OPT (Oxford Placement Test was applied to check the learners’ proficiency level and meet the homogeneity requirements. Then, the learners took the vocabulary pre- and post-test to check the effectiveness of treatment sessions on the learners’ vocabulary learning. Semi-structured interview was also done to investigate the learners’ awareness regarding learning vocabularies before and after the treatment sessions. Findings showed that the applied collaborative techniques, i.e. word-webbing and snowball techniques paved the way for the experimental group to outperform the control group since improvement in vocabulary learning was found to be significant. Moreover, Qualitative results revealed the occurrence of positive changes in the learners’ attitudes about vocabulary learning since almost all the learners concurred that the above-mentioned collaborative techniques assisted them in their better speaking and, by having more interaction through group work, enjoyable environment was created for learning target vocabularies. It was suggested that collaborative instruction should be implemented in teaching vocabulary as it can pave the way for both teachers and learners to benefit from a communicative language classroom.

  1. Developing a Specialized Vocabulary Word List in a Composition Culinary Course through Lecture Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Nordin N. R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning to write in a composition culinary course is very challenging for L2 learners. The main barrier in writing proficiency within this discipline is the lack of vocabulary, specifically the lack of exposure towards specialized vocabulary. This study aims to provide a corpus of specialized vocabulary within a food writing course. By providing students with a word list of specialized vocabulary in the course, students may benefit by familiarizing with the language discourse which will aid in better comprehension of the course, and subsequently facilitate in their writing development. A compilation of all PowerPoint slides from one writing course was assembled and analyzed using the range and frequency program to identify the specialized vocabularies in a food writing course. The corpus was categorized using a four step rating scale, which identified 113 specialized vocabularies in food writing. The learning of specialized vocabulary specialized vocabulary is an important issue at the tertiary level in Malaysia, with educators’ realization of the importance of discourse proficiency in ESP programs, thus many more research is yielded on the many new issues on the teaching and learning of specialized vocabulary particularly within the academic and professional context.

  2. Influence of Verbal Working Memory Depends on Vocabulary: Oral Reading Fluency in Adolescents with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, L. Todd; Rouhani, Parisa

    2012-01-01

    Most research on dyslexia to date has focused on early childhood, while comparatively little is known about the nature of dyslexia in adolescence. The current study had two objectives. The first was to investigate the relative contributions of several cognitive and linguistic factors to connected-text oral reading fluency in a sample of…

  3. Influence of Verbal Working Memory Depends on Vocabulary: Oral Reading Fluency in Adolescents with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, L. Todd; Rouhani, Parisa

    2012-01-01

    Most research on dyslexia to date has focused on early childhood, while comparatively little is known about the nature of dyslexia in adolescence. The current study had two objectives. The first was to investigate the relative contributions of several cognitive and linguistic factors to connected-text oral reading fluency in a sample of…

  4. Access to General Education Curriculum: The Effect of Preteaching Key Words Upon Fluency and Accuracy in Expository Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Gail A.; Lambert, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of preteaching key words on accuracy and fluency in connected text were examined with three fifth-grade participants identified with learning disability and reading two grade levels below their same age peers. Researchers incorporated a multiple baseline design (i.e., Baseline and Wordlist Intervention) and found that preteaching…

  5. Access to General Education Curriculum: The Effect of Preteaching Key Words Upon Fluency and Accuracy in Expository Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Gail A.; Lambert, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of preteaching key words on accuracy and fluency in connected text were examined with three fifth-grade participants identified with learning disability and reading two grade levels below their same age peers. Researchers incorporated a multiple baseline design (i.e., Baseline and Wordlist Intervention) and found that preteaching…

  6. AWARENESS ON THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF MORPHOLOGICALLY-COMPLEX WORDS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO VOCABULARY SIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chothibul Umam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the relationship between the students' awareness on the internal structure of morphologically-complex words (henceforth MCWs and English vocabulary size of Indonesian EFL learners. The participants are 111 Indonesian EFL learners who had taken English Morphology subject. Two types of tests are used; Morpheme Identification Test was used to measure the students' awareness on the internal structure of MCWs and the vocabulary size test is used to estimate their vocabulary size. To know the relationship between the two variables, correlational analysis with Kendall-tau formula is then applied. The result shows that both variables have a positive and significant reciprocal correlation.

  7. On the reliability, validity, and cognitive structure of the Thurstone Word Fluency Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M J; Stanczak, D E

    2000-04-01

    The Thurstone Word Fluency Test (TWFT) is a widely used neuropsychological instrument. However, data regarding its psychometric properties are lacking. The results of the present study suggest that the TWFT possesses excellent test-retest and inter-rater reliability, in addition to good construct validity. However, its criterion validity is limited by its lack of specificity and sensitivity. The present study also suggests that the TWFT is a complex cognitive task, and that successful TWFT performance depends upon a constellation of cognitive abilities, including attention/concentration, psychomotor speed, and memory. Finally, the relationship between verbal IQ and TWFT letter association value was examined. While the TWFT appears to be useful in detecting the presence of cerebral dysfunction, it is of less value in localizing such dysfunction. It is argued that the TWFT should not be used as a neuropsychological screening instrument, but rather, is best used within the context of a thorough neuropsychological examination.

  8. The Differential Effects of Two Vocabulary Instruction Methods on EFL Word Learning: A Study into Task Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Elke

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effect of two vocabulary instruction treatments on word retention by 56 EFL learners. In particular, it focuses on the differential effects of a message-oriented treatment (reading text and answering comprehension questions) and a vocabulary-oriented treatment (reading text and performing two vocabulary tasks) on learners'…

  9. The rationale, development, and standardization of a basic word vocabulary test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, H J

    1974-04-01

    The results of the studies to date indicate that the Basic Word Vocabulary Test provides a range of items in terms of item difficulty levels useful in printed form from about the third grade to the highest educational levels. Since pictorial and orally given vocabulary tests are used from about ages 2 to 8 years, further work should be done to extend the scale downward so that a single comprehensive vocabulary scale ranging from age 2 years to the highest level of verbal development is available for general use. Validation studies should also be conducted with other well-known intelligence tests so that scores can be compared. Alternate forms need to be developed to allow for longitudinal studies of growth and development. The use of a single standard of measurement of vocabulary development, suitable over a wide range of age and ability levels, by different investigators should materially aid in comparing results across studies and samples and lead to more consistent findings, advances in knowledge, and wider application of findings in practical circumstances, The findings presented in this report indicate that the Basic Word Vocabulary Test adequately measures basic word knowledge acquisition and development. The BWVT is suitable for evaluation of individuals and for use in making group comparisons in levels of basic word knowledge attainment, growth, and development.

  10. Redundancy Effect on Retention of Vocabulary Words Using Multimedia Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samur, Yavuz

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of the redundancy principle in a multimedia presentation constructed for foreign language vocabulary learning on undergraduate students' retention. The underlying hypothesis of this study is that when the students are exposed to the material in multiple ways through animation, concurrent narration,…

  11. Redundancy Effect on Retention of Vocabulary Words Using Multimedia Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samur, Yavuz

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of the redundancy principle in a multimedia presentation constructed for foreign language vocabulary learning on undergraduate students' retention. The underlying hypothesis of this study is that when the students are exposed to the material in multiple ways through animation, concurrent narration,…

  12. Toddlers learn words in a foreign language: the role of native vocabulary knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Melissa; Woodward, Amanda L

    2012-03-01

    The current study examined monolingual English-speaking toddlers' (N=50) ability to learn word-referent links from native speakers of Dutch versus English, and second, whether children generalized or sequestered their extensions when terms were tested by a subsequent speaker of English. Overall, children performed better in the English than in the Dutch condition; however, children with high native vocabularies successfully selected the target object for terms trained in fluent Dutch. Furthermore, children with higher vocabularies did not indicate their comprehension of Dutch terms when subsequently tested by an English speaker whereas children with low vocabulary scores responded at chance levels to both the original Dutch speaker and the second English speaker. These findings demonstrate that monolingual toddlers with proficiency in their native language are capable of learning words outside of their conventional system and may be sensitive to the boundaries that exist between language systems.

  13. The Role of Word Recognition, Oral Reading Fluency and Listening Comprehension in the Simple View of Reading: A Study in an Intermediate Depth Orthography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadime, Irene; Rodrigues, Bruna; Santos, Sandra; Viana, Fernanda Leopoldina; Chaves-Sousa, Séli; do Céu Cosme, Maria; Ribeiro, Iolanda

    2017-01-01

    Empirical research has provided evidence for the simple view of reading across a variety of orthographies, but the role of oral reading fluency in the model is unclear. Moreover, the relative weight of listening comprehension, oral reading fluency and word recognition in reading comprehension seems to vary across orthographies and schooling years.…

  14. The Role of Word Recognition, Oral Reading Fluency and Listening Comprehension in the Simple View of Reading: A Study in an Intermediate Depth Orthography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadime, Irene; Rodrigues, Bruna; Santos, Sandra; Viana, Fernanda Leopoldina; Chaves-Sousa, Séli; do Céu Cosme, Maria; Ribeiro, Iolanda

    2017-01-01

    Empirical research has provided evidence for the simple view of reading across a variety of orthographies, but the role of oral reading fluency in the model is unclear. Moreover, the relative weight of listening comprehension, oral reading fluency and word recognition in reading comprehension seems to vary across orthographies and schooling years.…

  15. Is Vocabulary Growth Influenced by the Relations among Words in a Language Learner's Vocabulary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailor, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Several recent studies have explored the applicability of the preferential attachment principle to account for vocabulary growth. According to this principle, network growth can be described by a process in which existing nodes recruit new nodes with a probability that is an increasing function of their connectivity within the existing network.…

  16. Spanish Vocabulary-Bridging Technology-Enhanced Instruction for Young English Language Learners' Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leacox, Lindsey; Jackson, Carla Wood

    2014-01-01

    This study examined preschool and kindergarten English language learners (ELLs) attending a migrant summer programme and their vocabulary word learning during both adult-read and technology-enhanced repeated readings. In a within-subject design, 24 ELLs (four to six years old) engaged in repeated readings in a control and a treatment condition. In…

  17. Evidence for Preserved Novel Word Learning in Down Syndrome Suggests Multiple Routes to Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosse, Emma K.; Jarrold, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Three studies investigated novel word learning, some requiring phonological production, each involving between 11 and 17 individuals with Down syndrome, and between 15 and 24 typically developing individuals matched for receptive vocabulary. The effect of stimuli wordlikeness and incidental procedure-based memory demands were examined to…

  18. Brain Dynamics of Word Familiarization in 20-Month-Olds: Effects of Productive Vocabulary Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkildsen, Janne von Koss; Hansen, Hanna Friis; Svangstu, Janne Mari; Smith, Lars; Simonsen, Hanne Gram; Moen, Inger; Lindgren, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the brain mechanisms involved during young children's receptive familiarization with new words, and whether the dynamics of these mechanisms are related to the child's productive vocabulary size. To this end, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from 20-month-old children in a pseudoword repetition task.…

  19. Attention to Orthographic and Phonological Word Forms in Vocabulary Instruction for Kindergarten English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadasy, Patricia F.; Sanders, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined benefits of connecting meaning, speech, and print in vocabulary learning for kindergarten English learners. Students screened eligible with limited English proficiency were randomly assigned to two instruction conditions. Both groups received direct instruction in high frequency root words. One condition featured added…

  20. The Effects of Target Word Properties on the Incidental Acquisition of Vocabulary through Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Barry Lee

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this investigation was to determine what combination of target word variables (frequency, patternedness, length, cognateness, lexicalization) could best predict the difficulty of incidentally acquiring vocabulary through reading. A group of adult English First Language (EL1) (n = 20) and adult English as a Foreign Language (EFL)…

  1. Foreign language vocabulary learning: word-type effects during the labeling stage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, A.M.B.; van den Brink, R.C.L.; Kail, M.; Hickmann, M.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter reviews the results of a set of experiments that examined foreign-language (FL) vocabulary learning by late learners, exploiting the paired-associate-learning (PAL) paradigm. The effects on acquisition and retention of the concreteness and frequency of the native-language (L1) words, th

  2. Foreign language vocabulary learning: word-type effects during the labeling stage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M.B. de Groot; R.C.L. van den Brink

    2010-01-01

    This chapter reviews the results of a set of experiments that examined foreign-language (FL) vocabulary learning by late learners, exploiting the paired-associate-learning (PAL) paradigm. The effects on acquisition and retention of the concreteness and frequency of the native-language (L1) words, th

  3. A Link Between Lexical Competition and Fluency in Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Roxana Botezatu

    2014-04-01

    Results: Neurologically-intact controls exhibited the standard inhibitory effect of phonological neighborhood density: faster responses to words from low-density than high-density phonological neighborhoods (Estimate = 103.05, SE = 42.05, p = 0.014. For participants with aphasia, the effect of phonological neighborhood density was larger for those with lower fluency (χ2(1 = 3.95, p = 0.047; Figure 1, left panel, but was not modulated by overall aphasia severity (χ2(1 = 1.64, p = 0.2. Receptive vocabulary size also modulated the neighborhood density effect (χ2(1 = 7.93, p = 0.005, which was larger in participants with aphasia who had larger receptive vocabularies (Figure 1, right panel. The correlation between WAB Fluency and PPVT scores was not significant (r = -0.325, p = 0.257, indicating that the opposite effects of fluency and receptive vocabulary were not the same underlying pattern. Conclusions: These results are consistent with the view that fluency deficits in aphasia are a consequence of difficulty selecting among completing candidates – both in comprehension and in production. Furthermore, the fact that vocabulary size and fluency had opposite effects on sensitivity to neighborhood density indicates that the effect of fluency is not an effect of lexicon size.

  4. WORDS AS “LEXICAL UNITS” IN LEARNING/TEACHING VOCABULARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Almela

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the genuine contributions of theoretical linguistics to the interdisciplinary field of applied linguistics is to elucidate the nature of what should be taught and how it should be taught. Traditionally, the input supplied in vocabulary teaching has consisted either of word lists (most often or of words-in-context (more recently. In the first case, words are treated as self-contained receptacles of meaning, and in the second case, they are considered as nodes of semantic relationships. However, recent directions in corpus-driven lexicology are exploring the gulf between the concept of a “word” and that of a “semantic unit”. The main purpose of this paper is to update some implications of this discussion for one of the applied disciplines, namely FL/L2 vocabulary teaching and learning.

  5. Tailoring vocabularies for NLP in sub-domains: a method to detect unused word sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Rosa L; Zeng-Treitler, Qing; Goryachev, Sergey; Wiechmann, Eduardo P

    2009-11-14

    We developed a method to help tailor a comprehensive vocabulary system (e.g. the UMLS) for a sub-domain (e.g. clinical reports) in support of natural language processing (NLP). The method detects unused sense in a sub-domain by comparing the relational neighborhood of a word/term in the vocabulary with the semantic neighborhood of the word/term in the sub-domain. The semantic neighborhood of the word/term in the sub-domain is determined using latent semantic analysis (LSA). We trained and tested the unused sense detection on two clinical text corpora: one contains discharge summaries and the other outpatient visit notes. We were able to detect unused senses with precision from 79% to 87%, recall from 48% to 74%, and an area under receiver operation curve (AUC) of 72% to 87%.

  6. The Everything Build Your Vocabulary Book Over 400 Words to Help You Communicate With Eloquence And Style

    CERN Document Server

    Dmitriev, Valentine

    2006-01-01

    With exercises, puzzles, and games, The Everything Build Your Vocabulary Book helps you to improve your vocabulary and enhance your communication skills. This fun, interactive book includes:Words you need every dayCommonly misused words and phrasesMedical, scientific, business, and legal termsInterchangeable wordsWords to use in place of idioms, clichés, and slang.This easy-to-follow book painlessly teaches you the words you need to know to sound composed and professional-today!

  7. Word Lists to Limit Vocabulary in Technical Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    verb SITUATION noun SLEDDED* verb SITUATIONS noun SLEDDING verb SIX noun SLEDS noun/verb SIXES noun SLEEP noun/verb SIXTEEN noun SLEEPING verb SIXTH...adjective SLEEPS verb SIXTHS noun SLEEVE noun/verb SIXTIES noun SLEEVED* verb SIXTY noun SLEEVES noun/verb BOLDFACE - Root Word ’ - Past Participle A-83...adjective POLYPHASE adjective RESISTIVE adjective POTENTIALS noun RESISTIVITIES noun PREAMPLIFIER noun RESISTIVITY noun PREAMPLIFIERS noun RESOLVER noun

  8. Experimental Effects of Word Generation on Vocabulary, Academic Language, and Perspective Taking in High Poverty Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie M.; Kim, James; LaRusso, Maria; Kim, Ha Yeon; Selman, Robert; Uccelli, Paola; Barnes, Sophie; Donovan, Suzanne; Snow, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Word Generation (WG) is a research-based vocabulary program for middle school students designed to teach words through language arts, math, science, and social studies classes. The program consists of weekly units that introduce 5 high-utility target words through brief passages designed to spark active examination and discussion of contemporary…

  9. Evidence for preserved novel word learning in Down syndrome suggests multiple routes to vocabulary acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosse, Emma K; Jarrold, Christopher

    2011-08-01

    Three studies investigated novel word learning, some requiring phonological production, each involving between 11 and 17 individuals with Down syndrome, and between 15 and 24 typically developing individuals matched for receptive vocabulary. The effect of stimuli wordlikeness and incidental procedure-based memory demands were examined to see whether these may account for an apparent impairment in word learning in Down syndrome demonstrated in earlier research. Paired associate word and nonword learning tasks were presented, requiring participants to learn the names of novel characters. The nonword stimuli varied in the degree of wordlikeness in 2 studies. A third study investigated extraneous task demand. Across 3 studies, there was no suggestion of a word learning deficit associated with Down syndrome (η(2)(p) for the main effect of group of .03, .11, and .03, respectively), despite the level of phonological representation required. There was evidence that novel word learning by participants with Down syndrome exceeded that which their verbal short-term memory capacity would predict. Vocabulary acquisition in Down syndrome may not rely on verbal short-term memory to the same extent as in typically developing children, lending support to the suggestion that new word learning may be underpinned by an additional memory process.

  10. The Effects of Comprehensive Vocabulary Instruction on Title I Students' Metacognitive Word-Learning Skills and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubliner, Shira; Smetana, Linda

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a multifaceted, metacognitive vocabulary intervention on the reading comprehension and vocabulary achievement of fifth-grade children in one of California's lowest performing Title I schools. Instruction was comprehensive, designed to facilitate encoding of student-selected words, mastery of clarifying…

  11. Non-word repetition assesses phonological memory and is related to vocabulary development in 20- to 24-month-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Core, Cynthia; Bridges, Kelly

    2008-11-01

    Two studies test the hypotheses that individual differences in phonological memory among children younger than two years can be assessed using a non-word repetition task (NWR) and that these differences are related to the children's rates of vocabulary development. NWR accuracy, real word repetition accuracy and productive vocabulary were assessed in 15 children between 1 ; 9 and 2 ; 0 in Study 1 and in 21 children between 1 ; 8 and 2 ; 0 in Study 2. In both studies, NWR accuracy was significantly related to vocabulary percentile and, furthermore, uniquely accounted for a substantial portion of the variance in vocabulary when real word repetition accuracy was held constant. The findings establish NWR as a valid measure of phonological memory in very young children, and they open the door for further studies of the role of phonological memory in early word learning.

  12. Cross-Language Transfer of Word Reading Accuracy and Word Reading Fluency in Spanish-English and Chinese-English Bilinguals: Script-Universal and Script-Specific Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquarella, Adrian; Chen, Xi; Gottardo, Alexandra; Geva, Esther

    2015-01-01

    This study examined cross-language transfer of word reading accuracy and word reading fluency in Spanish-English and Chinese-English bilinguals. Participants included 51 Spanish-English and 64 Chinese-English bilinguals. Both groups of children completed parallel measures of phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, word reading accuracy,…

  13. Cross-Language Transfer of Word Reading Accuracy and Word Reading Fluency in Spanish-English and Chinese-English Bilinguals: Script-Universal and Script-Specific Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquarella, Adrian; Chen, Xi; Gottardo, Alexandra; Geva, Esther

    2015-01-01

    This study examined cross-language transfer of word reading accuracy and word reading fluency in Spanish-English and Chinese-English bilinguals. Participants included 51 Spanish-English and 64 Chinese-English bilinguals. Both groups of children completed parallel measures of phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, word reading accuracy,…

  14. Criterion validity of the D-KEFS color-word and verbal fluency switching paradigms following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Luke B; Jaroh, Rebekah; Smith, Hillary; Strong, Carrie-Ann H; Donders, Jacobus

    2017-01-17

    The present study was composed of two parts examining the clinical utility of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) Verbal Fluency and Color-Word subtests in traumatic brain injury (TBI). In the first part, the performance of 128 outpatients with mild to severe TBI on the Verbal Fluency and Color-Word subtests was examined in relation to two primary indicators of TBI severity: length of coma and the presence of intracranial lesions on neuroimaging through regression analysis. After controlling for education, ethnicity, and complicating premorbid and comorbid factors, length of coma predicted performance on the Color-Word Inhibition/Switching subtest, whereas the presence of diffuse lesions was related to Verbal Fluency Category Switching performance. In the second part of this study, performance on the Category Switching and Inhibition/Switching subtests was compared between a group of 28 participants with moderate-to-severe TBI and demographically matched groups with mild-uncomplicated TBI (n = 28) and neurologically healthy control participants (n = 56). The moderate-to-severe TBI group performed significantly worse on both subtests than the mild-uncomplicated TBI and control groups, and the latter groups did not differ from each other on these subtests. Logistic regression analysis showed that the combined group classification accuracy of these subtests was 66.07%, with an area under the curve (AUC) of .70 and a likelihood ratio of 1.93. The findings provide modest support for the clinical utility of the Color-Word Inhibition/Switching subtest in the cognitive assessment of TBI, while also replicating prior research suggesting clinical utility of the Category Switching subtest in this population.

  15. Proficiency and Control in Verbal Fluency Performance across the Lifespan for Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Deanna C.; Luo, Lin; Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The verbal fluency task is a widely used neuropsychological test of word retrieval efficiency. Both category fluency (e.g., list animals) and letter fluency (e.g., list words that begin with F) place demands on semantic memory and executive control functions. However letter fluency places greater demands on executive control than category fluency, making this task well-suited to investigating potential bilingual advantages in word retrieval. Here we report analyses on category and letter fluency for bilinguals and monolinguals at four ages, namely, 7-year-olds, 10-year-olds, young adults, and older adults. Three main findings emerged: 1) verbal fluency performance improved from childhood to young adulthood and remained relatively stable in late adulthood; 2) beginning at 10-years-old, the executive control requirements for letter fluency were less effortful for bilinguals than monolinguals, with a robust bilingual advantage on this task emerging in adulthood; 3) an interaction among factors showed that category fluency performance was influenced by both age and vocabulary knowledge but letter fluency performance was influenced by bilingual status. PMID:25642427

  16. The diagnostic value of controlled oral word association test-FAS and category fluency in single-domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek-Ahmadi, Michael; Small, Brent J; Raj, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that decreases in both letter fluency and category fluency may be present in addition to memory impairment in single-domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, the clinical utility of these fluency measures is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine what, if any, diagnostic value letter and category fluency provide in differentiating single-domain aMCI from normal cognition. Data from 66 individuals [33 cognitively normal (CN) and 33 aMCI] between the ages of 66 and 87 years participating in the Florida Alzheimer's Disease Research Center were compared on the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT)-FAS and Category Fluency test, both in terms of raw and scaled scores. Participants were matched on age, education and sex. Two-tailed independent sample t-tests found statistically significant differences between the CN and aMCI groups for both raw and scaled scores of COWAT-FAS and Category Fluency (p Fluency did not significantly improve diagnostic accuracy when combined with the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised delayed recall. Although decreased COWAT-FAS and Category Fluency performance may be present in single-domain aMCI, these tests do not improve the ability of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised delayed recall to differentiate aMCI from CN individuals. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. What can Neighbourhood Density effects tell us about word learning? Insights from a connectionist model of vocabulary development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takac, Martin; Knott, Alistair; Stokes, Stephanie

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of neighbourhood density (ND) on vocabulary size in a computational model of vocabulary development. A word has a high ND if there are many words phonologically similar to it. High ND words are more easily learned by infants of all abilities (e.g. Storkel, 2009; Stokes, 2014). We present a neural network model that learns general phonotactic patterns in the exposure language, as well as specific word forms and, crucially, mappings between word meanings and word forms. The network is faster at learning frequent words, and words containing high-probability phoneme sequences, as human word learners are, but, independently of this, the network is also faster at learning words with high ND, and, when its capacity is reduced, it learns high ND words in preference to other words, similarly to late talkers. We analyze the model and propose a novel explanation of the ND effect, in which word meanings play an important role in generating word-specific biases on general phonological trajectories. This explanation leads to a new prediction about the origin of the ND effect in infants.

  18. Broadly speaking: vocabulary in semantic dementia shifts towards general, semantically diverse words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Paul; Meteyard, Lotte; Patterson, Karalyn

    2014-06-01

    One of the cardinal features of semantic dementia (SD) is a steady reduction in expressive vocabulary. We investigated the nature of this breakdown by assessing the psycholinguistic characteristics of words produced spontaneously by SD patients during an autobiographical memory interview. Speech was analysed with respect to frequency and imageability, and a recently-developed measure called semantic diversity. This measure quantifies the degree to which a word can be used in a broad range of different linguistic contexts. We used this measure in a formal exploration of the tendency for SD patients to replace specific terms with more vague and general words, on the assumption that more specific words are used in a more constrained set of contexts. Relative to healthy controls, patients were less likely to produce low-frequency, high-imageability words, and more likely to produce highly frequent, abstract words. These changes in the lexical-semantic landscape were related to semantic diversity: the highly frequent and abstract words most prevalent in the patients' speech were also the most semantically diverse. In fact, when the speech samples of healthy controls were artificially engineered such that low semantic diversity words (e.g., garage, spanner) were replaced with broader terms (e.g., place, thing), the characteristics of their speech production came to closely resemble that of SD patients. A similar simulation in which low-frequency words were replaced was less successful in replicating the patient data. These findings indicate systematic biases in the deterioration of lexical-semantic space in SD. As conceptual knowledge degrades, speech increasingly consists of general terms that can be applied in a broad range of linguistic contexts and convey less specific information.

  19. The influence of part-word phonotactic probability/neighborhood density on word learning by preschool children varying in expressive vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storkel, Holly L; Hoover, Jill R

    2011-06-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the influence of part-word phonotactic probability/neighborhood density on word learning by preschool children with normal vocabularies that varied in size. Ninety-eight children (age 2 ; 11-6 ; 0) were taught consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) nonwords orthogonally varying in the probability/density of the CV (i.e. body) and VC (i.e. rhyme). Learning was measured via picture naming. Children with the lowest expressive vocabulary scores showed no effect of either CV or VC probability/density, although floor effects could not be ruled out. In contrast, children with low or high expressive vocabulary scores demonstrated sensitivity to part-word probability/density with the nature of the effect varying by group. Children with the highest expressive vocabulary scores displayed yet a third pattern of part-word probability/density effects. Taken together, word learning by preschool children was influenced by part-word probability/density but the nature of this influence appeared to depend on the size of the lexicon.

  20. Some Notes About Medical Vocabulary in 18th Century New Spain: Technical and Colloquial Words for the Denomination of Illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis RAMÍREZ LUENGO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the 18th Century medical vocabulary is something that has been studied during recent years in Spain, the situation is very different in Latin America, where papers on this subject are very limited. In this case, this paper aims to study the denominations for illnesses that were discovered in a 18th Century New Spain document corpus: to do so, the corpus will be described and then the vocabulary used in the documents will be analysed; the paper will pay special attention to questions such as neologisms, fluctuating words and the presence of colloquial vocabulary. Thus, the purposes of the paper are three: 1 to demonstrate the importance of official documents for the study of medical vocabulary; 2 to provide some data for writing the history of this vocabulary; and 3 to note some analyses that should be done in the future. 

  1. Changes in Word Usage Frequency May Hamper Intergenerational Comparisons of Vocabulary Skills: An Ngram Analysis of Wordsum, WAIS, and WISC Test Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roivainen, Eka

    2014-01-01

    Research on secular trends in mean intelligence test scores shows smaller gains in vocabulary skills than in nonverbal reasoning. One possible explanation is that vocabulary test items become outdated faster compared to nonverbal tasks. The history of the usage frequency of the words on five popular vocabulary tests, the GSS Wordsum, Wechsler…

  2. The Influence of Spanish Vocabulary and Phonemic Awareness on Beginning English Reading Development: A Three-Year (K-2nd) Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael F.; Roe, Mary; Blanchard, Jay; Atwill, Kim

    2015-01-01

    This investigation examined the influence of varying levels of Spanish receptive vocabulary and phonemic awareness ability on beginning English vocabulary, phonemic awareness, word reading fluency, and reading comprehension development across kindergarten through second grade. The 80 respondents were Spanish speaking children with no English…

  3. The Influence of Spanish Vocabulary and Phonemic Awareness on Beginning English Reading Development: A Three-Year (K-2nd) Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael F.; Roe, Mary; Blanchard, Jay; Atwill, Kim

    2015-01-01

    This investigation examined the influence of varying levels of Spanish receptive vocabulary and phonemic awareness ability on beginning English vocabulary, phonemic awareness, word reading fluency, and reading comprehension development across kindergarten through second grade. The 80 respondents were Spanish speaking children with no English…

  4. Associative vocabulary learning: development and testing of two paradigms for the (re- acquisition of action- and object-related words.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Freundlieb

    Full Text Available Despite a growing number of studies, the neurophysiology of adult vocabulary acquisition is still poorly understood. One reason is that paradigms that can easily be combined with neuroscientfic methods are rare. Here, we tested the efficiency of two paradigms for vocabulary (re- acquisition, and compared the learning of novel words for actions and objects. Cortical networks involved in adult native-language word processing are widespread, with differences postulated between words for objects and actions. Words and what they stand for are supposed to be grounded in perceptual and sensorimotor brain circuits depending on their meaning. If there are specific brain representations for different word categories, we hypothesized behavioural differences in the learning of action-related and object-related words. Paradigm A, with the learning of novel words for body-related actions spread out over a number of days, revealed fast learning of these new action words, and stable retention up to 4 weeks after training. The single-session Paradigm B employed objects and actions. Performance during acquisition did not differ between action-related and object-related words (time*word category: p = 0.01, but the translation rate was clearly better for object-related (79% than for action-related words (53%, p = 0.002. Both paradigms yielded robust associative learning of novel action-related words, as previously demonstrated for object-related words. Translation success differed for action- and object-related words, which may indicate different neural mechanisms. The paradigms tested here are well suited to investigate such differences with neuroscientific means. Given the stable retention and minimal requirements for conscious effort, these learning paradigms are promising for vocabulary re-learning in brain-lesioned people. In combination with neuroimaging, neuro-stimulation or pharmacological intervention, they may well advance the understanding of

  5. Associative vocabulary learning: development and testing of two paradigms for the (re-) acquisition of action- and object-related words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundlieb, Nils; Ridder, Volker; Dobel, Christian; Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Baumgaertner, Annette; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Gerloff, Christian; Hummel, Friedhelm C; Liuzzi, Gianpiero

    2012-01-01

    Despite a growing number of studies, the neurophysiology of adult vocabulary acquisition is still poorly understood. One reason is that paradigms that can easily be combined with neuroscientfic methods are rare. Here, we tested the efficiency of two paradigms for vocabulary (re-) acquisition, and compared the learning of novel words for actions and objects. Cortical networks involved in adult native-language word processing are widespread, with differences postulated between words for objects and actions. Words and what they stand for are supposed to be grounded in perceptual and sensorimotor brain circuits depending on their meaning. If there are specific brain representations for different word categories, we hypothesized behavioural differences in the learning of action-related and object-related words. Paradigm A, with the learning of novel words for body-related actions spread out over a number of days, revealed fast learning of these new action words, and stable retention up to 4 weeks after training. The single-session Paradigm B employed objects and actions. Performance during acquisition did not differ between action-related and object-related words (time*word category: p = 0.01), but the translation rate was clearly better for object-related (79%) than for action-related words (53%, p = 0.002). Both paradigms yielded robust associative learning of novel action-related words, as previously demonstrated for object-related words. Translation success differed for action- and object-related words, which may indicate different neural mechanisms. The paradigms tested here are well suited to investigate such differences with neuroscientific means. Given the stable retention and minimal requirements for conscious effort, these learning paradigms are promising for vocabulary re-learning in brain-lesioned people. In combination with neuroimaging, neuro-stimulation or pharmacological intervention, they may well advance the understanding of language learning

  6. Astronomy and Geology Vocabulary, I.e. "NASA Words" in Native American Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrum, A.; Alexander, C. J.; Martin, M.

    2014-12-01

    The US Rosetta Project has developed a program in Native American communities in which contemporary STEM vocabulary is taught alongside the same vocabulary in Navajo. NASA images and science are used and described in the native language, alongside both lay English, and scientific English. Additionally, science curriculum (geology/chemistry/botany/physics) elements drawn from the reservation environment, including geomorphology, geochemistry, soil physics, are included and discussed in the native language as much as possible — with their analogs in other planetary environments (such as Mars). The program began with a student defining 30 Navajo words to describe what he called 'NASA' words, such as: cell phone, astronaut, space suit, computer, and planets not visible to the naked eye. The use of NASA material and imagery have a positive impact on the accessibility of the overall STEM material but community involvement, and buy-in, is criti! cal to the success of the program. The US Rosetta Project modified its goals, and curriculum, to accommodate the programmatic desires of teachers in the district, and the capabilities of the medicine men that agreed to participate. In this presentation we will report on lessons learned, as well as metrics and successes associated with our most recent Summer Science Academy [2014].

  7. The Comparison between Contextual Guessing Strategies vs. Memorizing a List of Isolated Words in Vocabulary Learning Regarding Long Term Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Vakili S AMIYAN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Guessing the meaning of unknown vocabularies within a text is a way of learning new words which is named textual vocabulary acquisition. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a textual guessing strategy on vocabulary learning at the intermediate le vel. Textual guessing strategy is to guess the meaning of vocabularies with the help of surrounding words or sentences in the co - text without any translation. This paper reports the findings of two quantitative studies conducted on English language learner s with the Intermediate 2 level of proficiency in Kavosh foreign language institute, Mashhad, Iran. Twenty male and female attendants were selected and assigned to ’context’ and ‘non - context’ groups. The context group received an instruction to infer the m eaning of new words while the non - context participants were treated as learning new vocabularies individually (autonomously. The result of the independent sample t - test at the post - test stage revealed that the probability value of t - test with an equality of variances assumption is lower than 0.05 (0.04700. So this result represented that there is a meaningful difference between the experimental group and the control group considering their amount of learning. The results indicated that textual guessing s trategy had more effect on their long term memory. It was also revealed that the words learned through context are used more frequently than those learned in isolation in the speaking repertoire of the participants.

  8. The Role of Cognitive Processes, Foundational Math Skill, and Calculation Accuracy and Fluency in Word-Problem Solving versus Prealgebraic Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Powell, Sarah R.; Cirino, Paul T.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Tolar, Tammy D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine child-level pathways in development of prealgebraic knowledge versus word-problem solving, while evaluating the contribution of calculation accuracy and fluency as mediators of foundational skills/processes. Children (n = 962; mean 7.60 years) were assessed on general cognitive processes and early…

  9. The Role of Cognitive Processes, Foundational Math Skill, and Calculation Accuracy and Fluency in Word-Problem Solving versus Prealgebraic Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Powell, Sarah R.; Cirino, Paul T.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Tolar, Tammy D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine child-level pathways in development of prealgebraic knowledge versus word-problem solving, while evaluating the contribution of calculation accuracy and fluency as mediators of foundational skills/processes. Children (n = 962; mean 7.60 years) were assessed on general cognitive processes and early…

  10. Vocabulary learning in a Yorkshire terrier: slow mapping of spoken words.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Griebel

    Full Text Available Rapid vocabulary learning in children has been attributed to "fast mapping", with new words often claimed to be learned through a single presentation. As reported in 2004 in Science a border collie (Rico not only learned to identify more than 200 words, but fast mapped the new words, remembering meanings after just one presentation. Our research tests the fast mapping interpretation of the Science paper based on Rico's results, while extending the demonstration of large vocabulary recognition to a lap dog. We tested a Yorkshire terrier (Bailey with the same procedures as Rico, illustrating that Bailey accurately retrieved randomly selected toys from a set of 117 on voice command of the owner. Second we tested her retrieval based on two additional voices, one male, one female, with different accents that had never been involved in her training, again showing she was capable of recognition by voice command. Third, we did both exclusion-based training of new items (toys she had never seen before with names she had never heard before embedded in a set of known items, with subsequent retention tests designed as in the Rico experiment. After Bailey succeeded on exclusion and retention tests, a crucial evaluation of true mapping tested items previously successfully retrieved in exclusion and retention, but now pitted against each other in a two-choice task. Bailey failed on the true mapping task repeatedly, illustrating that the claim of fast mapping in Rico had not been proven, because no true mapping task had ever been conducted with him. It appears that the task called retention in the Rico study only demonstrated success in retrieval by a process of extended exclusion.

  11. Vocabulary learning in a Yorkshire terrier: slow mapping of spoken words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebel, Ulrike; Oller, D Kimbrough

    2012-01-01

    Rapid vocabulary learning in children has been attributed to "fast mapping", with new words often claimed to be learned through a single presentation. As reported in 2004 in Science a border collie (Rico) not only learned to identify more than 200 words, but fast mapped the new words, remembering meanings after just one presentation. Our research tests the fast mapping interpretation of the Science paper based on Rico's results, while extending the demonstration of large vocabulary recognition to a lap dog. We tested a Yorkshire terrier (Bailey) with the same procedures as Rico, illustrating that Bailey accurately retrieved randomly selected toys from a set of 117 on voice command of the owner. Second we tested her retrieval based on two additional voices, one male, one female, with different accents that had never been involved in her training, again showing she was capable of recognition by voice command. Third, we did both exclusion-based training of new items (toys she had never seen before with names she had never heard before) embedded in a set of known items, with subsequent retention tests designed as in the Rico experiment. After Bailey succeeded on exclusion and retention tests, a crucial evaluation of true mapping tested items previously successfully retrieved in exclusion and retention, but now pitted against each other in a two-choice task. Bailey failed on the true mapping task repeatedly, illustrating that the claim of fast mapping in Rico had not been proven, because no true mapping task had ever been conducted with him. It appears that the task called retention in the Rico study only demonstrated success in retrieval by a process of extended exclusion.

  12. Tune in to the Tone: Lexical Tone Identification is Associated with Vocabulary and Word Recognition Abilities in Young Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; Tong, Xiuhong; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Lexical tone is one of the most prominent features in the phonological representation of words in Chinese. However, little, if any, research to date has directly evaluated how young Chinese children's lexical tone identification skills contribute to vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. The present study distinguished lexical tones from segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness in order to estimate the unique contribution of lexical tone in early vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. A sample of 199 Cantonese children aged 5-6 years was assessed on measures of lexical tone identification, segmental phonological awareness, morphological awareness, nonverbal ability, vocabulary knowledge, and Chinese character recognition. It was found that lexical tone awareness and morphological awareness were both associated with vocabulary knowledge and character recognition. However, there was a significant relationship between lexical tone awareness and both vocabulary knowledge and character recognition, even after controlling for the effects of age, nonverbal ability, segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness. These findings suggest that lexical tone is a key factor accounting for individual variance in young children's lexical acquisition in Chinese, and that lexical tone should be considered in understanding how children learn new Chinese vocabulary words, in either oral or written forms.

  13. Word Association Knowledge and Vocabulary Retention%词汇联想义知识与词汇记忆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛婷

    2005-01-01

    词汇量的大小一直是英语学习者所关心的,也是衡量英语学习者英语水平高低的重要指标之一,所以英语学习者也尝试各种方法来扩大词汇量.本文讨论的是词汇的一个方面,即词汇联想义知识在词汇记忆、扩大词汇量方面的作用.通过实验证明词汇联想义知识与词汇量的相关性较高,因此,词汇教学过程中应该引导学生同时开发词汇的深度及广度.%Vocabulary size has always been a big concern for the English learners.It is also one of the most important parameters to measure one's English level.English learners make every effort to build up their vocabulary.In this paper,one aspect of vocabulary,that is word association knowledge has been proved to facilitate vocabulary retention,to enlarge one's vocabulary size.Therefore,both the width and depth of vocabulary should be integrated into vocabulary teaching.

  14. Using Word Prediction Software to Increase Typing Fluency with Students with Physical Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumlin, Jennifer; Heller, Kathryn Wolff

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of word prediction software to increase typing speed and decrease spelling errors for students who have physical disabilities that affect hand use. Student perceptions regarding the effectiveness of word prediction was examined as well as their typing rates and spelling accuracy. Four students with…

  15. Self-Regulation Abilities and Spanish-Speaking Preschoolers' Vocabulary and Letter-Word Skills in Spanish and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Francisco; Mikulski, Ariana M.; Conejo, L. Diego

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the heterogeneity in Spanish-speaking children's (N = 117; M age = 53 months; SD = 5 months; 57% boys) vocabulary and letter-word skills in English and Spanish after one year of preschool and the extent to which early self-regulation abilities (i.e., executive function and effortful control) were associated…

  16. Self-Regulation Abilities and Spanish-Speaking Preschoolers' Vocabulary and Letter-Word Skills in Spanish and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Francisco; Mikulski, Ariana M.; Conejo, L. Diego

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the heterogeneity in Spanish-speaking children's (N = 117; M age = 53 months; SD = 5 months; 57% boys) vocabulary and letter-word skills in English and Spanish after one year of preschool and the extent to which early self-regulation abilities (i.e., executive function and effortful control) were associated…

  17. Spanish Vocabulary-Bridging Technology-Enhanced Instruction for Young English Language Learners' Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leacox, Lindsey; Jackson, Carla Wood

    2014-01-01

    This study examined preschool and kindergarten English language learners (ELLs) attending a migrant summer programme and their vocabulary word learning during both adult-read and technology-enhanced repeated readings. In a within-subject design, 24 ELLs (four to six years old) engaged in repeated readings in a control and a treatment condition. In…

  18. The Effect of Explicit Instruction of Clustering New Words on Vocabulary Learning of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners through Hyperlinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Soleimani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of explicit instruction of clustering new thematic vocabulary items into two different categories through hyperlinks of PowerPoint was examined on vocabulary learning of 75 Iranian intermediate EFL learners. The sample was randomly assigned to three groups. Experimental group 1 received the meaning of new words in their First Language (L1 translation via PowerPoint, while experimental group 2 received the meanings in English definition in the same way; control group learned the meanings through a traditional method of instruction without employing any specific strategy. To measure the participants’ vocabulary learning, a pretest and a posttest were administered to all groups. The result of t-test indicated that such explicit strategy instruction enhanced vocabulary learning of the experimental groups. According to the results of One-Way ANOVA, although there was no significant difference between the experimental groups, a significant difference was observed between the experimental groups and the control group in vocabulary learning.Keywords: CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning; hyperlinks; explicit strategy instruction; L1 translation, English definition; vocabulary learning

  19. Check This Word Out! Exploring the Factors That Affect Students’ Vocabulary Learning Using Smartphones via Partial Least Squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Madallh Alhabahba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A rigorous understanding of the use of Smartphones for foreign language vocabulary acquisition is crucial. Employing the technology acceptance model, this study aims to investigate students’ behavioural factors affecting Saudi students’ attitudes towards employing Smartphones for foreign vocabulary acquisition. Two hundred and seventy-three students studying in a preparatory year programme were surveyed. SmartPLS was employed to analyse the data obtained from the study’s sample. The results revealed that perceived usefulness and attitude proved to be significantly and positively related to vocabulary development. In addition, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use proved to be significant predictors of students’ attitudes towards the use of Smartphone for vocabulary learning. However, the study showed that the relationship between perceived ease of use and vocabulary development is not significant. Thus, publishers of dictionaries may find it necessary to take into account the important role played by the design of dictionaries interfaces in facilitating the use of dictionaries in Smartphones. Furthermore, teachers and educators are encouraged to employ creative activities (e.g., word guessing games that invest students’ use of Smartphones to learn vocabularies. Using Smartphones in learning improves interaction among students and teachers. Discussion and conclusions are also provided.

  20. Developing a useful Vocabulary in English is more Complicated and Ef-fective than Simply Learning Words Based on Lists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiao; XIAO Jun

    2014-01-01

    Traditional ways of English learning such as memorizing a certain couple of words and reciting from the word list seem much easier than developing a useful vocabulary for L2 learners. However, learners complain that they have suffered from couples of difficulties as the words are easy to be forgotten. Compare with the ways of mechanical memorizing, it argues that pro⁃viding L2 learners with the development of useful lexical knowledge such as semantic information and morphological structure is more effective in the process of language acquisition. Moreover, developing a useful lexical knowledge is far more complicated for English learners.

  1. RIDEing Vocabulary: Using Etienne Wenger's Community of Practice Theory to Master Word Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiera, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Students' success in vocabulary learning is best gauged by authentic use of the targeted vocabulary in conversation and writing tasks. A vocabulary teaching approach that emphasizes meaningful repetition, relationship building, and concrete experiences encourages language development. This article explores a multi-age, multi-grade learning…

  2. Building Word Knowledge: Opportunities for Direct Vocabulary Instruction in General Education for Students with Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzek, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    Direct vocabulary instruction is 1 critical component of reading instruction. Although most students in the elementary grades need to continue building their vocabulary knowledge, students with reading difficulties are at the greatest risk of falling further behind each year in vocabulary and concept knowledge without effective instruction. This…

  3. RIDEing Vocabulary: Using Etienne Wenger's Community of Practice Theory to Master Word Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiera, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Students' success in vocabulary learning is best gauged by authentic use of the targeted vocabulary in conversation and writing tasks. A vocabulary teaching approach that emphasizes meaningful repetition, relationship building, and concrete experiences encourages language development. This article explores a multi-age, multi-grade learning…

  4. Developing a Specialized Vocabulary Word List in a Composition Culinary Course through Lecture Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.Nordin, N. R.; Stapa, S. H.; Darus, S.

    2013-01-01

    Learning to write in a composition culinary course is very challenging for L2 learners. The main barrier in writing proficiency within this discipline is the lack of vocabulary, specifically the lack of exposure towards specialized vocabulary. This study aims to provide a corpus of specialized vocabulary within a food writing course. By providing…

  5. The Impact of Presenting Semantically Related Clusters of New Words on Iranian Intermediate EFL learners' Vocabulary Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiede Shiri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Teaching vocabulary in semantically related sets use as a common practice by EFL teachers. The present study tests the effectiveness of this techniques by comparing it with semantically unrelated clusters as the other technique on Iranian intermediate EFL learners. In the study three intact classes of participants studying at Isfahan were presented with a set of unrelated words through “ 504 Absolutely Essential words”, a set of related words through “The Oxford Picture Dictionary “, and the control group were presented some new words through six texts from “Reading Through Interaction”. Comparing of the results indicated that, while both techniques help the learners to acquire new sets of the words, presenting words in semantically unrelated sets seems to be more effective.

  6. Temporal auditory processing at 17 months of age is associated with preliterate language comprehension and later word reading fluency: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zuijen, Titia L; Plakas, Anna; Maassen, Ben A M; Been, Pieter; Maurits, Natasha M; Krikhaar, Evelien; van Driel, Joram; van der Leij, Aryan

    2012-10-18

    Dyslexia is heritable and associated with auditory processing deficits. We investigate whether temporal auditory processing is compromised in young children at-risk for dyslexia and whether it is associated with later language and reading skills. We recorded EEG from 17 months-old children with or without familial risk for dyslexia to investigate whether their auditory system was able to detect a temporal change in a tone pattern. The children were followed longitudinally and performed an intelligence- and language development test at ages 4 and 4.5 years. Literacy related skills were measured at the beginning of second grade, and word- and pseudo-word reading fluency were measured at the end of second grade. The EEG responses showed that control children could detect the temporal change as indicated by a mismatch response (MMR). The MMR was not observed in at-risk children. Furthermore, the fronto-central MMR amplitude correlated with preliterate language comprehension and with later word reading fluency, but not with phonological awareness. We conclude that temporal auditory processing differentiates young children at risk for dyslexia from controls and is a precursor of preliterate language comprehension and reading fluency.

  7. Learning new vocabulary in German: the effects of inferring word meanings, type of feedback, and time of test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Shana K; Sachs, Riebana E; Martin, Beth; Schmidt, Kristian; Looft, Ruxandra

    2012-02-01

    In the present study, introductory-level German students read a simplified story and learned the meanings of new German words by reading English translations in marginal glosses versus trying to infer (i.e., guess) their translations. Students who inferred translations were given feedback in English or in German, or no feedback at all. Although immediate retention of new vocabulary was better for students who used marginal glosses, students who inferred word meanings and then received English feedback forgot fewer translations over time. Plausible but inaccurate inferences (i.e., those that made sense in the context) were more likely to be corrected by students who received English feedback as compared with German feedback, providing support for the beneficial effects of mediating information. Implausible inaccurate inferences, however, were more likely to be corrected on the delayed vocabulary test by students who received German feedback as compared with English feedback, possibly because of the additional contextual support provided by German feedback.

  8. The Role of Cognitive Processes, Foundational Math Skill, and Calculation Accuracy and Fluency in Word-Problem Solving versus Pre-Algebraic Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Powell, Sarah R.; Cirino, Paul T.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Tolar, Tammy D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine child-level pathways in development of pre-algebraic knowledge versus word-problem solving, while evaluating the contribution of calculation accuracy and fluency as mediators of foundational skills/processes. Children (n = 962; mean 7.60 years) were assessed on general cognitive processes and early calculation, word-problem, and number knowledge at start of grade 2; calculation accuracy and calculation fluency at end of grade 2; and pre-algebraic knowledge and word-problem solving at end of grade 4. Important similarities in pathways were identified, but path analysis also indicated that language comprehension is more critical for later word-problem solving than pre-algebraic knowledge. We conclude that pathways in development of these forms of 4th-grade mathematics performance are more alike than different, but demonstrate the need to fine-tune instruction for strands of the mathematics curriculum in ways that address individual students’ foundational mathematics skills or cognitive processes. PMID:27786534

  9. The role of cognitive processes, foundational math skill, and calculation accuracy and fluency in word-problem solving versus prealgebraic knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Lynn S; Gilbert, Jennifer K; Powell, Sarah R; Cirino, Paul T; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L; Seethaler, Pamela M; Tolar, Tammy D

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine child-level pathways in development of prealgebraic knowledge versus word-problem solving, while evaluating the contribution of calculation accuracy and fluency as mediators of foundational skills/processes. Children (n = 962; mean 7.60 years) were assessed on general cognitive processes and early calculation, word-problem, and number knowledge at start of Grade 2; calculation accuracy and calculation fluency at end of Grade 2; and prealgebraic knowledge and word-problem solving at end of Grade 4. Important similarities in pathways were identified, but path analysis also indicated that language comprehension is more critical for later word-problem solving than prealgebraic knowledge. We conclude that pathways in development of these forms of 4th-grade mathematics performance are more alike than different, but demonstrate the need to fine-tune instruction for strands of the mathematics curriculum in ways that address individual students' foundational mathematics skills or cognitive processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Vocabulary knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严爽

    2016-01-01

    Knowing a word refers to more than just a matter of knowing its form, meaning, pronunciation and spelling. It also refers to one's knowledge of the relationships the word is involved in, such as its collocations, semantic associations and so on. Words are not isolated entities. This paper focuses on vocabulary knowledge and helps us get an idea of what needs to be learned and the process of English vocabulary learning.

  11. Six Seconds to Visualize the Word: Improving EFL Learners' Vocabulary through VVVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, M.; Bensen, H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper moves away from reminiscent mechanical repetition and drills, which were in vogue when teaching vocabulary before the rise of technology. With the support of technology, innovative methodologies that are more effective and enjoyable can be implemented into vocabulary teaching. In this particular context, there seems to be a lack of…

  12. Vocabulary Instruction in Fifth Grade and Beyond: Sources of Word Learning and Productive Contexts for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford-Connors, Evelyn; Paratore, Jeanne R.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the vocabulary knowledge of young adolescent and adolescent students has been a focal point of educational research and many teacher professional development initiatives. Yet many teachers continue to use traditional, but generally ineffective, methods of classroom-based vocabulary instruction. Synthesizing the literature around the…

  13. You Are Your Words: Modeling Students' Vocabulary Knowledge with Natural Language Processing Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Laura K.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigates the degree to which the lexical properties of students' essays can inform stealth assessments of their vocabulary knowledge. In particular, we used indices calculated with the natural language processing tool, TAALES, to predict students' performance on a measure of vocabulary knowledge. To this end, two corpora were…

  14. How Many Words Do Children Know? A Corpus-Based Estimation of Children's Total Vocabulary Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segbers, Jutta; Schroeder, Sascha

    2017-01-01

    In this article we present a new method for estimating children's total vocabulary size based on a language corpus in German. We drew a virtual sample of different lexicon sizes from a corpus and let the virtual sample "take" a vocabulary test by comparing whether the items were included in the virtual lexicons or not. This enabled us to…

  15. Level of education and category fluency task among Spanish speaking elders: number of words, clustering, and switching strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, Monica; Tappen, Ruth; Williams, Christine; Salvatierra, Judy; Zoller, Yaron

    2009-11-01

    It has been well documented that education influences the individual's performance on category fluency tasks but it is still unclear how this effect may differ across the different types of category tasks (i.e., animals, fruits, vegetables and clothing). This study aims (1) to analyze the effect of the level of education on four different types of category fluency tasks among elder Hispanic Americans and (2) to provide normative information on a population with different education levels that was previously screened for neurological and psychiatric conditions. In addition this study examines the semantic strategies used by these individuals to complete the fluency tasks. The sample included 105 healthy Hispanic individuals (age 55-98; 29 males and 76 females) divided into three education groups (11 years of education). Results showed that after controlling for age and gender, education has a main effect and is a strong predictor of performance in verbal fluency for the categories animals and clothing with increasing educational attainment being associated with higher category fluency scores and with more switches between categories. These findings suggest that the category fruit is less influenced by level of education than the other three semantic categories and may be a more appropriate test across different educational groups. Results from this study provide a reference for clinicians assessing verbal fluency in Spanish speaking populations.

  16. How and to What Extent Do Two Cover, Copy, and Compare Spelling Interventions Contribute to Spelling, Word Recognition, and Vocabulary Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Kathryn E.; Williams, Robert L.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Cihak, David; McCallum, R. Steve; Ciancio, Dennis J.

    2012-01-01

    We used an adapted alternating treatments design to evaluate and compare the effects of 2 spelling interventions on spelling acquisition and maintenance, word reading, and vocabulary in three first-grade students. The first intervention, Cover, Copy, and Compare (CCC), involved having participants look at a word, cover it, write it, then compare…

  17. Vocabulary Acquisition Among Taiwanese Learners: A Comparison of the Effects of Input Presented in Word Lists and in the Context of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Ru Chang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Under the influence of globalization through cultural and technological exchange, English viewed as a medium of international communication enjoys its privileged status around the world. In Taiwan, English is the only foreign language tested in the entrance examinations and English is the most popular foreign language which Taiwanese people desire to master. However, many learners in Taiwan agree the fundamental and crucial role vocabulary plays in the language learning, but they think learning vocabulary is very difficult under the current method of instruction based on the use of word lists. This study aims to investigate the learning outcomes of presenting vocabulary in contexts, specifically in the contexts of literature and imaginative texts, and compare them with the use of word lists only. In the present research, two experiments were designed to investigate Taiwanese learners’ attitudes and perceptions concerning the way in which vocabulary is presented and compare their opinions about the effect of the use of word lists and literature in the foreign language classroom respectively. Questionnaires were used in both of these two experiments. The results indicated that most of the learners’ opinions agreed that the delayed presentation of words is not helpful for them in vocabulary learning as well as showed that the use of literature in the foreign language classroom is perceived as a productive and valuable resource for vocabulary learning. Implications were drawn concerning the design of textbooks used in Taiwan and also for curriculum and methodological innovation.

  18. Vocabulary, Grammar, Sex, and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscoso Del Prado Martín, Fermín

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the changes in our language abilities along the lifespan is a crucial step for understanding the aging process both in normal and in abnormal circumstances. Besides controlled experimental tasks, it is equally crucial to investigate language in unconstrained conversation. I present an information-theoretical analysis of a corpus of dyadic conversations investigating how the richness of the vocabulary, the word-internal structure (inflectional morphology), and the syntax of the utterances evolves as a function of the speaker's age and sex. Although vocabulary diversity increases throughout the lifetime, grammatical diversities follow a different pattern, which also differs between women and men. Women use increasingly diverse syntactic structures at least up to their late fifties, and they do not deteriorate in terms of fluency through their lifespan. However, from age 45 onward, men exhibit a decrease in the diversity of the syntactic structures they use, coupled with an increased number of speech disfluencies. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  19. Oral Reading Fluency as a Predictor of Silent Reading Fluency at Secondary and Postsecondary Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Soonhwa; DaCosta, Boaventura

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated oral reading fluency as a predictor of silent reading fluency at the secondary and postsecondary levels. Several measures were used, including the Gray Oral Reading Test, the Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency, the Test of Silent Contextual Reading Fluency, and the Reading Observation Scale. A total of 223 students…

  20. Oral Reading Fluency as a Predictor of Silent Reading Fluency at Secondary and Postsecondary Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Soonhwa; DaCosta, Boaventura

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated oral reading fluency as a predictor of silent reading fluency at the secondary and postsecondary levels. Several measures were used, including the Gray Oral Reading Test, the Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency, the Test of Silent Contextual Reading Fluency, and the Reading Observation Scale. A total of 223 students…

  1. Syllable and rime patterns for teaching reading: Analysis of a frequency-based vocabulary of 17,602 words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanback, M L

    1992-12-01

    A frequency-based vocabulary of 17,602 words was compiled and analyzed in order to group words with recurring syllable and rime patterns for teaching reading. The role of the rime unit (e.g.,ite inkite andinvite) in determining vowel pronunciation was central to the analysis because of the difficulty that the ambiguity of English vowel spelling presents to children who do not learn to read words easily. Vowel pronunciation in each orthographic rime was examined, both for its consistency in all words in which the rime occurs and for regularity, defined as conformity to the most frequent pronunciation for each vowel spelling in each of six orthographic syllable types.Of the 824 different orthographic rimes, 616 occur in rime families as the building blocks of almost all the 43,041 syllables of the words. These rimes account for a striking amount of patterning in the orthography: 436 are both regular and consistent in pronunciation (except where a single exception word occurs); another 55 are consistent but not regular. Of the remaining 125, only 86 have less than a 90 percent level of consistency. The high order of congruence of orthographic and phonological rimes suggests their usefulness as units for teaching reading.

  2. Short-term memory for serial order supports vocabulary development: new evidence from a novel word learning paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, Steve; Boukebza, Claire

    2013-12-01

    Although recent studies suggest a strong association between short-term memory (STM) for serial order and lexical development, the precise mechanisms linking the two domains remain to be determined. This study explored the nature of these mechanisms via a microanalysis of performance on serial order STM and novel word learning tasks. In the experiment, 6- and 7-year-old children were administered tasks maximizing STM for either item or serial order information as well as paired-associate learning tasks involving the learning of novel words, visual symbols, or familiar word pair associations. Learning abilities for novel words were specifically predicted by serial order STM abilities. A measure estimating the precision of serial order coding predicted the rate of correct repetitions and the rate of phoneme migration errors during the novel word learning process. In line with recent theoretical accounts, these results suggest that serial order STM supports vocabulary development via ordered and detailed reactivation of the novel phonological sequences that characterize new words.

  3. Vocabulary teaching strategies and conceptual representations of words in L2 in children: evidence with novice learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comesaña, Montserrat; Perea, Manuel; Piñeiro, Ana; Fraga, Isabel

    2009-09-01

    A controversial issue in bilingual research is whether in the early stages of L2 learning, access to the conceptual system involves mediation of L1 lexical representations [Kroll, J. F., & Stewart, E. (1994). Category interference in translation and picture naming: Evidence for asymmetric connections between bilingual memory representations. Journal of Memory and Language, 33, 149-174] or a direct route from the L2 word [Altarriba, J., & Mathis, K. M. (1997). Conceptual and lexical development in second language acquisition. Journal of Memory and Language, 36, 550-568; Finkbeiner, M., & Nicol, J. (2003). Semantic category effects in second language word learning. Applied Psycholinguistics, 24, 369-383]. The main goal of this paper is to study, in a child population, whether the creation of conceptual representations for L2 words is possible, even after only one session of learning of the L2 vocabulary. Furthermore, we do so by examining the efficacy of two different L2 learning methods: L2-L1 association learning vs. L2-picture association learning. A translation recognition task was employed to test whether there was a difference between a semantically related pair and an unrelated pair across conditions (i.e., a semantic interference effect). Results showed a significant semantic interference effect-a conceptual effect-in children after just one vocabulary learning session. Importantly, the L2-picture method produced a greater semantic interference effect than the L2-L1 method. The implications of these findings for models of bilingual memory are examined.

  4. Word Reading Fluency: Role of Genome-Wide Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Developmental Stability and Correlations with Print Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlaar, Nicole; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The genetic effects on individual differences in reading development were examined using genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) in a twin sample. In unrelated individuals (one twin per pair, n = 2,942), the GCTA-based heritability of reading fluency was ~20%-29% at ages 7 and 12. GCTA bivariate results showed that the phenotypic stability of…

  5. The relation of linguistic awareness and vocabulary to word reading and spelling for first-grade students participating in response to intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Apel, Kenn; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

    2013-10-01

    The relations of phonological, orthographic, and morphological awareness and vocabulary to word reading and spelling were examined for 304 first-grade children who were receiving differentiated instruction in a Response to Intervention (RtI) model of instruction. First-grade children were assessed on their phonological, orthographic, and morphological awareness; expressive vocabulary; word reading; and spelling. Year-end word reading and spelling were outcome variables, and phonological, orthographic, and morphological awareness; expressive vocabulary; and RtI status (Tiers 1, 2, & 3) were predictor variables. The 3 linguistic awareness skills were unique predictors of word reading, and phonological and orthographic awareness were unique predictors of spelling. The contributions that these linguistic awareness skills and vocabulary made to word reading and spelling did not differ by children's RtI tier status. These results, in conjunction with previous studies, suggest that even beginning readers and spellers draw on multiple linguistic awareness skills for their word reading and spelling regardless of their level of literacy abilities. Educational implications are discussed.

  6. The relation of linguistic awareness and vocabulary to word reading and spelling for first grade students participating in Response to Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Apel, Kenn; Otaiba, Stephanie Al

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We examined the relations of phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness and vocabulary to word reading and spelling for first grade children who were receiving differentiated instruction in a Response to Intervention (RTI) model of instruction (N = 304). Method First grade children were assessed on their phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness, expressive vocabulary, word reading, and spelling. Year-end word reading and spelling were outcome variables while phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness, expressive vocabulary, and RTI status (Tiers 1, 2, & 3) were predictor variables assessed in the middle of the school year. Results The three linguistic awareness skills were unique predictors of word reading and phonological and orthographic awareness were unique predictors of spelling. The contributions these linguistic awareness skills and vocabulary made to word reading and spelling did not differ by children's RTI tier status. Conclusion These results, in conjunction with previous studies, suggest that even beginning readers and spellers draw on multiple linguistic awareness skills for their word reading and spelling regardless of their level of literacy skills. Educational implications are discussed. PMID:23833281

  7. Words as Species: An Alternative Approach to Estimating Productive Vocabulary Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meara, Paul M.; Alcoy, Juan Carlos Olmos

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of how we might be able to assess productive vocabulary size in second language learners. It discusses some previous attempts to develop measures of this sort, and argues that a fresh approach is needed in order to overcome some persistent problems that dog research in this area. The paper argues that there might be…

  8. The Motivations of Words and the Memory of RussianVocabulary%词语理据性与俄语词汇记忆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朋

    2014-01-01

    The memory of vocabulary plays an important role in Russian learning .The vocabulary became the difficulties because of its large numbers .In fact, the Russian vocabularies have their own rules to follow in words building structures .In this thesis, the writer shows the building bases of Russian vocabularies by the way of list and classification .It elaborated the characteristics of words building motivation and the general meaning of words formation morpheme .We can help learners get the twice result with the half learning effort by citing words building motivation when memorying Russian words .%词汇记忆在俄语学习过程中占有重要地位,词汇因其数量庞大而成为学习的难点。其实,这些看起来杂乱无章、毫无规律的俄语词汇在构词结构上是有一定规律可循的。词汇构词理据性有自身特点,构词词素中前缀、后缀、词根具有各自的一般意义。在记忆俄语单词时,借助词语理据性特点能够帮助学习者达到事半功倍的学习效果。

  9. Reading Fluency and College Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasinski, Timothy V.; Chang, Shu-Ching; Edmondson, Elizabeth; Nageldinger, James; Nigh, Jennifer; Remark, Linda; Kenney, Kristen Srsen; Walsh-Moorman, Elizabeth; Yildirim, Kasim; Nichols, William Dee; Paige, David D.; Rupley, William H.

    2017-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards suggest that an appropriate goal for secondary education is college and career readiness. Previous research has identified reading fluency as a critical component for proficient reading. One component of fluency is word recognition accuracy and automaticity. The present study attempted to determine the word…

  10. Teaching Children to Fluently Decode Nonsense Words in Lists: Generalized Effects to Oral Reading Fluency of Connected Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werder, Candace Susan

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the generalized effects of training children to fluently blend nonsense words containing target vowel teams on their reading of untrained real words in lists and passages. Eight second-grade students participated. Nonsense words containing each of 3 target vowel teams ("aw," "oi," and "au")…

  11. A High-accuracy Approach to Pronunciation Prediction for Out-of-vocabulary English Word

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hao; CHEN Gui-lin; XU Liang-xian

    2005-01-01

    Letter-to-Sound conversion is one of the fundamental issues in text-to-speech synthesis. In this paper, we address an approach to automatic prediction of word pronunciation. This approach combines example-based learning and dynamic-programming searching to predict sub-word pronunciation. Word pronunciation is formed by concatenating sub-word pronunciations. We conducted comparative experiments over a large-scale English dictionary. Experimental results show that this approach can achieve accuracy of 70.1%, which outperforms those published results.

  12. How word decoding, vocabulary and prior topic knowledge predict reading comprehension. A study of language-minority students in Norwegian fifth grade classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydland, Veslemøy; Aukrust, Vibeke Grøver; Fulland, Helene

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the contribution of word decoding, first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) vocabulary and prior topic knowledge to L2 reading comprehension. For measuring reading comprehension we employed two different reading tasks: Woodcock Passage Comprehension and a researcher-developed content-area reading assignment (the Global Warming Test) consisting of multiple lengthy texts. The sample included 67 language-minority students (native Urdu or native Turkish speakers) from 21 different fifth grade classrooms in Norway. Multiple regression analyses revealed that word decoding and different facets of L2 vocabulary explained most of the variance in Woodcock Passage Comprehension, but a smaller proportion of variance in the Global Warming Test. For the Global Warming Test, prior topic knowledge was the most influential predictor. Furthermore, L2 vocabulary depth appeared to moderate the contribution of prior topic knowledge to the Global Warming Test in this sample of language minority students.

  13. Vocabulary plus Technology: An After-Reading Approach to Develop Deep Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolsey, Thomas DeVere; Smetana, Linda; Grisham, Dana L.

    2015-01-01

    Students who can use a term conversantly in academic environments know how to use it precisely in their writing and in their interactions with others; they can be said to deeply know, not just the word term in alphabetic or spoken forms, but the connections to ideas the term embodies. When students are intrigued by words and ideas, they want to…

  14. Vocabulary plus Technology: An After-Reading Approach to Develop Deep Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolsey, Thomas DeVere; Smetana, Linda; Grisham, Dana L.

    2015-01-01

    Students who can use a term conversantly in academic environments know how to use it precisely in their writing and in their interactions with others; they can be said to deeply know, not just the word term in alphabetic or spoken forms, but the connections to ideas the term embodies. When students are intrigued by words and ideas, they want to…

  15. A Study on the Relationship between English Vocabulary Threshold and Word Guessing Strategy for Pre-University Chinese Students in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Wu Xiao; Abidin, Mohamad Jafre Zainol; Eng, Lin Siew

    2013-01-01

    This survey aims at studying the relationship between English vocabulary threshold and word guessing strategy that is used in reading comprehension learning among 80 pre-university Chinese students in Malaysia. T-test is the main statistical test for this research, and the collected data is analysed using SPSS. From the standard deviation test…

  16. The Role of Word Decoding, Vocabulary Knowledge and Meta-Cognitive Knowledge in Monolingual and Bilingual Low-Achieving Adolescents' Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steensel, Roel; Oostdam, Ron; van Gelderen, Amos; van Schooten, Erik

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analysed the relationships between word decoding, vocabulary knowledge, meta-cognitive knowledge and reading comprehension in low-achieving adolescents and examined whether the strength of these relationships differed between Grade 7 and 9 students and between monolingual and bilingual students. Tests were administered to 328…

  17. Vocabulary Instruction and Mexican-American Bilingual Students: How Two High School Teachers Integrate Multiple Strategies to Build Word Consciousness in English Language Arts Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Lasisi

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significance of vocabulary knowledge to student learning, limited studies have examined English language arts (ELA) teachers' skills and practices that may be effective for building word consciousness in high school Mexican-American bilingual students. The research objective of the present study is to examine how two high school ELA…

  18. Predictors of Grade 2 Word Reading and Vocabulary Learning from Grade 1 Variables in Spanish-Speaking Children: Similarities and Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardo, Alexandra; Collins, Penny; Baciu, Iuliana; Gebotys, Robert

    2008-01-01

    We examined the components of first (L1) and second language (L2) phonological processing that are related to L2 word reading and vocabulary. Spanish-speaking English learners (EL) were classified as average or low readers in grades 1 and 2. A large number of children who started out as poor readers in first grade became average readers in second…

  19. Media-Assisted Language Learning for Young Children: Effects of a Word-Learning App on the Vocabulary Acquisition of Two-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter-Laager, Catherine; Brandenberg, Kathrin; Tinguely, Luzia; Schwarz, Jürg; Pfiffner, Manfred R.; Moschner, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    The intervention study investigated the effects of an interactive word-learning app Learning apps are developed to achieve certain aims. In our case, the intention was to enrich the vocabulary acquisition of young children. Many other apps, such as games, are developed mainly for entertainment. The intention of games apps is to hold the attention…

  20. Uneven Profiles: Language Minority Learners' Word Reading, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Lesaux, Nonie K.; Crosson, Amy C.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Pierce, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    English reading comprehension skill development was examined in a group of 87 native Spanish-speakers developing English literacy skills, followed from fourth through fifth grade. Specifically, the effects of Spanish (L1) and English (L2) oral language and word reading skills on reading comprehension were investigated. The participants showed average word reading skills and below average comprehension skills, influenced by low oral language skills. Structural equation modeling confirmed that ...

  1. Uneven Profiles: Language Minority Learners' Word Reading, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesaux, Nonie K.; Crosson, Amy C.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Pierce, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    English reading comprehension skill development was examined in a group of 87 native Spanish-speakers developing English literacy skills, followed from fourth through fifth grade. Specifically, the effects of Spanish (L1) and English (L2) oral language and word reading skills on reading comprehension were investigated. The participants showed…

  2. The Relative Contributions of Vocabulary, Decoding, and Phonemic Awareness to Word Reading in English versus German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggate, Sebastian; Reese, Elaine; Lenhard, Wolfgang; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Beginning readers in shallow orthographies acquire word reading skills more quickly than in deep orthographies like English. In addition to extending this evidence base by comparing reading acquisition in English with the more transparent German, we conducted a longitudinal study and investigated whether different early reading skills made…

  3. Toddlers Learn Words in a Foreign Language: The Role of Native Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koening, Melissa; Woodward, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined monolingual English-speaking toddlers' (N=50) ability to learn word-referent links from native speakers of Dutch versus English, and second, whether children generalized or sequestered their extensions when terms were tested by a subsequent speaker of English. Overall, children performed better in the English than in the…

  4. Teaching Word Recognition, Spelling, and Vocabulary: Strategies from "The Reading Teacher."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasinski, Timothy V., Ed.; Padak, Nancy D., Ed.; Church, Brenda Weible, Ed.; Fawcett, Gay, Ed.; Hendershot, Judith, Ed.; Henry, Justina M., Ed.; Moss, Barbara G., Ed.; Peck, Jacqueline K., Ed.; Pryor, Elizabeth, Ed.; Roskos, Kathleen A., Ed.

    This book, one of four in the Teaching Reading Collection, presents the "best of the best" classroom-tested ideas, approaches, and practical applications for helping students learn about words. The articles have been drawn from the journal "The Reading Teacher" from 1993-1999. The ideas and strategies are intended to provide possible building…

  5. Uneven Profiles: Language Minority Learners' Word Reading, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesaux, Nonie K.; Crosson, Amy C.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Pierce, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    English reading comprehension skill development was examined in a group of 87 native Spanish-speakers developing English literacy skills, followed from fourth through fifth grade. Specifically, the effects of Spanish (L1) and English (L2) oral language and word reading skills on reading comprehension were investigated. The participants showed…

  6. A single word speech recognition system with GUI-dependent vocabulary selection for MMI applications; Ein Einzelworterkennungssystem mit GUI-basierter Wortschatzumschaltung fuer industrielle Mensch-Maschine-Schnittstellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengen, H. [Ingenieurbuero Hengen GbR, Kandel (Germany); Izak, M.; Liu, S. [Technische Univ. Kaiserslautern (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Regelungssysteme

    2007-07-01

    The following article deals with a newly developed method for single word speech recognition for application in MMI. The main idea is to reduce the active vocabulary of the recognition system to the vocabulary required by the active input dialog element (e.g. GUI - Window, dropdown field etc.) By keeping the vocabulary intentionally small, the recognition rate becomes very large and thus other input devices can be replaced or can be kept free for other tasks (Keyboard, Mouse, Pen). The described methodology is especially engineered to suit handheld applications as well as industrial or medical MMI-applications in which the user has to use his hands for purposes other than the interface. (orig.)

  7. On Vocabulary Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑洁

    2013-01-01

    An efficient vocabulary learning strategy can supply students with exact meanings and usage of words. There are many differences between Chinese and English,so the result of memorizing vocabulary by rote is always not good. The paper holds the Incidental Vocabulary Learning to improve the English ability.

  8. What’s in a name depends on the type of name: The relationships between semantic and phonological access, reading fluency and reading comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Elbro, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between lexical access, reading fluency and comprehension. Two components of speed of lexical access were studied: phonological and semantic. Previous studies have mainly investigated these components of lexical access separately. The present study...... examined both components in naming tasks – with isolated letters (phonological) and pictures (semantic). Seventy-five Grade 5 students were administered measures of letter and picture naming speed, word and nonword reading fluency, reading comprehension, together with control measures of vocabulary....... The results showed that letter naming was a unique predictor of word reading fluency, while picture naming was not. Conversely, picture naming speed contributed unique variance to reading comprehension, while letter naming did not. The results indicate that phonological and semantic lexical access speed...

  9. What’s in a name depends on the type of name: The relationships between semantic and phonological access, reading fluency and reading comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Elbro, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between lexical access, reading fluency and comprehension. Two components of speed of lexical access were studied: phonological and semantic. Previous studies have mainly investigated these components of lexical access separately. The present study...... examined both components in naming tasks – with isolated letters (phonological) and pictures (semantic). Seventy-five Grade 5 students were administered measures of letter and picture naming speed, word and nonword reading fluency, reading comprehension, together with control measures of vocabulary....... The results showed that letter naming was a unique predictor of word reading fluency, while picture naming was not. Conversely, picture naming speed contributed unique variance to reading comprehension, while letter naming did not. The results indicate that phonological and semantic lexical access speed...

  10. Estimating verbal intelligence in unipolar depression: comparison of word definition and word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslow, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Depression is known to be associated with deficits in effortful processing and word fluency. Automatic processes, instead, appear largely intact in depressed patients. It was investigated whether active word definition could be a less appropriate method than passive word recognition as a measure of verbal intelligence in depression. The valid assessment of premorbid IQ is important for correct comparison with current cognitive efficiency of depressed individuals, since premorbid IQ serves as baseline or control parameter to estimate the extent and severity of acquired cognitive impairments, both in the clinical and the research context. Two vocabulary tests were administered to 90 patients (31 women) with unipolar depression and 30 control subjects (15 women): a word definition task [the vocabulary subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R)] and a word recognition task [the Multiple choice vocabulary test (MWT)]. In the depressed sample, scores of the MWT tended to be higher than WAIS-R scores. For depressed women, the MWT score was significantly higher than the WAIS-R score. In the control sample, no differences between MWT and WAIS-R scores were observed. Our findings indicate that word definition tasks could underestimate verbal intelligence especially in depressed women. For depressed women, it could be more appropriate to administer word recognition than word definition as an estimate of premorbid or verbal intelligence.

  11. Supplements to Traditional Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    布亚男

    2012-01-01

      In a word, Vocabulary plays an indispensable part in language proficiency and provides much of the basis of how wel learns language, so it cannot be ignored. I discussed Schools’ viewpoints on the vocabulary teaching ,Reason for forgetting, Traditional approach to vocabulary teaching, supplements to vocabulary teaching,the author hope the above content can offer some hints for language learners.

  12. Research on Application of Word Cloud in English Vocabulary Teaching%词云在英语词汇教学中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛丽君

    2016-01-01

    文章就近年来国内外词云的研究进行了梳理,从语料库语言学、认知心理学等多个方面分析了词云应用于英语教学的理论支撑,并从词族、词缀、搭配、猜词等角度探讨了词云在词汇教学中的可视化教学设计。%Based on a comprehensive overview of studies on word cloud both at home and abroad, this arti-cle analyzes the theoretical foundation of its application in English teaching from such perspectives as corpus lin-guistics and cognitive psychology. In addition, this article studies the visualized instructional design of word cloud in vocabulary teaching from such angles as word families, affixes, collocates and word guessing.

  13. Effects of Computer-Assisted and Teacher-Led Fluency Instruction on Students at Risk for Reading Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenty, Nicole; Mulcahy, Candace; Washburn, Erin

    2015-01-01

    A quasi-experimental pretest/posttest group design was used to determine whether computer-assisted fluency instruction is as effective as print-based, teacher-led fluency instruction in improving fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension skills in third grade students experiencing delayed fluency development. Fifty participants were randomly assigned…

  14. HOW TO EMPHASIZE THE STUDY OF ENGLISH ROOTS AND WORD-BUILDING FOR IMPROVING VOCABULARY TEACHING AT COLLEGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Hongyao

    2001-01-01

    Guiding college students to acquire an adequate vocabularyis an important task that is often neglected. The morevocabulary hat is mastered, the higher level a learner of Englishwill have. But in China, the traditional method of teachingvocabulary is learning by rote, and learners of foreign languagesare inclined to learn as much vocabulary as possible this wayregardless of whether these vocabulary is useful or not. Indeed,there are some disadvantageous factors hindering the studentsfrom expanding vocabulary rapidly and efficiently. We have todevelop a scientific method of teaching vocabulary exploringmethods of which is the key to this article.

  15. Check This Word Out! Exploring the Factors That Affect Students’ Vocabulary Learning Using Smartphones via Partial Least Squares

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alhabahba, Mohammad Madallh; Mahfoodh, Omer Hassan Ali; Pandian, Ambigapathy; Mohammad, Yazan Mdala; Ahmed, Enas Waleed; Albdour, Ali; Al Bazar, Hussein

    2014-01-01

    .... Employing the technology acceptance model, this study aims to investigate students' behavioural factors affecting Saudi students' attitudes towards employing Smartphones for foreign vocabulary acquisition...

  16. TEACHING VOCABULARY THROUGH SENTENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    irfan tosuncuoglu

    2015-12-01

    Almost every teacher is certain about that vocabulary is an important facet of learning a second language. It may be more important than grammar, at least in so far as this concerns communication , and particularly in the early stages when learners seem to understand that amassing a basic vocabulary is very important to fluency in another language. As a rule, receptive vocabulary exceeds productive vocabulary and why listening with comprehension and speaking with comprehension are two very different things—the latter a more difficult cognitive process than the former. Furthermore, vocabulary acquisition is highly idiosyncratic and depends largely on the learner and her or his individual learning styles and cognitive abilities. No two people learn alike. In particular, as understanding and fluency increases,  individual interests and even needs will change, which then requires teacher-assisted guidance and remediation vis-à-vis the compilation of a specified and nuanced vocabulary that is tailored to the learner’s more practical linguistic needs, whatever these might be. In this case, new vocabulary items are more likely to be recalled and communicative. Essential to such an approach to teaching vocabulary acquisition, it is argued here, is exposure to authentic language, that is, reading, writing, listening, and speaking in class that both engages the visual, tactile, and aural-oral senses and imprints. In the case of texts, it is paramount that the comprehension level be such that the learner can guestimate with a nigh degree of accuracy the meaning and proper usage of new vocabulary items without a dictionary and thus from their context. And the more often these new vocabulary items appear, the more likely it is that their full meaning will be understood and committed to memory.  For that reason we wanted to make use of sentences in vocabulary teaching.

  17. Mental Lexicon, Working Memory and L2 (English Vocabulary in Polish Students with and without Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Łockiewicz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to examine the relationship between access to the mental lexicon, working memory and knowledge of English (L2 vocabulary. Analyses were undertaken amongst monolingual speakers of Polish (26 with dyslexia, 24 without who studied English as a second language as part of their compulsory educational programme at school. We assumed that students with dyslexia would manifest deficits in access to the mental lexicon and verbal working memory, and would have a limited L2 vocabulary. We also assumed that better access to the mental lexicon facilitates knowledge of English (L2 vocabulary, and that this relationship is present in both the criterion and the control group. All of the students participated in both parts of the assessment, the group part (i.e., questionnaire, IQ test, two vocabulary tasks and the individual part (i.e., psychological measures: verbal working memory, RAN, verbal fluency, and single word reading in L1 task. We found that students with dyslexia exhibited deficits in the speed of access to data from the mental lexicon. The predictive function of memory for vocabulary was more conspicuous in the control group; in the criterion group, the result might constitute a risk factor for L2 vocabulary acquisition in dyslexia, which may manifest with increased proficiency in word knowledge. Poor vocabulary knowledge renders the L2 learning experience difficult, as it impairs students’ reading comprehension, writing and conversational skills.

  18. Packaging fluency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocanu, Ana; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Bogomolova, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Research on packaging stresses the need for packaging design to read easily, presuming fast and accurate processing of product-related information. In this paper we define this property of packaging as “packaging fluency”. Based on the existing marketing and cognitive psychology literature...... on packaging design and processing fluency, our aim is to define and conceptualise packaging fluency. We stress the important role of packaging fluency since it is anticipated that a fluent package would influence the evaluative judgments for a product. We conclude this paper by setting the research agenda...

  19. From Single Words to Passages: Contextual Effects on Predictive Power of Vocabulary Measures for Assessing Reading Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, David D.

    2008-01-01

    In the last 15 years or so, language testing practitioners have increasingly favored assessing vocabulary in context. The discrete-point vocabulary measure used in the old version of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) has long been criticized for encouraging test candidates to memorize wordlists out of context although test items…

  20. Associative vocabulary learning : development and testing of two paradigms for the (re-) acquisition of action- and object-related words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freundlieb, Nils; Ridder, Volker; Dobel, Christian; Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Baumgaertner, Annette; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Gerloff, Christian; Hummel, Friedhelm C; Liuzzi, Gianpiero

    2012-01-01

    Despite a growing number of studies, the neurophysiology of adult vocabulary acquisition is still poorly understood. One reason is that paradigms that can easily be combined with neuroscientfic methods are rare. Here, we tested the efficiency of two paradigms for vocabulary (re-) acquisition, and co

  1. Associative vocabulary learning : development and testing of two paradigms for the (re-) acquisition of action- and object-related words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freundlieb, Nils; Ridder, Volker; Dobel, Christian; Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Baumgaertner, Annette; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Gerloff, Christian; Hummel, Friedhelm C; Liuzzi, Gianpiero

    2012-01-01

    Despite a growing number of studies, the neurophysiology of adult vocabulary acquisition is still poorly understood. One reason is that paradigms that can easily be combined with neuroscientfic methods are rare. Here, we tested the efficiency of two paradigms for vocabulary (re-) acquisition, and co

  2. Effects of a Supplemental Vocabulary Intervention on the Word Knowledge of Kindergarten Students at Risk for Language and Literacy Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Susan M.; Coyne, Michael D.; McCoach, D. Betsy; Zipoli, Richard; Pullen, Paige C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a vocabulary intervention designed to supplement research-based classroom vocabulary instruction, implemented with students who may be at risk for language and learning difficulties. Participants included 43 kindergarten students who received research-based classroom vocabulary…

  3. How to Enlarge Productive Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘菁

    2015-01-01

    Haycraft defined receptive vocabulary as "words that the student recognizes and understands when they occur in a text, but which he cannot produce correctly", while productive vocabulary is "words which the student understands can pronounce correctly and use constructively in speaking and writing" (1978:44).In English language teaching practice, students' productive vocabulary size lags far behind there ceptive vocabulary size. Based on the SLA theories, many reasons caused this problem and some solutions will be discussed.

  4. Vocabulary teaching strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐桂荣

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary has always been one of the significant issues related both with teachers and learners of foreign languages. How to teach vocabulary efficiency? Teachers should choose proper ways to instruct words. Many teachers often write new words they want to teach on the blackboard and then explain them one by one. It makes students feel bored. This paper will summarize some teaching approaches that are better on teaching English words.

  5. Is Oral/Text Reading Fluency a “Bridge” to Reading Comprehension?

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Park, Chea Hyeong; Wagner, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we investigated developmental relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, and text reading fluency to reading comprehension in a relatively transparent language, Korean. A total of 98 kindergartners and 170 first graders in Korea were assessed on a series of tasks involving listening comprehension, word reading fluency, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension. Results from multigroup structural equation models showed that text reading fluency wa...

  6. Silent Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Beth A.; Wallot, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on reading fluency by bilingual primary school students, and the relation of text fluency to their reading comprehension. Group differences were examined in a cross-sectional design across the age range when fluency is posed to shift from word-level to text-level. One hundred five bilingual children from primary grades 3, 4, and 5 were assessed for English word reading and decoding fluency, phonological awareness, rapid symbol naming, and oral language proficiency with standardized measures. These skills were correlated with their silent reading fluency on a self-paced story reading task. Text fluency was quantified using non-linear analytic methods: recurrence quantification and fractal analyses. Findings indicate that more fluent text reading appeared by grade 4, similar to monolingual findings, and that different aspects of fluency characterized passage reading performance at different grade levels. Text fluency and oral language proficiency emerged as significant predictors of reading comprehension. PMID:27630590

  7. Processing Academic Language through Four Corners Vocabulary Chart Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sarah; Sanchez, Claudia; Betty, Sharon; Davis, Shiloh

    2016-01-01

    4 Corners Vocabulary Charts (FCVCs) are explored as a multipurpose vehicle for processing academic language in a 5th-grade classroom. FCVCs typically display a vocabulary word, an illustration of the word, synonyms associated with the word, a sentence using a given vocabulary word, and a definition of the term in students' words. The use of…

  8. 浅析HSK中的比喻造词%Preliminary Study of the Figurative Word- building in the Outline of HSK Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包金曼

    2012-01-01

    针对对外汉语教学,本文以《HSK词汇大纲》为语料对修辞遣词做了一定的考察。该大纲的修辞造词主要以比喻造词和借代造词为主,比喻又是英汉两种语言中最为常见的修辞手法,因此本文选择研究比喻造词法及其分类,以便外国留学生更好地学习汉语。%In Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language, this paper does the research about the rhetoric word - formation by the outline of HSK Vo- cabulary. The rhetoric word - formation in HSK Vocabulary mainly includes figurative words, metonymy words, and because Metaphor is the most com- mon rhetorical device in Chinese and English, this paper chooses to study on figurative words and its classification, in order to help foreign learners' Chinese study.

  9. Vocabulary Learning Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Craven, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    The prominent role of vocabulary knowledge in second or foreign language learning has been recently recognized by theorists and researchers in the field. This article aims to provide a digest of recent research on vocabulary learning strategies specifically in the English as a foreign language context in Japan. In Japan where there is minimal exposure to English in daily life and where word knowledge is often tested, teachers should be informing learners about vocabulary learning strategies a...

  10. Performances on five verbal fluency tests in a healthy, elderly Danish sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jette; Jørgensen, Kasper; Vogel, Asmus

    2013-01-01

    Verbal fluency tests are widely used as measures of language and executive functions. This study presents data for five tests; semantic fluency (animals, supermarket items and alternating between cities and professions), lexical fluency (s-words), and action fluency (verbs) based on a sample of 100...

  11. A Comparative Study on Word Guessing Strategies by English Learners with Different Vocabulary Size%不同词汇量学习者猜词策略使用情况之对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梦辉

    2012-01-01

      Through a word guessing test and a word guessing strategy questionnaire,this paper makes a comparative analysis of the word guessing ability and the word guessing strategies between 60 college English learners with larger vocabulary size and smaller vocabulary size. The results indicate that the effects of vocabulary size on words guessing ability are significant,and there are differences in words guessing strategies by English learners with different vocabulary size. Based on the results,some suggestions are put forward to improve the college English teaching.%  本研究通过猜词测试及猜词策略问卷调查,对60名不同词汇量的大学英语学习者在猜词能力及猜词策略使用方面进行对比分析,发现猜词能力和词汇量存在显著的正相关关系,并且不同词汇量学习者在猜词策略使用方面具有一定差异性;最后基于结论提出相关教学建议

  12. 构词法在英语词汇教学中的应用研究%A Study on the Use of Word-Building in English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李羚玮

    2015-01-01

    英语词汇教学是英语学习的基础.只有掌握了一定量的单词,才能具备精准的英语表达能力.英语构词法是从词汇的基本构成出发,研究一个新词的构成方式,其作为英语词汇学习的重要方法之一,对于扩大词汇量具有重要的作用.常见的构词法有派生法,复合法和转化法,教师教授学生熟悉这些构词方法,有助于学生熟记单词,达到扩大词汇的目的.%English vocabulary teaching is the basis of English learning. Accurate English expressions can be achieved only by mastering a certain number of words. On the basis of the formation of the word, word-building studies the way of formation;as one of the most important ways to learn vocabulary, it has a great effect on enlarging vocabulary. Most common word-building ways are derivation, compounding and conversion. It is helpful for students mastering words to learn these word-building methods, in order to enlarge vocabulary.

  13. Talking about Cultural Elements in Vocabulary and English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jinjing

    2015-01-01

    By illustrating the significance of cultural elements in vocabulary and current situations in English vocabulary teaching,the author hope that English teachers can pay more attention to cultural elements behind the conceptual meanings of English words and change their method of teaching to motivate students' interest in vocabulary learning.

  14. Talking about Cultural Elements in Vocabulary and English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Jinjing

    2015-01-01

    By illustrating the significance of cultural elements in vocabulary and current situations in English vocabulary teaching,the author hope that English teachers can pay more attention to cultural elements behind the conceptual meanings of English words and change their method of teaching to motivate students’ interest in vocabulary learning.

  15. Friends: Words - Melting Pot for Vocabulary Learning Feasibility Report of English Communicative Lexical Acquisition for English Majors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钦白兰

    2009-01-01

    Lexical acquisition plays an essential part in getting any natural language processing system to function in the real world. [Branimir Boguraev, 1996:4] In China, English major undergraduates turn to various kinds of vocabulary pamphlets for vocabulary accumulation. However, enormous efforts produce dubious outcomes. This paper provides an efficient way to these L2 learners to gain access to real language acquisition. It sets out with empirical research on the script of Friends, then along with a brief overview on related findings, it concludes that watching Friends results in better communication.

  16. Discussion about English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenxia Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Vocabulary becomes more and more crucial in English learning.The article depicts six main domains about the mastery and enlargement of vocabulary,and they are motivation and aim,major fields,word,ways,radiation,and concrete execution respectively.

  17. Building Mathematics Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarik, Madeline

    2010-01-01

    Although mathematics is visual language of symbols and numbers it is also expressed and explained through written and spoken words. For students to excel in mathematics, they must recognize, comprehend and apply the requisite vocabulary. Thus, vocabulary instruction is as critical in content areas as it is in language arts. It is especially…

  18. Content Area Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Students' vocabulary knowledge is a significant predictor of their overall comprehension. The Common Core State Standards are raising the expectations for word learning and there are now 4 distinct standards related to vocabulary as well as expectations in other standards, including content areas. To address these expectations, teachers need…

  19. Word Origins: Building Communication Connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Rheta N.

    2000-01-01

    Proposes examining word origins as a teaching strategy for helping middle school students speak the language of mathematics as well as promote students' general vocabulary development. Includes roots, meanings, related words, and notes for middle school mathematics vocabulary. (KHR)

  20. Word Origins: Building Communication Connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Rheta N.

    2000-01-01

    Proposes examining word origins as a teaching strategy for helping middle school students speak the language of mathematics as well as promote students' general vocabulary development. Includes roots, meanings, related words, and notes for middle school mathematics vocabulary. (KHR)

  1. Second Language Vocabulary Growth at Advanced Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Meral

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the receptive vocabulary growth of advanced EFL learners in an English-medium degree programme. The study used the Vocabulary Size Test in a cross-sectional design to measure the vocabulary size of learners at various stages of study. The effect of word frequency on vocabulary development and the presence of an…

  2. Discussion on English Vocabulary and Description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Lan; Zhang Shiying

    2013-01-01

    Compared with the study of Grammar, syntax, the description on vocabulary is comparatively slower than them. The related theories of vocabulary description have fast developed since the 1980s and 1990s have experienced a growing interest in vocabulary learning and teaching----The vocabulary size, text coverage, word list, meaning of vocabulary in context, and collocation have been discovered and described, which helped new insights in arrange of different research fields have all added to our understanding of vocabulary development. Vocabulary acquisition research, based on vocabulary description, has established itself as a central research focus for language acquisition researchers and contributed to the focus of practical teaching and learning in English.

  3. Academic Listening: A Source of Vocabulary Acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Karina

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study of the acquisition of English-as-a-Foreign-Language vocabulary through academic listening. Explored the effects of EFL proficiency and lecture comprehension on vocabulary acquisition as well as the relationship between vocabulary gain and the following factors: frequency of occurrence, types of word, type of word elaboration, and…

  4. Reading vocabulary knowledge and deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, P

    1996-01-01

    With respect to reading vocabulary knowledge and deafness, this article addresses two broad questions: (1) Why is vocabulary knowledge related to reading comprehension ability? (2) How is reading vocabulary (i.e., word meanings) acquired? The article argues that the answers to these questions are best addressed by a vocabulary acquisition model labeled the knowledge model. In essence, this model asserts that both breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge are critical. It is necessary to teach vocabulary, especially to poor readers, who are not likely to derive many word meanings from the use of context during natural or deliberate reading situations. On the basis of theoretical and research syntheses, the article offers implications for vocabulary instruction for deaf children and adolescents.

  5. Fluency Effects on Brand Name Recognition and Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erz, Antonia; Christensen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Existing research has not provided a clear understanding of processing fluency effects on memory. In a laboratory experiment with novel non-words, we found a recognition advantage of fluent non-words over moderately fluent and disfluent non-words. This advantage diminished when non-words were pre...

  6. Strategies for teaching and learning vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Teng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article presents an overview of current research on second language vocabulary learning and proposes eight strategies for teaching and learning vocabulary. First, to facilitate effective vocabulary teaching, choosing high-frequency words is essential. Teachers of vocabulary also need to add explicit, intentional teaching to incidental learning. In addition, vocabulary learning strategies including morphological awareness and lexical inference provides a platform by which learners can improve both receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge. This article also suggests that productive vocabulary knowledge needs more attention than receptive vocabulary knowledge, and that available textbooks seldom address vocabulary sufficiently. In summary, it is very important for all learners and teachers to acknowledge that learning vocabulary is incremental in nature, and we should develop a principled, long-term program for teaching and learning vocabulary.

  7. Building Foundational and Vocabulary Knowledge in the Common Core, K-8: Developmentally-Grounded Instruction about Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Shane

    2015-01-01

    How young children's and older students' knowledge of words develops--their structure, their meanings, how they work in context--is reflected in the Common Core English Language Arts expectations. Meeting these expectations for each learner requires that we teach in a developmentally-responsive manner. This includes our being familiar with the…

  8. Marine Navigational Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠灵

    2014-01-01

    Every industry has its professional terms or particular use of common words. The marine industry is no exception. This paper attempts to give a brief introduction to the elementary vocabularies related to marine industry from six aspects: types of ships;ship’s structure and equipment, manning, logbook, safety and organizations concerned. The corresponding Chinese terms is given simultaneously. It concludes that a good master of these vocabularies is useful and necessary for Chinese seafarers whose native language is not English.

  9. Specialty Board on Fluency Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Start Your Search Read the Newsletter Who are Board Certified Specialists in Fluency? Board Certified Specialists in ... Board of Fluency and Fluency Disorders. How can Board Certified Specialists in Fluency help? Board Certified Specialists ...

  10. NASA thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The access vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The access vocabulary contains almost 42,000 entries that give increased access to the hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

  11. Effect of Language Proficiency and Executive Control on Verbal Fluency Performance in Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lin; Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    We use a time-course analysis to examine the roles of vocabulary size and executive control in bilinguals' verbal fluency performance. Two groups of bilinguals and a group of monolingual adults were tested in English with verbal fluency subtests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System. The two bilingual groups were equivalent in their…

  12. Predicting factors of verbal fluency and the effects of stereotype threat and boost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Verbal Fluency (VF tasks are often utilised to assist in the neuropsychological assessment of cognitive impairment and diagnosis of cognitive disorders. VF performance can also provide information about an individual’s vocabulary and speed of cognitive processes. In order to further develop our understanding of predictors of VF, this study explored how age, education and time spent reading and writing can affect performance. Furthermore, this study investigated the effects of a stereotype threat (STT or boost (STB. Method: VF tasks (pre and post stereotype manipulation were administrated to 30 adults with 15 receiving a STT and 15 receiving a STB. The stereotype threat/boost was activated by informing participants that they read and wrote less/more than their peers. Results: Medium to strong positive correlations (with some being significant were found between education level and both the number of words generated and with word commonality scores (i.e. how common the words were for these participants. Negative medium to weak correlations were found between age and both the number of words generated and with commonality scores. There was also a significant interaction showing that the words generated by a category prompt were less common following a STB and more common following a STT. Conclusions: These results support those of previous literature in regards to the respective impacts of education and age on VF. Furthermore, the impacts found of age and education on the commonality of words generated provides information on the nature of their influences. Lastly, the present study sheds light on the potential effects of STT and STB on verbal fluency.

  13. Features of Medical English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翠萍

    2015-01-01

    Medical English is relatively more difficult than general English,especially its vocabulary.Those medical English words are long and complex,making it hard to remember.But medical English vocabulary has its own features,which would help us in learning vocabulary.On the basis of many medical English materials,the paper explores the features of etymology,affixes and roots of medical English.

  14. Features of Medical English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翠萍

    2015-01-01

    Medical English is relatively more difficult than general English,especially its vocabulary.Those medical English words are long and complex,making it hard to remember. But medical English vocabulary has its own features,which would help us in learning vocabulary.On the basis of many medical English materials,the paper explores the features of etymology,affixes and roots of medical English.

  15. Influence on Chinese Vocabulary by the Word Model Based on Neologism%基于新词新语的词语模对汉语词汇系统的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王倩

    2014-01-01

    The word model has a unique frame structure and a powerful production capacity. In recent years, it has generated numerous neologisms, which enriched the quantity of Chinese vocabulary. The application of the word model based on neologism strengthened the form of the vocabulary system, and it also enriched the Chinese morpheme system. At the same time, it caused the grammatical function or emotional changes of some words. And Chinese vocabulary presented polysyllabic trend.%词语模具有独特的框架结构以及强大的生成能力,近些年更是生成了数目众多的新词新语,极大地丰富了汉语词汇的数量。新词新语词语模的运用从形式上强化了词汇的系统性,丰富了汉语语素系统。同时,基于新词新语的词语模还引起一些词语语法功能或感情色彩发生变化,使汉语词汇呈现了多音节化趋势。

  16. Assessing Basic Fact Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Gina; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors share a variety of ways to formatively assess basic fact fluency. The define fluency, raise some issues related to timed testing, and then share a collection of classroom-tested ideas for authentic fact fluency assessment. This article encourages teachers to try a variety of alternative assessments from this sampling,…

  17. Vocabulary Pruning for Improved Context Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    of term relevancy, when pruning the vocabularies. With reduced vocabularies documents are classified using a latent semantic indexing representation and a probabilistic neural network classifier. Reducing the bag-of-words vocabularies with 90%-98%, we find consistent classification improvement using two...

  18. Pruning the vocabulary for better context recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    of term relevancy, when pruning the vocabularies. With reduced vocabularies, documents are classified using a latent semantic indexing representation and a probabilistic neural network classifier. Reducing the bag-of-words vocabularies with 90%-98%, we find consistent classification improvement using two...

  19. Vocabulary of Toddlers Who Are Late Talkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Shafer, Valerie L.; Fahey, Katlin J.; Kaden, Elyssa R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand vocabulary characteristics in toddlers who are late talkers (LT) as compared with age-matched (AM) and vocabulary-matched (VM) peers. The semantic categories (e.g., animals, foods, toys) and the percentage of nouns, verbs, and closed-class words in the vocabularies of 36 toddlers (12 LT, 12 AM, 12 VM)…

  20. Learning Strategies in Acquisition of Medical Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田俊英; 蒋东坡

    2016-01-01

    Medical vocabulary consists of so many words and terms.Medical students are often terrified by large vocabulary.The paper aimed to analyze the problems lie in acquisition of medical vocabulary,review literature of learning strategies of medical vocabulary,and offers a few simple rules for students to follow to facilitate their acquisition of medical vocabulary.

  1. Listening Vocabulary: Embracing Forgotten Aural Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an innovation in the teaching and learning of vocabulary in English as a Foreign Language classes. Whereas vocabulary coverage in classrooms and textbooks traditionally focuses on lists of target words in printed form, this article promotes the notion of "aural vocabulary" as an important part of…

  2. Teaching Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard-Clouston, M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary is central to English language teaching. Without sufficient vocabulary, students cannot understand others or express their own ideas. Teachers who find the task of teaching English vocabulary a little daunting are not alone! This book presents important issues from recent vocabulary research and theory so that teachers may approach…

  3. Teaching Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard-Clouston, M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary is central to English language teaching. Without sufficient vocabulary, students cannot understand others or express their own ideas. Teachers who find the task of teaching English vocabulary a little daunting are not alone! This book presents important issues from recent vocabulary research and theory so that teachers may approach…

  4. The Effects of Techniques of Vocabulary Portfolio on L2 Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Abbas Ali; Baftani, Fahimeh Nasiri

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of different techniques of vocabulary portfolio including word map, word wizard, concept wheel, visual thesaurus, and word rose on L2 vocabulary comprehension and production, a sample of 75 female EFL learners of Kish Day Language Institute in Karaj, Iran were selected. They were in five groups and each group received…

  5. Effects of the Word Forms on Chinese Vocabulary Acquisition of Japanese Students%词形影响日本学生汉语词汇习得的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冰

    2011-01-01

    词汇是第二语言学习者的主要障碍之一。本文采用纸笔测试的方法,考察了词形对日本学生词汇习得的影响。结果发现:不同词形对学生习得词汇的正确率有显著影响,完全同形词学习效果好,繁简词和细差词学习效果差;学生级别对掌握词汇有影响,级别越高,学生对三类词形的词掌握得越好。据此,我们建议:可以根据“迁移理论”,在教学和教材编写过程中注意对词形的教学和安排,帮助日本学生充分利用正迁移,克服负迁移,在最短的时间内取得最好的学习效果。%Vocabulary is one of the main obstacles to second language learners. This article uses the pen and paper approach to examine the effects of the word forms on Chinese vocabulary acquisition of Japanese students and finds that word forms may influence the accuracy of vocabulary acquisition. Words identical in forms are acquired better than words different in forms between Japanese and Chinese. In addition, language learners' level also play a role in vocabulary mastering. The higher the learner' s level is, the better they can acquire the three types of words. We therefore suggest that in order to help Japanese students to achiever a better learning effect, we should arrange the teaching materials of vocabulary properly in the process of teaching as well as the textbook compiling according to the "transfer theory", and help the learners to take full advantage of the positive transfer and overcome negative migration.

  6. On the Wording of Texts: A Study of Intra-Text Word Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth S.; Bird, Lois Bridges

    1984-01-01

    Describes and examines the word choice and frequency in six tests and raises questions about the use of word lists and controlled vocabulary in producing basal readers, judging and manipulating readability of texts, and building vocabulary. (HOD)

  7. Multi-perspective Approaches of Vocabulary Teaching and Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣

    2016-01-01

    It is universally acknowledged that vocabulary is an essential component in language system. Nevertheless, in English teaching practice, imparting grammatical knowledge is highly emphasized but the vocabulary teaching is given little attention. In second language acquisition, proper application of vocabulary in communication is one of the important and difficult points for students. The paper aims to discuss the current problems in vocabulary teaching and learning, advocate a multi-perspective approach in teaching vocabulary so as to enhance the accuracy and fluency of language output, promote students’pragmatic and cross-cultural communicative competence and lay a solid foundation for their life-long learning.

  8. Vocabulary Is a Key to English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢翌春

    2008-01-01

    Vocabulary size is an important criterion to measure one's English proficiency. More words mean more freedom in language use. To many English learners, language skill remains difficult due to insufficient vocabulary. Both learners and teachers should be active to find an appropriate way to improve that condition. So it is necessary to know the feature of vocabulary and some effective ways to enlarge vocabulary size.

  9. Vocabulary Is Important for Some, but Not All Reading Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Jessie; Nation, Kate; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2007-01-01

    Although there is evidence for a close link between the development of oral vocabulary and reading comprehension, less clear is whether oral vocabulary skills relate to the development of word-level reading skills. This study investigated vocabulary and literacy in 81 children aged 8 to 10 years. In regression analyses, vocabulary accounted for…

  10. WORD BORROWING AND VOCABULARY EXCHANGE IN TURKISH DIALECTS: CASE OF OSMANIYE TATAR DIALECT / TÜRK LEHÇELERI ARASINDA SÖZCÜK ALIS VERISI VE SÖZ VARLIĞI DEĞISIMI: OSMANIYE TATAR AĞZI ÖRNEĞI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ercan ALKAYA

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The basic vocabulary which constructs the main vocabulary of alanguage is the word that is transferred from generation to generation in everylanguage, has importance of first degree and reflects important concepts aboutmankind and his environment. The words dealing with body, color, andconcepts about nature, animal names, numbers, and the most used verbs,words of holy concepts and persons and traditions consist of basic vocabularyof a language. In this study, the change in vocabulary of Kazan Tatar Turks, whomigrated from Kazan, Orenburg and Samara regions and inhabited in thevillage of Osmaniye of Çifteler, Eskisehir after 1884, was investigated. Thedialects of Tatar Turks who migrated from Kazan and its surrounding areawere affected by the local people who have been living in that region. Thoughthey still protect phonetical and morphological features of their language, itwas affected by the local dialect and Turkey Turkish.The main changes in the vocabulary of Tatar Turks in Osmaniye villagewere evaluated under several headings.

  11. The pace of vocabulary growth helps predict later vocabulary skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Meredith L; Raudenbush, Stephen W; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words--some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (socioeconomic status [SES], parent input, child gesture) of vocabulary growth between 14 and 46 months (n = 62) and then uses growth estimates to predict children's vocabulary at 54 months. Velocity and acceleration in vocabulary development at 30 months predicted later vocabulary, particularly for children from low-SES backgrounds. Understanding the pace of early vocabulary growth thus improves our ability to predict school readiness and may help identify children at risk for starting behind.

  12. Vocabulary Teaching in Action-Oriented Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunday, Rifat; Atmaca, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    The words are called as basic building blocks of language. It is impossible to discuss the language system without words. It is related to the vocabulary whether a language is rich or not. It is also related to the peoples' vocabulary to understand what is said and written or to express effectively their thoughts and their feelings verbally or in…

  13. Review Article: Instructed Second Language Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    This article overviews current research on second language vocabulary learning. It concludes that a large vocabulary is necessary to function in English: 8000-9000 word families for reading, and perhaps as many as 5000-7000 families for oral discourse. In addition, a number of word knowledge aspects need to be learned about each lexical item.…

  14. The Effects of Vocabulary Breadth and Depth on English Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Kirby, John R.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between two dimensions of vocabulary knowledge, that is, breadth of vocabulary (the number of words known) and depth of vocabulary (the richness of word knowledge), and their effects on different aspects of English reading in Chinese high school students learning English as a second language. Two hundred and…

  15. The Effects of Vocabulary Breadth and Depth on English Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Kirby, John R.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between two dimensions of vocabulary knowledge, that is, breadth of vocabulary (the number of words known) and depth of vocabulary (the richness of word knowledge), and their effects on different aspects of English reading in Chinese high school students learning English as a second language. Two hundred and…

  16. Vocabulary notebooks

    OpenAIRE

    KOZETA HYSO

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary notebooks are one way of promoting learner independence. Introducing vocabulary notebooks to provide the learners with an area of language learning where they could be given a relatively high level of independence that would build their confidence in their ability to act independently in terms of vocabulary learning. This article is focused on the effectiveness of keeping the vocabulary notebooks to empower the learner’s independence on their foreign language learning and also to e...

  17. Visualizing Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary can become tedious and a chore if it is approached as such. By making art terms and vocabulary meaningful, students will remember and use them for years to come. In this article, the author describes two vocabulary review projects that work wonderfully and create great works of art: (1) cursive creature rubbings; and (2) bubbling bodies…

  18. Visualizing Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary can become tedious and a chore if it is approached as such. By making art terms and vocabulary meaningful, students will remember and use them for years to come. In this article, the author describes two vocabulary review projects that work wonderfully and create great works of art: (1) cursive creature rubbings; and (2) bubbling bodies…

  19. Verbal Fluency and Verbal Short-Term Memory in Adults with Down Syndrome and Unspecified Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavroussi, Panayiota; Andreou, Georgia; Karagiannopoulou, Dimitra

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine verbal fluency and verbal short-term memory in 12 adults with Down syndrome (DS) and 12 adults with Intellectual Disability (ID) of unspecified origin, matched for receptive vocabulary and chronological age. Participants' performance was assessed on two conditions of a verbal fluency test, namely, semantic…

  20. VOCABULARY AND LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrudan Cristiana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have looked at the difference between teaching language structure and teaching vocabulary. We have discussed how counts of frequency alone are not enough to determine what words should be taught. We have seen that knowing a word means more than just knowing its meaning. Even that is problematical since meaning includes sense relations and context, for example. To know a word we also need to know about its use, how it is formed and what grammatical behavior it provokes. Above all, in this paper, we have approached the idea of how vocabulary teaching and learning need to be emphasized in order for students to be competent language users.

  1. Vocabulary Growth and Reading Development across the Elementary School Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van; Vermeer, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    The associations between vocabulary growth and reading development were examined longitudinally for a representative sample of Dutch children throughout the elementary school period. Data on basic and advanced vocabulary, word decoding, and reading comprehension were collected across the different

  2. Vocabulary – semantics – consciousness: scientific-analitical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Telegina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article studies relations between vocabulary, words meaning, conceptualization process, thinking, consciousness. Consciousness strategies detection necessitates study of mental vocabulary, expressing mental activity state and processes.

  3. Vocabulary Growth and Reading Development across the Elementary School Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van; Vermeer, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    The associations between vocabulary growth and reading development were examined longitudinally for a representative sample of Dutch children throughout the elementary school period. Data on basic and advanced vocabulary, word decoding, and reading comprehension were collected across the different g

  4. The Challenge of Validation: Assessing the Performance of a Test of Productive Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Tess; Clenton, Jon

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the performance of a vocabulary test designed to measure second language productive vocabulary knowledge.The test, Lex30, uses a word association task to elicit vocabulary, and uses word frequency data to measure the vocabulary produced. Here we report firstly on the reliability of the test as measured by a test-retest study, a…

  5. Is Oral/Text Reading Fluency a “Bridge” to Reading Comprehension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Park, Chea Hyeong; Wagner, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we investigated developmental relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, and text reading fluency to reading comprehension in a relatively transparent language, Korean. A total of 98 kindergartners and 170 first graders in Korea were assessed on a series of tasks involving listening comprehension, word reading fluency, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension. Results from multigroup structural equation models showed that text reading fluency was a dissociable construct for both kindergartners and first graders. In addition, a developmental pattern emerged: listening comprehension was not uniquely related to text reading fluency for first graders, but not for kindergartners, over and above word reading fluency. In addition, text reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension for kindergartners, but not for first graders, after accounting for word reading fluency and listening comprehension. For first graders, listening comprehension dominated the relations. There were no differences in the pattern of relations for skilled and less skilled readers in first grade. Results are discussed from a developmental perspective for reading comprehension component skills including text reading fluency. PMID:25653474

  6. VOCABULARY AND LANGUAGE TEACHING

    OpenAIRE

    Abrudan Cristiana

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we have looked at the difference between teaching language structure and teaching vocabulary. We have discussed how counts of frequency alone are not enough to determine what words should be taught. We have seen that knowing a word means more than just knowing its meaning. Even that is problematical since meaning includes sense relations and context, for example. To know a word we also need to know about its use, how it is formed and what grammatical behavior it provokes. Above ...

  7. Is There an "Academic Vocabulary"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Ken; Tse, Polly

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the notion of "academic vocabulary": the assumption that students of English for academic purposes (EAP) should study a core of high frequency words because they are common in an English academic register. We examine the value of the term by using Cox-head's (2000) Academic Word List (AWL) to explore the distribution of its…

  8. Discussion on English Vocabulary and Description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈岚; 代显华

    2013-01-01

      Compared with the study of Grammar, syntax, the description on vocabulary is comparatively slower than them. The related theories of vocabulary description have fast developed since the 1980s and 1990s have experienced a growing interest in vocabulary learning and teaching----The vocabulary size, text coverage, word list, meaning of vocabulary in context, and collocation have been discovered and described, which helped new insights in arrange of different research fields have all added to our understanding of vocabulary development. Vocabulary acquisition research, based on vocabulary description, has established itself as a central research focus for language acquisition researchers and contributed to the focus of practical teaching and learning in College English.

  9. Bridging the Vocabulary Gap: What the Research Tells Us about Vocabulary Instruction in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine

    2010-01-01

    It is important for children to develop knowledge of words' meanings from a young age because vocabulary development has an impact on their reading comprehension and academic success as they get older. Some children come to school knowing far fewer words than others. Hart and Risley studied young children's vocabulary development and found that…

  10. Brain bases of reading fluency in typical reading and impaired fluency in dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Joanna A; Del Tufo, Stephanie N; Lymberis, John; Saxler, Patricia K; Ghosh, Satrajit S; Triantafyllou, Christina; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D E

    2014-01-01

    Although the neural systems supporting single word reading are well studied, there are limited direct comparisons between typical and dyslexic readers of the neural correlates of reading fluency. Reading fluency deficits are a persistent behavioral marker of dyslexia into adulthood. The current study identified the neural correlates of fluent reading in typical and dyslexic adult readers, using sentences presented in a word-by-word format in which single words were presented sequentially at fixed rates. Sentences were presented at slow, medium, and fast rates, and participants were asked to decide whether each sentence did or did not make sense semantically. As presentation rates increased, participants became less accurate and slower at making judgments, with comprehension accuracy decreasing disproportionately for dyslexic readers. In-scanner performance on the sentence task correlated significantly with standardized clinical measures of both reading fluency and phonological awareness. Both typical readers and readers with dyslexia exhibited widespread, bilateral increases in activation that corresponded to increases in presentation rate. Typical readers exhibited significantly larger gains in activation as a function of faster presentation rates than readers with dyslexia in several areas, including left prefrontal and left superior temporal regions associated with semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations. Group differences were more extensive when behavioral differences between conditions were equated across groups. These findings suggest a brain basis for impaired reading fluency in dyslexia, specifically a failure of brain regions involved in semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations to become fully engaged for comprehension at rapid reading rates.

  11. Brain bases of reading fluency in typical reading and impaired fluency in dyslexia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna A Christodoulou

    Full Text Available Although the neural systems supporting single word reading are well studied, there are limited direct comparisons between typical and dyslexic readers of the neural correlates of reading fluency. Reading fluency deficits are a persistent behavioral marker of dyslexia into adulthood. The current study identified the neural correlates of fluent reading in typical and dyslexic adult readers, using sentences presented in a word-by-word format in which single words were presented sequentially at fixed rates. Sentences were presented at slow, medium, and fast rates, and participants were asked to decide whether each sentence did or did not make sense semantically. As presentation rates increased, participants became less accurate and slower at making judgments, with comprehension accuracy decreasing disproportionately for dyslexic readers. In-scanner performance on the sentence task correlated significantly with standardized clinical measures of both reading fluency and phonological awareness. Both typical readers and readers with dyslexia exhibited widespread, bilateral increases in activation that corresponded to increases in presentation rate. Typical readers exhibited significantly larger gains in activation as a function of faster presentation rates than readers with dyslexia in several areas, including left prefrontal and left superior temporal regions associated with semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations. Group differences were more extensive when behavioral differences between conditions were equated across groups. These findings suggest a brain basis for impaired reading fluency in dyslexia, specifically a failure of brain regions involved in semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations to become fully engaged for comprehension at rapid reading rates.

  12. Aligning Theory and Assessment of Reading Fluency: Automaticity, Prosody, and Definitions of Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Melanie R.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, fluent reading has come to be seen as a central component of skilled reading and a driving force in the literacy curriculum. However, much of this focus has centered on a relatively narrow definition of reading fluency, one that emphasizes automatic word recognition. This article attempts to expand this understanding by…

  13. A Model of Communicative Teaching and Learning of English Vocabulary Through Interactive Actin vities

    OpenAIRE

    Sahraini Sahraini

    2015-01-01

    Teaching English vocabulary is very important, and it is more than just presenting and introducing new vocabulary to the students. Knowing words is not only memorizing them, but the students need to understand the meaning of the word in context and how the words are used. This can be achieved through correct vocabulary instruction which should involve vocabulary selection, word knowledge, and techniques. The needs of prospective teachers in mastering English both spoken and written, and the a...

  14. Words, words, words!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Words matter. They are the "atoms" of written and oral communication. Students rely on words in textbooks and other instructional resources and in classroom lectures and discussions. As instructors, there are times when we need to think carefully about the words we use. Sometimes there are problems that may not be initially apparent and we may introduce confusion when we were aiming for clarity.

  15. Investigating Patterns of Errors for Specific Comprehension and Fluency Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriakin, Taylor A.; Kaufman, Alan S.

    2017-01-01

    Although word reading has traditionally been viewed as a foundational skill for development of reading fluency and comprehension, some children demonstrate "specific" reading comprehension problems, in the context of intact word reading. The purpose of this study was to identify specific patterns of errors associated with reading…

  16. Building Vocabulary and Improving Writing While Developing a Tourist Brochure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Siti Katijah

    2008-01-01

    Writing, and the vocabulary building that goes with it, is a more complex process than merely putting words on a page. In the process of acquiring vocabulary, for example, students need to understand not just what individual words mean but also which combinations of these words in sentences or paragraphs convey a meaningful message to the reader…

  17. Reading Fluency in the Middle and Secondary Grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D. PAIGE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss the specifics of reading fluency and provide suggestions for identifying when reading is fluent and when it is not. We then discuss the important role that reading fluency plays in the attainment of literacy achievement and briefly review research results that highlight the relationship between fluency and comprehension. This is followed by a discussion of reading fluency and comprehension data gathered by one of the authors in India that highlight the possibilities for the acquisition of fluent reading in those learning English as a second language. Following a review of strategies to assist middle and secondary teachers with the development of fluent reading in their students, we conclude with a discussion of word study strategies that promote syllabic and morphemic analysis. Such strategies aid readers in the development of word automaticity and encourage the development of fluent reading.

  18. Verbal Fluency Performance in Patients with Non-demented Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooshang Dadgar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: While Parkinson’s disease (PD has traditionally been defined by motor symptoms, many researches have indicated that mild cognitive impairment is common in non-demented PD patients. The purpose of this study was to compare verbal fluency performance in non-demented Parkinson’s disease patients with healthy controls.Method: In this cross-sectional study thirty non-demented Parkinson’s disease patients and 30 healthy controls, matched by age, gender and education, were compared on verbal fluency performance. Verbal fluency was studied with a Phonemic Fluency task using the letters F, A, and S, a semantic fluency task using the categories animals and fruits. The independent t-test was used for data analysis.Results: Overall, participants generated more words in the semantic fluency task than in the phonemic fluency task. Results revealed significant differences between patients and controls in semantic fluency task (p<.05. In addition, PD patients showed a significant reduction of correctly generated words in letter fluency task. The total number of words produced was also significantly lower in the PD group (p<.05.Conclusion: Verbal fluency disruption is implied in non-demented PD patients in association with incipient cognitive impairment.

  19. Growing Capacity with the Vocabulary of English Language Arts Programs: Vocabulary Megaclusters. Reading Research Report. #11.02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Elfrieda H.

    2011-01-01

    The typical approach to teaching vocabulary in English/Language Arts programs has been to focus on six to eight words per text. Even though these words may add meaning to a particular story, the target words are often rare and their generalizability is limited. The Vocabulary Megaclusters provides a framework for selecting and teaching words…

  20. Student-Created Vocabulary Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Donald

    2016-01-01

    In this paper is described a preliminary study at a Japanese university on student affect toward self-created vocabulary tests. In order to foster greater learner autonomy in their vocabulary study, students were tasked with selecting words they wished to learn and creating their own tests using a template provided by the teacher. At the end of the course, a survey examining student attitudes toward the activity was conducted with 140 participants. The results were encouraging as they indicat...

  1. Exploring the Efficacy of "The Word within the Word" for Gifted and Typically Developing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Shelagh A.

    2017-01-01

    An exploratory study of the efficacy of "The Word Within the Word" tested students' abilities to recognize, use, and recall vocabulary. Ten middle school teachers and their 493 students participated. Five teachers used "The Word Within the Word", and five used traditional vocabulary materials. Students completed an out-of-level…

  2. Vocabulary Tricks: Effects of Instruction in Morphology and Context on Fifth-Grade Students' Ability to Derive and Infer Word Meanings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, James F.; Edwards, Elizabeth Carr; Boland, Eileen M.; Olejnik, Stephen; Kame'enui, Edward J.

    2003-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study compared the effects of morphemic and contextual analysis instruction (MC) with the effects of textbook vocabulary instruction (TV) that was integrated into social studies textbook lessons. The participants were 157 students in eight fifth-grade classrooms. The results indicated that (a) TV students were more…

  3. Text (Oral) Reading Fluency as a Construct in Reading Development: An Investigation of its Mediating Role for Children from Grades 1 to 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Wagner, Richard K

    In the present study we investigated a developmentally changing role of text reading fluency in mediating the relations of word reading fluency and listening comprehension to reading comprehension. We addressed this question by using longitudinal data from Grades 1 to 4, and employing structural equation models. Results showed that the role of text reading fluency changes over time as children's reading proficiency develops. In the beginning phase of reading development (Grade 1), text reading fluency was not independently related to reading comprehension over and above word reading fluency and listening comprehension. In Grades 2 to 4, however, text reading fluency completely mediated the relation between word reading fluency and reading comprehension whereas it partially mediated the relation between listening comprehension and reading comprehension. These results suggest that text reading fluency is a dissociable construct that plays a developmentally changing role in reading acquisition.

  4. Nuclear engineering vocabulary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumont, X. [FRAMATOME, Dept. Corporate R and D, 92 - Paris-La-Defence (France); Andrieux, C. [CEA Saclay, Direction des Technologies de l' Information, DTI, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2001-07-01

    The members of the CSTNIN - the Special Commission for Nuclear Engineering Terminology and Neology - have just produced a Nuclear Engineering Vocabulary, published by SFEN. A 120-page document which, to date, includes 400 nuclear engineering terms or expressions. For each term or expression, this Glossary gives: the primary and secondary subject field in which it is applied, a possible abbreviation, its definition, a synonym if appropriate, any relevant comments, any associated word(s), the English equivalent, its status on the date of publication of the Glossary. (author)

  5. The Influence of Contexts on Vocabulary Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高春梅

    2014-01-01

    In vocabulary testing, whether to adopt context is a heat-debated topic. In the article, an experiment is designed to in⁃vestigate what is the effect of zero context and sentence context on the vocabulary testing? And how do the different kinds of context in vocabulary affect the subjects’performance? The experimental result demonstrates that sentence do play an important role in helping text-takers to figure out the correct meaning or target words.

  6. Advanced Teaching Strategies of College English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭萍

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary teaching is an important part in English teaching, which purpose is to foster students to use learned words to conduct language communication, increasing the capability of language using in daily life. This paper analyzes the present condition and exposes the problems existing in English vocabulary teaching and learning, then, puts forward some scientific, effective strategies for the education of English vocabulary. I hope these teaching strategies can help teachers improve their teaching methods and help English learners acquire knowledge easily and efficiently.

  7. Vocabulary Growth of the Advanced EFL Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Meral

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of two studies on the vocabulary growth of advanced learners of English as a foreign language in an English-medium degree programme. Growth in learners' written receptive and productive vocabularies was investigated in one cross-sectional and one longitudinal study over three years. The effect of word frequency on…

  8. Incidental Acquisition of Vocabulary by Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponniah, R. Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of reading on vocabulary development with adult ESL students at the National Institute of Technology (Trichirappalli, India). The researcher analyzes the performance of the students who devoted their time to reading, and the students who learned consciously the meaning of words to develop their vocabulary knowledge.…

  9. Vocabulary Growth of the Advanced EFL Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Meral

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of two studies on the vocabulary growth of advanced learners of English as a foreign language in an English-medium degree programme. Growth in learners' written receptive and productive vocabularies was investigated in one cross-sectional and one longitudinal study over three years. The effect of word frequency on…

  10. Toward the Automatic Identification of Sublanguage Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Stephanie W.; He, Shaoyi

    1993-01-01

    Describes the development of a method for the automatic identification of sublanguage vocabulary words as they occur in abstracts. Highlights include research relating to sublanguages and their vocabulary; domain terms; evaluation criteria, including recall and precision; and implications for natural language processing and information retrieval.…

  11. Effects of Morphological Instruction on Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Peter N.; Kirby, John R.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of a 20-session intervention targeting morphological word structure on vocabulary knowledge were investigated in four Grade 4 and 5 classes, assigned randomly to treatment and control conditions. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling for initial vocabulary showed significant instructional effects on morphological analysis and…

  12. Fostering Academic Vocabulary Use in Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun-Mercer, Nicole; Zimmerman, Cheryl Boyd

    2015-01-01

    Though research has established a relationship between vocabulary knowledge and academic success and identified features to guide the L2 word learner through academic tasks (see Nation, 2013), less is known regarding student perceptions of academic vocabulary and the conscious decision-making process of these learners while they are writing. In…

  13. Word Sorts for General Music Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2015-01-01

    Word sorts are standard practice for aiding children in acquiring skills in English language arts. When included in the general music classroom, word sorts may aid students in acquiring a working knowledge of music vocabulary. The author shares a word sort activity drawn from vocabulary in John Lithgow's children's book "Never Play…

  14. Essential words for the TOEFL

    CERN Document Server

    Matthiesen, Steven J

    2017-01-01

    This revised book is specifically designed for ESL students preparing to take the TOEFL. Includes new words and phrases, a section on purpose words, a list of vocabulary words with definitions, sample sentences, practice exercises for 500 need-to-know words, practice test with answer key, and more.

  15. Partly segregated cortico-subcortical pathways support phonologic and semantic verbal fluency: A lesion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouiter, Leila; Holmberg, Josefina; Manuel, Aurelie L; Colombo, Françoise; Clarke, Stephanie; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Spierer, Lucas

    2016-08-01

    Verbal fluency refers to the ability to generate as many words as possible in a limited time interval, without repetition and according to either a phonologic (each word begins with a given letter) or a semantic rule (each word belongs to a given semantic category). While current literature suggests the involvement of left fronto-temporal structures in fluency tasks, whether the same or distinct brain areas are necessary for each type of fluency remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis for an involvement of partly segregated cortico-subcortical structures between phonologic and semantic fluency by examining with a voxel-based lesion symptom mapping approach the effects of brain lesions on fluency scores corrected for age and education level in a group of 191 unselected brain-damaged patients with a first left or right hemispheric lesion. There was a positive correlation between the scores to the two types of fluency, suggesting that common mechanisms underlie the word generation independent of the production rule. The lesion-symptom mapping revealed that lesions to left basal ganglia impaired both types of fluency and that left superior temporal, supramarginal and rolandic operculum lesions selectively impaired phonologic fluency and left middle temporal lesions impaired semantic fluency. Our results corroborate current neurocognitive models of word retrieval and production, and refine the role of cortical-subcortical interaction in lexical search by highlighting the common executive role of basal ganglia in both types of verbal fluency and the preferential involvement of the ventral and dorsal language pathway in semantic and phonologic fluency, respectively.

  16. Intuitive (in)coherence judgments are guided by processing fluency, mood and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweklej, Joanna; Balas, Robert; Pochwatko, Grzegorz; Godlewska, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Recently proposed accounts of intuitive judgments of semantic coherence assume that processing fluency results in a positive affective response leading to successful assessment of semantic coherence. The present paper investigates whether processing fluency may indicate semantic incoherence as well. In two studies, we employ a new paradigm in which participants have to detect an incoherent item among semantically coherent words. In Study 1, we show participants accurately indicating an incoherent item despite not being able to provide an accurate solution to coherent words. Further, this effect is modified by affective valence of solution words that are not retrieved from memory. Study 2 replicates those results and extend them by showing that mood moderates incoherence judgments independently of affective valence of solutions. The results support processing fluency account of intuitive semantic coherence judgments and show that it is not fluency per se but fluency variations that drive judgments.

  17. Implicit and Explicit Cognitive Processes in Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ender, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Studies on vocabulary acquisition in second language learning have revealed that a large amount of vocabulary is learned without an overt intention, in other words, incidentally. This article investigates the relevance of different lexical processing strategies for vocabulary acquisition when reading a text for comprehension among 24 advanced…

  18. Boosting Vocabulary Learning through Self-Assessment in an English Language Teaching Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque Micán, Adriana; Cuesta Medina, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the influence of self-assessment of vocabulary competence on a group of students' oral fluency. Twenty-four young adult learners participated in a learning process that promoted their oral skills and vocabulary development. Self-assessment was mainly examined through the analysis of students' learning logs, field notes and…

  19. Boosting Vocabulary Learning through Self-Assessment in an English Language Teaching Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque Micán, Adriana; Cuesta Medina, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the influence of self-assessment of vocabulary competence on a group of students' oral fluency. Twenty-four young adult learners participated in a learning process that promoted their oral skills and vocabulary development. Self-assessment was mainly examined through the analysis of students' learning logs, field notes and…

  20. Verbal and Non-verbal Fluency in Adults with Developmental Dyslexia: Phonological Processing or Executive Control Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Spark, James H; Henry, Lucy A; Messer, David J; Zięcik, Adam P

    2017-08-01

    The executive function of fluency describes the ability to generate items according to specific rules. Production of words beginning with a certain letter (phonemic fluency) is impaired in dyslexia, while generation of words belonging to a certain semantic category (semantic fluency) is typically unimpaired. However, in dyslexia, verbal fluency has generally been studied only in terms of overall words produced. Furthermore, performance of adults with dyslexia on non-verbal design fluency tasks has not been explored but would indicate whether deficits could be explained by executive control, rather than phonological processing, difficulties. Phonemic, semantic and design fluency tasks were presented to adults with dyslexia and without dyslexia, using fine-grained performance measures and controlling for IQ. Hierarchical regressions indicated that dyslexia predicted lower phonemic fluency, but not semantic or design fluency. At the fine-grained level, dyslexia predicted a smaller number of switches between subcategories on phonemic fluency, while dyslexia did not predict the size of phonemically related clusters of items. Overall, the results suggested that phonological processing problems were at the root of dyslexia-related fluency deficits; however, executive control difficulties could not be completely ruled out as an alternative explanation. Developments in research methodology, equating executive demands across fluency tasks, may resolve this issue. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Vocabulary Learning: The Use of Grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, P. D.

    1983-01-01

    A system of grids to organize related vocabulary words and their associations developed for teacher trainees is illustrated, and other possible uses of the categorizing system, by students, teachers, and translators, are discussed. (MSE)

  2. The Contributions of Oral and Silent Reading Fluency to Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Katherine W.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Louwerse, Max M.; D'Mello, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Silent reading fluency has received limited attention in the school-based literatures across the past decade. We fill this gap by examining both oral and silent reading fluency and their relation to overall abilities in reading comprehension in fourth-grade students. Lower-level reading skills (word reading, rapid automatic naming) and vocabulary…

  3. The Contributions of Oral and Silent Reading Fluency to Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Katherine W.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Louwerse, Max M.; D'Mello, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Silent reading fluency has received limited attention in the school-based literatures across the past decade. We fill this gap by examining both oral and silent reading fluency and their relation to overall abilities in reading comprehension in fourth-grade students. Lower-level reading skills (word reading, rapid automatic naming) and vocabulary…

  4. Event-Related Potential (ERP) Evidence for Fluency-Based Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leynes, P. Andrew; Zish, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the influence of perceptual fluency on recognition memory. Words were studied using a shallow encoding task to decrease the contribution of recollection on recognition. Fluency was manipulated by blurring half of the test probes. Clarity varied randomly across trials in one experiment and was grouped into two blocks…

  5. The verbal fluency index: Dutch normative data for cognitive testing in ALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeldman, E.; Jaeger, B.; Raaphorst, J.; Seelen, M.; Veldink, J.; van den Berg, L.; de Visser, M.; Schmand, B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Executive dysfunction occurs in 30-50% of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and is most frequently assessed with the verbal fluency test. The verbal fluency index (VFI) has been developed to correct for slowness of speech in ALS, and reflects the average thinking time per word.

  6. Effects of a Mathematics Fluency Program on Mathematics Performance of Students with Challenging Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Todd; Hirn, Regina G.; Lingo, Amy S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the effects of a fluency-building mathematics program called Great Leaps Math on fluency of basic addition mathematics facts zero to nine and word problem solving using a multiple probe design across participants. Three elementary students with challenging behaviors and mathematics difficulty participated in the…

  7. Developing Reading Fluency and Comprehension Using Repeated Reading: Evidence from Longitudinal Student Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsuch, Greta; Taguchi, Etsuo

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, interest in reading fluency development in first language, and second and foreign language (L2/FL) settings has increased. Reading fluency, in which readers decode and comprehend at the same time, is critical to successful reading. Fluent readers are accurate and fast in their ability to recognize words, and in their use of…

  8. Repeated Reading for Developing Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension: The Case of EFL Learners in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsuch, Greta; Taguchi, Etsuo

    2008-01-01

    Reading in a foreign or second language is often a laborious process, often caused by underdeveloped word recognition skills, among other things, of second and foreign language readers. Developing fluency in L2/FL reading has become an important pedagogical issue in L2 settings and one major component of reading fluency is fast and accurate word…

  9. Oral Reading Fluency Assessment: Issues of Construct, Criterion, and Consequential Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Sheila W.; Smith, Antony T.; Reece, Anne M.; Li, Min; Wixson, Karen K.; Newman, Heather

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated multiple models for assessing oral reading fluency, including 1-minute oral reading measures that produce scores reported as words correct per minute (wcpm). We compared a measure of wcpm with measures of the individual and combined indicators of oral reading fluency (rate, accuracy, prosody, and comprehension) to examine…

  10. Event-Related Potential (ERP) Evidence for Fluency-Based Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leynes, P. Andrew; Zish, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the influence of perceptual fluency on recognition memory. Words were studied using a shallow encoding task to decrease the contribution of recollection on recognition. Fluency was manipulated by blurring half of the test probes. Clarity varied randomly across trials in one experiment and was grouped into two blocks…

  11. Research on Vocabularies of Business Interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰

    2014-01-01

    With increasingly international business activities, business English has already become main language tool of commu-nication. Many new business English vocabularies emerge. If interpreters want to assume business interpretation work successfully, he or she has to learn the meaning of these words and their features in business field. This essay will do some research around vo-cabularies of business interpretation from the characteristics of these words/phrases such as more abbreviations, professional termi-nology, polysemy and so on.

  12. Student Approaches to Learning Chinese Vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, I-Ping P.

    2005-01-01

    This research focuses on the strategies that native English speakers use as they learn to speak and write Chinese vocabulary words in the first year of an elementary Chinese class. The main research question was: what strategies do native English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese use to learn Chinese vocabulary words in their speaking and writing? The study was conducted at a medium-sized comprehensive university in the Southeastern U.S. The study drew from concepts and theories in s...

  13. 语义深加工在二语词汇记忆中的作用%Deep Processing of Word Knowledge and Its Effects on Second Language Vocabulary Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺琳

    2012-01-01

    According to the memory mechanism developed by cognitive psychological studies, deep processing could retain verbal information for a longer time. In second language vocabulary learning, how to conduct deep processing of target words and what effects would deep processing have on second language vocabulary learning are woith investigating.%关于记忆机制的研究认为对词汇进行语义深加工能够加深词汇在短时记忆区的存储印象,从而辅助词汇从短时记忆区转入长时记忆区。在第二语言词汇学习过程中,以什么方式对二语词汇进行语义深加工以及语义深加工在二语词汇记忆中的作用都是值得研究的问题。

  14. Incidental vocabulary learning by advanced foreign-language students: the influence of marginal glosses, dictionary use, and reoccurrence of unknown words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Hulstijn; M. Hollander; T. Greidanus

    1996-01-01

    Dutch advanced students of French read a French short story in one of three text reading conditions: Marginal Glosses (provision of L1 translations of unknown words), Dictionary (opportunity to use a bilingual dictionary), or Control. After reading, students were tested for their recall of 16 words

  15. Incidental vocabulary learning by advanced foreign-language students: the influence of marginal glosses, dictionary use, and reoccurrence of unknown words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstijn, J.H.; Hollander, M.; Greidanus, T.

    1996-01-01

    Dutch advanced students of French read a French short story in one of three text reading conditions: Marginal Glosses (provision of L1 translations of unknown words), Dictionary (opportunity to use a bilingual dictionary), or Control. After reading, students were tested for their recall of 16 words

  16. German-English Word Formation and Its Use in German Vocabulary Teaching%德英构词法对比及在德语词汇教学中的实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞丽艳; 许齐良

    2012-01-01

    The paper compares the word-formation in German and English,discusses the similarities and differences and discusses ways to help German majors acquire a correct and efficient way to learn German vocabulary through such a comparative approach.%德语词汇是德语教学过程中的一项艰巨任务。鉴于高等学校德语专业学生均具有一定的英语基础,本文将通过德语和英语中主要构词法的比较,总结其中的相似之处及区别,探讨如何在实际教学中通过双语的比较帮助学生形成正确而高效的词汇学习方法,从而提高学习效率。

  17. Learners' independent records of vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Leeke, Philip

    1999-01-01

    Handbooks recommend a variety of quite complicated procedures for learning and remembering vocabulary, but most learners only engage in very simple procedures. The aim of this project was to establish a basis for identifying optimal vocabulary recording procedures by finding out what learners...... currently do. We administered a questionnaire, interviewed learners who said that they kept vocabulary records of some kind and examined their records. Two-thirds had given up making vocabulary lists on entering the L2 environment and/or starting to read extensively, but several made interesting lists...... to be bilingual and single-word focused. The optimal listing procedures are those which represent a compromise between linguistically and psychologically effective practices and the amount of investment learners are actually prepared to put in. It is important to distinguish records made in class, which should...

  18. THE VOCABULARY SELF-COLLECTION STRATEGY:ENHANCING ACTIVE VOCABULARY THROUGH TOPICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    IntroductionThe majority of English courses books in China provide students with long lists of vocabulary attached tothe end of the texts.Since vocabulary is regarded as central to language learning.Students are supposedto memorise all the new words and expressions on which they will be tested.Teachers rarely considerwhich items may be students active vocabulary and which items may be students passive vocabulary.Therefore.they treat all the new words and expressions with an equal amount of time and care:andstudents tend to treat all the new items as active vocabulary.The consequence of this approach is often:students get bored of memorising the long lists:even if they succeed in memorising all the new items,they are usually still unable to use themactively.This inappropriate method of teaching vocabulary tends to make students lose interest inlearning.

  19. Is Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition Feasible to EFL Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian-ping

    2013-01-01

    For learning English as a foreign language, the efficiency of the approach of incidental vocabulary acquisition depends on the word frequency and text coverage. However, the statistics of English corpus reveals that English is a language that has a large vocabulary size but a low word frequency as well as text coverage, which is obviously not in…

  20. Vocabulary Acquisition in L2: Does CALL Really Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averianova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Language competence in various communicative activities in L2 largely depends on the learners' size of vocabulary. The target vocabulary of adult L2 learners should be between 2,000 high frequency words (a critical threshold) and 10,000 word families (for comprehension of university texts). For a TOEIC test, the threshold is estimated to be…

  1. The Relationship between Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵旭

    2015-01-01

    Having a large vocabulary is a key in learning a foreign language successfully.The present study attempts to investigate the relationship between depth of vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension.DVK relates to how well one knows a word and it is the quality of one’s knowledge about a word.It involves a good number of aspects representing

  2. Effect of Phonetic Association on Learning Vocabulary in Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozavli, Ebubekir

    2017-01-01

    Word is one of the most important components of a natural language. Speech is meaningful because of the meanings of words. Vocabulary acquired in one's mother tongue is learned consciously in a foreign language in non-native settings. Learning vocabulary in a system based on grammar is generally neglected or learned in conventional ways. This…

  3. Vocabulary Strategies that Work: Do This-Not that!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfong, Lori

    2013-01-01

    Update your vocabulary practices to meet the Common Core and improve students' word knowledge! This new, clearly-structured guide shows you how. It's packed with engaging, research-based, classroom-ready strategies for teaching vocabulary. Topics include: (1) Selecting meaningful words for direct instruction; (2) Strategies for engaging students…

  4. Number-Concept Acquisition and General Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negen, James; Sarnecka, Barbara W.

    2012-01-01

    How is number-concept acquisition related to overall language development? Experiments 1 and 2 measured number-word knowledge and general vocabulary in a total of 59 children, ages 30-60 months. A strong correlation was found between number-word knowledge and vocabulary, independent of the child's age, contrary to previous results (D. Ansari et…

  5. VOCABULARY TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES IN SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Teodorescu

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting various strategies and techniques used in vocabulary teaching and learning while reassessing the importance and role of vocabulary knowledge in second language acquisition. Lexical knowledge has proven to be central to communicative competence and to the acquisition of a second language. Besides, vocabulary knowledge involves much more than knowledge of single words, but knowledge of how words work together to achieve a communicative function.

  6. VOCABULARY TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES IN SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Teodorescu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting various strategies and techniques used in vocabulary teaching and learning while reassessing the importance and role of vocabulary knowledge in second language acquisition. Lexical knowledge has proven to be central to communicative competence and to the acquisition of a second language. Besides, vocabulary knowledge involves much more than knowledge of single words, but knowledge of how words work together to achieve a communicative function.

  7. Size and depth of vocabulary knowledge: what the research shows

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    When discussing vocabulary, a distinction is often made between size of vocabulary (number of known words) and depth of knowledge (how well those words are known). However, the relationship between the two constructs is still unclear. Some scholars argue that there is little real difference between the two, while regression analyses show that depth typically adds unique explanatory power compared to size alone. Ultimately, the relationship between size and depth of vocabulary knowledge depend...

  8. VOCABULARY TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES IN SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Teodorescu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting various strategies and techniques used in vocabulary teaching and learning while reassessing the importance and role of vocabulary knowledge in second language acquisition. Lexical knowledge has proven to be central to communicative competence and to the acquisition of a second language. Besides, vocabulary knowledge involves much more than knowledge of single words, but knowledge of how words work together to achieve a communicative function.

  9. Dispersion and Frequency: Is There Any Difference as Regards Their Relation to L2 Vocabulary Gains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz-Mármol, Gema

    2015-01-01

    Despite the current importance given to L2 vocabulary acquisition in the last two decades, considerable deficiencies are found in L2 students' vocabulary size. One of the aspects that may influence vocabulary learning is word frequency. However, scholars warn that frequency may lead to wrong conclusions if the way words are distributed is ignored.…

  10. IMPROVING VOCABULARY TEACHING IN INTENSIVE READING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    IntroductionIn China,intensive reading is the main method for teaching English.One feature of the textbooks isthat they all have large quantities of new words in each text,so vocabulary is one of the mostimportant aspects of this course.Recently,I conducted a survey among students who entered thePetroleum University in Shandong.To the question‘What is the greatest problem in your Englishstudies?’,82 out of the t00 students answered-vocabulary.This,to some extent,suggests that ourapproaches to vocabulary teaching should be improved.This article explores more effective ways toteach vocabulary.It suggests the idea of classifying and grouping vocabulary items and how to teachthem differently.A series of task-based activities are recommended to present and review vocabulary.

  11. Words for English-Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biemiller, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    It is well-established that vocabulary is the strongest predictor of reading comprehension from grades 2 or 3 on. In this article, I argue (a) that English vocabulary is acquired in a similar sequence by native-English speakers and English-language learners; and (b) that it is possible to identify words that both lower-vocabulary English-speakers…

  12. How to Memorize English Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓丽

    2016-01-01

    Language is a complicated system, which mainly contains phonology, vocabulary, grammar. The vocabulary is just like stocks used to build the house of a language. Lexicon is fundamental material in language learning. The author attempts to explore English word formation form morphemes. The morpheme, can be considered as“the smallest functioning unit in the composition of words”. Morphemes are classified into prefix, root and suffix. In order to have a good command of words, English learners could adopt the rules of word formation from morphemes to enlarge vocabulary efficiently.

  13. A Reassessment of Frequency and Vocabulary Size in L2 Vocabulary Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Norbert; Schmitt, Diane

    2014-01-01

    The high-frequency vocabulary of English has traditionally been thought to consist of the 2,000 most frequent word families, and low-frequency vocabulary as that beyond the 10,000 frequency level. This paper argues that these boundaries should be reassessed on pedagogic grounds. Based on a number of perspectives (including frequency and…

  14. The Effects of English/Language Arts Academic Vocabulary Alignment on Elementary Student Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Stacey Michelle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide professional development in vocabulary instructional practices and analyze the impact on student achievement. This quasi-experimental study utilized the PLC to curriculum map English/Language Arts state academic vocabulary words in K-4 into each of the four nine-weeks. The first through fourth grade…

  15. A Reassessment of Frequency and Vocabulary Size in L2 Vocabulary Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Norbert; Schmitt, Diane

    2014-01-01

    The high-frequency vocabulary of English has traditionally been thought to consist of the 2,000 most frequent word families, and low-frequency vocabulary as that beyond the 10,000 frequency level. This paper argues that these boundaries should be reassessed on pedagogic grounds. Based on a number of perspectives (including frequency and…

  16. The Application Research of (Word-Grammar-Vocabulary) Cognitive Teaching Strategy in Business English Vocabulary Teaching---Based on Business English Major 2013 Grade of Yunyang Teachers' College%“点-段-面”式认知教学模式在商务英语词汇教学中的应用--以郧阳师专商务英语专业为研究对象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田薇

    2016-01-01

    “点-段-面”式认知教学模式利用认知语言学中的原型范畴、隐喻理论、象似性原则、认知模型理论从“点”(词汇理解)、“段”(词汇应用);“面”(词汇量扩大)三个阶段指导高职商务英语词汇教学。通过本校2013级商务英语专业进行实证研究,结果证明此种认知教学模式对商务英语词汇教学具有促进作用,是一种有效的教学模式,对培养学生认知能力,提升高职院校商务英语词汇教学的效果具有实践价值。%(Word-Grammar-Vocabulary) Cognitive teaching strategy employs the cognitive linguistic theories such as proto-type theory, metaphor, iconicity and ICM to guide the teaching of business English vocabulary in higher vocational schools from the three aspects ( word comprehension, word application, vocabulary enriching) . The experiment is finished in business English major 2013 grade of Yunyang Teachers ' College. It leads to a result that this cognitive teaching strategy is effective and can help the students acquire cognitive ability so that business English vocabulary teaching in higher vocational schools can be more efficient.

  17. Analysis of Reading Fluency and Comprehension Measures for Fifth Grade Students. Technical Report # 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghetto, Ron; Tindal, Gerald

    2004-01-01

    In response to the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, school districts are working to develop assessment systems to monitor student progress. In the area of reading, three measures can provide useful information about students' developing proficiency: a test of oral reading fluency (ORF), a vocabulary test, and a reading comprehension test…

  18. Modern English Drama and the Students' Fluency and Accuracy of Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishkar, Kian; Moinzadeh, Ahmad; Dabaghi, Azizallah

    2017-01-01

    Speaking a language involves more than simply knowing the linguistic components of the message, and developing language skills requires more than grammatical comprehension and vocabulary memorization. In teaching-learning processes, drama method may have some positive effects on ELL students' speaking fluency and accuracy. This study attempts to…

  19. The Effects of Learning from Word Pairs on Word Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsudin Sarimah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary plays an essential role in language learning. The lack of vocabulary might cause incompetency to language users. It is therefore very important for language instructors to find suitable ways of teaching vocabulary since learning vocabulary consists of learning various aspects of word knowledge. These aspects include orthography, meaning and form, collocation, association and grammatical functions. There are various methods that could be used in gaining aspects of word knowledge. The purpose of this study is to investigate to what extent are aspects of word knowledge gained by learning from word pairs. 120 secondary school students were divided into four groups of thirty students. The first group was given a set of Malay Translation, the second, English Translation, the third, Malay Definition and the fourth, English Definition word pair to learn followed by word knowledge tests. The results show that all word pairs promote large gains in learning aspects of word knowledge. The scores between the groups were also compared and it was found that the mean score of the Malay Definition word pair group is the highest, followed by the Malay Translation word pair group, the English Translation word pair group, and English Definition word pair group.

  20. Boosting Reading Fluency: An Intervention Case Study at Subword Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairaluoma, Leila; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Mikko; Holopainen, Leena

    2007-01-01

    This study is an intervention case study of fluency in Finnish-speaking children with dyslexia. Two 7-year-old children, a girl and a boy, were selected from the Jyvaskyla Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia. The intervention emphasised syllables as reading units, and proceeded from reading syllables to reading words and text. Letter knowledge, reading…

  1. What Is Going on During Vocabulary Lessons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Mott

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been 9 years since the Congressionally appointed National Reading Panel made recommendations for literacy instruction that comprise a five-component framework of phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. Vocabulary, a critical pillar of literacy, has reciprocal and correlational relationships with reading achievement. The researchers piloted an observational instrument to determine the methods and materials K-3 teachers use to teach vocabulary in today’s classrooms. This brief evaluates a vocabulary observation tool the researchers developed to gather information from early childhood classroom settings in the midsouth region of the United States. Understanding materials utilized in various contexts will enable practitioners and researchers to address the significant disparity between vocabulary “haves and have-nots.” An examination of the instrument was conducted (n = 18 raters at 3 ratings apiece for 45 trials to determine reliability and validity of observations. Reliability was addressed via training with discussion and resolution of ratings from video of vocabulary instruction. Validity was analyzed via multidimensional scaling (MDS to visually portray ratings along the dimensions of student or teacher control. From this data, we were able to determine the number of possible senses (auditory, visual, kinesthetic, smell, and taste students used. Results indicated observer ratings (n = 45 clustered or separated material-type consistently indicating variance along both dimensions. The researchers are currently applying this piloted instrument in a large-scale study to depict teachers’ vocabulary material use. Understanding vocabulary materials and contexts of their use may lead to more effective vocabulary curriculum, instruction, and assessment.

  2. VOCABULARY STRATEGIES AND VOCABULARY LEARNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This research is a comparative study of Chinese EFLgradutes′vocabulary strategies applied in their EGeneralAP(English for General Academic Purposes)and ESpecialAP(English for Special Academic Purpose)learning.Participantswere the first-year graduates of non-English major in ChinaPharmaceutical University(N=102).The present study uses ataxonomy of strategies developed by O’Malley and Chamot(1990),which was modified to more accurately reflectvocabulary strategies(altogether 31 sub-strategy variables within16 strategies).Analysis through SAS(Statistic Analysis System)on the collected date has revealed that:1)Learners apply more types of vocabulary stategies inEGeneralAP than in ESpecialAP vocabulary learning.2)Translation and Extensive Reading gain higher frequencyof application in ESpecialAP learning.3)11 vocabulary strategies strongly predict EGeneralAPvocabulary achievement and only 6 strategies strongly predictESpecialAp vocabulary achievement.At the end of the paper,some practical suggestions aremade for EFL graduate teachers to adjust their teaching targetand methods.

  3. Increasing fluency in L2 writing with singing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenni Alisaari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluency is an essential part of a language learner’s skills. Despite various studies on fluency, little is known about the effects of different pedagogical methods on the development of written fluency. In this paper, we examine how different pedagogical methods affect the development of second language learners’ written fluency. Participants in this study were 51 language learners enrolled in two intensive Finnish courses. The pedagogical methods investigated in the study were singing, listening to songs, and reciting lyrics of songs. Written stories based on cartoon strips were used as a pretest and a posttest. The fluency of written stories was analyzed based on the number of words used in the texts. Differences between the groups taught by different pedagogical methods were analyzed. The results seem to indicate that fluency increased the most in the singing groups compared to the other groups. There was also a statistically significant difference between the singing group and the group reciting lyrics, as well as between the group listening to songs and the group reciting lyrics.

  4. By their words ye shall know them: evidence of genetic selection against general intelligence and concurrent environmental enrichment in vocabulary usage since the mid 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Anthony Woodley of Menie

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been theorized that declines in g due to negative selection stemming from the inverse association between completed fertility and IQ, and the Flynn effect co-occur, with the effects of the latter being concentrated on less-heritable non-g sources of intelligence variance. Evidence for this comes from the observation that 19th Century populations were more intellectually productive, and also exhibited faster simple reaction times than modern ones, suggesting higher g. This co-occurrence model is tested via examination of historical changes in the utilization frequencies of words from the highly g-loaded WORDSUM test across 5.9 million texts spanning 1850 to 2005. Consistent with predictions, words with higher difficulties (δ parameters from Item Response Theory and stronger negative correlations between pass-rates and completed fertility presented a steeper decline in use over time, than less difficult and less negatively selected words, which increased in use over time, suggestive of a Flynn effect. These findings persisted when explicitly controlled for word age, literacy rates and temporal autocorrelation. These trends constitute compelling evidence that both producers and consumers of text have experienced declines in g since the mid-19th Century.

  5. Flexible Application of TPR in College English Vocabulary Teaching--Take Words of unit 5 in New Horizon College English Reading and Writing Book 2 as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈为

    2013-01-01

    Proposed by James Asher,Total Physical Response focuses on coordination of speech and action. It is viewed most suitable for children and adult beginners. Through analyzing words of a sample text,this paper aims to explore flexible application of TPR.

  6. Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) Screening at 18 Months of Age Predicts Concurrent Understanding of Desires, Word Learning and Expressive Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kristyn; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2012-01-01

    The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) is a 23-item questionnaire used in primary screening of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The current studies examine the concurrent validity of the M-CHAT in its ability to predict 18-month-olds' performance on theory of mind and word learning tasks. In Experiment 1, infants' understanding of…

  7. Discussion on University English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关颖

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary is the foundation of language systems and the students' vocabulary ability directly affects their ability of lis⁃tening, speaking, reading, writing and translating.However, the traditional college English teaching of vocabulary can't meet the needs of memorizing words for students. Memorizing words is a heavy burden of students.Teaching practice shows that using the etymology of auxiliary teaching in the process of teaching can improve the students' learning interest and deepen their memory,al⁃so can improve the efficiency of vocabulary memory,which isnot only help students enlarge their vocabulary, but also can strengthen the students understand the English national cultures.In this paper, we start from the importance of vocabulary teach⁃ing and the present situation of college English vocabulary teaching,we talk about the feasibility of using etymology college Eng⁃lish vocabulary teaching strategies based on the etymology related knowledgein this paper in order to improve the English skills for students.

  8. A Study of Polysemy in English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊飞

    2016-01-01

    Polysemy is very common in English vocabulary. It is essential to analyze the structure, features and language context of polysemy for language learner. For the four different reasons:shift of application in different fields;mutual transformation between common words and specialized words;ellipsis in language use and the reason explained in cognitive theory, polysemy comes into being.

  9. Ways to Win at Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Cho, Sun-Joo; Nichols, Sally

    2016-01-01

    This teaching tip identifies ways to "WIN" at vocabulary learning. Specifically, the approach conveys three morphological strategies in the mnemonic "WIN." These three strategies remind students to find smaller units of meaning within bigger words, look for those units in other words that they know, and notice the context. Each…

  10. Robust Vocabulary Instruction in a Readers' Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feezell, Greg

    2012-01-01

    This article presents strategies for integrating explicit vocabulary instruction within a reading workshop. The author begins by describing a process for involving students in word selection. The author then provides a weeklong instructional sequence using student-selected words. Finally, the author briefly examines the role of vocabulary…

  11. Teaching Vocabulary and Morphology in Intermediate Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Anthony; Kramer-Vida, Louisa; Hunt, Carolyn V.

    2015-01-01

    Direct vocabulary instruction of Tier 2 and Tier 3 words in intermediate-grade curricula is an important tool of literacy instruction because English is a language grafted from many roots and has not developed a one-to-one phoneme-grapheme correspondence. In addition to knowing graphemes and phonemes, students must formally learn words that cross…

  12. The Importance of Vocabulary for Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marisa T.

    2012-01-01

    A major component of literacy is "vocabulary," or the words employed by a language or in a field of knowledge. Understanding novel words and concepts is important for young students as they are confronted with a great deal of new terminology in the passages they read, especially in content areas such as science. Science is a discipline that relies…

  13. Analysis of Verbal Fluency Ability in Amnestic and Non-Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weakley, Alyssa; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Anderson, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pattern of performance on letter and category fluency tests of individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Previous research has suggested that organization strategies, including “clustering” (i.e., groups of related words) and “switching” (i.e., shift from one cluster to another), are important for efficient verbal fluency performance. Participants were 25 individuals with single-domain amnestic MCI (aMCI), 49 with multidomain aMCI, 16 with non-amnestic MCI (naMCI), and 90 cognitively healthy older adults. Fluency performances were analyzed across two 30-s intervals for total words produced, cluster size, and switching. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with follow-up tests revealed that the single-domain aMCI group performed comparably with healthy controls on each dependent measure across both fluency tasks. In contrast, the multidomain aMCI group showed performance decrements in total words and switching production compared with healthy controls on both fluency tasks, whereas the naMCI group produced fewer words and switches on letter fluency. Each group generated more words and switches during the first 30-s on both fluency tasks, with the exception of the naMCI group, whose switching on letter fluency did not decrease as the task progressed. As indicated by the single-domain aMCI group's unimpaired performance, our findings demonstrate that verbal fluency performance decreases as domains beyond memory become impaired in MCI. Reduced switching ability, which has been linked to prefrontal executive functioning, contributed the most to the poorer performance of individuals with multidomain MCI and naMCI. PMID:23917346

  14. The Impact of a Systematic and Explicit Vocabulary Intervention in Spanish with Spanish-Speaking English Learners in First Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cena, Johanna; Baker, Doris Luft; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Baker, Scott K.; Park, Yonghan; Smolkowski, Keith

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a 15-min daily explicit vocabulary intervention in Spanish on expressive and receptive vocabulary knowledge and oral reading fluency in Spanish, and on language proficiency in English. Fifty Spanish-speaking English learners who received 90 min of Spanish reading instruction in an early transition model were…

  15. The Impact of a Systematic and Explicit Vocabulary Intervention in Spanish with Spanish-Speaking English Learners in First Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cena, Johanna; Baker, Doris Luft; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Baker, Scott K.; Park, Yonghan; Smolkowski, Keith

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a 15-min daily explicit vocabulary intervention in Spanish on expressive and receptive vocabulary knowledge and oral reading fluency in Spanish, and on language proficiency in English. Fifty Spanish-speaking English learners who received 90 min of Spanish reading instruction in an early transition model were…

  16. 韩语词汇教学改革探索——以韩中常用同形异义汉字词为中心%Exploration on Korean vocabulary teaching reform——Taking China and Korea commonly used homograph words as the center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高静

    2012-01-01

      传统的韩语词汇教学往往忽视词汇之间的联系,无序地给学生灌输词汇的词典意义,大大降低了学习效率。韩语中汉字词占韩语词汇总量的一半,大量的汉字词对韩语的日常使用产生了重要影响。韩语学习中,能否准确地掌握汉字词直接决定学习效果。将韩语中的汉字词与中文词汇建立联系,利用词汇意义的变化来掌握韩中同形异义词将达到事半功倍的效果%  Traditional Korean vocabulary teaching tend to neglect the connections between words, in order to give the students vocabulary dictionary meaning, greatly reduce the efficiency of learning. There are half of the total number of Chinese characters in Korean vocabulary words, the words in Korean daily use produce important influence. In the study of Korean, whether can accurately grasp the Chinese characters word or not directly determines the learning effect. To establish connection of the Chinese characters in Korean and Chinese vocabulary words, using lexical meaning changes to master the homographs will achieve the twice the result with half the effort.

  17. Category and design fluency in mild cognitive impairment: Performance, strategy use, and neural correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Jessica; Kaiser, Jannis; Landerer, Verena; Köstering, Lena; Kaller, Christoph P; Heimbach, Bernhard; Hüll, Michael; Bormann, Tobias; Klöppel, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    The exploration and retrieval of words during category fluency involves different strategies to improve or maintain performance. Deficits in that task, which are common in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), mirror either impaired semantic memory or dysfunctional executive control mechanisms. Relating category fluency to tasks that place greater demands on either semantic knowledge or executive functions might help to determine the underlying cognitive process. The aims of this study were to compare performance and strategy use of 20 patients with aMCI to 30 healthy elderly controls (HC) and to identify the dominant component (either executive or semantic) for better task performance in category fluency. Thus, the relationship between category fluency, design fluency and naming was examined. As fluency tasks have been associated with the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and the temporal pole, we further explored the relationship between gray matter volume in these areas and both performance and strategy use. Patients with aMCI showed significantly lower performance and significantly less strategy use during fluency tasks compared to HC. However, both groups equally improved their performance when repeatedly confronted with the same task. In aMCI, performance during category fluency was significantly predicted by design fluency performance, while in HC, it was significantly predicted by naming performance. In HC, volume of the SFG significantly predicted both category and design fluency performance, and strategy use during design fluency. In aMCI, the SFG and the IFG predicted performance during both category and design fluency. The IFG significantly predicted strategy use during category fluency in both groups. The reduced category fluency performance in aMCI seems to be primarily due to dysfunctional executive control mechanisms rather than impaired semantic knowledge. This finding is directly relevant to

  18. ESL Proficiency and a Word Frequency Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlech-Jones, Brian

    1983-01-01

    In a study of the vocabulary proficiency of some South African ESL teacher trainees, the General Service List of English Words' validity was evaluated. It was found that mastery of this list would meet most of the vocabulary needs of the test group. Recommendations are made for practical uses of word counts. (MSE)

  19. 1001 most useful French words

    CERN Document Server

    McCoy, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Up-to-date entries cover technology terms, and sections on vocabulary and grammar offer helpful tips. Each word is accompanied by a brief definition, a sentence demonstrating proper usage, and a translation.

  20. Analysis of Verbal Fluency Ability in Alzheimer's Disease: The Role of Clustering, Switching and Semantic Proximities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weakley, Alyssa; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    The underlying nature of verbal fluency deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) was investigated in this study. Participants were 48 individuals with AD and 48 cognitively healthy older adults. Fluency performance on letter and category tasks was analyzed across two 30-s intervals for total words produced, mean cluster size, and total switches. Compared with the control group, AD participants produced fewer words and switches on both fluency tasks and had a reduced category cluster size. The AD group was differentially impaired on category compared with letter fluency and produced more repetitive responses but fewer category exemplars than controls on the category task. A multidimensional scaling approach revealed that AD participants' semantic maps were similar to controls. Overall, the data suggest that executive abilities involving search and retrieval processes and a reduced availability of semantically related words contributed to the AD group's poorer performance despite similar temporal recall and organizational patterns. PMID:24687588

  1. Working Memory Influences Processing Speed and Reading Fluency in ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Lisa A.; Ryan, Matthew; Martin, Rebecca B.; Ewen, Joshua; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Denckla, Martha B.; Mahone, E. Mark

    2012-01-01

    Processing speed deficits affect reading efficiency, even among individuals who recognize and decode words accurately. Children with ADHD who decode words accurately can still have inefficient reading fluency, leading to a bottleneck in other cognitive processes. This “slowing” in ADHD is associated with deficits in fundamental components of executive function underlying processing speed, including response selection. The purpose of the present study was to deconstruct processing speed in order to determine which components of executive control best explain the “processing” speed deficits related to reading fluency in ADHD. Participants (41 ADHD, 21 controls), ages 9-14, screened for language disorders, word reading deficits, and psychiatric disorders, were administered measures of copying speed, processing speed, reading fluency, working memory, reaction time, inhibition, and auditory attention span. Compared to controls, children with ADHD showed reduced oral and silent reading fluency, and reduced processing speed—driven primarily by deficits on WISC-IV Coding. In contrast, groups did not differ on copying speed. After controlling for copying speed, sex, severity of ADHD-related symptomatology, and GAI, slowed “processing” speed (i.e., Coding) was significantly associated with verbal span and measures of working memory, but not with measures of response control/inhibition, lexical retrieval speed, reaction time, or intra-subject variability. Further, “processing” speed (i.e., Coding, residualized for copying speed) and working memory were significant predictors of oral reading fluency. Abnormalities in working memory and response selection (which are frontally-mediated and enter into the output side of processing speed) may play an important role in deficits in reading fluency in ADHD, potentially more than posteriorally-mediated problems with orienting of attention or perceiving the stimulus. PMID:21287422

  2. Does the processing fluency of a syllabus affect the forecasted grade and course difficulty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, R Kim

    2012-06-01

    Processing fluency is known to affect a variety of cognitive assessments, but most research has not examined such effects in the context of a real-life experience. In the first experiment, college students, enrolled in either a statistics or cognitive psychology course, read a course syllabus which varied in the clarity of its font and frequency of its vocabulary. Based on the syllabus, students then forecasted their final course grade and the course's difficulty. Despite methodological similarity to other fluency experiments and adequate statistical power, there were no significant differences in forecasts across fluency conditions. Fluency may be discounted in a task which provides information that affects people's lives. This interpretation was bolstered by a second experiment whose participants were students in a statistics course. These students read the cognitive course's syllabus and forecasted better grades and less difficulty in the cognitive course when the font of the syllabus was more clear than unclear.

  3. Early vocabulary development in children with bilateral cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välimaa, Taina; Kunnari, Sari; Laukkanen-Nevala, Päivi; Lonka, Eila

    2017-06-16

    Children with unilateral cochlear implants (CIs) may have delayed vocabulary development for an extended period after implantation. Bilateral cochlear implantation is reported to be associated with improved sound localization and enhanced speech perception in noise. This study proposed that bilateral implantation might also promote early vocabulary development. Knowledge regarding vocabulary growth and composition in children with bilateral CIs and factors associated with it may lead to improvements in the content of early speech and language intervention and family counselling. To analyse the growth of early vocabulary and its composition during the first year after CI activation and to investigate factors associated with vocabulary growth. The participants were 20 children with bilateral CIs (12 boys; eight girls; mean age at CI activation = 12.9 months). Vocabulary size was assessed with the Finnish version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) Infant Form and compared with normative data. Vocabulary composition was analysed in relation to vocabulary size. Growth curve modelling was implemented using a linear mixed model to analyse the effects of the following variables on early vocabulary growth: time, gender, maternal education, residual hearing with hearing aids, age at first hearing aid fitting and age at CI activation. Despite clear vocabulary growth over time, children with bilateral CIs lagged behind their age norms in receptive vocabulary during the first 12 months after CI activation. In expressive vocabulary, 35% of the children were able to catch up with their age norms, but 55% of the children lagged behind them. In receptive and expressive vocabularies of 1-20 words, analysis of different semantic categories indicated that social terms constituted the highest proportion. Nouns constituted the highest proportion in vocabularies of 101-400 words. The proportion of verbs remained below 20% and the proportion of function words and

  4. Integrated Fluency Instruction: Three Approaches for Working with Struggling Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie KUHN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective fluency instruction should focus on reading with understanding, rather than simply reading quickly or expressively. This article outlines three research-based instructional approaches that assist students in developing accurate, automatic word recognition and prosody; at the same time, they ensure learners attend to the text’s meaning as they read. All three approaches integrate instructional principles known to improve reading fluency (modeling, scaffolding, repetition, and extensive opportunity for the reading of connected text. They are also clear and easy-to-implement and have proven successful with struggling readers. As a result, these approaches contribute to learners’ reading success both within and outside of the classroom.

  5. Developing Mathematical Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Eula Ewing; Orme, Michelle P.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of mathematical vocabulary, difficulties students encounter in learning this vocabulary, and some instructional strategies. Two general methods for teaching vocabulary are discussed: context and explicit vocabulary instruction. The methods are summarized as they apply to mathematical vocabulary instruction and…

  6. Gestural development and its relation to a child's early vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraljević, Jelena Kuvač; Cepanec, Maja; Simleša, Sanja

    2014-05-01

    Gesture and language are tightly connected during the development of a child's communication skills. Gestures mostly precede and define the way of language development; even opposite direction has been found. Few recent studies have focused on the relationship between specific gestures and specific word categories, emphasising that the onset of one gesture type predicts the onset of certain word categories or of the earliest word combinations. The aim of this study was to analyse predicative roles of different gesture types on the onset of first word categories in a child's early expressive vocabulary. Our data show that different types of gestures predict different types of word production. Object gestures predict open-class words from the age of 13 months, and gestural routines predict closed-class words and social terms from 8 months. Receptive vocabulary has a strong mediating role for all linguistically defined categories (open- and closed-class words) but not for social terms, which are the largest word category in a child's early expressive vocabulary. Accordingly, main contribution of this study is to define the impact of different gesture types on early expressive vocabulary and to determine the role of receptive vocabulary in gesture-expressive vocabulary relation in the Croatian language. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Perceptual fluency, auditory generation, and metamemory: analyzing the perceptual fluency hypothesis in the auditory modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besken, Miri; Mulligan, Neil W

    2014-03-01

    Judgments of learning (JOLs) are sometimes influenced by factors that do not impact actual memory performance. One recent proposal is that perceptual fluency during encoding affects metamemory and is a basis of metacognitive illusions. In the present experiments, participants identified aurally presented words that contained inter-spliced silences (the generate condition) or that were intact, a manipulation analogous to visual generation manipulations. The generate condition produced lower perceptual fluency as assessed by both accuracy and identification latency. Consistent with the perceptual fluency hypothesis, the less fluent, generate condition produced lower JOLs than the intact condition. However, actual memory performance was greater in the generation than intact condition in free recall (Experiment 1) and recognition (Experiment 3). The negative effect of generation on JOLs occurred for both aggregate and item-by-item JOLs, but in the latter case, the positive generation effect in actual memory performance was reduced or eliminated (as also occurs with visual generation tasks; Experiments 2 and 4). Furthermore, the decrease in perceptual fluency produced by the generation manipulation was correlated with the decrease in JOLs for this condition (Experiment 5). The negative effect of generation on JOLs persisted even when participants were warned that the generation condition produces equal or greater memory performance compared to the intact condition (Experiment 6). The results are in accord with the perceptual fluency hypothesis and show that this metamemory illusion is related to objective measures of perceptual difficulty. With regard to actual memory performance, this novel auditory generation manipulation produces results consistent with those produced in the visual modality.

  8. Enhanced Context Recognition by Sensitivity Pruned Vocabularies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    Language independent `bag-of-words' representations are surprisingly effective for text classification. The generic BOW approach is based on a high-dimensional vocabulary which may reduce the generalization performance of subsequent classifiers, e.g., based on ill-posed principal component...... transformations. In this communication our aim is to study the effect of sensitivity based pruning of the bag-of-words representation. We consider neural network based sensitivity maps for determination of term relevancy, when pruning the vocabularies. With reduced vocabularies documents are classified using...... a latent semantic indexing representation and a probabilistic neural network classifier. Pruning the vocabularies to approximately 20% of the original size, we find consistent context recognition enhancement for two mid size data-sets for a range of training set sizes. We also study the applicability...

  9. Acquiring reading and vocabulary in Dutch and English: the effect of concurrent instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Leij, Aryan; Bekebrede, Judith; Kotterink, Mieke

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the effect of concurrent instruction in Dutch and English on reading acquisition in both languages, 23 pupils were selected from a school with bilingual education, and 23 from a school with education in Dutch only. The pupils had a Dutch majority language background and were comparable with regard to social-economic status (SES). Reading and vocabulary were measured twice within an interval of 1 year in Grade 2 and 3. The bilingual group performed better on most English and some of the Dutch tests. Controlling for general variables and related skills, instruction in English contributed significantly to the prediction of L2 vocabulary and orthographic awareness at the second measurement. As expected, word reading fluency was easier to acquire in Dutch with its relatively transparent orthography in comparison to English with its deep orthography, but the skills intercorrelated highly. With regard to cross-linguistic transfer, orthographic knowledge and reading comprehension in Dutch were positively influenced by bilingual instruction, but there was no indication of generalization to orthographic awareness or knowledge of a language in which no instruction had been given (German). The results of the present study support the assumption that concurrent instruction in Dutch and English has positive effects on the acquisition of L2 English and L1 Dutch.

  10. On Building a Universal and Compact Visual Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bag-of-visual-words has been shown to be a powerful image representation and attained great success in many computer vision and pattern recognition applications. Usually, for a given dataset, researchers choose to build a specific visual vocabulary from the dataset, and the problem of deriving a universal visual vocabulary is rarely addressed. Based on previous work on the classification performance with respect to visual vocabulary sizes, we arrive at a hypothesis that a universal visual vocabulary can be obtained by taking-into account the similarity extent of keypoints represented by one visual word. We then propose to use a similarity threshold-based clustering method to calculate the optimal vocabulary size, where the universal similarity threshold can be obtained empirically. With the optimal vocabulary size, the optimal visual vocabularies of limited sizes from three datasets are shown to be exchangeable and therefore universal. This result indicates that a universal and compact visual vocabulary can be built from a not too small dataset. Our work narrows the gab between bag-of-visual-words and bag-of-words, where a relatively fixed vocabulary can be used with different text datasets.

  11. Palula Vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this volume is to provide a complement to Towards a grammatical description of Palula (Liljegren 2008). The 1460 main entries included in the present work are limited to those lexical items that are cited or exemplified in the aforementioned work. The work is the result of linguistic research in and with the Palula community (Pakistan). It contains much of the basic vocabulary used in today's Palula, presented along with illustrative example sentences, grammatical informat...

  12. Motivation of English Words and Its Value in Vocabulary Teaching and Learning%英语词源理据于词汇教与学的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽琴

    2012-01-01

      Language is a mirror of culture, and they are symbiosis. Lexicography, as a fundamental constituent of language, can in turn cast light on the development of language and culture. With the explanation of the arbitrariness of language in Saussure’s Course in General Linguistics, it can be concluded that some words are motivated to some extent. Based on the etymological mo⁃tivation of words, it tends to show the significance in the teaching and learning of English lexicography.%  语言是文化的镜子,它们之间存在强烈的共生关系。词汇是语言的基本组成部分,是语言的基石。研究词汇就能看到一个语言的演变历史,从而看到文化的历史。在索绪尔《普通语言学教程》阐述的语言任意性的前提条件下,可以发现很多词汇还是有一定理据性的。从英语词汇的词源学角度分析,可见词汇的理据在国内英语词汇教与学中的重要性和方法论价值。

  13. Reading fluency estimates of current intellectual function: demographic factors and effects of type of stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simos, Panagiotis G; Sideridis, Georgios D; Kasselimis, Dimitrios; Mouzaki, Angeliki

    2013-03-01

    The study explores the potential clinical value of reading fluency measures in complementing demographic variables as indices of current intellectual capacity. IQ estimates (based on the PPVT-R, WASI Vocabulary and Block Design subtests) were obtained from a representative, non-clinical sample of 386 Greek adults aged 48–87 years along with two measures of reading efficiency (one involving relatively high-frequency words—WRE—and the second comprised of phonotactically matched pseudowords—PsWRE). Both reading measures (number of items read correctly in 45 s) accounted for significant portions of variability in demographically adjusted verbal and performance IQ indices. Reading measures provided IQ estimates which were significantly closer to those predicted by demographic variables alone in up to 22% of individuals with fewer than 7 (across all ages) or 13 years of formal education (in the 70–87 year age range). PsWRE scores slightly outperformed WRE scores in predicting a person’s estimated verbal or performance IQ. Results are discussed in the context of previous findings using reading accuracy measures for low-frequency words with exceptional spellings in less transparent orthographic systems such as English.

  14. Developing and Evaluating an Adaptive Business English Self-Learning System for EFL Vocabulary Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Yen-Hui Wang

    2014-01-01

    This paper developed an adaptive Business English self-learning system for EFL vocabulary learning. The components of word reoccurrence and learner engagement have been built into the system where the amount of unknown word reexposure in various customized texts increases and vocabulary enhancement tasks are added to promote learner engagement with wanted words. To evaluate the system effectiveness on EFL vocabulary learning, the experimental group read system-screened texts with immediate an...

  15. 如何指导七年级学生做词汇题--根据句意及首字母提示填单词%How to Guide the Students in Grade Seven Do the Vocabulary---According to the Sentence Meaning and the First Letter That Fill in the Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新霞

    2014-01-01

    从词义,词性和词的形式三个方面探讨如何指导学生做"根据句意及首字母提示填单词。%In this paper,the ideas are about the author’s many years teaching experience and the experience of tutoring students vocabulary questions; From the meaning,part of speech and word form three aspects to discuss how to guide students to do "based on the sentence and the first letter words.

  16. Organized Instruction for the Improvement of Word Knowledge Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durso, Francis T.; Coggins, Kathy A.

    1991-01-01

    Performance on a battery of tests of vocabulary words by 72 college students was compared as a function of whether the prior instruction involved presenting material in an organized or scrambled fashion. Organizing vocabulary words during study facilitated performance in categorizing, processing for understanding, or producing a word. (SLD)

  17. Fluency: It's All about Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathers, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    This essay describes the struggle to get one second grade reader who was in need of fluency practice to overcome his resistance to rereading familiar texts. This was done through the use of videos which were sent to parents on a weekly basis after the texts had been practiced several time with an eye toward all aspects of fluency--phrasing,…

  18. Exploring EFL fluency in Asia

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, T; Brown, P; Herder, S

    2014-01-01

    In EFL contexts, an absence of chances to develop fluency in the language classroom can lead to marked limitations in English proficiency. This volume explores fluency development from a number of different perspectives, investigating measurements and classroom strategies for promoting its development.

  19. Fluency: It's All about Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathers, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    This essay describes the struggle to get one second grade reader who was in need of fluency practice to overcome his resistance to rereading familiar texts. This was done through the use of videos which were sent to parents on a weekly basis after the texts had been practiced several time with an eye toward all aspects of fluency--phrasing,…

  20. Incidental Vocabulary Learning in Second Language Acquisition: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falcon Dario Restrepo Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This literature review aims to analyze previous studies that address the incidental learning of vocabulary in second language acquisition. The articles included in this literature review look into the understanding of vocabulary learning through incidental means, the relationship of reading and incidental vocabulary learning, and the strategies and tasks that promote the incidental learning of vocabulary. The findings show that L2 learners develop much of their vocabulary by incidental means through exposure to words in informative contexts. Moreover, this exposure is promoted by reading, and enhanced through multimodal glosses. Further research may focus on listening for higher lexical retention rates, the circumstances that allow incidental learning of multi-word phrases and collocations, and the use of technology-based methods for incidental vocabulary acquisition.

  1. Desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bjork, RA; Kroll, JF

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 by the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois. In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is underst...

  2. The Effect of Vocabulary Cluster on Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners' Vocabulary Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud KhaliliSabet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to inspect the possible effects of vocabulary cluster on Iranian Intermediate EFL learners' vocabulary achievement. It was based on the comparison between semantically and thematically –related sets to find out which type of vocabulary learning cluster was more effective on learners vocabulary learning. Sixty intermediate EFL learners were selected based on their performance on OPT test and then were randomly assigned into three groups each containing 20 subjects (one control and two experimental groups. Quasi-experimental design was used in which Pre-test and post-test were administered to collect data. The researcher employed Nations word level test as the pre-test to examine the participants' initial knowledge of common words. The experimental group (A worked on thematic clustering, while experimental group (B received instruction on semantic clustering and the control group received placebo. Next, all participants took part in vocabulary size test to evaluate the vocabulary achievement of the participants. The scores obtained from pre-test and post-test were analyzed through running paired sample t-test, and one-way ANOVA. The results indicated that the experimental group (B which received semantically related sets outperformed the control group & the experimental group (A which received thematically related sets. This may have significant implications for language instructors, syllabus designers, and learners to make more advancement in vocabulary learning process through employing vocabulary cluster.

  3. Closing the Vocabulary Gap?: A Review of Research on Early Childhood Vocabulary Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine

    2011-01-01

    Our qualitative literature review of 31 published studies found that (a) three major approaches are used in early childhood classrooms to support children's vocabulary learning--exposing children to advanced words, providing direct word-meaning instruction, and employing mixed-method interventions; (b) these practices support children's learning…

  4. Fluency and reading comprehension in students with reading difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Tânia Augusto; Carvalho, Carolina Alves Ferreira de; Kida, Adriana de Souza Batista; Avila, Clara Regina Brandão de

    2011-12-01

    To characterize the performance of students with reading difficulties in decoding and reading comprehension tasks as well as to investigate the possible correlations between them. Sixty students (29 girls) from 3rd to 5th grades of public Elementary Schools were evaluated. Thirty students (Research Group - RG), ten from each grade, were nominated by their teachers as presenting evidences of learning disabilities. The other thirty students were indicated as good readers, and were matched by gender, age and grade to the RG, composing the Comparison Group (CG). All subjects were assessed regarding the parameters of reading fluency (rate and accuracy in words, pseudowords and text reading) and reading comprehension (reading level, number and type of ideas identified, and correct responses on multiple choice questions). The RG presented significantly lower scores than the CG in fluency and reading comprehension. Different patterns of positive and negative correlations, from weak to excellent, among the decoding and comprehension parameters were found in both groups. In the RG, low values of reading rate and accuracy were observed, which were correlated to low scores in comprehension and improvement in decoding, but not in comprehension, with grade increase. In CG, correlation was found between different fluency parameters, but none of them was correlated to the reading comprehension variables. Students with reading and writing difficulties show lower values of reading fluency and comprehension than good readers. Fluency and comprehension are correlated in the group with difficulties, showing that deficits in decoding influence reading comprehension, which does not improve with age increase.

  5. Sound Symbolism in Basic Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Wichmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between meanings of words and their sound shapes is to a large extent arbitrary, but it is well known that languages exhibit sound symbolism effects violating arbitrariness. Evidence for sound symbolism is typically anecdotal, however. Here we present a systematic approach. Using a selection of basic vocabulary in nearly one half of the world’s languages we find commonalities among sound shapes for words referring to same concepts. These are interpreted as due to sound symbolism. Studying the effects of sound symbolism cross-linguistically is of key importance for the understanding of language evolution.

  6. Teaching vocabulary using collocations versus using definitions in EFL classes

    OpenAIRE

    Altınok, Şerife İper

    2000-01-01

    Ankara : Institute of Economics and Social Sciences of Bilkent Univ., 2000. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2000. Includes bibliographical references leaves 40-43 Teaching words in collocations is a comparatively new technique and it is accepted as an effective one in vocabulary teaching. The purpose of this study was to find out whether teaching vocabulary would result in better learning and remembering vocabulary items. This study investigated the differences betw...

  7. CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN VOCABULARY AND ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuanJialing

    2004-01-01

    From illustrating the significance of cultural elements in vocabulary teaching, and the ctmtparison of some major differences between English and Chinese words, this paper emphasizes the indivisible relationship between vocabulary and culture. International cultural exchange occurring more and more often, this paper attempts to guide students to better understand the cultural connotation of vocabulary, enhance their awareness towards the target culture, improve their comtprehensive language skills, and, develop their cross-cultural communicative ctmtpetence.

  8. Verbal fluency in children with autism spectrum disorders: clustering and switching strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begeer, S.; Wierda, M.; Scheeren, A.M.; Teunisse, J.P.W.M.; Koot, H.M.; Geurts, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study highlights differences in cognitive strategies in children and adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorders (n = 52) on a verbal fluency task (naming as many words as possible (e.g. animals) within 60 s). The ability to form clusters of words (e.g. farm animals like "cow-horse-g

  9. Verbal Fluency in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Clustering and Switching Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begeer, Sander; Wierda, Marlies; Scheeren, Anke M.; Teunisse, Jan-Pieter; Koot, Hans M.; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2014-01-01

    This study highlights differences in cognitive strategies in children and adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorders (n = 52) on a verbal fluency task (naming as many words as possible (e.g. animals) within 60 s). The ability to form clusters of words (e.g. farm animals like "cow-horse-goat") or to switch between unrelated…

  10. Relation and Interactions among Reading Fluency and Competence for Adult Education Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Fall, Emily E.; Woods, Kari L.

    2013-01-01

    Statistical analyses of data from an academically diverse sample of 276 adult basic and secondary education learners extends understanding of the relation of and interactions between oral reading fluency and reading competence indices. Significant interactions between total word rate and word error rate that differed in relation to two measures of…

  11. Typography and color: effects of salience and fluency on conscious recollective experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, Thomas; Wippich, Werner

    2004-12-01

    Within one experiment the central assumptions of the distinctiveness/fluency account of recollective experience were tested and contrasted with predictions of processing theory. To manipulate perceptual salience, the typography of words was varied. Effects of conceptual salience were induced by a variation of word color. In the study phase participants generated different word or object images according to presented words. To manipulate perceptual and conceptual fluency one test group underwent a priming procedure in the test phase, consisting of a recognition test, whereby some primes were identical to the target words typographically or by color and others were not. Additionally, all participants were asked to make judgments of recollective experience (remember, know, guess) after the old/new decisions. The results of the data analyses confirm the distinctiveness/fluency account. Words written in an unusual typography or color were judged significantly more often as "remembered" than normal words. The priming procedure uncovered some effects of fluency on reaction times: old/new decisions took less time if prime and target words were perceptually or conceptually identical.

  12. Image ambiguity and fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakesch, Martina; Leder, Helmut; Forster, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Ambiguity is often associated with negative affective responses, and enjoying ambiguity seems restricted to only a few situations, such as experiencing art. Nevertheless, theories of judgment formation, especially the "processing fluency account", suggest that easy-to-process (non-ambiguous) stimuli are processed faster and are therefore preferred to (ambiguous) stimuli, which are hard to process. In a series of six experiments, we investigated these contrasting approaches by manipulating fluency (presentation duration: 10 ms, 50 ms, 100 ms, 500 ms, 1000 ms) and testing effects of ambiguity (ambiguous versus non-ambiguous pictures of paintings) on classification performance (Part A; speed and accuracy) and aesthetic appreciation (Part B; liking and interest). As indicated by signal detection analyses, classification accuracy increased with presentation duration (Exp. 1a), but we found no effects of ambiguity on classification speed (Exp. 1b). Fifty percent of the participants were able to successfully classify ambiguous content at a presentation duration of 100 ms, and at 500 ms even 75% performed above chance level. Ambiguous artworks were found more interesting (in conditions 50 ms to 1000 ms) and were preferred over non-ambiguous stimuli at 500 ms and 1000 ms (Exp. 2a - 2c, 3). Importantly, ambiguous images were nonetheless rated significantly harder to process as non-ambiguous images. These results suggest that ambiguity is an essential ingredient in art appreciation even though or maybe because it is harder to process.

  13. Image ambiguity and fluency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Jakesch

    Full Text Available Ambiguity is often associated with negative affective responses, and enjoying ambiguity seems restricted to only a few situations, such as experiencing art. Nevertheless, theories of judgment formation, especially the "processing fluency account", suggest that easy-to-process (non-ambiguous stimuli are processed faster and are therefore preferred to (ambiguous stimuli, which are hard to process. In a series of six experiments, we investigated these contrasting approaches by manipulating fluency (presentation duration: 10 ms, 50 ms, 100 ms, 500 ms, 1000 ms and testing effects of ambiguity (ambiguous versus non-ambiguous pictures of paintings on classification performance (Part A; speed and accuracy and aesthetic appreciation (Part B; liking and interest. As indicated by signal detection analyses, classification accuracy increased with presentation duration (Exp. 1a, but we found no effects of ambiguity on classification speed (Exp. 1b. Fifty percent of the participants were able to successfully classify ambiguous content at a presentation duration of 100 ms, and at 500 ms even 75% performed above chance level. Ambiguous artworks were found more interesting (in conditions 50 ms to 1000 ms and were preferred over non-ambiguous stimuli at 500 ms and 1000 ms (Exp. 2a - 2c, 3. Importantly, ambiguous images were nonetheless rated significantly harder to process as non-ambiguous images. These results suggest that ambiguity is an essential ingredient in art appreciation even though or maybe because it is harder to process.

  14. The efficacy of a vocabulary intervention for dual-language learners with language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Maria Adelaida; Morgan, Gareth P; Thompson, Marilyn S

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated the efficacy of a Spanish-English versus English-only vocabulary intervention for dual-language learners (DLLs) with language impairment compared to mathematics intervention groups and typically developing controls with no intervention. Further, in this study the authors also examined whether the language of instruction affected English, Spanish, and conceptual vocabulary differentially. The authors randomly assigned 202 preschool DLLs with language impairment to 1 of 4 conditions: bilingual vocabulary, English-only vocabulary, bilingual mathematics, or English-only mathematics. Fifty-four DLLs with typical development received no intervention. The vocabulary intervention consisted of a 12-week small-group dialogic reading and hands-on vocabulary instruction of 45 words. Postintervention group differences and linear growth rates were examined in conceptual, English, and Spanish receptive and expressive vocabulary for the 45 treatment words. Results indicate that the bilingual vocabulary intervention facilitated receptive and expressive Spanish and conceptual vocabulary gains in DLLs with language impairment compared with the English vocabulary intervention, mathematics intervention, and no-intervention groups. The English-only vocabulary intervention differed significantly from the mathematics condition and no-intervention groups on all measures but did not differ from the bilingual vocabulary intervention. Vocabulary growth rates postintervention slowed considerably. Results support the idea that bilingual interventions support native- and second-language vocabulary development. English-only intervention supports only English. Use of repeated dialogic reading and hands-on activities facilitates vocabulary acquisition.

  15. Specifying the Construct of Academic Vocabulary: Functional and Discursive Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Damián Perales Escudero

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Models of academic vocabulary use need to address discursive and functional linguistics perspectives in order to enhance construct validity and authenticity in academic vocabulary assessment, particularly with regard to the testing of word families.Purpose of Study: To provide a clearer picture of academic vocabulary use that can inform the design of academic vocabulary testing by enhancing construct validity and authenticity.Method: A survey of the literature on academic vocabulary has been conducted to present various perspectives and their shortcoming. Then, findings from the functional linguistics and discourse analysis traditions with regard to vocabulary use are discussed. An example of a testing item incorporating functional perspectives on the use of derivatives within a lemma is presented.Conclusion: Incorporating functional and discursive findings related to the discourse-structuring functions of multiple derivatives of a single lemma may lead to more valid and authentic academic vocabulary tests and teaching practices.

  16. The Effect of Vocabulary Flooding Technique on Iranian EFL Elementary Learners’ Vocabulary Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touran Ahour

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find out the effect of using vocabulary flooding technique on Iranian EFL elementary learners’ vocabulary learning at the recognition level. A pretest-posttest control group design was used in this quasi-experimental research. The study was conducted at a secondary school in Sahand, a city located in the East-Azerbaijan province in Iran. Four intact grade-three classes were considered for the study. A KET test was administered and based on its results, two classes were selected as the homogenous ones, which were randomly assigned into the vocabulary flooding (experimental and no vocabulary flooding (control groups, each with 30 students. After the vocabulary recognition pretest, supplementary vocabulary teaching was used as the treatment in both groups. In the Experimental group, the target words were presented and practiced in flooding form, that is, in six or more sentences, while in the Control group, students were taught and practiced in only one sentence. After the treatment, two posttests (immediate and delayed were conducted in both groups. The results of the One-way within-subjects and between-subjects Repeated-Measures ANOVA revealed that there were statistically significant differences within and between the experimental and control groups in the three vocabulary recognition tests. It was found that the participants’ receptive vocabulary knowledge was improved in the experimental group as a result of using vocabulary flooding technique. The implications are provided for the syllabus designers, textbook writers and EFL teachers.

  17. Fluency: Bridge Between Decoding and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikulski, John J.; Chard, David J.

    2005-01-01

    A deep, developmental construct and definition of fluency, in which fluency and reading comprehension have a reciprocal relationship, is explicated and contrasted with superficial approaches to that construct. The historical development of fluency is outlined, along with conclusions of the U.S. National Reading Panel, to explore why fluency has…

  18. Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition in French as a Foreign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Beatrice; Krashen, Stephen D.

    1993-01-01

    Third semester college students of French viewed part of a film, read part, and then were given a surprise vocabulary test with colloquial words from the text. Their performance, compared to a control group, suggests that incidental vocabulary acquisition is possible in a foreign language situation. The test is appended. (Contains eight…

  19. Self-reported reading as a predictor of vocabulary knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratheeba, N; Krashen, S

    2013-10-01

    25 engineering students in India, who were highly motivated to improve their English, filled out a questionnaire about their reading habits in English and took a demanding vocabulary test based on words taken from preparation books for the Graduate Records Examination. The correlation between reading habits and vocabulary was substantial (r = .78).

  20. Differences in Vocabulary Input-Output in Psychodiagnosis of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Abate, Luciano

    This paper supports the hypothesis that picture vocabulary tests should not be used as interchangeable measures of intelligence for complex, lengthy intelligence tests (WISC and Stanford-Binet). In picture vocabulary tests assessing receptive functions (input), the child recognizes a word by pointing to or stating the number standing for an…

  1. Constructivist Strategies for English Vocabulary Teaching in Senior Middle School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程文文

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary is one of the cores of language abilities in communication. As the main means to help students learn new words and expressions, vocabulary teaching is very important. Constructivism and constructivist learning theory are proposed by the Swiss psychologist Piaget at the earliest, and then completed by many linguists and psychologists to form a rigorously theoretical system.

  2. Redefining Vocabulary: The New Learning Strategy for Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander-Shea, Aimee

    2011-01-01

    Although vocabulary development is an important part of the social studies curriculum, vocabulary activities are often inadequate, leaving students with cursory knowledge of terms. Worse still is the fact that many of the most critical words demarcating the field are not included in those activities. Therefore, a transformation from viewing…

  3. Acquiring Vocabulary through Reading: Effects of Frequency and Contextual Richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahar, Rick; Cobb, Tom; Spada, Nina

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the number of times a word must be encountered in order to be learned and the types of contexts that are conducive to learning in a vocabulary acquisition study with Quebec school-aged English-as-a-Second-Language learners at five levels of proficiency. Learners read text and were tested on new vocabulary and learned and unlearned…

  4. Teaching Academic Vocabulary to Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Kristen D.; Sanchez, Victoria; Flynn, Lindsay J.; O'Connor, Rollanda E.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the efforts of a U.S. History teacher to directly teach word meanings using the "robust vocabulary instruction" (RVI) approach, because research supports this method as a way to improve vocabulary knowledge for a range of students, including adolescents reading below grade level (i.e., struggling readers) and…

  5. Vocabulary Growth and Reading Development across the Elementary School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Ludo; van Leeuwe, Jan; Vermeer, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The associations between vocabulary growth and reading development were examined longitudinally for a representative sample of Dutch children throughout the elementary school period. Data on basic and advanced vocabulary, word decoding, and reading comprehension were collected across the different grades. The results showed significant progress on…

  6. Facilitating Vocabulary Acquisition of Young English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo-Neris, Mirza J.; Jackson, Carla Wood; Goldstein, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether English-only vocabulary instruction or English vocabulary instruction enhanced with Spanish bridging produced greater word learning in young Spanish-speaking children learning English during a storybook reading intervention while considering individual language characteristics. Method: Twenty-two…

  7. Enjoying Vocabulary Learning in Junior High: The Keyword Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Gail

    1977-01-01

    The keyword method is a mnemonic device limited to teaching vocabulary items. It involves association of a bizarre image with the meaning of the word and can take on the attractive qualities of a game. Results indicate that motivation and interest are stimulated and vocabulary skills improved. (AMH)

  8. Influence of Three Teaching Strategies on Korean EFL Students' Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Cheongsook

    2009-01-01

    This research examined the effectiveness of three different learning strategies on Korean EFL students' vocabulary comprehension and retention: context, semantic mapping, and word lists. 116 college freshmen were placed into one of the three treatments of vocabulary instruction. Subjects were tested on varying levels of vocabulary knowledge using…

  9. A New Twist on Vocabulary Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Kelly J.; Dieker, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    An essential element of science instruction is content literacy. In order to improve literacy specific to science, vocabulary must be addressed. As Jitendra et al. (2004) pointed out, "because learning vocabulary during independent reading is very inefficient for students with reading difficulties, vocabulary and word learning skills must be…

  10. A System for English Vocabulary Acquisition Based on Code-Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Michal; Karolczak, Krzysztof; Rzepka, Rafal; Araki, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary plays an important part in second language learning and there are many existing techniques to facilitate word acquisition. One of these methods is code-switching, or mixing the vocabulary of two languages in one sentence. In this paper the authors propose an experimental system for computer-assisted English vocabulary learning in…

  11. Vocabulary and Grammar Knowledge in Second Language Reading Comprehension: A Structural Equation Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongbo

    2012-01-01

    Using structural equation modeling analysis, this study examined the contribution of vocabulary and grammatical knowledge to second language reading comprehension among 190 advanced Chinese English as a foreign language learners. Vocabulary knowledge was measured in both breadth (Vocabulary Levels Test) and depth (Word Associates Test);…

  12. Incidental L2 Vocabulary Acquisition "from" and "while" Reading: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer-Sánchez, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that reading is an important source of incidental second language (L2) vocabulary acquisition. However, we still do not have a clear picture of what happens when readers encounter unknown words. Combining offline (vocabulary tests) and online (eye-tracking) measures, the incidental acquisition of vocabulary knowledge…

  13. 1001 most useful French words

    CERN Document Server

    Buxbaum, Marcella Ottolenghi

    2001-01-01

    This practical, inexpensive volume features over 1,000 common French words, each accompanied by a French sentence demonstrating proper usage. Also included are definitions arranged by such categories as family, food, numbers, and more. (These words are not repeated in the alphabetical section.) A page of Vocabulary Tips explains how to easily recognize hundreds of French/English cognates.

  14. Vocabulary Knowledge Predicts Lexical Processing: Evidence from a Group of Participants with Diverse Educational Backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Mainz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary knowledge is central to a speaker's command of their language. In previous research, greater vocabulary knowledge has been associated with advantages in language processing. In this study, we examined the relationship between individual differences in vocabulary and language processing performance more closely by (i using a battery of vocabulary tests instead of just one test, and (ii testing not only university students (Experiment 1 but young adults from a broader range of educational backgrounds (Experiment 2. Five vocabulary tests were developed, including multiple-choice and open antonym and synonym tests and a definition test, and administered together with two established measures of vocabulary. Language processing performance was measured using a lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, vocabulary and word frequency were found to predict word recognition speed while we did not observe an interaction between the effects. In Experiment 2, word recognition performance was predicted by word frequency and the interaction between word frequency and vocabulary, with high-vocabulary individuals showing smaller frequency effects. While overall the individual vocabulary tests were correlated and showed similar relationships with language processing as compared to a composite measure of all tests, they appeared to share less variance in Experiment 2 than in Experiment 1. Implications of our findings concerning the assessment of vocabulary size in individual differences studies and the investigation of individuals from more varied backgrounds are discussed.

  15. Vocabulary Knowledge Predicts Lexical Processing: Evidence from a Group of Participants with Diverse Educational Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainz, Nina; Shao, Zeshu; Brysbaert, Marc; Meyer, Antje S

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is central to a speaker's command of their language. In previous research, greater vocabulary knowledge has been associated with advantages in language processing. In this study, we examined the relationship between individual differences in vocabulary and language processing performance more closely by (i) using a battery of vocabulary tests instead of just one test, and (ii) testing not only university students (Experiment 1) but young adults from a broader range of educational backgrounds (Experiment 2). Five vocabulary tests were developed, including multiple-choice and open antonym and synonym tests and a definition test, and administered together with two established measures of vocabulary. Language processing performance was measured using a lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, vocabulary and word frequency were found to predict word recognition speed while we did not observe an interaction between the effects. In Experiment 2, word recognition performance was predicted by word frequency and the interaction between word frequency and vocabulary, with high-vocabulary individuals showing smaller frequency effects. While overall the individual vocabulary tests were correlated and showed similar relationships with language processing as compared to a composite measure of all tests, they appeared to share less variance in Experiment 2 than in Experiment 1. Implications of our findings concerning the assessment of vocabulary size in individual differences studies and the investigation of individuals from more varied backgrounds are discussed.

  16. Carriers Used in Memorizing Vocabulary of Classical Literature--Mnemonic Methods Enlightened by Words from Greek Mythology%古希腊文化中词汇记忆的载体运用 --由希腊神话故事启发的单词记忆方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严大为

    2005-01-01

    探讨了一些英语词汇的学习方略.正如古希腊神话对英语语言有着巨大的影响,许多起源于此的英语单词启发我产生出一种有效的词汇记忆法--载体运用.通过列举一些古希腊神话中具体而又有特殊意义的单词,结合其与普通单词记忆方法的比较,介绍给读者载体运用词汇记忆法.同时进行了一些理论分析,以明确其理论依据和教学意义.%This article mainly deals with the English vocabulary learning strategies. Just as the Greek mythology has a large influence on English, a lot of words derived from it enlightened me with an effective mnemonic method carriers-used method. In this article, compared with general vocabulary learning strategies, carriers-used method will be introduced to readers through detailed and typical word examples from Greek mythology. The learners will soon form their own carriers during the vocabulary learning. Also, theoretical aspects will be analyzed to show the theoretical considerations and pedagogical implications.

  17. Five Strategies for Teaching Vocabulary as a Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadaway, Nancy L; Florez, Viola

    1988-01-01

    Recommends five process-oriented strategies for teaching vocabulary: (1) teach words in context; (2) move from known to unknown; (3) group and categorize items; (4) relate content to students' interests; and (5) provide for constant review. (ARH)

  18. Functional MRI evidence for the decline of word retrieval and generation during normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baciu, M; Boudiaf, N; Cousin, E; Perrone-Bertolotti, M; Pichat, C; Fournet, N; Chainay, H; Lamalle, L; Krainik, A

    2016-02-01

    This fMRI study aimed to explore the effect of normal aging on word retrieval and generation. The question addressed is whether lexical production decline is determined by a direct mechanism, which concerns the language operations or is rather indirectly induced by a decline of executive functions. Indeed, the main hypothesis was that normal aging does not induce loss of lexical knowledge, but there is only a general slowdown in retrieval mechanisms involved in lexical processing, due to possible decline of the executive functions. We used three tasks (verbal fluency, object naming, and semantic categorization). Two groups of participants were tested (Young, Y and Aged, A), without cognitive and psychiatric impairment and showing similar levels of vocabulary. Neuropsychological testing revealed that older participants had lower executive function scores, longer processing speeds, and tended to have lower verbal fluency scores. Additionally, older participants showed higher scores for verbal automatisms and overlearned information. In terms of behavioral data, older participants performed as accurate as younger adults, but they were significantly slower for the semantic categorization and were less fluent for verbal fluency task. Functional MRI analyses suggested that older adults did not simply activate fewer brain regions involved in word production, but they actually showed an atypical pattern of activation. Significant correlations between the BOLD (Blood Oxygen Level Dependent) signal of aging-related (A > Y) regions and cognitive scores suggested that this atypical pattern of the activation may reveal several compensatory mechanisms (a) to overcome the slowdown in retrieval, due to the decline of executive functions and processing speed and (b) to inhibit verbal automatic processes. The BOLD signal measured in some other aging-dependent regions did not correlate with the behavioral and neuropsychological scores, and the overactivation of these uncorrelated

  19. Vocabularies of happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Bratu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to explore through interviews the vocabularies of happiness that interviewees invoke in face-to-face interactions to account for their happiness or lack thereof and, especially, for the (unhappiness of others. In other words, how do respondents present their own or others’ happiness – be they close or distant acquaintances, or people in general, in an interview conversation? Also, what understanding of others do these accounts make visible? This work embraces a discursive psychological (DP perspective, focusing on how different versions of happiness are being put together by respondents presenting themselves as competent and credible individuals, while at the same time positioning themselves in a moral order of happiness.

  20. The Shakespeare in All of Us: A Monumental, Multitudinous, Premeditated Approach to Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Jennifer Ann

    2011-01-01

    Shakespeare, who worked actively with words through punning, playing, and inventing, serves as the model for students to experience a deepening knowledge of vocabulary and love of words. Through instructional activities aimed at increasing word play, word exposure, and word consciousness, students gain the verbal capacity needed to understand…

  1. The Shakespeare in All of Us: A Monumental, Multitudinous, Premeditated Approach to Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Jennifer Ann

    2011-01-01

    Shakespeare, who worked actively with words through punning, playing, and inventing, serves as the model for students to experience a deepening knowledge of vocabulary and love of words. Through instructional activities aimed at increasing word play, word exposure, and word consciousness, students gain the verbal capacity needed to understand…

  2. Achieving English Spoken Fluency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鲜杰

    2000-01-01

    Language is first and foremost oral,spoken language,speaking skill is the most important one of the four skills(L,S,R,W)and also it is the most difficult one of the four skills. To have an all-round command of a language one must be able to speak and to understand the spoken language, it is not enough for a language learner only to have a good reading and writing skills. As Englisn language teachers, we need to focus on improving learners' English speaking skill to meet the need of our society and our country and provide learner some useful techniques to achieving their English spoken fluency. This paper focuses on the spoken how to improving learners speaking skill.

  3. English Vocabulary Teaching Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary is very necessary in language teaching and acquisition.If students have a certain amount of vocabulary,they will overcome many difficulties in reading.listening、 speaking and writing.In vocabulary teaching,scholars have been working hard to find better ways.This paper attempts to find how to improve students’ enthusiasm of learning vocabulary and teach vocabulary more successfully and effectively.

  4. Verbal fluency in Parkinson's disease patients on/off dopamine medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Elena; Cuetos, Fernando; Ribacoba, Renée

    2012-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with dopamine depletion in the fronto-striatal network which affects some language aspects such as verb processing. Some experiments have demonstrated that dopamine deficiency plays a role in the normal functioning of the lexico-semantic system. As a result, the verbal fluency task could be a useful tool to assess the function of the semantic system, by examining both the number of words generated and the frequency of use of those words. The aim of this study was to find out how dopamine affects the performance of PD patients using a verbal fluency task, focussing on action-word fluency. A group of 20 PD patients and 20 controls participated in the study. Participants were assessed with four different verbal fluency tasks: phonological, semantic (animal and supermarket words) and action fluency. PD patients were tested twice (on/off medication) and controls only once. For the number of words, there were significant differences between PD patients on and off medication in the phonological and action fluency tasks. Compared to controls, PD off medication produced significantly fewer words in phonological, and actions. Regarding frequency, differences were found between PD patients off medication and controls for the action-word category. Our data showed a specific deficit in PD patients off medication in categories mainly depending on frontal lobe function (phonological and actions) while these differences were restored with dopamine treatment. Moreover, PD patients off medication produced higher frequency verbs than controls, suggesting that dopamine affects the normal functioning within the lexico-semantic network of verbs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The importance of Vocabulary In Medical English Teaching and Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭凡

    2015-01-01

    Medical English vocabulary is considered to be one of indispensable components of language.Indeed, vocabulary forms the backbone and essence of medical English.All second language learners and their teachers are well aware of the fact that learning a second language involves the learning of a large number of words.Without the knowledge of words,language learning will turn out to be "a castle in the air".

  6. Vocabulary Breadth and Field Dependence/Independence Cognitive Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Nassim Golaghaei

    2011-01-01

    This article is primarily bidirectional in that it is concerned with two fields of cognitive styles of field-dependency/independency on one hand and breadth of vocabulary knowledge on the other hand. In other word, this research is primarily intended to investigate the nature of the students' vocabulary knowledge in the field of passive and active knowledge of L2 words as a whole with regard to their preferred cognitive style of field dependency/independency. A group of 60 undergraduate stude...

  7. LEARNING VOCABULARY THROUGH COLOURFUL PUZZLE GAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risca Dwiaryanti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary plays an important role because it links to the four skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Those aspects should be integrated in teaching and learning process of English. However, the students must be able to know the meaning of each word or vocabulary of English in order to master the four skills. It is as a mean to create a sentence in daily communication to show someone’s feeling, opinion, idea, desire, etc. So that, both speakers understand what the other speaker mean. However, English as a second language in Indonesia seems very hard for the students to master vocabulary of English. It makes them not easy to be understood directly and speak fluently. The students, sometimes, get difficulties in understanding, memorizing the meaning of the vocabulary, and getting confused in using the new words. There must be an effective strategy to attract students’ interest, break the boredom, and make the class more lively. Based on the writer experience, Colourful Puzzle Game is able to make the students learn vocabulary quickly. It needs teacher’s creativity to create the materials of this game based on the class condition. The teacher just need a game board made from colourful papers, write any command and prohibition words on it. A dice is a tool to decide where the player should stop based on the number. Some pins as counter as sign of each player.

  8. Effects of Ease-of-Pronunciation on Non-Word Memory and Product Judgments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erz, Antonia; Christensen, Bo

    The ease or difficulty of pronunciation can affect judgments. We experimentally show that linguistic fluency has a direct effect on liking and a U-shaped effect on memory of non-words. We further demonstrate that the fluency of novel, fictitious non-word brand names affects novelty and performance...

  9. e-Vocabulary and e-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-María Fernández-Pampillón

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A vocabulary is a linguistic resource that helps manage, query and retrieve information and/or knowledge via words. If vocabularies are built and used in electronic format, they are referred as e-vocabularies. E-vocabularies have been used in Education to help teachers and students to, amongst many issues, (1 comprehend and relate the concepts and the objects of a given knowledge domain; (2 understand and learn languages, be they specialized or not; and (3 identify, describe and query knowledge and digital educational resources. Despite its utility, it is in this field where vocabularies seem to be less systematically developed, known, studied, analyzed, compared and/or linked. For this reason, we thought it was an opportunity to edit a dedicated volume with real experiences concerning the construction, use and evaluation of electronic vocabularies relating to education, and their application to the Internet and e-learning. The result is, finally, this Special Issue with five papers that represent part of the current state-of-the-art in the construction and use of e-vocabularies and education.

  10. Developing and Evaluating an Adaptive Business English Self-Learning System for EFL Vocabulary Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Hui Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper developed an adaptive Business English self-learning system for EFL vocabulary learning. The components of word reoccurrence and learner engagement have been built into the system where the amount of unknown word reexposure in various customized texts increases and vocabulary enhancement tasks are added to promote learner engagement with wanted words. To evaluate the system effectiveness on EFL vocabulary learning, the experimental group read system-screened texts with immediate and repeated contacts with individuals’ unknown words and performed vocabulary tasks specific to those unknown words, while the control group read online texts without unknown word reoccurrence and vocabulary practice. After one semester, these two groups were measured by one online vocabulary test, and an online user satisfaction investigation was also administered to the experimental group. The study found that the experimental group reading customized texts to reexpose to previously encountered unknown words in different texts along with doing individualized vocabulary exercises performed significantly better in EFL vocabulary learning than the other group. It was also found that the system was appealing for the learners to show positive attitudes toward the use of the system. The study demonstrated that the constructed adaptive Business English self-learning system could effectively promote vocabulary growth.

  11. A cross-linguistic comparison of verbal fluency tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, Mónica; Ardila, Alfredo; Salvatierra, Judy; Marquez, Martha; Matos, Luis; Weekes, Viviana A

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare oral fluency strategies of Spanish-English bilinguals in Spanish and English with Spanish and English monolinguals when given either phonemic (alphabetical) or semantic categorical cues. The use of grammatical words (words that play a grammatical function relating words within a sentence) or content words (words that have a meaning such as nouns, verbs, and adjectives) in the alphabetical categories is analyzed. This study also addresses the relation between productivity and the use of a semantic strategy to organize responses. Eighty-two right-handed participants (28 males and 54 females) with a mean age of 61.76 (SD = 9.30; range 50-84) and a mean educational level of 14.8 years (SD = 3.6; range 2-23) were selected. Forty-five of the subjects were English monolinguals, 18 were Spanish monolinguals, and 19 were Spanish-English bilinguals. Oral verbal fluency was tested asking subjects to generate words within phonemic (F, A, and S) and semantic (animals) categories. In the phonemic condition, performance of English and Spanish monolinguals was similar. Bilinguals produced significantly fewer words than English monolinguals in the categorical semantic condition but not in the phonological condition. In the phonological condition, English monolinguals generated significantly more grammatical words than Spanish monolinguals, and bilinguals produced a significantly higher number of grammatical words in English than in Spanish. Animal subcategories and semantic associations were similar in both languages for all groups. Results were discussed in terms of crosslinguistic differences in the recall of alphabetical words.

  12. Academic vocabulary in learner writing from extraction to analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Paquot, Magali

    2010-01-01

    Academic vocabulary is in fashion, as witnessed by the increasing number of books published on the topic. In the first part of this book, Magali Paquot scrutinizes the concept of academic vocabulary and proposes a corpus-driven procedure based on the criteria of keyness, range and evenness of distribution to select academic words that could be part of a common-core academic vocabulary syllabus. In the second part, the author offers a thorough analysis of academic vocabulary in the International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE) and describes the factors that account for learners difficulties in

  13. The Development of American English Vocabulary and Its Causes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高万全

    2004-01-01

    This paper mainly centers on the development of American English vocabulary and its causes .To English learners, it will be helpful for them to get to know clearly the outline of American English vocabulary and find answers to many puzzling phenomena, such as why the American English vocabulary is so numerous and jumbled; why there are so many foreign words; why the synonyms are so plentiful and why the spellings of American English are so disorderly, etc. Meanwhile, through vocabulary study, English learners can know well American history, politics, economy, culture, social problem, science and technology and so on.

  14. Text (Oral) Reading Fluency as a Construct in Reading Development: An Investigation of its Mediating Role for Children from Grades 1 to 4

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Wagner, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we investigated a developmentally changing role of text reading fluency in mediating the relations of word reading fluency and listening comprehension to reading comprehension. We addressed this question by using longitudinal data from Grades 1 to 4, and employing structural equation models. Results showed that the role of text reading fluency changes over time as children’s reading proficiency develops. In the beginning phase of reading development (Grade 1), text readin...

  15. Variation in verbal fluency: a latent variable analysis of clustering, switching, and overall performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; Spillers, Gregory J; Brewer, Gene A

    2011-03-01

    Verbal fluency tasks have long been used to assess and estimate group and individual differences in executive functioning in both cognitive and neuropsychological research domains. Despite their ubiquity, however, the specific component processes important for success in these tasks have remained elusive. The current work sought to reveal these various components and their respective roles in determining performance in fluency tasks using latent variable analysis. Two types of verbal fluency (semantic and letter) were compared along with several cognitive constructs of interest (working memory capacity, inhibition, vocabulary size, and processing speed) in order to determine which constructs are necessary for performance in these tasks. The results are discussed within the context of a two-stage cyclical search process in which participants first search for higher order categories and then search for specific items within these categories.

  16. GUESSING WORDS FROM CONTEXT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiLing; YangWeidong

    2004-01-01

    For the large number of low-frequency words in .foreign language vocabulary acquisition, the strategy many experts in language teaching methods have been advocating is to teach the students the ways to guess .from context. However, two American scholars, Schatz and Baldwin (1986), on the basis of their experiments made on American students, argued that contextual clues are unreliable predictors of word meanigs.Context does not usually provide clues, but inhibit the correct prediction of word meanings just as o[ten as they facilitate them.

  17. Chinese Loan Words in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郜战莹

    2015-01-01

    English language is the most common working language.In the history of its development,English has widened its vocabulary by borrowing.Borrowing plays an important role in the formation of modern English.Chinese loan words are a part in the family of all the loan words.Therefore,the number of loan words which originate from Chinese is not that great,but they hold an important role in contemporary English.

  18. Elementary Students' Acquisition of Academic Vocabulary Through Engineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugelmass, Rachel

    This study examines how STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) inquiry-based learning through a hands-on engineering design can be beneficial in helping students acquire academic vocabulary. This research took place in a second grade dual- language classroom in a public, suburban elementary school. English language learners, students who speak Spanish at home, and native English speakers were evaluated in this study. Each day, students were presented with a general academic vocabulary focus word during an engineering design challenge. Vocabulary pre-tests and post-tests as well as observation field notes were used to evaluate the student's growth in reading and defining the focus academic vocabulary words. A quiz and KSB (knowledge and skill builder) packet were used to evaluate students' knowledge of science and math content and engineering design. The results of this study indicate that engineering design is an effective means for teaching academic vocabulary to students with varying levels of English proficiency.

  19. Academic literacy of South African higher education level students: Does vocabulary size matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déogratias Nizonkiza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the extent to which vocabulary size matters in academic literacy. Participants (first-year students at North-West University were administered the Vocabulary Levels Test (Schmitt, Schmitt and Clapham 2001. Scores from the test were used to estimate students’ vocabulary size and were subsequently mapped onto the levels distinguished by the Test of Academic Literacy Levels (TALL. Estimates show that, on average, the vocabulary size of first-year students at North-West University is approximately 4,500 word families, a size large enough to allow them to follow lectures in English. Furthermore, students with large vocabularies were found to have higher academic literacy proficiency, which establishes a strong relationship between vocabulary size and academic literacy. This relationship was also observed at the different word frequency bands the Vocabulary Levels Test consists of. These results support previous findings which established a relationship between vocabulary size and reading (cf. Nation 2006, and between vocabulary size and overall language proficiency (cf. Beglar 2010, Meara and Buxton 1987, Meara and Jones 1988, Nation and Beglar 2007, which could be extended to academic literacy. Furthermore, a stronger relationship between vocabulary size and academic literacy was found towards more infrequent word bands, indicating that infrequent word bands may best predict academic literacy. On the basis of these findings, we discuss possible strategies to adopt in order to assist some first-years with expanding their vocabularies

  20. Deepening Kindergarteners' Science Vocabulary: A Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Allison Ward; Bryant, Camille Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Early, effective instruction to introduce both science vocabulary and general academic language may help children build a strong conceptual and linguistic foundation for later instruction. In this study, a design research intervention was employed to expose children to a variety of interrelated science content words to increase both the breadth…

  1. Vocabulary Games: More than Just Wordplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzutti, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Games offer more than just fun and play, and the analyses suggest that varying vocabulary activities is important if learners are to practice all the aspects of word knowledge. However, despite all the evidence, just claiming that playing games is a good way to practice the language is often not enough to win the argument. Because author Nico…

  2. Improving new vocabulary learning in context

    OpenAIRE

    Colombia Ovalle María

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to help students increase their vocabulary learning in context because when learners participate in a special class with different activities and keep in mind the situation, they remember new words. The study was carried out in the action research method, and the activities provided to students encouraged learning and motivated them to practice English more.

  3. Novel Word Retention in Sequential Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Pui Fong

    2014-01-01

    Children's ability to learn and retain new words is fundamental to their vocabulary development. This study examined word retention in children learning a home language (L1) from birth and a second language (L2) in preschool settings. Participants were presented with sixteen novel words in L1 and in L2 and were tested for retention after…

  4. The Relationship between Morphological Awareness and Vocabulary Size of EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Omid; Yakhabi, Masumeh

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge of Iranian high school students. Nation's Vocabulary Level Test (VLT) was used to test students' knowledge of words drawn from the 2000, 3000 and 5000 most frequent occurring word families. Two morphological awareness tasks (a morpheme…

  5. Core vocabulary in the narratives of bilingual children with and without language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivabasappa, Prarthana; Peña, Elizabeth D; Bedore, Lisa M

    2017-09-22

    Children with primary language impairment (PLI) demonstrate deficits in morphosyntax and vocabulary. We studied how these deficits may manifest in the core vocabulary use of bilingual children with PLI. Thirty bilingual children with and without PLI who were matched pairwise (experimental group) narrated two Spanish and two English stories in kindergarten and first grade. Core vocabulary was derived from the 30 most frequently used words in the stories of 65 and 37 typically developing (TD) first graders (normative group) for Spanish and English, respectively. The number of words each child in the experimental group produced out of the 30 identified core vocabulary words and frequency of each of the core words produced each year were analysed. Children with PLI produced fewer core vocabulary words compared to their TD peers after controlling for total words produced. This difference was more pronounced in first grade. They produced core vocabulary words less frequently in kindergarten than their TD peers. Both groups produced core vocabulary words more frequently in English than Spanish. Bilingual children with PLI demonstrate a less productive core vocabulary use compared to their TD peers in both their languages illustrating the nature of their grammatical and lexical-semantic deficits.

  6. From Potential to Reality: Content-Rich Vocabulary and Informational Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Tanya S.

    2014-01-01

    Content vocabulary is essential for children's comprehension of informational text. Teachers will need to support children in developing the technical or specialized words they need for informational text and in linking these words to key concepts in content area instruction. This article describes the vocabulary instruction that was observed…

  7. Longer Term Effects of a Tier 2 Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention for English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadasy, Patricia F.; Nelson, J. Ron; Sanders, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the longer term effectiveness of a standard protocol, Tier 2 supplemental vocabulary intervention for kindergarten English learners, designed to develop root word vocabulary knowledge and reinforce beginning word reading skills. Participating students in the original study ("n" = 93 treatment, 92 control) received 20 weeks of…

  8. SECOND LANGUAGE VOCABULARY ASSESSMENT: CURRENT PRACTICES AND NEW DIRECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Read

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys some current developments in second language vocabulary assessment, with particular attention to the ways in which computer corpora can provide better quality information about the frequency of words and how they are used in specific contexts. The relative merits of different word lists are discussed, including the Academic Word List and frequency lists derived from the British National Corpus. Word frequency data is needed for measures of vocabulary size, such as the Yes/No format, which is being developed and used for a variety of purposes. The paper also reviews work on testing depth of knowledge of vocabulary, where rather less progress has been made, both in defining depth as a construct and in developing tests for practical use. Another important perspective is the use of vocabulary within particular contexts of use or registers, and recent corpus research is extending our understanding of the lexical features of academic registers. This provides a basis for assessing learners’ ability to deploy their vocabulary knowledge effectively for functional communication in specific academic contexts. It is concluded that, while current tests of vocabulary knowledge are valuable for certain purposes, they need to be complemented by more contextualised measures of vocabulary use.

  9. Content Area Textbooks as Sources for Vocabulary Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the potential of content area textbooks as a lexical environment for incidental vocabulary learning. The two questions proposed are how many rarely-used words content area textbooks contain within a particular number of words, and how different or similar the frequency of rarely-used words is in the linguistic studies and non-linguistic studies textbooks. This study concludes that content area textbooks contain a relatively high frequency of words within Nat3 and Nat4 levels. The high percentage of rarely-used words indicates that content area textbooks are rich sources for vocabulary learning. The findings also suggest that different kinds of textbooks in the content courses can be rich lexical environments for the study of second language vocabulary

  10. Fluency remediation in dyslexic children: does age make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tressoldi, Patrizio E; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Brenbati, Federica; Donini, Roberta

    2008-05-01

    This study tested the hypothesis whether older dyslexic children may obtain fewer gains on fluency and accuracy with respect to their younger peers after specific remediation.Changes in accuracy and fluency of a group of children with a diagnosis of dyslexia attending third and fourth grades were compared with those obtained by a group of children attending the sixth, seventh or eighth grade in two different treatments, one based on the Balance model (Bakker) and the second based on the automatization of syllable recognition (sublexical).Among all comparisons between the gains in accuracy and fluency obtained by the two groups, only the younger group in the sublexical treatment obtained a statistically significant gain with respect to their older peers' accuracy in reading words.These outcomes suggest that, at least for the chronological ages and types of treatments considered in this study, older children with dyslexia may obtain comparable gains to their younger peers, suggesting that 'it is never too late' to remediate reading fluency and accuracy.

  11. The Comparative Study on Korean and Modern Chinese Vocabulary---Taking Double Syllable Words of Chinese as a Center%朝鲜语汉字词与对应现代汉语词汇的对比研究--以双音节汉字词为中心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金霞

    2015-01-01

    朝鲜语与汉语属于不同的语系,但朝鲜语从中国汉语借用的汉字词却占词汇总数的半数以上。两国词汇在长期使用过程中,有一部分朝鲜语汉字词与对应汉语词汇保持了形和义的契合,但也有一些词汇在形和义上发生了不同程度的变化。根据两者形和义的对应性,可以将汉字词分为同形同义汉字词、同形异义汉字词和同义异形汉字词。从比较语言学的角度对其进行对比研究,不难发现朝鲜语汉字词与其对应的现代汉语词汇的异同是有规可循的。%Korean and Chinese belong to different language families,but the Korean han words borrowed from Chinese from China is more than half of the total number of words.Words between the two countries are in the process of long-term use.Some Korean han words with the corresponding Chinese vocabulary maintain the shape and fit,but there are some words on the shape and different degrees of changes have taken place.Ac-cording to the shape and the correspondence,han words can be divided into han and was largely YiHan words and spelling words and synonym alien words of Chinese.Carrying on the comparative study from the perspective of comparative linguistics,it is not difficult to find that there are rules about the similarities and differences be-tween the modern Chinese vocabulary.

  12. Fingerspelling as a Novel Gateway into Reading Fluency in Deaf Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Adam; Kartheiser, Geo; Hauser, Peter C.; Petitto, Laura-Ann; Allen, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that American Sign Language (ASL) fluency has a positive impact on deaf individuals’ English reading, but the cognitive and cross-linguistic mechanisms permitting the mapping of a visual-manual language onto a sound-based language have yet to be elucidated. Fingerspelling, which represents English orthography with 26 distinct hand configurations, is an integral part of ASL and has been suggested to provide deaf bilinguals with important cross-linguistic links between sign language and orthography. Using a hierarchical multiple regression analysis, this study examined the relationship of age of ASL exposure, ASL fluency, and fingerspelling skill on reading fluency in deaf college-age bilinguals. After controlling for ASL fluency, fingerspelling skill significantly predicted reading fluency, revealing for the first-time that fingerspelling, above and beyond ASL skills, contributes to reading fluency in deaf bilinguals. We suggest that both fingerspelling—in the visual-manual modality—and reading—in the visual-orthographic modality—are mutually facilitating because they share common underlying cognitive capacities of word decoding accuracy and automaticity of word recognition. The findings provide support for the hypothesis that the development of English reading proficiency may be facilitated through strengthening of the relationship among fingerspelling, sign language, and orthographic decoding en route to reading mastery, and may also reveal optimal approaches for reading instruction for deaf and hard of hearing children. PMID:26427062

  13. The disruptive effects of processing fluency on familiarity-based recognition in amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozubko, Jason D; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2014-02-01

    Amnesia leads to a deficit in recollection that leaves familiarity-based recognition relatively spared. Familiarity is thought to be based on the fluent processing of studied items compared to novel items. However, whether amnesic patients respond normally to direct manipulations of processing fluency is not yet known. In the current study, we manipulated processing fluency by preceding each test item with a semantically related or unrelated prime item, and measured both recollection and familiarity using a remember-know recognition procedure. In healthy controls, enhancing processing fluency increased familiarity-based recognition responses for both old and new words, leaving familiarity-based accuracy constant. However, in patients with MTL damage, enhancing fluency only increased familiarity-based recognition responses for new items, resulting in decreased familiarity-based recognition accuracy. Importantly, this fluency-related decrease in recognition accuracy was not due to overall lower levels of performance or impaired recollection of studied items because it was not observed in healthy subjects that studied words under conditions that lowered performance by reducing recollection. The results indicate that direct manipulations of processing fluency can disrupt familiarity-based discrimination in amnesia. Potential accounts of these findings are discussed.

  14. Fingerspelling as a Novel Gateway into Reading Fluency in Deaf Bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Adam; Kartheiser, Geo; Hauser, Peter C; Petitto, Laura-Ann; Allen, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that American Sign Language (ASL) fluency has a positive impact on deaf individuals' English reading, but the cognitive and cross-linguistic mechanisms permitting the mapping of a visual-manual language onto a sound-based language have yet to be elucidated. Fingerspelling, which represents English orthography with 26 distinct hand configurations, is an integral part of ASL and has been suggested to provide deaf bilinguals with important cross-linguistic links between sign language and orthography. Using a hierarchical multiple regression analysis, this study examined the relationship of age of ASL exposure, ASL fluency, and fingerspelling skill on reading fluency in deaf college-age bilinguals. After controlling for ASL fluency, fingerspelling skill significantly predicted reading fluency, revealing for the first-time that fingerspelling, above and beyond ASL skills, contributes to reading fluency in deaf bilinguals. We suggest that both fingerspelling--in the visual-manual modality--and reading--in the visual-orthographic modality--are mutually facilitating because they share common underlying cognitive capacities of word decoding accuracy and automaticity of word recognition. The findings provide support for the hypothesis that the development of English reading proficiency may be facilitated through strengthening of the relationship among fingerspelling, sign language, and orthographic decoding en route to reading mastery, and may also reveal optimal approaches for reading instruction for deaf and hard of hearing children.

  15. Fingerspelling as a Novel Gateway into Reading Fluency in Deaf Bilinguals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Stone

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that American Sign Language (ASL fluency has a positive impact on deaf individuals' English reading, but the cognitive and cross-linguistic mechanisms permitting the mapping of a visual-manual language onto a sound-based language have yet to be elucidated. Fingerspelling, which represents English orthography with 26 distinct hand configurations, is an integral part of ASL and has been suggested to provide deaf bilinguals with important cross-linguistic links between sign language and orthography. Using a hierarchical multiple regression analysis, this study examined the relationship of age of ASL exposure, ASL fluency, and fingerspelling skill on reading fluency in deaf college-age bilinguals. After controlling for ASL fluency, fingerspelling skill significantly predicted reading fluency, revealing for the first-time that fingerspelling, above and beyond ASL skills, contributes to reading fluency in deaf bilinguals. We suggest that both fingerspelling--in the visual-manual modality--and reading--in the visual-orthographic modality--are mutually facilitating because they share common underlying cognitive capacities of word decoding accuracy and automaticity of word recognition. The findings provide support for the hypothesis that the development of English reading proficiency may be facilitated through strengthening of the relationship among fingerspelling, sign language, and orthographic decoding en route to reading mastery, and may also reveal optimal approaches for reading instruction for deaf and hard of hearing children.

  16. Text (Oral) Reading Fluency as a Construct in Reading Development: An Investigation of Its Mediating Role for Children from Grades 1 to 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Wagner, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we investigated a developmentally changing role of text reading fluency in mediating the relations of word reading fluency and listening comprehension to reading comprehension. We addressed this question by using longitudinal data from Grades 1 to 4 and employing structural equation models. Results showed that the role of text…

  17. The Architecture of Intuition: Fluency and Affect Determine Intuitive Judgments of Semantic and Visual Coherence and Judgments of Grammaticality in Artificial Grammar Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolinski, Sascha; Strack, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    People can intuitively detect whether a word triad has a common remote associate (coherent) or does not have one (incoherent) before and independently of actually retrieving the common associate. The authors argue that semantic coherence increases the processing fluency for coherent triads and that this increased fluency triggers a brief and…

  18. Frequency of word occurrence in communication samples produced by adult communication aid users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukelman, D R; Yorkston, K M; Poblete, M; Naranjo, C

    1984-11-01

    Communication samples generated by five nonspeaking adults using Canon Communicators were collected for 14 consecutive days. Samples were analyzed to determine frequency of word occurrence. A core vocabulary of the 500 most frequently occurring words was analyzed further to determine spelling level and proportion of complete communication samples represented by subsets of the core vocabulary list. The 500 core vocabulary words represented 80% of the total words in the combined communication samples for the 5 subjects. Of all messages generated by the subjects, 33% could be communicated in their entirety using words from the core vocabulary list. The communication of the remaining messages required one or more words in addition to the core vocabulary. The spelling grade level of the words in the core vocabulary list did not exceed the seventh grade. The implications of the results for designing and customizing communication aids and for potential user training are discussed.

  19. Empirical Investigation of Word Callers Who Are English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Teague, Kerri; Vanderwood, Michael L.; Knight, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Oral reading fluency is frequently used in school settings to assess student reading skills, but it is somewhat commonly believed that some students can read words fluently while not comprehending (i.e., word callers). Previous studies examining the prevalence of word callers typically included native English speakers rather than English learners…

  20. Workplace in fluency management: factoring the workplace into fluency management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassar, M C; Neilson, M D

    1997-01-01

    This article addresses competency-based standards and guidelines for the involvement of speech-language pathologists in the workplace of clients who stutter. It advocates broadening customary practices in stuttering treatment and suggests that speech-language pathologists should extend their scope of service delivery to the workplace. It presents a sequence for the collaborative involvement of the employer and other workplace members and proposes strategies for evaluating workplace based fluency programs. Issues of fluency management, transfer, maintenance, and efficacy are discussed in the workplace context. Also addressed is workplace communication as well as such factors as stereotypes, discrimination, and resistance to change which may impinge on workplace intervention. It is argued that structured intervention, transfer, and generalization within a collaborative workplace framework facilitates best practice for the fluency clinician and more appropriate outcomes for the diversity of clients who stutter.

  1. Teaching English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝丹

    2014-01-01

    Grammar provides the overall patterns, and vocabulary is the material to put in the patterns. Without grammar we can convey a little, but without vocabulary we can convey nothing. Vocabulary teaching is an indispensable part of English curriculum. Art is a kind of creation. Teaching vocabulary artistically can make teachers and students build up created consciousness in teaching and learning vocabulary activities and teachers put their experience and emotions towards beauty into teaching activities to raise general vocabulary teaching activities to appreciation of beauty and creative activities, convert bitter into happy, tense into ease. Thus the non-intellectual factors like motive, interest, emotion, self-confidence and so on can be developed naturally and they will elaborate a great part in English vocabulary teaching. At the same time, the relationship between teachers and students can get improved fundamentally furthest and it pushes vocabulary teaching powerfully in turn.

  2. Spanish Multicenter Normative Studies (NEURONORMA Project): norms for verbal fluency tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Casanova, Jordi; Quiñones-Ubeda, Sonia; Gramunt-Fombuena, Nina; Quintana-Aparicio, María; Aguilar, Miquel; Badenes, Dolors; Cerulla, Noemí; Molinuevo, José Luis; Ruiz, Eva; Robles, Alfredo; Barquero, Maria Sagrario; Antúnez, Carmen; Martínez-Parra, Carlos; Frank-García, Anna; Fernández, Manuel; Alfonso, Verónica; Sol, Josep M; Blesa, Rafael

    2009-06-01

    Lexical fluency tests are frequently used in clinical practice to assess language and executive function. As part of the Spanish multicenter normative studies (NEURONORMA project), we provide age- and education-adjusted norms for three semantic fluency tasks (animals, fruit and vegetables, and kitchen tools), three formal lexical tasks (words beginning with P, M, and R), and three excluded letter fluency tasks (excluded A, E, and S). The sample consists of 346 participants who are cognitively normal, community dwelling, and ranging in age from 50 to 94 years. Tables are provided to convert raw scores to age-adjusted scaled scores. These were further converted into education-adjusted scaled scores by applying regression-based adjustments. The current norms should provide clinically useful data for evaluating elderly Spanish people. These data may also be of considerable use for comparisons with other international normative studies. Finally, these norms should help improve the interpretation of verbal fluency tasks and allow for greater diagnostic accuracy.

  3. Word Recognition Error Analysis: Comparing Isolated Word List and Oral Passage Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Lindsay J.; Hosp, John L.; Hosp, Michelle K.; Robbins, Kelly P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relation between word recognition errors made at a letter-sound pattern level on a word list and on a curriculum-based measurement oral reading fluency measure (CBM-ORF) for typical and struggling elementary readers. The participants were second, third, and fourth grade typical and struggling readers…

  4. What counts as effective input for word learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shneidman, Laura A; Arroyo, Michelle E; Levine, Susan C; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2013-06-01

    The talk children hear from their primary caregivers predicts the size of their vocabularies. But children who spend time with multiple individuals also hear talk that others direct to them, as well as talk not directed to them at all. We investigated the effect of linguistic input on vocabulary acquisition in children who routinely spent time with one vs. multiple individuals. For all children, the number of words primary caregivers directed to them at age 2 ; 6 predicted vocabulary size at age 3 ; 6. For children who spent time with multiple individuals, child-directed words from all household members also predicted later vocabulary and accounted for more variance in vocabulary than words from primary caregivers alone. Interestingly, overheard words added no predictive value to the model. These findings suggest that speech directed to children is important for early word learning, even in households where a sizable proportion of input comes from overheard speech.

  5. Rote Memorization of Vocabulary and Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weidong; Dai, Weiping

    2011-01-01

    Rote memorization of vocabulary has long been a common way for Chinese students to learn lexical items. Cultural, educational background and traditional teaching practice in China are identified to be the factors that contribute to many students' heavy reliance on memorization as their sole approach to vocabulary learning. In addition to rote…

  6. A Modern Perspective of Reading Fluency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何少娴

    2014-01-01

    Due to the many variations and interpretations of fluency this paper focus on a modern and multi-faceted definition of fluency. Together accuracy, automaticity, and prosody work as separate building blocks that come together to form the one body of reading fluency. Wide and repeated reading using performance has been proved to be effective as fluency instructions to motivate and encourage student reading progress.

  7. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development.

  8. The Acculturation in English vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严灵; 张华刚; 张凯

    2010-01-01

    The thesis is concerned with the acculturation in English words.More specifically,some consideration will be given to the why and how of learning culture.It will be demonstrated that learning a foreign language is not tantamount to giving a homily on syntactic structures or learning new vocabulary and expressions,but mainly incorporates,or should incorporate,some cultural elements,which are intertwined with language itself.The main premise of the paper is that apart from enhancing and enriching communicative competence,cultural competence can also lead to empathy and respect toward different cultures as well as promote objectivity and cultural perspicacity.

  9. Why Reading Fluency Should Be Hot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasinski, Timothy V.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores problems that have surfaced in the teaching of reading fluency and how teachers and reading coaches can resolve those problems. Specific issues addressed include reading fluency being defined as reading fast and instruction that is focused on having students read fast, reading fluency viewed as solely and oral reading…

  10. Measuring Vocabulary: An overview of four types of vocabulary tests

    OpenAIRE

    Helga Hilmarsdóttir 1985

    2010-01-01

    In this essay four types of vocabulary tests are examined and the focus is on the variety in vocabulary tests. The main incentive with writing this essay was to make an overview of vocabulary measurement tools and to examine whether there existed a standardized vocabulary test. In the first chapter an attempt is made to answer the question of what vocabulary knowledge is. Receptive and productive knowledge of vocabulary is discussed as well as the distinction of vocabulary into breadth and...

  11. Text-fading based training leads to transfer effects on children’s sentence reading fluency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telse eNagler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies used a text-fading procedure as a training tool with the goal to increase silent reading fluency (i.e., proficient reading rate and comprehension. In recently published studies, this procedure resulted in lasting reading enhancements for adult and adolescent research samples. However, studies working with children reported mixed results. While reading rate improvements were observable for Dutch reading children in a text-fading training study, reading fluency improvements in standardized reading tests post-training attributable to the fading manipulation were not detectable. These results raise the question of whether text-fading training is not effective for children or whether research design issues have concealed possible transfer effects. Hence, the present study sought to investigate possible transfer effects resulting from a text-fading based reading training program, using a modified research design. Over a period of three weeks, two groups of German third-graders read sentences either with an adaptive text-fading procedure or at their self-paced reading rate. A standardized test measuring reading fluency at the word, sentence, and text level was conducted pre- and post-training. Text level reading fluency improved for both groups equally. Post-training gains at the word level were found for the text-fading group, however, no significant interaction between groups was revealed for word reading fluency. Sentence level reading fluency gains were found for the text-fading group, which significantly differed from the group of children reading at their self-paced reading routine. These findings provide evidence for the efficacy of text-fading as a training method for sentence reading fluency improvement also for children.

  12. Facilitating vocabulary acquisition of young English language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo-Neris, Mirza J; Jackson, Carla Wood; Goldstein, Howard

    2010-07-01

    This study examined whether English-only vocabulary instruction or English vocabulary instruction enhanced with Spanish bridging produced greater word learning in young Spanish-speaking children learning English during a storybook reading intervention while considering individual language characteristics. Twenty-two Spanish-speaking children learning English (ages 4-6) who participated in a summer education program for migrant families were randomly assigned to receive 2 weeks of each instruction: (a) word expansions in English or (b) English readings with word expansions in Spanish. Researcher-created measures of target vocabulary were administered, as were English and Spanish standardized measures of language proficiency and vocabulary. Results revealed significant improvement in naming, receptive knowledge, and expressive definitions for those children who received Spanish bridging. Spanish expansions produced the greatest gains in the children's use of expressive definitions. Initial language proficiency in both languages was found to affect participants' gains from intervention, as those with limited skills in both languages showed significantly less vocabulary growth than those with strong skills in Spanish. Additional benefits to using Spanish expansions in vocabulary instruction were observed. Future research should explore additional ways of enhancing the vocabulary growth of children with limited skills in both languages in order to support and strengthen the child's first language and promote second language acquisition.

  13. What Is Most Important to Know about Vocabulary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucan, Linda

    2012-01-01

    This article makes use of Perfetti's Lexical Quality Hypothesis as a perspective for thinking about vocabulary instruction in terms of semantics (meaning), phonology (pronunciation), orthography (spelling), morphology (meaningful word parts), and syntax (how words function in sentences). Examples are presented of how these aspects of vocabulary…

  14. What Is Most Important to Know about Vocabulary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucan, Linda

    2012-01-01

    This article makes use of Perfetti's Lexical Quality Hypothesis as a perspective for thinking about vocabulary instruction in terms of semantics (meaning), phonology (pronunciation), orthography (spelling), morphology (meaningful word parts), and syntax (how words function in sentences). Examples are presented of how these aspects of vocabulary…

  15. Building English Language Learners' Academic Vocabulary: Strategies and Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibold, Claire

    2011-01-01

    According to Beck, McKeown, and Kucan's Three Tier Model (2002), when it comes to language instruction the distinction between academic vocabulary words and content specific words has a significant bearing on the language success of English language learners (ELLs). In this article, the author describes strategies that give teachers and parents…

  16. Vocabulary Acquisition Strategies of Indonesian Postgraduate Students through Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subekti, Nanang Bagus; Lawson, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The ways that students learn new words when studying a foreign language is not well understood. Research in this field has commonly investigated the effectiveness of the application of certain vocabulary learning strategies. Relatively few of the studies have investigated the strategies that students use to learn new words. This paper reports the…

  17. Vocabulary Materials and Study Strategies at Advanced Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a quasi-experimental study of the effect of different vocabulary study materials and strategies used by upper-intermediate English as a foreign language students in higher education. Students were assigned a selection of 163 words from the Academic Word List and were provided with different types of study materials. They were…

  18. Selecting Level-Specific Specialized Vocabulary Using Statistical Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chujo, Kiyomi; Utiyama, Masao

    2006-01-01

    To find an easy-to-use, automated tool to identify technical vocabulary applicable to learners at various levels, nine statistical measures were applied to the 7.3-million-word "commerce and finance" component of the British National Corpus. The resulting word lists showed that each statistical measure extracted a different level of specialized…

  19. The Latin-Greek Connection: Building Vocabulary through Morphological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasinski, Timothy V.; Padak, Nancy; Newton, Joanna; Newton, Evangeline

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors make a case for teaching vocabulary in the elementary grades through a focus on the morphological structure of words, in particular English words that are derived through Latin and Greek roots and affixes. The authors present a set of engaging instructional ideas for the use of Latin and Greek derivations to teach…

  20. Beginning Word Recognition: Benefits of Training by Segmentation and Whole Word Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Betty Ann; Lysynchuk, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Compares effectiveness of four different methods for acquiring initial reading vocabulary--onset plus vowel, rimes, phoneme segmentation and blending, and simple repetition of whole words. Finds that beginning nonreaders acquired the trained words fastest in the onset and rime conditions, and most slowly in the whole word condition. Finds the same…

  1. The Way of Improving the Efficiency of Teaching and Learning Vocabu-lary in College English Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐艳举

    2013-01-01

      Teaching vocabulary plays an essential role in English class. How to improve the efficiency of teaching and learning vo⁃cabulary has attracted much attention. This paper tries to analyse the importance of vocabulary and the problems of teaching and learning vocabulary. The author will give the corresponding strategies from the point of involvements of knowing a word.

  2. Sagacious, Sophisticated, and Sedulous: The Importance of Discussing 50-Cent Words with Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Molly F.

    2012-01-01

    Adults often use simple words instead of complex words when talking to young children. Reasons vary from teachers' beliefs that young children cannot understand sophisticated vocabulary because they are too young or have limited language skills, to teachers' unfamiliarity with complex words or with strategies for supporting vocabulary. As a…

  3. Vocabulary Learning through Assisted and Unassisted Repeated Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stuart; Chang, Anna C-S.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research investigating the effects of unassisted and assisted repeated reading has primarily focused on how each approach may contribute to improvement in reading comprehension and fluency. Incidental learning of the form and meaning of unknown or partially known words encountered through assisted and unassisted repeated reading has yet…

  4. Core vocabulary of young children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckers, Stijn R J M; Van Zaalen, Yvonne; Van Balkom, Hans; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a core vocabulary list for young children with intellectual disabilities between 2 and 7 years of age because data from this population are lacking in core vocabulary literature. Children with Down syndrome are considered one of the most valid reference groups for researching developmental patterns in children with intellectual disabilities; therefore, spontaneous language samples of 30 Dutch children with Down syndrome were collected during three different activities with multiple communication partners (free play with parents, lunch- or snack-time at home or at school, and speech therapy sessions). Of these children, 19 used multimodal communication, primarily manual signs and speech. Functional word use in both modalities was transcribed. The 50 most frequently used core words accounted for 67.2% of total word use; 16 words comprised core vocabulary, based on commonality. These data are consistent with similar studies related to the core vocabularies of preschoolers and toddlers with typical development, although the number of nouns present on the core vocabulary list was higher for the children in the present study. This finding can be explained by manual sign use of the children with Down syndrome and is reflective of their expressive vocabulary ages.

  5. Fluency in native and nonnative English speech

    CERN Document Server

    Götz, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    This book takes a new and holistic approach to fluency in English speech and differentiates between productive, perceptive, and nonverbal fluency. The in-depth corpus-based description of productive fluency points out major differences of how fluency is established in native and nonnative speech. It also reveals areas in which even highly advanced learners of English still deviate strongly from the native target norm and in which they have already approximated to it. Based on these findings, selected learners are subjected to native speakers' ratings of seven perceptive fluency variables in or

  6. An Investigation of Word Frequency in Mathematical Word Problems in Basal Mathematics Textbooks, Grades One Through Eight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchyshyn, Robert; Enright, Brian

    This research project was initiated to examine the vocabulary load contained in word problems appearing in basal mathematics textbooks through a study of word frequency. Five leading basal mathematics series were used. Every word, phrase or sentence that resulted in computation was included. A total of 476,674 words were identified. Information…

  7. Verbal fluency as a prefrontal activation probe: a validation study using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audenaert, K. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital (Belgium); Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Ghent University Hospital and Ghent University (Belgium); Brans, B.; Laere, K. van; Versijpt, J.; Dierckx, R. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital (Belgium); Lahorte, P. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital (Belgium); Laboratory of Subatomic and Radiation Physics, Ghent University (Belgium); Heeringen, K. van [Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Ghent University Hospital and Ghent University (Belgium)

    2000-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) in the letter and category fluency paradigm of the Controlled Oral Word Association (COWA) test in healthy volunteers. Two groups each comprising ten right-handed healthy volunteers were injected twice with 370 MBq technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer following a split-dose paradigm (resting and activation condition). Statistical parametric mapping (SPM96) was used to determine voxelwise significant changes. The letter fluency and the category fluency activation paradigm had a differential brain activation pattern. The posterior part of the left inferior prefrontal cortex (LIPC) was activated in both paradigms, with the category fluency task having an extra activation in the anterior LIPC. In the category fluency task, but not the letter fluency task, an activation in the right inferior prefrontal cortex was found. These findings confirm to a large extent the results of previous functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography studies in semantic and phonological activation paradigms. The choice and validity of various methodological characteristics of the experimental design leading to these results are critically discussed. It is concluded that brain SPET activation with the letter fluency and category fluency paradigm under standard neuropsychological conditions in healthy volunteers is both technically and practically feasible. (orig.)

  8. Exploring the Subjective Feeling of Fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Michael; Leder, Helmut; Ansorge, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    According to the processing fluency theory, higher ease of processing a stimulus leads to higher feelings of fluency and more positive evaluations. However, it is unclear whether feelings of fluency are positive or an unspecific activation and whether feelings of fluency are directly attributed to the stimulus even without much positive feelings. In two experiments, we tested how variations in the ease of processing influenced feelings of fluency and affect, in terms of evaluations (Exp. 1) and physiological responses (Exp. 2). Higher feelings of fluency were associated with more positive stimulus ratings and did not affect stimulus arousal ratings, but perceivers' feelings showed higher felt arousal ratings and left felt valence ratings unaffected. Physiological indices only showed small effects of a subtle positive reaction. These findings show that feelings of fluency can be sources of positive object evaluations, but do not affect one's own positive feelings.

  9. Intact lexicon running slowly--prolonged response latencies in patients with subthalamic DBS and verbal fluency deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlen, Felicitas; Krugel, Lea K; Vonberg, Isabelle; Schoenecker, Thomas; Kühn, Andrea A; Klostermann, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    Verbal Fluency is reduced in patients with Parkinson's disease, particularly if treated with deep brain stimulation. This deficit could arise from general factors, such as reduced working speed or from dysfunctions in specific lexical domains. To test whether DBS-associated Verbal Fluency deficits are accompanied by changed dynamics of word processing. 21 Parkinson's disease patients with and 26 without deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus as well as 19 healthy controls participated in the study. They engaged in Verbal Fluency and (primed) Lexical Decision Tasks, testing phonemic and semantic word production and processing time. Most patients performed the experiments twice, ON and OFF stimulation or, respectively, dopaminergic drugs. Patients generally produced abnormally few words in the Verbal Fluency Task. This deficit was more severe in patients with deep brain stimulation who additionally showed prolonged response latencies in the Lexical Decision Task. Slowing was independent of semantic and phonemic word priming. No significant changes of performance accuracy were obtained. The results were independent from the treatment ON or OFF conditions. Low word production in patients with deep brain stimulation was accompanied by prolonged latencies for lexical decisions. No indication was found that the latter slowing was due to specific lexical dysfunctions, so that it probably reflects a general reduction of cognitive working speed, also evident on the level of Verbal Fluency. The described abnormalities seem to reflect subtle sequelae of the surgical procedure for deep brain stimulation rather than of the proper neurostimulation.

  10. Early lexical development in German: a study on vocabulary growth and vocabulary composition during the second and third year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauschke, Christina; Hofmeister, Christoph

    2002-11-01

    This paper focuses on aspects of early lexical acquisition in German. There have been conflicting results in the literature concerning both the pattern of vocabulary growth and the composition of the early lexicon. Our study describes the development of various categories of words and questions the preponderance of nouns in spontaneous speech. 32 children were studied longitudinally through recordings made at age 1;1, 1;3, 1;9 and 3;0. The following properties of the data were investigated: vocabulary size in relation to age, frequency of word use, and distribution of word categories. The results show that use of both types and tokens increases with time. A trend analysis indicates an exponential increase in vocabulary production in the second year, followed by a further expansion. This vocabulary spurt-like pattern can be observed in the use of word types and tokens. The findings in regard to vocabulary composition illustrate the dynamics present in the development of word categories. In the beginning, children use mostly relational words, personal-social words and some onomatopoeic terms. These categories are gradually complemented with nouns, verbs, function words and other words so that we see a balanced lexicon by 3;0. Trend analyses clarify characteristic developmental patterns in regard to certain word categories. Our spontaneous speech data does not support a strong noun-bias hypothesis.

  11. Shared and distinct anatomical correlates of semantic and phonemic fluency revealed by lesion-symptom mapping in patients with ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesbroek, J Matthijs; van Zandvoort, Martine J E; Kappelle, L Jaap; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Biessels, Geert Jan; Postma, Albert

    2016-05-01

    Semantic and phonemic fluency tasks are frequently used to test executive functioning, speed and attention, and access to the mental lexicon. In semantic fluency tasks, subjects are required to generate words belonging to a category (e.g., animals) within a limited time window, whereas in phonemic fluency tasks subjects have to generate words starting with a given letter. Anatomical correlates of semantic and phonemic fluency are currently assumed to overlap in left frontal structures, reflecting shared executive processes, and to be distinct in left temporal and right frontal structures, reflecting involvement of distinct memory processes and search strategies. Definite evidence for this assumption is lacking. To further establish the anatomical correlates of semantic and phonemic fluency, we applied assumption-free voxel-based and region-of-interest-based lesion-symptom mapping in 93 patients with ischemic stroke. Fluency was assessed by asking patients to name animals (semantic), and words starting with the letter N and A (phonemic). Our findings indicate that anatomical correlates of semantic and phonemic fluency overlap in the left inferior frontal gyrus and insula, reflecting shared underlying cognitive processes. Phonemic fluency additionally draws on the left rolandic operculum, which might reflect a search through phonological memory, and the middle frontal gyrus. Semantic fluency additionally draws on left medial temporal regions, probably reflecting a search through semantic memory, and the right inferior frontal gyrus, which might reflect the application of a visuospatial mental imagery strategy in semantic fluency. These findings establish shared and distinct anatomical correlates of semantic and phonemic fluency.

  12. An Analysis on Teaching College English Vocabulary-From an Etymo-logical Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘菊

    2014-01-01

    Language and culture have influenced each other. They cannot be separated as isolated one. Culture finds a better rep-resentation through language use. Language is an indispensible carrier of culture. Many words have their origins in religion, my-thology stories and literary works. Looking at English vocabulary from an etymological perspective is a good way to go in teach-ing college English vocabulary. This paper gives a brief introduction about the characteristics of English vocabulary and some ad-vantages of teaching vocabulary from an etymological perspective, also, suggestions in using etymological perspective to teach col-lege English vocabulary.

  13. Phonemic verbal fluency and severity of anxiety disorders in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudineia Toazza

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Previous studies have implicated impaired verbal fluency as being associated with anxiety disorders in adolescents. Objectives: To replicate and extend previously reported evidence by investigating whether performance in phonemic verbal fluency tasks is related to severity of anxiety symptoms in young children with anxiety disorders. We also aim to investigate whether putative associations are independent from co-occurring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD symptoms. Methods: Sixty children (6-12 years old with primary diagnoses of anxiety disorders participated in this study. Severity of symptoms was measured using clinician-based, parent-rated and self-rated validated scales. Verbal fluency was assessed using a simple task that measures the number of words evoked in 1-minute with the letter F, from which we quantified the number of isolated words, number of clusters (groups of similar words and number of switches (transitions between clusters and/or between isolated words. Results: There was a significant association between the number of clusters and anxiety scores. Further analysis revealed associations were independent from co-occurring ADHD symptoms. Conclusion: We replicate and extend previous findings showing that verbal fluency is consistently associated with severity in anxiety disorders in children. Further studies should explore the potential effect of cognitive training on symptoms of anxiety disorders.

  14. Reading Pathways: Simple Exercises to Improve Reading Fluency. 5th Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiskes, Dolores G.

    2007-01-01

    This book offers an easy-to-use, effective approach to teaching reading accuracy and fluency to students of all ages, using a pyramid format. Reading pyramids begin with one word, and build into phrases and sentences of gradually increasing complexity. As the student moves from the pinnacle to the base of each pyramid, the phrase or sentence…

  15. The Relationship between Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension in Fifth-Grade Turkish Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Mustafa; Yildirim, Kasim; Ates, Seyit; Rasinski, Timothy; Fitzgerald, Shawn; Zimmerman, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    This research study focused on the relationships among the various components of reading fluency components (word recognition accuracy, automaticity, and prosody), as well as their relationships with reading comprehension among fifth-grade students in Turkey. A total of 119 fifth-grade elementary school students participated in the study. The…

  16. The Relationship between Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension in Fifth-Grade Turkish Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Mustafa; Yildirim, Kasim; Ates, Seyit; Rasinski, Timothy; Fitzgerald, Shawn; Zimmerman, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    This research study focused on the relationships among the various components of reading fluency components (word recognition accuracy, automaticity, and prosody), as well as their relationships with reading comprehension among fifth-grade students in Turkey. A total of 119 fifth-grade elementary school students participated in the study. The…

  17. Biological Dialogues: How to Teach Your Students to Learn Fluency in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, S. Randolph; Cook, David L.; May, Marilyn K.

    2013-01-01

    Biology courses have thousands of words to learn in order to intelligently discuss the subject and take tests over the material. Biological fluency is an important goal for students, and practical methods based on constructivist pedagogies can be employed to promote it. We present a method in which pairs of students write dialogues from…

  18. Vocabulary Intervention for School-age Children with Language Impairment: A Review of Evidence and Good Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Sara C; Mills, Monique T

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence to support direct vocabulary intervention practices for primary school-age children with language impairment (LI). A rationale for providing direct vocabulary intervention for children with LI is outlined by reviewing typical and atypical vocabulary acquisition, evidence of instructional strategies from research in mainstream and special education is summarised, and suggestions for vocabulary intervention activities that facilitate deep word knowledge are provided. Suggestions for choosing appropriate vocabulary, using strategies during direct intervention, and conducting activities that increase depth of vocabulary knowledge are included.

  19. Lexical access and vocabulary development in very young bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Bialystok, Ellen; Blaye, Agnes; Polonia, Alexandra; Yott, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This study compares lexical access and expressive and receptive vocabulary development in monolingual and bilingual toddlers. More specifically, the link between vocabulary size, production of translation equivalents, and lexical access in bilingual infants was examined as well as the relationship between the Communicative Development Inventories and the Computerized Comprehension Task. Twenty-five bilingual and 18 monolingual infants aged 24 months participated in this study. The results revealed significant differences between monolingual and bilinguals’ expressive vocabulary size in L1 but similar total vocabularies. Performance on the Computerized Comprehension Task revealed no differences between the two groups on measures of both reaction time and accuracy, and a strong convergent validity of the Computerized Comprehension Task with the Communicative Development Inventories was observed for both groups. Bilinguals with a higher proportion of translation equivalents in their expressive vocabulary showed faster access to words in the Computerized Comprehension Task. PMID:24761135

  20. Lexical access and vocabulary development in very young bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Bialystok, Ellen; Blaye, Agnes; Polonia, Alexandra; Yott, Jessica

    2013-02-01

    This study compares lexical access and expressive and receptive vocabulary development in monolingual and bilingual toddlers. More specifically, the link between vocabulary size, production of translation equivalents, and lexical access in bilingual infants was examined as well as the relationship between the Communicative Development Inventories and the Computerized Comprehension Task. Twenty-five bilingual and 18 monolingual infants aged 24 months participated in this study. The results revealed significant differences between monolingual and bilinguals' expressive vocabulary size in L1 but similar total vocabularies. Performance on the Computerized Comprehension Task revealed no differences between the two groups on measures of both reaction time and accuracy, and a strong convergent validity of the Computerized Comprehension Task with the Communicative Development Inventories was observed for both groups. Bilinguals with a higher proportion of translation equivalents in their expressive vocabulary showed faster access to words in the Computerized Comprehension Task.