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Sample records for voc finishing system

  1. Influence of way of finishing furniture segments on amount emissions VOCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Čech

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the influence of way of finishing furniture segments on amount emissions VOCs (volatile organic compounds. The so-called Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC are among the largest pollution sources of both the internal and external environments.VOC is defined as emission of any organic compound or a mixture thereof, with the exception of methane, whereby the compound exerts the pressure of 0.01 kPa or more at the temperature of 20 °C (293.15 K and reaches the corresponding volatility under the specific conditions of its use and can undergo photochemical reactions with nitrogen oxides when exposed to solar radiation. The effects of VOC upon environment can be described by equation: VOC + NOx + UV radiation + heat = tropospheric ozone (O3In this work there were tested MDF (medium density fibreboard coated by resin impregnated paper was used for the furniture components’ production. Next were tested compressed wood, which was used as a second material of furniture components. These both chosen materials was covered by resin impregnated paper and than sequentially finished by regular coat of finish.An attention of this study is especially put on mentioned factors and on quantity of instant and long-term VOCs emissions emitted from furniture components.The amount of emissions from furniture components, in different phases of the preparation including the resin impregnated paper coating finish, was monitored within the time intervals of 24 hours and 720 hours starting after the time of the finish preparation.The MDF (medium density fibreboard coated by resin impregnated paper was used for the furniture components´ production.A compressed wood was used as a second material of furniture components. This alternative material was covered by resin impregnated paper and than sequentially finished by regular coat of finish.

  2. STEP based Finish Machining CAPP system

    OpenAIRE

    A Arivazhagan; Mehta, NK; Jain, PK

    2012-01-01

    This research paper presents various methodologies developed in a STEP based Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP) system named "Finish Machining – CAPP" (FM-CAPP). It is developed to generate automatic process plans for finish machining prismatic parts. It is designed in a modular fashion consisting of three main modules, namely (i) Feature Recognition module (FRM) (ii) Machining Planning Module (MPM) and (iii) Setup Planning Module (SPM). The FRM Module analyses the geometrical and topolog...

  3. Agile robotic edge finishing system research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, M.A.

    1995-07-01

    This paper describes a new project undertaken by Sandia National Laboratories to develop an agile, automated, high-precision edge finishing system. The project has a two-year duration and was initiated in October, 1994. This project involves re-designing and adding additional capabilities to an existing finishing workcell at Sandia; and developing intelligent methods for automating process definition and for controlling finishing processes. The resulting system will serve as a prototype for systems that will be deployed into highly flexible automated production lines. The production systems will be used to produce a wide variety of products with limited production quantities and quick turnaround requirements. The prototype system is designed to allow programming, process definition, fixture re-configuration, and process verification to be performed off-line for new products. CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing) models of the part will be used to assist with the automated process development and process control tasks. To achieve Sandia`s performance goals, the system will be employ advanced path planning, burr prediction expert systems, automated process definition, statistical process models in a process database, and a two-level control scheme using hybrid position-force control and fuzzy logic control. In this paper, we discuss the progress and the planned system development under this project.

  4. Plutonium finishing plant safety systems and equipment list

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergquist, G.G.

    1995-01-06

    The Safety Equipment List (SEL) supports Analysis Report (FSAR), WHC-SD-CP-SAR-021 and the Plutonium Finishing Plant Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs), WHC-SD-CP-OSR-010. The SEL is a breakdown and classification of all Safety Class 1, 2, and 3 equipment, components, or system at the Plutonium Finishing Plant complex.

  5. Smartphone-based sensing system using ZnO and graphene modified electrodes for VOCs detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Diming; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Xing; Xu, Gang; Lu, Yanli; Liu, Qingjun

    2017-07-15

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) detection is in high demand for clinic treatment, environment monitoring, and food quality control. Especially, VOCs from human exhaled breath can serve as significant biomarkers of some diseases, such as lung cancer and diabetes. In this study, a smartphone-based sensing system was developed for real-time VOCs monitoring using alternative current (AC) impedance measurement. The interdigital electrodes modified with zinc oxide (ZnO), graphene, and nitrocellulose were used as sensors to produce impedance responses to VOCs. The responses could be detected by a hand-held device, sent out to a smartphone by Bluetooth, and reported with concentration on an android program of the smartphone. The smartphone-based system was demonstrated to detect acetone at concentrations as low as 1.56ppm, while AC impedance spectroscopy was used to distinguish acetone from other VOCs. Finally, measurements of the exhalations from human being were carried out to obtain the concentration of acetone in exhaled breath before and after exercise. The results proved that the smartphone-based system could be applied on the detection of VOCs in real settings for healthcare diagnosis. Thus, the smartphone-based system for VOCs detection provided a convenient, portable and efficient approach to monitor VOCs in exhaled breath and possibly allowed for early diagnosis of some diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Farmer and Public Attitudes Toward Lamb Finishing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Grahame; Jongman, Ellen; Greenfield, L; Hemsworth, Paul

    2016-01-01

    To develop research and policy on the welfare of lambs in intensive finishing systems, it is important to understand public and sheep farmers' attitudes. The aim of this research was to identify and compare farmer and community attitudes relevant to the intensification of lamb finishing. The majority of respondents in the community sample expressed concern about all listed welfare issues, but particularly about feedlotting of lambs and the associated confinement. These attitudes correlated with community views on the importance of welfare issues including social contact and freedom to roam. Farmers expressed much lower levels of concern than did the general public except with regard to the health of lambs, disease control, access to shade, and lack of access to clean water.

  7. Wrinkle Resistant Finishing of Cotton Fabrics with the Complex System of PBTCA/CA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋海涛; 隋淑英; 朱平; 董朝红; 张林

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,the wrinkle resistant finishing of cotton fabric with the complex system of PBTCA and CA was mainly discussed.The influence of finishing conditions such as the amount of finishing agent and catalyst,curing temperature and curing time were st

  8. 国内外 VOCs 排放标准体系研究%Study of Emission Standards System of VOCs at Home and Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗斌; 蒋燕; 王斌

    2014-01-01

    It had important significance to develop VOCs emission standards for controlling VOCs emissions, improving air quality, and protecting human health and ecological environment. The characteristics of emission standards system of VOCs at home and abroad were analyzed, and some suggestions on the development of VOCs emission standards were proposed that toxicity and emissions of pollutants, particular pollutants of key industries should be considered when developing standards, and establishing emission standards system of VOCs giving priority to industry standards.%制定VOCs排放标准对于控制VOCs排放量,改善环境空气质量,保护人体健康和生态环境有重要意义。分析了国内外VOCs排放标准体系的特点,提出我国制定VOCs排放标准的几点建议,即标准制定过程中应考虑污染物毒性和排放量大小,考虑控制重点行业的特征污染物,并建立以行业排放标准为主的VOCs排放标准体系。

  9. Electronic nose system combined with membrane interface probe for detection of VOCs in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junghwan; Howard, Zachary; Kurup, Pradeep

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes a novel electronic nose system combined with a membrane interface probe (MIP) for detecting volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water. The MIP is an in situ tool that allows the detection of certain VOCs in the soil via a pushed or driven probe. The MIP was combined with a sensor array consisting of four different tin-oxide gas sensors known as an electronic nose (e-nose). The designed e-nose system was calibrated in aqueous media spiked with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and p-xylene (BTEX) at concentrations of 100, 250, and 500 ppm. Since the experiment was conducted utilizing five repetitions for each analyte, a data set of 60 measurements was prepared for principal components analysis (PCA). The results of the PCA showed that two principal components contain more than 99% variance information and each VOC is separable and detectable by the e-nose.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A NO-VOC/NO-HAP WOOD FURNITURE COATINGS SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of the development and demonstration of a no-VOC (volatile organic compound)/no-HAP (hazardous air pollutant) wood furniture coating system. The performance characteristics of the new coating system are excellent in terms of adhesion, drying time, gloss, ...

  11. Numerical modeling analysis of VOC removal processes in different aerobic vertical flow systems for groundwater remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Biase, C.; Carminati, A.; Oswald, S.E.; Thullner, M.

    2013-01-01

    Vertical flow systems filled with porous medium have been shown to efficiently remove volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater. To apply this semi-natural remediation strategy it is however necessary to distinguish between removal due to biodegradation and due to volatile l

  12. Numerical modeling analysis of VOC removal processes in different aerobic vertical flow systems for groundwater remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Biase, C.; Carminati, A.; Oswald, S.E.; Thullner, M.

    Vertical flow systems filled with porous medium have been shown to efficiently remove volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater. To apply this semi-natural remediation strategy it is however necessary to distinguish between removal due to biodegradation and due to volatile

  13. DEMONSTRATION OF A NO-VOC/NO-HAP WOOD KITCHEN CABINET COATING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of the development and demonstration of a no-VOC (volatile organic compound)/no-HAP (hazardous air pollutant) wood furniture coating system at two cabinet manufacturing plants: one in Portland, OR, and the other in Redwood City, CA. Technology transfer ef...

  14. Finishing systems on the final surface roughness of composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Richard; Neiva, Gisele; Dennison, Joseph; Yaman, Peter

    2008-02-01

    This study evaluated differences in surface roughness of a microhybrid (Gradia Direct, GC America) and a nanofil (Filtek Supreme, 3M ESPE) composite using four polishing systems: PoGo/Enhance (DENTSPLY/Caulk), Sof-Lex (3M ESPE), Astropol (Ivoclar Vivadent), and Optidisc (KerrHawe). An aluminum mold was used to prepare 2 X 60 composite disks (10 mm X 2 mm). Composite was packed into the mold, placed between two glass slabs, and polymerized for 40 seconds from the top and bottom surfaces. Specimens were finished to a standard rough surface using Moore's disks with six brushing strokes. Specimens were rinsed and stored in artificial saliva in individual plastic bags at 36 degrees C for 24 hours prior to testing. Specimens were randomly assigned to one of the four polishing systems and were polished for 30 seconds (10 seconds per grit) with brushing strokes according to the manufacturer's instructions. Mean surface roughness (Ra) was recorded with a surface-analyzer 24 hours after storage in artificial saliva, both before and after polishing. Means were analyzed using two-way and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey multiple comparison tests at p composites for individual polishing systems (p=0.3991). Filtek specimens were smoother than Gradia specimens after baseline roughening. Sof-Lex provided the smoothest final surface when used with either composite. Astropol provided a rough surface for Gradia specimens.

  15. A system response to an outbreak of enzootic pneumonia in grow/finish pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae-negative commercial swine production system broke with enzootic pneumonia at their grow/finish site in southern Manitoba in October, 2003. System responses included feed medication, depopulation, delayed shipment of pigs to the infected site, vaccination of at risk sow herds, and disinfection when grow/finish site depopulation was completed. PMID:15532888

  16. 40 CFR 141.510 - Is my system subject to the new finished water reservoir requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... finished water reservoir requirements? 141.510 Section 141.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced... my system subject to the new finished water reservoir requirements? All subpart H systems which...

  17. An Intelligent Modular Array System for the Monitoring of VOCs in the Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Jay Tolar

    1998-07-01

    The originally proposed project had one primary objective: TO develop a low cost integrated VOC measurement system, IMAS, that can detect, quantify, and report on chemical contaminants present in water, soil, and air in a minimally invasive manner. A two phase program was initially proposed. Phase 1 would investigate the critical performance and reliability limits of the technology, and Phase 2 would develop and demonstrate a fully integrated module in actual field conditions.

  18. Numerical modeling analysis of VOC removal processes in different aerobic vertical flow systems for groundwater remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Biase, Cecilia; Carminati, Andrea; Oswald, Sascha E; Thullner, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Vertical flow systems filled with porous medium have been shown to efficiently remove volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater. To apply this semi-natural remediation strategy it is however necessary to distinguish between removal due to biodegradation and due to volatile losses to the atmosphere. Especially for (potentially) toxic VOCs, the latter needs to be minimized to limit atmospheric emissions. In this study, numerical simulation was used to investigate quantitatively the removal of volatile organic compounds in two pilot-scale water treatment systems: an unplanted vertical flow filter and a planted one, which could also be called a vertical flow constructed wetland, both used for the treatment of contaminated groundwater. These systems were intermittently loaded with contaminated water containing benzene and MTBE as main VOCs. The highly dynamic but permanently unsaturated conditions in the porous medium facilitated aerobic biodegradation but could lead to volatile emissions of the contaminants. Experimental data from porous material analyses, flow rate measurements, solute tracer and gas tracer test, as well as contaminant concentration measurements at the boundaries of the systems were used to constrain a numerical reactive transport modeling approach. Numerical simulations considered unsaturated water flow, transport of species in the aqueous and the gas phase as well as aerobic degradation processes, which made it possible to quantify the rates of biodegradation and volatile emissions and calculating their contribution to total contaminant removal. A range of degradation rates was determined using experimental results of both systems under two operation modes and validated by field data obtained at different operation modes applied to the filters. For both filters, simulations and experimental data point to high biodegradation rates, if the flow filters have had time to build up their removal capacity. For this case volatile

  19. An Expert System for the Prediction of Surface Finish in Turning Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    U; S; Dixit; K; Acharyya; A; D; Sahasrabudhe

    2002-01-01

    Prediction of surface finish in turning process is a difficult but important task. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) can reliably pred ict the surface finish but require a lot of training data. To overcome this prob lem, an expert system approach is proposed, wherein it will be possible to predi ct the surface finish from limited experiments. The expert system contains a kno wledge base prepared from machining data handbooks and number of experiments con ducted by turning steel rods, over a wide range of c...

  20. Method and system for processing optical elements using magnetorheological finishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menapace, Joseph Arthur; Schaffers, Kathleen Irene; Bayramian, Andrew James; Molander, William A

    2012-09-18

    A method of finishing an optical element includes mounting the optical element in an optical mount having a plurality of fiducials overlapping with the optical element and obtaining a first metrology map for the optical element and the plurality of fiducials. The method also includes obtaining a second metrology map for the optical element without the plurality of fiducials, forming a difference map between the first metrology map and the second metrology map, and aligning the first metrology map and the second metrology map. The method further includes placing mathematical fiducials onto the second metrology map using the difference map to form a third metrology map and associating the third metrology map to the optical element. Moreover, the method includes mounting the optical element in the fixture in an MRF tool, positioning the optical element in the fixture; removing the plurality of fiducials, and finishing the optical element.

  1. Conservation of filtering in manufacturing systems with unreliable machines and finished goods buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Li

    2006-01-01

    nature of manufacturing systems, this law offers a tool for selecting the smallest, that is, lean, finished goods buffering, which is necessary and sufficient to ensure the desired level ofcustomer demand satisfaction.

  2. The optimal parameters in a magnetically assisted finishing system using Taguchi's method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pa, P.S., E-mail: myhow@seed.net.t

    2010-11-01

    An intelligent design system was created that efficiently uses magnetic force to assist in the discharge of dregs from the electrode gap during the electrochemical step of a surface finishing process. In this electrochemical finishing experiment, the author used an electrode mated to the shape of the workpiece and supplied with continuous or pulsed direct current. The study used Taguchi's Method to analyze the combination of optimal parameters. The experimental parameters include four factors at three levels for the evaluation of surface roughness after the magnetically assisted electrochemical finishing process. These four factors are voltage, magnetic field strength, the distance between the two magnets and the electrode rotation speed. For this design a higher rotation speed of the electrode produced a better finish. A higher voltage with magnetic assistance can alleviate the difficulties of dregs discharge and also reduce the finishing time. Smaller distances between the two magnets, or a larger magnetic field intensity provides more magnetic force, improved discharge and results in a better finish. The average effect of magnetic assistance was greater than that of pulsed current and there is no need to prolong machining time to compensate for off-time.

  3. An Improved, Automated Whole-Air Sampler and VOC Analysis System: Results from SONGNEX 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, B. M.; Gilman, J.; Tokarek, T. W.; Peischl, J.; Koss, A.; Yuan, B.; Warneke, C.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.; Sueper, D.; De Gouw, J. A.; Aikin, K. C.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the troposphere is critical for the understanding of emissions and physical and chemical processes that can impact both air quality and climate. Airborne VOC measurements have proven challenging due to the requirements of short sample collection times (=10 s) to maximize spatial resolution and sampling frequency and high sensitivity (pptv) to chemically diverse hydrocarbons, halocarbons, oxygen- and nitrogen-containing VOCs. NOAA ESRL CSD has built an improved whole air sampler (iWAS) which collects compressed ambient air samples in electropolished stainless steel canisters, based on the NCAR HAIS Advanced Whole Air Sampler [Atlas and Blake]. Post-flight chemical analysis is performed with a custom-built gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer system that pre-concentrates analyte cryostatically via a Stirling cooler, an electromechanical chiller which precludes the need for liquid nitrogen to reach trapping temperatures. For the 2015 Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus Study (SONGNEX), CSD conducted iWAS measurements on 19 flights aboard the NOAA WP-3D aircraft between March 19th and April 27th. Nine oil and natural gas production regions were surveyed during SONGNEX and more than 1500 air samples were collected and analyzed. For the first time, we employed real-time mapping of sample collection combined with live data from fast time-response measurements (e.g. ethane) for more uniform surveying and improved target plume sampling. Automated sample handling allowed for more than 90% of iWAS canisters to be analyzed within 96 hours of collection - for the second half of the campaign improved efficiencies reduced the median sample age at analysis to 36 hours. A new chromatography peak-fitting software package was developed to minimize data reduction time by an order of magnitude without a loss of precision or accuracy. Here we report mixing ratios for aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons (C2-C8) along with select

  4. Airborne VOC measurements on board the Zeppelin NT during the PEGASOS campaigns in 2012 deploying the improvement Fast-GC-MSD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Julia Elisabeth

    2014-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) comprise a large number of different species, estimated to 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6}. They are emitted on the Earth's surface from a variety of biogenic and anthropogenic sources. VOCs are removed by multiple pathways from the atmosphere, by oxidation and finally by dry or wet deposition. Most primary emitted VOCs are non-polar and therefore have a low solubility in water. Oxidation facilitates efficient VOC removal by wet deposition. In the atmosphere the main photochemical VOC oxidation agent is the OH radical. As a consequence the polarity of the VOCs is increased and they can be removed faster. The oxidation of VOCs proceeds in several steps until the VOCs are deposited or are eventually oxidized to carbon dioxide. A downside of the VOCs oxidation process lies in the production of significant amounts ozone if nitrogen oxide is present which is a serious health hazard. Most of the VOC oxidation takes place in lower part of the atmosphere between the altitudes of 100 to 1000 m, which is only sparsely analyzed. Therefore, fast VOCs measurements by GC-MSD on board the Zeppelin NT offered new important insights in the distribution of VOCs. The measurements were performed within the PEAGSOS campaigns in the Netherlands and in Italy in 2012. For the implementation of the GC-MSD system (HCG) on board the Zeppelin it was reconstructed to enhance its performance and to meet aviation requirements. The system was optimized to measure VOCs ranging from C4 to C10 as well as oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) with a detection limit below 10 ppt. The analyzed VOCs for both parts of the campaigns showed low mean concentration below 5 ppb for all VOCs. Especially, the mixing ratios of the primary emitted VOCs were very low with mean values lower than 200 ppt. Higher concentrations could be observed for the OVOCs with mean concentrations up to 5 ppb. The most abundant OVOCs apart from formaldehyde were methanol, ethanol, acetone and acetaldehyde.

  5. Removal of dissolved VOCs from water with an air stripper/membrane vapor separation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijmans, J.G.; Kamaruddin, H.D.; Segelke, S.V.; Wessling, Matthias; Baker, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Treatment of water contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is a major problem for the United States chemical industry. Currently, VOCs are removed from moderately contaminated wastewater streams by processes such as steam stripping and from dilute wastewaters by air stripping combined wi

  6. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles in textile finish aqueous system and their antimicrobial properties on cotton fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by a simple and environmentally benign procedure using poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) as reducing agent and stabilizer in the textile finish aqueous system, and their antimicrobial properties on greige (mechanically cleaned) and bleached cotton fibers were i...

  7. Marginal and internal discrepancies of zirconia copings: effects of milling system and finish line design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Isabella Lima Arrais; Campos, Fernanda; Sousa, Rafael Santiago; Alves, Maria Luiza Lima; Rodrigues, Dalton Matos; Souza, Rodrigo Othavio Assuncão; Bottino, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Discrepancies at the abutment/crown interface can affect the longevity of zirconia restorations. The aim was to evaluate the marginal and internal discrepancies (MD and ID) of zirconia copings manufactured by two milling systems with different finish lines. Three aluminum-master-dies (h = 5.5 mm; Ψ =7.5 mm; 6΀), with different finish lines (large chamfer [LC]; tilted chamfer [TC]; rounded shoulder [RS]) were fabricated. Twenty impressions were made from each master die and poured. Sixty zirconia copings were manufactured and divided according to the factors "finish line" and "milling system" (n = 10): CAD LC = Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) + LC; CAD TC = CAD/CAM + TC; CAD RS = CAD/CAM + RS; MAD LC = manually aided design/manually aided manufacturing (MAD/MAM) + LC; MAD TC = MAD/MAM + TC; and MAD RS = MAD/MAM + RS. For MD analysis, each coping was fixed, and the distance between the external edges of the coping and the edge of the cervical preparation was measured (50 points). Using the same copings, the ID of each coping was evaluated, by the replica technique, at 12 points equally distributed among the regions (n = 10): Ray (R), axial (A), and occlusal (Occl). The measurements were performed by optical microscopy (Χ250). The data (μm) were subjected to parametric and non-parametric statistical analyses. For the MAD/MAM system, the "finish line" (P = 0.0001) affected significantly the MD median values (μm): LC = 251.80 a , RS = 68.40 a and TC = 8.10 b (Dunn's test). For the CAD/CAM system, the median MD values (μm) were not affected by the factor "finish line" (P = 0.4037): LC = 0.82 a , RS = 0.52 a , and TC = 0.89 a . For the ID, it was observed interaction between the finish line types and the region (P = 0.0001) and between region and milling system (P = 0.0031) (RM-ANOVA). The CAD/CAM system presented lower MD values, regardless the finish line. However, the MAD/MAM system showed ID values smaller than those of CAD/CAM.

  8. Closed soilless growing systems in the Netherlands: the finishing touch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, van E.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the latest developments in closed soilless growing systems in the Netherlands, where growers are obliged to invest in environmently friendly cropping systems, in order to comply with new legislation. Subjects of discussion will be the reasons for regulation, the growe

  9. Finishing Titanium Alloy Cutting Zone Analysis Via Multifunction Measuring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrej, Czán; Michal, Šajgalík; Drbúl, Mário; Holubják, Jozef; Mrázik, Jozef; Babík, Ondrej; Zaušková, Lucia; Piešová, Marianna

    2015-12-01

    With the development of automotive, aerospace and biomedical industry, there is higher demand for exotic alloys, often based on titanium or nickel, though they are hard to machine. Therefore, it is essential to thoroughly understand their behavior during machining. Processes in the cutting zone of said materials are due to the complexity and dynamics defined by specific models. These include some deviations, thus it is essential to improve machining observation methodology, so exhibited errors and deviations are minimal or none. Based on the observations, multifunction measuring system has been designed, which allows simultaneous observation of characteristics such as e.g. cutting forces, deformations and thermal spread without uninterrupting machining process.

  10. TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF TIRE MOULD CLEANING SYSTEMS AND QUALITY FINISHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Fragassa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A modern tire merges up to 300 different chemical elements, both organic and inorganic, natural and synthetic. During manufacturing, various processes are present such as mixing, calendering and extrusion, forming dozens of individual parts. Then, moulding and vulcanization inside special moulds provides the tire its final shape. Since the surface quality of moulds strongly affects the quality of tire, mould cleaning is a fundamental aspect of the whole tire production and cleaning techniques are in continuous development. This investigation proposes a global technology assessment of tire mould cleaning systems including uncommon solutions as multi-axis robots for cleaning on board by laser or dry ice, or ultrasonic cleaning which use cavitation. A specific attention is also focused on the industry adoption of spring-vents in moulds and how they are influencing the development the quality of final products.

  11. Conservation of filtering in manufacturing systems with unreliable machines and finished goods buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of reliable satisfaction of customer demand by unreliable production systems. In the framework of a simple production-storage-customer model, we show that this can be accomplished by using an appropriate level of filtering of production randomness. The filtering is ensured by finished goods buffers (filtering in space and shipping periods (filtering in time. The following question is considered: how are filtering in space and filtering in time interrelated? As an answer, we show that there exists a conservation law: in lean manufacturing systems, the amount of filtering in space multiplied by the amount of filteringin time (both measured in appropriate dimensionless units ispractically constant. Along with providing an insight into the nature of manufacturing systems, this law offers a tool for selecting the smallest, that is, lean, finished goods buffering, which is necessary and sufficient to ensure the desired level ofcustomer demand satisfaction.

  12. VOC and air toxics control using biofiltration: 2 full-scale system case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fucich, W.J.; Togna, A.P.; Loudon, R.E. [Envirogen, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Industry continuous to search for innovative air treatment technologies to cost effectively meet the stringent requirements of the CAAA. High volume process exhaust streams contaminated with dilute concentrations of VOCs and HAPs are an especially challenging problem. Biological treatment is an option that must be evaluated with the traditional control technologies (chemical scrubbing, condensation, adsorption, thermal oxidation, etc.) because of the low operating costs and the system is environmentally friendly. In the United States, biofiltration is considered an emerging technology, however, full-scale biofiltration systems are now successfully operating in two rigorous services. At Nylonge Corporation, a biofilter is safely and efficiently degrading CS{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S vapor emissions. The ABTco system is successfully treating the target compounds, methanol and formaldehyde, in a press exhaust containing inert particulate and semi-volatiles. These systems are both based on a unique, patented modular design. The modular concept allows the system to be easily installed resulting in construction cost minimization and maintaining critical project schedules. The modular system offers flexibility because the biofilter is easily expanded to accommodate future plant growth. The modular design benefits the end user because individual modules or biofilter sections can be isolated for service and inspection while the biofilter system stays on-line. An up-flow configuration and the patented irrigation system allow biofilters to be used on the most difficult services. In the case of Nylonge, the biofilter is handling the sulfuric acid generated during the degradation of CS{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S vapors. At ABTco, stable operation is achieved in a stream containing particulates and semi-volatiles.

  13. Hydrogen sulphide, odor, and VOC air emission control systems for heavy oil storage, transport, and processing operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, H.P. [APC Technologies, Inc. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, companies have to control their air emissions in compliance with regulatory and process improvement objectives. The industry therefore operates air emission control systems to eliminate odor complaints, reduce personnel exposure to H2S and remove BTEX and VOC emissions. This paper studies different cases of companies which have chosen to use a fixed activated carbon adsorption unit. The study was conducted on three cases of heavy oil industries which installed the CarbonPure adsorption system and describes their objectives, processes, emissions, technology options and performances. Results showed an elimination of odor complaints, a reduction of personnel exposure to harmful air contaminants and a reduction of VOC concentrations in a reliable, low maintenance and economic manner. This study presents the greater benefits of the CarbonPure adsorption system combined with an ultra high efficiency unit over those of other adsorption systems.

  14. Pose-varied multi-axis optical finishing systems theory and process validation

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Haobo

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on advanced optical finishing techniques and design for high-performance manufacturing systems. It provides numerous detailed examples of how advanced automation techniques have been applied to optical fabrication processes. The simulations, removal rate and accurate experimental results offer useful resources for engineering practice. Researchers, engineers and graduate students working in optical engineering and precision manufacture engineering will benefit from this book.

  15. Development and application of a multi-channel monitoring system for near real-time VOC measurement in a hazardous waste management facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Je, Chung-hwan; Stone, Richard; Oberg, Steven G

    2007-09-01

    This paper describes the development and application of a multi-channel monitoring system for recording, processing, and analyzing volatile organic compound (VOC) levels discharged to the atmosphere from a walk-in hood in a hazardous waste management facility. The monitoring system consists of an array of PID (photo ionization detector) sensors and a networked control program that provides operational schematic diagram, performs data analyses, and illustrates real-time graphical displays. Furthermore, the system records potential worker exposures, exhaust filtration efficiency and environmental release levels. Multi-channel continuous monitoring of VOCs is successfully implemented during chemical bulking operations. It is shown that a real-time monitoring system is effective for early warning detection of hazardous chemicals and for predicting the performance of adsorption filters used for VOC removal. In addition, a connected local weather visualization system supports efforts to minimize potential health and environmental impacts of VOC emissions to surrounding areas.

  16. Online application of automatic surface quality inspection system to finishing line of cold rolled strips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Sun; Ke Xu; Jinwu Xu

    2003-01-01

    An autonatic surface quality inspection system installed on a finishing line of cold rolled strips is introduced. The system is able to detect surface defects on cold rolled strips, such as scratches, coil breaks, rusts, roll imprints, and so on. Multiple CCD area scan canteras were equipped to capture images of strip surface simultaneously. Defects were detected through "Dark-field illumination' which is generated by LED illuminators. Parallel computation technique and fast processing algorithms were developed for real-time data processing. The application to the production line shows that the system is able to detect defects effectively.

  17. Optimization of an Innovative Biofiltration System as a VOC Control Technology for Aircraft Painting Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-20

    Cladosporium resinae (ATCC 34066), Cladosporium sphaerospermum (ATCC 200384), Exophiala lecanii-corni (CBS 102400), Mucor rouxii (ATCC 44260), and...degrade all VOCs tested except for styrene under the conditions imposed. Cladosporium resinae was able to degrade both organic acids, all of the ketones...2002). Cladosporium Cladosporium Exophiala Mucor Phanerochaete resinae sphaerospermum lecanii-corni rouxii chrysosporium No carbon source Glucose

  18. DEMONSTRATION OF NO-VOC/NO-HAP WOOD FURNITURE COATING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has contracted with AeroVironment Environmental Services, Inc. and its subcontractor, Adhesives Coating Co., to develop and demonstrate a no-VOC (volatile organic compound)/no-HAP (hazardous air pollutant) wood furniture coating s...

  19. Performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle managed in a bedded hoop-barn system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyman, M S; Busby, W D; Lonergan, S M; Johnson, A K; Maxwell, D L; Harmon, J D; Shouse, S C

    2010-08-01

    The use of bedded hoop barns in finishing systems for beef cattle has not been widely researched. In this management system, beef cattle are confined to hoop barns throughout finishing, and bedding is used to absorb animal waste, which results in minimal effluent. The objective of this study was to compare the performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers (n = 1,428) managed in a bedded hoop-barn management system vs. an open-feedlot system with shelter. Six feeding trials were conducted over a 3-yr period. Three trials were conducted during summer-fall and 3 trials were conducted during winter-spring. Crossbred steers were allotted to 3 pens in the hoop-barn system and to 3 pens in the open-lot system (approximately 40 steers per pen in both facility systems). Stocking densities for the steers were 4.65 m(2) per steer in the hoop-barn system and 14.7 m(2) per steer in the open-lot system. The steers were begun on trial weighing 410 and 411 kg (SD = 21), were fed for 102.3 and 103.0 d (SD = 3.8), and were weighed off test at 595 and 602 kg (SD = 21) for the hoop-barn and open-lot systems, respectively. Steer performance measures consisted of ADG, DMI, and G:F. Carcass characteristics were HCW, fat thickness, LM area, KPH percentage, marbling score, USDA yield grade, and USDA quality grade. No year, season, or pen (management system) main effects, or season x management system and year x management system interactions were observed for any of the items measured related to cattle performance or carcass characteristics (P > 0.05). Final mud scores (a subjective evaluation of the amount of soil and manure adhering to the hair coat of the animals) were greater for the steers from the open-lot system compared with those from the hoop-barn system (P < 0.02), suggesting steers in the hoop-barn system carried less mud than steers from the open-lot system. Average daily cornstalk bedding use in the hoop-barn system was 2.3 kg/steer during summer-fall and 2

  20. Performance, carcass traits and costs of Suffolk lambs finishing systems with early weaning and controlled suckling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rodrigo Fernandes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The performance, carcass traits and finishing costs of Suffolk lambs were evaluated in three systems: (1 lambs weaned with 22 kg of body weight (BW and supplemented with concentrate on pasture until slaughter; (2 lambs weaned with 22 kg BW and fed in feedlot until slaughter; (3 lambs maintained in controlled nursing after 22 kg BW and creep fed in feedlot until slaughter. Average daily gain (ADG was 224 g/d for lambs weaned and supplemented with concentrate on pasture, 386 g/d for lambs weaned in feedlot and 481 g/d for lambs under controlled nursing. Empty body weight and visceral fat deposition were highest in lambs from feedlot systems. Carcass weights and carcass yields were highest for lambs in controlled nursing. Finishing total costs were highest in controlled nursing and lowest in the system with weaning in feedlot. High concentrate diet associated with controlled nursing in feedlot allowed lambs to reach the growth potential and carcasses with higher weights, higher yields and higher fat content. After weaning, lambs in feedlot fed with high concentrate diet had higher weight gain than lambs supplemented with concentrate on pasture. Carcasses produced under these two systems presented the same characteristics. The system with weaning in feedlot showed the lowest cost per kg carcass.

  1. Protecting wood decks from biodegradation and weathering : evaluation of deck finish systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. J. Morrell; P. F. Schneider; R. Sam Williams

    2001-01-01

    Mildew resistance, water repellency, and overall finish appearance were evaluated for 32 deck finishes on western redcedar (Thuja plicata D. Donn.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) after 12, 21, and 39 months of outdoor exposure in western Oregon. The finishes were either solvent-borne or waterborne; were ei- ther clear, tinted, or lightly...

  2. Total Measurement Uncertainty for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Segmented Gamma Scan Assay System

    CERN Document Server

    Fazzari, D M

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for the Canberra manufactured Segmented Gamma Scanner Assay System (SGSAS) as employed at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). In this document, TMU embodies the combined uncertainties due to all of the individual random and systematic sources of measurement uncertainty. It includes uncertainties arising from corrections and factors applied to the analysis of transuranic waste to compensate for inhomogeneities and interferences from the waste matrix and radioactive components. These include uncertainty components for any assumptions contained in the calibration of the system or computation of the data. Uncertainties are propagated at 1 sigma. The final total measurement uncertainty value is reported at the 95% confidence level. The SGSAS is a gamma assay system that is used to assay plutonium and uranium waste. The SGSAS system can be used in a stand-alone mode to perform the NDA characterization of a containe...

  3. VOC flux measurements using a novel Relaxed Eddy Accumulation GC-FID system in urban Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C.; Schade, G.; Boedeker, I.

    2008-12-01

    Houston experiences higher ozone production rates than most other major cities in the US, which is related to high anthropogenic VOC emissions from both area/mobile sources (car traffic) and a large number of petrochemical facilities. The EPA forecasts that Houston is likely to still violate the new 8-h NAAQS in 2020. To monitor neighborhood scale pollutant fluxes, we established a tall flux tower installation a few kilometers north of downtown Houston. We measure energy and trace gas fluxes, including VOCs from both anthropogenic and biogenic emission sources in the urban surface layer using eddy covariance and related techniques. Here, we describe a Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) system combined with a dual-channel GC-FID used for VOC flux measurements, including first results. Ambient air is sampled at approximately 15 L min-1 through a 9.5 mm OD PFA line from 60 m above ground next to a sonic anemometer. Subsamples of this air stream are extracted through an ozone scrubber and pushed into two Teflon bag reservoirs, from which they are transferred to the GC pre-concentration units consisting of carbon-based adsorption traps encapsulated in heater blocks for thermal desorption. We discuss the performance of our system and selected measurement results from the 2008 spring and summer seasons in Houston. We present diurnal variations of the fluxes of the traffic tracers benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) during different study periods. Typical BTEX fluxes ranged from -0.36 to 3.10 mg m-2 h-1 for benzene, and -0.47 to 5.04 mg m-2 h-1 for toluene, and exhibited diurnal cycles with two dominant peaks related to rush-hour traffic. A footprint analysis overlaid onto a geographic information system (GIS) will be presented to reveal the dominant emission sources and patterns in the study area.

  4. Evaluating an Exterior Insulation and Finish System for Deep Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Podorson, David [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Exterior insulation and finish systems (EIFS) are proprietary synthetic formulations that are applied to the exterior walls of buildings to serve as insulation and exterior cladding. The insulation thickness can vary from less than one inch to a foot or more. In this project the applicability of EIFS for residential deep energy retrofits was investigated through modeling and a case study home. The home was retrofitted using a site-applied four-inch-thick EIFS. Site-specific details were developed as required for the residential retrofit application. Site work and the costs of the EIFS system were documented. The demonstration home was modeled using Building Energy Optimization energy and cost analysis software to explore cost effectiveness of various EIFS insulation thicknesses in two climate locations.

  5. Evaluating an Exterior Insulation and Finish System for Deep Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J.; Podorson, D.

    2014-01-01

    Exterior insulation and finish systems (EIFS) are proprietary synthetic formulations that are applied to the exterior walls of buildings to serve as insulation and exterior cladding. The insulation thickness can vary from less than one inch to a foot or more. In this project the applicability of EIFS for residential deep energy retrofits was investigated through modeling and a case study home. The home was retrofitted using a site-applied four-inch-thick EIFS. Site-specific details were developed as required for the residential retrofit application. Site work and the costs of the EIFS system were documented. The demonstration home was modeled using Building Energy Optimization energy and cost analysis software to explore cost effectiveness of various EIFS insulation thicknesses in two climate locations.

  6. Definition and means of maintaining the emergency notification and evacuation system portion of the plutonium finishing plant safety envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WHITE, W.F.

    1999-05-20

    The Emergency Evacuation and Notification System provides information to the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Building Emergency Director to assist in determining appropriate emergency response, notifies personnel of the required response, and assists in their response. The report identifies the equipment in the Safety Envelope (SE) for this System and the Administrative, Maintenance, and Surveillance Procedures used to maintain the SE Equipment.

  7. Online hourly determination of 62 VOCs in ambient air: system evaluation and comparison with another two analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durana, Nieves; Navazo, Marino; Alonso, Luclo; García, José A; Ilardia, Juan L; Gómez, M Carmen; Gangoiti, Gotzon

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents results of the processing and validation of data collected by an automatic gas chromatograph (AGC). This system was used to monitor 62 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urban air in the Basque Country, Spain. The nonpolar compounds (C2-C10) identified-paraffins, olefins, aromatics, and chlorinated compounds-accounted for 88% of the mass of total non-methane hydrocarbons (TNMHCs) in ambient air. The evaluation of linearity, precision, detection limits (DLs), and stability of retention times (RTs) indicates that the equipment is suitable for measuring ambient air automatically for prolonged periods (6 months). The calibration of the equipment using response factors calculated on the basis of the effective carbon number (ECN) showed variations of over 10% for acetylene, isoprene, and n-hexane. The results provided by the automatic chromatograph correlated significantly with simultaneous results from other widely used techniques for determining VOCs in ambient air: (1) portable GC, equipped with photoionization detector (PID), and (2) active adsorption on Tenax-TA followed by thermal desorption and chromatographic analysis.

  8. Leg lesions and cleanliness of finishing bulls kept in housing systems with different lying area surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze Westerath, H; Gygax, L; Mayer, C; Wechsler, B

    2007-07-01

    The influence of the quality of different lying surfaces on lesions and swellings at the joints as well as on the cleanliness of finishing bulls throughout the fattening period was studied. On 17 farms (623 bulls), pens with fully slatted concrete floors (CONCRETE), with rubber coated slats (RUBBER), with cubicles (CUBICLES, provided with five different types of soft lying mat) and with a littered lying area (STRAW) were compared. Bulls kept on STRAW developed the smallest lesion scores at the joints. In CUBICLES, there was a huge variability in the lesion scores depending on the type of lying mat, ranging from values comparable to STRAW up to and greater than the values for CONCRETE. The highest lesion scores at the carpal joints were found on CONCRETE, with intermediate values on RUBBER and in CUBICLES. At the tarsal joints, lesion scores were similar on CONCRETE and RUBBER and in the same range or worse on most mats in the CUBICLES. Swelling scores were highest on CONCRETE and intermediate on RUBBER and in CUBICLES compared to STRAW. In general, there was a steady increase in the lesion scores of the leg joints throughout the fattening period on CONCRETE, RUBBER and STRAW, whereas on some of the mats in CUBICLES these scores were at a high level from early on in the fattening period. Animals in all the housing systems were clean over the whole fattening period. Littering the lying area in CUBICLES affected neither the lesion scores nor the swelling scores at the joints nor animal cleanliness. In conclusion, both rubber coated slats and cubicles provided with soft lying mats were favourable with regard to the levels of lesions and swellings of the leg joints of finishing bulls compared to concrete slats. However, these levels were even lower in pens with a straw bedded lying area.

  9. Site S-7 VOC Transport modeling for the Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS), McClellan AFB - 1999 Semi-Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, Christine; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; James, April L.

    1999-06-15

    Enhanced data analysis is continuing for the Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS) installed at site S-7 in IC 34 at McClellan AFB. Air temperatures along with data from the four highest levels of thermistors in VZMS-A and B are used with an analytical solution for the heat conduction equation to show that heat transfer in the shallow vadose zone at S-7 is conduction-dominated. This analysis is extended to reveal that stiace temperature, i.e., the temperature of the concrete slab at S-7, is significantly higher in summer than the surrounding air temperature. These high temperatures in the shallow vadose zone can lead to increased volatilization of VOCS. Seasonal temperature reversals can cause upward buoyant gas flow in the uppermost 30 feet of the vadose zone in the winter. Data on gas-phase VOC concentrations in VZMS-A and B show highest concentrations in the shallow subsurface, low concentrations between depths of 30-70 feet, and slightly higher concentrations near the water table. Modeling VOC flow and transport subject to the constraints of data collected by the VZMS requires extension of the one-dimensional site-representative model used previously. Conceptual models broadly consistent with these data include (1) a diffusion-only model; (2) a preferential flow model; or (3) two- and three-dimensional flow models where the VOC plume undergoes lateral migration. Simulations of VOC transport suggest that there are VOCS at depths shallower than 6 feet, that significant NAPL is unlikely to be present, and that a source of VOCS may be provided by lateral flow in the gravel layer between two concrete layers present at the site. The conceptual models upon which VOC transport modeling is based require further development and testing. Prior Vapour-T modeling results for the S-7 site based on cis-1,2-DCE concentrations in well SS7SB08 are not substantiated by VZMS data, but these data are localized whereas VapourT results are generalized for the S-7 site as a whole

  10. VOC emissions chambers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In order to support the development of test methods and reference materials for volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions from building materials and furnishings,...

  11. Marginal adaptation of zirconium dioxide copings: influence of the CAD/CAM system and the finish line design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euán, Raúl; Figueras-Álvarez, Oscar; Cabratosa-Termes, Josep; Oliver-Parra, Rogelio

    2014-08-01

    Marginal adaptation is essential for the long-term success of dental restorations. Studies comparing the marginal gaps of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) restorations made from conventional and digital impressions are limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the marginal adaptation of zirconium dioxide copings made with 2 different CAD/CAM systems, the Lava All-Ceramic System (scanning definitive dies made with conventional impressions) and the Lava Chairside Oral Scanner (scanning directly from the prepared tooth). In addition, the influences of 2 different finish line configurations were also compared. Forty human molar teeth were prepared to receive complete crowns. Twenty were prepared with a 90-degree round shoulder and the other 20 with a 45-degree chamfer finish line. Zirconium dioxide copings were fabricated by using CAD/CAM technology. The specimens were randomized; they included 10 teeth with round shoulder and 10 with chamfer finish lines with the Lava All-Ceramic System, and 10 teeth with round shoulder and 10 with chamfer finish lines with the Lava Chairside Oral Scanner. The marginal gaps were measured at 5 points on each side with stereomicroscopy at 40× magnification. Data were analyzed with 2-way ANOVA (α=.05). The mean values of the measured marginal gap for the round shoulder group were 52.66 μm with the Lava All-Ceramic System and 14.98 μm with the Lava Chairside Oral Scanner. The mean values for the chamfer group were 64.06 μm for the Lava All-Ceramic System and 18.45 μm for the Lava Chairside Oral Scanner. Differences were identified when the marginal gaps between the specimens with different CAD/CAM systems were compared. However, differences in the finish line design were identified only between the round shoulder and chamfer with the Lava All-Ceramic System. Restorations fabricated with the Lava Chairside Oral Scanner displayed smaller marginal gaps than those made with the Lava All

  12. Field portable detection of VOCs using a SAW/GC system. Final report, June 21, 1994--September 21, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, F.; Staples, E.J.

    1998-06-01

    This report describes research on a fast GC vapor analysis system which uses a new type of Surface Acoustic Wave detector technology to characterize organic contamination in soil and groundwater. The project was sponsored by the Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, whose mission, in addition to other goals, is the development of tools and methods for characterization, remediation, and monitoring of underground environmental conditions. The research tasks were to demonstrate detectability and specificity of a Surface Acoustic Wave Gas Chromatograph (SAW/GC) to a representative number of VOC materials followed by field demonstrations of the new technology at a DOE site. All tasks of the project were successfully carried out and a fast vapor analysis system based upon a new type of Surface Acoustic Wave detector technology was developed. The prototype analyzer has the ability to characterize organic contamination in soil and groundwater at the part per billion level in less than 10 seconds. The detector is unique because it utilized an uncoated quartz crystal, contrary to current developments of using coated crystals.

  13. Effects of surface-finishing protocols on the roughness, color change, and translucency of different ceramic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Gülcan Coşkun; Pekkan, Gürel; Çal, Ebru; Eskitaşçıoğlu, Gürcan; Özcan, Mutlu

    2014-08-01

    Surface-finishing protocols have a mechanical impact on ceramic surfaces that could eventually affect surface topography and light scattering. An optimum protocol is needed to avoid damaging the optical properties of ceramics. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different surface-finishing protocols on the surface roughness, color change, and translucency of ceramic and metal ceramic restorations. Standardized disk-shaped specimens (1.5 × 10 mm, n=128) were fabricated from 3 different ceramic core materials (aluminum oxide [Al2O3]-AL, zirconium oxide [ZrO2]-ZR, lithium disilicate [Li2Si2O5]-LIT), veneered (V) with dentin ceramics (n=32 per group), and placed in the following groups: ALV, ZRV, and LITV. The metal ceramic group acted as the control (n=32). Four different surface-finishing methods were tested. Airborne-particle abrasion with 50 μm Al2O3, polishing with adjustment kit, polishing with adjustment kit plus diamond polishing paste, and autoglazing (n=8 subgroup) were applied on the veneering ceramics. The specimens were analyzed with a profilometer for surface roughness, and color change and translucency were measured with a clinical spectrophotometer. Statistical analyses were performed with 1-way ANOVA and the Tukey honest significant difference tests (α=.05). Specimens treated with the airborne particle abrasion method showed significantly higher mean profilometer for surface roughness values in all groups (P.05). With the diamond polishing paste method, lower surface roughness values were achieved in the ZRV and metal ceramic groups acted as the control groups. Different surface-finishing methods affected the color change of the ceramic systems, except for ZRV. Surface-finishing protocols significantly affected the translucency values of the ALV, LITV, and metal ceramic groups (Pceramics tested. The airborne-particle abrasion protocol created rougher surfaces and decreased translucency, and color change in zirconia was not

  14. Ultrasonic magnetic abrasive finishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ya-ping; MA Ji; ZHANG Jun-qiang; WANG Long-shan

    2006-01-01

    Put forward a new kind of polishing method, ultrasonic magnetic abrasive finishing (UMAF), and studied its mechanism of improving polishing efficiency. By analyzing all kind of forces acting on single abrasive particle in the polishing process and calculating the size of the composition of forces, get the conclusion that UMAF will enhance the efficiency of the normal magnetic abrasive finishing(MAF) due to the ultrasonic vibration increases the cutting force and depth. At last the idea of designing the UMAF system based on numerical control milling machine is put forward which is convenient to setup and will accelerate the practical application of MAF.

  15. Diffusion of oligomers in latex systems A route to low volatile organic compound (VOC) coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fasano, David M; Fitzwater, Susan J; Lau, Willie; Sheppard, Aurelia C

    2010-01-01

    We synthesize specially designed latex polymer systems by an in situ emulsion polymerization process that yields latex particles with both a high molecular weight polymer phase and a low molecular weight oligomer phase...

  16. Field portable detection of VOCs using a SAW/GC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staples, E.J. [Amerasia Technology, Inc., Westlake Village, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes research on a fast gas chromatography (GC) vapor analysis system which uses a new type of Surface Acoustic Wave detector technology to characterize organic contamination in soil and groundwater. The project was sponsored by the Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The instrument was field tested at the Savannah River Plant.

  17. Predicted concentrations in new relocatable classrooms of volatile organic compounds emitted from standard and alternate interior finish materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Fisk, William J.; Shendell, Derek G.; Apte, Michael G.

    2001-07-01

    Relocatable classrooms (RCs) are widely employed by California school districts to satisfy rapidly expanding space requirements due to population growth and class size reduction policies. There is public concern regarding indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in schools, particularly in RCs, but very little data to support or dispel these concerns. Several studies are investigating various aspects of IEQ in California schools. This laboratory-based study focused on evaluating the emissions of toxic and/or odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, from materials used to finish the interiors of new RCs. Furthermore, the study implemented a procedure for VOC source reduction by testing and selecting lower-emitting materials as substitutes for standard materials. In total, 17 standard and alternate floor coverings, wall panels and ceiling panels were quantitatively tested for emissions of VOCs using smallscale environmental chambers. Working with the largest northern California manufacturer of conventional RCs and two school districts, specifications were developed for four new RCs to be produced in early summer 2001. Two of these will be predominantly finished with standard materials. Alternate carpet systems, an alternate wall panel covering and an alternate ceiling panel were selected for the two other RCs based on the results of the laboratory study and considerations of cost and anticipated performance and maintenance. Particular emphasis was placed on reducing the concentrations of VOCs on California agency lists of toxic compounds. Indoor concentrations of toxic and odorous VOCs were estimated for the four classrooms by mass balance using the measured VOC emission factors, exposed surface areas of the materials in the RCs, and three ventilation rate scenarios. Results indicate that reductions in the concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde phenol, di(ethylene glycol) butyl ether, vinyl acetate, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene

  18. Assessing the most suitable floor system for growing-finishing piggery under tropical conditions using the analytic hierarchy process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Ribeiro Caldara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out worldwide for evaluating different types of floor systems for growing-finishing pigs, specifically for assessing their effectiveness on pig performance, health and behaviour, leaving the opportunity for using multi-criteria analysis in decisionmaking towards the selection of flooring type. This study aimed to select the most suitable floor system for growing-finishing pigs under tropical conditions, considering performance traits and farmers management aspects. The analytic hierarchy process was applied for seeking the best solution considering both the farmers’ goals and the pigs’ welfare. Aspects considered in the analysis were: economic feasibility, rearing thermal and aerial ambient, animal behaviour, performance, and health status. The input used in the calculation was based on the results of a field trial using three treatments: whole concrete floor, coffee and rice husk bedding, and wood shavings deepbedding. Rearing conditions and pigs’ physiological parameters, performance, behaviour, and health status were analysed. When the floor system was considered, the most significant criteria were economic feasibility (0.31 and overall pig performance (0.31 leading to a final deep-bedding selection ranking of coffee and rice husks (1st, concrete floor (2nd, and wood shavings (3rd. Conversely, when the animal welfare was considered, the most decisive criterion was health status (0.32, followed by physiological parameters (0.25, and behaviour (0.23 leading to a final bedding selection ranking of coffee and rice husks (1st, wood shavings (2nd, and concrete floor (3rd. Results indicate that the deep-bedding of coffee and rice husks provided the best choice for both the farmer and the growing-finishing pigs.

  19. Carcass physical composition and meat quality of holstein calves, terminated in different finishing systems and slaughter weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Vincenzi dos Santos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Brazil sacrifices many dairy calves at birth, which can become a very serious problem merchandising. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the physical carcass composition and meat quality characteristics of Holstein calves in feedlot or pasture with supplementation, slaughtered at 140, 180, 220 or 260 kg body weight. In the early termination calves had on average 57 kg and 58 days of age. The confined animals were fed forage (corn and concentrated, in the ratio of 40:60 and concentrated pasture supplemented with 1% body weight. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial 2 x 4 (two feeding systems x four slaughter weights. It was observed a significant interaction between slaughter weight and finishing system only for the texture of the meat. The finished animals on pasture showed improved texture with increased weight, whereas the confined animals did not affect the weight. Animals finished on pasture had higher muscle percentage (69.48% vs 66.57%, and lower fat percentage (9.58% and 9.75 kg vs 13.20% and 13.08 kg compared to confined animals. There was a linear increase in the total amount of muscle, bone and fat, muscle / bone ratio, compared edible portion / bone, palatability and juiciness when increased slaughter weight. The percentage of bone and meat coloring decreased linearly with the increase of slaughter weight. The proportion of muscle and fat, showed quadratic behavior. The animals of dairy breeds are excellent producers of lean meat, with good smoothness, flavor and juiciness.

  20. Diffuse emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from soil in volcanic and hydrothermal systems: evidences for the influence of microbial activity on the carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturi, Stefania; Tassi, Franco; Fazi, Stefano; Vaselli, Orlando; Crognale, Simona; Rossetti, Simona; Cabassi, Jacopo; Capecchiacci, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    Soils in volcanic and hydrothermal areas are affected by anomalously high concentrations of gases released from the deep reservoirs, which consists of both inorganic (mainly CO2 and H2S) and organic (volatile organic compounds; VOCs) species. VOCs in volcanic and hydrothermal fluids are mainly composed of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons (alkanes, aromatics, alkenes, and cyclics), with variable concentrations of O- and S-bearing compounds and halocarbons, depending on the physicochemical conditions at depth. VOCs in interstitial soil gases and fumarolic emissions from four volcanic and hydrothermal systems in the Mediterranean area (Solfatara Crater, Poggio dell'Olivo and Cava dei Selci, in Italy, and Nisyros Island, in Greece) evidenced clear compositional differences, suggesting that their behavior is strongly affected by secondary processes occurring at shallow depths and likely controlled by microbial activity. Long-chain saturated hydrocarbons were significantly depleted in interstitial soil gases with respect to those from fumarolic discharges, whereas enrichments in O-bearing compounds (e.g. aldehydes, ketones), DMSO2 and cyclics were commonly observed. Benzene was recalcitrant to degradation processes, whereas methylated aromatics were relatively instable. The chemical and isotopic (δ13C in CO2 and CH4) composition of soil gases collected along vertical profiles down to 50 cm depth at both Solfatara Crater and Poggio dell'Olivo (Italy) showed evidences of relevant oxidation processes in the soil, confirming that microbial activity likely plays a major role in modifying the composition of deep-derived VOCs. Despite their harsh conditions, being typically characterized by high temperatures, low pH, and high toxic gases and metal contents, the variety of habitats characterizing volcanic and hydrothermal environments offers ideal biomes to extremophilic microbes, whose metabolic activity can consume and/or produce VOCs. In the Solfatara Crater, microbial

  1. Effect of cattle breed on finishing performance, carcass characteristics and economic benefits under typical beef production system in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Ren

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the finishing performance carcass characteristics and economic benefits of two imported (Limousin and Simmental and three local (Luxi, Jinnan and Qinchuan cattle breeds slaughtered at 18.5 months of age under thetypical Chinese beef production system. All cattle (n=71 were reared under the same production system and fed the same finishing diet for 105 days. Eight bulls from each breed were randomly selected for slaughtering. Compared with the three local breeds, the two imported breeds had higher average daily gain, dry matter intake and gain efficiency. Regarding carcass characteristics, the two imported breeds had higher carcass weight, bone weight, net meat weight, and ribeye area (P<0.001. However, the local breeds had higher (P<0.01 marbling scores than the imported breeds. The imported breeds showed higher economic benefits (P<0.001 than the local breeds. In conclusion, the imported cattle breeds had better growth performance, carcass traits and economic benefits compared with the local cattle breeds at 18.5 months old under the typical Chinese feeding conditions whereas, in this study, the local breeds may have some advantage in terms of meat quality.

  2. VOC removal from contaminated groundwater through membrane pervaporation. (Ⅱ): 1,1,1-trichloroethane- SDS surfactant solution system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Ming; Sean LIU

    2003-01-01

    The conventional "pump-and-treat" technology for subsurface remediation of groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds(VOCs) such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane(TCA), a common chlorinated organic solvent, has limitation of prohibitively long treatment time due to extremely low water solubility of the VOCs. Surfactant-based soil remediation has emerged as the effective technology that substantially reduces the treatment time. In order to make the whole process economical, the surfactant used in soil washing has to be recovered and reused. This study examined the recovery of anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), from soil remediation fluids containing TCA, using a bench-scale membrane pervaporation unit. The effects of high TCA concentration, surfactant dosage, and flow rate on permeation flux and selectivity( α value) of the process were evaluated. In general, higher surfactant concentration yielded lower TCA flux and constant water flux, resulting in declining α values; higher flow rate of TCA feed stream results in higher VOC flux and selectivity, an indication of the effect of concentration polarization; higher TCA feed concentration produces higher TCA permeation across the membrane, however, the selectivity was virtually unchanged unless the total TCA concentration exceeded 2000 ppm.

  3. Corrosion Finishing/Coating Systems for DoD Metallic Substrates Based on Non-Chromate Inhibitors and UV Curable, Zero VOC Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    After the 3000-hour exposure period get photographs taken of the test panels. Strip one of the test panels with Turco 5469 or equivalent paint stripper...test panels. Strip one of the test panels with Turco 5469 or equivalent paint stripper and photograph the stripped panels. Xenon Arc Weather...alkaline cleaning temperature on coating deposition and corrosion performance. The alkaline cleaner used, Turco 4215-NLCT from Henkel Corp., has a

  4. Analysis of Sidestream Smoke VOCs and Characterization of their Odor Profiles by VOC Preconcentrator-GC-O Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higashi N

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Various techniques have been employed in the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. However, these techniques are insufficient for the precise analysis of tobacco smoke VOCs because of the complexity of the operating system, system instability, or poor sensitivity. To overcome these problems, a combined system of VOC preconcentrator, gas chromatograph, and olfactometer has been developed. The performance of this new system was evaluated in the analysis of VOCs in tobacco smoke and applied to the odor profiling of sidestream smoke (SSS that has not been sufficiently investigated in the past.

  5. High frequency of porcine norovirus infection in finisher units of Brazilian pig-production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patrícia F N; Alfieri, Alice F; Barry, Aline F; de Arruda Leme, Raquel; Gardinali, Noemi R; van der Poel, Wim H M; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is a member of the Caliciviridae family and is considered an emerging human enteric pathogen. NoVs are detected in farm animals such as cattle, sheep and pigs. Porcine NoV (PoNoV) is widespread worldwide, but frequency of infection is often low. This study aimed to investigate the natural PoNoV infection from adult animals of an important Brazilian pig-production region. Faecal samples (n = 112) of asymptomatic pigs aged 9 to 24 weeks old were collected from 16 grower-to-finish herds located in Paraná state, Brazilian Southern region, and evaluated for PoNoV presence. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was performed using specific primers that target a conserved region of the virus capsid gene (VP1). PoNoV was detected in 58 (51.8%) of the 112 faecal samples and in 14 (87.5%) of the 16 herds evaluated. Six of the obtained amplicons were submitted to phylogenetic genotyping analysis. The higher nucleotide (86.5-97.4%) and amino acid (100%) similarities of the sequences in this study were with the representative strains of the porcine NoV genogroup II genotype 11 (PoNoV GII-11). These results reveal that PoNoV infection is endemic in one of the most important pork production areas of Brazil and that the PoNoV GII-11 is prevalent in this region.

  6. Catalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Muhammad Shahzad; Razzak, Shaikh A.; Hossain, Mohammad M.

    2016-09-01

    Emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is one of the major contributors to air pollution. The main sources of VOCs are petroleum refineries, fuel combustions, chemical industries, decomposition in the biosphere and biomass, pharmaceutical plants, automobile industries, textile manufacturers, solvents processes, cleaning products, printing presses, insulating materials, office supplies, printers etc. The most common VOCs are halogenated compounds, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, aromatic compounds, and ethers. High concentrations of these VOCs can cause irritations, nausea, dizziness, and headaches. Some VOCs are also carcinogenic for both humans and animals. Therefore, it is crucial to minimize the emission of VOCs. Among the available technologies, the catalytic oxidation of VOCs is the most popular because of its versatility of handling a range of organic emissions under mild operating conditions. Due to that fact, there are numerous research initiatives focused on developing advanced technologies for the catalytic destruction of VOCs. This review discusses recent developments in catalytic systems for the destruction of VOCs. Review also describes various VOCs and their sources of emission, mechanisms of catalytic destruction, the causes of catalyst deactivation, and catalyst regeneration methods.

  7. Innovative Deterministic Optical Surface Finishing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Increasing the optical surface finishing precision and reducing surface roughness will greatly benefit astronomy telescope and other optical systems. Conventional...

  8. Integrated Safety Management System Phase I Verification for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) [VOL 1 & 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SETH, S.S.

    2000-01-10

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Policy 450.4, Safety Management System Policy commits to institutionalizing an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) throughout the DOE complex as a means of accomplishing its missions safely. DOE Acquisition Regulation 970.5204-2 requires that contractors manage and perform work in accordance with a documented safety management system.

  9. Select Components and Finish System Design of a Window Air Conditioner with Propane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This report describes the technical targets for developing a high efficiency window air conditioner (WAC) using propane (R-290). The baseline unit selected for this activity is a GE R-410A WAC. We established collaboration with a Chinese rotary compressor manufacturer, to select an R-290 compressor. We first modelled and calibrated the WAC system model using R-410A. Next, we applied the calibrated system model to design the R-290 WAC, and decided the strategies to reduce the system charge below 260 grams and achieve the capacity and efficiency targets.

  10. RELEVANT OBJECTIVES OF ASSURANCE OF RELIABILITY OF FACADE SYSTEMS SERVING THERMAL INSULATION AND FINISHING PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavorskiy Andrey Andreevich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider up-to-date methods of implementation of requirements stipulated by Federal Law no. 261-FZ that encompasses reduction of heat losses through installation of progressive heat-insulation systems, cement plaster system (CPS, and ventilated facades (VF. Unresolved problems of their efficient application caused by the absence of the all-Russian regulatory documents capable of controlling the processes of their installation and maintenance, as well as the projection of their behaviour, are also considered in the article. The authors argue that professional skills of designers and construction workers responsible for the design and installation of façade systems influence the quality and reliability of design and construction works. Unavailability of unified solutions or regulations serves as the objective reason for the unavailability of the respective database; therefore, there is an urgent need to perform a set of researches to have the unified database compiled. The authors use the example of thermal insulation cement plaster systems designated for facades as results of researches into the quantitative analysis of safety systems. Collected and systematized data that cover defects that have proven to be reasons for failures, as well as potential methods of their prevention are also studied. Data on pilot studies of major factors of influence onto reliability of glutinous adhesion of CPS to the base of a wall are provided.

  11. Development and evaluation of a biocide release system for prolonged antifungal activity in finishing materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eversdijk, J.; Erich, S.J.F.; Hermanns, S.P.M.; Adan, O.C.G.; Bolle, M. de; Meyer, K. de; Bylemans, D.; Bekker, M.; Cate, A.T. ten

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of modified nano-clay particles as a controlled release system for biocides from building materials. Different (model) biocides were incorporated in a biocide/nano-clay composite and subsequently the release of the biocides was monitored under different environmental co

  12. Comparing three different passive RFID systems for behaviour monitoring in grow-finish pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal facilities are increasing in size making it difficult for animal caretakers to ensure the health and well-being of all animals under their care. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems have been successfully used in animal facilities and research has identified potential applications in...

  13. Development of an alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process for microelectromechanical systems micropore x-ray optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Raul E; Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Takagi, Utako; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Kato, Fumiki; Sugiyama, Susumu; Yamasaki, Noriko; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    2010-06-20

    X-ray astronomy research is often limited by the size, weight, complexity, and cost of functioning x-ray optics. Micropore optics promises an economical alternative to traditional (e.g., glass or foil) x-ray optics; however, many manufacturing difficulties prevent micropore optics from being a viable solution. Ezoe et al. introduced microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) micropore optics having curvilinear micropores in 2008. Made by either deep reactive ion etching or x-ray lithography, electroforming, and molding (LIGA), MEMS micropore optics suffer from high micropore sidewall roughness (10-30nmrms) which, by current standards, cannot be improved. In this research, a new alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process was developed using a mixture of ferrofluid and microscale abrasive slurry. A machine was built, and a set of working process parameters including alternating frequency, abrasive size, and polishing time was selected. A polishing experiment on a LIGA-fabricated MEMS micropore optic was performed, and a change in micropore sidewall roughness of 9.3+/-2.5nmrms to 5.7+/-0.7nmrms was measured. An improvement in x-ray reflectance was also seen. This research shows the feasibility and confirms the effects of this new polishing process on MEMS micropore optics.

  14. Effects of different space allowances on growth performance, blood profile and pork quality in a grow-to-finish production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, J C; Jin, X H; Hong, J S; Kim, Y Y

    2017-06-26

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the optimal space allowance on growth performance, blood profile and pork quality of growing-finishing pigs. A total of ninety crossbred pigs ([Yorkshire x Landrace] x Duroc, 30.25 ± 1.13 kg) were allocated into three treatments (0.96: four pigs / pen, 0.96 m2/pig; 0.80: five pigs / pen, 0.80 m2/pig; 0.69: six pigs / pen, 0.69 m2/pig) in a randomized complete block (RCB) design. Pigs were housed in balanced sex and had free access to feed in all phases for 14 weeks (growing phase I, growing phase II, finishing phase I and finishing phase II). There was no statistical difference in growing phase, but a linear decrease was observed on average daily gain (ADG, pfinishing phase. On the other hand, a quadratic effect was observed on gain to feed ratio in early finishing phase (pfinish production system is more than 0.80 m2/pig for maximizing growth performance and production efficiency.

  15. Developing Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) Technology for the Manufacture of Large-Aperture Optics in Megajoule Class Laser Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menapace, J A

    2010-10-27

    Over the last eight years we have been developing advanced MRF tools and techniques to manufacture meter-scale optics for use in Megajoule class laser systems. These systems call for optics having unique characteristics that can complicate their fabrication using conventional polishing methods. First, exposure to the high-power nanosecond and sub-nanosecond pulsed laser environment in the infrared (>27 J/cm{sup 2} at 1053 nm), visible (>18 J/cm{sup 2} at 527 nm), and ultraviolet (>10 J/cm{sup 2} at 351 nm) demands ultra-precise control of optical figure and finish to avoid intensity modulation and scatter that can result in damage to the optics chain or system hardware. Second, the optics must be super-polished and virtually free of surface and subsurface flaws that can limit optic lifetime through laser-induced damage initiation and growth at the flaw sites, particularly at 351 nm. Lastly, ultra-precise optics for beam conditioning are required to control laser beam quality. These optics contain customized surface topographical structures that cannot be made using traditional fabrication processes. In this review, we will present the development and implementation of large-aperture MRF tools and techniques specifically designed to meet the demanding optical performance challenges required in large-aperture high-power laser systems. In particular, we will discuss the advances made by using MRF technology to expose and remove surface and subsurface flaws in optics during final polishing to yield optics with improve laser damage resistance, the novel application of MRF deterministic polishing to imprint complex topographical information and wavefront correction patterns onto optical surfaces, and our efforts to advance the technology to manufacture large-aperture damage resistant optics.

  16. Concentration data for anthropogenic organic compounds in groundwater, surface water, and finished water of selected community water systems in the United States, 2002-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Kingsbury, James A.; Hopple, Jessica A.; Delzer, Gregory C.

    2010-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey began implementing Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) in 2001 that focus on characterizing the quality of source water and finished water of aquifers and major rivers used by some of the larger community water systems in the United States. As used in SWQA studies, source water is the raw (ambient) water collected at the supply well before water treatment (for groundwater) or the raw (ambient) water collected from the river near the intake (for surface water), and finished water is the water that has been treated and is ready to be delivered to consumers. Finished-water samples are collected before the water enters the distribution system. The primary objective of SWQAs is to determine the occurrence of more than 250 anthropogenic organic compounds in source water used by community water systems, many of which currently are unregulated in drinking water by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A secondary objective is to understand recurrence patterns in source water and determine if these patterns also occur in finished water before distribution. SWQA studies were conducted in two phases for most studies completed by 2005, and in one phase for most studies completed since 2005. Analytical results are reported for a total of 295 different anthropogenic organic compounds monitored in source-water and finished-water samples collected during 2002-10. The 295 compounds were classified according to the following 13 primary use or source groups: (1) disinfection by-products; (2) fumigant-related compounds; (3) fungicides; (4) gasoline hydrocarbons, oxygenates, and oxygenate degradates; (5) herbicides and herbicide degradates; (6) insecticides and insecticide degradates; (7) manufacturing additives; (8) organic synthesis compounds; (9) pavement- and combustion-derived compounds; (10) personal-care and domestic-use products; (11) plant- or animal-derived biochemicals; (12) refrigerants and

  17. Magnetic Electrochemical Finishing Machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    How to improve the finishing efficiency and surface roughness have been all along the objective of research in electrochemical polishing. However, the research activity, i.e. during electrochemical polishing, directly introduce the magnetic field to study how the magnetic field influences on the finishing efficiency, quality and the electrochemical process in the field of finishing machining technology, is insufficient. When introducing additional magnetic field in the traditional electrochemical pol...

  18. A Survey on the Effect of Livestock Production System and Finishing Diet on Sensory Characteristics of Foal Meat Using Generalized Procrustes Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, José M; Purriños, Laura; Carballo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The influence of livestock production system [Freedom Extensive System (FES) versus Semi-Extensive System (SES)] and finishing feed (1.5 kg versus 3.0 kg of commercial feed in the finishing period) diet on sensory properties of foal meat using Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA) was studied. For this work, a total of 24 foals (8 from FES and 16 from SES) were used. Samples were evaluated by eight panelists for eight sensory attributes: colour, marbling, odour intensity, sweetness, springiness, hardness, chewiness, and juiciness. Data were analyzed using a GPA to minimize differences among testers. Highly appreciated sensory properties (odour intensity, red colour, marbling, and juiciness) were mostly associated with foals from the Semi-Extensive System. On the other hand, the three groups studied (FES, 1.5SES, and 3SES) were clearly recognized by panelists on the consensus configuration and they were clearly separated on the map. This study concluded that sensory characteristics of foal meat from a Semi-Extensive Production System with a finishing diet of 3 kg concentrate were more preferable than the other ones.

  19. Dejima VOC dan rangaku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Wibawarta

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Japan and the Netherlands have maintained a special relationship for about 300years since the adoption of the National Seclusion policy, the so-called sakoku bythe Tokugawa shogunate (1603-1867. The Dutch began trading with Japan andengaging with Japanese society in 1600, when a Dutch ship, De Liefde, arrived inKyushu. The Tokugawa government measures regarding foreign policy includedregulations on foreign access to Japan and a prohibition on Japanese goingabroad. Between the middle of the seventeenth to the early nineteenth century,Japan was characterized by a stable political pattern in which representativesof the VOC (Dutch East India Company, were the only Europeans with a rightto trade in Japan. In the course of this period, the Japanese evaluation of theDutch changed from regarding them as commercial agents to seeing them asimporters of European knowledge. This paper is especially concerned with theinfluence of the so-called ‘Dutch Studies’ (rangaku on the early modernizationof Japan, especially with regard to medicine and the natural sciences. Thisresearch examines the development of rangaku and the trading between Japanand VOC at Dejima.

  20. Anthropogenic Organic Compounds in Source and Finished Groundwater of Community Water Systems in the Piedmont Physiographic Province, Potomac River Basin, Maryland and Virginia, 2003-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, William S.L.; Reyes, Betzaida

    2009-01-01

    A source- and finished-water-quality assessment of groundwater was conducted in the Piedmont Physiographic Province of Maryland and Virginia in the Potomac River Basin during 2003-04 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. This assessment used a two-phased approach to sampling that allowed investigators to evaluate the occurrence of more than 280 anthropogenic organic compounds (volatile organic compounds, pesticides and pesticide degradates, and other anthropogenic organic compounds). Analysis of waters from 15 of the largest community water systems in the study area were included in the assessment. Source-water samples (raw-water samples collected prior to treatment) were collected at the well head. Finished-water samples (raw water that had been treated and disinfected) were collected after treatment and prior to distribution. Phase one samples, collected in August and September 2003, focused on source water. Phase two analyzed both source and finished water, and samples were collected in August and October of 2004. The results from phase one showed that samples collected from the source water for 15 community water systems contained 92 anthropogenic organic compounds (41 volatile organic compounds, 37 pesticides and pesticide degradates, and 14 other anthropogenic organic compounds). The 5 most frequently occurring anthropogenic organic compounds were detected in 11 of the 15 source-water samples. Deethylatrazine, a degradate of atrazine, was present in all 15 samples and metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid, a degradate of metolachlor, and chloroform were present in 13 samples. Atrazine and metolachlor were present in 12 and 11 samples, respectively. All samples contained a mixture of compounds with an average of about 14 compounds per sample. Phase two sampling focused on 10 of the 15 community water systems that were selected for resampling on the basis of occurrence of anthropogenic organic compounds detected most

  1. Two-year study: Effect of backgrounding system on growing and finishing performance, and carcass characteristics of beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 2-yr study evaluated growing and finishing performance, as well as carcass characteristics of spring-born calves backgrounded using 1 of 3 treatments: 1) corn residue grazing supplemented 6 d/wk with 2.77 kg DM/head of distillers (CRD), 2) oat-brassica forage grazing (OBF), or 3) drylotting on a g...

  2. Qualitative characteristics of meat from cull cows of different genotypes and age class slaughter under different finishing systems: a meta-analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Rangel F; Mayer, Andrei R; Vaz, Marcos A B; Pötter, Luciana; Cattelam, Jonatas; Callegaro, Álisson M; Pizzuti, Luiz Angelo D; Brondani, Ivan L; Alves Filho, Dari C; Pacheco, Paulo S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, by meta-analysis, the quality of the meat of the cows according to genotype, termination system and age class slaughter. During an online research were identified 15 articles with information related to meat quality of slaughtered cows. The data were grouped according of the genotype of cows being: zebu or continental defined, crossed zebu x british or zebu x continental; according to termination system: feedlot or grassland; according to age of slaughter, where: up to 4 years old (young), 4-8 years old (adult) or more than 8 years old (old). The meat of the continental crossbred cows was softer than the other genotypes, both panel of evaluators and by Shear. The meat of cows finished in feedlot showed higher marbling degree in relation to meat of females finished on grassland. The reduction of the slaughter age of cows improved the meat color. The cow's genotype affects the organoleptic aspects of meat while the finished system and slaughter age affects the sensory aspects of meat.

  3. On speciation of VOC localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S.; Chang, J.; Wang, J.

    2011-12-01

    Most of the gas-phase chemical mechanisms successfully used in gas-phase atmospheric chemical processes, such as CBM-Z, RADM2 or SAPRC-07, treat hundreds of VOC as lumped organic species by their chemical characteristics. Most of the model results are compared with total VOC observations, and it is not appropriate to compare lumped VOC simulations to observations even if there are separate VOC observations like Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS). While the PAMS Air Quality Model (PAMS-AQM) is developed, separate organic species observed by PAMS without a doubt can be directly compared with model simulations. From the past case study (Chen et al., 2010), it shows a major and very significant finding in that detailed emissions of VOC in the existing emissions database are often in error in Taiwan or other countries due to the fact that the annual VOC emissions are classified into hundreds of species-specific emissions by using the speciation factors following the protocol of the U.S. EPA (AP-42). Based on all PAMS observations from 2006-2007, four base cases with well comparable meteorological simulations were selected for the unified correction for all sources in Taiwan. After the PAMS species emissions are modified, the diurnal patterns and simulation-observation correlation for most of the PAMS species are improved, and the concentration levels are more comparable with those of observations. More expanded case studies also revealed necessary corrections for the PAMS species emissions. Sensitivity analyses for lumped organic species with modified PAMS species emissions are also conducted. After modified PAMS emissions are added into lumped VOC emissions, there is an increase of only 10% of totally VOC emissions. While the sources of the lumped VOC emissions are changed, ozone formation shows no significant change with modified lumped VOC emissions. This helps to support the argument that for ozone simulation, the lumped VOC processes balance out

  4. Shallow vs. Deep Fluid Sources In Hydrothermal Systems: New Insights From VOC Composition In Fumarolic Discharges And Soil Gases Of Yellowstone National Park (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassi, F.; Capecchiacci, F.; Montegrossi, G.; Caliro, S.; Chiodini, G.; Vaselli, O.

    2008-12-01

    The origin of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in hydrothermal fluids is related to two distinct mechanisms regulated by different thermodynamic conditions (e.g. Des Marais et al., 1981; Mango, 2000; Capaccioni and Mangani, 2001): i) thermogenic reactions, such as catalytic reforming and/or thermal cracking, which proceed within the main reservoir at medium-to-high temperature (150-350°C) and reduced conditions; ii) biodegradation processes, occurring at relatively shallow depth, where uprising fluids have oxidizing conditions. According to these considerations, the main aim of the present investigation is to discriminate the different fluid sources feeding the hydrothermal system on the basis of the C2-C15 organic compounds in fumarolic discharges and soil gases collected at the Yellowstone National Park (USA). A total of 64 and 66 different species were identified in the gas discharges and in the soil gas samples, respectively. The composition of the organic gas fraction in the fumarolic fluids is relatively homogeneous, being dominated by C2-C6 alkanes (81 %) and showing relatively high concentrations of alkenes (13 %), aromatics (3.7 %) and cyclics (1.4 %). Differently, the relative percentages of alkanes and alkenes in the soil gas, where VOC abundances are about two orders of magnitude less abundant than those in the gas discharges, are significantly lower (64 and 6.8 %, respectively) and cyclics are absent. On the other hand, oxygenated species (17.8 %), aromatics (5.6 %) and Cl-bearing compounds (4.5 %) results to be enriched with respect to those measured in the gas vents. Such compositional differences are likely to be due to the bacterial activity in the soil that causes the production of ketones, esters, alcohols, aldehydes and organic acids from the C-H species (hydrocarbons sensu strictu). Organic acids, mainly constituted by ossalic acid and traces of tartaric, malonic citric and succinic ones, were also determined in the fumarolic

  5. Animal and management factors influencing grower and finisher pig performance and efficiency in European systems: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, S L; Szyszka, O; Stoddart, K; Edwards, S A; Kyriazakis, I

    2015-07-01

    A meta-analysis on the effects of management and animal-based factors on the performance and feed efficiency of growing pigs can provide information on single factor and interaction effects absent in individual studies. This study analysed the effects of such factors on average daily gain (ADG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of grower and finisher pigs. The multivariate models identified significant effects of: (1) bedding (Panimals with the least amount of floor space having a higher FI when given a feed with a low metabolisable energy (ME) content, in contrast to all other pigs, which showed a higher FI with increased ME content. The meta-analysis confirmed the significant effect of several well-known factors on the performance and efficiency of grower and finisher pigs, the effects of some less established ones and, importantly, the interactions between such factors.

  6. Plutonium Finishing Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Plutonium Finishing Plant, also known as PFP, represented the end of the line (the final procedure) associated with plutonium production at Hanford.PFP was also...

  7. Energy use in swine unit in the finishing system with waste treatment; Uso de energia em unidade suinicola em sistema de terminacao com tratamento de residuos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angonese, Andre Ricardo [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], Email: aangonese@yahoo.com.br; Campos, Alessandro Torres [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM ), Diamantina, PR (Brazil)], Email: atcampos3@yahoo.com.br

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the energy flux and energetic balance related to the swine production and the recycling of residues generated by the system for utilization as organic fertilizers. The experiment was carried out at Vale dos Ipes Farm, located in the city of Ouro Verde do Oeste, in the Western of Parana State. One finishing phase swine unity containing 600 animals was monitored from January to June 2005. The treatment system is composed by one steel digester with capacity for 50 m{sup 3}, one sedimentation tank, one algae tank and one bio fertilizer storage tank. The swine barn cleaning is performed by dry scratching on a daily basis. The generated residues flow by gravitation through ducts towards the digester. The duration of the hydraulic retention period was 12 days. In the calculation of energetic efficiency, the energetic component ration is the greatest energetic cost in production system of finishing phase swine, corresponding to 95% from the total direct energy. At the way out of the energy system, the energetic component of swine for slaughtering corresponds to 56.8%. The system fitted into the features of an industrial agroecosystem, importing the majority of the consumed energy in the productive process and exporting more than 56% of the production as swine for slaughtering, while the remaining is used in the property as fertilizer. (author)

  8. Effects of space allocation within a deep-bedded finishing system on pig growth performance, fatty acid composition and pork quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, B S; Huff-Lonergan, E; Honeyman, M S; Kerr, B J; Lonergan, S M

    2008-03-01

    The objectives of the current study were to determine the degree to which space allocation in a deep-bedded system influences swine performance and pork quality. The deep-bedded method employed was hoop structures, which are large, tent-like shelters with cornstalks or straw for bedding. One hundred gilts ranging in weight from 59 to 71 kg were randomly assigned to treatments of low (0.70 m2 per pig, n = 50) or high (1.13 m2 per pig, n = 50) space allocation. During the 45-day experimental period, gilts were ad libitum fed a two-phase diet. Six gilts per treatment were used for carcass composition and pork quality evaluation for each replication. Five replications were conducted over a period of 4 months. Pigs finished with greater space allocation had smaller longissimus muscle area and produced pork that appeared to be darker. Variations in fatty acid composition and lipid percentage of subcutaneous adipose and longissimus dorsi muscle were observed when space allocation was changed within hoop structures. Less space resulted in greater proportion of lipid present as polyunsaturated fatty acids. Greater space allocation resulted in lower total lipid in subcutaneous pork adipose tissue. Space allocation did not affect fat firmness. Replications spanned the months of August to November, with temperatures ranging from 32°C to -2°C within the hoop structure. As environmental temperature declined, the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids increased. Providing more space during finishing in these systems had only a small affect on pig growth and pork quality. Variations observed from replication to replication at fluctuating temperatures provide insight to seasonal differences in growth and adipose tissue composition and firmness. Therefore, finishing pigs in these systems may lead to seasonal variation in lipid composition.

  9. The Application of Stationary VOC-PR with PLL for Grid side Converter-based Wind Power Generation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yougui; Zeng, Ping; Li, Lijuan

    2010-01-01

    Voltage oriented control PR is combined with space vector modulation and phase locked loop to control the grid side converter in wind power generation system in this paper. First the mathematical models of grid side converter and LCL filter as well as grid are given. Then the control strategy of ...

  10. In vitro SIFT-MS validation of a breath fractionating device using a model VOC and ventilation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Matthew J; Hu, Wan-Ping; Scotter, Jennifer M; Storer, Malina K; Shaw, Geoffrey M

    2009-03-01

    The measurement of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath is becoming recognized as a method of disease diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring. The aim of this study was to validate the collection of breath from intubated patients in the intensive care setting. This was done by assembling a system of ventilators and humidification to emulate the human respiratory system. A known concentration of acetone was spiked into the system to simulate alveolar and dead-space 'breath'. Selected-ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) was used to directly measure gas at two separate points (headspace, distal circuit end) and from Tedlar bags collected using a remote breath fractionator. The mean acetone concentration for headspace, distal circuit end and Tedlar bag concentrations were calculated. The fractionator was effective in separating the early (dead space) and late phases of exhaled breath. Results from the late Tedlar bag samples collected by the remote breath fractionator showed a clear correlation with headspace and distal circuit end acetone concentrations. The collection for remote analysis of breath samples from immobile patients is made possible using the breath fractionator in conjunction with SIFT-MS analysis.

  11. Use of mass spectrometric methods for field screening of VOC`s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.

    1994-11-01

    While mass spectrometric (MS) methods of chemical analysis, particularly gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), have been the mainstay of environmental organic analytical techniques in the laboratory through the use of EPA and other standard methods, field implementation is relatively rare. Instrumentation and methods now exist for utilizing MS and GC/MS techniques in the field for analysis of VOC`s in gas phase, aqueous, and soil media. Examples of field investigations utilizing HP 5971A and Viking SpectraTrak systems for analysis of VOC`s in all three media will be presented. Mass spectral methods were found to offer significant advantages in terms of speed of analysis and reliability of compound identification over field gas chromatography (GC) methods while preserving adequate levels of detection sensitivity. The soil method in particular provides a method for rapid in-field analysis of methanol preserved samples thus minimizing the problem of volatiles loss which typically occurs with routine use of the EPA methods and remote analysis. The high cost of MS instrumentation remains a major obstacle to more widespread use.

  12. Surface finish measurement studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, E. C.

    1983-01-01

    The performance of stylus instruments for measuring the topography of National Transonic Facility (NTF) model surfaces both for monitoring during fabrication and as an absolute measurement of topography was evaluated. It was found that the shop-grade instruments can damage the surface of models and that their use for monitoring fabrication procedures can lead to surface finishes that are substantially out of range in critical areas of the leading edges. The development of a prototype light-scattering instrument which would allow for rapid assessment of the surface finish of a model is also discussed.

  13. A Novel Methodology to Evaluate Health Impacts Caused by VOC Exposures Using Real-Time VOC and Holter Monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kumano

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available While various volatile organic compounds (VOCs are known to show neurotoxic effects, the detailed mechanisms of the action of VOCs on the autonomic nervous system are not fully understood, partially because objective and quantitative measures to indicate neural abnormalities are still under development. Nevertheless, heart rate variability (HRV has been recently proposed as an indicative measure of the autonomic effects. In this study, we used HRV as an indicative measure of the autonomic effrects to relate their values to the personal concentrations of VOCs measured by a real-time VOC monitor. The measurements were conducted for 24 hours on seven healthy subjects under usual daily life conditions. The results showed HF powers were significantly decreased for six subjects when the changes of total volatile organic compound (TVOC concentrations were large, indicating a suppression of parasympathetic nervous activity induced by the exposure to VOCs. The present study indicated these real-time monitoring was useful to characterize the trends of VOC exposures and their effects on autonomic nervous system.

  14. [Study on control and management for industrial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Lin; Zhang, Guo-Ning; Nei, Lei; Wang, Yu-Fei; Hao, Zheng-Ping

    2011-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from industrial sources account for a large percent of total anthropogenic VOCs. In this paper, VOCs emission characterization, control technologies and management were discussed. VOCs from industrial emissions were characterized by high intensity, wide range and uneven distribution, which focused on Bejing-Tianjin Joint Belt, Shangdong Peninsula, Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta. The current technologies for VOCs treatment include adsorption, catalytic combustion, bio-degradation and others, which were applied in petrochemical, oil vapor recovery, shipbuilding, printing, pharmaceutical, feather manufacturing and so on. The scarcity of related regulations/standards plus ineffective supervision make the VOCs management difficult. Therefore, it is suggested that VOCs treatment be firstly performed from key areas and industries, and then carried out step by step. By establishing of actual reducing amount control system and more detailed VOCs emission standards and regulations, applying practical technologies together with demonstration projects, and setting up VOCs emission registration and classification-related-charge system, VOCs could be reduced effectively.

  15. Alternative solutions to the concrete fully-slatted floor for the housing of finishing beef cattle: effects on growth performance, health of the locomotor system and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, G; Tessitore, E; Contiero, B; Ricci, R; Gottardo, F; Brscic, M

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of two potential alternative solutions to the concrete fully-slatted floor (FS), namely, a perforated floor (PF) and a perforated floor coated with a rubber mattress (RM), on growth, locomotor system health, and behaviour of intensively finished young bulls. Forty-eight male beef-crosses (Charolais × Aubrac) were allotted to six pens of eight animals (two pens/floor type) for a finishing period of 175 ± 7 days. Growth was recorded and two health checks and two 8-h behavioural observations were carried out by trained assessors 1 month after the beginning of the trial (Initial) and 2 weeks before slaughter (Final). Feed intake was not affected by floor type, but average daily gain of RM bulls was higher than that of FS (1.37 vs. 1.19 kg, P=0.01), with PF being intermediate (1.27 kg). Behavioural observations showed that FS bulls had a higher number of slipping events (6.5) than PF (2.1; P=0.01) and RM bulls (0.9; Pfloor proved to be a good alternative to FS but it increased the likelihood of overgrown claws due to insufficient hoof wear.

  16. Use of Combined Observational- and Model-Derived Photochemical Indicators to Assess the O3-NOx-VOC System Sensitivity in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson R. Carrillo-Torres

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric levels of O3 have historically exceeded the official annual Mexican standards within the Monterrey Metropolitan Area (MMA in NE Mexico. High-frequency and high-precision measurements of tropospheric O3, NOy, NO2, NO, CO, SO2, PM10 and PM2.5 were made at the Obispado monitoring site near the downtown MMA from September 2012 to August 2013. The seasonal cycles of O3 and NOy are driven by changes in meteorology and to a lesser extent by variations in primary emissions. The NOy levels were positively correlated with O3 precursors and inversely correlated with O3 and wind speed. Recorded data were used to assess the O3-Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC-NOx system’s sensitivity through an observational-based approach. The photochemical indicator O3/NOy was derived from measured data during the enhanced O3 production period (12:00–18:00 Central Daylight Time (CDT, GMT-0500. The O3/NOy ratios calculated for this time period showed that the O3 production within the MMA is VOC sensitive. A box model simulation of production rates of HNO3 (PHNO3 and total peroxides (Pperox carried out for O3 episodes in fall and spring confirmed the VOC sensitivity within the MMA environment. No significant differences were observed in O3/NOy from weekdays to weekends or for PHNO3/Pperox ratios, confirming the limiting role of VOCs in O3 production within the MMA. The ratified photochemical regime observed may allow the environmental authorities to revise and verify the current policies for air quality control within the MMA.

  17. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in surface coating materials: Their compositions and potential as an alternative fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Trieu-Vuong; Choi, In-Young; Son, Youn-Suk; Song, Kyu-Yong; Sunwoo, Young; Kim, Jo-Chun

    2016-03-01

    A sampling system was designed to determine the composition ratios of VOCs emitted from 31 surface coating materials (SCMs). Representative architectural, automotive, and marine SCMs in Korea were investigated. Toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene were the predominant VOCs. The VOC levels (wt%) from automotive SCMs were significantly higher than those from architectural and marine paints. It was found that target SCMs comprised mainly VOCs with 6-10 carbon atoms in molecules, which could be adsorbed by activated carbon. The saturated activated carbon which had already adsorbed toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene was combusted. The saturated activated carbon was more combustible than new activated carbon because it comprised inflammable VOCs. Therefore, it could be an alternative fuel when using in a "fuelization system". To use the activated carbon as a fuel, a control technology of VOCs from a coating process was also designed and introduced.

  18. Nanometric Finishing on Biomedical Implants by Abrasive Flow Finishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Kavithaa Thirumalai; Balashanmugam, Natchimuthu; Shashi Kumar, Panaghra Veeraiah

    2016-01-01

    Abrasive flow finishing (AFF) is a non-conventional finishing technique that offers better accuracy, efficiency, consistency, economy in finishing of complex/difficult to machine materials/components and provides the possibility of effective automation as aspired by the manufacturing sector. The present study describes the finishing of a hip joint made of ASTM grade Co-Cr alloy by Abrasive Flow Machining (AFM) process. The major input parameters of the AFF process were optimized for achieving nanometric finishing of the component. The roughness average (Ra) values were recorded during experimentation using surface roughness tester and the results are discussed in detail. The surface finished hip joints were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and residual stress analysis using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The discussion lays emphasis on the significance, efficacy and versatile nature of the AFF process in finishing of bio-medical implants.

  19. Vibration test system for finisher cantilever based on LabVIEW%基于LabVIEW的光饰机悬臂梁振动测试系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯志敏; 邓东花; 夏薇

    2012-01-01

    Based on the graphical virtual instrument programming platform of American NI Company, a virtual vibration measurement instrument is developed for cantilever of finisher. The design of the programming is introduced, including the hardware and software. The system has function of real-time data acquisition, time-frequency domain analysis, data storage and playback.%以基于美国NI公司的LabVIEW为开发平台,针对光饰机悬臂梁的振动,开发了虚拟机械振动信号测试仪,包括虚拟振动仪器的软硬件组成及程序设计,可完成振动信号的实时采集、时域频域分析,以及数据存储和回放功能.

  20. Experiments in the EMRP project KEY-VOCs: Adsorption/desorption effects of VOCs in different tubing materials and preparation and analysis of a zero gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Jennifer; Claude, Anja; Kubistin, Dagmar; Tensing, Erasmus; Michl, Katja; Plass-Duelmer, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric chemistry and composition are influenced by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from natural and anthropogenic sources. Due to their toxicity and their crucial role in ozone and aerosol formation VOCs impact air quality and climate change and high quality observations are demanded. The European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) project KEY-VOCs has targeted the improvement of VOC measurement capabilities with the focus on VOCs relevant for indoor air as well as for air quality and climate monitoring programmes. One major uncertainty is the influence of surface effects of the measurement devices. By developing a test system the adsorption/desorption effects of certain VOCs can be systematically examined. Different tubing materials e.g. stainless steel and PFA were analysed with the oxygenated VOC methanol and results of these experiments will be presented. In air quality monitoring very low levels of VOCs have to be measured. Purified air or nitrogen is widely used as a zero gas to characterize measurement systems and procedures as well as for instrument calibration. A high quality zero gas is an important contributor to the quality of the measurements and generally achieved by using state-of-the-art purification technologies. The efficiency of several air purifiers was assessed and the results have been analysed.

  1. Characteristics of Ambient Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs Measured in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Qiang Zhou

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the characteristics of ambient abundance of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in Shanghai, one of the biggest metropolis of China, VOCs were measured with a gas chromatography system equipped with a mass-selective detector (GC/MSD from July 2006 to February 2010. An intensive measurement campaign was conducted (eight samples per day with a 3 hour interval during May 2009. The comparison of ambient VOCs collected in different regions of Shanghai shows that the concentrations are slightly higher in the busy commercial area (28.9 ppbv at Xujiaui than in the urban administrative area (24.3 ppbv at Pudong. However, during the intensive measurement period, the concentrations in the large steel industrial area (28.7 ppbv at Baoshan were much higher than in the urban administrative area (18 ppbv at Pudong, especially for alkanes, alkenes, and toluene. The seasonal variations of ambient VOC concentrations measured at the Xujiahui sampling site indicate that the VOC concentrations are significantly affected by meteorological conditions (such as wind direction and precipitation. In addition, although alkanes are the most abundant VOCs at the Xujiahui measurement site, the most important VOCs contributing to ozone formation potential (OFP are aromatics, accounting for 57% of the total OFP. The diurnal variations of VOC concentrations show that VOC concentrations are higher on weekdays than in weekends at the Xujiahui sampling site, suggesting that traffic condition and human activities have important impacts on VOC emissions in Shanghai. The evidence also shows that the major sources of isoprene are mainly resulted from gasoline evaporation at a particular time (06:00–09:00 in the busy commercial area. The results gained from this study provide useful information for better understanding the characteristics of ambient VOCs and the sources of VOCs in Shanghai.

  2. Feeding systems and periods of finishing on the body and carcass measurements of lambs slaughtered in the South Central region of the Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilei Rogerio Prado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to determine the effect of feeding system and time of the year on the in vivo and carcass characteristics of lambs slaughtered at the Cooperative Cooperaliança (Guarapuava-PR. Ile de France lambs and their crossbreds (n=253 were evaluated at slaughter with 39.6 kg of mean body weight in three periods between April and September 2010. Four feeding systems for finishing of lambs were identified: a grazing dams + lambs with creep-feeding for lambs (n=67; b no supplemented, grazing dams + lambs (n=47; c grazing dams + lambs, all of them supplemented with concentrate (n=30; d irregular system of feeding (n=109. Measurements on lambs were carried out in vivo and by ultrasound before slaughter and the carcass measurements were taken before and after chilling. Lambs delivered for slaughter between the end of August and the first half of September showed better results (p <0.05 for muscle development, dressing percentage and fat thickness in the carcass compared to that slaughtered in April and June. It was concluded that the feeding system with supplementation for dams and sucking lambs resulted in better characteristics for body and carcass measurements compared to other systems.

  3. Comparison of the substrate effect on VOC emissions from water based varnish and latex paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Gabriela V; Vasconcelos, M Teresa S D; Santos, Armando M; Fernandes, Eduardo O

    2003-01-01

    The building materials are recognised to be major contributors to indoor air contamination by volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The improvement of the quality of the environment within buildings is a topic of increasing research and public interest. Legislation in preparation by the European Commission may induce, in the near future, European Union Member States to solicit the industries of paints, varnishes and flooring materials for taking measures, in order to reduce the VOC emissions resulting from the use of their products. Therefore, product characterisation and information about the influence of environmental parameters on the VOC emissions are fundamental for providing the basic scientific information required to allow architects, engineers, builders, and building owners to provide a healthy environment for building occupants. On the other hand, the producers of coating building materials require this information to introduce technological alterations, when necessary, in order to improve the ecological quality of their products, and to make them more competitive. Studies of VOC emissions from wet materials, like paints and varnishes, have usually been conducted after applying the material on inert substrates, due to its non-adsorption and non-porosity properties. However, in real indoor environments, these materials are applied on substrates of a different nature. One aim of this work was to study, for the first time, the VOC emissions from a latex paint applied on concrete. The influence of the substrate (uncoated cork parquet, eucalyptus parquet without finishing and pine parquet with finishing) on the emissions of VOC from a water-based varnish was also studied. For comparison purposes, polyester film (an inert substrate) was used for both wet materials. The specific emission rates of the major VOCs were monitored for the first 72 h of material exposure in the atmosphere of a standardized test chamber. The air samples were collected on Tenax TA and

  4. Definition and Means of Maintaining the Emergency Notification and Evacuation System Portion of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Safety Envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WHITE, W.F.

    2000-04-04

    The purpose of this document is to provide the definition and means of maintaining the safety envelope (SE) for the Emergency Notification and Evacuation System (ENES). Together with the appendices, it provides: (1) The system requirements for determining system operability (Section 3.0); (2) Evaluations of equipment to determine the safety boundary for the system (Section 4.0); (3) List of system drawings that are annotated to show the SE boundaries (Appendix A); (4) Identification of the SE equipment by reference to systems and drawings (Appendix B); (5) Requirements for the individual SE equipment (Section 4.0); and (6) A list of the operational and surveillance procedures necessary to operate and maintain the system equipment within the SE (Sections 5.0 and 6.0). The Private Automatic Exchange (PAX) phones and PAX switchers are outside the safety envelope defined in WHC-SD-CP-OSR-010, Section 5.4.10, ''Safety Communication and Alarm Systems,'' Section 5.4.1 0.1, ''Major Components and Operating Characteristics,'' and Section 5.4.10.1.12, ''PAX System.'' The PAX override microphone system maintains the safety envelope, and functions as a backup to the evacuation sirens during an emergency.

  5. Influence of vitamins A, D3 and E status on post-mortem meat quality in steers under winter housing or pasture finishing systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, T; Pickova, J; Ertbjerg, P;

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the influence of Swedish recommended vitamins A, D3 and E supplementation levels on muscle tenderness and fatty acid (FA) composition under indoor or outdoor finishing programmes. Swedish Red breed steer calves were divided into vitamin supplemented (n512) and non-supplemented (n515......) groups while on pasture prior to the finishing period. This trial began at the beginning of the winter housing period during which the steers were fed a 55 : 45 dry matter barley : grass silage diet indoors. The indoor finished group was comprised of vitamin supplemented (n56) and non-supplemented (n58......) steers slaughtered after about 155 days on feed. Vitamin supplemented steers were provided with 100 g mineral supplement providing 400 000 IU vitamin A, 100 000 IU D3 and 3000 IU E daily as recommended for Swedish production practices. In spring, outdoor finished vitamin supplemented (n56) and non...

  6. The influence of finishing/polishing time and cooling system on surface roughness and microhardness of two different types of composite resin restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminedi, Raja Rajeswari; Penumatsa, Narendra Varma; Priya, Tulasi; Baroudi, Kusai

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of finishing time and polishing time on surface roughness and microhardness of nanofilled and hybrid resin composites. Materials and Methods: Hundred disk composite specimens from micro hybrid composite and nanohybrid composite were prepared, 50 for each type of composite. The specimens were divided into five groups according to the time of finishing and polishing (immediate, 15 min, 24 h and dry). Composite under the Mylar strip wit...

  7. 24 CFR 200.946 - Building product standards and certification program for exterior finish and insulation systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., bulging, unsightly discoloration, or other serious deterioration of the system such as the intrusion of water through the wall or structural failure of the system's surface materials. Should any of these... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Building product standards and...

  8. Definition and means of maintaining the emergency notification and evacuation system portion of the Plutonium Finishing Plant safety envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, W.F.

    1997-04-21

    The Emergency Evacuation and Notification System provides information to the PFP Building Emergency Director to assist in determining appropriate emergency response, notifies personnel of the required response, and assists in their response. The report identifies the equipment in the Safety Envelope (SE) for this System and the Administrative, Maintenance, and Surveillance Procedures used to maintain the SE Equipment.

  9. 某精轧机油气润滑方案的改进%Improvement of Air-oil Lubrication System of a Finishing Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王培志; 王朝建; 杨培菲

    2014-01-01

    The problems existed in the oil-air lubrication system of a finishing mill were researched.By enhancing the o-pening pressure,the quick opening of the one-way valve was realized,by adjusting the opening limit of the high pressure valve,the chance of the distributor's damage made by the high pressure was reduced,and through adjusting the controlling program of the pressure relay and the system,the failure frequency of the relay was reduced and the production efficiency was improved.%对某型精轧机的油气润滑系统存在的问题进行研究,通过提高单向阀的开启压力,实现了单向阀的快速开启;通过调整高压阀开启值,解决了因压力过高导致的分配器损坏问题;通过调整压力继电器及系统的控制程序,解决了继电器经常发生故障的问题,提高了生产效率。

  10. Total OH reactivity study from VOC photochemical oxidation in the SAPHIR chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Z.; Tillmann, R.; Hohaus, T.; Fuchs, H.; Novelli, A.; Wegener, R.; Kaminski, M.; Schmitt, S. H.; Wahner, A.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that hydroxyl radicals (OH) act as a dominant reactive species in the degradation of VOCs in the atmosphere. In recent field studies, directly measured total OH reactivity often showed poor agreement with OH reactivity calculated from VOC measurements (e.g. Nölscher et al., 2013; Lu et al., 2012a). This "missing OH reactivity" is attributed to unaccounted biogenic VOC emissions and/or oxidation products. The comparison of total OH reactivity being directly measured and calculated from single component measurements of VOCs and their oxidation products gives us a further understanding on the source of unmeasured reactive species in the atmosphere. This allows also the determination of the magnitude of the contribution of primary VOC emissions and their oxidation products to the missing OH reactivity. A series of experiments was carried out in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR in Jülich, Germany, to explore in detail the photochemical degradation of VOCs (isoprene, ß-pinene, limonene, and D6-benzene) by OH. The total OH reactivity was determined from the measurement of VOCs and their oxidation products by a Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) with a GC/MS/FID system, and directly measured by a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) at the same time. The comparison between these two total OH reactivity measurements showed an increase of missing OH reactivity in the presence of oxidation products of VOCs, indicating a strong contribution to missing OH reactivity from uncharacterized oxidation products.

  11. 688 AMBIENT VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    The VOCs were classified thus: aromatics 41%, halogenated 42%, esters 3%, ketones 8%, ... and Industrial emission were identified as sources of VOCs in the studied industrial area with ... canisters, or by dynamic or diffusive adsorption .... The GC/FID was standardized and ... with CS2 was prepared from stock standard in.

  12. DEVELOPING A NO-VOC WOOD TOPCOAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper reports an evaluation of a new low-VOC (volatile organic compound) wood coating technology, its performance characteristics, and its application and emissions testing. The low-VOC wood coating selected for the project was a two-component, water-based epoxy coating. Poly...

  13. Volatile compounds in the perirenal fat from calves finished on semiextensive or intensive systems with special emphasis on terpenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto, S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Grazing ruminants and their production systems have been associated with lower environmental impact and higher animal welfare, along with distinctive meat quality characteristics when compared to intensively reared animals. Recent studies have been aimed at finding compounds in ruminant meat and fat which could be used as tracers of herbage feeding. This study determined and compared the volatile composition of the perirenal fat from Tudanca-breed calves reared on semi-extensive (SE; n=8 or intensive (I; n=8 systems. The volatile compounds of perirenal fat were analyzed using simultaneous distillation-extraction and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS with the mass spectra detector operating in full scan mode. Terpenes were also determined using solid-phase micro-extraction and GC/MS operating in the selective ion monitoring mode. The SE system resulted in decreased levels of octanal, 2-octenal and 2,4-decadienal, and increased levels of 2,3-octanedione and skatole. The levels of α-pinene, aromadendrene, α-phellandrene, eucalyptol and α-gurjunene were higher for the SE system. Fenchene, eucalyptol and α-gurjunene have not been reported in previous studies on beef volatiles. The study showed the possibility of using several terpenes of perirenal fat as indicators of pasture-feeding in Tudanca calves.La producción de rumiantes en pastoreo puede suponer un menor impacto ambiental y un mayor bienestar animal, y considerarse como una característica de calidad diferenciada de la carne generada, con respecto a los animales producidos de forma intensiva. En estudios recientes se ha investigado sobre la presencia de compuestos en la carne o grasa de rumiantes que puedan ser utilizados como marcadores de alimentación a base de pasto. En el presente estudio se ha determinado y comparado la composición volátil de la grasa perirrenal de terneros de raza Tudanca criados mediante un sistema semi-extensivo (SE; n=8 o intensivo (I

  14. T2VOC user`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falta, R.W. [Clemson Univ., Clemson, SC (United States). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Pruess, K.; Finsterle, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Battistelli, A. [AQUATER S.p.A., San Lorenzo in Campo, (Italy)

    1995-03-01

    T2VOC is a numerical simulator for three-phase, three-component, non-isothermal flow of water, air, and a volatile organic compound (VOC) in multidimensional heterogeneous porous media. Developed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, T2VOC is an extension of the TOUGH2 general-purpose simulation program. This report is a self-contained guide to application of T2VOC to subsurface contamination problems involving nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). It gives a technical description of the T2VOC code, including a discussion of the physical processes modeled, and the mathematical and numerical methods used. Detailed instructions for preparing input data are presented along with several illustrative sample problems.

  15. CAN SORBENT-BASED GAS PHASE AIR CLEANING FOR VOCS SUBSTITUTE FOR VENTILATION IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William; Fisk, William J.

    2007-08-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge about the suitability of sorbent-based air cleaning for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the air in commercial buildings, as needed to enable reductions in ventilation rates and associated energy savings. The principles of sorbent air cleaning are introduced, criteria are suggested for sorbent systems that can counteract indoor VOC concentration increases from reduced ventilation, major findings from research on sorbent performance for this application are summarized, and related priority research needs are identified. Major conclusions include: sorbent systems can remove a broad range of VOCs with moderate to high efficiency, sorbent technologies perform effectively when challenged with VOCs at the low concentrations present indoors, and there is a large uncertainty about the lifetime and associated costs of sorbent air cleaning systems when used in commercial buildings for indoor VOC control. Suggested priority research includes: experiments to determine sorbent system VOC removal efficiencies and lifetimes considering the broad range and low concentration of VOCs indoors; evaluations of in-situ regeneration of sorbents; and an updated analysis of the cost of sorbent air cleaning relative to the cost of ventilation.

  16. A High Sensitivity and Wide Dynamic Range Fiber-Optic Sensor for Low-Concentration VOC Gas Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rajibur Rahaman Khan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a volatile organic compound (VOC gas sensing system with high sensitivity and a wide dynamic range that is based on the principle of the heterodyne frequency modulation method. According to this method, the time period of the sensing signal shift when Nile Red containing a VOC-sensitive membrane of a fiber-optic sensing element comes into contact with a VOC. This sensing membrane produces strong, fast and reversible signals when exposed to VOC gases. The response and recovery times of the proposed sensing system were less than 35 s, and good reproducibility and accuracy were obtained.

  17. A High Sensitivity and Wide Dynamic Range Fiber-Optic Sensor for Low-Concentration VOC Gas Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md. Rajibur Rahaman; Kang, Shin-Won

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a volatile organic compound (VOC) gas sensing system with high sensitivity and a wide dynamic range that is based on the principle of the heterodyne frequency modulation method. According to this method, the time period of the sensing signal shift when Nile Red containing a VOC-sensitive membrane of a fiber-optic sensing element comes into contact with a VOC. This sensing membrane produces strong, fast and reversible signals when exposed to VOC gases. The response and recovery times of the proposed sensing system were less than 35 s, and good reproducibility and accuracy were obtained. PMID:25490592

  18. Pollution profiles, health risk of VOCs and biohazards emitted from municipal solid waste transfer station and elimination by an integrated biological-photocatalytic flow system: A pilot-scale investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guiying [The State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang, Zhengyong; Sun, Hongwei; Chen, Jiangyao [The State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); An, Taicheng, E-mail: antc99@gig.ac.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li, Bing [Experiment Medical Research Centre, Guangzhou Medical College, Guangzhou 510182 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► VOCs and biohazards emitted during garbage compressing process were monitored. ► BTF–PC integrated reactor was employed for VOCs and biohazards removal. ► Health risk of target VOCs and biohazards were assessed before and after treatment. -- Abstract: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and biohazards air pollution in municipal solid waste transfer station were investigated. As compressor working, the concentrations of almost all quantified 14 VOCs (0.32–306.03 μg m{sup −3}) were much higher than those as compressor off (0–13.31 μg m{sup −3}). Comparatively, only 3 VOCs with extremely low concentrations could be detected at control area. Total microorganism was 7567 CFU m{sup −3} as compressor working, which was 1.14 and 6.22 times higher than that of compressor off and control area, respectively. Bacteria were the most abundant microorganism at all three sampling places. At pilot-scale, during whole 60-day treatment, for VOCs, the average removal efficiencies were over 92% after biotrickling filter–photocatalytic (BTF–PC) treatment. Although non-cancer and cancer risks of some VOCs were over the concern level before treatment, almost all VOCs were removed substantially and both potential risks were below the concern after BTF–PC treatment. Additionally, biohazard concentrations decreased dramatically and air quality was purified from polluted to cleanness after PC treatment. All results demonstrated that the integrated technology possessed high removal capacity and long stability for the removal of VOCs and biohazards at a pilot scale.

  19. Assessment of Industrial VOC Gas-Scrubber Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, H

    2004-02-13

    Gas scrubbers for air-pollution control of volatile organic compounds (VOC) cover a wide range of technologies. In this review, we have attempted to evaluate the single-pass scrubber destruction and removal efficiencies (DREs) for a range of gas-scrubber technologies. We have focused primarily on typical industrial DREs for the various technologies, typical problems, and any DRE-related experiential information available. The very limited literature citations found suggest significant differences between actual versus design performance in some technologies. The potentially significant role of maintenance in maintaining DREs was also investigated for those technologies. An in-depth portrayal of the entire gas scrubbing industry is elusive. Available literature sources suggest significant differences between actual versus design performance in some technologies. Lack of scrubber system maintenance can contribute to even larger variances. ''Typical'' industrial single-pass performance of commonly used VOC gas scrubbers generally ranged from {approx}80 to 99%. Imperfect solid and/or liquid particulates capture (possibly as low as 95% despite design for 99+% capture efficiency) can also lead to VOC releases. Changing the VOC composition in the gas stream without modifying scrubber equipment or operating conditions could also lead to significant deterioration in attainable destruction and removal efficiencies.

  20. Concentrations and flux measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in boreal forest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäki, Mari; Aaltonen, Hermanni; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Hellén, Heidi; Pumpanen, Jukka; Bäck, Jaana

    2017-04-01

    and August. Organic soil is formed by organic matter which contains energy rich compounds for microbial decomposition and fine root biomass is also highest in soil surface (Helmisaari et al., 2007). With these analyses, we aim at distinguishing the VOC sinks and sources in the soil layers and quantifying the potential role of VOC uptake by soil microbiota. Asensio, D., Yuste, J. C., Mattana, S., Ribas, À., Llusià, J., and Peñuelas, J.: Litter VOCs induce changes in soil microbial biomass C and N and largely increase soil CO2 efflux. Plant and soil, 360(1-2), 163-174, doi:10.1007/s11104-012-1220-9, 2012. Ditengou, F. A., Müller, A., Rosenkranz, M., Felten, J., Lasok, H., van Doorn, M. M., Legue, V., Palme, K., Schnitzler, J.-P., and Polle, A. Volatile signalling by sesquiterpenes from ectomycorrhizal fungi reprogrammes root architecture. Nature communications, 6:6279, doi:10.1038/ncomms7279, 2015. Helmisaari, H. S., Derome, J., Nöjd, P., & Kukkola, M.: Fine root biomass in relation to site and stand characteristics in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. Tree Physiology, 27(10), 1493-1504, 2007. Hung, R., Lee, S., and Bennett, J. W.: Arabidopsis thaliana as a model system for testing the effect of Trichoderma volatile organic compounds. Fungal Ecology, 6(1), 19-26, doi:10.1016/j.funeco.2012.09.005, 2013.

  1. Increasing competitiveness of wine producers in strategic alliances VOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Prokeš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the main reasons for the formation of new regional association of wineries, based on a different origin for wines in the wine region of Moravia in the southeast part of the Czech Republic. This research aim is to create a plan for new development of such strategic alliances on the basis of results of localization factors. There coefficient of localization is used for identification of cluster. Results are compared with already operating on associations for the appellation in Austria DAC. They were traced changes in consumer preferences in the Czech wine market. Consumers are placing more emphasis on the selection of wine on its descent from a particular area, growing community and the individual grower. This paper specifically introduces new associations for appellation system VOC. This alliance is described in the context of the establishment, operation, development and expansion, respectively the possibility of involvement of additional organizations suppliers and research institutions. The application of the results of research was a plan for the establishment of new alliance VOC Modré Hory, where are associated 30 wine producers of wine in 5 villages around the center Velké Pavlovice. Based on the experience of newly emerging VOC system of appellations was setting up a plan of formation association with the proposed methodological approach. Open cooperation between associations VOC appellation and other entities involving suppliers, customers, research institutions and universities has the possibility of creating an institutionalized wine cluster. The plan to create a wine cluster was proposed to establish cooperation between the newly emerging associations of VOC at three sub-regions of South Moravia, in order to achieve competitive advantage.

  2. Extended Research on Detection of Deception Using Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2006-06-01

    A system that captures and analyzes volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from skin surfaces may offer a viable alternative method to the polygraph instrument currently in use for detecting deception in U.S. government settings. Like the involuntary autonomic central nervous system response data gathered during polygraph testing, VOC emissions from the skin may provide data that can be used to detect stress caused by deception. Detecting VOCs, then, may present a noninvasive, non-intrusive method for observing, recording, and quantifying evidence of stress or emotional change.

  3. Relevance of microbial finished product testing in food safety management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwietering, Marcel H.; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Membré, Jeanne Marie

    2016-01-01

    -active way by implementing an effective food safety management system. For verification activities in a food safety management system, finished product testing may however be useful. For three cases studies; canned food, chocolate and cooked ham, the relevance of testing both of finished products...... and the production environment is discussed. Since the level of control of different processes can be largely different it is beneficial if the frequency of sampling of finished products and production environments would be related to the associated human health risk, which can be assessed on the basis of risk...

  4. Photoelectron Imaging of OXIDE.VOC Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patros, Kellyn M.; Mann, Jennifer; Chick Jarrold, Caroline

    2016-06-01

    Perturbations of the bare O2- and O4- electronic structure arising from VOC (VOC = hexane, isoprene, benzene and benzene.D6) interactions are investigated using anion photoelectron imaging at 2.33 and 3.49 eV photon energies. Trends observed from comparing features in the spectra include VOC-identity-dependent electron affinities of the VOC complexes relative to the bare oxide clusters, due to enhance stability in the anion complex relative to the neutral. Autodetachment is observed in all O4-.VOC spectra and only isoprene with O2-. In addition, the intensities of transitions to states correlated with the singlet states of O2 neutral via detachment from the O2-.VOC anion complexes show dramatic VOC-identity variations. Most notably, benzene as a complex partner significantly enhances these transitions relative to O2- and O2-.hexane. A less significant enhancement is also observed in the O2-.isoprene complex. This enhancement may be due to the presence of low-lying triplet states in the complex partners.

  5. Effects of narasin (Skycis) on live performance and carcass traits of finishing pigs sold in a three-phase marketing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkfeld, E K; Carr, S N; Rincker, P J; Gruber, S L; Allee, G L; Dilger, A C; Boler, D D

    2015-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of feeding narasin (Skycis; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) on growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs sold in a 3-phase marketing system. Pigs ( = 1,232) were housed in 56 single-sex pens (22 pigs/pen) divided into 2 even blocks based on initiation of treatment. Each treatment × sex combination was replicated 14 times. Pigs were fed either 0 mg/kg narasin (control) or 15 mg/kg narasin for up to 85 d of finishing (initiated at an average of 52.95 kg BW). In each pen, 18% (4 pigs per pen) of pigs were sold in the first marketing group (Day 64 of dietary treatment), 50% (11 of the original 22) were sold in the second marketing group (Day 78), and 32% (the remaining 7 pigs) were sold in the third marketing group (Day 85). Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with pen as the experimental unit. The model included the fixed effects of diet, sex, and their interaction. Block and replicate nested within block were random variables. Carcass data from pigs in marketing group 3 of block 2 was not collected due to inclement weather. Narasin had no effect on growth performance traits ( ≥ 0.15) in phases 1 (Days 1-28) or 2 (Days 29-56), regardless of sex. Barrows fed narasin had a 2.0% greater overall (Day 0-85) ADG than barrows fed the control diet ( < 0.01), but ADG of gilts was not different due to diet ( = 0.69). Regardless of sex, narasin improved ( = 0.03) feed efficiency (G:F) by 1.3% throughout the 85-d feeding period. There were no effects ( ≥ 0.21) of narasin on carcass composition in marketing groups 1 and 2. Narasin-fed barrows in marketing group 3 had 0.9 percentage units lower ( < 0.01) estimated carcass lean compared with barrows fed control diets (51.0 vs. 52.0%); no difference existed in gilts ( = 0.21). This is likely due to narasin-fed barrows of marketing group 3 tending ( = 0.06) to have 7.7% greater fat depth than control barrows of marketing group 3. Pooled

  6. VOC and HAP recovery using ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael R. Milota : Kaichang Li

    2007-05-29

    During the manufacture of wood composites, paper, and to a lesser extent, lumber, large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as terpenes, formaldehyde, and methanol are emitted to air. Some of these compounds are hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). The air pollutants produced in the forest products industry are difficult to manage because the concentrations are very low. Presently, regenerative thermal oxidizers (RTOs and RCOs) are commonly used for the destruction of VOCs and HAPs. RTOs consume large amounts of natural gas to heat air and moisture. The combustion of natural gas generates increased CO2 and NOx, which have negative implications for global warming and air quality. The aforementioned problems are addressed by an absorption system containing a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) as an absorbent. RTILs are salts, but are in liquid states at room temperature. RTILs, an emerging technology, are receiving much attention as replacements for organic solvents in industrial processes with significant cost and environmental benefits. Some of these processes include organic synthesis, extraction, and metal deposition. RTILs would be excellent absorbents for exhausts from wood products facilities because of their unique properties: no measurable vapor pressure, high solubility of wide range of organic compounds, thermal stability to 200°C (almost 400°F), and immisciblity with water. Room temperature ionic liquids were tested as possible absorbents. Four were imidizolium-based and were eight phosphonium-based. The imidizolium-based ionic liquids proved to be unstable at the conditions tested and in the presence of water. The phosphonium-based ionic liquids were stable. Most were good absorbents; however, cleaning the contaminates from the ionic liquids was problematic. This was overcome with a higher temperature (120°C) than originally proposed and a very low pressure (1 kPa. Absorption trials were conducted with tetradecy

  7. EVALUATION OF LOW-VOC LATEX PAINTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of four commercially available low-VOC (volatile organic compound) latex paints as substitutes for conventional latex paints by assessing both their emission characteristics and their performance as coatings. Bulk analysis indicated that ...

  8. Locating industrial VOC sources with aircraft observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, P; Gioli, B; Dugheri, S; Salvini, A; Matese, A; Bonacchi, A; Zaldei, A; Cupelli, V; Miglietta, F

    2011-05-01

    Observation and characterization of environmental pollution, focussing on Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), in a high-risk industrial area, are particularly important in order to provide indications on a safe level of exposure, indicate eventual priorities and advise on policy interventions. The aim of this study is to use the Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) method to measure VOCs, directly coupled with atmospheric measurements taken on a small aircraft environmental platform, to evaluate and locate the presence of VOC emission sources in the Marghera industrial area. Lab analysis of collected SPME fibres and subsequent analysis of mass spectrum and chromatograms in Scan Mode allowed the detection of a wide range of VOCs. The combination of this information during the monitoring campaign allowed a model (Gaussian Plume) to be implemented that estimates the localization of emission sources on the ground.

  9. Low VOC Barrier Coating for Industrial Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Technology Certification Program HAP Hazardous Air Pollutant HW hazardous waste LVBC low VOC barrier coating MEK methyl ethyl ketone MIL-DTL...peeling, blistering , tape adhesion, pull-off adhesion, film thickness, and LVBC/ZVT patch test adhesion testing in an acceptable or better manner...significant reductions in the amount of hazardous waste generated by the Navy. The ZVT technology contains less than 5 g/l of VOC and the resulting

  10. Development of sustainable precision farming systems for swine: estimating real-time individual amino acid requirements in growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschild, L; Lovatto, P A; Pomar, J; Pomar, C

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a mathematical model used to estimate the daily amino acid requirements of individual growing-finishing pigs. The model includes empirical and mechanistic model components. The empirical component estimates daily feed intake (DFI), BW, and daily gain (DG) based on individual pig information collected in real time. Based on DFI, BW, and DG estimates, the mechanistic component uses classic factorial equations to estimate the optimal concentration of amino acids that must be offered to each pig to meet its requirements. The model was evaluated with data from a study that investigated the effect of feeding pigs with a 3-phase or daily multiphase system. The DFI and BW values measured in this study were compared with those estimated by the empirical component of the model. The coherence of the values estimated by the mechanistic component was evaluated by analyzing if it followed a normal pattern of requirements. Lastly, the proposed model was evaluated by comparing its estimates with those generated by the existing growth model (InraPorc). The precision of the proposed model and InraPorc in estimating DFI and BW was evaluated through the mean absolute error. The empirical component results indicated that the DFI and BW trajectories of individual pigs fed ad libitum could be predicted 1 d (DFI) or 7 d (BW) ahead with the average mean absolute error of 12.45 and 1.85%, respectively. The average mean absolute error obtained with the InraPorc for the average individual of the population was 14.72% for DFI and 5.38% for BW. Major differences were observed when estimates from InraPorc were compared with individual observations. The proposed model, however, was effective in tracking the change in DFI and BW for each individual pig. The mechanistic model component estimated the optimal standardized ileal digestible Lys to NE ratio with reasonable between animal (average CV = 7%) and overtime (average CV = 14%) variation

  11. PARAMETRIC EVALUATION OF VOC CONVERSION VIA CATALYTIC INCINERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaskantzis Neto G.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - A pilot-scale catalytic incineration system was used to investigate the effectiveness of catalytic incineration as a means of reducing volatile organic compound (VOC air pollutants. The objectives of the study were: 1 to investigate the effects of operating and design variables on the reduction efficiency of VOCs; and 2 to evaluate reduction efficiencies for specific compounds in different chemical classes. The study results verified that the following factors affect the catalyst performance: inlet temperature, space velocity, compound type, and compound inlet concentration. Tests showed that reduction efficiencies exceeding 98% were possible, given sufficiently high inlet gas temperatures for the following classes of compounds: alcohols, acetates, ketones, hydrocarbons, and aromatics

  12. POCP for individual VOC under European conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altenstedt, J.; Pleijel, K.

    1998-09-01

    Ground level ozone has been recognised as one of the most important environmental threats on the regional scale in Europe. Ozone is today considered to be harmful to human health already at the relatively low concentrations present in southern Scandinavia. The fact that ozone has the potential to damage vegetation at these concentrations is already well known. Ozone also gives rise to degradation of materials and is one of the gases which adds to the greenhouse effect. Ground level ozone is formed from nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the presence of sunlight. The only way to reduce ozone is therefore to reduce the emissions of the precursors. Ranking individual VOC by their ozone formation potential can make emission reductions more environmentally efficient and save time and money. POCP values give a ranking of the ozone formation ability of an individual VOC relative to other VOC. A critical analysis of the POCP concept has been performed which shows that the background emissions of NO{sub x} and VOC affect the POCP values to a large extent. Based on the critical analysis, five scenarios with different background emissions of NO{sub x} and VOC were selected for calculation of POCP values. These scenarios were chosen because they reflect the variation in POCP values which arise in different environments within Europe. The range thus indicates POCP values which are intended to be applicable within Europe. POCP values for 83 different VOC are presented in the form of ranges in this report. 42 refs, 13 figs, 3 tabs

  13. VOCs in Arid soils: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Volatile Organic Compounds In Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) focuses on technologies to clean up volatile organic compounds and associated contaminants in soil and groundwater at arid sites. The initial host site is the 200 West Area at DOE`s Hanford site in southeastern Washington state. The primary VOC contaminant is carbon tetrachloride, in association with heavy metals and radionuclides. An estimated 580--920 metric tons of carbon tetrachloride were disposed of between 1955 and 1973, resulting in extensive soil and groundwater contamination. The VOC-Arid ID schedule has been divided into three phases of implementation. The phased approach provides for: rapid transfer of technologies to the Environmental Restoration (EM-40) programs once demonstrated; logical progression in the complexity of demonstrations based on improved understanding of the VOC problem; and leveraging of the host site EM-40 activities to reduce the overall cost of the demonstrations. During FY92 and FY93, the primary technology demonstrations within the ID were leveraged with an ongoing expedited response action at the Hanford 200 West Area, which is directed at vapor extraction of VOCs from the vadose (unsaturated) zone. Demonstration efforts are underway in the areas of subsurface characterization including: drilling and access improvements, off-gas and borehole monitoring of vadose zone VOC concentrations to aid in soil vapor extraction performance evaluation, and treatment of VOC-contaminated off-gas. These current demonstration efforts constitute Phase 1 of the ID and, because of the ongoing vadose zone ERA, can result in immediate transfer of successful technologies to EM-40.

  14. Modeling the uncertainty of several VOC and its impact on simulated VOC and ozone in Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shuai; Choi, Yunsoo; Roy, Anirban; Li, Xiangshang; Jeon, Wonbae; Souri, Amir Hossein

    2015-11-01

    A WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ modeling system was used to study Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions and their impact on surface VOC and ozone concentrations in southeast Texas during September 2013. The model was evaluated against the ground-level Automated Gas Chromatograph (Auto-GC) measurement data from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ). The comparisons indicated that the model over-predicted benzene, ethylene, toluene and xylene, while under-predicting isoprene and ethane. The mean biases between simulated and observed values of each VOC species showed clear daytime, nighttime, weekday and weekend variations. Adjusting the VOC emissions using simulated/observed ratios improved model performance of each VOC species, especially mitigating the mean bias substantially. Simulated monthly mean ozone showed a minor change: a 0.4 ppb or 1.2% increase; while a change of more than 5 ppb was seen in hourly ozone data on high ozone days, this change moved model predictions closer to observations. The CMAQ model run with the adjusted emissions better reproduced the variability in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)'s Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) formaldehyde (HCHO) columns. The adjusted model scenario also slightly better reproduced the aircraft HCHO concentrations from NASA's DISCOVER-AQ campaign conducted during the simulation episode period; Correlation, Mean Bias and RMSE improved from 0.34, 1.38 ppb and 2.15 ppb to 0.38, 1.33 ppb and 2.08 ppb respectively. A process analysis conducted for both industrial/urban and rural areas suggested that chemistry was the main process contributing to ozone production in both areas, while the impact of chemistry was smaller in rural areas than in industrial and urban areas. For both areas, the positive chemistry contribution increased in the sensitivity simulation largely due to the increase in emissions. Nudging VOC emissions to match the observed concentrations shifted the ozone hotspots

  15. Dynamics and Diversity of Escherichia coli in Animals and System Management of the Manure on a Commercial Farrow-to-Finish Pig Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the dynamics and diversity of Escherichia coli populations in animal and environmental lines of a commercial farrow-to-finish pig farm in Spain along a full production cycle (July 2008 to July 2009), with special attention to antimicrobial resistance and the presence of integrons. In the animal line, a total of 256 isolates were collected from pregnant sows (10 samples and 20 isolates), 1-week-old piglets (20 samples and 40 isolates), unweaned piglets (20 samples and 38 isolates), growers (20 samples and 40 isolates), and the finishers' floor pen (6 samples and 118 isolates); from the underfloor pits and farm slurry tank environmental lines, 100 and 119 isolates, respectively, were collected. Our results showed that E. coli populations in the pig fecal microbiota and in the farm environment are highly dynamic and show high levels of diversity. These issues have been proven through DNA-based typing data (repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR [REP-PCR]) and phenotypic typing data (antimicrobial resistance profile comprising 19 antimicrobials). Clustering of the sampling groups based on their REP-PCR typing results showed that the spatial features (the line) had a stronger weight than the temporal features (sampling week) for the clustering of E. coli populations; this weight was less significant when clustering was performed based on resistotypes. Among animals, finishers harbored an E. coli population different from those of the remaining animal populations studied, considering REP-PCR fingerprints and resistotypes. This population, the most important from a public health perspective, demonstrated the lowest levels of antimicrobial resistance and integron presence. PMID:23160136

  16. Locating industrial VOC sources with aircraft observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toscano, P., E-mail: p.toscano@ibimet.cnr.it [Institute for Biometeorology (IBIMET - CNR), Via G. Caproni 8, 50145 Firenze (Italy); Gioli, B. [Institute for Biometeorology (IBIMET - CNR), Via G. Caproni 8, 50145 Firenze (Italy); Dugheri, S. [Careggi Hospital-University of Florence, Occupational Health Division, Largo Palagi 1, 50100 Florence (Italy); Salvini, A. [Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 13, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Matese, A. [Institute for Biometeorology (IBIMET - CNR), Via G. Caproni 8, 50145 Firenze (Italy); Bonacchi, A. [Careggi Hospital-University of Florence, Occupational Health Division, Largo Palagi 1, 50100 Florence (Italy); Zaldei, A. [Institute for Biometeorology (IBIMET - CNR), Via G. Caproni 8, 50145 Firenze (Italy); Cupelli, V. [Careggi Hospital-University of Florence, Occupational Health Division, Largo Palagi 1, 50100 Florence (Italy); Miglietta, F. [Institute for Biometeorology (IBIMET - CNR), Via G. Caproni 8, 50145 Firenze (Italy); Fondazione Edmund Mach, Via Mach 1, San Michele all' Adige, Trento (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    Observation and characterization of environmental pollution, focussing on Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), in a high-risk industrial area, are particularly important in order to provide indications on a safe level of exposure, indicate eventual priorities and advise on policy interventions. The aim of this study is to use the Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) method to measure VOCs, directly coupled with atmospheric measurements taken on a small aircraft environmental platform, to evaluate and locate the presence of VOC emission sources in the Marghera industrial area. Lab analysis of collected SPME fibres and subsequent analysis of mass spectrum and chromatograms in Scan Mode allowed the detection of a wide range of VOCs. The combination of this information during the monitoring campaign allowed a model (Gaussian Plume) to be implemented that estimates the localization of emission sources on the ground. - Highlights: > Flight plan aimed at sampling industrial area at various altitudes and locations. > SPME sampling strategy was based on plume detection by means of CO{sub 2}. > Concentrations obtained were lower than the limit values or below the detection limit. > Scan mode highlighted presence of {gamma}-butyrolactone (GBL) compound. > Gaussian dispersion modelling was used to estimate GBL source location and strength. - An integrated strategy based on atmospheric aircraft observations and dispersion modelling was developed, aimed at estimating spatial location and strength of VOC point source emissions in industrial areas.

  17. Avaliação sensorial da carne de cordeiros machos e fêmeas Texel × Corriedale terminados em diferentes sistemas Sensory evaluation of meat lambs from males and femeles Texel × Corriedale finished in different systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlice Salete Bonacina

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do sexo e de três sistemas de terminação nas características sensoriais da carne de cordeiros Texel × Corriedale e na aceitação da carne pelo consumidor. Foram utilizados 90 animais, 45 cordeiros machos não-castrados e 45 fêmeas mantidos em pastagem até o desmame (70 dias e terminados em três sistemas de produção: pastagem; pastagem ao pé da mãe; e pastagem com suplementação (casca de soja em nível correspondente a 1% do peso vivo dos cordeiros. Após o abate, as carcaças foram armazenadas em câmara fria, com ar forçado, a 1ºC, durante 24 horas, para retirada do músculo longissimus dorsi, que foi congelado a -18ºC para análise sensorial. A caracterização sensorial da carne foi realizada por meio da análise descritiva quantitativa: 22 termos descritivos foram desenvolvidos por uma equipe de julgadores selecionados, que geraram também a definição de cada termo e as amostras-referência. Foi realizado um teste de aceitação utilizando escala hedônica híbrida de nove pontos. A carne dos machos e dos animais terminados em pastagem ao pé da mãe caracterizou-se pelo odor e sabor residual mais suaves de carne ovina e gordura, menor maciez e maior mastigabilidade em comparação à das fêmeas e dos animais terminados nos demais sistemas. As carnes dos cordeiros terminados nos sistemas de pastagem e de pastagem com suplementação são semelhantes quanto aos aspectos sensoriais. A carne é igualmente aceita pelos consumidores, independentemente do sexo e do sistema de terminação, apresentando boa aceitação.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of sex and of three finishing systems on sensory traits of Texel × Corriedale lamb meat an on the consumer acceptance of the meat. It was used 90 animals, 45 non-castrated male lambs and 45 females kept on pasture until weaning (70 days of age and finished in three production systems: pasture, pasture with mother

  18. Dimensioning, Tolerancing, and Machine Finishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, George C.

    Intended for use with the vocational education student interested in technical drawing, this guide provides answers to questions relating to dimensioning and tolerancing machine drawings. It also gives examples of standard dimensioning practices, tolerancing applications, and finish applications. The problems and examples presented are based on…

  19. Biofiltration for control of volatile organic compounds (VOCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, D.F. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Govind, R. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Air biofiltration is a promising technology for control of air emissions of biodegradable volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In conjunction with vacuum extraction of soils or air stripping of ground water, it can be used to mineralize VOCs removed from contaminated soil or groundwater. The literature describes three major biological systems for treating contaminated air bioscrubbers, biotrickling filters and biofilters. Filter media can be classified as: bioactive fine or irregular particulates, such as soil, peat, compost or mixtures of these materials; pelletized, which are randomly packed in a bed; and structured, such as monoliths with defined or variable passage size and geometry. The media can be made of sorbing and non-absorbing materials. Non-bioactive pelletized and structured media require recycled solutions of nutrients and buffer for efficient microbial activity and are thus called biotrickling filters. Extensive work has been conducted to improve biofiltration by EPA`s Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory and the University of Cincinnati in biofilters using pelletized and structured media and improved operational approaches. Representative VOCs in these studies included compounds with a range of aqueous solubilities and octanol-water partition coefficients. The compounds include iso-pentane, toluene, methylene chloride, trichloroethylene (TCE), ethyl benzene, chlorobenzene and perchloroethylene (PCE) and alpha ({alpha}-) pinene. Comparative studies were conducted with peat/compost biofilters using isopentane and {alpha}-pinene. Control studies were also conducted to investigate adsorption/desorption of contaminants on various media using mercuric chloride solution to insure the absence of bioactivity.

  20. 卷烟工业企业成品物流系统工艺规划与分析%Planning and Analysis of Cigarette Industrial Enterprise Finished Product Logistics System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永寿

    2011-01-01

    The paper mainly discusses the technical processes of finished product logistics system of the cigarette enterprise, analyzes and compares two inbound modes and three outbound modes of its warehousing operation. At the end, the paper discusses how to choose between the modes.%主要对卷烟工业企业成品物流系统工艺进行了探讨,对两种入库模式及三种出库模式进行了分析对比,并对入库、出库模式的选择进行了论述.

  1. Reducing VOC Press Emission from OSB Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Gary D. McGinnis; Laura S. WIlliams; Amy E. Monte; Jagdish Rughani: Brett A. Niemi; Thomas M. Flicker

    2001-12-31

    Current regulations require industry to meet air emission standards with regard to particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and other gases. One of many industries that will be affected by the new regulations is the wood composites industry. This industry generates VOCs, HAPs, and particulates mainly during the drying and pressing of wood. Current air treatment technologies for the industry are expensive to install and operate. As regulations become more stringent, treatment technologies will need to become more efficient and cost effective. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the use of process conditions and chemical additives to reduce VOC/HAPs in air emitted from presses and dryers during the production of oriented strand board.

  2. Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) on Board of the Zeppelin NT during the PEGASOS Campaign in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Julia; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Beck, Harry; Rohrer, Franz; Broch, Sebastian; Fuchs, Hendrik; Gomm, Sebastian; Holland, Frank; Lu, Keding; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Mentel, Thomas; Rose, Bernhard; Wegener, Robert; Wahner, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are mostly emitted at the ground and are degraded by the reactions with OH, NO3 or O3 as they rise upwards in the atmosphere. VOCs play an important role as sources and sinks for radicals in the troposphere. Up to date, most of the VOC measurements were performed from ground based platforms; the profile measurements across the whole planetary boundary layer (PBL) are still quite limited which restrained the exploring of the VOCs chemistry of the entire PBL. This although these measurements are particularly interesting, as most of the chemistry of the VOC degradation in the troposphere takes place in the PBL. Moreover, fast VOCs measurements utilizing Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) are a challenge due to the great chemical variability of VOC species. Therefore accurate in-situ measurements of VOCs together with other species as CO, NOx, O3 and the OH reactivity, encompassing different levels of altitude and fast time resolution, would essentially improve the understanding of the VOC distribution in the lower troposphere. Here we present the setup and the modifications of the fast GC-MS system and the results of the PEGASOS Zeppelin campaigns in summer 2012. First, we present our developments and modifications of an in-flight GC-MS system to detect volatile non methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) with a time resolution of 3 minutes and a detection limit in the order of 2 pptv. The modified setup enabled us to analyze 70 different VOC species, ranging from alkanes (C4 to C11), aromatics and terpenes to oxygenated hydrocarbons (OVOC) such as alcohols and aldehydes. Second, in contrast to previous airplane studies also utilizing a GC-MS system, the Zeppelin NT as a measuring platform during the PEGASOS campaign enabled us to measure vertical profiles up to 1500m at low travelling speeds which means a high spatial resolution. We will present results for selected VOC that offer new insights on height profiles

  3. VOC methods and levels in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomboi, M.T. [Area de Contaminacion Atmosferica, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    Ozone precursors began to be studied in the eighties in Spain, in order to know their levels and composition in areas, which had high concentrations of other atmospheric polluting agents. At the end of the eighties, VOC were incorporated into the air quality networks in urban areas in order to anticipate at the derived amendments of the entrance into force on the Directive 92/72/CEE of 1992 on air pollution by ozone. At the same time, field campaigns for VOC toxics were started in specific industrial areas and the zones with high traffic. More recently, the air quality networks have been orientated to non-urban areas, to cover the knowledge of VOC in semi-urban and rural areas. On the other hand, the role of the biogenic emissions and the role that their chemical and photochemical products play in atmospheric chemistry was becoming important in the nineties. Therefore some research projects, e.g. 'Biogenic Emissions in the Mediterranean Area (BEMA)', were developed in order to understand the vegetation emissions in the Mediterranean area in relation to anthropogenic compounds and to get information on their participation in tropospheric ozone formation. VOC have been sampled at European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) sites since 1999, based on recommendations from the EMEP Workshop on Measurements of Hydrocarbons/VOC in Lindau 1989. Collection of light hydrocarbons started in 1999, whereas measurements of carbonyls have just started in 2003. In this work, the most important sampling and analysis techniques to determine ozone precursors and to control VOC are shown, as well as the main results obtained in projects, networks and measurement campaigns performed with these methods.

  4. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission characteristics and control strategies for a petrochemical industrial area in middle Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Hsien; Horng, Jao-Jia

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated VOC emissions from the largest petrochemical industrial district in Taiwan and recommended some control measures to reduce VOC emissions. In addition to the petrochemical industry, the district encompasses a chemical and fiber industry, a plastics industry and a harbor, which together produce more than 95% of the VOC emissions in the area. The sequence of VOC emission was as follows: components (e.g., valves, flanges, and pumps) (47%) > tanks (29%) > stacks (15%) > wastewater treatment facility (6%) > loading (2%) > flares (1%). Other plants producing high-density polyethylene (HDPE), styrene, ethylene glycol (EG), gas oil, and iso-nonyl-alchol (INA) were measured to determine the VOC leaching in the district. The VOC emissions of these 35 plants (90% of all plants) were less than 100 tons/year. About 74% of the tanks were fixed-roof tanks that leached more VOCs than the other types of tanks. To reduce leaching, the components should be checked periodically, and companies should be required to follow the Taiwan EPA regulations. A VOC emission management system was developed in state implementation plans (SIPs) to inspect and reduce emissions in the industrial district.

  5. CAPSULE REPORT - MANAGING CYANIDE IN METAL FINISHING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to surface finishing manufacturers, metal finishing decision maker and regulators on management practices and control technologies for managing cyanide in the workplace. This information can benefit key industry stakeholder gro...

  6. Silica deactivation of bead VOC catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libanati, C.; Pereira, C.J. [Research Division, W. R. Grace and Co., Columbia, MD (United States); Ullenius, D.A. [Grace TEC Systems, De Pere, WI (United States)

    1998-01-15

    Catalytic oxidation is a key technology for controlling the emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from industrial plants. The present paper examines the deactivation by silica of bead VOC catalysts in a flexographic printing application. Post mortem analyses of field-aged catalysts suggest that organosilicon compounds contained in the printing ink diffuse into the catalyst and deposit as silica particles in the micropores. Laboratory activity evaluation of aged catalysts suggests that silica deposition is non-selective and that silica masks the noble metal active site

  7. 7 CFR 29.3517 - Finish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finish. 29.3517 Section 29.3517 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3517 Finish. The reflectance factor in color perception. Finish indicates the sheen or...

  8. 7 CFR 29.3022 - Finish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finish. 29.3022 Section 29.3022 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Finish. The reflectance factor in color perception. Finish indicates the sheen or shine of the surface of...

  9. 7 CFR 29.1017 - Finish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finish. 29.1017 Section 29.1017 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1017 Finish. The reflectance factor in color perception. Finish indicates the sheen or...

  10. 7 CFR 29.2518 - Finish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finish. 29.2518 Section 29.2518 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2518 Finish. The reflectance factor in color perception. Finish indicates the sheen or shine of the surface of a tobacco leaf. (See chart, § 29.2601.) ...

  11. 7 CFR 29.2268 - Finish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finish. 29.2268 Section 29.2268 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2268 Finish. The reflectance factor in color perception. Finish indicates the sheen or shine of the surface of a...

  12. 27 CFR 25.231 - Finished beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finished beer. 25.231... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Purchased From Another Brewer § 25.231 Finished beer. (a) A brewer may obtain beer in barrels and kegs, finished and ready for sale from another brewer. The purchasing...

  13. Primary VOC emissions from Commercial Aircraft Jet Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Dogushan; Huang, Rujin; Slowik, Jay; Brem, Benjamin; Durdina, Lukas; Rindlisbacher, Theo; Baltensperger, Urs; Prevot, Andre

    2014-05-01

    Air traffic is growing continuously [1]. The increasing number of airplanes leads to an increase of aviation emissions giving rise to environmental concerns globally by high altitude emissions and, locally on air quality at the ground level [2]. The overall impact of aviation emissions on the environment is likely to increase when the growing air transportation trend [2] is considered. The Aviation Particle Regulatory Instrumentation Demonstration Experiment (APRIDE)-5 campaign took place at Zurich Airport in 2013. In this campaign, aircraft exhaust is sampled during engine acceptance tests after engine overhaul at the facilities of SR Technics. Direct sampling from the engine core is made possible due to the unique fixed installation of a retractable sampling probe and the use of a standardized sampling system designed for the new particulate matter regulation in development for aircraft engines. Many of the gas-phase aircraft emissions, e.g. CO2, NOX, CO, SO2, hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds (VOC) were detected by the instruments in use. This study, part of the APRIDE-5 campaign, focuses on the primary VOC emissions in order to produce emission factors of VOC species for varying engine operating conditions which are the surrogates for the flight cycles. Previously, aircraft plumes were sampled in order to quantify VOCs by a proton transfer reaction quadrupole mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) [3]. This earlier study provided a preliminary knowledge on the emission of species such as methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, benzene and toluene by varying engine thrust levels. The new setup was (i) designed to sample from the diluted engine exhaust and the new tool and (ii) used a high resolution time of flight PTR-MS with higher accuracy for many new species, therefore providing a more detailed and accurate inventory. We will present the emission factors for species that were quantified previously, as well as for many additional VOCs detected during the campaign

  14. The Robotic Edge Finishing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loucks, C.S.; Selleck, C.B.

    1990-08-01

    The Robotic Edge Finishing Laboratory at Sandia National Laboratories is developing four areas of technology required for automated deburring, chamfering, and blending of machined edges: (1) the automatic programming of robot trajectories and deburring processes using information derived from a CAD database, (2) the use of machine vision for locating the workpiece coupled with force control to ensure proper tool contact, (3) robotic deburring, blending, and machining of precision chamfered edges, and (4) in-process automated inspection of the formed edge. The Laboratory, its components, integration, and results from edge finishing experiments to date are described here. Also included is a discussion of the issues regarding implementation of the technology in a production environment. 24 refs., 17 figs.

  15. VOC transport in vented drums containing simulated waste sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Rae, C.; Connolly, M.J.

    1994-02-01

    A model is developed to estimate the volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement in a lab-scale vented waste drum containing simulated waste sludge. The VOC transport model estimates the concentration using the measured VOC concentration beneath the drum lid and model parameters defined or estimated from process knowledge of drum contents and waste drum configuration. Model parameters include the VOC diffusion characteristic across the filter vent, VOC diffusivity in air, size of opening in the drum liner lid, the type and number of layers of polymer bags surrounding the waste, VOC permeability across the polymer, and the permeable surface area of the polymer bags. Comparison of model and experimental results indicates that the model can accurately estimate VOC concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement. The model may be useful in estimating the VOC concentration in actual waste drums.

  16. World Calibration Center for VOC (WCC-VOC), a new Facility for the WMO-GAW-Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappenglueck, B.-

    2002-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are recognized to be important precursors of tropospheric ozone as well as other oxidants and organic aerosols. In order to design effective control measures for the reduction of photooxidants, photochemical processes have to be understood and the sources of the precursors known. Reliable and representative measurements of VOCs are necessary to describe the anthropogenic and biogenic sources, to follow the photochemical degradation of VOCs in the troposphere. Measurement of VOCs is of key importance for the understanding of tropospheric chemistry. Tropospheric VOCs have been one of the recommended measurements to be made within the GAW programme. The purpose will be to monitor their atmospheric abundance, to characterize the various compounds with regard to anthropogenic and biogenic sources and to evaluate their role in the tropospheric ozone formation process. An international WMO/GAW panel of experts for VOC measurements developed the rational and objectives for this GAW activity and recommended the configuration and required activities of the WCC-VOC. In reflection of the complexity of VOC measurements and the current status of measurement technology, a "staged" approach was adopted. Stage 1 measurements: C2-C9 hydrocarbons, including alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, dienes and monocyclics. (The WCC-VOC operates currently under this mode). Stage 2 measurements: C10-C14 hydrocarbons, including higher homologs of the Stage 1 set as well as biogenic hydrocarbon compounds. Stage 3 measurements: Oxygenated VOCs, including alcohols, carbonyls, carboxylic acids. The Quality Assurance/Science Activity Centre (QA/SAC) Germany currently has established the World Calibration Centre for VOC (WCC-VOC). The WCC-VOC has operated in the research mode und has become operational recently. From now on, the WCC-VOC conducts one round-robin calibration audit per year at all global stations that measure VOCs and assists other stations in setting up VOC

  17. Technical Note: A fully automated purge and trap GC-MS system for quantification of volatile organic compound (VOC fluxes between the ocean and atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Andrews

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The oceans are a key source of a number of atmospherically important volatile gases. The accurate and robust determination of trace gases in seawater is a significant analytical challenge, requiring reproducible and ideally automated sample handling, a high efficiency of seawater–air transfer, removal of water vapour from the sample stream, and high sensitivity and selectivity of the analysis. Here we describe a system that was developed for the fully automated analysis of dissolved very short-lived halogenated species (VSLS sampled from an under-way seawater supply. The system can also be used for semi-automated batch sampling from Niskin bottles filled during CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth profiles. The essential components comprise a bespoke, automated purge and trap (AutoP & T unit coupled to a commercial thermal desorption and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (TD-GC-MS. The AutoP & T system has completed five research cruises, from the tropics to the poles, and collected over 2500 oceanic samples to date. It is able to quantify >25 species over a boiling point range of 34–180 °C with Henry's law coefficients of 0.018 and greater (CH22l, kHcc dimensionless gas/aqueous and has been used to measure organic sulfurs, hydrocarbons, halocarbons and terpenes. In the eastern tropical Pacific, the high sensitivity and sampling frequency provided new information regarding the distribution of VSLS, including novel measurements of a photolytically driven diurnal cycle of CH22l within the surface ocean water.

  18. GEIGER BRICKEL BENEFITS FROM LOW -VOC COATINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midwest Research Institute, under a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), conducted a study to identify wood furniture manufacturing facilities that had converted to low-volatile organic compound (VOC)/hazardous air pollutant (HAP) wood furnit...

  19. Orthodontic treatment outcomes obtained by application of a finishing protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Carvajal-Flórez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the results of a finishing protocol implemented in patients treated in the Orthodontics graduate program at Universidad de Antioquia. Evaluation was carried out by means of the criteria set by the Objective Grading System (OGS of the American Board of Orthodontics (ABO. Methods: Cast models and panoramic radiographs of 34 patients were evaluated. The intervention group (IG consisted of 17 patients (19.88 ± 4.4 years old treated under a finishing protocol. This protocol included training in finishing, application of a finishing guide, brackets repositioning and patient's follow-up. Results of the IG were compared to a control group of 17 patients (21.88 ± 7.0 years old selected by stratified randomization without finishing intervention (CG. Results: The scores for both CG and IG were 38.00 ± 9.0 and 31.41 ± 9.6 (p = 0.048, respectively. The score improved significantly in the IG group, mainly regarding marginal ridges (CG: 5.59 ± 2.2; IG: 3.65 ± 1.8 (p = 0.009 and root angulation (CG: 7.59 ± 2.8; IG: 4.88 ± 2.6 (p = 0.007. Criteria that did not improve, but had the highest scores were: alignment (CG: 6.35 ± 2.7; IG: 6.82 ± 2.8 (p = 0.62 and buccolingual inclination (CG: 3.6 ± 5.88; IG: 5.29 ± 3.9 (p = 0.65. Conclusions: Standardization and implementation of a finishing protocol contributed to improve clinical performance in the Orthodontics graduate program, as expressed by occlusal outcomes. Greater emphasis should be given on the finishing phase to achieve lower scores in the ABO grading system.

  20. Herd-level risk factors for antimicrobial demanding gastrointestinal diseases in Danish herds with finisher pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybschmann, G. K.; Ersbøll, A.K.; Vigre, Håkan

    2011-01-01

    quarter per herd. Three potential herd-level risk factors were evaluated: herd size (number of finishers delivered for slaughter); herd health status (herds in the Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) System, conventional herds); and herd type (herds including only finishers, integrated herds). Data were analyzed...... using general linear mixed models with repeated measurements. Smaller herds had a larger AMU per finisher than larger herds. Integrated herds had lower AMU as compared with herds with only finishers. Herds within the SPF System had a larger decrease in AMU with increasing herd size compared...

  1. Variables associated with odds of finishing and finish time in a 161-km ultramarathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegelin, Jacob A; Hoffman, Martin D

    2011-01-01

    We sought to determine the degree to which age, sex, calendar year, previous event experience and ambient race day temperature were associated with finishing a 100-mile (161-km) trail running race and with finish time in that race. We computed separate generalized linear mixed-effects regression models for (1) odds of finishing and (2) finish times of finishers. Every starter from 1986 to 2007 was used in computing the models for odds of finishing (8,282 starts by 3,956 individuals) and every finisher in the same period was included in the models for finish time (5,276 finishes). Factors associated with improved odds of finishing included being a first-time starter and advancing calendar year. Factors associated with reduced odds of finishing included advancing age above 38 years and warmer weather. Beyond 38 years of age, women had worse odds of finishing than men. Warmer weather had a similar effect on finish rates for men and women. Finish times were slower with advancing age, slower for women than men, and less affected by warm weather for women than for men. Calendar year was not associated with finish time after adjustment for other variables.

  2. A comparative study of fungal and bacterial biofiltration treating a VOC mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada, José M. [Departamento de Procesos y Tecnología, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Cuajimalpa, Artificios 40, Col. Miguel Hidalgo, Delegación Álvaro Obregón (Mexico); Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Tecnología del Medio Ambiente – Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid (Spain); Hernández, Sergio [Departmento de Procesos e Hidráulica – Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana – Iztapalapa Mexico D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Muñoz, Raúl [Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Tecnología del Medio Ambiente – Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid (Spain); Revah, Sergio, E-mail: srevah@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Procesos y Tecnología, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Cuajimalpa, Artificios 40, Col. Miguel Hidalgo, Delegación Álvaro Obregón (Mexico)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Bacterial biofilter showed better EC and ΔP than fungal biofilter. ► The preferential biodegradation order was: propanal > hexanol > MIBK > toluene. ► Propanal partially inhibited the biodegradation of the rest of VOCs. ► The two-stage biofilter showed a higher stability than the individual units. -- Abstract: Bacterial biofilters usually exhibit a high microbial diversity and robustness, while fungal biofilters have been claimed to better withstand low moisture contents and pH values, and to be more efficient coping with hydrophobic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). However, there are only few systematic evaluations of both biofiltration technologies. The present study compared fungal and bacterial biofiltration for the treatment of a VOC mixture (propanal, methyl isobutyl ketone-MIBK, toluene and hexanol) under the same operating conditions. Overall, fungal biofiltration supported lower elimination capacities than its bacterial counterpart (27.7 ± 8.9 vs 40.2 ± 5.4 g C m{sup −3} reactor h{sup −1}), which exhibited a final pressure drop 60% higher than that of the bacterial biofilter due to mycelial growth. The VOC mineralization ratio was also higher in the bacterial bed (≈63% vs ≈43%). However, the substrate biodegradation preference order was similar for both biofilters (propanal > hexanol > MIBK > toluene) with propanal partially inhibiting the consumption of the rest of the VOCs. Both systems supported an excellent robustness versus 24 h VOC starvation episodes. The implementation of a fungal/bacterial coupled system did not significantly improve the VOC removal performance compared to the individual biofilter performances.

  3. Control of formaldehyde and TVOC emission from wood-based flooring composites at various manufacturing processes by surface finishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sumin

    2010-04-15

    This paper assesses the reproducibility of testing formaldehyde and TVOC emission behavior from wood flooring composites bonded by urea-formaldehyde resin at various manufacturing steps for surface finishing materials. The surface adhesion step of laminate flooring for this research was divided into two steps; HDF only and HDF with LPMs. In the case of engineered flooring, the manufacturing steps were divided into three steps; plywood only, fancy veneer bonded on plywood and UV coated on fancy veneer with plywood. Formaldehyde and VOCs emission decreased at the process of final surface finishing materials; LPMs were applied on the surface of HDF for laminate flooring. Although emissions increased when fancy veneer was bonded onto plywood in the case of engineered flooring, emission was dramatically reduced up to similar level with plywood only when final surface finishing; UV-curable coating was applied on fancy veneer. This study suggests that formaldehyde and VOCs emission from floorings can be controlled at manufacturing steps for surface finishing. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of cast gold surface finishing on plaque retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, M P; Shillingburg, H T; Duncanson, M G; Wade, C K

    1980-02-01

    The relationship between the surface finish on cast gold restorations and the amount of plaque deposited on that surface was examined. Six different finishes were tested. The rough finish was found to accumulate significantly less plaque than the other finishes. Every finish exhibited some plaque accumulation, even after the first 24 hours. Each finish accumulated progressively more plaque at each successive time interval.

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF LOW-VOC LATEX PAINTS: VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND CONTENT, VOC AND ALDEHYDE EMISSIONS, AND PAINT PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of laboratory tests to evaluate commercially available latex paints advertised as "low-odor," "low-VOC (volatile organic compound)," or "no-VOC." Measurements were performed to quantify the total content of VOCs in the paints...

  6. Low HAP/VOC Compliant Resins for Military Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    on lauric acid FAVE-O fatty acid vinyl ester resin system based on octanoic acid FTIR Fourier transform infrared GIC Mode 1 fracture energy...temperature and could potentially produce smog-promoting ozone as well as long-term and acute health effects. VOC/HAPs are emitted during all phases of...Viscosity ា cP at 25 °C (MOct) Unreacted epoxy FTIR *, NMR* No epoxy present None detected Correct reactant ratios NMR Methacrylate to FA ratio of 1:1

  7. Energy recovery efficiency and cost analysis of VOC thermal oxidation pollution control technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warahena, Aruna S K; Chuah, Yew Khoy

    2009-08-01

    Thermal oxidation of VOC is extremely energy intensive, and necessitates high efficiency heat recovery from the exhaust heat. In this paper, two independent parameters heat recovery factor (HRF) and equipment cost factor (ECF) are introduced. HRF and ECF can be used to evaluate separately the merits of energy efficiency and cost effectiveness of VOC oxidation systems. Another parameter equipment cost against heat recovery (ECHR) which is a function of HRF and ECF is introduced to evaluate the merit of different systems for the thermal oxidation of VOC. Respective cost models were derived for recuperative thermal oxidizer (TO) and regenerative thermal oxidizer (RTO). Application examples are presented to show the use and the importance of these parameters. An application examples show that TO has a lower ECF while RTO has a higher HRF. However when analyzed using ECHR, RTO would be of advantage economically in longer periods of use. The analytical models presented can be applied in similar environmental protection systems.

  8. [VOCs tax policy on China's economy development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Xin; Wang, Yu-Fei; Wang, Hai-Lin; Hao, Zheng-Ping; Wang, Zheng

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, environmental tax was designed to control volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was used to explore the impacts of environmental tax (in forms of indirect tax) on the macro-economy development at both national and sector levels. Different levels of tax were simulated to find out the proper tax rate. It is found out that imposing environmental tax on high emission sectors can cause the emission decreased immediately and can lead to negative impacts on macro-economy indicators, such as GDP (gross domestic products), total investment, total product and the whole consumption etc. However, only the government income increased. In addition, the higher the tax rate is, the more pollutants can be reduced and the worse economic effects can be caused. Consequently, it is suggested that, the main controlling policies of VOCs abatement should be mandatory orders, and low environmental tax can be implemented as a supplementary.

  9. International innovations in optical finishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2004-10-01

    Every few years new polishing technologies attempt to make the transition from the research laboratory into the commercial sector. Success awaits any process that is well controlled and predictable (e.g., deterministic), rapid, capable of smoothing to sub-nm rms roughness levels while removing damage from grinding, affordable, and easily implemented. Applicability to different optical materials and a variety of part sizes and shapes is extremely important, but may not be required for a new technology to succeed in a niche market. This paper reviews six innovations in polishing of precision optics: Canon"s Super-Smooth Polisher (CSSP) that uses a sub-aperture pitch lap - a relatively mature but important base-line technology; Nikon / Osaka University"s RF Plasma Chemical Vaporization Machining (CVM); Epion"s Gas Cluster Ion Beam (GCIB) Process; the IOM University of Leipzig / NTGL Ion Beam Finishing (IBF) Technology; Zeeko"s "Precessions" Process with a sub-aperture section of an inflatable pad; and QED Technology"s Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) with a magnetic fluid ribbon. The removal mechanism and some recent achievements for each process are discussed.

  10. Gaseous VOCs rapidly modify particulate matter and its biological effects - Part 2: Complex urban VOCs and model PM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersviller, S.; Lichtveld, K.; Sexton, K. G.; Zavala, J.; Lin, Y.-H.; Jaspers, I.; Jeffries, H. E.

    2012-12-01

    This is the second study in a three-part study designed to demonstrate dynamic entanglements among gaseous organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter (PM), and their subsequent potential biological effects. We study these entanglements in increasingly complex VOC and PM mixtures in urban-like conditions in a large outdoor chamber, both in the dark and in sunlight. To the traditional chemical and physical characterizations of gas and PM, we added new measurements of gas-only- and PM-only-biological effects, using cultured human lung cells as model living receptors. These biological effects are assessed here as increases in cellular damage or expressed irritation (i.e., cellular toxic effects) from cells exposed to chamber air relative to cells exposed to clean air. Our exposure systems permit side-by-side, gas-only- and PM-only-exposures from the same air stream containing both gases and PM in equilibria, i.e., there are no extractive operations prior to cell exposure for either gases or PM. In Part 1 (Ebersviller et al., 2012a), we demonstrated the existence of PM "effect modification" (NAS, 2004) for the case of a single gas-phase toxicant and an inherently non-toxic PM (mineral oil aerosol, MOA). That is, in the presence of the single gas-phase toxicant in the dark, the initially non-toxic PM became toxic to lung cells in the PM-only-biological exposure system. In this Part 2 study, we used sunlit-reactive systems to create a large variety of gas-phase toxicants from a complex mixture of oxides of nitrogen and 54 VOCs representative of those measured in US city air. In these mostly day-long experiments, we have designated the period in the dark just after injection (but before sunrise) as the "Fresh" condition and the period in the dark after sunset as the "Aged" condition. These two conditions were used to expose cells and to collect chemical characterization samples. We used the same inherently non-toxic PM from the Part 1 study as the target PM for "effect

  11. Gaseous VOCs rapidly modify particulate matter and its biological effects – Part 2: Complex urban VOCs and model PM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ebersviller

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the second study in a three-part study designed to demonstrate dynamic entanglements among gaseous organic compounds (VOCs, particulate matter (PM, and their subsequent potential biological effects. We study these entanglements in increasingly complex VOC and PM mixtures in urban-like conditions in a large outdoor chamber, both in the dark and in sunlight. To the traditional chemical and physical characterizations of gas and PM, we added new measurements of gas-only- and PM-only-biological effects, using cultured human lung cells as model living receptors. These biological effects are assessed here as increases in cellular damage or expressed irritation (i.e., cellular toxic effects from cells exposed to chamber air relative to cells exposed to clean air. Our exposure systems permit side-by-side, gas-only- and PM-only-exposures from the same air stream containing both gases and PM in equilibria, i.e., there are no extractive operations prior to cell exposure for either gases or PM.

    In Part 1 (Ebersviller et al., 2012a, we demonstrated the existence of PM "effect modification" (NAS, 2004 for the case of a single gas-phase toxicant and an inherently non-toxic PM (mineral oil aerosol, MOA. That is, in the presence of the single gas-phase toxicant in the dark, the initially non-toxic PM became toxic to lung cells in the PM-only-biological exposure system. In this Part 2 study, we used sunlit-reactive systems to create a large variety of gas-phase toxicants from a complex mixture of oxides of nitrogen and 54 VOCs representative of those measured in US city air. In these mostly day-long experiments, we have designated the period in the dark just after injection (but before sunrise as the "Fresh" condition and the period in the dark after sunset as the "Aged" condition. These two conditions were used to expose cells and to collect chemical characterization samples. We used the same inherently non-toxic PM from the Part 1 study as the

  12. Gaseous VOCs rapidly modify particulate matter and its biological effects – Part 2: Complex urban VOCs and model PM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Jeffries

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the second study in a three-part study designed to demonstrate dynamic entanglements among gaseous organic compounds (VOCs, particulate matter (PM, and their subsequent potential biological effects. We study these entanglements in increasingly complex VOC and PM mixtures in urban-like conditions in a large outdoor chamber, both in the dark and in sunlight. To the traditional chemical and physical characterizations of gas and PM, we added new measurements of gas-only- and PM-only-biological effects, using cultured human lung cells as model living receptors. These biological effects are assessed here as increases in cellular damage or expressed irritation (i.e., cellular toxic effects from cells exposed to chamber air relative to cells exposed to clean air. Our exposure systems permit side-by-side, gas-only- and PM-only-exposures from the same air stream containing both gases and PM in equilibria, i.e., there are no extractive operations prior to cell exposure for either gases or PM. In Part 1 (Ebersviller et al., 2012a, we demonstrated the existence of PM "effect modification" (NAS, 2004 for the case of a single gas-phase toxicant and an inherently non-toxic PM (mineral oil aerosol, MOA. That is, in the presence of the single gas-phase toxicant in the dark, the initially non-toxic PM became toxic to lung cells in the PM-only-biological exposure system. In this Part 2 study, we used sunlit-reactive systems to create a large variety of gas-phase toxicants from a complex mixture of oxides of nitrogen and 54 VOCs representative of those measured in US city air. In these mostly day-long experiments, we have designated the period in the dark just after injection (but before sunrise as the "Fresh" condition and the period in the dark after sunset as the "Aged" condition. These two conditions were used to expose cells and to collect chemical characterization samples. We used the same inherently non-toxic PM from the Part 1 study as the target PM

  13. 我国空气中挥发性有机物标准体系建设的对策和建议%Countermeasures for System Building of VOCs Standards in Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁; 王倩; 杜健; 郭健

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,the definition and danger of volatile organic pollutants were introduced.Emissions standards,control strategy and management experience of VOCs in America,Europe and Japan were also de-scribed.The situation and problems of emissions characterization,emissions standards and management of VOCs in china were discussed.Suggestions were made to screen of optimal control list,to revise emissions standards and to develop VOCs gas standards.%介绍了挥发性有机物(VOCs)的界定与危害,以及美国、欧盟、日本 VOCs的排放标准、控制经验、效果、气体标准样品研究现状等。分析了我国 VOCs的污染、标准体系建设、标准样品等研究现状及存在的问题,提出我国应建立 VOCs筛选优控名单、制定并完善行业排放标准和监测方法体系,以及开展 VOCs气体标准样品研究等相关对策和建议。

  14. Fiscal 2000 achievement report on the venture business assisting type regional consortium - Minor business creation base type. Development of high pressure fluid aided dyeing and finishing system for cellulose textile products generating no waste liquid; 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Cellulose kei sen'i seihin no koatsu ryutai ni yoru muhaieki senshoku kako system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    There is a voice in the textile dyeing industry for a dyeing and finishing method without discharge of waste liquid from the viewpoint of environmental protection. When the special coexistence effect is applied to the technology of making polar dyes soluble in high pressure carbon dioxide, according to Associate Professor Mishima of Fukuoka University, a dyeing method is feasible wherein the separation of supercritical carbon dioxide and the dye is easier than in the conventional method of dyeing in water and wherein discharge of waste liquid after dyeing is not necessary. He also writes that technologies for recovering carbon dioxide have already been established. Under this project, attention is paid to cellulose textile products which will find a great demand, and efforts are made to commercialize a novel dyeing and finishing system of the low environmental impact type. The results of the research conducted under the project involve (1) the improvement of various dyes and assistants in their degree of solution in high pressure carbon dioxide, (2) development of a technology of attaching dyes and finishing agents to textiles, (3) designing and construction of a practical high pressure fluid dyeing and finishing apparatus, (4) search for optimum dyeing conditions for textile products using the said apparatus, and (5) the reinforced functions that textile products have after being dyed. (NEDO)

  15. A low temperature anaerobic digestion system reduces instability and produces optimal methane yield : case study of a Farrow to Finish farm marketing 10,000 hogs per year in Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve, E.; Boivin, S.; Hince, J.-F. [Bio-Terre Systems, Sherbrooke, PQ (Canada); Masse, D. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation described a joint collaboration between Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) and Bio-Terre Systems that resulted in the development of an innovative environmental solution for manure management. The solution which combines low-temperature anaerobic digestion, concentration of solids and production of green energy, responds to the growth of hog production in North America. A case study of a Farrow to Finish farm marketing 10,000 swine in St.-Hilaire, Quebec was presented with particular reference to background information on the farm, process stability and process performance. The Bio-Terre technology was discussed in detail including a discussion of the psychrophilic anaerobic digestion and microorganisms and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process. The advantages and disadvantages of this process were presented. It was concluded that the process offers many benefits, including energy economy, improved health of animals, odorless spreading, better fertilizer, and reduction of land required. tabs., figs.

  16. Effect of glycerine and essential oils (Anacardium occidentale and Ricinus communis on animal performance, feed efficiency and carcass characteristics of crossbred bulls finished in a feedlot system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Teresa Barreto Cruz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of corn substitution by glycerine and essential oils on animal performance, apparent digestibility and red and white blood cells of crossbred bulls finished in feedlot was evaluated. Thirty bulls with average weight of 311±28.8 kg and 22±2 month-old were allocated in three diets: CON (without glycerine or essential oils, GLY (with glycerine and GEO (with glycerine and essential oils. The bulls were fed a diet of sorghum silage, cracked corn, soybean meal, urea, limestone and mineral salt. Three grams of cashew and castor oil/animal/day were included in GEO diet. Animals were kept in feedlot for 115 days and slaughtered at average weight of 467±40.6 kg. No differences (P<0.05 among diets regarding final body weight, average daily gain and feed conversion were reported. Ether extract intake was higher (P<0.05 in CON diet compared to the others. Dry matter, organic matter and crude protein digestibility was higher (P<0.05 in GLY diet compared to CON. Acid detergent fibre digestibility was higher (P<0.05 in CON compared to GLY diet. Nonfibrous carbohydrate, fibrous carbohydrate and ether extract digestibility were similar (P>0.05 among diets. No effect of glycerine and essential oil addition on total blood cholesterol, triglycerides, haemogram, leukogram and plasmatic proteins was observed. Corn replacement by glycerine and essential oils addition did not affect (P>0.05 carcass weight, dressing and conformation, carcass length and cushion thickness.

  17. Print Finishing: From Manual to Automated Print Finishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Ward

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Meeting the demand for faster turnrounds and shorter print runs goes beyond making the printing press easier to set up and change. There is little point in producing plates and then sheets from a press if the post press area does not change to keep abreast of developments in prepress and the print room. The greatest impact is going to come from JDF, the end to end production data format which is finding wide spread acceptance in print areas. To date finishing equipment manufacturers are not as well represented within the CIP4 organisation as prepress and press vendors, but the major manufacturers are members. All are working to the goal of complete connectivity.The idea of JDF is that if the format of a print product like a magazine is known during the creation phases, the information can be used to preset machinery that is going to be used to produce it, so avoiding input errors and saving manufacturing time.A second aspect to JDF is that information about performance and progress is gathered and can be retrieved from a central point or made available to a customer. Production scheduling and costing becomes more accurate and customer relationships are deepened. However JDF to its fullest extent is not yet in use in connecting the finishing area to the rest of the printing plant. Around the world different companies are testing the idea of JDF to connect saddle stitchers, guillotines and binders with frantic work underway to be able to show results soon.

  18. Graphic Arts: The Press and Finishing Processes. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crummett, Dan

    This document contains teacher and student materials for a course in graphic arts concentrating on printing presses and the finishing process for publications. Seven units of instruction cover the following topics: (1) offset press systems; (2) offset inks and dampening chemistry; (3) offset press operating procedures; (4) preventive maintenance…

  19. A comparative evaluation of fluidized bed assisted drag finishing and centrifugal disk dry finishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barletta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Drag finishing of brass (Cu-30 wt.% Zn rings using fluidized abrasives, which is a new finishing technology, is comparatively evaluated with centrifugal disk finishing. The comparison was performed by selecting the same abrasive granulates of two different sizes and operating the equipment for the same processing time or at their respective maximum speeds. The experimental analysis investigated the change in workpiece morphology, material removal during finishing and dimensional accuracy. The results showed that each of the types of equipment investigated in the study were capable of a high finishing performance with a relatively short processing time. However, fluidized bed assisted drag finishing was more effective than centrifugal disk finishing in both the achievable quality of the processed parts and reduced processing time. In contrast, centrifugal disk finishing was preferable whenever low erosion and stringent dimensional tolerances were demanded.

  20. Catalyst screening for the VOC decomposition using adsorption and oxygen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.H.; Ogata, A. [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are directly related to the formation of photochemical smog and the secondary aerosol formation, particularly in urban areas. As such, VOC pollution control is a high priority in air quality management. Non-thermal plasmas (NTPs) have been considered for the abatement of VOCs, but 3 key factors must be addressed, notably improve the energy efficiency, have less NOx formation and acceptable material balance. A recent trend in the use of NTP for air pollution control is the combination of NTP with a catalyst. This combined process is subdivided into single-stage and two-stage depending on the position of the catalyst. Ozone-assisted catalysis is the two-stage system. This study focused on the decomposition of VOCs using a single-stage plasma-driven catalysis (PDC) system, and demonstrated the effectiveness of the PDC in terms of energy efficiency, product selectivity and carbon balance. The PDC reactor has a strong dependence on the oxygen content in the oxidation of VOCs. The potentials of various catalysts for cycled system were evaluated in terms of adsorption capability of VOC and enhancement factor (EF). The study focused on zeolites with a large surface area. Nanometer-sized active metals were also loaded on the zeolite surfaces, and their catalytic activity was tested. The metal nanoparticles supported on zeolites enhanced the catalytic activities considerably. ICCD camera observation of the discharge plasma on the surface of catalyst provided an important insight into the understanding of discharge plasma and catalyst. The area of discharge plasma expanded over a wide range by the metal nanoparticles. This physical influence was found to be closely related to the enhanced performance of the plasma-driven catalyst process. 15 refs., 5 figs.

  1. [Evaluation and selection of VOCs treatment technologies in packaging and printing industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Lin; Wang, Jun-Hui; Zhu, Chun-Lei; Nie, Lei; Hao, Zheng-Ping

    2014-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play an important role in urban air pollution. Activities of industries including the packaging and printing industries are regarded as the major sources. How to select the suitable treating techniques is the major problem for emission control. In this article, based on the VOCs emission characteristics of the packaging and printing industry and the existing treatment technologies, using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model, an evaluation system for VOCs selection was established and all the technologies used for treatment were assessed. It showed that the priority selection was in the following order: Carbon Fiber Adsorption-Desorption > Granular Carbon Adsorption-Desorption > Thermal Combustion > Regenerative Combustion > Catalytic combustion > Rotary adsorption-concentration and combustion > Granular Carbon adsorption-concentration and combustion. Carbon Fiber Adsorption-Desorption was selected as the best available technology due to its highest weight among those technologies.

  2. Control of VOC emissions from a flexographic printing facility using an industrial biotrickling filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempere, F; Martínez-Soria, V; Penya-Roja, J M; Waalkens, A; Gabaldón, C

    2012-01-01

    The study of an industrial unit of biotrickling filter for the treatment of the exhaust gases of a flexographic facility was investigated over a 2-year period with the objective to meet the volatile organic compound (VOC) regulatory emission limits. Increasing the water flow rate from 2 to 40 m(3) h(-1) improved the performance of the process, meeting the VOC regulation when 40 m(3) h(-1) were used. An empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 36 s was used when the inlet air temperature was 18.7 °C, and an EBRT as low as 26 s was set when the inlet temperature was 26.8 °C. During this long-term operation, the pressure drop over the column of the bioreactor was completely controlled avoiding clogging problems and the system could perfectly handle the non-working periods without VOC emission, demonstrating its robustness and feasibility to treat the emission of the flexographic sector.

  3. Ultraviolet and radical oxidation of airborne VOC`s. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinsohn, R.J.; Spaeder, T.A.; Albano, M.T.; Schmelzle, J.P.; Fetter, R.O.

    1994-03-18

    Airborne VOC`s reactions initiated by UV radiation at selected wavelengths from 185 to 308 nm have been studied. A simplified chemical kinetic mechanism is proposed incorporating photolysis and radical reactions. The concentration of HCHO and CH{sub 3}OH were predicted as a function of time, radiation wavelength, actinic flux and initial ozone concentration. The gas velocity and HCHO concentration were predicted in a gas stream flowing over a UV bulb. Experiments were conducted in which ethanol vapor and air were irradiated by low-pressure mercury bulbs. Ethanol disappeared in an overall first-order manner and an intermediate species, believed to be acetaldehyde, appeared and then disappeared.

  4. Application of Plasma finishing on Cotton Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Shankar Joshi,

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available “Plasma” word is derived from the Greek and referring to the “something molded or fabricated”. Plasma treatments are gaining popularity in the textile industry. Plasma treatment has to be controlled carefully to avoid detrimental action of the plasma onto the substrate. Plasma surface treatments show distinct advantages, because they are able to modify the surface properties of inert materials, sometimes with environment friendly devices. For fabrics, cold plasma treatments require the development of reliable and large systems. Application of “Plasma Technology” in chemical processing of textiles is one of the revolutionary ways to boost the textile wet processing right from pre-treatments to finishing.

  5. Finishing of the cold mass assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2001-01-01

    Photo 1 The connection-side end of the active part assembly. This view shows the electrical connections between the poles and the curved bus ended with flanges for the connection with the protection diode. Photo 2 The connection-side end of the active part assembly. This view shows the electrical connections between the poles, the auxiliary bus bars and the instrumentation wires. Photo 3 Lyre-side end of the active part assembly. One can see the mechanical support of the corretor magnets that are to be installed around the cold bore tubes. Photo 4 General view of the finishing station showing the special supporting structures (blue and yellow structures) needed for the geometric measurements and for the alignment operations. Around the magnet, there are datum points (on the tripodes) needed to build up the coordinates system for the measurements.

  6. Pulsed Corona Discharges and Their Applications in Toxic VOCs Abatement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MuhammadArifMalik; SalmanAkbarMalik

    1999-01-01

    plasma processes are among the emerging technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) sbatoment. Both thermal plasmas and non-equil[brimn plasmas (cold plasmas) are being developed for VOCs clesnup. Particularly, pulsed corona discharges offer several edvantages over conventional VOCs abatement tochniqvee, To optimize the existing technology and to developit further, there is need to understand the mechanlsms involved in plasma chemical reacticms, Furthermore, it is strongly desirable to be able to predict the behavior of new VOCs in non-equillbrlum plasma enviromuent from the data known for a few representative oompounds, Pulsed corona discharge technique is introduced here with dtafion of refevant literature, Fundamental principfes,useful for predicting the VOCs' decomposition behavior, have been worked out from the published literature. Latest developments in the area, targeted to minimize the enersy losses, improve the VOCs destruction efficiency and reduce the generation of unwanted organic and inorganic by-products, are presented.

  7. 25 CFR 301.8 - Finish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finish. 301.8 Section 301.8 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.8 Finish. All silver is to be hand polished. ...

  8. Are Some Fungal Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Mycotoxins?

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Joan W.; Arati A. Inamdar

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are carbon-compounds that easily evaporate at room temperature. Toxins are biologically produced poisons; mycotoxins are those toxins produced by microscopic fungi. All fungi emit blends of VOCs; the qualitative and quantitative composition of these volatile blends varies with the species of fungus and the environmental situation in which the fungus is grown. These fungal VOCs, produced as mixtures of alcohols, aldehydes, acids, ethers, esters, ketones, terpe...

  9. Outdoor, indoor, and personal exposure to VOCs in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adgate, John L; Church, Timothy R; Ryan, Andrew D; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Fredrickson, Ann L; Stock, Thomas H; Morandi, Maria T; Sexton, Ken

    2004-10-01

    We measured volatile organic compound (VOC) exposures in multiple locations for a diverse population of children who attended two inner-city schools in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Fifteen common VOCs were measured at four locations: outdoors (O), indoors at school (S), indoors at home (H), and in personal samples (P). Concentrations of most VOCs followed the general pattern O approximately equal to S long-term health risks from children's exposure to these compounds.

  10. Influence of cervical finish line type on the marginal adaptation of zirconia ceramic crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comlekoglu, Muharrem; Dundar, Mine; Ozcan, Mutlu; Gungor, Mehmet; Gokce, Bulent; Artunc, Celal

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of different cervical finish line designs on the marginal adaptation of a zirconia ceramic. Four different marginal finish lines (c: chamfer, mc: mini-chamfer, fe: feather-edge and s: rounded shoulder) were prepared on phantom incisors. Die models for each preparation group (N = 28, n = 7 per finish line design group) were made of epoxy resin. Y-TZP (ICE Zirkon) frameworks were manufactured by a copy-milling system (Zirconzahn) using prefabricated blanks and tried on the master models for initial adaptation of the framework; they were then sintered, followed by veneering (Zirconzahn). The finished crowns were cemented with a polycarboxylate cement (Poly F) under 300 g load and ultrasonically cleaned. The specimens were sliced and the marginal gap was measured, considering absolute marginal opening (AMO) and marginal opening (MO) for each coping under a stereomicroscope with image processing software (Lucia). The measurements were statistically analyzed using the Kruskal Wallis, Mann Whitney and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks tests at a significance level of alpha = 0.01. Means of AMO measurement (microm) for the feather-edge finish line (87 +/- 10) was significantly lower than that of the chamfer (144 +/- 14), shoulder (114 +/- 16) and mini-chamfer finish line types (114 +/- 11) (p finish line (68 +/- 9) (p finish line type had an influence on the marginal adaptation of the tested zirconia ceramic. Although the feather-edge finish line resulted in lower AMO and MO values, with its proven mechanical disadvantage, it cannot be recommended in clinical applications of zirconia crowns. This type of finish line has acted solely as a control group to test the null hypothesis in the current study. For better marginal adaptation, both shoulder and mini-chamfer finish line types could be suggested for zirconia crowns.

  11. Remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with membrane separation techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Membrane separation, a new technology for removing VOCs including pervaporation, vapor permeation, membrane contactor, and membrane bioreactor was presented. Comparing with traditional techniques, these special techniques are an efficient and energy-saving technology. Vapor permeation can be applied to recovery of organic solvents from exhaust streams. Membrane contactor could be used for removing or recovering VOCs from air or wastewater. Pervaporation and vapor permeation are viable methods for removing VOCs from wastewater to yield a VOC concentrate which could either be destroyed by conventional means, or be recycled for reuse.

  12. Productions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Surface Waters from Reactions with Atmospheric Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Frances; Bell, Thomas; Yang, Mingxi

    2017-04-01

    Ozone (O3) is a key atmospheric oxidant, greenhouse gas and air pollutant. In marine environments, some atmospheric ozone is lost by reactions with aqueous compounds (e.g. dissolved organic material, DOM, dimethyl sulfide, DMS, and iodide) near the sea surface. These reactions also lead to formations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Removal of O3 by the ocean remains a large uncertainty in global and regional chemical transport models, hampering coastal air quality forecasts. To better understand the role of the ocean in controlling O3 concentrations in the coastal marine atmosphere, we designed and implemented a series of laboratory experiments whereby ambient surface seawater was bubbled with O3-enriched, VOC-free air in a custom-made glass bubble equilibration system. Gas phase concentrations of a range of VOCs were monitored continuously over the mass range m/z 33 - 137 at the outflow of the bubble equilibrator by a proton transfer reaction - mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). Gas phase O3 was also measured at the input and output of the equilibrator to monitor the uptake due to reactions with dissolved compounds in seawater. We observed consistent productions of a variety of VOCs upon reaction with O3, notably isoprene, aldehydes, and ketones. Aqueous DMS is rapidly removed from the reactions with O3. To test the importance of dissolved organic matter precursors, we added increasing (milliliter) volumes of Emiliania huxleyi culture to the equilibrator filled with aged seawater, and observed significant linear increases in gas phase concentrations of a number of VOCs. Reactions between DOM and O3 at the sea-air interface represent a potentially significant source of VOCs in marine air and a sink of atmospheric O3.

  13. HYDROGEN AND VOC RETENTION IN WASTE BOXES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PACE ME; MARUSICH RM

    2008-11-21

    The Hanford Waste Management Project Master Documented Safety Analysis (MDSA) (HNF-14741, 2003) identifies derived safety controls to prevent or mitigate the risks of a single-container deflagration during operations requiring moving, venting or opening transuranic (TRU)-waste containers. The issue is whether these safety controls are necessary for operations involving TRU-waste boxes that are being retrieved from burial at the Hanford Site. This paper investigates the potential for a deflagration hazard within these boxes and whether safety controls identified for drum deflagration hazards should be applied to operations involving these boxes. The study evaluates the accumulation of hydrogen and VOCs within the waste box and the transport of these gases and vapors out of the waste box. To perform the analysis, there were numerous and major assumptions made regarding the generation rate and the transport pathway dimensions and their number. Since there is little actual data with regards to these assumptions, analyses of three potential configurations were performed to obtain some indication of the bounds of the issue (the concentration of hydrogen or flammable VOCs within a waste box). A brief description of each of the three cases along with the results of the analysis is summarized.

  14. Preliminary evaluation of the gaseous effluent sampling and monitoring systems at the 291-Z-1 and 296-Z-3 stacks. Plutonium finishing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwendiman, L.C.; Glissmeyer, J.A.

    1992-04-01

    The 291-Z-1 and 296-Z-3 stack effluent particulate sampling and monitoring systems are being evaluated for compliance with Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company`s Interim Criteria for such systems. This evaluation is part of a study by Battelle-Northwest of gaseous effluent sampling systems in ARHCO facilities. This letter report presents a preliminary evaluation of the mentioned facilities and the indicated improvements needed to meet the Interim Criteria so that conceptual design work for improved systems can be initiated. There is currently underway a detailed study at the two stacks including a series of sampling experiments, the findings of which will not be included in this report. The gaseous effluent sampling system at the 291-Z-1 and 296-Z-3 stacks are very dissimilar and will be treated in separate sections of this report. The discussions for each sampling system will include a brief description and a preliminary evaluation of the systems.

  15. On-road emission characteristics of VOCs from light-duty gasoline vehicles in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xinyue; Yao, Zhiliang; Shen, Xianbao; Ye, Yu; Jiang, Xi

    2016-01-01

    This study is the third in a series of three papers aimed at characterizing the VOC emissions of vehicles in Beijing. In this study, 30 light-duty vehicles fueled with gasoline were evaluated using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) as they were driven on a predesigned, fixed test route. All of the tested vehicles were rented from private vehicle owners and spanned regulatory compliance guidelines ranging from Pre-China I to China IV. Alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and some additional species in the exhaust were collected in Tedlar bags and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Carbonyls were collected on 2,4-dinitrophenyhydrazine (DNPH) cartridges and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Overall, 74 VOC species were detected from the tested vehicles, including 22 alkanes, 6 alkenes, 1 alkyne, 16 aromatics, 3 cyclanes, 10 halohydrocarbons, 12 carbonyls and 4 other compounds. Alkanes, aromatics and carbonyls were the dominant VOCs with weight percentages of approximately 36.4%, 33.1% and 17.4%, respectively. The average VOC emission factors and standard deviations of the Pre-China I, China I, China II, China III and China IV vehicles were 469.3 ± 200.1, 80.7 ± 46.1, 56.8 ± 37.4, 25.6 ± 11.7 and 14.9 ± 8.2 mg/km, respectively, which indicated that the VOC emissions significantly decreased under stricter vehicular emission standards. Driving cycles also influenced the VOC emissions from the tested vehicles. The average VOC emission factors based on the travel distances of the tested vehicles under urban driving cycles were greater than those under highway driving cycles. In addition, we calculated the ozone formation potential (OFP) using the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) method. The results of this study will be helpful for understanding the true emission levels of light-duty gasoline vehicles and will provide information for controlling VOC emissions from vehicles in Beijing, China.

  16. Mortality on grower/finisher-only swine operations in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Losinger W.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available For 53 grower/finisher-only swine operations that participated in the United States National Animal Health Monitoring System 1995 National Swine Study, mortality among finisher pigs ranged from 0 to 12.0% over a 6-month period. Twenty-six (49.1% had 2% mortality. Nine (17.0% operations experienced >4% mortality. Fisher's exact test revealed that operations with all-in all-out management were significantly more likely to have 1 grower/finisher pig came from another source. Larger operations (where >900 pigs entered the grower/finisher phase practiced all-in, all-out management more frequently than smaller operations, and had a lower mean percent mortality than smaller operations. Diagnosis of Salmonella in finisher pigs performed at a laboratory or by a veterinarian in the 12 months prior to interview was associated with both increased percent mortality and increased percent mortality per day.

  17. 长江三角洲地区基于喷涂工艺的溶剂源 VOCs 排放特征%Process-based Emission Characteristics of Volatile Organic Compounds(VOCs) from Paint Industry in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫梓伟; 牛贺; 陆思华; 邵敏; 勾斌

    2015-01-01

    了解挥发性有机物(volatile organic compounds,VOCs)的溶剂源排放特征是制定长江三角洲地区 PM2.5和臭氧防控策略的关键.本研究通过罐采样-GC-MS/ FID 测定了长江三角洲地区重点喷涂行业(集装箱喷涂、造船喷涂、木器喷涂和汽车喷涂业)的 VOCs 排放特征.结果表明,长江三角洲地区喷涂行业排放的主要 VOCs 组分为甲苯、二甲苯、乙苯等芳香烃类物质,三者之和占总 VOCs 的质量分数为79%~99%.生产工艺的不同对 VOCs 的排放组成影响并不大,废气处理装置中活性炭吸附对 VOCs 的组成并无明显影响,而催化燃烧的处理过程会使 VOCs 的排放组成产生显著变化,乙烯排放明显增大,同时也使得催化燃烧处理最大增量反应活性(maximum increment reactivity,MIR)值高于活性炭吸附处理后的 MIR 值,说明不同的处理措施的使用将影响 VOCs 对臭氧的生成作用.%Understanding the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission characteristics from solvent usage industry is essential to reduce PM2. 5 and O3 in Yangtze River Delta region. In this work, VOCs source characteristics of ship container, shipbuilding, wood, and automobile painting industry were measured using canister-GC-MS/ FID analysis system. The results showed that VOCs emitted from these industrial sectors were mainly aromatics, such as toluene, xylene, and ethylbenzene, accounting for 79% - 99% of total VOCs. The VOCs treatment facilities of activated carbon adsorption had little impact on changing the composition patterns of VOCs, while catalytic combustion treatments produced more alkenes. The combustion treatment of VOCs changed the maximum increment reactivity (MIR) of the VOCs emissions, and was thus very likely to change the ozone formation potentials.

  18. Desempenho e características histoquímicas do tecido muscular esquelético de cordeiras terminadas em diferentes sistemas = Performance and histochemical characteristics of the skeletal muscle tissue of lambs finished under different systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Gomes de Macedo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se o sistema de terminação de 44 cordeiras ½ Dorset Santa Inês na freqüência, diâmetro de fibras musculares esqueléticas e desempenho. Amostras do músculo semitendinosus foram coletadas para análise do diâmetro, frequência e efeito de modulação das fibras musculares do desmame e abate. As cordeiras foram divididas em dois sistemas de terminação. Pastagem com suplementação (1,5% PV com 27,01% PB e 4,51 Mcal de EB kg-1 MS e no confinamento receberam ração (4% PV com 15,56% de PB e 4,32 Mcal de EB kg-1 MS. O ganho de peso médio diário (GPMD foi de 0,157 e 0,148 kg para confinamento (CT epastagem mais suplementação (PS, respectivamente. Os diâmetros das fibras SO, FOG e FG para CT e PS, foram, respectivamente, 29,04 e 28,55, 34,46 e 35,80 e 38,81 e 40,96 μm. Frequência das fibras SO, FOG e FG para CT e SO, foram, respectivamente, 19,32 e 21,35, 43,88 e 43,53 e 36,80 e 35,12%. Correlação positiva entre o ganho médio diário das cordeiras conforme ocorreu aumento no diâmetro das fibras, tanto para CT e PS. Para a variável GPMD, as cordeiras podem ser terminadas, tanto no confinamento ou na pastagem mais suplementação.As características morfológicas, histoquímicas e efeito de modulação foram semelhantes, para qualquer um dos sistemas de terminação.Verify the effect of the termination system the forty-four ½ Dorset Santa Inês lambs in the frequency, diameter of skeletal muscular fibers and performance. Samples the semitendinosus muscle were collected for diameter analysis, frequency and modulation effect at weaning and slaughter. After weaned, the lambs were distributed in two finishing systems. Feedlot received ration (4% BW with 15.56% of CP and 4.32 Mcal de GE kg-1 of DM, while those on pasture received supplementation (1.5% BW with 27.01% CP and 4.51 Mcal of GE kg-1 of DM. The average daily gain (ADG was 0.157 and 0.148 kg for feedlot (TF and pasture + supplementation (PS. The diameters of

  19. A refined 2010-based VOC emission inventory and its improvement on modeling regional ozone in the Pearl River Delta Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shasha; Zheng, Junyu; Lu, Qing; Yuan, Zibing; Huang, Zhijiong; Zhong, Liuju; Lin, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Accurate and gridded VOC emission inventories are important for improving regional air quality model performance. In this study, a four-level VOC emission source categorization system was proposed. A 2010-based gridded Pearl River Delta (PRD) regional VOC emission inventory was developed with more comprehensive source coverage, latest emission factors, and updated activity data. The total anthropogenic VOC emission was estimated to be about 117.4 × 10(4)t, in which on-road mobile source shared the largest contribution, followed by industrial solvent use and industrial processes sources. Among the industrial solvent use source, furniture manufacturing and shoemaking were major VOC emission contributors. The spatial surrogates of VOC emission were updated for major VOC sources such as industrial sectors and gas stations. Subsector-based temporal characteristics were investigated and their temporal variations were characterized. The impacts of updated VOC emission estimates and spatial surrogates were evaluated by modeling O₃ concentration in the PRD region in the July and October of 2010, respectively. The results indicated that both updated emission estimates and spatial allocations can effectively reduce model bias on O₃ simulation. Further efforts should be made on the refinement of source classification, comprehensive collection of activity data, and spatial-temporal surrogates in order to reduce uncertainty in emission inventory and improve model performance.

  20. Effect of heat waves on VOC emissions from vegetation and urban air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churkina, G.; Kuik, F.; Lauer, A.; Bonn, B.; Butler, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Programs to plant millions of trees in cities around the world aim at the reduction of summer temperatures, increase carbon storage, storm water control, provision of space for recreation, as well as poverty alleviation. Although these multiple benefits speak positively for urban greening programs, the programs do not take into account how close human and natural systems are coupled in urban areas. Elevated temperatures together with anthropogenic emissions of air and water pollutants distinguish the urban system. Urban and sub-urban vegetation responds to ambient changes and reacts with pollutants. Neglecting this coupling may lead to unforeseen drawbacks of urban greening programs. The potential for emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vegetation combined with anthropogenic emissions to produce ozone has long been recognized. This potential increases under rising temperatures. Here we investigate how heat waves affect emissions of VOC from urban vegetation and corresponding ground-level ozone. In this study we use Weather Research and Forecasting Model with coupled atmospheric chemistry (WRF-CHEM) to quantify these feedbacks in Berlin, Germany during the 2006 heat wave. VOC emissions from vegetation are simulated with MEGAN 2.0 coupled with WRF-CHEM. Our preliminary results indicate that contribution of VOCs from vegetation to ozone formation may increase by more than twofold during the heat wave period. We highlight the importance of the vegetation for urban areas under changing climate and discuss associated tradeoffs.

  1. NEW SOIL VOC SAMPLERS: EN CORE AND ACCU CORE SAMPLING/STORAGE DEVICES FOR VOC ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan S. Sorini; John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani Jr

    2006-06-01

    Soil sampling and storage practices for volatile organic analysis must be designed to minimize loss of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from samples. The En Core{reg_sign} sampler is designed to collect and store soil samples in a manner that minimizes loss of contaminants due to volatilization and/or biodegradation. An ASTM International (ASTM) standard practice, D 6418, Standard Practice for Using the Disposable En Core Sampler for Sampling and Storing Soil for Volatile Organic Analysis, describes use of the En Core sampler to collect and store a soil sample of approximately 5 grams or 25 grams for volatile organic analysis and specifies sample storage in the En Core sampler at 4 {+-} 2 C for up to 48 hours; -7 to -21 C for up to 14 days; or 4 {+-} 2 C for up to 48 hours followed by storage at -7 to -21 C for up to five days. This report discusses activities performed during the past year to promote and continue acceptance of the En Core samplers based on their performance to store soil samples for VOC analysis. The En Core sampler is designed to collect soil samples for VOC analysis at the soil surface. To date, a sampling tool for collecting and storing subsurface soil samples for VOC analysis is not available. Development of a subsurface VOC sampling/storage device was initiated in 1999. This device, which is called the Accu Core{trademark} sampler, is designed so that a soil sample can be collected below the surface using a dual-tube penetrometer and transported to the laboratory for analysis in the same container. Laboratory testing of the current Accu Core design shows that the device holds low-level concentrations of VOCs in soil samples during 48-hour storage at 4 {+-} 2 C and that the device is ready for field evaluation to generate additional performance data. This report discusses a field validation exercise that was attempted in Pennsylvania in 2004 and activities being performed to plan and conduct a field validation study in 2006. A draft ASTM

  2. SUBSTRATE EFFECTS ON VOC EMISSIONS FROM A LATEX PAINT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of two substrates -- a stainless steel plate and a gypsum board -- on the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from a latex paint were evaluated by environmental chamber tests. It was found that the amount of VOCs emitted from the painted stainless steel was 2 to...

  3. FORMULATING ULTRA-LOW-VOC WOOD FURNITURE COATINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The article discusses the formulation of ultra-low volatile organic compound (VOC) wood furniture coatings. The annual U.S. market for wood coatings is about 240, 000 cu m (63 million gal). In this basis, between 57 and 91 million kg (125 and 200 million lb) of VOCs are emitted i...

  4. Direct measurement of VOC diffusivities in tree tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baduru, K.K.; Trapp, Stefan; Burken, Joel G.

    2008-01-01

    fundamental terminal fate processes for VOCs that have been translocated from contaminated soil or groundwater, and diffusion constitutes the mass transfer mechanism to the plant−atmosphere interface. Therefore, VOC diffusion through woody plant tissues, that is, xylem, has a direct impact on contaminant fate...

  5. Are Some Fungal Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Mycotoxins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Joan W; Inamdar, Arati A

    2015-09-22

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are carbon-compounds that easily evaporate at room temperature. Toxins are biologically produced poisons; mycotoxins are those toxins produced by microscopic fungi. All fungi emit blends of VOCs; the qualitative and quantitative composition of these volatile blends varies with the species of fungus and the environmental situation in which the fungus is grown. These fungal VOCs, produced as mixtures of alcohols, aldehydes, acids, ethers, esters, ketones, terpenes, thiols and their derivatives, are responsible for the characteristic moldy odors associated with damp indoor spaces. There is increasing experimental evidence that some of these VOCs have toxic properties. Laboratory tests in mammalian tissue culture and Drosophila melanogaster have shown that many single VOCs, as well as mixtures of VOCs emitted by growing fungi, have toxic effects. This paper describes the pros and cons of categorizing toxigenic fungal VOCs as mycotoxins, uses genomic data to expand on the definition of mycotoxin, and summarizes some of the linguistic and other conventions that can create barriers to communication between the scientists who study VOCs and those who study toxins. We propose that "volatoxin" might be a useful term to describe biogenic volatile compounds with toxigenic properties.

  6. Are Some Fungal Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs Mycotoxins?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan W. Bennett

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs are carbon-compounds that easily evaporate at room temperature. Toxins are biologically produced poisons; mycotoxins are those toxins produced by microscopic fungi. All fungi emit blends of VOCs; the qualitative and quantitative composition of these volatile blends varies with the species of fungus and the environmental situation in which the fungus is grown. These fungal VOCs, produced as mixtures of alcohols, aldehydes, acids, ethers, esters, ketones, terpenes, thiols and their derivatives, are responsible for the characteristic moldy odors associated with damp indoor spaces. There is increasing experimental evidence that some of these VOCs have toxic properties. Laboratory tests in mammalian tissue culture and Drosophila melanogaster have shown that many single VOCs, as well as mixtures of VOCs emitted by growing fungi, have toxic effects. This paper describes the pros and cons of categorizing toxigenic fungal VOCs as mycotoxins, uses genomic data to expand on the definition of mycotoxin, and summarizes some of the linguistic and other conventions that can create barriers to communication between the scientists who study VOCs and those who study toxins. We propose that “volatoxin” might be a useful term to describe biogenic volatile compounds with toxigenic properties.

  7. Finishing of the cold mass assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2001-01-01

    Photo 1 General view of the finishing station showing the special supporting structures (blue and yellow structures) needed for the geometric measurements and for the alignment operations. Around the magnet, there are datum points (on the tripodes) needed to build up the coordinates system for the measurements. Photo 2 The corrector magnets that are sextupoles are prepared for a plug-in fixation on their mechanical support. Photo 3 A corretor magnet has been installed on the left cold bore tube. The second one is waiting on the table for installation. Photo 4 The mechanical mole holding the corner cube reflector of the 3-D measuring machine is introduced in the cold bore tube (the right one on the picture). This will allow to pick up the X-Y-Z coordinates of the centre of the cold bore tube on its entire length. Photo 5 This picture shows the driving system that is completely computer controlled to pull the mechanical mole inside the cold bore tube. Photo 6 This picture shows details of the driving system...

  8. NCMS PWB Surface Finishes Team project summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokas, J.; DeSantis, C. [United Technologies Corp., Farmington, CT (United States). Hamilton Standard Div.; Wenger, G. [AT and T, New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    The NCMS PWB Surface Finishes Consortium is just about at the end of the five year program. Dozens of projects related to surface finishes and PWB solder-ability were performed by the team throughout the program, and many of them are listed in this paper. They are listed with a cross reference to where and when a technical paper was presented describing the results of the research. However, due to time and space constraints, this paper can summarize the details of only three of the major research projects accomplished by the team. The first project described is an ``Evaluation of PWB Surface Finishes.`` It describes the solderability, reliability, and wire bondability of numerous surface finishes. The second project outlined is an ``Evaluation of PWB Solderability Test Methods.`` The third project outlined is the ``Development and Evaluation of Organic Solderability Preservatives.``

  9. Nieuwsgaring in Batavia tijdens de VOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Zuiderweg

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available  The board members of the Dutch East India Company (1602-1795, the Heren Zeventien, promulgated various decrees in which they forbade to bring out information regarding their colonies in the Dutch East Indies and Batavia in letters, manuscripts and printed matter. But in Batavia some inventive Company servants and even staff members got around these regulations, as did some printers in Holland. They published newspapers like Bataviase Nouvelles and Vendu-Nieuws, and also the specialized journal Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap. The initiators of this journal joined hands with the Dutch world of learning and its journals. This article provides an overview of early journalism in the Dutch East Indies and thus contributes to the reconstruction of the literary and cultural climate in Batavia at the time of the VOC.

  10. Drawing the Experience of the European and American to Improve Water Environmental Standard System of VOCs in China%借鉴欧美经验完善我国VOCs水环境标准体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房丽萍; 杨刚; 田文; 田洪海

    2016-01-01

    水体中挥发性有机化合物(VOCs)污染是目前我国环境保护领域研究的一个热点问题,也是我国环境标准体系建设重要的研究内容.目前,我国水体中挥发性有机物标准体系建设尚不完善,检测方法标准开发不够,特别是标准样品还有很多空白.本文分析了欧美国家VOCs水环境标准现状,并对我国完善我国VOCs水环境标准体系提出建议.

  11. Surface Finish after Laser Metal Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombouts, M.; Maes, G.; Hendrix, W.; Delarbre, E.; Motmans, F.

    Laser metal deposition (LMD) is an additive manufacturing technology for the fabrication of metal parts through layerwise deposition and laser induced melting of metal powder. The poor surface finish presents a major limitation in LMD. This study focuses on the effects of surface inclination angle and strategies to improve the surface finish of LMD components. A substantial improvement in surface quality of both the side and top surfaces has been obtained by laser remelting after powder deposition.

  12. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air from Nisyros Island (Dodecanese Archipelago, Greece): Natural versus anthropogenic sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassi, F; Capecchiacci, F; Giannini, L; Vougioukalakis, G E; Vaselli, O

    2013-09-01

    This study presents the chemical composition of VOCs in air and gas discharges collected at Nisyros Island (Dodecanese Archipelago, Greece). The main goals are i) to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic VOC sources and ii) to evaluate their impact on local air quality. Up to 63 different VOCs were recognized and quantitatively determined in 6 fumaroles and 19 air samples collected in the Lakki caldera, where fumarolic emissions are located, and the outer ring of the island, including the Mandraki village and the main harbor. Air samples from the crater area show significant concentrations of alkanes, alkenes, cyclic, aromatics, and S- and O-bearing heterocycles directly deriving from the hydrothermal system, as well as secondary O-bearing compounds from oxidation of primary VOCs. At Mandraki village, C6H6/Σ(methylated aromatics) and Σ(linear)/Σ(branched) alkanes ratios <1 allow to distinguish an anthropogenic source related to emissions from outlet pipes of touristic and private boats and buses.

  13. Mechanisms of Increased Particle and VOC Emissions during DPF Active Regeneration and Practical Emissions Considering Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Inomata, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi

    2017-02-27

    Mechanisms involved in increased particle and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions during active and parked active regenerations of a diesel particulate filter (DPF) were investigated using heavy-duty trucks equipped with both a urea selective catalytic reduction system and a DPF (SCR + DPF) and a DPF-only. Particle emissions increased in the later part of the regeneration period but the mechanisms were different above and below 23 nm. Particles above 23 nm were emitted due to the lower filtering efficiency of the DPF because of the decreasing amount of soot trapped during regeneration. Small particles below 23 nm were thought to be mainly sulfuric acid particles produced from SO2 trapped by the catalyst, being released and oxidized during regeneration. Contrary to the particle emissions, VOCs increased in the earlier part of the regeneration period. The mean molecular weights of the VOCs increased gradually as the regeneration proceeded. To evaluate "practical emissions" in which increased emissions during the regeneration were considered, a Regeneration Correction Factor (RCF), which is the average emission during one cycle of regeneration/emission in normal operation, was adopted. The RCFs of PM and VOCs were 1.1-1.5, and those of PNs were as high as 3-140, although they were estimated from a limited number of observations.

  14. A development of the method of the control signal formation for the hot plate mill automation systems to improve the flatness of the finish plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronin Stanislav S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes how to control of the hot plate mill automation system to improve the quality metrics if the final strip. Based on the data of the modern hot rolling mills the classification of the cage equipment was designed. Depending on the degree of influence on the magnitude of reduction, the equipment was divided into categories. The functioning of every system including the main and the vertical cages was described. The conditions of electrical and hydraulic mechanisms was marked. The developed algorithm allows to improve defects based on the finite number of the thickness measurements given by special non-contact sensors. The example of regulators signals calculating was shown. The result of the algorithm operating was illustrated.

  15. Effect of housing system, slaughter weight and slaughter strategy on carcass and meat quality, sex organ development and androstenone and skatole levels in Duroc finished entire male pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fàbrega, E; Gispert, M; Tibau, J; Hortós, M; Oliver, M A; Furnols, M Font I

    2011-12-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of housing system (HS), slaughter weight (SW) and strategy (SS) on carcass a nd meat quality, sexual organ development and boar taint in entire males. Twelve pens of 10 pigs were used (two trials). Half of male pens were allowed visual contact with females (MF) and half with males (MM). Half MM or MF were slaughtered at 105 or 130 kg in trial 1, or penwise or by split marketing in trial 2 at 120 kg. Housing system showed no significant effect on carcass or meat quality. MF presented significantly longer testicles and heavier bulbourethral glands compared to MM. The distribution of androstenone and skatole levels was affected by SW but not by HS or SS, samples with androstenone >1 μg/g of the different groups falling within the range of 16 to 22%. All correlations between androstenone and sex organs were significant. Housing system and slaughter strategy did not reduce the risk of boar tainted carcasses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Monitoring and control of fine abrasive finishing processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarev, Ruslan

    In engineering, surfaces with specified functional properties are of high demand in various applications. Desired surface finish can be obtained using several methods. Abrasive finishing is one of the most important processes in the manufacturing of mould and dies tools. It is a principal method...... of this work was to investigate foundations for process monitoring and control methods in application to semi-automated polishing machine based on the industrial robot. The monitoring system was built on NI data acquisition system with two sensors, acoustic emission sensor and accelerometer. Acquired sensory...... signals were analysed in time-frequency domain and specific process features are extracted in relation to machining parameters and processed surface properties. Development and research of the process monitoring was done with background in evaluation of surface roughness parameters. The characterization...

  17. Influence of feeding regime and finishing system on lamb muscle fiber and meat quality Influência do regime alimentar e do sistema de terminação sobre as fibras musculares e a qualidade da carne de cordeiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Bonagurio Gallo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The study verified the influence of different nutritional levels of the dams, before parturition, the weaning age of the lambs and the finishing system on lamb muscle fiber morphology and meat quality. Ile-de-France × Bergamacia crossbred dams grazing on natural grassland were divided into two groups: 1 nutritional supplement 30 days before the parturition (SUPL, and 2 no nutritional supplement (NS. These groups were further subdivided by weaning age of the lambs, which corresponded to either 45 or 60 days. The weaned lambs from each of the previous groups were also divided into different finishing systems: confined and fed a complete diet (CD, confined and fed hay (H and kept on grassland (P. The lambs were slaughtered at 30 kg live weight (CD and P, or at 150 days of age (H. The carcasses were cooled at 4ºC/24h. The analyzed variables were: longissimus dorsi muscle fiber morphophysiology, post mortem myofibrillar fragmentation (at 0, 3 and 7 days post mortem, meat pH and temperature. There was no effect of supplementation of dams or weaning age of the lambs for the evaluated variables. The frequency of slow-oxidative (SO, fast-oxidative-glycolytic (FOG and fast-glycolytic (FG muscle fiber types was not altered by the treatments, but the fiber cross-sectional area was smaller for the lambs finished only on hay, and the meat pH values and temperature were lower and the myofibrill fragment dimensions were smaller. As time maturation increased from 0 to 3 and 7 days post mortem, there was a decrease in the length of the myofibrill fragments. The diet of the lambs which were maintained confined and fed only with hay was nutritionally inferior when compared with all the others, and this changed the quality of the meat compared to the finishing systems on grassland or confined and fed complete diet.Avaliou-se a influência dos níveis nutricionais da ovelha antes do parto, da idade à desmama e do sistema de terminação sobre as fibras musculares

  18. Field tests of the first complete solar heating successfully finished; Feldtests erster Solarkomplettheizung erfolgreich abgeschlossen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kranich, Kerstin [Westfa, Hagen (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    Recently, the field tests of a new complete solar heating system could successfully be finished. The heating system obtains a primary energy saving of up to 60 % by means of a covering degree of 85 % by renewable energy sources. The effective combination of new hybrid solar heat collectors, a heat pump, a combination buffer memory and an ice latent heat storage finished the test phase and comes to the market in a few weeks.

  19. Gaseous VOCs rapidly modify particulate matter and its biological effects – Part 1: Simple VOCs and model PM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Jeffries

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the first of a three-part study designed to demonstrate dynamic entanglements among gaseous organic compounds (VOC, particulate matter (PM, and their subsequent potential biological effects. We study these entanglements in increasingly complex VOC and PM mixtures in urban-like conditions in a large outdoor chamber. To the traditional chemical and physical characterizations of gas and PM, we added new measurements of biological effects, using cultured human lung cells as model indicators. These biological effects are assessed here as increases in cellular damage or expressed irritation (i.e., cellular toxic effects from cells exposed to chamber air relative to cells exposed to clean air. The exposure systems permit virtually gas-only- or PM-only-exposures from the same air stream containing both gases and PM in equilibria, i.e., there are no extractive operations prior to cell exposure. Our simple experiments in this part of the study were designed to eliminate many competing atmospheric processes to reduce ambiguity in our results. Simple volatile and semi-volatile organic gases that have inherent cellular toxic properties were tested individually for biological effect in the dark (at constant humidity. Airborne mixtures were then created with each compound to which we added PM that has no inherent cellular toxic properties for another cellular exposure. Acrolein and p-tolualdehyde were used as model VOCs and mineral oil aerosol (MOA was selected as a surrogate for organic-containing PM. MOA is appropriately complex in composition to represent ambient PM, and exhibits no inherent cellular toxic effects and thus did not contribute any biological detrimental effects on its own. Chemical measurements, combined with the responses of our biological exposures, clearly demonstrate that gas-phase pollutants can modify the composition of PM (and its resulting detrimental effects on lung cells. We observed that, even if the gas-phase pollutants

  20. Gaseous VOCs rapidly modify particulate matter and its biological effects – Part 1: Simple VOCs and model PM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Jeffries

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This is the first of a three-part study designed to demonstrate dynamic entanglements among gaseous organic compounds (VOC, particulate matter (PM, and their subsequent potential biological effects. We study these entanglements in increasingly complex VOC and PM mixtures in urban-like conditions in a large outdoor chamber. To the traditional chemical and physical characterizations of gas and PM, we added new measurements of gas-only- and PM-only-biological effects, using cultured human lung cells as model indicators. These biological effects are assessed here as increases in cellular damage or expressed irritation (i.e., cellular toxic effects from cells exposed to chamber air relative to cells exposed to clean air. The exposure systems permit gas-only- or PM-only-exposures from the same air stream containing both gases and PM in equilibria, i.e., there are no extractive operations prior to cell exposure. Our simple experiments in this part of the study were designed to eliminate many competing atmospheric processes to reduce ambiguity in our results. Simple volatile and semi-volatile organic gases that have inherent cellular toxic properties were tested individually for biological effect in the dark (at constant humidity. Airborne mixtures were then created with each compound and PM that has no inherent cellular toxic properties for another cellular exposure. Acrolein and p-tolualdehyde were used as model VOCs and mineral oil aerosol (MOA was selected as a surrogate for organic-containing PM. MOA is appropriately complex in composition to represent ambient PM, and it exhibits no inherent cellular toxic effects and thus did not contribute any biological detrimental effects on its own. Chemical measurements, combined with the responses of our biological exposures, clearly demonstrate that gas-phase pollutants can modify the composition of PM (and its resulting detrimental effects on lung cells – even if the gas-phase pollutants are not

  1. Gaseous VOCs rapidly modify particulate matter and its biological effects - Part 1: Simple VOCs and model PM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersviller, S.; Lichtveld, K.; Sexton, K. G.; Zavala, J.; Lin, Y.-H.; Jaspers, I.; Jeffries, H. E.

    2012-12-01

    This is the first of a three-part study designed to demonstrate dynamic entanglements among gaseous organic compounds (VOC), particulate matter (PM), and their subsequent potential biological effects. We study these entanglements in increasingly complex VOC and PM mixtures in urban-like conditions in a large outdoor chamber. To the traditional chemical and physical characterizations of gas and PM, we added new measurements of biological effects, using cultured human lung cells as model indicators. These biological effects are assessed here as increases in cellular damage or expressed irritation (i.e., cellular toxic effects) from cells exposed to chamber air relative to cells exposed to clean air. The exposure systems permit virtually gas-only- or PM-only-exposures from the same air stream containing both gases and PM in equilibria, i.e., there are no extractive operations prior to cell exposure. Our simple experiments in this part of the study were designed to eliminate many competing atmospheric processes to reduce ambiguity in our results. Simple volatile and semi-volatile organic gases that have inherent cellular toxic properties were tested individually for biological effect in the dark (at constant humidity). Airborne mixtures were then created with each compound to which we added PM that has no inherent cellular toxic properties for another cellular exposure. Acrolein and p-tolualdehyde were used as model VOCs and mineral oil aerosol (MOA) was selected as a surrogate for organic-containing PM. MOA is appropriately complex in composition to represent ambient PM, and exhibits no inherent cellular toxic effects and thus did not contribute any biological detrimental effects on its own. Chemical measurements, combined with the responses of our biological exposures, clearly demonstrate that gas-phase pollutants can modify the composition of PM (and its resulting detrimental effects on lung cells). We observed that, even if the gas-phase pollutants are not

  2. Aeroengine. Development of a finishing robot for jet engine parts; Kokukiyo enigne. Buhin shiage robot no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manabe, T.; Kametani, A.; Iwamoto, M.; Danjo, K.; Hishida, H.; Ninomiya, T. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. (KHI) has developed a precise finishing robot system and applied it to the finishing processes of jet engine parts. There has been a strong need for such a system as finishing processes are both labor intensive and time-consuming activities. Realization of a suitable solution has been held back in the past due to the delicate treatment required by the fine and complicated parts. However, by developing a device with the ability to control the tool/work contact force during operation, KHI has succeeded in producing the new robotic finishing system. The system is capable of performing many types of finishing operations, such as chamfering, deburring and brushing. Systems have now been and will further be introduced into the jet engine division of KHI. Already they are contributing to labor saving, cost reduction, and processing quality control. KHI will continue to promote rationalization of production processes by introducing varieties of our robot systems where needed. (author)

  3. UV-CURED FINISHING WORKS FOR LANE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Midwest Research Institute, under a cooperative agreement with the U.S. EPA, conducted a study to identify wood furniture manufacturing facilities that had converted to low-VOC/HAP wood furniture coatings and to develop case studies for those facilities. This article addresse...

  4. Produtividade e Eficiência Biológica de Sistemas de Recria e Engorda de Gado de Corte no Rio Grande de Sul Productivity and Biological Efficiency of Growing and Finishing Beef Cattle Systems in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Beretta

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas, por meio de simulações, a produtividade e a eficiência de sistemas de produção de gado de corte no Rio Grande do Sul, diferindo na idade de abate (IA dos novilhos (54, 42, 36, 30, 24 e 18 meses, IA54, IA42, IA36, IA30, IA24 e IA18, respectivamente, ou nos pesos de compra e venda (sistemas especializados na recria desde 150 a 250 kg - R1, recria de 250 a 350 kg - R2 ou engorda desde 350 a 450 kg -R3. Foi utilizado um modelo estático determinístico, representando os sistemas em equilíbrio. O manejo alimentar foi caracterizado para cada sistema com base em dados bibliográficos, conforme a IA estabelecida, enquanto os sistemas R1, R2 e R3 foram avaliados somente em campo nativo. Houve uma resposta em produtividade de tipo quadrático à redução na IA, atingindo o menor valor (65 kg/ha no sistema IA54 e o maior no IA18 (343 kg/ha. O custo energético por quilo de peso vivo produzido aumentou em 1,19 Mcal EM/kg a cada mês a mais na IA. Associada à redução da IA, a proporção de pastagens melhoradas cresceu até 68% da área de pastejo, possibilitando um aumento paralelo da carga e do ganho médio diário. A diminuição do peso de compra e venda dos animais, para um mesmo ganho total de peso vivo, aumentou a produtividade das empresas (R1=113; R2=81; R3=63 kg/ha, demonstrando ser a especialização na produção uma alternativa de melhoria em sistemas dependentes exclusivamente do campo nativo.A static deterministic model was used to evaluate productivity and efficiency of growing and finishing beef steers systems in Rio Grande do Sul State differing at steers slaughter age (IA: 54, 42, 36, 30, 24 and 18 months (IA54, IA42, IA36, IA30, IA24 e IA18, respectively, or in market live weight for buying and sale (cattle growing systems from 150 to 250 kg -R1, from 250 to 350 kg -R2, or finishing cattle from 350 to 450 kg -R3. Feeding management was described for each system based on published reports according to IA, while

  5. Hybrid machining processes perspectives on machining and finishing

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Kapil; Laubscher, R F

    2016-01-01

    This book describes various hybrid machining and finishing processes. It gives a critical review of the past work based on them as well as the current trends and research directions. For each hybrid machining process presented, the authors list the method of material removal, machining system, process variables and applications. This book provides a deep understanding of the need, application and mechanism of hybrid machining processes.

  6. Vertical profiles of ozone, VOCs and meteorological parameters in within and outside of Mexico City during the MILAGRO field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, C.; Greenberg, J.; Bueno, E.; Bernabe, R.; Aguilar, J.; Blanco, S.; Wöhrnschimmel, H.; Guenther, A.; Cardenas, B.; Turnipseed, A.

    2007-05-01

    days, VOC concentrations at T0 were compared with measurements done at surface levels in the southeast of Mexico City. Vertical profiles measured in the city at T0 were also compared with VOC and ozone concentrations measured at heights up to 700m using a tethered balloon system deployed at the T1 site north of Mexico City.

  7. Raman scattering investigation of VOCs in interaction with ice particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facq, Sébastien; Oancea, Adriana; Focsa, Cristian; Chazallon, Bertrand

    2010-05-01

    Cirrus clouds that form in the Earth's upper troposphere (UT) are known to play a significant role in the radiation budget and climate [1]. These clouds that cover about 35% of the Earth's surface [2] are mainly composed of small ice particles that can provide surfaces for trace gas interactions [3]. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are present in relative high abundance in the UT [4][5]. They promote substantial sources of free OH radicals that are responsible for driving photochemical cycles in the atmosphere. Their presence can both influence the oxidizing capacity and the ozone budget of the atmosphere. VOCs can interact with ice particles via different trapping processes (adsorption, diffusion, freezing, and co-deposition, i.e., incorporation of trace gases during growing ice conditions) which can result in the perturbation of the chemistry and photochemistry of the UT. Knowledge of the incorporation processes of VOCs in ice particles is important in order to understand and predict their impact on the ice particles structure and reactivity and more generally on the cirrus cloud formation. This proceeds via the in-situ characterization of the ice condensed phase in a pressure and temperature range of the UT. An important mechanism of UT cirrus cloud formation is the heterogeneous ice freezing process. In this study, we examine and characterize the interaction of a VOC, i.e., ethanol (EtOH) with ice particles during freezing. Vibrational spectra of water O-H and EtOH C-H spectral regions are analysed using confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy. Information at the molecular level on the surface structure can be derived from accompanying changes observed in band shapes and vibrational mode frequencies. Depending of the EtOH content, different crystalline phases have been identified and compared to hydrates previously reported for the EtOH-water system. Particular attention is paid on the effect of EtOH aqueous solutions cooling rate and droplet sizes on the phases

  8. VOCs and odors: key factors in selecting `green` building materials?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, C. [Steven Winter Associates Inc., Norwalk, CT and Washington DC (United States)

    1998-12-01

    The current state of knowledge available for selecting building materials on the basis of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and odors is reviewed. The significance of VOCs and odors in building materials is related to their role in influencing indoor air quality. As far as toxicity is concerned, many of the VOCs detected in indoor air are relatively inert when considered singly. They are not however, unimportant because in actual fact they are invariably found in mixtures some of which can be toxic. Although knowledge of VOCs is incomplete, it is important to specify ozone-resistant polymeric building products, i.e. those that are chemically stable and inert to oxidation. In addition to VOCs, attention should also be focused on semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) since they are even more persistent than VOCs and tend to offgas for prolonged periods of time. Similarly, it is reasonable to specify low-odor materials. Inclusion of issues related to complex indoor chemistry, less volatile emissions, in addition to VOCs and odor, should in time result in expanded choices of building materials that promote indoor air quality. 16 refs.,2 tabs.

  9. Expression of Xhdsi-1VOC, a novel member of the vicinal oxygen chelate (VOC) metalloenzyme superfamily, is up-regulated in leaves and roots during desiccation in the resurrection plant Xerophyta humilis (Bak) Dur and Schinz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulako, I.; Farrant, J. M.; Collett, H.; Illing, N.

    2008-01-01

    The annotation of novel plant genes is frequently based on sequence and structural similarity to known protein motifs. Understanding the biological function of these genes is dependent on identifying conditions under which they are activated, however. The resurrection plant, Xerophyta humilis is a good model system for identifying and characterizing genes which are important for desiccation tolerance. Desiccation induced-1 (dsi-1VOC), a previously uncharacterized plant gene, is up-regulated during desiccation in leaves, roots, and seeds in X. humilis. The X. humilis desiccation induced-1 gene, Xhdsi-1VOC, shares structural homology with the vicinal oxygen chelate (VOC) metalloenzyme superfamily. Proteins in this superfamily share little sequence similarity, but are characterized by a common βαβββ structural fold. A number of plant orthologues of XhDsi-1VOC have been identified, including Arabidopsis thaliana At1g07645, which is currently annotated as a glyoxalase I-like gene, and many ESTs derived from seed cDNA libraries. Xhdsi-1VOC and its orthologues do not, however, contain the glutathione and zinc binding sites conserved in glyoxalase I genes. Furthermore, expression of Xhdsi-1VOC in yeast failed to rescue a yeast glyoxalase I mutant. Messenger RNA transcripts for At1g07645 accumulate during seed maturation, but are not induced by water loss, salt or mannitol stress in vegetative tissue in Arabidopsis. It is concluded that dsi-1VOC is a seed-specific gene in desiccation-sensitive plants that is activated by water loss in vegetative tissues in the resurrection plant X. humilis and plays an important role in allowing plant tissues to survive loss of 95% of their relative water content. PMID:18791196

  10. The importance of surface finish to energy performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Geoff B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Power generation in solar energy systems, thermal control in buildings and mitigation of the Urban Heat Island problem, are all sensitive to directional response to incoming radiation. The radiation absorption and emission profile also plays a crucial role in each system's response and depends strongly on surface finish. This important sensitivity needs wider recognition in materials data sheets, system modeling, plus in materials and environmental engineering. The impact of surface roughness on thermal response of natural and man-made external environments is examined. Important examples will be given of the role of surface finish within each class. Total emittance links to the way surface finish influences directional emittance E(θ. Smooth surface thermal emittance on PV module covers, many solar absorbers, some roof paints, polished concrete, and glass windows can be up to 15% different from insulator results based on fully diffuse models of the same material. Widespread evidence indicates smooth metals and low-E solar absorber surfaces cool faster, and smooth insulators slower than previously thought. Matt paint is cooler than low sheen paint under the same solar heating impacts and normal concrete cooler than polished. Emittance for water is the prime environmental example of oblique impacts as it reflects strongly at oblique incidence, which leads to a significant drop in E(θ. Ripples or waves however raise water's average emittance. A surprise in this work was the high sensitivity of total E and its angular components to roughness in the depth range of 0.1–0.8 μm, which are well under ambient thermal IR wavelengths of 3–30 μm but common in metal finishing. Parallel energy flows such as evaporation and convective cooling vary if emittance varies. Thermal image analysis can provide insights into angular radiative effects.

  11. Plutonium Finishing Plant safety evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) previously known as the Plutonium Process and Storage Facility, or Z-Plant, was built and put into operation in 1949. Since 1949 PFP has been used for various processing missions, including plutonium purification, oxide production, metal production, parts fabrication, plutonium recovery, and the recovery of americium (Am-241). The PFP has also been used for receipt and large scale storage of plutonium scrap and product materials. The PFP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was prepared by WHC to document the hazards associated with the facility, present safety analyses of potential accident scenarios, and demonstrate the adequacy of safety class structures, systems, and components (SSCs) and operational safety requirements (OSRs) necessary to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards. Documented in this Safety Evaluation Report (SER) is DOE`s independent review and evaluation of the PFP FSAR and the basis for approval of the PFP FSAR. The evaluation is presented in a format that parallels the format of the PFP FSAR. As an aid to the reactor, a list of acronyms has been included at the beginning of this report. The DOE review concluded that the risks associated with conducting plutonium handling, processing, and storage operations within PFP facilities, as described in the PFP FSAR, are acceptable, since the accident safety analyses associated with these activities meet the WHC risk acceptance guidelines and DOE safety goals in SEN-35-91.

  12. Optimizing parameters for magnetorheological finishing supersmooth surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Haobo; Feng, Zhijing; Wang, Yingwei

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents a reasonable approach to this issue, i.e., computer controlled magnetorheological finishing (MRF). In MRF, magnetically stiffened magnetorheological (MR) abrasive fluid flows through a preset converging gap that is formed by a workpiece surface and a moving rigid wall, to create precise material removal and polishing. Tsinghua University recently completed a project with MRF technology, in which a 66 mm diameter, f/5 parabolic mirror was polished to the shape accuracy of λ/17 RMS (λ=632.8nm) and the surface roughness of 1.22 nm Ra. This was done on a home made novel aspheric computer controlled manufacturing system. It is a three-axis, self-rotating wheel machine, the polishing tool is driven with one motor through a belt. This paper presents the manufacturing and testing processes, including establish the mathematics model of MRF optics on the basis of Preston equation, profiler test and relative coefficients, i.e., pressure between workpiece and tool, velocity of MR fluid in polishing spot, tolerance control of geometrical parameters such as radius of curvature and conic constant also been analyzed in the paper. Experiments were carried out on the features of MRF. The results indicated that the required convergent speed, surface roughness could be achieved with high efficiency.

  13. Hydrophilic modification of polyester fabric by applying nanocrystalline cellulose containing surface finish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Masuduz; Liu, Hongbin; Xiao, Huning; Chibante, Felipe; Ni, Yonghao

    2013-01-16

    In this study, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric was modified by applying a hydrophilic surface finishing agent that contains nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC). To impart superior hydrophilicity, NCC was further cationically modified through quaternization by grafting glycidyl tri-methyl ammonium chloride (GTMAC). A textile binder, PrintRite595(®), was added to the finishing system. The surface finish was applied on the fabric using a rolling-drying-curing process. The modified fabric was characterized in terms of coating durability, moisture regain, and wettability. The durability of the surface finish was tested by six repeated washing steps. The surface properties of the fabric changed from hydrophobic to hydrophilic after heat treatment with the NCC-containing surface finishing agent. The results from the washing fastness, SEM, FTIR, and EDX analyses confirmed that the cationic NCC-containing textile surface finish showed superior adhesion onto the cationic dyeable (anionic) PET surface over the un-modified NCC. Furthermore, the cationic textile surface finish was capable of withstanding multiple washing cycles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Surface roughness of composite resins after finishing and polishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagem Filho Halim

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of surface finishing methods on the average surface roughness of resin composites. Seven composites and two polishing systems were used. One hundred and twenty-six conical specimens of each material were prepared in stainless steel molds against a polyester strip. Forty-two of them remained intact and were used as controls. Each half of the remaining samples was polished with either diamond burs or diamond burs + aluminum oxide discs. The results showed no statistical difference in average surface roughness (Ra, mm between the polyester strip and aluminum oxide discs (p>0.05. However, finishing with diamond burs showed a statistically higher average roughness for all composites (p<0.05. Statistical differences were detected among materials (p<0.05 in the use of diamond burs.

  15. Co-formation of hydroperoxides and ultra-fine particles during the reactions of ozone with a complex VOC mixture under simulated indoor conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Z.H.; Weschler, Charles J.; Han, IK

    2005-01-01

    in the O-3/23 VOCs system. The present study confirmed the findings of a previous study carried out in a real-world office and generated new findings regarding co-formation of UFP. Through a comparative analysis of H2O2* yields under different reaction conditions, this study demonstrates that VOCs co......) under simulated indoor conditions. The VOC mixture contained 23 compounds, including two terpenes (d-limonene and alpha-pinene), two unsaturated alkenes (1-decene and 1-octene), and 19 other saturated organic compounds. These compounds are commonly found in indoor air but their concentrations were...

  16. Glazed Tiles as Floor Finish in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyin Emmanuel AKINDE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tile is no doubt rich in antiquity; its primordial  show, came as mosaic with primary prospect in sacred floor finish before its oblivion, courtesy of, later consciousness towards wall finish in banquets, kitchens, toilets, restaurants and even bars. Today, its renaissance as floor finish is apparent in private and public architectural structures with prevalence in residential, recreational, commercial, governmental and other spaces. In Nigeria, the use of glazed tiles as floor finish became apparent, supposedly in mid-twentieth century; and has since, witnessed ever increasing demands from all sundry; a development that is nascent and has necessitated its mass  production locally with pockets of firms in the country. The latter however, is a resultant response to taste cum glazed tiles affordability, whose divergent sophistication in design, colour, size and shape is believed preferred to terrazzo, carpet and floor flex tile. Accessible as glazed tile and production is, in recent times; its dearth of a holistic literature in Nigeria is obvious. In the light of the latter, this paper examine glazed tiles as floor finish in Nigeria, its advent, usage, production, challenge, benefit and prospect with the hope of opening further frontier in discipline specifics.

  17. Indoor air quality (IAQ) assessment in a multistorey shopping mall by high-spatial-resolution monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodio, M; Dambruoso, P R; de Gennaro, Gianluigi; de Gennaro, L; Loiotile, A Demarinis; Marzocca, A; Stasi, F; Trizio, L; Tutino, M

    2014-12-01

    In order to assess indoor air quality (IAQ), two 1-week monitoring campaigns of volatile organic compounds (VOC) were performed in different areas of a multistorey shopping mall. High-spatial-resolution monitoring was conducted at 32 indoor sites located in two storehouses and in different departments of a supermarket. At the same time, VOC concentrations were monitored in the mall and parking lot area as well as outdoors. VOC were sampled at 48-h periods using diffusive samplers suitable for thermal desorption. The samples were then analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The data analysis and chromatic maps indicated that the two storehouses had the highest VOC concentrations consisting principally of terpenes. These higher TVOC concentrations could be a result of the low efficiency of the air exchange and intake systems, as well as the large quantity of articles stored in these small spaces. Instead, inside the supermarket, the food department was the most critical area for VOC concentrations. To identify potential emission sources in this department, a continuous VOC analyzer was used. The findings indicated that the highest total VOC concentrations were present during cleaning activities and that these activities were carried out frequently in the food department. The study highlights the importance of conducting both high-spatial-resolution monitoring and high-temporal-resolution monitoring. The former was able to identify critical issues in environments with a complex emission scenario while the latter was useful in interpreting the dynamics of each emission source.

  18. Effect of Burnishing Parameters on Surface Finish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirsat, Uddhav; Ahuja, Basant; Dhuttargaon, Mukund

    2017-08-01

    Burnishing is cold working process in which hard balls are pressed against the surface, resulting in improved surface finish. The surface gets compressed and then plasticized. This is a highly finishing process which is becoming more popular. Surface quality of the product improves its aesthetic appearance. The product made up of aluminum material is subjected to burnishing process during which kerosene is used as a lubricant. In this study factors affecting burnishing process such as burnishing force, speed, feed, work piece diameter and ball diameter are considered as input parameters while surface finish is considered as an output parameter In this study, experiments are designed using 25 factorial design in order to analyze the relationship between input and output parameters. The ANOVA technique and F-test are used for further analysis.

  19. Effect of Burnishing Parameters on Surface Finish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirsat, Uddhav; Ahuja, Basant; Dhuttargaon, Mukund

    2016-06-01

    Burnishing is cold working process in which hard balls are pressed against the surface, resulting in improved surface finish. The surface gets compressed and then plasticized. This is a highly finishing process which is becoming more popular. Surface quality of the product improves its aesthetic appearance. The product made up of aluminum material is subjected to burnishing process during which kerosene is used as a lubricant. In this study factors affecting burnishing process such as burnishing force, speed, feed, work piece diameter and ball diameter are considered as input parameters while surface finish is considered as an output parameter In this study, experiments are designed using 25 factorial design in order to analyze the relationship between input and output parameters. The ANOVA technique and F-test are used for further analysis.

  20. Finishing of the cold mass assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    Photo 1 Technicians are putting in order the instrumentation wires. The prototype magnets were equipped with numerous sensors to monitor key parameters during the performance tests at cold conditions. Photo 2 The cold mass assembly is resting on special supports in order to allow the finishing operations. Technicians are putting in order the instrumentation wires. The prototype magnets were equipped with numerous sensors to monitor key parameters during the performance tests at cold conditions. Photo 3 View of the lyre-side end of the active part assembly. The extremity of the shrinking cylinder has been bevelled in view of welding the end cover. Photo 4 General view of the finishing station showing the special supporting structures (blue and yellow structures) needed for the geometric measurements and for the alignment operations. One can also see the light building surrounding the finishing station, which purpose is to isolate the laser measuring machines from disturbances. Photo 5 The extremity of the shri...

  1. Surface-finish measurement with interference microscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sladky, R. E.

    1977-02-01

    Diamond turning copper and other metals, to produce mirror surfaces with reflectivities generally higher than can be obtained by lapping and polishing, has become an important new technology. Evaluation of the finish of these surfaces requires careful examination, using optical instruments. This document provides background information about the theory and equipment involved in this program. Data from several specimens have been acquired that show the type of surface finish that is obtained. Mirrors have been fabricated that show the state of the art that has been achieved in diamond turning copper and nickel.

  2. Foam Finishing%发泡涂饰

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dr. W. Wenzel; K. Pisaric; W. Schwaiger

    2006-01-01

    介绍了发泡剂在制革中的应用.详细给出了发泡剂的生产工艺以及需要不同成革的涂饰配方.结果表明,发泡涂饰对成革性能有明显改善.%The article introduced the application of foam in leather-making. The rules and production process of foam were supplied indetails. It also discussed the finish formulation and possible methods of application for different leather. The foam finishing can evidently improve the properties of leather.

  3. Measurement of VOCs in vehicle exhaust by extractive FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Bernhard; Paar, H.; Sturm, Peter J.

    2001-02-01

    12 The detection of benzene and other organic compounds in vehicle exhaust by FT-IR-spectroscopy is seriously limited by the strong interference of carbon dioxide and the rather weak absorption coefficient of the gases. Therefore, a measurement device was developed which separates the components of interest (mostly VOCs) from carbon dioxide, water and nitric oxide. In addition the VOCs have to be pre- concentrated. To avoid condensation of VOCs the measurements have to take place at higher temperatures. The vehicle exhaust was led through an activated charcoal tube where the organic compounds were adsorbed. Afterwards, the charcoal tube was heated in a furnace, the VOCs were desorbed thermically and were carried by (heated) nitrogen into a gas cell with a path-length of 10 m where the concentration of the different species was measured. With the help of this measurement device a lot of VOC- components like benzene, toluene, and xylene were detected successfully. Measurements were performed on an engine test bed and a chassis dynamometer for heavy duty vehicles. The detection limit of most of the VOCs was about 2 to 3 ppb for a sampling time of 20 min. Calibration measurements showed an accuracy of 15%.

  4. INTERNAL FINISHING OF CYLINDRICAL PIPES USING SINTERED MAGNETIC ABRASIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALWINDER SINGH

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An internal magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF process was proposed to produce highly finished inner surfaces of workpieces used in critical applications. The process principle and the finishing characteristics of magnetic abrasive finishing of cylindrical pipes using sintered magnetic abrasives are described in this research work. Thesintered magnetic abrasive is a mixture of Al2O3 abrasive and ferromagnetic particles. The Al2O3 based sintered magnetic abrasives have been developed in sintering machine. The surface roughness measurements resulting from finishing experiments demonstrate the effects of the abrasive behavior on the surface modifications. Thesurface finish was analysed in terms of percent improvement in surface finish (PISF. Also surface finish was analysed using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. The obtained maximum PISF was 95% and minimum surface roughness was 0.05 μm Ra. To further study the improvement in surface finish, the surface was microscopically examined using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD.

  5. Why Do Photo Finish Images Look Weird?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorcic, Bor; Planinsic, Gorazd

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with effects that appear on photographs of rotating objects when taken by a photo finish camera, a rolling shutter camera or a computer scanner. These effects are very similar to Roget's palisade illusion. A simple quantitative analysis of the images is also provided. The effects are explored using a computer scanner in a way that…

  6. Transport Phenomena in Textile Finishing Equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot Wassink, J.

    1985-01-01

    The application of transport phenomena to textile finishing processes is emphasised. By combination of the predominant transfer processes (momentum, mass and heat/mass transfer) and the engineering objective (operation, design and innovation), three cases are selected dealing with (a) momentum trans

  7. Vibratory finishing as a decontamination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, M.W.; Arrowsmith, H.W.; Allen, R.P.

    1980-10-01

    The major objective of this research is to develop vibratory finishing into a large-scale decontamination technique that can economicaly remove transuranic and other surface contamination from large volumes of waste produced by the operation and decommissioning of retired nuclear facilities. The successful development and widespread application of this decontamination technique would substantially reduce the volume of waste requiring expensive geologic disposal. Other benefits include exposure reduction for decontamination personnel and reduced risk of environmental contamination. Laboratory-scale studies showed that vibratory finishing can rapidly reduce the contamination level of transuranic-contaminated stainless steel and Plexiglas to well below the 10-nCi/g limit. The capability of vibratory finishing as a decontamination process was demonstrated on a large scale. The first decontamination demonstration was conducted at the Hanford N-Reactor, where a vibratory finisher was installed to reduce personnel exposure during the summer outage. Items decontaminated included fuel spacers, process-tube end caps, process-tube inserts, pump parts, ball-channel inspection tools and miscellaneous hand tools. A second demonstration is currently being conducted in the decontamination facility at the Hanford 231-Z Building. During this demonstration, transuranic-contaminated material from decommissioned plutonium facilities is being decontaminated to <10 nCi/g to minimize the volume of material that will require geologic disposal. Items that are being decontaminated include entire glove boxes, process-hood structural material and panels, process tanks, process-tank shields, pumps, valves and hand tools used during the decommissioning work.

  8. Pneumonia outbreaks in calves and finishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-19

    Pneumonia in calves and finishers. Ovarian tumour in a calf . Abortion associated with bovine herpesvirus 1 in a suckler herd. Parasitic gastroenteritis causing illthrift and death in sheep. Outbreaks of acute fasciolosis in sheep. These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for December 2015 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). British Veterinary Association.

  9. Photocatalytic Solar Tower Reactor for the Elimination of a Low Concentration of VOCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuaki Negishi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We developed a photocatalytic solar tower reactor for the elimination of low concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs typically emitted from small industrial establishments. The photocatalytic system can be installed in a narrow space, as the reactor is cylindrical-shaped. The photocatalytic reactor was placed vertically in the center of a cylindrical scattering mirror, and this vertical reactor was irradiated with scattered sunlight generated by the scattering mirror. About 5 ppm toluene vapor, used as representative VOC, was continuously photodegraded and converted to CO2 almost stoichiometrically under sunny conditions. Toluene removal depended only on the intensity of sunlight. The performance of the solar tower reactor did not decrease with half a year of operation, and the average toluene removal was 36% within this period.

  10. Photocatalytic solar tower reactor for the elimination of a low concentration of VOCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Nobuaki; Sano, Taizo

    2014-01-01

    We developed a photocatalytic solar tower reactor for the elimination of low concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) typically emitted from small industrial establishments. The photocatalytic system can be installed in a narrow space, as the reactor is cylindrical-shaped. The photocatalytic reactor was placed vertically in the center of a cylindrical scattering mirror, and this vertical reactor was irradiated with scattered sunlight generated by the scattering mirror. About 5 ppm toluene vapor, used as representative VOC, was continuously photodegraded and converted to CO2 almost stoichiometrically under sunny conditions. Toluene removal depended only on the intensity of sunlight. The performance of the solar tower reactor did not decrease with half a year of operation, and the average toluene removal was 36% within this period.

  11. Efficiency of catalytic processes for the reduction of CO and VOC emissions from wood combustion in domestic fireplaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozil, Fabien; Tschamber, V.; Trouve, G. [Universite de haute Alsace - Laboratoire Gestion des Risques Environnement, 25 rue de Chemnitz, 68200 Mulhouse (France); Haas, Frederic (FONDIS SA, ZI Vieux Thann, 68801 Thann Cedex France)

    2009-09-15

    Pollutant characterization of domestic fireplaces, according to two paces of functioning (normal and low-charge phase) was performed. Two catalysts supported on cordierite or metal were placed in the exhaust of two domestic fireplaces (old and new generation) in order to reduce gaseous pollutants. Active phase of catalysts is composed of noble metals (Pd, Pt) and cerium. Methane was the dominant compound of the released Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC, 80% b. v.). Products resulting from incomplete combustion (CO and other VOC) did not represent more than 6% of the initial carbon content in wood. Lower concentration of CO in the exhaust was obtained with the new generation fireplace as compared to the older one with mean concentrations of CO normalized for 13% oxygen b.v. equal to 0.12% and 0.3%, respectively. Emission of VOC is also drastically reduced for new generation fireplace. The presence of a catalyst induced a decrease of the CO and VOC emission factors during ignition and low-charge phases by factors ranging from 65% to 70%. The abatement of VOC for the old generation fireplace was better in the presence of metal as compared to cordierite, with efficiency values of 65% and 30%, respectively. The new fireplace was the one on which the addition of the cleanup implements had most impact. Besides the introduction of a catalyst, a heating system of the fume was set up below the catalyst. This heating system allowed a faster activation of the catalyst, particularly during ignition and low-charge phases. Best abatements were obtained with the heated metallic support with values close to 80% and 94% for VOC and CO respectively. (author)

  12. Finishing procedures in orthodontic-surgical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunel, Jean-Michel

    2015-09-01

    To ensure optimal results, we must do our utmost to achieve targets based on order, symmetry and precision, our ultimate aim being to strive towards the desired harmony, planned contrast and exact proportions. Orthodontic-surgical treatments require specific finishing procedures, which most often call for multidisciplinary, or even transdisciplinary, collaboration. Finishing will involve the dental arches just as much as the orofacial environment. Above all, treatment of this kind demands a highly targeted approach in combination with well-defined and perfectly executed techniques. To finish a case satisfactorily, reasonable targets should be aimed for to ensure they are achieved. One must be ambitious and yet wise. A tight alliance of surgeon and orthodontist will nurture convincing and achievable projects and good, lifelong outcomes. Following the consolidation phase, roughly 4 to 6 weeks post-surgery, we can initiate the final orthodontic treatment, which, in effect, constitutes a mini-treatment in its own right. "Details make perfection, but perfection is not a detail" (Leonardo Da Vinci). "A lucid mind is the ante-chamber of intelligence" (Léo Ferré). In the order of life, every form of unity is always unique, and if each of us is unique, it is because everyone else is too. Ambition, wisdom, lucidity and efficiency will guarantee a successful result, the successful result. We must not be mere observers of our treatments, but the architect, project manager and site foreman at one and the same time. One could talk ad infinitum about finishing orthodontic-surgical cases because everything else leads up to the case-finishing and even the fullest description could never be exhaustive. Copyright © 2015 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of VOC emissions from vegetation on urban air quality during hot periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churkina, Galina; Kuik, Friderike; Bonn, Boris; Lauer, Axel; Grote, Ruediger; Butler, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Programs to plant millions of trees in cities around the world aim at the reduction of summer temperatures, increase of carbon storage, storm water control, and recreational space, as well as at poverty alleviation. These urban greening programs, however, do not take into account how closely human and natural systems are coupled in urban areas. Compared with the surroundings of cities, elevated temperatures together with high anthropogenic emissions of air and water pollutants are quite typical in urban systems. Urban and sub-urban vegetation respond to changes in meteorology and air quality and can react to pollutants. Neglecting this coupling may lead to unforeseen negative effects on air quality resulting from urban greening programs. The potential of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vegetation combined with anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants to produce ozone has long been recognized. This ozone formation potential increases under rising temperatures. Here we investigate how emissions of VOC from urban vegetation affect corresponding ground-level ozone and PM10 concentrations in summer and especially during heat wave periods. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with coupled atmospheric chemistry (WRF-CHEM) to quantify these feedbacks in the Berlin-Brandenburg region, Germany during the two summers of 2006 (heat wave) and 2014 (reference period). VOC emissions from vegetation are calculated by MEGAN 2.0 coupled online with WRF-CHEM. Our preliminary results indicate that the contribution of VOCs from vegetation to ozone formation may increase by more than twofold during heat wave periods. We highlight the importance of the vegetation for urban areas in the context of a changing climate and discuss potential tradeoffs of urban greening programs.

  14. FINISHING FABRICATED METAL PRODUCTS WITH ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report provides a technical and economic evaluation of a polyester powder coating system applied to the exterior and interior surfaces of metal boxes fabricated for the telephone and cable industries. This evaluation summarized many of the requirements and benefits of a clean technology that effectively eliminates the use of hazardous solvents and prevents the generation of volatile organic emissions and hazardous solid waste. publish information

  15. Características da carcaça e da carne de novilhos superjovens da raça Devon terminados em diferentes sistemas de alimentação Carcass and meat characteristics from young Devon steers finished in different feeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fernando Glasenapp de Menezes

    2010-03-01

    feedlot (CONF, temperate pasture ( ryegrass pasture - Lolium multiflorum Lam -PTEM, or tropical pasture (association of millet pasture - Pennisetum americanum (L. Leeke and Alexander grass - Brachiaria plantaginea -PTRO. At the beginning of finishing the average weight of the steers was 320 kg and the age was 15 months. The animals in feedlot were fed feeds with 60:40 roughage:concentrate and slaughtered with similar weights of 388.3; 391.5 and 375.8, respectively. Finishing on tropical pasture increased the slaughter age from 17 to 19 months, due to lower average daily weight gain compared to the feedlot and the temperate pasture. The feeding system did not influence the hot and cold carcass weight, nor the hot and cold carcass dressing percentage, even though the carcasses of the animals finished on tropical pasture showed greater chilling loss compared to the temperate pastures. Subcutaneous fat thickness and carcass conformation were higher for the animals finished on temperate pastures than those finished on temperate pasture, while the animals finished in feedlot maintained an intermediary position. The animals finished on tropical pasture presented carcasses with higher bone percentage and lower muscle plus fat/bone ratio. The animals finished on temperate pasture presented carcasses with greater cushion thickness compared to the animals in feedlot. Meat from the animals finished on temperate pasture was darker, had a coarser texture, higher shear force and lower tenderness assessed by a panel of tasters compared to meat from animals finished in feedlot or on tropical pasture. Animals finished on tropical pasture present less palatable meat compared to animals finished in feedlot.

  16. [Comparison Analysis of Economic and Engineering Control of Industrial VOCs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-fei; Liu, Chang-xin; Cheng, Jie; Hao, Zheng-ping; Wang, Zheng

    2015-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) pollutant has become China's major air pollutant in key urban areas like sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. It is mainly produced from industry sectors, and engineering control is one of the most important reduction measures. During the 12th Five-Year Plan, China decides to invest 40 billion RMB to build pollution control projects in key industry sectors with annual emission reduction of 605 000 t x a(-1). It shows that China attaches a great importance to emission reduction by engineering projects and highlights the awareness of engineering reduction technologies. In this paper, a macroeconomic model, namely computable general equilibrium model, (CGE model) was employed to simulate engineering control and economic control (imposing environmental tax). We aim to compare the pros and cons of the two reduction policies. Considering the economic loss of the whole country, the environmental tax has more impacts on the economy system than engineering reduction measures. We suggest that the central government provides 7 500 RMB x t(-1) as subsidy for enterprises in industry sectors to encourage engineering reduction.

  17. A High Performance Biofilter for VOC Emission Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G; Conti, B; Leroux, A; Brzezinski, R; Viel, G; Heitz, M

    1999-02-01

    Biofiltration is a cleaning technique for waste air contaminated with some organic compounds. The advantages of the conventional biofilter over other biological systems are a high-superficial area best suited for the treatment of some compounds with poor water solubility, ease of operation, and low operating costs. It has crucial disadvantages, however; for example, it is not suitable to treat waste gases with high VOC concentrations and it has poor control of reaction conditions. To improve on these problems and to build a high-performance biofilter, three structured peat media and two trickling systems have been introduced in this study. The influences of media size and composition have been investigated experimentally. Peat bead blended with 30% (w/w) certain mineral material with a good binding capacity has advantages over other packing materials, for example, suitable size to prevent blockage due to microbial growth, strong buffering capacity to neutralize acidic substances in the system, and a pH range of 7.0-7.2 suitable for the growth of bacteria. Dropwise trickling system offers an effective measure to easily control the moisture content of the bed and the reaction conditions (pH, nutrient) and to partially remove excess biomass produced during the metabolic processes of microorganisms. The influence of nutrient supplementation has also been investigated in this study, which has revealed that the biological system was in a condition of nutrient limitation instead of carbon limitation. The biofilters built in our laboratory were used to treat waste gas contaminated with toluene in a concentration range of 1 to 3.2 g/m(3) and at the specific gas flow rate of 24 to120 m(3)/m(2).hr. Under the conditions employed, a high elimination capacity (135 g/m(3).hr) was obtained in the biofilter packed with peat beads (blended with 30% of the mineral material), and no blockage problem was observed in an experimental period of 2-3 months.

  18. Population dynamics of swine influenza virus in farrow-to-finish and specialised finishing herds in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffen, W L A; Hunneman, W A; Quak, J; Verheijden, J H M; Stegeman, J A

    2009-05-28

    Influenza virus infections with subtypes H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2 are very common in domestic pigs in Europe. Data on possible differences of population dynamics in finishing pigs in farrow-to-finish herds and in specialised finishing herds are, however, scarce. The presence of sows and weaned piglets on the same premises may, however, affect the exposure of finishing pigs to influenza viruses. In a longitudinal study on 14 farrow-to-finish herds and 15 finishing herds, groups of pigs were followed by repeatedly testing the same animals for antibodies against all three influenza virus subtypes (H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2). At the end of the finishing period, the seroprevalences in farrow-to-finish and specialised finishing herds were 44.3% and 62.0%, respectively for H1N1, 6.6% and 19.3%, respectively for H3N2, and 57.2% and 25.6%, respectively for H1N2. For all three subtypes, the incidence of influenza virus infections was highest at the beginning of the finishing period in farrow-to-finish herds, while the incidence of influenza virus infections was highest at the end of the finishing period in finishing herds. Respiratory disease, probably related to the influenza infections, was observed in five of these herds only, but also occurred at the beginning of the finishing period in farrow-to-finish herds and at the end of the finishing period in finishing herds. The observed differences of population dynamics of influenza virus may affect choice and timing of intervention measures.

  19. Het VOC-bedrijf op Ceylon : een voorname vestiging van de Oost-Indische Compagnie in de 18de eeuw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belt, Albert van den

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation deals with four aspects of the Dutch East India Company’s (VOC) presence at the settlement of Ceylon in the eighteenth century. The net-profit of the island for the parent company in The Netherlands, the system of bookkeeping and the resulting insights in the proceeds of the

  20. TO PURGE OR NOT TO PURGE? VOC CONCENTRATION ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil vapor surveys are commonly used as a screening technique to delineate volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminant plumes and provide information for soil sampling plans. Traditionally, three purge volumes of vapor are removed before a sample is collected. One facet of this study was to evaluate the VOC concentrations lost during purging and explore the potential implications of those losses. The vapor data was compared to collocated soil data to determine if any correlation existed between the VOC concentrations. Two different methods for soil vapor collection were compared: 1) active/micro-volume; and 2) active/macro-volume. The active/micro-volume vapor sample had total line purge volume of 1.25 mL and the active/macro-volume vapor sample had a total line purge volume of 15 mL. Six line purge volumes were collected for each vapor sampling technique, with the fourth purge volume representing the traditional sample used for site screening data. Each sample was collected by gas tight syringe and transferred to a thermal de sorption tube for sorption, transport, and analysis. Following the removal of the soil vapor samples, collocated soil samples were taken. For both active vapor sampling techniques, the VOC concentrations in the first three purge volumes exceeded the VOC concentrations in the last three purge volumes. This implies that the general rule of removal of three purge volumes prior to taking a sample for analysis could lead to underestimating the

  1. Phenotypic and Genotypic Diversity of Salmonella in Finishing Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Alda F A; Funk, Julie A; Habing, Greg G; Bolin, Carole

    2016-04-01

    Salmonella enterica (nontyphoidal) is one of the major causes of foodborne diseases in the United States and worldwide. Molecular typing methods are significant tools used to better understand the transmission and ecology of Salmonella in order to implement pre-harvest control measures. The objectives of this study were to describe the Salmonella genotypes, the distribution of isolate subtypes from different ecological niches (i.e., barn environment, nursery, and individual pigs) and their evolution over time in a longitudinal study conducted in three finishing sites (housing pigs from 10 weeks of age until slaughter at 24-26 weeks of age). Among the 107 Salmonella isolates submitted for pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, there were 25 distinct subtypes. PFGE genotyping results were consistent with the serotype findings. A large number of distinguishable PFGE patterns (i.e., within the same serovar) were observed and different combinations of subtypes were identified within and across sites and cohorts. New subtypes may result of the introduction of new strains, genetic changes, or ongoing transmission of evolved strains within the production system. The same subtypes were detected intermittently during the study period, which suggests the persistence of indistinguishable subtypes in this production system. In addition, this study suggests persistence of the same subtype over several cohorts of pigs and potential residual contamination from the barn. Factors affecting adaptation and transmission of Salmonella within and among ecological systems (e.g., finishing pigs, nursery, and environment) should be further investigated. Understanding genotypic diversity of Salmonella in different ecological niches during pre-harvest may contribute to the development of more targeted and cost effective control programs during nursery and finishing phases.

  2. Biofiltration kinetics for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and development of a structure-biodegradability relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govind, R.; Wang, Z. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Bishop, D.F. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States). National Risk Management Research Lab.

    1997-12-31

    In recent years, regulation of hazardous air pollutants under the Clean Air Act and its amendments, has emerged as a major environmental issue. Major sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air are chemical production plants, manufacturing sites using common solvents, combustion sources, and waste treatment operations, such as waste water treatment plants, vacuum extraction of contaminated soils, and ground water stripping operations. Biofiltration is an emerging technology for treatment of biodegradable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in air. In biofiltration, the contaminants are contacted with active microorganisms present either in naturally bioactive materials, such as soil, peat, compost, etc., or immobilized on an inactive support media. Design of biofilters requires information on biodegradation kinetics which controls biofilter size. In this paper, an experimental microbiofilter system is presented which can be used to measure biofiltration kinetics for any volatile organic compound. A mathematical model is used to derive the Monod biokinetic parameters from the experimental data. Finally, a structure-bioactivity relationship is derived for estimating the biofiltration biokinetic parameters for a variety of VOCs.

  3. Abatement of VOCs with Alternate Adsorption and Plasma-Assisted Regeneration: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmin Sultana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption is an important concern for the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs from waste air with non-thermal plasma (NTP. Although the combination of NTP with heterogeneous catalysis has shown to reduce the formation of unwanted by-products and improve the energy efficiency of the process, further optimization of these hybrid systems is still necessary to evolve to a competitive air purification technology. A newly developed innovative technique, i.e., the cyclic operation of VOC adsorption and NTP-assisted regeneration has attracted growing interest of researchers due to the optimized energy consumption and cost-effectiveness. This paper reviews this new technique for the abatement of VOCs as well as for regeneration of adsorbents. In the first part, a comparison of the energy consumption between sequential and continuous treatment is given. Next, studies dealing with adsorption followed by NTP oxidation are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the adsorption mechanisms and the regeneration of catalysts with in-plasma and post-plasma processes. Finally, the influence of critical process parameters on the adsorption and regeneration steps is summarized.

  4. Performance evaluation of a biotrickling filter treating a mixture of oxygenated VOCs during intermittent loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempere, Feliu; Gabaldón, Carmen; Martínez-Soria, Vicente; Marzal, Paula; Penya-roja, Josep M; Javier Álvarez-Hornos, F

    2008-11-01

    Laboratory scale-studies on the biodegradation of a 1:1:1 weight mixture of three oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ethanol, ethyl acetate, and methyl-ethyl ketone (MEK) in a biotrickling filter (BTF) were carried out using two identically sized columns, filled with different polypropylene rings. The performance of the BTFs was examined for a period of 10 months applying several operational strategies. Similar performance was obtained for both supports. Intermittent flow rate of trickling liquid was shown beneficial to improve the removal efficiency (RE). Continuous feeding of VOC resulted in an excessive accumulation of biomass so high pressure drop was developed in less than 20-30 d of operation. Intermittent VOC loading with night and weekend feed cut-off periods passing dry air, but without addition of water, was shown as a successful operational mode to control the thickness of the biofilm. In this case, operation at high inlet loads (ILs) was extended for more than 75 d maintaining high REs and low pressure drops. Outlet emission concentrations lower than 100 mg Cm(-3) were obtained for ILs up to 100 g Cm(-3)h(-1) working at 15s of empty bed residence time. The most easily biodegradable compounds ethanol and ethyl acetate were used primarily than MEK. After a 3-wk-starvation period, the system performance was almost restored since the first d of operation, being the removal of the less biodegradable compound, MEK, partially deteriorated.

  5. 9 CFR 381.309 - Finished product inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Finished product inspection. (a) Finished product inspections must be handled according to: (1) A HACCP.... (b)-(c) (d) Procedures for finished product inspections where the HACCP plan for thermally...

  6. Finishing the bridge to diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J J

    1997-02-01

    While much progress has been made to diversify the medical workforce in regard to gender, there is a long way to go with regard to race and ethnicity. The author emphasizes that seeking diversity in the medical professions is imperative to achieve just and equitable access to rewarding careers, improved access to health care for the under-served, culturally competent care (which includes the issue of patients' satisfaction with their care), comprehensive research agenda targeted to the problems of all areas of the population, and use of the rich and diverse pool of the nation's talent to better manage the health care system. In the 1960s the civil rights movement and civil unrest woke up the nation's institutions to the need for affirmative action initiatives, and academic medicine was one of the first to respond: there was a dramatic rise in the percentage of underrepresented minority medical school matriculants. But in the mid-1970s, this trend stalled. To state it again, the AAMC in 1991 created Project 3000 by 2000 as a longterm strategy to effect small scale educational reform in the K-12 schools and colleges that are responsible for the academic preparation of potential underrespresented-minority (URM) applicants. For a few years, the attention to URMs created by this program, and other factors, spurred a significant increase in the percentage of URM matriculants and proved the power of affirmative action. But the increase has not continued. The author maintains that this may be largely because affirmative action is being pursued with less vigor and in some cases has been stopped by law. He concludes with a vigorous defense of affirmative action and maintains that it must be used alongside more long-term solutions such as project 3000 by 2000 to achieve true diversity in the medical professions.

  7. Sequence finishing and mapping of Drosophila melanogasterheterochromatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoskins, Roger A.; Carlson, Joseph W.; Kennedy, Cameron; Acevedo,David; Evans-Holm, Martha; Frise, Erwin; Wan, Kenneth H.; Park, Soo; Mendez-Lago, Maria; Rossi, Fabrizio; Villasante, Alfredo; Dimitri,Patrizio; Karpen, Gary H.; Celniker, Susan E.

    2007-06-15

    Genome sequences for most metazoans are incomplete due tothe presence of repeated DNA in the pericentromeric heterochromatin. Theheterochromatic regions of D. melanogaster contain 20 Mb of sequenceamenable to mapping, sequence assembly and finishing. Here we describethe generation of 15 Mb of finished or improved heterochromatic sequenceusing available clone resources and assembly and mapping methods. We alsoconstructed a BAC-based physical map that spans approximately 13 Mb ofthe pericentromeric heterochromatin, and a cytogenetic map that positionsapproximately 11 Mb of BAC contigs and sequence scaffolds in specificchromosomal locations. The integrated sequence assembly and maps greatlyimprove our understanding of the structure and composition of this poorlyunderstood fraction of a metazoan genome and provide a framework forfunctional analyses.

  8. Biogenic C5 VOCs: release from leaves after freeze-thaw wounding and occurrence in air at a high mountain observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Ray; Karl, Thomas; Jordan, Alfons; Lindinger, Werner

    During investigations of the formation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in leaves, we observed C5 VOCs during leaf drying, senescence, and following freeze-thaw damage. VOCs were quantified by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). In freeze-damaged leaves, VOC products were verified with a gas chromatography PTR-MS system, showing that a variety of plants produced 1-penten-3-ol and 1-penten-3-one with smaller amounts of 2(Z)-penten-1-ol and pentenals; similar VOCs have been detected in soybean seed homogenates (Gardner et al., J. Agric. Food Chem. 44 (1996) 882). Most plants wounded in this way also released hexenals and hexanal, and clover also released methylbutanals. The formation of the C5 products was oxygen-dependent, consistent with the involvement of the enzyme lipoxygenase, and pentenone appeared to form independent of an alcohol dehydrogenase reaction; the latter is apparently disrupted by the freeze-thaw treatment. In parallel with these laboratory experiments, on-line PTR-MS measurements of ambient air were conducted at the Sonnblick Observatory in the Austrian Alps (3106 m a.s.l.). Following a hard freeze in central Austria, substantial amounts of C5 VOCs, ranging from 300 pptv to 6 ppbv and including 1-penten-3-ol, methylbutanals and probably pentenone, were detected at this site for several days peaking after midnight. Factor analysis supported their biogenic origin. We speculate that these VOCs were derived from freeze-damaged local vegetation by processes similar to those seen in laboratory freezing studies. If confirmed, these results suggest that leaf-freezing events in forests will give rise to the release of substantial levels of reactive C5 and C6 VOCs that can contribute to regional tropospheric chemistry.

  9. Arabidopsis thaliana as Bioindicator of Fungal VOCs in Indoor Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Richard; Yin, Guohua; Klich, Maren A.; Grimm, Casey; Bennett, Joan W.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the ability of Arabidopsis thaliana to detect different mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by the common indoor fungus, Aspergillus versicolor, and demonstrate the potential usage of the plant as a bioindicator to monitor fungal VOCs in indoor air. We evaluated the volatile production of Aspergillus versicolor strains SRRC 108 (NRRL 3449) and SRRC 2559 (ATCC 32662) grown on nutrient rich fungal medium, and grown under conditions to mimic the substrate encountered in the built environment where fungi would typically grow indoors (moist wallboard and ceiling tiles). Using headspace solid phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we analyzed VOC profiles of the two strains. The most abundant compound produced by both strains on all three media was 1-octen-3-ol. Strain SRRC 2559 made several terpenes not detected from strain SRRC 108. Using a split-plate bioassay, we grew Arabidopsis thaliana in a shared atmosphere with VOCs from the two strains of Aspergillus versicolor grown on yeast extract sucrose medium. The VOCs emitted by SRRC 2559 had an adverse impact on seed germination and plant growth. Chemical standards of individual VOCs from the Aspergillus versicolor mixture (2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-octen-3-ol, limonene, and β-farnesene), and β-caryophyllene were tested one by one in seed germination and vegetative plant growth assays. The most inhibitory compound to both seed germination and plant growth was 1-octen-3-ol. Our data suggest that Arabidopsis is a useful model for monitoring indoor air quality as it is sensitive to naturally emitted fungal volatile mixtures as well as to chemical standards of individual compounds, and it exhibits relatively quick concentration- and duration-dependent responses.

  10. Distributions of personal VOC exposures: a population-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chunrong; D'Souza, Jennifer; Batterman, Stuart

    2008-10-01

    Information regarding the distribution of volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations and exposures is scarce, and there have been few, if any, studies using population-based samples from which representative estimates can be derived. This study characterizes distributions of personal exposures to ten different VOCs in the U.S. measured in the 1999--2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Personal VOC exposures were collected for 669 individuals over 2-3 days, and measurements were weighted to derive national-level statistics. Four common exposure sources were identified using factor analyses: gasoline vapor and vehicle exhaust, methyl tert-butyl ether (MBTE) as a gasoline additive, tap water disinfection products, and household cleaning products. Benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylenes chloroform, and tetrachloroethene were fit to log-normal distributions with reasonably good agreement to observations. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene and trichloroethene were fit to Pareto distributions, and MTBE to Weibull distribution, but agreement was poor. However, distributions that attempt to match all of the VOC exposure data can lead to incorrect conclusions regarding the level and frequency of the higher exposures. Maximum Gumbel distributions gave generally good fits to extrema, however, they could not fully represent the highest exposures of the NHANES measurements. The analysis suggests that complete models for the distribution of VOC exposures require an approach that combines standard and extreme value distributions, and that carefully identifies outliers. This is the first study to provide national-level and representative statistics regarding the VOC exposures, and its results have important implications for risk assessment and probabilistic analyses.

  11. Population dynamics of swine influenza virus in farrow-to-finish and specialised finishing herds in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeffen, W.L.A.; Hunneman, W.A.; Quak, J.; Verheijden, J.H.M.; Stegeman, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Influenza virus infections with subtypes H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2 are very common in domestic pigs in Europe. Data on possible differences of population dynamics in finishing pigs in farrow-to-finish herds and in specialised finishing herds are, however, scarce. The presence of sows and weaned piglets on

  12. Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions during malting and beer manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Nigel B.; Costigan, Gavin T.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Woodfield, Michael J.

    Estimates have been made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released during different stages of beer manufacture. The estimates are based on recent measurements and plant specification data supplied by manufacturers. Data were obtained for three main manufacturing processes (malting, wort processing and fermentation) for three commercial beer types. Some data on the speciation of emitted compounds have been obtained. Based on these measurements, an estimate of the total unabated VOC emission. from the U.K. brewing industry was calculated as 3.5 kta -1, over 95% of which was generated during barley malting. This value does not include any correction for air pollution control.

  13. Cost benefit of patch testing with textile finish resins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hamann, K

    1982-01-01

    Eleven years experience of textile finish resin patch testing of suspected textile dermatitis patients revealed 15 cases of allergic textile dermatitis among 428 patients tested. Ten of the 15 patients had a relevant positive patch test to one or more of a limited series of textile finishes; 1...... was negative and 4 were not tested with textile finishes. All 15 patients were formaldehyde sensitive. No unexpected, relevant, positive textile finish resin patch test was found. In this study a negative patch test to formaldehyde virtually excluded allergic contact dermatitis from textile finishes....

  14. Subjective qualitative assessment of the finish line of prosthetic preparations submitted to different finishing instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Tallita Foglietto; de Melo, Murilo Pereira; Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo; Takeshita, Wilton Mitsunari; Ceribelli, Bruno Mafra; Vessoni Iwaki, Lilian Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Different instruments have been developed to improve crown finish lines after conventional preparation with diamond rotary instruments. However, more evidence on the effectiveness of these instruments is required. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the effectiveness of 4 different instruments used for cervical margin finishing in regard to the external line angle (ELA). Forty-eight freshly extracted third molar teeth with similar dimensions were conventionally prepared for crowns and randomly allocated into 4 groups (n=12) according to the finishing instrument: hand trimmer (HT), tungsten carbide bur (TCB), ultrasonic instrument (UI), and diamond rotary instrument (DRI) mounted in a contra angle handpiece with reduced speed. Photomicrographs from the margin profiles of each tooth were obtained with scanning electron microscopy (×40) before and after finishing procedures. The images were qualitatively analyzed (scores 1-4) by 9 experienced dental professionals. Average results were assessed with the paired t test and repeated measures ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD test (α=.05). HT, TCB, and UI demonstrated no significant differences between unfinished and finished mean ELA scores. DRI was the only group to demonstrate a significantly improved ELA (Pfinishing instrument capable of significantly improving the ELA, while TCB and UI produced nonsignificant improvement, and HT was detrimental to the ELA. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The surface finish of light-cured composite resin materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, S K; Henderson, L J

    1993-01-01

    A necessity for any dental restorative material is its ability to take and maintain a smooth surface finish. Composite resin restorative materials with fillers and matrix of differing hardness are difficult to finish and polish. The use of aluminum trioxide discs is a popular and acceptable method of finishing composite restorative materials where the material is accessible. Burs and stones are used for finishing and polishing inaccessible areas. This study was undertaken to compare the surface finish of composite resin restorative material when finished with white stones, superfine diamond burs and aluminum trioxide discs. The finished surface was measured with a profilometer and the roughness average value used to compare the surfaces. The aluminum trioxide discs gave the best and most consistent results. It was possible to attain similar results with the superfine diamond bur. However, the results were highly variable. None of the methods used achieved the smoothness of composite resin cured against a transparent matrix.

  16. Polymer micromolds with near optical quality surface finishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Pun-Pang; Knopf, George K.; Nikumb, Suwas

    2012-03-01

    Disposable microfluidic systems are used to avoid sample contamination in a variety of medical and environmental monitoring applications. A contactless hot intrusion (HI) process for fabricating reusable polymer micromolds with near "optical quality" surface finishes is described in this paper. A metallic hot intrusion mask with the desired microchannels and related passive components is first machined using a tightly focused beam from a diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) laser. The polymer mold master is then created by pressing the 2D metallic mask onto a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) substrate. Since it is a contactless fabrication process the resultant 3D micro-reliefs have near optical quality surface finishes. Unfortunately, the desired micro-relief dimensions (height and width) are not easily related to the hot intrusion process parameters of pressure, temperature, and time exposure profile. A finite element model is introduced to assist the manufacturing engineer in predicting the behavior of the PMMA substrate material as it deforms under heat and pressure during micromold manufacture. The FEM model assumes that thermo-plastics like PMMA become "rubber like" when heated to a temperature slightly above the glass transition temperature. By controlling the material temperature and maintaining its malleable state, it is possible to use the stress-strain relationship to predict the profile dimensions of the imprinted microfeature. Examples of curved microchannels fabricated using PMMA mold masters are presented to illustrate the proposed methodology and verify the finite element model. In addition, the non-contact formation of the micro-reliefs simplifies the demolding process and helps to preserve the high quality surface finishes.

  17. Measurement and Correlation of Ambient VOCs in Windsor, Ontario, Canada and Detroit, Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L. J.; You, H.; Xu, X.; Molaroni, S.; Lemke, L.; Weglicki, L.; Krouse, H.; Krajenta, R.

    2009-05-01

    An air quality study has been carried out in Windsor, Ontario, Canada and Detroit, Michigan, USA as part of a pilot research study undertaken by the Geospatial Determinants of Health Outcomes Consortium (GeoDHOC), a multidisciplinary, international effort aimed at understanding the health effects of air pollution in urban environments. Exposure to volatile organic compounds has long been associated with adverse health conditions such as atrophy of skeletal muscles, loss of coordination, neurological damage, dizziness, throat, nose, and eye irritation, nervous system depression, liver damage, and respiratory symptoms. Twenty-six species of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were monitored during a 2-week period in September, 2008 at 100 sites across Windsor and Detroit, using 3M # 3500 Organic Vapour Monitors. Ten species with highest concentrations were selected for further investigation; Toluene (mean concentration =4.14 μm/m3), (m+p)-Xylene (2.30 μm/m3), Hexane (1.87 μm/m3), Benzene (1.37 μm/m3), 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene (0.87 μm/m3), Dichloromethane (0.77 μm/m3), Ethylbenzene (0.68 μm/m3), o-Xylene (0.63 μm/m3), n-Decane (0.42 μm/m3), and 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene (0.39 μm/m3). Comparison to a similar investigation in Sarnia, Ontario in October 2005 revealed that the mean concentrations of VOCs were higher in Windsor-Detroit for all species by a significant margin (31-958%), indicating substantial impact of local industrial and vehicular emissions in the WindsorVDetroit area. For most VOCs, the concentrations were higher in Detroit than in Windsor. The mean concentration of total VOC was 9.7 μm/m3 in Windsor, which is slightly higher than that in Sarnia in 2005 (7.9 um/m3), whilst total VOC concentration in Detroit was much higher (16.5 μm/m3). There were strong correlations among several of the 10 species, with the highest Pearson correlation coefficients (r=0.78 - 0.99, p<0.05) amongst the BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) group

  18. Flame retardant finishing of cotton fabric based on synergistic compounds containing boron and nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kongliang; Gao, Aiqin; Zhang, Yongsheng

    2013-10-15

    Boric acid and compound containing nitrogen, 2,4,6-tri[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethyl-ammonium)propyl]-1,3,5-triazine chloride (Tri-HTAC) were used to finish cotton fabric. The flame retardant properties of the finished cotton fabrics and the synergetic effects of boron and nitrogen elements were investigated and evaluated by limited oxygen index (LOI) method. The mechanism of cross-linking reaction among cotton fiber, Tri-HTAC, and boric acid was discussed by FTIR and element analysis. The thermal stability and surface morphology of the finished cotton fabrics were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The finishing system of the mixture containing boron and nitrogen showed excellent synergistic flame retardancy for cotton fabric. The cotton fabric finished with mixture system had excellent flame retardancy. The LOI value of the treated cotton fabric increased over 27.5. Tri-HTAC could form covalent bonds with cellulose fiber and boric acid. The flame retardant cotton fabric showed a slight decrease in tensile strength and whiteness. The surface morphology of flame retardant cotton fiber was smooth.

  19. Fatigue and fracture resistance of zirconia crowns prepared with different finish line designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboushelib, Moustafa N

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of finish line design on the fatigue, fracture resistance, and failure type of veneered zirconia restorations. A CAD/CAM system (Cercon) was used to prepare zirconia frameworks (0.5 mm thick) for a maxillary central incisor. Three finish line designs were evaluated: a complete narrow chamfer, a narrow chamfer with a lingual ledge, and a complete ledge. The prepared frameworks were veneered using a press-on ceramic (Ceram Press) and were cemented on the corresponding prepared teeth using a resin cement (Panavia F2.0). The cemented specimens were thermocycled, subjected to dynamic fatigue, and finally loaded till fracture. Fractured specimens were examined under a scanning electron microscope to assess fracture type. One-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests were used to analyze the data (α= 0.05). The finish line design did not have any significant statistical influence on the fracture resistance (F = 1.9, p= 0.346) or on the failure type of the tested specimens. Adjusted R squared value (R = 0.049) indicated a weak correlation between finish line design and fracture load of the tested specimens. All specimens failed due to cracking and fracture of the veneer ceramic. Meanwhile, the framework remained entirely intact. Three narrow chamfer finish line specimens demonstrated adhesive fracture of the veneer ceramic during dynamic fatigue testing, related to overextension of the veneer ceramic during the layering procedure. Within the limitations of this study, the finish line design did not influence the fatigue or the fracture resistance of veneered zirconia crowns. Selection of any of the finish line designs should be based on the clinical condition of the restored tooth. © 2011 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  20. Economics of finishing Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu cattle in feedlot and optimum finishing period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asimwe, L.; Kimambo, A E; Laswai, G. H.

    2016-01-01

    Economic potential of finishing Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu (TSZ) cattle in feedlot was analysed using data obtained from two feedlot experiments carried out at Kongwa ranch in Tanzania. The experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of feeding agro-processing by products and length of feedlot...... finishing for TSZ cattle. The biological data collected from the two experiments were used as basis for deriving the economic scenarios. The range of days steers were kept in feedlot was set at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 days. The dietary metabolisable energy intake (MEI) levels used in the study were 55 MJ...... in feedlot. Non-feed costs per kg extra meat were higher for short stays (4,500 TSh.) than long stays (2,630 TSh.) If meat prices were independent on finishing period length, high MEI was profitable with increment of (81%) profit per kg extra meat for an increase from 50 to 75 days in feedlot. Assuming a 10...

  1. Economics of finishing Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu cattle in feedlot and optimum finishing period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asimwe, L.; Kimambo, A E; Laswai, G. H.

    2016-01-01

    Economic potential of finishing Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu (TSZ) cattle in feedlot was analysed using data obtained from two feedlot experiments carried out at Kongwa ranch in Tanzania. The experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of feeding agro-processing by products and length of feedlot...... finishing for TSZ cattle. The biological data collected from the two experiments were used as basis for deriving the economic scenarios. The range of days steers were kept in feedlot was set at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 days. The dietary metabolisable energy intake (MEI) levels used in the study were 55 MJ...... in feedlot. Non-feed costs per kg extra meat were higher for short stays (4,500 TSh.) than long stays (2,630 TSh.) If meat prices were independent on finishing period length, high MEI was profitable with increment of (81%) profit per kg extra meat for an increase from 50 to 75 days in feedlot. Assuming a 10...

  2. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report No. 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, W.; Yan, H.; Hooda, U.; Wild, M.P.; Banerjee, S. [Inst. of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Shmulsky, R.; Thompson, A.; Ingram, L.; Conners, T. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This study was initiated by an Institute of Paper Science and Technology finding that heating softwood in a low-headspace environment removed much of the VOCs without removing the water. This offered the possibility of removing VOCs from wet wood, capturing them as a product, and then drying the VOC-depleted wood conventionally with little or no VOC controls. Two means of low-headspace heating were explored: steam and radiofrequency (RF). It was found in the previous year, that while both steam and RF were able to drive out VOCs, steam was impracticably slow for lumber. Hence the effect of RF or microwave on wood was the principal focus of the work reported here. Finally, in order to understand the mechanism of VOC release, the transport of the VOCs in wood was studied, together with the seasonal effects that influence VOC concentration in trees.

  3. VocVille - A Casual Social Game for Learning Vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Michel

    2012-01-01

    The document introduces VocVille, a causal online game for learning vocabularies. This application is created for the author's diploma thesis of his career as a Computervisualist (computer vision) for the University of Koblenz-Landau, which he terminated as an exchange student at the University of Cádiz, in which he developed this diploma thesis.

  4. EVALUATION OF SINK EFFECTS ON VOCS FROM A LATEX PAINT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sink strength of two common indoor materials, a carpet and a gypsum board, was evaluated by environmental chamber tests with four volatile organic compounds (VOCs): propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, 2-(2-butoxyethoxy)ethanol (BEE), and texanol. These oxygenated compounds rep...

  5. CASE STUDIES: LOW-VOC/HAP WOOD FURNITURE COATINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study in which wood furniture manufacturing facilities were identified that had converted at least one of their primary coating steps to low-volatile organic compound (VOC)/hazardous Air pollutant (HAP) wood furniture coatings: high-solids, water...

  6. RESEARCH AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-VOC WOOD COATINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses a project, cofunded by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) and the U.S. EPA, to develop a new, low volatile organic compound (VOC) wood coating. Traditional wood furniture coating technologies contain organic solvents which become air pol...

  7. Solid-phase microextraction and the human fecal VOC metabolome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Dixon

    Full Text Available The diagnostic potential and health implications of volatile organic compounds (VOCs present in human feces has begun to receive considerable attention. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME has greatly facilitated the isolation and analysis of VOCs from human feces. Pioneering human fecal VOC metabolomic investigations have utilized a single SPME fiber type for analyte extraction and analysis. However, we hypothesized that the multifarious nature of metabolites present in human feces dictates the use of several diverse SPME fiber coatings for more comprehensive metabolomic coverage. We report here an evaluation of eight different commercially available SPME fibers, in combination with both GC-MS and GC-FID, and identify the 50/30 µm CAR-DVB-PDMS, 85 µm CAR-PDMS, 65 µm DVB-PDMS, 7 µm PDMS, and 60 µm PEG SPME fibers as a minimal set of fibers appropriate for human fecal VOC metabolomics, collectively isolating approximately 90% of the total metabolites obtained when using all eight fibers. We also evaluate the effect of extraction duration on metabolite isolation and illustrate that ex vivo enteric microbial fermentation has no effect on metabolite composition during prolonged extractions if the SPME is performed as described herein.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF AEROBIC BIOFILTER DESIGN CRITERIA FOR TREATING VOCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reports preliminary results on the use of trickle bed biofilters with monolithic ceramic channelized microbial support structures for the treatment of VOCs typical of landfill leachate stripping. Toluene was used for the purpose of characterizing the trickle bed biofi...

  9. Accuracy of seven vapour intrusion algorithms for VOC in groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provoost, Jeroen; Bronders, Jan; Seuntjens, Piet [Flemish Inst. for Technological Research (VITO), Mol (Belgium); Reijnders, Lucas [Dept. of Science, Open Univ. Netherlands (OU NL), Heerlen (Netherlands); Swartjes, Frank; Lijzen, Johannes [National Inst. for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2009-02-15

    During the last decade, soil contamination with volatile organic contaminants (VOC) received special attention because of their potential to cause indoor air problems. Moreover, research has shown that people spend 64% to 94% of there time indoors; therefore, the indoor air quality is of a primary importance for exposure to VOC. Human health risks to VOC-in cases of soil contamination-are often dominated by the exposure route 'inhalation of indoor air'. Exposure is often a result of vapour transport from the soil or groundwater to the indoor air of the building. Within human health risk assessments, a variety of algorithms are available that calculate transfer of soil gas to the indoor air. These algorithms suffer from a relatively high uncertainty due to a lack of representation of spatial and temporal variability. For such an application, these algorithms need to be further verified empirically against field observations so that they can be sufficiently reliable for regulatory purposes. This paper presents the accuracy for seven algorithms by using observed and predicted soil and indoor air concentrations from three sites, where the groundwater had been contaminated with aromatic and chlorinated VOC. (orig.)

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF AEROBIC BIOFILTER DESIGN CRITERIA FOR TREATING VOCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reports preliminary results on the use of trickle bed biofilters with monolithic ceramic channelized microbial support structures for the treatment of VOCs typical of landfill leachate stripping. Toluene was used for the purpose of characterizing the trickle bed biofi...

  11. Accuracy of seven vapour intrusion algorithms for VOC in groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Provoost, J.; Reijnders, L.; Swartjes, F.; Bronders, J.; Seuntjens, P.; Lijzen, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background, aim and scope: During the last decade, soil contamination with volatile organic contaminants (VOC) received special attention because of their potential to cause indoor air problems. Moreover, research has shown that people spend 64% to 94% of there time indoors; therefore, the indoor ai

  12. VOC signatures from North American oil and gas sources (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, I. J.; Marrero, J.; Blake, N. J.; Barletta, B.; Hartt, G.; Meinardi, S.; Schroeder, J.; Apel, E. C.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Blake, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Between 2008 and 2013 UC Irvine has used its whole air sampling (WAS) technique to investigate VOC source signatures from a range of oil and gas sources in North America, including five separate field campaigns at the Alberta oil sands (1 airborne, 4 ground-based); the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill (airborne and ship-based); the 2012 airborne Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Project (DC3) mission over oil and gas wells in Colorado, Texas and Oklahoma; and the 2013 ground-based Barnett Shale Campaign in Texas. Each campaign has characterized more than 80 individual C1-C10 VOCs including alkanes, alkenes and aromatics. For example, oil sands are an extra-heavy, unconventional crude oil that is blended with diluent in order to flow, and upgraded into synthetic crude oil. The VOC signature at the oil sands mining and upgrading facilities is alkane-rich, and the fuel gas associated with these operations has an i-butane/n-butane ratio similar to that of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). In addition to light alkanes, enhanced levels of benzene were observed over US oil and natural gas wells during DC3, likely because of its use in hydrofracking fluid. A series of VOC emission ratios from North American petrochemical sources will be presented and compared, including oil sands, conventional oil and hydrofracking operations.

  13. Push-Pull Air Curtain Performances for VOCs Containment in an Industrial Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aubert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the efficiency of a Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs containment system using an air curtain (push-pull type on a manual workstation. This work combines CFD numerical simulations of the air curtain system and experimental studies on a real scale test bench. The point is to evaluate whether the actual worker protection can be replaced by an air curtain system, without weakening human safety. The new system could considerably reduce energetic consumption (ventilation, heating and VOCs emissions into the atmosphere. Experimental studies of the flow using a Particle Image Velocimetry anemometer (PIV have been carried out to validate the numerical model kinematics. The containment quality obtained by the model has been validated with experimental concentration fields given by a gaseous analyzer using flame ionization (FID. Numerical simulation provides an overview of the containment efficiency in the global area of the system. Thus, it is possible to evaluate numerically, but accurately, the quality of the containment of the system. Moreover, an energetic study proves the economic benefit of the push-pull system.

  14. QUALIDADE DA CARCAÇA E DA CARNE DE NOVILHOS ABATIDOS COM PESOS SIMILARES, TERMINADOS EM DIFERENTES SISTEMAS DE ALIMENTAÇÃO CARCASS AND MEAT QUALITY FROM STEERS SLAUGHTERED WITH SIMILAR WEIGHTS, FINISHED IN DIFFERENT FEEDING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Moletta

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as características qualitativas da carcaça e da carne de novilhos Aberdeen Angus terminados em confinamento, com canade-açúcar + concentrado, ou em pastagem cultivada de azevém (Lolium multiflorum + sal comum como suplemento mineral. Abateram-se os novilhos aos 24 meses de idade com pesos similares de 394 e 396 kg, respectivamente. Alimentaram-se os animais confinados com dieta contendo, na matéria seca, 72,3% de cana-de-açúcar e 27,7% de concentrado. Os novilhos apresentaram no início da terminação peso médio de 320 kg e idade média de vinte meses. Não houve diferença nas percentagens de músculo e de osso. A percentagem de gordura foi similar, sendo de 22,8% e 20,7%, respectivamente, para animais terminados em pastagem e confinamento. A suculência, o sabor, a força de cisalhamento e a quebra no descongelamento mostraram-se maiores nos animais terminados em pastagem cultivada, sendo, respectivamente, 6,93 pontos, 6,60 pontos, 9,23 kgf e 8,28%, contra 5,93 pontos, 5,77 pontos, 7,27 kgf e 5,27%, na mesma ordem, para novilhos alimentados em confinamento. Contudo, outras características qualitativas da carne como cor, textura, marmoreio, maciez e quebra na cocção foram similares entre os tratamentos. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Aberdeen Angus, cana-de-açúcar, confinamento, pastagem hibernal. The objective of this work was to study the carcass and meat characteristics of Aberdeen Angus steers finished in feedlot, with sugar cane + concentrate, or on cultivated pasture of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum + common salt as mineral supplement. The steers was slaughtered at 24 months of age with similar weights of 394 and 396 kg, respectively. Confined animals were fed with a diet containing 72.3% chopped sugar cane and 27.7% concentrate, dry matter basis. At the beginning of finishing the average weight of the steers was 320 kg and the age was 20 months. No difference was observed for carcass muscle and bone

  15. The Chemical Hazards Assessment Prior to D&D of the Plutonium Finishing Plant, Hanford Nuclear Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, A. M.; Prevette, S. S.; Sherwood, A. R.; Fitch, L. R.; Ranade, D. G.; Oldham, R. W.

    2003-02-26

    This report describes the evaluation methods and results of a chemical safety status assessment of the process equipment at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Nuclear Reservation Plutonium Finishing Plant. This assessment, designated as the Plutonium Finishing Plant Residual Chemical Hazards Assessment, focused particular emphasis on the idle and inactive plant systems, though certain active areas also were examined to the extent that these were examined during a previous facility vulnerability assessment completed in 1999. The Plutonium Finishing Plant is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Nuclear Reservation that is situated in south central Washington State.

  16. Surface roughness and staining susceptibility of composite resins after finishing and polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Sandrine Bittencourt; Palialol, Alan Rodrigo Muniz; Cavalli, Vanessa; Giannini, Marcelo

    2011-02-01

    The study aims to investigate the influence of filler size and finishing systems on the surface roughness and staining of three composite resins. Three composites, classified according to their filler size, were selected: Filtek Supreme Plus/nanofill (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA), Esthet-X/minifill (Dentsply Caulk, Milford, DE, USA), and Renamel Microfill/microfill (Cosmedent Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Composite specimens were made in stainless steel split molds and polished with Sof-Lex (3M ESPE), Enhance+PoGo (Dentsply Caulk), or FlexiDiscs+Enamelize (Cosmedent Inc.). Finishing systems were used according to the manufacturers' instructions and polished surfaces were evaluated with a profilometer and then immersed in 2% methylene blue for 24 hours. Specimens were then prepared for spectrophotometric analysis and results were statistically analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test. No significant differences in surface roughness among the composites were found when the surfaces were treated with Enhance+PoGo. In addition, no differences were observed when the Filtek Supreme Plus composite was submitted to surface staining evaluation. In general, the composites polished with the finishing systems from the same company demonstrated lower surface roughness and staining. The results of this study recommend that composite resins could be finished and polished with finishing systems supplied by the composite's manufacturer. The surface roughness and staining of composite resins were not influenced solely by filler size. Dentists should finish and polish composite resin with the polishing agent supplied by the same manufacturer. The smallest filler size does not necessarily result in a low surface roughness and staining susceptibility. © 2011, COPYRIGHT THE AUTHORS. JOURNAL COMPILATION © 2011, WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  17. Cross-Cultural Consumer Acceptability and Purchase Intent of Forage-Finished Rib-Eye Steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrico, Damir Dennis; Wardy, Wisdom; Pujols, Kairy Dharali; Carabante, Kennet Mariano; Jirangrat, Wannita; Scaglia, Guillermo; Janes, Marlene E; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2015-10-01

    Rib-eye steaks, from 3 forage-finished systems (S1, S2, and S3) and 1 commercial steak (C), either cooked by 1-sided-grilling or 2-sided-grilling, were evaluated for sensory acceptability [overall appearance (ORA) and overall appearance of fat (OAF) for raw steaks; overall appearance (OCA), overall beef aroma (OBA), overall beef flavor (OBF), juiciness, tenderness and overall liking (OL) for cooked steaks] and purchase intent by Hispanic, Asian and U.S. consumers. They also indicated preferred degree of doneness and cooking methods. Cross-cultural differences in preferences and consumer acceptability of rib-eye steaks were observed. Grilling was the most preferred cooking method. Hispanics and Asians preferred medium and/or medium well, while U.S. consumers preferred medium and/or medium rare. For cooked steaks, the population effect was significant for all sensory attributes; Asians generally scored lower than did Hispanics and U.S. consumers. C and S3 generally had higher scores for all sensory attributes across 3 populations. Purchase intent for all forage-finished steaks was higher for Hispanics and U.S. consumers compared to Asians (50.0% to 77.8% compared with 43.2% to 65.9%). Attributes influencing purchase intent of forage-finished steaks differed among populations: tenderness (odds ratio = 1.4) for Hispanics, OCA (odds ratio = 1.5) for Asians, and OBF (odds ratio = 1.3) for U.S. consumers. Overall, this study demonstrated that the type of forage-finished system and ethnic differences influenced sensory acceptability and purchase intent of forage-finished rib-eye steaks. Demand for forage-finished beef has increased worldwide due to its potential health benefits. Little is known regarding the cross-cultural effects on the consumer acceptance of forage-finished beef. We evaluated sensory acceptance and purchase intent of raw and cooked forage-finished rib-eye steaks using Hispanic, Asian, and U.S. (White and African American) populations. This study

  18. Dual cure low-VOC coating process. Final technical report, Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinzer, K.E.

    1993-12-01

    US EPA is implementing increasingly stringent environmental regulations on the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which amount to about 7 {times} 10{sup 9} lb/year, largely from paints and other coating systems in industry. Objective of this project is to develop Dual Cure Photocatalyst coating technology for aerospace topcoats (urethane/acrylate), aerospace primers (epoxy/acrylate), and solventless tape backings. Some problems (moisture etc.) were encountered in the primer area. Cost, economic, and energy analyses were conducted. The dual cure technology has already been commercialized in 3M`s flexible diamond resin products. Tabs.

  19. Growing and slaughtering performance of Apennine heavy lamb finished at pasture in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Cestola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-six Apennine male lambs were allotted into 2 groups, under different finishing systems: group P (maximum pasture allowance and group S (intensive finishing. Lambs were slaughtered either at 30 kg of weight or at 110 days of age (in case they couldn’t reach final weight because of a sharp decline in pasture productivity in summer. Post-weaning ADG were significantly higher in the S group (about 77 g/d and P lambs had lower weights, dressing percentage (due to higher gastro-intestinal apparatus content and SEUROP conformation scores. Finishing lambs at pasture could have better results after an early weaning or using different mating strategies to escape the dramatic fall in pasture dry matter availability during summer.

  20. Modelling Surface Finish in WEDM using RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Joshi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM is a specialized thermal machining process capable of accurately machining parts with varying hardness or complex shapes, which have sharp edges that are very difficult to be machined by the conventional machining processes. This practical technology of the WEDM process is based on the conventional EDM sparking phenomenon utilizing the widely accepted non-contact technique of material removal. Since the introduction of the process, WEDM has evolved from a simple means of making tools and dies to the best alternative of producing micro-scale parts with the highest degree of dimensional accuracy and surface finish quality. The effect of various parameters of WEDM like pulse on time (TON, pulse off time (TOFF, gap voltage (SV have been investigated to reveal their impact on output parameter i.e., surface roughness of high carbon and high chromium steel using response surface methodology. Experimental plan is performed by standard RSM design called a BOX-BEHKEN DESIGN. The optimal set of process parameter has also been predicted to maximize the surface finish.

  1. Degradation Pathways for Geogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Soil Gases from the Solfatara Crater (Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassi, F.; Venturi, S.; Cabassi, J.; Capecchiacci, F.; Nisi, B., Sr.; Vaselli, O.

    2014-12-01

    The chemical composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in soil gases from the Solfatara crater (Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy) was analyzed to investigate the effects of biogeochemical processes occurring within the crater soil on gases discharged from the hydrothermal reservoir and released into the atmosphere through diffuse degassing. In this system, two fumarolic vents (namely Bocca Grande and Bocca Nuova) are the preferential pathways for hydrothermal fluid uprising. For our goal, the chemistry of VOCs discharged from these sites were compared to that of soil gases. Our results highlighted that C4-C9 alkanes, alkenes, S-bearing compounds and alkylated aromatics produced at depth were the most prone to degradation processes, such as oxidation-reduction and hydration-dehydration reactions, as well as to microbial activity. Secondary products, which were enriched in sites characterized by low soil gas fluxes, mostly consisted of aldheydes, ketons, esters, ethers, organic acids and, subordinately, alcohols. Benzene, phenol and hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs) produced at depth were able to transit through the soil almost undisturbed, independently on the emission rate of diffuse degassing. The presence of cyclics was possibly related to an independent low-temperature VOC source, likely within sedimentary formations overlying the hydrothermal reservoir. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were possibly due to air contamination. This study demonstrated the strict control of biogeochemical processes on the behaviour of hydrothermal VOCs that, at least at a local scale, may have a significant impact on air quality. Laboratory experiments conducted at specific chemical-physical conditions and in presence of different microbial populations may provide useful information for the reconstruction of the degradation pathways controlling fate and behaviour of VOCs in the soil.

  2. 30 CFR 18.33 - Finish of surface joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Finish of surface joints. 18.33 Section 18.33... Requirements § 18.33 Finish of surface joints. Flat surfaces between bolt holes that form any part of a flame... § 18.31(a)(6). All metal surfaces forming a flame-arresting path shall be finished during the...

  3. [Experimental analysis of finishing lines in ceramometal restorations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascón, F; Gil, J A; Fons, A; Badal, R

    1990-11-01

    The preparation is the first step of any tooth reconstruction. The biological integration of the protesis is depending on the marginal adaptation (finish line of the preparation), occlusal adaptation (occlusal reduction), longevity of the restoration (retention and luting) and esthetics. The effect the two finish line of the preparation is studied using experimental design. In porcelain-fused-to-metal the finish line of the preparation in chanfer is superior at the beveled shoulder, because proportioning better marginal adaptation.

  4. Comparison of two feeding finishing treatments on production and quality of organic beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Cozzi

    Full Text Available The study compared growth and slaughter performance and meat quality of organic beef cattle finished with or without pasture grazing. One group of 10 Limousin heifers was finished under confined conditions and fed ad libitum a total mixed ration based on maize silage, hay and cereal grains. A second group of 10 Limousin heifers rotationally grazed two contiguous pasture plots of 1.5 ha each with a daily supplementation of a concentrate mix based on cereal grains and roasted soybeans. Heifers were slaughtered at commercial finishing and meat quality traits were assessed on Longissimus thoracis muscle. The grazing group, due to a lower average daily gain (0.74 vs. 0.95 kg/day; P<0.05, required a prolonged finishing period (172 vs. 155 days; P<0.05 than the confined animals. Meat samples from grazing cattle were less tender (shear force: 3.92 vs. 3.24 kg/cm2; P<0.05 and showed a lower lightness (L*: 33.0 vs. 35.8; P<0.001 and a higher redness (15.4 vs. 13.7; P<0.01 and yellowness (15.6 vs. 14.6; P<0.05. Fatty acid composition of the intramuscular fat was significantly affected by the finishing system. Grazing heifers had a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (4.06 vs. 3.66% of total fatty acids; P<0.05, conjugated linoleic acids (0.16 vs. 0.10% of total fatty acids; P<0.01 and ω-3 (0.44 vs. 0.30% of total fatty acids; P<0.001 than confined animals. The detrimental effects of pasture grazing on growth performance and on some important meat quality traits explain the limited adoption of this finishing system in organic beef production.

  5. Membrane inlet proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (MI-PTRMS) for direct measurements of VOCs in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscaini, Elena; Alexander, Michael L.; Prazeller, Peter; Märk, Tilmann D.

    2004-12-01

    The use of a membrane inlet proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (MI-PTRMS) system was investigated for the quantitative analysis of VOCs directly from water. Compounds playing an important role in environmental, biological and health issues such as methanol, acetonitrile, acetone, dimethylsulfide (DMS), isoprene, benzene, and toluene have been analyzed both in fresh and salty water. The system shows very good sensitivity, reproducibility, and a linear response of up to five orders of magnitude. The detection limit for DMS is about 100 ppt and for methanol is about 10 ppb both in fresh and salty water. The response time of the various compounds across the membrane is on the order of a few minutes. This fast response and the fact that the PTRMS can perform absolute measurements without the necessity of calibration make the system suitable for on-line and -site measurements of VOCs directly from water.

  6. Technique of pulse electrochemical finishing in molds and dies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-you; LIU Xiao-mei; JIANG Kai-yong; WANG Hui; ZHOU Jin-jin

    2004-01-01

    Surface finishing is one of the most important processes in mould and die making. This process is necessary not only for smoothing the surface of die or mould, but also for removing the surface layer, which has been damaged by the preceding machining process and finally improve the performances and lifetime of moulds to a large extent. It has been reported that between 30% and 40% of the total time required to manufacture a die or mold is spent on finishing operations, most of which are performed by skilled workers employing traditional techniques. At present, key problems in mould and die finishing technology can improve the finishing efficiency, consistency and quality at reduced costs. A new and high efficiency unconventional finishing technology, pulse electrochemical finishing was introduced. Experiments were done in neutral nitrate electrolytes. The influence of electrolyte composition, intereletrode gap, finishing time, flow quality, current density, compositions of steel materials and pulse parameters on the resulting surface finishing was investigated. Results indicate that pulse parameters have important influence on operations finishing and the proper selection of pulse parameters can lead to both good smoothing efficiency and surface quality at low costs.

  7. Modeling unsteady-state VOC transport in simulated waste drums. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Peterson, E.S.; Rae, C.; Hotz, N.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This report is a revision of an EG&G Idaho informal report originally titled Modeling VOC Transport in Simulated Waste Drums. A volatile organic compound (VOC) transport model has been developed to describe unsteady-state VOC permeation and diffusion within a waste drum. Model equations account for three primary mechanisms for VOC transport from a void volume within the drum. These mechanisms are VOC permeation across a polymer boundary, VOC diffusion across an opening in a volume boundary, and VOC solubilization in a polymer boundary. A series of lab-scale experiments was performed in which the VOC concentration was measured in simulated waste drums under different conditions. A lab-scale simulated waste drum consisted of a sized-down 55-gal metal drum containing a modified rigid polyethylene drum liner. Four polyethylene bags were sealed inside a large polyethylene bag, supported by a wire cage, and placed inside the drum liner. The small bags were filled with VOC-air gas mixture and the VOC concentration was measured throughout the drum over a period of time. Test variables included the type of VOC-air gas mixtures introduced into the small bags, the small bag closure type, and the presence or absence of a variable external heat source. Model results were calculated for those trials where the permeability had been measured.

  8. Fatigue and fracture resistance of zirconia crowns prepared with different finish line designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aboushelib, M.N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of finish line design on the fatigue, fracture resistance, and failure type of veneered zirconia restorations. Materials and Methods: A CAD/CAM system (Cercon) was used to prepare zirconia frameworks (0.5 mm thick) for a maxillary central

  9. Fatigue and fracture resistance of zirconia crowns prepared with different finish line designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aboushelib, M.N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of finish line design on the fatigue, fracture resistance, and failure type of veneered zirconia restorations. Materials and Methods: A CAD/CAM system (Cercon) was used to prepare zirconia frameworks (0.5 mm thick) for a maxillary central inc

  10. Surface Roughness, Microhardness, and Microleakage of a Silorane-Based Composite Resin after Immediate or Delayed Finishing/Polishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carvalho Rezende Lins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study evaluated the effect of immediate or delayed finishing/polishing using different systems on the surface roughness, hardness, and microleakage of a silorane-based composite. Material and Methods. Specimens were made with silorane-based composite (Filtek P90, 3M ESPE and assigned to the treatments: control (light-cured; aluminum oxide discs (Sof-Lex, 3M ESPE; diamond-impregnated silicone tips (Astropol, Ivoclar Vivadent; aluminum oxide-impregnated silicone tips (Enhance, Dentsply. Half of the specimens were finished/polished immediately and the rest after 7 days. Surface roughness (Ra, μm; n=20 and Vickers microhardness (50 g; 45 s; n=10 were measured. Cavities were prepared in bovine incisors and filled with Filtek P90. The fillings received immediate or delayed finishing/polishing (n=10 and were subjected to dye penetration test (0.5% basic fuchsin, 24 h. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Scheffe, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney tests (p<0.05. Results. The finishing/polishing system significantly influenced roughness and microhardness (p<0.0001. For enamel, microleakage was not affected by the finishing/polishing system (p=0.309. For dentin, Sof-Lex discs and Astropol points promoted greater microleakage than Enhance points (p=0.033. Conclusion. Considering roughness, microhardness, and microleakage together, immediate finishing/polishing of a silorane-based composite using aluminum oxide discs may be recommended.

  11. Subaperture approaches to finishing and testing astronomical optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Gregory W.; Tricard, Marc

    2004-07-01

    We describe the application of both stitching interferometry and magneto-rheological finishing (MRF) to the surface metrology and final figure correction of large optics. These particular subaperture technologies help to address the need for flexible systems that improve both overall manufacturing time and cost effectiveness. MRF can achieve high volumetric removal rates with a small-footprint tool that is perfectly conformable and highly stable. This tool is therefore well suited to finishing large optics (including aspheres) and correcting mid-spatial frequency errors. The system does not need vacuum, reduces microroughness to below one nm rms on most materials, and is able to meet the figure tolerance specs for astronomical optics. Such a technology is ideally complemented by a system for the stitching of interferometric subaperture data. Stitching inherently enables the testing of larger apertures with higher resolution and, thanks to the inbuilt calibration, even to higher accuracy in many situations. Moreover, given the low-order character of the dominant residual uncertainties in the stitched full-aperture data, such an approach is well suited to adaptive mirrors because the actuators correct precisely these deformations. While this approach enables the non-null testing of parts with greater aspheric departure and can lead to a significantly reduced non-common air path in the testing of long-radius concave parts, it is especially effective for convex optics. That is, stitching is particularly well suited to the testing of secondary mirrors and, alongside the testing of the off-axis primary segments, these are clearly critical challenges for extremely large telescope (ELT) projects.

  12. Aromatic VOCs global influence in the ozone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Perez, David; Pozzer, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are a subgroup of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) of special interest in the atmosphere of urban and semi-urban areas. Aromatics form a high fraction of VOCs, are highly reactive and upon oxidation they are an important source of ozone. These group of VOCs are released to the atmosphere by processes related to biomass burning and fossil fuel consumption, while they are removed from the atmosphere primarily by OH reaction and by dry deposition. In addition, a branch of aromatics (ortho-nitrophenols) produce HONO upon photolysis, which is responsible of certain amount of the OH recycling. Despite their importance in the atmosphere in anthropogenic polluted areas, the influence of aromatics in the ozone production remains largely unknown. This is of particular relevance, being ozone a pollutant with severe side effects on air quality, health and climate. In this work the atmospheric impacts at global scale of the most emitted aromatic VOCs in the gas phase (benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzene, styrene, phenol, benzaldehyde and trimethylbenzenes) are analysed and assessed. Specifically, the impact on ozone due to aromatic oxidation is estimated, as this is of great interest in large urban areas and can be helpful for developing air pollution control strategies. Further targets are the quantification of the NOx loss and the OH recycling due to aromatic oxidation. In order to investigate these processes, two simulations were performed with the numerical chemistry and climate simulation ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model. The simulations compare two cases, one with ozone concentrations when aromatics are present or the second one when they are missing. Finally, model simulated ozone is compared against a global set of observations in order to better constrain the model accuracy.

  13. Ensurdecimento vocálico em Zo’é

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Suelly Arruda Câmara Cabral

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresentamos uma descrição do fenômeno deensurdecimento vocálico na língua Zo’é (Tupi-Guarani. Sãoapresentadas ainda hipóteses acerca das restrições sincrônicas ativasno condicionamento deste fenômeno, além de uma hipótese acercada origem histórica do mesmo.

  14. Determination of VOC emission rates and compositions for offset printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadden, R A; Scheff, P A; Franke, J E; Conroy, L M; Keil, C B

    1995-07-01

    The release rates of volatile organic compounds (VOC) as fugitive emissions from offset printing are difficult to quantify, and the compositions are usually not known. Tests were conducted at three offset printing shops that varied in size and by process. In each case, the building shell served as the test "enclosure," and air flow and concentration measurements were made at each air entry and exit point. Emission rates and VOC composition were determined during production for (1) a small shop containing three sheetfed presses and two spirit duplicators (36,700 sheets, 47,240 envelopes and letterheads), (2) a medium-size industrial in-house shop with two webfed and three sheetfed presses, and one spirit duplicator (315,130 total sheets), and (3) one print room of a large commercial concern containing three webfed, heatset operations (1.16 x 10(6) ft) served by catalytic air pollution control devices. Each test consisted of 12 one-hour periods over two days. Air samples were collected simultaneously during each period at 7-14 specified locations within each space. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) for total VOC and for 13-19 individual organics. Samples of solvents used at each shop were also analyzed by GC. Average VOC emission rates were 4.7-6.1 kg/day for the small sheetfed printing shop, 0.4-0.9 kg/day for the industrial shop, and 79-82 kg/day for the commercial print room. Emission compositions were similar and included benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzene, and hexane. Comparison of the emission rates with mass balance estimates based on solvent usage and composition were quite consistent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Diffusion-controlled toluene reference material for VOC emissions testing: international interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Reed, Cynthia; Liu, Zhe; Cox, Steven; Leber, Dennis; Samarov, Dan; Little, John C

    2014-04-01

    The measurement of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from building products and materials by manufacturers and testing laboratories, and the use of the test results for labeling programs, continue to expand. One issue that hinders wide acceptance for chamber product testing is the lack of a reference material to validate test chamber performance. To meet this need, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Virginia Tech (VT) have developed a prototype reference material that emits a single VOC similar to the emissions of a diffusion-controlled building product source with a dynamic emissions profile. The prototype material has undergone extensive testing at NIST and a pilot interlaboratory study (ILS) with four laboratories. The next development step is an evaluation of the prototype source in multiple-sized chambers of 14 laboratories in seven countries. Each laboratory was provided duplicate specimens and a test protocol. Study results identified significant issues related to the need to store the source at a subzero Celsius temperature until tested and possible inconsistencies in large chambers. For laboratories using a small chamber and meeting all the test method criteria, the results were very encouraging with relative standard deviations ranging from 5% to 10% across the laboratories. Currently, the chamber performance of laboratories conducting product VOC emissions testing is assessed through interlaboratory studies (ILS) using a source with an unknown emission rate. As a result, laboratory proficiency can only be based on the mean and standard deviation of emission rates measured by the participating ILS laboratories. A reference material with a known emission rate has the potential to provide an independent assessment of laboratory performance as well as improve the quality of interlaboratory studies. Several international laboratories with different chamber testing systems demonstrated the ability to measure the emission rate

  16. Finishing of the cold mass assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2001-01-01

    Photo 1 Zoom of the lyre-side end of the active part assembly. The extremity of the shrinking cylinder has been bevelled in view of welding the end cover. Photo 2 General view of the finishing station showing the special supporting structures (blue and yellow structures) needed for the geometric measurements and for the alignment operations. Photo 3 Zoom of the lyre-side end of the active part assembly. One can also see the auxiliary bus bars needed to power the corrector magnets that are installed in the dipole cold mass assembly. Photo 4 Technicians are putting in order the instrumentation wires. The prototype magnets were equipped with numerous sensors to monitor key parameters during the performance tests at cold conditions.

  17. Light dependency of VOC emissions from selected Mediterranean plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S. M.; Harley, P.; Guenther, A.; Hewitt, C. N.

    The light, temperature and stomatal conductance dependencies of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from ten plant species commonly found in the Mediterranean region were studied using a fully controlled leaf cuvette in the laboratory. At standard conditions of temperature and light (30°C and 1000 μmol m -2 s -1 PAR), low emitting species ( Arbutus unedo, Pinus halepensis, Cistus incanus, Cistus salvifolius, Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris) emitted between 0.1 and 5.0 μg (C) (total VOCs) g -1 dw h -1, a medium emitter ( Pinus pinea) emitted between 5 and 10 μg (C) g -1 dw h -1 and high emitters ( Cistus monspeliensis, Lavendula stoechas and Quercus sp.) emitted more than 10 μg (C) g -1 dw h -1. VOC emissions from all of the plant species investigated showed some degree of light dependency, which was distinguishable from temperature dependency. Emissions of all compounds from Quercus sp. were light dependent. Ocimene was one of several monoterpene compounds emitted by P. pinea and was strongly correlated to light. Only a fraction of monoterpene emissions from C. incanus exhibited apparent weak light dependency but emissions from this plant species were strongly correlated to temperature. Data presented here are consistent with past studies, which show that emissions are independent of stomatal conductance. These results may allow more accurate predictions of monoterpene emission fluxes from the Mediterranean region to be made.

  18. A demonstration of biofiltration for VOC removal in petrochemical industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lan; Huang, Shaobin; Wei, Zongmin

    2014-05-01

    A biotrickling filter demo has been set up in a petrochemical factory in Sinopec Group for about 10 months with a maximum inlet gas flow rate of 3000 m3 h(-1). The purpose of this project is to assess the ability of the biotrickling filter to remove hardly biodegradable VOCs such as benzene, toluene and xylene which are recalcitrant and poorly water soluble and commonly found in petrochemical factories. Light-weight hollow ceramic balls (Φ 5-8 cm) were used as the packing media treated with large amounts of circulating water (2.4 m3 m(-2) h(-1)) added with bacterial species. The controlled empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 240 s is a key parameter for reaching a removal efficiency of 95% for benzene, toluene, xylene, and 90% for total hydrocarbons. The demo has been successfully adopted and practically applied in waste air treatments in many petrochemical industries for about two years. The net inlet concentrations of benzene, toluene and xylene were varied from 0.5 to 3 g m(-3). The biofiltration process is highly efficient for the removal of hydrophobic and recalcitrant VOCs with various concentrations from the petrochemical factories. The SEM analysis of the bacterial community in the BTF during VOC removal showed that Pseudomonas putida and Klebsiella sp. phylum were dominant and shutdown periods could play a role in forming the community structural differences and leading to the changes of removal efficiencies.

  19. A mass transfer model for VOC emission from silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Sasha D.; Montes, Felipe; Rotz, C. Alan

    2012-07-01

    Silage has been shown to be an important source of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone. Measurements have shown that environmental conditions and silage properties strongly influence emission rates, making it difficult to assess the contribution of silage in VOC emission inventories. In this work, we present an analytical convection-diffusion-dispersion model for predicting emission of VOCs from silage. It was necessary to incorporate empirical relationships from wind tunnel trials for the response of mass transfer parameters to surface air velocity and silage porosity. The resulting model was able to accurately predict the effect of temperature on ethanol emission in wind tunnel trials, but it over-predicted alcohol and aldehyde emission measured using a mass balance approach from corn silage samples outdoors and within barns. Mass balance results confirmed that emission is related to gas-phase porosity, but the response to air speed was not clear, which was contrary to wind tunnel results. Mass balance results indicate that alcohol emission from loose silage on farms may approach 50% of the initial mass over six hours, while relative losses of acetaldehyde will be greater.

  20. Enhancing Surface Finish of Additively Manufactured Titanium and Cobalt Chrome Elements Using Laser Based Finishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gora, Wojciech S.; Tian, Yingtao; Cabo, Aldara Pan; Ardron, Marcus; Maier, Robert R. J.; Prangnell, Philip; Weston, Nicholas J.; Hand, Duncan P.

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers the possibility of creating a complex free form object as a single element, which is not possible using traditional mechanical machining. Unfortunately the typically rough surface finish of additively manufactured parts is unsuitable for many applications. As a result AM parts must be post-processed; typically mechanically machined and/or and polished using either chemical or mechanical techniques (both of which have their limitations). Laser based polishing is based on remelting of a very thin surface layer and it offers potential as a highly repeatable, higher speed process capable of selective area polishing, and without any waste problems (no abrasives or liquids). In this paper an in-depth investigation of CW laser polishing of titanium and cobalt chrome AM elements is presented. The impact of different scanning strategies, laser parameters and initial surface condition on the achieved surface finish is evaluated.

  1. Interface Characterization of Single-Crystal CdTe Solar Cells With VOC > 950 mV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burst, James M.; Duenow, Joel N.; Kanevce, Ana; Moutinho, Helio R.; Jiang, Chun Sheng; Al-Jassim, Mowafak M.; Reese, Matthew Owen; Albin, David S.; Aguiar, Jeffrey A.; Colegrove, Eric; Ablekim, Tursun; Swain, Santosh K.; Lynn, Kelvin G.; Kuciauskas, Darius; Barnes, Teresa M.; Metzger, Wyatt K.

    2016-11-01

    Advancing CdTe solar cell efficiency requires improving the open-circuit voltage (VOC) above 900 mV. This requires long carrier lifetime, high hole density, and high-quality interfaces, where the interface recombination velocity is less than about 104 cm/s. Using CdTe single crystals as a model system, we report on CdTe/CdS electrical and structural interface properties in devices that produce open-circuit voltage exceeding 950 mV.

  2. H2S and VOCs abatement robustness in biofilters and air diffusion bioreactors: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrero, Raquel; Rodríguez, Elisa; Martin, María; García-Encina, Pedro A; Muñoz, Raúl

    2010-07-01

    The robustness of a conventional biofilter and an air diffusion bioreactor (ADB) was comparatively evaluated in laboratory-scale plants treating a mixture of H2S, butanone, toluene and alpha-pinene at gas residence times of 50 s. Under steady state conditions, H2S, butanone and toluene were almost completely degraded, while alpha-pinene removal did not exhibit removal efficiencies (REs) higher than 11.0 +/- 2.3%. Fluctuations in temperature from 8 degrees C to 30 degrees C did not impact significantly process performance in any of the biotechnologies tested. However, while the ADB unit was able to cope with three and six fold step increases in pollutant loadings, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) REs noticeably decreased in the biofilter when subjected to a six fold step change (i.e. 90% reduction for butanone and 30% for toluene). A process shutdown of five days resulted in the temporary loss of butanone and toluene RE in the ADB system. A lack of irrigation during five days caused a slight decrease in the biofilter REs, while a failure in the pH control system drastically affected the ADB performance. Finally, process robustness was quantified. The calculated overall risks showed that both biotechnologies were reliable for H2S and VOCs treatment in wastewater treatment plants, ADB diffusion exhibiting a higher robustness towards fluctuations commonly found under routine operation. This robustness was further confirmed by the high stability of the DGGE profiles.

  3. The Amazonian Floodplains, an ecotype with challenging questions on volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselmeier, J.

    2012-12-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are affected by a variety of biotic and abiotic factors such as light intensity, temperature, CO2 and drought. Another factor usually overlooked but very important for the tropical rainforest in Amazonia is regular flooding. According to recent estimates, the total Amazonian floodplain area easily ranges up to 700,000 km^2, including whitewater river floodplains (várzea) blackwater regions (igapó) and further clearwater regions. Regarding the total Amazonian wetlands the area sums up to more than 2.000.000 km^2, i.e. 30% of Amazonia. To survive the flooding periods causing anoxic conditions for the root system of up to several months, vegetation has developed several morphological, anatomical and physiological strategies. One is to switch over the root metabolism to fermentation, thus producing ethanol as one of the main products. Ethanol is a toxic metabolite which is transported into the leaves by the transpiration stream. From there it can either be directly emitted into the atmosphere, or can be re-metabolized to acetaldehyde and/or acetate. All of these compounds are volatile enough to be partly released into the atmosphere. We observed emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid under root anoxia. Furthermore, plant stress induced by flooding also affected leaf primary physiological processes as well as other VOC emissions such as the release of isoprenoids and other volatiles. For example, Hevea spruceana could be identified as a monoterpene emitting tree species behaving differently upon anoxia depending on the origin, with increasing emissions of the species from igapó and decreasing with the corresponding species from várzea. Contrasting such short term inundations, studies of VOC emissions under long term conditions (2-3 months) did not confirm the ethanol/acetaldehyde emissions, whereas emissions of other VOC species decreased considerably. These results demonstrate that the transfer of our knowledge

  4. Volatile organic compound (VOC) determination in working atmospheres; Determinacion de compuestos organicos volatiles (VOC) en ambiente laboral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blass A, Georgina; Panama T, Luz A; Corrales C, Deyanira [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The present work describes, in a synthesized way, the implementation and application of procedures based on the normativity related to the subject of the volatile organic compounds (Volatile Organic Compounds VOC), that allow to sample, quantify and evaluate the present contamination in the working atmosphere of a refinery due to the fugitive emissions of VOC and other substances. In accordance with the corresponding normativity, more than 189 organic compounds denominated dangerous air polluting agents (Hazardous Air Pollutants, HAP) can be found in a working atmosphere, but they are the 11 main HAP that can be found in a refinery. In the present article the work made for the sampling and quantification of 5 of the 11 dangerous polluting agents of the air: benzene, toluene, xylene, iso-octane and naphthalene. [Spanish] El presente trabajo describe, de manera sintetizada, la implementacion y aplicacion de procedimientos basados en la normatividad relacionada al tema de los compuestos organicos volatiles (Volatil Organic Compounds, VOC), que permiten muestrear, cuantificar y evaluar la contaminacion presente en el ambiente laboral de una refineria debido a las emisiones fugitivas de VOC y otras sustancias. De acuerdo con la normatividad correspondiente, mas de 189 compuestos organicos denominados contaminantes peligrosos del aire (Hazardous Air Pollutants, HAP), pueden ser encontrados en un ambiente laboral, pero son 11 los principales HAP que pueden ser hallados en una refineria. En el presente articulo se informa el trabajo realizado para el muestreo y cuantificacion de 5 de los 11 contaminantes peligrosos del aire: benceno, tolueno, xileno, iso-octano y naftaleno.

  5. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC Removal by Vapor Permeation at Low VOC Concentrations: Laboratory Scale Results and Modeling for Scale Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Moulin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum transformation industries have applied membrane processes for solvent and hydrocarbon recovery as an economic alternative to reduce their emissions and reuse evaporated components. Separation of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs (toluene-propylene-butadiene from air was performed using a poly dimethyl siloxane (PDMS/α-alumina membrane. The experimental set-up followed the constant pressure/variable flow set-up and was operated at ~21 °C. The membrane is held in a stainless steel module and has a separation area of 55 × 10−4 m². Feed stream was set to atmospheric pressure and permeate side to vacuum between 3 and 5 mbar. To determine the performance of the module, the removed fraction of VOC was analyzed by Gas Chromatography/Flame Ionization Detector (GC/FID. The separation of the binary, ternary and quaternary hydrocarbon mixtures from air was performed at different flow rates and more especially at low concentrations. The permeate flux, permeance, enrichment factor, separation efficiency and the recovery extent of the membrane were determined as a function of these operating conditions. The permeability coefficients and the permeate flux through the composite PDMS-alumina membrane follow the order given by the Hildebrand parameter: toluene > 1,3-butadiene > propylene. The simulated data for the binary VOC/air mixtures showed fairly good agreement with the experimental results in the case of 1,3-butadiene and propylene. The discrepancies observed for toluene permeation could be minimized by taking into account the effects of the porous support and an influence of the concentration polarization. Finally, the installation of a 0.02 m2 membrane module would reduce 95% of the VOC content introduced at real concentration conditions used in the oil industry.

  6. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Removal by Vapor Permeation at Low VOC Concentrations: Laboratory Scale Results and Modeling for Scale Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollar-Perez, Georgette; Carretier, Emilie; Lesage, Nicolas; Moulin, Philippe

    2011-03-03

    Petroleum transformation industries have applied membrane processes for solvent and hydrocarbon recovery as an economic alternative to reduce their emissions and reuse evaporated components. Separation of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (toluene-propylene-butadiene) from air was performed using a poly dimethyl siloxane (PDMS)/α-alumina membrane. The experimental set-up followed the constant pressure/variable flow set-up and was operated at ~21 °C. The membrane is held in a stainless steel module and has a separation area of 55 × 10-4 m². Feed stream was set to atmospheric pressure and permeate side to vacuum between 3 and 5 mbar. To determine the performance of the module, the removed fraction of VOC was analyzed by Gas Chromatography/Flame Ionization Detector (GC/FID). The separation of the binary, ternary and quaternary hydrocarbon mixtures from air was performed at different flow rates and more especially at low concentrations. The permeate flux, permeance, enrichment factor, separation efficiency and the recovery extent of the membrane were determined as a function of these operating conditions. The permeability coefficients and the permeate flux through the composite PDMS-alumina membrane follow the order given by the Hildebrand parameter: toluene > 1,3-butadiene > propylene. The simulated data for the binary VOC/air mixtures showed fairly good agreement with the experimental results in the case of 1,3-butadiene and propylene. The discrepancies observed for toluene permeation could be minimized by taking into account the effects of the porous support and an influence of the concentration polarization. Finally, the installation of a 0.02 m2 membrane module would reduce 95% of the VOC content introduced at real concentration conditions used in the oil industry.

  7. 16 CFR 1509.8 - Construction and finishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Construction and finishing. 1509.8 Section 1509.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1509.8 Construction and finishing. (a) All wood...

  8. 16 CFR 1508.7 - Construction and finishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Construction and finishing. 1508.7 Section 1508.7 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1508.7 Construction and finishing. (a) All wood surfaces...

  9. Salmonella infection and immune response in finishing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finishing pigs infected with Salmonella pose significant food safety risks by carrying the pathogen into abattoirs. A study was conducted to determine the dynamic of Salmonella infection in finishing pigs, and the immunological alterations that occur in Salmonella-carrier pigs, by longitudinally com...

  10. Population dynamics of swine influenza virus in finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2008-01-01

    Influenza virus infections in swine were first noticed in the US in 1918, during the human pandemic of the Spanish flu. In Europe, seroprevalences for the three most common swine influenza strains at the moment, H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2, range from 20-80% in finishing pigs at the end of the finishing per

  11. Influence of finishing on the electrochemical properties of dental alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, T; Hattori, M; Hasegawa, K; Yoshinari, M; Kawada, E; Oda, Y

    2000-05-01

    Dental alloy surface finishing procedures of may influence their electrochemical behavior, which is used to evaluate their corrosion resistance. We examined the polarization resistance and potentiodynamic polarization profile of the precious-metal alloys, Type 4 gold alloy and silver-palladium alloy, and the base-metal alloys, nickel-chromium alloy, cobalt-chromium alloy, and CP-titanium. Three types of finishing procedure were examined: mirror-finishing using 0.05 micron alumina particles, polishing using #600 abrasive paper and sandblasting. Dissolution of the alloy elements in 0.9% NaCl solution was also measured and compared with the electrochemical evaluation. The corrosion resistance of the dental alloys was found to relate to finishing as follows: The polarization resistance and potentiodynamic polarization behavior revealed that the corrosion resistance improved in the order of sandblasting, #600-abrasive-paper polishing, and mirror-finishing. While the corrosion potential, critical current density and passive current density varied depending on the type of finishing, the transpassive potential remained unchanged. The influence of finishing on the corrosion resistance of precious-metal alloys was less significant than on that of base-metal alloys. A mirror-finishing specimen was recommended for use in evaluation of the corrosion resistance of various dental alloys.

  12. Population dynamics of swine influenza virus in finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2008-01-01

    Influenza virus infections in swine were first noticed in the US in 1918, during the human pandemic of the Spanish flu. In Europe, seroprevalences for the three most common swine influenza strains at the moment, H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2, range from 20-80% in finishing pigs at the end of the finishing

  13. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC measurements in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-chung Chang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We measured levels of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs at seven sites in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region of China during the Air Quality Monitoring Campaign spanning 4 October to 3 November 2004. Two of the sites, Guangzhou (GZ and Xinken (XK, were intensive sites at which we collected multiple daily canister samples. The observations reported here provide a look at the VOC distribution, speciation, and photochemical implications in the PRD region. Alkanes constituted the largest percentage (>40% in mixing ratios of the quantified VOCs at six sites; the exception was one major industrial site that was dominated by aromatics (about 52%. Highly elevated VOC levels occurred at GZ during two pollution episodes; however, the chemical composition of VOCs did not exhibit noticeable changes during these episodes. We calculated the OH loss rate to estimate the chemical reactivity of all VOCs. Of the anthropogenic VOCs, alkenes played a predominant role in VOC reactivity at GZ, whereas the contributions of reactive aromatics were more important at XK. Our preliminary analysis of the VOC correlations suggests that the ambient VOCs at GZ came directly from local sources (i.e., automobiles; those at XK were influenced by both local emissions and transportation of air mass from upwind areas.

  14. Pilot Plant Demonstration of a Sulfide Precipitation Process for Metal-Finishing Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    TOAD Metal-Finishing Wastewater Treatment System 6 3 View of Portion of Treatment System 7 4 Section of Treatment System, Showing Clearwell 7 5 Filter... Clearwell Effluent Suspended Solids 21 10 Effluent Oil and Grease 22 1 1 Dewatered Sludge Solids 23 12 Operating Time, Wastewater Flows, and Volume of...showing clearwell . S S S - - - - - - - - - - S 0C C0 CL U. * 4 Figure 6. Control panel. c. Flow Equalization. The effluents from the cyanide

  15. Socrematic adapts its odors treatments to VOC. Bacteria avid for solvents; Socrematic adapte ses traitements des odeurs aux COV. Des bacteries friandes de solvants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepetit, V.

    2002-05-01

    Socrematic (Saint-Ouen-l'Aumone, France), a company specialized in air treatment processes, has developed a bio-filter system made of peat, bacteria and fungi for the cleansing of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the gaseous effluents of the Rexam Cosmetic Closures company at Simandre (Saone-et-Loire, France). The bio-filter reduces the initial VOCs concentration of 200-250 mg/m{sup 3} (a mixture of butanones, ethyl-acetates and xylenes) to about 36 mg/m{sup 3}. Short note. (J.S.)

  16. Adsorption-electro-desorption treatment of air polluted by VOCs; Traitement de l'air charge en COV par adsorption-electrodesorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subrenat, A.; Le Cloirec, P. [Ecole des Mines de Nantes 44 (France)

    2004-10-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are pollutants involved in the greenhouse effect. Their abatement is today seriously controlled when they are produced by industrial classified facilities. This paper presents a air treatment system based on the adsorption by activated carbon tissues. The filters are regenerated by electrical heating. The physico-chemical and electrical properties of activated carbon tissues are presented first with their adsorption properties with respect to VOCs. Then the design of a specific adsorber is described: adsorption filters, pressure drops and air flow, implementation and efficiency. Finally, the efficiency results obtained on a real-scale industrial plant are presented. (J.S.)

  17. Phosphorus requirement of finishing feedlot calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Milton, C T; Brink, D; Orth, M W; Whittet, K M

    2002-06-01

    Dietary P supplied to feedlot cattle is important because an inadequate supply will compromise performance, whereas excess P may harm the environment. However, P requirements of feedlot cattle are not well documented. Therefore, 45 steer calves (265.2+/-16.6 kg) were individually fed to determine the P required for gain and bone integrity over a 204-d finishing period. The basal diet consisted of 33.5% high-moisture corn, 30% brewers grits, 20% corn bran, 7.5% cottonseed hulls, 3% tallow, and 6% supplement. Treatments consisted of 0.16 (no supplemental inorganic P), 0.22, 0.28, 0.34, and 0.40% P (DM basis). Supplemental P was provided by monosodium phosphate top-dressed to the daily feed allotment. Blood was sampled every 56 d to assess P status. At slaughter, phalanx and metacarpal bones were collected from the front leg to determine bone ash and assess P resorption from bone. Dry matter intake and ADG did not change linearly (P > 0.86) or quadratically (P > 0.28) due to P treatment. Feed efficiency was not influenced (P > 0.30) by P treatment and averaged 0.169. Plasma inorganic P averaged across d 56 to 204 responded quadratically, with calves fed 0.16% P having the lowest concentration of plasma inorganic P. However, plasma inorganic P concentration (5.7 mg/dL) for steers fed 0.16% P is generally considered adequate. Total bone ash weight was not influenced by dietary P for phalanx (P = 0.19) or metacarpal bones (P = 0.37). Total P intake ranged from 14.2 to 35.5 g/d. The NRC (1996) recommendation for these calves was 18.7 g/d, assuming 68% absorption. Based on performance results, P requirements for finishing calves is < 0.16% of diet DM or 14.2 g/d. Based on these observations, we suggest that typical grain-based feedlot cattle diets do not require supplementation of inorganic mineral P to meet P requirements.

  18. Theoretical study of simultaneous water and VOCs adsorption and desorption in a silica gel rotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, G.; Zhang, Y.F.; Fang, Lei

    2008-01-01

    One-dimensional partial differential equations were used to model the simultaneous water and VOC (Volatile Organic Compound) adsorption and desorption in a silica gel rotor which was recommended for indoor air cleaning. The interaction among VOCs and moisture in the adsorption and desorption...... by the temperatures of the rotor and the air stream. The VOC transfer equations were solved by discretizing them into explicit up-wind finite differential equations. The model was validated with experimental data. The calculated results suggested that the regeneration time designed for dehumidification may...... process was neglected in the model as the concentrations of VOC pollutants in typical indoor environment were much lower than that of moisture and the adsorbed VOCs occupied only a minor portion of adsorption capacity of the rotor. Consequently VOC transfer was coupled with heat and moisture transfer only...

  19. Purge and trap method to determine alpha factors of VOC liquid-phase mass transfer coefficients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A theoretical approach and laboratory practice of determining the alpha factors of volatile organic compound (VOC) liquid-phase mass transfer coefficients are present in this study.Using Purge Trap Concentrator, VOC spiked water samples are purged by high-purity nitrogen in the laboratory, the VOC liquid-phase mass transfer rate constants under the laboratory conditions are then obtained by observing the variation of VOCs purged out of the water with the purge time.The alpha factors of VOC liquid-phase mass transfer coefficients are calculated as the ratios of the liquid-phase mass transfer rate constants in real water samples to their counterparts in pure water under the same experimental conditions. This direct and fast approach is easy to control in the laboratory, and would benefit mutual comparison among researchers, so might be useful for thestudy of VOC mass transfer across the liquid-gas interface.

  20. Major reactive species of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their sources in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO; Min; FU; Linlin; LIU; Ying; LU; Sihua; ZHANG; Yuanhan

    2005-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are important precursors of atmospheric chemical processes. As a whole mixture, the ambient VOCs show very strong chemical reactivity. Based on OH radical loss rates in the air, the chemical reactivity of VOCs in Beijing was calculated. The results revealed that alkenes, accounting for only about 15% in the mixing ratio of VOCs, provide nearly 75% of the reactivity of ambient VOCs and the C4 to C5 alkenes were the major reactive species among the alkenes. The study of emission characteristics of various VOCs sources indicated that these alkenes are mainly from vehicle exhaust and gasoline evaporation. The reduction of alkene species in these two sources will be effective in photochemical pollution control in Beijing.

  1. [Study on the chemical compositions of VOCs emitted by cooking oils based on GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wan-Qing; Nie, Lei; Tian, Gang; Li, Jing; Shao, Xia; Wang, Min-Yan

    2013-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are key precursors of ozone and secondary organic aerosols in air, and the differences in the compositions of VOCs lead to their different contribution to atmospheric reaction. Cooking oil fume is one of the important sources of atmospheric VOCs, and its chemical compositions are distinct under different conditions of oil types, food types, cooking methods and heating temperatures etc. In this study, the production of cooking oil fume was simulated by heating typical pure vegetable oils (peanut oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, olive oil and blend oil) at different temperatures in beakers to investigate the chemical compositions of VOCs. The emitted VOCs were sampled with a Tenax adsorption tube and analyzed using GC-MS after thermal desorption. According to spectral library search and map analysis, using area normalized semi-quantitative method, preliminary qualitative and quantitative tests were conducted for the specific components of VOCs under different conditions.

  2. Comparison of two feeding finishing treatments on production and quality of organic beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Gottardo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The study compared growth and slaughter performance and meat quality of organic beef cattle finished with or without pasture grazing. One group of 10 Limousin heifers was finished under confined conditions and fed ad libitum a total mixed ration based on maize silage, hay and cereals grains. A second group of 10 Limousin heifers rotationally grazed two contiguous pasture plots of 1.5 ha each with a daily supplementation of a concentrate mix based on cereal grains and roasted soybeans. Heifers were slaughtered at commercial finishing and meat quality traits were assessed on Longissimus thoracis muscle. The grazing group, due to a lower average daily gain (0.74 vs 0.95 kg/day; Pvs 155 days; Pvs 3.24 kg/cm2; Pvs 35.8; Pvs 13.7; Pvs 14.6; Pvs 3.66 % of total fatty acids; Pvs 0.10 % of total fatty acids; Pvs 0.30 % of total fatty acids; P<0.001 than confined animals. The detrimental effects of pasture grazing on growth performance and on some important meat quality traits explain the limited adoption of this finishing system in organic beef production.

  3. Time-activity relationships to VOC personal exposure factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rufus D.; Schweizer, Christian; Llacqua, Vito; Lai, Hak Kan; Jantunen, Matti; Bayer-Oglesby, Lucy; Künzli, Nino

    Social and demographic factors have been found to play a significant role in differences between time-activity patterns of population subgroups. Since time-activity patterns largely influence personal exposure to compounds as individuals move across microenvironments, exposure subgroups within the population may be defined by factors that influence daily activity patterns. Socio-demographic and environmental factors that define time-activity subgroups also define quantifiable differences in VOC personal exposures to different sources and individual compounds in the Expolis study. Significant differences in exposures to traffic-related compounds ethylbenzene, m- and p-xylene and o-xylene were observed in relation to gender, number of children and living alone. Categorization of exposures further indicated time exposed to traffic at work and time in a car as important determinants. Increased exposures to decane, nonane and undecane were observed for males, housewives and self-employed. Categorization of exposures indicated exposure subgroups related to workshop use and living downtown. Higher exposures to 3-carene and α-pinene commonly found in household cleaning products and fragrances were associated with more children, while exposures to traffic compounds ethylbenzene, m- and p-xylene and o-xylene were reduced with more children. Considerable unexplained variation remained in categorization of exposures associated with home product use and fragrances, due to individual behavior and product choice. More targeted data collection methods in VOC exposure studies for these sources should be used. Living alone was associated with decreased exposures to 2-methyl-1-propanol and 1-butanol, and traffic-related compounds. Identification of these subgroups may help to reduce the large amount of unexplained variation in VOC exposure studies. Further they may help in assessing impacts of urban planning that result in changes in behavior of individuals, resulting in shifts in

  4. Assessment of the reduction methods used to develop chemical schemes: building of a new chemical scheme for VOC oxidation suited to three-dimensional multiscale HOx-NOx-VOC chemistry simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopa, S.; Aumont, B.; Madronich, S.

    2005-02-01

    The objective of this work was to develop and assess an automatic procedure to write reduced chemical schemes for modeling gaseous photooxidant pollution at different scales. The method is based on (i) the development of a tool for writing the fully explicit schemes 5 for VOC oxidation and (ii) the assessment of reduced schemes using the fully explicit scheme as a reference. The reference scheme contained ca. seventy emitted VOCs chosen to be representative of both anthropogenic and biogenic emissions, and their atmospheric degradation chemistry involving more than two million reactions and 350 000 species was written using an expert system generator approach. 10 Three methods were applied to reduce the size of chemical schemes: (i) use of operators, based on the redundancy of the reaction sequences involved in the VOC oxidation, (ii) lumping of primary species having similar reactivities and (iii) lumping of secondary products into surrogate species. The number of species in the final reduced scheme is 150, i.e. low enough for 3-D modeling purposes using CTMs. Comparisons 15 between the fully explicit and reduced schemes, carried out with a box model for several typical tropospheric conditions, showed that the reduced chemical scheme accurately predicts ozone concentrations and some other aspects of oxidant chemistry for both polluted and clean tropospheric conditions.

  5. Assessment of the reduction methods used to develop chemical schemes: building of a new chemical scheme for VOC oxidation suited to three-dimensional multiscale HOx-NOx-VOC chemistry simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Aumont

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop and assess an automatic procedure to write reduced chemical schemes for modeling gaseous photooxidant pollution at different scales. The method is based on (i the development of a tool for writing the fully explicit schemes 5 for VOC oxidation and (ii the assessment of reduced schemes using the fully explicit scheme as a reference. The reference scheme contained ca. seventy emitted VOCs chosen to be representative of both anthropogenic and biogenic emissions, and their atmospheric degradation chemistry involving more than two million reactions and 350 000 species was written using an expert system generator approach. 10 Three methods were applied to reduce the size of chemical schemes: (i use of operators, based on the redundancy of the reaction sequences involved in the VOC oxidation, (ii lumping of primary species having similar reactivities and (iii lumping of secondary products into surrogate species. The number of species in the final reduced scheme is 150, i.e. low enough for 3-D modeling purposes using CTMs. Comparisons 15 between the fully explicit and reduced schemes, carried out with a box model for several typical tropospheric conditions, showed that the reduced chemical scheme accurately predicts ozone concentrations and some other aspects of oxidant chemistry for both polluted and clean tropospheric conditions.

  6. Biodegradation of mixture of VOC's in a biofilter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. Arulneyam; T. Swaminathan

    2004-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds(VOC' s) in air have become major concem in recent years. Biodegradation of a mixture of ethanol and methanol vapor was evaluated in a laboratory biofilter with a bed of compost and polystyrene particles using an acclimated mixed culture. The continuous performance of the biofilter was studied with different proportion of ethanol and methanol at different initial concentration and flow rates. The result showed significant removal for both ethanol and methanol, which were composition dependent.The presence of either compound in the mixture inhibited the biodegradation of the other.

  7. DESORPTION OF VOCs FROM POLYMERIC ADSORBENTS UNDER MICROWAVE FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Desorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)from polymeric adsorbents by microwave was investigated experimentally. Two kinds of organic compounds, benzene and toluene,were separately used as adsorbates in this work. Results showed that the application of microwave to regenerate the polymeric adsorbents not only can get higher regeneration efficiency in comparison with the use of heat regeneration, but also make the temperatures of the fixed beds much lower than that when using the heat regeneratton The weaker the polarity of a polymeric adsorbent, the easier its regeneration was.

  8. DESORPTION OF VOCs FROM POLYMERIC ADSORBENTS UNDER MICROWAVE FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIXiang; LIZhong; 等

    2001-01-01

    Desorption of volatile organic compounds(VOCs) from polymeric adsorbents by microwave was investigated experimentally.Two kinds of organic compounds.benzene and toluene.were separately used as adsorbates in this work Results showed that the application of microwave to regenerate the polymeric adsorbents not only can get higher regeneration efficiency in comparison with the use of heat regeneration,but also make the temperatures of the fixed beds much lower than that when using the heat regeneration the weaker the polarity of a polymericadsorbent,the easier its regeneration was.

  9. VoCS : Sistema de almacenamiento voluntario en la nube

    OpenAIRE

    Schiavón Raineri, Ignacio Nicolás

    2012-01-01

    La computación en la nube responde a las necesidades del aumento de dispositivos conectados a Internet y el creciente volumen de datos manejados, ofreciendo acceso ubicuo y transparente a la información de forma segura. Esto ha tenido como consecuencia la apertura del mercado, ofreciendo muchas aplicaciones basadas en la nube como SkyDrive, Google Drive o Dropbox. VoCS (Volunteer Cloud Storage) es un sistema de almacenamiento voluntario en la nube de código abierto y seguro, que pretende ofre...

  10. Plant leaves as indoor air passive samplers for volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Todd A; Doucette, William J

    2015-03-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) enter indoor environments through internal and external sources. Indoor air concentrations of VOCs vary greatly but are generally higher than outdoors. Plants have been promoted as indoor air purifiers for decades, but reports of their effectiveness differ. However, while air-purifying applications may be questionable, the waxy cuticle coating on leaves may provide a simple, cost-effective approach to sampling indoor air for VOCs. To investigate the potential use of plants as indoor air VOC samplers, a static headspace approach was used to examine the relationship between leaf and air concentrations, leaf lipid contents and octanol-air partition coefficients (Koa) for six VOCs and four plant species. The relationship between leaf and air concentrations was further examined in an actual residence after the introduction of several chlorinated VOC emission sources. Leaf-air concentration factors (LACFs), calculated from linear regressions of the laboratory headspace data, were found to increase as the solvent extractable leaf lipid content and Koa value of the VOC increased. In the studies conducted in the residence, leaf concentrations paralleled the changing air concentrations, indicating a relatively rapid air to leaf VOC exchange. Overall, the data from the laboratory and residential studies illustrate the potential for plant leaves to be used as cost effective, real-time indoor air VOC samplers.

  11. FEV manoeuvre induced changes in breath VOC compositions: an unconventional view on lung function tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukul, Pritam; Schubert, Jochen K.; Oertel, Peter; Kamysek, Svend; Taunk, Khushman; Trefz, Phillip; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2016-06-01

    Breath volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis can open a non-invasive window onto pathological and metabolic processes in the body. Decades of clinical breath-gas analysis have revealed that changes in exhaled VOC concentrations are important rather than disease specific biomarkers. As physiological parameters, such as respiratory rate or cardiac output, have profound effects on exhaled VOCs, here we investigated VOC exhalation under respiratory manoeuvres. Breath VOCs were monitored by means of real-time mass-spectrometry during conventional FEV manoeuvres in 50 healthy humans. Simultaneously, we measured respiratory and hemodynamic parameters noninvasively. Tidal volume and minute ventilation increased by 292 and 171% during the manoeuvre. FEV manoeuvre induced substance specific changes in VOC concentrations. pET-CO2 and alveolar isoprene increased by 6 and 21% during maximum exhalation. Then they decreased by 18 and 37% at forced expiration mirroring cardiac output. Acetone concentrations rose by 4.5% despite increasing minute ventilation. Blood-borne furan and dimethyl-sulphide mimicked isoprene profile. Exogenous acetonitrile, sulphides, and most aliphatic and aromatic VOCs changed minimally. Reliable breath tests must avoid forced breathing. As isoprene exhalations mirrored FEV performances, endogenous VOCs might assure quality of lung function tests. Analysis of exhaled VOC concentrations can provide additional information on physiology of respiration and gas exchange.

  12. VOCs and OVOCs distribution and control policy implications in Pearl River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Peter K. K.; Ho, Josephine W. K.; Tsang, Roy C. W.; Blake, Donald R.; Lau, Alexis K. H.; Yu, Jian Zhen; Yuan, Zibing; Wang, Xinming; Shao, Min; Zhong, Liuju

    2013-09-01

    Ambient air measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) were conducted and characterised during a two-year grid study in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of southern China. The present grid study pioneered the systematic investigation of the nature and characteristics of complex VOC and OVOC sources at a regional scale. The largest contributing VOCs, accounting over 80% of the total VOCs mixing ratio, were toluene, ethane, ethyne, propane, ethene, butane, benzene, pentane, ethylbenzene, and xylenes. Sub-regional VOC spatial characteristics were identified, namely: i) relatively fresh pollutants, consistent with elevated vehicular and industrial activities, around the PRD estuary; and ii) a concentration gradient with higher mixing ratios of VOCs in the west as compared with the eastern part of PRD. Based on alkyl nitrate aging determination, a high hydroxyl radical (OH) concentration favoured fast hydrocarbon reactions and formation of locally produced ozone. The photochemical reactivity analysis showed aromatic hydrocarbons and alkenes together consisted of around 80% of the ozone formation potential (OFP) among the key VOCs. We also found that the OFP from OVOCs should not be neglected since their OFP contribution was more than one-third of that from VOCs alone. These findings support the choice of current air pollution control policy which focuses on vehicular sources but warrants further controls. Industrial emissions and VOCs emitted by solvents should be the next targets for ground-level ozone abatement.

  13. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report No. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, P.; Yan, Hui; Banerjee, S. [and others

    1997-10-01

    This progress report summarizes three accomplishments in a study of low volatile organic compound (VOC) drying of lumber and wood panel products. A mathematical model for predicting moisture emissions from particle was constructed and is being extended to VOCs. VOCs emissions from drying boards show that VOCs appear to be evenly released from all surfaces. Preliminary results from monthly analyses of loblolly pines indicate that resin acids appear to decrease between March to August, and that no consistent trends are apparent for terpenes. 3 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Implementation of VOC source reduction practices in a manufactured house and in school classrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, A.T.; Apte, M.G.; Shendell, D.G.; Beal, D.; McIlvaine, J.E.R.

    2002-01-01

    Detailed studies of a new manufactured house and four new industrialized relocatable school classrooms were conducted to determine the emission sources of formaldehyde and other VOCs and to identify and implement source reduction practices. Procedures were developed to generate VOC emission factors that allowed reasonably accurate predictions of indoor air VOC concentrations. Based on the identified sources of formaldehyde and other aldehydes, practices were developed to reduce the concentrations of these compounds in new house construction. An alternate ceiling panel reduced formaldehyde concentrations in the classrooms. Overall, the classrooms had relatively low VOC concentrations.

  15. Effect of Eco-finishing on Naturally Colored Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈英; 宋心远

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies desizing and polishing of naturally colored cotton with different enzyme. The reactivity of cellulases was measured. The percentage of decrement, bulkiness and color difference of fabrics both before and after eco-finishing were tested. The reasons were analyzed. The results indicates that the desizing of amylase can be applied on naturally colored cotton, and cellulases have polishing effect on it. Moreover eco-finishing with enzyme can provide many better properties to naturally colored cotton than that of normal finishing. Also this process has no pollution as enzyme can be degraded by bioreaction.

  16. An overview of plastic optical fiber end finishers at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishina, M.; Lindenmeyer, C.; Korienek, J.

    1993-11-01

    Several years ago the need for equipment to precisely finish the ends of plastic optical fibers was recognized. Many high energy physics experiments use thousands of these fibers which must be polished on one or both ends. A fast, easy-to-operate machine yielding repeatable finishes was needed. Three types of machines were designed and constructed that are in daily use at Fermilab, all finish the fiber ends by flycutting with a diamond tool. Althrough diamond flycutting of plastic is not new, the size and fragility of plastic optical fibers present several challenges.

  17. Improved performance of parallel surface/packed-bed discharge reactor for indoor VOCs decomposition: optimization of the reactor structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Hui, Chun-Xue; Li, Jie; Lu, Na; Shang, Ke-Feng; Wu, Yan; Mizuno, Akira

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a high-efficiency air-cleaning system for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) existing in the workshop of a chemical factory. A novel parallel surface/packed-bed discharge (PSPBD) reactor, which utilized a combination of surface discharge (SD) plasma with packed-bed discharge (PBD) plasma, was designed and employed for VOCs removal in a closed vessel. In order to optimize the structure of the PSPBD reactor, the discharge characteristic, benzene removal efficiency, and energy yield were compared for different discharge lengths, quartz tube diameters, shapes of external high-voltage electrode, packed-bed discharge gaps, and packing pellet sizes, respectively. In the circulation test, 52.8% of benzene was removed and the energy yield achieved 0.79 mg kJ-1 after a 210 min discharge treatment in the PSPBD reactor, which was 10.3% and 0.18 mg kJ-1 higher, respectively, than in the SD reactor, 21.8% and 0.34 mg kJ-1 higher, respectively, than in the PBD reactor at 53 J l-1. The improved performance in benzene removal and energy yield can be attributed to the plasma chemistry effect of the sequential processing in the PSPBD reactor. The VOCs mineralization and organic intermediates generated during discharge treatment were followed by CO x selectivity and FT-IR analyses. The experimental results indicate that the PSPBD plasma process is an effective and energy-efficient approach for VOCs removal in an indoor environment.

  18. Biological anoxic treatment of O{sub 2}-free VOC emissions from the petrochemical industry: A proof of concept study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, Raúl; Souza, Theo S.O. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Glittmann, Lina [Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, Department of Supply Engineering, Wolfenbüttel (Germany); Pérez, Rebeca [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Quijano, Guillermo, E-mail: gquijano@iq.uva.es [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • The treatment of O{sub 2}-free VOC emissions can be done by means of denitrifying processes. •Toluene vapors were successfully removed under anoxic denitrifying conditions. • A high bacterial diversity was observed. • Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were the predominant phyla. • The nature and number of metabolites accumulated varied with the toluene load -- Abstract: An innovative biofiltration technology based on anoxic biodegradation was proposed in this work for the treatment of inert VOC-laden emissions from the petrochemical industry. Anoxic biofiltration does not require conventional O{sub 2} supply to mineralize VOCs, which increases process safety and allows for the reuse of the residual gas for inertization purposes in plant. The potential of this technology was evaluated in a biotrickling filter using toluene as a model VOC at loads of 3, 5, 12 and 34 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1} (corresponding to empty bed residence times of 16, 8, 4 and 1.3 min) with a maximum elimination capacity of ∼3 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1}. However, significant differences in the nature and number of metabolites accumulated at each toluene load tested were observed, o- and p-cresol being detected only at 34 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1}, while benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde and phenol were detected at lower loads. A complete toluene removal was maintained after increasing the inlet toluene concentration from 0.5 to 1 g m{sup −3} (which entailed a loading rate increase from 3 to 6 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1}), indicating that the system was limited by mass transfer rather than by biological activity. A high bacterial diversity was observed, the predominant phyla being Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria.

  19. Effect of finishing and polishing on color stability of a nanofilled resin immersed in different media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Botta Martins de OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of finishing and polishing on color stability of a nanofilled composite resin (Filtek Z350 XT according to different immersion media.MATERIAL AND METHOD: Composite disks (10 mm diameter, 2 mm thickness were prepared for each group (n = 6 using a stainless steel mold. The groups were divided according to the presence or absence of finishing and polishing procedure and immersion media (artificial saliva, artificial juice- KAPO(r Coca-Cola(rflavors: pineapple, orange, strawberry and grape. The finishing and polishing procedures were performed using Super -Snap(r disks. The specimens were stored in artificial saliva for 24 hours (baseline and were analyzed using a color spectrophotometer by CIELab system. Then, they were immersed in different media for 5 minutes, 3 times a day, every 4 hours during 60 days. They were stored in artificial saliva at 37 ± 1°C during the immersion intervals. After this time, new measure of color was performed. The data were analyzed using Kruskall-Wallis test and Mann- Whitney test. The significance level was 5%.RESULT: The results showed that the finishing/polishing not significantly influence the color stability of resin composite (p > 0.05. There was no statistically significant difference in the color stability of the studied resin after immersion in different media (p > 0.05.CONCLUSION: The finishing and polishing procedures and the immersion media did not have influence on color stability of nanofilled resin Filtek Z350 XT.

  20. Alcohol induced alterations to the human fecal VOC metabolome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin D Couch

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that excessive alcohol consumption impacts the intestinal microbiota composition, causing disruption of homeostasis (dysbiosis. However, this observed change is not indicative of the dysbiotic intestinal microbiota function that could result in the production of injurious and toxic products. Thus, knowledge of the effects of alcohol on the intestinal microbiota function and their metabolites is warranted, in order to better understand the role of the intestinal microbiota in alcohol associated organ failure. Here, we report the results of a differential metabolomic analysis comparing volatile organic compounds (VOC detected in the stool of alcoholics and non-alcoholic healthy controls. We performed the analysis with fecal samples collected after passage as well as with samples collected directly from the sigmoid lumen. Regardless of the approach to fecal collection, we found a stool VOC metabolomic signature in alcoholics that is different from healthy controls. The most notable metabolite alterations in the alcoholic samples include: (1 an elevation in the oxidative stress biomarker tetradecane; (2 a decrease in five fatty alcohols with anti-oxidant property; (3 a decrease in the short chain fatty acids propionate and isobutyrate, important in maintaining intestinal epithelial cell health and barrier integrity; (4 a decrease in alcohol consumption natural suppressant caryophyllene; (5 a decrease in natural product and hepatic steatosis attenuator camphene; and (6 decreased dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, microbial products of decomposition. Our results showed that intestinal microbiota function is altered in alcoholics which might promote alcohol associated pathologies.

  1. Oxygenated VOC and monoterpene emissions from a boreal coniferous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale, R.; Rantala, P.; Kajos, M. K.; Patokoski, J.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Aalto, J.; Kolari, P.; Bäck, J.; Hari, P.; Kulmala, M.; Rinne, J.

    2012-04-01

    Compared with terpenoids, emissions of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from boreal ecosystems have been poorly characterized. We measured ecosystem scale emissions of three oxygenated compounds (methanol, acetaldehyde, and acetone) and monoterpenes from a Scots pine dominated forest in southern Finland during the summers 2006-2008. The measurements were conducted using the disjunct eddy covariance method combined with proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. The contribution of the three oxygenated compounds to the measured total emissions was 40-60 %. The highest oxygenated VOC emissions were those of methanol, comprising 20-30 % of the total, followed by acetone with a share of 10-20 %. The acetaldehyde emissions were 5-10 % of the total. This emission composition will be compared with that obtained from shoot enclosure measurements. Methanol showed deposition during some periods although its overall flux was towards the atmosphere. The monoterpene emissions had a light dependent component, suggesting that part of the emissions originated directly from monoterpene biosynthesis. Diurnal, seasonal, and inter-annual variations in the emissions, along with temperature and light dependencies, will be discussed.

  2. O sistema vocálico alemão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Haupt

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available 0 presente trabalho explica, de forma simplificada, o sistema vocálico alemão através dos traços de duração, abertura e recuo. Na discussão sobre o assunto, é feita uma abordagem sobre a relação de dependência entre a duração e os traços de abertura, além de discutir a relevância de manter a duração em todo o sistema. Através do modelo de Fonologia Autossegmental, é possível verificar que a estrutura silábica das vogais longas e breves é diferente, além de verificar em que contextos silábicos elas podem ocorrer (especificamente em posição tônica. Já em posição átona, ocorre o schwa, uma variante da vogal lei, que fará parte do sistema vocálico alemão, constituído, então, de 15 vogais em posição tônica e uma variante átona.

  3. Role of alginate in antibacterial finishing of textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiwei; He, Jinmei; Huang, Yudong

    2017-01-01

    Antibacterial finishing of textiles has been introduced as a necessary process for various purposes especially creating a fabric with antimicrobial activities. Currently, the textile industry continues to look for textiles antimicrobial finishing process based on sustainable biopolymers from the viewpoints of environmental friendliness, industrialization, and economic concerns. This paper reviews the role of alginate, a sustainable biopolymer, in the development of antimicrobial textiles, including both basic physicochemical properties of alginate such as preparation, chemical structure, molecular weight, solubility, viscosity, and sol-gel transformation property. Then different processing routes (e.g. nanocomposite coating, ionic cross-linking coating, and Layer-by-Layer coating) for the antibacterial finishing of textiles by using alginate are revised in some detail. The achievements in this area have increased our knowledge of alginate application in the field of textile industry and promoted the development of green textile finishing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal on finisher pig growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science ... meal on finisher pig growth performance, meat quality, shelf life and fatty acid composition of pork ... Feed intake was measured daily, pig liveweight was measured weekly, and average daily gains ...

  5. CHARACTERISTICS OF KLEBSIELLA FROM TEXTILE FINISHING PLANT EFFLUENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebsiella strains are found in abnormally high numbers in a stream receiving wastewater from a textile finishing plant. Representative strains are randomly selected to determine biochemical, serotype, and virulence patterns. All strains conform to the commonly accepted biochemic...

  6. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Dangerous Waste Training Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ENTROP, G.E.

    1999-12-03

    This training plan describes general requirements, worker categories, and provides course descriptions for operation of the plutonium finishing plant (PFP) waste generation facilities, permitted treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) units, and the 90-Day Accumulation Areas.

  7. Exposure to organic solvents during cosmetic finishing of cars

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bråtveit, M; Moen, B E

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the exposure to organic solvents during degreasing, washing and polishing of cars, and to obtain information about acute health symptoms in car-finishing workers...

  8. Equipments for Dyeing & Finishing are Facing Low Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shimiao

    2010-01-01

    @@ Dyeing & finishing industry makes it possible for textile products to present colorful world on them.When it beautifies human's life immensely,it also makes great consumption of energy and resources,and causes environmental pollution.

  9. Environmentally friendly antibacterial cotton textiles finished with siloxane sulfopropylbetaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiguo; Chen, Shaojun; Jiang, Song; Xiong, Meiling; Luo, Junxuan; Tang, Jiaoning; Ge, Zaochuan

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports a novel environmentally friendly antibacterial cotton textile finished with reactive siloxane sulfopropylbetaine(SSPB). The results show that SSPB can be covalently bound onto the cotton textile surface, imparting perdurable antibacterial activity. The textiles finished with SSPB have been investigated systematically from the mechanical properties, thermal stability, hydrophilic properties and antibacterial properties. It is found that the hydrophilicity and breaking strength are improved greatly after the cotton textiles are finished with SSPB. Additionally, the cotton textiles finished with SSPB exhibit good antibacterial activities against gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus, ATCC 6538), gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (E.coli, 8099) and fungi Candida albicans (C.albicans, ATCC 10231). Moreover, SSPB is nonleachable from the textiles, and it does not induce skin stimulation and is nontoxic to animals. Thus, SSPB is ideal candidate for environmentally friendly antibacterial textile applications.

  10. Development of biogenic VOC emission inventories for the boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, V.

    2008-07-01

    The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by vegetation, especially forests, can affect local and regional atmospheric photochemistry through their reactions with atmospheric oxidants. Their reaction products may also participate in the formation and growth of new particles which affect the radiation balance of the atmosphere, and thus climate, by scattering and absorbing shortwave and longwave radiation and by modifying the radiative properties, amount and lifetime of clouds. Globally, anthropogenic VOC emissions are far surpassed by the biogenic ones, making biogenic emission inventories an integral element in the development of efficient air quality and climate strategies. The inventories are typically constructed based on landcover information, measured emissions of different plants or vegetation types, and empirical dependencies of the emissions on environmental variables such as temperature and light. This thesis is focused on the VOC emissions from the boreal forest, the largest terrestrial biome with characteristic vegetation patterns and strong seasonality. The isoprene, monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions of the most prevalent boreal tree species in Finland, Scots pine, have been measured and their seasonal variation and dependence on temperature and light have been studied. The measured emission data and other available observations of the emissions of the principal boreal trees have been used in a biogenic emission model developed for the boreal forests in Finland. The model utilizes satellite landcover information, Finnish forest classification and hourly meteorological data to calculate isoprene, monoterpene, sesquiterpene and other VOC emissions over the growing season. The principal compounds emitted by Scots pine are DELTA3-carene and alpha-pinene in the south boreal zone and alpha- and beta-pinene in the north boreal zone. The monoterpene emissions are dependent on temperature and have a clear seasonal cycle with high emissions in spring

  11. Superficial roughness on composite surface, composite-enamel and composite-dentin junctions after different finishing and polishing procedures. Part II: roughness with diamond finishing and differences between enamel composite vs body composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraris, Federico; Conti, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The following study asks three principle questions relative to composite finishing and composite polishing: 1) Will the superficial roughness of different restoration surfaces have different values, utilizing the same polishing system (multistep), after finishing with the tungsten carbide or diamond bur? 2) Under the same conditions of finishing and polishing sequences, will the composite surfaces (C), the composite-enamel (CE) and composite-dentin (CD) interfaces show different roughness values? 3) Will the surface roughness of composites of different translucency in the various phases of finishing and polishing, and on different interfaces, have different results? The null hypothesis is represented by the fact that there are no significant differences on roughness of composite restorations when polishing, after finishing with tungsten carbide or diamond burs. Furthermore, the null hypothesis is that there are no significant differences on roughness between polishing on composite surface, composite-enamel and composite-dentin interfaces, and finally there are no differences on roughness after finishing and polishing of two composite with different translucency. For the study, 56 class V cavities were prepared on extracted teeth. Restorations were done in nanofilled composite Filtek XTE (3M Espe) in a standard fashion, and then finished and polished. The 28 buccal cavities were restored on the surface with composite enamel and the 28 palatals with composite body. Finishing was done with fine toothing burs in tungsten carbide (16 blades) or fine grit diamond burs (46 μm), and made by the same manufacturer (Komet). The second phase of finishing was done with burs (with the same form as already mentioned) ultrafine toothing tungsten carbide (30 blades) or with extra and ultrafine grit diamond (25 and 8 μm). The polishing phase for both of the earlier sequences was done with the application of three rubber tips with decreasing abrasiveness and an application with a

  12. Solder flow over fine line PWB surface finishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosking, F.M.; Hernandez, C.L.

    1998-08-01

    The rapid advancement of interconnect technology has stimulated the development of alternative printed wiring board (PWB) surface finishes to enhance the solderability of standard copper and solder-coated surfaces. These new finishes are based on either metallic or organic chemistries. As part of an ongoing solderability study, Sandia National Laboratories has investigated the solder flow behavior of two azole-based organic solderability preservations, immersion Au, immersion Ag, electroless Pd, and electroless Pd/Ni on fine line copper features. The coated substrates were solder tested in the as-fabricated and environmentally-stressed conditions. Samples were processed through an inerted reflow machine. The azole-based coatings generally provided the most effective protection after aging. Thin Pd over Cu yielded the best wetting results of the metallic coatings, with complete dissolution of the Pd overcoat and wetting of the underlying Cu by the flowing solder. Limited wetting was measured on the thicker Pd and Pd over Ni finishes, which were not completely dissolved by the molten solder. The immersion Au and Ag finishes yielded the lowest wetted lengths, respectively. These general differences in solderability were directly attributed to the type of surface finish which the solder came in contact with. The effects of circuit geometry, surface finish, stressing, and solder processing conditions are discussed.

  13. Prophylometric and SEM analyses of four different finishing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHIODERA, G.; CERUTTI, F.; CERUTTI, A.; PUTIGNANO, A.; MANGANI, F.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Adhesion is the pivot of the modern restorative dentistry. Inlays, onlays and veneers have become a valid alternative to the traditional prosthetic treatments even in the rehabilitation of extremely damaged teeth, allowing a consistent saving of sound tooth tissues. Composite resins and dental adhesive are continously investigated and improved, nevertheless the optimization of the tooth-adhesive interface has to be considered: in fact, the long-term stability of adhesion between tooth and composite material depends on the treatment of the amelo-dentinal surfaces. This study investigated the quality of the occlusal walls of a cavity prepared to receive an inlay and finished with four different systems: thin and extra-thin diamond coated burs, a 12-blades carbide burs and a diamond-coated tip driven by sonic instrument. Consequently, prophylometric and SEM analyses were performed on the samples. The average roughness values recorded by the prophylometer were expressed by the parameters Ra and RZ: there is a correspondence between the numeric values and the pictures of the SEM. The results show a better quality (low roughness values) of the surface treated with multi-blade burs, followed by the this and extra-thin diamond coated burs. The 25 micron diamond-coated tip of the sonic instrument obtains the roughest surface and a sensibly higher amount of smear layer than the other tested systems. PMID:23741601

  14. The reduction of formaldehyde and VOCs emission from wood-based flooring by green adhesive using cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sumin

    2010-10-15

    To discuss the reduction of formaldehyde and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from engineered flooring, cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL)-formaldehyde (CF) resin and CF/PVAc resin were applied for the maple face of the veneer bonding on plywood. The CF resin was used to replace urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin in the formaldehyde-based resin system in order to reduce formaldehyde and VOC emissions from the adhesives used between the plywoods and fancy veneers. For the CF/PVAc resins, 5, 10, 20 or 30% of PVAc was added to the CF resin. The CF/PVAc resins showed better bonding than the commercial natural tannin adhesive with a higher level of wood penetration. The standard formaldehyde emission test and a VOC analyzer were used to determine the formaldehyde and VOC emissions, respectively, from the engineered floorings. The CF resin and CF/PVAc resin systems with UV coating satisfied the E(1) and E(0) grades of the Korean Standard. TVOC emission was slightly increased by the PVAc addition.

  15. 40 CFR Figure 1 to Subpart Tttt of... - Example Logs for Recording Leather Finish Use and HAP Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Finish Use and HAP Content 1 Figure 1 to Subpart TTTT of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Finishing Operations Part 63, Subpt. TTTT, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Subpart TTTT of Part 63—Example Logs for Recording Leather Finish Use and HAP Content Month:______Year:______ Finish Inventory Log Finish type Finish...

  16. Características de carcaça e análise do custo de sistemas de produção de cordeiras ½ Dorset Santa Inês Carcass characteristics and production costs of ½ Dorset Santa Inês lambs finished at two different systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Aparecida Santello

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi realizado com os objetivos de avaliar as características de carcaça de cordeiras ½ Dorset Santa Inês e comparar o custo de produção e o retorno econômico de dois sistemas de terminação. Após o desmame, 44 cordeiras foram divididas em dois sistemas de terminação: confinamento - ração (4% PV com 15,56% de PB e 4,32 Mcal de EB/kg MS; e pastagem + suplementação (1,5% de ração, com base no peso vivo, com 27,01% PB e 4,51 Mcal de EB/kg MS. Os custos da ração e do suplemento foram de R$0,39 e R$0,54, respectivamente. Os animais foram abatidos ao atingirem peso corporal médio de 30 kg. Os valores médios para os pesos da carcaça quente e fria foram de 14,33 e 14,11 kg e 13,91 e 13,6 kg, os rendimentos verdadeiros médios de 55,81 e 55,61% e os comerciais de 46,39 e 46,04%, respectivamente, para confinamento e pastagem + suplementação. As médias para condição corporal e índices de compacidade da carcaça e da perna das cordeiras terminadas em confinamento e pastagem + suplementação foram, respectivamente, de 3,03 e 2,96; 0,21 e 0,20 kg/cm e 0,43 e 0,44 cm/cm. As características idade ao abate, condição corporal, pesos da carcaça quente e fria, rendimentos verdadeiro e comercial da carcaça e índices de compacidade da carcaça e da perna não diferiram entre os tratamentos. Portanto, cordeiras ½ Dorset Santa Inês podem ser terminadas em confinamento ou em pastagem + suplementação, porém, considerando-se a análise econômica, recomenda-se a terminação em pastagem + suplementação.The objectives of this trial were to evaluate carcass characteristics and production costs of ½ Dorset Santa Inês lambs finished at two finishing systems. Forty-four weaned ½ Dorset Santa Inês lambs were distributed to one of the following two finishing systems: 1 feedlot lambs were fed concentrate (4% BW containing 15.56% CP and 4.32 Mcal GE/kg DM or 2 lambs were on pasture and received a supplement (1.5% BW

  17. 40 CFR 60.502 - Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. 60.502 Section 60.502 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Bulk Gasoline Terminals § 60.502 Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. On and after the date on which § 60.8(a) requires a...

  18. 40 CFR 60.312 - Standard for volatile organic compounds (VOC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds (VOC). 60.312 Section 60.312 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Surface Coating of Metal Furniture § 60.312 Standard for volatile organic compounds (VOC). (a) On...

  19. Evaluation of the Snap Sampler for Sampling Ground Water Monitoring Wells for VOCs and Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    23 Table 4. Results from the holding- time study with...the opposite order. First Holding- Time Study for VOCs The purpose of this study was to determine whether analyte concentra- tions of samples... Study for VOCs The procedure for this study was the same as for the previous holding- time study except that that the Snap Samplers were equilibrated

  20. POLLUTION PREVENTION CASE STUDIES: LOW-VOC/HAP WOOD FURNITURE COATINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article provides a brief profile of the wood furniture industry, discusses pollution prevention activities typically implemented, describes the four low-VOC/HAP coating technologies studied. and summarizes one case study for each of the low-VOC/HAP coating yechnologies inves...

  1. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report No. 4, annual summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerner, J.; Su, Wei; Yan, Hui [and others

    1997-07-01

    Heating softwood in a low-headspace environment draws out the VOCs from the wood, without removing the water. The VOCs can be collected from the headspace, and represent a valuable product. The VOC-depleted wood can then be dried conventionally with much reduced emissions. Heating can be accomplished through radiofrequency (RF) or steam. For lumber, steam is inefficient, but brief RF treatment under low-headspace conditions draws out 80% of the VOCs. The power used is quite low, since the RF energy is not used to remove water, but only to maintain the wood at a set temperature. The technology is now at the pre-pilot stage. Either steam or RF can be used for particle, OSB, and veneer, again under low-headspace conditions. Increasing steam temperature facilitates VOC removal. In order to understand the mechanism of VOC release in lumber, the transport of water and VOCs to the surface is being studied as a function of sample size and orientation. Characterization of the terpenes and resin/fatty acids from a control set of trees is underway in order to define the seasonal influence on VOCs.

  2. Session 6: High Throughput Screening of VOC Removal Catalysts in Scanning Mass Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaccato, K.; Hagemeyer, A.; Lefort, L.; Turner, H.; Volpe, A.; Weinberg, H. [Symyx Technologies Inc., Santa Clara, CA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are considered an important group of air pollutants. We have targeted more efficient VOC removal catalysts with high activity for total combustion at low temperature, negligible organics slip, high selectivity to CO{sub 2} without production of intermediate CO, oxygenates or cracking products. Butane was used as the model feed for VOC in Symyx' high-throughput Scanning Mass Spectrometer. The screening protocol encompassed bulk (unsupported) mixed metal oxides calcined in air at 400 C. Transition metals M{sub 1} known to have some oxidation activity M{sub 1}=Ti, V, Cr, Mo, W, Mn, Re, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Ag, were combined with each other into binaries as well as doped with M{sub 2} = K, Cs, Mg, Sr, Sc, Y, Ce, Sm, Zr, Nb, Ta, Zn, Cd, B, Al, In, Sn, Pb, P, Sb, Bi and Te, using 5- point compositional gradients (5 different compositions per binary). Five M/Z values were monitored, namely 44, 68, 70, 72 and 98. CO{sub 2} at M/Z equal to 44 is the dominant product, and only traces of oxygenates are formed. Co, Cr, Ni, Mn, Cu are identified as the most active metals. Subsequently, CoCrM{sub 3} and CrZnM{sub 3} ternaries were synthesized and screened with M{sub 3} selected from M{sub 3} Li, K, Cs, Mg, Sr, Y, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, Pt, Ag, Zn, Al, Ga, In, Sn, Pb, P, Sb and Bi, (M{sub 3} {<=} 10%, 15 different compositions/ternaries; 3 copies: (a) unsupported, calcined at 400 C, (b) unsupported, calcined at 600 C, (c) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, calcined at 400 C). CoCr ternaries from Symyx' library archive were also screened. High CO{sub 2} production for the CoCr/400 C systems was observed. Catalyst compositions were then optimized in focus libraries. An example for a CoCrTi/CoVSi bis-ternary focus library will be discussed in detail. VPO catalysts were used as 'standards' to establish the correlation between primary and tertiary screening. High CO{sub 2} signals were also observed for Co-rich CoCr and CoCrTi systems. The best Co

  3. Efficient control of odors and VOC emissions via activated carbon technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Farhana; Kim, James; Huang, Ruey; Nu, Huong Ton; Lorenzo, Vlad

    2014-07-01

    This research study was undertaken to enhance the efficiency and economy of carbon scrubbers in controlling odors and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at the wastewater collection and treatment facilities of the Bureau of Sanitation, City of Los Angeles. The butane activity and hydrogen sulfide breakthrough capacity of activated carbon were assessed. Air streams were measured for odorous gases and VOCs and removal efficiency (RE) determined. Carbon towers showed average to excellent removal of odorous compounds, VOCs, and siloxanes; whereas, wet scrubbers demonstrated good removal of odorous compounds but low to negative removal of VOCs. It was observed that the relative humidity and empty bed contact time are one of the most important operating parameters of carbon towers impacting the pollutant RE. Regular monitoring of activated carbon and VOCs has resulted in useful information on carbon change-out frequency, packing recommendations, and means to improve performance of carbon towers.

  4. Non-labeling multiplex surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chi Lok; Dinish, U. S.; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report multiplex SERS based VOCs detection with a leaning nano-pillar substrate. The VOCs analyte molecules adsorbed at the tips of the nano-pillars produced SERS signal due to the field enhancement occurring at the localized surface plasmon hot spots between adjacent leaning nano...... chemical sensing layer for the enrichment of gas molecules on sensor surface. The leaning nano-pillar substrate also showed highly reproducible SERS signal in cyclic VOCs detection, which can reduce the detection cost in practical applications. Further, multiplex SERS detection on different combination...... of acetone and ethanol vapor was also successfully demonstrated. The vibrational fingerprints of molecular structures provide specific Raman peaks for different VOCs contents. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first multiplex VOCs detection using SERS. We believe that this work may lead to a portable...

  5. Pollution characteristic of VOCs of ambient air in winter and spring in Shijiazhuang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing CHANG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to further explore the pollution characteristics of volatile organic compounds in ambient air in winter and spring in Shijiazhuang City, the pollution characteristics of 62 volatile organic compounds (VOCs, monthly and quarterly variation, the correlation between VOCs and PM2.5, and the main sources of VOCs are investigated by using EPA TO-15 method. It shows that 40 organic compounds of the 64 VOCs have been quantitatively determined in winter and spring in the city, which are mainly acetone, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane, toluene, ethyl acetate, etc.. In the no-quantitatively determined components, higher ethanol, butyl acetate, butane etc. are detected. The VOCs concentration has positive correlation with the PM2.5 concentration during haze days.

  6. Carcass characteristics and fat depots in Iberian and F Large White × Landrace pigs intensively finished or raised outdoors in oak-tree forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, M C; Almeida, J; Santos Silva, J; Bettencourt, C; Francisco, A; Gama, L T

    2016-06-01

    A factorial experiment was performed with 117 barrows belonging to the Iberian (IB) and crossbred F Large White × Landrace (F) genetic groups, either intensively finished (IN) or finished outdoors on pasture in an oak and cork tree forest (EX). Information was collected on carcass weight, yield, and dimensions; weight of organs, carcass cuts, and abdominal fat depots; backfat depth; measurements of the longissimus thoracis (LT); and yield of different leg tissues. For the 41 slaughter and carcass traits analyzed, the interaction between genetic group and finishing system was significant ( 0.05), indicating that it is feasible to reduce subcutaneous and abdominal fat without compromising IMF and meat quality.

  7. The Effect of Different Finishing Lines on the Marginal Fitness of Full Contour Zirconia and Glass Ceramic CAD/CAM Crowns (An in-vitro study)

    OpenAIRE

    ZAK Al-Zubaidi; AMW Al-Shamma

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two gingival finishing lines (90° shoulder and deep chamfer) on the marginal fitness of two types of full anatomic all-ceramic crowns; zirconia crowns (Zikonzhan) and glass ceramic crowns (IPS e-max CAD) milled with CAD/CAM system. Materials and Methods: Two dentoform teeth of left maxillary first molar were prepared with chamfer finishing line (CFL) and shoulder finishing line (SFL), respectively and duplicated to Nickel-Chromium m...

  8. 40 CFR 425.90 - Applicability; description of the retan-wet finish-splits subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... retan-wet finish-splits subcategory. 425.90 Section 425.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Retan-Wet Finish-Splits Subcategory § 425.90 Applicability; description of the retan-wet finish...

  9. 40 CFR 425.40 - Applicability; description of the retan-wet finish-sides subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... retan-wet finish-sides subcategory. 425.40 Section 425.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Retan-Wet Finish-Sides Subcategory § 425.40 Applicability; description of the retan-wet finish...

  10. Anthropogenic VOC speciation in emission inventories: a method for improvement and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schneidemesser, E.; D'angiola, A.; Granier, C.; Monks, P. S.; Law, K.

    2011-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are important precursor compounds for the formation of ozone and other secondary organic aerosols. Anthropogenic sources of VOCs are dominated by industrial usage and transportation sources, the latter being extremely important in urban areas. Megacities and large urban conglomerations are emission hot spots that exert disproportionately large adverse health effects on the population and surrounding environment, owing to their high population density and concentrated emission sources. Exceedances of ozone air quality standards are a problem in many urban areas. Improvements in the modelling of ozone precursors would benefit our understanding of the impact of changes in emissions and the effect of future legislation on air quality. As many VOCs are extremely reactive in the atmosphere and have high ozone forming potential, improved speciation of VOCs in models could lead to better predictions of ozone levels and secondary organic aerosol formation. Previously, VOC and carbon monoxide (CO) data from urban areas around the world were compared. Significant differences in VOC concentrations were observed, however, when normalized to CO, the VOC-CO ratios were similar for many locations and over time, even as emission reductions were implemented. The largest variation was found in the lighter alkanes due to the use of alternative transportation fuels in various world regions. These ratios were grouped by region and used to develop a new speciation for surface emissions of VOCs, by applying the regional observed VOC-CO ratios to the CO emissions for the urban areas. Urban areas were defined as 150 inhabitants per km2 or greater. Model simulations were performed using the MOZART-4 chemistry transport model to assess the improved speciation of the VOC emissions. The model outputs were compared to urban observational data where available. The impact of the new speciation of the distribution of CO, OH and ozone at the global scale will be

  11. Assessment of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in indooor parking facilities at Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristanto, Gabriel Andari

    This dissertation identified the types, magnitudes, sources, and assessed risk exposure of VOCs in different types of indoor parking facilities. VOCs are ones of major pollutants emitted from automobiles. The indoor parking facilities included were attached garages, grounds, and underground parking. Modification of method TO15 by EPA had been applied for identifying types and magnitudes of VOCs. Results of these identifications are presented. Eight most abundant VOCs could be identified in every sampling location with toluene as the most abundant compound followed by m,p-xylene, ethylbenzene and benzene. Compare to ground and underground parking, attached garages have the highest concentration of TVOCs. For sources identification, BTEX, m,p-xylene and benzene, and toluene and benzene ratios are calculated. BTEX ratios for ground and underground parking are similar compare to attached garage due to the similar pattern of driving speed and the content of gasoline fuel. On the other hand the ratios of m,p-xylene and benzene and toluene and benzene in attached garage are higher compare to the same ratios for ground and underground parking due to other significant contributor of VOCs such as solvent, household cleanings stored. Cancer and noncancer risk assessment were also calculated. Results showed that cancer and noncancer risk due human exposures to VOC in indoor parking facilities were relatively low. However the risk of the human exposure to VOCs from indoor parking facilities has to be considered as a part of total risks of VOC exposures on human during their daily activities. When people in Houston have already exposed to high VOC concentrations from outdoor environment activities such as traffic and refineries and petrochemical facilities, additional activities causing VOC exposures will add the risk significantly.

  12. Surface acoustic wave sensing of VOCs in harsh chemical environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeifer, K.B.; Martin, S.J.; Ricco, A.J.

    1993-06-01

    The measurement of VOC concentrations in harsh chemical and physical environments is a formidable task. A surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor has been designed for this purpose and its construction and testing are described in this paper. Included is a detailed description of the design elements specific to operation in 300{degree}C steam and HCl environments including temperature control, gas handling, and signal processing component descriptions. In addition, laboratory temperature stability was studied and a minimum detection limit was defined for operation in industrial environments. Finally, a description of field tests performed on steam reforming equipment at Synthetica Technologies Inc. of Richmond, CA is given including a report on destruction efficiency of CCl{sub 4} in the Synthetica moving bed evaporator. Design improvements based on the field tests are proposed.

  13. EVALUATION OF SURFACE CONDITION AFTER FINISHING AND POLISHING OF A FLOWABLE COMPOSITE MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan MUNTEANU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the surface condition, after finishing and polishing with 3 different systems, of a flowable composite material, starting from the microstructure experimentally analyzed by atomic force microscopy. Materials and method. The material tested in the present study was Filtek Ultimate Flowable Restorative (3M ESPE composite. 20 cylindrical samples, 5 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick, were prepared by using metallic molds. The samples were randomly divided into 4 groups: a group containing 5 control samples, not subjected to finishing and 3 groups formed, each, of 5 samples for each of the three finishing and polishing systems, respectively system 1: the two-step Sof-Lex (3M ESPE, system 2: multistep Super Snap (Shofu, Inc. Kyoto, Japan and system 3: multi-step OptiDisc (KerrHawe SA, Switzerland. The surfaces of the samples were analyzed by atomic force microscopy. For quantitative evaluations, the rugosity parameter (Ra, and the mean deviation of the determined profile were calculated. Results. All 3 polishing systems determined an increase of the Ra parameter, comparatively with the control samples; the highest mean Ra value, of 1.19 µm, was recorded for system 3, followed by system 2 (mean Ra value = 1.12 µm, while the lowest mean value, of 1.10 µm, was registered for system 1. Conclusions. All three systems under investigation induced increased rugosity on the surfaces of the samples prepared from the Filtek Ultimate Flowable Restorative (3M ESPE composite resin. The most abrasive system appears to be OptiDisc (KerrHawe SA, Switzerland, followed by the Super Snap (Shofu, Inc. Kyoto, Japan system, the one recording the lowest abrasion being SofLex (3M ESPE.

  14. Maintenance implementation plan for the Plutonium Finishing Plant. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meldrom, C.A.

    1996-03-01

    This document outlines the Maintenance Implementation Plan (MIP) for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located at the Hanford site at Richland, Washington. This MIP describes the PFP maintenance program relative to DOE order 4330.4B. The MIP defines the key actions needed to meet the guidelines of the Order to produce a cost-effective and efficient maintenance program. A previous report identified the presence of significant quantities of Pu-bearing materials within PFP that pose risks to workers. PFP`s current mission is to develop, install and operate processes which will mitigate these risks. The PFP Maintenance strategy is to equip the facility with systems and equipment able to sustain scheduled PFP operations. The current operating run is scheduled to last seven years. Activities following the stabilization operation will involve an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to determine future plant activities. This strategy includes long-term maintenance of the facility for safe occupancy and material storage. The PFP maintenance staff used the graded approach to dictate the priorities of the improvement and upgrade actions identified in Chapter 2 of this document. The MIP documents PFP compliance to the DOE 4330.4B Order. Chapter 2 of the MIP follows the format of the Order in addressing the eighteen elements. As this revision is a total rewrite, no sidebars are included to highlight changes.

  15. Detection of new VOC compounds with iCRDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H.; Leen, J. B.; Gardner, A.; Gupta, M.; Baer, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    The instrument at Los Gatos Research (a member of ABB Inc.) which is based on incoherent cavity ringdown spectroscopy (iCRDS) that operates in the mid-infrared (bands from 860-1060 cm-1 or 970-1280 cm-1) is capable of detecting a broad range of VOCs, in situ, continuously and autonomously, for example, BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene), including differentiation of xylene isomers. Previously, we have demonstrated the measurement of trichloroethylene (TCE) in zero air with a precision of 0.17 ppb (1σ in 4 minutes), and the measurement of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) with a precision of 0.15 ppb (1σ in 4 minutes). Both of these measured precisions exceed the EPA's commercial building action limit, which for TCE is 0.92 ppb (5 µg/m3) and for PCE is 0.29 ppb (2 µg/m3). This ability has been fully demonstrated by the deployment of the instrument to the Superfund site at Moffett Naval Air Station in Mountain View, California where contaminated ground water results in vapor intrusion of TCE and PCE. For two weeks, the instrument operated continuously and autonomously, successfully measuring TCE and PCE concentrations in both the breathing zone and steam tunnel air, in excellent agreement with previous TO-15 data. In this poster, we present laboratory performance data targeting new toxic molecules with the same instrument. We have demonstrated the measurement of trichlorofluolomethane (Freon 11) in zero air with a precision of 1 ppb (3σ at 1075cm-1), and hexafluoropropene in zero air with a precision of about 0.3 ppb (3σ per spectrum). The iCRDS instrument has shown the ability to continuously and autonomously measure sub-ppb levels of toxic VOCs in the lab/field, offering an unprecedented picture of the short term dynamics associated with vapor intrusion and ground water pollution.

  16. Desempenho e características histoquímicas do tecido muscular esquelético de cordeiras terminadas em diferentes sistemas - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i4.6410 Performance and histochemical characteristics of the skeletal muscle tissue of lambs finished under different systems - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i4.6410

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Agostinho Mexia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se o sistema de terminação de 44 cordeiras ½ Dorset Santa Inês na freqüência, diâmetro de fibras musculares esqueléticas e desempenho. Amostras do músculo semitendinosus foram coletadas para análise do diâmetro, frequência e efeito de modulação das fibras musculares do desmame e abate. As cordeiras foram divididas em dois sistemas de terminação. Pastagem com suplementação (1,5% PV com 27,01% PB e 4,51 Mcal de EB kg-1 MS e no confinamento receberam ração (4% PV com 15,56% de PB e 4,32 Mcal de EB kg-1 MS. O ganho de peso médio diário (GPMD foi de 0,157 e 0,148 kg para confinamento (CT e pastagem mais suplementação (PS, respectivamente. Os diâmetros das fibras SO, FOG e FG para CT e PS, foram, respectivamente, 29,04 e 28,55, 34,46 e 35,80 e 38,81 e 40,96 µm. Frequência das fibras SO, FOG e FG para CT e SO, foram, respectivamente, 19,32 e 21,35, 43,88 e 43,53 e 36,80 e 35,12%. Correlação positiva entre o ganho médio diário das cordeiras conforme ocorreu aumento no diâmetro das fibras, tanto para CT e PS. Para a variável GPMD, as cordeiras podem ser terminadas, tanto no confinamento ou na pastagem mais suplementação. As características morfológicas, histoquímicas e efeito de modulação foram semelhantes, para qualquer um dos sistemas de terminação.Verify the effect of the termination system the forty-four ½ Dorset Santa Inês lambs in the frequency, diameter of skeletal muscular fibers and performance. Samples the semitendinosus muscle were collected for diameter analysis, frequency and modulation effect at weaning and slaughter. After weaned, the lambs were distributed in two finishing systems. Feedlot received ration (4% BW with 15.56% of CP and 4.32 Mcal of GE kg-1 of DM, while those on pasture received supplementation (1.5% BW with 27.01% CP and 4.51 Mcal of GE kg-1 of DM. The average daily gain (ADG was 0.157 and 0.148 kg for feedlot (TF and pasture + supplementation (PS. The diameters of

  17. Performance and carcass quality of feedlot- or pasture-finished Nellore heifers according to feeding managements in the postweaning phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rume Casagrande

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the postweaning history of heifers kept on marandu grass pastures with three canopy heights, in a continuous-grazing system, during the rainy period, on feedlot- or pasture finishing. The effects of three canopy heights (15, 25 and 35 cm associated with two supplements (mineral salt and protein-energy supplement and two finishing systems in the dry period (feedlot and open pasture were studied in the postweaning period during the rainy season. The adopted design was completely randomized, with seven replications (animals in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The animals which received protein-energy supplement reached the finishing period with greater body weight in relation to those fed mineral salt. In both feedlot and pasture finishing systems, compensatory gain effect was observed in the animals that remained on the low pastures during postweaning compared with the high pastures. This compensatory gain was not verified in the animals that received protein-energy supplement in relation to the mineral salt, and thus the animals were slaughtered beforehand. The heifers on pastures with 25 or 35 cm in height were slaughtered in the same period, and those kept on the low pastures were slaughtered afterwards. The studied factors in the postweaning phase did not affect the carcass characteristics. Animals finished in feedlot slaughtered with the same body weight as those finished on pasture show greater carcass yield, subcutaneous fat deposition and renal pelvic and inguinal fat and greater losses with trimmings for cleaning the main hindquarter meat cuts; however, they provide cuts with the same weight but greater fat cover.

  18. Utilizing a Magnetic Abrasive Finishing Technique (MAF Via Adaptive Nero Fuzzy(ANFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer A. Moosa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted for measuring the quality of surface finishing roughness using magnetic abrasive finishing technique (MAF on brass plate which is very difficult to be polish by a conventional machining process where the cost is high and much more susceptible to surface damage as compared to other materials. Four operation parameters were studied, the gap between the work piece and the electromagnetic inductor, the current that generate the flux, the rotational Spindale speed and amount of abrasive powder size considering constant linear feed movement between machine head and workpiece. Adaptive Neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS was implemented for evaluation of a series of experiments and a verification with respect to specimen roughness change has been optimized and usefully achieved by obtained results were an average of the error between the surface roughness predicted by model simulation and that of direct measure is 2.0222 %.

  19. Thermal response and recyclability of poly(stearylacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) gel as a VOCs absorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of absorbent materials for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is in demand for a variety of environmental applications including protective barriers for VOCs point sources. One of the challenges for the currently available VOCs absorbents is their recyclability. In this study, we syn...

  20. Whole grains in the finishing of culled ewes in pasture or feedlot: Performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruet, Ana Paula Burin; Stefanello, Flávia Santi; Rosado Júnior, Adriano Garcia; Souza, Alexandre Nunes Motta de; Tonetto, Cléber José; Nörnberg, José Laerte

    2016-03-01

    In order to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of culled ewes finished in pasture or exclusivelywith grain, 41 culled Polwarth ewes, were assigned to six treatments: RY (ryegrass pasture), RYGO (ryegrass and whole grain oats), RYGM (ryegrass and whole grain maize), GM (whole grain maize), GO (whole grain oats), GS (whole grain sorghum). The finishing systemof the ewes influenced weight gain,wherein the GM and GS treatments increased daily weight gain. The GO treatment decreased the dressing percentage. Nonetheless, a*, h*, pH, cooking loss and tenderness were similar across dietary treatments. Using principal component analysis, the variables C18:2n6, h*, n6/n3, TBARS, total lipids, L* and b* were assigned as characteristics of meat from the feedlot animals, while the pasture finishing system produced meat with higher CLA and n-3 fatty acids but lower TBARS values indicating lipid stability.

  1. The influence of finish line curvature on the marginal gap width of ceramic copings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asavapanumas, Chutima; Leevailoj, Chalermpol

    2013-04-01

    As a result of natural tooth anatomy or gingival recession, anterior teeth are more likely to present increased abutment finish line curvature. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the curvature of the finish line on the marginal gap widths of ceramic copings. An ivorine maxillary central incisor was prepared for 3 different abutment finish line curvatures (1, 3, and 5 mm). Thirty-six copings were fabricated for each of these curvatures by using Cercon, IPS e.max, and Lava systems. The marginal gap width was measured by using a stereomicroscope, and the data were subsequently analyzed by means of a 2-way ANOVA and a 1-way ANOVA (α=.05). A significantly higher mean marginal gap width was found for the 5-mm curvature group (Cercon, 76.59 ±23.01 µm; IPS e.max, 106.44 ±18.48 µm; Lava, 128.34 ±20.79 µm) than for both the 3-mm curvature group (Cercon, 60.18 ±9.74 µm; IPS e.max, 81.79 ±16.20 µm; Lava, 99.19 ±15.32 µm) and the 1-mm curvature group (Cercon, 38.3 ±6.85 µm; IPS e.max, 52.22 ±10.66 µm; Lava, 69.99 ±6.77 µm). The greater the finish line curvature, the wider the marginal gap widths for the 3 ceramic systems. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Intelligent tools and process development for robotic edge finishing: LDRD project final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, C.L.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes a project undertaken to develop an agile automated, high-precision edge finishing system, for fabricating precision parts. The project involved re-designing and adding additional capabilities to an existing finishing work-cell. The resulting work-cell may serve as prototype for production systems to be integrated in highly flexible automated production lines. The system removes burrs formed in the machining process and produces precision chamfers. The system uses an expert system to predict the burr size from the machining history. Within the CAD system, tool paths are generated for burr removal and chamfer formation. Then, the optimal grinding process is automatically selected from a database of processes. The tool trajectory and the selected process definition is then downloaded to a robotic control system to execute the operation. The robotic control system implements a hybrid fuzzy logic-classical control scheme to achieve the desired performance goals regardless of tolerance and fixturing errors. This report describes the system architecture and the system`s performance.

  3. Mapping methane sources and emissions over California from direct airborne flux and VOC source tracer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, A.; Misztal, P. K.; Peischl, J.; Karl, T.; Jonsson, H. H.; Woods, R. K.; Ryerson, T. B.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2013-12-01

    Quantifying the contributions of methane (CH4) emissions from anthropogenic sources in the Central Valley of California is important for validation of the statewide greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory and subsequent AB32 law implementation. The state GHG inventory is largely based on activity data and emission factor based estimates. The 'bottom-up' emission factors for CH4 have large uncertainties and there is a lack of adequate 'top-down' measurements to characterize emission rates. Emissions from non-CO2 GHG sources display spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability, and are thus, often, poorly characterized. The Central Valley of California is an agricultural and industry intensive region with large concentration of dairies and livestock operations, active oil and gas fields and refining operations, as well as rice cultivation all of which are known CH4 sources. In order to gain a better perspective of the spatial distribution of major CH4 sources in California, airborne measurements were conducted aboard a Twin Otter aircraft for the CABERNET (California Airborne BVOC Emissions Research in Natural Ecosystems Transects) campaign, where the driving research goal was to understand the spatial distribution of biogenic VOC emissions. The campaign took place in June 2011 and encompassed over forty hours of low-altitude and mixed layer airborne CH4 and CO2 measurements alongside coincident VOC measurements. Transects during eight unique flights covered much of the Central Valley and its eastern edge, the Sacramento-San Joaquin delta and the coastal range. We report direct quantification of CH4 fluxes using real-time airborne Eddy Covariance measurements. CH4 and CO2 were measured at 1-Hz data rate using an instrument based on Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) along with specific VOCs (like isoprene, methanol, acetone etc.) measured at 10-Hz using Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer - Eddy Covariance (PTRMS-EC) flux system. Spatially resolved eddy covariance

  4. Assessment of the impact of biogenic VOC emissions in a high ozone episode via integrated remote sensing and the CMAQ model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaiyu CHENG; Ni-Bin CHANG

    2009-01-01

    In many metropolitan regions, natural sources contribute a substantial fraction of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. These biogenic VOC emissions are precursors to tropospheric Ozone (O3) formation.Because forests make up 59% of the land area in Taiwan Province, China, the biogenic VOC emissions from forests and farmland could play an important role in photochemical reactions. On the other hand, anthropogenic emissions might also be one of the major inputs for ground level O3concentrations. Hence, emission inventory data, grouped as point, area, mobile and biogenic VOC sources, are a composite of reported and estimated pollutant emission information and are used by many air quality models to simulate ground level O3 concentrations. Before using relevant air quality models, the emission inventory data generally require huge amounts of processing for spatial,temporal, and species congruence with respect to the associated air quality modeling work. The fist part of this research applied satellite remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) analyses to characterize land use/land cover (LULC) patterns, integrating various sources of anthropogenic emissions and biogenic emissions associated with a variety of plant species. To investigate the significance of biogenic VOC emissions on ozone formation, meteorological and air quality modeling were then employed to generate hourly ozone estimates for a case study of a high ozone episode in southern Taiwan, which is the leading industrial hub on the island. To enhance the modeling accuracy, a unique software module, SMOKE, was set up for emission processing to prepare emission inputs for the U.S. EPA's Models-3/CMAQ. An emission inventory of Taiwan,TEDS 4.2, was used as the anthropogenic emission inventory. Biogenic emission modeling was accomplished by BEIS-2 in SMOKE, with improvement of local LULC data and revised emission factors. Research findings show that the majority of biogenic VOC emissions occur

  5. Characterisation and treatment of VOCs in process water from upgrading facilities for compressed biogas (CBG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson Påledal, S; Arrhenius, K; Moestedt, J; Engelbrektsson, J; Stensen, K

    2016-02-01

    Compression and upgrading of biogas to vehicle fuel generates process water, which to varying degrees contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originating from the biogas. The compostion of this process water has not yet been studied and scientifically published and there is currently an uncertainty regarding content of VOCs and how the process water should be managed to minimise the impact on health and the environment. The aim of the study was to give an overview about general levels of VOCs in the process water. Characterisation of process water from amine and water scrubbers at plants digesting waste, sewage sludge or agricultural residues showed that both the average concentration and composition of particular VOCs varied depending on the substrate used at the biogas plant, but the divergence was high and the differences for total concentrations from the different substrate groups were only significant for samples from plants using waste compared to residues from agriculture. The characterisation also showed that the content of VOCs varied greatly between different sampling points for same main substrate and between sampling occasions at the same sampling point, indicating that site-specific conditions are important for the results which also indicates that a number of analyses at different times are required in order to make an more exact characterisation with low uncertainty. Inhibition of VOCs in the anaerobic digestion (AD) process was studied in biomethane potential tests, but no inhibition was observed during addition of synthetic process water at concentrations of 11.6 mg and 238 mg VOC/L.

  6. Comparison of VOC and ammonia emissions from individual PVC materials, adhesives and from complete structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järnström, H; Saarela, K; Kalliokoski, P; Pasanen, A-L

    2008-04-01

    Emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and ammonia measured from six PVC materials and four adhesives in the laboratory were compared to the emission rates measured on site from complete structures. Significantly higher specific emission rates (SERs) were generally measured from the complete structures than from individual materials. There were large differences between different PVC materials in their permeability for VOCs originating from the underlying structure. Glycol ethers and esters from adhesives used in the installation contributed to the emissions from the PVC covered structure. Emissions of 2-ethylhexanol and TXIB (2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate) were common. High ammonia SERs were measured from single adhesives but their contribution to the emissions from the complete structure did not appear as obvious as for VOCs. The results indicate that three factors affected the VOC emissions from the PVC flooring on a structure: 1) the permeability of the PVC product for VOCs, 2) the VOC emission from the adhesive used, and 3) the VOC emission from the backside of the PVC product.

  7. Assessment of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) near major roads in urban Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P.; Zhao, W.

    2008-08-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a major component of atmospheric pollutants in Nanjing, a large city in the east of China. Accordingly, 12-h diurnal monitoring for ten consecutive days was performed adjacent to major roads in five districts, ca.1.5 m above ground level, in April, July and October 2006, and January 2007. The most numerous species of VOCs (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/ p-xylene, o-xylene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, tetrachloromethane, trichloroethane and tetrachloroethane) were selected as the target pollutants for this field study of atmospheric distribution. The eleven VOCs were mostly found in gas phase due to their high vapor pressures. Gas-phase concentrations ranged between 0.6 and 67.9 μg m - 3 . Simultaneously, the levels of those VOCs measured near major roads were associated slightly with their regional background level. For all these areas, as expected, the high traffic area was the highest in terms of concentration. A positive correlation was also found between the VOC levels and traffic density. Our studies also provided VOC distribution, and vertical/horizontal profiles. The results show that traffic-related exposure to VOCs in major road microenvironments is higher than elsewhere and poses a potential threat to pedestrians, commuters, and traffic-exposed workers.

  8. Indoor contaminants from Hardcopy Devices: Characteristics of VOCs in photocopy centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkhosh, Maryam; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Zare, Mohammad Reza; Fakhri, Yadolah; Shamsolahi, Hamid Reza

    2012-12-01

    Indoor air pollution in working places is widely recognized as one of the most serious potential environment risks to human health. Mean volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations of 144 samples from four copy centers in Tehran, Iran in two seasons were monitored for the purpose of quantifying the various VOCs in these areas. Area samples were collected in thermal desorption tubes and were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass selective detector. Real-time personal total volatile organic compounds were measured using a data-logging photo-ionization detector. Simultaneously, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes) outdoor measurements were performed in the same manner as were the indoor measurements. Nineteen different VOCs were detected in the area samples. The results show that in all photocopy centers, the indoor levels of toluene were much higher than the outdoor levels. During business hours, the VOC levels increased, especially toluene indoor concentration. The ventilation decreased the indoor VOC concentrations. The background and indoor VOC concentrations were higher in winter than in spring. The minimum ratio of the indoor to outdoor concentration of BTEX was estimated to be more than 42. This value proved that buildings with photocopiers can be a site of VOC accumulation.

  9. VOC reactivity and its effect on ozone production during the HaChi summer campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ran

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of ozone and its precursors conducted within the HaChi (Haze in China project in summer 2009 were analyzed to characterize volatile organic compounds (VOCs and their effects on ozone photochemical production at a suburban site in the North China Plain (NCP. Ozone episodes, during which running 8-h average ozone concentrations exceeding 80 ppbv lasted for more than 4 h, occurred on about two thirds of the observational days during the 5-week field campaign. This suggests continuous ozone exposure risks in this region in the summer. Average concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx and VOCs are about 20 ppbv and 650 ppbC, respectively. On average, total VOC reactivity is dominated by anthropogenic VOCs. The contribution of biogenic VOCs to total ozone-forming potential, however, is also considerable in the daytime. Key species associated with ozone photochemical production are 2-butenes (18 %, isoprene (15 %, trimethylbenzenes (11 %, xylenes (8.5 %, 3-methylhexane (6 %, n-hexane (5 % and toluene (4.5 %. Formation of ozone is found to be NOx-limited as indicated by measured VOCs/NOx ratios and further confirmed by a sensitivity study using a photochemical box model NCAR_MM. The Model simulation suggests that ozone production is also sensitive to changes in VOC reactivity under the NOx-limited regime, although this sensitivity depends strongly on how much NOx is present.

  10. Temporal variability and sources of VOCs in urban areas of the eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltsonoudis, Christos; Kostenidou, Evangelia; Florou, Kalliopi; Psichoudaki, Magda; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2016-11-01

    During the summer of 2012 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were monitored by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) in urban sites, in Athens and Patras, two of the largest cities in Greece. Also, during the winter of 2013, PTR-MS measurements were conducted in the center of the city of Athens. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to the VOC measurements to gain insights about their sources. In summer most of the measured VOCs were due to biogenic and traffic emissions. Isoprene, monoterpenes, and several oxygenated VOCs (oVOCs) originated mainly from vegetation either directly or as oxidation products. Isoprene average concentrations in Patras and Athens were 1 and 0.7 ppb respectively, while the monoterpene concentrations were 0.3 and 0.9 ppb respectively. Traffic was the main source of aromatic compounds during summer. For Patras and Athens the average concentrations of benzene were 0.1 and 0.2 ppb, of toluene 0.3 and 0.8 ppb, and of the xylenes 0.3 and 0.7 ppb respectively. Winter measurements in Athens revealed that biomass burning used for residential heating was a major VOC source contributing both aromatic VOCs and biogenic compounds such as monoterpenes. Several episodes related to biomass burning were identified and emission ratios (ERs) and emission factors (EFs) were estimated.

  11. VOCs in industrial, urban and suburban neighborhoods—Part 2: Factors affecting indoor and outdoor concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chunrong; Batterman, Stuart; Godwin, Christopher

    Many microenvironmental and behavioral factors can affect concentrations of and exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Identifying these determinants is important to understand exposures and risks, and also to design policies and strategies that minimize concentrations. This study is aimed at determining factors associated with VOC concentrations found indoors in residences and outdoors in ambient air. It utilizes results from a comprehensive field study in which 98 VOCs were measured both inside and outside of 159 residences in three communities in southeast Michigan, USA. Additional measurements included indoor CO 2 concentrations, temperature, relative humidity, building and neighborhood characteristics, and occupant activities, assessed using a questionnaire and comprehensive walkthrough investigation. Factors potentially affecting concentrations were identified using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Outdoors, seasonal and community effects were observed. Indoors, seasonal effects were limited to the urban and industrial communities, largely due to changes in ambient levels. Elevated indoor VOC concentrations were associated with eight sources or activities: the presence of an attached garage; recent renovations; older residences; indoor smoking; less frequent window or door opening; higher CO 2 concentrations; and lower ventilation rates. VOC levels were uninfluenced by building materials (wood vs. brick), flooring type (carpeting vs. wood), stove type (gas or electric), number of occupants, air freshener use, and hobbies involving arts and crafts. Factor analyses identified up to five factors for the ambient VOC measurements, and up to 10 factors for the indoor measurements, which further helped to explain the variability of concentrations and associations between VOCs.

  12. Development of metal organic fromwork-199 immobilized zeolite foam for adsorption of common indoor VOCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Vipin K; Pires, João

    2017-05-01

    Reticulated foam shaped adsorbents are more efficient for the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particularly from low VOC-concentration indoor air streams. In this study composite structure of zeolite and metal organic frameworks (MOFs), referred as ZMF, has been fabricated by immobilization of fine MOF-199 powder on foam shaped Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 (ZSM-5) Zeolitic structure, referred as ZF. The ZMF possess a uniform and well-dispersed coating of MOF-199 on the porous framework of ZF. It shows higher surface area, pore volume, and VOCs adsorption capacity, as compared to ZF-structure. Post-fabrication changes in selective adsorption properties of ZMF were studied with three common indoor VOCs (benzene, n-hexane, and cyclohexane), using gravimetric adsorption technique. The adsorption capacity of ZMF with different VOCs follow the order of benzene>n-hexane>cyclohexane. In comparison with MOF-199 and ZF, the composite structure ZMF shows improvement in selectivity for benzene from other two VOCs. Further, improvement in efficiency and stability of prepared ZMF was found to be associated with its high MOF loading capacity and unique morphological and structural properties. The developed composite structure with improved VOCs removal and recyclability could be a promising material for small to limited scale air pollution treatment units. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs in Conventional and High Performance School Buildings in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lexuan Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs has been an indoor environmental quality (IEQ concern in schools and other buildings for many years. Newer designs, construction practices and building materials for “green” buildings and the use of “environmentally friendly” products have the promise of lowering chemical exposure. This study examines VOCs and IEQ parameters in 144 classrooms in 37 conventional and high performance elementary schools in the U.S. with the objectives of providing a comprehensive analysis and updating the literature. Tested schools were built or renovated in the past 15 years, and included comparable numbers of conventional, Energy Star, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED-certified buildings. Indoor and outdoor VOC samples were collected and analyzed by thermal desorption, gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy for 94 compounds. Aromatics, alkanes and terpenes were the major compound groups detected. Most VOCs had mean concentrations below 5 µg/m3, and most indoor/outdoor concentration ratios ranged from one to 10. For 16 VOCs, the within-school variance of concentrations exceeded that between schools and, overall, no major differences in VOC concentrations were found between conventional and high performance buildings. While VOC concentrations have declined from levels measured in earlier decades, opportunities remain to improve indoor air quality (IAQ by limiting emissions from building-related sources and by increasing ventilation rates.

  14. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Conventional and High Performance School Buildings in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lexuan; Su, Feng-Chiao; Batterman, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been an indoor environmental quality (IEQ) concern in schools and other buildings for many years. Newer designs, construction practices and building materials for “green” buildings and the use of “environmentally friendly” products have the promise of lowering chemical exposure. This study examines VOCs and IEQ parameters in 144 classrooms in 37 conventional and high performance elementary schools in the U.S. with the objectives of providing a comprehensive analysis and updating the literature. Tested schools were built or renovated in the past 15 years, and included comparable numbers of conventional, Energy Star, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)-certified buildings. Indoor and outdoor VOC samples were collected and analyzed by thermal desorption, gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy for 94 compounds. Aromatics, alkanes and terpenes were the major compound groups detected. Most VOCs had mean concentrations below 5 µg/m3, and most indoor/outdoor concentration ratios ranged from one to 10. For 16 VOCs, the within-school variance of concentrations exceeded that between schools and, overall, no major differences in VOC concentrations were found between conventional and high performance buildings. While VOC concentrations have declined from levels measured in earlier decades, opportunities remain to improve indoor air quality (IAQ) by limiting emissions from building-related sources and by increasing ventilation rates. PMID:28117727

  15. Studies on Application of Aroma Finish on Silk Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipparagi, Sanganna Aminappa; Srinivasa, Thirumalappa; Das, Brojeswari; Naik, Subhas Venkatappa; Purushotham, Serampur Parappa

    2016-10-01

    Aromatic treatments on textiles have gained importance in the recent years. In the present article work has been done on fragrance finish application on silk material. Silk is an expensive natural fibre used for apparel purpose and known for its feel and appeal. Incorporation of fragrance material in silk product, will add more value to it. Present work focuses to impart durable aroma finish for silk products to be home washed or subjected to dry cleaning. Microencapsulated aroma chemical has been used for the treatment. Impregnation method, Exhaust method, Dip-Pad-Dry method and Spray method have been used to see the influence of application method on the uptake and performance. Evaluation of the aroma treated material has been done through subjective evaluation as per Odor Intensity Reference Scaling (OIRS). Effect of the aroma finishing on the physical properties of the fabric has also been studied. No adverse effect has been observed on the stiffness of the fabric after the aroma treatment.

  16. Tool steel quality and surface finishing of plastic molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Agnelli Mesquita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic industry is today in a constant growth, demanding several products from other segments, which includes the plastic molds, mainly used in the injection molding process. Considering all the requirements of plastic molds, the surface finishing is of special interest, as the injected plastic part is able to reproduce any details (and also defects from the mold surface. Therefore, several aspects on mold finishing are important, mainly related to manufacturing conditions - machining, grinding, polishing and texturing, and also related to the tool steel quality, in relation to microstructure homogeneity and non-metallic inclusions (cleanliness. The present paper is then focused on this interrelationship between steel quality and manufacturing process, which are both related to the final quality of plastic mold surfaces. Examples are discussed in terms of surface finishing of plastic molds and the properties or the microstructure of mold steels.

  17. Application of neural network to prediction of plate finish cooling temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bing-xing; ZHANG Dian-hua; WANG Jun; YU Ming; ZHOU Na; CAO Guang-ming

    2008-01-01

    To improve the deficiency of the control system of finish cooling temperature (FCT), a new model developed from a combination of a multilayer perception neural network as the self-learning system and traditional mathematical model were brought forward to predict the plate FCT. The relationship between the self-learning factor of heat transfer coefficient and its influencing parameters such as plate thickness, start cooling temperature, was investigated. Simulative calculation indicates that the deficiency of FCT control system is overcome completely, the accuracy of FCT is obviously improved and the difference between the calculated and target FCT is controlled between-15 ℃ and 15 ℃.

  18. Study on characteristics of double surface VOC emissions from dry flat-plate building materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xinke; ZHANG Yinping; ZHAO Rongyi

    2006-01-01

    This paper sets up an analytic model of double surface emission of volatile organic compound (VOC) from dry, flat-plate building materials. Based on it, the influence of factors including air change rate, loading factor of materials in the room, mass diffusion coefficient, partition coefficient, convective mass transfer coefficient, thickness of materials, asymmetric convective flow and initial VOC concentration distribution in the building material on emission is discussed. The conditions for simplifying double surface emission into single surface emission are also discussed. The model is helpful to assess the double surface VOC emission from flat-plate building materials used in indoor furniture and space partition.

  19. New trends for PWB surface finishes in mobile phone applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus Würtz; Ambat, Rajan; Rasmussen, Anette Alsted

    2005-01-01

    pads in terminals from Nokia with positive impact on solder joint reliability. Theoretical electrochemical studies, experimental work and full scale high volume production has now demonstrated that Carbon surface finish for Key- and spring contact-pads, combined with the right concept design will make...... use of Imm. Ni/Au unnecessary in the near future. The end result is higher reliability with less expensive and simpler processes. This paper will discuss the various considerations for choice of surface finish and results from the extensive feasibility studies performed by Nokia Mobile Phones...

  20. 后推式货架系统在成品卷烟仓储模式中的应用%Push back Pallet Rack Systems in the Finished Cigarette Storage Mode Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝占明

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the domestic cigarette manufacturing plant in the application of high-bay storage logistics system process, there capacity utilization is low, shift library frequently uneven allocation and other conditions, a simple and practical level library stereo shelf system storage mode.%该文针对目前国内卷烟制造工厂在应用高架库物流系统过程中,出现库容利用率低、移库频繁、调拨不均衡等状况,提出一种简单实用的平库立体货架系统仓储模式。

  1. Development, validation and application of a process for the generation of long-term stable VOC gas mixtures; Entwicklung, Validierung und Anwendung eines Verfahrens zur Erzeugung langzeitstabiler VOC-Gasgemische

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Matthias

    2010-07-01

    The development as well as the validation of a gas mixing system (GMS) that enables dynamic and traceable production of stable long-term VOC gas mixtures within the range between a few {mu}g/m{sup 3} and a few 100 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, is discussed. In this method pure liquid substances that are filled into stainless steel bottles are kept separately at a constant temperature, evaporated according to their vapour pressure and removed by a small inert gas flow. They are finally united in a gas mixing chamber. The carrier gas must be as small as possible so that the quasi-equilibrium between the gas space and the liquid phase in the substance bottles will not be disturbed. The carrier gas is assumed to be saturated with substance gas due to a long residence time in the bottles and a fast phase transition. Any concentration level of the gas mixture can be generated by a combination of vaporization temperature, carrier and dilution gas flows. With the GMS a mixture of 25 VOCs was prepared. For 16 compounds stable and reproducible gas concentrations were realized. Due to not completely removed leakage of some substance bottles and the tubing respectively, variation of the concentration of the remaining compounds was found. A sink effect as another reason for this variation could be expelled and the chemical stability of the vaporized substances proved with the exception of some aldehydes. The procedure was successfully applied in a round robin test and a material test. In the latter adsorption of VOCs on building products was scrutinized. In this way the applicability of the GMS could be shown. (orig.)

  2. Surface Roughness, Microhardness, and Microleakage of a Silorane-Based Composite Resin after Immediate or Delayed Finishing/Polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Fernanda Carvalho Rezende; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Silveira, Rodrigo Richard; Pereira, Carolina Nemésio Barros; Moreira, Allyson Nogueira; Magalhães, Claudia Silami

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study evaluated the effect of immediate or delayed finishing/polishing using different systems on the surface roughness, hardness, and microleakage of a silorane-based composite. Material and Methods. Specimens were made with silorane-based composite (Filtek P90, 3M ESPE) and assigned to the treatments: control (light-cured); aluminum oxide discs (Sof-Lex, 3M ESPE); diamond-impregnated silicone tips (Astropol, Ivoclar Vivadent); aluminum oxide-impregnated silicone tips (Enhance, Dentsply). Half of the specimens were finished/polished immediately and the rest after 7 days. Surface roughness (Ra, μm; n = 20) and Vickers microhardness (50 g; 45 s; n = 10) were measured. Cavities were prepared in bovine incisors and filled with Filtek P90. The fillings received immediate or delayed finishing/polishing (n = 10) and were subjected to dye penetration test (0.5% basic fuchsin, 24 h). Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Scheffe, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney tests (p polishing system significantly influenced roughness and microhardness (p polishing system (p = 0.309). For dentin, Sof-Lex discs and Astropol points promoted greater microleakage than Enhance points (p = 0.033). Conclusion. Considering roughness, microhardness, and microleakage together, immediate finishing/polishing of a silorane-based composite using aluminum oxide discs may be recommended.

  3. Influence of genotype and feeding strategy on pig performance, plasma concentrations of micro nutrients, immune responses and faecal microbiota composition of growing-finishing pigs in a forage-based system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Jensen, Søren Krogh;

    2015-01-01

    ' ability to take advantage of direct foraging to cover their nutritional needs and how this interacts with breed and affects robustness. Pig performance, plasma concentration of micro nutrients, immune response and faecal microbiota composition were studied in 72 growing pigs (34 to 105 kg live weight......In free-range pig production it is important to reduce the input of nutrients from supplementary feed to reduce nutrient leaching and improve the resource efficiency of the system. A promising development might be to encourage foraging behaviour of the pigs. However, very little is known about pigs...

  4. Mobile IR- and UV-Spectroscopic Measurements of CO, SO2 and VOC in Megacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, J.; Mellqvist, J.; Galle, B.; de Foy, B.; Garcia, A.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Volkamer, R.; Flores, E.; Grutter, M.

    2004-12-01

    Three different types of optical instruments have been deployed at a field campaign in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) 2003 within three main applications: 1) Retrieval of total columns of CO at various positions within the MCMA. 2) Emission inventory of VOC (volatile organic compounds) and SO2 from a major industrial source in Tula 100km north of the MCMA. 3) SO2 emission inventory of the volcano Popocatepetl located nearby the MCMA. The instruments used were: a) A mobile solar FTIR (Fourier Transform InfraRed) system consisting of a fast sun tracker connected to a 0.5 cm-1 resolution FTIR spectrometer, measuring spectra between 2 and 14 μ m wavelength. b) A mobile blue sky UV (ultra violet) spectrometer measuring in the 245 to 380 nm region. c) Two open path FTIR spectrometers with 1 cm-1 respectively 0.1 cm-1 resolution, operating between 2-5.5 μ m and 2-14 μ m wavelength, respectively. The two instruments were located about 5km apart within the MCMA and measured path averaged concentrations of for instance CO, CO2, NO, H2CO, VOC, CH4, N2O over 860m and 500m path respectively. In the first application, the mobile solar FTIR measured atmospheric columns of CO at various locations within and outside the MCMA region, in order to investigate both their temporal and spatial variability. This was combined with the two fixed position long path FTIR spectrometers for studying issues like concentration heterogeneity, mixing height, horizontal advection and possibly total area CO emission. A mesoscale meteorological model (MM5) in combination with a chemical model was run by MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) to generate total CO columns for comparisons. The feasibility of the method will be discussed. In the second application, emissions from a major industrial complex consisting of a powerplant, a refinery and a petrochemical industry were studied in Tula (100km north of MCMA). The solar FTIR system was used to retrieve total columns of VOC, and the

  5. Biofiltration of wastewater lift station emissions: evaluation of VOC removal in the presence of H{sub 2}S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Alvaro; Rathibandla, Snehasheela; Jones, Kim; Cabezas, Jose [Texas A and M University-Kingsville, Department of Environmental Engineering, Kingsville, TX (United States)

    2008-02-15

    The capacity of biofilter systems to remove volatile organic compounds in the presence of high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide was investigated for applications in wastewater lift stations. The treatment system was an enclosed unit composed of a biotrickling filter coupled with a biofilter. The biofilter media were plastic hollow spherical balls filled with a compost mixture; and the biotrickling filter media was a structured plastic packing. The gases from the pumping station wet well were a mixture of H{sub 2}S and low concentration aliphatic and aromatic VOCs, toluene being the most significant in concentrations of 41 ppb. The H{sub 2}S concentration was 314 ppm with fluctuations of 100 ppm resulting from pumping cycles at the station. No inhibition effect was detected from the simultaneous biological removal of VOCs and H{sub 2}S: toluene removal efficiency was 91% with the two sections contributing approximately equally to the pollutant removal; and the average removal of H{sub 2}S was 74%. A traditional open-in-ground biofilter filled with wood chips and compost, existing in the site, attained similar removal efficiencies for toluene, but the elimination capacity of the biotrickling/biofilter system was 3.3-times higher than the open biofilter. (orig.)

  6. Design and synthesis of novel antimicrobial acyclic and heterocyclic dyes and their precursors for dyeing and/or textile finishing based on 2-N-acylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-benzo[b]thiophene systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Hoda Zaki; Mohareb, Rafat Milad; Helal, Maher Helmy; Mahmoud, Amira El-Sayed

    2011-07-26

    A series of novel polyfunctionalized acyclic and heterocyclic dye precursors and their respective azo (hydrazone) counterpart dyes and dye precursors based on conjugate enaminones and/or enaminonitrile moieties were synthesized. The dyes and their precursors are based on 2-cyano-N-(3-cyano-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-acetamide, 2-ethoxycarbonyl-N-(3-cyano-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-acetamide or 2-phenylcarbamoyl-N-(3-cyano-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-acetamide systems as precursors. The latter compounds were used to synthesize polyfunctional thiophene-, thiazole-, pyrazole, pyridine-, pyrimidine-, oxazine-, as well as acyclic moieties. The dyes and dye precursors were characterized by elemental analysis and spectral methods. All dyes and their precursors were screened in vitro and evaluated for both their antibacterial and antifungal activities. MIC data of the novel dye systems and their respective precursors showed significant antimicrobial activity against most tested organisms. Some compounds exhibited comparable or even higher efficiency than selected standards. Dyes were applied at 5% depth for disperse dyeing of nylon, acetate and polyester fabrics. Their spectral characteristics and fastness properties were measured and evaluated.

  7. Design and Synthesis of Novel Antimicrobial Acyclic and Heterocyclic Dyes and Their Precursors for Dyeing and/or Textile Finishing Based on 2-N-Acylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-benzo[b]thiophene Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat Milad Mohareb

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel polyfunctionalized acyclic and heterocyclic dye precursors and their respective azo (hydrazone counterpart dyes and dye precursors based on conjugate enaminones and/or enaminonitrile moieties were synthesized. The dyes and their precursors are based on 2-cyano-N-(3-cyano-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl-acetamide, 2-ethoxycarbonyl-N-(3-cyano-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl-acetamide or 2-phenylcarbamoyl-N-(3-cyano-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl-acetamide systems as precursors. The latter compounds were used to synthesize polyfunctional thiophene-, thiazole-, pyrazole, pyridine-, pyrimidine-, oxazine-, as well as acyclic moieties. The dyes and dye precursors were characterized by elemental analysis and spectral methods. All dyes and their precursors were screened in vitro and evaluated for both their antibacterial and antifungal activities. MIC data of the novel dye systems and their respective precursors showed significant antimicrobial activity against most tested organisms. Some compounds exhibited comparable or even higher efficiency than selected standards. Dyes were applied at 5% depth for disperse dyeing of nylon, acetate and polyester fabrics. Their spectral characteristics and fastness properties were measured and evaluated.

  8. FT-IR-cPAS—New Photoacoustic Measurement Technique for Analysis of Hot Gases: A Case Study on VOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmann, Christian Bernd; Koivikko, Niina Susanna; Raittila, Jussi; Tenhunen, Jussi; Ojala, Satu; Rahkamaa-Tolonen, Katariina; Marbach, Ralf; Hirschmann, Sarah; Keiski, Riitta Liisa

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a new photoacoustic FT-IR system capable of operating at elevated temperatures. The key hardware component is an optical-readout cantilever microphone that can work up to 200 °C. All parts in contact with the sample gas were put into a heated oven, incl. the photoacoustic cell. The sensitivity of the built photoacoustic system was tested by measuring 18 different VOCs. At 100 ppm gas concentration, the univariate signal to noise ratios (1σ, measurement time 25.5 min, at highest peak, optical resolution 8 cm−1) of the spectra varied from minimally 19 for o-xylene up to 329 for butyl acetate. The sensitivity can be improved by multivariate analyses over broad wavelength ranges, which effectively co-adds the univariate sensitivities achievable at individual wavelengths. The multivariate limit of detection (3σ, 8.5 min, full useful wavelength range), i.e., the best possible inverse analytical sensitivity achievable at optimum calibration, was calculated using the SBC method and varied from 2.60 ppm for dichloromethane to 0.33 ppm for butyl acetate. Depending on the shape of the spectra, which often only contain a few sharp peaks, the multivariate analysis improved the analytical sensitivity by 2.2 to 9.2 times compared to the univariate case. Selectivity and multi component ability were tested by a SBC calibration including 5 VOCs and water. The average cross selectivities turned out to be less than 2% and the resulting inverse analytical sensitivities of the 5 interfering VOCs was increased by maximum factor of 2.2 compared to the single component sensitivities. Water subtraction using SBC gave the true analyte concentration with a variation coefficient of 3%, although the sample spectra (methyl ethyl ketone, 200 ppm) contained water from 1,400 to 100k ppm and for subtraction only one water spectra (10k ppm) was used. The developed device shows significant improvement to the current state-of-the-art measurement methods used in industrial

  9. FT-IR-cPAS—New Photoacoustic Measurement Technique for Analysis of Hot Gases: A Case Study on VOCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riitta Liisa Keiski

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a new photoacoustic FT-IR system capable of operating at elevated temperatures. The key hardware component is an optical-readout cantilever microphone that can work up to 200 °C. All parts in contact with the sample gas were put into a heated oven, incl. the photoacoustic cell. The sensitivity of the built photoacoustic system was tested by measuring 18 different VOCs. At 100 ppm gas concentration, the univariate signal to noise ratios (1σ, measurement time 25.5 min, at highest peak, optical resolution 8 cm−1 of the spectra varied from minimally 19 for o-xylene up to 329 for butyl acetate. The sensitivity can be improved by multivariate analyses over broad wavelength ranges, which effectively co-adds the univariate sensitivities achievable at individual wavelengths. The multivariate limit of detection (3σ, 8.5 min, full useful wavelength range, i.e., the best possible inverse analytical sensitivity achievable at optimum calibration, was calculated using the SBC method and varied from 2.60 ppm for dichloromethane to 0.33 ppm for butyl acetate. Depending on the shape of the spectra, which often only contain a few sharp peaks, the multivariate analysis improved the analytical sensitivity by 2.2 to 9.2 times compared to the univariate case. Selectivity and multi component ability were tested by a SBC calibration including 5 VOCs and water. The average cross selectivities turned out to be less than 2% and the resulting inverse analytical sensitivities of the 5 interfering VOCs was increased by maximum factor of 2.2 compared to the single component sensitivities. Water subtraction using SBC gave the true analyte concentration with a variation coefficient of 3%, although the sample spectra (methyl ethyl ketone, 200 ppm contained water from 1,400 to 100k ppm and for subtraction only one water spectra (10k ppm was used. The developed device shows significant improvement to the current state-of-the-art measurement methods used

  10. An unheated permeation device for calibrating atmospheric VOC measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brito

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of an unpowered permeation device for continuous calibration of in-situ instruments measuring atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs is described. Being lightweight and compact, and containing only negligible amounts of chemicals, the device is especially suited for field use such as onboard aircraft. Its speciality is to maintain the permeation process in thermal equilibrium, i.e. the instantaneous permeation rate can be ascribed via a simple temperature measurement. This equilibrium state is maintained by a combination of three features: (i a thin PTFE membrane as permeation medium which guarantees short stabilization times, (ii a water bath as heat buffer, and (iii a vacuum-panel based insulation, in which features (ii and (iii minimize temperature drifts. The uncertainty of the permeation rate due to thermal non-equilibrium is kept below 1 %. An extensive theory part details the major permeation processes of gases through porous polymers, being Fick's diffusion, Knudsen flow, and viscous flow. Both the measured stabilization time and the measured temperature dependence of the permeation rate independently indicate that the permeation can be described by a viscous flow model, where diffusion of the gas molecules in large pores (having a diameter of >0.05 μm dominates.

  11. An unheated permeation device for calibrating atmospheric VOC measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brito

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of an unpowered permeation device for continuous calibration of in-situ instruments measuring atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs is described. Being lightweight and compact, and containing only negligible amounts of chemicals, the device is especially suited for field use such as on board aircraft. Its speciality is to maintain the permeation process in thermal equilibrium, so that the instantaneous permeation rate can be ascribed to a simple temperature measurement. This equilibrium state is maintained by a combination of three features: (i a thin PTFE membrane as permeation medium which guarantees short stabilization times, (ii a water bath as heat buffer, and (iii a vacuum-panel based insulation, in which features (ii and (iii minimize temperature drifts to ~30 mK h−1 per Kelvin temperature difference to the environment. The respective uncertainty of the permeation rate due to thermal non-equilibrium is kept below 1%. An extensive theory part details the major permeation processes of gases through porous polymers, being Fick's diffusion, Knudsen flow, and viscous flow. Both the measured stabilization time and the measured temperature dependence of the permeation rate independently indicate that the permeation can be described by a viscous flow model, where diffusion of the gas molecules in large pores (having a diameter of >0.05 μm dominates.

  12. Measurements of VOCs in Mexico City during the MILAGRO Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A. K.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, N. J.; Meinardi, S.; Atlas, E.; Rowland, F.; Blake, D. R.

    2006-12-01

    During March of 2006 we participated in MILAGRO (Megacities Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations), a multi-platform campaign to measure pollutants in and in outflow from the Mexico City metropolitan area. As part of MILAGRO we collected whole air canister samples at two Mexico City ground sites: the Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, located in the city, northeast of the center, and the Universidad Technologica de Tecamac, a suburban site approximately 50 km northeast of the city center. Samples were also collected in various other locations throughout Mexico City. Over 300 whole air samples were collected and analyzed for a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including methane, carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and halocarbons. Propane was the most abundant NMHC at both the urban and suburban locations, with mixing ratios frequently in excess of 10 parts per billion at both locations. This is likely the result of the widespread use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) of which propane is the major component. For most species, median mixing ratios at the urban sites were significantly greater than at the suburban site. Here we compare results from both urban and suburban locations and also examine the influence of transport on the composition of outflow from Mexico City.

  13. Initial Analysis of VOCs Speciation in CREATE Emissions Inventory using the MAPS-Seoul Aircraft Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, C.; Woo, J. H.; Lee, Y.; Kim, J.; Choi, K. C.; Kim, Y.; Kim, J.; Jang, Y. K.; Kim, S.

    2016-12-01

    As the first international cooperative air quality field study, the MAPS-Seoul (Megacity Air Pollution Studies-Seoul) aircraft mission was conducted in May - June 2016 over the South Korea, to understand of climate and atmospheric environment. The aircraft carried observation instruments for measurements of GHGs, ozone and its precursors, aerosols, and chemical tracers. The CREATE (Comprehensive Regional Emissions inventory for Atmospheric Environment) emissions inventory and SMOKE-Asia emission processing system were used to support chemical forecasting and to serve as a priori for evaluation. Initial results of comparison studies show large discrepancies in VOC species over the South Korea - especially over urban regions. Several VOC species observed high near megacities and petro-chemical plants but under-predicted by chemical transport models (CTMs) - possibly due to relatively low emissions. The chemical speciation profiles and emissions inventory for each emission sources, therefore, have to be re-visited to improve emissions information. In this study, we have; 1) re-examined our emissions inventory and emission speciation processes, 2) and tried to find possible missing sources and alternative chemical speciation profiles, to improve our modelling emissions inventory. Initial review of the mapping and classification profiles, the original US chemical speciation profiles were found to be low in partitioning painting and surface coating sources, although they are the very significant contributors. Unlike other major national cities in China, Shanghai's VOC emissions fraction seems very similar to that of Seoul. Continuous analysis of major urban and industrial areas of the country will be presented at site.Acknowledgements : This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "Climate Change Correspondence Program". This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Environment Research (NIER), funded by the Ministry of Environment

  14. Reactivity of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in summer of 2004 in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Huang; Min Shao; Sihua Lu; Ying Liu

    2008-01-01

    Ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled at six sites in Beijing in the summer of 2004 and analyzed byGCMS. The chemical reactivities of 73 quantified VOCs species were evaluated by OH loss rates (L<,OH) and ozone formationpotentials (OFPs). Top 15 reactive species, mainly alkenes and aromatics, were identified by these two methods, and accounted formore than 70% of total reactivity of VOCs. In urban areas, isoprene was the most reactive species in term of OH loss rate,contributing 11.4% to the Loft of VOCs. While toluene, accounting for 9.4% of OFPs, appeared to have a long-time role in thephotochemical processes. Tongzhou site is obviously influenced by local chemical industry, but the other five sites showed typicalurban features influenced mainly by vehicular emissions.2008 Min Shao. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  15. An analytical solution for VOCs emission from multiple sources/sinks in buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG BaoQing; YU Bo; Chang Nyung KIM

    2008-01-01

    An analytical solution is presented to describe the emission/sorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from/on multiple single-layer materials coexisting in buildings. The diffusion of VOCs within each material is described by a transient diffusion equation. All diffusion equations are coupled with each other through the equation of mass conservation in the air. The analytical solution is validated by the experimental data in literature, Compared to the one-material case, the coexistence of multiple materials may decrease the emission rate of VOCs from each material. The smaller the diffusion coef-ficient is, the more the emission rate decreases. Whether a material is a source or a sink in the case of multiple materials coexisting is not affected by the diffusion coefficient. For the case of multiple mate-rials with different partition coefficients, a material with a high partition coefficient may become a sink. This may promote the emission of VOCs from other materials.

  16. EVALUATION AND PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF INNOVATIVE LOW-VOC CONTACT ADHESIVES IN WOOD LAMINATING OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an evaluation and assessment of the perfor-mance, economics, and emission reduction potential upon application of low-volatile organic compound (VOC) waterborne contact adhesive formulations specifically ina manual laminating operation for assembling s...

  17. VocMat projekt - uudsed e-õppe võimalused turismiasjalistele / Heli Tooman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooman, Heli, 1949-

    2008-01-01

    Turismivaldkonna spetsialistidele mõeldud koolitusprojektist VocMat (Vocational Management Training for the Tourism Industry). Projekti partneriteks Eestis on Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse Turismiarenduskeskus ja Tartu Ülikooli Pärnu kolledzh. Lisa: Kokkuvõte

  18. VocMat projekt - uudsed e-õppe võimalused turismiasjalistele / Heli Tooman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooman, Heli, 1949-

    2008-01-01

    Turismivaldkonna spetsialistidele mõeldud koolitusprojektist VocMat (Vocational Management Training for the Tourism Industry). Projekti partneriteks Eestis on Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse Turismiarenduskeskus ja Tartu Ülikooli Pärnu kolledzh. Lisa: Kokkuvõte

  19. Crossing the Finish Line: Completing College at America's Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, William G.; Chingos, Matthew M.; McPherson, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    The United States has long been a model for accessible, affordable education, as exemplified by the country's public universities. And yet less than 60 percent of the students entering American universities today are graduating. Why is this happening, and what can be done? "Crossing the Finish Line" provides the most detailed exploration…

  20. Polishing Metal Mirrors to 0,025 Micron Surface Finish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, P. E.

    1978-01-01

    A research program undertaken by the Danish Atomic Energy Commission required the fabrication of metal mirrors measuring 1 m long by 53 mm wide, which had to be finished to extremely tight tolerances on thickness, plane-parallelism and surface characteristics. Progressively finer diamond compounds...

  1. Finished Genome Sequence of Collimonas arenae Cal35

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Je-Jia; de Jager, Victor; Deng, Wen-ling; Leveau, Johan

    2015-01-01

    We announce the finished genome sequence of soil forest isolate Collimonas arenae Cal35, which comprises a 5.6-Mbp chromosome and 41-kb plasmid. The Cal35 genome is the second one published for the bacterial genus Collimonas and represents the first opportunity for high-resolution comparison of geno

  2. Finished Genome Sequence of Collimonas arenae Cal35

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Je-Jia; de Jager, Victor; Deng, Wen-ling; Leveau, Johan

    2015-01-01

    We announce the finished genome sequence of soil forest isolate Collimonas arenae Cal35, which comprises a 5.6-Mbp chromosome and 41-kb plasmid. The Cal35 genome is the second one published for the bacterial genus Collimonas and represents the first opportunity for high-resolution comparison of geno

  3. 9 CFR 318.309 - Finished product inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... be handled according to: (1) A HACCP plan for canned product that addresses hazards associated with... this section. (b)-(c) (d) Procedures for handling finished product inspections where the HACCP plan...

  4. Relevance of microbial finished product testing in food safety management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwietering, M.H.; Jacxsens, L.; Membre, J.M.; Nauta, M.; Peterz, M.

    2016-01-01

    Management of microbiological food safety is largely based on good design of processes, products and procedures. Finished product testing may be considered as a control measure at the end of the production process. However, testing gives only very limited information on the safety status of a food.

  5. Effect of panel alignment and surface finish on bond strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouters, J.M.; Doe, P.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Baker, W.E. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1991-10-01

    The flexural strength of bonded acrylic is tested as a function of panel alignment and bond surface finish. Bond strength was shown to be highly dependent on both parameters with only a narrow range of values yielding a high strength bond. This study was performed for the heavy water-containing acrylic vessel for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory detector.

  6. Relevance of microbial finished product testing in food safety management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwietering, M.H.; Jacxsens, L.; Membre, J.M.; Nauta, M.; Peterz, M.

    2016-01-01

    Management of microbiological food safety is largely based on good design of processes, products and procedures. Finished product testing may be considered as a control measure at the end of the production process. However, testing gives only very limited information on the safety status of a food.

  7. Perceptual Orientation for Housing Interior Walls Finishes Choice and Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. ZINAS, Bako Zachariah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Housing interior walls are decorated and finished with various decorative materials of paints of varying properties ranging from texture to coloration. In choosing the preferred finishing and decorative materials, housing owners, users and prospective owners have attendant underlying factors and reasons for their choices. These choice activities usually provoke and invoke certain perceptual orientations that underlie the choices. These perceptual orientations are normally very complex and can only be disentangled by elicitation. This paper presents perceptual orientations of prospective house owners‟ choice and preference for interior walls finishes in Yola, Nigeria. The study was conducted within the theoretical and conceptual framework of means-end chain (MEC model. 15 prospective house owners were interviewed using the laddering interviewing technique after a structured questionnaire survey was carried out. The results showed that twelve (12 identified unique perceptual orientation pathways were established, motivated by four (4 user values, and intervened by four (4 expected functional affordances. The findings disentangled the design expectations of housing users/owners for finishing their housing interiors which can be pointers for designers and Architects for their design processes and decisions.

  8. Performance and cost implication of finisher turkeys fed varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance and cost implication of finisher turkeys fed varying levels of rice millingwaste. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... 50% rice milling waste produced enhanced performance that was next to the control in terms ...

  9. Leaf level VOC emissions of single plants from Amazonian and Mediterranean ecosystems: Ontogeny and flooding as stress factor for VOC emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Bracho Nunez, Araceli

    2010-01-01

    Die Vegetation ist die wichtigste Quelle von organischen flüchtigen Verbindungen (auf Englisch volatile organic compounds,VOCs), die einen bemerkenswerten Einfluss auf der Chemie und Physik der Atmosphäre haben. VOCs beeinflussen die oxidative Kapazität der Atmosphäre und tragen zu der Bildung und zum Wachstum von sekundären organischen Aerosolen bei, welche einerseits eine Streuung und Reflektierung der Energie verursachen und andererseits sich an der Bildung und Entwicklung von Wolken betei...

  10. Quantitative assessment of industrial VOC emissions in China: Historical trend, spatial distribution, uncertainties, and projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chenghang; Shen, Jiali; Zhang, Yongxin; Huang, Weiwei; Zhu, Xinbo; Wu, Xuecheng; Chen, Linghong; Gao, Xiang; Cen, Kefa

    2017-02-01

    The temporal trends of industrial volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions was comprehensively summarized for the 2011 to 2013 period, and the projections for 2020 to 2050 for China were set. The results demonstrate that industrial VOC emissions in China increased from 15.3 Tg in 2011 to 29.4 Tg in 2013 at an annual average growth rate of 38.3%. Guangdong (3.45 Tg), Shandong (2.85 Tg), and Jiangsu (2.62 Tg) were the three largest contributors collectively accounting for 30.4% of the national total emissions in 2013. The top three average industrial VOC emissions per square kilometer were Shanghai (247.2 ton/km2), Tianjin (62.8 ton/km2), and Beijing (38.4 ton/km2), which were 12-80 times of the average level in China. The data from the inventory indicate that the use of VOC-containing products, as well as the production and use of VOCs as raw materials, as well as for storage and transportation contributed 75.4%, 10.3%, 9.1%, and 5.2% of the total emissions, respectively. ArcGIS was used to display the remarkable spatial distribution variation by allocating the emission into 1 km × 1 km grid cells with a population as surrogate indexes. Combined with future economic development and population change, as well as implementation of policy and upgrade of control technologies, three scenarios (scenarios A, B, and C) were set to project industrial VOC emissions for the years 2020, 2030, and 2050, which present the industrial VOC emissions in different scenarios and the potential of reducing emissions. Finally, the result shows that the collaborative control policies considerably influenced industrial VOC emissions.

  11. VOC emissions during outdoor ship painting and health-risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malherbe, Laure; Mandin, Corinne

    Painting of ship external surfaces in building or repair shipyards generates significant emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) to the atmosphere. Such emissions have not been specifically regulated so far. The purpose of our study is therefore to evaluate the quantities and as far as possible the nature of the emitted VOC, to characterize the dispersion of these chemicals in the atmosphere and to assess the exposure and resulting health risks for surrounding populations. This study is focused on VOC emitted during outdoor work involving use of paints and solvents. VOC emissions are diffuse, since they come from the whole painted surfaces. A methodology for quantifying them is developed and tested, using information provided by ALSTOM—Chantiers de l'Atlantique and data found in paint technical sheets. Its reliability is checked against emission values established by ALSTOM or found in literature. Then, for two particular situations, construction on one hand, repair on the other hand, atmospheric dispersion of total VOC is simulated to assess the long-term impact (characterized by the plume extension and the annual mean concentrations) of these compounds. Finally, a health-risk assessment based on the estimates is carried out to evaluate the risks by inhalation for people living near the site. Considering the presumed composition of paints and the available reference toxicological values, total VOC are entirely assimilated to toluene. In both examples (construction and repair) and in the current state of knowledge, the calculated risk is not of health concern. Several ways for taking this study further are proposed: a more exhaustive collection of data relative to VOC and other substances contained in paints, on-site measurement of VOC in the ambient air, characterization of diffuse emissions related to other activities, such as purging or welding, and other pollutants, like particles.

  12. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Testing at Building 348, Kelly AFB, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    At the request of HQ AFLC/ SGB , the USAFOEHL conducted a stack sampling survey to determine total volatile organic compounds (VOC) being emitted from...Occupational and Environmental Health Laboratory (USAFOEHL/ECQ). The survey was requested by HQ AFLC/ SGB .to estimate VOC emissions through each of...stardards. 2. Range and Sensitivity 2.1 This method was validated over the range of 1417-5940 mg/M at an atmospheric temperature and pressure of 24 0C

  13. Manipulating mechanics and chemistry in precision optics finishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D. Jacobs

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Deterministic processing is critical to modern precision optics finishing. Put simply, determinism is the ability to predict an outcome before carrying out an activity. With the availability of computer numerically controlled (CNC equipment and sophisticated software algorithms, it is now possible to grind and polish optics from a variety of materials to surface shape accuracies of ~20 nm peak-to-valley (p–v, with surface roughness values (measured on white light interferometers over 250 μm×350 μm areas to sub-nm root-mean-square (rms levels. In the grinding phase the capability now exists to estimate removal rates, surface roughness, and the depth of subsurface damage (SSD for a previously unprocessed material, knowing its Young's modulus, hardness, and fracture toughness. An understanding of how chemistry aids in the abrasive-driven removal of material from the surface during polishing is also critical. Recent polishing process research reveals the importance of chemistry, specifically slurry pH, for preventing particle agglomeration in order to achieve smooth surface finishes with conventional pad or pitch laps. New sub-aperture polishing processes like magnetorheological finishing (MRF can smooth and shape flat, spherical, aspheric and free-form surfaces within a few process iterations. Difficult to finish optical materials like soft polymer polymethyl methacrylate, microstructured polycrystalline zinc sulfide, and water soluble single-crystal potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP can be finished with MRF. The key is the systematic alteration of MR fluid chemistry and mechanics (i.e. the abrasive to match the unique physical properties of each workpiece.

  14. Investigation on Using SBS and Active Carbon Filler to Reduce the VOC Emission from Bituminous Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiqiang Cui

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bituminous materials are playing a vital role in pavement design and the roofing industry because of outstanding properties. Unfortunately, bituminous materials will release volatile organic compounds (VOC, making them non-environmentally friendly. Therefore, technologies that can be used to decrease the VOC emission are urgently required. In this research, the VOC emission and material behaviors were analyzed and compared to investigate the possibility of adding styrene butadiene styrene (SBS and active carbon filler into bituminous materials to develop environmentally-friendly materials. Thermal gravimetric analysis-mass spectrometry (TG-MS and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy testing (UV-Vis were employed to characterize the VOC emission process. Temperature sweep testing and frequency sweep testing were conducted to evaluate the rheological properties of bituminous materials. Research results indicated that the combined introduction of 4 wt% styrene butadiene styrene (SBS and 4 wt% active carbon filler cannot only significantly lower the VOC emission speed and amount, but also improve the deformation resistance behavior at a higher temperature. SBS and active carbon filler can be used to reduce the VOC emission form bituminous materials.

  15. Plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ozone (O3) polluted atmospheres: the ecological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Delia M; Blande, James D; Souza, Silvia R; Nerg, Anne-Marja; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2010-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is an important secondary air pollutant formed as a result of photochemical reactions between primary pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). O3 concentrations in the lower atmosphere (troposphere) are predicted to continue increasing as a result of anthropogenic activity, which will impact strongly on wild and cultivated plants. O3 affects photosynthesis and induces the development of visible foliar injuries, which are the result of genetically controlled programmed cell death. It also activates many plant defense responses, including the emission of phytogenic VOCs. Plant emitted VOCs play a role in many eco-physiological functions. Besides protecting the plant from abiotic stresses (high temperatures and oxidative stress) and biotic stressors (competing plants, micro- and macroorganisms), they drive multitrophic interactions between plants, herbivores and their natural enemies e.g., predators and parasitoids as well as interactions between plants (plant-to-plant communication). In addition, VOCs have an important role in atmospheric chemistry. They are O3 precursors, but at the same time are readily oxidized by O3, thus resulting in a series of new compounds that include secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Here, we review the effects of O3 on plants and their VOC emissions. We also review the state of current knowledge on the effects of ozone on ecological interactions based on VOC signaling, and propose further research directions.

  16. Comparison of the marginal adaptation of zirconium dioxide crowns in preparations with two different finish lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euán, Raúl; Figueras-Álvarez, Oscar; Cabratosa-Termes, Josep; Brufau-de Barberà, Magí; Gomes-Azevedo, Susana

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the marginal adaptation of zirconium dioxide crowns in preparations with two different finish line configurations before and after porcelain firing cycles, after a glaze cycle, and after cementation. Twenty human molar teeth were prepared to receive full crowns; ten were prepared with a 90° round shoulder and another ten with a 45° chamfer finish line. Zirconium dioxide copings were fabricated using CAD/CAM technology (Lava™ system). They were then veneered with a low-fusing glass-ceramic (IPS e.max® Ceram). Finally, they were glazed and cemented with a resin-composite cement (RelyX™ Unicem, Aplicap™). Measurements for marginal adaptation using stereomicroscopy (40×) were performed at four stages: copings (S1), after porcelain firing cycles (S2), after glazing (S3), and after cementation (S4). One-way ANOVA was used to assess the influence of the finish line design on the marginal adaptation in each stage. Two-way ANOVA with repeated measurements was performed to assess the influence on the marginal adaptation of the porcelain firing cycles, glaze firing cycle, and cementation. The measured marginal gap mean values for the shoulder group (μm) were: 50.13 (S1), 54.32 (S2), 55.12 (S3), and 59.83 (S4). The values for the chamfer group were: 63.56 (S1), 71.85 (S2), 74.12 (S3), and 76.97 (S4). When comparing marginal gaps between specimens with two different finish lines, differences were noticed at the four studied stages (p = 0.0165, p = 0.0027, p = 0.0009, and p = 0.0009, respectively). No differences were manifested in the marginal gap measurements of the shoulder group at the different stages of fabrication (p = 0.4335); however, in the chamfer group, differences were noticed between S1 and S3 (p = 0.0042). Marginal adaptation was influenced by the finish line design. The firing cycles significantly affected the chamfer group; nevertheless, the marginal gap was within the range of clinical acceptability. © 2012

  17. The effect of cold trap adsorbents on the gas chromatographic analysis of ambient VOCs under Peltier cooling conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Raktim; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2008-04-01

    In this work, the relative analytical performance of the GC-based detection method was investigated with a major focus on cold trap (CT) adsorbent materials against four aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (e. g., benzene, toluene, xylene, and styrene). A series of calibration experiments were hence conducted under cryofocusing conditions formed by the Peltier cooling system in a thermal desorber (TD) unit. During the course of this study, comparative calibration datasets were acquired for each of the three CT types: (i) CT (I) = Carbopack B + Carbopack C, (ii) CT (II) = Carbopack B + Carboxen 1000, and (iii) CT (III) = Tenax TA. All calibration datasets were obtained under subambient temperature (-10 degrees C) conditions controlled by the Peltier cooling system. The reliability of the calibration data was also assessed in an ancillary experiment with the aid of the modified injection through a thermal desorber (MITD) method. The results demonstrated that the GC detection properties of different VOCs were not altered significantly between different CT applications under Peltier conditions, although relative sensitivity could be distinguished moderately depending on the CT type.

  18. Quantification of Methane and VOC Emissions from Natural Gas Production in Two Basins with High Ozone Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edie, R.; Robertson, A.; Snare, D.; Soltis, J.; Field, R. A.; Murphy, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2005, the Uintah Basin of Utah and the Upper Green River Basin of Wyoming frequently exceeded the EPA 8-hour allowable ozone level of 75 ppb, spurring interest in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted during oil and gas production. Debate continues over which stage of production (drilling, flowback, normal production, transmission, etc.) is the most prevalent VOC source. In this study, we quantify emissions from normal production on well pads by using the EPA-developed Other Test Method 33a. This methodology combines ground-based measurements of fugitive emissions with 3-D wind data to calculate the methane and VOC emission fluxes from a point source. VOC fluxes are traditionally estimated by gathering a canister of air during a methane flux measurement. The methane:VOC ratio of this canister is determined at a later time in the laboratory, and applied to the known methane flux. The University of Wyoming Mobile Laboratory platform is equipped with a Picarro methane analyzer and an Ionicon Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometer, which provide real-time methane and VOC data for each well pad. This independent measurement of methane and VOCs in situ reveals multiple emission sources on one well pad, with varying methane:VOC ratios. Well pad emission estimates of methane, benzene, toluene and xylene for the two basins will be presented. The different emission source VOC profiles and the limitations of real-time and traditional VOC measurement methods will also be discussed.

  19. Immunological, physiological and behavioral effects of Salmonella enterica carriage and shedding in experimentally infected finishing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finishing pigs infected with Salmonella pose significant food safety risks by carrying the pathogen into abattoirs. This study was conducted to determine the dynamic of Salmonella infection in finishing pigs, and associated immunological, physiological, and behavioral alterations, by longitudinally ...

  20. Hardness of celluloid strip-finished or polished composite surfaces with time

    OpenAIRE

    Park, S. H.; KREJCI,Ivo; Lutz, F

    2000-01-01

    An in-vitro study revealed that a celluloid strip-finished composite surface discolored more than the polished composite surface. Thus, the celluloid strip-finished composite surface may not cure enough compared with the polished composite surface.

  1. 76 FR 19182 - Petition for Rulemaking-Classification of Polyurethane Foam and Certain Finished Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... Polyurethane Foam and Certain Finished Products Containing Polyurethane Foam as Hazardous Materials AGENCY... of State Fire Marshals (NASFM). The NASFM petitioned PHMSA to classify polyurethane foam and certain finished products containing polyurethane foam as hazardous material for purposes of transportation...

  2. Development of new VOC exposure metrics and their relationship to ''Sick Building Syndrome'' symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ten Brinke, JoAnn [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are suspected to contribute significantly to ''Sick Building Syndrome'' (SBS), a complex of subchronic symptoms that occurs during and in general decreases away from occupancy of the building in question. A new approach takes into account individual VOC potencies, as well as the highly correlated nature of the complex VOC mixtures found indoors. The new VOC metrics are statistically significant predictors of symptom outcomes from the California Healthy Buildings Study data. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to test the hypothesis that a summary measure of the VOC mixture, other risk factors, and covariates for each worker will lead to better prediction of symptom outcome. VOC metrics based on animal irritancy measures and principal component analysis had the most influence in the prediction of eye, dermal, and nasal symptoms. After adjustment, a water-based paints and solvents source was found to be associated with dermal and eye irritation. The more typical VOC exposure metrics used in prior analyses were not useful in symptom prediction in the adjusted model (total VOC (TVOC), or sum of individually identified VOCsVOCi)). Also not useful were three other VOC metrics that took into account potency, but did not adjust for the highly correlated nature of the data set, or the presence of VOCs that were not measured. High TVOC values (2--7 mg m-3) due to the presence of liquid-process photocopiers observed in several study spaces significantly influenced symptoms. Analyses without the high TVOC values reduced, but did not eliminate the ability of the VOC exposure metric based on irritancy and principal component analysis to explain symptom outcome.

  3. Development of new VOC exposure metrics and their relationship to ''Sick Building Syndrome'' symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1995-08-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are suspected to contribute significantly to ''Sick Building Syndrome'' (SBS), a complex of subchronic symptoms that occurs during and in general decreases away from occupancy of the building in question. A new approach takes into account individual VOC potencies, as well as the highly correlated nature of the complex VOC mixtures found indoors. The new VOC metrics are statistically significant predictors of symptom outcomes from the California Healthy Buildings Study data. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to test the hypothesis that a summary measure of the VOC mixture, other risk factors, and covariates for each worker will lead to better prediction of symptom outcome. VOC metrics based on animal irritancy measures and principal component analysis had the most influence in the prediction of eye, dermal, and nasal symptoms. After adjustment, a water-based paints and solvents source was found to be associated with dermal and eye irritation. The more typical VOC exposure metrics used in prior analyses were not useful in symptom prediction in the adjusted model (total VOC (TVOC), or sum of individually identified VOCs ({Sigma}VOC{sub i})). Also not useful were three other VOC metrics that took into account potency, but did not adjust for the highly correlated nature of the data set, or the presence of VOCs that were not measured. High TVOC values (2--7 mg m{sup {minus}3}) due to the presence of liquid-process photocopiers observed in several study spaces significantly influenced symptoms. Analyses without the high TVOC values reduced, but did not eliminate the ability of the VOC exposure metric based on irritancy and principal component analysis to explain symptom outcome.

  4. Belowground communication: impacts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from soil fungi on other soil-inhabiting organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Stephanie; Polle, Andrea; Brinkmann, Nicole

    2016-10-01

    We reviewed the impact of fungal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on soil-inhabiting organisms and their physiological and molecular consequences for their targets. Because fungi can only move by growth to distinct directions, a main mechanism to protect themselves from enemies or to manipulate their surroundings is the secretion of exudates or VOCs. The importance of VOCs in this regard has been significantly underestimated. VOCs not only can be means of communication, but also signals that are able to specifically manipulate the recipient. VOCs can reprogram root architecture of symbiotic partner plants or increase plant growth leading to enlarged colonization surfaces. VOCs are also able to enhance plant resistance against pathogens by activating phytohormone-dependent signaling pathways. In some cases, they were phytotoxic. Because the response was specific to distinct species, fungal VOCs may contribute to regulate the competition of plant communities. Additionally, VOCs are used by the producing fungus to attack rivaling fungi or bacteria, thereby protecting the emitter or its nutrient sources. In addition, animals, like springtails, nematodes, and earthworms, which are important components of the soil food web, respond to fungal VOCs. Some VOCs are effective repellents for nematodes and, therefore, have applications as biocontrol agents. In conclusion, this review shows that fungal VOCs have a huge impact on soil fauna and flora, but the underlying mechanisms, how VOCs are perceived by the recipients, how they manipulate their targets and the resulting ecological consequences of VOCs in inter-kingdom signaling is only partly understood. These knowledge gaps are left to be filled by future studies.

  5. Tribological investigation of a functional medical textile with lubricating drug-delivery finishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, L-C; Lottenbach, R; Rossi, R M; Derler, S

    2013-08-01

    Textile-based drug delivery systems have a high potential for innovative medical and gerontechnological applications. In this study, the tribological behaviour and lubrication properties of a novel textile with drug delivery function/finishing was investigated by means of friction experiments that simulated cyclic dynamic contacts with skin under dry and wet conditions. The textile drug delivery system is based on a loadable biopolymer dressing on a polyester (PES) woven fabric. The fabrics were finished with low (LC) and highly cross-linked (HC) polysaccharide dressings and investigated in the unloaded condition as well as loaded with phytotherapeutic substances. The mechanical resistance and possible abrasion of the functional coatings on the textile substrate were assessed by friction measurements and scanning electron microscopical analyses. Under dry contact conditions, all investigated fabrics (PES substrate alone and textiles with loaded and unloaded dressings) showed generally low friction coefficients (0.20-0.26). Under wet conditions, the measured friction coefficients were typically higher (0.34-0.51) by a factor of 1.5-2. In the wet condition, both loaded drug delivery textiles exhibited 7-29% lower friction (0.34-0.41) than the PES fabric with unloaded dressings (0.42-0.51), indicating pronounced lubrication effects. The lubrication effects as well as the abrasion resistance of the studied textiles with drug delivery function depended on the degree of dilution of the phytotherapeutic substances. Lubricating formulations of textile-based drug delivery systems which reduce friction against the skin might be promising candidates for advanced medical textile finishes in connection with skin care and wound (decubitus ulcer) prevention.

  6. The modern feedlot for finishing cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, John J; Archibeque, Shawn L; Feuz, Dillon M

    2014-02-01

    The modern beef feedlot has evolved into a complex system that is very dependent upon technology. Modern feedlots are organized into departments, often including the office, cattle, yard, feed milling, and feed departments, that allow for improvements in production efficiency through the specialization of management and labor. Regardless of size, feedlots must succeed at the following tasks: cattle procurement, cattle receiving, cattle processing, daily cattle observations, health treatments, cattle marketing, feed procurement, feed commodity receiving, feed commodity storage, diet formulation, diet delivery, bunk management, and environmental management. Apart from cattle ownership, feedlots create most of their gross income from feed sales, yardage, inventory gain on flaked grain, and combinations of these sources. The future of the industry is filled with economic and political challenges, including high grain prices owing to competition from the ethanol industry, environmental regulations, excess feedlot capacity, and a diminishing labor pool owing to declining rural populations.

  7. On-line field measurements of VOC emissions from a spruce tree at SMEAR Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Bonn, Boris; Noe, Steffen

    2013-04-01

    We have investigated VOC emissions from a Norway spruce tree (Picea abies) in a hemi-boreal mixed forest in September and October 2012, using Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry techniques, applied in a dynamic branch enclosure system that was automatically operated with an electrical compressor. Parallel to BVOC measurements a vast amount of atmospheric (CO2, CH4, H2O, CO, particles) and meteorological (temperature, relative humidity, photosynthetic active radiation, wind speed and direction, precipitation) parameters were measured in the ambient atmosphere and inside the cuvette enclosure (temperature, relative humidity, O3). Prior to the measuring period, an innovatory experimental setup was built at Järvselja forest station, in order to accomplish the detection of BVOC and minimize sampling losses. Therefore, a new inlet line, consisting of 19.4m of heated and isolated glass tube was constructed. The new inlet system applied, allowed the on-line detection and calculation of sesquiterpene (SQT) emission rates for the first time in a hemi-boreal forest site. It total, 12 atmospheric relevant BVOCs were continuously monitored for a three week period and the emission rates were derived. Along with diurnal profiles and continuous timeless, some interesting observations showed the possibility of ozone effect on SQT emissions, the possibility of radiation effect on MT emissions, the higher induced emissions due to mechanical stress and the possibility for a valid intercomparison between different spruce trees located in mountain Kleiner Feldberg (Germany) and in Järvseja forest station (Estonia).

  8. Selective treatment of VOC-polluted industrial air using an hybrid adsorption-ozonization process; Traitement selectif de l'air industriel pollue en COV par un procede hybride adsorption-ozonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manero, M.H. [Toulouse-3 Univ., Lab. d' Ingenierie des Procedes de L' Environnement, INSA de Toulouse, 31 (France); Monneyron, P. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Lab. Transfert, Ecoulement, Fluides, Energetiques (TREFLE), UMR 8508, 33 - Talence (France)

    2005-09-01

    This article describes an hybrid process combining the adsorption on zeolites and the oxidation by ozone at ambient temperature and pressure in a single reactor for the selective treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). After several cycles of operation, the zeolite capacity is maintained and not altered by the ozonization. The analysis of the output gases shows the absence of ozone and only traces of oxidation products meaning that the oxidation of the organic molecules is complete. The oxygen statuses show that the ozone introduced in the system is totally used to oxide VOCs. The industrial scale feasibility of the method requires further studies. (J.S.)

  9. Mineralization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) over the catalyst CuO-Co3O4-CeO2 and its applications in industrial odor control

    KAUST Repository

    Somekawa, Shouichi

    2011-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present at ppm levels were decomposed over the catalyst CuO-Co3O4-CeO2 (Cu:Co:Ce = 10:45:45 in mol) in an attempt to scale up for industrial odor control. In addition to enhancing the catalytic activity, CuO-Co3O4 and CeO2 helped, respectively, to maintain the strength of the pelleted catalysts and inhibit their sintering. Using toluene as a VOC model compound, kinetic analysis of the total oxidation to carbon dioxide was conducted. The odor emitted from paint-drying processes could be eliminated effectively using CuO-Co3O4-CeO2 (Cu:Co:Ce = 10:45:45) pelleted catalysts (188 ml) in a large-scale system. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Efeito de diferentes sistemas de pastejo sobre o desempenho de suínos mantidos em pastagem de trevo-branco (Trifolium repens L. Effect of different grazing systems on the performance of pigs, in growing and finishing phases, kept on white clover (Trifolium repens L. pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denyse Maria Galvão Leite

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito dos sistemas de pastejo contínuo, alternado e rotativo sobre as características de desempenho de suínos (consumo de ração, ganho de peso, conversão alimentar e espessura de toucinho nas fases de crescimento e terminação mantidos em pastagem de trevo-branco (Trifolium repens L.. Foram realizadas também avaliações da disponibilidade e composição química da pastagem. Trinta e seis suínos machos foram distribuídos em um delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três tratamentos e três repetições, e doze foram mantidos em sistema de confinamento. Não foi observada influência significativa dos sistemas de pastejo sobre as características de desempenho dos animais e a disponibilidade de forragem. Entretanto, houve diferença significativa na composição química da pastagem entre os sistemas de pastejo estudados. Os suínos em sistemas de pastejo contínuo, alternado e rotativo consumiram de 13,41 a 15,92% a menos de ração e apresentaram menores ganhos de peso e espessura de toucinho que aqueles criados em confinamento. Não foram registradas diferenças significativas na conversão alimentar entre os suínos mantidos em confinamento e em pastagem.This trial was carried out to determine the effect of continuous, alternated or rotational grazing systems on the performance of pigs (feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and backfat thickness, in the growing and finishing phases, as well as the forage availability and chemical composition of a white clover pasture (Trifolium repens L.. Thirty-six castrated pigs were allotted to a randomized complete-block experimental design with three treatments and three replications. Twelve feedlot pigs were kept on a rearing system. No significant differences were found between grazing systems on parameters of animal performance and forage on offer. However, significant differences were observed on the pasture chemical composition

  11. Ractopamine as a metabolic modifier feed additive for finishing pigs: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Vezzoni de Almeida

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The β-adrenergic agonist ractopamine is increasingly used in the swine industry due to higher consumer demand for leaner pork products. Redirecting nutrients to favor leanness rather than fat deposition, ractopamine improves growth and carcass traits of finishing pigs. However, the impact of this agonist on pork quality is not clearly defined. Understanding the biological effects of dietary ractopamine dose, treatment period, lysine levels, and the lysine to metabolizable energy ratio will help pork producers achieve improvements in animal performance, carcass leanness, and economic efficiency in swine production systems.

  12. 40 CFR 63.1347 - Standards for raw and finish mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for raw and finish mills. 63... and Operating Limits § 63.1347 Standards for raw and finish mills. The owner or operator of each new or existing raw mill or finish mill at a facility which is a major source subject to the provisions...

  13. Effects of surface finish and mechanical training on Ni-Ti sheets for elastocaloric cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Tusek, Jaka; Sanna, Simone

    2016-01-01

    and acceptable durability. We study the effects of surface finish and training techniques on dog bone shaped polycrystalline samples of NiTi. The fatigue life of several samples with four different surface finishes was measured and it was shown that a smooth surface, especially at the edges, greatly improved...... of the material was weakly influenced by the surface finish....

  14. 40 CFR 63.5390 - How do I measure the HAP content of a finish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... finish? 63.5390 Section 63.5390 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Leather Finishing Operations Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.5390 How do I measure the HAP content of a finish? (a) To determine...

  15. 46 CFR 116.422 - Ceilings, linings, trim, interior finish and decorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ceilings, linings, trim, interior finish and decorations... PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.422 Ceilings, linings, trim, interior finish... Commandant. (b) Bulkheads, linings and ceilings may be covered by a combustible interior finish provided that...

  16. Finish machining of hardened gears wheels using cubic boron nitride (CBN inserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Talar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some results of investigation of finish machining of hardened bearing surfaces of cylindrical gear wheels. Finish machining has been performed with wedges of defined geometry made of CBN. The presented investigation results are related mainly to the wear processes of the cutting wedges. Additional results of quality examination of finish machined gear wheels have been presented, too.

  17. 77 FR 60897 - Safety Zone: America's Cup World Series Finish-Line, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone: America's Cup World Series Finish-Line, San... race finishes that will occur in vicinity of San Francisco West Yacht Harbor Light 2. Unauthorized... to finish the races in the subject location on September 18, 2012, and the event would occur before...

  18. 40 CFR 63.5395 - How do I measure the density of a finish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... finish? 63.5395 Section 63.5395 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Leather Finishing Operations Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.5395 How do I measure the density of a finish? (a) To determine the...

  19. 40 CFR 427.80 - Applicability; description of the coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory. 427.80 Section 427.80 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Coating or Finishing of Asbestos Textiles Subcategory § 427.80 Applicability; description of the coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  20. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) HVAC System Component Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DIAZ, E.N.; DICK, J.D.

    2000-07-26

    This document lists safety class (SC) and safety significant (SS) components for the Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning (HVAC) and specifies the critical characteristics for Commercial Grade Items (CGI), as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to properly perform its safety function. There may be several manufacturers or models that meet the critical characteristics for any one item.

  1. Influence of the inlet air in efficiency of photocatalytic devices for mineralization of VOCs in air-conditioning installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Relinque, E; Castellote, M

    2014-10-01

    Nowadays, a large proportion of photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) devices are being implemented in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems. However, no systematic studies have been carried out regarding the influence of inlet air preconditioning. To analyse the impact of the inlet air-conditions into photocatalytic efficiency, a simulated air-conditioning duct with flowing gas through inside was designed. Isobutylene was chosen as the target VOCs. The concentration in the gas phase was monitored using a photoionization detector. The influence of flow rate, relative humidity and temperature on the VOC removal efficiency was analysed. Experimental results were presented in terms of gas-removal efficiency (η) and clean air delivery rate (CADR) and analysed on a kinetic basis. From them, the weight of each parameter in the global process has been determined, from bigger to smaller contribution, flow>temperature>relative humidity. Also, the relevance of the inlet air conditions has been illustrated in a model room in order to determinate the time necessary to obtain a threshold value accomplishing with enough air quality and the energy consumption of the device. Additionally, the photocatalytic decontamination has been assimilated to the "air exchange rate", a parameter commonly used in indoor air quality studies. The results show that preconditioning of air can improve the efficiency of photocatalytic devices and bring important energy savings.

  2. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) onboard the HALO research aircraft during OMO-ASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safadi, Layal; Neumaier, Marco; Fischbeck, Garlich; Zahn, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    We report on first results of VOC measurements during the OMO-Asia campaign that took place in summer 2015 on Cyprus and on the island of Gan (Maldives) to study the free-radical chemistry at higher altitudes during the Asian summer monsoon. The deployed instrument (KMS = Karlsruhe Mass Spectrometer) is based on a commercial PTRMS from Ionicon and was strongly modified for the use onboard the research aircraft HALO (a modified Gulfstream GV-550 having a ceiling altitude of ~15.5 km). By the construction of an aluminum vacuum system, the development of largely custom-made electronics and the use of light-weight pumps, the weight was reduced to ~55 kg compared to 120-130 kg of the commercial instrument. The KMS is in addition very robust and field-compliant. Before OMO-Asia the HALO payload was tested first during a technical field campaign OMO-EU which took place in Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany) in winter 2015. During OMO-Asia the instrument was calibrated before and after each flight by diluting an external gas standard (Apel-Riemer Environmental, Inc. Denver, Colorado) containing ~1 ppm of 10 VOCs. The determined sensitivity for acetone was ~380 cps/ppb showing a variation of ±5% over a period of 8 weeks. The detection limit amounted to ~35 ppt for acetone at an integration time of 6 s. The measurements during all together 17 flights took place over a wide range of Asia, including Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Oman and Sri Lanka. Referring to the meteorological forecasts of carbon monoxide (CO), remnant of the Asia monsoon outflow was measured during some flights (e.g. over Oman). Acetone mixing ratios of up to ~1500 ppt and up to ~100 ppt of benzene were measured in the outflow of the plume. The gathered data shows a good correlation with the measurements taken with other instruments (e.g. CO measurements by Max Planck Institute for Chemistry). The poster will describe the instrument and the main features derived.

  3. Assessment of Exposure to VOCs among Pregnant Women in the National Children’s Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Barksdale Boyle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies can measure exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs using environmental samples, biomarkers, questionnaires, or observations. These different exposure assessment approaches each have advantages and disadvantages; thus, evaluating relationships is an important consideration. In the National Children’s Vanguard Study from 2009 to 2010, participants completed questionnaires and data collectors observed VOC exposure sources and collected urine samples from 488 third trimester pregnant women at in-person study visits. From urine, we simultaneously quantified 28 VOC metabolites of exposure to acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, benzene, 1-bromopropane, 1,3-butadiene, carbon disulfide, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylbenzene, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, trichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, and xylene exposures using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/MSMS method. Urinary thiocyanate was measured using an ion chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method (IC-ESI/MSMS. We modeled the relationship between urinary VOC metabolite concentrations and sources of VOC exposure. Sources of exposure were assessed by participant report via questionnaire (use of air fresheners, aerosols, paint or varnish, organic solvents, and passive/active smoking and by observations by a trained data collector (presence of scented products in homes. We found several significant (p < 0.01 relationships between the urinary metabolites of VOCs and sources of VOC exposure. Smoking was positively associated with metabolites of the tobacco constituents acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, ethylene oxide, N,N-dimethylformamide, propylene oxide, styrene, and xylene. Study location was negatively associated with the toluene metabolite

  4. Optimizing the emission inventory of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) based on network observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Po; Liu, Wen-Tzu; Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Chang, Julius S.; Wang, Jia-Lin

    2014-02-01

    Hourly observations of 56 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) performed by a network of photochemical assessment monitoring stations (PAMS) at 11 locations across Taiwan were used to evaluate 56 speciated emissions and the resulting simulations of an air quality model. Based on the PAMS observations at two urban sites, emission modification was made for the 56 PAMS species in the model. To further test the applicability of this emission correction approach, the same modified emissions were subject to seven different meteorological conditions and comparison with observations of all the 11 PAMS sites. Originally there was a minimum of only 8 of 56 species showed agreement with observations for the worst of the 11 PAMS sites and 28 of 56 species for the best site. With modified emissions, the number increased to 13-52 species across the 11 PAMS sites, demonstrating that the simple urban based correction procedure has broad applicability. When applying this modification of PAMS emissions to the simulations of other air quality gases, SO2 and NOx showed small changes compared with observations (-0.27% and -2.51%, respectively), while total VOC concentrations showed significant changes (+15.28%) as a result of the adjustment in VOC emissions (+26.7%). Although VOCs are the precursor of ozone, the relatively large changes in VOC did not seem to affect ozone formation to the similar extent, only resulting in the changes of average O3 by 2.9 ppb (+9.41%). It shows that although the emission modification improves individual VOC simulations, the performance in oxidant simulation is still largely unaltered. Although the original U.S. VOC emission profiles can capture the general features of ambient VOCs, further optimization of emissions may still be needed by referencing extensive observations, so that emissions can better fit domestic conditions and accuracy in model simulations can be improved.

  5. Assessment of Exposure to VOCs among Pregnant Women in the National Children’s Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Elizabeth Barksdale; Viet, Susan M.; Wright, David J.; Merrill, Lori S.; Alwis, K. Udeni; Blount, Benjamin C.; Mortensen, Mary E.; Moye, John; Dellarco, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies can measure exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using environmental samples, biomarkers, questionnaires, or observations. These different exposure assessment approaches each have advantages and disadvantages; thus, evaluating relationships is an important consideration. In the National Children’s Vanguard Study from 2009 to 2010, participants completed questionnaires and data collectors observed VOC exposure sources and collected urine samples from 488 third trimester pregnant women at in-person study visits. From urine, we simultaneously quantified 28 VOC metabolites of exposure to acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, benzene, 1-bromopropane, 1,3-butadiene, carbon disulfide, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylbenzene, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, trichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, and xylene exposures using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/MSMS) method. Urinary thiocyanate was measured using an ion chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method (IC-ESI/MSMS). We modeled the relationship between urinary VOC metabolite concentrations and sources of VOC exposure. Sources of exposure were assessed by participant report via questionnaire (use of air fresheners, aerosols, paint or varnish, organic solvents, and passive/active smoking) and by observations by a trained data collector (presence of scented products in homes). We found several significant (p < 0.01) relationships between the urinary metabolites of VOCs and sources of VOC exposure. Smoking was positively associated with metabolites of the tobacco constituents acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, ethylene oxide, N,N-dimethylformamide, propylene oxide, styrene, and xylene. Study location was negatively associated with the toluene metabolite N

  6. Root anoxia effects on physiology and emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) under short- and long-term inundation of trees from Amazonian floodplains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho-Nunez, Araceli; Knothe, Nina Maria; Costa, Wallace R; Maria Astrid, Liberato R; Kleiss, Betina; Rottenberger, Stefanie; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are affected by a variety of biotic and abiotic factors such as light intensity, temperature, CO2 and drought. Another stress factor, usually overlooked but very important for the Amazon region, is flooding. We studied the exchange of VOCs in relation to CO2 exchange and transpiration of 8 common tree species from the Amazonian floodplain forest grown up from seeds using a dynamic enclosure system. Analysis of volatile organics was performed by PTR-MS fast online measurements. Our study confirmed emissions of ethanol and acetaldehyde at the beginning of root anoxia after inundation, especially in less anoxia adapted species such as Vatairea guianensis, but not for Hevea spruceana probably due to a better adapted metabolism. In contrast to short-term inundation, long-term flooding of the root system did not result in any emission of ethanol or/and acetaldehyde. Emission of other VOCs, such as isoprenoids, acetone, and methanol exhibited distinct behavior related to the origin (igapó or várzea type of floodplain) of the tree species. Also physiological activities exhibited different response patterns for trees from igapó or várzea. In general, isoprenoid emissions increased within the course of some days of short-term flooding. After a long period of waterlogging, VOC emissions decreased considerably, along with photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance. However, even under long-term testing conditions, two tree species did not show any significant decrease or increase in photosynthesis. In order to understand ecophysiological advantages of the different responses we need field investigations with adult tree species.

  7. Surface profiling in mating parts by combined nonabrasive finishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolentsev, EV; Fedonin, ON; Smolentsev, VP

    2017-02-01

    Nonabrasive finishing of precision mating surfaces in locking devices with the use of a combined erosion-chemical process at the first stage of the processing and with the use of anodic dissolution by alternating low-voltage current at the final stage of a refinement operation till gapless joints obtaining is considered. It is shown that the application of electro-erosion, electrochemical and combined nonabrasive finishing in mating parts opens up a possibility to ensure stable impermeability in locking devices on a macro- and micro-level through the method of a substantiated purpose of technological modes. A procedure is created for the development of such modes, and on their basis technological processes for the obtaining of gapless mating surfaces meeting the performance requirements for locking devices are developed. For this purpose, qualitative devices resistant to hostile environment are manufactured that is urgent for the mechanical engineering including repetition work for the equipment of petrochemical industry, transport and household machinery.

  8. Dietary starch types affect liver nutrient metabolism of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chen; Li, Yanjiao; Li, Jiaolong; Zhang, Lin; Zhou, Guanghong; Gao, Feng

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different starch types on liver nutrient metabolism of finishing pigs. In all ninety barrows were randomly allocated to three diets with five replicates of six pigs, containing purified waxy maize starch (WMS), non-waxy maize starch (NMS) and pea starch (PS) (the amylose to amylopectin ratios were 0·07, 0·19 and 0·28, respectively). After 28 d of treatments, two per pen (close to the average body weight of the pen) were weighed individually, slaughtered and liver samples were collected. Compared with the WMS diet, the PS diet decreased the activities of glycogen phosphorylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 in liver (P0·05). Compared with the WMS diet, the PS diet reduced the expressions of glutamate dehydrogenase and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 in liver (Pliver compared with the WMS diet (Pliver of finishing pigs.

  9. The finished DNA sequence of human chromosome 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Steven E; Muzny, Donna M; Buhay, Christian J; Chen, Rui; Cree, Andrew; Ding, Yan; Dugan-Rocha, Shannon; Gill, Rachel; Gunaratne, Preethi; Harris, R Alan; Hawes, Alicia C; Hernandez, Judith; Hodgson, Anne V; Hume, Jennifer; Jackson, Andrew; Khan, Ziad Mohid; Kovar-Smith, Christie; Lewis, Lora R; Lozado, Ryan J; Metzker, Michael L; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Miner, George R; Montgomery, Kate T; Morgan, Margaret B; Nazareth, Lynne V; Scott, Graham; Sodergren, Erica; Song, Xing-Zhi; Steffen, David; Lovering, Ruth C; Wheeler, David A; Worley, Kim C; Yuan, Yi; Zhang, Zhengdong; Adams, Charles Q; Ansari-Lari, M Ali; Ayele, Mulu; Brown, Mary J; Chen, Guan; Chen, Zhijian; Clerc-Blankenburg, Kerstin P; Davis, Clay; Delgado, Oliver; Dinh, Huyen H; Draper, Heather; Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L; Havlak, Paul; Jackson, Laronda R; Jacob, Leni S; Kelly, Susan H; Li, Li; Li, Zhangwan; Liu, Jing; Liu, Wen; Lu, Jing; Maheshwari, Manjula; Nguyen, Bao-Viet; Okwuonu, Geoffrey O; Pasternak, Shiran; Perez, Lesette M; Plopper, Farah J H; Santibanez, Jireh; Shen, Hua; Tabor, Paul E; Verduzco, Daniel; Waldron, Lenee; Wang, Qiaoyan; Williams, Gabrielle A; Zhang, Jingkun; Zhou, Jianling; Allen, Carlana C; Amin, Anita G; Anyalebechi, Vivian; Bailey, Michael; Barbaria, Joseph A; Bimage, Kesha E; Bryant, Nathaniel P; Burch, Paula E; Burkett, Carrie E; Burrell, Kevin L; Calderon, Eliana; Cardenas, Veronica; Carter, Kelvin; Casias, Kristal; Cavazos, Iracema; Cavazos, Sandra R; Ceasar, Heather; Chacko, Joseph; Chan, Sheryl N; Chavez, Dean; Christopoulos, Constantine; Chu, Joseph; Cockrell, Raynard; Cox, Caroline D; Dang, Michelle; Dathorne, Stephanie R; David, Robert; Davis, Candi Mon'Et; Davy-Carroll, Latarsha; Deshazo, Denise R; Donlin, Jeremy E; D'Souza, Lisa; Eaves, Kristy A; Egan, Amy; Emery-Cohen, Alexandra J; Escotto, Michael; Flagg, Nicole; Forbes, Lisa D; Gabisi, Abdul M; Garza, Melissa; Hamilton, Cerissa; Henderson, Nicholas; Hernandez, Omar; Hines, Sandra; Hogues, Marilyn E; Huang, Mei; Idlebird, DeVincent G; Johnson, Rudy; Jolivet, Angela; Jones, Sally; Kagan, Ryan; King, Laquisha M; Leal, Belita; Lebow, Heather; Lee, Sandra; LeVan, Jaclyn M; Lewis, Lakeshia C; London, Pamela; Lorensuhewa, Lorna M; Loulseged, Hermela; Lovett, Demetria A; Lucier, Alice; Lucier, Raymond L; Ma, Jie; Madu, Renita C; Mapua, Patricia; Martindale, Ashley D; Martinez, Evangelina; Massey, Elizabeth; Mawhiney, Samantha; Meador, Michael G; Mendez, Sylvia; Mercado, Christian; Mercado, Iracema C; Merritt, Christina E; Miner, Zachary L; Minja, Emmanuel; Mitchell, Teresa; Mohabbat, Farida; Mohabbat, Khatera; Montgomery, Baize; Moore, Niki; Morris, Sidney; Munidasa, Mala; Ngo, Robin N; Nguyen, Ngoc B; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi O; Nwokenkwo, Stanley; Obregon, Melissa; Oguh, Maryann; Oragunye, Njideka; Oviedo, Rodolfo J; Parish, Bridgette J; Parker, David N; Parrish, Julia; Parks, Kenya L; Paul, Heidie A; Payton, Brett A; Perez, Agapito; Perrin, William; Pickens, Adam; Primus, Eltrick L; Pu, Ling-Ling; Puazo, Maria; Quiles, Miyo M; Quiroz, Juana B; Rabata, Dina; Reeves, Kacy; Ruiz, San Juana; Shao, Hongmei; Sisson, Ida; Sonaike, Titilola; Sorelle, Richard P; Sutton, Angelica E; Svatek, Amanda F; Svetz, Leah Anne; Tamerisa, Kavitha S; Taylor, Tineace R; Teague, Brian; Thomas, Nicole; Thorn, Rachel D; Trejos, Zulma Y; Trevino, Brenda K; Ukegbu, Ogechi N; Urban, Jeremy B; Vasquez, Lydia I; Vera, Virginia A; Villasana, Donna M; Wang, Ling; Ward-Moore, Stephanie; Warren, James T; Wei, Xuehong; White, Flower; Williamson, Angela L; Wleczyk, Regina; Wooden, Hailey S; Wooden, Steven H; Yen, Jennifer; Yoon, Lillienne; Yoon, Vivienne; Zorrilla, Sara E; Nelson, David; Kucherlapati, Raju; Weinstock, George; Gibbs, Richard A

    2006-03-16

    Human chromosome 12 contains more than 1,400 coding genes and 487 loci that have been directly implicated in human disease. The q arm of chromosome 12 contains one of the largest blocks of linkage disequilibrium found in the human genome. Here we present the finished sequence of human chromosome 12, which has been finished to high quality and spans approximately 132 megabases, representing approximately 4.5% of the human genome. Alignment of the human chromosome 12 sequence across vertebrates reveals the origin of individual segments in chicken, and a unique history of rearrangement through rodent and primate lineages. The rate of base substitutions in recent evolutionary history shows an overall slowing in hominids compared with primates and rodents.

  10. RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY IN FINISH TURNING INCONEL 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aruna,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Machining of hard materials used in aerospace applications require hard and tough cutting tools. Ceramic tools and cermets are used in machining of nickel alloys for such applications. In this study finish turning of Inconel 718 is carried out with cermet tools. Cutting parameters are designed using Taguchi’s DOE and the experiments are conducted for the designed parameters. The surface finish measurement is carried for the various conditions and data obtained are used to build up the mathematical surface model using response surface methodology. The adequacy of the developed mathematical model is proved by ANOVA. The findings of this study show new results and the second order model was quite adequate.

  11. Surface finishing of resin-modified glass ionomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liporoni, Priscila; Paulillo, Luis Alexandre; Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Dos Santos Dias, Carlos Tadeu; Paradella, Thais Cachute

    2003-01-01

    This study utilized spectrophotometry to evaluate in vitro superficial dye deposition on resin-modified glass ionomer, following different surface finishing and polishing treatments. Materials that were photocured adjacent to the mylar strip produced the surfaces with the lowest mean after superficial staining. A restorative technique without excesses resulted in a smoother surface and prolonged the life of the restoration. The resin-modified glass ionomers tested offer adequate clinical performance.

  12. Marginal Fit of CEREC Crowns at Different Finish Line Curvatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    that can mimic the optical prope11ies of enamel and dentin, with a high flexural strength of 150MPa. These materials are machinable and contain...heat-polymerized resin composite inlays, he had the new idea of tooth colored inlays inserted adhesively with resin-based composite as a luting...human enamel . Journal of American Dental Association, 127 (1), 74-80. Tao, J., & Han, D. (2009). The effect of finish line curvature on marginal fit

  13. Manipulating mechanics and chemistry in precision optics finishing

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2007-01-01

    Deterministic processing is critical to modern precision optics finishing. Put simply, determinism is the ability to predict an outcome before carrying out an activity. With the availability of computer numerically controlled (CNC) equipment and sophisticated software algorithms, it is now possible to grind and polish optics from a variety of materials to surface shape accuracies of ~20 nm peak-to-valley (p–v), with surface roughness values (measured on white light interferometers over 250 μm...

  14. A Comparative Analysis of Different Finishing and Polishing Devices on Nanofilled, Microfilled, and Hybrid Composite: A Scanning Electron Microscopy and Profilometric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rishi D; Raisingani, Deepak; Jindal, Divya; Mathur, Rachit

    2016-01-01

    The continuous development of esthetically acceptable adhesive restorative material has made a variety of tooth-colored materials available for clinical use. The advent of visible light polymerizing resin and the use of finer filler particles permit resin composites to be polished to higher degree. The effect of polishing systems on surface finish has been reported to be material-dependent, and the effectiveness of these systems was mostly product-dependent. Hence, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of finishing and polishing systems on the surface roughness of nanofilled, microfilled, and hybrid composite restorative materials available in the market.

  15. Ageing of Dry Cement Mixes for Finishing Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronius VEKTARIS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dry building mixes, stored in the air, absorb water vapor and CO2 gas and ageing because properties of binding materials, mostly Portland cement, deteriorate after its prehydration and carbonation. In this paper the ageing singularities of dry cement mixes for finishing purposes and additives for retarding this process has been determinated. Ordinary and quickly hardening Portland cements absorb H2O and CO2 more than white cement – about 70 % – 75 % and 30 % – 38 % per month of innitial mass, respectively. White cement is more resistant to prehydration and carbonation, because it contains less C3A, C4AF and alkali, characterized initial activity. Dry mixes with white cement, although slower, but still worse after stored. Influence of routine dry mortar mixes ingredients and additives (methyl cellulose, pigments, sand and lime on prehydration properties of the mixes for finishing purpose is not substantial. Significant positive influence comes from the addition of fatty acid salts (zinc stearate or sodium oleate. The dry cement mixes for finishing purpose has been recomended to hydrophobisate with one of these additives, adding about 1 % by weight of cement during preducing mixes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.3.5243

  16. Ageing of Dry Cement Mixes for Finishing Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronius VEKTARIS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dry building mixes, stored in the air, absorb water vapor and CO2 gas and ageing because properties of binding materials, mostly Portland cement, deteriorate after its prehydration and carbonation. In this paper the ageing singularities of dry cement mixes for finishing purposes and additives for retarding this process has been determinated. Ordinary and quickly hardening Portland cements absorb H2O and CO2 more than white cement – about 70 % – 75 % and 30 % – 38 % per month of innitial mass, respectively. White cement is more resistant to prehydration and carbonation, because it contains less C3A, C4AF and alkali, characterized initial activity. Dry mixes with white cement, although slower, but still worse after stored. Influence of routine dry mortar mixes ingredients and additives (methyl cellulose, pigments, sand and lime on prehydration properties of the mixes for finishing purpose is not substantial. Significant positive influence comes from the addition of fatty acid salts (zinc stearate or sodium oleate. The dry cement mixes for finishing purpose has been recomended to hydrophobisate with one of these additives, adding about 1 % by weight of cement during preducing mixes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.3.5243

  17. Ageing of Dry Cement Mixes for Finishing Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronius VEKTARIS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dry building mixes, stored in the air, absorb water vapor and CO2 gas and ageing because properties of binding materials, mostly Portland cement, deteriorate after its prehydration and carbonation. In this paper the ageing singularities of dry cement mixes for finishing purposes and additives for retarding this process has been determinated. Ordinary and quickly hardening Portland cements absorb H2O and CO2 more than white cement – about 70 % – 75 % and 30 % – 38 % per month of innitial mass, respectively. White cement is more resistant to prehydration and carbonation, because it contains less C3A, C4AF and alkali, characterized initial activity. Dry mixes with white cement, although slower, but still worse after stored. Influence of routine dry mortar mixes ingredients and additives (methyl cellulose, pigments, sand and lime on prehydration properties of the mixes for finishing purpose is not substantial. Significant positive influence comes from the addition of fatty acid salts (zinc stearate or sodium oleate. The dry cement mixes for finishing purpose has been recomended to hydrophobisate with one of these additives, adding about 1 % by weight of cement during preducing mixes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.3.5243

  18. Bio-filtering of a VOC mixture; Biofiltration d'un melange de COV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizpuru, A.

    2001-04-01

    The study is focused on the bio-filtration of a mixture of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC). Its primary interest is the complexity of the mixture treated which includes eleven components with different chemical structures (esters, ketones, alcohol, aromatic rings and chlorinated compounds). The first experiment, carried out with a natural material (peat), allowed the verification of the applicability of the process for treating such complex gas effluents. Even if global removal performance (120 g/m{sup 3} filter/h) is comparable to those attempted for less complex effluents, phenomena of competitions between substrates are observed. Therefore, the presence of many compounds reduces the elimination capacity for each pollutant, increases the microbial acclimatization time and Leads to a stratification of the degradation inside the reactor. On the other hand, a theoretical approach of the bio-filtration process based on Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR) exhibits three preponderant factors that determine pollutant treatability in a bio-filter:the Henry's law coefficient, octanol-water partition constant, and the first order connectivity index. These parameters can be correlated to the gas-liquid transfer, the solubility and the biodegradability of a molecule, respectively. Finally, the examination of a strong adsorption capacity material (active carbon) as a filter bed indicates the material used has a significant effect on system's removal. Therefore, in the present study, by modifying the respective retention times of pollutants, such a material increases the competition phenomena and thus reduces elimination capacities. (author)

  19. VOC emission into the atmosphere by trees and leaf litter in Polish forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidorov, V.; Smolewska, M.; Tyszkiewicz, Z.

    2009-04-01

    It is generally recognized at present that the vegetation of continents is the principal source of reactive volatile organic compounds (VOC) of the atmosphere. The upper limit of the evaluation of global phytogenic VOC is 1100-1500 Tg/yr (Isidorov, 1990; Guenther et al., 1995). Although these global evaluations showing the place of phytogenic emission among of other VOC sources are important, evaluations for individual countries are also very important. This poster represents the results of the estimation of VOC emission from Polish forests. Calculations took into account the composition and age of forests. According to our estimation, the total VOC emission by the arboreal vegetation differs from 190 to 750 kt/yr, depending of weather conditions in different years. There are only few studies conducted on decaying plant material as a source of atmospheric VOCs, but still they are able to give evidence of the importance of this source. For Polish forests, the litter mass is estimated to be (16-19)106 t/yr. These organic materials undergo decomposition by mesofauna and microorganisms. In these processes volatile organic compounds (VOC) stored in the litter and secondary metabolites of litter-destroying fungi are emitted into the atmosphere. The scale of the phenomenon makes leaf litter an important VOC source in the atmosphere. The filling of numerous gaps in researches of VOC emissions from decomposing leaf litter demands carrying out of long term field experiments in various climatic conditions. In this communication we report also the results of 3.5-year experiment on qualitative and quantitative GC-MS investigations of VOC emitted into the gas phase from leaves litter of some species of deciduous and coniferous trees of Polish forests. Apart from terpenes and their oxygenated derivatives, which are usual in plant tissues, leaf litter intensively emits vast amounts of lower alcohols and carbonyl compounds. We suppose that these volatile substances are products

  20. Organic liquids storage tanks volatile organic compounds (VOCS) emissions dispersion and risk assessment in developing countries: the case of Dar-es-Salaam City, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Msafiri M

    2006-05-01

    . Emission rates for benzene, toluene, and xylene were used as input to CALPUFF air dispersion model for the calculation of spatial downwind concentrations from area sources. By using global positioning system (GPS) and geographical information system (GIS) the spatial benzene concentration contributed by organic liquid storage tanks has been mapped for Dar-es-Salaam City. Highest concentrations for all the three toxic pollutants were observed at Kigamboni area, possibly because the area is located at the wind prevailing direction from the locations of the storage tanks. The model predicted concentrations downwind from the sources were below tolerable concentrations by WHO and US-OSHA. The highest 24 hrs averaging time benzene concentration was used for risk assessment in order to determine maximum carcinogenic risk amongst the population exposed at downwind. Established risk for adult and children at 2.9x10(-3) and 1.9x10(-3) respectively, are higher than the acceptable US-EPA risk of 1x10(-6). It is very likely that the actual VOCs concentrations in some urban areas in Tanzania including Dar-es-Salaam City are much higher than the levels reported in this study when other sources such as petrol stations and motor vehicles on the roads are considered. Tanzania Government therefore need to put in place: an air quality policy and legislation, establish air quality guidelines and acquire facilities which will enable the implementation of air quality monitoring and management programmes.