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Sample records for voc emissions control

  1. VOC emissions control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spessard, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    The air pollution control equipment marketplace offers many competing technologies for controlling emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air. If any technology was economically and technically superior under all conditions, it would be the only one on the market. In fact, each technology used to control VOCs is superior under some set of conditions. The reasons for choosing one control technology over another are situation-specific. Some general guidelines to VOC control technologies and the situations where each may be appropriate are presented in this article. The control technologies and applications are summarized in a table

  2. VOCs emission characteristics and priority control analysis based on VOCs emission inventories and ozone formation potentials in Zhoushan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiaoli; Li, Sujing; Dong, Minli; Li, Wei; Gao, Xiang; Ye, Rongmin; Zhang, Dongxiao

    2018-06-01

    Zhoushan is an island city with booming tourism and service industry, but also has many developed VOCs and/or NOX emission industries. It is necessary to carry out regional VOCs and O3 pollution control in Zhoushan as the only new area owns the provincial economic and social administration rights. Anthropogenic VOCs emission inventories were built based on emission factor method and main emission sources were identified according to the emission inventories. Then, localized VOCs source profiles were built based on in-site sampling and referring to other studies. Furthermore, ozone formation potentials (OFPs) profiles were built through VOCs source profiles and maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) theory. At last, the priority control analysis results showed that industrial processes, especially surface coating, are the key of VOCs and O3 control. Alkanes were the most emitted group, accounting for 58.67%, while aromatics contributed the most to ozone production accounting for 69.97% in total OFPs. n-butane, m/p-xylene, i-pentane, n-decane, toluene, propane, n-undecane, o-xylene, methyl cyclohexane and ethyl benzene were the top 10 VOC species that should be preferentially controlled for VOCs emission control. However, m/p-xylene, o-xylene, ethylene, n-butane, toluene, propene, 1,2,4-trimethyl benzene, 1,3,5-trimethyl benzene, ethyl benzene and 1,2,3-trimethyl benzene were the top 10 VOC species that required preferential control for O3 pollution control.

  3. VOC from Vehicular Evaporation Emissions: Status and Control Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Man, Hanyang; Tschantz, Michael; Wu, Ye; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming

    2015-12-15

    Vehicular evaporative emissions is an important source of volatile organic carbon (VOC), however, accurate estimation of emission amounts and scientific evaluation of control strategy for these emissions have been neglected outside of the United States. This study provides four kinds of basic emission factors: diurnal, hot soak, permeation, and refueling. Evaporative emissions from the Euro 4 vehicles (1.6 kg/year/car) are about four times those of U.S. vehicles (0.4 kg/year/car). Closing this emissions gap would have a larger impact than the progression from Euro 3 to Euro 6 tailpipe HC emission controls. Even in the first 24 h of parking, China's current reliance upon the European 24 h diurnal standard results in 508 g/vehicle/year emissions, higher than 32 g/vehicle/year from Tier 2 vehicles. The U.S. driving cycle matches Beijing real-world conditions much better on both typical trip length and average speed than current European driving cycles. At least two requirements should be added to the Chinese emissions standards: an onboard refueling vapor recovery to force the canister to be sized sufficiently large, and a 48-h evaporation test requirement to ensure that adequate purging occurs over a shorter drive sequence.

  4. VOC emissions chambers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In order to support the development of test methods and reference materials for volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions from building materials and furnishings,...

  5. A High Performance Biofilter for VOC Emission Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G; Conti, B; Leroux, A; Brzezinski, R; Viel, G; Heitz, M

    1999-02-01

    Biofiltration is a cleaning technique for waste air contaminated with some organic compounds. The advantages of the conventional biofilter over other biological systems are a high-superficial area best suited for the treatment of some compounds with poor water solubility, ease of operation, and low operating costs. It has crucial disadvantages, however; for example, it is not suitable to treat waste gases with high VOC concentrations and it has poor control of reaction conditions. To improve on these problems and to build a high-performance biofilter, three structured peat media and two trickling systems have been introduced in this study. The influences of media size and composition have been investigated experimentally. Peat bead blended with 30% (w/w) certain mineral material with a good binding capacity has advantages over other packing materials, for example, suitable size to prevent blockage due to microbial growth, strong buffering capacity to neutralize acidic substances in the system, and a pH range of 7.0-7.2 suitable for the growth of bacteria. Dropwise trickling system offers an effective measure to easily control the moisture content of the bed and the reaction conditions (pH, nutrient) and to partially remove excess biomass produced during the metabolic processes of microorganisms. The influence of nutrient supplementation has also been investigated in this study, which has revealed that the biological system was in a condition of nutrient limitation instead of carbon limitation. The biofilters built in our laboratory were used to treat waste gas contaminated with toluene in a concentration range of 1 to 3.2 g/m 3 and at the specific gas flow rate of 24 to120 m 3 /m 2 .hr. Under the conditions employed, a high elimination capacity (135 g/m 3 .hr) was obtained in the biofilter packed with peat beads (blended with 30% of the mineral material), and no blockage problem was observed in an experimental period of 2-3 months.

  6. Application of microwave energy in the control of DPM, oxides of nitrogen and VOC emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavkar, Sameer M.

    The emissions of DPM (diesel particulate matter), NOx (oxides of nitrogen), and toxic VOCs (volatile organic compounds) from diesel engine exhaust gases and other sources such as chemical process industry and manufacturing industry have been a great environmental and health concern. Most control technologies for these emissions require elevated temperatures. The use of microwave energy as a source of heat energy, however, has not been fully explored. In this study, the microwave energy was used as the energy source in three separate emission control processes, namely, the regeneration of diesel particulate filter (DPF) for DPM control, the NOx reduction using a platinum catalyst, and the VOC destruction involving a ceramic based material. The study has demonstrated that microwave heating is an effective method in providing heat for the studied processes. The control efficiencies associated with the microwave-assisted processes have been observed to be high and acceptable. Further research, however, is required for the commercial use of these technologies.

  7. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission characteristics and control strategies for a petrochemical industrial area in middle Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Hsien; Horng, Jao-Jia

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated VOC emissions from the largest petrochemical industrial district in Taiwan and recommended some control measures to reduce VOC emissions. In addition to the petrochemical industry, the district encompasses a chemical and fiber industry, a plastics industry and a harbor, which together produce more than 95% of the VOC emissions in the area. The sequence of VOC emission was as follows: components (e.g., valves, flanges, and pumps) (47%) > tanks (29%) > stacks (15%) > wastewater treatment facility (6%) > loading (2%) > flares (1%). Other plants producing high-density polyethylene (HDPE), styrene, ethylene glycol (EG), gas oil, and iso-nonyl-alchol (INA) were measured to determine the VOC leaching in the district. The VOC emissions of these 35 plants (90% of all plants) were less than 100 tons/year. About 74% of the tanks were fixed-roof tanks that leached more VOCs than the other types of tanks. To reduce leaching, the components should be checked periodically, and companies should be required to follow the Taiwan EPA regulations. A VOC emission management system was developed in state implementation plans (SIPs) to inspect and reduce emissions in the industrial district.

  8. California State Implementation Plan; San Diego County Air Pollution Control District; VOC Emissions from Polyester Resin Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is taking final action to approve revisions to the San Diego County Air Pollution Control District (SDCAPCD) portion of the California SIP concerning volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from polyester resin operations.

  9. COST EFFECTIVE VOC EMISSION CONTROL STARTEGIES FOR MILITARY, AEROSPACE,AND INDUSTRIAL PAINT SPRAY BOOTH OPERATIONS: COMBINING IMPROVED VENTILATION SYSTEMS WITH INNOVATIVE, LOW COST EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes a full-scale demonstration program in which several paint booths were modified for recirculation ventilation; the booth exhaust streams are vented to an innovative volatile organic compound (VOC) emission control system having extremely low operating costs. ...

  10. Speciated OVOC and VOC emission inventories and their implications for reactivity-based ozone control strategy in the Pearl River Delta region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Jiamin; Zheng, Junyu; Li, Rongrong; Huang, Xiaobo; Zhong, Zhuangmin; Zhong, Liuju; Lin, Hui

    2015-10-15

    The increasing ground-ozone (O3) levels, accompanied by decreasing SO2, NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations benefited from air pollution control measures implemented in recent years, initiated a serious challenge to control Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, China. Speciated VOC emission inventory is fundamental for estimating Ozone Formation Potentials (OFPs) to identify key reactive VOC species and sources in order to formulate efficient O3 control strategies. With the use of the latest bulk VOC emission inventory and local source profiles, this study developed the PRD regional speciated Oxygenated Volatile Organic Compound (OVOC) and VOC emission inventories to identify the key emission-based and OFP-based VOC sources and species. Results showed that: (1) Methyl alcohol, acetone and ethyl acetate were the major constituents in the OVOC emissions from industrial solvents, household solvents, architectural paints and biogenic sources; (2) from the emission-based perspective, aromatics, alkanes, OVOCs and alkenes made up 39.2%, 28.2%, 15.9% and 10.9% of anthropogenic VOCs; (3) from the OFP-based perspective, aromatics and alkenes become predominant with contributions of 59.4% and 25.8% respectively; (4) ethene, m/p-xylene, toluene, 1,2,4-trimethyl benzene and other 24 high OFP-contributing species were the key reactive species that contributed to 52% of anthropogenic emissions and up to 80% of OFPs; and (5) industrial solvents, industrial process, gasoline vehicles and motorcycles were major emission sources of these key reactive species. Policy implications for O3 control strategy were discussed. The OFP cap was proposed to regulate VOC control policies in the PRD region due to its flexibility in reducing the overall OFP of VOC emission sources in practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An Analysis of Air Pollution Control Technologies for Shipyard Emitted Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Snider, Thomas J

    1993-01-01

    ...) emissions from industrial operations. One approach to VOC reduction is through air pollution control technology to remove the contaminants from the exhaust airstream of VOC generating processes...

  12. Evaluating the effectiveness of joint emission control policies on the reduction of ambient VOCs: Implications from observation during the 2014 APEC summit in suburban Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Li, Junling; Wang, Weigang; Tong, Shengrui; Liggio, John; Ge, Maofa

    2017-09-01

    Ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at a suburban Beijing site were on-line detected using proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) during autumn of 2014, near the location of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit. During the APEC summit, the Chinese government enacted strict emission control policies. It was found that VOC concentrations only slightly decreased during the first emission control period (EC I), when control policies were performed in Beijing and 5 cities along the Tai-hang Mountains. However, most of the VOCs (10 out of 12 non-biogenic species) significantly decreased (more than 40%) during the second emission control period (EC II), when control policies were carried out in 16 cities including Beijing, Tianjin, 8 cities of Hebei province and 6 cities of Shandong province. Also the ratio of toluene and benzene decreased during EC II, likely because the emission control policies changed the proportions of different anthropogenic sources. Using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) source apportionment method, five factors are analyzed: (1) vehicle + fuel, (2) solvent, (3) biomass burning, (4) secondary, and (5) background + long-lived. Among them, vehicle + fuel, solvent and biomass burning contribute most of the VOCs concentrations (60%-80%) during the polluted periods and are affected most by emission control policies. During EC II, the reductions of vehicle + fuel, solvent, biomass burning and secondary species were all no less than 50%. Overall, when emission control policies were carried out in many North China Plain (NCP) cities (i.e. EC II), the VOC concentrations of suburban Beijing markedly decreased. This indicates the cross-regional joint-control policies have a large influence on reductions of organic gas species. The findings of this study have vital implications for helping formulate effective emission control policies in China and other countries.

  13. Fighting against VOC emissions; Lutter contre les emissions de COV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanlo, J.L. [Ecole des Mines d' Ales, 30 (France); Puech, G. [APAVE, 75 - Paris (France); Patoux, R. [Rhodia Rhoditech (France)] [and others

    2001-12-01

    This document brings together 15 testimonies of experts about the processes used in the industry for the abatement of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. The different points approached concern: the first industrial experiments of fight against VOC emissions, how to audit the facilities, how to make a diagnosis, to hierarchized and to measure continuously VOC emissions, how to anticipate the explosion risks linked with VOC treatment processes, the techniques of VOC abatement at the source implemented by industrialists, the implementation of an emission mastery scheme by Crow Cork and Seal company, the implementation of a solvent management plan by Turbomeca company and of a paints strategy by Renault car-making company, the combination of VOC abatement techniques implemented by industrialists, the classification of destruction and recovery processes: the experience feedback of Sanofi Synthelabo and of Air Liquide companies, the combination of upstream and downstream techniques implemented by Pechiney Rhenalu, Ashland Polyester and Quebecor companies. (J.S.)

  14. Biogenic VOC Emissions from Tropical Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, A.; Greenberg, J.; Harley, P.; Otter, L.; Vanni Gatti, L.; Baker, B.

    2003-04-01

    Biogenic VOC have an important role in determining the chemical composition of atmosphere. As a result, these compounds are important for visibility, biogeochemical cycling, climate and radiative forcing, and the health of the biosphere. Tropical landscapes are estimated to release about 80% of total global biogenic VOC emissions but have been investigated to lesser extent than temperate regions. Tropical VOC emissions are particularly important due to the strong vertical transport and the rapid landuse change that is occurring there. This presentation will provide an overview of field measurements of biogenic VOC emissions from tropical landscapes in Amazonia (Large-scale Biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia, LBA) Central (EXPRESSO) and Southern (SAFARI 2000) Africa, Asia and Central America. Flux measurement methods include leaf-scale (enclosure measurements), canopy-scale (above canopy tower measurements), landscape-scale (tethered balloon), and regional-scale (aircraft measurements) observations. Typical midday isoprene emission rates for different landscapes vary by more than a factor of 20 with the lowest emissions observed from degraded forests. Emissions of alpha-pinene vary by a similar amount with the highest emissions associated with landscapes dominated by light dependent monoterpene emitting plants. Isoprene emissions tend to be higher for neotropical forests (Amazon and Costa Rica) in comparison to Africa and Asian tropical forests but considerable differences are observed within regions. Strong seasonal variations were observed in both the Congo and the Amazon rainforests with peak emissions during the dry seasons. Substantial emissions of light dependent monoterpenes, methanol and acetone are characteristic of at least some tropical landscapes.

  15. Reducing VOC Press Emission from OSB Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Gary D. McGinnis; Laura S. WIlliams; Amy E. Monte; Jagdish Rughani: Brett A. Niemi; Thomas M. Flicker

    2001-12-31

    Current regulations require industry to meet air emission standards with regard to particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and other gases. One of many industries that will be affected by the new regulations is the wood composites industry. This industry generates VOCs, HAPs, and particulates mainly during the drying and pressing of wood. Current air treatment technologies for the industry are expensive to install and operate. As regulations become more stringent, treatment technologies will need to become more efficient and cost effective. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the use of process conditions and chemical additives to reduce VOC/HAPs in air emitted from presses and dryers during the production of oriented strand board.

  16. VOC Control in Kraft Mills; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, J.Y.; Chai, X.-S.; Edwards, L.L.; Gu, Y.; Teja, A.S.; Kirkman, A.G.; Pfromm, P.H.; Rezac, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    The formation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as methanol, in kraft mills has been an environmental concern. Methanol is soluble in water and can increase the biochemical oxygen demand. Furthermore, it can also be released into atmosphere at the process temperatures of kraft mill-streams. The Cluster Rule of the EPA now requires the control of the release of methanol in pulp and paper mills. This research program was conducted to develop a computer simulation tool for mills to predict VOC air emissions. To achieve the objective of the research program, much effort was made in the development of analytical techniques for the analysis of VOC and determination of vapor liquid partitioning coefficient of VOCs in kraft mill-streams using headspace gas chromatography. With the developed analytical tool, methanol formation in alkaline pulping was studied in laboratory to provide benchmark data of the amount of methanol formation in pulping in kraft mills and for the validation of VOC formation and vapor-liquid equilibrium submodels. Several millwide air and liquid samplings were conducted using the analytical tools developed to validate the simulation tool. The VOC predictive simulation model was developed based on the basic chemical engineering concepts, i.e., reaction kinetics, vapor liquid equilibrium, combined with computerized mass and energy balances. Four kraft mill case studies (a continuous digester, two brownstock washing lines, and a pre-evaporator system) are presented and compared with mill measurements. These case studies provide valuable, technical information for issues related to MACT I and MACT II compliance, such as condensate collection and Clean-Condensate-Alternatives (CCA)

  17. Status and Needs Research for On-line Monitoring of VOCs Emissions from Stationary Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Wang, Qiang; Zhong, Qi; Zhao, Jinbao; Yang, Kai

    2018-01-01

    Based on atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) pollution control requirements during the twelfth-five year plan and the current status of monitoring and management at home and abroad, instrumental architecture and technical characteristics of continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) for VOCs emission from stationary sources are investigated and researched. Technological development needs of VOCs emission on-line monitoring techniques for stationary sources in china are proposed from the system sampling pretreatment technology and analytical measurement techniques.

  18. Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions during malting and beer manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Nigel B.; Costigan, Gavin T.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Woodfield, Michael J.

    Estimates have been made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released during different stages of beer manufacture. The estimates are based on recent measurements and plant specification data supplied by manufacturers. Data were obtained for three main manufacturing processes (malting, wort processing and fermentation) for three commercial beer types. Some data on the speciation of emitted compounds have been obtained. Based on these measurements, an estimate of the total unabated VOC emission. from the U.K. brewing industry was calculated as 3.5 kta -1, over 95% of which was generated during barley malting. This value does not include any correction for air pollution control.

  19. Light dependency of VOC emissions from selected Mediterranean plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S. M.; Harley, P.; Guenther, A.; Hewitt, C. N.

    The light, temperature and stomatal conductance dependencies of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from ten plant species commonly found in the Mediterranean region were studied using a fully controlled leaf cuvette in the laboratory. At standard conditions of temperature and light (30°C and 1000 μmol m -2 s -1 PAR), low emitting species ( Arbutus unedo, Pinus halepensis, Cistus incanus, Cistus salvifolius, Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris) emitted between 0.1 and 5.0 μg (C) (total VOCs) g -1 dw h -1, a medium emitter ( Pinus pinea) emitted between 5 and 10 μg (C) g -1 dw h -1 and high emitters ( Cistus monspeliensis, Lavendula stoechas and Quercus sp.) emitted more than 10 μg (C) g -1 dw h -1. VOC emissions from all of the plant species investigated showed some degree of light dependency, which was distinguishable from temperature dependency. Emissions of all compounds from Quercus sp. were light dependent. Ocimene was one of several monoterpene compounds emitted by P. pinea and was strongly correlated to light. Only a fraction of monoterpene emissions from C. incanus exhibited apparent weak light dependency but emissions from this plant species were strongly correlated to temperature. Data presented here are consistent with past studies, which show that emissions are independent of stomatal conductance. These results may allow more accurate predictions of monoterpene emission fluxes from the Mediterranean region to be made.

  20. [Emission Characteristics of VOCs from Typical Restaurants in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tong; Cheng, Jing-chen; He, Wan-qing; Ren, Pei-fang; Nie, Lei; Xu, Dong-yao; Pan, Tao

    2015-05-01

    Using the EPA method, emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) , sampled from barbecue, Chinese and Western fast-food, Sichuan cuisine and Zhejiang cuisine restaurants in Beijing was investigated. VOCs concentrations and components from different cuisines were studied. The results indicated that based on the calibrated baseline ventilation volume, the VOCs emission level from barbecue was the highest, reaching 12.22 mg · m(-3), while those from fast-food of either Chinese or Western, Sichuan cuisine and Zhejiang cuisine were about 4 mg · m(-3). The components of VOCs from barbecue were different from those in the other cuisines, which were mainly propylene, 1-butene, n-butane, etc. The non-barbecue cuisines consisted of high concentration of alcohols, and Western fast-food contained relatively high proportion of aldehydes and ketones organic compounds. According to emission concentration of baseline ventilation volume, barbecue released more pollutants than the non-barbecue cuisines at the same scale. So, barbecue should be supervised and controlled with the top priority.

  1. Emission of VOC's from modified rendering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, Z.A.; Raja, I.A.; Saddique, M.; Langenhove, H.V.

    2005-01-01

    Rendering technique for processing of dead animal and slaughterhouse wastes into valuable products. It involves cooking of raw material and later Sterilization was added to reduce the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE). Studies have been carried out on rendering emission, with the normal cooking process. Our study shows, that the sterilization step in rendering process increases the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC's). Gas samples, containing VOC's, were analyzed by the GC/MS (Gas Chromatograph and Mass Spectrometry). The most important groups of compounds- alcohols and cyclic hydrocarbons were identified. In the group of alcohol; 1-butanol, l-pentanol and l-hexanol compounds were found while in the group of cyclic hydrocarbon; methyl cyclopentane and cyclohexane compounds were detected. Other groups like aldehyde, sulphur containing compounds, ketone and furan were also found. Some compounds, like l-pentanol, 2-methyl propanal, dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, which belong to these groups, cause malodor. It is important to know these compounds to treat odorous gasses. (author)

  2. Development of aromatic VOC control technology by electron beam hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jo-Chun; Kim, Ki-Joon

    2006-01-01

    As a fundamental study, the decomposition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using electron beam (EB) irradiation has been extensively investigated. EB treatments of VOCs such as toluene and styrene are discussed. The degradation characteristics were intensively investigated under various concentrations and irradiation doses to determine and improve VOC removal efficiencies. This work illustrates that the removal efficiencies of aromatic VOCs generally increase as their concentrations decrease and the irradiation doses increase. Based on these basic studies, it was found that by-products produced from EB irradiation of VOCs would cause a secondary pollution problem. Therefore, a novel hybrid technology has been applied to control aromatic VOC emissions by annexing the catalyst technique with conventional treatment study using EB technology. The experiments were carried out using a bench-scale at first, then a pilot-scale system was followed. Toluene was selected as a typical VOC for EB hybrid control to investigate by-products, effects of ceramic and catalyst, and factors affecting overall efficiency of degradation. It was concluded that VOCs could be destroyed more effectively by a novel hybrid system than single EB irradiation. (author)

  3. Decrease of VOC emissions from vehicular emissions in Hong Kong from 2003 to 2015: Results from a tunnel study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Long; Wang, Xiao Liang; Ho, Kin Fai; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Chang; Hang Ho, Steven Sai; Li, Hai Wei; Lee, Shun Cheng; Wang, Xin Ming; Jiang, Bo Qiong; Huang, Yu; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Chen, Lung-Wen

    2018-03-01

    Vehicular emissions are one of major anthropogenic sources of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Hong Kong. During the past twelve years, the government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region has undertaken a series of air pollution control measures to reduce vehicular emissions in Hong Kong. Vehicular emissions were characterized by repeated measurement in the same roadway tunnel in 2003 and 2015. The total net concentration of measured VOCs decreased by 44.7% from 2003 to 2015. The fleet-average VOC emission factor decreased from 107.1 ± 44.8 mg veh-1 km-1 in 2003 to 58.8 ± 50.7 mg veh-1 km-1 in 2015, and the total ozone (O3) formation potential of measured VOCs decreased from 474.1 mg O3 veh-1 km-1 to 190.8 mg O3 veh-1 km-1. The emission factor of ethene, which is one of the key tracers for diesel vehicular emissions, decreased by 67.3% from 2003 to 2015 as a result of the strict control measures on diesel vehicular emissions. Total road transport VOC emissions is estimated to be reduced by 40% as compared with 2010 by 2020, which will be an important contributor to achieve the goal of total VOC emission reduction in the Pearl River Delta region. The large decrease of VOC emissions from on-road vehicles demonstrates the effectiveness of past multi-vehicular emission control strategy in Hong Kong.

  4. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) source profiles of on-road vehicle emissions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-Li, Wang; Sheng-Ao, Jing; Sheng-Rong, Lou; Qing-Yao, Hu; Li, Li; Shi-Kang, Tao; Cheng, Huang; Li-Ping, Qiao; Chang-Hong, Chen

    2017-12-31

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) source profiles of on-road vehicles were widely studied as their critical roles in VOCs source apportionment and abatement measures in megacities. Studies of VOCs source profiles from on-road motor vehicles from 2001 to 2016 were summarized in this study, with a focus on the comparisons among different studies and the potential impact of different factors. Generally, non-methane hydrocarbons dominated the source profile of on-road vehicle emissions. Carbonyls, potential important components of vehicle emission, were seldom considered in VOCs emissions of vehicles in the past and should be paid more attention to in further study. VOCs source profiles showed some variations among different studies, and 6 factors were extracted and studied due to their impact to VOCs source profile of on-road vehicles. Vehicle types, being dependent on engine types, and fuel types were two dominant factors impacting VOCs sources profiles of vehicles. In comparison, impacts of ignitions, driving conditions and accumulated mileage were mainly due to their influence on the combustion efficiency. An opening and interactive database of VOCs from vehicle emissions was critically essential in future, and mechanisms of sharing and inputting relative research results should be formed to encourage researchers join the database establishment. Correspondingly, detailed quality assurance and quality control procedures were also very important, which included the information of test vehicles and test methods as detailed as possible. Based on the community above, a better uncertainty analysis could be carried out for the VOCs emissions profiles, which was critically important to understand the VOCs emission characteristics of the vehicle emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of adhesive bonding on quantity of emissions VOCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Čech

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the influence of urea-formaldehyde glue and veneered bolstering on technological operation veneering on quantity of emission VOCs (volatile organic compounds.The so-called Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC are among the largest pollution sources of both the internal and external environments.VOC is defined as emission of any organic compound or a mixture thereof, with the exception of methane, whereby the compound exerts the pressure of 0.01 kPa or more at the temperature of 20 °C (293.15 K and reaches the corresponding volatility under the specific conditions of its use and can undergo photochemical reactions with nitrogen oxides when exposed to solar radiation.The effects of VOC upon environment can be described by equation:VOC + NOx + UV radiation + heat = tropospheric ozone (O3.In this work there were tested background working environment in various parts of multi-storeyed press, next was judged emissive charge of veneered device and used glue. We used surface material such as chipboard. We used urea-formaldehyde glue KRONOCOL U300 on technological operation veneering.The VOC emissions from the wooden surfaces with or without finishing were tested in the Equipment for VOC Measuring with a small-space chamber. This equipment was installed in and made available by the Institute of Furniture, Design and Habitation. The small-space chamber is suitable for testing small parts of wood products. The device equipped with small-chamber satisfies all conditions mandated in the standard ENV 13 419 DIN -V-ENV 13 419 ”Determination of the emissions of Volatile organic compounds”.The VOC emissions were collected in columns with sorbent Tenax TA. We analyzed the columns with the VOC emissions by: the gas chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometer and Direct Thermal Desorption.

  6. VOCs and formaldehyde emissions from cleaning products and air fresheners

    OpenAIRE

    Solal , Cécilia; Rousselle , Christophe; Mandin , Corinne; Manel , Jacques; Maupetit , François

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Human indoor exposure to Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) may be associated with the use of household products. However little is known about their emissions and to what extent they contribute to indoor air pollution. The French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (Afsset) conducted tests in order to characterize VOCs emissions from 32 consumer products: air fresheners, glass cleaners, furniture polishes, toilet products, carpet and floor cleaning ...

  7. Quantitative assessment of industrial VOC emissions in China: Historical trend, spatial distribution, uncertainties, and projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chenghang; Shen, Jiali; Zhang, Yongxin; Huang, Weiwei; Zhu, Xinbo; Wu, Xuecheng; Chen, Linghong; Gao, Xiang; Cen, Kefa

    2017-02-01

    The temporal trends of industrial volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions was comprehensively summarized for the 2011 to 2013 period, and the projections for 2020 to 2050 for China were set. The results demonstrate that industrial VOC emissions in China increased from 15.3 Tg in 2011 to 29.4 Tg in 2013 at an annual average growth rate of 38.3%. Guangdong (3.45 Tg), Shandong (2.85 Tg), and Jiangsu (2.62 Tg) were the three largest contributors collectively accounting for 30.4% of the national total emissions in 2013. The top three average industrial VOC emissions per square kilometer were Shanghai (247.2 ton/km2), Tianjin (62.8 ton/km2), and Beijing (38.4 ton/km2), which were 12-80 times of the average level in China. The data from the inventory indicate that the use of VOC-containing products, as well as the production and use of VOCs as raw materials, as well as for storage and transportation contributed 75.4%, 10.3%, 9.1%, and 5.2% of the total emissions, respectively. ArcGIS was used to display the remarkable spatial distribution variation by allocating the emission into 1 km × 1 km grid cells with a population as surrogate indexes. Combined with future economic development and population change, as well as implementation of policy and upgrade of control technologies, three scenarios (scenarios A, B, and C) were set to project industrial VOC emissions for the years 2020, 2030, and 2050, which present the industrial VOC emissions in different scenarios and the potential of reducing emissions. Finally, the result shows that the collaborative control policies considerably influenced industrial VOC emissions.

  8. VOC emission control by circulating fluidized bed adsorption; Controle de l'emission de composes organiques volatils par adsorption en lit fluidise circulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, W.

    2003-12-15

    This work deals with the circulating fluidized bed technology, applied to the elimination by adsorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), like toluene, in a gas flow. In the process, the adsorbent (millimetric spherical grains of micro-porous carbon) is moved by a strong flow rate of gas inside a vertical tube without lining. Mass and heat transfers are very important and important volumes of compounds can be processed. This work presents the determination of the adsorption equilibrium, the description of the experimental facility and of the results of experiments, the development of an original model of the process which combines a flow model and a mass transfer model, a parametric study of this model, and finally, some extensions of the process principle to staged operations with pressure variation or temperature variation cycles. (J.S.)

  9. Biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from forests in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindfors, V.; Laurila, T.

    2000-01-01

    We present model estimates of biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from the forests in Finland. The emissions were calculated for the years 1995-1997 using the measured isoprene and monoterpene emission factors of boreal tree species together with detailed satellite land cover information and meteorological data. The three-year average emission is 319 kilotonnes per annum, which is significantly higher than the estimated annual anthropogenic VOC emissions of 193 kilotonnes. The biogenic emissions of the Finnish forests are dominated by monoterpenes, which contribute approximately 45% of the annual total. The main isoprene emitter is the Norway spruce (Picea abies) due to its high foliar biomass density. Compared to the monoterpenes, however, the total isoprene emissions are very low, contributing only about 7% of the annual forest VOC emissions. The isoprene emissions are more sensitive to the meteorological conditions than the monoterpene emissions, but the progress of the thermal growing season is clearly reflected in all biogenic emission fluxes. The biogenic emission densities in northern Finland are approximately half of the emissions in the southern parts of the country. (orig.)

  10. Factors influencing pollutant gas emissions of VOC recuperative incinerators-Large-scale parametric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador, S.; Commandre, J.-M.; Kara, Y.

    2006-01-01

    This work establishes quantitative links between the operation parameters-plus one geometrical parameter-and the gas pollutant emissions of a recuperative incinerator (RI) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Using experimental design methodology, and based on a large number of experiments carried out on a half-industrial-scale pilot unit, mathematical expressions are established to calculate each of the pollutant emissions from the value of all the operation and design parameters. The gas emissions concerned are total hydrocarbons, and CO and NO x emissions, while the control parameters are the flow rate of the treated air flow, the concentration of VOCs in the air flow, the preheating temperature of the flow, and the temperature at the exit of the combustion chamber. One design parameter-the aperture of the diaphragms-is also considered. We show that the constraining emissions are only that of CO and NO x . Polynomials to predict them with a high accuracy are established. The air preheating temperature has an effect on the natural gas consumption, but not on CO and NO x emissions. There is an optimal value for the aperture of the diaphragms, and this value is quantitatively established. If the concentration of VOCs in the air flow is high, CO and NO x emissions both decrease and a high rate of efficiency in VOC destruction is attained. This demonstrates that a pre-concentration of VOCs in the air flow prior to treatment by RI is recommended. (author)

  11. Building materials. VOC emissions, diffusion behaviour and implications from their use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Leva, Paolo; Barrero-Moreno, Josefa; Kotzias, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Five cement- and five lime-based building materials were examined in an environmental chamber for their emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). Typical VOCs were below detection limits, whereas not routinely analysed VOCs, like neopentyl glycol (NPG), dominated the cement-based products emissions, where, after 72 h, it was found to occur, in levels as high as 1400 μg m −3 , accounting for up to 93% of total VOCs. The concentrations of NPG were not considerably changed between the 24 and 72 h of sampling. The permeability of building materials was assessed through experiments with a dual environmental chamber; it was shown that building materials facilitate the diffusion of chemicals through their pores, reaching equilibrium relatively fast (6 h). - Highlights: ► Neopentyl glycol is reported in emissions from building materials for the first time. ► Neopentyl glycol dominates the VOC emissions from cement-based building materials. ► A dual chamber was developed to control diffusion through building materials. ► Building materials facilitate diffusion of indoor air pollutants through their pores. - Neopentyl glycol was detected in high concentrations in emissions from building materials.

  12. Seasonal variations in VOC emission rates from gorse (Ulex europaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissard, C.; Cao, X.-L.; Juan, C.-Y.; Hewitt, C. N.; Gallagher, M.

    Seasonal variations of biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emission rates and standardised emission factors from gorse (Ulex europaeus) have been measured at two sites in the United Kingdom, from October 1994 to September 1995, within temperature and PAR conditions ranging from 3 to 34°C and 10-1300 μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. Isoprene was the dominant emitted compound with a relative composition fluctuating from 7% of the total VOC (winter) to 97% (late summer). The monoterpenes α-pinene, camphene, sabinene, β-pinene, myrcene, limonene, trans-ocimene and γ-terpinene were also emitted, with α-pinene being the dominant monoterpene during most the year. Trans-ocimene represented 33-66% of the total monoterpene during the hottest months from June to September. VOC emissions were found to be accurately predicted using existing algorithms. Standard (normalised) emission factors of VOCs from gorse were calculated using experimental parameters measured during the experiment and found to fluctuate with season, from 13.3±2.1 to 0.1±0.1 μg C (g dwt)-1 h-1 in August 1995 and January 1995, respectively, for isoprene, and from 2.5±0.2 to 0.4±0.2 μg C (g dwt)-1 h-1 in July and November 1995, respectively, for total monoterpenes. No simple clear relation was found to allow prediction of these seasonal variations with respect to temperature and light intensity. The effects of using inappropriate algorithms to derive VOC fluxes from gorse were assessed for isoprene and monoterpenes. Although on an annual basis the discrepancies are not significant, monthly estimation of isoprene were found to be overestimated by more than a factor of 50 during wintertime when the seasonality of emission factors is not considered.

  13. An updated emission inventory of vehicular VOCs and IVOCs in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Man, Hanyang; Cui, Hongyang; Wang, Yanjun; Deng, Fanyuan; Wang, Yue; Yang, Xiaofan; Xiao, Qian; Zhang, Qiang; Ding, Yan; He, Kebin

    2017-10-01

    Currently, the emission inventory of vehicular volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is one of those with the largest errors and uncertainties due to suboptimal estimation methods and the lack of first-hand basic data. In this study, an updated speciated emission inventory of VOCs and an estimation of intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) from vehicles in China at the provincial level for the year of 2015 are developed based on a set of state-of-the-art methods and an abundance of local measurement data. Activity data for light-duty vehicles are derived from trajectories of more than 70 000 cars for 1 year. The annual mileage of trucks are calculated from reported data by more than 2 million trucks in China. The emission profiles are updated using measurement data. Vehicular tailpipe emissions (VTEs) and four types of vehicular evaporation emissions (VEEs), including refueling, hot soak, diurnal and running loss, are taken into account. Results show that the total vehicular VOC emissions in China are 4.21 Tg (with a 95 % confidence interval range from 2.90 to 6.54 Tg) and the IVOC emissions are 200.37 Gg in 2015. VTEs are still the predominant contributor, while VEEs are responsible for 39.20 % of VOC emissions. The control of VEEs is yet to be optimized in China. Among VTEs, passenger vehicles emissions have the largest share (49.86 %), followed by trucks (28.15 %) and motorcycles (21.99 %). Among VEEs, running loss is the largest contributor (81.05 %). For both VTEs and VEEs, Guangdong, Shandong and Jiangsu province are three of the highest, with a respective contribution of 10.66, 8.85 and 6.54 % to the total amounts of VOCs from vehicles. 97 VOC species are analyzed in this VOC emission inventory. i-Pentane, toluene and formaldehyde are found to be the most abundant species in China's vehicular VOC emissions. The estimated IVOCs are another inconvenient truth, concluding that precursor emissions for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from vehicles are much

  14. An updated emission inventory of vehicular VOCs and IVOCs in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the emission inventory of vehicular volatile organic compounds (VOCs is one of those with the largest errors and uncertainties due to suboptimal estimation methods and the lack of first-hand basic data. In this study, an updated speciated emission inventory of VOCs and an estimation of intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs from vehicles in China at the provincial level for the year of 2015 are developed based on a set of state-of-the-art methods and an abundance of local measurement data. Activity data for light-duty vehicles are derived from trajectories of more than 70 000 cars for 1 year. The annual mileage of trucks are calculated from reported data by more than 2 million trucks in China. The emission profiles are updated using measurement data. Vehicular tailpipe emissions (VTEs and four types of vehicular evaporation emissions (VEEs, including refueling, hot soak, diurnal and running loss, are taken into account. Results show that the total vehicular VOC emissions in China are 4.21 Tg (with a 95 % confidence interval range from 2.90 to 6.54 Tg and the IVOC emissions are 200.37 Gg in 2015. VTEs are still the predominant contributor, while VEEs are responsible for 39.20 % of VOC emissions. The control of VEEs is yet to be optimized in China. Among VTEs, passenger vehicles emissions have the largest share (49.86 %, followed by trucks (28.15 % and motorcycles (21.99 %. Among VEEs, running loss is the largest contributor (81.05 %. For both VTEs and VEEs, Guangdong, Shandong and Jiangsu province are three of the highest, with a respective contribution of 10.66, 8.85 and 6.54 % to the total amounts of VOCs from vehicles. 97 VOC species are analyzed in this VOC emission inventory. i-Pentane, toluene and formaldehyde are found to be the most abundant species in China's vehicular VOC emissions. The estimated IVOCs are another inconvenient truth, concluding that precursor emissions for secondary organic

  15. Reducing VOC Press Emission from OSB Manufacturing; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary D, McGinnis; Laura S, WIlliams; Amy E, Monte; Jagdish Rughani; Brett A, Niemi; Thomas M, Flicker

    2001-01-01

    Current regulations require industry to meet air emission standards with regard to particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and other gases. One of many industries that will be affected by the new regulations is the wood composites industry. This industry generates VOCs, HAPs, and particulates mainly during the drying and pressing of wood. Current air treatment technologies for the industry are expensive to install and operate. As regulations become more stringent, treatment technologies will need to become more efficient and cost effective. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the use of process conditions and chemical additives to reduce VOC/HAPs in air emitted from presses and dryers during the production of oriented strand board

  16. Cold Temperature Effects on Speciated VOC Emissions from Modern GDI Light-Duty Vehicles 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, speciated VOC emissions were characterized from three modern GDI light-duty vehicles. The vehicles were tested on a chassis dynamometer housed in a climate-controlled chamber at two temperatures (20 and 72 °F) using the EPA Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and a portio...

  17. Development of biogenic VOC emission inventories for the boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, V.

    2008-07-01

    The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by vegetation, especially forests, can affect local and regional atmospheric photochemistry through their reactions with atmospheric oxidants. Their reaction products may also participate in the formation and growth of new particles which affect the radiation balance of the atmosphere, and thus climate, by scattering and absorbing shortwave and longwave radiation and by modifying the radiative properties, amount and lifetime of clouds. Globally, anthropogenic VOC emissions are far surpassed by the biogenic ones, making biogenic emission inventories an integral element in the development of efficient air quality and climate strategies. The inventories are typically constructed based on landcover information, measured emissions of different plants or vegetation types, and empirical dependencies of the emissions on environmental variables such as temperature and light. This thesis is focused on the VOC emissions from the boreal forest, the largest terrestrial biome with characteristic vegetation patterns and strong seasonality. The isoprene, monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions of the most prevalent boreal tree species in Finland, Scots pine, have been measured and their seasonal variation and dependence on temperature and light have been studied. The measured emission data and other available observations of the emissions of the principal boreal trees have been used in a biogenic emission model developed for the boreal forests in Finland. The model utilizes satellite landcover information, Finnish forest classification and hourly meteorological data to calculate isoprene, monoterpene, sesquiterpene and other VOC emissions over the growing season. The principal compounds emitted by Scots pine are DELTA3-carene and alpha-pinene in the south boreal zone and alpha- and beta-pinene in the north boreal zone. The monoterpene emissions are dependent on temperature and have a clear seasonal cycle with high emissions in spring

  18. Assessing and evaluating urban VOC emissions in mid-latitude megacities from intensive observations in Paris and Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borbon, A.; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; McKeen, S. A.; Holloway, J. S.; Gros, V.; Gaimoz, C.; Beekmann, M.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) affect urban air quality and regional climate change by contributing to ozone formation and the build-up of Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA). Quantification of VOC emissions is a first critical step to predict VOC environmental impacts and to design effective abatement strategies. Indeed, the quality of ozone and SOA forecasts strongly depends on an accurate knowledge of the primary VOC emissions. However, commonly used bottom-up approaches are highly uncertain due to source multiplicity (combustion processes, storage and distribution of fossil fuels, solvent use, etc.) because of numerous controlling factors (driving conditions, fuel type, temperature, radiation, etc.), and their great variability in time and space. Field observations of VOC and other trace gases can provide valuable top-down constraints to evaluate VOC emission inventories at urban scales. In addition, the implementation of emission reduction measures raises the question of the increasing importance of VOC sources other than traffic. Here, we will evaluate VOC emissions of two mid-latitude megacities in the Northern Hemisphere: the Greater Paris area (Europe) and Los Angeles (USA). In 2009 and 2010, three intensive field campaigns took place in Paris and Los Angeles in the framework of the MEGAPOLI (EU FP7) and CalNex-2010 projects, respectively. Very detailed measurements of aerosol composition and properties, and their gaseous VOC precursors were carried out at ground-based sites (urban center and suburban) and on various mobile platforms. This contribution uses a comprehensive suite of VOC measurements collected by GC-MS/FID techniques at ground-based sites in both cities by a source-receptor methodology. First, emission ratios were estimated from the observations (uncertainty of ± 20%) and compared regarding regional characteristics and European vs. Californian control policies. Then, determined emission ratios were used to assess the accuracy of up

  19. 3D-CFD analysis of diffusion and emission of VOCs in a FLEC cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Q; Kato, S; Murakami, S; Ito, K

    2007-06-01

    This study is performed as a part of research that examines the emission and diffusion characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from indoor building materials. In this paper, the flow field and the emission field of VOCs from the surface of building materials in a Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC) cavity are examined by 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis. The flow field within the FLEC cavity is laminar. With a total flow of 250 ml/min, the air velocity near the test material surface ranges from 0.1 to 4.5 cm/s. Three types of emission from building materials are studied here: (i) emission phenomena controlled by internal diffusion, (ii) emission phenomena controlled by external diffusion, and (iii) emission phenomena controlled by mixed diffusion (internal + external diffusion). In the case of internal diffusion material, with respect to the concentration distribution in the cavity, the local VOC emission rate becomes uniform and the FLEC works well. However, in the case of evaporation type (external diffusion) material, or mixed type materials (internal + external diffusion) when the resistance to transporting VOCs in the material is small, the FLEC is not suitable for emission testing because of the thin FLEC cavity. In this case, the mean emission rate is restricted to a small value, since the VOC concentration in the cavity rises to the same value as the surface concentration through molecular diffusion within the thin cavity, and the concentration gradient normal to the surface becomes small. The diffusion field and emission rate depend on the cavity concentration and on the Loading Factor. That is, when the testing material surface in the cavity is partially sealed to decrease the Loading Factor, the emission rate become higher with the decrease in the exposed area of the testing material. The flow field and diffusion field within the FLEC cavity are investigated by CFD method. After presenting a summary of the velocity

  20. VOCs and OVOCs distribution and control policy implications in Pearl River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Peter K. K.; Ho, Josephine W. K.; Tsang, Roy C. W.; Blake, Donald R.; Lau, Alexis K. H.; Yu, Jian Zhen; Yuan, Zibing; Wang, Xinming; Shao, Min; Zhong, Liuju

    2013-09-01

    Ambient air measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) were conducted and characterised during a two-year grid study in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of southern China. The present grid study pioneered the systematic investigation of the nature and characteristics of complex VOC and OVOC sources at a regional scale. The largest contributing VOCs, accounting over 80% of the total VOCs mixing ratio, were toluene, ethane, ethyne, propane, ethene, butane, benzene, pentane, ethylbenzene, and xylenes. Sub-regional VOC spatial characteristics were identified, namely: i) relatively fresh pollutants, consistent with elevated vehicular and industrial activities, around the PRD estuary; and ii) a concentration gradient with higher mixing ratios of VOCs in the west as compared with the eastern part of PRD. Based on alkyl nitrate aging determination, a high hydroxyl radical (OH) concentration favoured fast hydrocarbon reactions and formation of locally produced ozone. The photochemical reactivity analysis showed aromatic hydrocarbons and alkenes together consisted of around 80% of the ozone formation potential (OFP) among the key VOCs. We also found that the OFP from OVOCs should not be neglected since their OFP contribution was more than one-third of that from VOCs alone. These findings support the choice of current air pollution control policy which focuses on vehicular sources but warrants further controls. Industrial emissions and VOCs emitted by solvents should be the next targets for ground-level ozone abatement.

  1. Emission control measures for precursors of tropospheric ozone. Pt. 1 and 2; Emissionsminderungsmoeglichkeiten bei Vorlaeufersubstanzen von bodennahem Ozon. Bd. 1: Systemanalyse der Ozonminderungsmassnahmen in den USA. Bd. 2: Luftreinhaltemassnahmen in den USA zur Minderung von VOC-Emissionen aus Kleinanlagen und Produkten und Vergleich mit europaeischen Regelungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclaire, T; Schiefer, C; Bergmann, S; Hrabovski, Z [Institut fuer Umwelttechnologie und Umweltanalytik e.V. (IUTA), Duisburg (Germany)

    1998-08-01

    For more than two decades now experiences of ozone reduction have been made in the USA. In many regions great efforts for VOC control are made to reduce their high ozone concentrations in ambient air that in some cases reach up to more than twice the German peak concentrations. This report places focus on small stationary sources and products, for these sources actually contribute more than half of the VOC emissions in Germany and are still not regulated under the German Immission Control Law. Therefore, main aim of this examination was to determine the major elements of VOC control strategies in the U.S. and to consider, whether strategies and measures are transferable taking into account German circumstances. Volume 1 describes the strategies and measures for ozone control in the U.S. (national) as well as in five regions with high ozone concentrations in ambient air. The authorities and responsbilities at federal, state, regional, and local levels are highlighted, legislation and different types of regulations are explained, priorities concerning VOC versus NO{sub x} related control are mentioned and the control measures on different sources for reducing VOC and NO{sub x} are summarized briefly. Volume 2 contains a detailed description of control measures for reducing VOC emissions from products and stationary sources, namely the proposed national VOC emission standards for coatings and consumer products, the California Consumer Products Regulations, the state-wide requirements for industrial and commercial sources in California and the VOC related rules of the South Coast Air Quality Management District (LA and surrounded Countries). The South Coast Rules were chosen as an example for District Rules for they were generally the most stringent because of the extreme ozone concentration in this area. Moreover, the regulations for VOC emission control in Europe concerning small stationary sources and products are mentioned. The different approaches to control VOC

  2. Feasibility Analysis of Sustainability-Based Measures to Reduce VOC Emissions in Office Partition Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A feasibility analysis is reported of reduction opportunities for volatile organic compound (VOC emissions in manufacturing office furniture partitions, aimed at contributing to efforts to improve the sustainability of the process. A pollution prevention methodology is utilized. The purpose is to provide practical options for VOC emissions reductions during the manufacturing of office furniture partitions, but the concepts can be generally applied to the wood furniture industry. Baseline VOC emissions for a typical plant are estimated using a mass balance approach. The feasibility analysis expands on a preliminary screening to identify viable pollution prevention options using realistic criteria and weightings, and is based on technical, environmental and economic considerations. The measures deemed feasible include the implementation of several best management practices, ceasing the painting of non-visible parts, switching to hot melt backwrapping glue, application of solvent recycling and modification of the mechanical clip attachment. Implementation, measurement and control plans are discussed for the measures considered feasible, which can enhance the sustainability of the manufacturing of office furniture partitions. Reducing VOC emissions using the measures identified can, in conjunction with other measures, improve the sustainability of the manufacturing process.

  3. Impacts of Interannual Variability in Biogenic VOC Emissions near Transitional Ozone Production Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, J.

    2017-12-01

    Due to successful NOx emission controls, summertime ozone production chemistry in urban areas across North America is transitioning from VOC-limited to increasingly NOx-limited. In some regions where ozone production sensitivity is in transition, interannual variability in surrounding biogenic VOC emissions could drive fluctuations in the prevailing chemical regime and modify the impact of anthropogenic emission changes. I use satellite observations of HCHO and NO2 column density, along with a long-term simulation of atmospheric chemistry, to investigate the impact of interannual variability in biogenic isoprene sources near large metro areas. Peak emissions of isoprene in the model can vary by up to 20-60% in any given year compared to the long term mean, and this variability drives the majority of the variability in simulated local HCHO:NO2 ratios (a common proxy for ozone production sensitivity). The satellite observations confirm increasingly NOx-limited chemical regimes with large interannual variability. In several instances, the model and satellite observations suggest that variability in biogenic isoprene emissions could shift summertime ozone production from generally VOC- to generally NOx- sensitive (or vice versa). This would have implications for predicting the air quality impacts of anthropogenic emission changes in any given year, and suggests that drivers of biogenic emissions need to be well understood.

  4. Monitoring by Control Technique - Compliant (Low/No VOC/HAP) Inks and Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stationary source emissions monitoring is required to demonstrate that a source is meeting the requirements in Federal or state rules. This page is about Compliant (Low/No VOC/HAP) Inks and Coatings control techniques used to reduce pollutant emissions.

  5. 40 CFR 60.502 - Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. 60.502 Section 60.502 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Bulk Gasoline Terminals § 60.502 Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. On and after the date on which § 60.8(a) requires a...

  6. Evaluation of impact factors on VOC emissions and concentrations from wooden flooring based on chamber tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chi-Chi [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, No. 700, Kaohsiung University Rd., Kaohsiung (China); Yu, Kuo-Pin [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, No.155, Sec.2, Linong Street, Taipei (China); Zhao, Ping [Filtration Group Inc., 912 E. Washington Street, Joliet, IL 60433 (United States); Whei-May Lee, Grace [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Rd., Taipei (China)

    2009-03-15

    In this study, the impact factors of temperature, relative humidity (RH), air exchange rate, and volatile organic compound (VOC) properties on the VOC (toluene, n-butyl acetate, ethylbenzene, and m,p-xylene) specific emission rates (SERs) and concentrations from wooden flooring were investigated by chamber test for 8 days. The tested wood in this study is not common solid wood, but composite wood made of combined wood fibers. The experiments were conducted in a stainless-steel environmental test chamber coated with Teflon. The experimental results within 8 days of testing showed that, when the temperature increased from 15 to 30 C, the VOC SERs and concentrations increased 1.5-129 times. When the RH increased from 50% to 80%, the VOC concentrations and SERs increased 1-32 times. When the air change rate increased from 1 to 2 h{sup -1}, the VOC concentrations decreased 9-40%, while the VOC SERs increased 6-98%. The relations between the boiling points of the VOCs and each of the normalized VOC SERs and concentrations were linear with negative slopes. The relations between the vapor pressures of the VOCs and each of the normalized VOC SERs and concentrations were linear with positive slopes. At 15 C, RH50%, the relations between the diffusivities of VOCs and each of the normalized VOC equilibrium SERs and concentrations were linear with a positive slope. (author)

  7. A Gas Chromatographic Continuous Emissions Monitoring System for the Determination of VOCs and HAPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, William M; Gordon, Bert M

    1996-01-01

    This article describes a new gas chromatography-based emissions monitoring system for measuring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). The system is composed of a dual-column gas chromatograph equipped with thermal conductivity detectors, in which separation is optimized for fast chromatography. The system has the necessary valving for stream selection, which allows automatic calibration of the system at predetermined times and successive measurement of individual VOCs before and after a control device. Nine different VOCs (two of which are HAPs), plus methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are separated and quantified every two minutes. The accuracy and precision of this system has been demonstrated to be greater than 95%. The system employs a mass flow measurement device and also calculates and displays processed emission data, such as control device efficiency and total weight emitted during given time periods. Two such systems have been operational for one year in two separate gravure printing facilities; minimal upkeep is required, about one hour per month. One of these systems, used before and after a carbon adsorber, has been approved by the pertinent local permitting authority.

  8. [Development of biogenic VOC emissions inventory with high temporal and spatial resolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y; Zhang, Y; Xie, S; Zeng, L

    2001-11-01

    A new method was developed to estimate biogenic VOC emissions with high temporal and spatial resolution by use of Mesoscale Meteorology Modeling System Version5 (MM5). In this method, the isoprene and monoterpene standard emission factors for some types of tree in China were given and the standard VOC emission factors and seasonally average densities of leaf biomass for all types of vegetation were determined. A biogenic VOC emissions inventory in South China was established which could meet the requirement of regional air quality modeling. Total biogenic VOC emissions in a typical summer day were estimated to be 1.12 x 10(4) metric tons in an area of 729 km x 729 km of South China. The results showed the temporal and spatial distributions of biogenic VOC emission rates in this area. The results also showed that the geographical distribution of biogenic VOC emission rates depended on vegetation types and their distributions and the diurnal variation mainly depended on the solar radiation and temperature. The uncertainties of estimating biogenic VOC emissions were also discussed.

  9. [Estimation of VOC emission from forests in China based on the volume of tree species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang-feng; Xie, Shao-dong

    2009-10-15

    Applying the volume data of dominant trees from statistics on the national forest resources, volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions of each main tree species in China were estimated based on the light-temperature model put forward by Guenther. China's VOC emission inventory for forest was established, and the space-time and age-class distributions of VOC emission were analyzed. The results show that the total VOC emissions from forests in China are 8565.76 Gg, of which isoprene is 5689.38 Gg (66.42%), monoterpenes is 1343.95 Gg (15.69%), and other VOC is 1532.43 Gg (17.89%). VOC emissions have significant species variation. Quercus is the main species responsible for emission, contributing 45.22% of the total, followed by Picea and Pinus massoniana with 6.34% and 5.22%, respectively. Southwest and Northeast China are the major emission regions. In specific, Yunnan, Sichuan, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Shaanxi are the top five provinces producing the most VOC emissions from forests, and their contributions to the total are 15.09%, 12.58%, 10.35%, 7.49% and 7.37%, respectively. Emissions from these five provinces occupy more than half (52.88%) of the national emissions. Besides, VOC emissions show remarkable seasonal variation. Emissions in summer are the largest, accounting for 56.66% of the annual. Forests of different ages have different emission contribution. Half-mature forests play a key role and contribute 38.84% of the total emission from forests.

  10. [Comparison Analysis of Economic and Engineering Control of Industrial VOCs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-fei; Liu, Chang-xin; Cheng, Jie; Hao, Zheng-ping; Wang, Zheng

    2015-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) pollutant has become China's major air pollutant in key urban areas like sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. It is mainly produced from industry sectors, and engineering control is one of the most important reduction measures. During the 12th Five-Year Plan, China decides to invest 40 billion RMB to build pollution control projects in key industry sectors with annual emission reduction of 605 000 t x a(-1). It shows that China attaches a great importance to emission reduction by engineering projects and highlights the awareness of engineering reduction technologies. In this paper, a macroeconomic model, namely computable general equilibrium model, (CGE model) was employed to simulate engineering control and economic control (imposing environmental tax). We aim to compare the pros and cons of the two reduction policies. Considering the economic loss of the whole country, the environmental tax has more impacts on the economy system than engineering reduction measures. We suggest that the central government provides 7 500 RMB x t(-1) as subsidy for enterprises in industry sectors to encourage engineering reduction.

  11. Seasonal and species-specific response of VOC emissions by Mediterranean woody plant to elevated ozone concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llusia, J.; Penuelas, J. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain). Unitat Ecofisiologia CSIC-CEAB-CREAF; Gimeno, R.S. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain). Ecotoxicologia de la Contaminacion Atmosferica

    2002-08-01

    Although certain factors controlling plant emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are reasonably well understood, the influence of elevated ozone concentrations as abiotic stress is mostly unknown. Therefore, we studied the effects of ozone concentrations on seasonal biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions by different Mediterranean plant species in open top chambers (OTC). Three ozone treatments were established: filtered air (F), non-filtered air (NF), and fumigated air (NF+) adding 40 nl l{sup -1} of ozone over NF. We studied the response of VOC emission in saplings of four Mediterranean woody plant species and subspecies: Ceratonia siliqua L., Olea europaea L., Quercus ilex spp. ilex L., and Quercus ilex spp. rotundifolia L. as representative of natural Mediterranean vegetation. No visible symptoms were detected on the leaves. No significant effect was found on net photosynthetic rates or stomatal conductance except for an increase in net photosynthetic rates in Quercus ilex ilex in spring and summer and an overall slight increase in Quercus ilex rotundifolia. Emissions of the total VOCs from Ceratonia siliqua in summer, and from Olea europaea and Quercus ilex rotundifolia in spring increased in ozone fumigated OTC in comparison with F or NF OTC. Decreased emissions were found in Quercus ilex rotundifolia in summer. There were no significant differences between ozone fumigation treatments for the other plant species and seasons. When considering particular VOCs, the results were also variable among species and time of the year. While {alpha}-pinene emissions decreased with ozone fumigation in Olea europaea, {alpha}-pinene and limonene emissions increased in Quercus ilex ilex. The responses of these particular VOCs did not always match the responses of total VOCs. In spite of this strong variability, when considering overall annual data for all species and seasons, there were increased net photosynthetic rates (37%) and limonene (95

  12. Seasonal and species-specific response of VOC emissions by Mediterranean woody plant to elevated ozone concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llusià, J.; Peñuelas, J.; Gimeno, B. S.

    Although certain factors controlling plant emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are reasonably well understood, the influence of elevated ozone concentrations as abiotic stress is mostly unknown. Therefore, we studied the effects of ozone concentrations on seasonal biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions by different Mediterranean plant species in open top chambers (OTC). Three ozone treatments were established: filtered air (F), non-filtered air (NF), and fumigated air (NF+) adding 40 nl l -1 of ozone over NF. We studied the response of VOC emission in saplings of four Mediterranean woody plant species and subspecies: Ceratonia siliqua L., Olea europaea L., Quercus ilex spp. ilex L., and Quercus ilex spp. rotundifolia L. as representative of natural Mediterranean vegetation. No visible symptoms were detected on the leaves. No significant effect was found on net photosynthetic rates or stomatal conductance except for an increase in net photosynthetic rates in Quercus ilex ilex in spring and summer and an overall slight increase in Quercus ilex rotundifolia. Emissions of the total VOCs from Ceratonia siliqua in summer, and from Olea europaea and Quercus ilex rotundifolia in spring increased in ozone fumigated OTC in comparison with F or NF OTC. Decreased emissions were found in Quercus ilex rotundifolia in summer. There were no significant differences between ozone fumigation treatments for the other plant species and seasons. When considering particular VOCs, the results were also variable among species and time of the year. While α-pinene emissions decreased with ozone fumigation in Olea europaea, α-pinene and limonene emissions increased in Quercus ilex ilex. The responses of these particular VOCs did not always match the responses of total VOCs. In spite of this strong variability, when considering overall annual data for all species and seasons, there were increased net photosynthetic rates (37%) and limonene (95%) and total VOC (45

  13. Investigation of VOC emissions from indoor and outdoor painting processes in shipyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Ugur Bugra; Vardar, Nurten

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from painting solvents are one of the most important sources of pollutant outputs for the shipbuilding and ship repair industry. Two ships of equal tonnage with the same painted area as each other, which were built in Turkish shipyards, are compared in terms of VOCs produced during painting and coating. Total area of all painted surfaces and total paint consumption of a 3500 deadweight tonne (DWT) oil/chemical tanker and a general cargo ship are calculated. An improved model for calculating the surface emissions of VOCs from painting and coating processes is utilized. Material balance emission estimation approach is employed to calculate the amount of VOCs, since it is used most often where a relatively large amount of material is emitted during use, and/or all air emissions are uncaptured. For both ships calculated VOCs are presented in figures. For the years 2005 and 2006 the total deadweight tonnage of ships delivered in Tuzla region, where 42 shipyards are located, is known. Therefore, a linear estimation is made to guess the total annual VOC emissions caused by painting operations. Finally, this information is used to project the total amount of VOCs emitted to the atmosphere for the year 2010.

  14. Extended Research on Detection of Deception Using Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2006-06-01

    A system that captures and analyzes volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from skin surfaces may offer a viable alternative method to the polygraph instrument currently in use for detecting deception in U.S. government settings. Like the involuntary autonomic central nervous system response data gathered during polygraph testing, VOC emissions from the skin may provide data that can be used to detect stress caused by deception. Detecting VOCs, then, may present a noninvasive, non-intrusive method for observing, recording, and quantifying evidence of stress or emotional change.

  15. The effect of wet film thickness on VOC emissions from a finishing varnish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shun-Cheng; Kwok, Ngai-Hong; Guo, Hai; Hung, Wing-Tat

    2003-01-20

    Finishing varnishes, a typical type of oil-based varnishes, are widely used to shine metal, wood trim and cabinet surfaces in Hong Kong. The influence of wet film thickness on volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from a finishing varnish was studied in an environmental test chamber. The varnish was applied on an aluminium foil with three different wet film thickness (35.2, 69.9 and 107.3 microm). The experimental conditions were 25.0 degrees C, 50.0% relative humidity (RH) with an air exchange rate of 0.5 h(-1). The concentrations of the major VOCs were monitored for the first 10 h. The air samples were collected by canisters and analysed by gas chromatography/mass selective detector (GC/MSD). Six major VOCs including toluene, chlorobenzene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, o-xylene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were identified and quantified. Marked differences were observed for three different film thicknesses. VOC concentrations increased rapidly during the first few hours and then decreased as the emission rates declined. The thicker the wet film, the higher the VOC emissions. A model expression included an exponentially decreasing emission rate of varnish film. The concentration and time data measured in the chamber were used to determine the parameters of empirical emission rate model. The present work confirmed that the film thickness of varnish influenced markedly the concentrations and emissions of VOCs. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  16. Pulsed Corona Plasma Technology for Treating VOC Emissions from Pulp Mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridman, Alexander A.; Gutsol, Alexander; Kennedy, Lawrence A.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Korobtsev, Sergey V.; Shiryaevsky, Valery L.; Medvedev, Dmitry

    2004-01-01

    Under the DOE Office of Industrial Technologies Forest Products program various plasma technologies were evaluated under project FWP 49885 ''Experimental Assessment of Low-Temperature Plasma Technologies for Treating Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Pulp Mills and Wood Products Plants''. The heterogeneous pulsed corona discharge was chosen as the best non-equilibrium plasma technology for control of the vent emissions from HVLC Brownstock Washers. The technology for removal of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from gas emissions with conditions typical of the exhausts of the paper industry by means of pulsed corona plasma techniques presented in this work. For the compounds of interest in this study (methanol, acetone, dimethyl sulfide and ? -pinene), high removal efficiencies were obtained with power levels competitive with the present technologies for the VOCs removal. Laboratory experiments were made using installation with the average power up to 20 W. Pilot plant prepared for on-site test has average plasma power up to 6.4 kW. The model of the Pilot Plant operation is presented

  17. Characterization of VOCs Emissions from Industrial Facilities and Natural Gas Production Sites: A Mobile Sensing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Gu, J.; Trask, B.; Lyon, D. R.; Albertson, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    With the recent expansion of U.S. oil and gas (O&G) production, many studies have focused on the quantification of fugitive methane emissions. However, only a few studies have explored the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from O&G production sites that affect human health in adjacent communities, both directly through exposure to toxic chemical compounds and indirectly via formation of ground-level ozone. In this study, we seek to quantify emissions of VOCs from O&G production sites and petrochemical facilities using a mobile sensing approach, with both high-end analyzers and relatively low-cost sensors. A probabilistic source characterization approach is used to estimate emission rates of VOCs, directly taking into account quantitative measure of sensor accuracy. This work will provide data with proper spatiotemporal resolution and coverage, so as to improve the understanding of VOCs emission from O&G production sites, VOCs-exposure of local communities, and explore the feasibility of low-cost sensors for VOCs monitoring. The project will provide an important foundational step to enable large scale studies.

  18. VOC emissions from residential combustion of Southern and mid-European woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evtyugina, Margarita; Alves, Célia; Calvo, Ana; Nunes, Teresa; Tarelho, Luís; Duarte, Márcio; Prozil, Sónia O.; Evtuguin, Dmitry V.; Pio, Casimiro

    2014-02-01

    Emissions of trace gases (carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC)), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from combustion of European beech, Pyrenean oak and black poplar in a domestic woodstove and fireplace were studied. These woods are widely used as biofuel in residential combustion in Southern and mid-European countries. VOCs in the flue gases were collected in Tedlar bags, concentrated in sorbent tubes and analysed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection (GC-FID). CO2 emissions ranged from 1415 ± 136 to 1879 ± 29 g kg-1 (dry basis). The highest emission factors for CO and THC, 115.8 ± 11.7 and 95.6 24.7 ± 6.3 g kg-1 (dry basis), respectively, were obtained during the combustion of black poplar in the fireplace. European beech presented the lowest CO and THC emission factors for both burning appliances. Significant differences in emissions of VOCs were observed among wood species burnt and combustion devices. In general the highest emission factors were obtained from the combustion of Pyrenean oak in the woodstove. Among the VOCs identified, benzene and related compounds were always the most abundant group, followed by oxygenated compounds and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The amount and the composition of emitted VOCs were strongly affected by the wood composition, the type of burning device and operating conditions. Emission data obtained in this work are useful for modelling the impact of residential wood combustion on air quality and tropospheric ozone formation.

  19. Characteristics of Biogenic VOCs Emission and its High-Resolution Emission Inventory in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Li, Y.; Xie, S.

    2017-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), with high emission and reactivity, can have substantial impacts on the haze and photochemical pollution. It is essential to establish an accurate high-resolution BVOC emission inventory in China for air quality simulation and decision making. Firstly, a semi-static enclosure technique is developed for the field measurements of BVOC emission rates from 50 plant species in China. Using the GC-MS/FID system, 103 VOC species for each plant species are measured. Based on the field measurements in our study and the reported emission rates at home and abroad, a methodology for determining the emission categories of BVOCs is developed using statistical analysis. The isoprene and monoterpene emission rates of 192 plant species/genera in China are determined based on the above emission categories. Secondly, a new vegetation classification with 82 plant functional types (PFTs) is developed based on the most detailed and latest vegetation investigations, China's official statistical data and Vegetation Atlas of China (1:1,000,000). The leaf biomass is estimated based on provincial vegetation volume and production with biomass-apportion models. The WRF model is used to determine meteorological variables at a high spatio-temporal resolution. Using MEAGNv2.1 and the determined emission rates in our study, the high-resolution emission inventories of isoprene, 37 monoterpene species, 32 sesquiterpene species, and other VOCs (OVOCs) from 82 PFTs in China for 1981-2013 are established. The total annual BVOC emissions in 2013 are 55.88 Tg, including 33.87 Tg isoprene, 6.36 Tg monoterpene, 1.29 Tg sesquiterpene, and 14.37 Tg OVOCs. The distribution of isoprene emission fluxes is consistent with the distribution of broadleaf trees, especially tree species with high or higher emission potential. During 1981-2013, China's BVOC emissions have increased by 47.48% at an average rate of 1.80% yr-1. Emissions of isoprene have the largest enhancement

  20. Building materials. VOC emissions, diffusion behaviour and implications from their use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Leva, Paolo; Barrero-Moreno, Josefa; Kotzias, Dimitrios

    2012-10-01

    Five cement- and five lime-based building materials were examined in an environmental chamber for their emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). Typical VOCs were below detection limits, whereas not routinely analysed VOCs, like neopentyl glycol (NPG), dominated the cement-based products emissions, where, after 72 h, it was found to occur, in levels as high as 1400 μg m(-3), accounting for up to 93% of total VOCs. The concentrations of NPG were not considerably changed between the 24 and 72 h of sampling. The permeability of building materials was assessed through experiments with a dual environmental chamber; it was shown that building materials facilitate the diffusion of chemicals through their pores, reaching equilibrium relatively fast (6 h). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Decadal changes in emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from on-road vehicles with intensified automobile pollution control: Case study in a busy urban tunnel in south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanli; Yang, Weiqiang; Simpson, Isobel; Huang, Xinyu; Yu, Jianzhen; Huang, Zhonghui; Wang, Zhaoyi; Zhang, Zhou; Liu, Di; Huang, Zuzhao; Wang, Yujun; Pei, Chenglei; Shao, Min; Blake, Donald R; Zheng, Junyu; Huang, Zhijiong; Wang, Xinming

    2018-02-01

    In the efforts at controlling automobile emissions, it is important to know in what extent air pollutants from on-road vehicles could be truly reduced. In 2014 we conducted tests in a heavily trafficked tunnel in south China to characterize emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from on-road vehicle fleet and compared our results with those obtained in the same tunnel in 2004. Alkanes, aromatics, and alkenes had average emission factors (EFs) of 338, 63, and 42 mg km -1 in 2014 against that of 194, 129, and 160 mg km -1 in 2004, respectively. In 2014, LPG-related propane, n-butane and i-butane were the top three non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) with EFs of 184 ± 21, 53 ± 6 and 31 ± 3 mg km -1 ; the gasoline evaporation marker i-pentane had an average EF of 17 ± 3 mg km -1 ; ethylene and propene were the top two alkenes with average EFs of 16 ± 1 and 9.7 ± 0.9 mg km -1 , respectively; isoprene had no direct emission from vehicles; toluene showed the highest EF of 11 ± 2 mg km -1 among the aromatics; and acetylene had an average EF of 7 ± 1 mg km -1 . While EFs of total NMHCs decreased only 9% from 493 ± 120 mg km -1 in 2004 to 449 ± 40 mg km -1 in 2014, their total ozone formation potential (OFP) decreased by 57% from 2.50 × 10 3  mg km -1 in 2004 to 1.10 × 10 3  mg km -1 in 2014, and their total secondary organic aerosol formation potential (SOAFP) decreased by 50% from 50 mg km -1 in 2004 to 25 mg km -1 in 2014. The large drop in ozone and SOA formation potentials could be explained by reduced emissions of reactive alkenes and aromatics, due largely to fuel transition from gasoline/diesel to LPG for taxis/buses and upgraded vehicle emission standards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Emissions of biogenic VOC from forest ecosystems in central Europe: Estimation and comparison with anthropogenic emission inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemankova, Katerina; Brechler, Josef

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method of estimating emission fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) based on the approach proposed by and the high-resolution Corine land-cover 2000 database (1 x 1 km resolution). The computed emission fluxes for the Czech Republic (selected for analysis as being representative of a heavily cultivated, central European country) are compared with anthropogenic emissions, both for the entire country and for individual administrative regions. In some regions, BVOC emissions are as high as anthropogenic emissions; however, in most regions the BVOC emissions are approximately 50% of the anthropogenic emissions. The yearly course of BVOC emissions (represented by monoterpenes and isoprene) is presented, along with the spatial distribution of annual mean values. Differences in emission distributions during winter (January) and summer (June) are also considered. - The amount of the biogenic VOCs emitted over the central Europe is comparable with the anthropogenic VOC emissions from this region.

  3. Towards an Integrated Assessment Model for Tropospheric Ozone-Emission Inventories, Scenarios and Emission-control Options

    OpenAIRE

    Olsthoorn, X.

    1994-01-01

    IIASA intends to extend its RAINS model for addressing the issue of transboundary ozone air pollution. This requires the development of a VOC-emissions module, VOCs being precursors in ozone formation. The module should contain a Europe-wide emission inventory, a submodule for developing emission scenarios and a database of measures for VOC-emission control, including data about control effectiveness and control costs. It is recommended to use the forthcoming CORINAIR90 inventory for construc...

  4. VOC emission rates over London and South East England obtained by airborne eddy covariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Adam R; Lee, James D; Shaw, Marvin D; Misztal, Pawel K; Metzger, Stefan; Vieno, Massimo; Davison, Brian; Karl, Thomas G; Carpenter, Lucy J; Lewis, Alastair C; Purvis, Ruth M; Goldstein, Allen H; Hewitt, C Nicholas

    2017-08-24

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originate from a variety of sources, and play an intrinsic role in influencing air quality. Some VOCs, including benzene, are carcinogens and so directly affect human health, while others, such as isoprene, are very reactive in the atmosphere and play an important role in the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and particles. Here we report spatially-resolved measurements of the surface-to-atmosphere fluxes of VOCs across London and SE England made in 2013 and 2014. High-frequency 3-D wind velocities and VOC volume mixing ratios (made by proton transfer reaction - mass spectrometry) were obtained from a low-flying aircraft and used to calculate fluxes using the technique of eddy covariance. A footprint model was then used to quantify the flux contribution from the ground surface at spatial resolution of 100 m, averaged to 1 km. Measured fluxes of benzene over Greater London showed positive agreement with the UK's National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory, with the highest fluxes originating from central London. Comparison of MTBE and toluene fluxes suggest that petroleum evaporation is an important emission source of toluene in central London. Outside London, increased isoprene emissions were observed over wooded areas, at rates greater than those predicted by a UK regional application of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme model (EMEP4UK). This work demonstrates the applicability of the airborne eddy covariance method to the determination of anthropogenic and biogenic VOC fluxes and the possibility of validating emission inventories through measurements.

  5. Determination of Summertime VOC Emission Rates from Produced Water Ponds in the Uintah Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. S.; Woods, C.; Lyman, S.

    2013-12-01

    The observance of excess ozone concentrations in Utah's Uintah Basin over past several years has prompted several investigations into the extent and causes of the elevated ozone. Among these is the assessment of potential emissions of reactive VOCs. Evaporation ponds, used a remediation technique for treatment of contaminated production and other waters, are one potential source of significant VOC emissions and is estimated that there are around 160 such ponds within the Uintah Basin's oil and gas production areas. In June 2012 VOC emission rates for several reactive VOCs were derived for an evaporation facility consisting of a small inlet pond (≈0.03 acres) and two larger, serial ponds (≈4.3 acres each). The emission rates were determined over three sampling periods using an inverse modeling approach. Under this methodology, ambient VOC concentrations are determined at several downwind locations through whole-air collection into SUMMA canisters, followed by GC/MS quantification and compared with predicted concentrations using an EPA-approved dispersion model, AERMOD. The presumed emission rates used within the model were then adjusted until the modeled concentrations approach the observed concentrations. The derived emission rates for the individual VOCs were on the order of 10-3 g/s/m2 from the inlet pond and 10-6 g/s/m2 from the larger ponds. The emissions from the 1st pond in series after the inlet pond were about 3-4x the emissions from the 2nd pond. These combined emission rates are about an order of magnitude those reported for a single study in Colorado (Thoma, 2009). It should be noted, however, that the variability about each of the VOC emission rates was significant (often ×100% at the 95% confidence interval). Extrapolating these emission rates to the estimated total areas of all the evaporation ponds within Basin resulted in calculated Basin-wide VOC emissions 292,835 tons/yr. However, Bar-Ilan et al. (2009) estimated 2012 VOC oil and gas related

  6. Leaf level emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from some Amazonian and Mediterranean plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho-Nunez, A.; Knothe, , N. M.; Welter, S.; Staudt, M.; Costa, W. R.; Liberato, M. A. R.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2013-09-01

    Emission inventories defining regional and global biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission strengths are needed to determine the impact of VOC on atmospheric chemistry (oxidative capacity) and physics (secondary organic aerosol formation and effects). The aim of this work was to contribute with measurements of tree species from the poorly described tropical vegetation in direct comparison with the quite well-investigated, highly heterogeneous emissions from Mediterranean vegetation. VOC emission from sixteen plant species from the Mediterranean area were compared with twelve plant species from different environments of the Amazon basin by an emission screening at leaf level using branch enclosures. Analysis of the volatile organics was performed online by a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and offline by collection on adsorbent tubes and subsequent gas chromatographic analysis. Isoprene was the most dominant compound emitted followed by monoterpenes, methanol and acetone. The average loss rates of VOC carbon in relation to the net CO2 assimilation were found below 4% and indicating normal unstressed plant behavior. Most of the Mediterranean species emitted a large variety of monoterpenes, whereas only five tropical species were identified as monoterpene emitters exhibiting a quite conservative emission pattern (α-pinene plants showed additional emissions of sesquiterpenes. In the case of Amazonian plants no sesquiterpenes were detected. However, missing of sesquiterpenes may also be due to a lack of sensitivity of the measuring systems. Furthermore, our screening activities cover only 1% of tree species of such tropical areas as estimated based on recent biodiversity reports. Methanol emissions, an indicator of growth, were found to be common in most of the tropical and Mediterranean species. A few species from both ecosystems showed acetone emissions. The observed heterogeneous emissions, including reactive VOC species which are not

  7. Leaf level emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC from some Amazonian and Mediterranean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bracho-Nunez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Emission inventories defining regional and global biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC emission strengths are needed to determine the impact of VOC on atmospheric chemistry (oxidative capacity and physics (secondary organic aerosol formation and effects. The aim of this work was to contribute with measurements of tree species from the poorly described tropical vegetation in direct comparison with the quite well-investigated, highly heterogeneous emissions from Mediterranean vegetation. VOC emission from sixteen plant species from the Mediterranean area were compared with twelve plant species from different environments of the Amazon basin by an emission screening at leaf level using branch enclosures. Analysis of the volatile organics was performed online by a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS and offline by collection on adsorbent tubes and subsequent gas chromatographic analysis. Isoprene was the most dominant compound emitted followed by monoterpenes, methanol and acetone. The average loss rates of VOC carbon in relation to the net CO2 assimilation were found below 4% and indicating normal unstressed plant behavior. Most of the Mediterranean species emitted a large variety of monoterpenes, whereas only five tropical species were identified as monoterpene emitters exhibiting a quite conservative emission pattern (α-pinene < limonene < sabinene < ß-pinene. Mediterranean plants showed additional emissions of sesquiterpenes. In the case of Amazonian plants no sesquiterpenes were detected. However, missing of sesquiterpenes may also be due to a lack of sensitivity of the measuring systems. Furthermore, our screening activities cover only 1% of tree species of such tropical areas as estimated based on recent biodiversity reports. Methanol emissions, an indicator of growth, were found to be common in most of the tropical and Mediterranean species. A few species from both ecosystems showed acetone emissions. The observed

  8. [Characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission from electronic products processing and manufacturing factory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ru; Ma, Yong-Liang

    2013-12-01

    Based on the EPA method T0-11 and 14/15 for measurement of toxic organics in air samples, fast VOCs detector, Summa canister and DNPH absorbent were used to determine the VOCs concentrations and the compositions in the ambient air of the workshops for different processes as well as the emission concentration in the exhaust gas. In all processes that involved VOCs release, concentrations of total VOCs in the workshops were 0.1-0.5 mg x m(-3), 1.5-2.5 mg x m(-3) and 20-200 mg x m(-3) for casting, cutting and painting respectively. Main compositions of VOCs in those workshops were alkanes, eneynes, aromatics, ketones, esters and ethers, totally over 20 different species. The main compositions in painting workshop were aromatics and ketones, among which the concentration of benzene was 0.02-0.34 mg x m(-3), toluene was 0.24-3.35 mg x m(-3), ethyl benzene was 0.04-1.33 mg x m(-3), p-xylene was 0.13-0.96 mg x m(-3), m-xylene was 0.02-1.18 mg x m(-3), acetone was 0.29-15.77 mg x m(-3), 2-butanone was 0.06-22.88 mg x m(-3), cyclohexene was 0.02-25.79 mg x m(-3), and methyl isobutyl ketone was 0-21.29 mg x m(-3). The VOCs emission from painting process was about 14 t x a(-1) for one single manufacturing line, and 840 t x a(-1) for the whole factory. According to the work flows and product processes, the solvent used during painting process was the main source of VOCs emission, and the exhaust gas was the main emission point.

  9. [Inventory and environmental impact of VOCs emission from the typical anthropogenic sources in Sichuan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li; Wang, Xing-Rui; He, Min; Guo, Wei-Guang

    2013-12-01

    Based on Sichuan province environmental statistical survey data and other relevant activity data, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from typical anthropogenic sources in Sichuan province were calculated for the year of 2011 by applying the emission factor method. Besides, ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation potentials of these typical anthropogenic sources were discussed. The total VOC emission from these sources was about 482 kt in Sichuan province, biomass burning, solvent utilization, industrial processes, storage and distribution of fuel, and fossil fuel combustion contributed 174 kt, 153 kt, 121 kt, 21 kt and 13 kt, respectively; architecture wall painting, furniture coating, wood decoration painting and artificial board were the major emission sectors of the solvent utilization; while for the industrial processes, 19.4% of VOCs emission was from the wine industry. Chengdu was the largest contributor compared to the other cities in Sichuan, whose VOCs emission from these typical anthropogenic sources in 2011 was 112 kt. OFP of these sources was 1,930 kt altogether. Solvent utilization contributed 50.5% of the total SOA formation potentials, biomass burning and industrial processes both contributed about 23% , with storage and distribution of fuel and fossil fuel combustion accounting for 1% and 1.4%, respectively.

  10. Consideration of the Change of Material Emission Signatures due to Longterm Emissions for Enhancing VOC Source Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, K. H.; Zhang, J. S.; Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the changes of VOC material emission profiles over time and develop a method to account for such changes in order to enhance a source identification technique that is based on the measurements of mixed air samples and the emission signatures of in...

  11. Screening the Emission Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in China Based on Multi-effect Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, H., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere have adverse impacts via three main pathways: photochemical ozone formation, secondary organic aerosol production, and direct toxicity to humans. Few studies have integrated these effects to prioritize control measures for VOCs sources. In this study, we developed a multi-effect evaluation methodology based on updated emission inventories and source profiles, which was combined with ozone formation potential (OFP), secondary organic aerosol potential (SOAP), and VOC toxicity data to identify important emission sources and key species. We derived species-specific emission inventories for 152 sources. The OFPs, SOAPs, and toxicity of each source were determined, and the contribution and share of each source to each of these adverse effects was calculated. Weightings were given to the three adverse effects by expert scoring, and the integrated impact was determined. Using 2012 as the base year, solvent usage and industrial process were found to be the most important anthropogenic sources, accounting for 24.2 and 23.1% of the integrated environmental effect, respectively. This was followed by biomass burning, transportation, and fossil fuel combustion, all of which had a similar contribution ranging from 16.7 to 18.6%. The top five industrial sources, including plastic products, rubber products, chemical fiber products, the chemical industry, and oil refining, accounted for nearly 70.0% of industrial emissions. In China, emissions reductions are required for styrene, toluene, ethylene, benzene, and m/p-xylene. The 10 most abundant chemical species contributed 76.5% of the integrated impact. Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, Jiangsu, and Guangdong were the five leading provinces when considering the integrated effects. Besides, the chemical mass balance model (CMB) was used to verify the VOCs inventories of 47 cities in China, so as to optimize our evaluation results. We suggest that multi-effect evaluation is necessary to

  12. VOC emission into the atmosphere by trees and leaf litter in Polish forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidorov, V.; Smolewska, M.; Tyszkiewicz, Z.

    2009-04-01

    It is generally recognized at present that the vegetation of continents is the principal source of reactive volatile organic compounds (VOC) of the atmosphere. The upper limit of the evaluation of global phytogenic VOC is 1100-1500 Tg/yr (Isidorov, 1990; Guenther et al., 1995). Although these global evaluations showing the place of phytogenic emission among of other VOC sources are important, evaluations for individual countries are also very important. This poster represents the results of the estimation of VOC emission from Polish forests. Calculations took into account the composition and age of forests. According to our estimation, the total VOC emission by the arboreal vegetation differs from 190 to 750 kt/yr, depending of weather conditions in different years. There are only few studies conducted on decaying plant material as a source of atmospheric VOCs, but still they are able to give evidence of the importance of this source. For Polish forests, the litter mass is estimated to be (16-19)106 t/yr. These organic materials undergo decomposition by mesofauna and microorganisms. In these processes volatile organic compounds (VOC) stored in the litter and secondary metabolites of litter-destroying fungi are emitted into the atmosphere. The scale of the phenomenon makes leaf litter an important VOC source in the atmosphere. The filling of numerous gaps in researches of VOC emissions from decomposing leaf litter demands carrying out of long term field experiments in various climatic conditions. In this communication we report also the results of 3.5-year experiment on qualitative and quantitative GC-MS investigations of VOC emitted into the gas phase from leaves litter of some species of deciduous and coniferous trees of Polish forests. Apart from terpenes and their oxygenated derivatives, which are usual in plant tissues, leaf litter intensively emits vast amounts of lower alcohols and carbonyl compounds. We suppose that these volatile substances are products

  13. Influence of way of finishing furniture segments on amount emissions VOCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Čech

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the influence of way of finishing furniture segments on amount emissions VOCs (volatile organic compounds. The so-called Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC are among the largest pollution sources of both the internal and external environments.VOC is defined as emission of any organic compound or a mixture thereof, with the exception of methane, whereby the compound exerts the pressure of 0.01 kPa or more at the temperature of 20 °C (293.15 K and reaches the corresponding volatility under the specific conditions of its use and can undergo photochemical reactions with nitrogen oxides when exposed to solar radiation. The effects of VOC upon environment can be described by equation: VOC + NOx + UV radiation + heat = tropospheric ozone (O3In this work there were tested MDF (medium density fibreboard coated by resin impregnated paper was used for the furniture components’ production. Next were tested compressed wood, which was used as a second material of furniture components. These both chosen materials was covered by resin impregnated paper and than sequentially finished by regular coat of finish.An attention of this study is especially put on mentioned factors and on quantity of instant and long-term VOCs emissions emitted from furniture components.The amount of emissions from furniture components, in different phases of the preparation including the resin impregnated paper coating finish, was monitored within the time intervals of 24 hours and 720 hours starting after the time of the finish preparation.The MDF (medium density fibreboard coated by resin impregnated paper was used for the furniture components´ production.A compressed wood was used as a second material of furniture components. This alternative material was covered by resin impregnated paper and than sequentially finished by regular coat of finish.

  14. Control of volatile organic compound emissions: the issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodfield, M.; Marlowe, I.

    1989-11-01

    This review paper outlines the problems caused by the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) which are causing increasing concern because of their part in the formation of photochemical oxidation that causes damage to crops and vegetation and because of the toxic and climatic effects. It briefly summarises current knowledge of VOC emissions and their effects and then suggests options for abatement of VOC emissions in the UK and the EEC. A comparison of anthropogenic VOC emission in the UK and the EEC from various sources is given. Further information is needed on current emissions, on the costs and efficiencies of control technologies and on the effects of control on industry before decisions can be made on the suitability, extent and strategy to control VOC emissions in the UK. The report was prepared for the UK Department of Trade and Industry (Headquarters).

  15. Effects of cold temperature and ethanol content on VOC emissions from light-duty gasoline vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions of speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including mobile source air toxics (MSATs), were measured in vehicle exhaust from three light-duty spark ignition vehicles operating on summer and winter grade gasoline (E0) and ethanol blended (E10 and E85) fuels. Vehicle...

  16. ECOS E-MATRIX Methane and Volatile Organic Carbon (VOC) Emissions Best Practices Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parisien, Lia [The Environmental Council Of The States, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-01-31

    This final scientific/technical report on the ECOS e-MATRIX Methane and Volatile Organic Carbon (VOC) Emissions Best Practices Database provides a disclaimer and acknowledgement, table of contents, executive summary, description of project activities, and briefing/technical presentation link.

  17. VOC emissions and carbon balance of two bioenergy plantations in response to nitrogen fertilization: A comparison of Miscanthus and Salix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bin; Jarosch, Ann-Mareike; Gauder, Martin; Graeff-Hönninger, Simone; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Grote, Rüdiger; Rennenberg, Heinz; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen

    2018-06-01

    Energy crops are an important renewable source for energy production in future. To ensure high yields of crops, N fertilization is a common practice. However, knowledge on environmental impacts of bioenergy plantations, particularly in systems involving trees, and the effects of N fertilization is scarce. We studied the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC), which negatively affect the environment by contributing to tropospheric ozone and aerosols formation, from Miscanthus and willow plantations. Particularly, we aimed at quantifying the effect of N fertilization on VOC emission. For this purpose, we determined plant traits, photosynthetic gas exchange and VOC emission rates of the two systems as affected by N fertilization (0 and 80 kg ha -1 yr -1 ). Additionally, we used a modelling approach to simulate (i) the annual VOC emission rates as well as (ii) the OH . reactivity resulting from individual VOC emitted. Total VOC emissions from Salix was 1.5- and 2.5-fold higher compared to Miscanthus in non-fertilized and fertilized plantations, respectively. Isoprene was the dominating VOC in Salix (80-130 μg g -1 DW h -1 ), whereas it was negligible in Miscanthus. We identified twenty-eight VOC compounds, which were released by Miscanthus with the green leaf volatile hexanal as well as dimethyl benzene, dihydrofuranone, phenol, and decanal as the dominant volatiles. The pattern of VOC released from this species clearly differed to the pattern emitted by Salix. OH . reactivity from VOC released by Salix was ca. 8-times higher than that of Miscanthus. N fertilization enhanced stand level VOC emissions, mainly by promoting the leaf area index and only marginally by enhancing the basal emission capacity of leaves. Considering the higher productivity of fertilized Miscanthus compared to Salix together with the considerably lower OH . reactivity per weight unit of biomass produced, qualified the C 4 -perennial grass Miscanthus as a superior source of future

  18. Eddy covariance VOC emission and deposition fluxes above grassland using PTR-TOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Ruuskanen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eddy covariance (EC is the preferable technique for flux measurements since it is the only direct flux determination method. It requires a continuum of high time resolution measurements (e.g. 5–20 Hz. For volatile organic compounds (VOC soft ionization via proton transfer reaction has proven to be a quantitative method for real time mass spectrometry; here we use a proton transfer reaction time of flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF for 10 Hz EC measurements of full mass spectra up to m/z 315. The mass resolution of the PTR-TOF enabled the identification of chemical formulas and separation of oxygenated and hydrocarbon species exhibiting the same nominal mass. We determined 481 ion mass peaks from ambient air concentration above a managed, temperate mountain grassland in Neustift, Stubai Valley, Austria. During harvesting we found significant fluxes of 18 compounds distributed over 43 ions, including protonated parent compounds, as well as their isotopes and fragments and VOC-H+ – water clusters. The dominant BVOC fluxes were methanol, acetaldehyde, ethanol, hexenal and other C6 leaf wound compounds, acetone, acetic acid, monoterpenes and sequiterpenes.

    The smallest reliable fluxes we determined were less than 0.1 nmol m−2 s−1, as in the case of sesquiterpene emissions from freshly cut grass. Terpenoids, including mono- and sesquiterpenes, were also deposited to the grassland before and after the harvesting. During cutting, total VOC emission fluxes up to 200 nmolC m−2 s−1 were measured. Methanol emissions accounted for half of the emissions of oxygenated VOCs and a third of the carbon of all measured VOC emissions during harvesting.

  19. Development & Characterization of a Whole Plant Chamber for the Investigation of Environmental Perturbations on Biogenic VOC Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, J.; Riches, M.; Abeleira, A.; Farmer, D.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate prediction of both climate and air quality under a changing earth system requires a full understanding of the sources, feedbacks, and ultimate fate of all atmospherically relevant chemical species, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Biogenic VOCs (BVOC) from plant emissions are the main source of VOCs to the atmosphere. However, the impact of global change on BVOC emissions is poorly understood. For example, while short-term increases in temperature are typically associated with increased BVOC emissions, the impact of long-term temperature increases are less clear. Our study aims to investigate the effects of long-term, singular and combined environmental perturbations on plant BVOC emissions through the use of whole plant chambers in order to better understand the effects of global change on BVOC-climate-air quality feedbacks. To fill this knowledge gap and provide a fundamental understanding of how BVOC emissions respond to environmental perturbations, specifically elevated temperature, CO2, and drought, whole citrus trees were placed in home-built chambers and monitored for monoterpene and other BVOC emissions utilizing thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). Designing and building a robust whole plant chamber to study atmospherically relevant chemical species while accommodating the needs of live plants over timescales of days to weeks is not a trivial task. The environmental conditions within the chamber must be carefully controlled and monitored. The inter-plant and chamber variability must be characterized. Finally, target BVOCs need to be sampled and detected from the chamber. Thus, the chamber design, control and characterization considerations along with preliminary BVOC results will be presented and discussed.

  20. Impacts of biogenic emissions of VOC and NOx on tropospheric ozone during summertime in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin'geng; Han, Zhiwei; Wang, Tijian; Zhang, Renjian

    2008-05-20

    This study is intended to understand and quantify the impacts of biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) on the formation of tropospheric ozone during summertime in eastern China. The model system consists of the non-hydrostatic mesoscale meteorological model (MM5) and a tropospheric chemical and transport model (TCTM) with the updated carbon-bond chemical reaction mechanism (CBM-IV). The spatial resolution of the system domain is 30 km x 30 km. The impacts of biogenic emissions are investigated by performing simulations (36 h) with and without biogenic emissions, while anthropogenic emissions are constant. The results indicate that biogenic emissions have remarkable impacts on surface ozone in eastern China. In big cities and their surrounding areas, surface ozone formation tends to be VOC-limited. The increase in ozone concentration by biogenic VOC is generally 5 ppbv or less, but could be more than 10 ppbv or even 30 ppbv in some local places. The impacts of biogenic NO(x) are different or even contrary in different regions, depending on the relative availability of NO(x) and VOC. The surface ozone concentrations reduced or increased by the biogenic NO(x) could be as much as 10 ppbv or 20 ppbv, respectively. The impacts of biogenic emissions on ozone aloft are generally restricted to the boundary layer and generally more obvious during the daytime than during the nighttime. This study is useful for understanding the role of biogenic emissions and for planning strategies for surface ozone abatement in eastern China. Due to limitations of the emission inventories used and the highly non-linear nature of zone formation, however, some uncertainties remain in the results.

  1. Microwave wood strand drying: energy consumption, VOC emission and drying quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.; Du, G.; Zhang, Y. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this research was to develop microwave drying technology for wood strand drying for oriented strand board (OSB) manufacturing. The advantages of microwave drying included a reduction in the drying time of wood strands and a reduction in the release of volatile organic compounds (VOC) through a decrease in the thermal degradation of the wood material. Temperature and moisture content changes under different microwave drying conditions were investigated. The effects of microwave drying on VOC emissions were evaluated and analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Microwave power input and the mass of drying materials in the microwave oven were found to have a dominant effect on drying quality. Results indicated that an increase in microwave power input and a decrease in sample weights resulted in high drying temperatures, short drying times and a high drying rate. The effect of microwave drying on the strand surfaces was also investigated. Different strand geometries and initial moisture content resulted in varying warm-up curves, but did not influence final moisture content. VOC emissions were quantified by comparing alpha-pinene concentrations. The microwave drying resulted in lower VOC emissions compared with conventional drying methods. It was concluded that the microwave drying technique provided faster strand drying and reduced energy consumption by up to 50 per cent. In addition, the surface wettability of wood strands dried with microwaves was better than with an industrial rotary drum drier. 12 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  2. Emission inventory of anthropogenic air pollutants and VOC species in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Huang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop an emission inventory for major anthropogenic air pollutants and VOC species in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD region for the year 2007. A "bottom-up" methodology was adopted to compile the inventory based on major emission sources in the sixteen cities of this region. Results show that the emissions of SO2, NOx, CO, PM10, PM2.5, VOCs, and NH3 in the YRD region for the year 2007 are 2392 kt, 2293 kt, 6697 kt, 3116 kt, 1511 kt, 2767 kt, and 459 kt, respectively. Ethylene, mp-xylene, o-xylene, toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 2,4-dimethylpentane, ethyl benzene, propylene, 1-pentene, and isoprene are the key species contributing 77 % to the total ozone formation potential (OFP. The spatial distribution of the emissions shows the emissions and OFPs are mainly concentrated in the urban and industrial areas along the Yangtze River and around Hangzhou Bay. The industrial sources, including power plants other fuel combustion facilities, and non-combustion processes contribute about 97 %, 86 %, 89 %, 91 %, and 69 % of the total SO2, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, and VOC emissions. Vehicles take up 12.3 % and 12.4 % of the NOx and VOC emissions, respectively. Regarding OFPs, the chemical industry, domestic use of paint & printing, and gasoline vehicles contribute 38 %, 24 %, and 12 % to the ozone formation in the YRD region.

  3. Particle and VOC emission factor measurements for anthropogenic sources in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Keita

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of campaigns have been carried out to establish the emission factors of pollutants from fuel combustion in West Africa, as part of work package 2 (Air Pollution and Health of the DACCIWA (Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa FP7 program. Emission sources considered here include wood (hevea and iroko and charcoal burning, charcoal making, open trash burning, and vehicle emissions, including trucks, cars, buses and two-wheeled vehicles. Emission factors of total particulate matter (TPM, elemental carbon (EC, primary organic carbon (OC and volatile organic compounds (VOCs have been established. In addition, emission factor measurements were performed in combustion chambers in order to reproduce field burning conditions for a tropical hardwood (hevea, and obtain particulate emission factors by size (PM0.25, PM1, PM2.5 and PM10. Particle samples were collected on quartz fiber filters and analyzed using gravimetric method for TPM and thermal methods for EC and OC. The emission factors of 58 VOC species were determined using offline sampling on a sorbent tube. Emission factor results for two species of tropical hardwood burning of EC, OC and TPM are 0.98 ± 0.46 g kg−1 of fuel burned (g kg−1, 11.05 ± 4.55 and 41.12 ± 24.62 g kg−1, respectively. For traffic sources, the highest emission factors among particulate species are found for the two-wheeled vehicles with two-stroke engines (2.74 g kg−1 fuel for EC, 65.11 g kg−1 fuel for OC and 496 g kg−1 fuel for TPM. The largest VOC emissions are observed for two-stroke two-wheeled vehicles, which are up to 3 times higher than emissions from light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles. Isoprene and monoterpenes, which are usually associated with biogenic emissions, are present in almost all anthropogenic sources investigated during this work and could be as significant as aromatic emissions in wood burning (1 g kg−1 fuel. EC is

  4. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Dairy Cows and Their Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, S.; Holzinger, R.; Mitloehner, F.; Goldstein, A.

    2005-12-01

    Biogenic VOCs are typically defined as those directly emitted from plants, but approximately 6% of global net primary production is consumed by cattle that carry out enteric fermentation and then emit VOCs that could also be considered biogenic. Current regulatory estimates suggest that dairy cattle in central California emit VOCs at rates comparable to those from passenger vehicles in the region, and thus contribute significantly to the extreme non-attainment of ozone standards there. We report PTR-MS measurements of ammonia and VOCs, and cavity-enhanced-absorption gas analyzer (Los Gatos Research, Inc.) measurements of CH4, emitted from dairy cattle in various stages of pregnancy/lactation and their waste. Experiments were conducted in chambers at UC Davis that simulate freestall cow housing conditions. CH4 fluxes ranged from 125-374 lb/cow/year. The compounds with the highest fluxes from '3 cows+waste' treatments were: ammonia (1-18), methanol (0-2.3), acetone+propanal (0.2-0.7), dimethylsulfide (0-0.4), and mass 109 (likely ID = p-cresol; 0-0.3) in lb/cow/year. Mass 60 (likely ID = trimethylamine) and acetic acid were also abundant. There were 10s of additional compounds with detectable, but small, emissions. A few compounds that were likely emitted (i.e. ethanol, formaldehyde, and dimethylamine) were not quantified by the PTR-MS. The total flux for all measured organic gases (TOG = CH4 + PTR-MS VOCs(including acetone+propanal)) averaged 246±45 lb/cow/year for '3 cows+waste' treatments, and was dominated by methane (>98%). TOG flux for 'waste only' treatments averaged 1.1±0.1 lb/cow/year, and was instead dominated by VOC (>84%). The PTR-MS VOCs as a percent of TOG (0.6±0.2%) emitted from '3 cows+waste' treatments in chamber conditions was a factor of 10 smaller than that currently estimated by the California Air Resources Board. In addition, the ozone forming potentials of the most abundant VOCs are only about 10% those of typical combustion or plant

  5. Influence of tree provenance on biogenic VOC emissions of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimäenpää, Minna; Magsarjav, Narantsetseg; Ghimire, Rajendra; Markkanen, Juha-Matti; Heijari, Juha; Vuorinen, Martti; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2012-12-01

    Resin-storing plant species such as conifer trees can release substantial amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere under stress circumstances that cause resin flow. Wounding can be induced by animals, pathogens, wind or direct mechanical damage e.g. during harvesting. In atmospheric modelling of biogenic VOCs, actively growing vegetation has been mostly considered as the source of emissions. Root systems and stumps of resin-storing conifer trees could constitute a significant store of resin after tree cutting. Therefore, we assessed the VOC emission rates from the cut surface of Scots pine stumps and estimated the average emission rates for an area with a density of 2000 stumps per ha. The experiment was conducted with trees of one Estonian and three Finnish Scots pine provenances covering a 1200 km gradient at a common garden established in central Finland in 1991. VOC emissions were dominated by monoterpenes and less than 0.1% of the total emission was sesquiterpenes. α-Pinene (7-92% of the total emissions) and 3-carene (0-76% of the total emissions) were the dominant monoterpenes. Proportions of α-pinene and camphene were significantly lower and proportions of 3-carene, sabinene, γ-terpinene and terpinolene higher in the southernmost Saaremaa provenance compared to the other provenances. Total terpene emission rates (standardised to +20 °C) from stumps varied from 27 to 1582 mg h-1 m-2 when measured within 2-3 h after tree cutting. Emission rates decreased rapidly to between 2 and 79 mg h-1 m-2 at 50 days after cutting. The estimated daily terpene emission rates on a hectare basis from freshly cut stumps at a cut tree density of 2000 per ha varied depending on provenance. Estimated emission ranges were 100-710 g ha-1 d-1 and 137-970 g ha-1 d-1 in 40 and in 60 year-old forest stands, respectively. Our result suggests that emission directly from stump surfaces could be a significant source of monoterpene emissions for a few weeks after

  6. Effect of VOC Emissions from Vegetation on Air Quality in Berlin during a Heatwave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churkina, Galina; Kuik, Friderike; Bonn, Boris; Lauer, Axel; Grote, Rüdiger; Tomiak, Karolina; Butler, Tim M

    2017-06-06

    The potential of emissions from urban vegetation combined with anthropogenic emissions to produce ozone and particulate matter has long been recognized. This potential increases with rising temperatures and may lead to severe problems with air quality in densely populated areas during heat waves. Here, we investigate how heat waves affect emissions of volatile organic compounds from urban/suburban vegetation and corresponding ground-level ozone and particulate matter. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with atmospheric chemistry (WRF-Chem) with emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from vegetation simulated with MEGAN to quantify some of these feedbacks in Berlin, Germany, during the heat wave in 2006. The highest ozone concentration observed during that period was ∼200 μg/m 3 (∼101 ppb V ). The model simulations indicate that the contribution of biogenic VOC emissions to ozone formation is lower in June (9-11%) and August (6-9%) than in July (17-20%). On particular days within the analyzed heat wave period, this contribution increases up to 60%. The actual contribution is expected to be even higher as the model underestimates isoprene concentrations over urban forests and parks by 0.6-1.4 ppb v . Our study demonstrates that biogenic VOCs can considerably enhance air pollution during heat waves. We emphasize the dual role of vegetation for air quality and human health in cities during warm seasons, which is removal and lessening versus enhancement of air pollution. The results of our study suggest that reduction of anthropogenic sources of NOx, VOCs, and PM, for example, reduction of the motorized vehicle fleet, would have to accompany urban tree planting campaigns to make them really beneficial for urban dwellers.

  7. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from cooking and their speciation: A case study for Shanghai with implications for China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongli; Xiang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Lina; Jing, Shengao; Lou, Shengrong; Tao, Shikang; Liu, Jing; Yu, Mingzhou; Li, Li; Lin, Li; Chen, Ying; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Chen, Changhong

    2018-04-15

    Cooking emission is one of sources for ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which is deleterious to air quality, climate and human health. These emissions are especially of great interest in large cities of East and Southeast Asia. We conducted a case study in which VOC emissions from kitchen extraction stacks have been sampled in total 57 times in the Megacity Shanghai. To obtain representative data, we sampled VOC emissions from kitchens, including restaurants of seven common cuisine types, canteens, and family kitchens. VOC species profiles and their chemical reactivities have been determined. The results showed that 51.26%±23.87% of alkane and 24.33±11.69% of oxygenated VOCs (O-VOCs) dominate the VOC cooking emissions. Yet, the VOCs with the largest ozone formation potential (OFP) and secondary organic aerosol potential (SOAP) were from the alkene and aromatic categories, accounting for 6.8-97.0% and 73.8-98.0%, respectively. Barbequing has the most potential of harming people's heath due to its significant higher emissions of acetaldehyde, hexanal, and acrolein. Methodologies for calculating VOC emission factors (EF) for restaurants that take into account VOCs emitted per person (EF person ), per kitchen stove (EF kitchen stove ) and per hour (EF hour ) are developed and discussed. Methodologies for deriving VOC emission inventories (S) from restaurants are further defined and discussed based on two categories: cuisine types (S type ) and restaurant scales (S scale ). The range of S type and S scale are 4124.33-7818.04t/year and 1355.11-2402.21t/year, respectively. We also found that S type and S scale for 100,000 people are 17.07-32.36t/year and 5.61-9.95t/year, respectively. Based on Environmental Kuznets Curve, the annual total amount of VOCs emissions from catering industry in different provinces in China was estimated, which was 5680.53t/year, 6122.43t/year, and 66,244.59t/year for Shangdong and Guangdong provinces and whole China, respectively

  8. Temporal variation of VOC emission from solvent and water based wood stains

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Loiotile, Annamaria Demarinis; Fracchiolla, Roberta; Palmisani, Jolanda; Saracino, Maria Rosaria; Tutino, Maria

    2015-08-01

    Solvent- and water-based wood stains were monitored using a small test emission chamber in order to characterize their emission profiles in terms of Total and individual VOCs. The study of concentration-time profiles of individual VOCs enabled to identify the compounds emitted at higher concentration for each type of stain, to examine their decay curve and finally to estimate the concentration in a reference room. The solvent-based wood stain was characterized by the highest Total VOCs emission level (5.7 mg/m3) that decreased over time more slowly than those related to water-based ones. The same finding was observed for the main detected compounds: Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylenes, Styrene, alpha-Pinene and Camphene. On the other hand, the highest level of Limonene was emitted by a water-based wood stain. However, the concentration-time profile showed that water-based product was characterized by a remarkable reduction of the time of maximum and minimum emission: Limonene concentration reached the minimum concentration in about half the time compared to the solvent-based product. According to AgBB evaluation scheme, only one of the investigated water-based wood stains can be classified as a low-emitting product whose use may not determine any potential adverse effect on human health.

  9. Determination of radon exhalation from construction materials using VOC emission test chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, M; Jann, O; Kemski, J; Schneider, U; Krocker, C; Hoffmann, B

    2013-10-01

    The inhalation of (222) Rn (radon) decay products is one of the most important reasons for lung cancer after smoking. Stony building materials are an important source of indoor radon. This article describes the determination of the exhalation rate of stony construction materials by the use of commercially available measuring devices in combination with VOC emission test chambers. Five materials - two types of clay brick, clinker brick, light-weight concrete brick, and honeycomb brick - generally used for wall constructions were used for the experiments. Their contribution to real room concentrations was estimated by applying room model parameters given in ISO 16000-9, RP 112, and AgBB. This knowledge can be relevant, if for instance indoor radon concentration is limited by law. The test set-up used here is well suited for application in test laboratories dealing with VOC emission testing. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs): chemical compositions and separation of sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bin; Coggon, Matthew M.; Koss, Abigail R.; Warneke, Carsten; Eilerman, Scott; Peischl, Jeff; Aikin, Kenneth C.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; de Gouw, Joost A.

    2017-04-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) emit a large number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere. In this study, we conducted mobile laboratory measurements of VOCs, methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) downwind of dairy cattle, beef cattle, sheep and chicken CAFO facilities in northeastern Colorado using a hydronium ion time-of-flight chemical-ionization mass spectrometer (H3O+ ToF-CIMS), which can detect numerous VOCs. Regional measurements of CAFO emissions in northeastern Colorado were also performed using the NOAA WP-3D aircraft during the Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNEX) campaign. Alcohols and carboxylic acids dominate VOC concentrations and the reactivity of the VOCs with hydroxyl (OH) radicals. Sulfur-containing and phenolic species provide the largest contributions to the odor activity values and the nitrate radical (NO3) reactivity of VOC emissions, respectively. VOC compositions determined from mobile laboratory and aircraft measurements generally agree well with each other. The high time-resolution mobile measurements allow for the separation of the sources of VOCs from different parts of the operations occurring within the facilities. We show that the emissions of ethanol are primarily associated with feed storage and handling. Based on mobile laboratory measurements, we apply a multivariate regression analysis using NH3 and ethanol as tracers to determine the relative importance of animal-related emissions (animal exhalation and waste) and feed-related emissions (feed storage and handling) for different VOC species. Feed storage and handling contribute significantly to emissions of alcohols, carbonyls, carboxylic acids and sulfur-containing species. Emissions of phenolic species and nitrogen-containing species are predominantly associated with animals and their waste.

  11. Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from Animal Husbandry: Chemical Compositions, Separation of Sources and Animal Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, B.; Coggon, M.; Koss, A.; Warneke, C.; Eilerman, S. J.; Neuman, J. A.; Peischl, J.; Aikin, K. C.; Ryerson, T. B.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are important sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere. We used a hydronium ion time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (H3O+ ToF-CIMS) to measure VOC emissions from CAFOs in the Northern Front Range of Colorado during an aircraft campaign (SONGNEX) for regional contributions and from a mobile laboratory sampling for chemical characterizations of individual animal feedlots. The main VOCs emitted from CAFOs include carboxylic acids, alcohols, carbonyls, phenolic species, sulfur- and nitrogen-containing species. Alcohols and carboxylic acids dominate VOC concentrations. Sulfur-containing and phenolic species become more important in terms of odor activity values and NO3 reactivity, respectively. The high time-resolution mobile measurements allow the separation of the sources of VOCs from different parts of the operations occurring within the facilities. We show that the increase of ethanol concentrations were primarily associated with feed storage and handling. We apply a multivariate regression analysis using NH3 and ethanol as tracers to attribute the relative importance of animal-related emissions (animal exhalation and waste) and feed-related emissions (feed storage and handling) for different VOC species. Feed storage and handling contribute significantly to emissions of alcohols, carbonyls and carboxylic acids. Phenolic species and nitrogen-containing species are predominantly associated with animals and their waste. VOC ratios can be potentially used as indicators for the separation of emissions from dairy and beef cattle from the regional aircraft measurements.

  12. Influence of Urban Traffic Driving Conditions and Vehicle Cubic Capacity on CO and VOC Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Negoitescu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The reports regarding the global warming warn on the urgent need to reduce pollutant emissions and in particular greenhouse emissions. The performed analysis shows that cars equipped with engines operating on petrol, lead to a lower level of pollution, from the point of view of CO (carbon monoxide and VOCs (volatile organic compounds emissions at speeds above 50km/ h. Since driving in urban traffic mode involves driving with a speed up to 50km/h, it was comparatively analyzed the automobile engines operation with different cubic capacities. In conclusion, in terms of the analyzed emissions in accordance with the emission standards requirements for urban driving situations, it results that the accepted values of these emissions are recorded for automobile engines of low cubic capacities (under 1.4 l.

  13. Dynamic relationship between the VOC emissions from a Scots pine stem and the tree water relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhatalo, Anni; Chan, Tommy; Aalto, Juho; Kolari, Pasi; Rissanen, Kaisa; Hakola, Hannele; Hölttä, Teemu; Bäck, Jaana

    2013-04-01

    The stems of coniferous trees contain huge storages of oleoresin. The composition of oleoresin depends on e.g. tree species, age, provenance, health status, and environmental conditions. Oleoresin is under pressure in the extensive network of resin ducts in wood and needles. It flows out from a mechanically damaged site to protect the tree by sealing the wounded site. Once in contact with air, volatile parts of oleoresin evaporate, and the residual compounds harden to make a solid protective seal over damaged tissues. The hardening time of the resin depends on evaporation rate of the volatiles which in turn depends on temperature. The storage is also toxic to herbivores and attracts predators that restrict the herbivore damage. Despite abundant knowledge on emissions of volatile isoprenoids from foliage, very little is known about their emissions from woody plant parts. We set up an experiment to measure emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes as well as two oxygenated VOCs, methanol and acetone, from a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stem and branches. The measurements were started in early April and continued until mid-June, 2012. Simultaneously, we measured the dynamics of whole stem and xylem diameter changes, stem sap flow rate and foliage transpiration rate. These measurements were used to estimate A) pressure changes inside the living stem tissue and the water conducting xylem, B) the refilling of stem water stores after winter dehydration (the ratio of sap flow at the stem base to water loss by foliage), and C) the increase in tree water transport capacity (the ratio of maximum daily sap flow rate to the diurnal variation in xylem pressure) during spring due to winter embolism refilling and/or the temperature dependent root water uptake capacity. The results show that already very early in spring, significant VOC emissions from pine stem can be detected, and that they exhibit a diurnal cycle similar to that of ambient temperature. During the highest emission

  14. The Amazonian Floodplains, an ecotype with challenging questions on volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselmeier, J.

    2012-12-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are affected by a variety of biotic and abiotic factors such as light intensity, temperature, CO2 and drought. Another factor usually overlooked but very important for the tropical rainforest in Amazonia is regular flooding. According to recent estimates, the total Amazonian floodplain area easily ranges up to 700,000 km^2, including whitewater river floodplains (várzea) blackwater regions (igapó) and further clearwater regions. Regarding the total Amazonian wetlands the area sums up to more than 2.000.000 km^2, i.e. 30% of Amazonia. To survive the flooding periods causing anoxic conditions for the root system of up to several months, vegetation has developed several morphological, anatomical and physiological strategies. One is to switch over the root metabolism to fermentation, thus producing ethanol as one of the main products. Ethanol is a toxic metabolite which is transported into the leaves by the transpiration stream. From there it can either be directly emitted into the atmosphere, or can be re-metabolized to acetaldehyde and/or acetate. All of these compounds are volatile enough to be partly released into the atmosphere. We observed emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid under root anoxia. Furthermore, plant stress induced by flooding also affected leaf primary physiological processes as well as other VOC emissions such as the release of isoprenoids and other volatiles. For example, Hevea spruceana could be identified as a monoterpene emitting tree species behaving differently upon anoxia depending on the origin, with increasing emissions of the species from igapó and decreasing with the corresponding species from várzea. Contrasting such short term inundations, studies of VOC emissions under long term conditions (2-3 months) did not confirm the ethanol/acetaldehyde emissions, whereas emissions of other VOC species decreased considerably. These results demonstrate that the transfer of our knowledge

  15. PTR-MS as a technique for investigating stress induced emission of biogenic VOCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauchamp, J.; Hansel, A.; Wisthaler, A.; Kleist, E.; Miebach, M.; Weller, U.; Wildt, J.

    2004-01-01

    Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used in conjunction with two GC-MS systems to investigate stress induced emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from plants. Experiments were performed in the laboratory under well defined conditions and VOC emissions were induced by ozone exposure at variable concentrations and for different durations. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum cv. Bel W3) plants were used as the investigated species. This investigation demonstrated the ability of PTR-MS to provide excellent high time-resolution on-line measurements of the relevant species. The combination of the PTR-MS instrument with the two GC-MS systems (which enabled accurate compound identification) allowed for detailed investigation of the dynamics of the plants' responses to ozone stress. VOCs measured included methanol, C6- alcohols and aldehydes, methyl salicylate and sesquiterpenes. Results indicate that the temporal stress response of plants depend on the amount of stress encountered by the plant. Measurement technique and experimental results will be presented. (author)

  16. Measurements and modeling to quantify emissions of methane and VOCs from shale gas operations: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presto, Albert A [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-06-30

    The objectives of the project were to determine the leakage rates of methane and ozone-forming Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and the emission rates of air toxics from Marcellus shale gas activities. Methane emissions in the Marcellus Shale region were differentiated between “newer” sources associated with shale gas development and “older” sources associated with coal or conventional natural gas exploration. This project conducted measurements of methane and VOC emissions from both shale and non-shale natural gas resources. The initial scope of the project was the Marcellus Shale basin, and measurements were conducted in both the western wet gas regions (southwest PA and WV) and eastern dry gas region (northeast PA) of the basin. During this project, we obtained additional funding from other agencies to expand the scope of measurements to include additional basins. The data from both the Marcellus and other basins were combined to construct a national analysis of methane emissions from oil & gas production activities.

  17. Global Emissions of Terpenoid VOCs from Terrestrial Vegetation in the Last Millennium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta Navarro, J. C.; Smolander, S.; Struthers, H.; Zorita, E.; Ekman, A. M.; Kaplan, J. O.; Guenther, Alex B.; Arneth, A.; Riipinen, I.

    2014-06-16

    land cover change. In addition, isoprene emission sensitivity to drought proved to have signifcant short term global effects. By the end of the past millennium MEGAN isoprene emissions were 634 TgC yr-1 (13% and 19% less than during during 1750-1850 and 1000- 1200, respectively) and LPJ-GUESS emissions were 323 TgC yr-1 (15% and 16 17 20% less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Monoterpene emissions were 89 TgC yr-1 (10% and 6% higher than during 1750-1850 and 18 1000-1200, respectively) in MEGAN, and 24 TgC yr-1 (2% higher and 5% less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively) in LPJ-GUESS. MEGAN sesquiterpene emissions were 36 TgC yr-1 (10% and 4% higher than during1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Although both models capture similar emission trends, the magnitude of the emissions are different. This highlights the importance of building better constraints on VOC emissions from terrestrial vegetation.emission trends, the magnitude of the emissions are different. This highlights the importance of building better constraints on VOC emissions from terrestrial vegetation.

  18. The emissions of VOCs during co-combustion of coal with different waste materials in a fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. Gulyurtlu; P. Abelha; A. Gregorio; A. Garcia-Garcia; D. Boavida; A. Crujeira; I. Cabrita [DEECA-INETI, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2004-06-01

    The combustion of different fuels gives rise to the formation of small but appreciable amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). They basically result from incomplete combustion and their emissions have negative repercussions on health and on the environment in general. As their measurement is difficult, costly, and very time-consuming, very little is reported on the emissions of VOCs from combustion installations. In this study, various blends of two different coals with several wastes were burned in a pilot-scale fluidized bed combustor and measurements of VOCs at several locations along the combustor height as well as just before the stack were carried out. The results demonstrate that the parameters important for the formation of VOCs are temperature, excess air levels, and the effectiveness of the mixing of air with fuel. Furthermore, it was observed that coal was the principal source of VOCs, but the combustion of volatiles from fuels such as biomass, occurring in the freeboard, was important in reducing the emissions of VOCs to almost zero. 8 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Global emissions of terpenoid VOCs from terrestrial vegetation in the last millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta Navarro, J C; Smolander, S; Struthers, H; Zorita, E; Ekman, A M L; Kaplan, J O; Guenther, A; Arneth, A; Riipinen, I

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the millennial variability (1000 A.D.–2000 A.D.) of global biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions by using two independent numerical models: The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), for isoprene, monoterpene, and sesquiterpene, and Lund-Potsdam-Jena-General Ecosystem Simulator (LPJ-GUESS), for isoprene and monoterpenes. We found the millennial trends of global isoprene emissions to be mostly affected by land cover and atmospheric carbon dioxide changes, whereas monoterpene and sesquiterpene emission trends were dominated by temperature change. Isoprene emissions declined substantially in regions with large and rapid land cover change. In addition, isoprene emission sensitivity to drought proved to have significant short-term global effects. By the end of the past millennium MEGAN isoprene emissions were 634 TgC yr−1 (13% and 19% less than during 1750–1850 and 1000–1200, respectively), and LPJ-GUESS emissions were 323 TgC yr−1(15% and 20% less than during 1750–1850 and 1000–1200, respectively). Monoterpene emissions were 89 TgC yr−1(10% and 6% higher than during 1750–1850 and 1000–1200, respectively) in MEGAN, and 24 TgC yr−1 (2% higher and 5% less than during 1750–1850 and 1000–1200, respectively) in LPJ-GUESS. MEGAN sesquiterpene emissions were 36 TgC yr−1(10% and 4% higher than during 1750–1850 and 1000–1200, respectively). Although both models capture similar emission trends, the magnitude of the emissions are different. This highlights the importance of building better constraints on VOC emissions from terrestrial vegetation. PMID:25866703

  20. VOC species and emission inventory from vehicles and their SOA formation potentials estimation in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; Wang, H. L.; Li, L.; Wang, Q.; Lu, Q.; de Gouw, J. A.; Zhou, M.; Jing, S. A.; Lu, J.; Chen, C. H.

    2015-10-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) species from vehicle exhausts and gas evaporation were investigated by chassis dynamometer and on-road measurements of nine gasoline vehicles, seven diesel vehicles, five motorcycles, and four gas evaporation samples. The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass yields of gasoline, diesel, motorcycle exhausts, and gas evaporation were estimated based on the mixing ratio of measured C2-C12 VOC species and inferred carbon number distributions. High aromatic contents were measured in gasoline exhausts and contributed comparatively more SOA yield. A vehicular emission inventory was compiled based on a local survey of on-road traffic in Shanghai and real-world measurements of vehicle emission factors from previous studies in the cities of China. The inventory-based vehicular organic aerosol (OA) productions to total CO emissions were compared with the observed OA to CO concentrations (ΔOA / ΔCO) in the urban atmosphere. The results indicate that vehicles dominate the primary organic aerosol (POA) emissions and OA production, which contributed about 40 and 60 % of OA mass in the urban atmosphere of Shanghai. Diesel vehicles, which accounted for less than 20 % of vehicle kilometers of travel (VKT), contribute more than 90 % of vehicular POA emissions and 80-90 % of OA mass derived by vehicles in urban Shanghai. Gasoline exhaust could be an important source of SOA formation. Tightening the limit of aromatic content in gasoline fuel will be helpful to reduce its SOA contribution. Intermediate-volatile organic compounds (IVOCs) in vehicle exhausts greatly contribute to SOA formation in the urban atmosphere of China. However, more experiments need to be conducted to determine the contributions of IVOCs to OA pollution in China.

  1. Influence of precision of emission characteristic parameters on model prediction error of VOCs/formaldehyde from dry building material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Wei

    Full Text Available Mass transfer models are useful in predicting the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and formaldehyde from building materials in indoor environments. They are also useful for human exposure evaluation and in sustainable building design. The measurement errors in the emission characteristic parameters in these mass transfer models, i.e., the initial emittable concentration (C 0, the diffusion coefficient (D, and the partition coefficient (K, can result in errors in predicting indoor VOC and formaldehyde concentrations. These errors have not yet been quantitatively well analyzed in the literature. This paper addresses this by using modelling to assess these errors for some typical building conditions. The error in C 0, as measured in environmental chambers and applied to a reference living room in Beijing, has the largest influence on the model prediction error in indoor VOC and formaldehyde concentration, while the error in K has the least effect. A correlation between the errors in D, K, and C 0 and the error in the indoor VOC and formaldehyde concentration prediction is then derived for engineering applications. In addition, the influence of temperature on the model prediction of emissions is investigated. It shows the impact of temperature fluctuations on the prediction errors in indoor VOC and formaldehyde concentrations to be less than 7% at 23±0.5°C and less than 30% at 23±2°C.

  2. Evaporation Controlled Emission in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus; Nielsen, Peter V.; Heiselberg, Per

    -scale ventilated room when the emission is fully or partly evaporation controlled. The objective of the present research work has been to investigate the change of emission rates from small-scale experiments to full-scale ventilated rooms and to investigate the influence of the local air velocity field near......Emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from materials is traditionally determined from tests carried out in small-scale test chambers. However, a difference in scale may lead to a difference in the measured emission rate in a small-scale test chamber and the actual emission rate in a full...

  3. [Study on the quantitative estimation method for VOCs emission from petrochemical storage tanks based on tanks 4.0.9d model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wang, Min-Yan; Zhang, Jian; He, Wan-Qing; Nie, Lei; Shao, Xia

    2013-12-01

    VOCs emission from petrochemical storage tanks is one of the important emission sources in the petrochemical industry. In order to find out the VOCs emission amount of petrochemical storage tanks, Tanks 4.0.9d model is utilized to calculate the VOCs emission from different kinds of storage tanks. VOCs emissions from a horizontal tank, a vertical fixed roof tank, an internal floating roof tank and an external floating roof tank were calculated as an example. The consideration of the site meteorological information, the sealing information, the tank content information and unit conversion by using Tanks 4.0.9d model in China was also discussed. Tanks 4.0.9d model can be used to estimate VOCs emissions from petrochemical storage tanks in China as a simple and highly accurate method.

  4. Urban stress-induced biogenic VOC emissions and SOA-forming potentials in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghirardo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Trees can significantly impact the urban air chemistry by the uptake and emission of reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs, which are involved in ozone and particle formation. Here we present the emission potentials of "constitutive" (cBVOCs and "stress-induced" BVOCs (sBVOCs from the dominant broadleaf woody plant species in the megacity of Beijing. Based on the municipal tree census and cuvette BVOC measurements on leaf level, we built an inventory of BVOC emissions, and assessed the potential impact of BVOCs on secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation in 2005 and 2010, i.e., before and after realizing the large tree-planting program for the 2008 Olympic Games. We found that sBVOCs, such as fatty acid derivatives, benzenoids, and sesquiterpenes, constituted a significant fraction ( ∼  40 % of the total annual BVOC emissions, and we estimated that the overall annual BVOC budget may have doubled from  ∼  4.8  ×  109 g C year−1 in 2005 to  ∼  10.3  ×  109 g C year−1 in 2010 due to the increase in urban greening, while at the same time the emission of anthropogenic VOCs (AVOCs decreased by 24 %. Based on the BVOC emission assessment, we estimated the biological impact on SOA mass formation potential in Beijing. Constitutive and stress-induced BVOCs might produce similar amounts of secondary aerosol in Beijing. However, the main contributors of SOA-mass formations originated from anthropogenic sources (> 90 %. This study demonstrates the general importance to include sBVOCs when studying BVOC emissions. Although the main problems regarding air quality in Beijing still originate from anthropogenic activities, the present survey suggests that in urban plantation programs, the selection of low-emitting plant species has some potential beneficial effects on urban air quality.

  5. Characterization of VOCs Across Pennsylvania: Assessing Emissions from Rural, Forested, Agricultural and Natural Gas Drilling-Impacted Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannas, A. M.; Fuentes, J. D.; Ramos-Garcés, F.; Wang, D. K.; Martins, D. K.

    2012-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of both biogenic and anthropogenic origin are important to troposphere chemistry, particularly the formation of photochemical smog and secondary organic aerosol. There is concern that increased natural gas exploration may lead to increased emissions of certain VOCs during well development and due to fugitive emissions from operational well sites and pipelines. For a six-day period in June 2012, a variety of VOCs were measured using canister sampling from a mobile measurement platform. Transects from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania were studied, with samples obtained in rural, forested, urban, farm-impacted and gas well-impacted sites. As expected, biogenic VOCs and isoprene oxidation products were enhanced in forested regions, while anthropogenic non-methane hydrocarbons were enhanced in urban areas. BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) was enhanced in urban areas, but the concentrations of BTEX measured near developing and existing natural gas sites were similar to rural and forested sites. Halogenated hydrocarbons and Freon compounds were consistent at all site locations. We will discuss the specific concentrations and signatures of these compounds and assess the potential impact of agricultural activities and gas well development on the observed VOC concentrations and variability.

  6. Emission characteristics of VOCs emitted from consumer and commercial products and their ozone formation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Trieu-Vuong; Kim, Su-Yeon; Son, Youn-Suk; Choi, In-Young; Park, Seong-Ryong; Sunwoo, Young; Kim, Jo-Chun

    2015-06-01

    The characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from several consumer and commercial products (body wash, dishwashing detergent, air freshener, windshield washer fluid, lubricant, hair spray, and insecticide) were studied and compared. The spray products were found to emit the highest amount of VOCs (~96 wt%). In contrast, the body wash products showed the lowest VOC contents (~1.6 wt%). In the spray products, 21.6-96.4 % of the VOCs were propane, iso-butane, and n-butane, which are the components of liquefied petroleum gas. Monoterpene (C10H16) was the dominant component of the VOCs in the non-spray products (e.g., body wash, 53-88 %). In particular, methanol was present with the highest amount of VOCs in windshield washer fluid products. In terms of the number of carbon, the windshield washer fluids, lubricants, insecticides, and hair sprays comprised >95 % of the VOCs in the range C2-C5. The VOCs in the range C6-C10 were predominantly found in the body wash products. The dishwashing detergents and air fresheners contained diverse VOCs from C2 to C11. Besides comprising hazardous VOCs, VOCs from consumer products were also ozone precursors. The ozone formation potential of the consumer and commercial spray products was estimated to be higher than those of liquid and gel materials. In particular, the hair sprays showed the highest ozone formation potential.

  7. Light-Duty GDI Vehicle PM and VOC Speciated Emissions at Differing Ambient Temperatures with Ethanol Blend Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the rise in the use of ethanol-blend gasoline in the US and more manufacturers implementing gasoline direct injection (GDI) technologies, interest is increasing in how these fuel blends affect PM and VOC emissions in GDI technology vehicles. EPA conducted a study characteri...

  8. Prediction of short-term and long-term VOC emissions from SBR bitumen-backed carpet under different temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Chen, Q.; Bluyssen, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents two models for volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from carpet. One is a numerical model using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tech-nique for short-term predictions, the other an analytical model for long-term predictions. The numerical model can (1) deal with

  9. Urban and Industrial VOC Emissions in the Seoul Metropolitan Area and Surrounding Region during the KORUS-AQ Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, I. J.; Blake, D. R.; Blake, N. J.; Meinardi, S.; Barletta, B.; Hughes, S.; Vizenor, N.; Emmons, L. K.; Barré, J.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, J.; Schroeder, J.; Knote, C. J.; Fried, A.; Armin, W.; Min, K. E.; Jeong, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Korea-United States Air Quality Study (KORUS-AQ) took place in May and June, 2016 to better understand air pollution in Korea. During the campaign 2650 whole air samples were collected aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft and analyzed for more than 80 C1-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including alkanes, aromatics, alkenes, halocarbons and organic nitrates. Approximately 300 samples were collected at low altitude (health effects for facility workers and local residents. Ongoing work includes further clarifying specific source influences in the SMA, assessing emission inventories and the contribution of individual VOCs to ozone production, and linking the airborne data to ground-based measurements.

  10. Investigating GHGs and VOCs emissions from a shale gas industry in Germany and the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremonese, L.; Weger, L.; Denier Van Der Gon, H.; Bartels, M. P.; Butler, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    The shale gas and shale oil production boom experienced in the US led the country to a significant reduction of foreign fuel imports and an increase in domestic energy security. Several European countries are considering to extract domestic shale gas reserves that might serve as a bridge in the transition to renewables. Nevertheless, the generation of shale gas leads to emissions of CH4 and pollutants such as PM, NOx and VOCs, which in turn impact local and regional air quality and climate. Results from numerous studies investigating greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions from shale oil and shale gas extraction in North America can help in estimating the impact of such industrial activity elsewhere, when local regulations are taken into consideration. In order to investigate the extent of emissions and their distribution from a potential shale gas industry in Germany and the United Kingdom, we develop three drilling scenarios compatible with desired national gas outputs based on available geological information on potential productivity ranges of the reservoirs. Subsequently we assign activity data and emissions factors to wells under development, as well as to producing wells (from activities at the well site up until processing plants) to enable emissions quantification. We then define emissions scenarios to explore different shale gas development pathways: 1) implementation of "high-technology" devices and recovery practices (low emissions); 2) implementation of "low-technology" devices and recovery practices (high emissions), and 3) intermediate scenarios reflecting assumptions on local and national settings, or extremely high emission events (e.g. super-emitters); all with high and low boundaries of confidence driven by uncertainties. A comparison of these unconventional gas production scenarios to conventional natural gas production in Germany and the United Kingdom is also planned. The aim of this work is to highlight important variables and their ranges, to

  11. Emissions of volatile hydrocarbons (VOC) during drying of sawdust; Utslaepp av laettflyktiga kolvaeten vid torkning av biobraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granstroem, Karin

    2001-08-01

    In the project 'Emissions of volatile hydrocarbons (VOC) during drying of sawdust' the identity, amount and composition of monoterpenes found in the drying medium of a fluidized bed drier drying sawdust from Norwegian spruce and Scotch pine has been determined. The energy efficiency of the drier has also been measured. The aim of this project was to reduce both emissions and energy required for drying, to minimize environmental and health hazards, and make drying more competitive. This would help our primary target group - small scale saw mills - to make use of the sawdust produced as a by- product by making pellets and briquettes. If the VOC remains in the sawdust its energy content will improve and therefore also its value as a fuel. The sawdust was dried to different moisture levels in a spouted bed drier at atmospheric pressure, using either recirculating or not recirculating drying medium with temperatures 140, 170 or 200 deg C. The emissions of VOC were measured using a flame ionization detector (FID) and the nature of the emissions analyzed with a gas chromatograph with mass spectrometric detector (GC-MS). The GC-MS data is reported as emitted substance per oven dry weight (odw). Experiments show that terpenes do not leave the sawdust in great amounts until it is dried to a moisture content (water/total weight) below 10%. When sawdust is dried to a predetermined moisture level, the terpene emissions increase when warmer incoming drying medium is used. The monoterpenes found in greatest amount are a-pinene, b-pinene, 3-carene, limonene and myrcene. y-terpinene was detected in emissions from pine but not from spruce. The relative amounts of different monoterpenes did not vary significantly with post-drying moisture content, but drying medium of higher temperature caused an increase in the relative amount of less volatile monoterpenes. The FID data is reported as concentration of VOC in the drying medium, and as weight VOC per odw. The concentration

  12. Reduction of VOC emission from natural flours filled biodegradable bio-composites for automobile interior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Wook; Lee, Byoung-Ho; Kim, Sumin; Kim, Hyun-Joong; Yun, Ju-Ho; Yoo, Seung-Eul; Sohn, Jong Ryeul

    2011-03-15

    Various experiments, such as the thermal extract (TE) method, field and emission cell (FLEC) method and 20 L small chamber, were performed to examine the total volatile organic compound (TVOC) emissions from bio-composites. The TVOC of neat poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was ranged from 0.26 mg/m(2)h to 4.11 mg/m(2)h with increasing temperature. For both PLA bio-composites with pineapple flour and destarched cassava flour, the temperature increased from 0.30 mg/m(2)h to 3.72 mg/m(2)h and from 0.19 mg/m(2)h to 8.74 mg/m(2)h, respectively. The TVOC emission factors of all samples increased gradually with increasing temperature. Above 70°C, both PLA-P and PLA-C composites had higher TVOC emission factors than neat PLA due to the rapid emission of natural volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as furfural (2-furancarboxyaldehyde). PLA composites containing 30 wt% flour had high 1,4-dioxane reduction ability, >50%. The TVOC of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) was emitted rapidly from 50 °C to 90 °C due to succinic acid from the pyrolysis of PBS. The TVOC emission factors of PLA bio-composite and PBS bio-composites were reduced using the bake-out method (temperature at 70 °C and baking time 5h). The initial TVOC emission factors of the PLA and PBS bio-composites with pineapple flour and destarched cassava flour were reduced by the baking treatment using FLEC. The TVOC factors from PLA and PBS decreased until 5 days and were commonly maintained a relatively constant value after 5 days using 20L small chamber. The decrease in TVOC emission showed a similar trend to that of the TE and FLEC method. This method confirmed the beneficial effect of the baking treatment effect for polypropylene and linear density polyethylene (LDPE). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the food and drink industries of the European community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passant, Neil R.; Richardson, Stephen J.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Gibson, N.; Woodfield, M. J.; van der Lugt, Jan Pieter; Wolsink, Johan H.; Hesselink, Paul G. M.

    Estimates were made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released into the atmosphere as a result of the industrial manufacture and processing of food and drink in the European Community. The estimates were based on a review of literature sources, industrial and government contacts and recent measurements. Data were found on seven food manufacturing sectors (baking, vegetable oil extraction, solid fat processing, animal rendering, fish meal processing, coffee production and sugar beet processing) and three drink manufacturing sectors (brewing, spirit production and wine making). The principle of a data quality label is advocated to illustrate the authors' confidence in the data, and to highlight areas for further research. Emissions of ethanol from bread baking and spirit maturation were found to be the principle sources. However, significant losses of hexane and large quantities of an ill-defined mixture of partially oxidized hydrocarbons were noted principally from seed oil extraction and the drying of plant material, respectively. This latter mixture included low molecular weight aldehydes, carboxylic acids, ketones, amines and esters. However, the precise composition of many emissions were found to be poorly understood. The total emission from the food and drink industry in the EC was calculated as 260 kt yr -1. However, many processes within the target industry were found to be completely uncharacterized and therefore not included in the overall estimate (e.g. soft drink manufacture, production of animal food, flavourings, vinegar, tea, crisps and other fried snacks). Moreover, the use of data quality labels illustrated the fact that many of our estimates were based on limited data. Hence, further emissions monitoring is recommended from identified sources (e.g. processing of sugar beet, solid fat and fish meal) and from uncharacterized sources.

  14. Initial Analysis of VOCs Speciation in CREATE Emissions Inventory using the MAPS-Seoul Aircraft Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, C.; Woo, J. H.; Lee, Y.; Kim, J.; Choi, K. C.; Kim, Y.; Kim, J.; Jang, Y. K.; Kim, S.

    2016-12-01

    As the first international cooperative air quality field study, the MAPS-Seoul (Megacity Air Pollution Studies-Seoul) aircraft mission was conducted in May - June 2016 over the South Korea, to understand of climate and atmospheric environment. The aircraft carried observation instruments for measurements of GHGs, ozone and its precursors, aerosols, and chemical tracers. The CREATE (Comprehensive Regional Emissions inventory for Atmospheric Environment) emissions inventory and SMOKE-Asia emission processing system were used to support chemical forecasting and to serve as a priori for evaluation. Initial results of comparison studies show large discrepancies in VOC species over the South Korea - especially over urban regions. Several VOC species observed high near megacities and petro-chemical plants but under-predicted by chemical transport models (CTMs) - possibly due to relatively low emissions. The chemical speciation profiles and emissions inventory for each emission sources, therefore, have to be re-visited to improve emissions information. In this study, we have; 1) re-examined our emissions inventory and emission speciation processes, 2) and tried to find possible missing sources and alternative chemical speciation profiles, to improve our modelling emissions inventory. Initial review of the mapping and classification profiles, the original US chemical speciation profiles were found to be low in partitioning painting and surface coating sources, although they are the very significant contributors. Unlike other major national cities in China, Shanghai's VOC emissions fraction seems very similar to that of Seoul. Continuous analysis of major urban and industrial areas of the country will be presented at site.Acknowledgements : This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "Climate Change Correspondence Program". This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Environment Research (NIER), funded by the Ministry of Environment

  15. Surface emission determination of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from a closed industrial waste landfill using a self-designed static flux chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, E; Perales, J F; Roca, F J; Guardino, X

    2014-02-01

    Closed landfills can be a source of VOC and odorous nuisances to their atmospheric surroundings. A self-designed cylindrical air flux chamber was used to measure VOC surface emissions in a closed industrial landfill located in Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain. The two main objectives of the study were the evaluation of the performance of the chamber setup in typical measurement conditions and the determination of the emission rates of 60 different VOC from that industrial landfill, generating a valuable database that can be useful in future studies related to industrial landfill management. Triplicate samples were taken in five selected sampling points. VOC were sampled dynamically using multi-sorbent bed tubes (Carbotrap, Carbopack X, Carboxen 569) connected to SKC AirCheck 2000 pumps. The analysis was performed by automatic thermal desorption coupled with a capillary gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry detector. The emission rates of sixty VOC were calculated for each sampling point in an effort to characterize surface emissions. To calculate average, minimum and maximum emission values for each VOC, the results were analyzed by three different methods: Global, Kriging and Tributary area. Global and Tributary area methodologies presented similar values, with total VOC emissions of 237 ± 48 and 222 ± 46 g day(-1), respectively; however, Kriging values were lower, 77 ± 17 gd ay(-1). The main contributors to the total emission rate were aldehydes (nonanal and decanal), acetic acid, ketones (acetone), aromatic hydrocarbons and alcohols. Most aromatic hydrocarbon (except benzene, naphthalene and methylnaphthalenes) and aldehyde emission rates exhibited strong correlations with the rest of VOC of their family, indicating a possible common source of these compounds. B:T ratio obtained from the emission rates of the studied landfill suggested that the factors that regulate aromatic hydrocarbon distributions in the landfill emissions are different from the ones

  16. Comparison of the production of solvent based on fossil and renewable raw material with regard to their VOC-emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moederl, U.

    1993-10-01

    There are three principle ways for the treatment of phytogenic raw materials: biotechnological processes, pyrolysis and gasification, and the utilisation of phytogenic oils and resins. Because of the last possibility the evaporation times of these compounds were modelled to be able to classify these emissions either natural or not. A rough estimation shows that α-Pinen as the main component of Austrian turpentine oil evaporates within one month - which is much faster than the minimum time for rot. The consequence is that the use of these solvents does not effect the total VOC-emissions because they may be considered as delayed biogenic emissions at different locations. The comparison of the biotechnological processes is done for the following solvents which are also most important basic chemicals for other organic technologies: methanol, ethanol, and methane. The emissions of the production of acetone and butanol can only be estimated in comparison to ethanol. The least amount of VOC-emissions for the production of ethanol is released by using sugar-beet as raw material. The emissions are only insignificantly higher by starting from crude-oil and setting the balance boundaries to Austria. Using wheat is worse and calculating all emissions of the crude-oil processes - including the emissions abroad - is worst. There is no significant difference between conventional and organic farming. (Suda)

  17. Emissions and photochemistry of oxygenated VOCs in urban plumes in the Northeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sommariva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Photochemical processes inside urban plumes in the Northeast of the United States have been studied using a highly detailed chemical model, based upon the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM. The model results have been compared to measurements of oxygenated VOCs (acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, acetaldehyde, acetic acid and methanol obtained during several flights of the NOAA WP-3D aircraft, which sampled plumes from the New York City area during the ICARTT campaign in 2004. The agreement between the model and the measurements was within 40–60 % for all species, except acetic acid.

    The model results have been used to study the formation and photochemical evolution of acetone, methyl ethyl ketone and acetaldehyde. Under the conditions encountered during the ICARTT campaign, acetone is produced from the oxidation of propane (24–28 % and i-propanol (<15 % and from a number of products of i-pentane oxidation. Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK is mostly produced from the oxidation of n-butane (20–30 % and 3-methylpentane (<40 %. Acetaldehyde is formed from several precursors, mostly small alkenes, >C5 alkanes, propanal and MEK. Ethane and ethanol oxidation account, respectively, for 6–23 % and 5–25 % of acetaldehyde photochemical formation. The results highlight the importance of alkanes for the photochemical production of ketones and the role of hydroperoxides in sustaining their formation far from the emission sources.

  18. Contrasting winter and summer VOC mixing ratios at a forest site in the Western Mediterranean Basin: the effect of local biogenic emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Seco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs are involved in ozone and aerosol generation, thus having implications for air quality and climate. VOCs and their emissions by vegetation also have important ecological roles as they can protect plants from stresses and act as communication cues between plants and between plants and animals. In spite of these key environmental and biological roles, the reports on seasonal and daily VOC mixing ratios in the literature for Mediterranean natural environments are scarce.

    We conducted seasonal (winter and summer measurements of VOC mixing ratios in an elevated (720 m a.s.l. holm oak Mediterranean forest site near the metropolitan area of Barcelona (NE Iberian Peninsula. Methanol was the most abundant compound among all the VOCs measured in both seasons. While aromatic VOCs showed almost no seasonal variability, short-chain oxygenated VOCs presented higher mixing ratios in summer, presumably due to greater emission by vegetation and increased photochemistry, both enhanced by the high temperatures and solar radiation in summer. Isoprenoid VOCs showed the biggest seasonal change in mixing ratios: they increased by one order of magnitude in summer, as a result of the vegetation's greater physiological activity and emission rates. The maximum diurnal concentrations of ozone increased in summer too, most likely due to more intense photochemical activity and the higher levels of VOCs in the air.

    The daily variation of VOC mixing ratios was mainly governed by the wind regime of the mountain, as the majority of the VOC species analyzed followed a very similar diel cycle. Mountain and sea breezes that develop after sunrise advect polluted air masses to the mountain. These polluted air masses had previously passed over the urban and industrial areas surrounding the Barcelona metropolitan area, where they were enriched in NOx and in VOCs of biotic and abiotic origin. Moreover, these

  19. Contrasting winter and summer VOC mixing ratios at a forest site in the Western Mediterranean Basin: the effect of local biogenic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco, R.; Peñuelas, J.; Filella, I.; Llusià, J.; Molowny-Horas, R.; Schallhart, S.; Metzger, A.; Müller, M.; Hansel, A.

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are involved in ozone and aerosol generation, thus having implications for air quality and climate. VOCs and their emissions by vegetation also have important ecological roles as they can protect plants from stresses and act as communication cues between plants and between plants and animals. In spite of these key environmental and biological roles, the reports on seasonal and daily VOC mixing ratios in the literature for Mediterranean natural environments are scarce. We conducted seasonal (winter and summer) measurements of VOC mixing ratios in an elevated (720 m a.s.l.) holm oak Mediterranean forest site near the metropolitan area of Barcelona (NE Iberian Peninsula). Methanol was the most abundant compound among all the VOCs measured in both seasons. While aromatic VOCs showed almost no seasonal variability, short-chain oxygenated VOCs presented higher mixing ratios in summer, presumably due to greater emission by vegetation and increased photochemistry, both enhanced by the high temperatures and solar radiation in summer. Isoprenoid VOCs showed the biggest seasonal change in mixing ratios: they increased by one order of magnitude in summer, as a result of the vegetation's greater physiological activity and emission rates. The maximum diurnal concentrations of ozone increased in summer too, most likely due to more intense photochemical activity and the higher levels of VOCs in the air. The daily variation of VOC mixing ratios was mainly governed by the wind regime of the mountain, as the majority of the VOC species analyzed followed a very similar diel cycle. Mountain and sea breezes that develop after sunrise advect polluted air masses to the mountain. These polluted air masses had previously passed over the urban and industrial areas surrounding the Barcelona metropolitan area, where they were enriched in NOx and in VOCs of biotic and abiotic origin. Moreover, these polluted air masses receive additional biogenic

  20. SAFARI 2000 Leaf-Level VOC Emissions, Maun, Botswana, Wet Season 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) comprise a significant proportion of trace gases in the atmospheric environment and play an important role in the...

  1. SAFARI 2000 Leaf-Level VOC Emissions, Maun, Botswana, Wet Season 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) comprise a significant proportion of trace gases in the atmospheric environment and play an important role in...

  2. VOC species and emission inventory from vehicles and their SOA formation potentials estimation in Shanghai, China

    OpenAIRE

    C. Huang; H. L. Wang; L. Li; Q. Wang; Q. Lu; J. A. de Gouw; M. Zhou; S. A. Jing; J. Lu; C. H. Chen

    2015-01-01

    VOC species from vehicle exhaust and gas evaporation were investigated by chassis dynamometer and on-road measurements of 9 gasoline vehicles, 7 diesel vehicles, 5 motorcycles, and 4 gas evaporation samples. The SOA mass yields of gasoline, diesel, motorcycle exhausts, and gas evaporation were calculated based on the mixing ratio of individual VOC species. The SOA mass yields of gasoline and motorcycle exhaust were similar to the results of the published smo...

  3. Biological anoxic treatment of O2-free VOC emissions from the petrochemical industry: A proof of concept study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñoz, Raúl; Souza, Theo S.O.; Glittmann, Lina; Pérez, Rebeca; Quijano, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The treatment of O 2 -free VOC emissions can be done by means of denitrifying processes. •Toluene vapors were successfully removed under anoxic denitrifying conditions. • A high bacterial diversity was observed. • Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were the predominant phyla. • The nature and number of metabolites accumulated varied with the toluene load -- Abstract: An innovative biofiltration technology based on anoxic biodegradation was proposed in this work for the treatment of inert VOC-laden emissions from the petrochemical industry. Anoxic biofiltration does not require conventional O 2 supply to mineralize VOCs, which increases process safety and allows for the reuse of the residual gas for inertization purposes in plant. The potential of this technology was evaluated in a biotrickling filter using toluene as a model VOC at loads of 3, 5, 12 and 34 g m −3 h −1 (corresponding to empty bed residence times of 16, 8, 4 and 1.3 min) with a maximum elimination capacity of ∼3 g m −3 h −1 . However, significant differences in the nature and number of metabolites accumulated at each toluene load tested were observed, o- and p-cresol being detected only at 34 g m −3 h −1 , while benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde and phenol were detected at lower loads. A complete toluene removal was maintained after increasing the inlet toluene concentration from 0.5 to 1 g m −3 (which entailed a loading rate increase from 3 to 6 g m −3 h −1 ), indicating that the system was limited by mass transfer rather than by biological activity. A high bacterial diversity was observed, the predominant phyla being Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria

  4. Biological anoxic treatment of O{sub 2}-free VOC emissions from the petrochemical industry: A proof of concept study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, Raúl; Souza, Theo S.O. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Glittmann, Lina [Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, Department of Supply Engineering, Wolfenbüttel (Germany); Pérez, Rebeca [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Quijano, Guillermo [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • The treatment of O{sub 2}-free VOC emissions can be done by means of denitrifying processes. •Toluene vapors were successfully removed under anoxic denitrifying conditions. • A high bacterial diversity was observed. • Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were the predominant phyla. • The nature and number of metabolites accumulated varied with the toluene load -- Abstract: An innovative biofiltration technology based on anoxic biodegradation was proposed in this work for the treatment of inert VOC-laden emissions from the petrochemical industry. Anoxic biofiltration does not require conventional O{sub 2} supply to mineralize VOCs, which increases process safety and allows for the reuse of the residual gas for inertization purposes in plant. The potential of this technology was evaluated in a biotrickling filter using toluene as a model VOC at loads of 3, 5, 12 and 34 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1} (corresponding to empty bed residence times of 16, 8, 4 and 1.3 min) with a maximum elimination capacity of ∼3 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1}. However, significant differences in the nature and number of metabolites accumulated at each toluene load tested were observed, o- and p-cresol being detected only at 34 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1}, while benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde and phenol were detected at lower loads. A complete toluene removal was maintained after increasing the inlet toluene concentration from 0.5 to 1 g m{sup −3} (which entailed a loading rate increase from 3 to 6 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1}), indicating that the system was limited by mass transfer rather than by biological activity. A high bacterial diversity was observed, the predominant phyla being Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria.

  5. Pilot-scale testing of renewable biocatalyst for swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Devin L.; Koziel, Jacek A.; Bruning, Kelsey; Parker, David B.

    2017-02-01

    Comprehensive control of odors, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with swine production is a critical need. A pilot-scale experiment was conducted to evaluate surface-applied soybean peroxidase (SBP) and calcium peroxide (CaO2) as a manure additive to mitigate emissions of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) including dimethyl disulfide/methanethiol (DMDS/MT), dimethyl trisulfide, n-butyric acid, valeric acid, isovaleric acid, p-cresol, indole, and skatole. The secondary impact on emissions of NH3, H2S, and GHG was also measured. The SBP was tested at four treatments (2.28-45.7 kg/m2 manure) with CaO2 (4.2% by weight of SBP) over 137 days. Significant reductions in VOC emissions were observed: DMDS/MT (36.2%-84.7%), p-cresol (53.1%-89.5%), and skatole (63.2%-92.5%). There was a corresponding significant reduction in NH3 (14.6%-67.6%), and significant increases in the greenhouse gases CH4 (32.7%-232%) and CO2 (20.8%-124%). The remaining emissions (including N2O) were not statistically different. At a cost relative to 0.8% of a marketed hog it appears that SBP/CaO2 treatment could be a promising option at the lowest (2.28 kg/m2) treatment rate for reducing odorous gas and NH3 emissions at swine operations, and field-scale testing is warranted.

  6. A CFD modeling study of the impacts of NO x and VOC emissions on reactive pollutant dispersion in and above a street canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Kyung-Hwan; Baik, Jong-Jin

    2012-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that includes the carbon bond mechanism IV (CBM-IV) is developed and used to investigate reactive pollutant dispersion in and above a street canyon with an aspect ratio of 1. Fourteen emission scenarios of NO x and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are considered. Dispersion types are classified into NO-type, NO 2-type, and O 3-type dispersion that exhibit concentration maxima at the street bottom, near the center of the street canyon, and above the street canyon, respectively. For the base emission scenario, the number of reactive species is 9 in the NO-type dispersion, 10 in the NO 2-type dispersion, and 15 in the O 3-type dispersion. As the NO x emission level decreases or the VOC emission level increases, some species in the O 3-type dispersion are shifted to the NO 2-type dispersion. The VOC-to-NO x emission ratio is found to be an important factor in determining the transition of dispersion type. In this transition process, OH plays a key role through a radical chain including HO 2, RO, and RO 2. Because of their high OH reactivities, XYL (xylene) and OLE (olefin carbon bond) among VOCs are largely responsible for the transition of dispersion type. The O 3 sensitivity is examined by reducing NO x or VOC emission level by a half. Because the NO titration of O 3 is more pronounced than the NO 2 photolysis and the radical chain process in the street canyon, the O 3 concentration therein is negatively correlated with the NO x emission level and weakly correlated with the VOC emission level. As a result, the street canyon is a negatively NO x-sensitive regime.

  7. Assessment of control strategies for reducing volatile organic compound emissions from the polyvinyl chloride wallpaper production industry in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chang-Tang; Chiou, Chyow-Shan

    2006-05-01

    This study attempts to assess the effectiveness of control strategies for reducing volatile organic compound (VOC) emission from the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) wallpaper production industry. In Taiwan, methyl ethyl ketone, TOL, and cyclohexanone have comprised the major content of solvents, accounting for approximately 113,000 t/yr to avoid excessive viscosity of plasticizer dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and to increase facility in working. Emissions of these VOCs from solvents have caused serious odor and worse air quality problems. In this study, 80 stacks in five factories were tested to evaluate emission characteristics at each VOC source. After examining the VOC concentrations in the flue gases and contents, the VOC emission rate before treatment and from fugitive sources was 93,000 and 800 t/yr, respectively. In this study, the semiwet electrostatic precipitator is recommended for use as cost-effective control equipment.

  8. Unraveling the chemical complexity of biomass burning VOC emissions via H3O+ ToF-CIMS (PTR-ToF): emissions characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, A.; Sekimoto, K.; Gilman, J.; Selimovic, V.; Coggon, M.; Zarzana, K. J.; Yuan, B.; Lerner, B. M.; Brown, S. S.; Jimenez, J. L.; Krechmer, J. E.; Warneke, C.; Yokelson, R. J.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Gas-phase biomass burning emissions can include hundreds, if not thousands, of unique volatile and intermediate-volatility organic compounds. It is crucial to know the composition of these emissions to understand secondary organic aerosol formation, ozone formation, and human health effects resulting from fires. However, the composition can vary greatly with fuel type and fire combustion process. During the FIREX 2016 laboratory intensive at the US Forest Service Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana, high-resolution H3O+-CIMS (PTR-ToF) was deployed to characterize VOC emissions. More than 500 ion masses were consistently enhanced in each of 58 fires, which included a wide variety of fuel types representative of the western United States. Using a combination of extensive literature review, H3O+ and NO+ CIMS with GC preseparation, comparison to other instruments, and mass spectral context, we were able to identify the VOC contributors to 90% of the instrument signal. This provides unprecedented chemical detail in high time resolution. We present chemical characteristics of emissions, including OH reactivity and volatility, and highlight areas where better identification is needed.

  9. 湿建筑材料VOCs散发特性的实验研究%Experimental Research on the Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds(VOCs) from Wet Building Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧星; 耿耿; 李贝妮; 肖玮

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析湿建筑材料VOCs散发的规律及其影响因素,以更好地控制由室内污染源产生的VOCs污染.方法 在自制的模拟环境实验舱内,利用PGM-7240手持式VOC检测议和气相色谱仪对湿建筑材料VOCs的散发行为进行试验测试.结果 表明环境温度升高使得材料内VOCs分子热运动加剧,湿材料散发VOCs的速率加快;较高的相对湿度延长了湿材料的干燥时间,正向促进湿材料内部有机化合物的水解反应及VOCs的释放;湿材料涂层越厚,材料内部VOCs总量越多,材料干燥时间越长;较高的换气次数能缩短湿建筑材料的干燥时间.结论 湿材料释放VOCs的速率随环境温度升高而加快;增加相对湿度有助于湿材料VOCs的散发;湿材料涂层厚度与舱内VOCs质量浓度呈正比关系;提高舱内换气次数能有效促进VOCs的衰减.%This paper mainly researches the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from wet building materials in order to control the VOCs pollution caused by indoor pollution source more efficiently. The author did a series of tests to the emission using handheld VOC detector PGM-7240 in an environmental test chamber and gas chromatograph. The results show that the ambient temperature, relative humidity, coating thickness of the material and air change rate of the chamber can all have a certain influence on the VOCs e-missions of the wet building materials. This paper draws the following conclusions;the rise of ambient temperature as well as the increase of relative humidity can accelerate the emission of VOCs; the thicker the coating of the material is,the higher VOCs concentration becomes inside the chamber;increasing air change rate of the chamber can improve the decay rate of the VOCs.

  10. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from oil and natural gas activities: compositional comparison of 13 major shale basins via NOAA airborne measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, J.; Lerner, B. M.; Aikin, K. C.; De Gouw, J. A.; Koss, A.; Yuan, B.; Warneke, C.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Holloway, J. S.; Graus, M.; Tokarek, T. W.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.; Sueper, D.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    The recent and unprecedented increase in natural gas production from shale formations is associated with a rise in the production of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including natural gas plant liquids (e.g., ethane, propane, and butanes) and liquid lease condensate (e.g., pentanes, hexanes, aromatics and cycloalkanes). Since 2010, the production of natural gas liquids and the amount of natural gas vented/flared has increased by factors of ~1.28 and 1.57, respectively (U.S. Energy and Information Administration), indicating an increasingly large potential source of hydrocarbons to the atmosphere. Emission of VOCs may affect local and regional air quality due to the potential to form tropospheric ozone and organic particles as well as from the release of toxic species such as benzene and toluene. The 2015 Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNex) campaign studied emissions from oil and natural gas activities across the central United States in order to better understand their potential air quality and climate impacts. Here we present VOC measurements from 19 research flights aboard the NOAA WP-3D over 11 shale basins across 8 states. Non-methane hydrocarbons were measured using an improved whole air sampler (iWAS) with post-flight analysis via a custom-built gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The whole air samples are complimented by higher-time resolution measurements of methane (Picarro spectrometer), ethane (Aerodyne spectrometer), and VOCs (H3O+ chemical ionization mass spectrometer). Preliminary analysis show that the Permian Basin on the New Mexico/Texas border had the highest observed VOC mixing ratios for all basins studied. We will utilize VOC enhancement ratios to compare the composition of methane and VOC emissions for each basin and the associated reactivities of these gases with the hydroxyl radical, OH, as a proxy for potential ozone formation.

  11. The impact of biogenic VOC emissions on photochemical ozone formation during a high ozone pollution episode in the Iberian Peninsula in the 2003 summer season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Castell

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Throughout Europe the summer of 2003 was exceptionally warm, especially July and August. The European Environment Agency (EEA reported several ozone episodes, mainly in the first half of August. These episodes were exceptionally long-lasting, spatially extensive, and associated to high temperatures. In this paper, the 10$ndash;15 August 2003 ozone pollution event has been analyzed using meteorological and regional air quality modelling. During this period the threshold values of the European Directive 2002/3/EC were exceeded in various areas of the Iberian Peninsula.

    The aim of this paper is to computationally understand and quantify the influence of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emissions in the formation of tropospheric ozone during this high ozone episode. Being able to differentiate how much ozone comes from biogenic emissions alone and how much comes from the interaction between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions would be helpful to develop a feasible and effective ozone control strategy. The impact on ozone formation was also studied in combination with various anthropogenic emission reduction strategies, i.e., when anthropogenic VOC emissions and/or NOx emissions are reduced. The results show a great dependency of the BVOC contribution to ozone formation on the antropoghenic reduction scenario. In rural areas, the impact due to a NOx and/or VOC reduction does not change the BVOC impact. Nevertheless, within big cities or industrial zones, a NOx reduction results in a decrease of the biogenic impact in ozone levels that can reach 85 μg/m3, whereas an Anthropogenic Volatile Organic Compound (AVOC reduction results in a decrease of the BVOC contribution on ozone formation that varies from 0 to 30 μg/m3 with respect to the contribution at the same points in the 2003 base scenario. On the other hand, downwind of the big cities, a decrease in NOx produces

  12. Catalytic incineration of CO and VOC emissions over supported metal oxide catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Per-Olof

    1999-05-01

    Catalytic incineration is one of the methods to reduce the emissions of CO and VOCs. Low operation temperature and low catalyst cost are essential parameters for catalytic incinerators. Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts are frequently used today, but the cheaper metal oxide catalysts can be very competitive if comparable overall activity is obtained. This thesis concerns how it is possible to decrease the operation temperature for supported metal oxide catalysts by using different supports, active metal oxides and additives. In the thesis it is demonstrated that different copper oxide based catalysts have the best activity and durability for complete oxidation among several tested metal oxide catalysts. CuO{sub x} supported on TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed increased activity with the CuO{sub x} loading up to the threshold coverage for formation of crystalline CuO particles, which is 12 {mu}mol/m{sup 2} on TiO{sub 2} and 6 {mu}mol/m{sup 2} on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Up to the threshold coverage for CuO formation, well dispersed copper oxide species were formed on TiO{sub 2}, and a dispersed copper aluminate surface phase was formed on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Durability tests showed accelerated sintering of TiO{sub 2} by copper, but stabilisation was possible by modification of the TiO{sub 2} with CeO{sub x} before the deposition of CuO{sub x}. The stabilisation was obtained by formation of a Ce-O-Ti surface phase. Addition of CeO{sub x} also enhanced the activity of the copper oxide species thanks to favourable interaction between the active copper oxide species and the CeO{sub x} on the support, which could be seen as increased reducibility in TPR experiments. The increased activity and reducibility was also observed for CuO{sub x} supported on ceria modified Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In this regard it was shown that CuO{sub x} deposited on CeO{sub 2}(001) surfaces was substantially more active for CO oxidation than copper oxide deposited on CeO{sub 2}(111) Surfaces. This

  13. A WRF-Chem model study of the impact of VOCs emission of a huge petro-chemical industrial zone on the summertime ozone in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Lv, Zhao Feng; Li, Yue; Wang, Li Tao; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Liu, Huan

    2018-02-01

    In China, petro-chemical manufacturing plants generally gather in the particular industrial zone defined as PIZ in some cities, and distinctly influence the air quality of these cities for their massive VOCs emissions. This study aims to quantify the local and regional impacts of PIZ VOCs emission and its relevant reduction policy on the surface ozone based on WRF-Chem model, through the case study of Beijing. Firstly, the model simulation under the actual precursors' emissions over Beijing region for July 2010 is conducted and evaluated, which meteorological and chemical predictions both within the thresholds for satisfactory model performance. Then, according to simulated H2O2/HNO3 ratio, the nature of photochemical ozone formation over Beijing is decided, the VOCs-sensitive regime over the urban areas, NOx-sensitive regime over the northern and western rural areas, and both VOCssbnd and NOx-mixed sensitive regime over the southern and eastern rural areas. Finally, a 30% VOCs reduction scenario (RS) and a 100% VOCs reduction scenario (ZS) for Beijing PIZ are additional simulated by WRF-Chem. The sensitivity simulations imply that the current 30% reduction policy would bring about an O3 increase in the southern and western areas (by +4.7 ppb at PIZ site and +2.1 ppb at LLH station), and an O3 decrease in the urban center (by -1.7 ppb at GY station and -2.5 ppb at DS station) and in the northern and eastern areas (by -1.2 ppb at MYX station), mainly through interfering with the circulation of atmospheric HOx radicals. While the contribution of the total VOCs emission of PIZ to ozone is greatly prominent in the PIZ and its surrounding areas along south-north direction (12.7% at PIZ site on average), but slight in the other areas of Beijing (<3% in other four stations on average).

  14. Biocatalytic coatings for air pollution control: a proof of concept study on VOC biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, José M; Bernal, Oscar I; Flickinger, Michael C; Muñoz, Raúl; Deshusses, Marc A

    2015-02-01

    Although biofilm-based biotechnologies exhibit a large potential as solutions for off-gas treatment, the high water content of biofilms often causes pollutant mass transfer limitations, which ultimately limit their widespread application. The present study reports on the proof of concept of the applicability of bioactive latex coatings for air pollution control. Toluene vapors served as a model volatile organic compound (VOC). The results showed that Pseudomonas putida F1 cells could be successfully entrapped in nanoporous latex coatings while preserving their toluene degradation activity. Bioactive latex coatings exhibited toluene specific biodegradation rates 10 times higher than agarose-based biofilms, because the thin coatings were less subject to diffusional mass transfer limitations. Drying and pollutant starvation were identified as key factors inducing a gradual deterioration of the biodegradation capacity in these innovative coatings. This study constitutes the first application of bioactive latex coatings for VOC abatement. These coatings could become promising means for air pollution control. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Securing and reporting for 2008 and 2010 on the amount and type of VOC emissions from plants in the scope of the 31th BImSchV; Sicherung und Berichterstattung fuer 2008 und 2010 ueber Menge und Art der VOC-Emissionen aus Anlagen im Geltungsbereich der 31.BImSchV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tebert, Christian; Volz, Susanne [Institut fuer Oekologie und Politik GmbH (OEKOPOL), Hamburg (Germany); Theloke, Jochen [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER)

    2011-09-15

    The Directive 1999/13/EC (also called ''VOC-directive'' or ''Solvents Directive'') obliges the Member States of the European Union to a preparation of a report on the implementation of this Directive every three years. The target of a project of the Federal Environment Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) is to assist the federal government in meeting the reporting requirements and to relieve the Federal States during data acquisition as possible. For this, an estimation of the CMR material types and quantities of CMR is focused. Recommendations are pronounced to determine the total emissions of VOCs from plants within the scope of the 31th BImSchV (Federal Nuisance Control Ordinance). The research project investigated the requirements for data provision in the individual Federal States and the possibilities for data delivery in addition to a full survey of the Federal States.

  16. Optimization of an Innovative Biofiltration System as a VOC Control Technology for Aircraft Painting Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-20

    plants. Since the 1980s, however, biofiltration has also been used to eliminate VOCs in gases emitted from a wide range of processes (van Groenestijn...process for the VOC-laden waste gases exiting paint spray booths at DoD maintenance facilities. Conceptually, the biofiltration process can be divided...recently, biofiltration applications have been expanded to treat VOC-laden waste gases emitted by industry (Ottengraf, 1986, van Groenestijn, 1994; Swanson

  17. Using satellite data to guide emission control strategies for surface ozone pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, X.; Fiore, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Surface ozone (O3) has adverse effects on public health, agriculture and ecosystems. As a secondary pollutant, ozone is not emitted directly. Ozone forms from two classes of precursors: NOx and VOCs. We use satellite observations of formaldehyde (a marker of VOCs) and NO2 (a marker of NOx) to identify areas which would benefit more from reducing NOx emissions (NOx-limited) versus areas where reducing VOC emissions would lead to lower ozone (VOC-limited). We use a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to develop a set of threshold values that separate the NOx-limited and VOC-limited conditions. Combining these threshold values with a decadal record of satellite observations, we find that U.S. cities (e.g. New York, Chicago) have shifted from VOC-limited to NOx-limited ozone production regimes in the warm season. This transition reflects the NOx emission controls implemented over the past decade. Increasing NOx sensitivity implies that regional NOx emission control programs will improve O3 air quality more now than it would have a decade ago.

  18. Emissions of biogenic VOC from forest ecosystems in central Europe: estimation and comparison with anthropogenic emission inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemankova, Katerina; Brechler, Josef

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes a method of estimating emission fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) based on the approach proposed by Guenther et al. (1995) and the high-resolution Corine land-cover 2000 database (1x1km resolution). The computed emission fluxes for the Czech Republic (selected for analysis as being representative of a heavily cultivated, central European country) are compared with anthropogenic emissions, both for the entire country and for individual administrative regions. In some regions, BVOC emissions are as high as anthropogenic emissions; however, in most regions the BVOC emissions are approximately 50% of the anthropogenic emissions. The yearly course of BVOC emissions (represented by monoterpenes and isoprene) is presented, along with the spatial distribution of annual mean values. Differences in emission distributions during winter (January) and summer (June) are also considered. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions at Sites of Oil Sands Extraction and Upgrading in northern Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, J.; Simpson, I. J.; Meinardi, S.; Blake, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    The crude oil reserves in Canada's oil sands are second only to Saudi Arabia, holding roughly 173 billion barrels of oil in the form of bitumen, an unconventional crude oil which does not flow and cannot be pumped without heating or dilution. Oil sands deposits are ultimately used to make the same petroleum products as conventional forms of crude oil, though more processing is required. Hydrocarbons are the basis of oil, coal and natural gas and are an important class of gases emitted into the atmosphere during oil production, particularly because of their effects on air quality and human health. However, they have only recently begun to be independently assessed in the oil sands regions. As part of the 2008 ARCTAS airborne mission, whole air samples were collected in the boundary layer above the surface mining operations of northern Alberta. Gas chromatography analysis revealed enhanced concentrations of 53 VOCs (C2 to C10) over the mining region. When compared to local background levels, the measured concentrations were enhanced up to 1.1-400 times for these compounds. To more fully characterize emissions, ground-based studies were conducted in summer 2010 and winter 2011 in the oil sands mining and upgrading areas. The data from the 200 ground-based samples revealed enhancements in the concentration of 65 VOCs. These compounds were elevated up to 1.1-3000 times above background concentrations and include C2-C8 alkanes, C1-C5 alkyl nitrates, C2-C4 alkenes and potentially toxic aromatic compounds such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes.

  20. Effects of Cold Temperature and Ethanol Content on VOC Emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supporting information Table S6 provides emission rates in g/km of volatile organic compounds measured from gasoline vehicle exhaust during chassis dynamometer...

  1. Using Multiple Regression in Estimating (semi) VOC Emissions and Concentrations at the European Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Thomsen, Marianne; Pistocchi, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    chemicals available in the European Chemicals Bureau risk assessment reports (RARs). The method suggests a simple linear relationship between Henry's Law constant, octanol-water coefficient, use and production volumes, and emissions and PECs on a regional scale in the European Union. Emissions and PECs......This paper proposes a simple method for estimating emissions and predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) in water and air for organic chemicals that are used in household products and industrial processes. The method has been tested on existing data for 63 organic high-production volume...... are a result of a complex interaction between chemical properties, production and use patterns and geographical characteristics. A linear relationship cannot capture these complexities; however, it may be applied at a cost-efficient screening level for suggesting critical chemicals that are candidates...

  2. Health evaluation of volatile organic compound (VOC) emission from exotic wood products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeskov, L; Witterseh, T; Funch, L W

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure and evaluate the impact of the emissions of selected products of exotic wood on health. Ten products were screened for chemical compounds, and five of the most used products which emitted more than 800 microg/kg were selected for further quantitative...... analyses by climate chamber measurement (iroko, ramin, sheesham, merbau, and rubber tree). Samples of exotic wood (rubber tree and belalu) were further analyzed for emission of chemical compounds by migration into artificial saliva and for content of pesticides and allergenic natural rubber latex (NR latex......) (rubber tree). The toxicological effects of all substances identified were evaluated and the lowest concentrations of interest (LCI) assessed. An R-value was calculated for each wood product (R-value below 1 is considered to be unproblematic as regards health). Emission from the evaluated exotic wood only...

  3. Development of biotrickling filters to treat sulfur and VOC emissions. Phase II. Quarterly report No. 2, 31 December 1996-31 March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-29

    The Phase II project was initiated on September 30, 1996. The goal of this SBIR project is to develop a cost-effective, efficient biological treatment system, a biotrickiing filter, to treat air emissions of significance to the Navy. These emissions include odors from oily bilge holding tanks, and point sources of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) such as paint spray booths. Biotrickling filters are similar to scrubbers, but rely on microorganisms on the packing surface to remove and degrade the contaminants. Phase I work identified microbial cultures capable of degrading and growing on air pollutants of importance to the Navy. Greater than 98 percent hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan removal efficiencies were demonstrated for odor applications, and 90 percent VOC (toluene, xylene, MEK, and n-butyl acetate) removal efficiencies were demonstrated for paint-spray booth applications. In addition, three different biomass support packing materials were screened. The objectives of Phase II are to: (1) develop a method to control biofilm growth; (2) establish the full-scale system pressure drop characteristics; (3) establish the effective treatment range; (4) perform overall mass balances and confirm transformation to benign products; (5) demonstrate the technology in the field at a Navy site; and (6) prepare a final report detailing the results and conclusions of the Phase II effort, including an economic analysis.

  4. Eddy flux and leaf level measurements of biogeni VOC emissions from Mopane woodland of Botswana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greenberg, J.P.; Guenter, A.; Harley, P.; Otter, L.; Veenendaal, E.M.; Hewwit, C.N.; James, A.E.; Owen, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions were measured in a mopane woodland near Maun, Botswana in January–February 2001 as part of SAFARI 2000. This landscape is comprised of more than 95% of one woody plant species, Colophospermum mopane (Caesalpinaceae). Mopane woodlands extend over a

  5. 76 FR 51901 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Control of Emissions of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ...-21-25 ``Control of VOC emissions from reinforced plastic composites production operations,'' which...)(2).) List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control... material. (A) An October 25, 2010, letter from Robert F. Hodanbosi, Chief Division of Air Pollution Control...

  6. Alternative control technology document for bakery oven emissions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, C.W.

    1992-12-01

    The document was produced in response to a request by the baking industry for Federal guidance to assist in providing a more uniform information base for State decision-making with regard to control of bakery oven emissions. The information in the document pertains to bakeries that produce yeast-leavened bread, rolls, buns, and similar products but not crackers, sweet goods, or baked foodstuffs that are not yeast leavened. Information on the baking processes, equipment, operating parameters, potential emissions from baking, and potential emission control options are presented. Catalytic and regenerative oxidation are identified as the most appropriate existing control technologies applicable to VOC emissions from bakery ovens. Cost analyses for catalytic and regenerative oxidation are included. A predictive formula for use in estimating oven emissions has been derived from source tests done in junction with the development of the document. Its use and applicability are described.

  7. CO2 sensor versus Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) sensor – analysis of field measurement data and implications for demand controlled ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated performance of two commercially available non-selective metal oxide semiconductor VOC sensors and two commercially available non dispersive infrared CO2 sensors installed in one person office. The office was equipped with demand controlled ventilation. The signals from VOC...

  8. Demand specifying variables and current ventilation rate requirements with respect to the future use of voc sensing for dcv control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub

    be also taken into account in the ventilation control. Recent development in gas sensing technology resulted in a new generation of relatively cheap and practically applicable sensors that can offer measurements of some of the pollutants mentioned above – mainly Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC......Demand Controlled Ventilation (DCV) is a well established principle to provide a certain indoor environmental quality, defined both in the terms of air quality and thermal comfort. This is accomplished by adjusting the supplied airflow rate according to a certain demand indicator, which......). This seems to bring a new dimension into the control of DCV systems. This paper is a contribution to the workshop on utilization of VOC sensing technology used for DCV control. The aim of the paper is to provide a short review of different types of demand variables used to control DCV systems and summarize...

  9. Renewable biocatalyst for swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comprehensive control of odors, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with swine production is a critical need. The objective of this paper is to review the use of soybean peroxidase (SBP) and peroxides as a manure additive to mitigate emissions of odor...

  10. [VOCs tax policy on China's economy development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Xin; Wang, Yu-Fei; Wang, Hai-Lin; Hao, Zheng-Ping; Wang, Zheng

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, environmental tax was designed to control volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was used to explore the impacts of environmental tax (in forms of indirect tax) on the macro-economy development at both national and sector levels. Different levels of tax were simulated to find out the proper tax rate. It is found out that imposing environmental tax on high emission sectors can cause the emission decreased immediately and can lead to negative impacts on macro-economy indicators, such as GDP (gross domestic products), total investment, total product and the whole consumption etc. However, only the government income increased. In addition, the higher the tax rate is, the more pollutants can be reduced and the worse economic effects can be caused. Consequently, it is suggested that, the main controlling policies of VOCs abatement should be mandatory orders, and low environmental tax can be implemented as a supplementary.

  11. A Comparative study on VOCs and aldehyde-ketone emissions from a spark Ignition vehicle fuelled on compressed natural gas and gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.N.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, an experimental study was conducted on a spark ignition (SI) vehicle fuelled on compressed natural gas (CNG), and gasoline to compare the unregulated emissions such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aldehyde-ketones or carbonyls. In the meantime, ozone forming potential (OFP) of pollutants was also calculated on the basis of their specific reactivity (SR). The vehicle was run on a chassis dynamometer following the Chinese National Standards test scheduled for light duty vehicle (LDV) emissions. According to the results, total aldehyde-ketones were increased by 39.4% due to the substantial increase in formaldehyde and acrolein + acetone emissions, while VOCs and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene) reduced by 85.2 and 86% respectively, in case of CNG fuelled vehicle as compared to gasoline vehicle. Although total aldehyde-ketones were higher with CNG relative to gasoline, their SR was lower due decrease in acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, crotonaldehyde, and methacrolein species having higher maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) values. The SR of VOCs and aldehyde-ketones emitted from CNG fuelled vehicle was decreased by above 10% and 32% respectively, owing to better physicochemical properties and more complete burning of CNG as compared to gasoline. (author)

  12. Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 21 Subchap J, 2147--Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 1998-02-02 (LAc74) to more..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 21 Subchap J, 2147--Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 1998-02-02 (LAc74) more...

  13. Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 2147. Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 2011-08-04 (LAd34) to 2017-09-27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 2147. Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 2011-08-04 (LAd34) to 2017-09-27

  14. Impact of emission control on regional air quality in the Pearl Delta River region, southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Xuejiao, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Pearl River Delta (PRD) in China has been suffering from air quality issues and the government has implemented a series of strategies in controlling emissions. In an attempt to provide scientific support for improving air quality, the paper investigates the concerning past-to-present air quality data and assesses air quality resulting from emission control. Statistical data revealed that energy consumption doubled from 2004 to 20014 and vehicle usage increased significantly from 2006 to 2014. Due to the effect of control efforts, primary emission of SO2, NOx and PM2.5 decreased resulting in ambient concentrations of SO2, NO2 and PM10 decreased by 66%, 20% and 24%, respectively. However, O3 increased 19% because of the increase of VOC emission. A chemical transport model, the Community Multi-scale Air Quality, was employed to evaluate the responses of nitrate, ammonium, SOA, PM2.5 and O3 to changes in NOx, VOC and NH3 emissions. Three scenarios, a baseline scenario, a CAP scenario (control strength followed as past tendency), and a REF scenario (strict control referred to latest policy and plans), were conducted to investigate the responses and mechanisms. NOx controlling scenarios showed that NOx, nitrate and PM2.5 reduced by 1.8%, 0.7% and 0.2% under CAP and reduced by 7.2%, 1.8% and 0.3% under REF, respectively. The results indicated that reducing NOx emission caused the increase of atmospheric oxidizability, which might result in a compensation of PM2.5 due to the increase of nitrate or sulfate. NH3 controlling scenarios showed that nitrate was sensitive to NH3 emission in PRD, with nitrate decreased by 0 - 10.6% and 0 - 48% under CAP and REF, respectively. Since controlling NH3 emissions not only reduced ammonium but also significantly reduced nitrate, the implement of NH3 controlling strategy was highly suggested. The VOC scenarios revealed that though SOA was not the major component of PM2.5, controlling VOC emission might take effect in southwestern PRD

  15. Utilisation of VOC in Diesel Engines. Ignition and combustion of VOC released in crude oil tankers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melhus, Oeyvin

    2002-01-01

    The emission of VOC (Volatile Organic Compound) is a significant source of hydrocarbon pollution. In Norway, the offshore oil industry represents a major source. This emission represents both an energy loss and an environmental problem. Gas tankers have used boil-off gas from the cargo tanks as fuel for some time. However, for the current VOC project a new fuel injection concept is designed for tankers to take advantage of the energy present in the VOC evaporated from crude oil. The VOC is mixed with inert gas in these tankers, and thus the utilisation of this gas represents new challenges. The VOC project uses the concept of ''Condensate Diesel Process'' with pilot ignition. An experimental study of ignition and combustion of VOC Fuels reported here was initiated by the time it was decided to start a pilot project converting propulsion engines in shuttle tankers to use VOC Fuel. It is an experimental study carried out at the Marine Technology Centre (MTS). The objective was to study ignition and combustion of the chosen process in comparison with an ordinary diesel process. The experimental results have been discussed and compared with theoretical considerations of injection, ignition and combustion. For experiments on combustion, a rapid compression machine ''DyFo'' was redesigned to use VOC Fuel. The DyFo test rig was initially designed to study ignition and early combustion of spark ignited homogeneous gas/air charges. To study the ignition and early combustion of VOC Fuel injected at high pressure and ignited by pilot diesel fuel, a redesign was necessary. An important feature of the DyFo, is the visualisation of the combustion. The advantage of the DyFo test rig over an engine, is its simplicity and controllability. In an engine the visualisation would suffer from combustion deposits disturbing the view through the quartz glasses, making the images more difficult to interpret. The simplicity is on the other side a drawback. Correct thermal conditions inside

  16. Reactivity-based industrial volatile organic compounds emission inventory and its implications for ozone control strategies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaoming; Chen, Xiaofang; Zhang, Jiani; Shi, Tianli; Sun, Xibo; Fan, Liya; Wang, Liming; Ye, Daiqi

    2017-08-01

    Increasingly serious ozone (O3) pollution, along with decreasing NOx emission, is creating a big challenge in the control of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in China. More efficient and effective measures are assuredly needed for controlling VOCs. In this study, a reactivity-based industrial VOCs emission inventory was established in China based on the concept of ozone formation potential (OFP). Key VOCs species, major VOCs sources, and dominant regions with high reactivity were identified. Our results show that the top 15 OFP-based species, including m/p-xylene, toluene, propene, o-xylene, and ethyl benzene, contribute 69% of the total OFP but only 30% of the total emission. The architectural decoration industry, oil refinery industry, storage and transport, and seven other sources constituted the top 10 OFP subsectors, together contributing a total of 85%. The provincial and spatial characteristics of OFP are generally consistent with those of mass-based inventory. The implications for O3 control strategies in China are discussed. We propose a reactivity-based national definition of VOCs and low-reactive substitution strategies, combined with evaluations of health risks. Priority should be given to the top 15 or more species with high reactivity through their major emission sources. Reactivity-based policies should be flexibly applied for O3 mitigation based on the sensitivity of O3 formation conditions.

  17. Major reactive species of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their sources in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO; Min; FU; Linlin; LIU; Ying; LU; Sihua; ZHANG; Yuanhan

    2005-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are important precursors of atmospheric chemical processes. As a whole mixture, the ambient VOCs show very strong chemical reactivity. Based on OH radical loss rates in the air, the chemical reactivity of VOCs in Beijing was calculated. The results revealed that alkenes, accounting for only about 15% in the mixing ratio of VOCs, provide nearly 75% of the reactivity of ambient VOCs and the C4 to C5 alkenes were the major reactive species among the alkenes. The study of emission characteristics of various VOCs sources indicated that these alkenes are mainly from vehicle exhaust and gasoline evaporation. The reduction of alkene species in these two sources will be effective in photochemical pollution control in Beijing.

  18. Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

    2007-09-07

    Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal

  19. Measurements of VOC/SVOC emission factors from burning incenses in an environmental test chamber: influence of temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoukian, A; Buiron, D; Temime-Roussel, B; Wortham, H; Quivet, E

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the influence of three environmental indoor parameters (i.e., temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rate) on the emission of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) during incense burning. Experiments have been carried out using an environmental test chamber. Statistical results from a classical two-level full factorial design highlight the predominant effect of ventilation on emission factors. The higher the ventilation, the higher the emission factor. Moreover, thanks to these results, an estimation of the concentration range for the compounds under study can be calculated and allows a quick look of indoor pollution induced by incense combustion. Carcinogenic substances (i.e., benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, and formaldehyde) produced from the incense combustion would be predicted in typical living indoors conditions to reach instantaneous concentration levels close to or higher than air quality exposure threshold values.

  20. Exhaust constituent emission factors of printed circuit board pyrolysis processes and its exhaust control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Hung-Lung, E-mail: hlchiang@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Kuo-Hsiung [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Recycling of waste printed circuit boards is an important issue. • Pyrolysis is an emerging technology for PCB treatment. • Emission factors of VOCs are determined for PCB pyrolysis exhaust. • Iron-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was employed for the exhaust control. -- Abstract: The printed circuit board (PCB) is an important part of electrical and electronic equipment, and its disposal and the recovery of useful materials from waste PCBs (WPCBs) are key issues for waste electrical and electronic equipment. Waste PCB compositions and their pyrolysis characteristics were analyzed in this study. In addition, the volatile organic compound (VOC) exhaust was controlled by an iron-impregnated alumina oxide catalyst. Results indicated that carbon and oxygen were the dominant components (hundreds mg/g) of the raw materials, and other elements such as nitrogen, bromine, and copper were several decades mg/g. Exhaust constituents of CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and NOx, were 60–115, 0.4–4.0, 1.1–10, 30–95, and 0–0.7 mg/g, corresponding to temperatures ranging from 200 to 500 °C. When the pyrolysis temperature was lower than 300 °C, aromatics and paraffins were the major species, contributing 90% of ozone precursor VOCs, and an increase in the pyrolysis temperature corresponded to a decrease in the fraction of aromatic emission factors. Methanol, ethylacetate, acetone, dichloromethane, tetrachloromethane and acrylonitrile were the main species of oxygenated and chlorinated VOCs. The emission factors of some brominated compounds, i.e., bromoform, bromophenol, and dibromophenol, were higher at temperatures over 400 °C. When VOC exhaust was flowed through the bed of Fe-impregnated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the emission of ozone precursor VOCs could be reduced by 70–80%.

  1. The UK market for gaseous emissions control equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    The report analyses the changes in demand for gaseous emissions control equipment in the United Kingdom over the next 5 years. It discusses the factors affecting demand such as legislation reporting of environmental performance, and economic factors. It looks at environmental expenditure by UK industry. Markets are examined, for VOC abatement systems; thermal incinerators; adsorption equipment; catalytic oxidisers; absorption equipment; biological treatments; cryogenic equipment; SO{sub x} abatement equipment; wet FGD; wet dry FGD, dry scrubbers; NOx abatement systems; selective catalytic reduction; and selective non-catalytic reduction. Profiles are given of 16 leading suppliers.

  2. Measurement as basis for emission reductions: VOC, PAH, PCB and dioxins in air in Ostrava. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braathen, O.A.

    1996-12-31

    As part of the cooperation between Norway and the Czech Republic on environment protection, a project was carried out in Ostrava, Czech Republic, to transfer competence to Ostrava such that measurements of selected organic contaminants in air could be measured. The focus was on volatile organic compounds (VOC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PBC) and dioxin. This work also included acquiring and establishing equipment and analysis methodology. This is the final report from the project. 9 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. Emissions and prevention/control techniques for automobile body shops in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffery, J.D.; Sager, M.

    1999-08-01

    Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from automobile body repair shops are believed to be significant and to contribute to ozone nonattainment in El Paso, Texas and to violations of ozone air quality standards in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. The Direccion de Desarrollo Urbano Y Ecologia (DDUE), (the local agency in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico) requested CICA's assistance in determining emissions from and identifying appropriate pollution prevention and control techniques for automobile body repair shops in Ciudad Juarez.

  4. Carbon emissions control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, W.U.

    1990-01-01

    This study was undertaken to address a fundamental issue: the cost of slowing climate change. Experts in eight nations were asked to evaluate, using the best economic models available, the prospects for reducing fossil fuel-based carbon emissions in their respective nations. The nations selected as case studies include: the Soviet Union, Poland, the United States, Japan, Hungary, France, the United Kingdom, and Canada. As important contributors to the greenhouse effect, these industrialized nations must find ways to substantially reduce their emissions. This is especially critical given that developing nations' emissions are expected to rise in the coming decades in the search for economic development. Ten papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  5. Evaluation of emission control strategies to reduce ozone pollution in the Paso del Norte region using a photochemical air quality modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Victor Hugo

    Air pollution emissions control strategies to reduce ozone precursor pollutants are analyzed by applying a photochemical modeling system. Simulations of air quality conditions during an ozone episode which occurred in June, 2006 are undertaken by increasing or reducing area source emissions in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico. Two air pollutants are primary drivers in the formation of tropospheric ozone. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) undergo multiple chemical reactions under favorable meteorological conditions to form ozone, which is a secondary pollutant that irritates respiratory systems in sensitive individuals especially the elderly and young children. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency established National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to limit ambient air pollutants such as ozone by establishing an 8-hour average concentration of 0.075 ppm as the threshold at which a violation of the standard occurs. Ozone forms primarily due reactions in the troposphere of NOx and VOC emissions generated primarily by anthropogenic sources in urban regions. Data from emissions inventories indicate area sources account for ˜15 of NOx and ˜45% of regional VOC emissions. Area sources include gasoline stations, automotive paint bodyshops and nonroad mobile sources. Multiplicity of air pollution emissions sources provides an opportunity to investigate and potentially implement air quality improvement strategies to reduce emissions which contribute to elevated ozone concentrations. A baseline modeling scenario was established using the CAMx photochemical air quality model from which a series of sensitivity analyses for evaluating air quality control strategies were conducted. Modifications to area source emissions were made by varying NOx and / or VOC emissions in the areas of particular interest. Model performance was assessed for each sensitivity analysis. Normalized bias (NB) and normalized error (NE) were used to identify

  6. Biofiltration of wastewater lift station emissions: evaluation of VOC removal in the presence of H{sub 2}S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Alvaro; Rathibandla, Snehasheela; Jones, Kim; Cabezas, Jose [Texas A and M University-Kingsville, Department of Environmental Engineering, Kingsville, TX (United States)

    2008-02-15

    The capacity of biofilter systems to remove volatile organic compounds in the presence of high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide was investigated for applications in wastewater lift stations. The treatment system was an enclosed unit composed of a biotrickling filter coupled with a biofilter. The biofilter media were plastic hollow spherical balls filled with a compost mixture; and the biotrickling filter media was a structured plastic packing. The gases from the pumping station wet well were a mixture of H{sub 2}S and low concentration aliphatic and aromatic VOCs, toluene being the most significant in concentrations of 41 ppb. The H{sub 2}S concentration was 314 ppm with fluctuations of 100 ppm resulting from pumping cycles at the station. No inhibition effect was detected from the simultaneous biological removal of VOCs and H{sub 2}S: toluene removal efficiency was 91% with the two sections contributing approximately equally to the pollutant removal; and the average removal of H{sub 2}S was 74%. A traditional open-in-ground biofilter filled with wood chips and compost, existing in the site, attained similar removal efficiencies for toluene, but the elimination capacity of the biotrickling/biofilter system was 3.3-times higher than the open biofilter. (orig.)

  7. Controlling radiated emissions by design

    CERN Document Server

    Mardiguian, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The 3rd edition of Controlling Radiated Emissions by Design has been updated to reflect the latest changes in the field. New to this edition is material related to technical advances, specifically super-fast data rates on wire pairs, with no increase in RF interference. Throughout the book, details are given to control RF emissions using EMC design techniques. This book retains the step-by-step approach for incorporating EMC into every new design from the ground up. It describes the selection of quieter IC technologies, their implementation into a noise-free printed circuit layout, and the gathering of these into a low emissions package. Also included is how to design an I/O filter, along with connectors and cable considerations. All guidelines are supported throughout with comprehensive calculated examples. Design engineers, EMC specialists, and technicians will benefit from learning about the development of more efficient and economical control of emissions.

  8. Development of Laser-Based Sensors for VOC/NOx and Metals Emissions Monitoring, CP 1060-97

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bisson, Scott

    1998-01-01

    .... This project will culminate with the demonstration of two chemical sensing systems - one to measure gas-phase organic and inorganic molecular emissions, and the other to measure particulate and atomic metal emissions...

  9. Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions characterization during the flow-back phase of a hydraulically refractured well in the Uintah Basin, Utah using mobile PTR-MS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, F.; Warneke, C.; Brown, S. S.; De Gouw, J. A.; Dube, W. P.; Edwards, P.; Gilman, J.; Graus, M.; Helleis, F.; Kofler, J.; Lerner, B. M.; Orphal, J.; Petron, G.; Roberts, J. M.; Zahn, A.

    2014-12-01

    Ongoing improvements in advanced technologies for crude oil and natural gas extraction from unconventional reserves, such as directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing, have greatly increased the production of fossil fuels within recent years. The latest forecasts even estimate an enhancement of 56% in total natural gas production due to increased development of shale gas, tight gas and offshore natural gas resources from 2012 to 2040 with the largest contribution from shale formations [US EIA: Annual Energy Outlook 2014]. During the field intensive 'Energy and Environment - Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study (UBWOS)', measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were made using proton-transfer-reactions mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) at the ground site Horse Pool and using a mobile laboratory in the Uintah Basin, Utah, which is a region well known for intense fossil fuel production. A reworked gas well in the Red Wash fields was sampled regularly within two weeks performing mobile laboratory measurements downwind of the well site. The well had been recently hydraulically refractured at that time and waste water was collected into an open flow-back pond. Very high mixing ratios of aromatic hydrocarbons (C6-C13) up to the ppm range were observed coming from condensate and flow-back reservoirs. The measurements are used to determine sources of specific VOC emissions originating from the different parts of the well site and mass spectra are used to classify the air composition in contrast to samples taken at the Horse Pool field site and crude oil samples from South Louisiana. Enhancement ratios and time series of measured peak values for aromatics showed no clear trend, which indicates changes in emissions with operations at the site.

  10. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  11. Tropospheric VOC measurements by PTR-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansel, A.; Wisthaler, A.; Graus, M.; Grabmer, W.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: O 3 is formed photochemically from the photolysis of NO 2 , and because O 3 reacts rapidly with NO these reactions result in a photoequilibrium between NO, NO 2 with no net formation or loss of O 3 , However, in the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the degradation reactions of VOCs lead to the formation of intermediate peroxy radicals which react with NO, converting NO to NO 2 , which then photolyze to form O 3 . Thus, in order to understand quantitatively tropospheric ozone chemistry, it is necessary to know the VOC distribution within the troposphere as well as VOC fluxes from individual sources. Examples will be presented how the use of Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) has enhanced our understanding of anthropogenic VOC emissions, biosphere-atmosphere exchange processes, and photochemical processing of both anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs in the troposphere. (author)

  12. Control of fine particulate (PM2.5) emissions from restaurant operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whynot, J; Quinn, G; Perryman, P; Votlucka, P

    1999-09-01

    This paper describes efforts to reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions from restaurant operations, including application of an existing control method to a new equipment type. Commercial charbroiling in the South Coast Air Basin results in emissions of approximately 10 tons/day of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and 1.3 tons/day of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Over a seven-year period, the South Coast Air Quality Management District worked with industry to develop test methods for measuring emissions from various cooking operations, evaluate control technologies, and develop a rule to reduce these emissions. Of the two basic types of charbroilers--chain-driven and underfired--underfired produce four times the emissions when equivalent amounts of product are cooked. Cost-effective control technology is currently available only for chain-driven charbroilers. The application of flameless catalytic oxidizers to chain-driven charbroilers was found to effectively reduce emissions by at least 83% and is cost-effective. The catalysts have been used worldwide at restaurants for several years. Research efforts are underway to identify control options for underfired charbroilers. Implementation of Rule 1138, Control of Emissions from Restaurant Operations, adopted November 14, 1997, will result in reductions of 0.5 tons/day of PM2.5 and 0.2 tons/day of VOCs. Future rules will result in reductions from underfired charbroilers and possibly other restaurant equipment when cost-effective solutions are available.

  13. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program: Mercury Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.P.; Redinger, K.W.; Holmes, M.J.

    1997-07-01

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (a subsidiary of Babcock ampersand Wilcox) is conducting the Advanced Emissions Control Development Project (AECDP) which is aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPS) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for such controls may arise as the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proceeds with implementation of requirements set forth in the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA's) of 1990. Promulgation of air toxics emissions regulations for electric utility plants could dramatically impact utilities burning coal, their industrial and residential customers, and the coal industry. AECDP project work will supply the information needed by utilities to respond to potential HAPs regulations in a timely, cost-effective, enviromnentally-sound manner which supports the continued use of the Nation's abundant reserves of coal, such as those in the State of Ohio. The development work is being carried out using the 10 MW Clean Environment Development Facility wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions. The specific objectives of the project are to (1) measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species for a variety of coals, (2) optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems, (3) develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts, (4) develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques, and (5) establish a comprehensive, self-consistent air toxics data library. This project is supported by the Department of Energy, the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development and Babcock ampersand Wilcox. A comprehensive assessment of HAP emissions from coal-fired electric utility boilers sponsored by the Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute concluded that with the exception of

  14. Sesquiterpene volatile organic compounds (VOCs are markers of elicitation by sulfated laminarine in grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik eChalal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Inducing resistance in plants by application of elicitors of defense reactions is an attractive plant protection strategy, especially for grapevine (Vitis vinifera which is susceptible to severe fungal diseases. Though induced resistance (IR can be successful in controlled conditions, under outdoor conditions IR is in most cases not effective enough for practical disease control. Progress in the application of IR requires a better understanding of grapevine defense mechanisms and the ability to monitor defense markers in order to identify factors (physiological, environmental… that can impact IR in the vineyard.Volatile organic compounds (VOCs are well-known plant defenses compounds that have only received little or no attention in the case of grape-pathogen interactions to date. This prompted us to investigate whether an elicitor, the sulfated laminarin (PS3, actually induces the production of VOCs in grapevine. Online analysis (PTR-QMS of VOC emissions in dynamic cuvettes and passive sampling in gas tight bags with solid phase micro extraction (SPME-GC-MS under greenhouse conditions showed that PS3 elicited emission of VOCs. Some of them (as (E,E-α-farnesene might be good candidates as biomarkers of elicitor-IR whereas methyl salicylate appears to be rather a biomarker of downy mildew infection. A negative correlation between VOC emission and disease severity suggests a positive role of VOCs in grape defense against diseases.

  15. GLYCOL DEHYDRATOR BTEX AND VOC EMISSIONS TESTING RESULTS AT TWO UNITS IN TEXAS AND LOUISIANA VOL. I: TECHNICAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of the collection of emissions tests data at two triethylene glycol units to provide data for comparison to GRI-GLYCalc, a computer program developed to estimate emissions from glycol dehydrators. (NOTE: Glycol dehydrators are used in the natural gas indu...

  16. GLYCOL DEHYDRATOR BTEX AND VOC EMISSIONS TESTING RESULTS AT TWO UNITS IN TEXAS AND LOUISIANA VOL. II: APPENDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of the collection of emissions test data st two triethylene glycol units to provide data for the comparison to GRI-GLYCalc, a computer program developed to estimate emissions from glycol dehydrators. [NOTE: Glycol dehydrators are used in the natural gas i...

  17. PTR-MS in environmental research: biogenic VOCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauchamp, J.; Grabmer, W.; Graus, M.; Wisthaler, A.; Hansel, A.

    2004-01-01

    Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) is a chemical ionization mass spectrometry technique that allows for on-line measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at pptV levels. This well established analytical tool has been used in a broad variety of research, including the investigation of VOCs in various foods (e.g. for quality control or food degradation studies), as well as being used as a tool for non-invasive medical diagnostics (e.g. human breath analysis). In addition to these fields of study, PTR-MS has been widely used in environmental research, from trace gas analysis in the troposphere to VOC emissions from plants. Participation in two field campaigns (BEWA and ECHO - both part of the German AFO 2000 program) by the Institute of Ion Physics involved a variety of investigations for monitoring biogenic emissions. These included the technique of disjunct eddy covariance for flux measurements above a forest canopy, C-13 carbon labelling experiments to follow carbon use in a plant, and stress-induced VOC emission investigations to gain understanding of how plants react to stress (e.g. ozone exposure). A selection of results from these investigations will be discussed in this presentation. (author)

  18. 688 AMBIENT VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    using Gas Chromatography (GC) fitted with Flame Ionization Detector (FID). ... and Industrial emission were identified as sources of VOCs in the studied .... Wax, IIasamaja Market, Chesebrough way, ... A validation processes for diffusive.

  19. Emissions inventories and options for control. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swart, R.J.; Van Amstel, A.R.; Van den Born, G.J.; Kroeze, C.

    1995-10-01

    This report is the final summary report of the project `Social causes of the greenhouse effect, emissions inventories and options for control`. The objectives of the project, that started in 1990, were to support the development of a comprehensive Dutch climate policy and to identify gaps in the knowledge about sources of greenhouse gases. The four phases of the project are summarized. In the first phase, a first national inventory of greenhouse gas emissions was made, capturing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and the ozone precursors carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} ) and volatile organic compounds (VOC). In the second phase, the acquired expertise was used to support the development of Guidelines for National Emissions Inventories by the joint OECD/IPCC programme through workshop organization and participation in the international planning group. In the third phase, a detailed analysis was performed of the sources of methane, its current and future emissions and the options for control. Finally, a similar analysis was performed for nitrous oxide. In these studies, it was found that policies not specifically aiming at mitigating climate change, would help to control the emissions of the non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases. While for methane, national emissions would even decrease because of measures in the livestock management and waste disposal sectors, for nitrous oxide the reductions in agricultural emissions would be outweighed by increases, especially in the transportation sector. The project shows that the application of more detailed information leads to differences with the Guidelines, both because of the limited number of source categories in the Guidelines and because of different, locally specific emissions factors. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 14 refs.

  20. Estimate of biogenic VOC emissions in Japan and their effects on photochemical formation of ambient ozone and secondary organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatani, Satoru; Matsunaga, Sou N.; Nakatsuka, Seiji

    2015-11-01

    A new gridded database has been developed to estimate the amount of isoprene, monoterpene, and sesquiterpene emitted from all the broadleaf and coniferous trees in Japan with the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). This database reflects the vegetation specific to Japan more accurately than existing ones. It estimates much lower isoprene emitted from other vegetation than trees, and higher sesquiterpene emissions mainly emitted from Cryptomeria japonica, which is the most abundant plant type in Japan. Changes in biogenic emissions result in the decrease in ambient ozone and increase in organic aerosol simulated by the air quality simulation over the Tokyo Metropolitan Area in Japan. Although newly estimated biogenic emissions contribute to a better model performance on overestimated ozone and underestimated organic aerosol, they are not a single solution to solve problems associated with the air quality simulation.

  1. Impact of VOC Composition and Reactor Conditions on the Aging of Biomass Cookstove Emissions in an Oxidation Flow Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidation flow reactor (OFR) experiments in our lab have explored secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production during photochemical aging of emissions from cookstoves used by billions in developing countries. Previous experiments, conducted with red oak fuel under conditions of hig...

  2. Simulated changes in biogenic VOC emissions and ozone formation from habitat expansion of Acer Rubrum (red maple)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drewniak, Beth A; Snyder, Peter K; Twine, Tracy E; Steiner, Allison L; Wuebbles, Donald J

    2014-01-01

    A new vegetation trend is emerging in northeastern forests of the United States, characterized by an expansion of red maple at the expense of oak. This has changed emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), primarily isoprene and monoterpenes. Oaks strongly emit isoprene while red maple emits a negligible amount. This species shift may impact nearby urban centers because the interaction of isoprene with anthropogenic nitrogen oxides can lead to tropospheric ozone formation and monoterpenes can lead to the formation of particulate matter. In this study the Global Biosphere Emissions and Interactions System was used to estimate the spatial changes in BVOC emission fluxes resulting from a shift in forest composition between oak and maple. A 70% reduction in isoprene emissions occurred when oak was replaced with maple. Ozone simulations with a chemical box model at two rural and two urban sites showed modest reductions in ozone concentrations of up to 5–6 ppb resulting from a transition from oak to red maple, thus suggesting that the observed change in forest composition may benefit urban air quality. This study illustrates the importance of monitoring and representing changes in forest composition and the impacts to human health indirectly through changes in BVOCs. (paper)

  3. Role of sectoral and multi-pollutant emission control strategies in improving atmospheric visibility in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Zhuang, Guoshun; Lin, Yanfen

    2014-01-01

    The Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system is used to investigate the response of atmospheric visibility to the emission reduction from different sectors (i.e. industries, traffic and power plants) in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Visibility improvement from exclusive reduction of NO x or VOC emission was most inefficient. Sulfate and organic aerosol would rebound if NO x emission was exclusively reduced from any emission sector. The most efficient way to improve the atmospheric visibility was proven to be the multi-pollutant control strategies. Simultaneous emission reductions (20–50%) on NO x , VOC and PM from the industrial and mobile sectors could result in 0.3–1.0 km visibility improvement. And the emission controls on both NO x (85%) and SO 2 (90%) from power plants gained the largest visibility improvement of up to 4.0 km among all the scenarios. The seasonal visibility improvement subject to emission controls was higher in summer while lower in the other seasons. -- Highlights: • Atmospheric visibility in the Yangtze River Delta is modeled and evaluated. • Responses of visibility changes to various emission reduction scenarios are compared. • Sulfate aerosol will increase if only NO x emission is reduced. • The multi-pollutant control strategy is most efficient for improving visibility. -- Responses of visibility changes to various emission reduction scenarios are compared. The multi-pollutant control strategy is most efficient for improving visibility in YRD, China

  4. Secondary inorganic aerosols in Europe: sources and the significant influence of biogenic VOC emissions, especially on ammonium nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoyoglu, Sebnem; Ciarelli, Giancarlo; El-Haddad, Imad; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2017-06-01

    Contributions of various anthropogenic sources to the secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) in Europe as well as the role of biogenic emissions on SIA formation were investigated using the three-dimensional regional model CAMx (comprehensive air quality model with extensions). Simulations were carried out for two periods of EMEP field campaigns, February-March 2009 and June 2006, which are representative of cold and warm seasons, respectively. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are known mainly as precursors of ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA), but their role on inorganic aerosol formation has not attracted much attention so far. In this study, we showed the importance of the chemical reactions of BVOCs and how they affect the oxidant concentrations, leading to significant changes, especially in the formation of ammonium nitrate. A sensitivity test with doubled BVOC emissions in Europe during the warm season showed a large increase in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentrations (by about a factor of two), while particulate inorganic nitrate concentrations decreased by up to 35 %, leading to a better agreement between the model results and measurements. Sulfate concentrations decreased as well; the change, however, was smaller. The changes in inorganic nitrate and sulfate concentrations occurred at different locations in Europe, indicating the importance of precursor gases and biogenic emission types for the negative correlation between BVOCs and SIA. Further analysis of the data suggested that reactions of the additional terpenes with nitrate radicals at night were responsible for the decline in inorganic nitrate formation, whereas oxidation of BVOCs with OH radicals led to a decrease in sulfate. Source apportionment results suggest that the main anthropogenic source of precursors leading to formation of particulate inorganic nitrate is road transport (SNAP7; see Table 1 for a description of the categories), whereas combustion in energy and

  5. Shoe factories VOC emission factors assessment in the main italian shoe manufacturing pole; La stima dei fattori di emissione di SOV dei calzaturifici del principale polo calzaturiero italiano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunghi, S. [Urbino Univ., Urbino (Italy). Centro per la Diffusione della Cultura e delle Tecnologie Ambientali

    2001-03-01

    In 1991, 1.1 thousand million footwears have been produced in the European Union. Italy is the most important manufacturing pole with 411 million pairs produced. In Italy, the region Marche holds the manufacture supremacy (provinces of Macerata and Ascoli Piceno) with a production share of 27 {+-} 5 %; that means about 89-129 million pairs produced in 1999 and about 38.000 workers employed. During a research program ordered by the region Marche to the Diffusion Centre of the Environmental Culture and Technology, Urbino University of Studies, the VOC emission factors relevant to footwears manufacture cycle (except those of soles manufacture) have been assessed. The assessment was carried on the basis of emissions in the atmosphere, on basis of industrial accounting data directly acquired among a shoe-factories sample, and on basis of a wide statistic sample of technical reports according emissions local regulations. Such results may be useful both for the drawing up of guidelines for the emissions authorizations and as fundamental components of LCA (Life Cycle Analysis) footwear inventories. [Italian] Nel 1991 sono state prodotte nell'Unione Europea 1,1 miliardi di calzature. L'Italia e' la piu' importante produttrice con 411 milioni di paia. In Italia le Marche detengono il primato di produzione (provincie di Macerata ed Ascoli Piceno), con una quota di produzione pari al 27 {+-} 5 %, equivalente a circa 89-129 milioni di paia prodotte nel 1999, e con una forza lavoro complessiva di quasi 38.000 addetti. Nel corso di un programma di ricerca commissionato dalla regione Marche al Centro per la diffusione della Cultura e delle Tecnologie Ambientali dell'Universita' degli Studi di Urbino, sono stati stimati i fattori di emissione di SOV relativi al ciclo di produzione delle calzature (ad esclusione della produzione delle suole), sulla base di un vasto campione statistico di analisi alle emissioni in atmosfera, sulla base di dati di

  6. Use of commercial radon monitors for low level radon measurements in dynamically operated VOC emission test chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, M.; Richter, M.; Jann, O.

    2017-01-01

    Compared to the intended EU reference level of 300 Bq m -3 for indoor radon concentrations, the contribution of building materials appears to be low. Considering the recommended limit of 100 Bq m -3 by WHO, their contribution is supposed to be relevant, especially at low air exchange rates. This study as part of a two-part research project investigated the suitability of direct low level 222 Rn measurement under simulated indoor conditions with commercial radon monitors and dynamically operated emission test chambers. Active measuring devices based on ionisation or scintillation chambers with 1-σ uncertainties below 8.6% at 20 Bq m -3 were found to be best suitable for a practical test procedure for the determination of radon exhalation rates of building materials. For the measurement of such low concentrations, the knowledge of the accurate device background level is essential. (authors)

  7. Odor and VOC Emissions from Pan Frying of Mackerel at Three Stages: Raw, Well-Done, and Charred

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Hyeon Ahn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Many classes of odorants and volatile organic compounds that are deleterious to our wellbeing can be emitted from diverse cooking activities. Once emitted, they can persist in our living space for varying durations. In this study, various volatile organic compounds released prior to and during the pan frying of fish (mackerel were analyzed at three different cooking stages (stage 1 = raw (R, stage 2 = well-done (W, and stage 3 = overcooked/charred (O. Generally, most volatile organic compounds recorded their highest concentration levels at stage 3 (O, e.g., 465 (trimethylamine and 106 ppb (acetic acid. In contrast, at stage 2 (W, the lowest volatile organic compounds emissions were observed. The overall results of this study confirm that trimethylamine is identified as the strongest odorous compound, especially prior to cooking (stage 1 (R and during overcooking leading to charring (stage 3 (O. As there is a paucity of research effort to measure odor intensities from pan frying of mackerel, this study will provide valuable information regarding the management of indoor air quality.

  8. Mineralization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) over the catalyst CuO-Co3O4-CeO2 and its applications in industrial odor control

    KAUST Repository

    Somekawa, Shouichi

    2011-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present at ppm levels were decomposed over the catalyst CuO-Co3O4-CeO2 (Cu:Co:Ce = 10:45:45 in mol) in an attempt to scale up for industrial odor control. In addition to enhancing the catalytic activity, CuO-Co3O4 and CeO2 helped, respectively, to maintain the strength of the pelleted catalysts and inhibit their sintering. Using toluene as a VOC model compound, kinetic analysis of the total oxidation to carbon dioxide was conducted. The odor emitted from paint-drying processes could be eliminated effectively using CuO-Co3O4-CeO2 (Cu:Co:Ce = 10:45:45) pelleted catalysts (188 ml) in a large-scale system. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mineralization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) over the catalyst CuO-Co3O4-CeO2 and its applications in industrial odor control

    KAUST Repository

    Somekawa, Shouichi; Hagiwara, Toshiya; Fujii, Kyoko; Kojima, Masayuki; Shinoda, Tsutomu; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Domen, Kazunari

    2011-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present at ppm levels were decomposed over the catalyst CuO-Co3O4-CeO2 (Cu:Co:Ce = 10:45:45 in mol) in an attempt to scale up for industrial odor control. In addition to enhancing the catalytic activity, CuO-Co3O4 and CeO2 helped, respectively, to maintain the strength of the pelleted catalysts and inhibit their sintering. Using toluene as a VOC model compound, kinetic analysis of the total oxidation to carbon dioxide was conducted. The odor emitted from paint-drying processes could be eliminated effectively using CuO-Co3O4-CeO2 (Cu:Co:Ce = 10:45:45) pelleted catalysts (188 ml) in a large-scale system. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Short-Term Intra-Subject Variation in Exhaled Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs in COPD Patients and Healthy Controls and Its Effect on Disease Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Phillips

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs are of interest for their potential to diagnose disease non-invasively. However, most breath VOC studies have analyzed single breath samples from an individual and assumed them to be wholly consistent representative of the person. This provided the motivation for an investigation of the variability of breath profiles when three breath samples are taken over a short time period (two minute intervals between samples for 118 stable patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD and 63 healthy controls and analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC/MS. The extent of the variation in VOC levels differed between COPD and healthy subjects and the patterns of variation differed for isoprene versus the bulk of other VOCs. In addition, machine learning approaches were applied to the breath data to establish whether these samples differed in their ability to discriminate COPD from healthy states and whether aggregation of multiple samples, into single data sets, could offer improved discrimination. The three breath samples gave similar classification accuracy to one another when evaluated separately (66.5% to 68.3% subjects classified correctly depending on the breath repetition used. Combining multiple breath samples into single data sets gave better discrimination (73.4% subjects classified correctly. Although accuracy is not sufficient for COPD diagnosis in a clinical setting, enhanced sampling and analysis may improve accuracy further. Variability in samples, and short-term effects of practice or exertion, need to be considered in any breath testing program to improve reliability and optimize discrimination.

  11. [Evaluation and selection of VOCs treatment technologies in packaging and printing industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Lin; Wang, Jun-Hui; Zhu, Chun-Lei; Nie, Lei; Hao, Zheng-Ping

    2014-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play an important role in urban air pollution. Activities of industries including the packaging and printing industries are regarded as the major sources. How to select the suitable treating techniques is the major problem for emission control. In this article, based on the VOCs emission characteristics of the packaging and printing industry and the existing treatment technologies, using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model, an evaluation system for VOCs selection was established and all the technologies used for treatment were assessed. It showed that the priority selection was in the following order: Carbon Fiber Adsorption-Desorption > Granular Carbon Adsorption-Desorption > Thermal Combustion > Regenerative Combustion > Catalytic combustion > Rotary adsorption-concentration and combustion > Granular Carbon adsorption-concentration and combustion. Carbon Fiber Adsorption-Desorption was selected as the best available technology due to its highest weight among those technologies.

  12. Seasonal soil VOC exchange rates in a Mediterranean holm oak forest and their responses to drought conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Dolores; Peñuelas, Josep; Ogaya, Romà; Llusià, Joan

    Available information on soil volatile organic compound (VOC) exchange, emissions and uptake, is very scarce. We here describe the amounts and seasonality of soil VOC exchange during a year in a natural Mediterranean holm oak forest growing in Southern Catalonia. We investigated changes in soil VOC dynamics in drought conditions by decreasing the soil moisture to 30% of ambient conditions by artificially excluding rainfall and water runoff, and predicted the response of VOC exchange to the drought forecasted in the Mediterranean region for the next decades by GCM and ecophysiological models. The annual average of the total (detected) soil VOC and total monoterpene exchange rates were 3.2±3.2 and -0.4±0.3 μg m -2 h -1, respectively, in control plots. These values represent 0.003% of the total C emitted by soil at the study site as CO 2 whereas the annual mean of soil monoterpene exchange represents 0.0004% of total C. Total soil VOC exchange rates in control plots showed seasonal variations following changes in soil moisture and phenology. Maximum values were found in spring (17±8 μg m -2 h -1). Although there was no significant global effect of drought treatment on the total soil VOC exchange rates, annual average of total VOC exchange rates in drought plots resulted in an uptake rate (-0.5±1.8 μg m -2 h -1) instead of positive net emission rates. Larger soil VOC and monoterpene exchanges were measured in drought plots than in control plots in summer, which might be mostly attributable to autotrophic (roots) metabolism. The results show that the diversity and magnitude of monoterpene and VOC soil emissions are low compared with plant emissions, that they are driven by soil moisture, that they represent a very small part of the soil-released carbon and that they may be strongly reduced or even reversed into net uptakes by the predicted decreases of soil water availability in the next decades. In all cases, it seems that VOC fluxes in soil might have greater

  13. Assessment of regional air quality resulting from emission control in the Pearl River Delta region, southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N; Lyu, X P; Deng, X J; Guo, H; Deng, T; Li, Y; Yin, C Q; Li, F; Wang, S Q

    2016-12-15

    To evaluate the impact of emission control measures on the air quality in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of South China, statistic data including atmospheric observations, emissions and energy consumptions during 2006-2014 were analyzed, and a Weather Research and Forecasting - Community Multi-scale Air Quality (WRF-CMAQ) model was used for various scenario simulations. Although energy consumption doubled from 2004 to 2014 and vehicle number significantly increased from 2006 to 2014, ambient SO 2 , NO 2 and PM 10 were reduced by 66%, 20% and 24%, respectively, mainly due to emissions control efforts. In contrast, O 3 increased by 19%. Model simulations of three emission control scenarios, including a baseline (a case in 2010), a CAP (a case in 2020 assuming control strength followed past control tendency) and a REF (a case in 2020 referring to the strict control measures based on recent policy/plans) were conducted to investigate the variations of air pollutants to the changes in NO x , VOCs and NH 3 emissions. Although the area mean concentrations of NO x , nitrate and PM 2.5 decreased under both NO x CAP (reduced by 1.8%, 0.7% and 0.2%, respectively) and NO x REF (reduced by 7.2%, 1.8% and 0.3%, respectively), a rising of PM 2.5 was found in certain areas as reducing NO x emissions elevated the atmospheric oxidizability. Furthermore, scenarios with NH 3 emission reductions showed that nitrate was sensitive to NH 3 emissions, with decreasing percentages of 0-10.6% and 0-48% under CAP and REF, respectively. Controlling emissions of VOCs reduced PM 2.5 in the southwestern PRD where severe photochemical pollution frequently occurred. It was also found that O 3 formation in PRD was generally VOCs-limited while turned to be NO x -limited in the afternoon (13:00-17:00), suggesting that cutting VOCs emissions would reduce the overall O 3 concentrations while mitigating NO x emissions in the afternoon could reduce the peak O 3 levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  14. Overview of VOC emissions and chemistry from PTR-TOF-MS measurements during the SusKat-ABC campaign: high acetaldehyde, isoprene and isocyanic acid in wintertime air of the Kathmandu Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Chinmoy; Sinha, Vinayak; Kumar, Vinod; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Panday, Arnico; Mahata, Khadak S.; Rupakheti, Dipesh; Kathayat, Bhogendra; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2016-03-01

    The Kathmandu Valley in Nepal suffers from severe wintertime air pollution. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are key constituents of air pollution, though their specific role in the valley is poorly understood due to insufficient data. During the SusKat-ABC (Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley-Atmospheric Brown Clouds) field campaign conducted in Nepal in the winter of 2012-2013, a comprehensive study was carried out to characterise the chemical composition of ambient Kathmandu air, including the determination of speciated VOCs, by deploying a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) - the first such deployment in South Asia. In the study, 71 ion peaks (for which measured ambient concentrations exceeded the 2σ detection limit) were detected in the PTR-TOF-MS mass scan data, highlighting the chemical complexity of ambient air in the valley. Of the 71 species, 37 were found to have campaign average concentrations greater than 200 ppt and were identified based on their spectral characteristics, ambient diel profiles and correlation with specific emission tracers as a result of the high mass resolution (m / Δm > 4200) and temporal resolution (1 min) of the PTR-TOF-MS. The concentration ranking in the average VOC mixing ratios during our wintertime deployment was acetaldehyde (8.8 ppb) > methanol (7.4 ppb) > acetone + propanal (4.2 ppb) > benzene (2.7 ppb) > toluene (1.5 ppb) > isoprene (1.1 ppb) > acetonitrile (1.1 ppb) > C8-aromatics ( ˜ 1 ppb) > furan ( ˜ 0.5 ppb) > C9-aromatics (0.4 ppb). Distinct diel profiles were observed for the nominal isobaric compounds isoprene (m / z = 69.070) and furan (m / z = 69.033). Comparison with wintertime measurements from several locations elsewhere in the world showed mixing ratios of acetaldehyde ( ˜ 9 ppb), acetonitrile ( ˜ 1 ppb) and isoprene ( ˜ 1 ppb) to be among the highest reported to date. Two "new" ambient compounds, namely formamide (m / z = 46.029) and acetamide (m / z

  15. Emissions control for sensitive areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baud, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The Gorgon project needs almost no introduction. Located off the north-west coast of Western Australia, it is one of the world's largest natural gas projects, set on the environmentally sensitive Barrow Island. To protect the island's unique habitats, stringent environmental conditions have been imposed in terms of air, noise and light emissions, making the emission control system critical to the project's viability. Luhr Filter, specialists in dust and fume control solutions, were chosen by KMH Environmental to supply an emission control system for a waste incinerator facility serving the LNG processing plant on Barrow Island. KMH's preference was for a 'one stop' supplier of the entire pollution control system. This included a heat exchanger which had the added benefit of a compact build to fit in the limited real estate. The solution put forward was tailored to the unique environmental requirements of the Gorgon project. It was very much about collaboration and innovation to achieve the requisite results. KMH were also keen to limit the number of sub-contractors they had to deal with, and Luhr offered them a turn-key plant for the gas cleaning, integrating design and supply of all the equipment. Among the environmental requirements was that all putrescible waste created on-site - from the accommodation camps during the construction and, eventually, production phases - had to be incinerated rather than sent to landfill. The flue gas from the incinerators had to be treated in order to meet world-class environmental standards for emission of particulate, acid gases, metals and dioxins. KMH designed an incinerator system with primary and secondary combustion chambers in modular units to minimise labour requirements on site. The dry absorption system integrates Luhr's unique technologies for heat exchangers, absorption reactors, utilisation of the absorbent and the baghouse style filters with reverse pulse bag cleaning

  16. Locating industrial VOC sources with aircraft observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toscano, P.; Gioli, B.; Dugheri, S.; Salvini, A.; Matese, A.; Bonacchi, A.; Zaldei, A.; Cupelli, V.; Miglietta, F.

    2011-01-01

    Observation and characterization of environmental pollution, focussing on Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), in a high-risk industrial area, are particularly important in order to provide indications on a safe level of exposure, indicate eventual priorities and advise on policy interventions. The aim of this study is to use the Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) method to measure VOCs, directly coupled with atmospheric measurements taken on a small aircraft environmental platform, to evaluate and locate the presence of VOC emission sources in the Marghera industrial area. Lab analysis of collected SPME fibres and subsequent analysis of mass spectrum and chromatograms in Scan Mode allowed the detection of a wide range of VOCs. The combination of this information during the monitoring campaign allowed a model (Gaussian Plume) to be implemented that estimates the localization of emission sources on the ground. - Highlights: → Flight plan aimed at sampling industrial area at various altitudes and locations. → SPME sampling strategy was based on plume detection by means of CO 2 . → Concentrations obtained were lower than the limit values or below the detection limit. → Scan mode highlighted presence of γ-butyrolactone (GBL) compound. → Gaussian dispersion modelling was used to estimate GBL source location and strength. - An integrated strategy based on atmospheric aircraft observations and dispersion modelling was developed, aimed at estimating spatial location and strength of VOC point source emissions in industrial areas.

  17. Role of sectoral and multi-pollutant emission control strategies in improving atmospheric visibility in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Zhuang, Guoshun; Lin, Yanfen

    2014-01-01

    The Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system is used to investigate the response of atmospheric visibility to the emission reduction from different sectors (i.e. industries, traffic and power plants) in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Visibility improvement from exclusive reduction of NOx or VOC emission was most inefficient. Sulfate and organic aerosol would rebound if NOx emission was exclusively reduced from any emission sector. The most efficient way to improve the atmospheric visibility was proven to be the multi-pollutant control strategies. Simultaneous emission reductions (20-50%) on NOx, VOC and PM from the industrial and mobile sectors could result in 0.3-1.0 km visibility improvement. And the emission controls on both NOx (85%) and SO2 (90%) from power plants gained the largest visibility improvement of up to 4.0 km among all the scenarios. The seasonal visibility improvement subject to emission controls was higher in summer while lower in the other seasons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Does the novel fast-GC coupled with PTR-TOF-MS allow a significant advancement in detecting VOC emissions from plants?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pallozzi, E.; Guidolotti, G.; Ciccioli, P.; Brilli, F.; Feil, S.; Calfapietra, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 216, JAN (2016), s. 232-240 ISSN 0168-1923 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13031; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : VOC * Gas chromatography * Time of flight * PTR-TOF-MS * Quercus * eucalyptus Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.887, year: 2016

  19. Optimal strategies for VOC emission abatement produced by solvent evaporation. The Italian case study; Strategie ottimali per la riduzione delle emissioni di composti organici volatili da uso di solventi: il caso italiano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetrella, G.; Cirillo, M.C. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-07-01

    This work analyses technologies and costs of VOC (volatile organic compounds) abatement in the activities which belong to the solvent evaporation sector, and then it singles out the most successful strategies from the costs point of view to reduce the sector emissions on the base of fixed abatement objectives. The Italian case is discussed. [Italian] Il lavoro analizza tecnologie e costi di abbattimento dei COV (composti organici volatili) nel settore evaporazione solventi, e individua la strategia piu' efficace dal punto di vista dei costi per ridurre le emissioni del settore sulla base di prefissati obiettivi di abbattimento. Analizza la situazione italiana.

  20. Farm-scale testing of soybean peroxidase and calcium peroxide for surficial swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Devin L.; Koziel, Jacek A.; Bruning, Kelsey; Parker, David B.

    2017-10-01

    The swine industry, regulatory agencies, and the public are interested in farm-tested methods for controlling gaseous emissions from swine barns. In earlier lab- and pilot-scale studies, a renewable catalyst consisting of soybean peroxidase (SBP) mixed with calcium peroxide (CaO2) was found to be effective in mitigating gaseous emissions from swine manure. Thus, a farm-scale experiment was conducted at the university's 178-pig, shallow-pit, mechanically-ventilated swine barn to evaluate SBP/CaO2 as a surficial manure pit additive under field conditions. The SBP was applied once at the beginning of the 42-day experiment at an application rate of 2.28 kg m-2 with 4.2% CaO2 added by weight. Gas samples were collected from the primary barn exhaust fans. As compared to the control, significant reductions in gaseous emissions were observed for ammonia (NH3, 21.7%), hydrogen sulfide (H2S, 79.7%), n-butyric acid (37.2%), valeric acid (47.7%), isovaleric acid (39.3%), indole (31.2%), and skatole (43.5%). Emissions of dimethyl disulfide/methanethiol (DMDS/MT) increased by 30.6%. Emissions of p-cresol were reduced by 14.4% but were not statistically significant. There were no significant changes to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O). The total (material + labor) treatment cost was 2.62 per marketed pig, equivalent to 1.5% of the pig market price. The cost of CaO2 catalyst was ∼60% of materials cost. The cost of soybean hulls (SBP source) was 0.60 per marketed pig, i.e., only 40% of materials cost.

  1. 77 FR 49489 - Oil and Natural Gas Sector: New Source Performance Standards and National Emission Standards for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ..., centrifugal compressors, reciprocating compressors, pneumatic controllers and storage vessels. This action... organic compound (VOC) emissions from gas wells, centrifugal compressors, reciprocating compressors... emissions from wet seal centrifugal compressors located between the wellhead and the point at which the gas...

  2. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds (Cl-VOCs) in environment - sources, potential human health impacts, and current remediation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Binbin; Lei, Chao; Wei, Chaohai; Zeng, Guangming

    2014-10-01

    Chlorinated volatile organic compounds (Cl-VOCs), including polychloromethanes, polychloroethanes and polychloroethylenes, are widely used as solvents, degreasing agents and a variety of commercial products. These compounds belong to a group of ubiquitous contaminants that can be found in contaminated soil, air and any kind of fluvial mediums such as groundwater, rivers and lakes. This review presents a summary of the research concerning the production levels and sources of Cl-VOCs, their potential impacts on human health as well as state-of-the-art remediation technologies. Important sources of Cl-VOCs principally include the emissions from industrial processes, the consumption of Cl-VOC-containing products, the disinfection process, as well as improper storage and disposal methods. Human exposure to Cl-VOCs can occur through different routes, including ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact. The toxicological impacts of these compounds have been carefully assessed, and the results demonstrate the potential associations of cancer incidence with exposure to Cl-VOCs. Most Cl-VOCs thus have been listed as priority pollutants by the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) of China, Environmental Protection Agency of the U.S. (U.S. EPA) and European Commission (EC), and are under close monitor and strict control. Yet, more efforts will be put into the epidemiological studies for the risk of human exposure to Cl-VOCs and the exposure level measurements in contaminated sites in the future. State-of-the-art remediation technologies for Cl-VOCs employ non-destructive methods and destructive methods (e.g. thermal incineration, phytoremediation, biodegradation, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) and reductive dechlorination), whose advantages, drawbacks and future developments are thoroughly discussed in the later sections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Covering the different steps of the coffee processing: Can headspace VOC emissions be exploited to successfully distinguish between Arabica and Robusta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzi, Ilaria; Taiti, Cosimo; Marone, Elettra; Magnelli, Susanna; Gonnelli, Cristina; Mancuso, Stefano

    2017-12-15

    This work was performed to evaluate the possible application of PTR-ToF-MS technique in distinguishing between Coffea arabica (Arabica) and Coffea canephora var. robusta (Robusta) commercial stocks in each step of the processing chain (green beans, roasted beans, ground coffee, brews). volatile organic compounds (VOC) spectra from coffee samples of 7 Arabica and 6 Robusta commercial stocks were recorded and submitted to multivariate statistical analysis. Results clearly showed that, in each stage of the coffee processing, the volatile composition of coffee is highly influenced by the species. Actually, with the exception of green beans, PTR-ToF-MS technique was able to correctly recognize Arabica and Robusta samples. Particularly, among 134 tentatively identified VOCs, some masses (16 for roasted coffee, 12 for ground coffee and 12 for brewed coffee) were found to significantly discriminate the two species. Therefore, headspace VOC analyses was showed to represent a valuable tool to distinguish between Arabica and Robusta. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of

  5. Controlling fugitive emissions from mechanical seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, W.V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that enactment of the 1990 Federal Clean Air Amendments will sharply focus efforts in the process industries to reduce fugitive emissions. Moreover, state and local governments may be imposing stricter laws and regulations which will affect allowable fugitive emissions from U.S. refineries and process plants. Plants outside the U.S. have similar concerns. Clearly, mechanical seals for process pumps represent an enormous population and is one category of equipment destined for careful evaluation as a means to control fugitive emissions. Fugitive are unintentional emissions from valves, pumps, flanges, compressors, etc., as opposed to point-source emissions from stacks, vents and flares. Fugitive emissions do not occur as a part of normal plant operations, but result from the effects of: Malfunctions, Age, Lack of proper maintenance, Operator error, Improper equipment specification, Use of inferior technology, and externally caused damage

  6. Waterbury, Conn., Incinerator to Control Mercury Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emission control equipment to limit the discharge of mercury pollution to the atmosphere will be installed at an incinerator owned by the City of Waterbury, Conn., according to a proposed agreement between the city and federal government.

  7. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations.

  8. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo [Shanghai Univ. of Electric Power (China); Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations.

  9. Economic growth and carbon emission control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenyu

    The question about whether environmental improvement is compatible with continued economic growth remains unclear and requires further study in a specific context. This study intends to provide insight on the potential for carbon emissions control in the absence of international agreement, and connect the empirical analysis with theoretical framework. The Chinese electricity generation sector is used as a case study to demonstrate the problem. Both social planner and private problems are examined to derive the conditions that define the optimal level of production and pollution. The private problem will be demonstrated under the emission regulation using an emission tax, an input tax and an abatement subsidy respectively. The social optimal emission flow is imposed into the private problem. To provide tractable analytical results, a Cobb-Douglas type production function is used to describe the joint production process of the desired output and undesired output (i.e., electricity and emissions). A modified Hamiltonian approach is employed to solve the system and the steady state solutions are examined for policy implications. The theoretical analysis suggests that the ratio of emissions to desired output (refer to 'emission factor'), is a function of productive capital and other parameters. The finding of non-constant emission factor shows that reducing emissions without further cutting back the production of desired outputs is feasible under some circumstances. Rather than an ad hoc specification, the optimal conditions derived from our theoretical framework are used to examine the relationship between desired output and emission level. Data comes from the China Statistical Yearbook and China Electric Power Yearbook and provincial information of electricity generation for the year of 1993-2003 are used to estimate the Cobb-Douglas type joint production by the full information maximum likelihood (FIML) method. The empirical analysis shed light on the optimal

  10. Observations of VOC emissions and photochemical products over US oil- and gas-producing regions using high-resolution H3O+ CIMS (PTR-ToF-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Koss

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available VOCs related to oil and gas extraction operations in the United States were measured by H3O+ chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (H3O+ ToF-CIMS/PTR-ToF-MS from aircraft during the Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNEX campaign in March–April 2015. This work presents an overview of major VOC species measured in nine oil- and gas-producing regions, and a more detailed analysis of H3O+ ToF-CIMS measurements in the Permian Basin within Texas and New Mexico. Mass spectra are dominated by small photochemically produced oxygenates and compounds typically found in crude oil: aromatics, cyclic alkanes, and alkanes. Mixing ratios of aromatics were frequently as high as those measured downwind of large urban areas. In the Permian, the H3O+ ToF-CIMS measured a number of underexplored or previously unreported species, including aromatic and cycloalkane oxidation products, nitrogen heterocycles including pyrrole (C4H5N and pyrroline (C4H7N, H2S, and a diamondoid (adamantane or unusual monoterpene. We additionally assess the specificity of a number of ion masses resulting from H3O+ ion chemistry previously reported in the literature, including several new or alternate interpretations.

  11. Observations of VOC emissions and photochemical products over US oil- and gas-producing regions using high-resolution H3O+ CIMS (PTR-ToF-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Abigail; Yuan, Bin; Warneke, Carsten; Gilman, Jessica B.; Lerner, Brian M.; Veres, Patrick R.; Peischl, Jeff; Eilerman, Scott; Wild, Rob; Brown, Steven S.; Thompson, Chelsea R.; Ryerson, Thomas; Hanisco, Thomas; Wolfe, Glenn M.; St. Clair, Jason M.; Thayer, Mitchell; Keutsch, Frank N.; Murphy, Shane; de Gouw, Joost

    2017-08-01

    VOCs related to oil and gas extraction operations in the United States were measured by H3O+ chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (H3O+ ToF-CIMS/PTR-ToF-MS) from aircraft during the Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNEX) campaign in March-April 2015. This work presents an overview of major VOC species measured in nine oil- and gas-producing regions, and a more detailed analysis of H3O+ ToF-CIMS measurements in the Permian Basin within Texas and New Mexico. Mass spectra are dominated by small photochemically produced oxygenates and compounds typically found in crude oil: aromatics, cyclic alkanes, and alkanes. Mixing ratios of aromatics were frequently as high as those measured downwind of large urban areas. In the Permian, the H3O+ ToF-CIMS measured a number of underexplored or previously unreported species, including aromatic and cycloalkane oxidation products, nitrogen heterocycles including pyrrole (C4H5N) and pyrroline (C4H7N), H2S, and a diamondoid (adamantane) or unusual monoterpene. We additionally assess the specificity of a number of ion masses resulting from H3O+ ion chemistry previously reported in the literature, including several new or alternate interpretations.

  12. Emission controls and changes in air quality in Guangzhou during the Asian Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Wang, Xuemei; Zhang, Jinpu; He, Kebin; Wu, Ye; Xu, Jiayu

    2013-09-01

    With the new air quality standards forthcoming in China, the Pearl River Delta region is facing new challenges to achieve its air quality goal. The success of the emission reduction measures introduced by local authorities in the run-up to the Guangzhou Asian Games demonstrated that the Pearl River Delta air quality can be improved by introducing integrated emission reduction measures. This paper combines observation data, emission reduction measures, and air quality simulations that were applied during the Asian Games (12-27 November 2010) to analyze the relationship between emissions and concentrations of pollutants in Guangzhou. The Asian Games abatement strategy totally reduced emissions of 41.1% SO2, 41.9% NOx, 26.5% PM10, 25.8% PM2.5 and 39.7% VOC. The concentrations of SO2, NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 were reduced by 66.8%, 51.3%, 21.5% and 17.1%, respectively. In Guangzhou, the main challenge to be overcome with the new air quality daily requirements is mostly for NO2, PM2.5, and hourly ozone maxima. If pollutants maintain the same concentrations before and after the Asian Games, there will be 47.4% and 31.6% non-attainment days for NO2 and PM2.5 respectively as a period average. Although PM10 concentration can meet the daily limits (150 μg m-3), it is quite difficult to meet the annual limit value (70 μg m-3). One important implication is that the long-term, step-by-step integrated measures of the past six years work better than the strict, intensive, short-term measures on SO2, NO2 and VOC control. Dust control by limiting construction sites and watering the roads can further reduce 12.8% of the PM10 concentration. However, to reduce ambient PM2.5, the abatement strategy should be more complex and extensive. On the contrary, ozone pollution was not improved during the Asian Games, indicating that alleviation strategies should be improved by scientific studies to determine the appropriate control ratio of NO2 and VOC in the Pearl River Delta region.

  13. Monitoring Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in real-time on oil and natural gas production sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupardus, R.; Franklin, S. B.

    2017-12-01

    Oil and Natural Gas (O&NG) development, production, infrastructure, and associated processing activities can be a substantial source of air pollution, yet relevant data and real-time quantification methods are lacking. In the current study, O&NG fugitive emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) were quantified in real-time and used to determine the spatial and temporal windows of exposure for proximate flora and fauna. Eleven O&NG sites on the Pawnee National Grassland in Northeastern Colorado were randomly selected and grouped according to production along with 13 control sites from three geographical locations. At each site, samples were collected 25 m from the wellhead in NE, SE, and W directions. In each direction, two samples were collected with a Gasmet DX4040 gas analyzer every hour from 8:00 am to 2:00 pm (6 hours total), July to October, 2016 (N=864). VOC concentrations generally increased during the 6 hr. day with the exception of N2O and were predominately the result of O&NG production and not vehicle exhaust. Thirteen of 24 VOCs had significantly different levels between production groups, frequently above reference standards and at biologically relevant levels for flora and fauna. The most biologically relevant VOCs, found at concentrations exceeding time weighted average permissible exposure limits (TWA PELs), were benzene and acrolein. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEEs) measured the relative quality of statistical models predicting benzene concentrations on sites. The data not only confirms that O&NG emissions are impacting the region, but also that this influence is present at all sites, including controls. Increased real-time VOC monitoring on O&NG sites is required to identify and contain fugitive emissions and to protect human and environmental health.

  14. Estimation of automobile emissions and control strategies in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesamani, K S

    2010-03-15

    Rapid, but unplanned urban development and the consequent urban sprawl coupled with economic growth have aggravated auto dependency in India over the last two decades. This has resulted in congestion and pollution in cities. The central and state governments have taken many ameliorative measures to reduce vehicular emissions. However, evolution of scientific methods for emission inventory is crucial. Therefore, an attempt has been made to estimate the emissions (running and start) from on-road vehicles in Chennai using IVE model in this paper. GPS was used to collect driving patterns. The estimated emissions from motor vehicles in Chennai in 2005 were 431, 119, 46, 7, 4575, 29, and 0.41 tons/days respectively for CO, VOC, NO(x), PM, CO(2,) CH(4) and N(2)O. It is observed from the results that air quality in Chennai has degraded. The estimation revealed that two and three-wheelers emitted about 64% of the total CO emissions and heavy-duty vehicles accounted for more than 60% and 36% of the NO(x) and PM emissions respectively. About 19% of total emissions were that of start emissions. It is also estimated that on-road transport contributes about 6637 tons/day CO(2) equivalent in Chennai. This paper has further examined various mitigation options to reduce vehicular emissions. The study has concluded that advanced vehicular technology and augmentation of public transit would have significant impact on reducing vehicular emissions.

  15. Advanced CIDI Emission Control System Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Christine

    2006-05-31

    Ford Motor Company, with ExxonMobil and FEV, participated in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Ultra-Clean Transportation Fuels Program with the goal to develop an innovative emission control system for light-duty diesel vehicles. The focus on diesel engine emissions was a direct result of the improved volumetric fuel economy (up to 50%) and lower CO2 emissions (up to 25%) over comparable gasoline engines shown in Europe. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) with aqueous urea as the NOx reductant and a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF) were chosen as the primary emission control system components. The program expected to demonstrate more than 90% durable reduction in particulate matter (PM) and NOx emissions on a light-duty truck application, based on the FTP-75 drive cycle. Very low sulfur diesel fuel (<15 ppm-wt) enabled lower PM emissions, reduced fuel economy penalty due to the emission control system and improved long-term system durability. Significant progress was made toward a durable system to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 emission standards on a 6000 lbs light-duty truck. A 40% reduction in engine-out NOx emissions was achieved with a mid-size prototype diesel engine through engine recalibration and increased exhaust gas recirculation. Use of a rapid warm-up strategy and urea SCR provided over 90% further NOx reduction while the CDPF reduced tailpipe PM to gasoline vehicle levels. Development work was conducted to separately improve urea SCR and CDPF system durability, as well as improved oxidation catalyst function. Exhaust gas NOx and ammonia sensors were also developed further. While the final emission control system did not meet Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx after 120k mi of aging on the dynamometer, it did meet the standards for HC, NMOG, and PM, and an improved SCR catalyst was shown to have potential to meet the NOx standard, assuming the DOC durability could be improved further. Models of DOC and SCR function were developed to guide the study of several key

  16. Environmental management control systems for carbon emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Di Giacomo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This paper aims to focus on a global consulting company and examine how it struggled to establish an effective environmental management control system for carbon emissions for its employees’ air travel. The organisation was motivated to reduce its carbon emissions both to comply with regulation and to enhance or maintain corporate reputation. Design/methodology/approach – The paper takes a case study approach, examining internal and external documents as well as conducting interviews with senior staff. Findings – The case study investigates how Beta’s management implemented a system to reduce carbon emissions. The organisation focused on air travel, but the study finds that employee travel preferences did not radically change. Rather than reduction in carbon emissions, as planned by head office, air travel carbon emissions actually increased during the period, and, as a consequence, the reported reduction targets were significantly adjusted downwards to meet the new realities. Practical implications – The study has implications for both policy and practice for organisations seeking to improve their sustainability performance. Originality/value – The study responds to calls in the literature to undertake research to identify how management practices might reduce negative sustainability impacts, as there is little evidence of what management practices and accounting tools are being adopted, particularly in relation to carbon emissions from air travel. The paper adds to the creation of new accounting, giving visibility to carbon emission management through case study analysis.

  17. Overview of VOC emissions and chemistry from PTR-TOF-MS measurements during the SusKat-ABC campaign: high acetaldehyde, isoprene and isocyanic acid in wintertime air of the Kathmandu Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sarkar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Kathmandu Valley in Nepal suffers from severe wintertime air pollution. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs are key constituents of air pollution, though their specific role in the valley is poorly understood due to insufficient data. During the SusKat-ABC (Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley–Atmospheric Brown Clouds field campaign conducted in Nepal in the winter of 2012–2013, a comprehensive study was carried out to characterise the chemical composition of ambient Kathmandu air, including the determination of speciated VOCs, by deploying a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS – the first such deployment in South Asia. In the study, 71 ion peaks (for which measured ambient concentrations exceeded the 2σ detection limit were detected in the PTR-TOF-MS mass scan data, highlighting the chemical complexity of ambient air in the valley. Of the 71 species, 37 were found to have campaign average concentrations greater than 200 ppt and were identified based on their spectral characteristics, ambient diel profiles and correlation with specific emission tracers as a result of the high mass resolution (m ∕ Δm  >  4200 and temporal resolution (1 min of the PTR-TOF-MS. The concentration ranking in the average VOC mixing ratios during our wintertime deployment was acetaldehyde (8.8 ppb  >  methanol (7.4 ppb  >  acetone + propanal (4.2 ppb  >  benzene (2.7 ppb  >  toluene (1.5 ppb  >  isoprene (1.1 ppb  >  acetonitrile (1.1 ppb  >  C8-aromatics ( ∼ 1 ppb  >  furan ( ∼ 0.5 ppb  >  C9-aromatics (0.4 ppb. Distinct diel profiles were observed for the nominal isobaric compounds isoprene (m ∕ z  =  69.070 and furan (m ∕ z  =  69.033. Comparison with wintertime measurements from several locations elsewhere in the world showed mixing ratios of acetaldehyde ( ∼  9 ppb, acetonitrile ( ∼  1 ppb and isoprene

  18. Control of formaldehyde and TVOC emission from wood-based flooring composites at various manufacturing processes by surface finishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sumin

    2010-04-15

    This paper assesses the reproducibility of testing formaldehyde and TVOC emission behavior from wood flooring composites bonded by urea-formaldehyde resin at various manufacturing steps for surface finishing materials. The surface adhesion step of laminate flooring for this research was divided into two steps; HDF only and HDF with LPMs. In the case of engineered flooring, the manufacturing steps were divided into three steps; plywood only, fancy veneer bonded on plywood and UV coated on fancy veneer with plywood. Formaldehyde and VOCs emission decreased at the process of final surface finishing materials; LPMs were applied on the surface of HDF for laminate flooring. Although emissions increased when fancy veneer was bonded onto plywood in the case of engineered flooring, emission was dramatically reduced up to similar level with plywood only when final surface finishing; UV-curable coating was applied on fancy veneer. This study suggests that formaldehyde and VOCs emission from floorings can be controlled at manufacturing steps for surface finishing. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Airborne radioactive emission control technology. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoski, L.; Berlin, R.; Corby, D.; Clancy, J.; Hoopes, G.

    1980-03-01

    This report reviews the current and future control technology for airborne emissions from a wide variety of industries/facilities, including uranium mining and milling, other nuclear fuel cycle facilities, other NRC-licensed and DOE facilities, fossil fuel facilities, selected metal and non-metal extraction industries, and others. Where specific radioactivity control technology is lacking, a description of any existing control technology is given. Future control technology is assessed in terms of improvements to equipment performance and process alterations. A catalogue of investigated research on advanced control technologies is presented

  20. Airborne radioactive emission control technology. Volume III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoski, L.; Berlin, R.; Corby, D.; Clancy, J.; Hoopes, G.

    1980-03-01

    This report reviews the current and future control technology for airborne emissions from a wide variety of industries/facilities, including uranium mining and milling, other nuclear fuel cycle facilities, other NRC-licensed and DOE facilities, fossil fuel facilities, selected metal and non-metal extraction industries, and others. Where specific radioactivity control technology is lacking, a description of any existing control technology is given. Future control technology is assessed in terms of improvements to equipment performance and process alterations. A catalogue of investigated research on advanced control technologies is presented

  1. Airborne radioactive emission control technology. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoski, L.; Berlin, R.; Corby, D.; Clancy, J.; Hoopes, G.

    1980-03-01

    This report reviews the current and future control technology for airborne emissions from a wide variety of industries/facilities, includimg uranium mining and milling, other nuclear fuel cycle facilities, other NRC-licensed and DOE facilities, fossil fuel facilities, selected metal and non-metal extraction industries, and others. Where specific radioactivity control technology is lacking a description of any existing control technology is given. Future control technology is assessed in terms of improvements to equipment performance and process alterations. A catalogue of investigated research on advanced control technologies is presented

  2. Control mechanisms for Nordic ship emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsen, K. [DNV, Oslo (Norway); Torvanger, A. [Cicero, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-04-15

    Shipping today operates under a complex set of international and domestic regulations. However, the environmental regulations have lagged behind those of other industries. This situation is now changing quite dramatically. The increased focus on environmental issues, combined with the growing realisation of the actual pollution burden imposed by shipping, has led to an upsurge in both international and national regulations. Some are ready and will enter into force in the near future, while others are still being developed. On behalf of the Nordic Council of Ministers DNV has carried out a study on possible control mechanisms for Nordic ship emission. The aim is to assess the baseline shipping emissions and reduction potential and the possible controlling mechanisms (both incentives and regulations) available for reducing the emissions to air from shipping within the Nordic region. (Author)

  3. VOCs and odors: key factors in selecting `green` building materials?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, C. [Steven Winter Associates Inc., Norwalk, CT and Washington DC (United States)

    1998-12-01

    The current state of knowledge available for selecting building materials on the basis of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and odors is reviewed. The significance of VOCs and odors in building materials is related to their role in influencing indoor air quality. As far as toxicity is concerned, many of the VOCs detected in indoor air are relatively inert when considered singly. They are not however, unimportant because in actual fact they are invariably found in mixtures some of which can be toxic. Although knowledge of VOCs is incomplete, it is important to specify ozone-resistant polymeric building products, i.e. those that are chemically stable and inert to oxidation. In addition to VOCs, attention should also be focused on semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) since they are even more persistent than VOCs and tend to offgas for prolonged periods of time. Similarly, it is reasonable to specify low-odor materials. Inclusion of issues related to complex indoor chemistry, less volatile emissions, in addition to VOCs and odor, should in time result in expanded choices of building materials that promote indoor air quality. 16 refs.,2 tabs.

  4. Preliminary measurements of aromatic VOCs in public transportation modes in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, L Y; Lau, W L; Wang, X M; Tang, J H

    2003-07-01

    This study examined the exposure level of aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in public transportation modes in Guangzhou, China. A total of 40 VOC samples were conducted in four popular public commuting modes (subway, taxis, non-air-conditioned buses and air-conditioned buses) while traversing in urban areas of Guangzhou. Traffic-related VOCs (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene and o-xylene) were collected on adsorbent tubes and analyzed by thermal desorption (TD) and gas chromatography/mass-selective detector (GC/MSD) technique. The results indicate that commuter exposure to VOCs is greatly influenced by the choice of public transport. For the benzene measured, the mean exposure level in taxis (33.6 microg/m(3)) was the highest and was followed by air-conditioned buses (13.5 microg/m(3)) and non-air-conditioned buses (11.3 microg/m(3)). The exposure level in the subway (7.6 microg/m(3)) is clearly lower than that in roadway transports. The inter-microenvironment variations of other target compounds were similar to that of benzene. The target VOCs were well correlated to each other in all the measured transports. The concentration profile of the measured transport was also investigated and was found to be similar to each other. Based on the experiment results, the average B/T/E/X found in this study was about (1.0/4.3/0.7/1.4). In this study, the VOC levels measured in evening peak hours were only slightly higher than those in afternoon non-peak hours. This is due to the insignificant change of traffic volume on the measured routes between these two set times. The out-dated vehicle emission controls and slow-moving traffic conditions may be the major reasons leading elevated in-vehicle exposure level in some public commuting journeys.

  5. Determination of HCl and VOC Emission from Thermal Degradation of PVC in the Absence and Presence of Copper, Copper(II Oxide and Copper(II Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahamad J. Jafari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl chloride (PVC has played a key role in the development of the plastic industry over the past 40 years. Thermal degradation of PVC leads to formation of many toxic pollutants such as HCl, aromatic and volatile organic carbon vapors. Thermal degradation of PVC and PVC in the present of copper, cupric oxide and copper(II chloride were investigated in this study using a laboratory scale electrical furnace. HCl and Cl- ion were analyzed by a Dionex ion chromatograph and VOCs compounds were analyzed using GC or GC-MS. The results showed that HCl plus Cl- ion and benzene formed about 99% and 80% respectively in the first step of thermal degradation under air atmosphere. The presence of cupric oxide increases the percentage of short chain hydrocarbons more than 184% and decreases the amount of the major aromatic hydrocarbon and HCl plus Cl- ion to 90% and 65% respectively. The total aromatic hydrocarbon emitted less than when atmosphere was air and difference was statistically significant (Pvalue<0.000

  6. Pine weevil feeding on Norway spruce bark has a stronger impact on needle VOC emissions than enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blande, James D.; Turunen, Katariina; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2009-01-01

    Plants can respond physiologically to damaging ultraviolet-B radiation by altering leaf chemistry, especially UV absorbing phenolic compounds. However, the effects on terpene emissions have received little attention. We conducted two field trials in plots with supplemented UV-B radiation and assessed the influence of feeding by pine weevils, Hylobius abietis L., on volatile emissions from 3-year old Norway spruce trees (Picea abies L. Karst.). We collected emissions from branch tips distal to the feeding weevils, and from whole branches including the damage sites. Weevil feeding clearly induced the emission of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, particularly linalool and (E)-β-farnesene, from branch tips, and the sums of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes emitted by whole branches were substantially increased. We discovered little effect of UV-B radiation up to 30% above the ambient level on volatile emissions from branch tips distal to damage sites, but there was a possible effect on bark emissions from damage sites. - Chronic exposure to enhanced UV-B radiation has little effect on volatile emissions of Norway spruce

  7. The fight against Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper strikes the balance of the fight against organic volatile compounds emissions in France and in Europe. The first part describes the influence of VOC on production of Ozone in troposphere and gives numerical data on permissive emission values in atmosphere. The second part describes french and european policy and regulations. The third part gives the principle methods and devices for COV measurement in the atmosphere. In the last part, effluents treatment is given: thermal incineration, catalytic incineration, adsorption on active carbon, biologic purification, condensation and separative processes on membrane

  8. Implementation of VOC source reduction practices in a manufactured house and in school classrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, A.T.; Apte, M.G.; Shendell, D.G.; Beal, D.; McIlvaine, J.E.R.

    2002-01-01

    Detailed studies of a new manufactured house and four new industrialized relocatable school classrooms were conducted to determine the emission sources of formaldehyde and other VOCs and to identify and implement source reduction practices. Procedures were developed to generate VOC emission factors that allowed reasonably accurate predictions of indoor air VOC concentrations. Based on the identified sources of formaldehyde and other aldehydes, practices were developed to reduce the concentrations of these compounds in new house construction. An alternate ceiling panel reduced formaldehyde concentrations in the classrooms. Overall, the classrooms had relatively low VOC concentrations

  9. [Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of atmospheric VOCs in the downtown area of Guangzhou, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Li, Hong; Wang, Xue-Zhong; Zhang, Xin-Min; Wen, Chong

    2013-12-01

    The measurements of 31 kinds of VOCs in the ambient air of a site were carried out in the downtown of Guangzhou by online method from November 5, 2009 to November 9, 2009. The ambient level and composition characteristics, temporal variation characteristics, sources identification, and chemical reactivity of VOCs were studied, and the health risk of VOCs in the ambient air in the study area was assessed by using the international recognized health risk assessment method. Results showed that the mean and the range of the mass concentrations of 31 VOCs were 114.51 microg x m(-3) and 29.42-546.06 microg x m(-3), respectively. The mass concentrations of 31 VOCs, and those of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics all showed a changing trend of higher in the morning and in the evening, and lower at noontime. Vehicular exhaust, gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas evaporates were the main sources of VOCs with the volatilization of paints and solvents being important emission sources. Toluene, trans-2-butene, m/p-xylene, i-butane, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were the key reactive species among the 31 VOCs. Vehicular exhaust and gasoline evaporation were the main sources of VOCs leading to the formation of ozone. Health risk assessment showed that n-hexane, 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene and o-xylene had no appreciable risk of adverse non-cancer health effect on the exposed population, but 1, 3-butadiene and benzene had potential cancer risk. By comparing the corresponding data about health risk assessment of benzene compounds in some cities in China, it is concluded that benzene can impose relatively high cancer risk to the exposed populations in the ambient air of some cities in China. Therefore, strict countermeasures should be taken to further control the pollution of benzene in the ambient air of cities, and it is imperative to start the related studies and develop the atmospheric environmental health criteria and national ambient air quality

  10. NOx and N2O emission control with catalyst's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiltunen, M.

    1994-01-01

    Due to the increasingly stringent emission regulations, new technologies are needed to be developed for improving emission control in circulating fluidized-bed boilers. The objective of this project is to test the concept of using catalysts for NO x and N 2 O emission control. N 2 O emission is in the range of 30 - 100 ppm from fluidized bed combustors burning coal. Since it is a greenhouse gas an effective means of controlling N 2 O emission is needed

  11. Emission Control Technologies for Thermal Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihalani, S. A.; Mishra, Y.; Juremalani, J.

    2018-03-01

    Coal thermal power plants are one of the primary sources of artificial air emissions, particularly in a country like India. Ministry of Environment and Forests has proposed draft regulation for emission standards in coal-fired power plants. This includes significant reduction in sulphur-dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter and mercury emissions. The first step is to evaluate the technologies which represent the best selection for each power plant based on its configuration, fuel properties, performance requirements, and other site-specific factors. This paper will describe various technology options including: Flue Gas Desulfurization System, Spray Dryer Absorber (SDA), Circulating Dry Scrubber (CDS), Limestone-based Wet FGD, Low NOX burners, Selective Non Catalytic Reduction, Electrostatic Precipitator, Bag House Dust Collector, all of which have been evaluated and installed extensively to reduce SO2, NOx, PM and other emissions. Each control technology has its advantages and disadvantages. For each of the technologies considered, major features, potential operating and maintenance cost impacts, as well as key factors that contribute to the selection of one technology over another are discussed here.

  12. Developing emission reduction credit trading in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodds, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Texas Air Control Board has begun to develop a system of emission reduction credit training. The system will be developed incrementally over time. The first step, banking of VOC and NO x Emission Reduction Credits, began March 15, 1993. Additional programs under study and development include NO x RACT trading, emission credits for motor vehicle scrappage and alternative fuel conversion, and establishment of community organizations to generate and acquire emission reduction credits for economic development purposes

  13. VOCs monitoring of new materials for ceramic tiles decoration: GC–MS analysis of emissions from common vehicles and inkjet inks during firing in laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, G.; Zannini, P.

    2017-01-01

    The decoration of ceramic tiles “ink-jet revolution” has brought significant advantages to tiles manufacturing, but the explosive diffusion, until 4–5 years ago, of this technique has not been accomplished by an adequate scientific research. Among all the features that have to be studied yet, one of the most important is the influence of the new generation inks on the total emission at ceramic chimneys. In this paper, we present a first characterization of emissions from a set of commercial inks and vehicles: they were collected by propter firing of samples in an electric kiln and analyzed by GC–MS. This study is part of a larger research project, which includes the chemical characterization and the evaluation of thermal behavior of inks and vehicles by TG-DTA and other techniques. The obtained results permit to divide common vehicles into 3 classes, depending on their thermal behavior and emissions pattern. Inks, most of which present an ester based formulation, sometimes mixed with glycols or paraffins, follow the behavior of their single components. The most common formulation leads to the presence in the emission pattern of evaporation products (2-ethylhexyl esters of lauric, myristic, decanoic and octanoic acids) and decomposition products (mainly aldehydes and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol). [es

  14. Boreal forest fire emissions in fresh Canadian smoke plumes: C1-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CO, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN

    Science.gov (United States)

    I. J. Simpson; S. K. Akagi; B. Barletta; N. J. Blake; Y. Choi; G. S. Diskin; A. Fried; H. E. Fuelberg; S. Meinardi; F. S. Rowland; S. A. Vay; A. J. Weinheimer; P. O. Wennberg; P. Wiebring; A. Wisthaler; M. Yang; R. J. Yokelson; D. R. Blake

    2011-01-01

    Boreal regions comprise about 17% of the global land area, and they both affect and are influenced by climate change. To better understand boreal forest fire emissions and plume evolution, 947 whole air samples were collected aboard the NASA DC-8 research aircraft in summer 2008 as part of the ARCTAS-B field mission, and analyzed for 79 non-methane volatile organic...

  15. VOCs monitoring of new materials for ceramic tiles decoration: GC–MS analysis of emissions from common vehicles and inkjet inks during firing in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Ferrari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The decoration of ceramic tiles “ink-jet revolution” has brought significant advantages to tiles manufacturing, but the explosive diffusion, until 4–5 years ago, of this technique has not been accomplished by an adequate scientific research. Among all the features that have to be studied yet, one of the most important is the influence of the new generation inks on the total emission at ceramic chimneys. In this paper, we present a first characterization of emissions from a set of commercial inks and vehicles: they were collected by propter firing of samples in an electric kiln and analyzed by GC–MS. This study is part of a larger research project, which includes the chemical characterization and the evaluation of thermal behavior of inks and vehicles by TG-DTA and other techniques. The obtained results permit to divide common vehicles into 3 classes, depending on their thermal behavior and emissions pattern. Inks, most of which present an ester based formulation, sometimes mixed with glycols or paraffins, follow the behavior of their single components. The most common formulation leads to the presence in the emission pattern of evaporation products (2-ethylhexyl esters of lauric, myristic, decanoic and octanoic acids and decomposition products (mainly aldehydes and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol.

  16. 75 FR 15391 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Revision to Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... to control volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from storage tanks, transport vessels and marine... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Revision to Control Volatile Organic Compound.... Specifically, this revision subjects owners or operators of VOC storage tanks, transport vessels, and marine...

  17. The effect of warming and enhanced ultraviolet radiation on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds from European aspen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maja, Mengistu M., E-mail: mengistu.maja@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O.Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Kasurinen, Anne; Holopainen, Toini [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O.Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu (Finland); Holopainen, Jarmo K. [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O.Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2016-03-15

    Different environmental stress factors often occur together but their combined effects on plant secondary metabolism are seldom considered. We studied the effect of enhanced ultraviolet (UV-B) (31% increase) radiation and temperature (ambient + 2 °C) singly and in combination on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from 2-year-old clones of European aspen (Populus tremula L.). Plants grew in 36 experimental plots (6 replicates for Control, UV-A, UV-B, T, UV-A + T and UV-B + T treatments), in an experimental field. VOCs emitted from shoots were sampled from two (1 male and 1 female) randomly selected saplings (total of 72 saplings), per plot on two sampling occasions (June and July) in 2014. There was a significant UV-B × temperature interaction effect on emission rates of different VOCs. Isoprene emission rate was increased due to warming, but warming also modified VOC responses to both UV-A and UV-B radiation. Thus, UV-A increased isoprene emissions without warming, whereas UV-B increased emissions only in combination with warming. Warming-modified UV-A and UV-B responses were also seen in monoterpenes (MTs), sesquiterpenes (SQTs) and green leaf volatiles (GLVs). MTs showed also a UV × gender interaction effect as females had higher emission rates under UV-A and UV-B than males. UV × gender and T × gender interactions caused significant differences in VOC blend as there was more variation (more GLVs and trans-β-caryophyllene) in VOCs from female saplings compared to male saplings. VOCs from the rhizosphere were also collected from each plot in two exposure seasons, but no significant treatment effects were observed. Our results suggest that simultaneous warming and elevated-UV-radiation increase the emission of VOCs from aspen. Thus the contribution of combined environmental factors on VOC emissions may have a greater impact to the photochemical reactions in the atmosphere compared to the impact of individual factors acting alone

  18. The effect of warming and enhanced ultraviolet radiation on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds from European aspen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maja, Mengistu M.; Kasurinen, Anne; Holopainen, Toini; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2016-01-01

    Different environmental stress factors often occur together but their combined effects on plant secondary metabolism are seldom considered. We studied the effect of enhanced ultraviolet (UV-B) (31% increase) radiation and temperature (ambient + 2 °C) singly and in combination on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from 2-year-old clones of European aspen (Populus tremula L.). Plants grew in 36 experimental plots (6 replicates for Control, UV-A, UV-B, T, UV-A + T and UV-B + T treatments), in an experimental field. VOCs emitted from shoots were sampled from two (1 male and 1 female) randomly selected saplings (total of 72 saplings), per plot on two sampling occasions (June and July) in 2014. There was a significant UV-B × temperature interaction effect on emission rates of different VOCs. Isoprene emission rate was increased due to warming, but warming also modified VOC responses to both UV-A and UV-B radiation. Thus, UV-A increased isoprene emissions without warming, whereas UV-B increased emissions only in combination with warming. Warming-modified UV-A and UV-B responses were also seen in monoterpenes (MTs), sesquiterpenes (SQTs) and green leaf volatiles (GLVs). MTs showed also a UV × gender interaction effect as females had higher emission rates under UV-A and UV-B than males. UV × gender and T × gender interactions caused significant differences in VOC blend as there was more variation (more GLVs and trans-β-caryophyllene) in VOCs from female saplings compared to male saplings. VOCs from the rhizosphere were also collected from each plot in two exposure seasons, but no significant treatment effects were observed. Our results suggest that simultaneous warming and elevated-UV-radiation increase the emission of VOCs from aspen. Thus the contribution of combined environmental factors on VOC emissions may have a greater impact to the photochemical reactions in the atmosphere compared to the impact of individual factors acting alone

  19. Influence of vehicular emissions on atmospheric CH4 and NMHC mixing ratios and its correlation with CO and other VOCs tracers in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Murillo, M.; Torres-Jardón, R.; Ruiz-Suárez, L. G.; Barrera-Huertas, H.; Hernandez-Solis, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is one of the world's largest and most polluted urban areas. A recent GHC emission inventory for MCMA suggests that vehicular emissions contribute with around 37% of CH4, followed by landfills and dump garbage areas (30%) and construction and manufacturing (27%). Contrary to other urban areas, natural gas is not the main fuel used in MCMA, neither for domestic and industrial heating, nor for transportation. Therefore, there is a great uncertainty about who is the main contributor of CH4 emissions. An intensive monitoring campaign of methane (CH4), Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) was performed between February and March 2015 in southwest MCMA. Methane concentrations showed sometimes a diurnal pattern similar to those of CO and to NMHC but most of the time this similarity was lost (CH4 vs CO, R2 = 0.27; CH4 vs NMHC, R2 = 0.28). However, NMHC correlated well with CO (R2 = 0.75). The intercepts of the CH4-CO correlation resulted in [CH4] 1.8 ppm and that of the CO-NMHC correlation in [CO] 0.080 ppb. The lack of agreement between CH4 and CO indicates these species do not come from the same sources. The results suggest that vehicular emissions are not significant contributors to atmospheric CH4 and that the background methane concentration has not change significantly in 25 years. An attempt to correlate some tracers COVs tracers of vehicular and biomass burning with CH4, NMHC and CH4 is done.

  20. Savannah River Plant airborne emissions and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukes, E.K.; Benjamin, R.W.

    1982-12-01

    The Savannah River Plant (SRP) was established to produce special nuclear materials, principally plutonium and tritium, for national defense needs. Major operating facilities include three nuclear reactors, two chemical separations plants, a fuel and target fabrication plant, and a heavy-water rework plant. An extensive environmental surveillance program has been maintained continuously since 1951 (before SRP startup) to determine the concentrations of radionuclides in a 1200-square-mile area centered on the plant, and the radiation exposure of the population resulting from SRP operations. This report provides data on SRP emissions, controls systems, and airborne radioactive releases. The report includes descriptions of current measurement technology. 10 references, 14 figures, 9 tables

  1. Measuring and controlling greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrier, Herve; LAFONT, Bruno; Fischer, Severin; Leonard, Damien; Tutenuit, Claire

    2011-05-01

    As providing a reporting of their greenhouse gas emissions has become mandatory for a large number of French companies, this publication proposes a methodology to perform an assessment or measurement, and a control of such emissions. In its first part, it explains why measurements are required: indication of concerned gases, international consensus to limit temperature rise, definition and chronology of the main steps adopted at the international level and which must be considered in the approach adopted by enterprises in this respect. It outlines the benefits of such a measurement for the enterprise in terms of competitiveness, personnel commitment, new markets and products, image, compliance with the law, operational and financial aspects, and so on. It identifies the various stakeholders to be informed: civil society, financial community, public authorities, clients and consumers, personnel, suppliers. It outlines the diversity and evolution of legal frameworks at the international level as well as at national levels. While evoking many examples of French companies (SNCF, EDF, Seche Environnement, RTE, Michelin, Arcelormittal, AREVA, Air France, EADS-Airbus, AXA, Veolia, and so on), the next part addresses how to measure emissions. It outlines the complexity of the methodological landscape with its various criteria, evokes the various existing standards, outlines the distinction between organisation-based, product-based and project-based approaches, and the distinction between direct and indirect emissions in relationship with the notion of scope. It comments the existence of sector-based methodologies and guidelines, and discusses some difficulties and methodological decisions. The third part proposes some lessons learned from the experience which could lead to a harmonisation of methodologies, proposes a synthesis of reporting approaches, outlines risks and opportunities related to communication

  2. Field observations of volatile organic compound (VOC) exchange in red oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellin, Luca; Algarra Alarcon, Alberto; Herdlinger-Blatt, Irina; Sanchez, Juaquin; Biasioli, Franco; Martin, Scot T.; Loreto, Francesco; McKinney, Karena A.

    2017-03-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by forests strongly affect the chemical composition of the atmosphere. While the emission of isoprenoids has been largely characterized, forests also exchange many oxygenated VOCs (oVOCs), including methanol, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), and acetaldehyde, which are less well understood. We monitored total branch-level exchange of VOCs of a strong isoprene emitter (Quercus rubra L.) in a mixed forest in New England, where canopy-level fluxes of VOCs had been previously measured. We report daily exchange of several oVOCs and investigated unknown sources and sinks, finding several novel insights. In particular, we found that emission of MEK is linked to uptake of methyl vinyl ketone (MVK), a product of isoprene oxidation. The link was confirmed by corollary experiments proving in vivo detoxification of MVK, which is harmful to plants. Comparison of MEK, MVK, and isoprene fluxes provided an indirect indication of within-plant isoprene oxidation. Furthermore, besides confirming bidirectional exchange of acetaldehyde, we also report for the first time direct evidence of benzaldehyde bidirectional exchange in forest plants. Net emission or deposition of benzaldehyde was found in different periods of measurements, indicating an unknown foliar sink that may influence atmospheric concentrations. Other VOCs, including methanol, acetone, and monoterpenes, showed clear daily emission trends but no deposition. Measured VOC emission and deposition rates were generally consistent with their ecosystem-scale flux measurements at a nearby site.

  3. The Uncertain Role of Biogenic VOC for Boundary-Layer Ozone Concentration: Example Investigation of Emissions from Two Forest Types with a Box Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Bonn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available High levels of air pollution including ground level ozone significantly reduce humans’ life expectancy and cause forest damage and decreased tree growth. The French Vosges and the German Black Forest are regions well-known for having the highest tropospheric ozone concentrations at remote forested sites in Central Europe. This box model study investigates the sensitivity of atmospheric chemistry calculations of derived ozone on differently resolved forest tree composition and volatile organic compound emissions. Representative conditions were chosen for the Upper Rhine area including the Alsatian Vosges/France and the Black Forest/Germany during summer. This study aims to answer the following question: What level of input detail for Alsace and Black Forest tree mixtures is required to accurately simulate ozone formation? While the French forest in Alsace—e.g., in the Vosges—emits isoprene to a substantially higher extent than the forest at the German site, total monoterpene emissions at the two sites are rather similar. However, the individual monoterpene structures, and therefore their reactivity, differs. This causes a higher ozone production rate for Vosges forest mixture conditions than for Black Forest tree mixtures at identical NOx levels, with the difference increasing with temperature. The difference in ozone formation is analyzed in detail and the short-comings of reduced descriptions are discussed. The outcome serves as a to-do-list to allow accurate future ozone predictions influenced by the climate adaptation of forests and the change in forest species composition.

  4. Air ionization as a control technology for off-gas emissions of volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Szulejko, Jan E; Kumar, Pawan; Kwon, Eilhann E; Adelodun, Adedeji A; Reddy, Police Anil Kumar

    2017-06-01

    High energy electron-impact ionizers have found applications mainly in industry to reduce off-gas emissions from waste gas streams at low cost and high efficiency because of their ability to oxidize many airborne organic pollutants (e.g., volatile organic compounds (VOCs)) to CO 2 and H 2 O. Applications of air ionizers in indoor air quality management are limited due to poor removal efficiency and production of noxious side products, e.g., ozone (O 3 ). In this paper, we provide a critical evaluation of the pollutant removal performance of air ionizing system through comprehensive review of the literature. In particular, we focus on removal of VOCs and odorants. We also discuss the generation of unwanted air ionization byproducts such as O 3 , NOx, and VOC oxidation intermediates that limit the use of air-ionizers in indoor air quality management. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) measurements in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Shao, Min; Lu, Sihua; Chang, Chih-Chung; Wang, Jia-Lin; Chen, Gao

    2008-03-01

    We measured levels of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at seven sites in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of China during the Air Quality Monitoring Campaign spanning 4 October to 3 November 2004. Two of the sites, Guangzhou (GZ) and Xinken (XK), were intensive sites at which we collected multiple daily canister samples. The observations reported here provide a look at the VOC distribution, speciation, and photochemical implications in the PRD region. Alkanes constituted the largest percentage (>40%) in mixing ratios of the quantified VOCs at six sites; the exception was one major industrial site that was dominated by aromatics (about 52%). Highly elevated VOC levels occurred at GZ during two pollution episodes; however, the chemical composition of VOCs did not exhibit noticeable changes during these episodes. We calculated the OH loss rate to estimate the chemical reactivity of all VOCs. Of the anthropogenic VOCs, alkenes played a predominant role in VOC reactivity at GZ, whereas the contributions of reactive aromatics were more important at XK. Our preliminary analysis of the VOC correlations suggests that the ambient VOCs at GZ came directly from local sources (i.e., automobiles); those at XK were influenced by both local emissions and transportation of air mass from upwind areas.

  6. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC measurements in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-chung Chang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We measured levels of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs at seven sites in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region of China during the Air Quality Monitoring Campaign spanning 4 October to 3 November 2004. Two of the sites, Guangzhou (GZ and Xinken (XK, were intensive sites at which we collected multiple daily canister samples. The observations reported here provide a look at the VOC distribution, speciation, and photochemical implications in the PRD region. Alkanes constituted the largest percentage (>40% in mixing ratios of the quantified VOCs at six sites; the exception was one major industrial site that was dominated by aromatics (about 52%. Highly elevated VOC levels occurred at GZ during two pollution episodes; however, the chemical composition of VOCs did not exhibit noticeable changes during these episodes. We calculated the OH loss rate to estimate the chemical reactivity of all VOCs. Of the anthropogenic VOCs, alkenes played a predominant role in VOC reactivity at GZ, whereas the contributions of reactive aromatics were more important at XK. Our preliminary analysis of the VOC correlations suggests that the ambient VOCs at GZ came directly from local sources (i.e., automobiles; those at XK were influenced by both local emissions and transportation of air mass from upwind areas.

  7. Chemical mechanisms in mercury emission control technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, E.S.; Laumb, J.D.; Benson, S.A.; Dunham, G.E.; Sharma, R.K.; Mibeck, B.A.; Miller, S.J.; Holmes, M.J.; Pavlish, J.H. [University of North Dakota, Energy and Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    2003-05-01

    The emission of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-burning power plants is a major environmental concern. Control technologies utilizing activated carbon show promise and are currently under intense review. Oxidation and capture of elemental mercury on activated carbon was extensively investigated in a variety of flue gas atmospheres. Extensive parametric testing with individual and a variety of combinations and concentrations of reactive flue gas components and spectroscopic examination of the sulfur and chlorine forms present before and after breakthrough have led to an improved model to explain the kinetic and capacity results. The improved model delineates the independent Lewis acid oxidation site as well as a zig-zag carbene site on the carbon edge that performs as a Lewis base in reacting with both the oxidized mercury formed at the oxidation site and with the acidic flue gas components in competing reactions to form organochlorine, sulfinate, and sulfate ester moieties on the carbon edge.

  8. Controlling nanowire emission profile using conical taper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Mørk, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    The influence of a conical taper on nanowire light emission is studied. For nanowires with divergent output beams, the introduction of tapers improves the emission profile and increase the collection efficiency of the detection optics....

  9. Emission trading: A discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    Emission trading is a market-based incentive program designed to control air emissions in which a cap is placed on the total quantity of pollutants allowed to be emitted in an airshed. Appropriate shares of this amount are allocated among participating emission sources, and participants can buy or sell their shares. Advantages of emission trading include its potential to achieve air emission targets at a lower cost than the traditional command and control approach, and its ability to accommodate economic growth without compromising environmental quality. A study was conducted to evaluate the potential use of emission trading programs to achieve emission reduction goals set for nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), and sulfur oxides. Emission trading programs in the USA are reviewed and a set of factors important for the success of emission trading are identified. Key policy and design issues related to an emission trading program are identified, explained, and discussed. Administrative issues are then analyzed, such as legislative authority, monitoring and enforcement requirements, and trading between jurisdictions. A preliminary assessment of emission trading for control of NOx and VOC in the Lower Fraser Valley indicates that emission trading would be feasible, but legislative authority to implement such a program would have to be introduced

  10. The Tropical Forest and Fire Emissions Experiment: method evaluation of volatile organic compound emissions measured by PTR-MS, FTIR, and GC from tropical biomass burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Karl

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatile Organic Compound (VOC emissions from fires in tropical forest fuels were quantified using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTRMS, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and gas chromatography (GC coupled to PTRMS (GC-PTR-MS. We investigated VOC emissions from 19 controlled laboratory fires at the USFS (United States Forest Service Fire Sciences Laboratory and 16 fires during an intensive airborne field campaign during the peak of the burning season in Brazil in 2004. The VOC emissions were dominated by oxygenated VOCs (OVOC (OVOC/NMHC ~4:1, NMHC: non-methane hydrocarbons The specificity of the PTR-MS instrument, which measures the mass to charge ratio of VOCs ionized by H3O+ ions, was validated by gas chromatography and by intercomparing in-situ measurements with those obtained from an open path FTIR instrument. Emission ratios for methyl vinyl ketone, methacrolein, crotonaldehyde, acrylonitrile and pyrrole were measured in the field for the first time. Our measurements show a higher contribution of OVOCs than previously assumed for modeling purposes. Comparison of fresh (<15 min and aged (>1 h–1 d smoke suggests altered emission ratios due to gas phase chemistry for acetone but not for acetaldehyde and methanol. Emission ratios for numerous, important, reactive VOCs with respect to acetonitrile (a biomass burning tracer are presented.

  11. Selection of Sustainable Technology for VOC Abatement in an Industry: An Integrated AHP-QFD Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Alok Kumar; Modi, Bharat A.

    2018-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are universally present in global atmospheric pollutants. These VOCs are responsible for photo chemical reaction in atmosphere leading to serious harmful effects on human health and environment. VOCs are produced from both natural and man-made sources and may have good commercial value if it can be utilized as alternate fuel. As per data from US EPA, 15% of total VOC emissions are generated from surface coating industry but VOC concentration and exhaust air volume varies to a great extent and is dependent on processes used by industry. Various technologies are available for abatement of VOCs. Physical, Chemical and Biological technologies are available to remove VOCs by either recovery or destruction with many advantages and limitations. With growing environmental awareness and considering the resource limitations of medium and small scale industries, requirement of a tool for selecting appropriate techno economically viable solution for removal of VOCs from industrial process exhaust is envisaged. The aim of the present study is to provide management a tool to determine the overall effect of implementation of VOC abatement technology on business performance and VOC emissions. The primary purpose of this work is to outline a methodology to rate various VOC abatement technologies with respect to the constraint of meeting current and foreseeable future regulatory requirements, operational flexibility and Over All Economics Parameters considering conservation of energy. In this paper an integrated approach has been proposed to select most appropriate abatement technology strategically. Analytical hierarchy process and Quality function deployment have been integrated for Techno-commercial evaluation. A case study on selection of VOC abatement technology for a leading aluminium foil surface coating, lamination and printing facility using this methodology is presented in this study.

  12. Contrasting VOC Composition in London, UK and Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunmore, R.; Hopkins, J. R.; Shaw, M.; Squires, F. A.; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Hamilton, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    With an increasing fraction of the world's population now living in megacities, urban air quality in those locations has the potential to be one of the largest controllable factors for public health. Both London and Beijing are classified as megacities, with the latter almost twice as densely populated. The key drivers and trajectory of air pollution are unique to each location; London has substantially reduced PM10 concentrations over the past two decades but continues to have high urban NO2. Beijing has had well-reported high levels of PM, is now in a phase of gradual decline, and has proportionately low NO2. Both locations however, continue to emit a mix of gas phase pollutants with the potential to form photochemical ozone. Whilst the abundance of NOx in each city is relatively straightforward to quantify, the VOC mixtures that are present differ between these two cities and this has consequential impacts on the downwind ozone formation potential. This work reports a comprehensive assessment of VOC speciation, reactivity and abundance in the two cities using a common set of inter-comparable measurement approaches. Hourly observations of VOCs over the range C2 - C13+ were made using two gas chromatography (GC) instruments; a PLOT column based GC for the most volatile fraction (C2-C7) and a comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GCxGC) for VOCs with more than 7 carbons. London has atmospheric VOC concentrations that in mass and reactivity terms are dominated by longer chain VOCs from diesel fuel. The VOC mixture in ambient Beijing air is dominated by short chain VOCs, a mix of both alkenes from incomplete combustion sources and alkanes and aromatics from petrochemical sources. The substantial difference in the fleet proportions of gasoline and diesel powered vehicles between the two cities is clearly reflected in ambient VOCs. In summertime, isoprene was a notable contributor to VOC reactivity in both cities despite both being highly urbanised locations. The absolute

  13. Ozone response to emission changes: a modeling study during the MCMA-2006/MILAGRO Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Song

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of ozone production to precursor emissions was investigated under five different meteorological conditions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA during the MCMA-2006/MILAGRO field campaign using the gridded photochemical model CAMx driven by observation-nudged WRF meteorology. Precursor emissions were constrained by the comprehensive data from the field campaign and the routine ambient air quality monitoring network. Simulated plume mixing and transport were examined by comparing with measurements from the G-1 aircraft during the campaign. The observed concentrations of ozone precursors and ozone were reasonably well reproduced by the model. The effects of reducing precursor emissions on urban ozone production were performed for three representative emission control scenarios. A 50% reduction in VOC emissions led to 7 to 22 ppb decrease in daily maximum ozone concentrations, while a 50% reduction in NOx emissions leads to 4 to 21 ppb increase, and 50% reductions in both NOx and VOC emission decrease the daily maximum ozone concentrations up to 10 ppb. These results along with a chemical indicator analysis using the chemical production ratios of H2O2 to HNO3 demonstrate that the MCMA urban core region is VOC-limited for all meteorological episodes, which is consistent with the results from MCMA-2003 field campaign; however the degree of the VOC-sensitivity is higher during MCMA-2006 due to lower VOCs, lower VOC reactivity and moderately higher NOx emissions. Ozone formation in the surrounding mountain/rural area is mostly NOx-limited, but can be VOC-limited, and the range of the NOx-limited or VOC-limited areas depends on meteorology.

  14. Effect of traffic restriction on reducing ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs): Observation-based evaluation during a traffic restriction drill in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinyu; Zhang, Yanli; Yang, Weiqiang; Huang, Zuzhao; Wang, Yujun; Zhang, Zhou; He, Quanfu; Lü, Sujun; Huang, Zhonghui; Bi, Xinhui; Wang, Xinming

    2017-07-01

    Traffic restriction (TR) is a widely adopted control measure in case of heavy air pollution particularly in urban areas, yet it is hard to evaluate the effect of TR on reducing VOC emissions based on monitoring data since ambient VOC mixing ratios are influenced not only by source emissions but also by meteorological conditions and atmospheric degradation. Here we collected air samples for analysis of VOCs before, during and after a TR drill carried out in Guangzhou in September 2010 at both a roadside and a rooftop (∼50 m above the ground) site. TR measures mainly included the "odd-even license" rule and banning high-emitting "yellow label" vehicles. The mixing ratios of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) did not show significant changes at the roadside site with total NMHCs of 39.0 ± 11.8 ppbv during non-TR period and 39.1 ± 14.8 ppbv during TR period, whereas total NMHCs decreased from 30.4 ± 14.3 ppbv during the non-TR period to 22.1 ± 10.6 ppbv during the TR period at rooftop site. However, the ratios of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), benzene and toluene against carbon monoxide (MTBE/CO, T/CO and B/CO) at the both sampling sites dropped significantly. The ratios of toluene to benzene (T/B) instead increased significantly. Changes in these ratios all consistently indicated reduced input from traffic emissions particularly gasoline vehicles. Source attribution by positive matrix factorization (PMF) confirmed that during the TR period gasoline vehicles contributed less VOCs in percentages while industrial sources, biomass burning and LPG shared larger percentages. Assuming that emissions from industrial sources remained unchanged during the TR and non-TR periods, we further used the PMF-retrieved contribution percentages to deduce the reduction rate of traffic-related VOC emissions, and obtained a reduction rate of 31% based on monitoring data at the roadside site and of 34% based on the monitoring data at the rooftop site. Considering VOC emissions from all

  15. New device for time-averaged measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago Sánchez, Noemí; Tejada Alarcón, Sergio; Tortajada Santonja, Rafael; Llorca-Pórcel, Julio, E-mail: julio.llorca@aqualogy.net

    2014-07-01

    Contamination by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the environment is an increasing concern since these compounds are harmful to ecosystems and even to human health. Actually, many of them are considered toxic and/or carcinogenic. The main sources of pollution come from very diffuse focal points such as industrial discharges, urban water and accidental spills as these compounds may be present in many products and processes (i.e., paints, fuels, petroleum products, raw materials, solvents, etc.) making their control difficult. The presence of these compounds in groundwater, influenced by discharges, leachate or effluents of WWTPs is especially problematic. In recent years, law has been increasingly restrictive with the emissions of these compounds. From an environmental point of view, the European Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) sets out some VOCs as priority substances. This binding directive sets guidelines to control compounds such as benzene, chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride to be at a very low level of concentration and with a very high frequency of analysis. The presence of VOCs in the various effluents is often highly variable and discontinuous since it depends on the variability of the sources of contamination. Therefore, in order to have complete information of the presence of these contaminants and to effectively take preventive measures, it is important to continuously control, requiring the development of new devices which obtain average concentrations over time. As of today, due to technical limitations, there are no devices on the market that allow continuous sampling of these compounds in an efficient way and to facilitate sufficient detection limits to meet the legal requirements which are capable of detecting very sporadic and of short duration discharges. LABAQUA has developed a device which consists of a small peristaltic pump controlled by an electronic board that governs its operation by pre-programming. A constant flow passes

  16. Advancing Understanding of Emissions from Oil and Natural ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Executive Summary Environmentally responsible development of oil and gas assets requires well-developed emissions inventories and measurement techniques to verify emissions and the effectiveness of control strategies. To accurately model the oil and gas sector impacts on air quality, it is critical to have accurate activity data, emission factors and chemical speciation profiles for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). This report describes a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) Region 8 Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) effort executed in Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 to FY 2016 that aimed to improve information on upstream oil and production emissions and identify areas where future work is needed. The project involved both field activities and data analysis and synthesis work with emphasis on product-related VOC emissions from well pads. In oil and gas basins with significant condensate and oil production, VOC emissions from well pads primarily arise from the separation of gas and liquid products and the storage process, with the control of emissions usually accomplished by enclosed combustion devices (ECDs), such as flares. Fugitive emissions of VOCs can originate from leaks and from potentially ineffective control systems. In the case of ECDs, byproducts of incomplete combustion may produce more highly reactive ozone precursor species. For both compliance and scientific purposes, the abili

  17. Development of a novel biofilter for aerobic biodegradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govind, R.; Utgikar, V.; Shan, Y.; Zhao, Wang; Sayles, G.D.; Bishop, D.F.; Safferman, S.I.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, the emission into the atmosphere of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has undergone increased regulation by EPA, OSHA and other government agencies due to potential human health hazards. The sources of these VOCs include releases during industrial production and use, from contaminated wastewaters in collection systems and treatment plants, and from hazardous wastes in landfills and contaminated ground water. Conventional methods for treating VOC emissions include adsorption on solids, absorption in solvents, incineration and catalytic oxidation. One alternative to these conventional treatment methods is the biological destruction of the VOCs in gas phase biofilters. This method has the advantage of pollution destruction (as compared to transfer to another medium) at lower operation and maintenance costs. The biofilter method also can be combined with various stripping or vapor extraction separation processes which effectively transfer VOCs from liquid or solid matrices into the gas phase entering biofilters

  18. Using a source-receptor approach to characterise VOC behaviour in a French urban area influenced by industrial emissions. Part II: source contribution assessment using the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badol, Caroline; Locoge, Nadine; Galloo, Jean-Claude

    2008-01-25

    In Part I of this study (Badol C, Locoge N, Leonardis T, Gallo JC. Using a source-receptor approach to characterise VOC behaviour in a French urban area influenced by industrial emissions, Part I: Study area description, data set acquisition and qualitative data analysis of the data set. Sci Total Environ 2007; submitted as companion manuscript.) the study area, acquisition of the one-year data set and qualitative analysis of the data set have been described. In Part II a source profile has been established for each activity present in the study area: 6 profiles (urban heating, solvent use, natural gas leakage, biogenic emissions, gasoline evaporation and vehicle exhaust) have been extracted from literature to characterise urban sources, 7 industrial profiles have been established via canister sampling around industrial plants (hydrocarbon cracking, oil refinery, hydrocarbon storage, lubricant storage, lubricant refinery, surface treatment and metallurgy). The CMB model is briefly described and its implementation is discussed through the selection of source profiles and fitting species. Main results of CMB modellings for the Dunkerque area are presented. (1) The daily evolution of source contributions for the urban wind sector shows that the vehicle exhaust source contribution varies between 40 and 55% and its relative increase at traffic rush hours is hardly perceptible. (2) The relative contribution of vehicle exhaust varies from 55% in winter down to 30% in summer. This decrease is due to the increase of the relative contribution of hydrocarbon storage source reaching up to 20% in summer. (3) The evolution of source contributions with wind directions has confirmed that in urban wind sectors the contribution of vehicle exhaust dominate with around 45-55%. For the other wind sectors that include some industrial plants, the contribution of industrial sources is around 60% and could reach 80% for the sector 280-310 degrees , which corresponds to the most dense

  19. EVALUATION AND PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF INNOVATIVE LOW-VOC CONTACT ADHESIVES IN WOOD LAMINATING OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an evaluation and assessment of the perfor-mance, economics, and emission reduction potential upon application of low-volatile organic compound (VOC) waterborne contact adhesive formulations specifically ina manual laminating operation for assembling s...

  20. California; Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District; VOCs from Motor Vehicle Assembly Coating Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is proposing to approve a revision to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District portion of the California SIP concerning emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from motor vehicle assembly coating operations.

  1. Toxic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs in the Atmospheric Environment: Regulatory Aspects and Monitoring in Japan and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, so-called air toxics or toxic air pollutants, have been detected in the atmospheric air at low concentration levels, causing public concern about the adverse effect of long-term exposure to HAPs on human health. Most HAPs belong to volatile organic compounds (VOCs. More seriously, most of them are known carcinogens or probably carcinogenic to humans. The objectives of this paper were to report the regulatory aspects and environmental monitoring management of toxic VOCs designated by Japan and Korea under the Air Pollution Control Act, and the Clean Air Conservation Act, respectively. It can be found that the environmental quality standards and environmental monitoring of priority VOCs (i.e., benzene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and dichloromethane have been set and taken by the state and local governments of Japan since the early 2000, but not completely established in Korea. On the other hand, the significant progress in reducing the emissions of some toxic VOCs, including acrylonitrile, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, 1,2-dichloroethane, dichloromethane, chloroform, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene in Japan was also described as a case study in the brief report paper.

  2. Consumer and Commercial Products, Group IV: Control Techniques Guidelines in Lieu of Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has determined that control techniques guidelines (CTGs) will be substantially as effective as regulations in reducing volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in ozone nonattainment areas for certain consumer and commercial product categories.

  3. Emissions inventories and options for control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swart, R.J.; Van Amstel, A.R.; Van den Born, G.J.; Kroeze, C. [National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    1995-11-01

    In 1990, little was known about the emissions of greenhouse gases in the Netherlands, notably those of the non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases. Uncertainties included the causes, the emissions factors and the regional distribution of emissions. The main objectives of the project at that time were formulated as follows: (a) provide information for prioritizing greenhouse gas emissions research in the Netherlands; (b) provide input data for global models (later shifted to the EDGAR-project); and (c) support national and international policy development. The emphasis of the project was on non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases, notably methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). While state-of-the-art information from international research would be used and analyzed, the focus of the project was on the Dutch emissions and their causes. Information was drawn from literature research, discussions with national and international experts, and experimental information from several projects. 2 figs., 12 refs.

  4. Verification of T2VOC using an analytical solution for VOC transport in vadose zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, C. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    T2VOC represents an adaption of the STMVOC to the TOUGH2 environment. In may contaminated sites, transport of volatile organic chemicals (VOC) is a serious problem which can be simulated by T2VOC. To demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of the code, we chose a practical problem of VOC transport as the test case, conducted T2VOC simulations, and compared the results of T2VOC with those of an analytical solution. The agreements between T2VOC and the analytical solutions are excellent. In addition, the numerical results of T2VOC are less sensitive to grid size and time step to a certain extent.

  5. Biomass fueled fluidized bed combustion: atmospheric emissions, emission control devices and environmental regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, S.W.; Jenkins, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    Fluidized bed combustors have become the technological choice for power generation from biomass fuels in California. Atmospheric emission data obtained during compliance tests are compared for five operating 18 to 32 MW fluidized bed combustion power plants. The discussion focuses on the impact of fuel properties and boiler design criteria on the emission of pollutants, the efficiency of pollution control devices, and regulations affecting atmospheric emissions. Stack NO x emission factors are shown not to vary substantially among the five plants which burn fuels with nitrogen concentrations between 0.3 and 1.1% dry weight. All facilities use at least one particular control device, but not all use limestone injection or other control techniques for sulfur and chlorine. The lack of control for chlorine suggests the potential for emission of toxic species due to favorable temperature conditions existing in the particulate control devices, particularly when burning fuels containing high concentrations of chlorine. (Author)

  6. Characteristics of Ambient Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Measured in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chang-Jie; Geng, Fu-Hai; Tie, Xue-Xi; Yu, Qiong; Peng, Li; Zhou, Guang-Qiang

    2010-01-01

    To better understand the characteristics of ambient abundance of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Shanghai, one of the biggest metropolis of China, VOCs were measured with a gas chromatography system equipped with a mass-selective detector (GC/MSD) from July 2006 to February 2010. An intensive measurement campaign was conducted (eight samples per day with a 3 hour interval) during May 2009. The comparison of ambient VOCs collected in different regions of Shanghai shows that the concentrations are slightly higher in the busy commercial area (28.9 ppbv at Xujiaui) than in the urban administrative area (24.3 ppbv at Pudong). However, during the intensive measurement period, the concentrations in the large steel industrial area (28.7 ppbv at Baoshan) were much higher than in the urban administrative area (18 ppbv at Pudong), especially for alkanes, alkenes, and toluene. The seasonal variations of ambient VOC concentrations measured at the Xujiahui sampling site indicate that the VOC concentrations are significantly affected by meteorological conditions (such as wind direction and precipitation). In addition, although alkanes are the most abundant VOCs at the Xujiahui measurement site, the most important VOCs contributing to ozone formation potential (OFP) are aromatics, accounting for 57% of the total OFP. The diurnal variations of VOC concentrations show that VOC concentrations are higher on weekdays than in weekends at the Xujiahui sampling site, suggesting that traffic condition and human activities have important impacts on VOC emissions in Shanghai. The evidence also shows that the major sources of isoprene are mainly resulted from gasoline evaporation at a particular time (06:00–09:00) in the busy commercial area. The results gained from this study provide useful information for better understanding the characteristics of ambient VOCs and the sources of VOCs in Shanghai. PMID:22163629

  7. Characteristics of Ambient Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs Measured in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Qiang Zhou

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the characteristics of ambient abundance of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in Shanghai, one of the biggest metropolis of China, VOCs were measured with a gas chromatography system equipped with a mass-selective detector (GC/MSD from July 2006 to February 2010. An intensive measurement campaign was conducted (eight samples per day with a 3 hour interval during May 2009. The comparison of ambient VOCs collected in different regions of Shanghai shows that the concentrations are slightly higher in the busy commercial area (28.9 ppbv at Xujiaui than in the urban administrative area (24.3 ppbv at Pudong. However, during the intensive measurement period, the concentrations in the large steel industrial area (28.7 ppbv at Baoshan were much higher than in the urban administrative area (18 ppbv at Pudong, especially for alkanes, alkenes, and toluene. The seasonal variations of ambient VOC concentrations measured at the Xujiahui sampling site indicate that the VOC concentrations are significantly affected by meteorological conditions (such as wind direction and precipitation. In addition, although alkanes are the most abundant VOCs at the Xujiahui measurement site, the most important VOCs contributing to ozone formation potential (OFP are aromatics, accounting for 57% of the total OFP. The diurnal variations of VOC concentrations show that VOC concentrations are higher on weekdays than in weekends at the Xujiahui sampling site, suggesting that traffic condition and human activities have important impacts on VOC emissions in Shanghai. The evidence also shows that the major sources of isoprene are mainly resulted from gasoline evaporation at a particular time (06:00–09:00 in the busy commercial area. The results gained from this study provide useful information for better understanding the characteristics of ambient VOCs and the sources of VOCs in Shanghai.

  8. Total OH reactivity study from VOC photochemical oxidation in the SAPHIR chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Z.; Tillmann, R.; Hohaus, T.; Fuchs, H.; Novelli, A.; Wegener, R.; Kaminski, M.; Schmitt, S. H.; Wahner, A.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that hydroxyl radicals (OH) act as a dominant reactive species in the degradation of VOCs in the atmosphere. In recent field studies, directly measured total OH reactivity often showed poor agreement with OH reactivity calculated from VOC measurements (e.g. Nölscher et al., 2013; Lu et al., 2012a). This "missing OH reactivity" is attributed to unaccounted biogenic VOC emissions and/or oxidation products. The comparison of total OH reactivity being directly measured and calculated from single component measurements of VOCs and their oxidation products gives us a further understanding on the source of unmeasured reactive species in the atmosphere. This allows also the determination of the magnitude of the contribution of primary VOC emissions and their oxidation products to the missing OH reactivity. A series of experiments was carried out in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR in Jülich, Germany, to explore in detail the photochemical degradation of VOCs (isoprene, ß-pinene, limonene, and D6-benzene) by OH. The total OH reactivity was determined from the measurement of VOCs and their oxidation products by a Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) with a GC/MS/FID system, and directly measured by a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) at the same time. The comparison between these two total OH reactivity measurements showed an increase of missing OH reactivity in the presence of oxidation products of VOCs, indicating a strong contribution to missing OH reactivity from uncharacterized oxidation products.

  9. Strategies for controlling pollution from vehicular emissions in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qidong; He, Kebin; Li, Tiejun; Fu, Lixin

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the severe situation of vehicular emission in Beijing and discusses the following mitigation strategies: Improving fuel quality, controlling the exhaust from new vehicles, controlling the emissions from vehicles in use through e.g. Inspection Maintenance (I/M), renovating in-use vehicles and scrapping of old vehicles and road infrastructure and traffic policies. (Author)

  10. Spontaneous emission control in a tunable hybrid photonic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frimmer, M.; Koenderink, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate control of the rate of spontaneous emission in a tunable hybrid photonic system that consists of two canonical building blocks for spontaneous emission control, an optical antenna and a mirror, each providing a modification of the local density of optical states (LDOS).

  11. Strategies for controlling pollution from vehicular emissions in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qidong; He, Kebin; Li, Tiejun; Fu, Lixin

    2002-07-01

    The paper describes the severe situation of vehicular emission in Beijing and discusses the following mitigation strategies: Improving fuel quality, controlling the exhaust from new vehicles, controlling the emissions from vehicles in use through e.g. Inspection Maintenance (I/M), renovating in-use vehicles and scrapping of old vehicles and road infrastructure and traffic policies. (Author)

  12. Temperature Dependence of Factors Controlling Isoprene Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Damon, Megan R.; Douglass, Anne R.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of variability in the formaldehyde (HCHO) columns measured by the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to isoprene emissions in the southeastern United States for 2005-2007. The data show that the inferred, regional-average isoprene emissions varied by about 22% during summer and are well correlated with temperature, which is known to influence emissions. Part of the correlation with temperature is likely associated with other causal factors that are temperature-dependent. We show that the variations in HCHO are convolved with the temperature dependence of surface ozone, which influences isoprene emissions, and the dependence of the HCHO column to mixed layer height as OMI's sensitivity to HCHO increases with altitude. Furthermore, we show that while there is an association of drought with the variation in HCHO, drought in the southeastern U.S. is convolved with temperature.

  13. Emissions control techniques applied to industrial vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, B.

    2004-12-15

    As emission standards for industrial vehicles become increasingly stringent, many research projects are seeking to develop after-treatment systems. These systems will have to combine efficiency, durability and low operating cost.

  14. NOx Emission in Iron and Steel Production: A Review of Control Measures for Safe and Eco-Friendly Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. A. Mukhtar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron and steel manufacturing involved preparation of raw materials through processes such as sintering, pelletizing and coke making. During these processes, pollutants such as Sulphur (iv oxides (SO2 Carbon II oxides (CO, Nitrogen oxides (NOX, Volatile organic compounds (VOC and Particulate matter (PM etc. are emitted. The present work is aimed at describing some mitigation technologies of controlling emissions in iron and steel production. The processes involved in the production of iron and steel using Blast Furnace (BF and Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF has been described. The mitigation technologies of controlling emissions were analyzed and discussed with environmental impacts based on the economical and technical factors. In this work, the data presented is based on existing reviews. The combination of low NOX burner (LNB and Selective catalytic reduction (SCR is capable of reducing emission for up to 90% and above. Emissions of other pollutants into the atmosphere as a result of ammonia slip, formation of acids and other gases are harmful to the environment and causes damage to the SCR systems. Installation and operation cost are the major impacts of the SCR technology in the process of iron and steel production.

  15. VOCs-Mediated Location of Olive Fly Larvae by the Braconid Parasitoid Psyttalia concolor: A Multivariate Comparison among VOC Bouquets from Three Olive Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Giunti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbivorous activity induces plant indirect defenses, as the emission of herbivorous-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs, which could be used by parasitoids for host location. Psyttalia concolor is a larval pupal endoparasitoid, attacking a number of tephritid flies including B. oleae. In this research, we investigated the olfactory cues routing host location behavior of P. concolor towards B. oleae larvae infesting three different olive cultivars. VOCs from infested and healthy fruits were identified using GC-MS analyses. In two-choice behavioral assays, P. concolor females preferred infested olive cues, which also evoked ovipositional probing by female wasps. GC-MS analysis showed qualitative and quantitative differences among volatiles emitted by infested and healthy olives. Volatile emissions were peculiar for each cultivar analyzed. Two putative HIPVs were detected in infested fruits, regardless of the cultivar, the monoterpene (E-β-ocimene, and the sesquiterpene (E-E-α-farnesene. Our study adds basic knowledge to the behavioral ecology of P. concolor. From an applied point of view, the field application of the above-mentioned VOCs may help to enhance effectiveness of biological control programs and parasitoid mass-rearing techniques.

  16. Temporal variability and sources of VOCs in urban areas of the eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kaltsonoudis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available During the summer of 2012 volatile organic compounds (VOCs were monitored by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS in urban sites, in Athens and Patras, two of the largest cities in Greece. Also, during the winter of 2013, PTR-MS measurements were conducted in the center of the city of Athens. Positive matrix factorization (PMF was applied to the VOC measurements to gain insights about their sources. In summer most of the measured VOCs were due to biogenic and traffic emissions. Isoprene, monoterpenes, and several oxygenated VOCs (oVOCs originated mainly from vegetation either directly or as oxidation products. Isoprene average concentrations in Patras and Athens were 1 and 0.7 ppb respectively, while the monoterpene concentrations were 0.3 and 0.9 ppb respectively. Traffic was the main source of aromatic compounds during summer. For Patras and Athens the average concentrations of benzene were 0.1 and 0.2 ppb, of toluene 0.3 and 0.8 ppb, and of the xylenes 0.3 and 0.7 ppb respectively. Winter measurements in Athens revealed that biomass burning used for residential heating was a major VOC source contributing both aromatic VOCs and biogenic compounds such as monoterpenes. Several episodes related to biomass burning were identified and emission ratios (ERs and emission factors (EFs were estimated.

  17. Impact of intentionally introduced sources on indoor VOC levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, C.S. [BOVAR Environmental, Downsview, Ontario (Canada); Otson, R. [Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Environmental Health Centre

    1997-12-31

    The concentrations of 33 target volatile organic compounds (VOC) were measured in outdoor air and in indoor air before and after the introduction of dry-cleaned clothes, and consumer products into two suburban homes. Emissions from the household products (air fresheners, furniture polishes, mothballs, and dry-cleaned clothes), showering, and two paints were analyzed to obtain source profiles. There were measurable increases in the 24 h average concentrations for 10 compounds in one house and 8 compounds in the second house after introduction of the sources. A contribution by showering to indoor VOC was not evident although the impact of the other sources and outdoor air could be discerned, based on results for the major constituents of source emissions. Also, contributions by paints, applied three to six weeks prior to the monitoring, to indoor VOC concentrations were evident. The pattern of concentrations indicated that sink effects need to be considered in explaining the indoor concentrations that result when sources are introduced into homes. Quantitative estimates of the relative contributions of the sources to indoor VOC levels were not feasible through the use of chemical mass balance since the number of tracer species detected (up to 6) and that could be used for source apportionment was similar to the number of sources to be apportioned (up to 7).

  18. Emission Control Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative-Fuel Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Quanlu; Sperling, Daniel; Olmstead, Janis

    1993-01-01

    Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquified petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission es...

  19. Online Traffic Signal Control for Reducing Vehicle Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Toshihiko; Otokita, Tohru; Niikura, Satoshi

    In Japan, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions caused by vehicles have been increasing year by year and it is well known that CO2 causes a serious global warming problem. For urban traffic control systems, there is a great demand for realization of signal control measures as soon as possible due to the urgency of the recent environmental situation. This paper describes a new traffic signal control for reducing vehicle CO2 emissions on an arterial road. First, we develop a model for estimating the emissions using the traffic delay and the number of stops a driver makes. Second, to find the optimal control parameters, we introduce a random search method with rapid convergence suitable for an online traffic control. We conduct experiments in Kawasaki to verify the effectiveness of our method. The experiments show that our approach decreases not only the emissions but also congestion and travel time significantly, compared to the method implemented in the real system.

  20. Controls of nitrous oxide emission after simulated cattle urine deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Khagendra Raj; Thomsen, Anton Gårde; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    Urine deposited during grazing is a significant source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O). The potential for N2O emissions from urine patches is high, and a better understanding of controls is needed. This study investigated soil nitrogen (N) dynamics and N2O emissions from cattle urine...

  1. Optimal control for integrated emission management in diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, M.C.F.; van Schijndel, J.; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Willems, F.

    2017-01-01

    Integrated Emission Management (IEM) is a supervisory control strategy that minimises operational costs (consisting of fuel and AdBlue) for diesel engines with an aftertreatment system, while satisfying emission constraints imposed by legislation. In most work on IEM, a suboptimal heuristic

  2. Optimal control for integrated emission management in diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, M.C.F.; Schijndel, J. van; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated Emission Management (IEM) is a supervisory control strategy that minimises operational costs (consisting of fuel and AdBlue) for diesel engines with an aftertreatment system, while satisfying emission constraints imposed by legislation. In most work on IEM, a suboptimal heuristic

  3. Advanced Combustion and Emission Control Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The Advanced Combustion and Emission Control (ACEC) Technical Team is focused on removing technical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high-efficiency, emission-compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light-duty vehicle powertrains (i.e., passenger car, minivan, SUV, and pickup trucks).

  4. Strategies to control vehicular emissions: Indian scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virupaksha, T. [Central Institute of Road Transport, Pune (India)

    2002-07-01

    The paper presents a common urban transport policy framework to protect the local and global environment and a state-of-the-art review of recommendations and measures suggested by the local administration in Indian cities from time to time. The measures to combat pollution in urban areas is identified by different cities but there is no cohesive strategy for implementing them. The pursuit of some of these measures are that the haphazard and piecemeal measures have not helped to gain optimum benefit possible or to make a discernible impact on mobility demand and vehicular emissions. A more practical strategy is required to reduce both emission and congestion, using a mixed set of instruments. The instruments are taxes on fuels, vehicles, and parking, incentives and regulations affecting vehicle ownership, usage and movement, traffic management more importantly encouraging non-motorized transport like bicycles by providing suitable lanes. Some of the policy measures seriously needed to be implemented to reduce ongoing pollution menace are enforcing higher maintenance standards, introducing vehicles designed to meet stricter emission standards, retrofitting vehicles to use other kinds of clean fuel, reducing urban congestion through transport management measures, scrapping highly polluting and high usage vehicles, and strengthening institutional links and regulatory issues. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Biogenic Emission Inventory System (BEIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogenic Emission Inventory System (BEIS) estimates volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from vegetation and nitric oxide (NO) emission from soils. Recent BEIS development has been restricted to the SMOKE system

  6. Self-organized global control of carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenyuan; Fenn, Daniel J.; Hui, Pak Ming; Johnson, Neil F.

    2010-09-01

    There is much disagreement concerning how best to control global carbon emissions. We explore quantitatively how different control schemes affect the collective emission dynamics of a population of emitting entities. We uncover a complex trade-off which arises between average emissions (affecting the global climate), peak pollution levels (affecting citizens’ everyday health), industrial efficiency (affecting the nation’s economy), frequency of institutional intervention (affecting governmental costs), common information (affecting trading behavior) and market volatility (affecting financial stability). Our findings predict that a self-organized free-market approach at the level of a sector, state, country or continent can provide better control than a top-down regulated scheme in terms of market volatility and monthly pollution peaks. The control of volatility also has important implications for any future derivative carbon emissions market.

  7. Revisiting factors controlling methane emissions from high-Arctic tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mastepanov, M.; Sigsgaard, C.; Tagesson, T.

    2013-01-01

    controlling methane emission, i.e. temperature and water table position. Late in the growing season CH4 emissions were found to be very similar between the study years (except the extremely dry 2010) despite large differences in climatic factors (temperature and water table). Late-season bursts of CH4...... short-term control factors (temperature and water table). Our findings suggest the importance of multiyear studies with a continued focus on shoulder seasons in Arctic ecosystems....

  8. Modeling the uncertainty of several VOC and its impact on simulated VOC and ozone in Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shuai; Choi, Yunsoo; Roy, Anirban; Li, Xiangshang; Jeon, Wonbae; Souri, Amir Hossein

    2015-11-01

    A WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ modeling system was used to study Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions and their impact on surface VOC and ozone concentrations in southeast Texas during September 2013. The model was evaluated against the ground-level Automated Gas Chromatograph (Auto-GC) measurement data from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ). The comparisons indicated that the model over-predicted benzene, ethylene, toluene and xylene, while under-predicting isoprene and ethane. The mean biases between simulated and observed values of each VOC species showed clear daytime, nighttime, weekday and weekend variations. Adjusting the VOC emissions using simulated/observed ratios improved model performance of each VOC species, especially mitigating the mean bias substantially. Simulated monthly mean ozone showed a minor change: a 0.4 ppb or 1.2% increase; while a change of more than 5 ppb was seen in hourly ozone data on high ozone days, this change moved model predictions closer to observations. The CMAQ model run with the adjusted emissions better reproduced the variability in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)'s Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) formaldehyde (HCHO) columns. The adjusted model scenario also slightly better reproduced the aircraft HCHO concentrations from NASA's DISCOVER-AQ campaign conducted during the simulation episode period; Correlation, Mean Bias and RMSE improved from 0.34, 1.38 ppb and 2.15 ppb to 0.38, 1.33 ppb and 2.08 ppb respectively. A process analysis conducted for both industrial/urban and rural areas suggested that chemistry was the main process contributing to ozone production in both areas, while the impact of chemistry was smaller in rural areas than in industrial and urban areas. For both areas, the positive chemistry contribution increased in the sensitivity simulation largely due to the increase in emissions. Nudging VOC emissions to match the observed concentrations shifted the ozone hotspots

  9. Emissions inventories for urban airshed model application in the Philadelphia Aqcr (Air Quality Control Region)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-04-01

    This report documents the procedures used to develop emissions input required by the Urban Airshed photochemical oxidant model. Ambient air quality data were gathered as part of another effort during the summer of 1979 in Philadelphia to be used in the model validation effort. For 1979 and the 1987 projection year, ES compiled hour by hour emissions data for a representative weekday in the oxidant season. The pollutants inventoried are five categories of VOC required by the Airshed model, four categories of VOC defined in RAPS, NO, NO2, CO, SO2, and TSP. Point and area sources were considered with the highway vehicle portion of the inventory being subcontracted to DVRPC. County level area source data were allocated to a 502-cell grid system. Projections were made so that ozone air quality in 1987 could be investigated. ES developed annualized EIS/PandR data and data files containing temporal and VOC/NOx profiles in order to generate the data packets required by the Airshed model.

  10. Modeling VOC transport in simulated waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Peterson, E.S.; Rae, C.; Hotz, N.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1993-06-01

    A volatile organic compound (VOC) transport model has been developed to describe unsteady-state VOC permeation and diffusion within a waste drum. Model equations account for three primary mechanisms for VOC transport from a void volume within the drum. These mechanisms are VOC permeation across a polymer boundary, VOC diffusion across an opening in a volume boundary, and VOC solubilization in a polymer boundary. A series of lab-scale experiments was performed in which the VOC concentration was measured in simulated waste drums under different conditions. A lab-scale simulated waste drum consisted of a sized-down 55-gal metal drum containing a modified rigid polyethylene drum liner. Four polyethylene bags were sealed inside a large polyethylene bag, supported by a wire cage, and placed inside the drum liner. The small bags were filled with VOC-air gas mixture and the VOC concentration was measured throughout the drum over a period of time. Test variables included the type of VOC-air gas mixtures introduced into the small bags, the small bag closure type, and the presence or absence of a variable external heat source. Model results were calculated for those trials where the VOC permeability had been measured. Permeabilities for five VOCs [methylene chloride, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (Freon-113), 1,1,1-trichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, and trichloroethylene] were measured across a polyethylene bag. Comparison of model and experimental results of VOC concentration as a function of time indicate that model accurately accounts for significant VOC transport mechanisms in a lab-scale waste drum

  11. Emission Facilities - Erosion & Sediment Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Erosion and Sediment Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control program. The following sub-facility types related to...

  12. Experimental and statistical characterization of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) within the ile-de-France region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudic, Alexia

    2016-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play a key role within the atmospheric system acting as precursors of ground-level ozone and secondary organic aerosols (causing health and climatic impacts); hence the growing interest of better characterizing them. Significant uncertainties are still associated with compounds speciation, quantification and respective contributions from the different emission sources. This thesis proposes, through several laboratory and intensive field campaigns, a detailed characterization of VOCs and their main emissions sources within the Ile-de-France region. We used methods based on the determination of speciation profiles indicative of road traffic, wood burning and natural gas sources obtained from near-field investigations (inside a tunnel, at a fireplace and from a domestic gas flue). These different source profiles were used as chemical fingerprints for the identification of the main VOC emission sources, which respective contributions were estimated using the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) source-receptor model applied to one-year VOCs (including NMHC+OVOC) measurements in Paris. This thesis allowed, for the first time, to evaluate the seasonal variability of VOCs and their main emission sources. Road traffic-related emissions are major VOC local/regional sources in Paris (contributing to a quarter of total annual emissions). The important impact of wood burning in winter (50 % of the VOC total mass) was observed. Results obtained from this approach were compared with the regional emissions inventory provided by the air quality monitoring network Airparif. Finally, a good agreement was found between our observations and the inventory for road traffic and wood burning-related sources. This independent assessment of inventories is of great interest because they are currently used as input data within air quality prediction models. (author) [fr

  13. Circadian control of isoprene emissions from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Michael J; Owen, Susan M; Possell, Malcolm; Hartwell, James; Gould, Peter; Hall, Anthony; Vickers, Claudia; Nicholas Hewitt, C

    2006-09-01

    The emission of isoprene from the biosphere to the atmosphere has a profound effect on the Earth's atmospheric system. Until now, it has been assumed that the primary short-term controls on isoprene emission are photosynthetically active radiation and temperature. Here we show that isoprene emissions from a tropical tree (oil palm, Elaeis guineensis) are under strong circadian control, and that the circadian clock is potentially able to gate light-induced isoprene emissions. These rhythms are robustly temperature compensated with isoprene emissions still under circadian control at 38 degrees C. This is well beyond the acknowledged temperature range of all previously described circadian phenomena in plants. Furthermore, rhythmic expression of LHY/CCA1, a genetic component of the central clock in Arabidopsis thaliana, is still maintained at these elevated temperatures in oil palm. Maintenance of the CCA1/LHY-TOC1 molecular oscillator at these temperatures in oil palm allows for the possibility that this system is involved in the control of isoprene emission rhythms. This study contradicts the accepted theory that isoprene emissions are primarily light-induced.

  14. Controlling nitrous oxide emissions from grassland livestock production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Gebauer, G.; Rodriguez, M.; Sapek, A.; Jarvis, S.C.; Corré, W.J.; Yamulki, S.

    1998-01-01

    There is growing awareness that grassland livestock production systems are major sources of nitrous oxide (N2O). Controlling these emissions requires a thorough understanding of all sources and controlling factors at the farm level. This paper examines the various controlling factors and proposes

  15. Legal and planning framework for the control of noise emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinick, M.

    1992-01-01

    An examination is offered of the statutory basis for the control of noise emissions. Principal pieces of legislation and some advisory notes have been produced within appendices. The paper briefly examines the controls in other EC countries before discussing the way in which planning controls relate to the jurisdiction of the court. (author)

  16. Emission control by cyclone combustor technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syred, N; Styles, A C; Sahatimehr, A

    1983-09-01

    Recent work carried out on a multi-inlet gas-fired cyclone combustor has shown that NO formation is reduced to negligible proportions when operated at mixture ratios 1.5 < PHI < 2.2 with combustion occurring under fully premixed fuel conditions. Elimination of hot spots, common to partial premixed systems, has been achieved with mean temperatures below 1300 C, thereby reducing NO emissions (1.5 ppm) by preventing the onset of Zeldovich and prompt mechanisms. The low NO levels are therefore dependent on a combination of low flame front temperature (about 1100 C) and premixed combustion conditions. Owing to the operating mode of combustion, heat transfer at the walls plays an important role in flame stability. Insulation of the cyclone chamber by refractory has been found to extend the operating range to higher mixture ratios. Conversely, it is expected that heat removal from the walls would enable the combustor to operate at mixture ratios nearer to stoichiometric, whilst still giving rise to low levels of NO emission. 17 references.

  17. Diesel Catalytic Converters As Emission Control Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Banna, S.; El Deen, O.N.

    2004-01-01

    Internal combustion engines are devices that generate work from combustion reactions. Combustion products under high pressure produce work by expansion through a turbine or piston. The combustion reactions inside these engines are not necessarily neutralizing or complete and air pollutants are produced. There are three major types of internal combustion engine(l) in use today: I) the spark ignition engine, which is used primarily in automobiles; 2) the diesel engine, which is used in large vehicles and industrial systems where cycle efficiency offers advantages over the more compact and lighter-weight spark ignition engine and; 3) the gas turbine, which is used in aircraft due to its high power/weight ratio and is also used for stationary power generation. Each of these types of engine is an important source of atmospheric pollutants. Automobiles are the one of the major source of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides. Probably more than any other combustion system, the design of automobile engines is now being guided by requirements to reduce emissions of these pollutants. While substantial progress has been made in emission reduction, automobiles remain important sources of air pollutants

  18. Measurement of VOC permeability of polymer bags and VOC solubility in polyethylene drum liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liekhus, K.J.; Peterson, E.S.

    1995-03-01

    A test program conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) investigated the use of a transport model to estimate the volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration in the void volume of a waste drum. Unsteady-state VOC transport model equations account for VOC permeation of polymer bags, VOC diffusion across openings in layers of confinement, and VOC solubility in a polyethylene drum liner. In support of this program, the VOC permeability of polymer bags and VOC equilibrium concentration in a polyethylene drum liner were measured for nine VOCs. The VOCs used in experiments were dichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, cyclohexane, toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, methanol, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (Freon-113), trichloroethylene, and p-xylene. The experimental results of these measurements as well as a method of estimating both parameters in the absence of experimental data are described in this report

  19. New device for time-averaged measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago Sánchez, Noemí; Tejada Alarcón, Sergio; Tortajada Santonja, Rafael; Llorca-Pórcel, Julio

    2014-07-01

    Contamination by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the environment is an increasing concern since these compounds are harmful to ecosystems and even to human health. Actually, many of them are considered toxic and/or carcinogenic. The main sources of pollution come from very diffuse focal points such as industrial discharges, urban water and accidental spills as these compounds may be present in many products and processes (i.e., paints, fuels, petroleum products, raw materials, solvents, etc.) making their control difficult. The presence of these compounds in groundwater, influenced by discharges, leachate or effluents of WWTPs is especially problematic. In recent years, law has been increasingly restrictive with the emissions of these compounds. From an environmental point of view, the European Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) sets out some VOCs as priority substances. This binding directive sets guidelines to control compounds such as benzene, chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride to be at a very low level of concentration and with a very high frequency of analysis. The presence of VOCs in the various effluents is often highly variable and discontinuous since it depends on the variability of the sources of contamination. Therefore, in order to have complete information of the presence of these contaminants and to effectively take preventive measures, it is important to continuously control, requiring the development of new devices which obtain average concentrations over time. As of today, due to technical limitations, there are no devices on the market that allow continuous sampling of these compounds in an efficient way and to facilitate sufficient detection limits to meet the legal requirements which are capable of detecting very sporadic and of short duration discharges. LABAQUA has developed a device which consists of a small peristaltic pump controlled by an electronic board that governs its operation by pre-programming. A constant flow passes

  20. Control strategies for vehicular NOx emissions in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Min; Zhang Yuanhang; Raufer, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Guangzhou is a city in southern China that has experienced very rapid economic development in recent years. The city's air has very high concentrations of various pollutants, including sulphur dioxide (SO 2 , oxides of nitrogen (NOx), ozone (O 3 ) and particulate. This paper reviews the changes in air quality in the city over the past 15 years, and notes that a serious vehicular-related emissions problem has been superimposed on the traditional coal-burning problem evident in most Chinese cities. As NOx concentrations have increased, oxidants and photochemical smog now interact with the traditional SO 2 and particulate pollutants, leading to increased health risks and other environmental concerns. Any responsible NOx control strategy for the city must include vehicle emission control measures. This paper reviews control strategies designed to abate vehicle emissions to fulfill the city's air quality improvement target in 2010. A cost-effectiveness analysis suggests that, while NOx emission control is expensive, vehicular emission standards could achieve a relatively sizable emissions reduction at reasonable cost. To achieve the 2010 air quality target of NOx, advanced implementation of EURO3 standards is recommended, substituting for the EURO2 currently envisioned in the national regulations Related technical options, including fuel quality improvements and inspection/maintenance (I/M) upgrades (ASM or IM240) are assessed as well. (author)

  1. Modeling of Control Costs, Emissions, and Control Retrofits for Cost Effectiveness and Feasibility Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about EPA’s use of the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) to develop estimates of SO2 and NOx emission control costs, projections of futureemissions, and projections of capacity of future control retrofits, assuming controls on EGUs.

  2. Air exchange rates and migration of VOCs in basements and residences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, L; Batterman, S; Godwin, C; Rowe, Z; Chin, J-Y

    2015-12-01

    Basements can influence indoor air quality by affecting air exchange rates (AERs) and by the presence of emission sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other pollutants. We characterized VOC levels, AERs, and interzonal flows between basements and occupied spaces in 74 residences in Detroit, Michigan. Flows were measured using a steady-state multitracer system, and 7-day VOC measurements were collected using passive samplers in both living areas and basements. A walk-through survey/inspection was conducted in each residence. AERs in residences and basements averaged 0.51 and 1.52/h, respectively, and had strong and opposite seasonal trends, for example, AERs were highest in residences during the summer, and highest in basements during the winter. Airflows from basements to occupied spaces also varied seasonally. VOC concentration distributions were right-skewed, for example, 90th percentile benzene, toluene, naphthalene, and limonene concentrations were 4.0, 19.1, 20.3, and 51.0 μg/m(3), respectively; maximum concentrations were 54, 888, 1117, and 134 μg/m(3). Identified VOC sources in basements included solvents, household cleaners, air fresheners, smoking, and gasoline-powered equipment. The number and type of potential VOC sources found in basements are significant and problematic, and may warrant advisories regarding the storage and use of potentially strong VOCs sources in basements. Few IAQ studies have examined basements. A sizable volume of air can flow between the basement and living area, and AERs in these two zones can differ considerably. In many residences, the basement contains significant emission sources and contributes a large fraction of VOC concentrations found in the living area. Exposures can be lowered by removing VOC sources from the basement; other exposure management options, such as local ventilation or isolation, are unlikely to be practical. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from an oil and gas station in northwest China for 1 year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huang; Kong, Shaofei; Xing, Xinli; Mao, Yao; Hu, Tianpeng; Ding, Yang; Li, Gang; Liu, Dantong; Li, Shuanglin; Qi, Shihua

    2018-04-01

    Oil and natural gas are important for energy supply around the world. The exploring, drilling, transportation and processing in oil and gas regions can release a lot of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). To understand the VOC levels, compositions and sources in such regions, an oil and gas station in northwest China was chosen as the research site and 57 VOCs designated as the photochemical precursors were continuously measured for an entire year (September 2014-August 2015) using an online monitoring system. The average concentration of total VOCs was 297 ± 372 ppbv and the main contributor was alkanes, accounting for 87.5 % of the total VOCs. According to the propylene-equivalent concentration and maximum incremental reactivity methods, alkanes were identified as the most important VOC groups for the ozone formation potential. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis showed that the annual average contributions from natural gas, fuel evaporation, combustion sources, oil refining processes and asphalt (anthropogenic and natural sources) to the total VOCs were 62.6 ± 3.04, 21.5 ± .99, 10.9 ± 1.57, 3.8 ± 0.50 and 1.3 ± 0.69 %, respectively. The five identified VOC sources exhibited various diurnal patterns due to their different emission patterns and the impact of meteorological parameters. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) and concentration-weighted trajectory (CWT) models based on backward trajectory analysis indicated that the five identified sources had similar geographic origins. Raster analysis based on CWT analysis indicated that the local emissions contributed 48.4-74.6 % to the total VOCs. Based on the high-resolution observation data, this study clearly described and analyzed the temporal variation in VOC emission characteristics at a typical oil and gas field, which exhibited different VOC levels, compositions and origins compared with those in urban and industrial areas.

  4. The VOC-Ozone connection: a grassland case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfahrt, G.; Hoertnagl, L.; Bamberger, I.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Dunkel, J.; Hammerle, A.; Graus, M.; Hansel, A.

    2009-04-01

    Trophospheric ozone (O3) is formed in the presence of sunlight through the interaction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and NOx (NO, NO2). O3 damages plants in several ways, most importantly by reducing net photosynthesis and growth. The extent of this damage depends on the time-integrated absorbed O3 flux (i.e. the dose), which is a function of leaf stomatal conductance and ambient O3 concentration, and further influenced by plant species specific defence mechanisms. VOCs are produced by plants through a variety of pathways and in response to a large number of different driving forces. A large variety of VOCs are emitted by plants in response to stress conditions, including the foliar uptake of O3. Here we present preliminary data from an ongoing study where concurrent measurements of the fluxes of VOCs and O3 are made above a managed mountain grassland in Tyrol/Austria. Fluxes of several different VOCs and O3 are measured by means of the eddy covariance method and a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and an ozone analyser, respectively. Our findings show that the Methanol (MeOH) flux is correlated with the daily time-integrated O3 uptake by vegetation (integrated daily from sunrise - a surrogate for the O3 dose absorbed and the oxidative stress experienced by plants) - MeOH deposition and emission prevailing at low and high time-integrated O3 uptake rates, respectively. Fluxes of other VOCs were not related to the time-integrated O3 uptake. Integrated over longer time scales (several weeks) no correlation between the O3 uptake and MeOH emissions were found. Our study thus confirms earlier leaf-level studies, who found that MeOH emission increase with O3 dose, at the ecosystems scale. As the reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH), which is responsible for the destruction of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4), is the major sink of atmospheric MeOH, this process provides a potentially important indirect radiative forcing.

  5. A plasma process controlled emissions off-gas demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battleson, D.; Kujawa, S.T.; Leatherman, G.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal technologies are currently identified as playing an important role in the treatment of many DOE waste streams, and emissions from these processes will be scrutinized by the public, regulators, and stakeholders. For some time, there has been a hesitancy by the public to accept thermal treatment of radioactive contaminated waste because of the emissions from these processes. While the technology for treatment of emissions from these processes is well established, it is not possible to provide the public complete assurance that the system will be in compliance with air quality regulations 100% of the operating time in relation to allowing noncompliant emissions to exit the system. Because of the possibility of noncompliant emissions and the public's concern over thermal treatment systems, it has been decided that the concept of a completely controlled emissions off-gas system should be developed and implemented on Department of Energy (DOE) thermal treatment systems. While the law of conservation of mass precludes a completely closed cycle system, it is possible to apply the complete control concept to emissions

  6. Herbivory by an Outbreaking Moth Increases Emissions of Biogenic Volatiles and Leads to Enhanced Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Copolovici, Lucian; Kännaste, Astrid; Noe, Steffen; Blande, James D; Mikkonen, Santtu; Klemola, Tero; Pulkkinen, Juha; Virtanen, Annele; Laaksonen, Ari; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Niinemets, Ülo; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2016-11-01

    In addition to climate warming, greater herbivore pressure is anticipated to enhance the emissions of climate-relevant biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from boreal and subarctic forests and promote the formation of secondary aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere. We evaluated the effects of Epirrita autumnata, an outbreaking geometrid moth, feeding and larval density on herbivore-induced VOC emissions from mountain birch in laboratory experiments and assessed the impact of these emissions on SOA formation via ozonolysis in chamber experiments. The results show that herbivore-induced VOC emissions were strongly dependent on larval density. Compared to controls without larval feeding, clear new particle formation by nucleation in the reaction chamber was observed, and the SOA mass loadings in the insect-infested samples were significantly higher (up to 150-fold). To our knowledge, this study provides the first controlled documentation of SOA formation from direct VOC emission of deciduous trees damaged by known defoliating herbivores and suggests that chewing damage on mountain birch foliage could significantly increase reactive VOC emissions that can importantly contribute to SOA formation in subarctic forests. Additional feeding experiments on related silver birch confirmed the SOA results. Thus, herbivory-driven volatiles are likely to play a major role in future biosphere-vegetation feedbacks such as sun-screening under daily 24 h sunshine in the subarctic.

  7. Controlling the emission current from a plasma cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagaev, S.P.; Gushenets, V.I.; Schanin, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    The processes determining the time and amplitude characteristics of the grid-controlled electron emission from the plasma of an arc discharge have been analyzed. It has been shown that by applying to the grid confining the plasma emission boundary of a modulated voltage it is possible to form current pulse of up to 1 kA with nanosecond risetimes and falltimes and a pulse repetitive rate of 100 kHz

  8. Process control with optical emission spectroscopy in triode ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmenoja, K.; Korhonen, A.S.; Sulonen, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    Physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques used to prepare, e.g., hard TiN, HfN, or ZrN coatings include a great variety of processes ranging from reactive evaporation to sputtering and ion plating. In ion plating one effective way to enhance ionization is to use a negatively biased hot filament. The use of an electron emitting filament brings an extra variable to be taken into account in developing the process control. In addition, proper control of the evaporation source is critical in ensuring reproducible results. With optical emission spectroscopy (OES) it should be possible to control the coating process more accurately. The stoichiometry and the composition of the growing coating may then be ensured effectively in subsequent runs. In this work the application of optical emission spectroscopy for process control in triode ion plating is discussed. The composition of the growing coating is determined experimentally using the relative intensities of specific emission lines. Changes in the evaporation rate and the gas flow can be seen directly from emission line intensities. Even the so-called poisoning of the evaporation source with reactive gas can be detected. Several experimental runs were carried out and afterwards the concentration profiles of the deposited coatings were checked with the nuclear resonance broadening (NRB) method. The results show the usefulness of emission spectroscopy in discharge control

  9. Environmental emissions control programs at Lambton TGS [Thermal Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalvins, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    Ontario Hydro's air emissions control programs at Lambton thermal generating station, both committed and planned, are reviewed, and their potential impacts on emissions, effluents and wastes are discussed. Control technologies examined include flue gas conditioning, wet limestone scrubbing, combustion process modifications, urea injection, and selective catalytic reduction. The implementation of these technologies has the potential to create new solid and liquid waste disposal problems, the full extent of which is often not realized at the process selection stage. For example, selective noncatalytic reduction using urea injection can lead to increased CO emissions, escape of unreacted ammonia from the stack at levels of 5-50 ppM, increase in N 2 O emissions, contamination of fly ash, gypsum and waste water with ammonia, and an increase in CO 2 emissions of less than 0.4% due to increased power consumption. Optimum performance of the air emissions control systems, with minimum negative impact on the environment, requires consideration of the impact of these systems on all waste streams. 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  10. Pilot-scale concept of real-time wind speed-matching wind tunnel for measurements of gaseous emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comprehensive control of odors, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3) and odorous volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions associated with animal production is a critical need. Current methods utilizing wind tunnels and flux chambers for measurements of gaseous emissions from area sources such as f...

  11. New insights into the parametrization of temperature and light responses of mono - and sesquiterpene emissions from Aleppo pine and rosemary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudt, M.; Bourgeois, I.; Al Halabi, R.; Song, W.; Williams, J.

    2017-03-01

    Phytogenic emission of large volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as monoterpenes (MTs) and sesquiterpenes (SQTs) are key precursors to the formation and growth of atmospheric particles. However, controlled environment studies to elucidate emission responses to temperature and light are still sparse. In this study, the volatile contents and emission responses of Aleppo pine and Rosemary have been investigated. These two common Mediterranean species store semivolatiles inside (resin ducts) and outside (trichomes) their foliage tissues respectively. Both species emitted mainly MTs with basal emission rates of around 5 (Rosemary) and 10 (pine) μg g-1 h-1 and SQTs about one order of magnitude lower. In Aleppo pine, two volatile sources could be clearly distinguished: 1) de-novo synthesized emission of (E)-β-ocimene and linalool, which accounted for about 70% of the total VOC release, were not found in foliar VOC extracts and expressed light dependency (LD) and temperature responses typical for enzyme driven emissions; and 2) storage-derived emissions of various MTs and SQTs whose emissions increased exponentially with temperature, showed no light dependency and were all present in leaf extracts. In Rosemary, all emitted MTs and SQTs including many oxygenated compounds, showed responses typical for stored volatiles and were all found in leaf extracts. The emissions of individual volatiles or volatile classes could be well described with the commonly applied empirical algorithms developed for LD or non LD emissions. However, the shapes of the temperature responses, and hence the deduced coefficient values, were significantly different between oxygenated and non-oxygenated compounds. They also differed between the storage-derived emissions of the two plant species, for individual VOCs or VOC classes. We address the possible reasons for this variation in temperature responses and argue that they are mostly due to molecular interactions along the species specific leaf

  12. Pollutants emission in power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Fossil fuels, including coal, natural gas, petroleum, shale oil and bitumen, are the primary source of heat and electrical energy production and are responsible for emitting a large number and amount of pollutants into the atmosphere via exhaust gases from industry, power stations, residential heating systems and vehicles. During the combustion process, different pollutants such as CO 2 , SO X (including SO 2 and SO 3 ), NO X (including NO 2 , NO and N 2 O), fly ash, VOCs and mercury are emitted. These emissions cause big environmental and human health hazard. CO 2 , N 2 O, some VOCs, CH 4 contribute to the global greenhouse effect, adding a new dimension to the environmental degradation resulting from the burning of fossil fuels. These problems regarding emissions inventory, their impact on the environment and human health, air pollution control technologies and costs, periods of fossil fuels depletion, role of renewable and nuclear energy in the further civilization development are briefly discussed. (author)

  13. Soil acidification in China: is controlling SO2 emissions enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Duan, Lei; Xing, Jia; Larssen, Thorjorn; Nielsen, Chris P; Hao, Jiming

    2009-11-01

    Facing challenges of increased energy consumption and related regional air pollution, China has been aggressively implementing flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and phasing out small inefficient units in the power sector in order to achieve the national goal of 10% reduction in sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) emissions from 2005 to 2010. In this paper, the effect of these measures on soil acidification is explored. An integrated methodology is used, combining emission inventory data, emission forecasts, air quality modeling, and ecological sensitivities indicated by critical load. National emissions of SO(2), oxides of nitrogen (NO(X)), particulate matter (PM), and ammonia (NH(3)) in 2005 were estimated to be 30.7, 19.6, 31.3, and 16.6 Mt, respectively. Implementation of existing policy will lead to reductions in SO(2) and PM emissions, while those of NO(X) and NH(3) will continue to rise, even under tentatively proposed control measures. In 2005, the critical load for soil acidification caused by sulfur (S) deposition was exceeded in 28% of the country's territory, mainly in eastern and south-central China. The area in exceedance will decrease to 26% and 20% in 2010 and 2020, respectively, given implementation of current plans for emission reductions. However, the exceedance of the critical load for nitrogen (N, combining effects of eutrophication and acidification) will double from 2005 to 2020 due to increased NO(X) and NH(3) emissions. Combining the acidification effects of S and N, the benefits of SO(2) reductions during 2005-2010 will almost be negated by increased N emissions. Therefore abatement of N emissions (NO(X) and NH(3)) and deposition will be a major challenge to China, requiring policy development and technology investments. To mitigate acidification in the future, China needs a multipollutant control strategy that integrates measures to reduce S, N, and PM.

  14. Final Approval of California Air Plan Revision; Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District; VOCs From Motor Vehicle Assembly Coating Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is taking final action to approve a revision to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) portion of the California SIP concerning the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from motor vehicle assembly coating operations.

  15. Air pollution emission under control?; Luchtverontreinigende emissies onder controle?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbeek, R.; Smokers, R. [TNO Mobility / Sustainable Transport and Logistics, Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    The air-polluting emissions of lorries and inland shipping needs to adhere to increasingly strict requirements. As a result, the emissions of new vehicles and vessels in 2020 will only be a fraction of the emissions of for example 1990. How does it work out in practice? Is it useful to switch to alternative fuels in the coming years, such as for example natural gas and biofuels? Or will all air-polluting emission problems have been solved in the near future, allowing for full focus on energy use and CO2 reduction?. [Dutch] De luchtverontreinigende emissies van vrachtauto's en binnenvaartschepen moeten aan steeds strengere eisen voldoen. Daardoor zullen de emissies van nieuwe voer- en vaartuigen in 2020 nog maar een fractie zijn in vergelijking tot bijvoorbeeld 1990. Werkt het allemaal goed in de praktijk? En heeft het de komende jaren nog zin om over te stappen naar alternatieve brandstoffen zoals aardgas en biobrandstoffen? Of zijn alle problemen rond de luchtverontreinigende emissies straks van de baan en kunnen we de focus geheel richten op energieverbruik en CO2-reductie?.

  16. Emission and thermal performance upgrade through advanced control backfit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, A.K. [Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation, Boston, MA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Reducing emission and improving thermal performance of currently operating power plants is a high priority. A majority of these power plants are over 20 years old with old control systems. Upgrading the existing control systems with the latest technology has many benefits, the most cost beneficial are the reduction of emission and improving thermal performance. The payback period is usually less than two years. Virginia Power is installing Stone & Webster`s NO{sub x} Emissions Advisor and Advanced Steam Temperature Control systems on Possum Point Units 3 and 4 to achieve near term NO{sub x} reductions while maintaining high thermal performance. Testing has demonstrated NO{sub x} reductions of greater than 20 percent through the application of NO{sub x} Emissions Advisor on these units. The Advanced Steam Temperature Control system which has been operational at Virginia Power`s Mt. Storm Unit 1 has demonstrated a signification improvement in unit thermal performance and controllability. These control systems are being combined at Units 3 and 4 to reduce NO{sub x} emissions and achieve improved unit thermal performance and control response with the existing combustion hardware. Installation has been initiated and is expected to be completed by the spring of 1995. Possum Point Power Station Units 3 and 4 are pulverized coal, tangentially fired boilers producing 107 and 232 MW and have a distributed control system and a PC based performance monitoring system. The installation of the advanced control and automation system will utilize existing control equipment requiring the addition of several PCs and PLC.

  17. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs in Conventional and High Performance School Buildings in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lexuan Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs has been an indoor environmental quality (IEQ concern in schools and other buildings for many years. Newer designs, construction practices and building materials for “green” buildings and the use of “environmentally friendly” products have the promise of lowering chemical exposure. This study examines VOCs and IEQ parameters in 144 classrooms in 37 conventional and high performance elementary schools in the U.S. with the objectives of providing a comprehensive analysis and updating the literature. Tested schools were built or renovated in the past 15 years, and included comparable numbers of conventional, Energy Star, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED-certified buildings. Indoor and outdoor VOC samples were collected and analyzed by thermal desorption, gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy for 94 compounds. Aromatics, alkanes and terpenes were the major compound groups detected. Most VOCs had mean concentrations below 5 µg/m3, and most indoor/outdoor concentration ratios ranged from one to 10. For 16 VOCs, the within-school variance of concentrations exceeded that between schools and, overall, no major differences in VOC concentrations were found between conventional and high performance buildings. While VOC concentrations have declined from levels measured in earlier decades, opportunities remain to improve indoor air quality (IAQ by limiting emissions from building-related sources and by increasing ventilation rates.

  18. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Conventional and High Performance School Buildings in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lexuan; Su, Feng-Chiao; Batterman, Stuart

    2017-01-21

    Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been an indoor environmental quality (IEQ) concern in schools and other buildings for many years. Newer designs, construction practices and building materials for "green" buildings and the use of "environmentally friendly" products have the promise of lowering chemical exposure. This study examines VOCs and IEQ parameters in 144 classrooms in 37 conventional and high performance elementary schools in the U.S. with the objectives of providing a comprehensive analysis and updating the literature. Tested schools were built or renovated in the past 15 years, and included comparable numbers of conventional, Energy Star, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)-certified buildings. Indoor and outdoor VOC samples were collected and analyzed by thermal desorption, gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy for 94 compounds. Aromatics, alkanes and terpenes were the major compound groups detected. Most VOCs had mean concentrations below 5 µg/m³, and most indoor/outdoor concentration ratios ranged from one to 10. For 16 VOCs, the within-school variance of concentrations exceeded that between schools and, overall, no major differences in VOC concentrations were found between conventional and high performance buildings. While VOC concentrations have declined from levels measured in earlier decades, opportunities remain to improve indoor air quality (IAQ) by limiting emissions from building-related sources and by increasing ventilation rates.

  19. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air from Nisyros Island (Dodecanese Archipelago, Greece): Natural versus anthropogenic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassi, F.; Capecchiacci, F.; Giannini, L.; Vougioukalakis, G.E.; Vaselli, O.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the chemical composition of VOCs in air and gas discharges collected at Nisyros Island (Dodecanese Archipelago, Greece). The main goals are i) to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic VOC sources and ii) to evaluate their impact on local air quality. Up to 63 different VOCs were recognized and quantitatively determined in 6 fumaroles and 19 air samples collected in the Lakki caldera, where fumarolic emissions are located, and the outer ring of the island, including the Mandraki village and the main harbor. Air samples from the crater area show significant concentrations of alkanes, alkenes, cyclic, aromatics, and S- and O-bearing heterocycles directly deriving from the hydrothermal system, as well as secondary O-bearing compounds from oxidation of primary VOCs. At Mandraki village, C 6 H 6 /Σ(methylated aromatics) and Σ(linear)/Σ(branched) alkanes ratios 2 O–CO 2 –H 2 S rich and discharge a large variety of VOC species. •Benzene/toluene ratios identify anthropogenic and natural sources of VOCs in air. •Aldehydes in air are produced by oxidation of alkanes and alkenes. •Geogenic furans and hydrogenated halocarbons in air are recalcitrant. -- Anthropogenic and natural VOCs in air are distinguished on the basis of aromatic, O-substituted, S-substituted and halogenated compounds

  20. Tracing the link between plant volatile organic compound emissions and CO2 fluxes and by stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Christiane; Wegener, Frederik; Jardine, Kolby

    2015-04-01

    The vegetation exerts a large influence on the atmosphere through the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the emission and uptake of the greenhouse gas CO2. Despite the enormous importance, processes controlling plant carbon allocation into primary and secondary metabolism, such as photosynthetic carbon uptake, respiratory CO2 emission and VOC synthesis, remains unclear. Moreover, vegetation-atmosphere CO2 exchange is associated with a large isotopic imprint due to photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination and 13C-fractionation during respiratory CO2 release1. The latter has been proposed to be related to carbon partitioning in the metabolic branching points of the respiratory pathways and secondary metabolism, which are linked via a number of interfaces including the central metabolite pyruvate. Notably, it is a known substrate in a large array of secondary pathways leading to the biosynthesis of many volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as volatile isoprenoids, oxygenated VOCs, aromatics, fatty acid oxidation products, which can be emitted by plants. Here we investigate the linkage between VOC emissions, CO2 fluxes and associated isotope effects based on simultaneous real-time measurements of stable carbon isotope composition of branch respired CO2 (CRDS) and VOC fluxes (PTR-MS). We utilized positionally specific 13C-labeled pyruvate branch feeding experiments in the mediterranean shrub (Halimium halimifolium) to trace the partitioning of C1, C2, and C3 carbon atoms of pyruvate into VOCs versus CO2 emissions in the light and in the dark. In the light, we found high emission rates of a large array of VOC including volatile isoprenoids, oxygenated VOCs, green leaf volatiles, aromatics, sulfides, and nitrogen containing VOCs. These observations suggest that in the light, H. halimifolium dedicates a high carbon flux through secondary biosynthetic pathways including the pyruvate dehydrogenase bypass, mevalonic acid, MEP/DOXP, shikimic acid, and

  1. Ground-level ozone in the Pearl River Delta and the roles of VOC and NO(x) in its production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Min; Zhang, Yuanhang; Zeng, Limin; Tang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jing; Zhong, Liuju; Wang, Boguang

    2009-01-01

    In many regions of China, very rapid economic growth has been accompanied by air pollution caused by vehicle emissions. In one of these regions, the Pearl River Delta, the variations of ground-level ozone and its precursors were investigated. Overall, the ambient concentrations of NO(2) increased quickly between 1995 and 1996, but then slightly decreased due to stringent nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emission controls. Nonetheless, ambient NO(2) levels in the Pearl River Delta remained high. The regional average concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were 290 ppbC in summer and 190 ppbC in autumn. Local emissions and long-distance transportation of pollutants play important roles in the regional distribution of VOCs. Ambient O(3) production is significant in urban areas and also downwind of cities. The relative incremental reactivities (RIRs), determined by an observation-based model, showed that ground-level ozone formation in the Guangzhou urban area is generally limited by the concentrations of VOCs, but there are also measurable impacts of NO(x).

  2. Controlling spontaneous emission of light by photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodahl, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Photonic bandgap crystals were proposed almost two decades ago as a unique tool for controlling propagation and emission of light. Since then the research field of photonic crystals has exploded and many beautiful demonstrations of the use of photonic crystals and fibers for molding light...... propagation have appeared that hold great promises for integrated optics. These major achievements solidly demonstrate the ability to control propagation of light. In contrast, an experimental demonstration of the use of photonic crystals for timing the emission of light has so far lacked. In a recent...... publication in Nature, we have demonstrated experimentally that both the direction and time of spontaneous emission can be controlled, thereby confirming the original proposal by Eli Yablonovich that founded the field of photonic crystals. We believe that this work opens new opportunities for solid...

  3. Smartphone-based sensing system using ZnO and graphene modified electrodes for VOCs detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Diming; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Xing; Xu, Gang; Lu, Yanli; Liu, Qingjun

    2017-07-15

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) detection is in high demand for clinic treatment, environment monitoring, and food quality control. Especially, VOCs from human exhaled breath can serve as significant biomarkers of some diseases, such as lung cancer and diabetes. In this study, a smartphone-based sensing system was developed for real-time VOCs monitoring using alternative current (AC) impedance measurement. The interdigital electrodes modified with zinc oxide (ZnO), graphene, and nitrocellulose were used as sensors to produce impedance responses to VOCs. The responses could be detected by a hand-held device, sent out to a smartphone by Bluetooth, and reported with concentration on an android program of the smartphone. The smartphone-based system was demonstrated to detect acetone at concentrations as low as 1.56ppm, while AC impedance spectroscopy was used to distinguish acetone from other VOCs. Finally, measurements of the exhalations from human being were carried out to obtain the concentration of acetone in exhaled breath before and after exercise. The results proved that the smartphone-based system could be applied on the detection of VOCs in real settings for healthcare diagnosis. Thus, the smartphone-based system for VOCs detection provided a convenient, portable and efficient approach to monitor VOCs in exhaled breath and possibly allowed for early diagnosis of some diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Acidification policy - control of acidifying emissions in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaerer, B.

    1992-01-01

    Since the mid-eighties total annual acidifying emissions have started to decline in West Germany. There was considerable impact on this positive trend in air pollution by the control of SO 2 and NO x emissions from large boilers, which were reduced by more than 80%. Corresponding control programmes have been established for other groups of sources as well as other pollutants and - with unification - for East Germany. The driving force behind this development was and still is first of all the legal principle of anticipatory action or precaution which means in practical terms 'emission minimization'. This cornerstone of German clean air legislation is the most powerful components of Germany's 'acidification policy', as it requires policy-makers to draw up new or review existing regulations for emission reduction based on requirements according to the state of the art and forces operators to apply the most modern ways and means of operation. This paper describes the system used in Germany to deal with air pollution, the emission minimization strategy, and the actions against acidifying emissions based thereon. In addition, an outlook on what might be necessary to cope with the challenges of a sustainable development concerning acidification is given. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  5. Mercury emissions control technologies for mixed waste thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, A.; Knecht, M.; Soelberg, N.; Eaton, D.

    1997-01-01

    EPA has identified wet scrubbing at low mercury feedrates, as well as carbon adsorption via carbon injection into the offgas or via flow through fixed carbon beds, as control technologies that can be used to meet the proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rule limit for mercury emissions from hazardous waste incinerators. DOE is currently funding demonstrations of gold amalgamation that may also control mercury to the desired levels. Performance data from a variety of sources was reviewed to determine ranges of achievable mercury control. Preliminary costs were estimated for using these technologies to control mercury emissions from mixed waste incineration. Mercury emissions control for mixed waste incineration may need to be more efficient than for incineration of other hazardous wastes because of higher mercury concentrations in some mixed waste streams. However, mercury control performance data for wet scrubbing and carbon adsorption is highly variable. More information is needed to demonstrate control efficiencies that are achievable under various design and operating conditions for wet scrubbing, carbon adsorption, and gold amalgamation technologies. Given certain assumptions made in this study, capital costs, operating costs, and lifecycle costs for carbon injection, carbon beds, and gold amalgamation generally vary for different assumed mercury feedrates and for different offgas flowrates. Assuming that these technologies can in fact provide the necessary mercury control performance, each of these technologies may be less costly than the others for certain mercury feedrates and the offgas flowrates

  6. Legislation, standards and methods for mercury emissions control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-15

    Mercury is an element of growing global concern. The United Nations Environment Programme plans to finalise and ratify a new global legally-binding convention on mercury by 2013. Canada already has legislation on mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities and the USA has recently released the new Mercury and Air Toxics Standard. Although other countries may not have mercury-specific legislation as such, many have legislation which results in significant co-benefit mercury reduction due to the installation of effective flue-gas cleaning technologies. This report reviews the current situation and trends in mercury emission legislation and, where possible, discusses the actions that will be taken under proposed or impending standards globally and regionally. The report also reviews the methods currently applied for mercury control and for mercury emission measurement with emphasis on the methodologies most appropriate for compliance. Examples of the methods of mercury control currently deployed in the USA, Canada and elsewhere are included.

  7. Long-term measurements of biogenic VOCs in an Austrian valley - discussion of seasonal fluctuations of isoprene and monoterpene concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkl, J.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Beauchamp, J.; Wisthaler, A; Hansel, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: A proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) was set up at a monitoring station in the river Inn valley (Vomp, Tirol, Austria) for a year-long measurement (February 2004-May 2005) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the local valley air. Measurements of PM 10 , NO x and CO, and certain meteorological parameters were additionally made. Together, these data-sets enabled relationships between VOC abundances, meteorological conditions and anthropogenic emissions (primarily from automobile emissions) to be examined. The work presented here focuses on the biogenic VOCs measured under these real-world outdoor conditions. Initially, data needed to be separated between VOCs of anthropogenic and of biogenic origin. This was achieved by generating a model for the PTR-MS VOC data-set. A clear correlation between benzene and CO concentrations - indicating benzene's predominance from anthropogenic sources - allowed benzene to be used as a tracer for anthropogenic compounds. The model thus allowed a regression to be made whereby the maximum anthropogenic contributions of almost all VOCs could be established relative to benzene. The maximum contribution from biogenic emissions to each VOC could thus be determined as the difference between the total individual VOC signal and the corresponding maximum anthropogenic share. The two biogenic VOCs of principle interest here were isoprene and the monoterpenes (detected by PTR-MS at masses 69 amu and 137 amu, respectively). As expected, abundances of isoprene and the monoterpenes displayed a late-summer maximum (despite good vertical valley air dilution that acts to reduce VOC levels) when temperatures were high and sunlight hours long. Preliminary results will be presented and discussed. (author)

  8. VOC source identification from personal and residential indoor, outdoor and workplace microenvironment samples in EXPOLIS-Helsinki, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Rufus D. [KTL-Finnish National Inst. of Public Health, Dept. of Environmental Hygiene, Kuopio (Finland); California Univ., School of Public Health, Berkeley, CA (United States); Jurvelin, J. [KTL-Finnish National Inst. of Public Health, Dept. of Environmental Hygiene, Kuopio (Finland); Jyvaeskylae Polytechnic, School of Engineering and Technology, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Koistinen, K. [KTL-Finnish National Inst. of Public Health, Dept. of Environmental Hygiene, Kuopio (Finland); Saarela, K. [VTT, Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Jantunen, M. [EC JRC, Inst. of the Environment, Ispra (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Principal component analyses (varimax rotation) were used to identify common sources of 30 target volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in residential outdoor, residential indoor and workplace microenvironment and personal 48-h exposure samples, as a component of the EXPOLIS-Helsinki study. Variability in VOC concentrations in residential outdoor microenvironments was dominated by compounds associated with long-range transport of pollutants, followed by traffic emissions, emissions from trees and product emissions. Variability in VOC concentrations in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) free residential indoor environments was dominated by compounds associated with indoor cleaning products, followed by compounds associated with traffic emissions, long-range transport of pollutants and product emissions. Median indoor/outdoor ratios for compounds typically associated with traffic emissions and long-range transport of pollutants exceeded 1, in some cases quite considerably, indicating substantial indoor source contributions. Changes in the median indoor/outdoor ratios during different seasons reflected different seasonal ventilation patterns as increased ventilation led to dilution of those VOC compounds in the indoor environment that had indoor sources. Variability in workplace VOC concentrations was dominated by compounds associated with traffic emissions followed by product emissions, long-range transport and air fresheners. Variability in VOC concentrations in ETS free personal exposure samples was dominated by compounds associated with traffic emissions, followed by long-range transport, cleaning products and product emissions. VOC sources in personal exposure samples reflected the times spent in different microenvironments, and personal exposure samples were not adequately represented by any one microenvironment, demonstrating the need for personal exposure sampling. (Author)

  9. MEMBRANE BIOTREATMENT OF VOC-LADEN AIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses membrane biotreatment of air laden with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Microporous flat-sheet and hollow-fiber membrane contactors were used to support air-liquid mass transfer interfaces. These modules were used in a two-step process to transfer VOCs fr...

  10. Probe-Hole Field Emission Microscope System Controlled by Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yunming; Zeng, Haishan

    1991-09-01

    A probe-hole field emission microscope system, controlled by an Apple II computer, has been developed and operated successfully for measuring the work function of a single crystal plane. The work functions on the clean W(100) and W(111) planes are measured to be 4.67 eV and 4.45 eV, respectively.

  11. Emissions inventories and options for control SUMMARY REPORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart RJ; Amstel AR van; Born GJ van den; Kroeze C; MTV; LAE

    1994-01-01

    This report is the final summary report of the project "Social causes of the greenhouse effect ; emissions inventories and options for control", funded by the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP) and the Environment Directorate of the Ministry of Housing,

  12. Emission Factors from Aerial and Ground Measurements of Field and Laboratory Forest Burns in the Southeastern U.S.: PM2.5, Black and Brown Carbon, VOC, and PCDD/PCDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerial- and ground-sampled emissions from three prescribed forest burns in the southeastern U.S. were compared to emissions from laboratory open burn tests using biomass from the same locations. A comprehensive array of emissions, including PM2.5, black carbon (BC), brown carbon ...

  13. Mercury emission, control and measurement from coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei-Ping [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering; Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States). Inst. for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology; Cao, Yan [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States). Inst. for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology; Zhang, Kai [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Coal-fired electric power generation accounts for 65% of U.S. emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), 22% of nitrogen oxides (NOx), and 37% of mercury (Hg). The proposed Clear Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) will attempt to regulate these emissions using a cap-and-trade program to replace a number of existing regulatory requirements that will impact this industry over the next decade. Mercury emissions remain the largest source that has not yet been efficiently controlled, in part because this is one of the most expensive to control. Mercury is a toxic, persistent pollutant that accumulates in the food chain. During the coal combustion process, when both sampling and accurate measurements are challenging, we know that mercury is present in three species: elemental, oxidized and particulate. There are three basic types of mercury measurement methods: Ontario Hydro Method, mercury continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) and sorbent-based monitoring. Particulate mercury is best captured by electrostatic precipitators (ESP). Oxidized mercury is best captured in wet scrubbers. Elemental mercury is the most difficult to capture, but selective catalytic reduction units (SCRs) are able to convert elemental mercury to oxidized mercury allowing it to be captured by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). This works well for eastern coals with high chlorine contents, but this does not work well on the Wyoming Powder River Basin (PRB) coals. However, no good explanation for its mechanism, correlations of chlorine content in coal with SCR performance, and impacts of higher chlorine content in coal on FGD re-emission are available. The combination of SCR and FGD affords more than an 80% reduction in mercury emissions in the case of high chlorine content coals. The mercury emission results from different coal ranks, boilers, and the air pollution control device (APCD) in power plant will be discussed. Based on this UAEPA new regulation, most power plants

  14. Red:far-red light conditions affect the emission of volatile organic compounds from barley (Hordeum vulgare), leading to altered biomass allocation in neighbouring plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegge, Wouter; Ninkovic, Velemir; Glinwood, Robert; Welschen, Rob A. M.; Voesenek, Laurentius A. C. J.; Pierik, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play various roles in plant–plant interactions, and constitutively produced VOCs might act as a cue to sense neighbouring plants. Previous studies have shown that VOCs emitted from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar ‘Alva’ cause changes in biomass allocation in plants of the cultivar ‘Kara’. Other studies have shown that shading and the low red:far-red (R:FR) conditions that prevail at high plant densities can reduce the quantity and alter the composition of the VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis thaliana, but whether this affects plant–plant signalling remains unknown. This study therefore examines the effects of far-red light enrichment on VOC emissions and plant–plant signalling between ‘Alva’ and ‘Kara’. Methods The proximity of neighbouring plants was mimicked by supplemental far-red light treatment of VOC emitter plants of barley grown in growth chambers. Volatiles emitted by ‘Alva’ under control and far-red light-enriched conditions were analysed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). ‘Kara’ plants were exposed to the VOC blend emitted by the ‘Alva’ plants that were subjected to either of the light treatments. Dry matter partitioning, leaf area, stem and total root length were determined for ‘Kara’ plants exposed to ‘Alva’ VOCs, and also for ‘Alva’ plants exposed to either control or far-red-enriched light treatments. Key Results Total VOC emissions by ‘Alva’ were reduced under low R:FR conditions compared with control light conditions, although individual volatile compounds were found to be either suppressed, induced or not affected by R:FR. The altered composition of the VOC blend emitted by ‘Alva’ plants exposed to low R:FR was found to affect carbon allocation in receiver plants of ‘Kara’. Conclusions The results indicate that changes in R:FR light conditions influence the emissions of VOCs in barley, and that these altered emissions

  15. Red:far-red light conditions affect the emission of volatile organic compounds from barley (Hordeum vulgare), leading to altered biomass allocation in neighbouring plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegge, Wouter; Ninkovic, Velemir; Glinwood, Robert; Welschen, Rob A M; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Pierik, Ronald

    2015-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play various roles in plant-plant interactions, and constitutively produced VOCs might act as a cue to sense neighbouring plants. Previous studies have shown that VOCs emitted from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar 'Alva' cause changes in biomass allocation in plants of the cultivar 'Kara'. Other studies have shown that shading and the low red:far-red (R:FR) conditions that prevail at high plant densities can reduce the quantity and alter the composition of the VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis thaliana, but whether this affects plant-plant signalling remains unknown. This study therefore examines the effects of far-red light enrichment on VOC emissions and plant-plant signalling between 'Alva' and 'Kara'. The proximity of neighbouring plants was mimicked by supplemental far-red light treatment of VOC emitter plants of barley grown in growth chambers. Volatiles emitted by 'Alva' under control and far-red light-enriched conditions were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 'Kara' plants were exposed to the VOC blend emitted by the 'Alva' plants that were subjected to either of the light treatments. Dry matter partitioning, leaf area, stem and total root length were determined for 'Kara' plants exposed to 'Alva' VOCs, and also for 'Alva' plants exposed to either control or far-red-enriched light treatments. Total VOC emissions by 'Alva' were reduced under low R:FR conditions compared with control light conditions, although individual volatile compounds were found to be either suppressed, induced or not affected by R:FR. The altered composition of the VOC blend emitted by 'Alva' plants exposed to low R:FR was found to affect carbon allocation in receiver plants of 'Kara'. The results indicate that changes in R:FR light conditions influence the emissions of VOCs in barley, and that these altered emissions affect VOC-mediated plant-plant interactions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  16. Portuguese agriculture and the evolution of greenhouse gas emissions-can vegetables control livestock emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourao, Paulo Reis; Domingues Martinho, Vítor

    2017-07-01

    One of the most serious externalities of agricultural activity relates to greenhouse gas emissions. This work tests this relationship for the Portuguese case by examining data compiled since 1961. Employing cointegration techniques and vector error correction models (VECMs), we conclude that the evolution of the most representative vegetables and fruits in Portuguese production are associated with higher controls on the evolution of greenhouse gas emissions. Reversely, the evolution of the output levels of livestock and the most representative animal production have significantly increased the level of CO 2 (carbon dioxide) reported in Portugal. We also analyze the cycle length of the long-term relationship between agricultural activity and greenhouse gas emissions. In particular, we highlight the case of synthetic fertilizers, whose values of CO 2 have quickly risen due to changes in Portuguese vegetables, fruit, and animal production levels.

  17. Coherent control of atto-second emission from aligned molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutu, W; Haessler, S; Merdji, H; Breger, P; Monchicourt, P; Carre, B; Salieres, P [CEA Saclay, DSM, Serv Photons Atomes Mol, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Waters, G [Univ Reading, JJ Thomson Phys Lab, Reading RG6 6AF, Berks, (United Kingdom); Stankiewicz, M [Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Phys, PL-30059 Krakow, (Poland); Frasinski, L J [Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol and Med, Blackett Lab, London SW7 2BW, (United Kingdom); Taieb, R; Caillat, J; Maquet, A [Univ Paris 06, UMR 7614, Lab Chim Phys Matiere Rayonnement, F-75231 Paris 05, (France); Taieb, R; Caillat, J; Maquet, A [LCPMR, UMR 7614, CNRS, F-75005 Paris, (France)

    2008-07-01

    Controlling atto-second electron wave packets and soft X-ray pulses represents a formidable challenge of general implication to many areas of science. A strong laser field interacting with atoms or molecules drives ultrafast intra-atomic/molecular electron wave packets on a sub femtosecond timescale, resulting in the emission of atto-second bursts of extreme-ultraviolet light. Controlling the intra-atomic/molecular electron dynamics enables steering of the atto-second emission. Here, we carry out a coherent control in linear molecules, where the interaction of the laser-driven electron wave packet with the core leads to quantum interferences. We demonstrate that these interferences can be finely controlled by turning the molecular axis relative to the laser polarization, that is, changing the electron re-collision angle. The wave-packet coulombic distortion modifies the spectral phase jump measured in the extreme-ultraviolet emission. Our atto-second control of the interference results in atto-second pulse shaping, useful for future applications in ultrafast coherent control of atomic and molecular processes. (authors)

  18. Controlled Landfill Project in Yolo County, California for Environmental Benefits of Waste Stabilization and Minimization of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, R.; Augenstein, D.; Kieffer, J.; Cohen, K.

    2003-12-01

    over fivefold the "typical" values for comparable landfill waste. In terms of "greenhouse benefit," fractional VOC and methane energy recovery are estimated to exceed 90%, with corresponding methane and VOC emission reductions. Analyses done for the greenhouse gas mitigation program of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory indicate favorable economics justified on landfill life extension, as well as environmental benefits. The "controlled landfill" project findings suggest potential for low-cost mitigation of waste greenhouse methane emissions, maximum landfill carbon sequestration, and maximization of beneficial energy capture from landfills. Details and results obtained since 1994 will be presented.

  19. Variability of indoor and outdoor VOC measurements: An analysis using variance components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Chunrong; Batterman, Stuart A.; Relyea, George E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured inside and outside of 162 residences in southeast Michigan, U.S.A. Nested analyses apportioned four sources of variation: city, residence, season, and measurement uncertainty. Indoor measurements were dominated by seasonal and residence effects, accounting for 50 and 31%, respectively, of the total variance. Contributions from measurement uncertainty (<20%) and city effects (<10%) were small. For outdoor measurements, season, city and measurement variation accounted for 43, 29 and 27% of variance, respectively, while residence location had negligible impact (<2%). These results show that, to obtain representative estimates of indoor concentrations, measurements in multiple seasons are required. In contrast, outdoor VOC concentrations can use multi-seasonal measurements at centralized locations. Error models showed that uncertainties at low concentrations might obscure effects of other factors. Variance component analyses can be used to interpret existing measurements, design effective exposure studies, and determine whether the instrumentation and protocols are satisfactory. - Highlights: ► The variability of VOC measurements was partitioned using nested analysis. ► Indoor VOCs were primarily controlled by seasonal and residence effects. ► Outdoor VOC levels were homogeneous within neighborhoods. ► Measurement uncertainty was high for many outdoor VOCs. ► Variance component analysis is useful for designing effective sampling programs. - Indoor VOC concentrations were primarily controlled by seasonal and residence effects; and outdoor concentrations were homogeneous within neighborhoods. Variance component analysis is a useful tool for designing effective sampling programs.

  20. [Study on atmospheric VOCs in Gongga Mountain base station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-Ke; Wang, Yue-Si; Wu, Fang-Kun; Sun, Jie

    2012-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play important roles in the atmosphere as precursors of secondary air pollutants. The regional background concentrations and variation characteristics of VOCs in the atmosphere of southwestern China were studied. Meanwhile, a receptor model based on principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify the major sources of VOCs. Weekly samples were collected in 2007 in the Gongga Mountain base station and analyzed with a three-stage preconcentration method coupled with GC-MS. The annual mean concentration of TVOCs and NMHCs were 9.40 x 10(-9) +/- 4.55 x 10(-9) and 7.73 x 10(-9) +/- 4.43 x 10(-9), respectively. Aromatic hydrocarbons provided the largest contribution to TVOCs (37.3%), follow by alkanes (30.0%) and halogenated hydrocarbons (19.8%), the smallest contribution was from alkenes (12.9%). Three major sources were resolved by the receptor model, traffic sources, biogenic sources and combustion sources. The seasonal variation of TVOCs in this area was obviously, and the order was autumn > winter > spring > summer. TVOCs concentration in autumn was very significantly higher than that in summer (P station emission characteristic.

  1. Control of Several Emissions during Olive Pomace Thermal Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Miranda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomass plays an important role as an energy source, being an interesting alternative to fossil fuels due to its environment-friendly and sustainable characteristics. However, due to the exposure of customers to emissions during biomass heating, evolved pollutants should be taken into account and controlled. Changing raw materials or mixing them with another less pollutant biomass could be a suitable step to reduce pollution. This work studied the thermal behaviour of olive pomace, pyrenean oak and their blends under combustion using thermogravimetric analysis. It was possible to monitor the emissions released during the process by coupling mass spectrometry analysis. The experiments were carried out under non-isothermal conditions at the temperature range 25–750 °C and a heating rate of 20 °C·min−1. The following species were analysed: aromatic compounds (benzene and toluene, sulphur emissions (sulphur dioxide, 1,4-dioxin, hydrochloric acid, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides. The results indicated that pollutants were mainly evolved in two different stages, which are related to the thermal degradation steps. Thus, depending on the pollutant and raw material composition, different emission profiles were observed. Furthermore, intensity of the emission profiles was related, in some cases, to the composition of the precursor.

  2. Urban air chemistry and diesel vehicles emissions: Quantifying small and big hydrocarbons by CIMS to improve emission inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, B. T.; Derstroff, B.; Edtbauer, A.; VanderSchelden, G. S.; Williams, J.

    2017-10-01

    Emissions from vehicles are a major source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urban environments. Photochemical oxidation of VOCs emitted from vehicle exhaust contributes to O3 and PM2.5 formation, harmful pollutants that major urban areas struggle to control. How will a shift to a diesel engine fleet impact urban air chemistry? Diesel vehicles are a growing fraction of the passenger vehicle fleet in Europe as a result of a deliberate policy to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions from the transportation sector (Sullivan et al., 2004). In countries such as France the diesel passenger fleet was already ∼50% of the total in 2009, up from 20% in 1995. Dunmore et al. (2015) have recently inferred that in London, HO radical loss rates to organic compounds is dominated by diesel engine emissions. In the US, increasingly more stringent vehicles emission standards and requirement for improved energy efficiency means spark ignition passenger vehicle emissions have declined significantly over the last 20 years, resulting in the urban diesel fleet traffic (freight trucks) having a growing importance as a source of vehicle pollution (McDonald et al., 2013). The recent scandal involving a major car manufacturer rigging emission controls for diesel passenger cars is a reminder that real world emissions of VOCs from diesel engines are not well understood nor thoroughly accounted for in air quality modeling.

  3. Control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1992-09-01

    This project at Argonne is designed to investigate new concepts leading to advanced control technologies for fossil-energy systems. The objective of this new task on air toxics control is to develop new or improved, cost-effective control technology for the abatement of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from fossil-fuel combustion plants and to evaluate the possible effects of any captured species on waste disposal. The HAPs to be investigated initially in this task include mercury and arsenic compounds.

  4. Control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    This project at Argonne is designed to investigate new concepts leading to advanced control technologies for fossil-energy systems. The objective of this new task on air toxics control is to develop new or improved, cost-effective control technology for the abatement of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from fossil-fuel combustion plants and to evaluate the possible effects of any captured species on waste disposal. The HAPs to be investigated initially in this task include mercury and arsenic compounds.

  5. Ozone modeling for compliance planning: A synopsis of ''The Use of Photochemical Air Quality Models for Evaluating Emission Control Strategies: A Synthesis Report''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, C.L.

    1992-12-01

    The 1990 federal Clean Air Act Amendments require that many nonattainment areas use gridded, photochemical air quality models to develop compliance plans for meeting the ambient ozone standard. Both industry and regulatory agencies will need to consider explicitly the strengths and limitations of the models. Photochemical air quality models constitute the principal tool available for evaluating the relative effectiveness of alternative emission control strategies. Limitations in the utility of modeling results stem from the uncertainty and bias of predictions for modeled episodes, possible compensating errors, limitations in the number of modeled episodes, and incompatibility between deterministic model predictions and the statistical form of the air quality standard for ozone. If emissions estimates (including naturally produced ''biogenic'' emissions) are accurate, intensive aerometric data are available, and an evaluation of performance (including diagnostic evaluations) is successfully completed, gridded photochemical airquality models can determine (1) the types of emission controls - VOC, NO x , or both - that would be most effective for reducing ozone concentrations, and (2) the approximate magnitudes - to within about 20--40% - of the estimated ozone reductions

  6. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Augenstein

    1999-01-11

    ''Conventional'' waste landfills emit methane, a potent greenhouse gas, in quantities such that landfill methane is a major factor in global climate change. Controlled landfilling is a novel approach to manage landfills for rapid completion of total gas generation, maximizing gas capture and minimizing emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated and brought to much earlier completion by improving conditions for biological processes (principally moisture levels) in the landfill. Gas recovery efficiency approaches 100% through use of surface membrane cover over porous gas recovery layers operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project's results at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California are, to date, highly encouraging. Two major controlled landfilling benefits would be the reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions.

  7. Experiments on Evaporative Emissions in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus; Nielsen, Peter V.; Heiselberg, Per

    In many new buildings the indoor air quality is affected by emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from building materials. The emission process may be controlled either by diffusion inside the material or evaporation from the surface but it always involves mass transfer across the boundary...... layer at the surface-air-interface. Experiments at different velocity levels were performed in a full-scale ventilated chamber to investigate the influence of local airflow on the evaporative emission from a surface. The experiments included velocity measurements in the flow over the surface...

  8. Use of biofilters and suspended-growth reactors to treat VOC's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, A.B.; Loehr, R.C.

    2000-07-01

    The greater limits placed on volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by the Clean Air Act Amendments have stimulated evaluation of various VOC treatment methods. Two applicable gas phase treatment technologies are biofiltration and suspended growth reactors. Biofiltration removes contaminants from gas streams that are passed through a bed of biologically active solids. An aerobic suspended-growth reactor (SGR) removes VOCs by biologically treating contaminated air bubbled through an aqueous suspension of active microorganisms. This research compared the performance of a typical compost biofilter to a SGR for the removal of a common VOC (toluene) from gas streams. The objective was to evaluate the impact of mass loading on process performance. Major performance parameters investigated were (1) mass emitted and elimination capacity, (2) off-gas concentrations exiting each type of reactor for various mass loadings, and (3) removal efficiencies obtained by each type of reactor. The results indicated that SGRs can effectively treat gases containing VOCs. For mass loadings ranging from 5 to 30 mg/l-h, the biofilters and SGRs achieved similar VOC removals, in the range of 96--99.7%. Drying of the biofilter medium occurred a high mass loadings. In the SGRs, at mass loadings greater than 17 mg/l-h, process performance decreased when an unknown colored substance was present.

  9. First Biogenic VOC Flux Results from the UCI Fluxtron Plant Chamber Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco, R.; Gu, D.; Joo, E.; Nagalingam, S.; Aristizabal, B. H.; Basu, C.; Kim, S.; Guenther, A. B.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) have key environmental, ecological and biological roles, and can influence atmospheric chemistry, secondary aerosol formation, and regional climate. Quantifying BVOC emission rates and their impact on atmospheric chemistry is one of the greatest challenges with respect to predicting future air pollution in the context of a changing climate. A new facility, the UCI Fluxtron, has been developed at the Department of Earth System Science at the University of California Irvine to study the response of BVOC emissions to extreme weather and pollution stress. The UCI Fluxtron is designed for automated, continuous measurement of plant physiology and multi-modal BVOC chemical analysis from multiple plants. It consists of two controlled-environment walk-in growth chambers that contain several plant enclosures, a gas make-up system to precisely control the composition (e.g., H2O, CO2, O3 and VOC concentrations) of the air entering each enclosure. A sample manifold with automated inlet switching is used for measurements with in-situ and real-time VOC analysis instruments: H2O, CO2 fluxes can be measured continually with an infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) and BVOCs with a proton transfer reaction -time of flight- mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS). Offline samples can also be taken via adsorbent cartridges to be analyzed in a thermal desorption gas chromatograph coupled to a TOF-MS detector. We present the first results of H2O, CO2 and BVOC fluxes, including the characterization and testing of the Fluxtron system. For example, measurements of young dragon tree (Paulownia elongata) individuals using whole-plant enclosures.

  10. Control of mercury emissions: policies, technologies, and future trends

    OpenAIRE

    Rhee, Seung-Whee

    2015-01-01

    Seung-Whee Rhee Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyonggi University, Suwon, Republic of Korea Abstract: Owing to the Minamata Convention on Mercury and the Global Mercury Partnership, policies and regulations on mercury management in advanced countries were intensified by a mercury phaseout program in the mercury control strategy. In developing countries, the legislative or regulatory frameworks on mercury emissions are not established specifically, but mercury management is designed...

  11. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC Removal by Vapor Permeation at Low VOC Concentrations: Laboratory Scale Results and Modeling for Scale Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Moulin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum transformation industries have applied membrane processes for solvent and hydrocarbon recovery as an economic alternative to reduce their emissions and reuse evaporated components. Separation of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs (toluene-propylene-butadiene from air was performed using a poly dimethyl siloxane (PDMS/α-alumina membrane. The experimental set-up followed the constant pressure/variable flow set-up and was operated at ~21 °C. The membrane is held in a stainless steel module and has a separation area of 55 × 10−4 m². Feed stream was set to atmospheric pressure and permeate side to vacuum between 3 and 5 mbar. To determine the performance of the module, the removed fraction of VOC was analyzed by Gas Chromatography/Flame Ionization Detector (GC/FID. The separation of the binary, ternary and quaternary hydrocarbon mixtures from air was performed at different flow rates and more especially at low concentrations. The permeate flux, permeance, enrichment factor, separation efficiency and the recovery extent of the membrane were determined as a function of these operating conditions. The permeability coefficients and the permeate flux through the composite PDMS-alumina membrane follow the order given by the Hildebrand parameter: toluene > 1,3-butadiene > propylene. The simulated data for the binary VOC/air mixtures showed fairly good agreement with the experimental results in the case of 1,3-butadiene and propylene. The discrepancies observed for toluene permeation could be minimized by taking into account the effects of the porous support and an influence of the concentration polarization. Finally, the installation of a 0.02 m2 membrane module would reduce 95% of the VOC content introduced at real concentration conditions used in the oil industry.

  12. Volatile organic compound (VOC) determination in working atmospheres; Determinacion de compuestos organicos volatiles (VOC) en ambiente laboral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blass A, Georgina; Panama T, Luz A; Corrales C, Deyanira [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The present work describes, in a synthesized way, the implementation and application of procedures based on the normativity related to the subject of the volatile organic compounds (Volatile Organic Compounds VOC), that allow to sample, quantify and evaluate the present contamination in the working atmosphere of a refinery due to the fugitive emissions of VOC and other substances. In accordance with the corresponding normativity, more than 189 organic compounds denominated dangerous air polluting agents (Hazardous Air Pollutants, HAP) can be found in a working atmosphere, but they are the 11 main HAP that can be found in a refinery. In the present article the work made for the sampling and quantification of 5 of the 11 dangerous polluting agents of the air: benzene, toluene, xylene, iso-octane and naphthalene. [Spanish] El presente trabajo describe, de manera sintetizada, la implementacion y aplicacion de procedimientos basados en la normatividad relacionada al tema de los compuestos organicos volatiles (Volatil Organic Compounds, VOC), que permiten muestrear, cuantificar y evaluar la contaminacion presente en el ambiente laboral de una refineria debido a las emisiones fugitivas de VOC y otras sustancias. De acuerdo con la normatividad correspondiente, mas de 189 compuestos organicos denominados contaminantes peligrosos del aire (Hazardous Air Pollutants, HAP), pueden ser encontrados en un ambiente laboral, pero son 11 los principales HAP que pueden ser hallados en una refineria. En el presente articulo se informa el trabajo realizado para el muestreo y cuantificacion de 5 de los 11 contaminantes peligrosos del aire: benceno, tolueno, xileno, iso-octano y naftaleno.

  13. Membrane Biotreatment of VOC-Laden Air

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peretti, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    ...%, depending primarily on air contact time. Octanol was used as the stripping fluid because of its low vapor pressure and water solubility, its high partitioning of VOCs from air, and its compatibility...

  14. Post combustion methods for control of NOx emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, H S; Curran, L M; Slack, A V; Ando, J; Oxley, J H

    1980-01-01

    Review of stack gas treatment methods for the control of NOx emissions. Particular emphasis is placed on status of development and factors affecting the performance of the processes. Catalytic, noncatalytic, and scrubbing processes are compared on a uniform engineering basis. Most of the active process development work is taking place in Japan. The three leading stack gas treatment techniques for NOx control are catalytic reduction with ammonia, noncatalytic reduction with ammonia, and direct scrubbing of NO with simultaneous absorption of SO2. The wet processes are much less developed than the dry processes.

  15. Effects of particulate oxidation catalyst on unregulated pollutant emission and toxicity characteristics from heavy-duty diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiangyu; Ge, Yunshan; Ma, Chaochen; Tan, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of particulate oxidation catalyst (POC) on unregulated pollutant emission and toxicity characteristics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), soot, soluble organic fractions (SOF) and sulphate emissions emitted from a heavy-duty diesel engine retrofitted with a POC were investigated on a diesel bench. The particulate matter (PM) in the exhaust was collected by Teflon membrane, and the PAHs and VOCs were analysed by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The results indicate that the POC exhibits good performance on the emission control of VOCs, PAHs and PM. The POC and the diesel particulate filters (DPF) both show a good performance on reducing the VOCs emission. Though the brake-specific emission (BSE) reductions of the total PAHs by the POC were lower than those by the DPF, the POC still removed almost more than 50% of the total PAHs emission. After the engine was retrofitted with the POC, the reductions of the PM mass, SOF and soot emissions were 45.2-89.0%, 7.8-97.7% and 41.7-93.3%, respectively. The sulphate emissions decreased at low and medium loads, whereas at high load, the results were contrary. The PAHs emissions were decreased by 32.4-69.1%, and the contributions of the PAH compounds were affected by the POC, as well as by load level. The benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) of PAHs emissions were reduced by 35.9-97.6% with the POC. The VOCs emissions were reduced by 21.8-94.1% with the POC, and the reduction was more evident under high load.

  16. City-specific vehicle emission control strategies to achieve stringent emission reduction targets in China's Yangtze River Delta region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Zhao, Bin; Wu, Xiaomeng; Shu, Jiawei; Hao, Jiming

    2017-01-01

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region is one of the most prosperous and densely populated regions in China and is facing tremendous pressure to mitigate vehicle emissions and improve air quality. Our assessment has revealed that mitigating vehicle emissions of NOx would be more difficult than reducing the emissions of other major vehicular pollutants (e.g., CO, HC and PM 2.5 ) in the YRD region. Even in Shanghai, where the emission control implemented are more stringent than in Jiangsu and Zhejiang, we observed little to no reduction in NOx emissions from 2000 to 2010. Emission-reduction targets for HC, NOx and PM 2.5 are determined using a response surface modeling tool for better air quality. We design city-specific emission control strategies for three vehicle-populated cities in the YRD region: Shanghai and Nanjing and Wuxi in Jiangsu. Our results indicate that even if stringent emission control consisting of the Euro 6/VI standards, the limitation of vehicle population and usage, and the scrappage of older vehicles is applied, Nanjing and Wuxi will not be able to meet the NOx emissions target by 2020. Therefore, additional control measures are proposed for Nanjing and Wuxi to further mitigate NOx emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Crystal Phase Quantum Well Emission with Digital Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assali, S; Lähnemann, J; Vu, T T T; Jöns, K D; Gagliano, L; Verheijen, M A; Akopian, N; Bakkers, E P A M; Haverkort, J E M

    2017-10-11

    One of the major challenges in the growth of quantum well and quantum dot heterostructures is the realization of atomically sharp interfaces. Nanowires provide a new opportunity to engineer the band structure as they facilitate the controlled switching of the crystal structure between the zinc-blende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) phases. Such a crystal phase switching results in the formation of crystal phase quantum wells (CPQWs) and quantum dots (CPQDs). For GaP CPQWs, the inherent electric fields due to the discontinuity of the spontaneous polarization at the WZ/ZB junctions lead to the confinement of both types of charge carriers at the opposite interfaces of the WZ/ZB/WZ structure. This confinement leads to a novel type of transition across a ZB flat plate barrier. Here, we show digital tuning of the visible emission of WZ/ZB/WZ CPQWs in a GaP nanowire by changing the thickness of the ZB barrier. The energy spacing between the sharp emission lines is uniform and is defined by the addition of single ZB monolayers. The controlled growth of identical quantum wells with atomically flat interfaces at predefined positions featuring digitally tunable discrete emission energies may provide a new route to further advance entangled photons in solid state quantum systems.

  18. Application of secondary ion emission to impurity control in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    The extent to which high Z impurities enter the plasma of a magnetic confinement fusion device depends on the kinetic energy, angle of emission, and very importantly, the charge state of the ejected material. We have been studying both the fundamental process of secondary ion emission and possible techniques for producing surfaces which give rise to high ion fractions during sputtering, with a view to assessing the potential of this approach to impurity control in tokamaks. By carefully choosing materials exposed to fusion plasmas and by properly modifying the surface it may be possible to insure that nearly all the impurities are ejected as ions. As long as certain gas blanket configurations are avoided and especially if a divertor is used, it should then be possible to remove the impurities before they reach the plasma. The relative merits of a variety of materials are considered with regard to this application

  19. Methanol and other VOC fluxes from a Danish beech forest during late springtime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schade, Gunnar W.; Solomon, Sheena J.; Dellwik, Ebba

    2011-01-01

    In-canopy mixing ratio gradients and above-canopy fluxes of several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured using a commercial proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest in Denmark. Fluxes of methanol were bidirectional: Emission...

  20. Space-Based Diagnosis of Surface Ozone Sensitivity to Anthropogenic Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Randall V.; Fiore, Arlene M.; VanDonkelaar, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    We present a novel capability in satellite remote sensing with implications for air pollution control strategy. We show that the ratio of formaldehyde columns to tropospheric nitrogen dioxide columns is an indicator of the relative sensitivity of surface ozone to emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO(x) = NO + NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The diagnosis from these space-based observations is highly consistent with current understanding of surface ozone chemistry based on in situ observations. The satellite-derived ratios indicate that surface ozone is more sensitive to emissions of NO(x) than of VOCs throughout most continental regions of the Northern Hemisphere during summer. Exceptions include Los Angeles and industrial areas of Germany. A seasonal transition occurs in the fall when surface ozone becomes less sensitive to NOx and more sensitive to VOCs.

  1. VOCs Air Pollutant Cleaning with Polyacrylonitrile/Fly Ash Nanocomposite Electrospun Nanofibrous Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong Ge, Jun; Wang, Zi Jian; Kim, Min Soo; Choi, Nag Jung

    2018-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as an environmental pollution, which have many kinds of chemical structures, and many of them are very toxic. Therefore, controlling and reducing the presence of VOCs has become a hot topic among researchers for many years. In this study, the VOCs adsorption capacity of polyacrylonitrile/fly ash (PAN/FA) nanocomposite electrospun nanofibrous membranes were investigated. The results indicated that the PAN with different contents of FA powder (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% compared with PAN by weight) could be spun well by electrospinning. The diameter of the fiber was very fine and its arrangement was irregular. The PAN nanofibrous membrane containing 60 wt% FA powder had the highest VOCs absorption capacity compared with other nanofibrous membranes due to its large specific surface area.

  2. Nematicidal effect of volatile organic compounds (VOCs on the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne javanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Batista Fialho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that volatile organic compounds (VOCs, produced by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were able to inhibit the development of phytopathogenic fungi. In this context, the nematicidal potential of the synthetic mixture of VOCs, constituted of alcohols and esters, was evaluated for the control of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica, which causes losses to crops of high economic value. The fumigation of substrate containing second-stage juveniles with VOCs exhibited nematicidal effect higher than 30% for the lowest concentration tested (33.3 µL g-1 substrate, whereas at 66.6 and 133.3 µL g-1 substrate, the nematode mortality was 100%. The present results stimulate other studies on VOCs for nematode management.

  3. 78 FR 37176 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego Air Pollution Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ...EPA is proposing to approve a revision to the San Diego Air Pollution Control District (SDAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This revision concerns volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from architectural coatings. We are proposing to approve a local rule to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act).

  4. 78 FR 37130 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego Air Pollution Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve a revision to the San Diego Air Pollution Control District (SDAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This revision concerns volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from architectural coatings. We are approving a local rule that regulates this emission source under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act).

  5. 78 FR 6784 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC), oxides of nitrogen (NOX), and particulate matter (PM) emissions from open burning. We are proposing to approve local rules to regulate this emission source under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act).

  6. 78 FR 6736 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern Volatile Organic Compound (VOC), oxides of nitrogen (NOX), and particulate matter (PM) emissions from open burning. We are approving local rules that regulate this emission source under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act).

  7. 40 CFR 1060.102 - What permeation emission control requirements apply for fuel lines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What permeation emission control... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EVAPORATIVE EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD AND STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1060.102 What permeation...

  8. 40 CFR 1060.103 - What permeation emission control requirements apply for fuel tanks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What permeation emission control... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EVAPORATIVE EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD AND STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1060.103 What permeation...

  9. 40 CFR 270.315 - What air emissions control information must I keep at my facility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What air emissions control information... Facility § 270.315 What air emissions control information must I keep at my facility? If you have air emission control equipment subject to 40 CFR part 264, subpart CC, you must keep the following information...

  10. VOCs in Arid soils: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Volatile Organic Compounds In Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) focuses on technologies to clean up volatile organic compounds and associated contaminants in soil and groundwater at arid sites. The initial host site is the 200 West Area at DOE's Hanford site in southeastern Washington state. The primary VOC contaminant is carbon tetrachloride, in association with heavy metals and radionuclides. An estimated 580--920 metric tons of carbon tetrachloride were disposed of between 1955 and 1973, resulting in extensive soil and groundwater contamination. The VOC-Arid ID schedule has been divided into three phases of implementation. The phased approach provides for: rapid transfer of technologies to the Environmental Restoration (EM-40) programs once demonstrated; logical progression in the complexity of demonstrations based on improved understanding of the VOC problem; and leveraging of the host site EM-40 activities to reduce the overall cost of the demonstrations. During FY92 and FY93, the primary technology demonstrations within the ID were leveraged with an ongoing expedited response action at the Hanford 200 West Area, which is directed at vapor extraction of VOCs from the vadose (unsaturated) zone. Demonstration efforts are underway in the areas of subsurface characterization including: drilling and access improvements, off-gas and borehole monitoring of vadose zone VOC concentrations to aid in soil vapor extraction performance evaluation, and treatment of VOC-contaminated off-gas. These current demonstration efforts constitute Phase 1 of the ID and, because of the ongoing vadose zone ERA, can result in immediate transfer of successful technologies to EM-40

  11. Control of inhomogeneous materials strength by method of acoustic emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Носов

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The ambiguous connection between the results of acoustic emission control and the strength of materials makes acoustic-emission diagnosis ineffective and actualizes the problem of strength and metrological heterogeneity. Inhomogeneity is some deviation from a certain norm. The real object is always heterogeneous, homogeneity is an assumption that simplifies the image of the object and the solution of the tasks associated with it. The need to consider heterogeneity is due to the need to clarify a particular task and is a transition to a more complex level of research. Accounting for heterogeneity requires the definition of its type, criterion and method of evaluation. The type of heterogeneity depends on the problem being solved and should be related to the property that determines the function of the real object, the criterion should be informative, and the way of its evaluation is non-destructive. The complexity of predicting the behavior of heterogeneous materials necessitates the modeling of the destructive process that determines the operability, the formulation of the inhomogeneity criterion, the interpretation of the Kaiser effect, as showing inhomogeneity of the phenomenon of non-reproduction of acoustic emission (AE activity upon repeated loading of the examined object.The article gives an example of modeling strength and metrological heterogeneity, analyzes and estimates the informative effect of the Kaiser effect on the danger degree of state of diagnosed object from the positions of the micromechanical model of time dependencies of AE parameters recorded during loading of structural materials and technical objects.

  12. Coherent control of spontaneous emission near a photonic band edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woldeyohannes, Mesfin; John, Sajeev

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate the coherent control of spontaneous emission for a three-level atom located within a photonic band gap (PBG) material, with one resonant frequency near the edge of the PBG. Spontaneous emission from the three-level atom can be totally suppressed or strongly enhanced depending on the relative phase between the steady-state control laser coupling the two upper levels and the pump laser pulse used to create an excited state of the atom in the form of a coherent superposition of the two upper levels. Unlike the free-space case, the steady-state inversion of the atomic system is strongly dependent on the externally prescribed initial conditions. This non-zero steady-state population is achieved by virtue of the localization of light in the vicinity of the emitting atom. It is robust to decoherence effects provided that the Rabi frequency of the control laser field exceeds the rate of dephasing interactions. As a result, such a system may be relevant for a single-atom, phase-sensitive optical memory device on the atomic scale. The protected electric dipole within the PBG provides a basis for a qubit to encode information for quantum computations. A detailed literature survey on the nature, fabrication and applications of PBG materials is presented to provide context for this research. (phd tutorial)

  13. Controlling fugitive dust emissions in material handling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tooker, G E

    1992-05-01

    The primary mechanism of fugitive dust generation in bulk material handling transfer operations is by dispersion of dust in turbulent air induced to flow with falling or projected material streams. This paper returns to basic theories of particle dynamics and fluid mechanics to quantify the dust generating mechanism by rational analysis. Calculations involving fluid mechanisms are made easier by the availability of the personal computer and the many math manipulating programs. Rational analysis is much more cost effective when estimating collection air volumes to control fugitive emissions; especially in enclosed material handling transfers transporting large volumes of dusty material. Example calculations, using a typical enclosed conveyor-to-conveyor transfer operation are presented to illustrate and highlight the key parameters that determine the magnitude of induced air flow that must be controlled. The methods presented in this paper for estimating collection air volumes apply only enclosed material handling transfers, exhausted to a dust collector. Since some assistance to the control of dust emissions must be given by the material handling transfer chute design, a discussion of good transfer chute design practice is presented. 4 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Comparison of the decomposition VOC profile during winter and summer in a moist, mid-latitude (Cfb climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shari L Forbes

    Full Text Available The investigation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs associated with decomposition is an emerging field in forensic taphonomy due to their importance in locating human remains using biological detectors such as insects and canines. A consistent decomposition VOC profile has not yet been elucidated due to the intrinsic impact of the environment on the decomposition process in different climatic zones. The study of decomposition VOCs has typically occurred during the warmer months to enable chemical profiling of all decomposition stages. The present study investigated the decomposition VOC profile in air during both warmer and cooler months in a moist, mid-latitude (Cfb climate as decomposition occurs year-round in this environment. Pig carcasses (Sus scrofa domesticus L. were placed on a soil surface to decompose naturally and their VOC profile was monitored during the winter and summer months. Corresponding control sites were also monitored to determine the natural VOC profile of the surrounding soil and vegetation. VOC samples were collected onto sorbent tubes and analyzed using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography--time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS. The summer months were characterized by higher temperatures and solar radiation, greater rainfall accumulation, and comparable humidity when compared to the winter months. The rate of decomposition was faster and the number and abundance of VOCs was proportionally higher in summer. However, a similar trend was observed in winter and summer demonstrating a rapid increase in VOC abundance during active decay with a second increase in abundance occurring later in the decomposition process. Sulfur-containing compounds, alcohols and ketones represented the most abundant classes of compounds in both seasons, although almost all 10 compound classes identified contributed to discriminating the stages of decomposition throughout both seasons. The advantages of GC × GC-TOFMS were

  15. Method of electron emission control in RF guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodak, I.V.; Kushnir, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The electron emission control method for a RF gun is considered.According to the main idea of the method,the additional resonance system is created in a cathode region where the RF field strength could be varied using the external pulse equipment. The additional resonance system is composed of a coaxial cavity coupled with a RF gun cylindrical cavity via an axial hole. Computed results of radiofrequency and electrodynamic performances of such a two-cavity system and results of the RF gun model pilot study are presented in. Results of particle dynamics simulation are described

  16. Method of electron emission control in RF guns

    CERN Document Server

    Khodak, I V

    2001-01-01

    The electron emission control method for a RF gun is considered.According to the main idea of the method,the additional resonance system is created in a cathode region where the RF field strength could be varied using the external pulse equipment. The additional resonance system is composed of a coaxial cavity coupled with a RF gun cylindrical cavity via an axial hole. Computed results of radiofrequency and electrodynamic performances of such a two-cavity system and results of the RF gun model pilot study are presented in. Results of particle dynamics simulation are described.

  17. Eddy covariance flux measurements of biogenic VOCs during ECHO 2003 using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Spirig

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the AFO 2000 project ECHO, two PTR-MS instruments were operated in combination with sonic anemometers to determine biogenic VOC fluxes from a mixed deciduous forest site in North-Western Germany. The measurement site was characterised by a forest of inhomogeneous composition, complex canopy structure, limited extension in certain wind directions and frequent calm wind conditions during night time. The eddy covariance (EC technique was applied since it represents the most direct flux measurement approach on the canopy scale and is, therefore, least susceptible to these non-ideal conditions. A specific flux calculation method was used to account for the sequential multi-component PTR-MS measurements and allowing an individual delay time adjustment as well as a rigorous quality control based on cospectral analysis. The validated flux results are consistent with light and temperature dependent emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes from this forest, with average daytime emissions of 0.94 and 0.3µg m-2s-1, respectively. Emissions of methanol reached on average 0.087µg m-2s-1 during daytime, but fluxes were too small to be detected during night time. Upward fluxes of the isoprene oxidation products methyl vinyl ketone (MVK and methacrolein (MACR were also found, being two orders of magnitude lower than those of isoprene. Calculations with an analytical footprint model indicate that the observed isoprene fluxes correlate with the fraction of oaks within the footprints of the flux measurement.

  18. [Emission characteristics and safety evaluation of volatile organic compounds in manufacturing processes of automotive coatings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Pei-Yuan; Li, Jian-Jun; Liao, Dong-Qi; Tu, Xiang; Xu, Mei-Ying; Sun, Guo-Ping

    2013-12-01

    Emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated in an automotive coating manufacturing enterprise. Air samples were taken from eight different manufacturing areas in three workshops, and the species of VOCs and their concentrations were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Safety evaluation was also conducted by comparing the concentration of VOCs with the permissible concentration-short term exposure limit (PC-STEL) regulated by the Ministry of Health. The results showed that fifteen VOCs were detected in the indoor air of the automotive coatings workshop, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, methyl isobutyl ketone, propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate, trimethylbenzene and ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, Their concentrations widely ranged from 0.51 to 593.14 mg x m(-3). The concentrations of TVOCs were significantly different among different manufacturing processes. Even in the same manufacturing process, the concentrations of each component measured at different times were also greatly different. The predominant VOCs of indoor air in the workshop were identified to be ethylbenzene and butyl acetate. The concentrations of most VOCs exceeded the occupational exposure limits, so the corresponding control measures should be taken to protect the health of the workers.

  19. The effects of composting approaches on the emissions of anthropogenic volatile organic compounds: A comparison between vermicomposting and general aerobic composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, S.S.; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ullah, Md. Ahsan; Goswami, L.; Sahariah, B.; Bhattacharyya, P.; Cho, Sung-Back; Hwang, Ok-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Emission patterns of 13 VOCs were investigated in three types of vermicomposting systems (Eisenia fetida, Metaphire posthuma, and Lampito mauritii) in reference to a traditional aerobic composting system by feeding the systems with mixtures of three materials (coal ash (CA), municipal solid waste (MSW), and cow dung (CD)). On an average, the emission rates of aromatic VOCs (benzene, toluene, xylenes, and styrene) were two to three times higher than all other groups (aldehyde, ketones, esters, and alcohols) from all three types of feeding mixtures. However, the emission rates of aromatic VOCs were generally reduced over time in both aerobic composting and vermicomposting systems. Such reduction in the emission rates was most prominent from Eisenia-treated CD + MSW (1:1), Lampito-treated CD + CA (1:1), and Metaphire-treated CD. The results clearly indicated that the increase in humified organic C fractions (humic acid and fulvic acid) and the microbial biomass present during the biocomposting processes greatly reduced the emissions of VOCs. Hence, the study recommends that vermicomposting of coal ash and municipal solid waste in combination with cow dung in 1:1 ratio is an environmentally gainful proposition. - Highlights: • Emissions of volatile odorant gases from different composting treatments were investigated. • Emissions of 13 VOCs were quantified in three types of vermicomposting systems. • Systems are fed with mixtures of three materials: coal ash, cow dung, municipal wastes. • The optimum composition of three types of wastes is suggested for vermicomposting. - The emissions of VOCs from vermicomposting were controlled sensitively by humidified organic C fractions and microbial biomass during composting processes.

  20. N2O and NO2 Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks with Advanced Emission Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2014-12-01

    Diesel engines are the largest source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions nationally, and also a major contributor to the black carbon (BC) fraction of fine particulate matter (PM). Recently, diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have become standard equipment on new heavy-duty diesel trucks. However, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out nitric oxide (NO) to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in continuously regenerating DPFs leads to increased tailpipe emission of NO2. This is of potential concern due to the toxicity of NO2 and the resulting increases in atmospheric formation of other air pollutants such as ozone, nitric acid, and fine PM. While use of SCR reduces emissions of both NO and NO2, it may lead to increased emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. Here we report results from on-road measurements of heavy-duty diesel truck emissions conducted at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg of diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to individual truck attributes, including engine model year and installed emission control equipment. Between 2009 and 2013, the fraction of DPF-equipped trucks at the Port of Oakland increased from 2 to 99%, and median engine age decreased from 11 to 6 years. Over the same period, fleet-average emission factors for black carbon and NOx decreased by 76 ± 22% and 53 ± 8%, respectively. However, direct emissions of NO2 increased, and consequently the NO2/NOx emission ratio increased from 0.03 ± 0.02 to 0.18 ± 0.03. Older trucks retrofitted with DPFs emitted approximately 3.5 times more NO2 than newer trucks equipped with both DPF and SCR. Preliminary data from summer 2014 measurements at the Caldecott Tunnel suggest that some older trucks have negative emission factors for N2O, and that for newer trucks, N2O emission factors have changed sign and

  1. Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations and Emission Rates in New Manufactured and Site-Built Houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armin Rudd

    2008-10-30

    This study was conducted with the primary objective of characterizing and comparing the airborne concentrations and the emission rates of total VOCs and selected individual VOCs, including formaldehyde, among a limited number of new manufactured and site-built houses.

  2. A demonstration of biofiltration for VOC removal in petrochemical industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lan; Huang, Shaobin; Wei, Zongmin

    2014-05-01

    A biotrickling filter demo has been set up in a petrochemical factory in Sinopec Group for about 10 months with a maximum inlet gas flow rate of 3000 m3 h(-1). The purpose of this project is to assess the ability of the biotrickling filter to remove hardly biodegradable VOCs such as benzene, toluene and xylene which are recalcitrant and poorly water soluble and commonly found in petrochemical factories. Light-weight hollow ceramic balls (Φ 5-8 cm) were used as the packing media treated with large amounts of circulating water (2.4 m3 m(-2) h(-1)) added with bacterial species. The controlled empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 240 s is a key parameter for reaching a removal efficiency of 95% for benzene, toluene, xylene, and 90% for total hydrocarbons. The demo has been successfully adopted and practically applied in waste air treatments in many petrochemical industries for about two years. The net inlet concentrations of benzene, toluene and xylene were varied from 0.5 to 3 g m(-3). The biofiltration process is highly efficient for the removal of hydrophobic and recalcitrant VOCs with various concentrations from the petrochemical factories. The SEM analysis of the bacterial community in the BTF during VOC removal showed that Pseudomonas putida and Klebsiella sp. phylum were dominant and shutdown periods could play a role in forming the community structural differences and leading to the changes of removal efficiencies.

  3. Aromatic VOCs global influence in the ozone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Perez, David; Pozzer, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are a subgroup of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) of special interest in the atmosphere of urban and semi-urban areas. Aromatics form a high fraction of VOCs, are highly reactive and upon oxidation they are an important source of ozone. These group of VOCs are released to the atmosphere by processes related to biomass burning and fossil fuel consumption, while they are removed from the atmosphere primarily by OH reaction and by dry deposition. In addition, a branch of aromatics (ortho-nitrophenols) produce HONO upon photolysis, which is responsible of certain amount of the OH recycling. Despite their importance in the atmosphere in anthropogenic polluted areas, the influence of aromatics in the ozone production remains largely unknown. This is of particular relevance, being ozone a pollutant with severe side effects on air quality, health and climate. In this work the atmospheric impacts at global scale of the most emitted aromatic VOCs in the gas phase (benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzene, styrene, phenol, benzaldehyde and trimethylbenzenes) are analysed and assessed. Specifically, the impact on ozone due to aromatic oxidation is estimated, as this is of great interest in large urban areas and can be helpful for developing air pollution control strategies. Further targets are the quantification of the NOx loss and the OH recycling due to aromatic oxidation. In order to investigate these processes, two simulations were performed with the numerical chemistry and climate simulation ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model. The simulations compare two cases, one with ozone concentrations when aromatics are present or the second one when they are missing. Finally, model simulated ozone is compared against a global set of observations in order to better constrain the model accuracy.

  4. In-vehicle VOCs composition of unconditioned, newly produced cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzik, Krzysztof; Faber, Joanna; Łomankiewicz, Damian; Gołda-Kopek, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The in-vehicle volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentrations gains the attention of both car producers and users. In the present study, an attempt was made to determine if analysis of air samples collected from an unconditioned car cabin can be used as a quality control measure. The VOCs composition of in-vehicle air was analyzed by means of active sampling on Carbograph 1TD and Tenax TA sorbents, followed by thermal desorption and simultaneous analysis on flame ionization and mass detector (TD-GC/FID-MS). Nine newly produced cars of the same brand and model were chosen for this study. Within these, four of the vehicles were equipped with identical interior materials and five others differed in terms of upholstery and the presence of a sunroof; one car was convertible. The sampling event took place outside of the car assembly plant and the cars tested left the assembly line no later than 24 hr before the sampling took place. More than 250 compounds were present in the samples collected; the identification of more than 160 was confirmed by comparative mass spectra analysis and 80 were confirmed by both comparison with single/multiple compounds standards and mass spectra analysis. In general, aliphatic hydrocarbons represented more than 60% of the total VOCs (TVOC) determined. Depending on the vehicle, the concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons varied from 12% to 27% of total VOCs. The very short period between car production and sampling of the in-vehicle air permits the assumption that the entire TVOC originates from off-gassing of interior materials. The results of this study expand the knowledge of in-vehicle pollution by presenting information about car cabin air quality immediately after car production. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Calgary, Alberta: Sources and screening health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Md Aynul; Kindzierski, Warren B

    2018-08-01

    Exposure to ambient volatile organic compound (VOCs) in urban areas is of interest because of their potential chronic and acute adverse effects to public health. Limited information is available about VOC sources in urban areas in Canada. An investigation of ambient VOCs levels, their potential sources and associated risks to public health was undertaken for the urban core of Alberta's largest city (downtown Calgary) for the period 2010-2015. Twenty-four hour arithmetic and geometric mean concentrations of total VOCs were 42μg/m 3 and 39μg/m 3 , respectively and ranged from 16 to 160μg/m 3 , with winter levels about two-fold higher than summer. Alkanes (58%) were the most dominant compounds followed by halogenated VOCs (22%) and aromatics (11%). Mean and maximum 24h ambient concentrations of selected VOCs of public health concern were below chronic and acute health risk screening criteria of the United States regulatory agencies and a cancer screening benchmark used in Alberta equivalent to 1 in 100,000 lifetime risk. The Positive matrix factorization (PMF) model revealed nine VOC sources at downtown Calgary, where oil/natural gas extraction/combustion (26%), fuel combustion (20%), traffic sources including gasoline exhaust, diesel exhaust, mixed fugitive emissions (10-15%), and industrial coatings/solvents (12%) were predominant. Other sources included dry cleaning (3.3%), biogenic (3.5%) and a background source (18%). Source-specific health risk values were also estimated. Estimated cancer risks for all sources were below the Alberta cancer screening benchmark, and estimated non-cancer risks for all sources were well below a safe level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF DIMETHYLAMINE VAPORS EMISSION: HERBICIDE PRODUCTION PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorana Arsenijević

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The widely used herbicide, dimethylamine salt of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D-DMA, is usually prepared by mixing a dimethylamine (DMA aqueous solution with a solid 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D. The vapors of the both, reactants and products, are potentially hazardous for the environment. The contribution of DMA vapors in overall pollution from this process is most significant, concerning vapor pressures data of these pollutants. Therefore, the control of the air pollution in the manufacture and handling of methylamines is very important. Within this paper, the optimal air pollution control system in preparation of 2,4-D-DMA was developed for the pesticides manufacturing industry. This study employed the simple pollution prevention concept to reduce the emission of DMA vapors at the source. The investigations were performed on the pilot plant scale. To reduce the emission of DMA vapors, the effluent gases from the herbicide preparation zone were passed through the packed bed scrubber (water - scrubbing medium, and the catalytic reactor in sequence. The end result is a substantially improved air quality in the working area, as well as in the urbanized areas located near the chemical plant.

  7. Direct emission of chirality controllable femtosecond LG01 vortex beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Zhang, S.; Yang, H.; Xie, J.; Jiang, S.; Feng, G.; Zhou, S.

    2018-05-01

    Direct emission of a chirality controllable ultrafast LG01 mode vortex optical beam from a conventional z-type cavity design SESAM (SEmiconductor Saturable Absorber Mirror) mode locked LD pumped Yb:Phosphate laser has been demonstrated. A clean 360 fs vortex beam of ˜45.7 mW output power has been achieved. A radial shear interferometer has been built to determine the phase singularity and the wavefront helicity of the ultrafast output laser. Theoretically, it is found that the LG01 vortex beam is obtained via the combination effect of diagonal HG10 mode generation by off-axis pumping and the controllable Gouy phase difference between HG10 and HG01 modes in the sagittal and tangential planes. The chirality of the LG01 mode can be manipulated by the pump position to the original point of the laser cavity optical axis.

  8. The effects of emission control strategies on light-absorbing carbon emissions from a modern heavy-duty diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael A; Olson, Michael R; Liu, Z Gerald; Schauer, James J

    2015-06-01

    Control of atmospheric black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) has been proposed as an important pathway to climate change mitigation, but sources of BC and BrC are still not well understood. In order to better identify the role of modern heavy-duty diesel engines on the production of BC and BrC, emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine operating with different emission control strategies were examined using a source dilution sampling system. The effect of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) on light-absorbing carbon (LAC) was evaluated at three steady-state engine operation modes: idle, 50% speed and load, and 100% speed and load. LAC was measured with four different engine configurations: engine out, DOC out, DPF out, and engine out with an altered combustion calibration. BC and BrC emission rates were measured with the Aethalometer (AE-31). EC and BC emission rates normalized to the mass of CO₂emitted increased with increasing engine speed and load. Emission rates normalized to brake-specific work did not exhibit similar trends with speed and load, but rather the highest emission rate was measured at idle. EC and OC emissions were reduced by 99% when the DOC and DPF architecture was applied. The application of a DPF was equally effective at removing 99% of the BC fraction of PM, proving to be an important control strategy for both LAC and PM. BC emissions were unexpectedly increased across the DOC, seemingly due to a change aerosol optical properties. Removal of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) flow due to simulated EGR cooler failure caused a large increase in OC and BrC emission rates at idle, but had limited influence during high load operation. LAC emissions proved to be sensitive to the same control strategies effective at controlling the total mass of diesel PM. In the context of black carbon emissions, very small emission rates of brown carbon were measured over a range of control technologies and engine operating

  9. Adsorptive performance of chromium-containing ordered mesoporous silica on volatile organic compounds (VOCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Fan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs are the primary poisonous emissions into the atmosphere in natural gas exploitation and disposing process. The adsorption method has been widely applied in actual production because of its good features such as low cost, low energy consumption, flexible devices needed, etc. The commonly used adsorbents like activated carbon, silicon molecular sieves and so on are not only susceptible to plugging or spontaneous combustion but difficult to be recycled. In view of this, a new adsorbent (CrSBA15 was made by the co-assembly method to synthesize the ordered mesoporous silica materials with different amounts of chromium to eliminate VOCs. This new adsorbent was characterized by small-angle-X-ray scattering (SAXS, nitrogen adsorption/desorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Its adsorption performance to eliminate VOCs (toluene, benzene, cyclohexane and ethyl acetate used as typical pollutants was also tested systematically. Research results indicate that this new adsorbent of CrSBA-15(30, with the silicon/chromium ration being 30, owns the maximum micropore volume, and shows a higher adsorption performance in eliminating toluene, benzene, cyclohexane and ethyl acetate. Besides, it is cost-effective and much easier to be recycled than the activated carbon. In conclusion, CrSBA-15(30 is a good adsorbent to eliminate VOCs with broad application prospects. Keywords: Mesoporous materials, Silicon dioxide, Synthesis, Adsorption, Volatile organic compounds (VOCs, Recyclability, Energy saving

  10. Isoprene in poplar emissions: effects on new particle formation and OH concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Andres, S.; Bachner, M.; Behnke, K.; Broch, S.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Holland, F.; Kleist, E.; Mentel, T. F.; Rubach, F.; Springer, M.; Steitz, B.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.; Schnitzler, J.-P.; Wildt, J.

    2012-01-01

    Stress-induced volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from transgenic Grey poplar modified in isoprene emission potential were used for the investigation of photochemical secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. In poplar, acute ozone stress induces the emission of a wide array of VOCs dominated by sesquiterpenes and aromatic VOCs. Constitutive light-dependent emission of isoprene ranged between 66 nmol m-2 s-1 in non-transgenic controls (wild type WT) and nearly zero (plants (line RA22), respectively. Nucleation rates of up to 3600 cm-3 s-1 were observed in our experiments. In the presence of isoprene new particle formation was suppressed compared to non-isoprene containing VOC mixtures. Compared to isoprene/monoterpene systems emitted from other plants the suppression of nucleation by isoprene was less effective for the VOC mixture emitted from stressed poplar. This is explained by the observed high efficiency of new particle formation for emissions from stressed poplar. Direct measurements of OH in the reaction chamber revealed that the steady state concentration of OH is lower in the presence of isoprene than in the absence of isoprene, supporting the hypothesis that isoprenes' suppressing effect on nucleation is related to radical chemistry. In order to test whether isoprene contributes to SOA mass formation, fully deuterated isoprene (C5D8) was added to the stress-induced emission profile of an isoprene free poplar mutant. Mass spectral analysis showed that, despite the isoprene-induced suppression of particle formation, fractions of deuterated isoprene were incorporated into the SOA. A fractional mass yield of 2.3% of isoprene was observed. Future emission changes due to land use and climate change may therefore affect both gas phase oxidation capacity and new particle number formation.

  11. Source profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured in China: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Shao, Min; Fu, Linlin; Lu, Sihua; Zeng, Limin; Tang, Dagang

    The profiles of major volatile organic compound (VOC) sources in China, including vehicle exhaust, gasoline vapor, paint, asphalt, industrial and residential coal burning, biomass burning, and the petrochemical industry, were experimentally determined. Source samples were taken using a dilution chamber for mobile and stationary sources, biomass burning in an actual Chinese farmer's house, and ambient air in a petrochemical industrial area. The concentrations of 92 VOC species were quantified using canister sampling and a gas chromatography-flame ionization detection/mass spectrometry system, and VOC source profiles were developed for source apportionment of VOCs in the Pearl River Delta region. Based on the measurement of source profiles, possible tracers for various emission sources were identified; e.g., 2-methylpentane and 1,3-butadiene could be used as tracers for vehicle exhaust; the characteristic compounds of architectural coating were aromatics such as toluene and m, p-xylene; the light hydrocarbons, namely n-butane, trans-2-butene, and n-pentane, dominated the composition of gasoline vapor; and n-nonane, n-decane, and n-undecane were found to be typical of diesel vapor and asphalt application processes. As different emission sources are characterized by overlapping VOC species, the ratio of possible VOC tracers could be used to assess the contribution of various sources. The ratios between n-butane and isobutane, 1,3-butadiene and isoprene, and the ratios of aromatics (e.g., toluene to benzene and ethylbenzene to m, p-xylene) in the measured sources were compared.

  12. VOC composition of current motor vehicle fuels and vapors, and collinearity analyses for receptor modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jo-Yu; Batterman, Stuart A

    2012-03-01

    The formulation of motor vehicle fuels can alter the magnitude and composition of evaporative and exhaust emissions occurring throughout the fuel cycle. Information regarding the volatile organic compound (VOC) composition of motor fuels other than gasoline is scarce, especially for bioethanol and biodiesel blends. This study examines the liquid and vapor (headspace) composition of four contemporary and commercially available fuels: gasoline (gasoline), ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), and B20 (20% soy-biodiesel and 80% ULSD). The composition of gasoline and E85 in both neat fuel and headspace vapor was dominated by aromatics and n-heptane. Despite its low gasoline content, E85 vapor contained higher concentrations of several VOCs than those in gasoline vapor, likely due to adjustments in its formulation. Temperature changes produced greater changes in the partial pressures of 17 VOCs in E85 than in gasoline, and large shifts in the VOC composition. B20 and ULSD were dominated by C(9) to C(16)n-alkanes and low levels of the aromatics, and the two fuels had similar headspace vapor composition and concentrations. While the headspace composition predicted using vapor-liquid equilibrium theory was closely correlated to measurements, E85 vapor concentrations were underpredicted. Based on variance decomposition analyses, gasoline and diesel fuels and their vapors VOC were distinct, but B20 and ULSD fuels and vapors were highly collinear. These results can be used to estimate fuel related emissions and exposures, particularly in receptor models that apportion emission sources, and the collinearity analysis suggests that gasoline- and diesel-related emissions can be distinguished. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 40 CFR 1060.104 - What running loss emission control requirements apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What running loss emission control... STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1060.104 What running loss emission control requirements apply? (a) Engines and equipment must meet running loss requirements as follows: (1...

  14. Model study of the impact of biogenic emission on regional ozone and the effectiveness of emission reduction scenarios over eastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Zhiwei; Matsuda, Kazuhide; Ueda, Hiromasa

    2005-01-01

    The impact of biogenic emission on regional ozone and emission control scenarios has been numerically studied through a series of sensitivity model simulations. A typical episode with elevated ozone over eastern China from 12 to 16 August 2001 was investigated by using a tropospheric chemistry and transport model (TCTM), driven by a non-hydrostatic mesoscale model MM5. The meteorological conditions during this period were characterized by high-pressure systems associated with low wind speeds, high temperatures and clear skies. Afternoon ozone concentrations exceeding 80 parts per billion (ppb) occurred over broad areas of eastern China. There is a generally good agreement between simulation and observation, indicating that the TCTM is able to represent major physical and chemical processes of tropospheric ozone and well reproduce the diurnal and day-to-day variability associated with synoptic conditions. The sensitivity analysis reveals a significant influence of biogenic hydrocarbons on regional ozone. Ozone levels are apparently enhanced by biogenic emission over large areas of eastern China. The largest increase up to 30 ppb in daytime average concentration is found in portions of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, Yangtze Delta and northeast China. However, the response of ozone to biogenic emission varies spatially, showing more sensitivity in polluted areas than that in clean rural areas. The regimes limited by nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and volatile organic carbon (VOC) in eastern China are further investigated with respect to biogenic emission. Ozone shows a clear tendency to shift from VOC limitation to NO x limitation as it moves from urban and industrial areas to rural areas. Most of the rural areas in southern China tend to be NO x limited, whereas most of the northern parts of China appear to be VOC limited. By considering biogenic emission, ozone tends to become more NO x limited and less VOC limited, both in extent and intensity, over eastern

  15. Air Pollutant Emissions Projections for the Cement and Steel Industry in China and the Impact of Emissions Control Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Khanna, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    China’s cement and steel industry accounts for approximately half of the world’s total cement and steel production. These two industries are two of the most energy-intensive and highest carbon dioxide (CO2)-emitting industries and two of the key industrial contributors to air pollution in China. For example, the cement industry is the largest source of particulate matter (PM) emissions in China, accounting for 40 percent of its industrial PM emissions and 27 percent of its total national PM emissions. The Chinese steel industry contributed to approximately 20 percent of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions and 27 percent of PM emissions for all key manufacturing industries in China in 2013. In this study, we analyzed and projected the total PM and SO2 emissions from the Chinese cement and steel industry from 2010–2050 under three different scenarios: a Base Case scenario, an Advanced scenario, and an Advanced EOP (end-of-pipe) scenario. We used bottom-up emissions control technologies data and assumptions to project the emissions. In addition, we conducted an economic analysis to estimate the cost for PM emissions reductions in the Chinese cement industry using EOP control technologies, energy efficiency measures, and product change measures. The results of the emissions projection showed that there is not a substantial difference in PM emissions between the Base Case and Advanced scenarios, for both the cement and steel industries. This is mainly because PM emissions in the cement industry caused mainly by production process and not the fuel use. Since our forecast for the cement production in the Base Case and Advanced scenarios are not too different from each other, this results in only a slight difference in PM emissions forecast for these two scenarios. Also, we assumed a similar share and penetration rate of control technologies from 2010 up to 2050 for these two scenarios for the cement and steel industry. However, the Advanced EOP

  16. Reducing Diesel Engine Emission Using Reactivity Controlled Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Hasib Ghazal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several automobile manufacturers are interested in investigating of dual fuel internal combustion engines, due to high efficiencand low emissions. Many alternative fuels have been used in dual fuel mode for IC engine, such as methane, hydrogen, and natural gas. In the present study, a reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI engine using gasoline/diesel (G/D dual fuel has been investigated. The effectof mixing gasoline with diesel fuel on combustion characteristic, engine performance and emissions has been studied. The gasoline was injected in the engine intake port, to produce a homogeneous mixture with air. The diesel fuel was injected directly to the combustion chamber during compression stroke to initiate the combustion process. A direct injection compression ignition engine has been built and simulated using ANSYS Forte professional code. The gasoline amount in the simulation varied from (50%-80% by volume. The diesel fuel was injected to the cylinder in two stages. The model has been validated and calibrated for neat diesel fuel using available data from the literature. The results show that the heat release rate and the cylinder pressure increased when the amount of added gasoline is between 50%-60% volume of the total injected fuels, compared to the neat diesel fuel. Further addition of gasoline will have a contrary effect. In addition, the combustion duration is extended drastically when the gasoline ratio is higher than 60% which results in an incomplete combustion. The NO emission decreased drastically as the gasoline ratio increased. Moreover, addition of gasoline to the mixture increased the engine power, thermal efficienc and combustion efficienc compared to neat diesel fuel.

  17. Modeling explicit tropospheric oxidation through identifying volatile organic compound (VOC) sources, their impact on air quality and their signatures in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hairong

    Photochemical smog, characterized by high concentrations of ozone (O 3) and fine particles, is of great concern in the urban areas like the Pearl River Delta (PRD). Ambient O3 and its precursors were simultaneously measured for the first time at a site within the inland PRD region (WQS) and a site in Hong Kong (TC) from 22 October to 01 December 2007, in order to improve our understanding of the interplay of O3 pollution between Hong Kong and the inland PRD region, to explore the relationships between O3 and its precursors, and to identify the key volatile organic compound (VOC) species and emission source categories contributing to the O3 formation. Ratio analyses for trace gases and VOCs and back trajectory calculation revealed that the air masses arriving at WQS were more aged due to regional influence, whereas the air masses at TC were mainly affected by local emissions and/or regional transport. An observation-Based Model (OBM) was employed to determine the O 3-precursor relationship. At both sites, O3 production was found to be VOC-limited. Anthropogenic hydrocarbons played a key role in O 3 production, while reducing NO emissions aided the build up of O 3 concentrations. The contribution of carbonyls to O3 formation was firstly input in the OBM by using measured data, the results showed that the net O3 production derived from the OBM agreed better with the observed O3 increment after hourly carbonyl concentrations were included. A photochemical trajectory model was developed and used for the first time to simulate the formation of photochemical pollutants at WQS, Guangzhou during photochemical pollution episodes between 12 and 17 November, 2007. Calculated photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP) indices indicated that alkanes and oxygenated organic compounds had relatively low reactivity, while alkenes and aromatics presented high reactivity. Analysis of the emission inventory found that the sum of 60 of the 139 VOC species accounted for 91% of the

  18. The impact from emitted NO{sub x} and VOC in an aircraft plume. Model results for the free troposphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleijel, K.

    1998-04-01

    The chemical fate of gaseous species in a specific aircraft plume is investigated using an expanding box model. The model treats the gas phase chemical reactions in detail, while other parameters are subject to a high degree of simplification. Model simulations were carried out in a plume up to an age of three days. The role of emitted VOC, NO{sub x} and CO as well as of background concentrations of VOC, NO{sub x} and ozone on aircraft plume chemistry was investigated. Background concentrations were varied in a span of measured values in the free troposphere. High background concentrations of VOC were found to double the average plume production of ozone and organic nitrates. In a high NO{sub x} environment the plume production of ozone and organic nitrates decreased by around 50%. The production of nitric acid was found to be less sensitive to background concentrations of VOC, and increased by up to 50% in a high NO{sub x} environment. Mainly, emitted NO{sub x} caused the plume production of ozone, nitric acid and organic nitrates. The ozone production during the first hours is determined by the relative amount of NO{sub 2} in the NO{sub x} emissions. The impact from emitted VOC was in relative values up to 20% of the ozone production and 65% of the production of organic nitrates. The strongest relative influence from VOC was found in an environment characterized by low VOC and high NO{sub x} background concentrations, where the absolute peak production was lower than in the other scenarios. The effect from emitting VOC and NO{sub x} at the same time added around 5% for ozone, 15% for nitric acid and 10% for organic nitrates to the plume production caused by NO{sub x} and VOC when emitted separately 47 refs, 15 figs, 4 tabs

  19. Implications of diesel emissions control failures to emission factors and road transport NOx evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ntziachristos, L.; Papadimitriou, G.; Ligterink, N.; Hausberger, S.

    2016-01-01

    Diesel NOx emissions have been at the forefront of research and regulation scrutiny as a result of failures of late vehicle technologies to deliver on-road emissions reductions. The current study aims at identifying the actual emissions levels of late light duty vehicle technologies, including Euro

  20. Use of Combined Observational- and Model-Derived Photochemical Indicators to Assess the O3-NOx-VOC System Sensitivity in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson R. Carrillo-Torres

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric levels of O3 have historically exceeded the official annual Mexican standards within the Monterrey Metropolitan Area (MMA in NE Mexico. High-frequency and high-precision measurements of tropospheric O3, NOy, NO2, NO, CO, SO2, PM10 and PM2.5 were made at the Obispado monitoring site near the downtown MMA from September 2012 to August 2013. The seasonal cycles of O3 and NOy are driven by changes in meteorology and to a lesser extent by variations in primary emissions. The NOy levels were positively correlated with O3 precursors and inversely correlated with O3 and wind speed. Recorded data were used to assess the O3-Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC-NOx system’s sensitivity through an observational-based approach. The photochemical indicator O3/NOy was derived from measured data during the enhanced O3 production period (12:00–18:00 Central Daylight Time (CDT, GMT-0500. The O3/NOy ratios calculated for this time period showed that the O3 production within the MMA is VOC sensitive. A box model simulation of production rates of HNO3 (PHNO3 and total peroxides (Pperox carried out for O3 episodes in fall and spring confirmed the VOC sensitivity within the MMA environment. No significant differences were observed in O3/NOy from weekdays to weekends or for PHNO3/Pperox ratios, confirming the limiting role of VOCs in O3 production within the MMA. The ratified photochemical regime observed may allow the environmental authorities to revise and verify the current policies for air quality control within the MMA.

  1. Application of microturbines to control emissions from associated gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Darren D.

    2013-04-16

    A system for controlling the emission of associated gas produced from a reservoir. In an embodiment, the system comprises a gas compressor including a gas inlet in fluid communication with an associated gas source and a gas outlet. The gas compressor adjusts the pressure of the associated gas to produce a pressure-regulated associated gas. In addition, the system comprises a gas cleaner including a gas inlet in fluid communication with the outlet of the gas compressor, a fuel gas outlet, and a waste product outlet. The gas cleaner separates at least a portion of the sulfur and the water from the associated gas to produce a fuel gas. Further, the system comprises a gas turbine including a fuel gas inlet in fluid communication with the fuel gas outlet of the gas cleaner and an air inlet. Still further, the system comprises a choke in fluid communication with the air inlet.

  2. Crystal Phase Quantum Well Emission with Digital Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assali, S.; Laehnemann, J.; Vu, Thi Thu Trang

    2017-01-01

    One of the major challenges in the growth of quantum well and quantum dot heterostructures is the realization of atomically sharp interfaces. Nanowires provide a new opportunity to engineer the band structure as they facilitate the controlled switching of the crystal structure between the zinc......-blende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) phases. Such a crystal phase switching results in the formation of crystal phase quantum wells (CPQWs) and quantum dots (CPQDs). For GaP CPQWs, the inherent electric fields due to the discontinuity of the spontaneous polarization at the WZ/ZB junctions lead to the confinement...... of both types of charge carriers at the opposite interfaces of the WZ/ZB/WZ structure. This confinement leads to a novel type of transition across a ZB flat plate barrier. Here, we show digital tuning of the visible emission of WZ/ZB/WZ CPQWs in a GaP nanowire by changing the thickness of the ZB barrier...

  3. Emission spectra of dimethoxybenzenes by controlled electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Teiichiro; Imasaka, Totaro; Toyoda, Minoru; Tsuji, Masaharu; Ishibashi, Nobuhiko

    1975-01-01

    The emission spectra of o-, m-, and p-dimethoxybenzenes under controlled electron impact excitation (200 eV) were measured in the 220 - 450 nm region at very low pressures. The photoemissions of the excited parent species and such fragment species as H, CH, CO, and CO + were observed and assigned. The relative intensities of the photoemissions of the parent species were compared with those of the fluorescence spectra (photoexcitation) in an n-hexane solution. The excited parent species, H, and CH were concluded to be produced in one-electron processes; however, the CO + species were assumed to be produced in both one- and two-electron processes, and the relative contributions are evaluated. It was concluded that the rate of the predissociation of o-dimethoxybenzene was faster than those of the other two isomers, and the observed characteristics of o-dimethoxybenzene had something to do with this faster rate. (auth.)

  4. Maritime routing and speed optimization with emission control areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerholt, Kjetil; Gausel, Nora T.; Rakke, Jørgen G.

    2015-01-01

    a computational study on a number of realistic shipping routes in order to evaluate possible impacts on sailing paths and speeds, and hence fuel consumption and costs, from the ECA regulations. Moreover, the aim is to examine the implications for the society with regards to environmental effects. Comparisons...... of cases show that a likely effect of the regulations is that ship operators will often choose to sail longer distances to avoid sailing time within ECAs. Another effect is that they will sail at lower speeds within and higher speeds outside the ECAs in order to use less of the more expensive fuel. On some......Strict limits on the maximum sulphur content in fuel used by ships have recently been imposed in some Emission Control Areas (ECAs). In order to comply with these regulations many ship operators will switch to more expensive low-sulphur fuel when sailing inside ECAs. Since they are concerned about...

  5. Diffusion and Evaporation-Controlled Emission in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus

    and sources. This work provides an investigation based on fundamental fluid dynamics and mass transfer theory to obtain a general understanding of the mechanisms involved in the emission from building materials in ventilated rooms. In addition, a generally applicable model for prediction of surface emission...... is proposed. The interest has been focused on the emission of vapours and gases as no particulate emissions have been considered. The methods used are numerical calculations by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and full-scale laboratory experiments. It was found that the emission is a strong function of air......In emission studies reported in literature little effort has been made to investigate the emission from building materials in ventilated enclosures from a fluid dynamics point of view. Furthermore, most of the existing emission models are empirical relations that are based on specific pollutants...

  6. Landfill aeration for emission control before and during landfill mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raga, Roberto; Cossu, Raffaello; Heerenklage, Joern; Pivato, Alberto; Ritzkowski, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The landfill of Modena, in northern Italy, is now crossed by the new high velocity railway line connecting Milan and Bologna. Waste was completely removed from a part of the landfill and a trench for the train line was built. With the aim of facilitating excavation and further disposal of the material extracted, suitable measures were defined. In order to prevent undesired emissions into the excavation area, the aerobic in situ stabilisation by means of the Airflow technology took place before and during the Landfill Mining. Specific project features involved the pneumatic leachate extraction from the aeration wells (to keep the leachate table low inside the landfill and increase the volume of waste available for air migration) and the controlled moisture addition into a limited zone, for a preliminary evaluation of the effects on process enhancement. Waste and leachate were periodically sampled in the landfill during the aeration before the excavation, for quality assessment over time; the evolution of biogas composition in the landfill body and in the extraction system for different plant set-ups during the project was monitored, with specific focus on uncontrolled migration into the excavation area. Waste biological stability significantly increased during the aeration (waste respiration index dropped to 33% of the initial value after six months). Leachate head decreased from 4 to 1.5m; leachate recirculation tests proved the beneficial effects of moisture addition on temperature control, without hampering waste aerobization. Proper management of the aeration plant enabled the minimization of uncontrolled biogas emissions into the excavation area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Suns-VOC characteristics of high performance kesterite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Oki; Gokmen, Tayfun; Mitzi, David B.

    2014-08-01

    Low open circuit voltage (VOC) has been recognized as the number one problem in the current generation of Cu2ZnSn(Se,S)4 (CZTSSe) solar cells. We report high light intensity and low temperature Suns-VOC measurement in high performance CZTSSe devices. The Suns-VOC curves exhibit bending at high light intensity, which points to several prospective VOC limiting mechanisms that could impact the VOC, even at 1 sun for lower performing samples. These VOC limiting mechanisms include low bulk conductivity (because of low hole density or low mobility), bulk or interface defects, including tail states, and a non-ohmic back contact for low carrier density CZTSSe. The non-ohmic back contact problem can be detected by Suns-VOC measurements with different monochromatic illuminations. These limiting factors may also contribute to an artificially lower JSC-VOC diode ideality factor.

  8. Solving widespread low-concentration VOC air pollution problems: Gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation answers the needs of many small businesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, C; Turchi, C; Gratson, D

    1995-04-01

    Many small businesses are facing new regulations under the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act. Regulators, as well as the businesses themselves, face new challenges to control small point-source air pollution emissions. An individual business-such as a dry cleaner, auto repair shop, bakery, coffee roaster, photo print shop, or chemical company-may be an insignificant source of air pollution, but collectively, the industry becomes a noticeable source. Often the businesses are not equipped to respond to new regulatory requirements because of limited resources, experience, and expertise. Also, existing control strategies may be inappropriate for these businesses, having been developed for major industries with high volumes, high pollutant concentrations, and substantial corporate resources. Gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) is an option for eliminating low-concentration, low-flow-rate emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from small business point sources. The advantages PCO has over other treatment techniques are presented in this paper. This paper also describes how PCO can be applied to specific air pollution problems. We present our methodology for identifying pollution problems for which PCO is applicable and for reaching the technology`s potential end users. PCO is compared to other gas-phase VOC control technologies.

  9. Assessing carbon emission control strategies: the case of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, W U

    1988-12-01

    Scientists are now being asked to recommend measures to reduce the risks of climatic change due to anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Considerably less effort, however, has been allotted to understanding the efficacy of controlling these gases than to their effects. This paper briefly describes and applies an energy-economic model to assess the effectiveness of carbon dioxide control policies that theoretically could be enacted in China, a large, developing nation with an energy inefficient and 'carbon-intensive' economy. The paper also assesses the effectiveness of similar international efforts, as well as the effect of each initiative on Chinese income levels. Carbon dioxide control measures are contained in scenarios drawn to the year 2075 and include family planning, fossil fuel taxes, mandatory or technical energy efficiency improvements, and a combination of these. The results suggest, not surprisingly, that no nation alone, not even China, can decisively affect the global CO/sub 2/ problem. More importantly, however, the potential for energy efficiency improvements in China is found to be both very large and economically attractive. Scenario analysis suggests that energy efficiency measures could both reduce carbon emissions significantly and increase Chinese per capita incomes. Similar conclusions are drawn regarding worldwide energy-efficiency measures. Thus, appropriate public policy measures to capture the existing energy-efficiency potential might both reduce the risk of climatic change and improve economic standards of living. 33 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Carbon bed mercury emissions control for mixed waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soelberg, Nick; Enneking, Joe

    2010-11-01

    Mercury has various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so it is often present in radioactive and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. Compliance with air emission regulations such as the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards can require off-gas mercury removal efficiencies up to 99.999% for thermally treating some mixed waste streams. Test programs have demonstrated this level of off-gas mercury control using fixed beds of granular sulfur-impregnated activated carbon. Other results of these tests include (1) the depth of the mercury control mass transfer zone was less than 15-30 cm for the operating conditions of these tests; (2) MERSORB carbon can sorb mercury up to 19 wt % of the carbon mass; and (3) the spent carbon retained almost all (98.3-99.99%) of the mercury during Toxicity Characteristic Leachability Procedure (TCLP) tests, but when even a small fraction of the total mercury dissolves, the spent carbon can fail the TCLP test when the spent carbon contains high mercury concentrations.

  11. Plasma control using neural network and optical emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byungwhan; Bae, Jung Ki; Hong, Wan-Shick

    2005-01-01

    Due to high sensitivity to process parameters, plasma processes should be tightly controlled. For plasma control, a predictive model was constructed using a neural network and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce OES dimensionality. This approach was applied to an oxide plasma etching conducted in a CHF 3 /CF 4 magnetically enhanced reactive ion plasma. The etch process was systematically characterized by means of a statistical experimental design. Three etch outputs (etch rate, profile angle, and etch rate nonuniformity) were modeled using three different approaches, including conventional, OES, and PCA-OES models. For all etch outputs, OES models demonstrated improved predictions over the conventional or PCA-OES models. Compared to conventional models, OES models yielded an improvement of more than 25% in modeling profile angle and etch rate nonuniformtiy. More than 40% improvement over PCA-OES model was achieved in modeling etch rate and profile angle. These results demonstrate that nonreduced in situ data are more beneficial than reduced one in constructing plasma control model

  12. Contribution of biogenic and photochemical sources to ambient VOCs during winter to summer transition at a semi-arid urban site in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, L K; Tripathi, Nidhi; Yadav, Ravi

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the sources and characteristics of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured using PTR-TOF-MS instrument in a metropolitan city of India during winter to summer transition period. Mixing ratios of VOCs exhibited strong diurnal, day-to-day and episodic variations. Methanol was the most dominant species with monthly mean values of 18-22 pbbv. The emission ratios of VOCs relative to benzene calculated from nighttime data were used to estimate the relative contributions of vehicle exhaust and other sources. The increasing daytime ratios of oxygenated-VOCs (OVOCs)/benzene and isoprene/benzene from February to March indicates increasing contribution of photo-oxidation and biogenic sources. Daytime fractions of acetone (18%), acetaldehyde (15%) and isoprene (4.5%) to the sum of measured VOCs in March were higher than those in February. Variations of VOCs at lower temperatures (biogenic emissions. The emissions of OVOCs from vehicle exhaust were estimated to be smaller (20-40%) than those from other sources. The contributions of biogenic and secondary sources to OVOCs and isoprene increased by 10-15% from winter to summer. This study provides evidence that the winter-to-summer transition has an impact on sources and composition of VOCs in tropical urban areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Indoor air quality (IAQ) assessment in a multistorey shopping mall by high-spatial-resolution monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodio, M; Dambruoso, P R; de Gennaro, Gianluigi; de Gennaro, L; Loiotile, A Demarinis; Marzocca, A; Stasi, F; Trizio, L; Tutino, M

    2014-12-01

    In order to assess indoor air quality (IAQ), two 1-week monitoring campaigns of volatile organic compounds (VOC) were performed in different areas of a multistorey shopping mall. High-spatial-resolution monitoring was conducted at 32 indoor sites located in two storehouses and in different departments of a supermarket. At the same time, VOC concentrations were monitored in the mall and parking lot area as well as outdoors. VOC were sampled at 48-h periods using diffusive samplers suitable for thermal desorption. The samples were then analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The data analysis and chromatic maps indicated that the two storehouses had the highest VOC concentrations consisting principally of terpenes. These higher TVOC concentrations could be a result of the low efficiency of the air exchange and intake systems, as well as the large quantity of articles stored in these small spaces. Instead, inside the supermarket, the food department was the most critical area for VOC concentrations. To identify potential emission sources in this department, a continuous VOC analyzer was used. The findings indicated that the highest total VOC concentrations were present during cleaning activities and that these activities were carried out frequently in the food department. The study highlights the importance of conducting both high-spatial-resolution monitoring and high-temporal-resolution monitoring. The former was able to identify critical issues in environments with a complex emission scenario while the latter was useful in interpreting the dynamics of each emission source.

  14. Low VOC Barrier Coating for Industrial Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    VOC Total Solids (wt) Total Solids (volume) Percent Pigment Stormer Viscosity Brookfield Viscosity Pot Life Sag Resistance Theoretical...Percent Pigment – Stormer Viscosity – Brookfield Viscosity – Pot Life – Sag Resistance – Theoretical Coverage – Drying Times – Mixing Ratio

  15. [Concentration and change of VOCs in summer and autumn in Tangshan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Wang, Yue-si; Wu, Fang-kun; Qiu, Jun

    2010-07-01

    In order to study the potential impact of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in summer and autumn on region ozone, ambient concentrations and changes of VOCs were analyzed at Tangshan from June to September 2007 and 2008, by using the method of two-step-concentration-gas spectrometry/mass (CCD-GC/MS). The average concentration in Tangshan was 163.5 x 10(-9) C. The major components were alkanes, aromatics, alkenes and halogen hydrocarbons which accounted for 45.9%, 29.9%, 5.9% and 18.9% respectively. The average concentration decreased 51.9% compare with 2007 (340.4 x 10(-9) C), confine gas stations is the main reason of the decline of alkyl, the large decline is aromatic hydrocarbons, 67%, which has the most potential impact of ozone formation, and dichlorobenzene in industrial emissions has increased. The concentrations of VOCs in Tangshan were lower 8% than that of Beijing during the same period in 2008. The changes of VOCs during 2008 Beijing Olympic show that in addition to traffic source industrial emissions is also an important source of atmospheric pollution.

  16. Impacts of Aging Emission Control Systems on In-Use Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emission Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Cados, T.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2017-12-01

    Heavy-duty diesel trucks are a major source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and black carbon (BC) in urban environments, contributing to persistent ozone and particulate matter air quality problems. Recently, diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems have become standard equipment on new trucks. Particle filters can also be installed as a retrofit on older engines. Prior work has shown that exhaust filters and SCR systems effectively reduce BC and NOx emission rates by up to 90 and 80%, respectively (Preble et al., ES&T 2015). There is concern, however, that DPFs may promote the formation of ultrafine particles (UFP) and increase tailpipe emissions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Additionally, urea-based SCR systems for NOx control may form nitrous oxide (N2O), an important contributor to stratospheric ozone depletion. The effectiveness of these emission controls has been thoroughly evaluated in the laboratory, but the long-term durability of in-use systems and their impacts on co-emitted species have not been well characterized. To evaluate the in-use performance of DPF and SCR systems, pollutant emissions from thousands of diesel trucks were measured over several years at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area. Pollutants present in the exhaust plumes of individual trucks were measured at high time resolution (≥1 Hz) as trucks passed under a mobile lab stationed on an overpass. Fuel-based emission factors (g pollutant emitted per kg fuel burned) were calculated for individual trucks and linked via recorded license plates to vehicle attributes, including engine model year and installed emission control systems. Use of DPFs reduced the BC emission rate by up to 95% at both locations. SCR systems were more effective at reducing NOx emissions under the uphill, highway driving conditions at the Caldecott Tunnel. The emission rates of co-emitted species NO2, UFP, and N2O depended on driving

  17. Data-driven analysis of the effectiveness of evaporative emissions control systems of passenger cars in real world use condition: Time and spatial mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gennaro, Michele; Paffumi, Elena; Martini, Giorgio

    2016-03-01

    This paper assesses the effectiveness of the evaporative emissions control systems of European passenger cars on the basis of real-world activity data. The study relies on two large datasets of driving patterns from conventional fuel vehicles collected by means of on-board GPS systems, consisting of 4.5 million trips and parking events recorded by monitoring 28,000 vehicles over one month. Real world evaporative emissions are estimated using a model that associates a carbon canister desorption event to each trip and a fuel vapour generation event to each parking. The mass of volatile organic compounds released into the air is calculated taking into account the hot-soak, permeation and breathing emission mechanisms. The analysis is based on 36 scenarios, defined by varying the climate conditions, the fuel vapour pressure, the tank material, the tank headspace volume, the purging volume flow rate and the mass of the activated carbon contained in the canister. The results show that in May 4 out of the 18 scenarios considered for Modena and 6 out of the 18 scenarios considered for Firenze lead to evaporative emissions values above the current type approval limit (i.e. 2 [g/day] per vehicle). In July, these numbers increase to 10 out of the 18 scenarios for Modena and to 12 out of the 18 scenarios for Firenze. Looking at the fleet distribution a share of approximately 20% of the fleet is characterised by evaporative emissions higher than the limit in May, increasing to 48% in July, with a peak value of 98%. The emission peak value is estimated to be approximately 4 [g/day] in May and 8 [g/day] in July, while the time-dependent results show emission rates up to nearly 15 [g/s] in Modena and 30 [g/s] in Firenze, with a respective cumulative value in July up to 0.4 and 0.8 tons of VOCs per day. The space-dependent results show a value of the emissions in July of approximately 4-to-8 [kg/km2/day] in the city areas. These results confirm previous findings from the authors

  18. Trends of VOC exposures among a nationally representative sample: Analysis of the NHANES 1988 through 2004 data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Feng-Chiao; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Batterman, Stuart

    2011-09-01

    Exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitous due to emissions from personal, commercial and industrial products, but quantitative and representative information regarding long term exposure trends is lacking. This study characterizes trends from 1988 to 2004 for the 15 VOCs measured in blood in five cohorts of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a large and representative sample of U.S. adults. Trends were evaluated at various percentiles using linear quantile regression (QR) models, which were adjusted for solvent-related occupations and cotinine levels. Most VOCs showed decreasing trends at all quantiles, e.g., median exposures declined by 2.5 (m,p-xylene) to 6.4 (tetrachloroethene) percent per year over the 15 year period. Trends varied by VOC and quantile, and were grouped into three patterns: similar decreases at all quantiles (including benzene, toluene); most rapid decreases at upper quantiles (ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, o-xylene, styrene, chloroform, tetrachloroethene); and fastest declines at central quantiles (1,4-dichlorobenzene). These patterns reflect changes in exposure sources, e.g., upper-percentile exposures may result mostly from occupational exposure, while lower percentile exposures arise from general environmental sources. Both VOC emissions aggregated at the national level and VOC concentrations measured in ambient air also have declined substantially over the study period and are supportive of the exposure trends, although the NHANES data suggest the importance of indoor sources and personal activities on VOC exposures. While piecewise QR models suggest that exposures of several VOCs decreased little or any during the 1990's, followed by more rapid decreases from 1999 to 2004, questions are raised concerning the reliability of VOC data in several of the NHANES cohorts and its applicability as an exposure indicator, as demonstrated by the modest correlation between VOC levels in blood and personal air

  19. Emissions control of volatile organic compounds in petroleum industry; Controle de emissoes de compostos organicos volateis na industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierres, Ricardo; Moreira, Andrea Cristina de Castro Araujo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). P e D de Energia e Desenvolvimento Sustentavel (PDEDS)

    2004-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds are among the most common pollutants emitted by refining processes. The sources of these emissions should be controlled for preserving the ambient air quality. This article outlines the main factors to be considered for defining an effective emissions control strategy and compares the major characteristics of the available control technologies. (author)

  20. Ambient Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) pollution in Isolo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adsorbed VOCs were desorbed with carbondisulphide (CS2) and the solution analysed using Gas Chromatography (GC) fitted with Flame Ionization Detector (FID). The results from analysis of the air samples collected showed that twenty-six (26) VOCs were captured in Isolo Industrial area. The VOCs were classified ...

  1. Contribution of low vapor pressure-volatile organic compounds (LVP-VOCs) from consumer products to ozone formation in urban atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyeong-Moo; McKone, Thomas E.; Bennett, Deborah H.

    2015-05-01

    Because recent laboratory testing indicates that some low vapor pressure-volatile organic compounds (LVP-VOC) solvents readily evaporate at ambient conditions, LVP-VOCs used in some consumer product formulations may contribute to ozone formation. The goal of this study is to determine the fraction of LVP-VOCs available for ozone formation from the use of consumer products for two hypothetical emissions. This study calculates and compares the fraction of consumed product available for ozone formation as a result of (a) volatilization to air during use and (b) down-the-drain disposal. The study also investigates the impact of different modes of releases on the overall fraction available in ambient air for ozone formation. For the portion of the LVP-VOCs volatilized to air during use, we applied a multi-compartment mass-balance model to track the fate of emitted LVP-VOCs in a multimedia urban environment. For the portion of the LVP-VOCs disposed down the drain, we used a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) fate model to predict the emission rates of LVP-VOCs to ambient air at WWTPs or at the discharge zone of the facilities and then used these results as emissions in the multimedia urban environment model. In a WWTP, the LVP-VOCs selected in this study are primarily either biodegraded or removed via sorption to sludge depending on the magnitude of the biodegradation half-life and the octanol-water partition coefficient. Less than 0.2% of the LVP-VOCs disposed down the drain are available for ozone formation. In contrast, when the LVP-VOC in a consumer product is volatilized from the surface to which it has been applied, greater than 90% is available for photochemical reactions either at the source location or in the downwind areas. Comparing results from these two modes of releases allows us to understand the importance of determining the fraction of LVP-VOCs volatilized versus disposed down the drain when the product is used by consumers. The results from this study

  2. VOC removal by microwave, electron beam and catalyst technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IghigeanuI, D.; Martin, D.; OproiuI, C.; Manaila, E.; Craciun, G.; Calinescu, I.; Zissulescu, E.

    2007-01-01

    A hybrid technique, developed for VOCs removal using microwave (MW) treatment, electron beam (EB) irradiation and catalyst method, is presented. Two hybrid laboratory installations, developed for the study of air pollution control by combined EB irradiation, MW irradiation and catalyst, are described. Air loaded with toluene was treated at different MW power levels, water content, flow rates, and different irradiation modes, separately and combined with MW and EB. Also, simultaneous EB and MW irradiation method was applied to SO 2 and NO x removal. Real synergy effects between EB induced NTP, MW induced NTP and catalysis can be observed

  3. Modeled and observed ozone sensitivity to mobile-source emissions in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zavala

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The emission characteristics of mobile sources in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA have changed significantly over the past few decades in response to emission control policies, advancements in vehicle technologies and improvements in fuel quality, among others. Along with these changes, concurrent non-linear changes in photochemical levels and criteria pollutants have been observed, providing a unique opportunity to understand the effects of perturbations of mobile emission levels on the photochemistry in the region using observational and modeling approaches. The observed historical trends of ozone (O3, carbon monoxide (CO and nitrogen oxides (NOx suggest that ozone production in the MCMA has changed from a low to a high VOC-sensitive regime over a period of 20 years. Comparison of the historical emission trends of CO, NOx and hydrocarbons derived from mobile-source emission studies in the MCMA from 1991 to 2006 with the trends of the concentrations of CO, NOx, and the CO/NOx ratio during peak traffic hours also indicates that fuel-based fleet average emission factors have significantly decreased for CO and VOCs during this period whereas NOx emission factors do not show any strong trend, effectively reducing the ambient VOC/NOx ratio.

    This study presents the results of model analyses on the sensitivity of the observed ozone levels to the estimated historical changes in its precursors. The model sensitivity analyses used a well-validated base case simulation of a high pollution episode in the MCMA with the mathematical Decoupled Direct Method (DDM and the standard Brute Force Method (BFM in the 3-D CAMx chemical transport model. The model reproduces adequately the observed historical trends and current photochemical levels. Comparison of the BFM and the DDM sensitivity techniques indicates that the model yields ozone values that increase linearly with

  4. Quantification and Controls of Wetland Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNicol, Gavin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-10

    Wetlands cover only a small fraction of the Earth’s land surface, but have a disproportionately large influence on global climate. Low oxygen conditions in wetland soils slows down decomposition, leading to net carbon dioxide sequestration over long timescales, while also favoring the production of redox sensitive gases such as nitrous oxide and methane. Freshwater marshes in particular sustain large exchanges of greenhouse gases under temperate or tropical climates and favorable nutrient regimes, yet have rarely been studied, leading to poor constraints on the magnitude of marsh gas sources, and the biogeochemical drivers of flux variability. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California was once a great expanse of tidal and freshwater marshes but underwent drainage for agriculture during the last two centuries. The resulting landscape is unsustainable with extreme rates of land subsidence and oxidation of peat soils lowering the surface elevation of much of the Delta below sea level. Wetland restoration has been proposed as a means to slow further subsidence and rebuild peat however the balance of greenhouse gas exchange in these novel ecosystems is still poorly described. In this dissertation I first explore oxygen availability as a control on the composition and magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions from drained wetland soils. In two separate experiments I quantify both the temporal dynamics of greenhouse gas emission and the kinetic sensitivity of gas production to a wide range of oxygen concentrations. This work demonstrated the very high sensitivity of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide production to oxygen availability, in carbon rich wetland soils. I also found the temporal dynamics of gas production to follow a sequence predicted by thermodynamics and observed spatially in other soil or sediment systems. In the latter part of my dissertation I conduct two field studies to quantify greenhouse gas exchange and understand the carbon sources for

  5. Concentration, ozone formation potential and source analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a thermal power station centralized area: A study in Shuozhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yulong; Peng, Lin; Li, Rumei; Li, Yinghui; Li, Lijuan; Bai, Huiling

    2017-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from two sampling sites (HB and XB) in a power station centralized area, in Shuozhou city, China, were sampled by stainless steel canisters and measured by gas chromatography-mass selective detection/flame ionization detection (GC-MSD/FID) in the spring and autumn of 2014. The concentration of VOCs was higher in the autumn (HB, 96.87 μg/m 3 ; XB, 58.94 μg/m 3 ) than in the spring (HB, 41.49 μg/m 3 ; XB, 43.46 μg/m 3 ), as lower wind speed in the autumn could lead to pollutant accumulation, especially at HB, which is a new urban area surrounded by residential areas and a transportation hub. Alkanes were the dominant group at both HB and XB in both sampling periods, but the contribution of aromatic pollutants at HB in the autumn was much higher than that of the other alkanes (11.16-19.55%). Compared to other cities, BTEX pollution in Shuozhou was among the lowest levels in the world. Because of the high levels of aromatic pollutants, the ozone formation potential increased significantly at HB in the autumn. Using the ratio analyses to identify the age of the air masses and analyze the sources, the results showed that the atmospheric VOCs at XB were strongly influenced by the remote sources of coal combustion, while at HB in the spring and autumn were affected by the remote sources of coal combustion and local sources of vehicle emission, respectively. Source analysis conducted using the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model at Shuozhou showed that coal combustion and vehicle emissions made the two largest contributions (29.98% and 21.25%, respectively) to atmospheric VOCs. With further economic restructuring, the influence of vehicle emissions on the air quality should become more significant, indicating that controlling vehicle emissions is key to reducing the air pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mercury Emission Control Technologies for PPL Montana-Colstrip Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John P. Kay; Michael L. Jones; Steven A. Benson

    2007-04-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) was asked by PPL Montana LLC (PPL) to provide assistance and develop an approach to identify cost-effective options for mercury control at its coal-fired power plants. The work conducted focused on baseline mercury level and speciation measurement, short-term parametric testing, and week long testing of mercury control technology at Colstrip Unit 3. Three techniques and various combinations of these techniques were identified as viable options for mercury control. The options included oxidizing agents or sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) such as chlorine-based SEA1 and an EERC proprietary SEA2 with and without activated carbon injection. Baseline mercury emissions from Colstrip Unit 3 are comparatively low relative to other Powder River Basin (PRB) coal-fired systems and were found to range from 5 to 6.5 g/Nm3 (2.9 to 3.8 lb/TBtu), with a rough value of approximately 80% being elemental upstream of the scrubber and higher than 95% being elemental at the outlet. Levels in the stack were also greater than 95% elemental. Baseline mercury removal across the scrubber is fairly variable but generally tends to be about 5% to 10%. Parametric results of carbon injection alone yielded minimal reduction in Hg emissions. SEA1 injection resulted in 20% additional reduction over baseline with the maximum rate of 400 ppm (3 gal/min). Week long testing was conducted with the combination of SEA2 and carbon, with injection rates of 75 ppm (10.3 lb/hr) and 1.5 lb/MMacf (40 lb/hr), respectively. Reduction was found to be an additional 30% and, overall during the testing period, was measured to be 38% across the scrubber. The novel additive injection method, known as novel SEA2, is several orders of magnitude safer and less expensive than current SEA2 injection methods. However, used in conjunction with this plant configuration, the technology did not demonstrate a significant level of mercury reduction. Near-future use of this

  7. Exhaust emissions of volatile organic compounds of powered two-wheelers: effect of cold start and vehicle speed. Contribution to greenhouse effect and tropospheric ozone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costagliola, M Antonietta; Murena, Fabio; Prati, M Vittoria

    2014-01-15

    Powered two-wheeler (PTW) vehicles complying with recent European type approval standards (stages Euro 2 and Euro 3) were tested on chassis dynamometer in order to measure exhaust emissions of about 25 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the range C1-C7, including carcinogenic compounds as benzene and 1,3-butadiene. The fleet consists of a moped (engine capacity ≤ 50 cm(3)) and three fuel injection motorcycles of different engine capacities (150, 300 and 400 cm(3)). Different driving conditions were tested (US FPT cycle, constant speed). Due to the poor control of the combustion and catalyst efficiency, moped is the highest pollutant emitter. In fact, fuel injection strategy and three way catalyst with lambda sensor are able to reduce VOC motorcycles' emission of about one order of magnitude with respect to moped. Cold start effect, that is crucial for the assessment of actual emission of PTWs in urban areas, was significant: 30-51% of extra emission for methane. In the investigated speed range, moped showed a significant maximum of VOC emission factor at minimum speed (10 km/h) and a slightly decreasing trend from 20 to 60 km/h; motorcycles showed on the average a less significant peak at 10 km/h, a minimum at 30-40 km/h and then an increasing trend with a maximum emission factor at 90 km/h. Carcinogenic VOCs show the same pattern of total VOCs. Ozone Formation Potential (OFP) was estimated by using Maximum Incremental Reactivity scale. The greatest contribution to tropospheric ozone formation comes from alkenes group which account for 50-80% to the total OFP. VOC contribution effect on greenhouse effect is negligible with respect to CO2 emitted. © 2013.

  8. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Pu-Xian

    2013-07-31

    This final report to the Department of Energy (DOE) and National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for DE-EE0000210 covers the period from October 1, 2009 to July 31, 2013. Under this project, DOE awarded UConn about $1,248,242 to conduct the research and development on a new class of 3D composite nanostructure based catalysts for lean NOx emission control. Much of the material presented here has already been submitted to DOE/NETL in quarterly technical reports. In this project, through a scalable solution process, we have successfully fabricated a new class of catalytic reactors, i.e., the composite nanostructure array (nano-array) based catalytic converters. These nanocatalysts, distinct from traditional powder washcoat based catalytic converters, directly integrate monolithic substrates together with nanostructures with well-defined size and shape during the scalable hydrothermal process. The new monolithic nanocatalysts are demonstrated to be able to save raw materials including Pt-group metals and support metal oxides by an order of magnitude, while perform well at various oxidation (e.g., CO oxidation and NO oxidation) and reduction reactions (H{sub 2} reduction of NOx) involved in the lean NOx emissions. The size, shape and arrangement of the composite nanostructures within the monolithic substrates are found to be the key in enabling the drastically reduced materials usage while maintaining the good catalytic reactivity in the enabled devices. The further understanding of the reaction kinetics associated with the unique mass transport and surface chemistry behind is needed for further optimizing the design and fabrication of good nanostructure array based catalytic converters. On the other hand, the high temperature stability, hydrothermal aging stability, as well as S-poisoning resistance have been investigated in this project on the nanocatalysts, which revealed promising results toward good chemical and mechanical robustness, as well as S

  9. Volatile organic compounds emission control in industrial pollution source using plasma technology coupled with F-TiO2/γ-Al2O3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tao; Chen, Rui; Xia, Ni; Li, Xiaoyang; He, Xianxian; Zhao, Wenjuan; Carr, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds' (VOCs) effluents, which come from many industries, are triggering serious environmental problems. As an emerging technology, non-thermal plasma (NTP) technology is a potential technology for VOCs emission control. NTP coupled with F-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 is used for toluene removal from a gaseous influent at normal temperature and atmospheric pressure. NTP is generated by dielectric barrier discharge, and F-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 can be prepared by sol-gel method in the laboratory. In the experiment, the different packed materials were packed into the plasma reactor, including γ-Al2O3, TiO2/γ-Al2O3 and F-TiO2/γ-Al2O3. Through a series of characterization methods such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy and Brunner-Emmet-Teller measurements, the results show that the particle size distribution of F-TiO2 is relatively smaller than that of TiO2, and the pore distribution of F-TiO2 is more uniformly distributed than that of TiO2. The relationships among toluene removal efficiency, reactor input energy density, and the equivalent capacitances of air gap and dielectric barrier layer were investigated. The results show that the synergistic technology NTP with F-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 resulted in greater enhancement of toluene removal efficiency and energy efficiency. Especially, when packing with F-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 in NTP reactor, toluene removal efficiency reaches 99% and higher. Based on the data analysis of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, the experimental results showed that NTP reactor packed with F-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 resulted in a better inhibition for by-products formation effectively in the gas exhaust.

  10. A fuel-based approach to estimating motor vehicle exhaust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Brett Craig

    in California appear to understate total exhaust CO and VOC emissions, while overstating the importance of cold start emissions. The fuel-based approach yields robust, independent, and accurate estimates of on-road vehicle emissions. Fuel-based estimates should be used to validate or adjust official vehicle emission inventories before society embarks on new, more costly air pollution control programs.

  11. An overview of exhaust emissions regulatory requirements and control technology for stationary natural gas engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, H.N.; Hay, S.C.; Shade, W.N. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a practical overview of stationary natural gas engine exhaust emissions control technology and trends in emissions regulatory requirements is presented. Selective and non-selective catalytic reduction and lean burn technologies are compared. Particular emphasis is focussed on implications of the Clean Air Act of 1990. Recent emissions reduction conversion kit developments and a practical approach to continuous monitoring are discussed

  12. Occupational hygiene in terms of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols at two solid waste management plants in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtinen, Jenni, E-mail: jenni.k.lehtinen@jyu.fi [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Tolvanen, Outi; Nivukoski, Ulla; Veijanen, Anja; Hänninen, Kari [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Odorous VOCs: acetic acid, 2,3-butanedione, ethyl acetate, alpha-pinene and limonene. ► VOC concentrations did not exceed occupational exposure limit concentrations. ► 2,3-Butanedione as the health effecting compound is discussed. ► Endotoxin concentrations may cause health problems in waste treatment. - Abstract: Factors affecting occupational hygiene were measured at the solid waste transferring plant at Hyvinkää and at the optic separation plant in Hämeenlinna. Measurements consisted of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols including microbes, dust and endotoxins. The most abundant compounds in both of the plants were aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, esters of carboxylic acids, ketones and terpenes. In terms of odour generation, the most important emissions were acetic acid, 2,3-butanedione, ethyl acetate, alpha-pinene and limonene due to their low threshold odour concentrations. At the optic waste separation plant, limonene occurred at the highest concentration of all single compounds of identified VOCs. The concentration of any single volatile organic compound did not exceed the occupational exposure limit (OEL) concentration. However, 2,3-butanedione as a health risk compound is discussed based on recent scientific findings linking it to lung disease. Microbe and dust concentrations were low at the waste transferring plant. Only endotoxin concentrations may cause health problems; the average concentration inside the plant was 425 EU/m{sup 3} which clearly exceeded the threshold value of 90 EU/m{sup 3}. In the wheel loader cabin the endotoxin concentrations were below 1 EU/m{sup 3}. High microbial and endotoxin concentrations were measured in the processing hall at the optic waste separation plant. The average concentration of endotoxins was found to be 10,980 EU/m{sup 3}, a concentration which may cause health risks. Concentrations of viable fungi were quite high in few measurements in the control room. The most

  13. Occupational hygiene in terms of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols at two solid waste management plants in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, Jenni; Tolvanen, Outi; Nivukoski, Ulla; Veijanen, Anja; Hänninen, Kari

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Odorous VOCs: acetic acid, 2,3-butanedione, ethyl acetate, alpha-pinene and limonene. ► VOC concentrations did not exceed occupational exposure limit concentrations. ► 2,3-Butanedione as the health effecting compound is discussed. ► Endotoxin concentrations may cause health problems in waste treatment. - Abstract: Factors affecting occupational hygiene were measured at the solid waste transferring plant at Hyvinkää and at the optic separation plant in Hämeenlinna. Measurements consisted of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols including microbes, dust and endotoxins. The most abundant compounds in both of the plants were aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, esters of carboxylic acids, ketones and terpenes. In terms of odour generation, the most important emissions were acetic acid, 2,3-butanedione, ethyl acetate, alpha-pinene and limonene due to their low threshold odour concentrations. At the optic waste separation plant, limonene occurred at the highest concentration of all single compounds of identified VOCs. The concentration of any single volatile organic compound did not exceed the occupational exposure limit (OEL) concentration. However, 2,3-butanedione as a health risk compound is discussed based on recent scientific findings linking it to lung disease. Microbe and dust concentrations were low at the waste transferring plant. Only endotoxin concentrations may cause health problems; the average concentration inside the plant was 425 EU/m 3 which clearly exceeded the threshold value of 90 EU/m 3 . In the wheel loader cabin the endotoxin concentrations were below 1 EU/m 3 . High microbial and endotoxin concentrations were measured in the processing hall at the optic waste separation plant. The average concentration of endotoxins was found to be 10,980 EU/m 3 , a concentration which may cause health risks. Concentrations of viable fungi were quite high in few measurements in the control room. The most problematic factor was

  14. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Units with add-on emission controls... add-on emission controls. (a) The owner or operator of an affected unit equipped with add-on SO2 and... assurance/quality control program for the unit, required by section 1 in appendix B of this part. To provide...

  15. NOx emissions trading: Precursor to future growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colella, A.

    1993-01-01

    Title I of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 specified the framework for enhanced regulation in ozone non-attainment areas with increasingly stringent requirements dependent on the area classification - marginal, moderate, serious, severe or extreme. Before the CAAA were passed, only volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were regulated as precursors to ozone formation, Now, by statute, emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) are also regulated as ozone precursor. Under the CAAA, new sources and modifications of existing sources are subject to Title I permitting requirements in ozone non-attainment areas if emissions of NO x and/or VOCs exceed certain triggering levels. For many new or facility expansion projects, especially power generation, the NO x thresholds are easily exceeded thus triggering Title I non-attainment new source review which requires application of control technology to new equipment which results in the Lowest Achievable Emission Rate (LAER), and securing emission reductions either internally or from other major sources to offset the increased emission from the new or modified source. The selection of a LAER technology is generally within an applicant's control. An applicant can determine up-front the engineering and cost considerations associated with LAER technology is assessing a project's viability. However, without a clear source of emission offsets of a means to secure them, assessing project viability could be difficult if not impossible. No available emission offsets means no industrial growth. For sources of NO x undergoing Title I new source review, a regional or state banking system that facilitates NO x emissions trading is needed as a precursor to future growth. This paper presents an overview of EPA's Emissions Trading Policy and Title I new source review offset provisions. Industry's concerns about emissions trading and recommendations for future trading programs are presented

  16. FUEL FORMULATION EFFECTS ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION, COMBUSTION, EMISSIONS AND EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehman, A; Alam, M; Song, J; Acharya, R; Szybist, J; Zello, V; Miller, K

    2003-08-24

    This paper describes work under a U.S. DOE sponsored Ultra Clean Fuels project entitled ''Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas,'' Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41098. In this study we have examined the incremental benefits of moving from low sulfur diesel fuel and ultra low sulfur diesel fuel to an ultra clean fuel, Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel produced from natural gas. Blending with biodiesel, B100, was also considered. The impact of fuel formulation on fuel injection timing, bulk modulus of compressibility, in-cylinder combustion processes, gaseous and particulate emissions, DPF regeneration temperature and urea-SCR NOx control has been examined. The primary test engine is a 5.9L Cummins ISB, which has been instrumented for in-cylinder combustion analysis and in-cylinder visualization with an engine videoscope. A single-cylinder engine has also been used to examine in detail the impacts of fuel formulation on injection timing in a pump-line-nozzle fueling system, to assist in the interpretation of results from the ISB engine.

  17. 75 FR 15348 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Revision To Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... to control volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from storage tanks, transport vessels and marine... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Revision To Control Volatile Organic Compound..., Division 1 (Storage of Volatile Organic Compounds) and Subchapter F, Division 3 (Degassing or Cleaning of...

  18. 78 FR 15895 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans: North Carolina; Control Techniques...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... Requirements and Open Burning and are not required to meet RACT for the 1997 8-hour ozone standard. b. Summary... 90 percent overall control. Twelfth, Rule 15A NCAC 02D .0967, ``Miscellaneous Metal and Plastic Parts Coatings'' was adopted to control VOC emissions from miscellaneous metal and plastic part surface coatings...

  19. Seasonal variability and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in the Paris megacity (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baudic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of air quality studies at the megacity scale, highly time-resolved volatile organic compound (C2–C8 measurements were performed in downtown Paris (urban background sites from January to November 2010. This unique dataset included non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs and aromatic/oxygenated species (OVOCs measured by a GC-FID (gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector and a PTR-MS (proton transfer reaction – mass spectrometer, respectively. This study presents the seasonal variability of atmospheric VOCs being monitored in the French megacity and their various associated emission sources. Clear seasonal and diurnal patterns differed from one VOC to another as the result of their different origins and the influence of environmental parameters (solar radiation, temperature. Source apportionment (SA was comprehensively conducted using a multivariate mathematical receptor modeling. The United States Environmental Protection Agency's positive matrix factorization tool (US EPA, PMF was used to apportion and quantify ambient VOC concentrations into six different sources. The modeled source profiles were identified from near-field observations (measurements from three distinct emission sources: inside a highway tunnel, at a fireplace and from a domestic gas flue, hence with a specific focus on road traffic, wood-burning activities and natural gas emissions and hydrocarbon profiles reported in the literature. The reconstructed VOC sources were cross validated using independent tracers such as inorganic gases (NO, NO2, CO, black carbon (BC and meteorological data (temperature. The largest contributors to the predicted VOC concentrations were traffic-related activities (including motor vehicle exhaust, 15 % of the total mass on the annual average, and evaporative sources, 10 %, with the remaining emissions from natural gas and background (23 %, solvent use (20 %, wood-burning (18 % and a biogenic source (15 %. An

  20. Sulfation of ceria-zirconia model automotive emissions control catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Alan Edwin

    Cerium-zirconium mixed metal oxides are used in automotive emissions control catalysts to regulate the partial pressure of oxygen near the catalyst surface. The near surface oxygen partial pressure is regulated through transfer of atomic oxygen from the ceria-zirconia solid matrix to the platinum group metals to form metal oxides capable of oxidizing carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons. Although the addition of zirconium in the cubic lattice of ceria increases the oxygen storage capacity and thermal stability of the ceria matrix, the cerium-zirconium oxide system remains particularly susceptible to deactivation from sulfur compounds. While the overall effect of sulfur on these systems is understood (partially irreversible deactivation), the fundamental and molecular interaction of sulfur with ceria-zirconia remains a challenging problem. Ceria-zirconia metal oxide solid solutions have been prepared through co-precipitation with nitrate precursors. The prepared powders were calcined and subsequently formed into planer wafers and characterized for chemical and physical attributes. The prepared samples were subsequently exposed to a sulfur dioxide based environment and characterized with spectroscopic techniques to characterize the extent of sulfation and the nature of surface sulfur species. The extent of sulfation of the model ceria-zirconia systems was characterized with Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) prior to and after treatment in a microreactor. Strong dependencies were observed between the atomic ratio of ceria to zirconia and the extent of sulfation. In addition, the partial pressure of sulfur dioxide during treatments also correlated to the extent of sulfation, while temperature only slightly effected the extent of sulfation. The AES data suggests the gas phase sulfur dioxide preferentially chemisorbs on surface ceria atoms and the extent of sulfation is heavily dependent on sulfur dioxide concentrations and only slightly dependent on catalyst

  1. An Equivalent Emission Minimization Strategy for Causal Optimal Control of Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Zentner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges during the development of operating strategies for modern diesel engines is the reduction of the CO2 emissions, while complying with ever more stringent limits for the pollutant emissions. The inherent trade-off between the emissions of CO2 and pollutants renders a simultaneous reduction difficult. Therefore, an optimal operating strategy is sought that yields minimal CO2 emissions, while holding the cumulative pollutant emissions at the allowed level. Such an operating strategy can be obtained offline by solving a constrained optimal control problem. However, the final-value constraint on the cumulated pollutant emissions prevents this approach from being adopted for causal control. This paper proposes a framework for causal optimal control of diesel engines. The optimization problem can be solved online when the constrained minimization of the CO2 emissions is reformulated as an unconstrained minimization of the CO2 emissions and the weighted pollutant emissions (i.e., equivalent emissions. However, the weighting factors are not known a priori. A method for the online calculation of these weighting factors is proposed. It is based on the Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman (HJB equation and a physically motivated approximation of the optimal cost-to-go. A case study shows that the causal control strategy defined by the online calculation of the equivalence factor and the minimization of the equivalent emissions is only slightly inferior to the non-causal offline optimization, while being applicable to online control.

  2. Sheath structure transition controlled by secondary electron emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, I. V.; Langendorf, S. J.; Walker, M. L. R.; Keidar, M.

    2015-04-01

    In particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision (PIC MCC) simulations and in an experiment we study sheath formation over an emissive floating Al2O3 plate in a direct current discharge plasma at argon gas pressure 10-4 Torr. The discharge glow is maintained by the beam electrons emitted from a negatively biased hot cathode. We observe three types of sheaths near the floating emissive plate and the transition between them is driven by changing the negative bias. The Debye sheath appears at lower voltages, when secondary electron emission is negligible. With increasing applied voltage, secondary electron emission switches on and a first transition to a new sheath type, beam electron emission (BEE), takes place. For the first time we find this specific regime of sheath operation near the floating emissive surface. In this regime, the potential drop over the plate sheath is about four times larger than the temperature of plasma electrons. The virtual cathode appears near the emissive plate and its modification helps to maintain the BEE regime within some voltage range. Further increase of the applied voltage U initiates the second smooth transition to the plasma electron emission sheath regime and the ratio Δφs/Te tends to unity with increasing U. The oscillatory behavior of the emissive sheath is analyzed in PIC MCC simulations. A plasmoid of slow electrons is formed near the plate and transported to the bulk plasma periodically with a frequency of about 25 kHz.

  3. Modeling unsteady-state VOC transport in simulated waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Peterson, E.S.; Rae, C.; Hotz, N.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This report is a revision of an EG ampersand G Idaho informal report originally titled Modeling VOC Transport in Simulated Waste Drums. A volatile organic compound (VOC) transport model has been developed to describe unsteady-state VOC permeation and diffusion within a waste drum. Model equations account for three primary mechanisms for VOC transport from a void volume within the drum. These mechanisms are VOC permeation across a polymer boundary, VOC diffusion across an opening in a volume boundary, and VOC solubilization in a polymer boundary. A series of lab-scale experiments was performed in which the VOC concentration was measured in simulated waste drums under different conditions. A lab-scale simulated waste drum consisted of a sized-down 55-gal metal drum containing a modified rigid polyethylene drum liner. Four polyethylene bags were sealed inside a large polyethylene bag, supported by a wire cage, and placed inside the drum liner. The small bags were filled with VOC-air gas mixture and the VOC concentration was measured throughout the drum over a period of time. Test variables included the type of VOC-air gas mixtures introduced into the small bags, the small bag closure type, and the presence or absence of a variable external heat source. Model results were calculated for those trials where the permeability had been measured

  4. Estimates of increased black carbon emissions from electrostatic precipitators during powdered activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Herek L

    2012-07-03

    The behavior of mercury sorbents within electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is not well-understood, despite a decade or more of full-scale testing. Recent laboratory results suggest that powdered activated carbon exhibits somewhat different collection behavior than fly ash in an ESP and particulate filters located at the outlet of ESPs have shown evidence of powdered activated carbon penetration during full-scale tests of sorbent injection for mercury emissions control. The present analysis considers a range of assumed differential ESP collection efficiencies for powdered activated carbon as compared to fly ash. Estimated emission rates of submicrometer powdered activated carbon are compared to estimated emission rates of particulate carbon on submicrometer fly ash, each corresponding to its respective collection efficiency. To the extent that any emitted powdered activated carbon exhibits size and optical characteristics similar to black carbon, such emissions could effectively constitute an increase in black carbon emissions from coal-based stationary power generation. The results reveal that even for the low injection rates associated with chemically impregnated carbons, submicrometer particulate carbon emissions can easily double if the submicrometer fraction of the native fly ash has a low carbon content. Increasing sorbent injection rates, larger collection efficiency differentials as compared to fly ash, and decreasing sorbent particle size all lead to increases in the estimated submicrometer particulate carbon emissions.

  5. Energy, Carbon-emission and Financial Savings from Thermostat Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasing, T J [ORNL; Schroeder, Dana [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

    2013-08-01

    Among the easiest approaches to energy, and cost, savings for most people is the adjustment of thermostats to save energy. Here we estimate savings of energy, carbon, and money in the United States of America (USA) that would result from adjusting thermostats in residential and commercial buildings by about half a degree Celsius downward during the heating season and upward during the cooling season. To obtain as small a unit as possible, and therefore the least likely to be noticeable by most people, we selected an adjustment of one degree Fahrenheit (0.56 degree Celsius) which is the gradation used almost exclusively on thermostats in the USA and is the smallest unit of temperature that has been used historically. Heating and/or cooling of interior building space for personal comfort is sometimes referred to as space conditioning, a term we will use for convenience throughout this work without consideration of humidity. Thermostat adjustment, as we use the term here, applies to thermostats that control the indoor temperature, and not to other thermostats such as those on water heaters. We track emissions of carbon only, rather than of carbon dioxide, because carbon atoms change atomic partners as they move through the carbon cycle, from atmosphere to biosphere or ocean and, on longer time scales, through the rock cycle. To convert a mass of carbon to an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide (thereby including the mass of the 2 oxygen atoms in each molecule) simply multiply by 3.67.

  6. Cost-effective control of SO2 emissions in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cofala, J.; Amann, M.; Gyarfas, F.; Schoepp, F.; Boudri, J.C.; Hordijk, L.; Kroeze, C.; Li Junfeng,; Dai Lin, D.; Panwar, T.S.; Gupta, S.

    2004-01-01

    Despite recent efforts to limit the growth of SO2 emissions in Asia, the negative environmental effects of sulphur emissions are likely to further increase in the future. This paper presents an extension of the RAINS-Asia integrated assessment model for acidification in Asia with an optimisation

  7. New trends in emission control in the European Union

    CERN Document Server

    Merkisz, Jerzy; Radzimirski, Stanislaw

    2014-01-01

    This book discusses recent changes in the European legislation for exhaust emissions from motor vehicles. It starts with a comprehensive explanation of both the structure and range of applicability of new regulations, such as Euro 5 and Euro 6 for light-duty vehicles and Euro VI for heavy-duty vehicles. Then it introduces the most important issues in in-service conformity and conformity of production for vehicles, describing the latest procedures for performing exhaust emissions tests under both bench and operating conditions. Subsequently, it reports on portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) and their application for assessing the emissions of gaseous and particulate matter alike, under actual operating conditions and in all transport modes. Lastly, the book presents selected findings from exhaust emissions research on engines for a variety of transport vehicles, such as light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles, as well as non-road vehicles, which include farm tractors, groundwork and forest machinery, diese...

  8. Photocatalysts: ambient temperature destruction of VOCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R [IT Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Photocatalysis was a failure as a solar energy driven organic synthesis technique, but as this study indicates, it has undergone a renaissance as a promising treatment method for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air streams. Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) relies upon the ability of certain semiconductors to be stimulated by UV radiation. UV light excites valence band electrons in the semiconductor catalyst to jump to a conductance band leaving holes in the valence band. The electrons and holes can react with compounds such as organic contaminants present in an air stream. Hallmarks of the technology include rapid destruction kinetics for many VOCs at ambient temperature and efficient use energy in the form of UV-A photons. Studies clearly indicate that PCO is competitive on capital cost and offers significant operating cost savings on selected applications. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  9. Photocatalysts: ambient temperature destruction of VOCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.

    1994-01-01

    Photocatalysis was a failure as a solar energy driven organic synthesis technique, but as this study indicates, it has undergone a renaissance as a promising treatment method for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air streams. Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) relies upon the ability of certain semiconductors to be stimulated by UV radiation. UV light excites valence band electrons in the semiconductor catalyst to jump to a conductance band leaving holes in the valence band. The electrons and holes can react with compounds such as organic contaminants present in an air stream. Hallmarks of the technology include rapid destruction kinetics for many VOCs at ambient temperature and efficient use energy in the form of UV-A photons. Studies clearly indicate that PCO is competitive on capital cost and offers significant operating cost savings on selected applications. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  10. OVERVIEW OF ADVANCED PETROLEUM-BASED FUELS-DIESEL EMISSIONS CONTROL PROGRAM (APBF-DEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverdrup, George M.

    2000-08-20

    The Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels-Diesel Emissions Control Program (APBF-DEC) began in February 2000 and is supported by government agencies and industry. The purpose of the APBF-DEC program is to identify and evaluate the optimal combinations of fuels, lubricants, diesel engines, and emission control systems to meet the projected emission standards for the 2000 to 2010 time period. APBF-DEC is an outgrowth of the earlier Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects Program (DECSE), whose objective is to determine the impact of the sulfur levels in fuel on emission control systems that could lower the emissions of NOx and particulate matter (PM) from diesel powered vehicles in the 2002 to 2004 period. Results from the DECSE studies of two emission control technologies-diesel particle filter (DPF) and NOx adsorber-will be used in the APBF-DEC program. These data are expected to provide initial information on emission control technology options and the effects of fuel properties (including additives) on the performance of emission control systems.

  11. Influence of synoptic condition and holiday effects on VOCs and ozone production in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhengning; Huang, Xin; Nie, Wei; Chi, Xuguang; Xu, Zheng; Zheng, Longfei; Sun, Peng; Ding, Aijun

    2017-11-01

    Both anthropogenic emission and synoptic conditions play important roles in ozone (O3) formation and accumulation. In order to understand the influence of synoptic condition and holiday effects on ozone production in the Yangtze River Delta region, China, concentrations of speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and O3 as well as other relevant trace gases were simultaneously measured at the Station for Observing Regional Processes of the Earth System (SORPES) in Nanjing around the National Day holidays of China in 2014, which featured substantial change of emissions and dominated by typical anti-cyclones. Different groups of VOC species and their chemical reactivities were comprehensively analyzed. We observed clear diurnal variations of short alkenes during the measurement period, considerable amount of short alkenes were observed during night (more than 10 ppb) while almost no alkenes were measured during daytime, which might be attributed to different chemical processes. The obvious enhancement of the VOC tracers during the National Day holidays (Oct. 1st-Oct. 7th) indicated that the holiday effect strongly influenced the distribution of VOC profile and chemical reactivity in the atmosphere. At the same time, two meso-scale anticyclone processes were also observed during the measurement period. The synoptic condition contributed to the accumulation of VOCs and other precursors, which consequently impacted the ozone production in this region. The integrated influence of synoptic and holiday effects was also analyzed with an Observation Based Model (OBM) based on simplified MCM (Master Chemical Mechanism) chemical mechanism. The calculated relative increment reactivity (RIR) of different VOC groups revealed that during the holidays, this region was in VOC-limited regime and the variation of RIR shows a close linkage to the development and elimination of anti-cyclones, indicating an in-negligible contribution of synoptic effect toward ozone production in this

  12. Controlling spontaneous emission dynamics in semiconductor micro cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayral, B.

    Spontaneous emission of light can be controlled, cavity quantum electrodynamics tells us, and many experiments in atomic physics demonstrated this fact. In particular, coupling an emitter to a resonant photon mode of a cavity can enhance its spontaneous emission rate: this is the so-called Purcell effect. Though appealing it might seem to implement these concepts for the benefit of light-emitting semiconductor devices, great care has to be taken as to which emitter/cavity system should be used. Semiconductor quantum boxes prove to be good candidates for witnessing the Purcell effect. Also, low volume cavities having a high optical quality in other words a long photon storage time are required. State-of-the-art fabrication techniques of such cavities are presented and discussed.We demonstrate spontaneous emission rate enhancement for InAs/GaAs quantum boxes in time-resolved and continuous-wave photoluminescence experiments. This is done for two kinds of cavities, namely GaAs/AlAs micropillars (global enhancement by a factor of 5), and GaAs microdisks (global enhancement by a factor of 20). Prospects for lasers, light-emitting diodes and single photon sources based on the Purcell effect are discussed. L'émission spontanée de lumière peut être contrôlée, ainsi que nous l'enseigne l'électrodynamique quantique en cavité, ce fait a été démontré expérimentalement en physique atomique. En particulier, coupler un émetteur à un mode photonique résonnant d'une cavité peut exalter son taux d'émission spontanée : c'est l'effet Purcell. Bien qu'il semble très prometteur de mettre en pratique ces concepts pour améliorer les dispositifs semi-conducteurs émetteurs de lumière, le choix du système émetteur/cavité est crucial. Nous montrons que les boîtes quantiques semi-conductrices sont des bons candidats pour observer l'effet Purcell. Il faut par ailleurs des cavités de faible volume ayant une grande qualité optique en d'autres mots un long temps de

  13. Origin of 2-ethylhexanol as a VOC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalli, Sandro; Horn, Owen J.; Grochowalski, Adam R.; Cooper, David G.; Nicell, Jim A.

    2006-01-01

    2-Ethylhexanol has been identified as a volatile organic compound (VOC) that contributes to the deterioration of indoor air quality. Plasticizers are common components of dust and building materials and are shown to be degraded by a variety of bacteria and fungi to produce 2-ethyhexanol and other metabolites. Of these, the 2-ethylhexanol has significant volatility and was observed in appreciable quantities. The degree to which 2-ethylhexanol is observed as a VOC in air samples would be limited by the fact that many of the microorganisms that are capable of producing this compound are also able to oxidize it to 2-ethylhexanoic acid, which is much less volatile. It is argued that an abiotic degradation mechanism of plasticizers that results in the generation of 2-ethylhexanol is unlikely and, if this did occur, other metabolites should have been observed. Thus, the microbial degradation of plasticizers is the most likely source of 2-ethylhexanol in indoor air. - A link has been observed between the partial biodegradation of plasticizers by microorganisms and VOCs associated with poor indoor air quality

  14. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions: control targets and long term policy strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haites, E.

    1993-01-01

    A number of countries have unilaterally committed themselves to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. Other countries have resisted such commitments; they prefer to engage in further climate research to determine the extent of any emissions reduction that may be necessary before committing themselves to significant costs to implement controls. This paper examines the costs of alternative policies including immediate action to limit emissions and climate research followed by controls if necessary. (Author)

  15. 76 FR 39357 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Kern County Air Pollution Control District (KCAPCD), and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from architectural coating operations. We are proposing to approve local rules to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  16. 76 FR 39303 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Kern County Air Pollution Control District (KCAPCD), and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from architectural coating operations. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  17. Investigations of VOCs in and around buildings close to service stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicklin, William; Farrugia, Pierre S.; Sinagra, Emmanuel

    2018-01-01

    Gas service stations are one of the major sources of volatile organic compounds in urban environments. Their emissions are expected not only to affect the ambient air quality but also that in any nearby buildings. This is particularly the case in Malta where most service stations have been built within residential zones. For this reason, it is important to understand the dispersion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from service stations and their infiltration into nearby residences. Two models were considered; one to predict the dispersion of VOCs in the outdoor environment in the vicinity of the service station and another one to predict the filtration of the compounds indoors. The two models can be used in tandem to predict the concentration of indoor VOCs that originate from a service station in the vicinity. Outdoor and indoor concentrations of VOCs around a service station located in a street canyon were measured, and the results used to validate the models. Predictions made using the models were found to be in general agreement with the measured concentrations of the pollutants.

  18. Effect of catalyst for the decomposition of VOCs in a NTP reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, Suchitra; Das, Smrutiprava; Paikaray, Rita; Sahoo, Gourishankar; Samantaray, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has become a major cause of human distress both directly and indirectly. VOCs are becoming the major air pollutants. So the decomposition of VOCs is present need of our society. Non-thermal plasma reactor (NTP) is proven to be effective for low concentration VOCs decomposition. For safe and effective application of DBD, optimization of treatment process requires different plasma parameter characterization. So electron temperature and electron density parameters of VOCs show the decomposition path ways. In this piece of work by taking the emission spectra and comparing the line intensity ratios, the electron temperature and density were determined. Also the decomposition rate in terms of the deposited products on the dielectric surface was studied. Decomposition rate increases in presence of catalyst as compared to the pure compound in presence of a carrier gas. Decomposition process was studied by UV-VIS, FTIR, OES Spectroscopic methods and by GCMS. Deposited products are analyzed by UV-VIS and FTIR spectroscopy. Plasma parameters like electron temperature, density are studied with OES. And gaseous products are studied by GCMS showing the peaks for the by products. (author)

  19. 40 CFR 63.3555 - How do I determine the outlet THC emissions and add-on control device emission destruction or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do I determine the outlet THC.../outlet Concentration Option § 63.3555 How do I determine the outlet THC emissions and add-on control... section to determine either the outlet THC emissions or add-on control device emission destruction or...

  20. Engine Performance (Section C: Emission Control Systems). Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Module 3. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rains, Larry

    This engine performance (emission control systems) module is one of a series of competency-based modules in the Missouri Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Topics of this module's five units are: positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) and evaporative emission control systems; exhaust gas recirculation (EGR); air injection and catalytic converters;…

  1. Engine Tune-up Service. Unit 6: Emission Control Systems. Student Guide. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, E. Miles

    This student guide is for Unit 6, Emission Control Systems, in the Engine Tune-Up Service portion of the Automotive Mechanics Curriculum. It deals with inspecting, testing, and servicing an emission control system. A companion review exercise book and posttests are available separately as CE 031 221-222. An introduction tells how this unit fits…

  2. Engine Tune-up Service. Unit 6: Emission Control Systems. Posttests. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, David T.; May, Theodore R.

    This book of posttests is designed to accompany the Engine Tune-Up Service Student Guide for Unit 6, Emission Control Systems, available separately as CE 031 220. Focus of the posttests is inspecting, testing, and servicing emission control systems. One multiple choice posttest is provided that covers the seven performance objectives contained in…

  3. Engine Tune-up Service. Unit 6: Emission Control Systems. Review Exercise Book. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, E. Miles

    This book of pretests and review exercises is designed to accompany the Engine Tune-Up Service Student Guide for Unit 6, Emission Control Systems, available separately as CE 031 220. Focus of the exercises and pretests is inspecting, testing, and servicing emission control systems. Pretests and performance checklists are provided for each of the…

  4. 78 FR 5303 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Missouri; Control of Sulfur Emissions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... stringency of the SIP. Missouri's revision adds 10 CSR 10- 5.570 Control of Sulfur Emissions from Stationary... approving the State's request to add 10 CSR 10-5.570 Control of Sulfur Emissions from Stationary Boilers to... Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not impose an...

  5. Reducing CO2 emissions in temperature-controlled road transportation using the LDVRP model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellingwerf, Helena M.; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Vorst, van der Jack G.A.J.; Bloemhof, Jacqueline M.

    2018-01-01

    Temperature-controlled transport is needed to maintain the quality of products such as fresh and frozen foods and pharmaceuticals. Road transportation is responsible for a considerable part of global emissions. Temperature-controlled transportation exhausts even more emissions than ambient

  6. 24 CFR 3280.308 - Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products. 3280.308 Section 3280.308 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Body and Frame Construction Requirements § 3280.308 Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood...

  7. On-road vehicle emission control in Beijing: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ye; Wang, Renjie; Zhou, Yu; Lin, Bohong; Fu, Lixin; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming

    2011-01-01

    Beijing, the capital of China, has experienced rapid motorization since 1990; a trend that is likely to continue. The growth in vehicles and the corresponding emissions create challenges to