WorldWideScience

Sample records for vocabulary development participated

  1. Developing Mathematical Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Eula Ewing; Orme, Michelle P.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of mathematical vocabulary, difficulties students encounter in learning this vocabulary, and some instructional strategies. Two general methods for teaching vocabulary are discussed: context and explicit vocabulary instruction. The methods are summarized as they apply to mathematical vocabulary instruction and…

  2. Rote Memorization of Vocabulary and Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weidong; Dai, Weiping

    2011-01-01

    Rote memorization of vocabulary has long been a common way for Chinese students to learn lexical items. Cultural, educational background and traditional teaching practice in China are identified to be the factors that contribute to many students' heavy reliance on memorization as their sole approach to vocabulary learning. In addition to rote…

  3. Using the Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy plus to Develop University EFL Students' Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodary, Manal Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to examine the effectiveness of using the Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy Plus (VSSPlus) on developing university EFL students' vocabulary learning. It adopted the quasi experimental design which included two groups design. The participants were first level students at Languages and Translation Department, Arar…

  4. Teachers’ Vocabulary Developing Educational Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lea

    From a perspective of teachers’ continuing professional development (CPD) this paper considers the importance of the influence of teachers’ vocabulary in relation to their understanding and development of teaching practices. As the teacher spends most of her/his career teaching inside the classroom...... educational systems, teacher agency is an important issue. If teacher agencyis understood as the teachers’ active contribution to shaping their work and its conditions – for the overall quality of education (Biesta et al. 2015) then there may be a case for focusing on the development of teacher’s vocabulary...... interview techniqu, 2007) to examine the teachers’ ‘practical reasoning’, to develop (elicitation and reconstruction) a ‘practical argument’ (following: Fenstermacher & Richardson 1993), which points to a process of five premises. In the data collecting and in the analysis of the teachers’ vocabulary...

  5. Early vocabulary development in children with bilateral cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välimaa, Taina; Kunnari, Sari; Laukkanen-Nevala, Päivi; Lonka, Eila

    2017-06-16

    Children with unilateral cochlear implants (CIs) may have delayed vocabulary development for an extended period after implantation. Bilateral cochlear implantation is reported to be associated with improved sound localization and enhanced speech perception in noise. This study proposed that bilateral implantation might also promote early vocabulary development. Knowledge regarding vocabulary growth and composition in children with bilateral CIs and factors associated with it may lead to improvements in the content of early speech and language intervention and family counselling. To analyse the growth of early vocabulary and its composition during the first year after CI activation and to investigate factors associated with vocabulary growth. The participants were 20 children with bilateral CIs (12 boys; eight girls; mean age at CI activation = 12.9 months). Vocabulary size was assessed with the Finnish version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) Infant Form and compared with normative data. Vocabulary composition was analysed in relation to vocabulary size. Growth curve modelling was implemented using a linear mixed model to analyse the effects of the following variables on early vocabulary growth: time, gender, maternal education, residual hearing with hearing aids, age at first hearing aid fitting and age at CI activation. Despite clear vocabulary growth over time, children with bilateral CIs lagged behind their age norms in receptive vocabulary during the first 12 months after CI activation. In expressive vocabulary, 35% of the children were able to catch up with their age norms, but 55% of the children lagged behind them. In receptive and expressive vocabularies of 1-20 words, analysis of different semantic categories indicated that social terms constituted the highest proportion. Nouns constituted the highest proportion in vocabularies of 101-400 words. The proportion of verbs remained below 20% and the proportion of function words and

  6. How to develop vocabulary learning strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董振

    2010-01-01

    @@ Due to limited class time,students will not be able to learn all the vocabulary simply from class teaching.Thus we need to help students develop items vocabulary learning strategies so that they can effectively acquire more vocabulary on their own,especially outside the class.Below are some strategies.

  7. Lexical access and vocabulary development in very young bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Bialystok, Ellen; Blaye, Agnes; Polonia, Alexandra; Yott, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This study compares lexical access and expressive and receptive vocabulary development in monolingual and bilingual toddlers. More specifically, the link between vocabulary size, production of translation equivalents, and lexical access in bilingual infants was examined as well as the relationship between the Communicative Development Inventories and the Computerized Comprehension Task. Twenty-five bilingual and 18 monolingual infants aged 24 months participated in this study. The results revealed significant differences between monolingual and bilinguals’ expressive vocabulary size in L1 but similar total vocabularies. Performance on the Computerized Comprehension Task revealed no differences between the two groups on measures of both reaction time and accuracy, and a strong convergent validity of the Computerized Comprehension Task with the Communicative Development Inventories was observed for both groups. Bilinguals with a higher proportion of translation equivalents in their expressive vocabulary showed faster access to words in the Computerized Comprehension Task. PMID:24761135

  8. Lexical access and vocabulary development in very young bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Bialystok, Ellen; Blaye, Agnes; Polonia, Alexandra; Yott, Jessica

    2013-02-01

    This study compares lexical access and expressive and receptive vocabulary development in monolingual and bilingual toddlers. More specifically, the link between vocabulary size, production of translation equivalents, and lexical access in bilingual infants was examined as well as the relationship between the Communicative Development Inventories and the Computerized Comprehension Task. Twenty-five bilingual and 18 monolingual infants aged 24 months participated in this study. The results revealed significant differences between monolingual and bilinguals' expressive vocabulary size in L1 but similar total vocabularies. Performance on the Computerized Comprehension Task revealed no differences between the two groups on measures of both reaction time and accuracy, and a strong convergent validity of the Computerized Comprehension Task with the Communicative Development Inventories was observed for both groups. Bilinguals with a higher proportion of translation equivalents in their expressive vocabulary showed faster access to words in the Computerized Comprehension Task.

  9. Vocabulary Development of Junior Teens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Nikonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the communicative competence formation of young adolescents in the secondary school at the Russian language lessons. The author maintains that the key element of the above problem is the vocabulary development guaranteeing both comprehension and verbal expression formation – oral and written. The theoretical part of the research explores different word functions: nominal, communicative, text generating and semantic. The correlation between the mental development level and lexical semantic system formation is emphasized. The age specific features of junior teens are listed: rising interest to various life spheres and activi- ties, capability of formulating opinions and judgments, self-awareness, formation of values. The relationship complexity stimulates vocabulary development of 10 to 12 year-old children; however, the process requires peda- gogical facilitation.The monitoring of speech development proves the necessity of commutative competence formation of the fifth- and sixth-year pupils. The paper presents the model of communicative competence development and its approbation results received for the junior adolescents. 

  10. Vocabulary Development of Junior Teens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Nikonova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the communicative competence formation of young adolescents in the secondary school at the Russian language lessons. The author maintains that the key element of the above problem is the vocabulary development guaranteeing both comprehension and verbal expression formation – oral and written. The theoretical part of the research explores different word functions: nominal, communicative, text generating and semantic. The correlation between the mental development level and lexical semantic system formation is emphasized. The age specific features of junior teens are listed: rising interest to various life spheres and activi- ties, capability of formulating opinions and judgments, self-awareness, formation of values. The relationship complexity stimulates vocabulary development of 10 to 12 year-old children; however, the process requires peda- gogical facilitation.The monitoring of speech development proves the necessity of commutative competence formation of the fifth- and sixth-year pupils. The paper presents the model of communicative competence development and its approbation results received for the junior adolescents. 

  11. Vocabulary Development in Greek Children: A Cross-Linguistic Comparison Using the Language Development Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaeliou, Christina F.; Rescorla, Leslie A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated vocabulary size and vocabulary composition in Greek children aged 1 ; 6 to 2 ; 11 using a Greek adaptation of Rescorla's Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989). Participants were 273 toddlers coming from monolingual Greek-speaking families. Greek LDS data were compared with US LDS data obtained from the…

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Receptive Vocabulary Breadth Knowledge Growth and Vocabulary Fluency Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2014-01-01

    This article reports results of a longitudinal study of vocabulary breadth knowledge growth, vocabulary fluency development, and the relationship between the two. We administered two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT; Nation 1983; Nation 1990; Schmitt et al. 2001) to 300 students at a Chinese university at three different time points…

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Receptive Vocabulary Breadth Knowledge Growth and Vocabulary Fluency Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2014-01-01

    This article reports results of a longitudinal study of vocabulary breadth knowledge growth, vocabulary fluency development, and the relationship between the two. We administered two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT; Nation 1983; Nation 1990; Schmitt et al. 2001) to 300 students at a Chinese university at three different time points…

  14. Water Quality Vocabulary Development and Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, B. A.; Yu, J.; Cox, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Semantic descriptions of observed properties and associated units of measure are fundamental to understanding of environmental observations, including groundwater, surface water and marine water quality. Semantic descriptions can be captured in machine-readable ontologies and vocabularies, thus providing support for the annotation of observation values from the disparate data sources with appropriate and accurate metadata, which is critical for achieving semantic interoperability. However, current stand-alone water quality vocabularies provide limited support for cross-system comparisons or data fusion. To enhance semantic interoperability, the alignment of water-quality properties with definitions of chemical entities and units of measure in existing widely-used vocabularies is required. Modern ontologies and vocabularies are expressed, organized and deployed using Semantic Web technologies. We developed an ontology for observed properties (i.e. a model for expressing appropriate controlled vocabularies) which extends the NASA/TopQuadrant QUDT ontology for Unit and QuantityKind with two additional classes and two properties (see accompanying paper by Cox, Simons and Yu). We use our ontology to populate the Water Quality vocabulary with a set of individuals of each of the four key classes (and their subclasses), and add appropriate relationships between these individuals. This ontology is aligned with other relevant stand-alone Water Quality vocabularies and domain ontologies. Developing the Water Quality vocabulary involved two main steps. First, the Water Quality vocabulary was populated with individuals of the ObservedProperty class, which was determined from a census of existing datasets and services. Each ObservedProperty individual relates to other individuals of Unit and QuantityKind (taken from QUDT where possible), and to IdentifiedObject individuals. As a large fraction of observed water quality data are classified by the chemical substance involved, the

  15. Controlled Vocabularies Boost International Participation and Normalization of Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lola M.

    2006-01-01

    The Global Change Master Directory's (GCMD) science staff set out to document Earth science data and provide a mechanism for it's discovery in fulfillment of a commitment to NASA's Earth Science progam and to the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites' (CEOS) International Directory Network (IDN.) At the time, whether to offer a controlled vocabulary search or a free-text search was resolved with a decision to support both. The feedback from the user community indicated that being asked to independently determine the appropriate 'English" words through a free-text search would be very difficult. The preference was to be 'prompted' for relevant keywords through the use of a hierarchy of well-designed science keywords. The controlled keywords serve to 'normalize' the search through knowledgeable input by metadata providers. Earth science keyword taxonomies were developed, rules for additions, deletions, and modifications were created. Secondary sets of controlled vocabularies for related descriptors such as projects, data centers, instruments, platforms, related data set link types, and locations, along with free-text searches assist users in further refining their search results. Through this robust 'search and refine' capability in the GCMD users are directed to the data and services they seek. The next step in guiding users more directly to the resources they desire is to build a 'reasoning' capability for search through the use of ontologies. Incorporating twelve sets of Earth science keyword taxonomies has boosted the GCMD S ability to help users define and more directly retrieve data of choice.

  16. Inquiry experiences and the development of science vocabulary and concepts with English language learners (ELLs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Tammy Deneene

    The primary objective of this project was to analyze the change in use of academic science vocabulary and conceptual understanding of erosion by the ELLs participating in the Math, Science and Language (MSL) camp conducted in 2008. The researcher examined archival data in the form of student journals collected during the MSL camp of 2008. Current assessments are not developed to assess both vocabulary development and conceptual understanding. The researcher developed a new assessment tool named JASTO that allowed assessment of both vocabulary and conceptual understanding parallel to one another. JASTO was used to analyze the science journals of the MSL camp of 2008. Data indicate an increase in conceptual understanding of the erosion topic. Some students expressed their understanding using everyday vocabulary and others using academic vocabulary. The type of vocabulary usage was dependent on the English language proficiency of the student.

  17. Vocabulary Growth and Reading Development across the Elementary School Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van; Vermeer, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    The associations between vocabulary growth and reading development were examined longitudinally for a representative sample of Dutch children throughout the elementary school period. Data on basic and advanced vocabulary, word decoding, and reading comprehension were collected across the different

  18. Vocabulary Growth and Reading Development across the Elementary School Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van; Vermeer, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    The associations between vocabulary growth and reading development were examined longitudinally for a representative sample of Dutch children throughout the elementary school period. Data on basic and advanced vocabulary, word decoding, and reading comprehension were collected across the different g

  19. Vocabulary Knowledge Predicts Lexical Processing: Evidence from a Group of Participants with Diverse Educational Backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Mainz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary knowledge is central to a speaker's command of their language. In previous research, greater vocabulary knowledge has been associated with advantages in language processing. In this study, we examined the relationship between individual differences in vocabulary and language processing performance more closely by (i using a battery of vocabulary tests instead of just one test, and (ii testing not only university students (Experiment 1 but young adults from a broader range of educational backgrounds (Experiment 2. Five vocabulary tests were developed, including multiple-choice and open antonym and synonym tests and a definition test, and administered together with two established measures of vocabulary. Language processing performance was measured using a lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, vocabulary and word frequency were found to predict word recognition speed while we did not observe an interaction between the effects. In Experiment 2, word recognition performance was predicted by word frequency and the interaction between word frequency and vocabulary, with high-vocabulary individuals showing smaller frequency effects. While overall the individual vocabulary tests were correlated and showed similar relationships with language processing as compared to a composite measure of all tests, they appeared to share less variance in Experiment 2 than in Experiment 1. Implications of our findings concerning the assessment of vocabulary size in individual differences studies and the investigation of individuals from more varied backgrounds are discussed.

  20. Vocabulary Knowledge Predicts Lexical Processing: Evidence from a Group of Participants with Diverse Educational Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainz, Nina; Shao, Zeshu; Brysbaert, Marc; Meyer, Antje S

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is central to a speaker's command of their language. In previous research, greater vocabulary knowledge has been associated with advantages in language processing. In this study, we examined the relationship between individual differences in vocabulary and language processing performance more closely by (i) using a battery of vocabulary tests instead of just one test, and (ii) testing not only university students (Experiment 1) but young adults from a broader range of educational backgrounds (Experiment 2). Five vocabulary tests were developed, including multiple-choice and open antonym and synonym tests and a definition test, and administered together with two established measures of vocabulary. Language processing performance was measured using a lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, vocabulary and word frequency were found to predict word recognition speed while we did not observe an interaction between the effects. In Experiment 2, word recognition performance was predicted by word frequency and the interaction between word frequency and vocabulary, with high-vocabulary individuals showing smaller frequency effects. While overall the individual vocabulary tests were correlated and showed similar relationships with language processing as compared to a composite measure of all tests, they appeared to share less variance in Experiment 2 than in Experiment 1. Implications of our findings concerning the assessment of vocabulary size in individual differences studies and the investigation of individuals from more varied backgrounds are discussed.

  1. Children's Vocabulary Development : The role of parental input, vocabulary composition and early communicative skills

    OpenAIRE

    Cox Eriksson, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to examine the early vocabulary development of a sample of Swedish children in relation to parental input and early communicative skills. Three studies are situated in an overall description of early language development in children. The data analyzed in the thesis was collected within a larger project at Stockholm University (SPRINT- “Effects of enhanced parental input on young children’s vocabulary development and subsequent literacy development” [VR 2008-5094]). D...

  2. Development of an integrated energy vocabulary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niehoff, R.T.

    1976-02-01

    Vocabularies from 10 information systems were employed in this attempt to establish an integrated energy vocabulary. A broad definition of energy was formulated and used as a selection criterion. The resulting product, to be printed under separate cover, contains 30,000 terms and 55,000 cross references. It is felt that the integrated vocabulary, when printed, will aid both energy researchers and information scientists using both manual and on-line systems.

  3. The Development of American English Vocabulary and Its Causes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高万全

    2004-01-01

    This paper mainly centers on the development of American English vocabulary and its causes .To English learners, it will be helpful for them to get to know clearly the outline of American English vocabulary and find answers to many puzzling phenomena, such as why the American English vocabulary is so numerous and jumbled; why there are so many foreign words; why the synonyms are so plentiful and why the spellings of American English are so disorderly, etc. Meanwhile, through vocabulary study, English learners can know well American history, politics, economy, culture, social problem, science and technology and so on.

  4. Measuring Teachers' Knowledge of Vocabulary Development and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguay, Annie; Kenyon, Dorry; Haynes, Erin; August, Diane; Yanosky, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development of an instrument to measure teachers' knowledge of vocabulary development and instruction, the Teacher Knowledge of Vocabulary Survey (TKVS). This type of knowledge has become increasingly important as all classroom teachers are expected to help students meet language and literacy standards that include…

  5. The oral core vocabulary of typically developing English-speaking school-aged children: implications for AAC practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boenisch, Jens; Soto, Gloria

    2015-03-01

    This study analyzes the core vocabulary used by typically developing school-aged English-speaking children in the United States while participating in a variety of school activities. The language of typically developing children, some of whom spoke English as a second language was recorded, transcribed and analyzed to identify the most frequently used words across samples. An inventory of oral core vocabulary of typically developing school-aged children resulted from this analysis. This inventory can be used as a source list for vocabulary selection for school-aged children with AAC needs. Implications for vocabulary selection are discussed.

  6. Number-Concept Acquisition and General Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negen, James; Sarnecka, Barbara W.

    2012-01-01

    How is number-concept acquisition related to overall language development? Experiments 1 and 2 measured number-word knowledge and general vocabulary in a total of 59 children, ages 30-60 months. A strong correlation was found between number-word knowledge and vocabulary, independent of the child's age, contrary to previous results (D. Ansari et…

  7. Vocabulary Growth and Reading Development across the Elementary School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Ludo; van Leeuwe, Jan; Vermeer, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The associations between vocabulary growth and reading development were examined longitudinally for a representative sample of Dutch children throughout the elementary school period. Data on basic and advanced vocabulary, word decoding, and reading comprehension were collected across the different grades. The results showed significant progress on…

  8. ATTENTION TO VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT IN READING:QUANTITY AND QUALITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It has long been argued that little or no classroomattention is given to vocabulary(Carter,1987;Zim-merman,1997),whereas the opposite might be saidof Chinese tertiary English majors.But problems stillremain:Does more time spent on vocabulary teachingand learning prove effective?Does more attentionneed to be paid to the quality of teaching and learningof vocabulary?To answer these questions,I argue inthis article for a balance of quality and quantity of at-tention to vocabulary development.In the first partof the article,I present five common procedures invocabulary teaching and learning in Chinese collegesand universities and analyse the reasons for the low ef-ficiency in vocabulary teaching and learning.In thesecond,I put forward three techniques—a semanticmapping activity,creating meaningful contexts andusing an integrated approach in teaching and learningvocabulary.

  9. The Development of Vocabulary in Spanish Children with Down Syndrome: Comprehension, Production, and Gestures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeote, Miguel; Sebastian, Eugenia; Checa, Elena; Rey, Rocio; Soto, Pilar

    2011-01-01

    Background: Our main purpose was to compare the lexical development of Spanish children with Down syndrome (DS) and children with typical development (TD) to investigate the relationship between cognitive and vocabulary development in comprehension and oral and gestural production. Method: Participants were 186 children with DS and 186 children…

  10. Using Dialogic Reading as Professional Development to Improve Students' English and Spanish Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lynn E.; Kramer-Vida, Louisa; Frye, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Professional development was conducted to assess the effects of dialogic reading (DR) on child outcomes related to vocabulary development in English and Spanish. Six teachers and 72 children enrolled in a state-funded public universal prekindergarten program, partnering with higher education, participated in the study. The content of the…

  11. Gestural development and its relation to a child's early vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraljević, Jelena Kuvač; Cepanec, Maja; Simleša, Sanja

    2014-05-01

    Gesture and language are tightly connected during the development of a child's communication skills. Gestures mostly precede and define the way of language development; even opposite direction has been found. Few recent studies have focused on the relationship between specific gestures and specific word categories, emphasising that the onset of one gesture type predicts the onset of certain word categories or of the earliest word combinations. The aim of this study was to analyse predicative roles of different gesture types on the onset of first word categories in a child's early expressive vocabulary. Our data show that different types of gestures predict different types of word production. Object gestures predict open-class words from the age of 13 months, and gestural routines predict closed-class words and social terms from 8 months. Receptive vocabulary has a strong mediating role for all linguistically defined categories (open- and closed-class words) but not for social terms, which are the largest word category in a child's early expressive vocabulary. Accordingly, main contribution of this study is to define the impact of different gesture types on early expressive vocabulary and to determine the role of receptive vocabulary in gesture-expressive vocabulary relation in the Croatian language. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Polish Vocabulary Development in 2-Year-Olds: Comparisons With English Using the Language Development Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Leslie; Constants, Holly; Bialecka-Pikul, Marta; Stepien-Nycz, Malgorzata; Ochal, Anna

    2017-04-14

    The objective of this study was to compare vocabulary size and composition in 2-year-olds learning Polish or English as measured by the Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989). Participants were 199 Polish toddlers (M = 24.14 months, SD = 0.35) and 422 U.S. toddlers (M = 24.69 months, SD = 0.78). Test-retest reliability was .92, internal consistency was .99, and concurrent validity was .55. Girls had higher vocabulary scores than boys. Mean LDS score was significantly lower in Polish than in English, and fewer Polish children had LDS scores >200 words. Also, more words were reported for <25% of the children, and fewer words were reported for ≥75% of the children, in Polish than in English. The cross-linguistic correlation for word frequencies was .44. Noun dominance was comparable in the two languages, and 55 cross-linguistic word matches were found among the top 100 words. Although more Polish than U.S. children had <50 words (18.1% vs. 8.3%), children with <50 words and those with ≥50 words were generally acquiring the same words. Vocabulary acquisition appeared to be slower in Polish than in English, probably because of the complexity of the language. However, the languages were very similar with respect to vocabulary composition findings.

  13. The Role Of Playing Online Games In Teen’s Developing English Vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This Thesis entitled "The Role of playing Online Games in Teens' Developing Vocabulary" This is a study of the influence of online gaming in the development of English vocabulary teenagers. This study using qualitative methods. Miles and Huberman (1994) defined the way of qualitative research was to find the meaning of data based on the goals stated by the researcher. This study is held in the SMP Neg. 45 Medan and some of his students became participant. Data from this study are the words co...

  14. Typical Toddlers' Participation in "Just-in-Time" Programming of Vocabulary for Visual Scene Display Augmentative and Alternative Communication Apps on Mobile Technology: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyfield, Christine; Drager, Kathryn; Light, Janice; Caron, Jessica Gosnell

    2017-08-15

    Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) promotes communicative participation and language development for young children with complex communication needs. However, the motor, linguistic, and cognitive demands of many AAC technologies restrict young children's operational use of and influence over these technologies. The purpose of the current study is to better understand young children's participation in programming vocabulary "just in time" on an AAC application with minimized demands. A descriptive study was implemented to highlight the participation of 10 typically developing toddlers (M age: 16 months, range: 10-22 months) in just-in-time vocabulary programming in an AAC app with visual scene displays. All 10 toddlers participated in some capacity in adding new visual scene displays and vocabulary to the app just in time. Differences in participation across steps were observed, suggesting variation in the developmental demands of controls involved in vocabulary programming. Results from the current study provide clinical insights toward involving young children in AAC programming just in time and steps that may allow for more independent participation or require more scaffolding. Technology designed to minimize motor, cognitive, and linguistic demands may allow children to participate in programming devices at a younger age.

  15. The role of within-language vocabulary size in children's semantic development: evidence from bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Margaux; Nicoladis, Elena

    2013-09-01

    This study tested whether bilingual children show a lag in semantic development (the schematic-categorical shift) relative to monolingual children due to smaller vocabularies within a language. Twenty French-English bilingual and twenty English monolingual children (seven to ten years old) participated in a picture-naming task in English. Their errors were coded for schematic or categorical relations. The bilingual children made more schematic errors than monolinguals, a difference that was accounted for statistically by vocabulary score differences. This result suggests that within-language vocabulary size is one important factor in semantic development and may explain why bilingual children sometimes show a lag relative to monolingual children in one of their languages, perhaps the language in which they have received less formal instruction.

  16. Vocabulary of preschool children with typical language development and socioeducational variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Thaís Cristina da Freiria; Kuroishi, Rita Cristina Sadako; Mandrá, Patrícia Pupin

    2017-03-09

    To investigate the correlation between age, socioeconomic status (SES), and performance on emissive and receptive vocabulary tests in children with typical language development. The study sample was composed of 60 preschool children of both genders, aged 3 years to 5 years 11 months, with typical language development divided into three groups: G I (mean age=3 years 6 months), G II (mean age=4 years 4 months) and G III (mean age=5 years 9 months). The ABFW Child Language Test - Vocabulary and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) for emissive and receptive language were applied to the preschoolers. The socioeconomic classification questionnaire of the Brazilian Association of Survey Companies (ABEP) was applied to the preschoolers' parents/legal guardians. Data were analyzed according to the criteria of the aforementioned instruments and were arranged in Excel spreadsheet for Windows XP®. A multiple linear regression model was used, adopting a statistical significance level of 5%, to analyze the correlation between age, SES, and performance on the receptive and emissive vocabulary tests. In the ABEP questionnaire, participants were classified mostly into social level C (63.3%), followed by levels B (26.6%) and D (10%). The preschoolers investigated presented emissive and receptive vocabulary adequate for the age groups. No statistically significant difference was found for the variables age and SES regarding emissive and receptive vocabulary. Higher test scores were observed with increased age and SES, for social levels "B" compared with "D" and for "C" with "D". The variables age and socioeconomic status influenced the performance on emissive and receptive vocabulary tests in the study group.

  17. Vocabulary knowledge predicts lexical processing: Evidence from a group of participants with diverse educational backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mainz, N.; Shao, Z.; Brysbaert, M.; Meyer, A.S.

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is central to a speaker's command of their language. In previous research, greater vocabulary knowledge has been associated with advantages in language processing. In this study, we examined the relationship between individual differences in vocabulary and language processing

  18. Early Vocabulary Development of Australian Indigenous Children: Identifying Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad M. Farrant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study sought to increase our understanding of the factors involved in the early vocabulary development of Australian Indigenous children. Data from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children were available for 573 Indigenous children (291 boys who spoke English (M=37.0 months, SD=5.4 months, at wave 3. Data were also available for 86 children (51 boys who spoke an Indigenous language (M=37.1 months, SD=6.0 months, at wave 3. As hypothesised, higher levels of parent-child book reading and having more children’s books in the home were associated with better English vocabulary development. Oral storytelling in Indigenous language was a significant predictor of the size of children’s Indigenous vocabulary.

  19. Cross-Language Associations in the Development of Preschoolers' Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Michelle F; Bohlmann, Natalie L; Palacios, Natalia A

    The increasing population of dual language learners (DLLs) entering preschool classrooms highlights a continued need for research on the development of dual language acquisition, and specifically vocabulary skills, in this age group. This study describes young DLL children's (N = 177) vocabulary development in both English and Spanish simultaneously, and how vocabulary skills in each language relate to one another, during a contextual shift that places greater emphasis on the acquisition of academic English language skills. Findings demonstrated that DLL preschoolers made gains in vocabulary in both languages with more change evidenced in receptive, in comparison to expressive, vocabulary as well as in English in comparison to Spanish. When examining whether children's vocabulary scores in one language at the beginning of preschool interact with their vocabulary scores in the other language to predict vocabulary growth, no significant associations were found for receptive vocabulary. In contrast, the interaction between initial English and Spanish expressive vocabulary scores was negatively related to growth in English expressive vocabulary. This cross-language association suggests that children who have low expressive vocabulary skills in both languages tend to grow faster in their English expressive vocabulary. The study extends previous work on dual language development by examining growth in expressive and receptive vocabulary in both English and Spanish. It also provides suggestions for future work to inform a more comprehensive understanding of DLL children's development in both languages.

  20. Cross-Language Associations in the Development of Preschoolers’ Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Michelle F.; Bohlmann, Natalie L.; Palacios, Natalia A.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing population of dual language learners (DLLs) entering preschool classrooms highlights a continued need for research on the development of dual language acquisition, and specifically vocabulary skills, in this age group. This study describes young DLL children's (N = 177) vocabulary development in both English and Spanish simultaneously, and how vocabulary skills in each language relate to one another, during a contextual shift that places greater emphasis on the acquisition of academic English language skills. Findings demonstrated that DLL preschoolers made gains in vocabulary in both languages with more change evidenced in receptive, in comparison to expressive, vocabulary as well as in English in comparison to Spanish. When examining whether children's vocabulary scores in one language at the beginning of preschool interact with their vocabulary scores in the other language to predict vocabulary growth, no significant associations were found for receptive vocabulary. In contrast, the interaction between initial English and Spanish expressive vocabulary scores was negatively related to growth in English expressive vocabulary. This cross-language association suggests that children who have low expressive vocabulary skills in both languages tend to grow faster in their English expressive vocabulary. The study extends previous work on dual language development by examining growth in expressive and receptive vocabulary in both English and Spanish. It also provides suggestions for future work to inform a more comprehensive understanding of DLL children's development in both languages. PMID:26807002

  1. Parenting Supports for Early Vocabulary Development: Specific Effects of Sensitivity and Stimulation through Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallotton, Claire; Mastergeorge, Ann; Foster, Tricia; Decker, Kalli B; Ayoub, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Growing recognition of disparities in early childhood language environments prompt examination of parent-child interactions which support vocabulary. Research links parental sensitivity and cognitive stimulation to child language, but has not explicitly contrasted their effects, nor examined how effects may change over time. We examined maternal sensitivity and stimulation throughout infancy using two observational methods - ratings of parents' interaction qualities, and coding of discrete parenting behaviors - to assess the relative importance of these qualities to child vocabulary over time, and determine whether mothers make related changes in response to children's development. Participants were 146 infants and mothers, assessed when infants were 14, 24, and 36 months. At 14 months, sensitivity had a stronger effect on vocabulary than did stimulation, but the effect of stimulation grew throughout toddlerhood. Mothers' cognitive stimulation grew over time, whereas sensitivity remained stable. While discrete parenting behaviors changed with child age, there was no evidence of trade-offs between sensitive and stimulating behaviors, and no evidence that sensitivity moderated the effect of stimulation on child vocabulary. Findings demonstrate specificity of timing in the link between parenting qualities and child vocabulary which could inform early parent interventions, and supports a reconceptualization of the nature and measurement of parental sensitivity.

  2. Developing Vocabulary and Speaking Skills for EFL Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽波

    2013-01-01

    [Introduction]A great number of researchers have investigated how to improve EFL learners’sub-skills through various classroom activities. Within this,some research has been specifically conducted on why teachers should help learners enlarge their vocabulary knowledge and to develop their speaking skills through diverse tasks(Thurston,1997;Marco,1998;Nation,2004;Demo,2001). One common outcome from the above research indicates that the most productive way for learners to develop speaking and vocabulary learning skills is through different activities rather than for example repeating words;memorizing grammatical rules or simply talking to native speakers whenever learners have the chance. It can be concluded from the previous research that it is essential for teachers to investigate what activities/tasks are appropriate to be utilised in order to help learners develop their sub-skills and vocabulary. This article aims to shed light on two activities which are designed to help EFL learners develop their vocabulary knowledge and speaking skills. These activities are specifically organised for EFL learners to gradually develop their discourse skills. The targeted EFL learners are intermediate learners who are year 12 learners in China. The ultimate goal of the article is to share opinions with EFL teachers about what kinds of activities are efficient and should be adopted in the EFL classroom teaching.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTI-COORDINATE VOCABULARY, CHEMICAL PHYSICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LERNER, RITA G.

    THIS PAPER DESCRIBES A METHOD (SCHEME) FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A VOCABULARY IN THE FIELD OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS FROM PRIMARY JOURNAL ARTICLES. ALL TERMS APPEARING IN A RECENT JOURNAL (VOL. 39, JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS) JUDGED TO BE IMPORTANT WERE DIVIDED INTO THREE CATEGORIES--(1) PROPERTIES, PROCESSES, PHENOMENA, (2) OBJECTS, INCLUDING SYSTEMS AND…

  4. Enhancing ESL Vocabulary Development through the Use of Mobile Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Deanna; Austin, Dayna

    2013-01-01

    Applications, or apps, that are available for both smart phones and tablets can be an effective tool for promoting vocabulary development among adult learners in English as a second language programs. An app is a software program for a mobile phone or computer operating system. Examples of such apps are provided along with practical…

  5. Vocabulary Developing Strategies Applied to Individuals with Hearing Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasu, Guzin; Girgin, Umit; Uzuner, Yildiz; Kaya, Zehranur

    2016-01-01

    The general purpose of this research was to investigate the strategies utilized for vocabulary development of ten individuals (first year college students) in Graphic Art Department, School for The Handicapped, Anadolu University with hearing impairment. The reflective and cyclical data were consisted of videotape recordings of the actual lessons,…

  6. The Effects of Reading Aloud on Vocabulary Development. Teacher Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings-Gongora, Brenda

    1993-01-01

    Examines the effects of training Spanish-speaking parents in read-aloud techniques on the Spanish vocabulary development of their children aged five and six. Although not statistically significant, the results seem to favor the group that received training for five weeks versus a control group. The training increased parental involvement and had…

  7. Vocabulary development at home: A multimedia elaborated picture supporting parent-toddler interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, M.C.; Molenaar, I.; Teepe, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Some children enter elementary school with large vocabulary delays, which negatively influence their later school performance. A rich home language environment can support vocabulary development through frequent high-quality parent-toddler interaction. Elaborated picture home activities can support

  8. Participation for Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; De La Harpe, Retha; Korpela, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is more and more promoted as a driver and facilitator of economic growth and development in low and middle income countries. ICT for Development (ICT4D) though has mixed successes. Sustainability of solutions and usability respectively usefulness...... is rare. The workshop aims at bringing together the PD researchers working with under-privileged communities and attracting researchers from the ICT4D communities to the PD conference. The goal is to share experiences and start a discussion on how participation, ICT and development might relate....

  9. Participation for Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; De La Harpe, Retha; Korpela, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is more and more promoted as a driver and facilitator of economic growth and development in low and middle income countries. ICT for Development (ICT4D) though has mixed successes. Sustainability of solutions and usability respectively usefulness...... for the intended beneficiaries have been reported as causes. Participatory approaches to development have been proposed to address these causes. Participatory Design (PD) seems like a perfect fit. However, at the Participatory Design Conferences, research that addresses PD in low and middle income countries...... is rare. The workshop aims at bringing together the PD researchers working with under-privileged communities and attracting researchers from the ICT4D communities to the PD conference. The goal is to share experiences and start a discussion on how participation, ICT and development might relate....

  10. An Investigation of the Impact of Small Group Direct Vocabulary Instruction on the Vocabulary Development of Kindergarten Children Living in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Katie A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which tri-weekly evidence-based vocabulary lessons implemented throughout the regular school day would increase kindergarten students' expressive and receptive vocabulary development, thus decreasing the vocabulary gap exhibited between low-income children and their more advantaged peers…

  11. Improving Vocabulary of English Language Learners through Direct Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Meghan; Feng, Jay

    2016-01-01

    This is a report of a professional development project. The purpose of the project was to provide professional development to teachers in vocabulary instructional strategies and to examine vocabulary acquisition of English language learners. The participants were 8 second grade ELL students and 6 second grade teachers. The eight second grade…

  12. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Vocabulary and Reading Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Richard K.; Keenan, Janice M.; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Coventry, William L.; Corley, Robin; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Hulslander, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Genetic and environmental relations between vocabulary and reading skills were explored longitudinally from preschool through Grades 2 and 4. At preschool there were strong shared-environment and weak genetic influences on both vocabulary and print knowledge but substantial differences in their source. Separation of etiology for vocabulary and…

  13. Hearing Experience and Receptive Vocabulary Development in Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Mary K.; Pisoni, David B.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated receptive vocabulary delay in deaf children with cochlear implants. Participants were 23 children with profound hearing loss, ages 6-14 years, who received a cochlear implant between ages 1.4 and 6 years. Duration of cochlear implant use ranged from 3.7 to 11.8 years. "Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Third…

  14. The Effect of Maternal Language on Bilingual Children's Vocabulary and Emergent Literacy Development during Head Start and Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Davison, Megan Dunn; Lawrence, Frank R.; Miccio, Adele W.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examined the impact of maternal language and children's gender on bilingual children's vocabulary and emergent literacy development during 2 years in Head Start and kindergarten. Seventy-two mothers and their children who attended English immersion programs participated. Questionnaires administered annually over a 3-year period…

  15. The Effect of Speed Reading Instruction on Japanese High School Students' English Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Paul; Myskow, Gordon; Hattori, Takahiko

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a six-month course in speed reading in three areas of reading proficiency development: 1) general reading comprehension, 2) knowledge of high-frequency vocabulary, and 3) reading-rate and accuracy. The participants (N = 105) were Japanese students studying English as a foreign language in Grade 10 at a…

  16. The association between perinatal testosterone concentration and early vocabulary development: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollier, Lauren P; Mattes, Eugen; Maybery, Murray T; Keelan, Jeffrey A; Hickey, Martha; Whitehouse, Andrew J O

    2013-02-01

    Prenatal exposure to testosterone is known to affect fetal brain maturation and later neurocognitive function. However, research on the effects of prenatal testosterone exposure has been limited by indirect measures of testosterone and small unrepresentative samples. This study investigated whether bioavailable testosterone (BioT) concentrations in umbilical cord blood are associated with expressive vocabulary development, in a large birth cohort. Cord blood samples were taken immediately after delivery and expressive vocabulary was measured at two years of age using the language development survey (LDS). BioT concentration significantly predicted vocabulary size in males (n=197), such that higher concentrations were associated with lower LDS scores, indicating smaller vocabulary. This relationship between BioT concentrations and vocabulary at aged 2 years was not observed in girls (n=176). Higher circulating prenatal testosterone concentrations at birth may be associated with reduced vocabulary in early childhood among boys.

  17. Developing and Evaluating an Adaptive Business English Self-Learning System for EFL Vocabulary Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Yen-Hui Wang

    2014-01-01

    This paper developed an adaptive Business English self-learning system for EFL vocabulary learning. The components of word reoccurrence and learner engagement have been built into the system where the amount of unknown word reexposure in various customized texts increases and vocabulary enhancement tasks are added to promote learner engagement with wanted words. To evaluate the system effectiveness on EFL vocabulary learning, the experimental group read system-screened texts with immediate an...

  18. Team Assisted Individualization (TAI Conveyed through Adobe Flash CS3 to Increase Participation and English Vocabulary Mastery for the Second Semester Students at Akademi Bahasa Balikpapan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rochman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Most lecturers were still rely on the lecturing method to deliver material, how they use the media (whiteboard, pictures, cards and their teaching methods are less than optimal and catch students’ attention, which degrade the quality of the learning process. The result of preliminary study shows that the previous English summative test score were still 50. It means that their score average was still for all the students in that Second Semester. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to instruction that can foster vocabulary development. The research design of this study was classroom action research, which focuses on a particular group of students in a certain classroom. The setting of the research was Akademi Bahasa Balikpapan. The subjects of the research were the second-semester students who took English vocabulary lesson. Data collection techniques adapted to the data to be obtained to determine students' achievement of English test by using Adobe Flash CS3 Media in vocabulary building project assessment in making animation collection that were contained with English sentences and their meanings. To determine the role of the student in the learning process with the assessment of the affective aspects of the observations obtained during the teaching and learning activities take place and the role of the student participation. The results showed that it could be concluded that the implementation of the Adobe Flash TAI strategy in teaching vocabulary could enhance the students’ Project on groups’ laptop in vocabulary the text. The observation checklist and field note proved the students’ involvement in text given.

  19. Vocabulary Development in Norwegian L1 and L2 Learners in the Kindergarten-School Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Jannicke; Lyster, Solveig-Alma Halaas; Lervåg, Arne

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the vocabulary development of Norwegian second language (L2) learners with Urdu/Punjabi as their first language (L1) at two time-points from kindergarten to primary school, and compared it to the vocabulary development of monolingual Norwegian children. Using path models, the associations between number of picture books in the…

  20. Parent Reports of Young Spanish-English Bilingual Children's Productive Vocabulary: A Development and Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Gámez, Perla B.; Vagh, Shaher Banu; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This 2-phase study aims to extend research on parent report measures of children's productive vocabulary by investigating the development (n = 38) of the Spanish Vocabulary Extension and validity (n = 194) of the 100-item Spanish and English MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories Toddler Short Forms and Upward Extension…

  1. Morphological awareness and vocabulary development among kindergartners with different ability levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Gloria; Walton, Patrick; Roberts, William

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to investigate the growth of vocabulary and morphological awareness over time in the context of an intervention for kindergartners with different ability levels in these skills. Participants in this exploratory study were 108 children from schools serving socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Results indicated that children significantly improved their morphological awareness skills and vocabulary over a period of 4 months ( eta(p)(2) = .61 for morphological awareness and eta(p)(2) = .53 for vocabulary), with the greatest gains made by children who were initially low on these measures. Morphological awareness and vocabulary skills were reciprocally related; each made a unique contribution to growth in the other. The results suggest that it may be beneficial to combine instruction in vocabulary and morphological awareness and that kindergarten teachers can successfully do so with guidance.

  2. Developing and Evaluating an Adaptive Business English Self-Learning System for EFL Vocabulary Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Hui Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper developed an adaptive Business English self-learning system for EFL vocabulary learning. The components of word reoccurrence and learner engagement have been built into the system where the amount of unknown word reexposure in various customized texts increases and vocabulary enhancement tasks are added to promote learner engagement with wanted words. To evaluate the system effectiveness on EFL vocabulary learning, the experimental group read system-screened texts with immediate and repeated contacts with individuals’ unknown words and performed vocabulary tasks specific to those unknown words, while the control group read online texts without unknown word reoccurrence and vocabulary practice. After one semester, these two groups were measured by one online vocabulary test, and an online user satisfaction investigation was also administered to the experimental group. The study found that the experimental group reading customized texts to reexpose to previously encountered unknown words in different texts along with doing individualized vocabulary exercises performed significantly better in EFL vocabulary learning than the other group. It was also found that the system was appealing for the learners to show positive attitudes toward the use of the system. The study demonstrated that the constructed adaptive Business English self-learning system could effectively promote vocabulary growth.

  3. Developing a Specialized Vocabulary Word List in a Composition Culinary Course through Lecture Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Nordin N. R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning to write in a composition culinary course is very challenging for L2 learners. The main barrier in writing proficiency within this discipline is the lack of vocabulary, specifically the lack of exposure towards specialized vocabulary. This study aims to provide a corpus of specialized vocabulary within a food writing course. By providing students with a word list of specialized vocabulary in the course, students may benefit by familiarizing with the language discourse which will aid in better comprehension of the course, and subsequently facilitate in their writing development. A compilation of all PowerPoint slides from one writing course was assembled and analyzed using the range and frequency program to identify the specialized vocabularies in a food writing course. The corpus was categorized using a four step rating scale, which identified 113 specialized vocabularies in food writing. The learning of specialized vocabulary specialized vocabulary is an important issue at the tertiary level in Malaysia, with educators’ realization of the importance of discourse proficiency in ESP programs, thus many more research is yielded on the many new issues on the teaching and learning of specialized vocabulary particularly within the academic and professional context.

  4. Early Home Language Use and Later Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the association between early patterns of home language use (age 4.5 years) and vocabulary growth (ages 4.5 to 12 years) in English and Spanish for 180 Spanish-speaking language minority learners followed from ages 4.5 to 12 years. Standardized measures of vocabulary were administered to children from ages 4.5 to…

  5. A Linguistic Approach to Social Studies Vocabulary Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Jerry L.; Ruff, Thomas P.

    1990-01-01

    Advocates using a linguistic approach to supplement teaching social studies vocabulary. Highlights advantages of teaching vocabulary through etymological analysis, including greater student interest, more precise definitions, and the approach's transferability. Disadvantages include the complexity of some prefix meanings. Concludes that this…

  6. Building Vocabulary and Improving Writing While Developing a Tourist Brochure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Siti Katijah

    2008-01-01

    Writing, and the vocabulary building that goes with it, is a more complex process than merely putting words on a page. In the process of acquiring vocabulary, for example, students need to understand not just what individual words mean but also which combinations of these words in sentences or paragraphs convey a meaningful message to the reader…

  7. Gabriele Stein. Developing Your English Vocabulary: A Systematic New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël Abecassis

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Gabriele Stein is professor of English linguistics at the University of Heidelberg in Germany and has published widely on lexicography and lexicology. The objective of this book is twofold: to compile a lexical core and to maximise the skills of language students by developing ways of expanding this core. It is intended to function as a teaching aid for teachers of English as well as a self-study book for learners of English as a second language. Lexical knowledge is a crucial part of language acquisition and depends on different external factors such as the age and profession of the learner, his/her goals, expectations and needs in learning a language. Beck et al. (2002 have demonstrated the small extent of the emphasis on the acquisition vocabulary in school curricula.

  8. Vocabulary development at home: A multimedia elaborated picture supporting parent-toddler interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, M.C.; Molenaar, I.; Teepe, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Some children enter elementary school with large vocabulary delays, which negatively influence their later school performance.A rich home language environment can support vocabulary development through frequent high-quality parent–toddler interaction. Elaborated picture home activities can support

  9. Vocabulary Instruction in Fifth Grade and Beyond: Sources of Word Learning and Productive Contexts for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford-Connors, Evelyn; Paratore, Jeanne R.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the vocabulary knowledge of young adolescent and adolescent students has been a focal point of educational research and many teacher professional development initiatives. Yet many teachers continue to use traditional, but generally ineffective, methods of classroom-based vocabulary instruction. Synthesizing the literature around the…

  10. An Approach to Basic-Vocabulary Development for English-Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Anh

    2006-01-01

    According to research findings in English-language teaching, vocabulary acquisition is not given enough attention. As a result, second-language learners are caught in a difficult situation in reading comprehension. This paper proposes helping English-language learners develop basic vocabulary so that that they can read effectively. The approach to…

  11. Using Story Dictation to Support Young Children's Vocabulary Development: Outcomes and Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2011-01-01

    Creating opportunities for children to apply newly learned vocabulary in meaningful contexts is an important aspect of supporting vocabulary development. However, previous research has not adequately examined how this can be accomplished in preschool classrooms. To address this issue, we explored using story dictation to support preschoolers'…

  12. "It takes a village" to support the vocabulary development of children with multiple risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydar, Nazli; Küntay, Aylin C; Yagmurlu, Bilge; Aydemir, Nuran; Cankaya, Dilek; Göksen, Fatos; Cemalcilar, Zeynep

    2014-04-01

    Data from a nationally representative sample from Turkey (N = 1,017) were used to investigate the environmental factors that support the receptive vocabulary of 3-year-old children who differ in their developmental risk due to family low economic status and elevated maternal depressive symptoms. Children's vocabulary knowledge was strongly associated with language stimulation and learning materials in all families regardless of risk status. Maternal warmth and responsiveness supported vocabulary competence in families of low economic status only when maternal depressive symptoms were low. In families with the highest levels of risk, that is, with depression and economic distress jointly present, support by the extended family and neighbors for caring for the child protected children's vocabulary development against these adverse conditions. The empirical evidence on the positive contribution of extrafamilial support to young children's receptive vocabulary under adverse conditions allows an expansion of our current theorizing about influences on language development.

  13. Vocabulary Development in European Portuguese: A Replication Study Using the Language Development Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Leslie; Nyame, Josephine; Dias, Pedro

    2016-12-01

    Our objective was to replicate previous cross-linguistic findings by comparing Portuguese and U.S. children with respect to (a) effects of language, gender, and age on vocabulary size; (b) lexical composition; and (c) late talking. We used the Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989) with children (18-35 months) learning European Portuguese (n = 181) and English (n = 206). In both languages, girls had higher vocabulary scores than boys and vocabulary scores increased with age. Portuguese LDS scores were significantly lower than English scores, but the effect size was small. Cross-linguistic concordance of percentage use scores yielded a Q correlation of .50, with 64 of the "top 100" words being exact matches. Cross-linguistic concordance was highest for the youngest age group. In both languages, vocabulary composition in late talkers (children ≥ 24 months with < 50 words) was highly correlated with composition in vocabulary size-matched younger children. Results replicated previous Greek, Korean, and Italian LDS studies. The early lexicons of typical talkers and late talkers contained many of the same words, indicating considerable universality and suggesting good targets for clinical intervention.

  14. Longitudinal vocabulary development in Australian urban Aboriginal children: Protective and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, K; Eadie, P; Descallar, J; Comino, E; Kemp, L

    2017-11-01

    Vocabulary is a key component of language that can impact on children's future literacy and communication. The gap between Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children's reading and academic outcomes is well reported and similar to Indigenous/non-Indigenous gaps in other nations. Determining factors that influence vocabulary acquisition over time and may be responsive to treatment is important for improving Aboriginal children's communication and academic outcomes. To determine what factors influence Australian urban Aboriginal children's receptive vocabulary acquisition and whether any of these are risks or protective for vocabulary development. One hundred thirteen Aboriginal children in South Western Sydney from the longitudinal birth cohort Gudaga study were assessed on The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test multiple times: 3 years, just prior to school entry, at the end of the first and second years of formal schooling. Multilevel models were used to determine the effects of 13 fixed and manipulable maternal, child, and family variables drawn from previous research. Higher maternal education was found to be protective at 3 years and over time. The number of children in urban Australian Aboriginal households made an impact on vocabulary development and this varied over time. From 3 to 6 years, those with early poor non-verbal cognitive skills had vocabulary skills that remained below those with stronger non-verbal skills at 3 years. Girls exhibit an earlier advantage in vocabulary acquisition, but this difference is not sustained after 4 years of age. The risk and protective factors for vocabulary development in Australian Aboriginal children are similar to those identified in other studies with some variation related to the number of children in the home. In this limited set of predictors, maternal education, gender, non-verbal cognitive skills, and the number of children in households were all shown to impact on the acquisition of vocabulary to 3

  15. Investigating Learning Strategies for Vocabulary Development: A Comparative Study of Two Universities of Quetta, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irum Fatima

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this research is to investigate the vocabulary learning strategies employed by the undergraduate students of Sardar Bahadur Khan Women’s University (SBKWU and University of Balochistan (UOB, Quetta, Pakistan. A quantitative design was employed in this study to answer the two research questions of the present study. The quantitative data was obtained from the responses of 180 undergraduates in a questionnaire adapted from the study by Noor and Amir (2009 on vocabulary learning strategies proposed by Gu and Johnson (1996. The questionnaire comprised of 45 close-ended items on four broad vocabulary learning strategies, metacognitive regulation strategy, cognitive strategy, memory strategy, and activation strategy. Descriptive statistics was run in SPSS to obtain the results. The independent-samples t-test was run to test for statistically significant differences if any in the use of vocabulary learning strategies across the undergraduates of two universities. However, cognitive regulation strategy, and activation strategy emerged as the most influential source of learning new English words. The findings also revealed that there were no statistically significant differences found in practicing vocabulary learning strategies between undergraduates of SBKWU and UOB. The findings of the study have implications on enhancing teaching and learning by acquainting students with vocabulary learning strategies that can enhance their vocabulary in English language and can result to boost up their proficiency in this language. Keywords: Vocabulary development, learning strategies, gender difference

  16. The Influence of Social factors on the Development of English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨顺尧

    2008-01-01

    The development of English vocab ulary involves many factors.The social factors such as science and technology; economic and political changes have great influence on the development of English vocabulary.

  17. The Effect of Maternal Language on Bilingual Children’s Vocabulary and Emergent Literacy Development During Head Start and Kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Davison, Megan Dunn; Lawrence, Frank R.; Miccio, Adele W.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examined the impact of maternal language and children’s gender on bilingual children’s vocabulary and emergent literacy development during 2 years in Head Start and kindergarten. Seventy-two mothers and their children who attended English immersion programs participated. Questionnaires administered annually over a 3-year period revealed that mothers increased their usage of English to their children. In addition, more mothers of sons reported using “More or All English” wit...

  18. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development.

  19. Vocabulary skills are well developed in university students with dyslexia: Evidence from multiple case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, Eddy; Casalis, Séverine; El Ahmadi, Abdessadek; Zira, Mélody; Poracchia-George, Florence; Colé, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Most studies in adults with developmental dyslexia have focused on identifying the deficits responsible for their persistent reading difficulties, but little is known on how these readers manage the intensive exposure to written language required to obtain a university degree. The main objective of this study was to identify certain skills, and specifically vocabulary skills, that French university students with dyslexia have developed and that may contribute to their literacy skills. We tested 20 university students with dyslexia and 20 normal readers (matched on chronological age, gender, nonverbal IQ, and level of education) in reading, phonological, vocabulary breadth (number of known words), and vocabulary depth (accuracy and precision) tasks. In comparing vocabulary measures, we used both Rasch model and single case study methodologies. Results on reading and phonological tasks confirmed the persistence of deficits in written word recognition and phonological skills. However, using the Rasch model we found that the two groups performed at the same level in the vocabulary breadth task, whereas dyslexics systematically outperformed their chronological age controls in the vocabulary depth task. These results are supplemented by multiple case studies. The vocabulary skills of French university students with dyslexia are well developed. Possible interpretations of these results are discussed.

  20. Investigating an Intervention Program Linking Writing and Vocabulary Development for Homeless Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Sinatra

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The presented study investigated the effects of a four-week academic and activity – enriched summer program on vocabulary development and writing achievement of homeless children residing in traditional shelter facilities. When compared to controls the experimental students did not reveal gains in vocabulary and spelling as measured by two norm referenced tests. They did however demonstrate highly significant gains in writing ability based on the New York State standards criteria, reflecting five qualities of writing. On two project-developed instruments designed to measure improvement in book vocabulary and tennis skills, they showed significant increases based on analyses of their pre- and posttest scores. The program closed achievement gaps, fulfilled standards criteria, and may be the first of its kind in the homeless literature whereby students’ writing development was compared to matched controls as vocabulary development occurred based on literary readings.

  1. The Role of Primary Caregiver Vocabulary Knowledge in the Development of Bilingual Children's Vocabulary Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buac, Milijana; Gross, Megan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined the impact of environmental factors (socioeconomic status [SES], the percent of language exposure to English and to Spanish, and primary caregivers' vocabulary knowledge) on bilingual children's vocabulary skills. Method: Vocabulary skills were measured in 58 bilingual children between the ages of 5…

  2. Using a Corpus in an EFL Classroom to Develop Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    峰松, 和子; MINEMATSU, Kazuko

    2014-01-01

    A corpus is a collection of written or spoken texts, which is stored on a computer. Thispaper examines whether or not a corpus can be used to develop depth of vocabularyknowledge in an EFL classroom. The advantages of using a corpus lie in its authenticity anduse of abundant examples. This suggest that a corpus could be used in fruitful ways tobroaden or deepen learners’ vocabulary. This paper focuses on the latter: developing depthof vocabulary knowledge. Data-driven learning (DLL) is one me...

  3. Developing High-School Students'Motivation Through Vocabulary Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李生敏

    2012-01-01

    As is commonly accepted motivation is the key to success, and interest is the best teacher what the teacher is to do in class is to provide methods for learning to take place. I used to be a teacher in a high-school for two years, during the process of teaching, I had found that the classroom atmosphere was getting less and less active, a part of students idled in class, they were taking a less active role in classroom activities, one-third students even dropped out. They were caused by the lack of vocabulary. Based on some approaches that I have learned from English language Teaching Methodology and considering the characteristics of my students. I decided to adopt vocabulary design in my lessons to motivate the learners, and help them grasp vocabulary and keep up their English learning.

  4. Auditory Perception, Suprasegmental Speech Processing, and Vocabulary Development in Chinese Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Lan S; Chen, I-Chen; Chiang, Chun-Han; Lai, Ying-Hui; Tsao, Yu

    2016-10-01

    The current study examined the associations between basic auditory perception, speech prosodic processing, and vocabulary development in Chinese kindergartners, specifically, whether early basic auditory perception may be related to linguistic prosodic processing in Chinese Mandarin vocabulary acquisition. A series of language, auditory, and linguistic prosodic tests were given to 100 preschool children who had not yet learned how to read Chinese characters. The results suggested that lexical tone sensitivity and intonation production were significantly correlated with children's general vocabulary abilities. In particular, tone awareness was associated with comprehensive language development, whereas intonation production was associated with both comprehensive and expressive language development. Regression analyses revealed that tone sensitivity accounted for 36% of the unique variance in vocabulary development, whereas intonation production accounted for 6% of the variance in vocabulary development. Moreover, auditory frequency discrimination was significantly correlated with lexical tone sensitivity, syllable duration discrimination, and intonation production in Mandarin Chinese. Also it provided significant contributions to tone sensitivity and intonation production. Auditory frequency discrimination may indirectly affect early vocabulary development through Chinese speech prosody.

  5. Perceptions of an EL Learner on Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkaya, Odilea Rocha; Drower, Iris S.

    2012-01-01

    This single case study addresses an action research design (Wolcott, 1994) that utilizes observations, interviews, and documents to access what teaching and learning techniques have improved the acquisition of vocabulary of a single intermediate English language (EL) learner from Turkey. Findings are reported and discussed in terms of the…

  6. Vocabulary development in Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants and its relationship with speech perception abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Wong, Lena L N; Zhu, Shufeng; Xi, Xin

    2017-01-01

    China has the largest population of children with hearing impairments and cochlear implantation is gaining popularity there. However, the vocabulary development in this population is largely unexplored. This study examined early vocabulary outcomes, factors influencing early vocabulary development and the relationship between speech perception and vocabulary development in Mandarin-speaking children during the first year of cochlear implant use. A battery of vocabulary tests was administered to 80 children before implantation and 3, 6, and 12 months after implantation. Demographic information was obtained to evaluate their relationships with vocabulary outcomes. The Mandarin-speaking children, who received their cochlear implants before 3 years of age, developed vocabulary at a rate faster than that of their same-aged peers with normal hearing. Better pre-implant hearing levels, younger age at implantation, and higher maternal education level contributed to the early vocabulary development. The trajectories of speech perception development highly correlated with those of vocabulary development during 3 to 12 months of CI use. and Implications: These findings imply that the vocabulary development of children implanted before 3 years of age may catch up with that of their hearing peers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Facilitating the development of controlled vocabularies for metabolomics technologies with text mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebholz-Schuhmann Dietrich

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many bioinformatics applications rely on controlled vocabularies or ontologies to consistently interpret and seamlessly integrate information scattered across public resources. Experimental data sets from metabolomics studies need to be integrated with one another, but also with data produced by other types of omics studies in the spirit of systems biology, hence the pressing need for vocabularies and ontologies in metabolomics. However, it is time-consuming and non trivial to construct these resources manually. Results We describe a methodology for rapid development of controlled vocabularies, a study originally motivated by the needs for vocabularies describing metabolomics technologies. We present case studies involving two controlled vocabularies (for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography whose development is currently underway as part of the Metabolomics Standards Initiative. The initial vocabularies were compiled manually, providing a total of 243 and 152 terms. A total of 5,699 and 2,612 new terms were acquired automatically from the literature. The analysis of the results showed that full-text articles (especially the Materials and Methods sections are the major source of technology-specific terms as opposed to paper abstracts. Conclusions We suggest a text mining method for efficient corpus-based term acquisition as a way of rapidly expanding a set of controlled vocabularies with the terms used in the scientific literature. We adopted an integrative approach, combining relatively generic software and data resources for time- and cost-effective development of a text mining tool for expansion of controlled vocabularies across various domains, as a practical alternative to both manual term collection and tailor-made named entity recognition methods.

  8. Matthew effects in young readers: reading comprehension and reading experience aid vocabulary development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Kate; Oakhill, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The authors report data from a longitudinal study of the reading development of children who were assessed in the years of their 8th, 11th, 14th, and 16th birthdays. They examine the evidence for Matthew effects in reading and vocabulary between ages 8 and 11 in groups of children identified with good and poor reading comprehension at 8 years. They also investigate evidence for Matthew effects in reading and vocabulary between 8 and 16 years, in the larger sample. The poor comprehenders showed reduced growth in vocabulary compared to the good comprehenders, but not in word reading or reading comprehension ability. They also obtained lower scores on measures of out-of-school literacy. Analyses of the whole sample revealed that initial levels of reading experience and reading comprehension predicted vocabulary at ages 11, 14, and 16 after controlling for general ability and vocabulary skills when aged 8. The authors discuss these findings in relation to the influence of reading on vocabulary development.

  9. The Effect of Diglossia on Arabic Vocabulary Development in Lebanese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedda, Olfat Darwiche; Oweini, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the researchers attempted to address the main hypothesis that diglossia may impede vocabulary growth of Lebanese bilingual students [in L1 Arabic], but they should eventually catch up in the upper cycle. A correlation design based on a two-stage random sample was used with 100 participants including pre-schoolers, first, second,…

  10. The Effect of BBC World Clips with and without Subtitles on Intermediate EFL Learners' Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmandi, Effat Heidari; Sardareh, Sedigheh Abbasnasab

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of bimodal subtitled films on vocabulary learning among Iranian EFL learners. To achieve this purpose, 60 male and female intermediate learners who were studying English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in Pardis Memar Institiute in Bandar Abbas, Iran, participated in this study. A standard proficiency…

  11. The Impact of CLIL on L2 Vocabulary Development and Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthou, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines whether students involved in CLIL are able to learn content through the medium of L2 and simultaneously exhibit significant gains in L2 vocabulary knowledge. Two experiments were set up in two public primary schools. Two groups of 6th grade students participated in each experiment. The first group was taught three 80-minute…

  12. VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT OF KINDERGARTEN STUDENTS OF APPLE TREE PRE-SCHOOL SAMARINDA BY USING FLASHCARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Mustika Rachmita

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This present study aimed to investigate 14 kindergarten students of Apple Tree pre-school Samarinda with various ability toward their English vocabularies development by flashcards. A Class Action Research was applied in this study. The data was collected through observation checklist, sequence of cycles and interview transcript. Then, building on the analysis of the collected data, it further discusses the vocabulary development of YL and provides suggestions for TEYL. This study revealed that; (1 most of the students developed their English vocabularies gradually by flashcards. (2 These result indicated that TEYL especially kindergarten students by using flashcards could give significant vocabularies development in learning process. Flashcards is one of the simplest and effective teaching materials for teaching YL vocabulary due to the fact that flashcards are categorized based on themes with full colored pictures which attractive for YL. As this study showed the students were engaged with the topics given since the teachers used flashcards to teach English vocabulary. It was difficult to make engagement with YL in English teaching and learning because YL have different mood, self-motivation, and self-confidence which influenced to the willingness in grasping the lesson. Finally, through this based-picture learning, the students indicated that their progress in vocabulary development although this phenomena was commonly happened in TEFL for YL that lead to teaching method done by English teachers who are required to do more innovation toward their teaching method, to develop sufficient knowledge and to use proper teaching media.        

  13. Reading is FUNdamental: The effect of a reading programme on vocabulary development in a high poverty township school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Scheepers

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of the vocabulary of grade 7 learners in a reading project currently underway at a school in Atteridgeville, a township on the outskirts of Pretoria. A library has been established at the school and teachers throughout the school attend workshops designed to heighten their awareness of the value of reading and the importance of vocabulary, and to provide them with strategies to facilitate the development of reading. This paper focuses on the vocabulary development of grade 7 learners – they are in the senior phase of primary school and will soon be entering high school where they will be faced with more academic vocabulary in context-reduced textbooks. Learners’ vocabulary was tested early in the year and then again towards the end to assess whether increased access to books and reading had had an effect on vocabulary growth. Results revealed that learners at the project school showed a lack of vocabulary, even at the end of the study period, not only in terms of academic words but also high frequency words. Extensive reading alone is clearly not enough – learners need explicit vocabulary instruction: in order to read successfully at high school level, learners need a working knowledge of academic vocabulary, and this knowledge is developed by reading – but learners cannot read successfully without an adequate basic high-frequency vocabulary.

  14. The rationale, development, and standardization of a basic word vocabulary test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, H J

    1974-04-01

    The results of the studies to date indicate that the Basic Word Vocabulary Test provides a range of items in terms of item difficulty levels useful in printed form from about the third grade to the highest educational levels. Since pictorial and orally given vocabulary tests are used from about ages 2 to 8 years, further work should be done to extend the scale downward so that a single comprehensive vocabulary scale ranging from age 2 years to the highest level of verbal development is available for general use. Validation studies should also be conducted with other well-known intelligence tests so that scores can be compared. Alternate forms need to be developed to allow for longitudinal studies of growth and development. The use of a single standard of measurement of vocabulary development, suitable over a wide range of age and ability levels, by different investigators should materially aid in comparing results across studies and samples and lead to more consistent findings, advances in knowledge, and wider application of findings in practical circumstances, The findings presented in this report indicate that the Basic Word Vocabulary Test adequately measures basic word knowledge acquisition and development. The BWVT is suitable for evaluation of individuals and for use in making group comparisons in levels of basic word knowledge attainment, growth, and development.

  15. Vocabulary development and intervention for English learners in the early grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Doris Luft; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Ortiz, Miriam; Correa, Vivian; Cole, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the vocabulary development and promising, evidence-based vocabulary interventions for English learners (ELs) from preschool through second grade. To achieve this purpose, we have taken six steps. First, we describe the elements of language development in the native language (L1) and a second language (L2) and how these elements relate to three phases of reading development (i.e., the prereading phase, the learning to read phase, and the reading to learn phase). We contend that in order for ELs to succeed in school, they need a strong language foundation prior to entering kindergarten. This language foundation needs to continue developing during the "learning to read" and "reading to learn" phases. Second, we describe the limitations of current practice in preschool for ELs related to vocabulary instruction and to family involvement to support children's language development. Third, we report curricular challenges faced by ELs in early elementary school, and we relate these challenges to the increase in reading and language demands outlined in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Specific language activities that can help meet some of the demands are provided in a table. Fourth, we synthesize the research on evidence-based vocabulary instruction and intervention and discuss implications for practice with ELs. Fifth, we describe two intervention projects under development that have the potential to improve EL vocabulary and language proficiency in the early grades. We conclude with a summary of the chapter and provide additional resources on the topic.

  16. Early deictic but not other gestures predict later vocabulary in both typical development and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özçalışkan, Şeyda; Adamson, Lauren B; Dimitrova, Nevena

    2016-08-01

    Research with typically developing children suggests a strong positive relation between early gesture use and subsequent vocabulary development. In this study, we ask whether gesture production plays a similar role for children with autism spectrum disorder. We observed 23 18-month-old typically developing children and 23 30-month-old children with autism spectrum disorder interact with their caregivers (Communication Play Protocol) and coded types of gestures children produced (deictic, give, conventional, and iconic) in two communicative contexts (commenting and requesting). One year later, we assessed children's expressive vocabulary, using Expressive Vocabulary Test. Children with autism spectrum disorder showed significant deficits in gesture production, particularly in deictic gestures (i.e. gestures that indicate objects by pointing at them or by holding them up). Importantly, deictic gestures-but not other gestures-predicted children's vocabulary 1 year later regardless of communicative context, a pattern also found in typical development. We conclude that the production of deictic gestures serves as a stepping-stone for vocabulary development.

  17. Food and Feed Commodity Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Feed Vocabulary was developed to consolidate all the major OPP Commodity Vocabularies into one standardized vocabulary. The EPA-preferred term is the only term that can be used in setting tolerances.

  18. Individualized Early Prediction of Familial Risk of Dyslexia: A Study of Infant Vocabulary Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ao; Wijnen, Frank; Koster, Charlotte; Schnack, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    We examined early vocabulary development in children at familial risk (FR) of dyslexia and typically developing (TD) children between 17 and 35 months of age. We trained a support vector machine to classify TD and FR using these vocabulary data at the individual level. The Dutch version of the McArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (Words and Sentences) (N-CDI) was used to measure vocabulary development. We analyzed group-level differences for both total vocabulary as well as lexical classes: common nouns, predicates, and closed class words. The generalizability of the classification model was tested using cross-validation. At the group level, for both total vocabulary and the composites, the difference between TD and FR was most pronounced at 19-20 months, with FRs having lower scores. For the individual prediction, highest cross-validation accuracy (68%) was obtained at 19-20 months, with sensitivity (correctly classified FR) being 70% and specificity (correctly classified TD) being 67%. There is a sensitive window in which the difference between FR and TD is most evident. Machine learning methods are promising techniques for separating FR and TD children at an early age, before they start reading.

  19. Individualized Early Prediction of Familial Risk of Dyslexia: A Study of Infant Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ao; Wijnen, Frank; Koster, Charlotte; Schnack, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    We examined early vocabulary development in children at familial risk (FR) of dyslexia and typically developing (TD) children between 17 and 35 months of age. We trained a support vector machine to classify TD and FR using these vocabulary data at the individual level. The Dutch version of the McArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (Words and Sentences) (N-CDI) was used to measure vocabulary development. We analyzed group-level differences for both total vocabulary as well as lexical classes: common nouns, predicates, and closed class words. The generalizability of the classification model was tested using cross-validation. At the group level, for both total vocabulary and the composites, the difference between TD and FR was most pronounced at 19–20 months, with FRs having lower scores. For the individual prediction, highest cross-validation accuracy (68%) was obtained at 19–20 months, with sensitivity (correctly classified FR) being 70% and specificity (correctly classified TD) being 67%. There is a sensitive window in which the difference between FR and TD is most evident. Machine learning methods are promising techniques for separating FR and TD children at an early age, before they start reading. PMID:28270778

  20. A longitudinal investigation of the role of quantity and quality of child-directed speech in vocabulary development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Meredith L

    2012-01-01

    Quantity and quality of caregiver input was examined longitudinally in a sample of 50 parent-child dyads to determine which aspects of input contribute most to children's vocabulary skill across early development. Measures of input gleaned from parent-child interactions at child ages 18, 30, and 42months were examined in relation to children's vocabulary skill on a standardized measure 1year later (e.g., 30, 42, and 54months). Results show that controlling for socioeconomic status, input quantity, and children's previous vocabulary skill; using a diverse and sophisticated vocabulary with toddlers; and using decontextualized language (e.g., narrative) with preschoolers explains additional variation in later vocabulary ability. The differential effects of various aspects of the communicative environment at several points in early vocabulary development are discussed.

  1. Child Vocabulary, Maternal Behavior, and Inhibitory Control Development Among Spanish-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peredo, Tatiana Nogueira; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Rojas, Raúl; Caughy, Margaret O’Brien

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings The roles of child lexical diversity and maternal sensitivity in the development of young children’s inhibitory control were examined in 100 low-income Hispanic Spanish-speaking children. Child communication utterances at age 2½ years were transcribed from 10-min mother–child interactions to quantify lexical diversity. Maternal behavior was rated independently from the interactions. Inhibitory control was measured with a battery of tasks at ages 2½ and 3½. Greater maternal sensitivity was correlated with higher vocabulary at 2½. Greater vocabulary predicted positive growth in child inhibitory control skills from ages 2½ to 3½ in multivariable regression models that controlled for maternal education, family income, the home environment, and mothering quality. Practice or Policy These findings suggest that supporting vocabulary development in low-income Spanish-speaking children is important for the development of inhibitory control skills, an important foundation for school readiness and academic success. PMID:26306074

  2. Sign language vocabulary development practices and internet use among educational interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Brian C; Jamieson, Janet R

    2004-01-01

    Sign language interpreters working in schools often face isolation in terms of their sign language vocabulary development opportunities. The purposes of this study were to determine the key demographic characteristics of educational interpreters in British Columbia, to identify the resources they use to learn new vocabulary, and to shed light on their Internet use and access levels, with a view to exploring the viability of this resource as a tool for vocabulary development for interpreters working in educational settings. Key demographics associated with interpreters' access to time and materials in advance of a lesson were job title and graduation from an interpreter training program. Interpreters with job titles that reflected their status as interpreters had more preparatory time each week than interpreters who had job titles focused on their roles as educational assistants. Interpreters overwhelmingly expressed the need for continuing professional development with respect to vocabulary development. In terms of the resources currently used, human resources (colleagues, deaf adults) were used significantly more often than nonhuman (books, videotapes, Internet). The resource use results showed that convenience was more important than quality. Books were used more often than videotapes, CD-ROMs, and the Internet, although the latter three had higher percentages of very satisfied users than did books. The design and content of online vocabulary resources and limited interpreter preparation time were identified as current issues keeping the Internet from reaching its potential as an easily accessible visual resource. Recommendations aimed at enhancing the viability of the Internet as a vocabulary development tool for educational interpreters are discussed.

  3. Early lexical development in German: a study on vocabulary growth and vocabulary composition during the second and third year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauschke, Christina; Hofmeister, Christoph

    2002-11-01

    This paper focuses on aspects of early lexical acquisition in German. There have been conflicting results in the literature concerning both the pattern of vocabulary growth and the composition of the early lexicon. Our study describes the development of various categories of words and questions the preponderance of nouns in spontaneous speech. 32 children were studied longitudinally through recordings made at age 1;1, 1;3, 1;9 and 3;0. The following properties of the data were investigated: vocabulary size in relation to age, frequency of word use, and distribution of word categories. The results show that use of both types and tokens increases with time. A trend analysis indicates an exponential increase in vocabulary production in the second year, followed by a further expansion. This vocabulary spurt-like pattern can be observed in the use of word types and tokens. The findings in regard to vocabulary composition illustrate the dynamics present in the development of word categories. In the beginning, children use mostly relational words, personal-social words and some onomatopoeic terms. These categories are gradually complemented with nouns, verbs, function words and other words so that we see a balanced lexicon by 3;0. Trend analyses clarify characteristic developmental patterns in regard to certain word categories. Our spontaneous speech data does not support a strong noun-bias hypothesis.

  4. Investigating Use of a Parent Report Tool to Measure Vocabulary Development in Deaf Greek-Speaking Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktapoti, Maria; Okalidou, Areti; Kyriafinis, George; Petinou, Kakia; Vital, Victor; Herman, Rosalind

    2016-01-01

    Objective: There are very few measures of language development in spoken Greek that can be used with young deaf children. This study investigated the use of Cyprus Lexical List (CYLEX), a receptive and expressive vocabulary assessment based on parent report that has recently been adapted to Standard Greek, to measure the vocabulary development of…

  5. Development and exploitation of a controlled vocabulary in support of climate modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-P. Moine

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There are three key components for developing a metadata system: a container structure laying out the key semantic issues of interest and their relationships; an extensible controlled vocabulary providing possible content; and tools to create and manipulate that content. While metadata systems must allow users to enter their own information, the use of a controlled vocabulary both imposes consistency of definition and ensures comparability of the objects described. Here we describe the controlled vocabulary (CV and metadata creation tool built by the METAFOR project for use in the context of describing the climate models, simulations and experiments of the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5. The CV and resulting tool chain introduced here is designed for extensibility and re-use and should find applicability in many more projects.

  6. Using the interactive board in developing reading strategies for unhanced vocabulary acquisition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Retelj

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on some possibilities of using the available materials on the inte- ractive board, which can contribute to the development of the learning strategies and to the quality as well as to the efficiency in the process of vocabulary learning. The current findings on learning strategies and vocabulary learning (Oxford 1990, Nunan 1999, Nation 2001 are combined and compared to the usage of various materials of i-board in the classroom. A meaningful usage of i-board being our priority, we found more advantages in the use of i-board in comparison to the classical exercises on the paper. Our material is based on Piepho's and Häussermann'stypology of exercises for improving vocabulary learning. The students' perception of the interactive board in classroom is included and is based on analysis of the results of an online survey of 58 students, who had been using interactive board in German language classes for two years.

  7. The practice of participation: youth’s vocabularies around digital and offline engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stald, Gitte Bang

    Danish adolescents’ perceptions of democracy and democratic participation in digital society This paper aims at providing insights in the intersecting opportunities and challenges that young Danes encounter in relation to their interest in being informed citizens and towards democratic participat...

  8. Developing Vocabulary and Conceptual Knowledge for Low-Income Preschoolers: A Design Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Susan B.; Dwyer, Julie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this design experiment was to research, test, and iteratively derive principles of word learning and word organization that could help to theoretically advance our understanding of vocabulary development for low-income preschoolers. Six Head Start teachers in morning and afternoon programs and their children (N = 89) were selected…

  9. The role of majority and minority language input in the early development of a bilingual vocabulary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; Kuiken, F.; Jorna, R.J.; Klinkenberg, E.L.

    2016-01-01

    The current longitudinal study investigated the role of home language and outside home exposure in the development of Dutch and Frisian vocabulary by young bilinguals. Frisian is a minority language spoken in the north of the Netherlands. In three successive test rounds, 91 preschoolers were tested

  10. Impact of Auditory Selective Attention on Verbal Short-Term Memory and Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, Steve; Heiligenstein, Lucie; Gautherot, Nathalie; Poncelet, Martine; Van der Linden, Martial

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the role of auditory selective attention capacities as a possible mediator of the well-established association between verbal short-term memory (STM) and vocabulary development. A total of 47 6- and 7-year-olds were administered verbal immediate serial recall and auditory attention tasks. Both task types probed processing…

  11. Receptive Vocabulary Development of Infants and Toddlers Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Alison M.; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Sedey, Allison L.

    1999-01-01

    A study involving eight toddlers (aged 22 months) with hearing loss found significant correlations between the children's receptive vocabulary sources and other subscales of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory, as well as other measures of language, aspects of nonverbal cognition, and an assessment of symbolic play skills. (Contains…

  12. The Effect of Technology-Supported Co-Sharing on L2 Vocabulary Strategy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yu-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Strategies play an important role in learning a second or foreign language (L2). The aim of the current study was to develop and evaluate a co-sharing-based strategy learning system for L2 vocabulary learning known as "Mywordtools." Mywordtools is designed specifically for lexical learning, enabling learners to use the currently…

  13. The Arab University Students' Use of English General Service and Academic Vocabulary: A Lexical Development Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dakhs, Dina Abdel Salam

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have attempted to assess the English vocabulary knowledge of high-school students and undergraduate university students in contexts where English is a foreign language (EFL). The present paper explores the lexical development of Arab undergraduates at a Saudi University where EFL is the medium of instruction.…

  14. The Impact of the "First Language First" Model on Vocabulary Development among Preschool Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the role of the "First Language First" model for preschool bilingual education in the development of vocabulary depth. The languages studied were Russian (L1) and Hebrew (L2) among bilingual children aged 4-5 years in Israel. According to this model, the children's first language of…

  15. Vocabulary development in children with hearing loss: The role of child, family, and educational variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppens, K.M.; Tellings, A.E.J.M.; Veld, W.M. van der; Schreuder, R.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study we examined the effect of hearing status on reading vocabulary development. More specifically, we examined the change of lexical competence in children with hearing loss over grade 4-7 and the predictors of this change. Therefore, we used a multi-factor longitudinal design with

  16. What Can Neighbourhood Density Effects Tell Us about Word Learning? Insights from a Connectionist Model of Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takac, Martin; Knott, Alistair; Stokes, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of neighbourhood density (ND) on vocabulary size in a computational model of vocabulary development. A word has a high ND if there are many words phonologically similar to it. High ND words are more easily learned by infants of all abilities (e.g. Storkel, 2009; Stokes, 2014). We present a neural network…

  17. Teaching English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝丹

    2014-01-01

    Grammar provides the overall patterns, and vocabulary is the material to put in the patterns. Without grammar we can convey a little, but without vocabulary we can convey nothing. Vocabulary teaching is an indispensable part of English curriculum. Art is a kind of creation. Teaching vocabulary artistically can make teachers and students build up created consciousness in teaching and learning vocabulary activities and teachers put their experience and emotions towards beauty into teaching activities to raise general vocabulary teaching activities to appreciation of beauty and creative activities, convert bitter into happy, tense into ease. Thus the non-intellectual factors like motive, interest, emotion, self-confidence and so on can be developed naturally and they will elaborate a great part in English vocabulary teaching. At the same time, the relationship between teachers and students can get improved fundamentally furthest and it pushes vocabulary teaching powerfully in turn.

  18. VOCABULARY STRATEGIES AND VOCABULARY LEARNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This research is a comparative study of Chinese EFLgradutes′vocabulary strategies applied in their EGeneralAP(English for General Academic Purposes)and ESpecialAP(English for Special Academic Purpose)learning.Participantswere the first-year graduates of non-English major in ChinaPharmaceutical University(N=102).The present study uses ataxonomy of strategies developed by O’Malley and Chamot(1990),which was modified to more accurately reflectvocabulary strategies(altogether 31 sub-strategy variables within16 strategies).Analysis through SAS(Statistic Analysis System)on the collected date has revealed that:1)Learners apply more types of vocabulary stategies inEGeneralAP than in ESpecialAP vocabulary learning.2)Translation and Extensive Reading gain higher frequencyof application in ESpecialAP learning.3)11 vocabulary strategies strongly predict EGeneralAPvocabulary achievement and only 6 strategies strongly predictESpecialAp vocabulary achievement.At the end of the paper,some practical suggestions aremade for EFL graduate teachers to adjust their teaching targetand methods.

  19. Risk factors for children's receptive vocabulary development from four to eight years in the longitudinal study of Australian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L Taylor

    Full Text Available Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4-8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC. Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB, low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4-8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children

  20. Risk factors for children's receptive vocabulary development from four to eight years in the longitudinal study of Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine L; Christensen, Daniel; Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2013-01-01

    Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4-8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB), low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4-8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children's developmental outcomes

  1. Risk Factors for Children's Receptive Vocabulary Development from Four to Eight Years in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine L.; Christensen, Daniel; Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4–8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB), low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4–8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children's developmental

  2. Interactive College English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敏

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary learning is the foundation of language learning and the security to realize the language communication. However, vocabulary learning for many students is a difficulty which is hard to pass across. This paper attempts to explore the present vocabulary teaching reform, which aims to establish a teaching method that is to help students develop vocabulary learn-ing interest with the game.

  3. Simultaneous bilingual language acquisition: The role of parental input on receptive vocabulary development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Andrea An; Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Boegner-Pagé, Sarah; Fontolliet, Salomé

    2013-02-01

    Parents often turn to educators and healthcare professionals for advice on how to best support their child's language development. These professionals frequently suggest implementing the 'one-parent-one-language' approach to ensure consistent exposure to both languages. The goal of this study was to understand how language exposure influences the receptive vocabulary development of simultaneous bilingual children. To this end, we targeted nine German-French children growing up in bilingual families. Their exposure to each language within and outside the home was measured, as were their receptive vocabulary abilities in German and French. The results indicate that children are receiving imbalanced exposure to each language. This imbalance is leading to a slowed development of the receptive vocabulary in the minority language, while the majority language is keeping pace with monolingual peers. The one-parent-one-language approach does not appear to support the development of both of the child's languages in the context described in the present study. Bilingual families may need to consider other options for supporting the bilingual language development of their children. As professionals, we need to provide parents with advice that is based on available data and that is flexible with regards to the current and future needs of the child and his family.

  4. Development of a Mandarin Expressive and Receptive Vocabulary Test for children using cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaopan; Wong, Lena L-N; Wong, Anita M-Y; Xi, Xin

    2013-10-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) provide children with profound hearing loss access to sounds and speech. Research on the effects of CI on speech and language development in mainland China is scarce due to the lack of standardized tests. This study aims at developing a vocabulary measure, the Mandarin Expressive and Receptive Vocabulary Test (MERVT), for pre-school children with CIs. Using responses from 102 normal-hearing preschool children, the initial vocabulary set was subjected to analyses to identify items with appropriate levels of difficulty and discrimination. Norms on 245 normal-hearing children aged 1;6 to 3;11 were later collected based on the final set of the items. Evaluation of the test's psychometric properties revealed good internal consistency. Significant correlations between the total MERVT scores and the Gesell Developmental Scale scores, between the MERVT expressive and receptive subtest scores and the total scores, and the gradual increase in MERVT scores with age, provided evidence of construct validity. Results from 29 children with CIs were also examined for evidence of the MERVT's construct validity. There was a significant correlation between these children's MERVT scores and their scores from an intelligence test. The MERVT scores increased with an increase in the duration of CI use and in chronological age. With good reliability and strong validity, the test is recommended for use in the monitoring of language development in children with CI.

  5. Development and evaluation of a computer-animated tutor for vocabulary and language learning in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosseler, Alexis; Massaro, Dominic W

    2003-12-01

    Using our theoretical framework of multimodal processing, we developed and evaluated a computer-animated tutor, Baldi, to teach vocabulary and grammar for children with autism. Baldi was implemented in a Language Wizard/Player, which allows easy creation and presentation of a language lesson involving the association of pictures and spoken words. The lesson plan includes both the identification of pictures and the production of spoken words. In Experiment 1, eight children were given initial assessment tests, tutorials, and reassessment tests 30 days following mastery of the vocabulary items. All of the students learned a significant number of new words and grammar. A second within-subject design with six children followed a multiple baseline design and documented that the program was responsible for the learning and generalization of new words. The research indicates that children with autism are capable of learning new language within an automated program centered around a computer-animated agent, multimedia, and active participation and can transfer and use the language in a natural, untrained environment.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF MULTI-COORDINATE VOCABULARY, PLASMA PHYSICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LERNER, RITA G.

    DESCRIBED IS THE DEVELOPMENT OF A THESAURUS FOR THE FIELD OF PLASMA PHYSICS, SIMILAR TO THE ONE PREVIOUSLY DEVELOPED FOR CHEMICAL PHYSICS, FOR USE WITH COMPUTER-ORIENTED RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS. AN EXPERT IN THE FIELD OF PLASMA PHYSICS SELECTED TERMS IMPORTANT TO THE INFORMATION USER FROM THE PLASMA LITERATURE. THE HIERARCHY OF CLASSIFICATION UTILIZES…

  7. Classroom Age Composition and Vocabulary Development Among At-Risk Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Tompkins, Virginia; Justice, Laura; Petscher, Yaacov

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the relationship between classroom age composition and preschoolers' vocabulary gains over an academic year and also to examine whether these relations were moderated by classroom quality. In this study (N = 130 children in 16 classrooms representing a subset of all children enrolled in these classrooms), results showed a significant cross-level interaction between classroom age composition and children's age, suggesting positive effects of greater variance in classroom age composition for younger but not older children. The interaction between behavior management (1 dimension of classroom quality) and classroom age composition was also significant, indicating that a wider distribution of classroom age composition was positively related to children's vocabulary gains within classrooms characterized by better behavior management. Findings underscore the importance of children's social interactions with more knowledgeable conversational partners in promoting their vocabulary development and signify the need to help teachers learn how to manage children's behaviors so as to provide a classroom that is optimal for child learning.

  8. Teaching Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard-Clouston, M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary is central to English language teaching. Without sufficient vocabulary, students cannot understand others or express their own ideas. Teachers who find the task of teaching English vocabulary a little daunting are not alone! This book presents important issues from recent vocabulary research and theory so that teachers may approach…

  9. Teaching Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard-Clouston, M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary is central to English language teaching. Without sufficient vocabulary, students cannot understand others or express their own ideas. Teachers who find the task of teaching English vocabulary a little daunting are not alone! This book presents important issues from recent vocabulary research and theory so that teachers may approach…

  10. Non-word repetition assesses phonological memory and is related to vocabulary development in 20- to 24-month-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Core, Cynthia; Bridges, Kelly

    2008-11-01

    Two studies test the hypotheses that individual differences in phonological memory among children younger than two years can be assessed using a non-word repetition task (NWR) and that these differences are related to the children's rates of vocabulary development. NWR accuracy, real word repetition accuracy and productive vocabulary were assessed in 15 children between 1 ; 9 and 2 ; 0 in Study 1 and in 21 children between 1 ; 8 and 2 ; 0 in Study 2. In both studies, NWR accuracy was significantly related to vocabulary percentile and, furthermore, uniquely accounted for a substantial portion of the variance in vocabulary when real word repetition accuracy was held constant. The findings establish NWR as a valid measure of phonological memory in very young children, and they open the door for further studies of the role of phonological memory in early word learning.

  11. Using Sentence Frames to Develop Academic Vocabulary for English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Whitney Bray; Roe, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Often, English-language development (ELD) is taught during a dedicated time of the school day. There is often a mismatch between the content of ELD and the lessons taught during core instruction provided during the remainder of the day. During core instruction, teachers use specially designed academic instruction in English strategies to ensure…

  12. Developing a standardized cephalometric vocabulary: choices and possible strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Randall F; Edgar, Heather; Tatlock, Charles; Kroth, Philip J

    2008-09-01

    The science of cephalometry has been invaluable for guiding orthodontic diagnosis, treatment planning, and outcomes tracking. Though software packages easily calculate most cephalometric measurements, the ability to exchange cephalometric data between software packages is poorly developed. Hindering this effort is the lack of an agreed-upon standard for electronic exchange of cephalometric measurements. Unlike more technological issues, the problem of creating such a standard is one of formalizing decisions already established through historical precedent. Solving this problem will require education, cooperation, and consensus in order to reap the potential improvements to patient care, dental education, and research. The first step in overcoming these remaining issues is awareness. This article reviews those factors that place cephalometric measurements in an excellent position for standardization, outlines those decisions that must be made in order to realize the goal of electronic exchange of cephalometric information, and describes some of the options for these decisions as well as some advantages and disadvantages of each.

  13. Comparing Vocabulary Development in Spanish- and Chinese-Speaking ELLs: The Effects of Metalinguistic and Sociocultural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Ramirez, Gloria; Luo, Yang C.; Geva, Esther; Ku, Yu-Min

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of two metalinguistic factors, English derivational awareness and English-Spanish cognate awareness, and the impact of two sociocultural factors, maternal education and children's length of residence in Canada, on English Language Learners (ELLs)' vocabulary knowledge. The participants of the study were 89…

  14. Comparing Vocabulary Development in Spanish- and Chinese-Speaking ELLs: The Effects of Metalinguistic and Sociocultural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Ramirez, Gloria; Luo, Yang C.; Geva, Esther; Ku, Yu-Min

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of two metalinguistic factors, English derivational awareness and English-Spanish cognate awareness, and the impact of two sociocultural factors, maternal education and children's length of residence in Canada, on English Language Learners (ELLs)' vocabulary knowledge. The participants of the study were 89…

  15. Development of Vocabulary in Spanish-Speaking and Cantonese-Speaking English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikoshi, Yuuko

    2014-01-01

    This study examines vocabulary growth rates in first and second languages for Spanish-speaking and Cantonese-speaking English language learners from kindergarten through second grade. Growth-modeling results show a within-language effect of concepts about print on vocabulary. Language exposure also had an effect on English vocabulary: earlier…

  16. Influence of Three Teaching Strategies on Korean EFL Students' Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Cheongsook

    2009-01-01

    This research examined the effectiveness of three different learning strategies on Korean EFL students' vocabulary comprehension and retention: context, semantic mapping, and word lists. 116 college freshmen were placed into one of the three treatments of vocabulary instruction. Subjects were tested on varying levels of vocabulary knowledge using…

  17. Using Mobile-Assisted Exercises to Support Students' Vocabulary Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwantarathip, Ornprapat; Orawiwatnakul, Wiwat

    2015-01-01

    The use of mobile phones for learning has become well-known and is widely adopted in many language classes. The use of SMS for transmitting short messages is a fast way of helping students to learn vocabulary. To address this issue, this study was conducted to examine the effects of mobile-assisted vocabulary exercises on vocabulary acquisition of…

  18. Development of Vocabulary in Spanish-Speaking and Cantonese-Speaking English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikoshi, Yuuko

    2014-01-01

    This study examines vocabulary growth rates in first and second languages for Spanish-speaking and Cantonese-speaking English language learners from kindergarten through second grade. Growth-modeling results show a within-language effect of concepts about print on vocabulary. Language exposure also had an effect on English vocabulary: earlier…

  19. Developing a Specialized Vocabulary Word List in a Composition Culinary Course through Lecture Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.Nordin, N. R.; Stapa, S. H.; Darus, S.

    2013-01-01

    Learning to write in a composition culinary course is very challenging for L2 learners. The main barrier in writing proficiency within this discipline is the lack of vocabulary, specifically the lack of exposure towards specialized vocabulary. This study aims to provide a corpus of specialized vocabulary within a food writing course. By providing…

  20. Discussion on English Vocabulary and Description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Lan; Zhang Shiying

    2013-01-01

    Compared with the study of Grammar, syntax, the description on vocabulary is comparatively slower than them. The related theories of vocabulary description have fast developed since the 1980s and 1990s have experienced a growing interest in vocabulary learning and teaching----The vocabulary size, text coverage, word list, meaning of vocabulary in context, and collocation have been discovered and described, which helped new insights in arrange of different research fields have all added to our understanding of vocabulary development. Vocabulary acquisition research, based on vocabulary description, has established itself as a central research focus for language acquisition researchers and contributed to the focus of practical teaching and learning in English.

  1. The Composition of Early Vocabulary in Spanish Children With Down Syndrome and Their Peers With Typical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa, Elena; Galeote, Miguel; Soto, Pilar

    2016-11-01

    There are very few studies, and at present none in Spanish, on vocabulary composition in children with Down syndrome (DS). Nor has the topic been widely assessed in Spanish-speaking children with typical development (TD). This study analyzed the composition of early vocabularies in a large sample of Spanish-speaking children with DS and compared it with that of children with TD. We studied 108 children with DS and 108 children with TD with mental ages between 8 and 29 months, matched for size of productive vocabulary and gender. The MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (Fenson et al., 1993, 2007), adapted to the language development profile of children with DS, were used. The categories examined were nouns, predicates, closed-class words, and social words. The performance of children with DS was similar to that of children with TD with the same vocabulary size. The only significant difference was the larger production of nouns by children with DS. The trends of development in the different classes of words were also similar. The strategies used by children with DS to learn vocabulary may be similar to those used by children with TD in the first stages of language learning.

  2. Mutualistic Coupling Between Vocabulary and Reasoning Supports Cognitive Development During Late Adolescence and Early Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kievit, Rogier A; Lindenberger, Ulman; Goodyer, Ian M; Jones, Peter B; Fonagy, Peter; Bullmore, Edward T; Dolan, Raymond J

    2017-10-01

    One of the most replicable findings in psychology is the positive manifold: the observation that individual differences in cognitive abilities are universally positively correlated. Investigating the developmental origin of the positive manifold is crucial to understanding it. In a large longitudinal cohort of adolescents and young adults ( N = 785; n = 566 across two waves, mean interval between waves = 1.48 years; age range = 14-25 years), we examined developmental changes in two core cognitive domains, fluid reasoning and vocabulary. We used bivariate latent change score models to compare three leading accounts of cognitive development: g-factor theory, investment theory, and mutualism. We showed that a mutualism model, which proposes that basic cognitive abilities directly and positively interact during development, provides the best account of developmental changes. We found that individuals with higher scores in vocabulary showed greater gains in matrix reasoning and vice versa. These dynamic coupling pathways are not predicted by other accounts and provide a novel mechanistic window into cognitive development.

  3. Vocabulary Knowledge and Vocabulary Use in Second Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark D.; Acevedo, Anthony; Mercado, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Research has consistently shown diversity of vocabulary to be an important indicator of second language (L2) writing development as well as L2 writing performance. These studies underscore the importance of vocabulary to L2 writing. However, they provide little to indicate what kind of vocabulary learners of English may need to know in order to…

  4. Vocabulary Knowledge and Vocabulary Use in Second Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark D.; Acevedo, Anthony; Mercado, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Research has consistently shown diversity of vocabulary to be an important indicator of second language (L2) writing development as well as L2 writing performance. These studies underscore the importance of vocabulary to L2 writing. However, they provide little to indicate what kind of vocabulary learners of English may need to know in order to…

  5. Vocabulary Plus: Comprehensive Vocabulary Instruction for English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Rhoda

    2010-01-01

    "Vocabulary Plus" is an interactive strategy which links vocabulary development with content area learning for English learners. This strategy uses interactive read-alouds of thematically- connected informational text matched to the grade-appropriate state standards and content of core subjects. When using "Vocabulary Plus",…

  6. Community Participation and Sustainable Development of Ecotourism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community Participation and Sustainable Development of Ecotourism: The Case of the ... and sustainable use of the naturebased tourism resources of Wechiau. ... conservation and sustainable ecotourism but exhibit a negative relationship ...

  7. Pedagogical uses of authentic video in ESP classrooms for developing language skills and enriching vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Jurkovič

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Authentic video has an established role in the teaching of General English (GE in conventional language classrooms. What has been under-researched, however, is the role of authentic video in the Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL setting, where despite being common, video is still considered a peripheral product. In the teaching of English for Specific Purposes (ESP, which also draws onto findings made in the field of GE, little research has been made into the use of authentic video in both conventional and virtual language environments (VLEs. In order to better understand the role of video in ESP teaching in general and to identify potential areas that call for further research, this paper will explore how authentic video is used to develop the four language skills, audiovisual reception, and vocabulary, in the Slovene higher education area. The research is based on qualitative research methodology, more specifically on semi-structured interviews with ESP teachers and textbook authors, and a textual analysis of ESP textbooks published in Slovenia. The results indicate that most ESP teachers are aware of the benefits of using video materials for the development of the four skills, in particular the productive skills of writing and speaking, and vocabulary. However, teachers are reluctant to include video-related tasks into printed textbooks. Instead, these tasks are migrating to VLEs, which highlights the need to further explore the relationship between traditional textbooks and VLE instructional materials used in conventional language teaching.

  8. Vocabulary notebooks

    OpenAIRE

    KOZETA HYSO

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary notebooks are one way of promoting learner independence. Introducing vocabulary notebooks to provide the learners with an area of language learning where they could be given a relatively high level of independence that would build their confidence in their ability to act independently in terms of vocabulary learning. This article is focused on the effectiveness of keeping the vocabulary notebooks to empower the learner’s independence on their foreign language learning and also to e...

  9. Visualizing Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary can become tedious and a chore if it is approached as such. By making art terms and vocabulary meaningful, students will remember and use them for years to come. In this article, the author describes two vocabulary review projects that work wonderfully and create great works of art: (1) cursive creature rubbings; and (2) bubbling bodies…

  10. Visualizing Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary can become tedious and a chore if it is approached as such. By making art terms and vocabulary meaningful, students will remember and use them for years to come. In this article, the author describes two vocabulary review projects that work wonderfully and create great works of art: (1) cursive creature rubbings; and (2) bubbling bodies…

  11. The Challenge of Effective Vocabulary Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cárdenas B. Melba Libia

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Helping students develop vocabulary competence is one of the main challenges English language teachers face. This paper addresses the main aspects we should consider when planning and developing lessons in terms of vocabulary improvement. To achieve that objective, we will analyse the linguistic background and principles of vocabulary teaching and learning, as well as some ways of opening up vocabulary.

  12. LEARNING GERMAN AS A THIRD LANGUAGE THROUGHS ESL. STRATEGIES TO DEVELOP VOCABULARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen-Daniela CARAIMAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at revealing advantages of studying German (acquired as an L3 by a speaker who has a high level of knowledge in English (acquired as an L2. Those interested in learning German as a third language through ESL may benefit from a set of facilities that could fasten the process of learning vocabulary and enhance the disambiguation process in case of synonymy, false friends and pseudo-Anglicism. The approach we have adopted in the present paper is a practical one. We have appreciated that the process of assimilating German as an L3 through ESL could offer another benefit to learners, i.e. the possibility of simultaneously activating and practicing both foreign languages that they either master or intend to master. In the present paper, we are not going to refer to the influence of the socio-cultural environment1 on the learners of German as an L3 through English as a Secondary Language, as we are not going to make reference to psycholinguistic elements2 that are characteristic of third language acquisition. After explaining terminology and giving an overview of the theoretical background that we related to when writing the present article, we are going to insist on enumerating some basic strategies that could be successfully used to build and develop vocabulary in German by using English as a secondly acquired foreign language.

  13. Learning with sublexical information from emerging reading vocabularies in exceptionally early and normal reading development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, G Brian; Fletcher-Flinn, Claire M; Wilson, Kathryn J; McKay, Michael F; Margrain, Valerie G

    2015-03-01

    Predictions from theories of the processes of word reading acquisition have rarely been tested against evidence from exceptionally early readers. The theories of Ehri, Share, and Byrne, and an alternative, Knowledge Sources theory, were so tested. The former three theories postulate that full development of context-free letter sounds and awareness of phonemes are required for normal acquisition, while the claim of the alternative is that with or without such, children can use sublexical information from their emerging reading vocabularies to acquire word reading. Results from two independent samples of children aged 3-5, and 5 years, with mean word reading levels of 7 and 9 years respectively, showed underdevelopment of their context-free letter sounds and phoneme awareness, relative to their word reading levels and normal comparison samples. Despite such underdevelopment, these exceptional readers engaged in a form of phonological recoding that enabled pseudoword reading, at the level of older-age normal controls matched on word reading level. Moreover, in the 5-year-old sample further experiments showed that, relative to normal controls, they had a bias toward use of sublexical information from their reading vocabularies for phonological recoding of heterophonic pseudowords with irregular consistent spelling, and were superior in accessing word meanings independently of phonology, although only if the readers were without exposure to explicit phonics. The three theories were less satisfactory than the alternative theory in accounting for the learning of the exceptionally early readers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Does Rare Vocabulary Use Distinguish Giftedness From Typical Development? A Study of School-Age African American Narrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Monique T; Mahurin-Smith, Jamie; Steele, Sara C

    2017-05-17

    The purpose of this study was to examine rare vocabulary produced in the spoken narratives of school-age African American children. Forty-three children from general and gifted classrooms produced 2 narratives: a personal story and a fictional story that was based on the wordless book Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer, 1969). The Wordlist for Expressive Rare Vocabulary Evaluation (Mahurin-Smith, DeThorne, & Petrill, 2015) was used to tally number and type of uncommon words produced in these narratives. The authors used t tests and logistic regressions to explore classroom- and narrative-type differences in rare vocabulary production. Correlational analysis determined the relationship between dialect variation and rare vocabulary production. Findings indicated that tallies of rare-word types were higher in fictional narratives, whereas rare-word density-a measure that controls for narrative length-was greater in personal narratives. Rare-word density distinguished children in general classrooms from those in gifted classrooms. There was no correlation between dialect variation and rare-word density. Examining school-age African American children's facility with rare vocabulary production appears to be a dialect-neutral way to measure their narrative language and to distinguish gifted children from typically developing children.

  15. Strategies for teaching and learning vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Teng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article presents an overview of current research on second language vocabulary learning and proposes eight strategies for teaching and learning vocabulary. First, to facilitate effective vocabulary teaching, choosing high-frequency words is essential. Teachers of vocabulary also need to add explicit, intentional teaching to incidental learning. In addition, vocabulary learning strategies including morphological awareness and lexical inference provides a platform by which learners can improve both receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge. This article also suggests that productive vocabulary knowledge needs more attention than receptive vocabulary knowledge, and that available textbooks seldom address vocabulary sufficiently. In summary, it is very important for all learners and teachers to acknowledge that learning vocabulary is incremental in nature, and we should develop a principled, long-term program for teaching and learning vocabulary.

  16. Vocabularies in the VO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A. J. G.; Gray, N.; Ounis, I.

    2009-09-01

    There are multiple vocabularies and thesauri within astronomy, of which the best known are the 1993 IAU Thesaurus and the keyword list maintained by A&A, ApJ and MNRAS. The IVOA has agreed on a standard for publishing vocabularies, based on the W3C skos standard, to allow greater automated interaction with them, in particular on the Web. This allows links with the Semantic Web and looks forward to richer applications using the technologies of that domain. Vocabulary-aware applications can benefit from improvements in both precision and recall when searching for bibliographic or science data, and lightweight intelligent filtering for services such as VOEvent streams. In this paper we present two applications, the Vocabulary Explorer and its companion the Mapping Editor, which have been developed to support the use of vocabularies in the Virtual Observatory. These combine Semantic Web and Information Retrieval technologies to illustrate the way in which formal vocabularies might be used in a practical application, provide an online service which will allow astronomers to explore and relate existing vocabularies, and provide a service which translates free text user queries into vocabulary terms.

  17. Expressive Vocabulary Development in Children from Bilingual and Monolingual Homes: A Longitudinal Study from Two to Four Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Burridge, Andrea; Ribot, Krystal M; Welsh, Stephanie N

    2014-10-01

    The early course of language development among children from bilingual homes varies in ways that are not well described and as a result of influences that are not well understood. Here, we describe trajectories of relative change in expressive vocabulary from 22 to 48 months and vocabulary achievement at 48 months in two groups of children from bilingual homes (children with one and children with two native Spanish-speaking parents [ns = 15 and 11]) and in an SES-equivalent group of children from monolingual English homes (n = 31). The two groups from bilingual homes differed in their mean levels of English and Spanish skills, in their developmental trajectories during this period, and in the relation between language use at home and their vocabulary development. Children with two native Spanish-speaking parents showed steepest gains in total vocabulary and were more nearly balanced bilinguals at 48 months. Children with one native Spanish- and one native English-speaking parent showed trajectories of relative decline in Spanish vocabulary. At 48 months, mean levels of English skill among the bilingual children were comparable to monolingual norms, but children with two native Spanish-speaking parents had lower English scores than the SES-equivalent monolingual group. Use of English at home was a significant positive predictor of English vocabulary scores only among children with a native English-speaking parent. These findings argue that efforts to optimize school readiness among children from immigrant families should facilitate their access to native speakers of the community language, and efforts to support heritage language maintenance should include encouraging heritage language use by native speakers in the home.

  18. Expressive Vocabulary Development in Children from Bilingual and Monolingual Homes: A Longitudinal Study from Two to Four Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Burridge, Andrea; Ribot, Krystal M.; Welsh, Stephanie N.

    2014-01-01

    The early course of language development among children from bilingual homes varies in ways that are not well described and as a result of influences that are not well understood. Here, we describe trajectories of relative change in expressive vocabulary from 22 to 48 months and vocabulary achievement at 48 months in two groups of children from bilingual homes (children with one and children with two native Spanish-speaking parents [ns = 15 and 11]) and in an SES-equivalent group of children from monolingual English homes (n = 31). The two groups from bilingual homes differed in their mean levels of English and Spanish skills, in their developmental trajectories during this period, and in the relation between language use at home and their vocabulary development. Children with two native Spanish-speaking parents showed steepest gains in total vocabulary and were more nearly balanced bilinguals at 48 months. Children with one native Spanish- and one native English-speaking parent showed trajectories of relative decline in Spanish vocabulary. At 48 months, mean levels of English skill among the bilingual children were comparable to monolingual norms, but children with two native Spanish-speaking parents had lower English scores than the SES-equivalent monolingual group. Use of English at home was a significant positive predictor of English vocabulary scores only among children with a native English-speaking parent. These findings argue that efforts to optimize school readiness among children from immigrant families should facilitate their access to native speakers of the community language, and efforts to support heritage language maintenance should include encouraging heritage language use by native speakers in the home. PMID:25089074

  19. Second Language Vocabulary Growth at Advanced Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Meral

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the receptive vocabulary growth of advanced EFL learners in an English-medium degree programme. The study used the Vocabulary Size Test in a cross-sectional design to measure the vocabulary size of learners at various stages of study. The effect of word frequency on vocabulary development and the presence of an…

  20. The effect of vocabulary notebooks on vocabulary acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Bozkurt, Neval

    2007-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Bilkent University, 2007. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2007. Includes bibliographical references leaves 82-87 This study investigated the effectiveness of vocabulary notebooks on vocabulary acquisition, and the attitudes of teachers and learners towards keeping vocabulary notebooks. The study was conducted with the participation of 60 pre-intermediate level students, divided into one treatment ...

  1. Developing Vocabularies to Improve Understanding and Use of NOAA Observing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, M.

    2014-12-01

    The NOAA Observing System Integrated Analysis project (NOSIA II), is an attempt to capture and tell the story of how valuable observing systems are in producing products and services that are required to fulfill the NOAA's diverse mission. NOAA's goals and mission areas cover a broad range of environmental data; a complexity exists in terms and vocabulary as applied to the creation of observing system derived products. The NOSIA data collection focused first on decomposing NOAA's goals in the creation and acceptance of Mission Service Areas (MSAs) by NOAA senior leadership. Products and services that supported the MSAs were then identified through the process of interviewing product producers across NOAA organization. Product Data inputs including models, databases and observing system were also identified. The NOSIA model contains over 20,000 nodes each representing levels in a network connecting products, datasources, users and desired outcomes. An immediate need became apparent that the complexity and variety of the data collected required data management to mature the quality and the content of the NOSIA model. The NOSIA Analysis Database (ADB) was developed initially to improve consistency of terms and data types to allow for the linkage of observing systems, products and NOAA's Goals and mission. The ADB also allowed for the prototyping of reports and product generation in an easily accessible and comprehensive format for the first time. Web based visualization of relationships between products, datasources, users, producers were generated to make the information easily understood This includes developing ontologies/vocabularies that are used for the development of users type specific products for NOAA leadership, Observing System Portfolio mangers and the users of NOAA data.

  2. Delayed Early Vocabulary Development in Children at Family Risk of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Viersen, Sietske; de Bree, Elise H.; Verdam, Mathilde; Krikhaar, Evelien; Maassen, Ben; van der Leij, Aryan; de Jong, Peter F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to gain more insight into the relation between vocabulary and reading acquisition by examining early growth trajectories in the vocabulary of children at family risk (FR) of dyslexia longitudinally. Method: The sample included 212 children from the Dutch Dyslexia Program with and without an FR. Parents reported on their…

  3. Effects of a Multimedia Professional Development Package on Inclusive Science Teachers' Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Michael J.; Rodgers, Wendy J.; Romig, John Elwood; Lloyd, John Wills; Brownell, Mary T.

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is vital for students' success in school and beyond. However, students with disabilities and others who consistently score below their peers on various measures of vocabulary knowledge have difficulties in secondary-level content area courses. Because many students with disabilities are now educated primarily in general…

  4. Delayed Early Vocabulary Development in Children at Family Risk of Dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Viersen, Sietske; de Bree, Elise H; Verdam, Mathilde; Maassen, Ben; Krikhaar, Evelien; van der Leij, Aryan; de Jong, Peter F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to gain more insight into the relation between vocabulary and reading acquisition by examining early growth trajectories in the vocabulary of children at family risk (FR) of dyslexia longitudinally. Method: The sample included 212 children from the Dutch Dyslexia Program

  5. Developing Reading Comprehension and Academic Vocabulary for English Language Learners through Science Content: A Formative Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada, Ana; Rutherford, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    This formative experiment explored the extent to which two instructional frameworks that varied in the explicitness of academic vocabulary instruction, comprehension strategy instruction, and supports for student autonomy influenced reading comprehension, vocabulary acquisition, perceptions of autonomy supports, and reading engagement in…

  6. Development and transfer of vocabulary knowledge in Spanish-speaking language minority preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, J Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J; Kleuver, Cherie G; Farver, Joann M

    2016-09-01

    In this study we evaluated the predictive validity of conceptual scoring. Two independent samples of Spanish-speaking language minority preschoolers (Sample 1: N = 96, mean age = 54·51 months, 54·3% male; Sample 2: N = 116, mean age = 60·70 months, 56·0% male) completed measures of receptive, expressive, and definitional vocabulary in their first (L1) and second (L2) languages at two time points approximately 9-12 months apart. We examined whether unique L1 and L2 vocabulary at time 1 predicted later L2 and L1 vocabulary, respectively. Results indicated that unique L1 vocabulary did not predict later L2 vocabulary after controlling for initial L2 vocabulary. An identical pattern of results emerged for L1 vocabulary outcomes. We also examined whether children acquired translational equivalents for words known in one language but not the other. Results indicated that children acquired translational equivalents, providing partial support for the transfer of vocabulary knowledge across languages.

  7. Developing 10 Interesting Games as the Breakthrough of Monotonous Implementation of Flashcards to Vocabulary Learning and Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Indra Kusuma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary learning is the very first instructional process in learning a language. Vocabulary teaching has been becoming the issues of English teaching in Indonesia for years and it raises the opportunities of research on this field. This study belongs to Research & Development study which aims at (1 Describing the media used by teachers in vocabulary learning, (2 The activities implemented during the implementation of the media, and (3 Developing the games which can support the use of the media in vocabulary learning. The subjects in this study were teachers and 100 students of Elementary Schools in Buleleng Sub-district. This study used mixed methods approach where all the data was collected through the implementation of observations, interview, and administering questionnaires. The data was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The results show that (1 the media used was flashcards, (2 the activity conducted was monotonous, and (3 10 interesting games were developed. Based on the aforementioned results, it can be concluded that the media used by teachers was flashcards in which the implementation was monotonous. Therefore, 10 interesting games were developed.

  8. The Importance of SES, Home and School Language and Literacy Practices, and Oral Vocabulary in Bilingual Children's English Reading Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Elizabeth R.; Páez, Mariela M.; August, Diane L.; Barr, Christopher D.; Kenyon, Dorry; Malabonga, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the role that socioeconomic status (SES), home and school language and literacy practices, and oral vocabulary play in the development of English reading skills in Latino English language learners (ELLs) and how these factors contribute differentially to English reading outcomes for children of different ages and in different…

  9. Investigating the Effect of Cooperative Learning and Competitive Learning Strategies on the English Vocabulary Development of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekri, Neda

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the effect of cooperative and competitive learning strategies on the acquisition of English vocabulary development by Iranian EFL intermediate learners. In addition, it explored what type of theses strategies was more effective. In such doing, utilizing an Oxford Placement Test (OPT), 45 out of 77 Iranian EFL…

  10. Vocabulary used by ethno-linguistically diverse South African toddlers: A parent report using the Language Development Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurellia Shamaleni Gonasillan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The primary aim of this study was to ascertain the relevance of the vocabulary of the Language Development Survey (LDS for typically developing South African toddlers who attend ethno-linguistically diverse early childhood development centres.Rationale: The need for exploration of the expressive vocabulary of this population stems from the diverse linguistic contexts to which toddlers are exposed on a day-to-day basis in South Africa. Many parents prefer English as the language of learning and teaching for their child. As a result, toddlers interact with ethno-linguistically diverse peers from a young age, usually within their early childhood development centres.Method: An adapted version of the LDS was presented to 40 middle-class parents in Mpumalanga. Vocabulary commonly used by toddlers was determined and a comparison of parent responses made between the present study and the original American-based survey.Results: Results revealed that nouns were used most often by toddlers, in keeping with research on vocabulary acquisition. Significant correlations between the two groups were evident in 12 of the 14 categories. Parents reported that nouns, verbs, adjectives and words from other word classes were used similarly by toddlers, despite differences in their linguistic exposure.Conclusions: These findings suggest that the LDS is a valuable clinical screening tool for speech-language therapists who deliver services to toddlers within the South African context.

  11. Towards More Systematic Development of Children's Reading Vocabulary in Developmental Reading Programs for the Middle to Upper Elementary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotsky, Sandra L.

    The major purpose of this thesis was to show that it is possible to develop a theoretically sound and empirically based rationale for determining the systematic introduction and use of vocabulary in middle-grade reading instructional material. A major portion of the research for this thesis consisted of a content analysis of six current reading…

  12. The Importance of SES, Home and School Language and Literacy Practices, and Oral Vocabulary in Bilingual Children's English Reading Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Elizabeth R.; Páez, Mariela M.; August, Diane L.; Barr, Christopher D.; Kenyon, Dorry; Malabonga, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the role that socioeconomic status (SES), home and school language and literacy practices, and oral vocabulary play in the development of English reading skills in Latino English language learners (ELLs) and how these factors contribute differentially to English reading outcomes for children of different ages and in different…

  13. The Effect of the Integration of Corpora in Reading Comprehension Classrooms on English as a Foreign Language Learners' Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordani, Yahya

    2013-01-01

    This study used a randomized pretest-posttest control group design to examine the effect of the integration of corpora in general English courses on the students' vocabulary development. To enhance the learners' lexical repertoire and thereby improve their reading comprehension, an online corpus-based approach was integrated into 42 hours of…

  14. The Author Recognition and Magazine Recognition Tests, and Free Voluntary Rereading as Predictors of Vocabulary Development in English as a Foreign Language for Korean High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haeyoung; Krashen, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    In this study, performance on Author and Magazine Recognition Tests were found to predict second-language vocabulary among high school English-as-a-Foreign-Language students in Korea. Reported free reading in English was also related to vocabulary development, but the effect of the author and magazine recognition tests was independent of free…

  15. The Influence of Spanish Vocabulary and Phonemic Awareness on Beginning English Reading Development: A Three-Year (K-2nd) Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael F.; Roe, Mary; Blanchard, Jay; Atwill, Kim

    2015-01-01

    This investigation examined the influence of varying levels of Spanish receptive vocabulary and phonemic awareness ability on beginning English vocabulary, phonemic awareness, word reading fluency, and reading comprehension development across kindergarten through second grade. The 80 respondents were Spanish speaking children with no English…

  16. The Influence of Spanish Vocabulary and Phonemic Awareness on Beginning English Reading Development: A Three-Year (K-2nd) Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael F.; Roe, Mary; Blanchard, Jay; Atwill, Kim

    2015-01-01

    This investigation examined the influence of varying levels of Spanish receptive vocabulary and phonemic awareness ability on beginning English vocabulary, phonemic awareness, word reading fluency, and reading comprehension development across kindergarten through second grade. The 80 respondents were Spanish speaking children with no English…

  17. Boosting Vocabulary Learning through Self-Assessment in an English Language Teaching Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque Micán, Adriana; Cuesta Medina, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the influence of self-assessment of vocabulary competence on a group of students' oral fluency. Twenty-four young adult learners participated in a learning process that promoted their oral skills and vocabulary development. Self-assessment was mainly examined through the analysis of students' learning logs, field notes and…

  18. Boosting Vocabulary Learning through Self-Assessment in an English Language Teaching Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque Micán, Adriana; Cuesta Medina, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the influence of self-assessment of vocabulary competence on a group of students' oral fluency. Twenty-four young adult learners participated in a learning process that promoted their oral skills and vocabulary development. Self-assessment was mainly examined through the analysis of students' learning logs, field notes and…

  19. Longer Term Effects of a Tier 2 Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention for English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadasy, Patricia F.; Nelson, J. Ron; Sanders, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the longer term effectiveness of a standard protocol, Tier 2 supplemental vocabulary intervention for kindergarten English learners, designed to develop root word vocabulary knowledge and reinforce beginning word reading skills. Participating students in the original study ("n" = 93 treatment, 92 control) received 20 weeks of…

  20. Vocabulary in SLA Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    HUSTON, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1980's, vocabulary acquisition has been one of the most actively researched aspects of SLA (Lightbown & Spada, 2006). Four factors emerge in an investigation of the development of the role of L2 vocabulary learning in SLA. First, successive SLA theories marginalized vocabulary, often emphasizing the importance of grammar. Second, a growing body of empirical research showed the efficiency and effectiveness of direct vocabulary teaching. Third, overestimates of L1 vocabulary size led ...

  1. The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Nasser; Mortazavi, Fariba

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size of Iranian university EFL students. Participants in the present study were a total of 67 EFL learners, studying at Shiraz Azad University as senior English Translation students. The instruments utilized for data collection were three tests: A…

  2. The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Nasser; Mortazavi, Fariba

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size of Iranian university EFL students. Participants in the present study were a total of 67 EFL learners, studying at Shiraz Azad University as senior English Translation students. The instruments utilized for data collection were three tests: A…

  3. Linking open vocabularies

    CERN Document Server

    Greifender, Elke; Seadle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Linked Data (LD), Linked Open Data (LOD) and generating a web of data, present the new knowledge sharing frontier. In a philosophical context, LD is an evolving environment that reflects humankinds' desire to understand the world by drawing on the latest technologies and capabilities of the time. LD, while seemingly a new phenomenon did not emerge overnight; rather it represents the natural progression by which knowledge structures are developed, used, and shared. Linked Open Vocabularies is a significant trajectory of LD. Linked Open Vocabularies targets vocabularies that have traditionally b

  4. Type of iconicity matters in the vocabulary development of signing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Gerardo; Sümer, Beyza; Özyürek, Aslı

    2017-01-01

    Recent research on signed as well as spoken language shows that the iconic features of the target language might play a role in language development. Here, we ask further whether different types of iconic depictions modulate children's preferences for certain types of sign-referent links during vocabulary development in sign language. Results from a picture description task indicate that lexical signs with 2 possible variants are used in different proportions by deaf signers from different age groups. While preschool and school-age children favored variants representing actions associated with their referent (e.g., a writing hand for the sign PEN), adults preferred variants representing the perceptual features of those objects (e.g., upward index finger representing a thin, elongated object for the sign PEN). Deaf parents interacting with their children, however, used action- and perceptual-based variants in equal proportion and favored action variants more than adults signing to other adults. We propose that when children are confronted with 2 variants for the same concept, they initially prefer action-based variants because they give them the opportunity to link a linguistic label to familiar schemas linked to their action/motor experiences. Our results echo findings showing a bias for action-based depictions in the development of iconic co-speech gestures suggesting a modality bias for such representations during development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Seizing Community Participation in Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev Clausen, Helene; Gyimóthy, Szilvia

    2015-01-01

    and cultural sustainability defined in the Mexican national tourism program Pueblos Mágicos are put into practice. The analysis is focused on how citizenship, local participation and democracy are operationalized and what are the local consequences of this governmental program in the community of Álamos......Despite ten years of strategic focus on growth through sustainable tourism, few research projects generated understanding of how development policy initiatives contributed to community benefits locally. This article addresses this research gap and explores how the aims of local development....... By following the constitution and decision-making processes in the local Pueblos Mágicos committee, we demonstrate how different groups bargain on behalf of the ‘community’ and how they seize the opportunity to promote different development priorities. In particular, we address the role of a North American...

  6. English-Language Learners: Implications of Limited Vocabulary for Cross-Language Transfer of Phonemic Awareness with Kindergartners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwill, Kim; Blanchard, Jay; Christie, James; Gorin, Joanna S.; Garcia, Herman S.

    2010-01-01

    Research examined the influence of native vocabulary development on cross-language transfer of phonemic awareness. Participants were Spanish-speaking kindergartners learning English in immersion classrooms. Results indicated that limited Spanish vocabulary development negatively influenced cross-language transfer of phonemic awareness to English.…

  7. English-Language Learners: Implications of Limited Vocabulary for Cross-Language Transfer of Phonemic Awareness with Kindergartners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwill, Kim; Blanchard, Jay; Christie, James; Gorin, Joanna S.; Garcia, Herman S.

    2010-01-01

    Research examined the influence of native vocabulary development on cross-language transfer of phonemic awareness. Participants were Spanish-speaking kindergartners learning English in immersion classrooms. Results indicated that limited Spanish vocabulary development negatively influenced cross-language transfer of phonemic awareness to English.…

  8. Participation and dialogue in strategic manufacturing development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Jens Ove; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Johansen, John

    2006-01-01

    Increased competition and the dynamics of technological and market developments have made operations in industrial enterprises very complex, with many stakeholders in and around the enterprise. At the same time, it has become important to address strategic issues of manufacturing. To plan...... dialogues during a workshop, part of which is a dialogue-monitoring instrument. Empirical studies will draw out process elements of participation and dialogue and demonstrate the applicability of the model. Finally, implications are spelled out for planning and managing workshops in different phases...

  9. Short-term and Long-term Retention of Vocabulary through Authentic Subtitled Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Asadi Aidinlou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The current study made an attempt to compare the impacts of teaching authentic materials through traditional techniques with teaching authentic materials through authentic use, where students in the experimental group were taught new vocabulary items of subtitles through watching subtitled videos, and control group were taught the same vocabulary items from subtitles using traditional instruction of vocabulary. The participants of the study consisted of 36 Iranian students from both genders. In order to ensure the homogeneity of the participants, Oxford Placement Test (2004 was administered. Then they were randomly put into two groups (18 students in each group.  Immediately after the study and three weeks after the study vocabulary tests were administered to the both groups. The results indicated that the students of control group outperformed in short-term retention. However, the experimental group outperformed in long-term retention, indicating the superiority of learning vocabulary through watching subtitled videos in long-term retention of vocabulary. As many learners do not develop long-term mastery of the vocabulary, teaching vocabulary items through watching videos with subtitles can help them store and retrieve vocabulary items better. Keywords: Authentic materials, Subtitled videos, Subtitles, Long-term retention, Short-term Retention

  10. The Effectiveness of a programme-based Vocabulary Learning Strategies for Developing English Vocabulary for EFL Female Students at Taif University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrah Mahmoud Ismaiel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of vocabulary can be considered a chief issue which the second language students encounter within the learning of another language especially, for non-English major students. This study aims at assessing the influence of a suggested program for enhancing EFL students` vocabulary and vocabulary learning strategies use. The sample of this study consists of (123 females, it is parted into two sections; the experimental group consists of 55 female students and the control group consists of 68 female students. During the course of the study, learners were randomly chosen and randomly were divided into the experimental and control groups. The aim of the study is twofold: (a to assess if there exist notable discrepancies between these two groups on the English Language Vocabulary post-test and vocabulary language learning strategies. The study also aims to analyze if there exist important discrepancies in the mean grades of pre and post-test of the English Language Vocabulary test and vocabulary language learning strategies. The research applied will continue for 12 weeks throughout the second semester which includes the proposed program. Students` vocabulary learning strategies were measured by Schmitt’s (1997 questionnaire. This questionnaire contains 58 items covering five main strategies that are determination plans, social plans, memory tactics, cognitive plans and meta-cognitive programs. While the Students` English Language Vocabulary size was measured by English Language vocabulary test that was designed by the researchers. The research accomplished lasted for three months that encompasses the suggested plan. The gathered data demonstrated that there existed statistically important discrepancies between the experimental group and the control group on the post-test, in which the experimental one was more bolded. It also uncovred that there existed statistically important discrepancies among the pre-test and post-test outcomes for the

  11. The dynamics of L2 vocabulary development: A case study of receptive and productive knowledge A dinâmica do desenvolvimento do vocabulário L2: Um estudo de caso do conhecimento receptivo e produtivo

    OpenAIRE

    Tal Caspi; Wander Lowie

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have shown that the transfer of receptive L2 vocabulary into production is far from linear, whether production is elicited by a task or spontaneous. The nature and causes of this gap between receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge have been widely debated. This article attempts a novel approach to this topic by investigating vocabulary knowledge development in a detailed case study. Four knowledge levels of ESL vocabulary are traced across time during a 36-week period of in...

  12. Predicting growth in English and French vocabulary: The facilitating effects of morphological and cognate awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Nadia; Hipfner-Boucher, Kathleen; Chen, Xi

    2017-07-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of morphological and cognate awareness to the development of English and French vocabulary knowledge among young minority and majority language children who were enrolled in a French immersion program. Participating children (n = 75) were assessed in English and French on measures of morphological awareness, cognate awareness, and vocabulary knowledge from Grades 1 to 3. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to investigate linear trends in English and French vocabulary growth for minority and majority language children and to identify metalinguistic contributions to Grade 1 and Grade 3 English and French vocabulary performance and rate of growth. Results demonstrated a similar pattern of prediction for both groups of children. English and French morphological awareness and French-English cognate awareness significantly predicted concurrent and longitudinal vocabulary development after controlling for nonverbal reasoning, phonological awareness, and word identification. The contributions of morphological awareness to English vocabulary and cognate awareness to French vocabulary strengthened between Grades 1 and 2. These findings highlight the emerging importance of morphological and cognate awareness in children's vocabulary development and suggest that these metalinguistic factors can serve to broaden the vocabulary repertoire of children who enter school with limited language proficiency. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. The pace of vocabulary growth helps predict later vocabulary skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Meredith L; Raudenbush, Stephen W; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words--some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (socioeconomic status [SES], parent input, child gesture) of vocabulary growth between 14 and 46 months (n = 62) and then uses growth estimates to predict children's vocabulary at 54 months. Velocity and acceleration in vocabulary development at 30 months predicted later vocabulary, particularly for children from low-SES backgrounds. Understanding the pace of early vocabulary growth thus improves our ability to predict school readiness and may help identify children at risk for starting behind.

  14. Developing a Musical Vocabulary to Communicate, Perceive and Analyze Space Physics Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, M. S.

    2008-12-01

    "Light Runners" is a touring E/PO program that provides unprecedented access to STEREO space mission imagery data to the blind and visually handicapped, as well as sighted populations across the country. The program builds on the successful implementation of the innovative science museum exhibit "Walk on the Sun", developed under NASA Ideas Grant ID05-049. The exhibit uses advanced sonification methods to present image pixel data as highly differentiated music, and visually tracks the explorer's physical movements to select those pixels. Musical feedback is generated in real-time based on selections of subsets of the image by the explorer's hands, arms and body movements. Initial indications suggest people not only enjoy the musical effects produced as they explore the imagery using their body movements, spending an average of 2 minutes on the exhibit, but also use the feedback to analyze and compare subsequent images. Blind students, for example, who spent 1 ½ to 3 hours on the exhibit, have reported being able to scan images of the Sun, find its edges and hot spots and control the playback and rewind of movies of the images as they explore imagery from up to 8 cameras on board each spacecraft. Explorers have access to over a million images, comprising more than a years worth of data from the mission and kept up to date as new images are received. The musical sonification vocabulary for this project is compared to two other space physics sonification projects.

  15. Vocabulary, Syntax, and Narrative Development in Typically Developing Children and Children with Early Unilateral Brain Injury: Early Parental Talk about the "There-and-Then" Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Özlem Ece; Rowe, Meredith L.; Heller, Gabriella; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Levine, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the role of a particular kind of linguistic input--talk about the past and future, pretend, and explanations, that is, talk that is decontextualized--in the development of vocabulary, syntax, and narrative skill in typically developing (TD) children and children with pre- or perinatal brain injury (BI). Decontextualized talk…

  16. The relationship between Iranian EFL learners’ self-regulatory vocabulary strategy use and their vocabulary size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Reza Amirian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulation is referred to as learners’ self-generated ideas and actions which are systematically directed towards achieving educational goals and require learners’ active participation in the learning process (Zimmerman & Bandura, 1994. The present study investigated the relationship between Iranian EFL students’ self-regulation capacity for vocabulary learning and their vocabulary size. For this purpose, the researchers made use of two main instruments: the self-regulation capacity in vocabulary learning scale developed by Tseng et al. (2006 consisting of five subscales of commitment, metacognitive, emotion, satiation and environment control, and a bilingual vocabulary size test developed and validated by Karami (2012. The results of the data analysis revealed no significant relationship between the two variables measured by these instruments. However, the results of the multiple regressions indicated that the metacognitive control compared to the other subscales made a better contribution to the prediction of learners’ vocabulary size. In addition, based on the analysis of variance (ANOVA, which examined and compared the self-regulatory strategy use of learners in different experience groups, the first year students had a higher mean score in their self-regulation capacity, which can possibly be attributed to the strategies they have learnt in their Study Skills courses. Finally, it was suggested that teachers must try to develop self-regulatory power in the learners because their creative effort and informed decisions in trying to improve their own learning are highly important.

  17. Vocabulary knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严爽

    2016-01-01

    Knowing a word refers to more than just a matter of knowing its form, meaning, pronunciation and spelling. It also refers to one's knowledge of the relationships the word is involved in, such as its collocations, semantic associations and so on. Words are not isolated entities. This paper focuses on vocabulary knowledge and helps us get an idea of what needs to be learned and the process of English vocabulary learning.

  18. The Effects of an Intensive Shared Book-Reading Intervention for Preschool Children at Risk for Vocabulary Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Simmons, Deborah C.; Kwok, Oiman; Taylor, Aaron B.; Davis, Matthew J.; Kim, Minjung; Simmons, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an intensive shared book-reading intervention on the vocabulary development of preschool children who were at risk for vocabulary delay. The participants were 125 children, who the researchers stratified by classroom and randomly assigned to one of two shared book-reading conditions (i.e., the experimental, Words…

  19. The vocabulary profile of Slovak children with primary language impairment compared to typically developing Slovak children measured by LITMUS-CLT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapalková, Svetlana; Slančová, Daniela

    2017-04-25

    This study compared a sample of children with primary language impairment (PLI) and typically developing age-matched children using the crosslinguistic lexical tasks (CLT-SK). We also compared the PLI children with typically developing language-matched younger children who were matched on the basis of receptive vocabulary. Overall, statistical testing showed that the vocabulary of the PLI children was significantly different from the vocabulary of the age-matched children, but not statistically different from the younger children who were matched on the basis of their receptive vocabulary size. Qualitative analysis of the correct answers revealed that the PLI children showed higher rigidity compared to the younger language-matched children who are able to use more synonyms or derivations across word class in naming tasks. Similarly, an examination of the children's naming errors indicated that the language-matched children exhibited more semantic errors, whereas PLI children showed more associative errors.

  20. Receptive Vocabulary and Cognition of Elderly People in Institutional Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahimagic, Amela; Zunic, Lejla Junuzovic; Ibrahimagic, Omer C; Smajlovic, Dzevdet; Rasidovic, Mirsada

    2017-06-01

    Basic cognitive functions such as: alertness, working memory, long term memory and perception, as well as higher levels of cognitive functions like: speech and language, decision-making and executive functions are affected by aging processes. Relations between the receptive vocabulary and cognitive functioning, and the manifestation of differences between populations of elderly people based on the primary disease is in the focus of this study. To examine receptive vocabulary and cognition of elderly people with: verified stroke, dementia, verified stroke and dementia, and without the manifested brain disease. The sample consisted of 120 participants older than 65 years, living in an institution. A total of 26 variables was analyzed and classified into three groups: case history/anamnestic, receptive vocabulary assessment, and cognitive assessments. The interview with social workers, nurses and caregivers, as well as medical files were used to determine the anamnestic data. A Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (MoCA) was used for the assessment of cognition. In order to estimate the receptive vocabulary, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test was used. Mean raw score of receptive vocabulary is 161.58 (+-21:58 points). The best results for cognitive assessment subjects achieved on subscales of orientation, naming, serial subtraction, and delayed recall. Discriminative analysis showed the significant difference in the development of receptive vocabulary and cognitive functioning in relation to the primary disease of elderly people. The biggest difference was between subjects without manifested brain disease (centroid = 1.900) and subjects with dementia (centroid = -1754). There is a significant difference between elderly with stroke; dementia; stroke and dementia, and elderly people without manifested disease of the brain in the domain of receptive vocabulary and cognitive functioning. Variables of serial subtraction, standardized test results of receptive vocabulary

  1. Investigating Learning Strategies for Vocabulary Development: A Comparative Study of Two Universities of Quetta, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Irum; Pathan, Zahid Hussain

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research is to investigate the vocabulary learning strategies employed by the undergraduate students of Sardar Bahadur Khan Women's University (SBKWU) and University of Balochistan (UOB), Quetta, Pakistan. A quantitative design was employed in this study to answer the two research questions of the present study. The…

  2. Development and Transfer of Vocabulary Knowledge in Spanish-Speaking Language Minority Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, J. Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Kleuver, Cherie G.; Farver, Joann M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the predictive validity of conceptual scoring. Two independent samples of Spanish-speaking language minority preschoolers (Sample 1: N = 96, mean age = 54.51 months, 54.3% male; Sample 2: N = 116, mean age = 60·70 months, 56.0% male) completed measures of receptive, expressive, and definitional vocabulary in their first…

  3. The Role of Home Literacy Environment in Toddlerhood in Development of Vocabulary and Decoding Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sojung; Im, Haesung; Kwon, Kyong-Ah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little empirical research examines the process in which home literacy environment (HLE) in toddlerhood is associated with preschoolers' vocabulary and decoding skills using a large-scale dataset. Objective: The purposes of the current study were to (a) examine the differential effect of HLE in toddlerhood on preschoolers' vocabulary…

  4. Expressive Vocabulary Development of Infants and Toddlers Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Alison M.; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Sedey, Allison L.; Carey, Angela

    1999-01-01

    A study involving 113 children (ages 24-37 months) with hearing impairments found expressive vocabulary was related to the child's age, the age of identification of the child's hearing loss (before or after 6 months), the child's cognitive quotient, and the presence or absence of one or more additional disabilities. (Contains extensive…

  5. E-Books in the Early Literacy Environment: Is There Added Value for Vocabulary Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskos, Kathleen A.; Sullivan, Shannon; Simpson, Danielle; Zuzolo, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Using a theory of affordances, this study examines the introduction of e-books into the early literacy environment as resources that can increase children's opportunity for learning vocabulary. Added value was observed under conditions of (1) book browsing, (2) instruction, and (3) a print-only condition. A total of 33 4-year-olds (18 boys, 15…

  6. Lexical Development in Korean: Vocabulary Size, Lexical Composition, and Late Talking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Leslie; Lee, Youn Mi Cathy; Oh, Kyung Ja; Kim, Young Ah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to compare vocabulary size, lexical composition, and late talking in large samples of Korean and U.S. children ages 18-35 months. Method: Data for 2,191 Korean children (211 children recruited "offline" through preschools, and 1,980 recruited "online" via the Internet) and 274 U.S.…

  7. E-Books in the Early Literacy Environment: Is There Added Value for Vocabulary Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskos, Kathleen A.; Sullivan, Shannon; Simpson, Danielle; Zuzolo, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Using a theory of affordances, this study examines the introduction of e-books into the early literacy environment as resources that can increase children's opportunity for learning vocabulary. Added value was observed under conditions of (1) book browsing, (2) instruction, and (3) a print-only condition. A total of 33 4-year-olds (18 boys, 15…

  8. Developing a Multimedia Instrument for Technical Vocabulary Learning: A Case of EFL Undergraduate Physics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusanganwa, Joseph Appolinary

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the process of constructing a Multimedia Assisted Vocabulary Learning (MAVL) instrument at a university in Rwanda in 2009. The instrument is used in a one-computer classroom where students were taught in a foreign language and had little access to books. It consists of video clips featuring images,…

  9. The Effect of Activity Based Lexis Teaching on Vocabulary Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert, Esra Lule

    2013-01-01

    "Teaching word" as a complimentary process of teaching Turkish is a crucial field of study. However, studies on this area are insufficient. The only aim of the designed activities that get under way with the constructivist approach on which new education programs are based is to provide students with vocabulary elements of Turkish. In…

  10. Occult Participation: Its Impact on Adolescent Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant-Clark, Cynthia M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated relationship between occult participation, substance abuse, and level of self-esteem among 25 clinical (alcohol or drug treatment) and 25 nonclinical adolescents. Results indicated that adolescent substance abuse and occult participation were significantly related. Found significant differences between high versus low occult groups…

  11. Developing a useful Vocabulary in English is more Complicated and Ef-fective than Simply Learning Words Based on Lists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiao; XIAO Jun

    2014-01-01

    Traditional ways of English learning such as memorizing a certain couple of words and reciting from the word list seem much easier than developing a useful vocabulary for L2 learners. However, learners complain that they have suffered from couples of difficulties as the words are easy to be forgotten. Compare with the ways of mechanical memorizing, it argues that pro⁃viding L2 learners with the development of useful lexical knowledge such as semantic information and morphological structure is more effective in the process of language acquisition. Moreover, developing a useful lexical knowledge is far more complicated for English learners.

  12. Discussion on English Vocabulary and Description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈岚; 代显华

    2013-01-01

      Compared with the study of Grammar, syntax, the description on vocabulary is comparatively slower than them. The related theories of vocabulary description have fast developed since the 1980s and 1990s have experienced a growing interest in vocabulary learning and teaching----The vocabulary size, text coverage, word list, meaning of vocabulary in context, and collocation have been discovered and described, which helped new insights in arrange of different research fields have all added to our understanding of vocabulary development. Vocabulary acquisition research, based on vocabulary description, has established itself as a central research focus for language acquisition researchers and contributed to the focus of practical teaching and learning in College English.

  13. What explains the correlation between growth in vocabulary and grammar? New evidence from latent change score analyses of simultaneous bilingual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Quinn, Jamie M; Giguere, David

    2017-02-22

    A close relationship between children's vocabulary size and the grammatical complexity of their speech is well attested but not well understood. The present study used latent change score modeling to examine the dynamic relationships between vocabulary and grammar growth within and across languages in longitudinal data from 90 simultaneous Spanish-English bilingual children who were assessed at 6-month intervals between 30 and 48 months. Slopes of vocabulary and grammar growth were strongly correlated within each language and showed moderate or nonsignificant relationships across languages. There was no evidence that vocabulary level predicted subsequent grammar growth or that the level of grammatical development predicted subsequent vocabulary growth. We propose that a common influence of properties of input on vocabulary and grammatical development is the source of their correlated but uncoupled growth. An unanticipated across-language finding was a negative relationship between level of English skill and subsequent Spanish growth. We propose that the cultural context of Spanish-English bilingualism in the US is the reason that strong English skills jeopardize Spanish language growth, while Spanish skills do not affect English growth. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://youtu.be/qEHSQ0yRre0.

  14. Perfecting Language: Experimenting with Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absalom, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    One of the thorniest aspects of teaching languages is developing students' vocabulary, yet it is impossible to be "an accurate and highly communicative language user with a very small vocabulary" (Milton, 2009, p. 3). Nation (2006) indicates that more vocabulary than previously thought is required to function well both at spoken and…

  15. Vocabulary Expansion in Modern Standard Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Louise

    1997-01-01

    Examines the discrepancy between spoken and written vocabularies in modern standard Chinese (MSC) textbooks that contributes to slow vocabulary development, and outlines a teaching technique to extend students' vocabulary using the ideographic nature of MSC characters rather than phonetic learning to increase efficient use of vocabulary…

  16. How and to What Extent Do Two Cover, Copy, and Compare Spelling Interventions Contribute to Spelling, Word Recognition, and Vocabulary Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Kathryn E.; Williams, Robert L.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Cihak, David; McCallum, R. Steve; Ciancio, Dennis J.

    2012-01-01

    We used an adapted alternating treatments design to evaluate and compare the effects of 2 spelling interventions on spelling acquisition and maintenance, word reading, and vocabulary in three first-grade students. The first intervention, Cover, Copy, and Compare (CCC), involved having participants look at a word, cover it, write it, then compare…

  17. Vocabulary Is Important for Some, but Not All Reading Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Jessie; Nation, Kate; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2007-01-01

    Although there is evidence for a close link between the development of oral vocabulary and reading comprehension, less clear is whether oral vocabulary skills relate to the development of word-level reading skills. This study investigated vocabulary and literacy in 81 children aged 8 to 10 years. In regression analyses, vocabulary accounted for…

  18. Tracing Children's Vocabulary Development from Preschool through the School-Age Years: An 8-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over…

  19. A Scaffolding Strategy to Develop Handheld Sensor-Based Vocabulary Games for Improving Students' Learning Motivation and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong-Ming; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary is the foundation for students who learn a foreign language. Nevertheless, students may be bored by the painstaking process of rote learning. To this end, this study designed a handheld sensor-based vocabulary game based on a scaffolding strategy for improving students' motivation and achievement in vocabulary learning. On the one hand,…

  20. Tracing Children's Vocabulary Development from Preschool through the School-Age Years: An 8-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over…

  1. Student-Created Vocabulary Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Donald

    2016-01-01

    In this paper is described a preliminary study at a Japanese university on student affect toward self-created vocabulary tests. In order to foster greater learner autonomy in their vocabulary study, students were tasked with selecting words they wished to learn and creating their own tests using a template provided by the teacher. At the end of the course, a survey examining student attitudes toward the activity was conducted with 140 participants. The results were encouraging as they indicat...

  2. Development of Metaphor and Metonymy Comprehension: Receptive Vocabulary and Conceptual Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundblad, Gabriella; Annaz, Dagmara

    2010-01-01

    Figurative language, such as metaphor and metonymy are common in our daily communication. This is one of the first studies to investigate metaphor and metonymy comprehension using a developmental approach. Forty-five typically developing individuals participated in a metaphor-metonymy verbal comprehension task incorporating 20 short…

  3. A Learning Environment for English Vocabulary Using Quick Response Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Yuksel Deniz; Ozen, Sevil Orhan

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the process of developing a learning environment that uses tablets and Quick Response (QR) codes to enhance participants' English language vocabulary knowledge. The author employed the concurrent triangulation strategy, a mixed research design. The study was conducted at a private school in Izmir, Turkey during the 2012-2013…

  4. Mixed-Method Research on Learning Vocabulary through Technology Reveals Vocabulary Growth in Second-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, SuHua

    2015-01-01

    A mixed-method embedded research design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of the integration of technology for second-grade students' vocabulary development and learning. Two second-grade classes with a total of 40 students (21 boys and 19 girls) were randomly selected to participate in this study for the course of a semester. One…

  5. Mixed-Method Research on Learning Vocabulary through Technology Reveals Vocabulary Growth in Second-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, SuHua

    2015-01-01

    A mixed-method embedded research design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of the integration of technology for second-grade students' vocabulary development and learning. Two second-grade classes with a total of 40 students (21 boys and 19 girls) were randomly selected to participate in this study for the course of a semester. One…

  6. Validity of a parent vocabulary checklist for young Spanish speaking children of Mexican immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiberson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of the current investigation was to examine the concurrent and predictive validity of a parent vocabulary checklist with young Spanish speaking children of Mexican immigrants. This study implemented a longitudinal approach. Nineteen families participated when children were 15-16 months of age, and then again at 30-32 months of age. The Spanish version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory (Inventarios del Desarrollo de Habilidades Communicativas, INV) and spontaneous language samples collected during naturalistic play were used to examine the relationship between observed and reported vocabulary. Vocabulary reported through the INV-II and vocabulary observed at 30-32 months were significantly correlated, suggesting that the INV-II captures a valid representation of vocabulary at this age. Comparatively, vocabulary reported on the INV-I, was not correlated with observed vocabulary at 15-16 months of age or reported or observed vocabulary at 30-32 months of age. These results suggest that the INV-I, when used with 14-16-month-olds, demonstrates limited concurrent and predictive validity. Implications for the clinical use of the INV-I and INV-II are presented.

  7. The relation of linguistic awareness and vocabulary to word reading and spelling for first-grade students participating in response to intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Apel, Kenn; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

    2013-10-01

    The relations of phonological, orthographic, and morphological awareness and vocabulary to word reading and spelling were examined for 304 first-grade children who were receiving differentiated instruction in a Response to Intervention (RtI) model of instruction. First-grade children were assessed on their phonological, orthographic, and morphological awareness; expressive vocabulary; word reading; and spelling. Year-end word reading and spelling were outcome variables, and phonological, orthographic, and morphological awareness; expressive vocabulary; and RtI status (Tiers 1, 2, & 3) were predictor variables. The 3 linguistic awareness skills were unique predictors of word reading, and phonological and orthographic awareness were unique predictors of spelling. The contributions that these linguistic awareness skills and vocabulary made to word reading and spelling did not differ by children's RtI tier status. These results, in conjunction with previous studies, suggest that even beginning readers and spellers draw on multiple linguistic awareness skills for their word reading and spelling regardless of their level of literacy abilities. Educational implications are discussed.

  8. The relation of linguistic awareness and vocabulary to word reading and spelling for first grade students participating in Response to Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Apel, Kenn; Otaiba, Stephanie Al

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We examined the relations of phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness and vocabulary to word reading and spelling for first grade children who were receiving differentiated instruction in a Response to Intervention (RTI) model of instruction (N = 304). Method First grade children were assessed on their phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness, expressive vocabulary, word reading, and spelling. Year-end word reading and spelling were outcome variables while phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness, expressive vocabulary, and RTI status (Tiers 1, 2, & 3) were predictor variables assessed in the middle of the school year. Results The three linguistic awareness skills were unique predictors of word reading and phonological and orthographic awareness were unique predictors of spelling. The contributions these linguistic awareness skills and vocabulary made to word reading and spelling did not differ by children's RTI tier status. Conclusion These results, in conjunction with previous studies, suggest that even beginning readers and spellers draw on multiple linguistic awareness skills for their word reading and spelling regardless of their level of literacy skills. Educational implications are discussed. PMID:23833281

  9. 语义wiki在词表编制中的应用探讨%The Use of Semantic Wiki as Vocabulary Development Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范炜; 陈圭璋

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes traditional vocabulary development bot leneck and introduces the characteristics of semantic wiki, then discusses a semantic wiki way to deploy vocabulary development platform. Final y, it points out that semantic wiki as a technology tool builds a bridge between traditional vocabulary research and current semantic web applications, taking the traditional vocabulary in lower costs and faster way into the current information environment and thus vocabularies play a dual role as organization tool and terminology resources.%通过分析传统词表的发展瓶颈和语义wiki的特征,讨论了语义wiki用作词表技术平台的可行性与具体实现思路。最后指出语义wiki作为一种技术手段,它为传统词表研究与当前的语义网应用搭建了一个互通的桥梁,使得传统词表能够以较低的成本和较快的方式融入到当前的信息环境中来,从而发挥其作为组织工具和术语资源的双重作用。

  10. Palula Vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this volume is to provide a complement to Towards a grammatical description of Palula (Liljegren 2008). The 1460 main entries included in the present work are limited to those lexical items that are cited or exemplified in the aforementioned work. The work is the result of linguistic research in and with the Palula community (Pakistan). It contains much of the basic vocabulary used in today's Palula, presented along with illustrative example sentences, grammatical informat...

  11. Increasing Middle School Students’ Vocabulary through Extensive Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何小庆

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses how to increase middle school English learners’ vocabulary through reading.Vocabulary is a core component of language proficiency and provides much of the basis of how well learners speak,listen,read,and write.Without an extensive vocabulary and strategies for acquiring new vocabulary,middle school students often feel discouraged during their study.They will lose their interests in English day by day.So it’s very important for middle school English learners to develop their vocabulary efficiently.There are many ways to enlarge vocabulary.In this article we will focus on improving middle school English learners’ vocabulary by extensive reading.

  12. What can Neighbourhood Density effects tell us about word learning? Insights from a connectionist model of vocabulary development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takac, Martin; Knott, Alistair; Stokes, Stephanie

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of neighbourhood density (ND) on vocabulary size in a computational model of vocabulary development. A word has a high ND if there are many words phonologically similar to it. High ND words are more easily learned by infants of all abilities (e.g. Storkel, 2009; Stokes, 2014). We present a neural network model that learns general phonotactic patterns in the exposure language, as well as specific word forms and, crucially, mappings between word meanings and word forms. The network is faster at learning frequent words, and words containing high-probability phoneme sequences, as human word learners are, but, independently of this, the network is also faster at learning words with high ND, and, when its capacity is reduced, it learns high ND words in preference to other words, similarly to late talkers. We analyze the model and propose a novel explanation of the ND effect, in which word meanings play an important role in generating word-specific biases on general phonological trajectories. This explanation leads to a new prediction about the origin of the ND effect in infants.

  13. The Effects of a Web-Based Vocabulary Development Tool on Student Reading Comprehension of Science Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Thompson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The complexities of reading comprehension have received increasing recognition in recent years. In this realm, the power of vocabulary in predicting cognitive challenges in phonological, orthographic, and semantic processes is well documented. In this study, we present a web-based vocabulary development tool that has a series of interactive displays, including a list of the 50 most frequent words in a particular text, Google image and video results for any combination of those words, definitions, and synonyms for particular words from the text, and a list of sentences from the text in which particular words appear. Additionally, we report the results of an experiment that was performed working collaboratively with middle school science teachers from a large urban district in the United States. While this experiment did not show a significant positive effect of this tool on reading comprehension in science, we did find that girls seem to score worse on a reading comprehension assessment after using our web-based tool. This result could reflect prior research that suggests that some girls tend to have a negative attitude towards technology due to gender stereotypes that give girls the impression that they are not as good as boys in working with computers.

  14. Cooperative Learning Strategy The Round Table in Teaching English Vocabulary to Secondary School Pupils

    OpenAIRE

    Bambale, Ieva

    2008-01-01

    Vocabulary development is an important element in every human’s life in order to be able to communicate not only in the native language but also in any other language. Wordage influences communication possibilities. To enrich vocabulary to secondary school students the author of the Diploma Paper offers to use Cooperative Learning strategy the Round Table because it offers students a possibility to interact and they are allowed to have equal roles when participating. That is the reason why th...

  15. The concurrent and predictive validity of the Dutch version of the Communicative Development Inventory in children with Down Syndrome for the assessment of expressive vocabulary in verbal and signed modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckers, S R J M; Van Zaalen, Y; Mens, E J M; Van Balkom, H; Verhoeven, L

    2016-09-01

    The expressive vocabulary of children with Down Syndrome (DS) is generally measured with parental reports, such as the Communicative Development Inventory (CDI), given that standardized tests for assessing vocabulary levels may be too difficult for most young children with DS. The CDI provides important insight into the parents' perception of their child's vocabulary development. The CDI has proven to be a valid measurement of expressive vocabulary, spoken and gestural, in typical and atypical populations. The validity in children with DS is not well established and signed vocabulary is often not included. This longitudinal study examined the concurrent and predictive validity of the Dutch version of the CDI (N-CDI) in children with DS between 2;0 and 7;6 years old to assess spoken and signed vocabulary. N-CDI scores were assessed on strength of association with mental age, an expressive vocabulary test and spontaneous language analyses in a play setting with parents at T1 and T2 (1.5 years later), and a therapy setting with speech language pathologists at T1. The results of the present study show that the N-CDI is a valuable and valid measurement of expressive vocabulary in children with DS. Strengths and weaknesses of several assessment methods for expressive vocabulary are discussed.

  16. The Impact of Gloss Types on Reading Comprehension, Vocabulary Gain and Vocabulary Retention: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Elekaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The significance and impact of vocabulary learning in reading comprehension and L2 language learning are apparent to teachers, researchers and language learners. Moreover, glosses are found as one of the most effective strategies regarding vocabulary retention. Therefore, the present study attempted to investigate the effect of different types of glosses on reading comprehension, vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. To this end, 140 Iranian EFL learners learning English were selected and were divided into four groups (footnote gloss group, interlinear gloss group, marginal gloss group, and glossary group. They were required to read a text and answer four reading comprehension questions. In addition, one immediate vocabulary post-test and one delayed vocabulary post-test were taken in order to investigate learners' vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. In order to analyze the data, one one-way ANOVA and one MANOVA were run. The results of one-way ANOVA revealed that participants who received interlinear glosses significantly outperformed the other groups regarding comprehending the text. Moreover, the immediate vocabulary post-test was conducted immediately after reading test and the delayed post-test was administered after four weeks. The results of MANOVA indicated that the group which received interlinear glosses outperformed the other groups in both vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. The present study has implications for teachers and learners. Teachers can find better methods to teach new reading passages as well as vocabulary items. Also, glosses help learners to have a better comprehension of difficult passages and they facilitate learning. Moreover, learners can enhance their vocabulary knowledge with the help of glosses. Keywords: footnote gloss, interlinear gloss, marginal gloss, glossary, Iranian EFL learners, reading comprehension, vocabulary gain, vocabulary retention

  17. Student Expectations from Participating in a Small Spacecraft Development Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Straub

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of small spacecraft development programs in the United States and worldwide have increased significantly over the course of the last 10 years. This paper analyzes reasons for the growth in these programs by assessing what student participants hope to gain from their participation. Participants in the OpenOrbiter Small Spacecraft Development Initiative at the University of North Dakota were surveyed at the beginning of an academic year to determine why they were planning to participate in the program again or join and participate for the first time. This paper presents the results of this survey.

  18. Associative vocabulary learning : development and testing of two paradigms for the (re-) acquisition of action- and object-related words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freundlieb, Nils; Ridder, Volker; Dobel, Christian; Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Baumgaertner, Annette; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Gerloff, Christian; Hummel, Friedhelm C; Liuzzi, Gianpiero

    2012-01-01

    Despite a growing number of studies, the neurophysiology of adult vocabulary acquisition is still poorly understood. One reason is that paradigms that can easily be combined with neuroscientfic methods are rare. Here, we tested the efficiency of two paradigms for vocabulary (re-) acquisition, and co

  19. Associative vocabulary learning : development and testing of two paradigms for the (re-) acquisition of action- and object-related words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freundlieb, Nils; Ridder, Volker; Dobel, Christian; Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Baumgaertner, Annette; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Gerloff, Christian; Hummel, Friedhelm C; Liuzzi, Gianpiero

    2012-01-01

    Despite a growing number of studies, the neurophysiology of adult vocabulary acquisition is still poorly understood. One reason is that paradigms that can easily be combined with neuroscientfic methods are rare. Here, we tested the efficiency of two paradigms for vocabulary (re-) acquisition, and co

  20. Participation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2011-08-02

    Aug 2, 2011 ... there is still little theorising about those on the other side of the policy equation. ... The concept of participation designates human beings – their priorities, knowledge .... Thus, a person's mode of participation in the enterprise.

  1. The Effect of Teaching Vocabulary through Semantic Mapping on EFL Learners' Awareness of the Affective Dimensions of Deep Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilforoushan, Somayeh

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the effect of teaching vocabulary through semantic mapping on the awareness of two affective dimensions, evaluation and potency dimensions of deep vocabulary knowledge as well as the general vocabulary knowledge of EFL students. Sixty intermediate EFL female adult learners participated in this study; they were chosen among 90…

  2. The Role of Motivation and Learner Variables in L1 and L2 Vocabulary Development in Japanese Heritage Language Speakers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yoshiko; Calder, Toshiko M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the role of motivation and learner variables in bilingual vocabulary development among first language (L1) Japanese students attending hoshuukoo (i.e., supplementary academic schools for Japanese-speaking children) in the United States. One hundred sixteen high school students ages 15-18 from eight hoshuukoo completed…

  3. The Co-Occurring Development of Executive Function Skills and Receptive Vocabulary in Preschool-Aged Children: A Look at the Direction of the Developmental Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Christina; Barata, M. Clara; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    Despite consensus in the developmental literature regarding the role of executive function (EF) skills in supporting the development of language skills during the preschool years, we know relatively little about the associations between EF skills, including all EF components, and vocabulary skills among preschool-aged children. In this paper, we…

  4. Why and How EFL Students Learn Vocabulary in Parliamentary Debate Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice M. Aclan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary, the backbone of any language including English, is foundational for listening, speaking, reading and writing. These four macro-skills are necessary not only in gaining knowledge as English is the language to access major information sources particularly the World Wide Web but also in the demanding globalized workplace. Vocabulary is seen to be learned better when it is contextualized thus language teachers should design communicative activities such as debate. However, debate, being more known as a competitive rather than a classroom activity worldwide, has not been explored yet for its potential to develop vocabulary among EFL/ESL students although it has been identified for its power in developing communication skills in general as well as critical thinking and other soft skills. Thus, this qualitative study was conducted to explore why and how EFL students learn vocabulary in classroom debate. The data were gathered through end-of-course evaluation and focus group interview with seven participants from the Middle East, African and ASEAN countries. The findings show that students learned vocabulary due to debate’s interactive nature requiring contextualized and meaningful language use from preparation to actual debate. EFL students described how they learned vocabulary through debate which has implications for SLA and language teaching.   Keywords: Noticing hypothesis, Comprehensible input, Incomprehensible input, Vocabulary building strategies

  5. 从社会发展看汉语词汇变化%An Analysis of Chinese Vocabulary Changes from the Perspective of Society Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵莹

    2011-01-01

    语言变化与社会发展有着密不可分的关系。词汇作为语言中最活跃的组成部分,能够对社会的变化做出及时的反映。社会的发展变化深刻影响词汇的变化,从词汇的变化中又可以捕捉到社会发展变化的特点与进程。几十年来,我国政治经济实力迅速提高,文化科学事业蓬勃发展,汉语词汇也随之产生相应的改变。本文试图从社会发展的角度,分析社会发展与汉语词汇变化的关系。%Language changes have a keen relation with the development of society.As the most active part of language,vocabulary can react to the society changes timely.The development of society affects vocabulary changes,at the same time the characteristics and process of development of society can be reflected through vocabulary changes.For decades,the economical and political power has been increased greatly in China,and the culture and technology has developed prosperously as well.Meantwhile,with the development of the society,Chinese vocabulary has changed a lot.So,this thesis will try to analyze the relation between society and Chinese vocabulary from the perspective of society development.

  6. Developing Global Public Participation (2) : Shaping the Sustainable Development Goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, O.; Honniball, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    In an earlier article, we analysed the actuality and potential of participation at the international level, or more specifically: at the level of the United Nations (un). Is there a demand for public participation in the work of the United Nations, and if so, who has such demands? And how should the

  7. Nurses' experiences of participation in a research and development programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kirsten Pryds; Bäck-Pettersson, Siv; Kýlén, Sven

    2013-01-01

    To describe clinical nurses' experience of participating in a Research and Development (R&D) programme and its influence on their research interest and ability to conduct and apply nursing research......To describe clinical nurses' experience of participating in a Research and Development (R&D) programme and its influence on their research interest and ability to conduct and apply nursing research...

  8. Sport participation and positive development in older persons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baker, Joseph; Fraser-Thomas, Jessica; Dionigi, Rylee A; Horton, Sean

    2010-01-01

    .... In the past, sport was considered important for the development of young people; however, the potential for sport participation to affect positive development across the lifespan is now recognized...

  9. Investigating Arabic Academic Vocabulary Knowledge Among Middle School Pupils: Receptive Versus Productive Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhoul, Baha

    2017-08-01

    The current study attempted to investigate the development of Arabic academic vocabulary knowledge among middle-school Arabic native speakers, taking into account the socioeconomic status of the Arab population in Israel. For this purpose, Arabic academic word list was developed, mapping the required academic words that are needed for adequate coping with informational texts as appearing in the different content areas text-books. Six-hundred Arabic speaking middle school pupils from the different areas in Israel, representing the different Arab subgroups: general Arab community, Druze and Bedouins, have participated in the current study. Two academic vocabulary tests, including receptive and productive academic vocabulary evaluation tests, were administrated to the students across the different age groups (7th, 8th and 9th). The results pointed to no significant difference between 7th and 9th grade in academic vocabulary knowledge. In contrast, significant difference was encountered between the different Arab sub-groups where the lowest scores were noted among the Bedouin sub-group, characterized by the lowest SES. When comparing receptive and productive academic vocabulary knowledge between 7th and 9th grade, the results pointed to improvement in receptive academic knowledge towards the end of middle school but not on the productive knowledge level. In addition, within participants' comparison indicated a gap between the pupils' receptive and productive vocabulary. The results are discussed in relation to the existing scientific literature and to its implication of both research and practice in the domain of Arabic literacy development.

  10. 网络词汇特点和发展趋势研究%Network Vocabulary Characteristics and Development Trend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佃印

    2016-01-01

    Network vocabulary, is a new language formed or used in the network environment and gradually coming into the social reality in recent years. Mining network forming conditions and composition characteristics of vocabulary and phrase, and then exploring its development trend, studying how to carry on the scientific definition of it and specification to use at the same time, all of above becomes the important subject of contemporary language study institutions and of all kinds of schools at all levels.%网络词汇是近几年来随着大众传媒和网络信息技术的发展在网络环境里产生形成或使用并渐渐福进入到现实社会的一种新兴的语言或文字。网络词汇和流行语作为新的社会条件下生长出来的词汇形式,它的意义已发生了巨大变化,并呈现出许多新的特点。挖掘网络词汇及流行语的形成条件和构成特点,进而探索其发展趋势,研究如何对它进行科学界定并规范使用成为当下语言研究机构及各级各类学校的重要课题。

  11. ‘ShruthLaikh’: Employing Python to Develop Vocabulary Enhancing Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents how the power of Python, its various modules and Artificial Intelligence techniques can be integrated into a very useful and effective English spelling-correcting and vocabulary-enhancing application. The objective is to use the Python interface for various functionalities like text to speech, graphical user interface and sqlite3 database to integrate them into a single useful tool. The application is named as “ShruthLaikh”, which is a Hindi word for dictations. It has been demonstrated how this simple yet intelligent tool can help users to absorb word spellings in a very effective manner at the same time enhancing their retaining power. It also proves how Python as a programming language can be utilized effectively for the creation of powerful and user-friendly applications that can assist in more ways than one in revolutionizing the educational scene in nations across the world and the role that Python can play in imparting education in an innovative way.

  12. Facilitating vocabulary learning through metacognitive strategy training and learning journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Luz Trujillo Becerra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a mixed- method action research study carried out with participants from three public high schools in different regions in Colombia: Bogotá, Orito and Tocaima.  The overall aim of this study was to analyze whether training in the use of metacognitive strategies (MS through learning journals could improve the participants’ vocabulary learning. The data, collected mainly through students’ learning journals, teachers’ field notes, questionnaires and mind maps, was analyzed following the principles of grounded theory. The results suggested that the training helped participants to develop metacognitive awareness of their vocabulary learning process and their lexical competence regarding daily routines.  Participants also displayed some improvements in critical thinking and self-directed attitudes that could likewise benefit their vocabulary learning. Finally, the study proposes that training in metacognitive and vocabulary strategies should be implemented in language classrooms to promote a higher degree of student control over learning and to facilitate the transference of these strategies to other areas of knowledge.

  13. The electric vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheils, James

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1600s, the developments in the understanding of electrical phenomena have frequently altered the models and metaphors used by physicists to describe and explain their experiments. However, to this day, certain relics of past theories still drench the vocabulary of the subject, serving as distracting fog for future students. This article attempts, through historical illumination, to shine through the mist of electrostatic terminology and offer a clearer view of the classical model of electricity.

  14. English Vocabulary Teaching Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary is very necessary in language teaching and acquisition.If students have a certain amount of vocabulary,they will overcome many difficulties in reading.listening、 speaking and writing.In vocabulary teaching,scholars have been working hard to find better ways.This paper attempts to find how to improve students’ enthusiasm of learning vocabulary and teach vocabulary more successfully and effectively.

  15. Vocabulary, syntax, and narrative development in typically developing children and children with early unilateral brain injury: early parental talk about the "there-and-then" matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Özlem Ece; Rowe, Meredith L; Heller, Gabriella; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Levine, Susan C

    2015-02-01

    This study examines the role of a particular kind of linguistic input--talk about the past and future, pretend, and explanations, that is, talk that is decontextualized--in the development of vocabulary, syntax, and narrative skill in typically developing (TD) children and children with pre- or perinatal brain injury (BI). Decontextualized talk has been shown to be particularly effective in predicting children's language skills, but it is not clear why. We first explored the nature of parent decontextualized talk and found it to be linguistically richer than contextualized talk in parents of both TD and BI children. We then found, again for both groups, that parent decontextualized talk at child age 30 months was a significant predictor of child vocabulary, syntax, and narrative performance at kindergarten, above and beyond the child's own early language skills, parent contextualized talk and demographic factors. Decontextualized talk played a larger role in predicting kindergarten syntax and narrative outcomes for children with lower syntax and narrative skill at age 30 months, and also a larger role in predicting kindergarten narrative outcomes for children with BI than for TD children. The difference between the 2 groups stemmed primarily from the fact that children with BI had lower narrative (but not vocabulary or syntax) scores than TD children. When the 2 groups were matched in terms of narrative skill at kindergarten, the impact that decontextualized talk had on narrative skill did not differ for children with BI and for TD children. Decontextualized talk is thus a strong predictor of later language skill for all children, but may be particularly potent for children at the lower-end of the distribution for language skill. The findings also suggest that variability in the language development of children with BI is influenced not only by the biological characteristics of their lesions, but also by the language input they receive.

  16. English Vocabulary Memorizing Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯首慧

    2014-01-01

    With the high-speed development of society, English has already become a university language and learning English is the basic requirement to learners. Vocabulary learning is one of the key factors in English Learning. This paper focuses on the vocabulary memories strategies.%随着社会高速发展,对任何学习者来说,掌握英语,这个世界性语言是学习中最基本的要求。词汇学习当然是英语学习中关键因素之一。本文将侧重介绍词汇记忆的策略。

  17. The Impact of Podcasts on English Vocabulary Development in a Blended Educational Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mashhadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study attempts to see whether incorporating supplemental podcasts into the blended module of second language (L2 vocabulary teaching and learning leads to better learning outcomes in comparison with other common teaching and learning methods as self-study and conventional. To that end, undergraduate students from Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences were summoned up via an announcement to take part in the study. Volunteers were homogenized via Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT and were then randomly divided into three groups to learn English vocabulary items via three different scenarios during 32 sessions. The collected data from the participants’ answers to the attitude questionnaire and interview as well as the data from assessing their performance throughout the course were analyzed both descriptively and inferentially. The analysis of the data revealed that the podcast-mediated blended L2 learning scenario appeared as the most successful scenario in L2 vocabulary learning. Consequently, it could be concluded that providing miscellaneous practicing opportunities for students would facilitate learning process and contribute to learning improvement.   Persian Abstract: در این پژوهش تجربی، با پیوند پادپخش‌های آموزشی به شیوه‌ی یادگیری ترکیبی واژگان انگلیسی، تأثیر این شیوه با سایر شیوه‌های رایج آموزشی همچون سنتی و خود‌خوان مورد قیاس قرار گرفت. به این منظور، دانشجویان کارشناسی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی جندی‌شاپور اهواز طی یک فراخوان جهت شرکت در آزمون تعیین سطح واژگان و همگون‌سازی دعوت شدند. در نتیجه 132 دانشجو به‌عنوان شرکت کننده انتخاب شدند تا واژگان انگلیسی را طی 32 جلسه و به شیوه‌های

  18. The Relationship between Learner Autonomy and Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Iranian EFL Learners with Different Language Proficiency Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Azimi Mohammad Abadi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary learning is incredibly noteworthy to English language acquisition. It is unfeasible for a learner to communicate without the required vocabulary. In high education levels, learners are habitually forced to become autonomous and make conscious effort to learn vocabulary outside of the classroom. Consequently, the autonomy of the learners plays an important role in developing and enhancing their vocabulary. Learner autonomy is a huge assistance for learners in vocabulary learning since it provides the learners with numerous diverse privileges such as independency from teacher. The researcher investigated whether there is any statistically significant relationship between learner autonomy and vocabulary learning strategies use in Iranian EFL learners with different language proficiency levels. To meet the above purpose, a total number of 190 male and female EFL learners participated in this study. The methodology underlying this study was quantitative (thorough the administration of two questionnaires and two language proficiency test – TOEFL for advanced group, and Nelson for intermediate level. The quantitative data was analyzed using a set of correlational analysis revealing a significant positive correlation between learner autonomy and vocabulary learning strategies use in high proficient group, and a significant positive relationship between these two constructs in low proficient group, however not as strong as in the advanced group. Keywords: Learner Autonomy, Vocabulary Learning Strategies, EFL Learner

  19. Participation of Italian farmers in rural development policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pascucci, S.; Magistris, de T.; Dries, L.K.E.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study farmers' participation in rural development policy (RDP) measures. We investigate to what extent regional RDP priorities are driven by regional characteristics and moreover, whether regional-level policy priorities help to explain farmers' participation in RDP measu

  20. Motivating Agriculture Students to Participate in Career Development Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Carmen R.; Robinson, J. Shane; Kelsey, Kathleen D.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research conducted in agricultural education has revealed a lack of participation among National FFA Organization members. However, of those FFA members who participated in FFA sponsored events; students were most satisfied with their experiences in Career Development Events (CDEs). The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe…

  1. Index for Inclusion: Developing Learning and Participation in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Tony; Ainscow, Mel

    The Index for Inclusion is a compilation of materials to support British schools in the process of inclusive school development. Part 1 introduces the Index, then identifies the following key concepts: inclusion, barriers to learning and participation, resources to support learning and participation, and support for diversity. Part 1 then…

  2. Newspaper Scramble; Attending to Learning Styles in Academic Tasks; Integrating Vocabulary and Poetry; Developing Automatization with In-Class Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoyne, Christine Wright; Turton, Dawn; Paulus, Trena M.; Brantner-Artenie, Donette; Norstrom, Bjorn; Crawford, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Provides four techniques for teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. These include a newspaper scramble, a focus on learning styles, learning vocabulary through poetry, and an in-class survey. (Author/VWL)

  3. Open-ended questions: An alternative mode to assess the students' performance in concept development and use of scientific vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agairre-Ortiz, Maria

    1998-10-01

    Important reform movements across the nation recognize that improved science performance, language development, and alternative assessment are national priorities. This study examined the effect of two modes of alternative assessment on students' performance in in-depth concept development (IDC) and use of scientific vocabulary (VOC). The research questions asked for significant differences in students' performance in IDC and VOC across time regarding: (1) mode of assessment, (2) science achievement level, and classes. The study also investigated what are the: (1) students' opinions and feelings about the assessment modes (2) similarities and differences between OE-W and OE-D groups regarding the quality of IDC and VOC used. The sample of convenience included one hundred and four fifth grade LEP students randomly assigned to two groups. Students in both groups were asked to answer the same open-ended question at three assessment times during the study of a chapter on electricity and magnetism. Students in group one were asked to answer the question by writing paragraphs and students in group two answered the same question by making drawings. Results from a four-way repeated measures analysis showed that students in the OE-D mode, especially above-average performed better in in-depth concept development than those in the writing mode across time. The non-significant four-way interaction suggests that the differences in assessment mode across time are not influenced by science achievement level and the classes. The results suggest that although the OE-D mode in general yielded better scores, both modes of assessment could be used to assess Spanish-dominant LEP students' conceptual development and scientific vocabulary use. In general, students expressed preference for OE-D because they felt more confident and comfortable answering questions by drawing. Most of the statistical results were supported by the qualitative analysis for both dependent variables. Small size

  4. A Study on the Vocabulary Size of First-Year College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董丽莉

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary, as the information carrier, plays an indispensable role of language. Likely, vocabulary learning is a signifi-cant part in English learning, so vocabulary acquisition becomes one of the hottest SLA research fields. This study tests the vo-cabulary size of 61 first-year students in Jiangsu Maritime Institute by applying the adjusted Nation's Vocabulary Level Test (VLT), laying basis for further researches and studies on vocabulary acquisition and development of those students.

  5. EFL Learners' Vocabulary Consolidation Strategy Use and Corresponding Performance on Vocabulary Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ying-Chun

    2016-01-01

    This study describes English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners' use of vocabulary consolidation strategies and explores the connection between strategy use and vocabulary learning outcomes. This study included 218 participants who were students from five freshman English classes at a university in Taiwan. Students' self-reports on their use of…

  6. The Effect of Using Vocabulary Flash Card on Iranian Pre-University Students' Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komachali, Maryam Eslahcar; Khodareza, Mohammadreza

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of using vocabulary flash card on Iranian pre-university students' vocabulary knowledge. The participants of the study comprised 50 female learners. They were randomly assigned into two homogeneous groups each consisting of 25 learners. The control group received the traditional treatment…

  7. Incidental Acquisition of Vocabulary by Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponniah, R. Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of reading on vocabulary development with adult ESL students at the National Institute of Technology (Trichirappalli, India). The researcher analyzes the performance of the students who devoted their time to reading, and the students who learned consciously the meaning of words to develop their vocabulary knowledge.…

  8. The Effectiveness of a Supplemental Pre-Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Na Young

    2013-01-01

    Oral vocabulary is a strong predictor of young children's later reading development. Many children enter kindergarten with weak vocabulary knowledge and could benefit from an extra level or higher tier of intentional instruction in vocabulary that supplements the Tier 1 core curriculum in language. Recent findings from research developing a…

  9. Improvements in Professional Development Program Participants' Understandings about Inclusive Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metevier, A. J.; Hunter, L.; Goza, B. K.; Raschke, L. M.; Seagroves, S.

    2010-12-01

    A major emphasis of the Center for Adaptive Optics Professional Development Program (PDP) is training early-career scientists and engineers to teach more inclusively as well as more effectively. To this end, the PDP includes workshops on diversity and equity, and PDP participants are explicitly encouraged to weave inclusive instructional strategies into the inquiry laboratory activities they design and teach. In an initial effort to gauge the effectiveness of the PDP's diversity and equity training, we have analyzed 2008 and 2009 PDP participants' responses to a survey knowledge question that asks them to briefly describe how they would engage a diverse undergraduate student population through their teaching and research. Each participant answered the survey question before any PDP training, as well as after a series of intensive PDP workshops. We developed a rubric to score and analyze participants' pre- and post-workshop responses, and have found that their response scores improve significantly after PDP training. This indicates that PDP training does improve participants' understandings about how to teach inclusively. Furthermore, survey respondents who participated in the PDP in both 2008 and 2009 showed little decrease in response scores between years, but continued increases with continued training. In this paper, we detail our rubric development, survey response scoring, analysis, and results, as well as the implications our results have had for refining our goals for PDP participants and for further improving PDP workshops.

  10. Short-term memory for serial order supports vocabulary development: new evidence from a novel word learning paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, Steve; Boukebza, Claire

    2013-12-01

    Although recent studies suggest a strong association between short-term memory (STM) for serial order and lexical development, the precise mechanisms linking the two domains remain to be determined. This study explored the nature of these mechanisms via a microanalysis of performance on serial order STM and novel word learning tasks. In the experiment, 6- and 7-year-old children were administered tasks maximizing STM for either item or serial order information as well as paired-associate learning tasks involving the learning of novel words, visual symbols, or familiar word pair associations. Learning abilities for novel words were specifically predicted by serial order STM abilities. A measure estimating the precision of serial order coding predicted the rate of correct repetitions and the rate of phoneme migration errors during the novel word learning process. In line with recent theoretical accounts, these results suggest that serial order STM supports vocabulary development via ordered and detailed reactivation of the novel phonological sequences that characterize new words.

  11. The Effect of Vocabulary Cluster on Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners' Vocabulary Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud KhaliliSabet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to inspect the possible effects of vocabulary cluster on Iranian Intermediate EFL learners' vocabulary achievement. It was based on the comparison between semantically and thematically –related sets to find out which type of vocabulary learning cluster was more effective on learners vocabulary learning. Sixty intermediate EFL learners were selected based on their performance on OPT test and then were randomly assigned into three groups each containing 20 subjects (one control and two experimental groups. Quasi-experimental design was used in which Pre-test and post-test were administered to collect data. The researcher employed Nations word level test as the pre-test to examine the participants' initial knowledge of common words. The experimental group (A worked on thematic clustering, while experimental group (B received instruction on semantic clustering and the control group received placebo. Next, all participants took part in vocabulary size test to evaluate the vocabulary achievement of the participants. The scores obtained from pre-test and post-test were analyzed through running paired sample t-test, and one-way ANOVA. The results indicated that the experimental group (B which received semantically related sets outperformed the control group & the experimental group (A which received thematically related sets. This may have significant implications for language instructors, syllabus designers, and learners to make more advancement in vocabulary learning process through employing vocabulary cluster.

  12. The Role Peoples Participation in Rural Development: With Emphasis on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskandar Saydaie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractNowadays, rural cooperation in rural affairs and with more specialization view in rural development is theessential part for making plan in rural areas.We face with two procedures by reviewing the rural participationhistory in rural affairs. The first one, it had been the rural Tradition participation that contents of parlanceregulations and unwritten that has been done with social-economic motivations much more than others.Thesecond one, new participation which has statutory and regulars that make the people participation officialand lawful.This essay supposed to answer this question. Does any difference between the rural participation rate in pastand present times? In this survey, scholars are trying to evaluate the people participation in past and presenttime, and are trying to survey about the succession of tradition participation, and components of both. Bymeans of this, for making suitable time-table between these two samples, the Islamic Councils has beenmade and these two samples shall be compared. The research data which are based upon questionnaireinformation and output based upon 380 families and 30 rural samples in central part of Mamasani-NoorabadTwonship has been analyzed by presumption statistics.The results obtained from the analysis and examination of hypotheses show that there is no significantstatistical relationship with the probability of 95% between traditional participation and their newparticipation in Central Part of the Noorabad Mamasani Twonship, this difference is considerable in thetraditional and new participation senses.

  13. Children's Development as Participation in Everyday Practices across Different Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleer, Marilyn; Hedegaard, Mariane

    2010-01-01

    by societal conditions. In drawing upon Vygotsky's (1998) theory of the social situation of development and Hedegaard's (2009) theory of development conceptualised as the child's participation within and across several institutions at the same time, it has been possible to examine how school practices...

  14. Activating Junior Secondary School Students’ Prior Knowledge for the Development of Vocabulary, Concepts and Mathematics through Instructional Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olu Oyinloye

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the activation of students’ prior knowledge for the development of vocabulary, concepts and mathematics. It has been observed that many secondary school students are not performing well in the examination conducted by the West African Examinations Council and National Examinations Council of Nigeria. The situation became worrisome because of the dwindling performance of students in English Language and Mathematics which are compulsory subjects for securing admission into tertiary institutions in Nigeria. Four research questions were formulated and translated to test whether a significant difference exist between students’ achievement in comprehension in English Language and Mathematics before and after the treatment. The study is a quasi experimental which involves two hundred and sixty students selected through random sampling technique. The experimental sessions lasted six weeks. The experimental groups were engaged in collaborative work in smaller groups where they discussed issues related to the new topics using their prior knowledge. Experimental and control groups were given pre-test before the commencement of the study and achievement test after the experiment. The data collected was subjected to t-test statistics and the findings of the study show that the students in the experimental group performed better than those in the control group.

  15. Is Form-Focused Vocabulary Instruction Worthwhile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Beniko; Krashen, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Hearing stories can result in considerable incidental vocabulary development, for both first and second language acquisition (e.g. Elley 1992; Robbins and Ehri 1994; Senechal, LeFevre, Hudson and Lawson 1996). It has also been claimed, however, that direct instruction is more effective than incidental vocabulary acquisition and that combining both…

  16. Toward the Automatic Identification of Sublanguage Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Stephanie W.; He, Shaoyi

    1993-01-01

    Describes the development of a method for the automatic identification of sublanguage vocabulary words as they occur in abstracts. Highlights include research relating to sublanguages and their vocabulary; domain terms; evaluation criteria, including recall and precision; and implications for natural language processing and information retrieval.…

  17. Vocabulary Strategies for a Fourth Grade Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Gina

    2012-01-01

    For this project I worked with twelve of my fourth grade students from a local school in the southwestern part of Stokes County, North Carolina on increasing their vocabulary skills through the development and implementation of seven vocabulary strategies. During the Literature Review I came across the following seven strategies: Prediction;…

  18. Helping Teachers Connect Vocabulary and Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, A. Susan

    2008-01-01

    A focus on mathematics vocabulary must be part of teachers' instructional plans to develop students' understanding of key ideas. The author presents examples from work with preservice teachers regarding two vocabulary strategies and other related activities that can be used by middle and high school mathematics teachers. (Contains 8 figures.)

  19. English Vocabulary Instruction for English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyak, Patrick C.; Bauer, Eurydice Bouchereau

    2009-01-01

    In this column Manyak and Bauer summarize key research addressing the English vocabulary development of English learners (ELs) and distill implications for instructional practice. First, the authors discuss several key studies that demonstrate the limitation of many ELs' English vocabulary knowledge and the negative impact of this limitation on…

  20. Impact of Training Deep Vocabulary Learning Strategies on Vocabulary Retention of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Es-hagi Sardroud

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the overall tendency of foreign language learners to use mechanical strategies of rote rehearsal in vocabulary learning and their resistance towards use of 'deep' vocabulary learning strategies, namely contextual guessing, Keyword Method, metacognitive strategy, and semantic mapping, this study intended (a to explore what impact the instruction of these deep strategies, on vocabulary retention of 32 post-intermediate adult EFL Iranian learners, (b to determine how the variable of gender influences the vocabulary retention of students after receiving training in these strategies. To this end, on the basis of a strategy-based model of instruction–CALLA (Chamot & O'Malley, 1994, the experimental group received training in using 'deep' vocabulary learning strategies while the control group received only the common method of vocabulary teaching. After the treatment, following factorial design, the performance of the participants in the teacher-made vocabulary test as posttest was analyzed statistically.  The results indicated higher vocabulary retention for the experimental group, and it was revealed that female students were more receptive to strategy training. This study provides evidence for confirmation of 'depth of processing' hypothesis and the emerging theory about the impact of gender on effective strategy teaching and use, and it recommends incorporation of teaching these 'deep' strategies of vocabulary learning into EFL classrooms.

  1. Relationships between vocabulary size, working memory, and phonological awareness in Spanish-speaking English language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Brenda K

    2012-05-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the impact of short-term phonological awareness (PA) instruction presented in children's first language (L1; Spanish) on gains in their L1 and second language (L2; English) and to determine whether relationships exist between vocabulary size, verbal working memory, and PA in Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs). Participants included 25 kindergartners who received PA instruction and 10 controls. A 2-way within-subjects repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted to evaluate gains. Relationships between PA gains, Spanish and English vocabulary, and memory, as measured using nonword repetition and experimental working memory tasks, were analyzed using correlation and regression analyses. Results indicated significant and equivalent gains in both languages of children in the experimental group and no gains in the control group. Spanish vocabulary size was significantly related to PA gains in both languages and was more strongly related to English gains than was English vocabulary size. The memory tasks predicted gains in each language in distinct ways. Results support the conclusion that PA instruction and strong vocabulary skills in an individual's L1 benefit PA development in both the L1 and L2. Results also indicate that dynamic relationships exist between vocabulary size, storage and processing components of working memory, and PA development in both languages of ELLs.

  2. Effects of coaching on educators' vocabulary-teaching strategies during shared reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namasivayam, Ashwini M; Hipfner-Boucher, Kathy; Milburn, Trelani; Weitzman, Elaine; Greenberg, Janice; Pelletier, Janette; Girolametto, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether an emergent literacy professional development program enhanced educators' use of vocabulary-teaching strategies during shared reading with small groups of pre-schoolers. Thirty-two pre-school educators and small groups of pre-schoolers from their classrooms were randomly assigned to experimental or comparison groups. The 15 educators in the experimental group received four in-service workshops as well as five individualized classroom coaching sessions. The comparison group received only the workshops. Each educator was video-recorded reading a storybook to a small group of pre-schoolers at pre-test and post-test. The videos were transcribed and coded to yield measures of the vocabulary-teaching strategies and children's vocabulary-related talk. The findings revealed that the children in the experimental group engaged in significantly more vocabulary-related talk relative to the comparison group. A non-significant trend in the data indicated that educators in the experimental group used more vocabulary-teaching strategies at post-test. The educators' familiarity with children's authors and book titles at pre-test was a significant predictor of their outcomes. These findings suggest that an emergent literacy professional development program that includes coaching can enhance children's participation in vocabulary-related conversations with their educators.

  3. ELL Preschoolers' English Vocabulary Acquisition from Storybook Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Molly F.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of rich explanation, baseline vocabulary, and home reading practices on English language learning (ELL) preschoolers' sophisticated vocabulary learning from storybook reading. Eighty typically developing preschoolers were pretested in L1 (Portuguese) and L2 (English) receptive vocabulary and were assigned to…

  4. Vocabulary and Health Care Information Technology: State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, James J.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the controlled medical vocabularies available today and some of the reasons why they have failed to meet the needs of application developers. Topics include standard vocabularies, including International Classification of Diseases and Medical Subject Headings; uses of vocabularies in medical computing; current research; and remaining…

  5. Investigating the Role of Pop Songs on Vocabulary Recall, Attitude and Retention of Iranian EFL Learners: The Case of Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouya Shakerian

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pop songs are, in fact, an ideal source for incidental vocabulary learning because teenagers often spend large amounts of their free time listening to music and in particular to pop songs. Employing an experimental approach, this study attempted to investigate the role of pop songs on vocabulary recall, attitude and retention of Iranian advanced adult EFL learners based on their gender. In so doing a language placement test (Quick Oxford Placement Test was administered to 100 male and female language learners studying English at different language institutes in Esfahan, Iran. Ultimately, 60 advanced learners (30 males - 30 females were selected by leaving out the students of other levels of proficiency and randomly divided into two relatively homogenous groups as musical and non-musical groups. While the students of musical group (=30 were taught the new vocabulary in the syllabus through 60 different pop songs chosen by themselves through a questionnaire, the students of the non-musical group (n=30 were taught new vocabulary without using the songs. The participants were examined based on an English vocabulary test developed by the researchers, which probed into the learners’ vocabulary recall. A questionnaire was also used to investigate the attitude of the learners towards the instruction. A month later the vocabulary test was re-administered as a delayed retention test and obtained data were statistically analyzed. The results of t-tests demonstrated that the musical group outscored the non-musical group on vocabulary recall and retention. The results also showed the male learners perform better than the females. Keywords: incidental vocabulary, pop songs, vocabulary recall, attitude, retention

  6. On Vocabulary Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑洁

    2013-01-01

    An efficient vocabulary learning strategy can supply students with exact meanings and usage of words. There are many differences between Chinese and English,so the result of memorizing vocabulary by rote is always not good. The paper holds the Incidental Vocabulary Learning to improve the English ability.

  7. Participation in sports in relation to adolescent growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kelly A; Patel, Dilip R; Darmawan, Daphne

    2017-07-01

    Puberty is defined by physical growth, development of secondary sexual characteristics, and maturation of psychosocial skills. The initiation and rate of progression of pubertal events varies among adolescents, but pubertal changes occur in a predictable stepwise manner. Factors including individual differences in physical and psychosocial development, stage of development based on age (early, middle, and late), and the rate of pubertal development, may all contribute to the way in which adolescents experience sports activities. During adolescence, gender differences also become more apparent and may significantly impact sports participation. As practitioners evaluate overall development and adolescent readiness for sports participation, they should consider the different areas of development including: somatic, neurologic, cognitive, psychosocial-function in an integrated and interdependent approach.

  8. Bridging the Vocabulary Gap: What the Research Tells Us about Vocabulary Instruction in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine

    2010-01-01

    It is important for children to develop knowledge of words' meanings from a young age because vocabulary development has an impact on their reading comprehension and academic success as they get older. Some children come to school knowing far fewer words than others. Hart and Risley studied young children's vocabulary development and found that…

  9. Measuring Vocabulary: An overview of four types of vocabulary tests

    OpenAIRE

    Helga Hilmarsdóttir 1985

    2010-01-01

    In this essay four types of vocabulary tests are examined and the focus is on the variety in vocabulary tests. The main incentive with writing this essay was to make an overview of vocabulary measurement tools and to examine whether there existed a standardized vocabulary test. In the first chapter an attempt is made to answer the question of what vocabulary knowledge is. Receptive and productive knowledge of vocabulary is discussed as well as the distinction of vocabulary into breadth and...

  10. The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Proficiency of English Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Filiz Yalçın Tılfarlıoğlu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to examine L2 learners’ VLS use habits and the relationship of VLS with their vocabulary proficiency levels. In addition, language learners’ beliefs about VLS in terms of usefulness were also studied to understand L2 learners’ VLS use habits more deeply. To examine these matters, a descriptive research design was employed. The participants included 252 preparatory students from different proficiency groups (Upper-Intermediate, Intermediate, Pre-Intermediate, Beginner at Gaziantep University Higher School of Foreign Languages. To collect the related data, they were given “Vocabulary Learning Strategies Questionnaire” and “Vocabulary Levels Test”. The data analyses were conducted by descriptive and inferential statistics. The results of the study showed that the participants used a wide range of VLS, and there was an overlap between their beliefs about VLS in terms of usefulness and how often they used them to a large extent. Secondly, Memory Strategies correlated positively with the participants’ academic and general vocabulary proficiency levels. However, there were also some differences among the proficiency groups about which specific VLS are correlated with their vocabulary proficiency levels. As to the regression analysis results, none of the VLS predicted participants’ vocabulary proficiency levels. Keywords: Vocabulary learning strategies, vocabulary proficiency, learner beliefs

  11. A harmonized vocabulary for soil observed properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Bruce; Wilson, Peter; Cox, Simon; Vleeshouer, Jamie

    2014-05-01

    Interoperability of soil data depends on agreements concerning models, schemas and vocabularies. However, observed property terms are often defined during different activities and projects in isolation of one another, resulting in data that has the same scope being represented with different terms, using different formats and formalisms, and published in various access methods. Significantly, many soil property vocabularies conflate multiple concepts in a single term, e.g. quantity kind, units of measure, substance being observed, and procedure. Effectively, this bundles separate information elements into a single slot. We have developed a vocabulary for observed soil properties by adopting and extending a previously defined water quality vocabulary. The observed property model separates the information elements, based on the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Observations & Measurements model and extending the NASA/TopQuadrant 'Quantities, Units, Dimensions and Types' (QUDT) ontology. The imported water quality vocabulary is formalized using the Web Ontology Language (OWL). Key elements are defined as sub-classes or sub-properties of standard Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) elements, allowing use of standard vocabulary interfaces. For the soil observed property vocabulary, terms from QUDT and water quality are used where possible. These are supplemented with additional unit of measure (Unit), observed property (ScaledQuantityKind) and substance being observed (SubstanceOrTaxon) vocabulary entries required for the soil properties. The vocabulary terms have been extracted from the Australian Soil and Land Survey Field Handbook and Australian Soil Information Transfer and Evaluation System (SITES) vocabularies. The vocabulary links any chemical substances to items from the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) ontology. By formalizing the model for observable properties, and clearly labelling the separate elements, soil property observations may

  12. Tectonic Vocabulary & Materialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Beim, Anne; Bundgaard, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    By referring to the fundamental question of how we unite aesthetics and technology – tectonic theory is necessarily a focal point in the development of the architectural discipline. However, a critical reconsideration of the role of tectonic theory seems necessary when facing the present everyday...... architectural practice. In this matter the paper focuses on the need to juxtapose theoretical studies, to bring the present vocabulary of the tectonic further, as well as to spur further practical experiments enabling theory to materialize in the everyday of the current practice....

  13. Integrating Vocabulary Learning Strategy Instruction into EFL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ying-Chun

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, explicit vocabulary learning strategy instruction was integrated into an EFL curriculum to investigate its effects on learners' vocabulary acquisition. A total of 180 EFL learners enrolled in the freshmen English program at a university in Taiwan participated in the study. The participants were guided to explore and practice…

  14. THE VOCABULARY LEARNING STRATEGIES USED BY UUM STUDENTS IN RELATION TO THEIR PROFICIENCY LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noraziah Mohd Amin

    2013-04-01

    Abstract  This thesis is concerned with the vocabulary learning strategies used by Band 1 and Band 4 undergraduate students of Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM.  The objectives of this descriptive study were to survey the vocabulary learning strategies used by the respondents and to determine to what extent their use of the strategies was influenced by their proficiency level. The instrument employed in the study was a questionnaire developed by Lachini (2007 based on Cottrell’s classification of learning strategies. It consists of five categories of vocabulary learning strategies: creative, reflective, effective, active and motivated. The responses of 100 Band 1 and 100 Band 4 students to the questionnaire were examined on the frequency of their use of the vocabulary learning strategies. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in terms of the frequency of use between Band 1 and Band 4 participants as  the majority of both groups employed most of the strategies either ‘a little’ or ‘often’. The findings of the study perhaps could help instructors to facilitate the learning of English vocabulary by UUM students and other students at large.    Keywords: The vocabulary learning strategies, proficiency levels

  15. Deterrents to Women's Participation in Continuing Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Szu-Fang

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to explore and define key factors that deter women from participating in continuing professional development (CPD) in the workplace. Four dimensions of deterrents that are caused by women's social roles, gender inequality and gender dimensions are discussed: family and time constraints, cost and work constraints, lack of…

  16. Does Individual Development Account Participation Help the Poor? A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Kristin V.; Thyer, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to review the current empirical research regarding the financial effects of participation in Individual Development Account (IDA) programs. Methods: Peer-reviewed outcome studies identified through electronic bibliographic databases and manual searches of article reference lists are reviewed. A total of 1…

  17. Participation and Participatory Development among the Kalhor Nomads of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidari, Shokrullah Hamd; Wright, Susan

    2001-01-01

    An ethnographic study of Kalhor nomads in Iran showed that the government's top-down approach to development and weak local institutions obscure the impact of technology on women and poor people. Despite rhetoric about participation, these groups are not consulted about their needs, priorities, and interests. (SK)

  18. Child Care and Development Block Grant Participation in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Reeves, Rhiannon

    2014-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary funding source for federal child care subsidies to low-income working families, as well as improving child care quality. Based on preliminary state-reported data from the federal Office of Child Care, this fact sheet provides a snapshot of CCDBG program participation in 2012, noting…

  19. Joint Attention Behaviours and Vocabulary Development in Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampini, L.; Salvi, A.; D'Odorico, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Because of their difficulties in language development, various studies have focussed on the precursors of linguistic skills in children with Down syndrome. However, data on the predictive role of joint attention on language development in this population are inconsistent. The present study aimed to analyse attention behaviours in a…

  20. Joint Attention Behaviours and Vocabulary Development in Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampini, L.; Salvi, A.; D'Odorico, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Because of their difficulties in language development, various studies have focussed on the precursors of linguistic skills in children with Down syndrome. However, data on the predictive role of joint attention on language development in this population are inconsistent. The present study aimed to analyse attention behaviours in a…

  1. New industrial configuration and local participation in development strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Ramalho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses patterns of institutional and political participation based on new economic development experiences in situations created by the dynamics of the Brazilian automobile industry in the 1990s. Taking an empirical study of a region as an example, the study argues that even in a context where large companies have opportunistic motivations (tax exemptions, low wages, etc., initiatives can emerge for society's mobilization and intervention to foster collaborative activities aimed at regional development.

  2. Reading Vocabulary Influences in Phonological Recoding during the Development of Reading Skill: A Re-Examination of Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Michael F.; Thompson, G. Brian

    2009-01-01

    Children's skill at recoding graphemes to phonemes is widely understood as the driver of their progress in acquiring reading vocabulary. This recoding skill is usually assessed by children's reading of pseudowords (e.g., "yeep") that represent "new words." This study re-examined the extent to which pseudoword reading is, itself, influenced by…

  3. Final Report National Laboratory Professional Development Workshop for Underrepresented Participants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Valerie [Texas Engineering Experiment Station, College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-11-07

    The 2013 CMD-IT National Laboratories Professional Development Workshop for Underrepresented Participants (CMD-IT NLPDev 2013) was held at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory campus in Oak Ridge, TN. from June 13 - 14, 2013. Sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Scientific Computing Research Program, the primary goal of these workshops is to provide information about career opportunities in computational science at the various national laboratories and to mentor the underrepresented participants through community building and expert presentations focused on career success. This second annual workshop offered sessions to facilitate career advancement and, in particular, the strategies and resources needed to be successful at the national laboratories.

  4. Relationships of Teachers' Language and Explicit Vocabulary Instruction to Students' Vocabulary Growth in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowne, Jocelyn Bonnes; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Snow, Catherine E.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the relationships between aspects of Chilean teachers' explicit vocabulary instruction and students' vocabulary development in kindergarten. Classroom videotapes of whole-class instruction gathered during a randomized experimental evaluation of a coaching-based professional development program were analyzed. The amount of…

  5. Vocabulary learning in Head Start: Nature and extent of classroom instruction and its contributions to children's learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindman, Annemarie H; Wasik, Barbara A

    2013-06-01

    In the current study, we employed the 2006 cohort of the large-scale, nationally representative, Head Start Family and Child Experiences (FACES) dataset to construct a snapshot of vocabulary instruction and learning in high-poverty preschools. Specifically, we examined Head Start teachers' reports of the frequency of vocabulary instruction in their classrooms as well as the overall quality of their classroom instruction. We also explored the teacher- and center-level factors that predicted these dual aspects of instruction, and the role of that instruction in children's vocabulary development over the preschool year. Participants included 293 teachers in 116 Head Start centers, as well as 2501 children in their classrooms. Results showed that, whereas there was notable variation, most teachers reported providing a variety of vocabulary-focused instructional activities nearly every day. The quality of their classroom instruction was generally modest. Classroom instructional quality was predictive of children's vocabulary learning, with stronger relations apparent for children with lower initial skills and for classrooms with higher quality instruction. The frequency of instruction in vocabulary was not related to children's word learning. Results provide new descriptive data about the state of vocabulary instruction in Head Start preschools and highlight both areas of success and opportunities for additional support.

  6. The concurrent use of three implicit measures (eye movements, pupillometry, and event-related potentials) to assess receptive vocabulary knowledge in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Kerry; Coderre, Emily; Bosley, Laura; Buz, Esteban; Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Gordon, Barry

    2016-03-01

    Recent years have seen the advent and proliferation of the use of implicit techniques to study learning and cognition. One such application is the use of event-related potentials (ERPs) to assess receptive vocabulary knowledge. Other implicit assessment techniques that may be well-suited to other testing situations or to use with varied participant groups have not been used as widely to study receptive vocabulary knowledge. We sought to develop additional implicit techniques to study receptive vocabulary knowledge that could augment the knowledge gained from the use of the ERP technique. Specifically, we used a simple forced-choice paradigm to assess receptive vocabulary knowledge in normal adult participants using eye movement monitoring (EM) and pupillometry. In the same group of participants, we also used an N400 semantic incongruity ERP paradigm to assess their knowledge of two groups of words: those expected to be known to the participants (high-frequency, familiar words) and those expected to be unknown (low-frequency, unfamiliar words). All three measures showed reliable differences between the known and unknown words. EM and pupillometry thus may provide insight into receptive vocabulary knowledge similar to that from ERPs. The development of additional implicit assessment techniques may increase the feasibility of receptive vocabulary testing across a wider range of participant groups and testing situations, and may make the conduct of such testing more accessible to a wider range of researchers, clinicians, and educators.

  7. The Impact of Vocabulary Knowledge on Reading, Writing and Proficiency Scores of EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakoç, Dilek; Köse, Gül Durmusoglu

    2017-01-01

    This study is an attempt to clarify the incremental and multidimensional nature of foreign language vocabulary development and its relation to the participants' reading and writing performances and general language ability of English as a foreign language (EFL). With this principle aim, the current study investigated the relationship between…

  8. Predicting Growth in English and French Vocabulary: The Facilitating Effects of Morphological and Cognate Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Nadia; Hipfner-Boucher, Kathleen; Chen, Xi

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of morphological and cognate awareness to the development of English and French vocabulary knowledge among young minority and majority language children who were enrolled in a French immersion program. Participating children (n = 75) were assessed in English and French on measures of morphological…

  9. Promoting Contextual Vocabulary Learning through an Adaptive Computer-Assisted EFL Reading System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.-H.

    2016-01-01

    The study developed an adaptive computer-assisted reading system and investigated its effect on promoting English as a foreign language learner-readers' contextual vocabulary learning performance. Seventy Taiwanese college students were assigned to two reading groups. Participants in the customised reading group read online English texts, each of…

  10. Effects of a virtual platform in reading comprehension and vocabulary: An alternative to improve reading abilities in Elementary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Thorne

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Given, on the one hand, the poor results obtained by Peruvian children in the national and international reading assessments. And on the other hand, the increased investment intechnology for schools in the country, this study aimed to develop and test an online tool to improve reading comprehension. In order to do this, the reading comprehension strategies and vocabulary activities from the research-based digital environment ICON were adapted to design the platform LEO. A total of 88 fifth graders from urban middle-to-low-income private schools from Lima participated in this quasi-experimental study, which involved acontrol group and a treatment group that participated in a 12-week teacher-mediated digital intervention. All participants were administered reading and vocabulary assessments pre and post intervention. Results revealed that students who participated in the intervention achieved higher comprehension scores for narrative texts and higher vocabulary scores than those of the control group.

  11. Simultaneous Bilingual Language Acquisition: The Role of Parental Input on Receptive Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Andrea A. N.; Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Boegner-Page, Sarah; Fontolliet, Salome

    2013-01-01

    Parents often turn to educators and healthcare professionals for advice on how to best support their child's language development. These professionals frequently suggest implementing the "one-parent-one-language" approach to ensure consistent exposure to both languages. The goal of this study was to understand how language exposure influences the…

  12. Child Vocabulary, Maternal Behavior, and Inhibitory Control Development among Spanish-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peredo, Tatiana Nogueira; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Rojas, Raúl; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The roles of child lexical diversity and maternal sensitivity in the development of young children's inhibitory control were examined in 100 low-income Hispanic Spanish-speaking children. Child communication utterances at age 2½ years were transcribed from 10-min mother-child interactions to quantify lexical diversity. Maternal…

  13. The Factors that Affect Science Teachers' Participation in Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Judi Ann

    Scientific literacy for our students and the possibilities for careers available in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) areas are important topics for economic growth as well as global competitiveness. The achievement of students in science learning is dependent upon the science teachers' effectiveness and experienced science teachers depend upon relevant professional development experiences to support their learning. In order to understand how to improve student learning in science, the learning of science teachers must also be understood. Previous research studies on teacher professional development have been conducted in other states, but Minnesota science teachers comprised a new and different population from those previously studied. The purpose of this two-phase mixed methods study was to identify the current types of professional development in which experienced, Minnesota secondary science teachers participated and the factors that affect their participation in professional development activities. The mixed-methods approach s utilized an initial online survey followed by qualitative interviews with five survey respondents. The results of the quantitative survey and the qualitative interviews indicated the quality of professional development experiences and the factors which affected the science teachers' participation in professional development activities. The supporting and inhibiting factors involved the availability of resources such as time and money, external relationships with school administrators, teacher colleagues, and family members, and personal intrinsic attributes such as desires to learn and help students. This study also describes implications for science teachers, school administrators, policymakers, and professional development providers. Recommendations for future research include the following areas: relationships between and among intrinsic and extrinsic factors, science-related professional development activities

  14. End-user participation in Health IT development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høstgaard, Anna Marie Balling

    2012-01-01

    Despite there being extensive cumulative knowledge and many experiences about factors that contribute to health Information Technology (HIT) success, lessons are yet to be learned as many HIT developments still face a number of problems - many of them of an organizational nature. This chapter...... presents a new method - the EUPHIT method – for studying and understanding one of the most crucial organizational success factors in HIT development: end-user participation. The method was developed and used for the first time throughout a research study of an EHR planning process in a Danish region...

  15. Socioeconomic status, parental education, vocabulary and language skills of children who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richels, Corrin G; Johnson, Kia N; Walden, Tedra A; Conture, Edward G

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the possible relation between standardized measures of vocabulary/language, mother and father education, and a composite measure of socioeconomic status (SES) for children who do not stutter (CWNS) and children who stutter (CWS). Participants were 138 CWNS and 159 CWS between the ages of 2;6 and 6;3 and their families. The Hollingshead Four Factor Index of Social Position (i.e., Family SES) was used to calculate SES based on a composite score consisting of weighted values for paternal and maternal education and occupation. Statistical regression analyses were conducted to investigate the relation between parental education and language and vocabulary scores for both the CWNS and CWS. Correlations were calculated between parent education, Family SES, and stuttering severity (e.g., SSI-3 score, % words stuttered). Results indicated that maternal education contributed the greatest amount of variance in vocabulary and language scores for the CWNS and for participants from both groups whose Family SES was in the lowest quartile of the distribution. However, paternal education generally contributed the greatest amount of variance in vocabulary and language scores for the CWS. Higher levels of maternal education were associated with more severe stuttering in the CWS. Results are generally consistent with existing literature on normal language development that indicates maternal education is a robust predictor of the vocabulary and language skills of preschool children. Thus, both father and mothers' education may impact the association between vocabulary/language skills and childhood stuttering, leading investigators who empirically study this association to possibly re-assess their participant selection (e.g., a priori control of parental education) and/or data analyses (e.g., post hoc covariation of parental education). The reader will be able to: (a) describe the influence of socioeconomic status on the development of

  16. Receptive vocabulary differences in monolingual and bilingual children

    OpenAIRE

    Bialystok, Ellen; PEETS, KATHLEEN F.; Yang, Sujin; Luk, Gigi

    2010-01-01

    Studies often report that bilingual participants possess a smaller vocabulary in the language of testing than monolinguals, especially in research with children. However, each study is based on a small sample so it is difficult to determine whether the vocabulary difference is due to sampling error. We report the results of an analysis of 1,738 children between 3 and 10 years old and demonstrate a consistent difference in receptive vocabulary between the two groups. Two preliminary analyses s...

  17. Early Gesture and Vocabulary Development in Infant Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Jana M; Northrup, Jessie B; Leezenbaum, Nina B; Parladé, Meaghan V; Koterba, Erin A; West, Kelsey L

    2017-09-12

    This study examined longitudinal growth in gestures and words in infants at heightened (HR) versus low risk (LR) for ASD. The MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory was administered monthly from 8 to 14 months and at 18 and 24 months to caregivers of 14 HR infants diagnosed with ASD (HR-ASD), 27 HR infants with language delay (HR-LD), 51 HR infants with no diagnosis (HR-ND), and 28 LR infants. Few differences were obtained between LR and HR-ND infants, but HR-LD and HR-ASD groups differed in initial skill levels and growth patterns. While HR-LD infants grew at rates comparable to LR and HR-ND infants, growth was attenuated in the HR-ASD group, with trajectories progressively diverging from all other groups.

  18. Development and Validation of an Instrument to Assess Youth Motivation to Participate in Career Development Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Neil A.; Brady, Colleen M.; Orvis, Kathryn S.; Carroll, Natalie J.

    2016-01-01

    Career development events develop career and life skills in youth, but limited work has been done to assess the motivation of students who participate in these events. The purpose of this study was to validate an instrument developed to measure youth motivation to participate in career development events. An instrument grounded in expectancy-value…

  19. Improving Elementary School Students’ English Vocabulary Through Local Cultural Content Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Manurung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Elementary students of a certain public school in Indonesia had difficulties in learning English. One of the crucial problems was learning English vocabulary. In an attempt to help the students learn and improve English vocabulary, the researchers decided to use CAR to teach English vocabulary with local cultural content materials. The aim of this study was to investigate how the teaching of English vocabulary with local cultural content materials contributed to the improvement of the students’ English vocabulary mastery. The topics covered in the materials were selected based on schemata theory. Vocabulary learning process was done through several activities provided in the materials: classroom and outside vocabulary learning. The results showed that the teaching of local cultural content materials have contributed to the improvement of the Elementary students’ vocabulary mastery. The schematic knowledge found in the familiar topics has aroused the students’ interest and motivation in learning English vocabulary. Students who were more familiar with the topics could respond to the vocabulary learning better than those who were not familiar with. The vocabulary mastery was more successful only if the students participated in both classroom and outside vocabulary learning process. Keywords: Vocabulary Mastery, Vocabulary Improvement, Local Cultural Content Materials, Vocabulary Learning, Schemata

  20. The Effects of English/Language Arts Academic Vocabulary Alignment on Elementary Student Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Stacey Michelle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide professional development in vocabulary instructional practices and analyze the impact on student achievement. This quasi-experimental study utilized the PLC to curriculum map English/Language Arts state academic vocabulary words in K-4 into each of the four nine-weeks. The first through fourth grade…

  1. Vocabulary Notebook: A Digital Solution to General and Specific Vocabulary Learning Problems in a CLIL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazo, Plácido; Rodríguez, Romén; Fumero, Dácil

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we will introduce an innovative software platform that can be especially useful in a Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) context. This tool is called Vocabulary Notebook, and has been developed to solve all the problems that traditional (paper) vocabulary notebooks have. This tool keeps focus on the personalisation of…

  2. Effect of Instructional vs. Authentic Video Materials on Introvert and Extrovert Iranian EFL Learners' Vocabulary Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parya Isazadeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study delved into the effect of instructional video materials vs. authentic video materials on vocabulary learning of extrovert and introvert Iranian EFL learners. To this end, Nelson proficiency test was administered to one hundred eighty (n=180 language learners. Considering 1 standard deviation above and below the mean score, one hundred twenty three (n=123 language learners were selected for the study. These participants were distributed into 4 experimental groups (with 25 learners and a control group (with 23 learners. Researcher-made vocabulary pretest and posttest which were designed using the vocabularies from the movies were also administered to the participants. The findings of the study after three weeks of treatment revealed that both authentic video materials and instructional video materials can have positive effect on vocabulary learning of Iranian EFL leaners. This effect, however, is not different among extrovert learners. It was also revealed that introvert EFL learners benefit more from authentic video materials. The findings of the study could be used by material developers or language teachers who may wish to use video materials in their classes. Keywords: Authentic video materials, Instructional video materials, Vocabulary learning, Introversion, Extroversion

  3. Early childhood WIC participation, cognitive development and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Margot I

    2015-02-01

    For the 22% of American children who live below the federal poverty line, and the additional 23% who live below twice that level, nutritional policy is part of the safety net against hunger and its negative effects on children's development. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) provides steadily available food from the food groups essential for physical and cognitive development. The effects of WIC on dietary quality among participating women and children are strong and positive. Furthermore, there is a strong influence of nutrition on cognitive development and socioeconomic inequality. Yet, research on the non-health effects of U.S. child nutritional policy is scarce, despite the ultimate goal of health policies directed at children-to enable productive functioning across multiple social institutions over the life course. Using two nationally representative, longitudinal surveys of children-the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) and the Child Development Supplement (CDS) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics-I examine how prenatal and early childhood exposure to WIC is associated in the short-term with cognitive development, and in the longer-term with reading and math learning. Results show that early WIC participation is associated with both cognitive and academic benefits. These findings suggest that WIC meaningfully contributes to children's educational prospects.

  4. Vocabulary Learning Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Craven, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    The prominent role of vocabulary knowledge in second or foreign language learning has been recently recognized by theorists and researchers in the field. This article aims to provide a digest of recent research on vocabulary learning strategies specifically in the English as a foreign language context in Japan. In Japan where there is minimal exposure to English in daily life and where word knowledge is often tested, teachers should be informing learners about vocabulary learning strategies a...

  5. Tagging vs. Controlled Vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine; Petras, Vivien

    2015-01-01

    elements like core bibliographic data, controlled vocabulary terms, reviews, and tags to the retrieval performance. Our comparison is done using a test collection of over 2 million book records with information elements from Amazon, the British Library, the Library of Congress, and LibraryThing. We find...... that tags and controlled vocabulary terms do not actually outperform each other consistently, but seem to provide complementary contributions: some information needs are best addressed using controlled vocabulary terms whereas other are best addressed using tags....

  6. NASA thesaurus aeronautics vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The controlled vocabulary used by the NASA Scientific and Technical Information effort to index documents in the area of aeronautics is presented. The terms comprise a subset of the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus and its supplements issued through the end of 1990. The Aeronautics Vocabulary contains over 4700 terms presented in a hierarchical display format. In addition to aeronautics per se, the vocabulary covers supporting terminology from areas such as fluid dynamics, propulsion engineering, and test facilities and instrumentation.

  7. Development of a tablet application for the screening of receptive vocabulary skills in multilingual children: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, B.; Bowyer-Crane, C; F. Herrmann; Fricke, S.

    2015-01-01

    For professionals working with multi-lingual children, detecting language deficits in a child’s home language can present a challenge. This is largely due to the scarcity of standardised assessments in many children’s home languages and missing normative data on multilingual language acquisition. A common approach is to translate existing English language vocabulary measures into other languages. However, this approach does not take into account the cultural and linguistic differences between...

  8. Development of Cultural Management and Inheritance by Community Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichayapol Nguanthaisong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Museums were places where all collections, which indicated values of arts and cultural heritages that were useful for learning, were kept. Establishment of museums was successful by having development, systematic management, cultural inheritance, knowledge transferring, participation and support. Approach: This study aimed to study backgrounds of museum development in temples in the area of the lower northeastern, to study current conditions and problems about museum management in temples and cultural management with community participation in the lower northeastern and to study development and management of museum in temples and cultural inheritance by community participation in the lower northeastern. This research was a qualitative research and conducted by literature review and field data collecting with interviewing, observations, focus group discussions and workshops with 170 persons from group of key informants, casual informants and related agencies. Data were analyzed with cultural diffusion theory and presented results in form of descriptive analysis. Results: The study revealed that backgrounds of museum development in temple were initiated by monks, who collected things in old building without systematic exhibition, labeling of donators or source indicating. Most of collections were things in that community such as traditional utensil donated to temple when they were unused and the rest was from other communities. After having many of collections, monks asked community for fund raising to construct museum building in the area of that temple. Moreover, things from discovering of local archeological sites were also kept in museum and there were many visitors. After that an agency of Fine Arts Department came to study and research by using budgets for the second exploring such local archeological sites and then kept in buildings of temple museum. Currently, it was found that; (1 there was a simple management on

  9. Vocabulary Learning: The Use of Grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, P. D.

    1983-01-01

    A system of grids to organize related vocabulary words and their associations developed for teacher trainees is illustrated, and other possible uses of the categorizing system, by students, teachers, and translators, are discussed. (MSE)

  10. The efficacy of a vocabulary intervention for dual-language learners with language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Maria Adelaida; Morgan, Gareth P; Thompson, Marilyn S

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated the efficacy of a Spanish-English versus English-only vocabulary intervention for dual-language learners (DLLs) with language impairment compared to mathematics intervention groups and typically developing controls with no intervention. Further, in this study the authors also examined whether the language of instruction affected English, Spanish, and conceptual vocabulary differentially. The authors randomly assigned 202 preschool DLLs with language impairment to 1 of 4 conditions: bilingual vocabulary, English-only vocabulary, bilingual mathematics, or English-only mathematics. Fifty-four DLLs with typical development received no intervention. The vocabulary intervention consisted of a 12-week small-group dialogic reading and hands-on vocabulary instruction of 45 words. Postintervention group differences and linear growth rates were examined in conceptual, English, and Spanish receptive and expressive vocabulary for the 45 treatment words. Results indicate that the bilingual vocabulary intervention facilitated receptive and expressive Spanish and conceptual vocabulary gains in DLLs with language impairment compared with the English vocabulary intervention, mathematics intervention, and no-intervention groups. The English-only vocabulary intervention differed significantly from the mathematics condition and no-intervention groups on all measures but did not differ from the bilingual vocabulary intervention. Vocabulary growth rates postintervention slowed considerably. Results support the idea that bilingual interventions support native- and second-language vocabulary development. English-only intervention supports only English. Use of repeated dialogic reading and hands-on activities facilitates vocabulary acquisition.

  11. Urban development discourses, environmental management and public participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses issues of political influence and power struggles in connection with environmental projects through the lenses of a low-income settlement in the City of Chiang Mai, North Thailand. That low-income settlement has been an object of intervention in four different projects....../programmes in the last five years, namely (a) the Urban Community Environmental Activities (UCEA) project, a community driven initiative implemented with the support of the public organisation Community Organisation Development Institute (CODI) and the NGO People's Organisation for Participation (POP); (b) the Chiang...... Chiang Mai; and (d) the Programme for Conservation of Historic Monuments, currently under implementation by the Department of Fine Arts (Central Government)....

  12. e-Vocabulary and e-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-María Fernández-Pampillón

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A vocabulary is a linguistic resource that helps manage, query and retrieve information and/or knowledge via words. If vocabularies are built and used in electronic format, they are referred as e-vocabularies. E-vocabularies have been used in Education to help teachers and students to, amongst many issues, (1 comprehend and relate the concepts and the objects of a given knowledge domain; (2 understand and learn languages, be they specialized or not; and (3 identify, describe and query knowledge and digital educational resources. Despite its utility, it is in this field where vocabularies seem to be less systematically developed, known, studied, analyzed, compared and/or linked. For this reason, we thought it was an opportunity to edit a dedicated volume with real experiences concerning the construction, use and evaluation of electronic vocabularies relating to education, and their application to the Internet and e-learning. The result is, finally, this Special Issue with five papers that represent part of the current state-of-the-art in the construction and use of e-vocabularies and education.

  13. TEACHING VOCABULARY THROUGH SENTENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    irfan tosuncuoglu

    2015-12-01

    Almost every teacher is certain about that vocabulary is an important facet of learning a second language. It may be more important than grammar, at least in so far as this concerns communication , and particularly in the early stages when learners seem to understand that amassing a basic vocabulary is very important to fluency in another language. As a rule, receptive vocabulary exceeds productive vocabulary and why listening with comprehension and speaking with comprehension are two very different things—the latter a more difficult cognitive process than the former. Furthermore, vocabulary acquisition is highly idiosyncratic and depends largely on the learner and her or his individual learning styles and cognitive abilities. No two people learn alike. In particular, as understanding and fluency increases,  individual interests and even needs will change, which then requires teacher-assisted guidance and remediation vis-à-vis the compilation of a specified and nuanced vocabulary that is tailored to the learner’s more practical linguistic needs, whatever these might be. In this case, new vocabulary items are more likely to be recalled and communicative. Essential to such an approach to teaching vocabulary acquisition, it is argued here, is exposure to authentic language, that is, reading, writing, listening, and speaking in class that both engages the visual, tactile, and aural-oral senses and imprints. In the case of texts, it is paramount that the comprehension level be such that the learner can guestimate with a nigh degree of accuracy the meaning and proper usage of new vocabulary items without a dictionary and thus from their context. And the more often these new vocabulary items appear, the more likely it is that their full meaning will be understood and committed to memory.  For that reason we wanted to make use of sentences in vocabulary teaching.

  14. Does Translation Contribute to Learners' Free Active Vocabulary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiyaban, Amir R.; Bagheri, Mohammad S.

    2012-01-01

    This research was conducted to find out whether or not using "translation" technique in vocabulary teaching would have any positive effects on the "free active" vocabulary of Iranian learners of English. To carry out the research, eighty-eight intermediate male and female students were chosen. The participants were divided into…

  15. Receptive Vocabulary Differences in Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi; Peets, Kathleen F.; Yang, Sujin

    2010-01-01

    Studies often report that bilingual participants possess a smaller vocabulary in the language of testing than monolinguals, especially in research with children. However, each study is based on a small sample so it is difficult to determine whether the vocabulary difference is due to sampling error. We report the results of an analysis of 1,738…

  16. Shyness, Vocabulary and Children's Reticence in Saudi Arabian Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, W. Ray; Badawood, Asma

    2009-01-01

    The aims of the present study are to examine whether preschool children's scores on a standardized test of vocabulary mediate or moderate the relation between shyness and reticence and to test whether any influence of vocabulary would be found for both teacher and parent assessments of shyness. Participants were 108 children (50 males), mean age,…

  17. Memorization versus Semantic Mapping in L2 Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoii, Roya; Sharififar, Samira

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two cognitive strategies, rote memorization and semantic mapping, on L2 vocabulary acquisition. Thirty-eight intermediate female EFL learners divided into two experimental groups participated in this study. Each experimental group used one of the strategies for vocabulary acquisition. After the four-month…

  18. Developing Global Public Participation (1) : Global Public Participation at The United Nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, O.; Honniball, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    In this first article, we will analyse the actuality and potential of participation at the international level, or more specifically: at the level of the United Nations (un). Is there a demand for public participation in the work of the United Nations, and if so, who has such demands? And how should

  19. What Is Going on During Vocabulary Lessons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Mott

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been 9 years since the Congressionally appointed National Reading Panel made recommendations for literacy instruction that comprise a five-component framework of phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. Vocabulary, a critical pillar of literacy, has reciprocal and correlational relationships with reading achievement. The researchers piloted an observational instrument to determine the methods and materials K-3 teachers use to teach vocabulary in today’s classrooms. This brief evaluates a vocabulary observation tool the researchers developed to gather information from early childhood classroom settings in the midsouth region of the United States. Understanding materials utilized in various contexts will enable practitioners and researchers to address the significant disparity between vocabulary “haves and have-nots.” An examination of the instrument was conducted (n = 18 raters at 3 ratings apiece for 45 trials to determine reliability and validity of observations. Reliability was addressed via training with discussion and resolution of ratings from video of vocabulary instruction. Validity was analyzed via multidimensional scaling (MDS to visually portray ratings along the dimensions of student or teacher control. From this data, we were able to determine the number of possible senses (auditory, visual, kinesthetic, smell, and taste students used. Results indicated observer ratings (n = 45 clustered or separated material-type consistently indicating variance along both dimensions. The researchers are currently applying this piloted instrument in a large-scale study to depict teachers’ vocabulary material use. Understanding vocabulary materials and contexts of their use may lead to more effective vocabulary curriculum, instruction, and assessment.

  20. Spelling Ability in College Students Predicted by Decoding, Print Exposure, and Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocal, Turkan; Ehri, Linnea

    2017-01-01

    This study examines students' exposure to print, vocabulary and decoding as predictors of spelling skills. Participants were 42 college students (Mean age 22.5, SD = 7.87; 31 females and 11 males). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that most of the variance in spelling was explained by vocabulary knowledge. When vocabulary was entered first…

  1. Spelling Ability in College Students Predicted by Decoding, Print Exposure, and Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocal, Turkan; Ehri, Linnea

    2017-01-01

    This study examines students' exposure to print, vocabulary and decoding as predictors of spelling skills. Participants were 42 college students (Mean age 22.5, SD = 7.87; 31 females and 11 males). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that most of the variance in spelling was explained by vocabulary knowledge. When vocabulary was entered first…

  2. E-Book as Facilitator of Vocabulary Acquisition: Support of Adults, Dynamic Dictionary and Static Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korat, Ofra; Levin, Iris; Atishkin, Shifra; Turgeman, Merav

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of three facilitators: adults' support, dynamic visual vocabulary support and static visual vocabulary support on vocabulary acquisition in the context of e-book reading. Participants were 144 Israeli Hebrew-speaking preschoolers (aged 4-6) from middle SES neighborhoods. The entire sample read the e-book without a…

  3. E-Book as Facilitator of Vocabulary Acquisition: Support of Adults, Dynamic Dictionary and Static Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korat, Ofra; Levin, Iris; Atishkin, Shifra; Turgeman, Merav

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of three facilitators: adults' support, dynamic visual vocabulary support and static visual vocabulary support on vocabulary acquisition in the context of e-book reading. Participants were 144 Israeli Hebrew-speaking preschoolers (aged 4-6) from middle SES neighborhoods. The entire sample read the e-book without a…

  4. Sustaining urban development through participation: an Ethiopian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadele, F

    1996-02-01

    Under the Mengistu regime, Addis Ababa was divided into six zones, 28 woredas, and 303 kebeles, the kebeles being the smallest grassroots administrative unit. To enhance community participation, the Kebele 29 Project promoted the establishment of grassroots community groups by dividing the kebele into four zones and 37 neighborhoods. Each neighborhood is represented by a chairperson and a deputy who take responsibility for reviewing the priority needs of households, relaying information between the project and the community, and following up the project interventions. The author considers the sustainability of income-generating activities established as part of many urban development projects instigated by development agencies, the likelihood of inhabitants generating enough income for the upkeep of new or improved infrastructure, and whether the necessary commitment from the community can be created in a situation in which civil organizations have been banned or discouraged. These issues are considered in the context of Oxfam UK/I's involvement in the Kebele 29 Project.

  5. Ontology Based Vocabulary Matching for Oceanographic Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Shepherd, Adam; Chandler, Cyndy; Arko, Robert; Leadbetter, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Data integration act as the preliminary entry point as we enter the era of big data in many scientific domains. However the reusefulness of various dataset has met the hurdle due to different initial of interests of different parties, therefore different vocabularies in describing similar or semantically related concepts. In this scenario it is vital to devise an automatic or semi-supervised algorithm to facilitate the convergence of different vocabularies. The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) seeks to increase data sharing across scientific domains and international boundaries by providing a forum to harmonize diverse regional data systems. ODIP participants from the US include the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program, whose mission is to capture, catalog, and describe the underway/environmental sensor data from US oceanographic research vessels and submit the data to public long-term archives. In an attempt to harmonize these regional data systems, especially vocabularies, R2R recognizes the value of the SeaDataNet vocabularies served by the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS) hosted at the British Oceanographic Data Centre as a trusted, authoritative source for describing many oceanographic research concepts such as instrumentation. In this work, we make use of the semantic relations in the vocabularies served by NVS to build a Bayesian network and take advantage of the idea of entropy in evaluating the correlation between different concepts and keywords. The performance of the model is evaluated against matching instruments from R2R against the SeaDataNet instrument vocabularies based on calculated confidence scores in the instrument pairings. These pairings with their scores can then be analyzed for assertion growing the interoperability of the R2R vocabulary through its links to the SeaDataNet entities.

  6. Discussion about English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenxia Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Vocabulary becomes more and more crucial in English learning.The article depicts six main domains about the mastery and enlargement of vocabulary,and they are motivation and aim,major fields,word,ways,radiation,and concrete execution respectively.

  7. Building Mathematics Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarik, Madeline

    2010-01-01

    Although mathematics is visual language of symbols and numbers it is also expressed and explained through written and spoken words. For students to excel in mathematics, they must recognize, comprehend and apply the requisite vocabulary. Thus, vocabulary instruction is as critical in content areas as it is in language arts. It is especially…

  8. The Superlearning of Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmer, H. Thompson

    1983-01-01

    Describes the use of Georgi Lozanov's technique using rhythm, breathing, music, and meditation to bring about hypermnesia, or supermemory, to teach vocabulary to 15 university students. Reviews students' vocabulary gains, as seen in pre- and post-test scores, and describes how some students implemented superlearning techniques with their own…

  9. Content Area Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Students' vocabulary knowledge is a significant predictor of their overall comprehension. The Common Core State Standards are raising the expectations for word learning and there are now 4 distinct standards related to vocabulary as well as expectations in other standards, including content areas. To address these expectations, teachers need…

  10. Associative vocabulary learning: development and testing of two paradigms for the (re- acquisition of action- and object-related words.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Freundlieb

    Full Text Available Despite a growing number of studies, the neurophysiology of adult vocabulary acquisition is still poorly understood. One reason is that paradigms that can easily be combined with neuroscientfic methods are rare. Here, we tested the efficiency of two paradigms for vocabulary (re- acquisition, and compared the learning of novel words for actions and objects. Cortical networks involved in adult native-language word processing are widespread, with differences postulated between words for objects and actions. Words and what they stand for are supposed to be grounded in perceptual and sensorimotor brain circuits depending on their meaning. If there are specific brain representations for different word categories, we hypothesized behavioural differences in the learning of action-related and object-related words. Paradigm A, with the learning of novel words for body-related actions spread out over a number of days, revealed fast learning of these new action words, and stable retention up to 4 weeks after training. The single-session Paradigm B employed objects and actions. Performance during acquisition did not differ between action-related and object-related words (time*word category: p = 0.01, but the translation rate was clearly better for object-related (79% than for action-related words (53%, p = 0.002. Both paradigms yielded robust associative learning of novel action-related words, as previously demonstrated for object-related words. Translation success differed for action- and object-related words, which may indicate different neural mechanisms. The paradigms tested here are well suited to investigate such differences with neuroscientific means. Given the stable retention and minimal requirements for conscious effort, these learning paradigms are promising for vocabulary re-learning in brain-lesioned people. In combination with neuroimaging, neuro-stimulation or pharmacological intervention, they may well advance the understanding of

  11. Associative vocabulary learning: development and testing of two paradigms for the (re-) acquisition of action- and object-related words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundlieb, Nils; Ridder, Volker; Dobel, Christian; Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Baumgaertner, Annette; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Gerloff, Christian; Hummel, Friedhelm C; Liuzzi, Gianpiero

    2012-01-01

    Despite a growing number of studies, the neurophysiology of adult vocabulary acquisition is still poorly understood. One reason is that paradigms that can easily be combined with neuroscientfic methods are rare. Here, we tested the efficiency of two paradigms for vocabulary (re-) acquisition, and compared the learning of novel words for actions and objects. Cortical networks involved in adult native-language word processing are widespread, with differences postulated between words for objects and actions. Words and what they stand for are supposed to be grounded in perceptual and sensorimotor brain circuits depending on their meaning. If there are specific brain representations for different word categories, we hypothesized behavioural differences in the learning of action-related and object-related words. Paradigm A, with the learning of novel words for body-related actions spread out over a number of days, revealed fast learning of these new action words, and stable retention up to 4 weeks after training. The single-session Paradigm B employed objects and actions. Performance during acquisition did not differ between action-related and object-related words (time*word category: p = 0.01), but the translation rate was clearly better for object-related (79%) than for action-related words (53%, p = 0.002). Both paradigms yielded robust associative learning of novel action-related words, as previously demonstrated for object-related words. Translation success differed for action- and object-related words, which may indicate different neural mechanisms. The paradigms tested here are well suited to investigate such differences with neuroscientific means. Given the stable retention and minimal requirements for conscious effort, these learning paradigms are promising for vocabulary re-learning in brain-lesioned people. In combination with neuroimaging, neuro-stimulation or pharmacological intervention, they may well advance the understanding of language learning

  12. Effects of Hierarchy Vocabulary Exercises on English Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Ying; Hsu, Wei Shu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of hierarchy vocabulary exercises and copying vocabulary exercises on EFL students' vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension. Two specific factors were probed: (a) vocabulary gains and retention from different exercises; (b) reading comprehension performance through different…

  13. Development of Citizens’ Political Participation in Local Administration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akif Çukurçayır

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The foundation of modern local governments in Turkey was laid with an imperial edict in 1839. This reform also called Gulhane Hatt-i Hümayunu or Tanzimat Edict, paved the way for local and regional councils. Since the 1850s, the municipalities have been established. However, it is not possible to talk about the functionality of these municipalities in current terms. Since the proclamation of the Turkish Republic, modern laws regulating local governments were issued. Village Law and Municipal Law are the first examples of these reformations. With the 1961 Constitution, modern participatory local government approach was adopted and mayors began to be elected directly by people for the first time. From 1960 to present, many local government reforms were made, but none of them were so fundamental as in 2012. With this reform, local government system has completely changed. Aim of this study is investigation of results of this reform and find out needs for a new wave of reform. New Metropolitan Municipalities Law is problematic in terms of local governance and local participation. Although European Charter of Local Self-Government and the European Urban Charter paying special importance to citizen’s participation, last developments in Turkey as a European Union candidate continues in the opposite direction. Therefore, it is necessary to discuss all aspects of the new regulation. So that, field researches will be analyzed and recommendations will be presented in the light of these field studies relevant to the reforms.

  14. Urban development discourses, environmental management and public participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses issues of political influence and power struggles in connection with environmental projects through the lenses of a low-income settlement in the City of Chiang Mai, North Thailand. That low-income settlement has been an object of intervention in four different projects....../programmes in the last five years, namely (a) the Urban Community Environmental Activities (UCEA) project, a community driven initiative implemented with the support of the public organisation Community Organisation Development Institute (CODI) and the NGO People's Organisation for Participation (POP); (b) the Chiang...... Mai 30 year Master Plan designed by the Lanna Architects Association for Chiang Mai Municipality; (c) the Living City Project elaborated by the Department of Town Planning at Chiang Mai Provincial Government, following an initiative by the Prime Minister Mr. Taksin Shinawatra, who is originally from...

  15. Participation of microbiota in the development of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Li; Yu, Xin-Juan; Zhan, Shu-Hui; Jia, Sheng-Jiao; Tian, Zi-Bin; Dong, Quan-Jiang

    2014-05-07

    There are a large number of bacteria inhabiting the human body, which provide benefits for the health. Alterations of microbiota participate in the pathogenesis of diseases. The gastric microbiota consists of bacteria from seven to eleven phyla, predominantly Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria. Intrusion by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) does not remarkably interrupt the composition and structure of the gastric microbiota. Absence of bacterial commensal from the stomach delays the onset of H. pylori-induced gastric cancer, while presence of artificial microbiota accelerates the carcinogenesis. Altered gastric microbiota may increase the production of N-nitroso compounds, promoting the development of gastric cancer. Further investigation of the carcinogenic mechanisms of microbiota would benefit for the prevention and management of gastric cancer.

  16. A case study of a vocabulary strategy in a high school class of special education students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevost, Jill K.

    In the United States, almost 7000 students drop out of high school every day and the most common reason is academic failure. The economic, social, and emotional cost of dropping out of high school are enormous. Vocabulary knowledge is essential for students to grasp the concepts of a content area and there has been little research reported for scaffolding vocabulary learning in content classes. The purpose of this study was to investigate a vocabulary instructional strategy in a high school biology class. The research questions focused on understanding the vocabulary instructional strategy and student perception of the strategy. This was an evaluative case study using a convenience sample of a college preparatory biology class of special education students. Participants included eight males and two females who were identified as having learning, emotional or health disabilities with average to low average intelligence. Informal interviews, observations, school records, student and teacher artifacts and rich description were used for data triangulation. Analysis involved coding and grouping data by category, and identification of relationships between categories. Three themes emerged from this study: Students believed the strategy helped them to learn vocabulary, the strategy gave direction to instruction, and the strategy can be difficult to implement. The skill level of our future work force and the health of our society is linked to our nation's high school graduation rate. Development of instructional strategies that result in student academic success will improve our high school graduation rate which will result in positive social change.

  17. Supplements to Traditional Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    布亚男

    2012-01-01

      In a word, Vocabulary plays an indispensable part in language proficiency and provides much of the basis of how wel learns language, so it cannot be ignored. I discussed Schools’ viewpoints on the vocabulary teaching ,Reason for forgetting, Traditional approach to vocabulary teaching, supplements to vocabulary teaching,the author hope the above content can offer some hints for language learners.

  18. Technology-enhanced storytelling stimulating parent-child interaction and preschool children's vocabulary knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepe, R.C.; Molenaar, I.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2017-01-01

    Preschool children's vocabulary mainly develops verbal through interaction. Therefore, the technology-enhanced storytelling (TES) activity Jeffy's Journey is developed to support parent-child interaction and vocabulary in preschool children. TES entails shared verbal storytelling supported by a

  19. Operational Demands of AAC Mobile Technology Applications on Programming Vocabulary and Engagement During Professional and Child Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Jessica; Light, Janice; Drager, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Typically, the vocabulary in augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) technologies is pre-programmed by manufacturers or by parents and professionals outside of daily interactions. Because vocabulary needs are difficult to predict, young children who use aided AAC often do not have access to vocabulary concepts as the need and interest arises in their daily interactions, limiting their vocabulary acquisition and use. Ideally, parents and professionals would be able to add vocabulary to AAC technologies "just-in-time" as required during daily interactions. This study compared the effects of two AAC applications for mobile technologies: GoTalk Now (which required more programming steps) and EasyVSD (which required fewer programming steps) on the number of visual scene displays (VSDs) and hotspots created in 10-min interactions between eight professionals and preschool-aged children with typical development. The results indicated that, although all of the professionals were able to create VSDs and add vocabulary during interactions with the children, they created more VSDs and hotspots with the app with fewer programming steps than with the one with more steps, and child engagement and programming participation levels were high with both apps, but higher levels for both variables were observed with the app with fewer programming steps than with the one with more steps. These results suggest that apps with fewer programming steps may reduce operational demands and better support professionals to (a) respond to the child's input, (b) use just-in-time programming during interactions,

  20. Vocabulary and Grammar Differences Between Deaf and Hearing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Noboru; Isaka, Yukio; Yamamoto, Toshikazu; Nakamura, Tomoyasu

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the development of literacy skills of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children in Japan. The three components of literacy, vocabulary, orthographic knowledge, and grammatical knowledge were assessed by using the subtests of the Adaptive Tests for Language Abilities (ATLAN), based on the item response theory developed by the authors). The participants consisted of 207 DHH children (first through twelfth grades) in Study 1, and 425 hearing children (first through sixth grades) in Study 2. The findings show that more than 80% of DHH children's vocabulary variance was explained by the other two componential skills, while the three tasks' difficulty was different. More specifically, their vocabulary and especially, their grammar lagged behind those of hearing children, whereas the difference between the two groups on kanji (one of the three orthographic systems in Japanese taught during the school years) was less. Although considerably delayed, their pattern of responses in grammar was similar to that predicted from normative data. Effective instruction for DHH children's literacy skills was generally discussed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. IV. NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB): measuring language (vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Richard C; Slotkin, Jerry; Manly, Jennifer J; Blitz, David L; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Schnipke, Deborah; Wallner-Allen, Kathleen; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Gleason, Jean Berko; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Adams, Marilyn Jager; Weintraub, Sandra

    2013-08-01

    Mastery of language skills is an important predictor of daily functioning and health. Vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding are relatively quick and easy to measure and correlate highly with overall cognitive functioning, as well as with success in school and work. New measures of vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding (in both English and Spanish) were developed for the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB). In the Toolbox Picture Vocabulary Test (TPVT), participants hear a spoken word while viewing four pictures, and then must choose the picture that best represents the word. This approach tests receptive vocabulary knowledge without the need to read or write, removing the literacy load for children who are developing literacy and for adults who struggle with reading and writing. In the Toolbox Oral Reading Recognition Test (TORRT), participants see a letter or word onscreen and must pronounce or identify it. The examiner determines whether it was pronounced correctly by comparing the response to the pronunciation guide on a separate computer screen. In this chapter, we discuss the importance of language during childhood and the relation of language and brain function. We also review the development of the TPVT and TORRT, including information about the item calibration process and results from a validation study. Finally, the strengths and weaknesses of the measures are discussed.

  2. Early Vocabulary Development in Deaf Native Signers: A British Sign Language Adaptation of the Communicative Development Inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfe, Tyron; Herman, Rosalind; Roy, Penny; Woll, Bencie

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is a dearth of assessments of sign language development in young deaf children. This study gathered age-related scores from a sample of deaf native signing children using an adapted version of the MacArthur-Bates CDI (Fenson et al., 1994). Method: Parental reports on children's receptive and expressive signing were collected…

  3. Employing Design and Development Research (DDR): Approaches in the Design and Development of Online Arabic Vocabulary Learning Games Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahrir, Muhammad Sabri; Alias, Nor Aziah; Ismail, Zawawi; Osman, Nurulhuda

    2012-01-01

    The design and development research, first proposed by Brown and Collins in the 1990s, is currently among the well-known methods in educational research to test theory and validate its practicality. The method is also known as developmental research, design research, design-based research, formative research and design-cased and possesses…

  4. Shared Book Reading and Head Start Preschoolers' Vocabulary Learning: The Role of Book-Related Discussion and Curricular Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindman, Annemarie H.; Wasik, Barbara A.; Erhart, Amber C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the ways in which the language that Head Start teachers used during book reading, as well as the extent to which they made explicit connections between book reading and other instructional activities, were linked to preschoolers' vocabulary development. Participants included 10 Head Start teachers and 153 children in their…

  5. Building Vocabulary for Language Learning: Approach for ESL Learners to Study New Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Adel M.

    2015-01-01

    This project investigated Vocabulary Learning Strategies (VLSs) English Language Learners used; and strategies they thought were effective to them in terms of language proficiency. Using an online survey, 121 participants responded to statements regarding their usage of VLSs. Participants have been divided into two groups: (1) learners with low…

  6. Teaching and Learning Morphology: A Reflection on Generative Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Shane

    2012-01-01

    Students' knowledge of morphology can play a critical role in vocabulary development, and by extension, reading comprehension and writing. This reflection describes the nature of this knowledge and how it may be developed through the examination of generative vocabulary knowledge and the role of the spelling system in developing this knowledge. In…

  7. Preventing a Vocabulary Lag: What Lessons Are Learned from Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinatra, Richard; Zygouris-Coe, Vicky; Dasinger, Sheryl B.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses why early and sustained vocabulary development is important for listening and reading comprehension development and presents findings from 8 studies implemented with children of mostly low socioeconomic status in settings from day care to first grade. Program interventions were based on learning new vocabulary developed out…

  8. CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN VOCABULARY AND ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuanJialing

    2004-01-01

    From illustrating the significance of cultural elements in vocabulary teaching, and the ctmtparison of some major differences between English and Chinese words, this paper emphasizes the indivisible relationship between vocabulary and culture. International cultural exchange occurring more and more often, this paper attempts to guide students to better understand the cultural connotation of vocabulary, enhance their awareness towards the target culture, improve their comtprehensive language skills, and, develop their cross-cultural communicative ctmtpetence.

  9. Improving new vocabulary learning in context

    OpenAIRE

    Colombia Ovalle María

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to help students increase their vocabulary learning in context because when learners participate in a special class with different activities and keep in mind the situation, they remember new words. The study was carried out in the action research method, and the activities provided to students encouraged learning and motivated them to practice English more.

  10. The Most Important Issues in the Development of the Potential Student Vocabulary at a Higher Non-Philological School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Mauzienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is emphasized in the article that in order to understand various texts correctly, it is necessary to know a certain quantity of words and the main grammar rules and to have the skills necessary to process the information conveyed in a meaningful text. The research carried out by linguists and methodologists has demonstrated that neither secondary, nor higher non-philological school teaches the necessary lexis amount. According to the author, this problem may be solved by formation of the potential vocabulary. There are both linguistic and methodical presumptions, like: linguistic-formation of words, and methodical-transformation of unknown words into equivalent word combinations and analysis of the word formation. This article may be useful for lecturers-practitioners and methodologists-theoreticians.

  11. Participation in Development: A Case Study on Local Participation in Rural Water Supply and Sanitation in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Ngoc Toan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the adoption of Doi Moi (reform policy in 1986, local participation has attracted special attention in development projects in Vietnam. In particular, the questions of whether local participation in development projects should be promoted and whether it would be feasible became a major concern among development practitioners, as the debates on participation and project sustainability continued. While some argued that although socio-economic, cultural, ethnic and political obstacles were always present, many also believed that the promises of participation in development projects in Vietnam had been strengthened in recent times especially when the Government realised that its top-down approach in implementing development projects could only weaken local capacity. This article is an examination of how participatory approach was promoted in two villages in Daklak province, Vietnam, where a Danish-funded RWSS (Rural water supply and sanitation project was implemented. It investigates how development was perceived differently by local people and other major stakeholders, and in turn, how participation was exercised. It also identifies the obstacles that emerged that hampered local participation and discusses how locals responded with appropriate solutions.

  12. Developing an Instrument to Examine Master Gardeners' Participation Motives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Robert; Harder, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Nonformal education is learner-centered and provides knowledge in a practical manner to participants. Master Gardener is a nonformal extension horticultural program that includes extensive requirements to earn certification. The purpose of this study was to examine the Mergener Education Participation Scale (M-EPS) to evaluate adult motivations to…

  13. Does Participation in Music and Performing Arts Influence Child Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, E. Michael; Jenkins, Jade V. Marcus

    2017-01-01

    This article reconsiders the association between childhood arts participation and cognitive and developmental outcomes. Using data from a large, nationally representative sample with extensive covariates, we employ propensity score weighting to adjust comparisons of children who do and do not participate in arts education (music and performing…

  14. Non-Participation in Guidance: An Opportunity for Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Rie

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses how new opportunities for guidance can emerge from an analysis of the interplay between the participation (or lack of participation) of the individuals in career guidance, and the career guidance practitioner's response. The article suggests critical psychology as a framework for career guidance research and presents…

  15. Incidental Vocabulary Learning in Second Language Acquisition: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falcon Dario Restrepo Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This literature review aims to analyze previous studies that address the incidental learning of vocabulary in second language acquisition. The articles included in this literature review look into the understanding of vocabulary learning through incidental means, the relationship of reading and incidental vocabulary learning, and the strategies and tasks that promote the incidental learning of vocabulary. The findings show that L2 learners develop much of their vocabulary by incidental means through exposure to words in informative contexts. Moreover, this exposure is promoted by reading, and enhanced through multimodal glosses. Further research may focus on listening for higher lexical retention rates, the circumstances that allow incidental learning of multi-word phrases and collocations, and the use of technology-based methods for incidental vocabulary acquisition.

  16. Marine Navigational Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠灵

    2014-01-01

    Every industry has its professional terms or particular use of common words. The marine industry is no exception. This paper attempts to give a brief introduction to the elementary vocabularies related to marine industry from six aspects: types of ships;ship’s structure and equipment, manning, logbook, safety and organizations concerned. The corresponding Chinese terms is given simultaneously. It concludes that a good master of these vocabularies is useful and necessary for Chinese seafarers whose native language is not English.

  17. Vocabulary teaching strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐桂荣

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary has always been one of the significant issues related both with teachers and learners of foreign languages. How to teach vocabulary efficiency? Teachers should choose proper ways to instruct words. Many teachers often write new words they want to teach on the blackboard and then explain them one by one. It makes students feel bored. This paper will summarize some teaching approaches that are better on teaching English words.

  18. Emotive Vocabulary in MOOCs: Context & Participant Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutropoulos, Apostolos; Gallagher, Michael Sean; Abajian, Sean C.; de Waard, Inge; Hogue, Rebecca Joanne; Keskin, Nilgun Ozdamar; Rodriguez, C. Osvaldo

    2012-01-01

    Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs) have been growing in popularity with educational researchers, instructors, and learners in online environments. Online discussions are as important in MOOCs as in other online courses. Online discussions that occur in MOOCs are influenced by additional factors resulting from their volatile and voluntary…

  19. Development of vocabulary-based Chinese seven factors personality inventory%中国人人格词汇7因素量表的编制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇中; 王中杰; 贾黎斋; 赵江涛; 张海涛

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨中国人的人格特质和结构,并编制中国人人格特质词汇评定量表.方法 依据中国人人格量表(QZPS)、中国人个性测量表-2(CPAI-2)及中国人5因素人格词汇量表(CPFFI)的小因素命名词汇,编制出包含ii6个项目的人格词汇自评调查量表,通过对1455名被试的自评结果进行探索性因素分析和平行分析.结果 获得7个因素包含52个项目的人格词汇评定量表(VBCP).7个因素累计解释变异量为51.63%,各因素的内部一致性信度在0.663 ~0.912之间,总量表的内部一致性信度为0.800;7个因素重测信度在0.700 ~0.874(P<0.01)之间.结论 外向性和情绪性是跨文化的人格特质内容.该人格因素结构可以包含QZPS、CPAI-2及CPFFI这3个模型的绝大多数人格因素内容,且结构更加清晰.%Objective To explore the structure of Chinese personality based on natural language and to develop a Chinese personality vocabulary data bank.Methods Based on the sub-factors of Chinese personality scale(QZPS),Chinese personality assessment inventory 2(CPAI-2) and Chinese personality five factors inventory (CPFFI),a self-reported personality questionnaire with 116 items was developed.An exploratory factory analysis and parallel analysis were made to the data collected from 1455 Chinese participants.Results A Chinese Personality Seven Factors Inventory (CPSFI) was developed,which included seven factors with 52 items.51.63% of the total variance of the seven factors was explained and the internal reliability coefficient was 0.800,while the internal reliability coefficients among the factors were between 0.663-0.912.The retest reliability coefficients of the factors were between 0.700-0.874 (P < 0.01).Conclusions Outgoing and emotion are the core contents of the crossculture personalities.Most of the factors in QZPS,CPAI-2 and CPFFI can be found in the seven factors structure,of which the structure is clearer.

  20. Exposing SAMOS Data and Vocabularies within the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockery, Nkemdirim; Elya, Jocelyn; Smith, Shawn

    2014-05-01

    As part of the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP), we at the Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies (COAPS) will present the development process for the exposure of quality-controlled data and core vocabularies managed by the Shipboard Automated Meteorological Oceanographic System (SAMOS) initiative using Semantic Web technologies. Participants in the SAMOS initiative collect continuous navigational (position, course, heading, speed), meteorological (winds, pressure, temperature, humidity, radiation), and near-surface oceanographic (sea temperature, salinity) parameters while at sea. One-minute interval observations are packaged and transmitted back to COAPS via daily emails, where they undergo standardized formatting and quality control. The authors will present methods used to expose these daily datasets. The Semantic Web, a vision of the World Wide Web Consortium, focuses on extending the principles of the web from connecting documents to connecting data. The creation of a web of Linked Data that can be used across different applications in a machine-readable way is the ultimate goal. The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is the standard language and format used in the Semantic Web. RDF pages may be queried using the SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL). The authors will showcase the development of RDF resources that map SAMOS vocabularies to internationally served vocabularies such as those found in the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Vocabulary Server. Each individual SAMOS vocabulary term (data parameter and quality control flag) will be described in an RDF resource page. These RDF resources will define each SAMOS vocabulary term and provide a link to the mapped vocabulary term (or multiple terms) served externally. Along with enhanced retrieval by parameter, time, and location, we will be able to add additional parameters with the confidence that they follow an international standard. The production of RDF

  1. The Relationship between Learner Autonomy and Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Iranian EFL Learners with Different Language Proficiency Level

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim Azimi Mohammad Abadi; Abdollah Baradaran

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary learning is incredibly noteworthy to English language acquisition. It is unfeasible for a learner to communicate without the required vocabulary. In high education levels, learners are habitually forced to become autonomous and make conscious effort to learn vocabulary outside of the classroom. Consequently, the autonomy of the learners plays an important role in developing and enhancing their vocabulary. Learner autonomy is a huge assistance for learners in vocabulary learning sin...

  2. Participation in the Juntos Conditional Cash Transfer Program in Peru Is Associated with Changes in Child Anthropometric Status but Not Language Development or School Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Christopher T; Reynolds, Sarah A; Behrman, Jere R; Crookston, Benjamin T; Dearden, Kirk A; Escobal, Javier; Mani, Subha; Sánchez, Alan; Stein, Aryeh D; Fernald, Lia C H

    2015-10-01

    It is unclear what effects a conditional cash transfer (CCT) program would have on child anthropometry, language development, or school achievement in the context of the nutrition transition experienced by many low- and middle-income countries. We estimated the association of participation in Peru's Juntos CCT with anthropometry, language development, and school achievement among children aged 7-8 y. We used data from the Young Lives Study of a cohort born between 2001 and 2002. We estimated associations of the Juntos program with height-for-age z score (HAZ), body mass index-for-age z score (BAZ), stunting, and overweight at age 7-8 y separately for children participating in the program for ≥2 y (n = 169) and children participating for <2 y (n = 188). We then estimated associations with receptive vocabulary and grade achievement among children who had been assessed at age 4-6 y before enrollment in Juntos (n = 243). We identified control subjects using propensity score matching and conducted difference-in-differences comparisons. Juntos participation was associated with increases in HAZ among boys participating for ≥2 y [average effect of treatment among the treated (ATT): 0.43; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.77; P = 0.01] and for boys participating for <2 y (ATT: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.80; P < 0.01). Among girls participating in the program for ≥2 y, BAZ declined (ATT: -0.60; 95% CI: -1.00, -0.21; P < 0.01) as did the prevalence of overweight (ATT: -22.0 percentage points; 95% CI: -42.5, -2.7 percentage points; P = 0.03). We observed no significant associations of Juntos participation with receptive vocabulary or grade attainment. CCT program participation in Peru was associated with better linear growth among boys and decreased BAZ among girls, highlighting that a large-scale poverty-alleviation intervention may influence anthropometric outcomes in the context of the nutrition transition. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. 以深度学习培养写作新学词汇运用能力的研究%Development of the Ability to Use Newly-acquired Vocabulary in College English Writing by Means of Deep Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包玉慧; 陈铸芬

    2013-01-01

    The research is aimed at exploring the effect of deep learning strategies on the acquisition and development of stu-dents’ability to use newly learned vocabulary in college English writing. The status quo of the researches on the teaching and learning of vocabulary for college English writing is reviewed first. The ability of the subjects of the study to use newly learned vocabulary in their English writing is introduced and the reasons for using only few new vocabulary in their writing are analyzed. Then, deep learning strategies are introduced to the teaching and learning of vocabulary. To be specific, the topic of a writing as-signment is made to be relevant to the theme of the text which the students have learned right before they are given the writing assignment and where they have learned the new vocabulary and relevant to students ’interest. Also, diversified ways of repeated learning and learning of collocations are used. At the end of the empirical study, students ’ability to acquire new vocabulary from the textbook and to use the newly acquired vocabulary in their writing is greatly improved as compared to that at the beginning of the study.%该项实证研究旨在探索深度学习策略在培养大学生英语写作中新学词汇运用能力方面的作用。首先总结了大学英语写作词汇教学研究现状,介绍了研究对象英语写作中新学词汇运用现状,探究了学生较少使用新学词汇的原因,然后将深度学习引入写作词汇教学,即保证作文命题、解题与课文主题、学生兴趣相关,并通过多样化重复和语块学习法引导学生学习新词汇,最终提高了学生掌握新学词汇和在写作中运用新学词汇的能力。

  4. Career Development Event Participation and Professional Development Needs of Kansas Agricultural Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Clark R.

    2008-01-01

    Past studies have shown that agricultural education teachers perceive a need for professional development in Career Development Events (CDEs) preparation, but they did not identify the individual CDEs where training was needed. This study examined the CDEs that Kansas schools were participating in at the district and state levels and the CDEs…

  5. Predictability of Social-anamnestic Variables on Receptive Vocabulary and Cognitive Functioning of the Elderly Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahimagic, Amela; Zunic, Lejla Junuzovic; Rasidovic, Mirsada; Radic, Bojan; Kantic, Ahmet

    2016-12-01

    Aging, as an irrepressible biological process involves a series of physiological and pathological changes. The main aim of this study was to examine the correlation and predictability of receptive vocabulary and cognitive functioning of elderly people with anamnestic variables: chronological age, sex, level of formal education, marital status, years of work and retirement and years spent in an institution for the elderly. The sample of participants consisted of 120 elderly people, average age was 78 years, placed in institutional care for elderly people in four cities in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was three groups of variables: anamnestic, receptive vocabulary assessment, and cognitive assessments. A Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (MoCA) was used for the assessment of cognitive abilities. In order to estimate the receptive vocabulary Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III-HR) was used. Results of multiple regression analysis show that part of the variance of receptive language which is explained by the model (anamnestic variables) was 44.0% and of cognitive functioning was 33.7%. The biggest single contribution to explaining the development of receptive vocabulary was given by predictor variable of college education (β = 0.417) then variable university education (β = 0.293), while the smallest single contribution was given by variable secondary education (β = 0.167). The biggest single contribution to explaining the results of tests of cognitive function was given by predictor variable College education (β = 0.328) and variable unskilled (β = -0.229), which has a negative effect on the increase in recent cognitive functioning. Anamnestic variables were valid predictors of receptive vocabulary and cognitive functioning of elderly people. The highest individual contribution was given by variables describing the level of formal education of elderly.

  6. Short persistent sleep duration is associated with poor receptive vocabulary performance in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegers, Valerie; Touchette, Evelyne; Dionne, Ginette; Petit, Dominique; Seguin, Jean R; Montplaisir, Jacques; Vitaro, Frank; Falissard, Bruno; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether short sleep duration is associated with poor receptive vocabulary at age 10 years. In the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, parents reported their children's nocturnal sleep duration annually from ages 2.5 to 10 years, and children were assessed for receptive vocabulary using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R) at ages 4 and 10 years. Groups with distinct nocturnal sleep duration trajectories were identified and the relationships between sleep trajectories and poor PPVT-R performance were characterized. In all, 1192 children with available sleep duration and PPVT-R data participated in this epidemiological study. We identified four longitudinal nocturnal sleep trajectories: short persistent sleepers (n = 72, 6.0%), short increasing sleepers (n = 47, 3.9%), 10-h sleepers (n = 628, 52.7%) and 11-h sleepers (n = 445, 37.3%). In all, 14.8% of the children showed poor PPVT-R performance at age 10 years. Nocturnal sleep trajectories and poor PPVT-R performance at age 10 were associated significantly (P = 0.003). After adjusting for baseline receptive vocabulary performance at age 4 and other potential confounding variables, logistic regression analyses suggest that, compared to 11-h sleepers, the odds ratio of presenting poor receptive vocabulary at age 10 was 2.67 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24-5.74, P = 0.012] for short persistent sleepers and 1.66 (95% CI: 1.06-2.59, P = 0.026) for 10-h sleepers. These results corroborate previous findings in early childhood, and indicate that short sleep duration is associated with poor receptive vocabulary during middle childhood.

  7. Does Using Language Games Affect Vocabulary Learning in EFL Classes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyza Silsüpür

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempted to investigate the role of using word games in L2 vocabulary acquisition. 12 female participants from Uludag University were selected for control and experimental groups. Additionally, 35 participants from different universities in Turkey were invited to attend the study. First, an online questionnaire about the effect of games on vocabulary learning was administered to 35 participants. And results were analysed.  Secondly, 12 female participants were divided into two groups as control group and experimental group. Both groups were taught certain words, however, a word game known as “Bingo” were utilized for the experimental group. Finally, a vocabulary quiz was administered to both groups to determine the differences between them. The scores obtained from vocabulary quiz showed that the experimental group outperformed the control group in vocabulary quiz. Even so, there was not a significant difference between the results of the quiz. Similarly, the findings of the questionnaire indicated that the participants preferred learning through vocabulary games rather than traditional way. Also, the findings revealed that games reduce negative feelings during the learning process. It was suggested that teachers should reconsider the role of games and appreciate their educational value.

  8. Participant-Observation and the Development of Urban Neighborhood Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Robert K.

    The urban neighborhood, long of interest to city planners and sociologists, has in recent years become of increasing concern to public policy-makers. This new concern has called attention to a large gap in the municipal policy-maker's information resources. Social scientists have employed a field method, participant-observation, that can…

  9. Talking about Cultural Elements in Vocabulary and English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jinjing

    2015-01-01

    By illustrating the significance of cultural elements in vocabulary and current situations in English vocabulary teaching,the author hope that English teachers can pay more attention to cultural elements behind the conceptual meanings of English words and change their method of teaching to motivate students' interest in vocabulary learning.

  10. Talking about Cultural Elements in Vocabulary and English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Jinjing

    2015-01-01

    By illustrating the significance of cultural elements in vocabulary and current situations in English vocabulary teaching,the author hope that English teachers can pay more attention to cultural elements behind the conceptual meanings of English words and change their method of teaching to motivate students’ interest in vocabulary learning.

  11. Short-Term and Long-Term Effects of Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition and Instructed Vocabulary Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghobadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present empirical study was conducted to compare instructed vocabulary teaching and incidental vocabulary acquisition that are two common approaches to teaching second language (L2 vocabulary in the literature.  For this purpose, 53 Iran learners of English as a Foreign Language were selected from a larger sample and were then randomly assigned into a control group and two experimental groups as the participants of the study.  The participants in the groups received placebo instruction while those in the experimental groups were either explicitly instructed or incidentally exposed to a number of targeted words (TWs selected for the purposes of the study.  The results of an immediate posttest of the TWs demonstrated that the participants in both experimental groups benefited from instruction on/exposure to the TWs compared to the participants in the control group who were neither instructed on nor exposed to the TWs.  The results of a delayed posttest indicated that, though there was a difference between the two experimental groups in the immediate posttest with respect to the acquisition of the TWs, the difference faded away in five-week interval as the experimental groups performed rather similarly on the delayed posttest.  At the end, the implication of these findings for L2 vocabulary research and pedagogy would be discussed, along with some suggestions for researchers who wish to follow this trend of research. Keywords: Intentional Vocabulary Teaching, Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition, Short-Term Effects, Long-Term Effects, Target Words

  12. General Reviews of Vocabulary Retention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper will try to review two important theories (repletion and retrieval) which are crucial for vocabulary retention. These two methods are well connected and each of them cannot lead to successful vocabulary retention without sensible utilization of the other.

  13. Vocabulary Acquisition through Direct and Indirect Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Maki; Foo, Thomas Chow Voon

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary learning has long been considered as one of the essential components for developing language learning. However, language learners are required to not just concern about memorizing definitions but also integrating vocabulary meaning into their present knowledge. Many strategies such as direct or indirect ones may be integrated to enhance…

  14. A Framework for Explicit Vocabulary Instruction with English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Deanna L.; Tindall, Evie R.

    2015-01-01

    Academic vocabulary development is critical to the success of all learners--particularly English language learners (ELLs). This article presents a framework for integrating explicit academic vocabulary instruction for ELLs into middle school classrooms. The framework embodies five research-based principles and serves as a vehicle for structuring…

  15. Conceptualization of Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge with Academic Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md. Kamrul; Shabdin, Ahmad Affendi

    2016-01-01

    The present study embodies a conceptual framework, and it studies the concept regarding the depth of vocabulary knowledge. Literature review is employed as a foundation for developing the conceptual framework for the present study. The current study suggests that different dimensions of depth of vocabulary knowledge, namely paradigmatic relations,…

  16. Redefining Vocabulary: The New Learning Strategy for Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander-Shea, Aimee

    2011-01-01

    Although vocabulary development is an important part of the social studies curriculum, vocabulary activities are often inadequate, leaving students with cursory knowledge of terms. Worse still is the fact that many of the most critical words demarcating the field are not included in those activities. Therefore, a transformation from viewing…

  17. A Framework for Explicit Vocabulary Instruction with English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Deanna L.; Tindall, Evie R.

    2015-01-01

    Academic vocabulary development is critical to the success of all learners--particularly English language learners (ELLs). This article presents a framework for integrating explicit academic vocabulary instruction for ELLs into middle school classrooms. The framework embodies five research-based principles and serves as a vehicle for structuring…

  18. Indexing Learning Objects: Vocabularies and Empirical Investigation of Consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabel, Suzanne; De Hoog, Robert; Wielinga, Bob; Anjewierden, Anjo

    2004-01-01

    In addition to the LOM standard and instructional design specifications, as well as domain specific indexing vocabularies, a structured indexing vocabulary for the more elementary learning objects is advisable in order to support retrieval tasks of developers. Furthermore, because semantic indexing is seen as a difficult task, three issues…

  19. How to Enlarge Productive Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘菁

    2015-01-01

    Haycraft defined receptive vocabulary as "words that the student recognizes and understands when they occur in a text, but which he cannot produce correctly", while productive vocabulary is "words which the student understands can pronounce correctly and use constructively in speaking and writing" (1978:44).In English language teaching practice, students' productive vocabulary size lags far behind there ceptive vocabulary size. Based on the SLA theories, many reasons caused this problem and some solutions will be discussed.

  20. On the Impacts of Perceptual Learning Style and Gender on Iranian Undergraduate EFL Learners' Choice of Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zokaee, Saeedeh; Zaferanieh, Elaheh; Naseri, Mahdieh

    2012-01-01

    Students' learning styles and vocabulary learning strategies are among the main factors that help determine how students learn second language vocabulary. This work examined the extent to which choice of vocabulary learning strategies is affected by students' perceptual learning style. In this research, the participants were 54 EFL learners at…

  1. Facilitating vocabulary acquisition of young English language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo-Neris, Mirza J; Jackson, Carla Wood; Goldstein, Howard

    2010-07-01

    This study examined whether English-only vocabulary instruction or English vocabulary instruction enhanced with Spanish bridging produced greater word learning in young Spanish-speaking children learning English during a storybook reading intervention while considering individual language characteristics. Twenty-two Spanish-speaking children learning English (ages 4-6) who participated in a summer education program for migrant families were randomly assigned to receive 2 weeks of each instruction: (a) word expansions in English or (b) English readings with word expansions in Spanish. Researcher-created measures of target vocabulary were administered, as were English and Spanish standardized measures of language proficiency and vocabulary. Results revealed significant improvement in naming, receptive knowledge, and expressive definitions for those children who received Spanish bridging. Spanish expansions produced the greatest gains in the children's use of expressive definitions. Initial language proficiency in both languages was found to affect participants' gains from intervention, as those with limited skills in both languages showed significantly less vocabulary growth than those with strong skills in Spanish. Additional benefits to using Spanish expansions in vocabulary instruction were observed. Future research should explore additional ways of enhancing the vocabulary growth of children with limited skills in both languages in order to support and strengthen the child's first language and promote second language acquisition.

  2. English vocabulary learning with special attention to Norwegian pupils in lower secondary schools

    OpenAIRE

    Eide, Monique

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis vocabulary has been discussed from various angles. The aims of the thesis were: (1) To shed light on the building material of language viz. vocabulary, and relate this to theories and historical trends in the teaching of English. (2) To examine two teaching methodologies and try to find out if one of them was better than the other in making the pupils develop their vocabulary in English as a second language. Two different methods in vocabulary acqu...

  3. RIDEing Vocabulary: Using Etienne Wenger's Community of Practice Theory to Master Word Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiera, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Students' success in vocabulary learning is best gauged by authentic use of the targeted vocabulary in conversation and writing tasks. A vocabulary teaching approach that emphasizes meaningful repetition, relationship building, and concrete experiences encourages language development. This article explores a multi-age, multi-grade learning…

  4. RIDEing Vocabulary: Using Etienne Wenger's Community of Practice Theory to Master Word Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiera, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Students' success in vocabulary learning is best gauged by authentic use of the targeted vocabulary in conversation and writing tasks. A vocabulary teaching approach that emphasizes meaningful repetition, relationship building, and concrete experiences encourages language development. This article explores a multi-age, multi-grade learning…

  5. Children's executive and social functioning and family context as predictors of preschool vocabulary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepe, R.C.; Molenaar, I.; Oostdam, R.J.; Fukkink, R.G.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2017-01-01

    The primary source for young children's vocabulary development is parent-child interaction. How parent-child interaction influences vocabulary depends on the child's functioning and the family context. Although research shows the effect of the family context on vocabulary (e.g., reading activities

  6. Teaching Vocabulary across the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintz, William P.

    2011-01-01

    Learning vocabulary is an important instructional aim for teachers in all content areas in middle grades schools. Recent research, however, indicates that vocabulary instruction may be problematic because many teachers are not "confident about best practice in vocabulary instruction and at times don't know where to begin to form an instructional…

  7. Home Language Will Not Take Care of Itself: Vocabulary Knowledge in Trilingual Children in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieszkowska, Karolina; Łuniewska, Magdalena; Kołak, Joanna; Kacprzak, Agnieszka; Wodniecka, Zofia; Haman, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Language input is crucial for language acquisition and especially for children's vocabulary size. Bilingual children receive reduced input in each of their languages, compared to monolinguals, and are reported to have smaller vocabularies, at least in one of their languages. Vocabulary acquisition in trilingual children has been largely understudied; only a few case studies have been published so far. Moreover, trilingual language acquisition in children has been rarely contrasted with language outcomes of bilingual and monolingual peers. We present a comparison of trilingual, bilingual, and monolingual children (total of 56 participants, aged 4;5-6;7, matched one-to-one for age, gender, and non-verbal IQ) in regard to their receptive and expressive vocabulary (measured by standardized tests), and relative frequency of input in each language (measured by parental report). The monolingual children were speakers of Polish or English, while the bilinguals and trilinguals were migrant children living in the United Kingdom, speaking English as a majority language and Polish as a home language. The trilinguals had another (third) language at home. For the majority language, English, no differences were found across the three groups, either in the receptive or productive vocabulary. The groups differed, however, in their performance in Polish, the home language. The trilinguals had lower receptive vocabulary than the monolinguals, and lower productive vocabulary compared to the monolinguals. The trilinguals showed similar lexical knowledge to the bilinguals. The bilinguals demonstrated lower scores than the monolinguals, but only in productive vocabulary. The data on reported language input show that input in English in bilingual and trilingual groups is similar, but the bilinguals outscore the trilinguals in relative frequency of Polish input. Overall, the results suggest that in the majority language, multilingual children may develop lexical skills similar to those of

  8. Home Language Will Not Take Care of Itself: Vocabulary Knowledge in Trilingual Children in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Mieszkowska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Language input is crucial for language acquisition and especially for children’s vocabulary size. Bilingual children receive reduced input in each of their languages, compared to monolinguals, and are reported to have smaller vocabularies, at least in one of their languages. Vocabulary acquisition in trilingual children has been largely understudied; only a few case studies have been published so far. Moreover, trilingual language acquisition in children has been rarely contrasted with language outcomes of bilingual and monolingual peers. We present a comparison of trilingual, bilingual, and monolingual children (total of 56 participants, aged 4;5–6;7, matched one-to-one for age, gender, and non-verbal IQ in regard to their receptive and expressive vocabulary (measured by standardized tests, and relative frequency of input in each language (measured by parental report. The monolingual children were speakers of Polish or English, while the bilinguals and trilinguals were migrant children living in the United Kingdom, speaking English as a majority language and Polish as a home language. The trilinguals had another (third language at home. For the majority language, English, no differences were found across the three groups, either in the receptive or productive vocabulary. The groups differed, however, in their performance in Polish, the home language. The trilinguals had lower receptive vocabulary than the monolinguals, and lower productive vocabulary compared to the monolinguals. The trilinguals showed similar lexical knowledge to the bilinguals. The bilinguals demonstrated lower scores than the monolinguals, but only in productive vocabulary. The data on reported language input show that input in English in bilingual and trilingual groups is similar, but the bilinguals outscore the trilinguals in relative frequency of Polish input. Overall, the results suggest that in the majority language, multilingual children may develop lexical skills

  9. Receptive vocabulary differences in monolingual and bilingual children*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi; Peets, Kathleen F.; Yang, Sujin

    2015-01-01

    Studies often report that bilingual participants possess a smaller vocabulary in the language of testing than monolinguals, especially in research with children. However, each study is based on a small sample so it is difficult to determine whether the vocabulary difference is due to sampling error. We report the results of an analysis of 1,738 children between 3 and 10 years old and demonstrate a consistent difference in receptive vocabulary between the two groups. Two preliminary analyses suggest that this difference does not change with different language pairs and is largely confined to words relevant to a home context rather than a school context. PMID:25750580

  10. Developing technological initiatives for youth participation and local community engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Leo

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in technology are transforming our lives, but in many cases they are also limiting the way children are exposed to local communities and physical spaces. Technology can help young people actively connect with their neighborhoods, but doing that requires different methods and tools from the ones typically available in schools, homes, and youth centers. This article introduces a theoretical framework describing the technical and nontechnical elements that must be considered in the implementation of technology initiatives for youth participation and local community engagement. The article then describes the application of the framework in two multiyear initiatives.

  11. Learning how to Learn : a study of English vocabulary learning strategies among English major students at a Chinese university

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Ningjue

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the study of the strategy use of Chinese English majors in vocabulary learning; the individual differences between effective and less effective learners in employing vocabulary learning strategies and the relationship between their strategies and their outcome in English learning. In this research, 118 junior English majors inChineseUniversitywere investigated. The participants were asked to take a vocabulary test and complete a vocabulary-learning questionnaire.   The d...

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF VOCABULARY JOURNAL IN TEACHING STUDENTS’ VOCABULARY MASTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Rakhmawati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research is to find out the influence of vocabulary journal as media in teaching student vocabulary at the eighth grade students of SMP Al-Fajar. The quantitative method was conducted and this research is a population research, because all the member of population is taken as sample, which consisted of 30 students of eighth grade. To collect the data, the writer used pre-test and post-test, then the vocabulary test was used as the research instrument. To know whether there is an influence, the writer analyzed the data by using paired-sample T-test.The result shows that there is significant influence of vocabulary journal in teaching students’ vocabulary mastery.Keywords: Influence, vocabulary journal, students’ vocabulary mastery

  13. The effect of enhanced storybook interaction on signing deaf children's vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trussell, Jessica W; Easterbrooks, Susan R

    2014-07-01

    The link between vocabulary and later literacy is well documented in the research base. One way children gain vocabulary is through incidental learning. Deaf or hard-of-hearing children (D/HH) often struggle with incidental learning and require vocabulary intervention to increase their lexicon. An effective vocabulary intervention is storybook reading. When dialogic methods are added to storybook reading, the gains are greater than with traditional storybook reading. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an enhanced storybook reading intervention, which included scripted questions and picture prompts, on the vocabulary of young signing D/HH children. We utilized a multiple baseline across content probe design. We discovered a functional relation between the storybook intervention and picture vocabulary identification for several participants. This outcome offers insight into appropriate interventions to increase vocabulary for signing D/HH children.

  14. Attitudinal and motivational antecedents of participation in voluntary employee development activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtz, Gregory M; Williams, Kevin J

    2009-05-01

    This study investigated factors influencing ongoing participation in employee development activities. A multiple-indicator structural equation model building on the theory of planned behavior and prior employee development literature was tested with a survey across 4 organizations on 2 occasions. The model uses reactions to past participation and past supportiveness of the social and organizational environment as indirect antecedents of participation, filtered through their impact on attitudes and behavioral intentions toward future participation. Learning goal orientation also influenced attitudes toward participation. Whereas personal control over participation and higher levels of voluntariness were negatively related to participation, intentions to participate and availability of opportunities arose as strong predictors of higher participation rates. Many significant hypothesized paths were found, and 85% of the variance in participation was explained by the model variables. Increasing employee awareness of opportunities and managing positive attitudes toward those opportunities are recommended as key factors for increasing participation rates.

  15. Sport participation, screen time, and personality trait development during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mark S; Vella, Stewart A; Laborde, Sylvain

    2015-09-01

    This investigation explored the contribution of extracurricular sport and screen time viewing (television viewing and electronic gaming) to personality trait stability and change during childhood. Two independent samples of 3,956 young children (age 6) and 3,862 older children (age 10) were taken from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Parent-reported child sport participation, screen time, and personality traits were measured at baseline and again 24 months later. Young children who were more active recorded more of a decrease in introversion, less of a decrease in persistence, and less of an increase in reactivity, than those who were less active. Older children who were more active recorded less of an increase in introversion and more of an increase in persistence than those who were less active. In addition, young children who continued participation in extracurricular sport had greater intra-individual stability of personality for introversion. These finding suggest that an active lifestyle might help to facilitate desirable personality trait stability and change during childhood. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  16. 伴随性词汇习得研究发展三十年(1985-2014年)%Thirty Years of Development of Study on Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition:From 1985 to 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    干红梅; 何清强

    2015-01-01

    1985年,纳吉等人提出“伴随性词汇习得”,该研究是在英语为母语的研究中提出的,随后发展到英语为二语的习得研究中。20世纪90年代国内研究发端于心理学界对汉语儿童母语习得的研究,紧接着发展到英语为外语的习得研究,2000年后逐渐发展到汉语为二语的习得研究。焦点主要集中在考察其影响因素、伴随性词汇习得与直接词习得的关系等方面,绝大部分研究都显示:阅读中的伴随性词汇学习是一种有效的学习方式。学习者的二语水平、词汇量大小、猜词能力、目标词语的出现次数、阅读任务、凭借工具等都影响伴随性词汇习得。这些研究对今后的对外汉语词汇习得研究和阅读教学研究都有重要意义。%in 1985, Nagy put forward the concept of incidental vocabulary acquisition in a research of English as the mother tongue. It quickly developed into the field of English as a second language. The domestic research in China in 1990s starts from psychologists’ research on Chinese children’ s first lan⁃guage acquisition, then to the field of Chinese acquisition of English as a second language, and in 2000, to that of the acquisition of Chinese as a second language. The researches mainly focus on the influential factors as well as the relationship between incidental vocabulary acquisition and direct vocabulary acquisi⁃tion. Most of the researches reveal that incidental vocabulary acquisition through reading is quit effective. The level of second language, vocabulary, words⁃guessing ability, frequency of target words, reading tasks and reading tool can influence incidental vocabulary acquisition. The researches are quite significant for the further study on TCSL vocabulary acquisition and reading teaching.

  17. Semantic Web-based Vocabulary Broker for Open Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschel, B.; Neher, G.; Iyemori, T.; Murayama, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Koyama, Y.; King, T. A.; Galkin, I. A.; Fung, S. F.; Wharton, S.; Cecconi, B.

    2016-12-01

    Keyword vocabularies are used to tag and to identify data of science data repositories. Such vocabularies consist of controlled terms and the appropriate concepts, such as GCMD1 keywords or the ESPAS2 keyword ontology. The Semantic Web-based mash-up of domain-specific, cross- or even trans-domain vocabularies provides unique capabilities in the network of appropriate data resources. Based on a collaboration between GFZ3, the FHP4, the WDC for Geomagnetism5 and the NICT6 we developed the concept of a vocabulary broker for inter- and trans-disciplinary data detection and integration. Our prototype of the Semantic Web-based vocabulary broker uses OSF7 for the mash-up of geo and space research vocabularies, such as GCMD keywords, ESPAS keyword ontology and SPASE8 keyword vocabulary. The vocabulary broker starts the search with "free" keywords or terms of a specific vocabulary scheme. The vocabulary broker almost automatically connects the different science data repositories which are tagged by terms of the aforementioned vocabularies. Therefore the mash-up of the SKOS9 based vocabularies with appropriate metadata from different domains can be realized by addressing LOD10 resources or virtual SPARQL11 endpoints which maps relational structures into the RDF format12. In order to demonstrate such a mash-up approach in real life, we installed and use a D2RQ13 server for the integration of IUGONET14 data which are managed by a relational database. The OSF based vocabulary broker and the D2RQ platform are installed at virtual LINUX machines at the Kyoto University. The vocabulary broker meets the standard of a main component of the WDS15 knowledge network. The Web address of the vocabulary broker is http://wdcosf.kugi.kyoto-u.ac.jp 1 Global Change Master Directory2 Near earth space data infrastructure for e-science3 German Research Centre for Geosciences4 University of Applied Sciences Potsdam5 World Data Center for Geomagnetism Kyoto6 National Institute of Information and

  18. A Qualitative Analysis of General Receptive Vocabulary of Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facon, Bruno; Nuchadee, Marie-Laure; Bollengier, Therese

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to discover whether general receptive vocabulary is qualitatively phenotypical in Down syndrome. Sixty-two participants with Down syndrome (M age = 16.74 years, SD = 3.28) were individually matched on general vocabulary raw total score with 62 participants with intellectual disability of undifferentiated etiology (M age = 16.20…

  19. A Qualitative Analysis of General Receptive Vocabulary of Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facon, Bruno; Nuchadee, Marie-Laure; Bollengier, Therese

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to discover whether general receptive vocabulary is qualitatively phenotypical in Down syndrome. Sixty-two participants with Down syndrome (M age = 16.74 years, SD = 3.28) were individually matched on general vocabulary raw total score with 62 participants with intellectual disability of undifferentiated etiology (M age = 16.20…

  20. Vocabulary Teaching Strategies in College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱荣

    2009-01-01

    We all focus on the students' abilities of listening, speaking, wading, writing and translating in college teaching. But actually, it is nothing without vocabulary. Thus, vocabulary teaching is an essential part in English teaching. However, seme traditional teaching takes vocabuhury out from the context, which costs a lot of time and energy, but students are involved in the dull circle of memorizing to forgetting to memorizing again. Finally, they lose their patience on English learning and maybe give it up. In this paper, we discuss some vocabulary teaching strategies, so as to help the memorizing of vocabulary and enhance the efficiency of vocabulary teaching and learning.

  1. BUSINESS ENGLISH WORD GAMES – A WELCOMED VOCABULARY TEACHING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Claudia Horea

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducing vocabulary has never been very problematic nor a doubt generating aspect in teaching a language, at least not in respect of what has to be done actually along this part of the lesson or how this stage should be approached. It cannot be said that it has ever been too much of a challenge, but rather a simple and straightforward phase in the economy of the English class. Business English vocabulary teaching methods have to make allowance for the specificity of the field, though. Thus, much consideration has to be given to the way Business English lexical units are introduced so that the technique used could produce the desired results into the students: acquisition of specific terminology, assimilation of meanings and development of skills that shall ensure accurate usage of the terms in the future. After an experimental semester, most adequate class approaches to serve the purposes abovementioned proved to be – rather non-academic, it may be argued – the word games. The current study presents the detailed steps of two distinct teaching methods used and the comparative results obtained with the two groups of students submitted to the experiment. Along the Business English courses in one semester, there were four vocabulary introduction lessons. The nonconformist technique of word games was implemented to one of the two groups of students while the other was taught the regular style. The comparative study focused on several aspects, from the observation of the class reactions and participation along the process of teaching, i.e. response to the didactic process during each class, to the checking of the effects of both types of implementation, namely assessing assimilation of the previously taught material in terms of knowledge of vocabulary and correct interpretation, by random tests and by final test results. If teaching methodologies regularly claim that the general to particular approach is the most effective, here a vice

  2. Development and Maintenance of Identity in Aging Community Music Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, William Leonard

    2016-01-01

    This ethnographic study contextualized identity development and maintenance within the field of community music through case studies of four performing groups and interviews with seven current members. The underlying question guiding this research was how does participatory music making contribute to the development and maintenance of identity in…

  3. Modelling Vocabulary Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meara, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes some simple simulation models of vocabulary attrition. The attrition process is modelled using a random autonomous Boolean network model, and some parallels with real attrition data are drawn. The paper argues that applying a complex systems approach to attrition can provide some important insights, which suggest that real…

  4. Building Your Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ScottThornbury

    2004-01-01

    “I'm not 100% convinced that memorizing the dictionary is the best way of improving your vocabulary,” says the character played by Hugh Grant in Woody Allen's film Small Time Crooks.Yet why not?Ifyou could memorize the dictionary-or even

  5. Reading vocabulary knowledge and deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, P

    1996-01-01

    With respect to reading vocabulary knowledge and deafness, this article addresses two broad questions: (1) Why is vocabulary knowledge related to reading comprehension ability? (2) How is reading vocabulary (i.e., word meanings) acquired? The article argues that the answers to these questions are best addressed by a vocabulary acquisition model labeled the knowledge model. In essence, this model asserts that both breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge are critical. It is necessary to teach vocabulary, especially to poor readers, who are not likely to derive many word meanings from the use of context during natural or deliberate reading situations. On the basis of theoretical and research syntheses, the article offers implications for vocabulary instruction for deaf children and adolescents.

  6. Vocabulary gain among children with language disorders: contributions of children's behavior regulation and emotionally supportive environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Mary Beth; Justice, Laura M; O'Connell, Ann

    2014-08-01

    Behavior regulation is a positive predictor of language outcomes for children with typically developing language skills, and children with language disorders are at greater risk for difficulties with behavior regulation. This study investigated the unique role of behavior regulation on vocabulary gain for children receiving language therapy in the public schools as well as the unique and moderating influence of emotional support within therapy sessions on outcomes. A total of 121 kindergarten and 1st-grade students with language disorders, nested within 42 speech-language pathologists (SLPs), participated in the study. Direct child measures, indirect child measures, and therapy session videotapes were used for all analyses. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated a positive association between children's behavior regulation and vocabulary gain. The emotional support of therapy sessions was not a significant predictor of vocabulary gain. Results from this study suggest that children's behavior regulation is a significant predictor of vocabulary gain for children with language disorders; children with higher behavior regulation gain more over the academic year than do peers with lower behavior regulation. Findings highlight the importance of SLPs considering children's behavior regulation when planning and implementing therapy.

  7. towards participant-centred resource development for environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sponsors alike, to find brand new and beautifully filed materials in media centres, ... Some research has, however, been successful in getting to grips with a less .... used to define a research, implementation and development strategy for Action.

  8. Moldova Power Sources Development including Nuclear Power Plant possible participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comendant

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available For the new power market conditions Moldova power sources development options up to 2030 are evaluated, attempting to propose the best solutions in this respect and the ways they be realized.

  9. Standard controlled vocabulary for climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moine, Marie-Pierre; Pascoe, Charlotte; Guilyardi, Eric; Ford, Rupert

    2010-05-01

    The scope of climate modeling has grown tremendously in the last 10 years, resulting in a large variety of climate models, increasing complexity with more physical or chemical components and huge volumes of data sets (simulation outputs). While significant efforts to standardise the associated metadata (i.e. data describing data and models) have already been made in recent projects (e.g. CF standard names for CMIP3), detailed standards documentation of the models and experiments that created this data is still lacking. The EU METAFOR Project (http://metaforclimate.eu) is specifically addressing this issue by creating new metadata schemas in cooperation with existing standards in Earth System Modeling (Curator, GridSpec, CF convention, NumSim, etc.). Descriptions of climate simulations, of the data they produce, and of the numerical models used to perform these simulations are all within the scope of METAFOR and these descriptions are assembled in a common information model (the CIM). Of particular note is the metadata for numerical models that is found in the CIM. This paper presents the controlled vocabulary (CV) that has been collected by METAFOR to describe (in a common manner) the components of the numerical models developed by the different modeling centres. This vocabulary is used in the model part of the web-based questionnaire that METAFOR has developed in support of the upcoming IPCC exercise (the CMIP5 questionnaire). The methods to (1) establish standards for this vocabulary via interactions with climate scientists, (2) utilise the vocabulary in the web-based questionnaire and (3) process the vocabulary for ingestion in the Earth System Grid (ESG) portal, are described. Governance aspects of this new controlled vocabulary are also addressed.

  10. Learning English Vocabulary via Online Communication : a study of vocabulary learning strategies used by English learners in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Tolstikova, Natalja

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to investigate vocabulary learning strategies that are used and perceived to be helpful by English learners while communicating online. The participants of the study are 20 young Lithuanian English learners (23-28 years old) who use online communication on a weekly basis. The method of the research is a combination of a questionnaire and a follow-up email interview. The questionnaire items are based on Schmitt’s taxonomy of vocabulary learning strategies (1997), while...

  11. Academic literacy of South African higher education level students: Does vocabulary size matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déogratias Nizonkiza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the extent to which vocabulary size matters in academic literacy. Participants (first-year students at North-West University were administered the Vocabulary Levels Test (Schmitt, Schmitt and Clapham 2001. Scores from the test were used to estimate students’ vocabulary size and were subsequently mapped onto the levels distinguished by the Test of Academic Literacy Levels (TALL. Estimates show that, on average, the vocabulary size of first-year students at North-West University is approximately 4,500 word families, a size large enough to allow them to follow lectures in English. Furthermore, students with large vocabularies were found to have higher academic literacy proficiency, which establishes a strong relationship between vocabulary size and academic literacy. This relationship was also observed at the different word frequency bands the Vocabulary Levels Test consists of. These results support previous findings which established a relationship between vocabulary size and reading (cf. Nation 2006, and between vocabulary size and overall language proficiency (cf. Beglar 2010, Meara and Buxton 1987, Meara and Jones 1988, Nation and Beglar 2007, which could be extended to academic literacy. Furthermore, a stronger relationship between vocabulary size and academic literacy was found towards more infrequent word bands, indicating that infrequent word bands may best predict academic literacy. On the basis of these findings, we discuss possible strategies to adopt in order to assist some first-years with expanding their vocabularies

  12. Development of Participative Management System in Learning Environment Management for Small Sized Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernthaisong, Prasertsak; Sirisuthi, Chaiyuth; Wisetrinthong, Kanjana

    2017-01-01

    The research aimed to: 1) study the factors of a participative management system in learning environment management, 2) study the current situation, desirable outcomes, and further needs for developing a participative management system in learning management, 3) develop a working participative management system, and 4) assess the system's…

  13. English Language Learners' Nonword Repetition Performance: The Influence of Age, L2 Vocabulary Size, Length of L2 Exposure, and L1 Phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Tamara Sorenson; Paradis, Johanne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined individual differences in English language learners' (ELLs) nonword repetition (NWR) accuracy, focusing on the effects of age, English vocabulary size, length of exposure to English, and first-language (L1) phonology. Method: Participants were 75 typically developing ELLs (mean age 5;8 [years;months]) whose exposure to…

  14. Improving New Vocabulary Learning in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombia Ovalle María

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to help students increase their vocabulary learning in context because when learners participate in a special class with different activities and keep in mind the situation, they remember new words. The study was carried out in the action research method, and the activities provided to students encouraged learning and motivated them to practice English more.

  15. Teaching Vocabulary and Morphology in Intermediate Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Anthony; Kramer-Vida, Louisa; Hunt, Carolyn V.

    2015-01-01

    Direct vocabulary instruction of Tier 2 and Tier 3 words in intermediate-grade curricula is an important tool of literacy instruction because English is a language grafted from many roots and has not developed a one-to-one phoneme-grapheme correspondence. In addition to knowing graphemes and phonemes, students must formally learn words that cross…

  16. A Computer-Adaptive Vocabulary Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Maria Teresa Lopez-Mezquita

    2009-01-01

    Lexical competence is considered to be an essential step in the development and consolidation of a student's linguistic ability, and thus the reliable assessment of such competence turns out to be a fundamental aspect in this process. The design and construction of vocabulary tests has become an area of special interest, as it may provide teachers…

  17. A Computer-Adaptive Vocabulary Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Maria Teresa Lopez-Mezquita

    2009-01-01

    Lexical competence is considered to be an essential step in the development and consolidation of a student's linguistic ability, and thus the reliable assessment of such competence turns out to be a fundamental aspect in this process. The design and construction of vocabulary tests has become an area of special interest, as it may provide teachers…

  18. User participation in healthcare IT development: a developers' viewpoint in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martikainen, Susanna; Korpela, Mikko; Tiihonen, Tuija

    2014-03-01

    Recent research showed that physicians in Finland were highly critical of their information technology (IT) systems. They were also critical of the methods of collaboration with the developers of the health IT systems (HITS) in use at the time of the questionnaire. This study turned the set-up around and asked systems developers the same questions about collaboration. What is developers' view on end user participation in HITS development at the moment? How would developers wish end users to participate in systems development? Do the developers' views differ from the physicians' (end users') views of the current state of collaboration in developing IT systems? A web-based questionnaire study was conducted in one of the major HITS provider companies in Finland among all developers, including software developers and customer support and sales personnel. Both quantitative and free-text questions of a previous study were adapted for the purpose. The responses were analyzed with qualitative and basic quantitative methods. The response rate of the questionnaire was 37% and 136 responses were received. The developers who responded were experienced workers; 81% of the respondents had 6 years or more of work experience in IT systems development and 35% of them had 6 years or more of work experience in the healthcare domain. Almost three-quarters (72%) of the respondents agreed with the statement 'I work with users'. Almost all the developers (90%) thought that they are interested in user feedback and also 81% thought that they take the end users' opinions and experiences into account when developing software. A majority of the developers (57%) considered that corrections and modifications are currently not implemented quickly enough. The most popular means of user participation were that 'users would present their work and needs related to it in their workplace' (76%), followed by user groups (75%). The developers suggested many traditional user-centered and usability design

  19. Innovation Network Development Model in Telemedicine: A Change in Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Maryam; Torabi, Mashallah; Safdari, Reza; Dargahi, Hossein; Naeimi, Sara

    2015-10-01

    This paper introduces a telemedicine innovation network and reports its implementation in Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The required conditions for the development of future projects in the field of telemedicine are also discussed; such projects should be based on the common needs and opportunities in the areas of healthcare, education, and technology. The development of the telemedicine innovation network in Tehran University of Medical Sciences was carried out in two phases: identifying the beneficiaries of telemedicine, and codification of the innovation network memorandum; and brainstorming of three workgroup members, and completion and clustering ideas. The present study employed a qualitative survey by using brain storming method. Thus, the ideas of the innovation network members were gathered, and by using Freeplane software, all of them were clustered and innovation projects were defined. In the services workgroup, 87 and 25 ideas were confirmed in phase 1 and phase 2, respectively. In the education workgroup, 8 new programs in the areas of telemedicine, tele-education and teleconsultation were codified. In the technology workgroup, 101 and 11 ideas were registered in phase 1 and phase 2, respectively. Today, innovation is considered a major infrastructural element of any change or progress. Thus, the successful implementation of a telemedicine project not only needs funding, human resources, and full equipment. It also requires the use of innovation models to cover several different aspects of change and progress. The results of the study can provide a basis for the implementation of future telemedicine projects using new participatory, creative, and innovative models.

  20. Posdaya Community Participation Development in Creating an Ideal Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudji Muljono

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the role of Posdaya in creating an ideal and harmonious of family. Poverty, changes in consumer lifestyle and weakening of the meaning of family, have the potential to encourage domestic violence and human trafficking. This study used a participatory action research approach (PAR for the development of family-based model of empowerment throught local institutions of Posdaya. The pilot project was conducted in Posdaya Jaya Kencana, Pabean Udik Village, Indramayu District, Indramayu Regency (fishermen communities and in Posdaya Eka Mandiri, Cihideung Udik Village, Ciampea District, Bogor Regency, West Java Province (agriculture communities. The results show that Posdaya is potential institution that can be use to develop activities to strengthen the functions of the family. In addition, Posdaya can also serve as a forum for communication in the prevention and treatment of domestic violence. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peran Posdaya dalam mewujudkan keluarga yang ideal dan harmonis.  Akibat dari kemiskinan, perubahan gaya hidup konsumtif dan melemahnya makna keluarga, hal tersebut berpotensi mendorong KDRT dan human trafficking.  Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan participatory action research (PAR untuk pengembangan model pemberdayaan keluarga berbasis kelembagaan lokal Posdaya. Pilot project dilakukan di Posdaya Jaya Kencana, Desa Pabean Udik, Kecamatan Indramayu, Kabupaten Indramayu (komunitas nelayan dan di Posdaya Eka Mandiri, Desa Cihideung Udik, Kecamatan Ciampea, Kabupaten Bogor, Provinsi Jawa Barat (komunitas pertanian.  Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahwa Posdaya merupakan lembaga yang potensial dikembangkan  sebagai wadah koordinasi kegiatan penguatan fungsi-fungsi keluarga.  Selain itu, Posdaya juga dapat berfungsi sebagai forum komunikasi dalam upaya pencegahan dan penanganan KDRT.

  1. Exploring Vocabulary Learning Strategies Used by UPM TESL Undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hanisah Safian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary learning is one of the most challenging factors that learners will face during the process of second language learning. The main pursuit of the present study was to investigate the vocabulary language strategies among Malaysian ESL students majoring in Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL at University Putra Malaysia.  There are five different categories of vocabulary leaning strategies determination, social, memory, cognitive and metacognitive strategies. Quantitative research design has been used in this study by providing a set of questionnaire of 58 items that was given out to 50 participants at the Faculty of Educational Studies in UPM. The findings of this research hope to help all educators to acknowledge the type of vocabulary strategies used by students in acquiring second language (L2.

  2. SECOND LANGUAGE VOCABULARY ASSESSMENT: CURRENT PRACTICES AND NEW DIRECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Read

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys some current developments in second language vocabulary assessment, with particular attention to the ways in which computer corpora can provide better quality information about the frequency of words and how they are used in specific contexts. The relative merits of different word lists are discussed, including the Academic Word List and frequency lists derived from the British National Corpus. Word frequency data is needed for measures of vocabulary size, such as the Yes/No format, which is being developed and used for a variety of purposes. The paper also reviews work on testing depth of knowledge of vocabulary, where rather less progress has been made, both in defining depth as a construct and in developing tests for practical use. Another important perspective is the use of vocabulary within particular contexts of use or registers, and recent corpus research is extending our understanding of the lexical features of academic registers. This provides a basis for assessing learners’ ability to deploy their vocabulary knowledge effectively for functional communication in specific academic contexts. It is concluded that, while current tests of vocabulary knowledge are valuable for certain purposes, they need to be complemented by more contextualised measures of vocabulary use.

  3. VOCABULARY AND LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrudan Cristiana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have looked at the difference between teaching language structure and teaching vocabulary. We have discussed how counts of frequency alone are not enough to determine what words should be taught. We have seen that knowing a word means more than just knowing its meaning. Even that is problematical since meaning includes sense relations and context, for example. To know a word we also need to know about its use, how it is formed and what grammatical behavior it provokes. Above all, in this paper, we have approached the idea of how vocabulary teaching and learning need to be emphasized in order for students to be competent language users.

  4. Total and Conceptual Vocabulary in Spanish–English Bilinguals From 22 to 30 Months: Implications for Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Core, Cynthia; Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Señor, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Vocabulary assessment holds promise as a way to identify young bilingual children at risk for language delay. This study compares 2 measures of vocabulary in a group of young Spanish–English bilingual children to a single-language measure used with monolingual children. Method Total vocabulary and conceptual vocabulary were used to measure mean vocabulary size and growth in 47 Spanish–English bilingually developing children from 22 to 30 months of age based on results from the MacArthur–Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI; Fenson et al., 1993) and the Inventario del Desarrollo de Habilidades Comunicativas (Jackson-Maldonado et al., 2003). Bilingual children’s scores of total vocabulary and conceptual vocabulary were compared with CDI scores for a control group of 56 monolingual children. Results The total vocabulary measure resulted in mean vocabulary scores and average rate of growth similar to monolingual growth, whereas conceptual vocabulary scores were significantly smaller and grew at a slower rate than total vocabulary scores. Total vocabulary identified the same proportion of bilingual children below the 25th percentile on monolingual norms as the CDI did for monolingual children. Conclusion These results support the use of total vocabulary as a means of assessing early language development in young bilingual Spanish–English speaking children. PMID:24023382

  5. Features of Medical English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翠萍

    2015-01-01

    Medical English is relatively more difficult than general English,especially its vocabulary.Those medical English words are long and complex,making it hard to remember.But medical English vocabulary has its own features,which would help us in learning vocabulary.On the basis of many medical English materials,the paper explores the features of etymology,affixes and roots of medical English.

  6. Features of Medical English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翠萍

    2015-01-01

    Medical English is relatively more difficult than general English,especially its vocabulary.Those medical English words are long and complex,making it hard to remember. But medical English vocabulary has its own features,which would help us in learning vocabulary.On the basis of many medical English materials,the paper explores the features of etymology,affixes and roots of medical English.

  7. Development of a vocabulary of object shapes in a child with a very-early-acquired visual agnosia: a unique case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funnell, Elaine; Wilding, John

    2011-02-01

    We report a longitudinal study of an exceptional child (S.R.) whose early-acquired visual agnosia, following encephalitis at 8 weeks of age, did not prevent her from learning to construct an increasing vocabulary of visual object forms (drawn from different categories), albeit slowly. S.R. had problems perceiving subtle differences in shape; she was unable to segment local letters within global displays; and she would bring complex scenes close to her eyes: a symptom suggestive of an attempt to reduce visual crowding. Investigations revealed a robust ability to use the gestalt grouping factors of proximity and collinearity to detect fragmented forms in noisy backgrounds, compared with a very weak ability to segment fragmented forms on the basis of contrasts of shape. When contrasts in spatial grouping and shape were pitted against each other, shape made little contribution, consistent with problems in perceiving complex scenes, but when shape contrast was varied, and spatial grouping was held constant, S.R. showed the same hierarchy of difficulty as the controls, although her responses were slowed. This is the first report of a child's visual-perceptual development following very early neurological impairments to the visual cortex. Her ability to learn to perceive visual shape following damage at a rudimentary stage of perceptual development contrasts starkly with the loss of such ability in childhood cases of acquired visual agnosia that follow damage to the established perceptual system. Clearly, there is a critical period during which neurological damage to the highly active, early developing visual-perceptual system does not prevent but only impairs further learning.

  8. Moving Controlled Vocabularies into the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R.; Lowry, R. K.; Kokkinaki, A.

    2015-12-01

    One of the issues with legacy oceanographic data formats is that the only tool available for describing what a measurement is and how it was made is a single metadata tag known as the parameter code. The British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) has been supporting the international oceanographic community gain maximum benefit from this through a controlled vocabulary known as the BODC Parameter Usage Vocabulary (PUV). Over time this has grown to over 34,000 entries some of which have preferred labels with over 400 bytes of descriptive information detailing what was measured and how. A decade ago the BODC pioneered making this information available in a more useful form with the implementation of a prototype vocabulary server (NVS) that referenced each 'parameter code' as a URL. This developed into the current server (NVS V2) in which the parameter URL resolves into an RDF document based on the SKOS data model which includes a list of resource URLs mapped to the 'parameter'. For example the parameter code for a contaminant in biota, such as 'cadmium in Mytilus edulis', carries RDF triples leading to the entry for Mytilus edulis in the WoRMS and for cadmium in the ChEBI ontologies. By providing links into these external ontologies the information captured in a 1980s parameter code now conforms to the Linked Data paradigm of the Semantic Web, vastly increasing the descriptive information accessible to a user. This presentation will describe the next steps along the road to the Semantic Web with the development of a SPARQL end point1 to expose the PUV plus the 190 other controlled vocabularies held in NVS. Whilst this is ideal for those fluent in SPARQL, most users require something a little more user-friendly and so the NVS browser2 was developed over the end point to allow less technical users to query the vocabularies and navigate the NVS ontology. This tool integrates into an editor that allows vocabulary content to be manipulated by authorised users outside BODC

  9. Individual differences in very young Chinese children’s English vocabulary breadth and semantic depth : Internal and external factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, He; Steinkrauss, Rasmus; Wieling, Martijn; de Bot, Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the English vocabulary development of 43 very young child EFL learners (age 3;2-6;2) in China. They were tested twice for vocabulary breadth (reception and production) and semantic depth (paradigmatic and syntagmatic vocabulary knowledge). The development of the English vocabular

  10. Vocabulary Learning Strategies of Japanese Life Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Andrea; Kobayashi, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates vocabulary learning strategy (VLS) preferences of lower and higher proficiency Japanese university science students studying English as a foreign language. The study was conducted over a 9-week period as the participants received supplemental explicit VLS instruction on six strategies. The 38 participants (14 males and 24…

  11. Vocabulary Learning Strategies of Japanese Life Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Andrea; Kobayashi, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates vocabulary learning strategy (VLS) preferences of lower and higher proficiency Japanese university science students studying English as a foreign language. The study was conducted over a 9-week period as the participants received supplemental explicit VLS instruction on six strategies. The 38 participants (14 males and 24…

  12. Summarizing Vocabularies in the Global Semantic Web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Zhang; Gong Cheng; Wei-Yi Ge; Yu-Zhong Qu

    2009-01-01

    In the Semantic Web, vocabularies are defined and shared among knowledge workers to describe linked data for scientific, industrial or daily life usage. With the rapid growth of online vocabularies, there is an emergent need for approaches helping users understand vocabularies quickly. In this paper, we study the summarization of vocabularies to help users understand vocabularies. Vocabulary summarization is based on the structural analysis and pragmatics statistics in the global Semantic Web. Local Bipartite Model and Expanded Bipartite Model of a vocabulary are proposed to characterize the structure in a vocabulary and links between vocabularies. A structural importance for each RDF sentence in the vocabulary is assessed using link analysis. Meanwhile, pragmatics importance of each RDF sentence is assessed using the statistics of instantiation of its terms in the Semantic Web. Summaries are produced by extracting important RDF sentences in vocabularies under a re-ranking strategy. Preliminary experiments show that it is feasible to help users understand a vocabulary through its summary.

  13. Enhancing vocabulary acquisition by encouraging extensive reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚亚芳

    2012-01-01

    Current situation of vocabulary teaching The importance of vocabulary in learning a second or foreign language has been widely acknowledged and the findings of a sea of research studies have convinced us to regard vocabulary k nowledge as a

  14. Learners' independent records of vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Leeke, Philip

    1999-01-01

    Handbooks recommend a variety of quite complicated procedures for learning and remembering vocabulary, but most learners only engage in very simple procedures. The aim of this project was to establish a basis for identifying optimal vocabulary recording procedures by finding out what learners...... currently do. We administered a questionnaire, interviewed learners who said that they kept vocabulary records of some kind and examined their records. Two-thirds had given up making vocabulary lists on entering the L2 environment and/or starting to read extensively, but several made interesting lists...

  15. Mythomanics: A Painless Dictionary and Vocabulary Skills Builder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Lynn M.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a dictionary game, adapted from the game "Balderdash," which builds skills in vocabulary and dictionary use, creative writing, and impromptu speaking, and simultaneously develops the ability to evaluate definitions critically. (MM)

  16. On Vocabulary Acquisition by Chinese Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔莉; 南二丽

    2006-01-01

    It is admitted that vocabulary acquisition, as the smallest unit in English leaning, is the most basic, decisive yet difficult part. Yet vocabulary acquisition has always obsessed and fascinated Chinese learners of English. This paper mainly presents a discussion of English vocabulary acquisition by Chinese learners in the respect of vocabulary size and correct use. Through the analysis of the problems existing in the present vocabulary learning and teaching, author also presents some learning strategies to expand vocabulary size.

  17. Problems of Controlled Vocabulary versus Uncontrolled Vocabulary in Subject Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-chen Chen

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is mainly to survey the centennial controversy between controlled vocabulary v. uncontrolled vocabulary of subject indexing in the western library and information society. We also discuss the related problems in Chinese information retrieval systems and analyze the factors affecting their performance. [Article content in Chinese

  18. Motivation, strategy, and English as a foreign language vocabulary learning: A structural equation modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yining; Lin, Chin-Hsi; Zhang, Dongbo; Choi, Yunjeong

    2017-03-01

    In spite of considerable advancements in our understanding of the different factors involved in achieving vocabulary-learning success, the overall pattern and interrelationships of critical factors involved in L2 vocabulary learning - particularly, the mechanisms through which learners regulate their motivation and learning strategies - remain unclear. This study examined L2 vocabulary learning, focusing on the joint influence of different motivational factors and learning strategies on the vocabulary breadth of adolescent learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) in China. The participants were 107 tenth graders (68 females, 39 males) in China. The data were collected via two questionnaires, one assessing students' motivation towards English-vocabulary learning and the other their English vocabulary-learning strategies, along with a test measuring vocabulary breadth. Structural equation modelling (SEM) indicated that learning strategy partially mediated the relationship between motivation (i.e., a composite score of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation) and vocabulary learning. Separate SEM analyses for intrinsic (IM) and extrinsic motivation (EM) revealed that there were significant and positive direct and indirect effects of IM on vocabulary knowledge; and while EM's direct effect over and above that of learning strategies did not achieve significance, its indirect effect was significant and positive. The findings suggest that vocabulary-learning strategies mediate the relationship between motivation and vocabulary knowledge. In addition, IM may have a greater influence on vocabulary learning in foreign-language contexts. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Direct teaching and incidental learning of vocabulary: a further cycle of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Al-Homoud

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The current research compares two conditions of L2 vocabulary learning, i.e. explicit teaching and incidental learning. Forty-five female participants, majoring in English at Alimam Mohammad Ibn-Saud Islamic University, Saudi Arabia, took part in this research. They were divided into two groups: read plus (RP and read only (RO. Three levels of vocabulary knowledge (form recall, meaning recall, and meaning recognition were assessed. The results showed that both conditions cater for vocabulary learning, however the RP group had significantly outperformed their RO counterparts. Moreover, the results showed that vocabulary learning in this study followed the general tendency starting from a receptive level to a productive level. Finally, the results of the current study confirmed what Sonbul and Schmitt (2010 have arrived at. Key words: vocabulary knowledge, vocabulary learning, explicit (direct teaching, incidental learning, attrition, retention.

  20. Participation in Adult Education for Community Development: A Critical Discourse Analysis of "Training for Transformation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupar, Allyson M.; Prins, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Participation has become so central to adult education for community development that even the World Bank supports participatory programming. This article analyses how participation is conceptualised in "Training for Transformation" (TfT), a Freirean-inspired curriculum used in international community development settings. TfT seeks to…

  1. L2 Vocabulary Research and Instructional Practices: Where Are the Gaps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, Marian J.; Abbott, Marilyn L.; Kushnir, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the vocabulary knowledge, beliefs, and practices of adult English as a second language (ESL) instructors. Thirty participants responded to an online survey designed to elicit information regarding their knowledge and beliefs; approaches to assessment; vocabulary teaching techniques and strategies; instructional practices…

  2. The Effectiveness of Using Corpus-Based Materials in Vocabulary Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paker, Turan; Özcan, Yeliz Ergül

    2017-01-01

    Our study aimed at finding out the effectiveness of corpus-based vocabulary teaching activities as well as students' attitudes towards concordance-based materials when corpus-based tasks in English vocabulary learning are used. The study was conducted in a preparatory school in a private university. The participants were 28 intermediate level…

  3. Receptive Vocabulary in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Cross-Sectional Developmental Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kover, Sara T.; McDuffie, Andrea S.; Hagerman, Randi J.; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    In light of evidence that receptive language may be a relative weakness for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this study characterized receptive vocabulary profiles in boys with ASD using cross-sectional developmental trajectories relative to age, nonverbal cognition, and expressive vocabulary. Participants were 49 boys with ASD…

  4. Lexical Inference in L2: Predictive Roles of Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Skill beyond Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; Goldina, Anna; Shany, Michal; Geva, Esther; Katzir, Tami

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the predictive roles of L2 vocabulary knowledge and L2 word reading skills in explaining individual differences in lexical inferencing in the L2. Participants were 53 Israeli high school students who emigrated from the former Soviet Union, and spoke Russian as an L1 and Hebrew as an L2. L2 vocabulary knowledge and…

  5. The Relationship between Iranian EFL Learners' Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Use of Vocabulary Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Farrokhlagha; Izadi, Mehri; Ahmadian, Mansooreh Vahed

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between Iranian EFL juniors' self-efficacy beliefs and their employed vocabulary learning strategies. The participants were 50 juniors studying English Translation at University of Sistan & Baluchestan. The self-efficacy and vocabulary learning strategies questionnaires were administered to identify the…

  6. Generating Vocabulary Knowledge for At-Risk Middle School Readers: Contrasting Program Effects and Growth Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Joshua F.; Rolland, Rebecca Givens; Branum-Martin, Lee; Snow, Catherine E.

    2014-01-01

    We tested whether urban middle-school students from mostly low-income homes had improved academic vocabulary when they participated in a freely available vocabulary program, Word Generation (WG). To understand how this program may support students at risk for long-term reading difficulty, we examined treatment interactions with baseline…

  7. Vocabulary Breadth and Field Dependence/Independence Cognitive Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Golaghaei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is primarily bidirectional in that it is concerned with two fields of cognitive styles of field-dependency/independency on one hand and breadth of vocabulary knowledge on the other hand. In other word, this research is primarily intended to investigate the nature of the students' vocabulary knowledge in the field of passive and active knowledge of L2 words as a whole with regard to their preferred cognitive style of field dependency/independency. A group of 60 undergraduate students majoring in the field of English Language Teaching was selected. They were then divided into two groups based on the basis of their preferred cognitive styles of field-dependency / independency. Four types of tests, the 1000 frequency word-level test, the passive version of vocabulary Levels Test, the Productive Version of the Vocabulary Levels Test, and the Group Imbedded Figures Test were administered to the participants. The conclusion drawn after the analysis of the data was that the fieldindependent group outperformed their field-dependent counterparts in dealing with both passive and productive vocabulary levels. Finally, the findings of this research could be interpreted as being supportive of the idea that the field-dependent/independent cognitive style could be considered as an effective factor influencing the learners' vocabulary learning in the field of second language acquisition.

  8. The Impact of Animated Books on the Vocabulary and Language Development of Preschool-Aged Children in Two School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broemmel, Amy D.; Moran, Mary Jane; Wooten, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    With the emergence of electronic media over the past two decades, young children have been found to have increased exposure to video games, computer-based activities, and electronic books (e-books). This study explores how exposure to animated ebooks impacts young children's literacy development. A stratified convenience sample (n = 24) was…

  9. An Examination of Language Input and Vocabulary Development of Young Latino Dual Language Learners Living in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Lisa K.; Gillam, Sandra L.; Innocenti, Mark S.; Cook, Gina A.; Ortiz, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the language status of 120 young, Latino dual language learners living in poverty in the United States. Maternal language input and home language and literacy environments were examined with regard to language development at 24 and 36 months. Results suggested that even when combining English and Spanish…

  10. Parental Socioeconomic Status, Communication, and Children's Vocabulary Development: A Third-Generation Test of the Family Investment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Martin, Monica J.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Ontai, Lenna; Conger, Rand

    2013-01-01

    This third-generation, longitudinal study evaluated a family investment perspective on family socioeconomic status (SES), parental investments in children, and child development. The theoretical framework was tested for first-generation parents (G1), their children (G2), and the children of the second generation (G3). G1 SES was expected to…

  11. Reading versus Telling of Stories in the Development of English Vocabulary and Comprehension in Young Second Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Takumi

    2011-01-01

    Concern has been expressed about teaching English to the fifth- and the sixth graders in the public schools of Japan. There appears to be an insufficiency of materials as well as anxiety among teachers who must instruct these grades. Story telling may be an important step for developing English competence. The current study replicated the work of…

  12. Capitalising on North American speech resources for the development of a South African English large vocabulary speech recognition system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kamper, H

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available South African English is currently considered an under-resourced variety of English. Extensive speech resources are, however, available for North American (US) English. In this paper we consider the use of these US resources in the development of a...

  13. PROMOTING INCIDENTAL VOCABULARY LEARNING THROUGH VERBAL DRAMATIZATION OF WORDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Looi-Chin Ch’ng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that explicit teaching of vocabulary is often practised in English as a Second Language (ESL classrooms, it has been proven to be rather ineffective, largely because words are not taught in context. This has prompted the increasing use of incidental vocabulary learning approach, which emphasises on repeated readings as a source for vocabulary learning. By adopting this approach, this study aims to investigate students’ ability in learning vocabulary incidentally via verbal dramatization of written texts. In this case, readers’ theatre (RT is used as a way to allow learners to engage in active reading so as to promote vocabulary learning. A total of 160 diploma students participated in this case study and they were divided equally into two groups, namely classroom reading (CR and RT groups. A proficiency test was first conducted to determine their vocabulary levels. Based on the test results, a story was selected as the reading material in the two groups. The CR group read the story through a normal reading lesson in class while the RT group was required to verbally dramatize the text through readers’ theatre activity. Then, a post-test based on vocabulary levels was carried out and the results were compared. The findings revealed that incidental learning was more apparent in the RT group and their ability to learn words from the higher levels was noticeable through higher accuracy scores. Although not conclusive, this study has demonstrated the potential of using readers’ theatre as a form of incidental vocabulary learning activity in ESL settings.

  14. Essential French Vocabulary Teach Yourself

    CERN Document Server

    Saint-Thomas, Noel

    2010-01-01

    Essential French Vocabulary is the course for you if you need help with your study of French. This fully revised edition of our best-selling course now comes with free downloadable audio support containing hints on how to learn vocabulary effectively.

  15. Teaching Vocabulary for Peace Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Francisco Gomes

    2002-01-01

    Shows English-as-a-Second-Language educators how vocabulary teaching can become humanizingly meaningful through the use of techniques inspired by some of the interdependent traditions to peace, and to make a plea for ESL teachers and learners to humanize their repertoires of best practices in vocabulary teaching and learning. (Author/VWL)

  16. Methods of Enlarging English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁小航

    2012-01-01

      In order to enlarge English vocabulary , we need to have some methods. I’d like to share my experience with begin⁃ners how I enlarge English vocabulary when when I am learning English. It is a long process and needs hard work and patience.

  17. The State of Vocabulary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairrell, Angela; Rupley, William; Simmons, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-four studies were included in this systematic review of vocabulary research literature. The review corroborates the findings of past studies that several strategies have emerged that increase students' vocabulary knowledge. Findings further reinforce the National Reading Panel's recommendations regarding the context and magnitude of studies…

  18. Reading, Dictionaries, and Vocabulary Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppescu, Stuart; Day, Richard R.

    1993-01-01

    The usefulness of bilingual dictionaries for vocabulary learning was examined with 293 Japanese university students studying English as a foreign language. Students who used a dictionary during reading scored significantly better on a vocabulary test than those who did not, but there was evidence for differential item functioning. (25 references)…

  19. A Ubiquitous English Vocabulary Learning System: Evidence of Active/Passive Attitudes vs. Usefulness/Ease-of-Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yueh-Min; Huang, Yong-Ming; Huang, Shu-Hsien; Lin, Yen-Ting

    2012-01-01

    English vocabulary learning and ubiquitous learning have separately received considerable attention in recent years. However, research on English vocabulary learning in ubiquitous learning contexts has been less studied. In this study, we develop a ubiquitous English vocabulary learning (UEVL) system to assist students in experiencing a systematic…

  20. The Role of Home and School Factors in Predicting English Vocabulary among Bilingual Kindergarten Children in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, L. Quentin

    2011-01-01

    Research in monolingual populations indicate that vocabulary knowledge is essential to reading achievement, but how vocabulary develops in bilingual children has been understudied. The current study investigated the role of home and school factors in predicting English vocabulary among 284 bilingual kindergartners (168 Chinese, 65 Malay, 51…

  1. A Ubiquitous English Vocabulary Learning System: Evidence of Active/Passive Attitudes vs. Usefulness/Ease-of-Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yueh-Min; Huang, Yong-Ming; Huang, Shu-Hsien; Lin, Yen-Ting

    2012-01-01

    English vocabulary learning and ubiquitous learning have separately received considerable attention in recent years. However, research on English vocabulary learning in ubiquitous learning contexts has been less studied. In this study, we develop a ubiquitous English vocabulary learning (UEVL) system to assist students in experiencing a systematic…

  2. VOCABULARY AND LANGUAGE TEACHING

    OpenAIRE

    Abrudan Cristiana

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we have looked at the difference between teaching language structure and teaching vocabulary. We have discussed how counts of frequency alone are not enough to determine what words should be taught. We have seen that knowing a word means more than just knowing its meaning. Even that is problematical since meaning includes sense relations and context, for example. To know a word we also need to know about its use, how it is formed and what grammatical behavior it provokes. Above ...

  3. Nuclear engineering vocabulary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumont, X. [FRAMATOME, Dept. Corporate R and D, 92 - Paris-La-Defence (France); Andrieux, C. [CEA Saclay, Direction des Technologies de l' Information, DTI, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2001-07-01

    The members of the CSTNIN - the Special Commission for Nuclear Engineering Terminology and Neology - have just produced a Nuclear Engineering Vocabulary, published by SFEN. A 120-page document which, to date, includes 400 nuclear engineering terms or expressions. For each term or expression, this Glossary gives: the primary and secondary subject field in which it is applied, a possible abbreviation, its definition, a synonym if appropriate, any relevant comments, any associated word(s), the English equivalent, its status on the date of publication of the Glossary. (author)

  4. Tectonic Vocabulary & Materialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Beim, Anne; Bundgaard, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    to establish a Nordic Network for Research and Teaching in Tectonics is currently forming. This paper seeks to jointly reflect upon these initiatives in order to bring them further, with the intention to clad a discourse on the future of tectonic architectural research that addresses the conditions of everyday...... architectural practice. In this matter the paper focuses on the need to juxtapose theoretical studies, to bring the present vocabulary of the tectonic further, as well as to spur further practical experiments enabling theory to materialize in the everyday of the current practice....

  5. The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Proficiency of English Language Learners

    OpenAIRE

    F. Filiz Yalçın Tılfarlıoğlu; Yunus Bozgeyik

    2012-01-01

    The current study was carried out to examine L2 learners’ VLS use habits and the relationship of VLS with their vocabulary proficiency levels. In addition, language learners’ beliefs about VLS in terms of usefulness were also studied to understand L2 learners’ VLS use habits more deeply. To examine these matters, a descriptive research design was employed. The participants included 252 preparatory students from different proficiency groups (Upper-Intermediate, Intermediate, Pre-Intermediate, ...

  6. Word Parts and a Systematic Approach to Medical Vocabulary Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田俊英; 蒋东坡

    2016-01-01

    This paper outlines four word parts of medical vocabulary—roots,prefixes,suffixes,and linking vowels(usually o)and put forward a systematic approach to medical vocabulary learning.To develop a high degree of proficiency in learning medical vocabulary,it is advisable to learn the basic roots and affixes so as to make informed guesses regarding the meanings of unfamiliar medical vocabulary.

  7. Vocabulary test Strategies used by the Students to answer Vocabulary Test the Reading Comprehension of TOEFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyatman Suyatman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Test of English as a foreign Language or TOEFL is a standardized test of English for non-native speaker. It consists of three parts or three sections of tests. In Reading Comprehension test, it consists of vocabulary test. To get better result of score, it needs strategies. The purposes of this study are to know the strategies used by the students to answer the vocabulary test on reading section of TOEFL, to know the most strategy used by the students, to know the least strategy used by the students and to know the distribution of strategies used by the students to answer the Vocabulary test of Reading Comprehension of the TOEFL. The researcher used descriptive qualitative research. The subject was twelve students. The instrument was questionnaire that consisted of thirty questions. Data analyzes technique was by using mean score. The result of the research showed that; (1 students used all strategies to answer the vocabulary test of reading comprehension of TOEFL. (2 the most strategies used by the students was ‘Looking for contextual clues to the meaning of unknown words.(3 the least strategy used by the students to answer vocabulary test was ‘Developing a new vocabulary study system, and (4 the distribution of the strategy number 1 was 3.88,strategy number 2 was 3.61, number 3 was 2.94, number four was 2.91, strategy number 5 was3.88, strategy number six was 3.47, strategy number seven was 3.69, strategy number eight was 3.02, strategy number nine was 3.00 and the last strategy was 3.13.

  8. Effective Strategies for Turning Receptive Vocabulary into Productive Vocabulary in EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, Avan Kamal Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary acquisition has been a main concern of EFL English teachers and learners. There have been tons of research to examine the student's level of receptive vocabulary and productive vocabulary, but no research has conducted on how turning receptive vocabulary into productive vocabulary. This study has reported the impact of the teaching…

  9. FL Vocabulary Learning of Undergraduate English Majors in Western China: Perspective, Strategy Use and Vocabulary Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baicheng

    2009-01-01

    The present study, by use of questionnaire and vocabulary tests, has investigated the foreign language vocabulary learning situation of 481 undergraduates in terms of their perspective of vocabulary learning, strategy use and vocabulary size. Based on the questionnaire investigation and vocabulary level tests, the characteristics of the subjects'…

  10. Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Arabic Vocabulary Size among Pre-University Students in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharudin, Harun; Ismail, Zawawi

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size are among the main factors that help determine how students learn second language vocabulary. The present study was an attempt to exploring the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and Arabic vocabulary size of 742 pre-university in "Religious High School" (SMKA) and…

  11. Professional development for primary science teaching in Thailand: Knowledge, orientations, and practices of professional developers and professional development participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musikul, Kusalin

    The purpose of this study was to examine an entire PD project as a case to understand the dynamic nature of science PD in a holistic manner. I used a pedagogical content knowledge model by Magnusson, Krajcik, and Borko (1999) as my theoretical framework in examining the professional developers' and teacher participants' knowledge, orientation, and practice for professional development and elementary science teaching. The case study is my research tradition; I used grounded theory for data analysis. The primary data sources were interview, card sort activity, and observation field notes collected during the PD and subsequently in teacher participants' classrooms. Secondary data sources were documents and artifacts that I collected from the professional developers and teachers. An analysis of the data led me to interpret the following findings: (a) the professional developers displayed multiple orientations. These orientations included activity-driven, didactic, discovery, and pedagogy-driven orientations. The orientations that were found among the professional developers deviated from the reformed Thai Science Education Standards; (b) the professional developers had limited PCK for PD, which were knowledge of teachers' learning, knowledge of PD strategies, knowledge of PD curriculum, and knowledge of assessment.; (c) the professional developers' knowledge and orientations influenced their decisions in selecting PD activities and teaching approaches; (d) their orientations and PCK as well as the time factor influenced the design and implementation of the professional development; (e) the elementary teachers displayed didactic, activity-driven, and academic rigor orientations. The orientations that the teachers displayed deviated from the reformed Thai Science Education Standards; and (f) the elementary teachers exhibited limited PCK. It is evident that the limitation of one type of knowledge resulted in an ineffective use of other components of PCK. This study

  12. Techniques for Vocabulary Teaching in Elementary English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽华

    2004-01-01

    All teachers know very well how important vocabulary is in learning language, but, for many years, vocabulary has all been neglected in language teaching. In this essay will try to introduce some practical and effective methods in presenting, practising,and consolidating vocabulary in elementary level in which, I wish, the elementary teachers may get some inspiration for their vocabulary teaching.

  13. For ELLs: Vocabulary beyond the Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Nancy S.; Truxaw, Mary P.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a classroom teacher discusses ambiguities in mathematics vocabulary and strategies for ELL students in building understanding. The authors note that mathematics vocabulary may be more difficult to learn than other academic vocabulary for several reasons: (1) definitions are filled with technical vocabulary, symbols, and diagrams;…

  14. Participation of Children with Intellectual Disability Compared with Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Matthew; Shields, Nora; Imms, Christine; Black, Monique; Ardern, Clare

    2013-01-01

    We compared participation in out-of-school activities between children with intellectual disability and children with typical development using the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment and Preferences for Activities of Children questionnaires. Thirty-eight pairs of children were matched for age (mean age 12.3 plus or minus 2.7…

  15. The Association between Graphomotor Tests and Participation of Typically Developing Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Limor

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the association between graphomotor tests--VMI, ROCF, SWT--and the measures of a child's participation. Seventy-five typically developing children aged 4 to 9 years were individually evaluated using the graphomotor tests and their parents completed a participation questionnaire. After controlling for child's age, the…

  16. Australian Adolescents' Extracurricular Activity Participation and Positive Development: Is the Relationship Mediated by Peer Attributes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomfield, Corey; Barber, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent participation in extracurricular activities is associated with numerous positive outcomes, yet the mechanisms underlying this relationship are largely unknown. This study had two goals: to investigate the association between participation in extracurricular activities and indicators of positive and negative development for Australian…

  17. Afterschool Program Participation and the Development of Child Obesity and Peer Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Joseph L.; Lord, Heather; Carryl, Erica

    2005-01-01

    This longitudinal study assessed the role of afterschool program (ASP) participation in the development of child obesity and peer acceptance in a sample of 439 children. Most participants lived in poverty and were Hispanic or African American. Measurements of height and weight determined obesity status and peer acceptance was assessed through…

  18. Governance Factors Affecting Community Participation In Public Development Projects In Meru District In Arusha In Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Estomih Muro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to have a fresh look at the local governance status through exploring governance factors affecting community participation in public development projects. The study also has investigated the actors and factors shaping participation as well as causes for non-participation. For the purpose of the study six wards within two divisions of Poli and Mbuguni and Meru district headquarters were selected. In the wards a total of 80 respondents from among the community members were interviewed through a structured questionnaire. Others were Village chairman Village Executive Officers Ward Executive Officers and Councilors were also interviewed and involved in the FGD. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Simple descriptive statistics and cross tabulation and figures were used in the analysis. The analysis showed that the communities were participated in the public development projects and people were participating through financial material and labor contribution to the public development projects. The analysis also showed that the government supported the ongoing public development projects including through provision of fund and expertise. The study showed the benefit of community participation in the development projects or programs like ownership of the projects and enjoying the benefits accrued from the projects. The study also indicated that there is significant change in terms of governance as influencers of community participation in public development projects. Despite the fortunes study showed some challenges found in wards and villages being the incidence of corruptions and misuse of public resources which were mentioned to slow community participation in public development projects. It was therefore concluded that adhering to the good governance principles contribute positively towards community participation in public development projects.

  19. Input or Output Oriented Tasks? A Question of Teaching Vocabulary in EFL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Gholinezhad Khameneh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at comparing the effectiveness of Output-oriented and Input-oriented tasks on improving EFL learners’ vocabulary achievement. To reach their objective, the researchers ran a quasi-experimental pre-test posttest design with 64 Iranian EFL learners. After eliminating the initial differences among the participants, the Input-oriented group (IOG received glossing tasks followed by selected reading passages, while the Output-oriented group (OOG received gap-filling and composing/discussing tasks. Actively participating in 15 sessions of task-based vocabulary learning, both IOG and OOG performed on a vocabulary achievement test constructed and validated by the researchers (Cronbach α=.732. Despite the considerable improvement of the participants’ vocabulary knowledge, statistical findings failed to support the superiority of neither input nor output oriented tasks to make a meaningful difference in improving the Iranian EFL learners’ vocabulary achievement. Some implications and suggestions provided for further research.

  20. Vocabulary Facilitates Speech Perception in Children With Hearing Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Kelsey E; Walker, Elizabeth A; Kirby, Benjamin; McCreery, Ryan W

    2017-08-16

    We examined the effects of vocabulary, lexical characteristics (age of acquisition and phonotactic probability), and auditory access (aided audibility and daily hearing aid [HA] use) on speech perception skills in children with HAs. Participants included 24 children with HAs and 25 children with normal hearing (NH), ages 5-12 years. Groups were matched on age, expressive and receptive vocabulary, articulation, and nonverbal working memory. Participants repeated monosyllabic words and nonwords in noise. Stimuli varied on age of acquisition, lexical frequency, and phonotactic probability. Performance in each condition was measured by the signal-to-noise ratio at which the child could accurately repeat 50% of the stimuli. Children from both groups with larger vocabularies showed better performance than children with smaller vocabularies on nonwords and late-acquired words but not early-acquired words. Overall, children with HAs showed poorer performance than children with NH. Auditory access was not associated with speech perception for the children with HAs. Children with HAs show deficits in sensitivity to phonological structure but appear to take advantage of vocabulary skills to support speech perception in the same way as children with NH. Further investigation is needed to understand the causes of the gap that exists between the overall speech perception abilities of children with HAs and children with NH.