WorldWideScience

Sample records for voc emissions control

  1. VOC emissions chambers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In order to support the development of test methods and reference materials for volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions from building materials and furnishings,...

  2. A High Performance Biofilter for VOC Emission Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G; Conti, B; Leroux, A; Brzezinski, R; Viel, G; Heitz, M

    1999-02-01

    Biofiltration is a cleaning technique for waste air contaminated with some organic compounds. The advantages of the conventional biofilter over other biological systems are a high-superficial area best suited for the treatment of some compounds with poor water solubility, ease of operation, and low operating costs. It has crucial disadvantages, however; for example, it is not suitable to treat waste gases with high VOC concentrations and it has poor control of reaction conditions. To improve on these problems and to build a high-performance biofilter, three structured peat media and two trickling systems have been introduced in this study. The influences of media size and composition have been investigated experimentally. Peat bead blended with 30% (w/w) certain mineral material with a good binding capacity has advantages over other packing materials, for example, suitable size to prevent blockage due to microbial growth, strong buffering capacity to neutralize acidic substances in the system, and a pH range of 7.0-7.2 suitable for the growth of bacteria. Dropwise trickling system offers an effective measure to easily control the moisture content of the bed and the reaction conditions (pH, nutrient) and to partially remove excess biomass produced during the metabolic processes of microorganisms. The influence of nutrient supplementation has also been investigated in this study, which has revealed that the biological system was in a condition of nutrient limitation instead of carbon limitation. The biofilters built in our laboratory were used to treat waste gas contaminated with toluene in a concentration range of 1 to 3.2 g/m(3) and at the specific gas flow rate of 24 to120 m(3)/m(2).hr. Under the conditions employed, a high elimination capacity (135 g/m(3).hr) was obtained in the biofilter packed with peat beads (blended with 30% of the mineral material), and no blockage problem was observed in an experimental period of 2-3 months.

  3. Control of VOC emissions from a flexographic printing facility using an industrial biotrickling filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempere, F; Martínez-Soria, V; Penya-Roja, J M; Waalkens, A; Gabaldón, C

    2012-01-01

    The study of an industrial unit of biotrickling filter for the treatment of the exhaust gases of a flexographic facility was investigated over a 2-year period with the objective to meet the volatile organic compound (VOC) regulatory emission limits. Increasing the water flow rate from 2 to 40 m(3) h(-1) improved the performance of the process, meeting the VOC regulation when 40 m(3) h(-1) were used. An empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 36 s was used when the inlet air temperature was 18.7 °C, and an EBRT as low as 26 s was set when the inlet temperature was 26.8 °C. During this long-term operation, the pressure drop over the column of the bioreactor was completely controlled avoiding clogging problems and the system could perfectly handle the non-working periods without VOC emission, demonstrating its robustness and feasibility to treat the emission of the flexographic sector.

  4. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission characteristics and control strategies for a petrochemical industrial area in middle Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Hsien; Horng, Jao-Jia

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated VOC emissions from the largest petrochemical industrial district in Taiwan and recommended some control measures to reduce VOC emissions. In addition to the petrochemical industry, the district encompasses a chemical and fiber industry, a plastics industry and a harbor, which together produce more than 95% of the VOC emissions in the area. The sequence of VOC emission was as follows: components (e.g., valves, flanges, and pumps) (47%) > tanks (29%) > stacks (15%) > wastewater treatment facility (6%) > loading (2%) > flares (1%). Other plants producing high-density polyethylene (HDPE), styrene, ethylene glycol (EG), gas oil, and iso-nonyl-alchol (INA) were measured to determine the VOC leaching in the district. The VOC emissions of these 35 plants (90% of all plants) were less than 100 tons/year. About 74% of the tanks were fixed-roof tanks that leached more VOCs than the other types of tanks. To reduce leaching, the components should be checked periodically, and companies should be required to follow the Taiwan EPA regulations. A VOC emission management system was developed in state implementation plans (SIPs) to inspect and reduce emissions in the industrial district.

  5. Diffusion-controlled toluene reference material for VOC emissions testing: international interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Reed, Cynthia; Liu, Zhe; Cox, Steven; Leber, Dennis; Samarov, Dan; Little, John C

    2014-04-01

    The measurement of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from building products and materials by manufacturers and testing laboratories, and the use of the test results for labeling programs, continue to expand. One issue that hinders wide acceptance for chamber product testing is the lack of a reference material to validate test chamber performance. To meet this need, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Virginia Tech (VT) have developed a prototype reference material that emits a single VOC similar to the emissions of a diffusion-controlled building product source with a dynamic emissions profile. The prototype material has undergone extensive testing at NIST and a pilot interlaboratory study (ILS) with four laboratories. The next development step is an evaluation of the prototype source in multiple-sized chambers of 14 laboratories in seven countries. Each laboratory was provided duplicate specimens and a test protocol. Study results identified significant issues related to the need to store the source at a subzero Celsius temperature until tested and possible inconsistencies in large chambers. For laboratories using a small chamber and meeting all the test method criteria, the results were very encouraging with relative standard deviations ranging from 5% to 10% across the laboratories. Currently, the chamber performance of laboratories conducting product VOC emissions testing is assessed through interlaboratory studies (ILS) using a source with an unknown emission rate. As a result, laboratory proficiency can only be based on the mean and standard deviation of emission rates measured by the participating ILS laboratories. A reference material with a known emission rate has the potential to provide an independent assessment of laboratory performance as well as improve the quality of interlaboratory studies. Several international laboratories with different chamber testing systems demonstrated the ability to measure the emission rate

  6. Efficient control of odors and VOC emissions via activated carbon technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Farhana; Kim, James; Huang, Ruey; Nu, Huong Ton; Lorenzo, Vlad

    2014-07-01

    This research study was undertaken to enhance the efficiency and economy of carbon scrubbers in controlling odors and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at the wastewater collection and treatment facilities of the Bureau of Sanitation, City of Los Angeles. The butane activity and hydrogen sulfide breakthrough capacity of activated carbon were assessed. Air streams were measured for odorous gases and VOCs and removal efficiency (RE) determined. Carbon towers showed average to excellent removal of odorous compounds, VOCs, and siloxanes; whereas, wet scrubbers demonstrated good removal of odorous compounds but low to negative removal of VOCs. It was observed that the relative humidity and empty bed contact time are one of the most important operating parameters of carbon towers impacting the pollutant RE. Regular monitoring of activated carbon and VOCs has resulted in useful information on carbon change-out frequency, packing recommendations, and means to improve performance of carbon towers.

  7. Hydrogen sulphide, odor, and VOC air emission control systems for heavy oil storage, transport, and processing operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, H.P. [APC Technologies, Inc. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, companies have to control their air emissions in compliance with regulatory and process improvement objectives. The industry therefore operates air emission control systems to eliminate odor complaints, reduce personnel exposure to H2S and remove BTEX and VOC emissions. This paper studies different cases of companies which have chosen to use a fixed activated carbon adsorption unit. The study was conducted on three cases of heavy oil industries which installed the CarbonPure adsorption system and describes their objectives, processes, emissions, technology options and performances. Results showed an elimination of odor complaints, a reduction of personnel exposure to harmful air contaminants and a reduction of VOC concentrations in a reliable, low maintenance and economic manner. This study presents the greater benefits of the CarbonPure adsorption system combined with an ultra high efficiency unit over those of other adsorption systems.

  8. Speciated OVOC and VOC emission inventories and their implications for reactivity-based ozone control strategy in the Pearl River Delta region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Jiamin; Zheng, Junyu; Li, Rongrong; Huang, Xiaobo; Zhong, Zhuangmin; Zhong, Liuju; Lin, Hui

    2015-10-15

    The increasing ground-ozone (O3) levels, accompanied by decreasing SO2, NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations benefited from air pollution control measures implemented in recent years, initiated a serious challenge to control Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, China. Speciated VOC emission inventory is fundamental for estimating Ozone Formation Potentials (OFPs) to identify key reactive VOC species and sources in order to formulate efficient O3 control strategies. With the use of the latest bulk VOC emission inventory and local source profiles, this study developed the PRD regional speciated Oxygenated Volatile Organic Compound (OVOC) and VOC emission inventories to identify the key emission-based and OFP-based VOC sources and species. Results showed that: (1) Methyl alcohol, acetone and ethyl acetate were the major constituents in the OVOC emissions from industrial solvents, household solvents, architectural paints and biogenic sources; (2) from the emission-based perspective, aromatics, alkanes, OVOCs and alkenes made up 39.2%, 28.2%, 15.9% and 10.9% of anthropogenic VOCs; (3) from the OFP-based perspective, aromatics and alkenes become predominant with contributions of 59.4% and 25.8% respectively; (4) ethene, m/p-xylene, toluene, 1,2,4-trimethyl benzene and other 24 high OFP-contributing species were the key reactive species that contributed to 52% of anthropogenic emissions and up to 80% of OFPs; and (5) industrial solvents, industrial process, gasoline vehicles and motorcycles were major emission sources of these key reactive species. Policy implications for O3 control strategy were discussed. The OFP cap was proposed to regulate VOC control policies in the PRD region due to its flexibility in reducing the overall OFP of VOC emission sources in practice.

  9. Evaluating the effectiveness of joint emission control policies on the reduction of ambient VOCs: Implications from observation during the 2014 APEC summit in suburban Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Li, Junling; Wang, Weigang; Tong, Shengrui; Liggio, John; Ge, Maofa

    2017-09-01

    Ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at a suburban Beijing site were on-line detected using proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) during autumn of 2014, near the location of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit. During the APEC summit, the Chinese government enacted strict emission control policies. It was found that VOC concentrations only slightly decreased during the first emission control period (EC I), when control policies were performed in Beijing and 5 cities along the Tai-hang Mountains. However, most of the VOCs (10 out of 12 non-biogenic species) significantly decreased (more than 40%) during the second emission control period (EC II), when control policies were carried out in 16 cities including Beijing, Tianjin, 8 cities of Hebei province and 6 cities of Shandong province. Also the ratio of toluene and benzene decreased during EC II, likely because the emission control policies changed the proportions of different anthropogenic sources. Using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) source apportionment method, five factors are analyzed: (1) vehicle + fuel, (2) solvent, (3) biomass burning, (4) secondary, and (5) background + long-lived. Among them, vehicle + fuel, solvent and biomass burning contribute most of the VOCs concentrations (60%-80%) during the polluted periods and are affected most by emission control policies. During EC II, the reductions of vehicle + fuel, solvent, biomass burning and secondary species were all no less than 50%. Overall, when emission control policies were carried out in many North China Plain (NCP) cities (i.e. EC II), the VOC concentrations of suburban Beijing markedly decreased. This indicates the cross-regional joint-control policies have a large influence on reductions of organic gas species. The findings of this study have vital implications for helping formulate effective emission control policies in China and other countries.

  10. Response surface modeling-based source contribution analysis and VOC emission control policy assessment in a typical ozone-polluted urban Shunde, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Yun; Jang, Carey; Wang, Shuxiao; Gao, Jian; Lin, Che-Jen; Li, Minhui; Zhu, Zhenghua; Wei, Hao; Yang, Wenwei

    2017-01-01

    To develop a sound ozone (O3) pollution control strategy, it is important to well understand and characterize the source contribution due to the complex chemical and physical formation processes of O3. Using the "Shunde" city as a pilot summer case study, we apply an innovative response surface modeling (RSM) methodology based on the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling simulations to identify the O3 regime and provide dynamic analysis of the precursor contributions to effectively assess the O3 impacts of volatile organic compound (VOC) control strategy. Our results show that Shunde is a typical VOC-limited urban O3 polluted city. The "Jiangmen" city, as the main upper wind area during July 2014, its VOCs and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions make up the largest contribution (9.06%). On the contrary, the contribution from local (Shunde) emission is lowest (6.35%) among the seven neighbor regions. The local VOCs industrial source emission has the largest contribution comparing to other precursor emission sectors in Shunde. The results of dynamic source contribution analysis further show that the local NOx control could slightly increase the ground O3 under low (10.00%) and medium (40.00%) reduction ratios, while it could start to turn positive to decrease ground O3 under the high NOx abatement ratio (75.00%). The real-time assessment of O3 impacts from VOCs control strategies in Pearl River Delta (PRD) shows that the joint regional VOCs emission control policy will effectively reduce the ground O3 concentration in Shunde. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Reducing VOC Press Emission from OSB Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Gary D. McGinnis; Laura S. WIlliams; Amy E. Monte; Jagdish Rughani: Brett A. Niemi; Thomas M. Flicker

    2001-12-31

    Current regulations require industry to meet air emission standards with regard to particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and other gases. One of many industries that will be affected by the new regulations is the wood composites industry. This industry generates VOCs, HAPs, and particulates mainly during the drying and pressing of wood. Current air treatment technologies for the industry are expensive to install and operate. As regulations become more stringent, treatment technologies will need to become more efficient and cost effective. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the use of process conditions and chemical additives to reduce VOC/HAPs in air emitted from presses and dryers during the production of oriented strand board.

  12. Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions during malting and beer manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Nigel B.; Costigan, Gavin T.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Woodfield, Michael J.

    Estimates have been made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released during different stages of beer manufacture. The estimates are based on recent measurements and plant specification data supplied by manufacturers. Data were obtained for three main manufacturing processes (malting, wort processing and fermentation) for three commercial beer types. Some data on the speciation of emitted compounds have been obtained. Based on these measurements, an estimate of the total unabated VOC emission. from the U.K. brewing industry was calculated as 3.5 kta -1, over 95% of which was generated during barley malting. This value does not include any correction for air pollution control.

  13. Light dependency of VOC emissions from selected Mediterranean plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S. M.; Harley, P.; Guenther, A.; Hewitt, C. N.

    The light, temperature and stomatal conductance dependencies of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from ten plant species commonly found in the Mediterranean region were studied using a fully controlled leaf cuvette in the laboratory. At standard conditions of temperature and light (30°C and 1000 μmol m -2 s -1 PAR), low emitting species ( Arbutus unedo, Pinus halepensis, Cistus incanus, Cistus salvifolius, Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris) emitted between 0.1 and 5.0 μg (C) (total VOCs) g -1 dw h -1, a medium emitter ( Pinus pinea) emitted between 5 and 10 μg (C) g -1 dw h -1 and high emitters ( Cistus monspeliensis, Lavendula stoechas and Quercus sp.) emitted more than 10 μg (C) g -1 dw h -1. VOC emissions from all of the plant species investigated showed some degree of light dependency, which was distinguishable from temperature dependency. Emissions of all compounds from Quercus sp. were light dependent. Ocimene was one of several monoterpene compounds emitted by P. pinea and was strongly correlated to light. Only a fraction of monoterpene emissions from C. incanus exhibited apparent weak light dependency but emissions from this plant species were strongly correlated to temperature. Data presented here are consistent with past studies, which show that emissions are independent of stomatal conductance. These results may allow more accurate predictions of monoterpene emission fluxes from the Mediterranean region to be made.

  14. Determination of VOC emission rates and compositions for offset printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadden, R A; Scheff, P A; Franke, J E; Conroy, L M; Keil, C B

    1995-07-01

    The release rates of volatile organic compounds (VOC) as fugitive emissions from offset printing are difficult to quantify, and the compositions are usually not known. Tests were conducted at three offset printing shops that varied in size and by process. In each case, the building shell served as the test "enclosure," and air flow and concentration measurements were made at each air entry and exit point. Emission rates and VOC composition were determined during production for (1) a small shop containing three sheetfed presses and two spirit duplicators (36,700 sheets, 47,240 envelopes and letterheads), (2) a medium-size industrial in-house shop with two webfed and three sheetfed presses, and one spirit duplicator (315,130 total sheets), and (3) one print room of a large commercial concern containing three webfed, heatset operations (1.16 x 10(6) ft) served by catalytic air pollution control devices. Each test consisted of 12 one-hour periods over two days. Air samples were collected simultaneously during each period at 7-14 specified locations within each space. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) for total VOC and for 13-19 individual organics. Samples of solvents used at each shop were also analyzed by GC. Average VOC emission rates were 4.7-6.1 kg/day for the small sheetfed printing shop, 0.4-0.9 kg/day for the industrial shop, and 79-82 kg/day for the commercial print room. Emission compositions were similar and included benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzene, and hexane. Comparison of the emission rates with mass balance estimates based on solvent usage and composition were quite consistent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Emission inventory of evaporative emissions of VOCs in four metro cities in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anjali; née Som Majumdar, Dipanjali

    2010-01-01

    High concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air of urban areas stress the need for the control of VOC emissions due to the toxic and carcinogenic nature of many VOCs commonly encountered in urban air. Emission inventories are an essential tool in the management of local air quality, which provide a listing of sources of air pollutant emissions within a specific area over a specified period of time. This study intended to provide a level IV emission inventory as par the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) definition for evaporative VOC emissions in the metro cities of India namely Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, and Kolkata. The vehicular evaporative emissions are found to be the largest contributor to the total evaporative emissions of hydrocarbons followed by evaporative losses related to petrol loading and unloading activities. Besides vehicle-related activities, other major sources contributing to evaporative emissions of hydrocarbons are surface coating, dry cleaning, graphical art applications, printing (newspaper and computer), and the use of consumer products. Various specific preventive measures are also recommended for reducing the emissions.

  16. SUBSTRATE EFFECTS ON VOC EMISSIONS FROM A LATEX PAINT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of two substrates -- a stainless steel plate and a gypsum board -- on the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from a latex paint were evaluated by environmental chamber tests. It was found that the amount of VOCs emitted from the painted stainless steel was 2 to...

  17. Quantitative assessment of industrial VOC emissions in China: Historical trend, spatial distribution, uncertainties, and projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chenghang; Shen, Jiali; Zhang, Yongxin; Huang, Weiwei; Zhu, Xinbo; Wu, Xuecheng; Chen, Linghong; Gao, Xiang; Cen, Kefa

    2017-02-01

    The temporal trends of industrial volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions was comprehensively summarized for the 2011 to 2013 period, and the projections for 2020 to 2050 for China were set. The results demonstrate that industrial VOC emissions in China increased from 15.3 Tg in 2011 to 29.4 Tg in 2013 at an annual average growth rate of 38.3%. Guangdong (3.45 Tg), Shandong (2.85 Tg), and Jiangsu (2.62 Tg) were the three largest contributors collectively accounting for 30.4% of the national total emissions in 2013. The top three average industrial VOC emissions per square kilometer were Shanghai (247.2 ton/km2), Tianjin (62.8 ton/km2), and Beijing (38.4 ton/km2), which were 12-80 times of the average level in China. The data from the inventory indicate that the use of VOC-containing products, as well as the production and use of VOCs as raw materials, as well as for storage and transportation contributed 75.4%, 10.3%, 9.1%, and 5.2% of the total emissions, respectively. ArcGIS was used to display the remarkable spatial distribution variation by allocating the emission into 1 km × 1 km grid cells with a population as surrogate indexes. Combined with future economic development and population change, as well as implementation of policy and upgrade of control technologies, three scenarios (scenarios A, B, and C) were set to project industrial VOC emissions for the years 2020, 2030, and 2050, which present the industrial VOC emissions in different scenarios and the potential of reducing emissions. Finally, the result shows that the collaborative control policies considerably influenced industrial VOC emissions.

  18. VOC emission control by circulating fluidized bed adsorption; Controle de l'emission de composes organiques volatils par adsorption en lit fluidise circulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, W.

    2003-12-15

    This work deals with the circulating fluidized bed technology, applied to the elimination by adsorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), like toluene, in a gas flow. In the process, the adsorbent (millimetric spherical grains of micro-porous carbon) is moved by a strong flow rate of gas inside a vertical tube without lining. Mass and heat transfers are very important and important volumes of compounds can be processed. This work presents the determination of the adsorption equilibrium, the description of the experimental facility and of the results of experiments, the development of an original model of the process which combines a flow model and a mass transfer model, a parametric study of this model, and finally, some extensions of the process principle to staged operations with pressure variation or temperature variation cycles. (J.S.)

  19. [Study on control and management for industrial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Lin; Zhang, Guo-Ning; Nei, Lei; Wang, Yu-Fei; Hao, Zheng-Ping

    2011-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from industrial sources account for a large percent of total anthropogenic VOCs. In this paper, VOCs emission characterization, control technologies and management were discussed. VOCs from industrial emissions were characterized by high intensity, wide range and uneven distribution, which focused on Bejing-Tianjin Joint Belt, Shangdong Peninsula, Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta. The current technologies for VOCs treatment include adsorption, catalytic combustion, bio-degradation and others, which were applied in petrochemical, oil vapor recovery, shipbuilding, printing, pharmaceutical, feather manufacturing and so on. The scarcity of related regulations/standards plus ineffective supervision make the VOCs management difficult. Therefore, it is suggested that VOCs treatment be firstly performed from key areas and industries, and then carried out step by step. By establishing of actual reducing amount control system and more detailed VOCs emission standards and regulations, applying practical technologies together with demonstration projects, and setting up VOCs emission registration and classification-related-charge system, VOCs could be reduced effectively.

  20. A mass transfer model for VOC emission from silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Sasha D.; Montes, Felipe; Rotz, C. Alan

    2012-07-01

    Silage has been shown to be an important source of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone. Measurements have shown that environmental conditions and silage properties strongly influence emission rates, making it difficult to assess the contribution of silage in VOC emission inventories. In this work, we present an analytical convection-diffusion-dispersion model for predicting emission of VOCs from silage. It was necessary to incorporate empirical relationships from wind tunnel trials for the response of mass transfer parameters to surface air velocity and silage porosity. The resulting model was able to accurately predict the effect of temperature on ethanol emission in wind tunnel trials, but it over-predicted alcohol and aldehyde emission measured using a mass balance approach from corn silage samples outdoors and within barns. Mass balance results confirmed that emission is related to gas-phase porosity, but the response to air speed was not clear, which was contrary to wind tunnel results. Mass balance results indicate that alcohol emission from loose silage on farms may approach 50% of the initial mass over six hours, while relative losses of acetaldehyde will be greater.

  1. VOC emission from oil refinery and petrochemical wastewater treatment plant estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Marina A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of environmental legislation improvement for industrial producers in Serbia, notably the Integrated Pollution Prevention Control (IPPC license, will oblige the industrial producers to provide annual report on the pollutant emissions into the environment, as well as to pay certain environment fee. Wastewater treatment plant can be a significant source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs diffuse emissions, which are difficult to measure directly. In the near future reporting obligations might expend to benzene and other VOCs. This paper deals with gaseous emissions calculations from API separator based on the emission factors and the adequate software applications. The analyzed results show that the estimated emission values differ depending on the applied method. The VOC emissions have been estimated using US EPA and CONCAWE emissions factors. The calculated emissions range from 40 to 4500 tons/year for oil refinery WWTP of 2,000,000 m3/year. The calculations of benzene and toluene emissions have been performed using three methods: US EPA emission factors, WATER9, and Toxchem+ software. The calculated benzene and toluene emissions range from 5.5-60 and 0.7-20 tons/year, respectively. The highest emission values were obtained by the US EPA emission factors, while the lowest values were the result of Toxchem+ analysis. The sensitivity analysis of obtained results included the following parameters: flow, temperature, oil content, and the concentration of benzene and toluene in the effluent. Wide range of results indicates the need for their official interpretation for the conditions typical for Serbia, thus establishing adequate national emission factors for future utilization of the “polluter pays principle” on the VOC and benzene emissions.

  2. 国内外 VOCs 排放标准体系研究%Study of Emission Standards System of VOCs at Home and Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗斌; 蒋燕; 王斌

    2014-01-01

    It had important significance to develop VOCs emission standards for controlling VOCs emissions, improving air quality, and protecting human health and ecological environment. The characteristics of emission standards system of VOCs at home and abroad were analyzed, and some suggestions on the development of VOCs emission standards were proposed that toxicity and emissions of pollutants, particular pollutants of key industries should be considered when developing standards, and establishing emission standards system of VOCs giving priority to industry standards.%制定VOCs排放标准对于控制VOCs排放量,改善环境空气质量,保护人体健康和生态环境有重要意义。分析了国内外VOCs排放标准体系的特点,提出我国制定VOCs排放标准的几点建议,即标准制定过程中应考虑污染物毒性和排放量大小,考虑控制重点行业的特征污染物,并建立以行业排放标准为主的VOCs排放标准体系。

  3. Oxygenated VOC and monoterpene emissions from a boreal coniferous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale, R.; Rantala, P.; Kajos, M. K.; Patokoski, J.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Aalto, J.; Kolari, P.; Bäck, J.; Hari, P.; Kulmala, M.; Rinne, J.

    2012-04-01

    Compared with terpenoids, emissions of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from boreal ecosystems have been poorly characterized. We measured ecosystem scale emissions of three oxygenated compounds (methanol, acetaldehyde, and acetone) and monoterpenes from a Scots pine dominated forest in southern Finland during the summers 2006-2008. The measurements were conducted using the disjunct eddy covariance method combined with proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. The contribution of the three oxygenated compounds to the measured total emissions was 40-60 %. The highest oxygenated VOC emissions were those of methanol, comprising 20-30 % of the total, followed by acetone with a share of 10-20 %. The acetaldehyde emissions were 5-10 % of the total. This emission composition will be compared with that obtained from shoot enclosure measurements. Methanol showed deposition during some periods although its overall flux was towards the atmosphere. The monoterpene emissions had a light dependent component, suggesting that part of the emissions originated directly from monoterpene biosynthesis. Diurnal, seasonal, and inter-annual variations in the emissions, along with temperature and light dependencies, will be discussed.

  4. Primary VOC emissions from Commercial Aircraft Jet Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Dogushan; Huang, Rujin; Slowik, Jay; Brem, Benjamin; Durdina, Lukas; Rindlisbacher, Theo; Baltensperger, Urs; Prevot, Andre

    2014-05-01

    Air traffic is growing continuously [1]. The increasing number of airplanes leads to an increase of aviation emissions giving rise to environmental concerns globally by high altitude emissions and, locally on air quality at the ground level [2]. The overall impact of aviation emissions on the environment is likely to increase when the growing air transportation trend [2] is considered. The Aviation Particle Regulatory Instrumentation Demonstration Experiment (APRIDE)-5 campaign took place at Zurich Airport in 2013. In this campaign, aircraft exhaust is sampled during engine acceptance tests after engine overhaul at the facilities of SR Technics. Direct sampling from the engine core is made possible due to the unique fixed installation of a retractable sampling probe and the use of a standardized sampling system designed for the new particulate matter regulation in development for aircraft engines. Many of the gas-phase aircraft emissions, e.g. CO2, NOX, CO, SO2, hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds (VOC) were detected by the instruments in use. This study, part of the APRIDE-5 campaign, focuses on the primary VOC emissions in order to produce emission factors of VOC species for varying engine operating conditions which are the surrogates for the flight cycles. Previously, aircraft plumes were sampled in order to quantify VOCs by a proton transfer reaction quadrupole mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) [3]. This earlier study provided a preliminary knowledge on the emission of species such as methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, benzene and toluene by varying engine thrust levels. The new setup was (i) designed to sample from the diluted engine exhaust and the new tool and (ii) used a high resolution time of flight PTR-MS with higher accuracy for many new species, therefore providing a more detailed and accurate inventory. We will present the emission factors for species that were quantified previously, as well as for many additional VOCs detected during the campaign

  5. On-road emission characteristics of VOCs from light-duty gasoline vehicles in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xinyue; Yao, Zhiliang; Shen, Xianbao; Ye, Yu; Jiang, Xi

    2016-01-01

    This study is the third in a series of three papers aimed at characterizing the VOC emissions of vehicles in Beijing. In this study, 30 light-duty vehicles fueled with gasoline were evaluated using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) as they were driven on a predesigned, fixed test route. All of the tested vehicles were rented from private vehicle owners and spanned regulatory compliance guidelines ranging from Pre-China I to China IV. Alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and some additional species in the exhaust were collected in Tedlar bags and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Carbonyls were collected on 2,4-dinitrophenyhydrazine (DNPH) cartridges and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Overall, 74 VOC species were detected from the tested vehicles, including 22 alkanes, 6 alkenes, 1 alkyne, 16 aromatics, 3 cyclanes, 10 halohydrocarbons, 12 carbonyls and 4 other compounds. Alkanes, aromatics and carbonyls were the dominant VOCs with weight percentages of approximately 36.4%, 33.1% and 17.4%, respectively. The average VOC emission factors and standard deviations of the Pre-China I, China I, China II, China III and China IV vehicles were 469.3 ± 200.1, 80.7 ± 46.1, 56.8 ± 37.4, 25.6 ± 11.7 and 14.9 ± 8.2 mg/km, respectively, which indicated that the VOC emissions significantly decreased under stricter vehicular emission standards. Driving cycles also influenced the VOC emissions from the tested vehicles. The average VOC emission factors based on the travel distances of the tested vehicles under urban driving cycles were greater than those under highway driving cycles. In addition, we calculated the ozone formation potential (OFP) using the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) method. The results of this study will be helpful for understanding the true emission levels of light-duty gasoline vehicles and will provide information for controlling VOC emissions from vehicles in Beijing, China.

  6. Development of biogenic VOC emission inventories for the boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, V.

    2008-07-01

    The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by vegetation, especially forests, can affect local and regional atmospheric photochemistry through their reactions with atmospheric oxidants. Their reaction products may also participate in the formation and growth of new particles which affect the radiation balance of the atmosphere, and thus climate, by scattering and absorbing shortwave and longwave radiation and by modifying the radiative properties, amount and lifetime of clouds. Globally, anthropogenic VOC emissions are far surpassed by the biogenic ones, making biogenic emission inventories an integral element in the development of efficient air quality and climate strategies. The inventories are typically constructed based on landcover information, measured emissions of different plants or vegetation types, and empirical dependencies of the emissions on environmental variables such as temperature and light. This thesis is focused on the VOC emissions from the boreal forest, the largest terrestrial biome with characteristic vegetation patterns and strong seasonality. The isoprene, monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions of the most prevalent boreal tree species in Finland, Scots pine, have been measured and their seasonal variation and dependence on temperature and light have been studied. The measured emission data and other available observations of the emissions of the principal boreal trees have been used in a biogenic emission model developed for the boreal forests in Finland. The model utilizes satellite landcover information, Finnish forest classification and hourly meteorological data to calculate isoprene, monoterpene, sesquiterpene and other VOC emissions over the growing season. The principal compounds emitted by Scots pine are DELTA3-carene and alpha-pinene in the south boreal zone and alpha- and beta-pinene in the north boreal zone. The monoterpene emissions are dependent on temperature and have a clear seasonal cycle with high emissions in spring

  7. Effect of heat waves on VOC emissions from vegetation and urban air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churkina, G.; Kuik, F.; Lauer, A.; Bonn, B.; Butler, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Programs to plant millions of trees in cities around the world aim at the reduction of summer temperatures, increase carbon storage, storm water control, provision of space for recreation, as well as poverty alleviation. Although these multiple benefits speak positively for urban greening programs, the programs do not take into account how close human and natural systems are coupled in urban areas. Elevated temperatures together with anthropogenic emissions of air and water pollutants distinguish the urban system. Urban and sub-urban vegetation responds to ambient changes and reacts with pollutants. Neglecting this coupling may lead to unforeseen drawbacks of urban greening programs. The potential for emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vegetation combined with anthropogenic emissions to produce ozone has long been recognized. This potential increases under rising temperatures. Here we investigate how heat waves affect emissions of VOC from urban vegetation and corresponding ground-level ozone. In this study we use Weather Research and Forecasting Model with coupled atmospheric chemistry (WRF-CHEM) to quantify these feedbacks in Berlin, Germany during the 2006 heat wave. VOC emissions from vegetation are simulated with MEGAN 2.0 coupled with WRF-CHEM. Our preliminary results indicate that contribution of VOCs from vegetation to ozone formation may increase by more than twofold during the heat wave period. We highlight the importance of the vegetation for urban areas under changing climate and discuss associated tradeoffs.

  8. Emission control measures for precursors of tropospheric ozone. Pt. 1 and 2; Emissionsminderungsmoeglichkeiten bei Vorlaeufersubstanzen von bodennahem Ozon. Bd. 1: Systemanalyse der Ozonminderungsmassnahmen in den USA. Bd. 2: Luftreinhaltemassnahmen in den USA zur Minderung von VOC-Emissionen aus Kleinanlagen und Produkten und Vergleich mit europaeischen Regelungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclaire, T.; Schiefer, C.; Bergmann, S.; Hrabovski, Z. [Institut fuer Umwelttechnologie und Umweltanalytik e.V. (IUTA), Duisburg (Germany)

    1998-08-01

    For more than two decades now experiences of ozone reduction have been made in the USA. In many regions great efforts for VOC control are made to reduce their high ozone concentrations in ambient air that in some cases reach up to more than twice the German peak concentrations. This report places focus on small stationary sources and products, for these sources actually contribute more than half of the VOC emissions in Germany and are still not regulated under the German Immission Control Law. Therefore, main aim of this examination was to determine the major elements of VOC control strategies in the U.S. and to consider, whether strategies and measures are transferable taking into account German circumstances. Volume 1 describes the strategies and measures for ozone control in the U.S. (national) as well as in five regions with high ozone concentrations in ambient air. The authorities and responsbilities at federal, state, regional, and local levels are highlighted, legislation and different types of regulations are explained, priorities concerning VOC versus NO{sub x} related control are mentioned and the control measures on different sources for reducing VOC and NO{sub x} are summarized briefly. Volume 2 contains a detailed description of control measures for reducing VOC emissions from products and stationary sources, namely the proposed national VOC emission standards for coatings and consumer products, the California Consumer Products Regulations, the state-wide requirements for industrial and commercial sources in California and the VOC related rules of the South Coast Air Quality Management District (LA and surrounded Countries). The South Coast Rules were chosen as an example for District Rules for they were generally the most stringent because of the extreme ozone concentration in this area. Moreover, the regulations for VOC emission control in Europe concerning small stationary sources and products are mentioned. The different approaches to control VOC

  9. VOCs and OVOCs distribution and control policy implications in Pearl River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Peter K. K.; Ho, Josephine W. K.; Tsang, Roy C. W.; Blake, Donald R.; Lau, Alexis K. H.; Yu, Jian Zhen; Yuan, Zibing; Wang, Xinming; Shao, Min; Zhong, Liuju

    2013-09-01

    Ambient air measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) were conducted and characterised during a two-year grid study in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of southern China. The present grid study pioneered the systematic investigation of the nature and characteristics of complex VOC and OVOC sources at a regional scale. The largest contributing VOCs, accounting over 80% of the total VOCs mixing ratio, were toluene, ethane, ethyne, propane, ethene, butane, benzene, pentane, ethylbenzene, and xylenes. Sub-regional VOC spatial characteristics were identified, namely: i) relatively fresh pollutants, consistent with elevated vehicular and industrial activities, around the PRD estuary; and ii) a concentration gradient with higher mixing ratios of VOCs in the west as compared with the eastern part of PRD. Based on alkyl nitrate aging determination, a high hydroxyl radical (OH) concentration favoured fast hydrocarbon reactions and formation of locally produced ozone. The photochemical reactivity analysis showed aromatic hydrocarbons and alkenes together consisted of around 80% of the ozone formation potential (OFP) among the key VOCs. We also found that the OFP from OVOCs should not be neglected since their OFP contribution was more than one-third of that from VOCs alone. These findings support the choice of current air pollution control policy which focuses on vehicular sources but warrants further controls. Industrial emissions and VOCs emitted by solvents should be the next targets for ground-level ozone abatement.

  10. Biofiltration for control of volatile organic compounds (VOCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, D.F. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Govind, R. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Air biofiltration is a promising technology for control of air emissions of biodegradable volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In conjunction with vacuum extraction of soils or air stripping of ground water, it can be used to mineralize VOCs removed from contaminated soil or groundwater. The literature describes three major biological systems for treating contaminated air bioscrubbers, biotrickling filters and biofilters. Filter media can be classified as: bioactive fine or irregular particulates, such as soil, peat, compost or mixtures of these materials; pelletized, which are randomly packed in a bed; and structured, such as monoliths with defined or variable passage size and geometry. The media can be made of sorbing and non-absorbing materials. Non-bioactive pelletized and structured media require recycled solutions of nutrients and buffer for efficient microbial activity and are thus called biotrickling filters. Extensive work has been conducted to improve biofiltration by EPA`s Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory and the University of Cincinnati in biofilters using pelletized and structured media and improved operational approaches. Representative VOCs in these studies included compounds with a range of aqueous solubilities and octanol-water partition coefficients. The compounds include iso-pentane, toluene, methylene chloride, trichloroethylene (TCE), ethyl benzene, chlorobenzene and perchloroethylene (PCE) and alpha ({alpha}-) pinene. Comparative studies were conducted with peat/compost biofilters using isopentane and {alpha}-pinene. Control studies were also conducted to investigate adsorption/desorption of contaminants on various media using mercuric chloride solution to insure the absence of bioactivity.

  11. Feasibility Analysis of Sustainability-Based Measures to Reduce VOC Emissions in Office Partition Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A feasibility analysis is reported of reduction opportunities for volatile organic compound (VOC emissions in manufacturing office furniture partitions, aimed at contributing to efforts to improve the sustainability of the process. A pollution prevention methodology is utilized. The purpose is to provide practical options for VOC emissions reductions during the manufacturing of office furniture partitions, but the concepts can be generally applied to the wood furniture industry. Baseline VOC emissions for a typical plant are estimated using a mass balance approach. The feasibility analysis expands on a preliminary screening to identify viable pollution prevention options using realistic criteria and weightings, and is based on technical, environmental and economic considerations. The measures deemed feasible include the implementation of several best management practices, ceasing the painting of non-visible parts, switching to hot melt backwrapping glue, application of solvent recycling and modification of the mechanical clip attachment. Implementation, measurement and control plans are discussed for the measures considered feasible, which can enhance the sustainability of the manufacturing of office furniture partitions. Reducing VOC emissions using the measures identified can, in conjunction with other measures, improve the sustainability of the manufacturing process.

  12. Emission control measures for precursors of tropospheric ozone. Pt. 1 and 2; Emissionsminderungsmoeglichkeiten bei Vorlaeufersubstanzen von bodennahem Ozon. Bd. 1: Systemanalyse der Ozonminderungsmassnahmen in den USA. Bd. 2: Luftreinhaltemassnahmen in den USA zur Minderung von VOC-Emissionen aus Kleinanlagen und Produkten und Vergleich mit europaeischen Regelungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclaire, T.; Schiefer, C.; Bergmann, S.; Hrabovski, Z. [Institut fuer Umwelttechnologie und Umweltanalytik e.V. (IUTA), Duisburg (Germany)

    1998-08-01

    For more than two decades now experiences of ozone reduction have been made in the USA. In many regions great efforts for VOC control are made to reduce their high ozone concentrations in ambient air that in some cases reach up to more than twice the German peak concentrations. This report places focus on small stationary sources and products, for these sources actually contribute more than half of the VOC emissions in Germany and are still not regulated under the German Immission Control Law. Therefore, main aim of this examination was to determine the major elements of VOC control strategies in the U.S. and to consider, whether strategies and measures are transferable taking into account German circumstances. Volume 1 describes the strategies and measures for ozone control in the U.S. (national) as well as in five regions with high ozone concentrations in ambient air. The authorities and responsbilities at federal, state, regional, and local levels are highlighted, legislation and different types of regulations are explained, priorities concerning VOC versus NO{sub x} related control are mentioned and the control measures on different sources for reducing VOC and NO{sub x} are summarized briefly. Volume 2 contains a detailed description of control measures for reducing VOC emissions from products and stationary sources, namely the proposed national VOC emission standards for coatings and consumer products, the California Consumer Products Regulations, the state-wide requirements for industrial and commercial sources in California and the VOC related rules of the South Coast Air Quality Management District (LA and surrounded Countries). The South Coast Rules were chosen as an example for District Rules for they were generally the most stringent because of the extreme ozone concentration in this area. Moreover, the regulations for VOC emission control in Europe concerning small stationary sources and products are mentioned. The different approaches to control VOC

  13. VOC emission rates and emission factors for a sheetfed offset printing shop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadden, R A; Scheff, P A; Franke, J E; Conroy, L M; Javor, M; Keil, C B; Milz, S A

    1995-04-01

    Emission rates were determined during production for a sheetfed offset printing shop by combining the measured concentrations and ventilation rates with mass balance models that characterized the printing space. Air samples were collected simultaneously on charcoal tubes for 12 separate 1-hour periods at 6 locations. Air samples and cleaning solvents were analyzed by gas chromatography for total volatile organic compounds (VOC) and 13 hydrocarbons. The average VOC emission rate was 470 g/hr with a range of 160-1100 g/hr. These values were in good agreement with the amounts of VOC, hexane, toluene, and aromatic C9s determined from estimated solvent usage and measured solvent compositions. Comparison of the emission rates with source activities indicated an emission factor of 30-51 g VOC/press cleaning. Based on the test observations it was estimated that this typical small printing facility was likely to release 1-2 T VOC/year. The methodology also may be useful for the surface coating industry, as emission rates in this study were determined without recourse to a temporary total enclosure and without interfering with worker activities, increasing worker exposure, or increasing safety and explosion hazards.

  14. Mechanisms of Increased Particle and VOC Emissions during DPF Active Regeneration and Practical Emissions Considering Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Inomata, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi

    2017-02-27

    Mechanisms involved in increased particle and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions during active and parked active regenerations of a diesel particulate filter (DPF) were investigated using heavy-duty trucks equipped with both a urea selective catalytic reduction system and a DPF (SCR + DPF) and a DPF-only. Particle emissions increased in the later part of the regeneration period but the mechanisms were different above and below 23 nm. Particles above 23 nm were emitted due to the lower filtering efficiency of the DPF because of the decreasing amount of soot trapped during regeneration. Small particles below 23 nm were thought to be mainly sulfuric acid particles produced from SO2 trapped by the catalyst, being released and oxidized during regeneration. Contrary to the particle emissions, VOCs increased in the earlier part of the regeneration period. The mean molecular weights of the VOCs increased gradually as the regeneration proceeded. To evaluate "practical emissions" in which increased emissions during the regeneration were considered, a Regeneration Correction Factor (RCF), which is the average emission during one cycle of regeneration/emission in normal operation, was adopted. The RCFs of PM and VOCs were 1.1-1.5, and those of PNs were as high as 3-140, although they were estimated from a limited number of observations.

  15. Performance of the JULES land surface model for UK Biogenic VOC emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, Garry; Comyn-Platt, Edward; Vieno, Massimo; Langford, Ben

    2017-04-01

    Emissions of biogenic non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) are important for air quality and tropospheric composition. Through their contribution to the production of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA), biogenic VOCs indirectly contribute to climate forcing and climate feedbacks [1]. Biogenic VOCs encompass a wide range of compounds and are produced by plants for growth, development, reproduction, defence and communication [2]. There are both biological and physico-chemical controls on emissions [3]. Only a few of the many biogenic VOCs are of wider interest and only two or three (isoprene and the monoterpenes, α- and β-pinene) are represented in chemical transport models. We use the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES), the UK community land surface model, to estimate biogenic VOC emission fluxes. JULES is a process-based model that describes the water, energy and carbon balances and includes temperature, moisture and carbon stores [4, 5]. JULES currently provides emission fluxes of the 4 largest groups of biogenic VOCs: isoprene, terpenes, methanol and acetone. The JULES isoprene scheme uses gross primary productivity (GPP), leaf internal carbon and the leaf temperature as a proxy for the electron requirement for isoprene synthesis [6]. In this study, we compare JULES biogenic VOC emission estimates of isoprene and terepenes with (a) flux measurements made at selected sites in the UK and Europe and (b) gridded estimates for the UK from the EMEP/EMEP4UK atmospheric chemical transport model [7, 8], using site-specific or EMEP4UK driving meteorological data, respectively. We compare the UK-scale emission estimates with literature estimates. We generally find good agreement in the comparisons but the estimates are sensitive to the choice of the base or reference emission potentials. References (1) Unger, 2014: Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 8563, doi:10.1002/2014GL061616; (2) Laothawornkitkul et al., 2009: New Phytol., 183, 27, doi

  16. Preliminary insights into the chemical composition and emissions of urban VOCs in the East Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, S.; Borbon, A.; Afif, C.; Bechara, J.; Leonardis, T.; Fronval, I.; Waked, A.; Brioude, J.; Locoge, N.

    2011-12-01

    The Mediterranean region is an area where polluted air masses coming from Eastern and Central Europe increase air pollution, particularly during stagnation periods, together with intense solar radiation. It was demonstrated that the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea suffers from this kind of phenomena. Favorable weather conditions, remote sources, high urban and biogenic emissions lead to the formation of secondary pollutants (ozone and secondary organic aerosols, SOA), which may have significant impacts on health and climate. However, data are sparse in this region. The ECOCEM (Emission and Chemistry of Organic Carbon in the East Mediterranean - Beirut) project aims to improve our understanding of air pollution in this area by studying the composition of the gaseous and particulate phases in Beirut (Lebanon). Beirut is located on the eastern border of the Mediterranean basin. The goal of the project, which is taking place over two intensive field campaigns (July 2011 and February 2012), is to provide valuable observations on the composition and the temporal evolution of organics (summer versus winter),to identify and quantify the relative importance of sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aerosols (SOA) and to study the role of VOCs in the first oxidation steps of SOA formation. For that purpose, a large suite of primary and secondary VOCs (>60) were measured during the summertime campaign (July 2nd to July 17th 2011) at one suburban site in Beirut. Techniques encompass off-line sampling on carbonaceous sorbent tubes (2-hour time resolution) and liquid coil scrubbing (1-hour time resolution), an on-line GCFID (1-hour time resolution) and a PTR-MS (4-min time resolution). We will discuss here the atmospheric composition of VOCs in relation with their emissions. In particular, these data provide useful constraints to evaluate the first temporally and spatially resolved national emission inventory that was built for the year 2010. Preliminary results

  17. Effect of VOC emissions from vegetation on urban air quality during hot periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churkina, Galina; Kuik, Friderike; Bonn, Boris; Lauer, Axel; Grote, Ruediger; Butler, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Programs to plant millions of trees in cities around the world aim at the reduction of summer temperatures, increase of carbon storage, storm water control, and recreational space, as well as at poverty alleviation. These urban greening programs, however, do not take into account how closely human and natural systems are coupled in urban areas. Compared with the surroundings of cities, elevated temperatures together with high anthropogenic emissions of air and water pollutants are quite typical in urban systems. Urban and sub-urban vegetation respond to changes in meteorology and air quality and can react to pollutants. Neglecting this coupling may lead to unforeseen negative effects on air quality resulting from urban greening programs. The potential of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vegetation combined with anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants to produce ozone has long been recognized. This ozone formation potential increases under rising temperatures. Here we investigate how emissions of VOC from urban vegetation affect corresponding ground-level ozone and PM10 concentrations in summer and especially during heat wave periods. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with coupled atmospheric chemistry (WRF-CHEM) to quantify these feedbacks in the Berlin-Brandenburg region, Germany during the two summers of 2006 (heat wave) and 2014 (reference period). VOC emissions from vegetation are calculated by MEGAN 2.0 coupled online with WRF-CHEM. Our preliminary results indicate that the contribution of VOCs from vegetation to ozone formation may increase by more than twofold during heat wave periods. We highlight the importance of the vegetation for urban areas in the context of a changing climate and discuss potential tradeoffs of urban greening programs.

  18. 40 CFR 60.502 - Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. 60.502 Section 60.502 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Bulk Gasoline Terminals § 60.502 Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. On and after the date on which § 60.8(a) requires a...

  19. Study on characteristics of double surface VOC emissions from dry flat-plate building materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xinke; ZHANG Yinping; ZHAO Rongyi

    2006-01-01

    This paper sets up an analytic model of double surface emission of volatile organic compound (VOC) from dry, flat-plate building materials. Based on it, the influence of factors including air change rate, loading factor of materials in the room, mass diffusion coefficient, partition coefficient, convective mass transfer coefficient, thickness of materials, asymmetric convective flow and initial VOC concentration distribution in the building material on emission is discussed. The conditions for simplifying double surface emission into single surface emission are also discussed. The model is helpful to assess the double surface VOC emission from flat-plate building materials used in indoor furniture and space partition.

  20. Comparison of VOC and ammonia emissions from individual PVC materials, adhesives and from complete structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järnström, H; Saarela, K; Kalliokoski, P; Pasanen, A-L

    2008-04-01

    Emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and ammonia measured from six PVC materials and four adhesives in the laboratory were compared to the emission rates measured on site from complete structures. Significantly higher specific emission rates (SERs) were generally measured from the complete structures than from individual materials. There were large differences between different PVC materials in their permeability for VOCs originating from the underlying structure. Glycol ethers and esters from adhesives used in the installation contributed to the emissions from the PVC covered structure. Emissions of 2-ethylhexanol and TXIB (2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate) were common. High ammonia SERs were measured from single adhesives but their contribution to the emissions from the complete structure did not appear as obvious as for VOCs. The results indicate that three factors affected the VOC emissions from the PVC flooring on a structure: 1) the permeability of the PVC product for VOCs, 2) the VOC emission from the adhesive used, and 3) the VOC emission from the backside of the PVC product.

  1. [Comparison Analysis of Economic and Engineering Control of Industrial VOCs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-fei; Liu, Chang-xin; Cheng, Jie; Hao, Zheng-ping; Wang, Zheng

    2015-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) pollutant has become China's major air pollutant in key urban areas like sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. It is mainly produced from industry sectors, and engineering control is one of the most important reduction measures. During the 12th Five-Year Plan, China decides to invest 40 billion RMB to build pollution control projects in key industry sectors with annual emission reduction of 605 000 t x a(-1). It shows that China attaches a great importance to emission reduction by engineering projects and highlights the awareness of engineering reduction technologies. In this paper, a macroeconomic model, namely computable general equilibrium model, (CGE model) was employed to simulate engineering control and economic control (imposing environmental tax). We aim to compare the pros and cons of the two reduction policies. Considering the economic loss of the whole country, the environmental tax has more impacts on the economy system than engineering reduction measures. We suggest that the central government provides 7 500 RMB x t(-1) as subsidy for enterprises in industry sectors to encourage engineering reduction.

  2. Anthropogenic VOC speciation in emission inventories: a method for improvement and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schneidemesser, E.; D'angiola, A.; Granier, C.; Monks, P. S.; Law, K.

    2011-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are important precursor compounds for the formation of ozone and other secondary organic aerosols. Anthropogenic sources of VOCs are dominated by industrial usage and transportation sources, the latter being extremely important in urban areas. Megacities and large urban conglomerations are emission hot spots that exert disproportionately large adverse health effects on the population and surrounding environment, owing to their high population density and concentrated emission sources. Exceedances of ozone air quality standards are a problem in many urban areas. Improvements in the modelling of ozone precursors would benefit our understanding of the impact of changes in emissions and the effect of future legislation on air quality. As many VOCs are extremely reactive in the atmosphere and have high ozone forming potential, improved speciation of VOCs in models could lead to better predictions of ozone levels and secondary organic aerosol formation. Previously, VOC and carbon monoxide (CO) data from urban areas around the world were compared. Significant differences in VOC concentrations were observed, however, when normalized to CO, the VOC-CO ratios were similar for many locations and over time, even as emission reductions were implemented. The largest variation was found in the lighter alkanes due to the use of alternative transportation fuels in various world regions. These ratios were grouped by region and used to develop a new speciation for surface emissions of VOCs, by applying the regional observed VOC-CO ratios to the CO emissions for the urban areas. Urban areas were defined as 150 inhabitants per km2 or greater. Model simulations were performed using the MOZART-4 chemistry transport model to assess the improved speciation of the VOC emissions. The model outputs were compared to urban observational data where available. The impact of the new speciation of the distribution of CO, OH and ozone at the global scale will be

  3. Seasonal and species-specific response of VOC emissions by Mediterranean woody plant to elevated ozone concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llusià, J.; Peñuelas, J.; Gimeno, B. S.

    Although certain factors controlling plant emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are reasonably well understood, the influence of elevated ozone concentrations as abiotic stress is mostly unknown. Therefore, we studied the effects of ozone concentrations on seasonal biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions by different Mediterranean plant species in open top chambers (OTC). Three ozone treatments were established: filtered air (F), non-filtered air (NF), and fumigated air (NF+) adding 40 nl l -1 of ozone over NF. We studied the response of VOC emission in saplings of four Mediterranean woody plant species and subspecies: Ceratonia siliqua L., Olea europaea L., Quercus ilex spp. ilex L., and Quercus ilex spp. rotundifolia L. as representative of natural Mediterranean vegetation. No visible symptoms were detected on the leaves. No significant effect was found on net photosynthetic rates or stomatal conductance except for an increase in net photosynthetic rates in Quercus ilex ilex in spring and summer and an overall slight increase in Quercus ilex rotundifolia. Emissions of the total VOCs from Ceratonia siliqua in summer, and from Olea europaea and Quercus ilex rotundifolia in spring increased in ozone fumigated OTC in comparison with F or NF OTC. Decreased emissions were found in Quercus ilex rotundifolia in summer. There were no significant differences between ozone fumigation treatments for the other plant species and seasons. When considering particular VOCs, the results were also variable among species and time of the year. While α-pinene emissions decreased with ozone fumigation in Olea europaea, α-pinene and limonene emissions increased in Quercus ilex ilex. The responses of these particular VOCs did not always match the responses of total VOCs. In spite of this strong variability, when considering overall annual data for all species and seasons, there were increased net photosynthetic rates (37%) and limonene (95%) and total VOC (45

  4. Seasonal and species-specific response of VOC emissions by Mediterranean woody plant to elevated ozone concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llusia, J.; Penuelas, J. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain). Unitat Ecofisiologia CSIC-CEAB-CREAF; Gimeno, R.S. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain). Ecotoxicologia de la Contaminacion Atmosferica

    2002-08-01

    Although certain factors controlling plant emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are reasonably well understood, the influence of elevated ozone concentrations as abiotic stress is mostly unknown. Therefore, we studied the effects of ozone concentrations on seasonal biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions by different Mediterranean plant species in open top chambers (OTC). Three ozone treatments were established: filtered air (F), non-filtered air (NF), and fumigated air (NF+) adding 40 nl l{sup -1} of ozone over NF. We studied the response of VOC emission in saplings of four Mediterranean woody plant species and subspecies: Ceratonia siliqua L., Olea europaea L., Quercus ilex spp. ilex L., and Quercus ilex spp. rotundifolia L. as representative of natural Mediterranean vegetation. No visible symptoms were detected on the leaves. No significant effect was found on net photosynthetic rates or stomatal conductance except for an increase in net photosynthetic rates in Quercus ilex ilex in spring and summer and an overall slight increase in Quercus ilex rotundifolia. Emissions of the total VOCs from Ceratonia siliqua in summer, and from Olea europaea and Quercus ilex rotundifolia in spring increased in ozone fumigated OTC in comparison with F or NF OTC. Decreased emissions were found in Quercus ilex rotundifolia in summer. There were no significant differences between ozone fumigation treatments for the other plant species and seasons. When considering particular VOCs, the results were also variable among species and time of the year. While {alpha}-pinene emissions decreased with ozone fumigation in Olea europaea, {alpha}-pinene and limonene emissions increased in Quercus ilex ilex. The responses of these particular VOCs did not always match the responses of total VOCs. In spite of this strong variability, when considering overall annual data for all species and seasons, there were increased net photosynthetic rates (37%) and limonene (95

  5. Surface application of soybean peroxidase and calcium peroxide for reducing odorous VOC emissions from swine manure slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate and compare topical and fully mixed treatments of soybean peroxidase and calcium peroxide (SBP/CaO2) for reducing odorous volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from swine manure slurry. The five treatments consisted of a control, the fully mixed ...

  6. An analytical solution for VOCs emission from multiple sources/sinks in buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG BaoQing; YU Bo; Chang Nyung KIM

    2008-01-01

    An analytical solution is presented to describe the emission/sorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from/on multiple single-layer materials coexisting in buildings. The diffusion of VOCs within each material is described by a transient diffusion equation. All diffusion equations are coupled with each other through the equation of mass conservation in the air. The analytical solution is validated by the experimental data in literature, Compared to the one-material case, the coexistence of multiple materials may decrease the emission rate of VOCs from each material. The smaller the diffusion coef-ficient is, the more the emission rate decreases. Whether a material is a source or a sink in the case of multiple materials coexisting is not affected by the diffusion coefficient. For the case of multiple mate-rials with different partition coefficients, a material with a high partition coefficient may become a sink. This may promote the emission of VOCs from other materials.

  7. Optimizing the emission inventory of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) based on network observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Po; Liu, Wen-Tzu; Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Chang, Julius S.; Wang, Jia-Lin

    2014-02-01

    Hourly observations of 56 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) performed by a network of photochemical assessment monitoring stations (PAMS) at 11 locations across Taiwan were used to evaluate 56 speciated emissions and the resulting simulations of an air quality model. Based on the PAMS observations at two urban sites, emission modification was made for the 56 PAMS species in the model. To further test the applicability of this emission correction approach, the same modified emissions were subject to seven different meteorological conditions and comparison with observations of all the 11 PAMS sites. Originally there was a minimum of only 8 of 56 species showed agreement with observations for the worst of the 11 PAMS sites and 28 of 56 species for the best site. With modified emissions, the number increased to 13-52 species across the 11 PAMS sites, demonstrating that the simple urban based correction procedure has broad applicability. When applying this modification of PAMS emissions to the simulations of other air quality gases, SO2 and NOx showed small changes compared with observations (-0.27% and -2.51%, respectively), while total VOC concentrations showed significant changes (+15.28%) as a result of the adjustment in VOC emissions (+26.7%). Although VOCs are the precursor of ozone, the relatively large changes in VOC did not seem to affect ozone formation to the similar extent, only resulting in the changes of average O3 by 2.9 ppb (+9.41%). It shows that although the emission modification improves individual VOC simulations, the performance in oxidant simulation is still largely unaltered. Although the original U.S. VOC emission profiles can capture the general features of ambient VOCs, further optimization of emissions may still be needed by referencing extensive observations, so that emissions can better fit domestic conditions and accuracy in model simulations can be improved.

  8. Extended Research on Detection of Deception Using Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2006-06-01

    A system that captures and analyzes volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from skin surfaces may offer a viable alternative method to the polygraph instrument currently in use for detecting deception in U.S. government settings. Like the involuntary autonomic central nervous system response data gathered during polygraph testing, VOC emissions from the skin may provide data that can be used to detect stress caused by deception. Detecting VOCs, then, may present a noninvasive, non-intrusive method for observing, recording, and quantifying evidence of stress or emotional change.

  9. Pulsed Corona Plasma Technology for Treating VOC Emissions from Pulp Mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridman, Alexander A.; Gutsol, Alexander; Kennedy, Lawrence A.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Korobtsev, Sergey V.; Shiryaevsky, Valery L.; Medvedev, Dmitry

    2004-07-28

    Under the DOE Office of Industrial Technologies Forest Products program various plasma technologies were evaluated under project FWP 49885 ''Experimental Assessment of Low-Temperature Plasma Technologies for Treating Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Pulp Mills and Wood Products Plants''. The heterogeneous pulsed corona discharge was chosen as the best non-equilibrium plasma technology for control of the vent emissions from HVLC Brownstock Washers. The technology for removal of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from gas emissions with conditions typical of the exhausts of the paper industry by means of pulsed corona plasma techniques presented in this work. For the compounds of interest in this study (methanol, acetone, dimethyl sulfide and ? -pinene), high removal efficiencies were obtained with power levels competitive with the present technologies for the VOCs removal. Laboratory experiments were made using installation with the average power up to 20 W. Pilot plant prepared for on-site test has average plasma power up to 6.4 kW. The model of the Pilot Plant operation is presented.

  10. Investigation on Using SBS and Active Carbon Filler to Reduce the VOC Emission from Bituminous Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiqiang Cui

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bituminous materials are playing a vital role in pavement design and the roofing industry because of outstanding properties. Unfortunately, bituminous materials will release volatile organic compounds (VOC, making them non-environmentally friendly. Therefore, technologies that can be used to decrease the VOC emission are urgently required. In this research, the VOC emission and material behaviors were analyzed and compared to investigate the possibility of adding styrene butadiene styrene (SBS and active carbon filler into bituminous materials to develop environmentally-friendly materials. Thermal gravimetric analysis-mass spectrometry (TG-MS and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy testing (UV-Vis were employed to characterize the VOC emission process. Temperature sweep testing and frequency sweep testing were conducted to evaluate the rheological properties of bituminous materials. Research results indicated that the combined introduction of 4 wt% styrene butadiene styrene (SBS and 4 wt% active carbon filler cannot only significantly lower the VOC emission speed and amount, but also improve the deformation resistance behavior at a higher temperature. SBS and active carbon filler can be used to reduce the VOC emission form bituminous materials.

  11. VOC emissions during outdoor ship painting and health-risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malherbe, Laure; Mandin, Corinne

    Painting of ship external surfaces in building or repair shipyards generates significant emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) to the atmosphere. Such emissions have not been specifically regulated so far. The purpose of our study is therefore to evaluate the quantities and as far as possible the nature of the emitted VOC, to characterize the dispersion of these chemicals in the atmosphere and to assess the exposure and resulting health risks for surrounding populations. This study is focused on VOC emitted during outdoor work involving use of paints and solvents. VOC emissions are diffuse, since they come from the whole painted surfaces. A methodology for quantifying them is developed and tested, using information provided by ALSTOM—Chantiers de l'Atlantique and data found in paint technical sheets. Its reliability is checked against emission values established by ALSTOM or found in literature. Then, for two particular situations, construction on one hand, repair on the other hand, atmospheric dispersion of total VOC is simulated to assess the long-term impact (characterized by the plume extension and the annual mean concentrations) of these compounds. Finally, a health-risk assessment based on the estimates is carried out to evaluate the risks by inhalation for people living near the site. Considering the presumed composition of paints and the available reference toxicological values, total VOC are entirely assimilated to toluene. In both examples (construction and repair) and in the current state of knowledge, the calculated risk is not of health concern. Several ways for taking this study further are proposed: a more exhaustive collection of data relative to VOC and other substances contained in paints, on-site measurement of VOC in the ambient air, characterization of diffuse emissions related to other activities, such as purging or welding, and other pollutants, like particles.

  12. Comparing the VOC emissions between air-dried and heat-treated Scots pine wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, Anne-Marja; Pasanen, Pertti; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    The emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from air-dried Scots pine wood and from heat-treated Scots pine wood were compared with GC-MS analysis. Air-dried wood blocks released about 8 times more total VOCs than heat-treated (24 h at 230°C) ones. Terpenes were clearly the main compound group in the air-dried wood samples, whereas aldehydes and carboxylic acids and their esters dominated in the heat-treated wood samples. Only 14 compounds out of 41 identified individual compounds were found in both wood samples indicating considerable changes in VOC emission profile during heat-treatment process. Of individual compounds α-pinene, 3-carene and hexanal were the most abundant ones in the air-dried wood. By contrast, in the heat-treated wood 2-furancarboxaldehyde, acetic acid and 2-propanone were the major compounds of VOC emission. Current emission results reveal that significant chemical changes have occurred, and volatile monoterpenes and other low-molecular-weight compounds have evaporated from the wood during the heat-treatment process when compared to air-dried wood. Major chemical changes detected in VOC emissions are explained by the thermal degradation and oxidation of main constituents in wood. The results suggest that if heat-treated wood is used in interior carpentry, emissions of monoterpenes are reduced compared to air-dried wood, but some irritating compounds might be released into indoor air.

  13. CHARACTERIZATION AND REDUCTION OF FORMALDEHYDE EMISSIONS FROM A LOW-VOC LATEX PAINT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the measurment and analysis of the patterns of formaldehyde emission from a low volatile organic compound (VOC) latex paint applied to gypsum board, using small environmental chamber tests. The formaldehyde emissions resulted in sharp increase of chamber air...

  14. VOC emissions, evolutions and contributions to SOA formation at a receptor site in Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Yuan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs were measured by two online instruments (GC-FID/MS and PTR-MS at a receptor site on Changdao Island (37.99° N, 120.70° E in eastern China. Reaction with OH radical dominated the chemical loss of most VOC species during the Changdao campaign. A photochemical age based parameterization method is used to calculate VOC emission ratios and to quantify the evolution of ambient VOCs. The calculated emission ratios of most hydrocarbons agree well with those obtained from emission inventory, but the emission ratios of oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs are significantly lower than those from emission inventory. The photochemical age based parameterization method is also used to investigate primary emissions and secondary formation of organic aerosol. The primary emission ratio of OA to CO are determined to be 14.9 μg m−3 ppm−1 and SOA are produced at an enhancement ratio of 18.8 μg m−3 ppm−1 to CO after 50 h of photochemical processing in the atmosphere. SOA formation is significantly higher than the level determined from VOC oxidation under both high-NOx (2.0 μg m−3 ppm−1 CO and low-NOx condition (6.5 μg m−3 ppm−1 CO. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and higher alkanes (>C10 account for as high as 17.4% of SOA formation, which suggests semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs may be a large contributor to SOA formation during the Changdao campaign. SOA formation potential of primary VOC emissions determined from both field campaigns and emission inventory in China are lower than the measured SOA levels reported in Beijing and Pearl River Delta (PRD, indicating SOA formation cannot be explained by VOC oxidation in this regions. SOA budget in China is estimated to be 5.0–13.7 Tg yr−1, with a fraction of at least 2.7 Tg yr−1 from anthropogenic emissions, which are much higher than the previous estimates from regional models.

  15. Quantification of Methane and VOC Emissions from Natural Gas Production in Two Basins with High Ozone Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edie, R.; Robertson, A.; Snare, D.; Soltis, J.; Field, R. A.; Murphy, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2005, the Uintah Basin of Utah and the Upper Green River Basin of Wyoming frequently exceeded the EPA 8-hour allowable ozone level of 75 ppb, spurring interest in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted during oil and gas production. Debate continues over which stage of production (drilling, flowback, normal production, transmission, etc.) is the most prevalent VOC source. In this study, we quantify emissions from normal production on well pads by using the EPA-developed Other Test Method 33a. This methodology combines ground-based measurements of fugitive emissions with 3-D wind data to calculate the methane and VOC emission fluxes from a point source. VOC fluxes are traditionally estimated by gathering a canister of air during a methane flux measurement. The methane:VOC ratio of this canister is determined at a later time in the laboratory, and applied to the known methane flux. The University of Wyoming Mobile Laboratory platform is equipped with a Picarro methane analyzer and an Ionicon Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometer, which provide real-time methane and VOC data for each well pad. This independent measurement of methane and VOCs in situ reveals multiple emission sources on one well pad, with varying methane:VOC ratios. Well pad emission estimates of methane, benzene, toluene and xylene for the two basins will be presented. The different emission source VOC profiles and the limitations of real-time and traditional VOC measurement methods will also be discussed.

  16. Determination of Summertime VOC Emission Rates from Produced Water Ponds in the Uintah Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. S.; Woods, C.; Lyman, S.

    2013-12-01

    The observance of excess ozone concentrations in Utah's Uintah Basin over past several years has prompted several investigations into the extent and causes of the elevated ozone. Among these is the assessment of potential emissions of reactive VOCs. Evaporation ponds, used a remediation technique for treatment of contaminated production and other waters, are one potential source of significant VOC emissions and is estimated that there are around 160 such ponds within the Uintah Basin's oil and gas production areas. In June 2012 VOC emission rates for several reactive VOCs were derived for an evaporation facility consisting of a small inlet pond (≈0.03 acres) and two larger, serial ponds (≈4.3 acres each). The emission rates were determined over three sampling periods using an inverse modeling approach. Under this methodology, ambient VOC concentrations are determined at several downwind locations through whole-air collection into SUMMA canisters, followed by GC/MS quantification and compared with predicted concentrations using an EPA-approved dispersion model, AERMOD. The presumed emission rates used within the model were then adjusted until the modeled concentrations approach the observed concentrations. The derived emission rates for the individual VOCs were on the order of 10-3 g/s/m2 from the inlet pond and 10-6 g/s/m2 from the larger ponds. The emissions from the 1st pond in series after the inlet pond were about 3-4x the emissions from the 2nd pond. These combined emission rates are about an order of magnitude those reported for a single study in Colorado (Thoma, 2009). It should be noted, however, that the variability about each of the VOC emission rates was significant (often ×100% at the 95% confidence interval). Extrapolating these emission rates to the estimated total areas of all the evaporation ponds within Basin resulted in calculated Basin-wide VOC emissions 292,835 tons/yr. However, Bar-Ilan et al. (2009) estimated 2012 VOC oil and gas related

  17. Characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the evaporative emissions of modern passenger cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Tingting; Yue, Xin; Chai, Fahe; Hu, Jingnan; Lai, Yitu; He, Liqang; Zhu, Rencheng

    2017-02-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from vehicle evaporative emissions contribute substantially to photochemical air pollution. Yet, few studies of the characteristics of VOCs emitted from vehicle evaporative emissions have been published. We investigate the characteristics of 57 VOCs in hot soak, 24 h diurnal and 48 h diurnal emissions by applying the Sealed Housing Evaporative Determination unit (SHED) test to three modern passenger cars (one US Tier 2 and two China IV vehicles) using two different types of gasoline. The characteristics of the VOCs from the hot soak, 24 h diurnal and 48 h diurnal emissions were different due to their different emission mechanisms. In the hot soak emissions, toluene, isopentane/n-pentane, and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane were dominant species. In the 24 h and 48 h diurnal emissions, isopentane and n-pentane were dominant species. Toluene was the third most dominant component in the 24 h diurnal emissions but decreased by a mass of 42%-80% in the 48 h diurnal emissions. In the hot soak, 24 h diurnal and 48 h diurnal emissions, alkanes were generally the dominant hydrocarbons, followed by aromatics and olefins. However, owing to different evaporative emission mechanisms, the weight percentages of the aromatic hydrocarbons decreased and the weight percentages of the alkanes increased from the hot soak test to the 24 h diurnal and 48 h diurnal tests for each vehicle. The dominant contributors to the ozone formation potentials (OFPs) were also different in the hot soak, 24 h diurnal and 48 h diurnal emissions. The OFPs (g O3/g VOC) of the hot soak emissions were higher than those of the 24 h and 48 h diurnal emissions. In addition, the combined effect of decreasing the olefin and aromatic contents of gasoline on vehicle evaporative emissions was investigated. The aromatics all decreased substantially in the hot soak, 24 h and 48 h diurnal emissions, and the total masses of the VOCs and OFPs decreased, with the greatest reduction occurring in

  18. VOC emissions of smouldering combustion from Mediterranean wildfires in central Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evtyugina, Margarita; Calvo, Ana Isabel; Nunes, Teresa; Alves, Célia; Fernandes, Ana Patrícia; Tarelho, Luís; Vicente, Ana; Pio, Casimiro

    2013-01-01

    Emissions of trace gases and C5-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from Mediterranean wildfires occurring in Portugal in summer 2010 were studied. Fire smoke was collected in Tedlar bags and analysed for CO, CO2, total hydrocarbons (THC) and VOCs. The CO, CO2 and THC emission factors (EFs) were 206 ± 79, 1377 ± 142 and 8.1 ± 9 g kg-1 biomass burned (dry basis), respectively. VOC emissions from Mediterranean wildfires were reported for the first time. Aromatic hydrocarbons were major components of the identified VOC emissions. Among them, benzene and toluene were dominant compounds with EFs averaging 0.747 ± 0.303 and 0.567 ± 0.422 g kg-1 biomass burned (dry basis), respectively. Considerable amounts of oxygenated organic volatile compounds (OVOCs) and isoprenoids were detected. 2-Furaldehyde and hexanal were the most abundant measured OVOCs with EFs of 0.337 ± 0.259 and 0.088 ± 0.039 g kg-1 biomass burned (dry basis), respectively. The isoprenoid emissions were dominated by isoprene (EF = 0.207 ± 0.195 g kg-1 dry biomass burned) and α-pinene (EF = 0.112 ± 0.093 g kg-1 dry biomass burned). Emission data obtained in this work are useful for validating and improving emission inventories, as well for carrying out modelling studies to assess the effects of vegetation fires on air pollution and tropospheric chemistry.

  19. Human health risk evaluation of selected VOC, SVOC and particulate emissions from scented candles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Thomas; Vitale, Danielle; Joachim, Fred J; Smith, Ben; Cruse, Lynn; Mascarenhas, Reuben; Schneider, Scott; Singal, Madhuri

    2014-06-01

    Airborne compounds in the indoor environment arise from a wide variety of sources such as environmental tobacco smoke, heating and cooking, construction materials as well as outdoor sources. To understand the contribution of scented candles to the indoor load of airborne substances and particulate matter, candle emission testing was undertaken in environmentally controlled small and large emission chambers. Candle emission rates, calculated on the basis of measured chamber concentrations of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOC, SVOC) and particulate matter (PM), were used to predict their respective indoor air concentrations in a standard EU-based dwelling using 2 models: the widely accepted ConsExpo 1-box inhalation model and the recently developed RIFM 2-box indoor air dispersion model. The output from both models has been used to estimate more realistic consumer exposure concentrations of specific chemicals and PM in candle emissions. Potential consumer health risks associated with the candle emissions were characterized by comparing the exposure concentrations with existing indoor or ambient air quality guidelines or, where not existent, to established toxicity thresholds. On the basis of this investigation it was concluded that under normal conditions of use scented candles do not pose known health risks to the consumer.

  20. Consideration of the Change of Material Emission Signatures due to Longterm Emissions for Enhancing VOC Source Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, K. H.; Zhang, J. S.; Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the changes of VOC material emission profiles over time and develop a method to account for such changes in order to enhance a source identification technique that is based on the measurements of mixed air samples and the emission signatures of in...

  1. Consideration Of The Change Of Material Emission Signatures Due To Long-term Emissions For Enhancing Voc Source Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, K. H.; Zhang, J. S.; Knudsen, H. N.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the changes of VOC material emission profiles over time and develop a method to account for such changes in order to enhance a source identification technique that is based on the measurements of mixed air samples and the emission signatures of in...

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF LOW-VOC LATEX PAINTS: VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND CONTENT, VOC AND ALDEHYDE EMISSIONS, AND PAINT PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of laboratory tests to evaluate commercially available latex paints advertised as "low-odor," "low-VOC (volatile organic compound)," or "no-VOC." Measurements were performed to quantify the total content of VOCs in the paints...

  3. Screening the Emission Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in China Based on Multi-effect Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, H., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere have adverse impacts via three main pathways: photochemical ozone formation, secondary organic aerosol production, and direct toxicity to humans. Few studies have integrated these effects to prioritize control measures for VOCs sources. In this study, we developed a multi-effect evaluation methodology based on updated emission inventories and source profiles, which was combined with ozone formation potential (OFP), secondary organic aerosol potential (SOAP), and VOC toxicity data to identify important emission sources and key species. We derived species-specific emission inventories for 152 sources. The OFPs, SOAPs, and toxicity of each source were determined, and the contribution and share of each source to each of these adverse effects was calculated. Weightings were given to the three adverse effects by expert scoring, and the integrated impact was determined. Using 2012 as the base year, solvent usage and industrial process were found to be the most important anthropogenic sources, accounting for 24.2 and 23.1% of the integrated environmental effect, respectively. This was followed by biomass burning, transportation, and fossil fuel combustion, all of which had a similar contribution ranging from 16.7 to 18.6%. The top five industrial sources, including plastic products, rubber products, chemical fiber products, the chemical industry, and oil refining, accounted for nearly 70.0% of industrial emissions. In China, emissions reductions are required for styrene, toluene, ethylene, benzene, and m/p-xylene. The 10 most abundant chemical species contributed 76.5% of the integrated impact. Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, Jiangsu, and Guangdong were the five leading provinces when considering the integrated effects. Besides, the chemical mass balance model (CMB) was used to verify the VOCs inventories of 47 cities in China, so as to optimize our evaluation results. We suggest that multi-effect evaluation is necessary to

  4. VOC emission into the atmosphere by trees and leaf litter in Polish forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidorov, V.; Smolewska, M.; Tyszkiewicz, Z.

    2009-04-01

    It is generally recognized at present that the vegetation of continents is the principal source of reactive volatile organic compounds (VOC) of the atmosphere. The upper limit of the evaluation of global phytogenic VOC is 1100-1500 Tg/yr (Isidorov, 1990; Guenther et al., 1995). Although these global evaluations showing the place of phytogenic emission among of other VOC sources are important, evaluations for individual countries are also very important. This poster represents the results of the estimation of VOC emission from Polish forests. Calculations took into account the composition and age of forests. According to our estimation, the total VOC emission by the arboreal vegetation differs from 190 to 750 kt/yr, depending of weather conditions in different years. There are only few studies conducted on decaying plant material as a source of atmospheric VOCs, but still they are able to give evidence of the importance of this source. For Polish forests, the litter mass is estimated to be (16-19)106 t/yr. These organic materials undergo decomposition by mesofauna and microorganisms. In these processes volatile organic compounds (VOC) stored in the litter and secondary metabolites of litter-destroying fungi are emitted into the atmosphere. The scale of the phenomenon makes leaf litter an important VOC source in the atmosphere. The filling of numerous gaps in researches of VOC emissions from decomposing leaf litter demands carrying out of long term field experiments in various climatic conditions. In this communication we report also the results of 3.5-year experiment on qualitative and quantitative GC-MS investigations of VOC emitted into the gas phase from leaves litter of some species of deciduous and coniferous trees of Polish forests. Apart from terpenes and their oxygenated derivatives, which are usual in plant tissues, leaf litter intensively emits vast amounts of lower alcohols and carbonyl compounds. We suppose that these volatile substances are products

  5. CAPSTONE REPORT ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF A STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR VOC EMISSIONS FROM INTERIOR LATEX PAINT AND ALKYD PAINTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives details of a small-chamber test method developed by the EPA for characterizing volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from interior latex and alkyd paints. Current knowledge about VOC, including hazardous air pollutant, emissions from interior paints generated...

  6. Influence of way of finishing furniture segments on amount emissions VOCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Čech

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the influence of way of finishing furniture segments on amount emissions VOCs (volatile organic compounds. The so-called Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC are among the largest pollution sources of both the internal and external environments.VOC is defined as emission of any organic compound or a mixture thereof, with the exception of methane, whereby the compound exerts the pressure of 0.01 kPa or more at the temperature of 20 °C (293.15 K and reaches the corresponding volatility under the specific conditions of its use and can undergo photochemical reactions with nitrogen oxides when exposed to solar radiation. The effects of VOC upon environment can be described by equation: VOC + NOx + UV radiation + heat = tropospheric ozone (O3In this work there were tested MDF (medium density fibreboard coated by resin impregnated paper was used for the furniture components’ production. Next were tested compressed wood, which was used as a second material of furniture components. These both chosen materials was covered by resin impregnated paper and than sequentially finished by regular coat of finish.An attention of this study is especially put on mentioned factors and on quantity of instant and long-term VOCs emissions emitted from furniture components.The amount of emissions from furniture components, in different phases of the preparation including the resin impregnated paper coating finish, was monitored within the time intervals of 24 hours and 720 hours starting after the time of the finish preparation.The MDF (medium density fibreboard coated by resin impregnated paper was used for the furniture components´ production.A compressed wood was used as a second material of furniture components. This alternative material was covered by resin impregnated paper and than sequentially finished by regular coat of finish.

  7. Effects of cold temperature and ethanol content on VOC emissions from light-duty gasoline vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions of speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including mobile source air toxics (MSATs), were measured in vehicle exhaust from three light-duty spark ignition vehicles operating on summer and winter grade gasoline (E0) and ethanol blended (E10 and E85) fuels. Vehicle...

  8. ECOS E-MATRIX Methane and Volatile Organic Carbon (VOC) Emissions Best Practices Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parisien, Lia [The Environmental Council Of The States, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-01-31

    This final scientific/technical report on the ECOS e-MATRIX Methane and Volatile Organic Carbon (VOC) Emissions Best Practices Database provides a disclaimer and acknowledgement, table of contents, executive summary, description of project activities, and briefing/technical presentation link.

  9. Effects of cold temperature and ethanol content on VOC emissions from light-duty gasoline vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions of speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including mobile source air toxics (MSATs), were measured in vehicle exhaust from three light-duty spark ignition vehicles operating on summer and winter grade gasoline (E0) and ethanol blended (E10 and E85) fuels. Vehicle...

  10. New observations of VOC emissions and concentrations in, above, and around the Central Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, A. H.; Fares, S.; Gentner, D. R.; Park, J.; Weber, R.; Ormeno, E.; Holzinger, R.; Misztal, P. K.; Karl, T. R.; Guenther, A. B.; Fischer, M. L.; Harley, R. A.; Karlik, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    Large portions of the Central Valley of California are out of compliance with current state and federal air quality standards for ozone and particulate matter, and the relative importance of biogenic and anthropogenic VOC emissions to their photochemical production in this region remains uncertain. In 2009-2011 multiple measurement campaigns were completed investigating the VOC emission inventory and concentration distributions. In 2009 BVOC emissions from more than 20 species of major agricultural crops in California were measured in a greenhouse using branch enclosures by both PTRMS and in-situ GC. Overall, crops were found to emit low amounts of BVOC compared to the natural forests surrounding the valley. Crops mainly emitted methanol and terpenes, with a broad array of other species emitted at lower levels, and all the measured crops showed negligible emissions of isoprene. Navel oranges were the largest crop BVOC emitters measured so a full year of flux measurements were made in an orange grove near Visalia in 2010 by eddy covariance(EC)-PTRMS with two multi-week periods of concentration measurements by hourly in-situ GC, and one month of high mass resolution flux measurements by EC-PTR-TOF-MS. The dominant BVOC emissions from the orange grove were methanol and terpenes, followed by acetone, acetaldehyde, and a low level of emissions for many other species. In 2011 aircraft eddy covariance measurements of BVOC fluxes were made by EC-PTRMS covering a large area of California as part of the California Airborne Bvoc Emission Research in Natural Ecosystem Transects (CABERNET) campaign aimed at improving BVOC emission models on regional scales, mainly profiling BVOC emissions from oak woodlands surrounding the Central Valley. In 2010, hourly in-situ VOC measurements were made via in-situ GC in Bakersfield, CA as part of the CalNex experiment. Additionally, in-situ measurements of fresh motor vehicle exhaust were made in Oakland's Caldecott tunnel. Measurements by

  11. Comparison of the substrate effect on VOC emissions from water based varnish and latex paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Gabriela V; Vasconcelos, M Teresa S D; Santos, Armando M; Fernandes, Eduardo O

    2003-01-01

    The building materials are recognised to be major contributors to indoor air contamination by volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The improvement of the quality of the environment within buildings is a topic of increasing research and public interest. Legislation in preparation by the European Commission may induce, in the near future, European Union Member States to solicit the industries of paints, varnishes and flooring materials for taking measures, in order to reduce the VOC emissions resulting from the use of their products. Therefore, product characterisation and information about the influence of environmental parameters on the VOC emissions are fundamental for providing the basic scientific information required to allow architects, engineers, builders, and building owners to provide a healthy environment for building occupants. On the other hand, the producers of coating building materials require this information to introduce technological alterations, when necessary, in order to improve the ecological quality of their products, and to make them more competitive. Studies of VOC emissions from wet materials, like paints and varnishes, have usually been conducted after applying the material on inert substrates, due to its non-adsorption and non-porosity properties. However, in real indoor environments, these materials are applied on substrates of a different nature. One aim of this work was to study, for the first time, the VOC emissions from a latex paint applied on concrete. The influence of the substrate (uncoated cork parquet, eucalyptus parquet without finishing and pine parquet with finishing) on the emissions of VOC from a water-based varnish was also studied. For comparison purposes, polyester film (an inert substrate) was used for both wet materials. The specific emission rates of the major VOCs were monitored for the first 72 h of material exposure in the atmosphere of a standardized test chamber. The air samples were collected on Tenax TA and

  12. Eddy covariance VOC emission and deposition fluxes above grassland using PTR-TOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Ruuskanen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Eddy covariance (EC is the preferable technique for flux measurements since it is the only direct flux determination method. It requires a continuum of high time resolution measurements (e.g. 5–20 Hz. For volatile organic compounds (VOC soft ionization via proton transfer reaction has proven to be a quantitative method for real time mass spectrometry; here we use a proton transfer reaction time of flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF for 10 Hz EC measurements of full mass spectra up to m/z 315. The mass resolution of the PTR-TOF enabled the identification of chemical formulas and separation of oxygenated and hydrocarbon species exhibiting the same nominal mass. We determined 481 ion mass peaks from ambient air concentration above a managed, temperate mountain grassland in Neustift, Stubai Valley, Austria. During harvesting we found significant fluxes of 18 compounds distributed over 43 ions, including protonated parent compounds, as well as their isotopes and fragments and VOC-H+-water clusters. The dominant BVOC fluxes were methanol, acetaldehyde, ethanol, hexenal and other C6 leaf wound compounds, acetone, acetic acid, monoterpenes and sequiterpenes.

    The smallest reliable fluxes we determined were less than 0.1 nmol m−2 s−1, as in the case of sesquiterpene emissions from freshly cut grass. Terpenoids, including mono- and sesquiterpenes, were also deposited to the grassland before and after the harvesting. During cutting, total VOC emission fluxes up to 200 nmol C m−2 s−1 were measured. Methanol emissions accounted for half of the emissions of oxygenated VOCs and a third of the carbon of all measured VOC emissions during harvesting.

  13. Biogenic VOCs emission inventory development of temperate grassland vegetation in Xilin River Basin,Inner Mongolia,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Nian-peng; HAN Xing-guo; SUN Wei; Pan Qing-min

    2004-01-01

    Given the key role of biogenic volatile organic compounds(VOCs) to tropospheric chemistry and regional air quality, it is important to generate accurate VOCs emission inventories. However, only a less fraction of plant species, in temperate grassland of Inner Mongolia, has been characterized by quantitative measurements. A taxonomic methodology, which assigns VOCs measurements to unmeasured species, is an applicable and inexpensive alternation for extensive VOCs emission survey, although data are needed for additional plant families and genera to further validate the taxonomic approach in grassland vegetation. In this experiment, VOCs emission rates of 178 plant species were measured with a portable photoionization detector(PID). The results showed the most of genera and some families have consistent feature of their VOCs emission, especially for isoprene, and provide the basic premise of taxonomic methodology to develop VOCs emission inventories for temperate grassland. Then, the taxonomic methodology was introduced into assigning emission rate to other 96 species, which no measured emission rates available here. A systematical emission inventory of temperate grassland vegetation in Inner Mongolia was provided and further evidence that taxonomy relationship can serve as a useful guide for generalizing the emissions behavior of many, but not all, plant families and genera to grassland vegetation.

  14. Plant VOC emissions: making use of the unavoidable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñuelas, Josep; Llusià, Joan

    2004-08-01

    All plants emit substantial amounts of phytogenic volatile organic compounds (PVOCs), which include alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, aldehydes, eters, esters and carboxylic acids. Defence, communication and/or protection against extreme conditions have been proposed as reasons for these emissions. However, Rosenstiel and colleagues have recently proposed that emission of PVOCs represents a metabolic 'safety valve' by preventing the unnecessary sequestration of phosphates. Additionally, Niinemets and colleagues suggest that the emission rates of some PVOCs are determined by the principal physicochemical characteristics of the emitted compounds, such as their solubility, volatility and diffusivity, rather than by physiological mechanisms, such as their synthesis rates. These two new studies lead to the hypothesis that there is not necessarily a specific role for every PVOC emitted, given that their emission is unavoidable as result of their volatility. However, in some cases, natural selection has worked to take advantage of this volatility.

  15. Emission inventory of anthropogenic air pollutants and VOC species in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Huang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop an emission inventory for major anthropogenic air pollutants and VOC species in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD region for the year 2007. A "bottom-up" methodology was adopted to compile the inventory based on major emission sources in the sixteen cities of this region. Results show that the emissions of SO2, NOx, CO, PM10, PM2.5, VOCs, and NH3 in the YRD region for the year 2007 are 2392 kt, 2293 kt, 6697 kt, 3116 kt, 1511 kt, 2767 kt, and 459 kt, respectively. Ethylene, mp-xylene, o-xylene, toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 2,4-dimethylpentane, ethyl benzene, propylene, 1-pentene, and isoprene are the key species contributing 77 % to the total ozone formation potential (OFP. The spatial distribution of the emissions shows the emissions and OFPs are mainly concentrated in the urban and industrial areas along the Yangtze River and around Hangzhou Bay. The industrial sources, including power plants other fuel combustion facilities, and non-combustion processes contribute about 97 %, 86 %, 89 %, 91 %, and 69 % of the total SO2, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, and VOC emissions. Vehicles take up 12.3 % and 12.4 % of the NOx and VOC emissions, respectively. Regarding OFPs, the chemical industry, domestic use of paint & printing, and gasoline vehicles contribute 38 %, 24 %, and 12 % to the ozone formation in the YRD region.

  16. VOC characteristics, emissions and contributions to SOA formation during hazy episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Wu, Fangkun; Hu, Bo; Tang, Guiqian; Zhang, Junke; Wang, Yuesi

    2016-09-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are important precursors of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). The pollution processes in Beijing were investigated from 18th October to 6th November 2013 to study the characteristics, SOA formation potential and contributing factors of VOC during hazy episodes. The mean concentrations of VOC were 67.4 ± 33.3 μg m-3 on clear days and have 5-7-fold increase in polluted periods. VOC concentrations rapidly increased at a visibility range of 4-5 km with the rate of 25%/km in alkanes, alkenes and halocarbons and the rate of 45%/km in aromatics. Analysis of the mixing layer height (MLH); wind speed and ratios of benzene/toluene (B/T), ethylbenzene/m,p-xylene (E/X), and isopentane/n-pentane (i/n) under different visibility conditions revealed that the MLH and wind speed were the 2 major factors affecting the variability of VOC during clear days and that local emissions and photochemical reactions were main causes of VOC variation on polluted days. Combined with the fractional aerosol coefficient (FAC) method, the SOA formation potentials of alkanes, alkenes and aromatics were 0.3 ± 0.2 μg m-3, 1.1 ± 1.0 μg m-3 and 6.5 ± 6.4 μg m-3, respectively. As the visibility deteriorated, the SOA formation potential increased from 2.1 μg m-3 to 13.2 μg m-3, and the fraction of SOA-forming aromatics rapidly increased from 56.3% to 90.1%. Initial sources were resolved by a positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. Vehicle-related emissions were an important source of VOC at all visibility ranges, accounting for 23%-32%. As visibility declined, emissions from solvents and the chemical industry increased from 13.2% and 6.3% to 34.2% and 23.0%, respectively. Solvents had the greatest SOA formation ability, accounting for 52.5% on average on hazy days, followed by vehicle-related emissions (20.7%).

  17. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Dairy Cows and Their Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, S.; Holzinger, R.; Mitloehner, F.; Goldstein, A.

    2005-12-01

    Biogenic VOCs are typically defined as those directly emitted from plants, but approximately 6% of global net primary production is consumed by cattle that carry out enteric fermentation and then emit VOCs that could also be considered biogenic. Current regulatory estimates suggest that dairy cattle in central California emit VOCs at rates comparable to those from passenger vehicles in the region, and thus contribute significantly to the extreme non-attainment of ozone standards there. We report PTR-MS measurements of ammonia and VOCs, and cavity-enhanced-absorption gas analyzer (Los Gatos Research, Inc.) measurements of CH4, emitted from dairy cattle in various stages of pregnancy/lactation and their waste. Experiments were conducted in chambers at UC Davis that simulate freestall cow housing conditions. CH4 fluxes ranged from 125-374 lb/cow/year. The compounds with the highest fluxes from '3 cows+waste' treatments were: ammonia (1-18), methanol (0-2.3), acetone+propanal (0.2-0.7), dimethylsulfide (0-0.4), and mass 109 (likely ID = p-cresol; 0-0.3) in lb/cow/year. Mass 60 (likely ID = trimethylamine) and acetic acid were also abundant. There were 10s of additional compounds with detectable, but small, emissions. A few compounds that were likely emitted (i.e. ethanol, formaldehyde, and dimethylamine) were not quantified by the PTR-MS. The total flux for all measured organic gases (TOG = CH4 + PTR-MS VOCs(including acetone+propanal)) averaged 246±45 lb/cow/year for '3 cows+waste' treatments, and was dominated by methane (>98%). TOG flux for 'waste only' treatments averaged 1.1±0.1 lb/cow/year, and was instead dominated by VOC (>84%). The PTR-MS VOCs as a percent of TOG (0.6±0.2%) emitted from '3 cows+waste' treatments in chamber conditions was a factor of 10 smaller than that currently estimated by the California Air Resources Board. In addition, the ozone forming potentials of the most abundant VOCs are only about 10% those of typical combustion or plant

  18. Temperature and light dependence of the VOC emissions of Scots pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tarvainen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The volatile organic compound (VOC emission rates of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. were measured from trees growing in a natural forest environment at two locations in Finland. The emission rate measurements were carried out using a dynamic flow through technique with samples collected on adsorbent tubes and analyzed using thermodesorption followed by a gas chromatograph with a mass-selective detector (GC-MS. The standard emission potentials (at 303.15 K and 1000 µmol photons m−2 s−1 were calculated for the measured compounds using nonlinear regression to fit the experimental data to temperature and light dependent emission algorithms.

    The observed total VOC emission rates varied between 21 and 874 ng/g(dw*h and 268 and 1670 ng/g(dw*h in southern and northern Finland, respectively. A clear seasonal cycle was detected with high emission rates in early spring, a decrease of the emissions in late spring and early summer, high emissions again in late summer, and a gradual decrease in autumn.

    The main emitted compounds were Δ3-carene (southern Finland and α- and β-pinene (northern Finland, with approximate relative contributions of 60–70% and 60–85% of the total observed monoterpene emission rates, respectively. Sesquiterpene (β-caryophyllene and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO emissions were initiated in early summer at both sites. The observed MBO emission rates were between 1 and 3.5% of the total monoterpene emission rates. The sesquiterpene emission rates varied between 2 and 5% of the total monoterpene emission rates in southern Finland, but were high (40% in northern Finland in spring.

    Most of the measured emission rates were found to be well described by the temperature dependent emission algorithm. The calculated standard emission potentials were high in spring and early summer, decreased somewhat in late summer, and were high again towards autumn. The experimental

  19. Temperature and light dependence of the VOC emissions of Scots pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tarvainen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile organic compound (VOC emission rates of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. were measured from trees growing in a natural forest environment at two locations in Finland. The observed total VOC emission rates varied between 21 and 874 ngg-1 h-1 and 268 and 1670 ngg-1 h-1 in southern and northern Finland, respectively. A clear seasonal cycle was detected with high emission rates in early spring, a decrease of the emissions in late spring and early summer, high emissions again in late summer, and a gradual decrease in autumn. The main emitted compounds were Δ3-carene (southern Finland and α- and β-pinene (northern Finland, with approximate relative contributions of 60–70% and 60–85% of the total observed monoterpene emission rates, respectively. Sesquiterpene (β-caryophyllene and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO emissions were initiated in early summer at both sites. The observed MBO emission rates were between 1 and 3.5% of the total monoterpene emission rates. The sesquiterpene emission rates varied between 2 and 5% of the total monoterpene emission rates in southern Finland, but were high (40% in northern Finland in spring. Most of the measured emission rates were found to be well described by the temperature dependent emission algorithm. The calculated standard emission potentials were high in spring and early summer, decreased somewhat in late summer, and were high again towards autumn. The experimental coefficient β ranged from 0.025 to 0.19 (average 0.10 in southern Finland, with strongest temperature dependence in spring and weakest in late summer. Only the emission rates of 1,8-cineole were found to be both light and temperature dependent.

  20. Behavior of VOCs and carbonyl compounds emission from different types of wallpapers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jungyun; Kim, Suejin; Kim, Arong; Lee, Wooseok; Han, Jinseok; Cha, Jun-Seok

    2014-04-17

    Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyls from three types of commercially available wallpapers (i.e., PVC-coated, paper-backed, natural material-coated) in Korea were evaluated using a 20 L small chamber. A total of 332 products were tested for emission factors, frequencies of occurrence and composition ratios. Toluene and formaldehyde concentrations were below Korean standard values for all products; however, the total VOC (TVOC) concentrations exceeded current standards (4.0 mg/m²·h) for 30 products. The TVOC emission factor for PVC-coated wallpapers, for which polymer materials are used in the manufacturing process, was seven and 16 times higher than those of paper-backed and natural material-coated wallpapers, respectively. The detection frequencies for toluene and formaldehyde were the highest (82.5%) and fourth highest (79.5%), respectively among the 50 target chemical species. The composition ratios for BTEX ranged from 0.3% to 5.1% and unidentified VOCs, which were not qualitatively analyzed using standard gas methods, ranged from 90.2% to 94.8%. Among six carbonyl compounds (acrolein was not detected in any type of wallpaper), acetone had the highest concentrations in PVC-coated (44.6%) and paper-backed (66.6%) wallpapers. Formaldehyde emissions were highest (64.6%) for natural material-coated wallpapers, a result of the formaldehyde-based resin used in the manufacturing process for these products.

  1. Determination of radon exhalation from construction materials using VOC emission test chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, M; Jann, O; Kemski, J; Schneider, U; Krocker, C; Hoffmann, B

    2013-10-01

    The inhalation of (222) Rn (radon) decay products is one of the most important reasons for lung cancer after smoking. Stony building materials are an important source of indoor radon. This article describes the determination of the exhalation rate of stony construction materials by the use of commercially available measuring devices in combination with VOC emission test chambers. Five materials - two types of clay brick, clinker brick, light-weight concrete brick, and honeycomb brick - generally used for wall constructions were used for the experiments. Their contribution to real room concentrations was estimated by applying room model parameters given in ISO 16000-9, RP 112, and AgBB. This knowledge can be relevant, if for instance indoor radon concentration is limited by law. The test set-up used here is well suited for application in test laboratories dealing with VOC emission testing.

  2. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Historical Paper Based on pH Estimation from VOC Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Pihlar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs emitted from materials during degradationcan be a valuable source of information. In this work, the emissions of furfural and aceticacid from cellulose were studied using solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME incombination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Two sampling techniques wereemployed: static headspace sampling using SPME for 1 h at 40 oC after 18-h samplepreparation at 80 oC in a closed glass vial, and contact SPME in a stack of paper (or abook. While a number of VOCs are emitted from paper under conditions of natural oraccelerated degradation, two compounds were confirmed to be of particular diagnosticvalue: acetic acid and furfural. The emissions of furfural are shown to correlate with pH ofthe cellulosic environment. Since pH is one of the most important parameters regardingdurability of this material, the developed method could be used for non-destructiveevaluation of historical paper.

  3. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs): chemical compositions and separation of sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bin; Coggon, Matthew M.; Koss, Abigail R.; Warneke, Carsten; Eilerman, Scott; Peischl, Jeff; Aikin, Kenneth C.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; de Gouw, Joost A.

    2017-04-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) emit a large number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere. In this study, we conducted mobile laboratory measurements of VOCs, methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) downwind of dairy cattle, beef cattle, sheep and chicken CAFO facilities in northeastern Colorado using a hydronium ion time-of-flight chemical-ionization mass spectrometer (H3O+ ToF-CIMS), which can detect numerous VOCs. Regional measurements of CAFO emissions in northeastern Colorado were also performed using the NOAA WP-3D aircraft during the Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNEX) campaign. Alcohols and carboxylic acids dominate VOC concentrations and the reactivity of the VOCs with hydroxyl (OH) radicals. Sulfur-containing and phenolic species provide the largest contributions to the odor activity values and the nitrate radical (NO3) reactivity of VOC emissions, respectively. VOC compositions determined from mobile laboratory and aircraft measurements generally agree well with each other. The high time-resolution mobile measurements allow for the separation of the sources of VOCs from different parts of the operations occurring within the facilities. We show that the emissions of ethanol are primarily associated with feed storage and handling. Based on mobile laboratory measurements, we apply a multivariate regression analysis using NH3 and ethanol as tracers to determine the relative importance of animal-related emissions (animal exhalation and waste) and feed-related emissions (feed storage and handling) for different VOC species. Feed storage and handling contribute significantly to emissions of alcohols, carbonyls, carboxylic acids and sulfur-containing species. Emissions of phenolic species and nitrogen-containing species are predominantly associated with animals and their waste.

  4. Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from Animal Husbandry: Chemical Compositions, Separation of Sources and Animal Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, B.; Coggon, M.; Koss, A.; Warneke, C.; Eilerman, S. J.; Neuman, J. A.; Peischl, J.; Aikin, K. C.; Ryerson, T. B.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are important sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere. We used a hydronium ion time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (H3O+ ToF-CIMS) to measure VOC emissions from CAFOs in the Northern Front Range of Colorado during an aircraft campaign (SONGNEX) for regional contributions and from a mobile laboratory sampling for chemical characterizations of individual animal feedlots. The main VOCs emitted from CAFOs include carboxylic acids, alcohols, carbonyls, phenolic species, sulfur- and nitrogen-containing species. Alcohols and carboxylic acids dominate VOC concentrations. Sulfur-containing and phenolic species become more important in terms of odor activity values and NO3 reactivity, respectively. The high time-resolution mobile measurements allow the separation of the sources of VOCs from different parts of the operations occurring within the facilities. We show that the increase of ethanol concentrations were primarily associated with feed storage and handling. We apply a multivariate regression analysis using NH3 and ethanol as tracers to attribute the relative importance of animal-related emissions (animal exhalation and waste) and feed-related emissions (feed storage and handling) for different VOC species. Feed storage and handling contribute significantly to emissions of alcohols, carbonyls and carboxylic acids. Phenolic species and nitrogen-containing species are predominantly associated with animals and their waste. VOC ratios can be potentially used as indicators for the separation of emissions from dairy and beef cattle from the regional aircraft measurements.

  5. Emission characteristics of VOCs from three fixed-roof p-xylene liquid storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chungsying; Huang, Hsiaoyun; Chang, Shenteng; Hsu, Shihchieh

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluates emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) caused by standing loss (L S) and working loss (L W) of three vertical fixed-roof p-xylene (p-X) liquid tanks during 1-year storage and filling operation. The annual net throughput of the tanks reached 70,446 t, resulting in 9,425 kg of p-X vapor emission including 5,046 kg of L S (53.54 %) and 4,379 kg of L W (46.46 %). The estimated L W of AP-42 displayed better agreement with the measured values of a VOC detector than the estimated L S of AP-42. The L S was best correlated with the liquid height of the tanks, while the L W was best correlated with the net throughput of the tanks. As a result, decreasing vapor space volume of the tanks and avoiding high net throughput of the tanks in a high ambient temperature period were considered as effective means to lessen VOC emission from the fixed-roof organic liquid storage tank.

  6. The Amazonian Floodplains, an ecotype with challenging questions on volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselmeier, J.

    2012-12-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are affected by a variety of biotic and abiotic factors such as light intensity, temperature, CO2 and drought. Another factor usually overlooked but very important for the tropical rainforest in Amazonia is regular flooding. According to recent estimates, the total Amazonian floodplain area easily ranges up to 700,000 km^2, including whitewater river floodplains (várzea) blackwater regions (igapó) and further clearwater regions. Regarding the total Amazonian wetlands the area sums up to more than 2.000.000 km^2, i.e. 30% of Amazonia. To survive the flooding periods causing anoxic conditions for the root system of up to several months, vegetation has developed several morphological, anatomical and physiological strategies. One is to switch over the root metabolism to fermentation, thus producing ethanol as one of the main products. Ethanol is a toxic metabolite which is transported into the leaves by the transpiration stream. From there it can either be directly emitted into the atmosphere, or can be re-metabolized to acetaldehyde and/or acetate. All of these compounds are volatile enough to be partly released into the atmosphere. We observed emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid under root anoxia. Furthermore, plant stress induced by flooding also affected leaf primary physiological processes as well as other VOC emissions such as the release of isoprenoids and other volatiles. For example, Hevea spruceana could be identified as a monoterpene emitting tree species behaving differently upon anoxia depending on the origin, with increasing emissions of the species from igapó and decreasing with the corresponding species from várzea. Contrasting such short term inundations, studies of VOC emissions under long term conditions (2-3 months) did not confirm the ethanol/acetaldehyde emissions, whereas emissions of other VOC species decreased considerably. These results demonstrate that the transfer of our knowledge

  7. Measurements and modeling to quantify emissions of methane and VOCs from shale gas operations: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presto, Albert A [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-06-30

    The objectives of the project were to determine the leakage rates of methane and ozone-forming Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and the emission rates of air toxics from Marcellus shale gas activities. Methane emissions in the Marcellus Shale region were differentiated between “newer” sources associated with shale gas development and “older” sources associated with coal or conventional natural gas exploration. This project conducted measurements of methane and VOC emissions from both shale and non-shale natural gas resources. The initial scope of the project was the Marcellus Shale basin, and measurements were conducted in both the western wet gas regions (southwest PA and WV) and eastern dry gas region (northeast PA) of the basin. During this project, we obtained additional funding from other agencies to expand the scope of measurements to include additional basins. The data from both the Marcellus and other basins were combined to construct a national analysis of methane emissions from oil & gas production activities.

  8. Global Emissions of Terpenoid VOCs from Terrestrial Vegetation in the Last Millennium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta Navarro, J. C.; Smolander, S.; Struthers, H.; Zorita, E.; Ekman, A. M.; Kaplan, J. O.; Guenther, Alex B.; Arneth, A.; Riipinen, I.

    2014-06-16

    land cover change. In addition, isoprene emission sensitivity to drought proved to have signifcant short term global effects. By the end of the past millennium MEGAN isoprene emissions were 634 TgC yr-1 (13% and 19% less than during during 1750-1850 and 1000- 1200, respectively) and LPJ-GUESS emissions were 323 TgC yr-1 (15% and 16 17 20% less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Monoterpene emissions were 89 TgC yr-1 (10% and 6% higher than during 1750-1850 and 18 1000-1200, respectively) in MEGAN, and 24 TgC yr-1 (2% higher and 5% less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively) in LPJ-GUESS. MEGAN sesquiterpene emissions were 36 TgC yr-1 (10% and 4% higher than during1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Although both models capture similar emission trends, the magnitude of the emissions are different. This highlights the importance of building better constraints on VOC emissions from terrestrial vegetation.emission trends, the magnitude of the emissions are different. This highlights the importance of building better constraints on VOC emissions from terrestrial vegetation.

  9. Mapping methane sources and emissions over California from direct airborne flux and VOC source tracer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, A.; Misztal, P. K.; Peischl, J.; Karl, T.; Jonsson, H. H.; Woods, R. K.; Ryerson, T. B.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2013-12-01

    Quantifying the contributions of methane (CH4) emissions from anthropogenic sources in the Central Valley of California is important for validation of the statewide greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory and subsequent AB32 law implementation. The state GHG inventory is largely based on activity data and emission factor based estimates. The 'bottom-up' emission factors for CH4 have large uncertainties and there is a lack of adequate 'top-down' measurements to characterize emission rates. Emissions from non-CO2 GHG sources display spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability, and are thus, often, poorly characterized. The Central Valley of California is an agricultural and industry intensive region with large concentration of dairies and livestock operations, active oil and gas fields and refining operations, as well as rice cultivation all of which are known CH4 sources. In order to gain a better perspective of the spatial distribution of major CH4 sources in California, airborne measurements were conducted aboard a Twin Otter aircraft for the CABERNET (California Airborne BVOC Emissions Research in Natural Ecosystems Transects) campaign, where the driving research goal was to understand the spatial distribution of biogenic VOC emissions. The campaign took place in June 2011 and encompassed over forty hours of low-altitude and mixed layer airborne CH4 and CO2 measurements alongside coincident VOC measurements. Transects during eight unique flights covered much of the Central Valley and its eastern edge, the Sacramento-San Joaquin delta and the coastal range. We report direct quantification of CH4 fluxes using real-time airborne Eddy Covariance measurements. CH4 and CO2 were measured at 1-Hz data rate using an instrument based on Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) along with specific VOCs (like isoprene, methanol, acetone etc.) measured at 10-Hz using Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer - Eddy Covariance (PTRMS-EC) flux system. Spatially resolved eddy covariance

  10. Large decrease of VOC emissions of Switzerland's car fleet during the past decade: results from a highway tunnel study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmler, Konrad; Bugmann, Stefan; Buchmann, Brigitte; Reimann, Stefan; Staehelin, Johannes

    The emissions of 14 C 4-C 8 VOC species from road traffic have been measured in a highway tunnel (Gubristtunnel) near Zurich, Switzerland in 2002. The investigated traffic situation corresponds to highway driving with an average speed of 90 km h -1 and hot engine conditions. The comparison with measurements in the same tunnel performed in 1993 indicates that the emission factors of the individual hydrocarbons decreased on average by 80% in the 9 years between both investigations. This improvement can mainly be explained by the nearly complete elimination of non-catalyst gasoline-fuelled cars from the Swiss car fleet in the past decade. The relative emission strengths of the quantified individual VOCs were similar in 1993 and 2002. The emission factors reported in this study are the lowest reported from on-road vehicle emission measurements so far, indicating the efficient technology of modern car fleets with respect to VOC emissions. The emission factors derived from the tunnel study are compared to modelled emission factors based on dynamometric test measurements on Swiss passenger cars. The employed model is the Handbuch für Emissionsfaktoren des Strassenverkehrs; version 1.2 (Umweltbundesamt Berlin and INFRAS AG Bern, 1999). A good agreement between the modelled and measured emissions was found for the investigated traffic situation, indicating that the development of the VOC emissions during the last decade is well understood on the basis of the fleet composition and the dynamometric test measurements. The observed VOC emission reduction corresponds to a traffic situation, where an optimal exhaust gas catalyst performance can be expected. Factors leading to a somewhat less beneficial influence of the catalytic converter technique in other relevant driving situations are therefore additionally discussed.

  11. On-line field measurements of VOC emissions from a spruce tree at SMEAR Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Bonn, Boris; Noe, Steffen

    2013-04-01

    We have investigated VOC emissions from a Norway spruce tree (Picea abies) in a hemi-boreal mixed forest in September and October 2012, using Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry techniques, applied in a dynamic branch enclosure system that was automatically operated with an electrical compressor. Parallel to BVOC measurements a vast amount of atmospheric (CO2, CH4, H2O, CO, particles) and meteorological (temperature, relative humidity, photosynthetic active radiation, wind speed and direction, precipitation) parameters were measured in the ambient atmosphere and inside the cuvette enclosure (temperature, relative humidity, O3). Prior to the measuring period, an innovatory experimental setup was built at Järvselja forest station, in order to accomplish the detection of BVOC and minimize sampling losses. Therefore, a new inlet line, consisting of 19.4m of heated and isolated glass tube was constructed. The new inlet system applied, allowed the on-line detection and calculation of sesquiterpene (SQT) emission rates for the first time in a hemi-boreal forest site. It total, 12 atmospheric relevant BVOCs were continuously monitored for a three week period and the emission rates were derived. Along with diurnal profiles and continuous timeless, some interesting observations showed the possibility of ozone effect on SQT emissions, the possibility of radiation effect on MT emissions, the higher induced emissions due to mechanical stress and the possibility for a valid intercomparison between different spruce trees located in mountain Kleiner Feldberg (Germany) and in Järvseja forest station (Estonia).

  12. Measurement of VOC and SVOC emissions from computer monitors with a 1 m{sup 3} emission test chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wensing, M. [Fraunhofer Wilhelm-Klauditz-Inst., Material Analysis and Indoor Chemistry (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Electronic devices such as computer monitors emit a large number of different chemicals to the indoor air and their environment under operating conditions, particularly due to their heat development. This basically creates a potential exposure of the room users to those chemicals, some of which may be injurious to human health because of their classification as toxic substances. The spectrum of emissions ranges from more volatile (VOC) auxiliary production agents (solvents) and residual emissions of plastic monomers up to more semi-volatile plasticizers and flame retardants (SVOC) which are added to polymer materials in a well-aimed way in order to achieve certain desired material properties durably. The paper describes the measurement of these emissions with a 1 m{sup 3} test chamber and the health-related evaluation of the results. (orig.)

  13. A refined 2010-based VOC emission inventory and its improvement on modeling regional ozone in the Pearl River Delta Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shasha; Zheng, Junyu; Lu, Qing; Yuan, Zibing; Huang, Zhijiong; Zhong, Liuju; Lin, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Accurate and gridded VOC emission inventories are important for improving regional air quality model performance. In this study, a four-level VOC emission source categorization system was proposed. A 2010-based gridded Pearl River Delta (PRD) regional VOC emission inventory was developed with more comprehensive source coverage, latest emission factors, and updated activity data. The total anthropogenic VOC emission was estimated to be about 117.4 × 10(4)t, in which on-road mobile source shared the largest contribution, followed by industrial solvent use and industrial processes sources. Among the industrial solvent use source, furniture manufacturing and shoemaking were major VOC emission contributors. The spatial surrogates of VOC emission were updated for major VOC sources such as industrial sectors and gas stations. Subsector-based temporal characteristics were investigated and their temporal variations were characterized. The impacts of updated VOC emission estimates and spatial surrogates were evaluated by modeling O₃ concentration in the PRD region in the July and October of 2010, respectively. The results indicated that both updated emission estimates and spatial allocations can effectively reduce model bias on O₃ simulation. Further efforts should be made on the refinement of source classification, comprehensive collection of activity data, and spatial-temporal surrogates in order to reduce uncertainty in emission inventory and improve model performance.

  14. [Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from wood furniture--estimation of emission rate by passive flux sampler].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinno, Hideto; Tanaka-Kagawa, Toshiko; Furuta, Mitsuko; Shibatsuji, Masayoshi; Nishimura, Tetsuji

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate aldehydes and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission from furniture, which may cause hazardous influence on human being such as sick building/sick house syndrome. In this study, VOCs emitted from six kinds of wood furniture, including three set of dining tables and three beds, were analyzed by large chamber test method (JIS A 1911). Based on the emission rates of total VOCs (TVOC), the impacts on the indoor TVOC was estimated by the simulation model with volume of 20 m3 and ventilation frequency of 0.5 times/h. The estimated increment of formaldehyde were exceeded the guideline value (100 microg/m3) in one set of dining table and one bed. The estimated TVOC increment values were exceeded the provisional target value for indoor air (400 microg/m3) in two sets of dining tables and two beds. These results revealed that VOC emissions from wood furniture may influence significantly indoor air quality. Also, in this study, to establish the alternative method for large chamber test methods, emission rates from representative five areas of furniture unit were evaluated by passive sampling method using flux sampler and emission rate from full-sized furniture was predicted. Emission rates predicted by flux passive sampler were 10-106% (formaldehyde) and 8-141% (TVOC) of the data measured using large chamber test, respectively.

  15. Influence of precision of emission characteristic parameters on model prediction error of VOCs/formaldehyde from dry building material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Wei

    Full Text Available Mass transfer models are useful in predicting the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and formaldehyde from building materials in indoor environments. They are also useful for human exposure evaluation and in sustainable building design. The measurement errors in the emission characteristic parameters in these mass transfer models, i.e., the initial emittable concentration (C 0, the diffusion coefficient (D, and the partition coefficient (K, can result in errors in predicting indoor VOC and formaldehyde concentrations. These errors have not yet been quantitatively well analyzed in the literature. This paper addresses this by using modelling to assess these errors for some typical building conditions. The error in C 0, as measured in environmental chambers and applied to a reference living room in Beijing, has the largest influence on the model prediction error in indoor VOC and formaldehyde concentration, while the error in K has the least effect. A correlation between the errors in D, K, and C 0 and the error in the indoor VOC and formaldehyde concentration prediction is then derived for engineering applications. In addition, the influence of temperature on the model prediction of emissions is investigated. It shows the impact of temperature fluctuations on the prediction errors in indoor VOC and formaldehyde concentrations to be less than 7% at 23±0.5°C and less than 30% at 23±2°C.

  16. Influence of precision of emission characteristic parameters on model prediction error of VOCs/formaldehyde from dry building material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wenjuan; Xiong, Jianyin; Zhang, Yinping

    2013-01-01

    Mass transfer models are useful in predicting the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and formaldehyde from building materials in indoor environments. They are also useful for human exposure evaluation and in sustainable building design. The measurement errors in the emission characteristic parameters in these mass transfer models, i.e., the initial emittable concentration (C 0), the diffusion coefficient (D), and the partition coefficient (K), can result in errors in predicting indoor VOC and formaldehyde concentrations. These errors have not yet been quantitatively well analyzed in the literature. This paper addresses this by using modelling to assess these errors for some typical building conditions. The error in C 0, as measured in environmental chambers and applied to a reference living room in Beijing, has the largest influence on the model prediction error in indoor VOC and formaldehyde concentration, while the error in K has the least effect. A correlation between the errors in D, K, and C 0 and the error in the indoor VOC and formaldehyde concentration prediction is then derived for engineering applications. In addition, the influence of temperature on the model prediction of emissions is investigated. It shows the impact of temperature fluctuations on the prediction errors in indoor VOC and formaldehyde concentrations to be less than 7% at 23±0.5°C and less than 30% at 23±2°C.

  17. [Study on the quantitative estimation method for VOCs emission from petrochemical storage tanks based on tanks 4.0.9d model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wang, Min-Yan; Zhang, Jian; He, Wan-Qing; Nie, Lei; Shao, Xia

    2013-12-01

    VOCs emission from petrochemical storage tanks is one of the important emission sources in the petrochemical industry. In order to find out the VOCs emission amount of petrochemical storage tanks, Tanks 4.0.9d model is utilized to calculate the VOCs emission from different kinds of storage tanks. VOCs emissions from a horizontal tank, a vertical fixed roof tank, an internal floating roof tank and an external floating roof tank were calculated as an example. The consideration of the site meteorological information, the sealing information, the tank content information and unit conversion by using Tanks 4.0.9d model in China was also discussed. Tanks 4.0.9d model can be used to estimate VOCs emissions from petrochemical storage tanks in China as a simple and highly accurate method.

  18. Do time-averaged, whole-building, effective volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions depend on the air exchange rate? A statistical analysis of trends for 46 VOCs in U.S. offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackes, A; Waring, M S

    2016-08-01

    We used existing data to develop distributions of time-averaged air exchange rates (AER), whole-building 'effective' emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOC), and other variables for use in Monte Carlo analyses of U.S. offices. With these, we explored whether long-term VOC emission rates were related to the AER over the sector, as has been observed in the short term for some VOCs in single buildings. We fit and compared two statistical models to the data. In the independent emissions model (IEM), emissions were unaffected by other variables, while in the dependent emissions model (DEM), emissions responded to the AER via coupling through a conceptual boundary layer between the air and a lumped emission source. For 20 of 46 VOCs, the DEM was preferable to the IEM and emission rates, though variable, were higher in buildings with higher AERs. Most oxygenated VOCs and some alkanes were well fit by the DEM, while nearly all aromatics and halocarbons were independent. Trends by vapor pressure suggested multiple mechanisms could be involved. The factors of temperature, relative humidity, and building age were almost never associated with effective emission rates. Our findings suggest that effective emissions in real commercial buildings will be difficult to predict from deterministic experiments or models.

  19. Emissions of selected VOC from forests: First results on measurements needed for improvement and validation of emission models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigner, D.; Steinbrecher, R.; Rappenglück, B.; Gasche, R.; Hansel, A.; Graus, M.; Lindinger, Ch.

    2003-04-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) play a crucial role in the formation of photo-oxidants and particles through the diverse BVOC degradation pathways. Yet, current estimations about temporal and spatial BVOC emissions, including the specific BVOC mix are rather vague. This project addresses this issue by: the determination of (a) BVOC net emission rates and (b) primary emissions of BVOCs from the trees and soils. Measurement campaigns were carried out at the Waldstein site in the Fichtelgebirge in 2001 and 2002. Primary emissions of isoprenoids from the soil and from twigs of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) and stand fluxes of isoprenoids were quantified by means of REA-technique with in situ GC-FID analysis and GC-MS analysis in the laboratory. Moreover, REA-samples obtained by the system were analysed by a PTR-MS. A critical value when using the REA approach is the Businger-Oncley parameter b. For this canopy type a b value of 0.39 (threshold velocity w_o = 0.6) was determined. The PTR-MS data show clear diurnal variations of ambient air mixing ratios of VOC such as isoprene and monoterpenes, but also of oxygenated VOCs such as carbonyls and alcohols and methylvinylketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MAK), products from isoprene degradation. Four selected trees (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) were intensively screened for primary BVOC emission rates. Most abundant species are b-pinene/sabinene and camphene. They show typical diurnal patterns with high emissions during daytime. Soil emissions of NO reached 250 nmol N m-2 s-1 at soil temperatures (in 3 cm depth) of 13^oC and at a relative air humidity of 60%. Ambient air mixing ratios near the soil surface of NO reached values of up to 0.7 ppb. NO_2 and ozone mixing ratios varied between 0.1 to 1.5 ppb and 10 to 37 ppb, respectively. As expected nitrogen oxide emissions rates tend to increase with increasing surface temperature. Isoprenoid emission from the soil was low and in general near the detection limit

  20. Estimation of VOC emissions from produced-water treatment ponds in Uintah Basin oil and gas field using modeling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, H.; Mansfield, M. L.; Lyman, S. N.; O'Neil, T.; Jones, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    Emissions from produced-water treatment ponds are poorly characterized sources in oil and gas emission inventories that play a critical role in studying elevated winter ozone events in the Uintah Basin, Utah, U.S. Information gaps include un-quantified amounts and compositions of gases emitted from these facilities. The emitted gases are often known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which, beside nitrogen oxides (NOX), are major precursors for ozone formation in the near-surface layer. Field measurement campaigns using the flux-chamber technique have been performed to measure VOC emissions from a limited number of produced water ponds in the Uintah Basin of eastern Utah. Although the flux chamber provides accurate measurements at the point of sampling, it covers just a limited area of the ponds and is prone to altering environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, pressure). This fact raises the need to validate flux chamber measurements. In this study, we apply an inverse-dispersion modeling technique with evacuated canister sampling to validate the flux-chamber measurements. This modeling technique applies an initial and arbitrary emission rate to estimate pollutant concentrations at pre-defined receptors, and adjusts the emission rate until the estimated pollutant concentrations approximates measured concentrations at the receptors. The derived emission rates are then compared with flux-chamber measurements and differences are analyzed. Additionally, we investigate the applicability of the WATER9 wastewater emission model for the estimation of VOC emissions from produced-water ponds in the Uintah Basin. WATER9 estimates the emission of each gas based on properties of the gas, its concentration in the waste water, and the characteristics of the influent and treatment units. Results of VOC emission estimations using inverse-dispersion and WATER9 modeling techniques will be reported.

  1. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from feedlot pen surface materials as affected by within pen location, moisture, and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the effects of pen location, moisture, and temperature on emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from surface materials obtained from feedlot pens where beef cattle were fed a diet containing 30% wet distillers grain plus solubles. Surface material...

  2. On-Road Measurement of Vehichle VOC Emission Measurements During the 2003 Mexico City Metropolitan Area Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knighton, W. B.; Rogers, T.; Grimsrud, E.; Herndon, S.; Allwine, E.; Lamb, B.; Velasco, E.; Westberg, H.

    2004-12-01

    In the spring of 2003 (April 1-May 5), a multinational team of experts conducted an intensive, five-week field campaign in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The overall goal of this effort was to contribute to the understanding of the air quality problem in megacities. As part of the campaign the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory was equipped with state-of-the-art analytical instruments and deployed for measuring a variety of vehicle emissions in real time including CO2, NO2, NH3, HCHO, VOC's and volatile (at 600 °C) aerosol. The on-road measurement of vehicle VOC emissions were performed using a commercial version of the IONICON PTR-MS modified to operate onboard the mobile lab platform. A summary of the PTR-MS results from these and supporting laboratory experiments will be presented and discussed. In particular, selected chase events will be presented to illustrate the utility of the PTR-MS technique for characterizing vehicle VOC emission profiles in real time. VOC emission profiles for different vehicle engine types which include gasoline, diesel and compressed natural gas will be discussed and compared to the measurements from other high time response instruments deployed on the Aerodyne mobile van.

  3. Light-Duty GDI Vehicle PM and VOC Speciated Emissions at Differing Ambient Temperatures with Ethanol Blend Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the rise in the use of ethanol-blend gasoline in the US and more manufacturers implementing gasoline direct injection (GDI) technologies, interest is increasing in how these fuel blends affect PM and VOC emissions in GDI technology vehicles. EPA conducted a study characteri...

  4. Prediction of short-term and long-term VOC emissions from SBR bitumen-backed carpet under different temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Chen, Q.; Bluyssen, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents two models for volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from carpet. One is a numerical model using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tech-nique for short-term predictions, the other an analytical model for long-term predictions. The numerical model can (1) deal with carpet

  5. Prediction of short-term and long-term VOC emissions from SBR bitumen-backed carpet under different temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Chen, Q.; Bluyssen, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents two models for volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from carpet. One is a numerical model using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tech-nique for short-term predictions, the other an analytical model for long-term predictions. The numerical model can (1) deal with

  6. 山西省人为源VOCs排放清单及其对臭氧生成贡献%Emission Inventory of Anthropogenic VOCs and Its Contribution to Ozone Formation in Shanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫雨龙; 彭林

    2016-01-01

    Based on the activity levels, emission factors and composition characteristics of VOCs, which was obtained in statistic data and references, the emission amount of anthropogenic VOCs in Shanxi province in 2013 was calculated, and the ozone formation potential of VOCs was studied in this study. The results showed that the emission amount of anthropogenic VOCs in Shanxi province in 2013 was 723 700 t, with the major sector of the industrial emission and vehicle emission, accounting for 36. 47% and 24. 28% of total emission amount, respectively. Coke and chemicals production, the major emission source of VOCs in industrial emission, emitting 190 600 t and 38 800 t VOCs in 2013, accounting for 72. 22% and 14. 72% of industrial emission, respectively. The emission amount of ozone precursor VOCs was 435 900 t, and the total amount of ozone formation potential in Shanxi province in 2013 was 1 769 900 t. The sources of the greatest contribution to total ozone were vehicle emission, combustion sources and industrial emission. The results indicated that industrial emission was the major source of VOCs emission, which showed the simplification and heavy industrial structure. The increasing numbers of vehicles led to the huge emission of VOCs in recent years. In conclusion, the main measure of controlling the ozone pollution caused by VOCs emissions was controlling the VOCs emission from industrial emission and vehicle emission.%根据统计年年鉴中主要的人为挥发性有机物(VOCs)排放源的行业活动水平和文献中查阅到的 VOCs 排放因子和组分特征,计算了山西省2013年的人为源 VOCs 的排放量,计算了臭氧生成潜势.计算结果显示山西省2013年人为源 VOCs 排放量为72.37万 t,最主要的排放行业是工业排放源和移动源,分别占总排放量的36.47%和24.28%;在工业源中,焦炭生产和化学品生产的 VOCs 排放量分别为19.06万 t 和3.88万 t,分别占工业排放行业总排放量的72.22

  7. Leaf level VOC emissions of single plants from Amazonian and Mediterranean ecosystems: Ontogeny and flooding as stress factor for VOC emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Bracho Nunez, Araceli

    2010-01-01

    Die Vegetation ist die wichtigste Quelle von organischen flüchtigen Verbindungen (auf Englisch volatile organic compounds,VOCs), die einen bemerkenswerten Einfluss auf der Chemie und Physik der Atmosphäre haben. VOCs beeinflussen die oxidative Kapazität der Atmosphäre und tragen zu der Bildung und zum Wachstum von sekundären organischen Aerosolen bei, welche einerseits eine Streuung und Reflektierung der Energie verursachen und andererseits sich an der Bildung und Entwicklung von Wolken betei...

  8. Emissions of volatile hydrocarbons (VOC) during drying of sawdust; Utslaepp av laettflyktiga kolvaeten vid torkning av biobraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granstroem, Karin

    2001-08-01

    In the project 'Emissions of volatile hydrocarbons (VOC) during drying of sawdust' the identity, amount and composition of monoterpenes found in the drying medium of a fluidized bed drier drying sawdust from Norwegian spruce and Scotch pine has been determined. The energy efficiency of the drier has also been measured. The aim of this project was to reduce both emissions and energy required for drying, to minimize environmental and health hazards, and make drying more competitive. This would help our primary target group - small scale saw mills - to make use of the sawdust produced as a by- product by making pellets and briquettes. If the VOC remains in the sawdust its energy content will improve and therefore also its value as a fuel. The sawdust was dried to different moisture levels in a spouted bed drier at atmospheric pressure, using either recirculating or not recirculating drying medium with temperatures 140, 170 or 200 deg C. The emissions of VOC were measured using a flame ionization detector (FID) and the nature of the emissions analyzed with a gas chromatograph with mass spectrometric detector (GC-MS). The GC-MS data is reported as emitted substance per oven dry weight (odw). Experiments show that terpenes do not leave the sawdust in great amounts until it is dried to a moisture content (water/total weight) below 10%. When sawdust is dried to a predetermined moisture level, the terpene emissions increase when warmer incoming drying medium is used. The monoterpenes found in greatest amount are a-pinene, b-pinene, 3-carene, limonene and myrcene. y-terpinene was detected in emissions from pine but not from spruce. The relative amounts of different monoterpenes did not vary significantly with post-drying moisture content, but drying medium of higher temperature caused an increase in the relative amount of less volatile monoterpenes. The FID data is reported as concentration of VOC in the drying medium, and as weight VOC per odw. The concentration

  9. VOCs emission rate estimate for complicated industrial area source using an inverse-dispersion calculation method: A case study on a petroleum refinery in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Lv, Zhaofeng; Yang, Gan; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Li, Yue; Wang, Litao

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to apply an inverse-dispersion calculation method (IDM) to estimate the emission rate of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for the complicated industrial area sources, through a case study on a petroleum refinery in Northern China. The IDM was composed of on-site monitoring of ambient VOCs concentrations and meteorological parameters around the source, calculation of the relationship coefficient γ between the source's emission rate and the ambient VOCs concentration by the ISC3 model, and estimation of the actual VOCs emission rate from the source. Targeting the studied refinery, 10 tests and 8 tests were respectively conducted in March and in June of 2014. The monitoring showed large differences in VOCs concentrations between background and downwind receptors, reaching 59.7 ppbv in March and 248.6 ppbv in June, on average. The VOCs increases at receptors mainly consisted of ethane (3.1%-22.6%), propane (3.8%-11.3%), isobutane (8.5%-10.2%), n-butane (9.9%-13.2%), isopentane (6.1%-12.9%), n-pentane (5.1%-9.7%), propylene (6.1-11.1%) and 1-butylene (1.6%-5.4%). The chemical composition of the VOCs increases in this field monitoring was similar to that of VOCs emissions from China's refineries reported, which revealed that the ambient VOCs increases were predominantly contributed by this refinery. So, we used the ISC3 model to create the relationship coefficient γ for each receptor of each test. In result, the monthly VOCs emissions from this refinery were calculated to be 183.5 ± 89.0 ton in March and 538.3 ± 281.0 ton in June. The estimate in June was greatly higher than in March, chiefly because the higher environmental temperature in summer produced more VOCs emissions from evaporation and fugitive process of the refinery. Finally, the VOCs emission factors (g VOCs/kg crude oil refined) of 0.73 ± 0.34 (in March) and 2.15 ± 1.12 (in June) were deduced for this refinery, being in the same order with previous direct

  10. Efficiency of catalytic processes for the reduction of CO and VOC emissions from wood combustion in domestic fireplaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozil, Fabien; Tschamber, V.; Trouve, G. [Universite de haute Alsace - Laboratoire Gestion des Risques Environnement, 25 rue de Chemnitz, 68200 Mulhouse (France); Haas, Frederic (FONDIS SA, ZI Vieux Thann, 68801 Thann Cedex France)

    2009-09-15

    Pollutant characterization of domestic fireplaces, according to two paces of functioning (normal and low-charge phase) was performed. Two catalysts supported on cordierite or metal were placed in the exhaust of two domestic fireplaces (old and new generation) in order to reduce gaseous pollutants. Active phase of catalysts is composed of noble metals (Pd, Pt) and cerium. Methane was the dominant compound of the released Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC, 80% b. v.). Products resulting from incomplete combustion (CO and other VOC) did not represent more than 6% of the initial carbon content in wood. Lower concentration of CO in the exhaust was obtained with the new generation fireplace as compared to the older one with mean concentrations of CO normalized for 13% oxygen b.v. equal to 0.12% and 0.3%, respectively. Emission of VOC is also drastically reduced for new generation fireplace. The presence of a catalyst induced a decrease of the CO and VOC emission factors during ignition and low-charge phases by factors ranging from 65% to 70%. The abatement of VOC for the old generation fireplace was better in the presence of metal as compared to cordierite, with efficiency values of 65% and 30%, respectively. The new fireplace was the one on which the addition of the cleanup implements had most impact. Besides the introduction of a catalyst, a heating system of the fume was set up below the catalyst. This heating system allowed a faster activation of the catalyst, particularly during ignition and low-charge phases. Best abatements were obtained with the heated metallic support with values close to 80% and 94% for VOC and CO respectively. (author)

  11. Impacts of simulated herbivory on VOC emission profiles from coniferous plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Faiola

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The largest global source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in the atmosphere is from biogenic emissions. Plant stressors associated with a changing environment can alter both the quantity and composition of the compounds that are emitted. This study investigated the effects of one global change stressor, increased herbivory, on plant emissions from five different coniferous species: bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata, blue spruce (Picea pungens, western redcedar (Thuja plicata, grand fir (Abies grandis, and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsugas menziesii. Herbivory was simulated in the laboratory via exogenous application of methyl jasmonate, an herbivory proxy. Gas-phase species were measured continuously with a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer and flame ionization detector (GC-MS-FID. Stress responses varied between the different plant types and even between experiments using the same set of saplings. The compounds most frequently impacted by the stress treatment were alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, 1,8-cineol, beta-myrcene, terpinolene, limonene, and the cymene isomers. Individual compounds within a single experiment often exhibited a different response to the treatment from one another.

  12. Impacts of simulated herbivory on VOC emission profiles from coniferous plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiola, C. L.; Jobson, B. T.; VanReken, T. M.

    2014-09-01

    The largest global source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere is from biogenic emissions. Plant stressors associated with a changing environment can alter both the quantity and composition of the compounds that are emitted. This study investigated the effects of one global change stressor, increased herbivory, on plant emissions from five different coniferous species: bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata), blue spruce (Picea pungens), western redcedar (Thuja plicata), grand fir (Abies grandis), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsugas menziesii). Herbivory was simulated in the laboratory via exogenous application of methyl jasmonate, an herbivory proxy. Gas-phase species were measured continuously with a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer and flame ionization detector (GC-MS-FID). Stress responses varied between the different plant types and even between experiments using the same set of saplings. The compounds most frequently impacted by the stress treatment were alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, 1,8-cineol, beta-myrcene, terpinolene, limonene, and the cymene isomers. Individual compounds within a single experiment often exhibited a different response to the treatment from one another.

  13. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the food and drink industries of the European community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passant, Neil R.; Richardson, Stephen J.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Gibson, N.; Woodfield, M. J.; van der Lugt, Jan Pieter; Wolsink, Johan H.; Hesselink, Paul G. M.

    Estimates were made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released into the atmosphere as a result of the industrial manufacture and processing of food and drink in the European Community. The estimates were based on a review of literature sources, industrial and government contacts and recent measurements. Data were found on seven food manufacturing sectors (baking, vegetable oil extraction, solid fat processing, animal rendering, fish meal processing, coffee production and sugar beet processing) and three drink manufacturing sectors (brewing, spirit production and wine making). The principle of a data quality label is advocated to illustrate the authors' confidence in the data, and to highlight areas for further research. Emissions of ethanol from bread baking and spirit maturation were found to be the principle sources. However, significant losses of hexane and large quantities of an ill-defined mixture of partially oxidized hydrocarbons were noted principally from seed oil extraction and the drying of plant material, respectively. This latter mixture included low molecular weight aldehydes, carboxylic acids, ketones, amines and esters. However, the precise composition of many emissions were found to be poorly understood. The total emission from the food and drink industry in the EC was calculated as 260 kt yr -1. However, many processes within the target industry were found to be completely uncharacterized and therefore not included in the overall estimate (e.g. soft drink manufacture, production of animal food, flavourings, vinegar, tea, crisps and other fried snacks). Moreover, the use of data quality labels illustrated the fact that many of our estimates were based on limited data. Hence, further emissions monitoring is recommended from identified sources (e.g. processing of sugar beet, solid fat and fish meal) and from uncharacterized sources.

  14. Initial Analysis of VOCs Speciation in CREATE Emissions Inventory using the MAPS-Seoul Aircraft Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, C.; Woo, J. H.; Lee, Y.; Kim, J.; Choi, K. C.; Kim, Y.; Kim, J.; Jang, Y. K.; Kim, S.

    2016-12-01

    As the first international cooperative air quality field study, the MAPS-Seoul (Megacity Air Pollution Studies-Seoul) aircraft mission was conducted in May - June 2016 over the South Korea, to understand of climate and atmospheric environment. The aircraft carried observation instruments for measurements of GHGs, ozone and its precursors, aerosols, and chemical tracers. The CREATE (Comprehensive Regional Emissions inventory for Atmospheric Environment) emissions inventory and SMOKE-Asia emission processing system were used to support chemical forecasting and to serve as a priori for evaluation. Initial results of comparison studies show large discrepancies in VOC species over the South Korea - especially over urban regions. Several VOC species observed high near megacities and petro-chemical plants but under-predicted by chemical transport models (CTMs) - possibly due to relatively low emissions. The chemical speciation profiles and emissions inventory for each emission sources, therefore, have to be re-visited to improve emissions information. In this study, we have; 1) re-examined our emissions inventory and emission speciation processes, 2) and tried to find possible missing sources and alternative chemical speciation profiles, to improve our modelling emissions inventory. Initial review of the mapping and classification profiles, the original US chemical speciation profiles were found to be low in partitioning painting and surface coating sources, although they are the very significant contributors. Unlike other major national cities in China, Shanghai's VOC emissions fraction seems very similar to that of Seoul. Continuous analysis of major urban and industrial areas of the country will be presented at site.Acknowledgements : This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "Climate Change Correspondence Program". This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Environment Research (NIER), funded by the Ministry of Environment

  15. Characterizations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from vehicular emissions at roadside environment: The first comprehensive study in Northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bowei; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Xue, Yonggang; Huang, Yu; Wang, Liqin; Cheng, Yan; Dai, Wenting; Zhong, Haobin; Cao, Junji; Lee, Shuncheng

    2017-07-01

    Vehicular emission (VE) is one of the important anthropogenic sources for ground-level volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in both urban and suburban areas. A first comprehensive campaign was conducted at an urban roadside in Xi'an, China in summer, 2016. A total of 57 VOCs, as known as critical surface ozone (O3) precursors, and other trace gases were measured simultaneously during the sampling period. Iso-pentane, a tracer of gasoline evaporation, was the most abundant VOC in the roadside samples, followed by isobutane and benzene, attributed to the largest composition (∼70%) of gasoline-fueled vehicles on the road. The molar ratio of toluene/benzene (T/B) in our study (0.36) is far lower than the range reported in other cities, indicating the stronger contributions from diesel emissions. The results of source apportionment achieved with positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model were highly consistent with the vehicles compositions, strongly evidenced that the precise characterization of the VE sources from those marker species. The degrees of individual compound contributed to O3 production were weighed by ozone formation potential (OFP). Propylene (20%), 1-butene (11%) and iso-pentane(10%) were the top three contributors at the roadside. The information of this study complements the VOCs database regarding to the VE sources in Northwestern China.

  16. Emissions and photochemistry of oxygenated VOCs in urban plumes in the Northeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sommariva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Photochemical processes inside urban plumes in the Northeast of the United States have been studied using a highly detailed chemical model, based upon the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM. The model results have been compared to measurements of oxygenated VOCs (acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, acetaldehyde, acetic acid and methanol obtained during several flights of the NOAA WP-3D aircraft, which sampled plumes from the New York City area during the ICARTT campaign in 2004. The agreement between the model and the measurements was within 40–60 % for all species, except acetic acid.

    The model results have been used to study the formation and photochemical evolution of acetone, methyl ethyl ketone and acetaldehyde. Under the conditions encountered during the ICARTT campaign, acetone is produced from the oxidation of propane (24–28 % and i-propanol (<15 % and from a number of products of i-pentane oxidation. Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK is mostly produced from the oxidation of n-butane (20–30 % and 3-methylpentane (<40 %. Acetaldehyde is formed from several precursors, mostly small alkenes, >C5 alkanes, propanal and MEK. Ethane and ethanol oxidation account, respectively, for 6–23 % and 5–25 % of acetaldehyde photochemical formation. The results highlight the importance of alkanes for the photochemical production of ketones and the role of hydroperoxides in sustaining their formation far from the emission sources.

  17. Emissions and photochemistry of oxygenated VOCs in urban plumes in the Northeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sommariva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Photochemical processes inside urban plumes in the Northeast of the United States have been studied using a highly detailed chemical model, based upon the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM. The model results have been compared to measurements of oxygenated VOCs (acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, acetaldehyde, acetic acid and methanol obtained during several flights of the NOAA WP-3D aircraft, which sampled plumes from the New York City area during the ICARTT campaign in 2004. The agreement between the model and the measurements was within 40–60% for all species, except acetic acid.

    The model results have been used to study the formation and photochemical evolution of acetone, methyl ethyl ketone and acetaldehyde. Under the conditions encountered during the ICARTT campaign, acetone is produced from the oxidation of propane (24–28% and i-propanol (<15% and from a number of products of i-pentane oxidation. Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK is mostly produced from the oxidation of n-butane (20–30% and 3-methylpentane (<40%. Acetaldehyde is formed from several precursors, mostly small alkenes, >C5 alkanes, propanal and MEK. Ethane and ethanol oxidation account, respectively, for 6–23% and 5–25% of acetaldehyde photochemical formation. The results highlight the importance of long-chain alkanes for the photochemical production of ketones and the role of hydroperoxides in sustaining their formation far from the emission sources.

  18. Contrasting winter and summer VOC mixing ratios at a forest site in the Western Mediterranean Basin: the effect of local biogenic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco, R.; Peñuelas, J.; Filella, I.; Llusià, J.; Molowny-Horas, R.; Schallhart, S.; Metzger, A.; Müller, M.; Hansel, A.

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are involved in ozone and aerosol generation, thus having implications for air quality and climate. VOCs and their emissions by vegetation also have important ecological roles as they can protect plants from stresses and act as communication cues between plants and between plants and animals. In spite of these key environmental and biological roles, the reports on seasonal and daily VOC mixing ratios in the literature for Mediterranean natural environments are scarce. We conducted seasonal (winter and summer) measurements of VOC mixing ratios in an elevated (720 m a.s.l.) holm oak Mediterranean forest site near the metropolitan area of Barcelona (NE Iberian Peninsula). Methanol was the most abundant compound among all the VOCs measured in both seasons. While aromatic VOCs showed almost no seasonal variability, short-chain oxygenated VOCs presented higher mixing ratios in summer, presumably due to greater emission by vegetation and increased photochemistry, both enhanced by the high temperatures and solar radiation in summer. Isoprenoid VOCs showed the biggest seasonal change in mixing ratios: they increased by one order of magnitude in summer, as a result of the vegetation's greater physiological activity and emission rates. The maximum diurnal concentrations of ozone increased in summer too, most likely due to more intense photochemical activity and the higher levels of VOCs in the air. The daily variation of VOC mixing ratios was mainly governed by the wind regime of the mountain, as the majority of the VOC species analyzed followed a very similar diel cycle. Mountain and sea breezes that develop after sunrise advect polluted air masses to the mountain. These polluted air masses had previously passed over the urban and industrial areas surrounding the Barcelona metropolitan area, where they were enriched in NOx and in VOCs of biotic and abiotic origin. Moreover, these polluted air masses receive additional biogenic

  19. Contrasting winter and summer VOC mixing ratios at a forest site in the Western Mediterranean Basin: the effect of local biogenic emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Seco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs are involved in ozone and aerosol generation, thus having implications for air quality and climate. VOCs and their emissions by vegetation also have important ecological roles as they can protect plants from stresses and act as communication cues between plants and between plants and animals. In spite of these key environmental and biological roles, the reports on seasonal and daily VOC mixing ratios in the literature for Mediterranean natural environments are scarce.

    We conducted seasonal (winter and summer measurements of VOC mixing ratios in an elevated (720 m a.s.l. holm oak Mediterranean forest site near the metropolitan area of Barcelona (NE Iberian Peninsula. Methanol was the most abundant compound among all the VOCs measured in both seasons. While aromatic VOCs showed almost no seasonal variability, short-chain oxygenated VOCs presented higher mixing ratios in summer, presumably due to greater emission by vegetation and increased photochemistry, both enhanced by the high temperatures and solar radiation in summer. Isoprenoid VOCs showed the biggest seasonal change in mixing ratios: they increased by one order of magnitude in summer, as a result of the vegetation's greater physiological activity and emission rates. The maximum diurnal concentrations of ozone increased in summer too, most likely due to more intense photochemical activity and the higher levels of VOCs in the air.

    The daily variation of VOC mixing ratios was mainly governed by the wind regime of the mountain, as the majority of the VOC species analyzed followed a very similar diel cycle. Mountain and sea breezes that develop after sunrise advect polluted air masses to the mountain. These polluted air masses had previously passed over the urban and industrial areas surrounding the Barcelona metropolitan area, where they were enriched in NOx and in VOCs of biotic and abiotic origin. Moreover, these

  20. Biological anoxic treatment of O{sub 2}-free VOC emissions from the petrochemical industry: A proof of concept study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, Raúl; Souza, Theo S.O. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Glittmann, Lina [Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, Department of Supply Engineering, Wolfenbüttel (Germany); Pérez, Rebeca [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Quijano, Guillermo, E-mail: gquijano@iq.uva.es [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • The treatment of O{sub 2}-free VOC emissions can be done by means of denitrifying processes. •Toluene vapors were successfully removed under anoxic denitrifying conditions. • A high bacterial diversity was observed. • Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were the predominant phyla. • The nature and number of metabolites accumulated varied with the toluene load -- Abstract: An innovative biofiltration technology based on anoxic biodegradation was proposed in this work for the treatment of inert VOC-laden emissions from the petrochemical industry. Anoxic biofiltration does not require conventional O{sub 2} supply to mineralize VOCs, which increases process safety and allows for the reuse of the residual gas for inertization purposes in plant. The potential of this technology was evaluated in a biotrickling filter using toluene as a model VOC at loads of 3, 5, 12 and 34 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1} (corresponding to empty bed residence times of 16, 8, 4 and 1.3 min) with a maximum elimination capacity of ∼3 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1}. However, significant differences in the nature and number of metabolites accumulated at each toluene load tested were observed, o- and p-cresol being detected only at 34 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1}, while benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde and phenol were detected at lower loads. A complete toluene removal was maintained after increasing the inlet toluene concentration from 0.5 to 1 g m{sup −3} (which entailed a loading rate increase from 3 to 6 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1}), indicating that the system was limited by mass transfer rather than by biological activity. A high bacterial diversity was observed, the predominant phyla being Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria.

  1. Comparison of VOC emissions between air-dried and heat-treated Norway spruce ( Picea abies), Scots pine ( Pinus sylvesteris) and European aspen ( Populus tremula) wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyttinen, Marko; Masalin-Weijo, Marika; Kalliokoski, Pentti; Pasanen, Pertti

    2010-12-01

    Heat-treated wood is an increasingly popular decoration material. Heat-treatment improves dimensional stability of the wood and also prevents rot fungus growth. Although production of heat-treated wood has been rapidly increasing, there is only little information about the VOC emissions of heat-treated wood and its possible influences on indoor air quality. In the present study, VOC emissions from three untreated (air-dried) and heat-treated wood species were compared during a four weeks test period. It appeared that different wood species had clearly different VOC emission profiles. Heat-treatment was found to decrease VOC emissions significantly and change their composition. Especially, emissions of terpenes decreased from softwood samples and aldehydes from European aspen samples. Emissions of total aldehydes and organic acids were at the same level or slightly higher from heat treated than air-dried softwood samples. In agreement with another recent study, the emissions of furfural were found to increase and those of hexanal to decrease from all the wood species investigated. In contrast to air-dried wood samples, emissions of VOCs were almost in steady state from heat treated wood samples even in the beginning of the test.

  2. Pilot-scale testing of renewable biocatalyst for swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Devin L.; Koziel, Jacek A.; Bruning, Kelsey; Parker, David B.

    2017-02-01

    Comprehensive control of odors, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with swine production is a critical need. A pilot-scale experiment was conducted to evaluate surface-applied soybean peroxidase (SBP) and calcium peroxide (CaO2) as a manure additive to mitigate emissions of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) including dimethyl disulfide/methanethiol (DMDS/MT), dimethyl trisulfide, n-butyric acid, valeric acid, isovaleric acid, p-cresol, indole, and skatole. The secondary impact on emissions of NH3, H2S, and GHG was also measured. The SBP was tested at four treatments (2.28-45.7 kg/m2 manure) with CaO2 (4.2% by weight of SBP) over 137 days. Significant reductions in VOC emissions were observed: DMDS/MT (36.2%-84.7%), p-cresol (53.1%-89.5%), and skatole (63.2%-92.5%). There was a corresponding significant reduction in NH3 (14.6%-67.6%), and significant increases in the greenhouse gases CH4 (32.7%-232%) and CO2 (20.8%-124%). The remaining emissions (including N2O) were not statistically different. At a cost relative to 0.8% of a marketed hog it appears that SBP/CaO2 treatment could be a promising option at the lowest (2.28 kg/m2) treatment rate for reducing odorous gas and NH3 emissions at swine operations, and field-scale testing is warranted.

  3. Assessment of the impact of biogenic VOC emissions in a high ozone episode via integrated remote sensing and the CMAQ model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaiyu CHENG; Ni-Bin CHANG

    2009-01-01

    In many metropolitan regions, natural sources contribute a substantial fraction of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. These biogenic VOC emissions are precursors to tropospheric Ozone (O3) formation.Because forests make up 59% of the land area in Taiwan Province, China, the biogenic VOC emissions from forests and farmland could play an important role in photochemical reactions. On the other hand, anthropogenic emissions might also be one of the major inputs for ground level O3concentrations. Hence, emission inventory data, grouped as point, area, mobile and biogenic VOC sources, are a composite of reported and estimated pollutant emission information and are used by many air quality models to simulate ground level O3 concentrations. Before using relevant air quality models, the emission inventory data generally require huge amounts of processing for spatial,temporal, and species congruence with respect to the associated air quality modeling work. The fist part of this research applied satellite remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) analyses to characterize land use/land cover (LULC) patterns, integrating various sources of anthropogenic emissions and biogenic emissions associated with a variety of plant species. To investigate the significance of biogenic VOC emissions on ozone formation, meteorological and air quality modeling were then employed to generate hourly ozone estimates for a case study of a high ozone episode in southern Taiwan, which is the leading industrial hub on the island. To enhance the modeling accuracy, a unique software module, SMOKE, was set up for emission processing to prepare emission inputs for the U.S. EPA's Models-3/CMAQ. An emission inventory of Taiwan,TEDS 4.2, was used as the anthropogenic emission inventory. Biogenic emission modeling was accomplished by BEIS-2 in SMOKE, with improvement of local LULC data and revised emission factors. Research findings show that the majority of biogenic VOC emissions occur

  4. Diffuse emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from soil in volcanic and hydrothermal systems: evidences for the influence of microbial activity on the carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturi, Stefania; Tassi, Franco; Fazi, Stefano; Vaselli, Orlando; Crognale, Simona; Rossetti, Simona; Cabassi, Jacopo; Capecchiacci, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    Soils in volcanic and hydrothermal areas are affected by anomalously high concentrations of gases released from the deep reservoirs, which consists of both inorganic (mainly CO2 and H2S) and organic (volatile organic compounds; VOCs) species. VOCs in volcanic and hydrothermal fluids are mainly composed of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons (alkanes, aromatics, alkenes, and cyclics), with variable concentrations of O- and S-bearing compounds and halocarbons, depending on the physicochemical conditions at depth. VOCs in interstitial soil gases and fumarolic emissions from four volcanic and hydrothermal systems in the Mediterranean area (Solfatara Crater, Poggio dell'Olivo and Cava dei Selci, in Italy, and Nisyros Island, in Greece) evidenced clear compositional differences, suggesting that their behavior is strongly affected by secondary processes occurring at shallow depths and likely controlled by microbial activity. Long-chain saturated hydrocarbons were significantly depleted in interstitial soil gases with respect to those from fumarolic discharges, whereas enrichments in O-bearing compounds (e.g. aldehydes, ketones), DMSO2 and cyclics were commonly observed. Benzene was recalcitrant to degradation processes, whereas methylated aromatics were relatively instable. The chemical and isotopic (δ13C in CO2 and CH4) composition of soil gases collected along vertical profiles down to 50 cm depth at both Solfatara Crater and Poggio dell'Olivo (Italy) showed evidences of relevant oxidation processes in the soil, confirming that microbial activity likely plays a major role in modifying the composition of deep-derived VOCs. Despite their harsh conditions, being typically characterized by high temperatures, low pH, and high toxic gases and metal contents, the variety of habitats characterizing volcanic and hydrothermal environments offers ideal biomes to extremophilic microbes, whose metabolic activity can consume and/or produce VOCs. In the Solfatara Crater, microbial

  5. VOC and air toxics control using biofiltration: 2 full-scale system case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fucich, W.J.; Togna, A.P.; Loudon, R.E. [Envirogen, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Industry continuous to search for innovative air treatment technologies to cost effectively meet the stringent requirements of the CAAA. High volume process exhaust streams contaminated with dilute concentrations of VOCs and HAPs are an especially challenging problem. Biological treatment is an option that must be evaluated with the traditional control technologies (chemical scrubbing, condensation, adsorption, thermal oxidation, etc.) because of the low operating costs and the system is environmentally friendly. In the United States, biofiltration is considered an emerging technology, however, full-scale biofiltration systems are now successfully operating in two rigorous services. At Nylonge Corporation, a biofilter is safely and efficiently degrading CS{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S vapor emissions. The ABTco system is successfully treating the target compounds, methanol and formaldehyde, in a press exhaust containing inert particulate and semi-volatiles. These systems are both based on a unique, patented modular design. The modular concept allows the system to be easily installed resulting in construction cost minimization and maintaining critical project schedules. The modular system offers flexibility because the biofilter is easily expanded to accommodate future plant growth. The modular design benefits the end user because individual modules or biofilter sections can be isolated for service and inspection while the biofilter system stays on-line. An up-flow configuration and the patented irrigation system allow biofilters to be used on the most difficult services. In the case of Nylonge, the biofilter is handling the sulfuric acid generated during the degradation of CS{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S vapors. At ABTco, stable operation is achieved in a stream containing particulates and semi-volatiles.

  6. Effect of resin content and substrate on the emission of BTEX and carbonyls from low-VOC water-based wall paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ping; Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Chi-Chi; Cheng, Yu-Lin

    2016-02-01

    The primary aim of this work is to explore the effect of resin content and the effect of substrate on the emission of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) and carbonyls from low-VOC water-based wall paint. Four low-volatile organic compound (VOC) paints include paints A (20% acrylic), B (30% acrylic), C (20% polyvinyl acetate), and D (30% polyvinyl acetate) were painted on stainless steel specimen for the study of resin effect. Green calcium silicate, green cement, and stainless steel were painted with paints A and C for the study of substrate effect. Concentrations of the VOCs in the chamber decreased with the elapsed time. Both resin type and resin quantity in paint had effects on VOC emissions. Paints with acrylic resin emitted less BTEX and carbonyls than paints with polyvinyl acetate resin. However, the effects of resin quantity varied with VOCs. Porous substrates were observed to interact more strongly with paints than inert substrates. Both green calcium silicate and green cement substrates have strong power of adsorption of VOCs from wall paints, namely toluene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, 2-butanone, methacrolein, butyraldehyde, and benzaldehyde. Some compounds like toluene, formaldehyde, and butyaldehyde were desorbed very slowly from green calcium silicate and green cement substrates.

  7. On-site passive flux sampler measurement of emission rates of carbonyls and VOCs from multiple indoor sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, Naohide [Research Institute of Science for Safety and Sustainability (RISS), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Kai, Yuya; Mizukoshi, Atsushi; Kumagai, Kazukiyo; Okuizumi, Yumiko; Jona, Miki; Yanagisawa, Yukio [Department of Environment Systems, Institute of Environmental Studies, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8563 (Japan); Fujii, Minoru [Research Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan)

    2009-05-15

    In indoor environments with high levels of air pollution, it is desirable to remove major sources of emissions to improve air quality. In order to identify the emission sources that contribute most to the concentrations of indoor air pollutants, we used passive flux samplers (PFSs) to measure emission rates of carbonyl compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from many of the building materials and furnishings present in a room in a reinforced concrete building in Tokyo, Japan. The emission flux of formaldehyde from a desk was high (125 {mu}g/m{sup 2}/h), whereas fluxes from a door and flooring were low (21.5 and 16.5 {mu}g/m{sup 2}/h, respectively). The emission fluxes of toluene from the ceiling and the carpet were high (80.0 and 72.3 {mu}g/m{sup 2}/h, respectively), whereas that from the flooring was low (9.09 {mu}g/m{sup 2}/h). The indoor and outdoor concentrations of formaldehyde were 61.5 and 8.64 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, respectively, and those of toluene were 43.2 and 17.5 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, respectively. The air exchange rate of the room as measured by the perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) method was 1.84/h. Taking into consideration the area of the emission sources, the carpet, ceiling, and walls were identified as the principal emission sources, contributing 24%, 20%, and 22% of the formaldehyde, respectively, and 22%, 27%, and 14% of the toluene, respectively, assuming that the emission rate from every major emission sources could be measured. In contrast, the door, the flooring, and the desk contributed little to the indoor levels of formaldehyde (1.0%, 0.54%, and 4.1%, respectively) and toluene (2.2%, 0.31%, and 0.85%, respectively). (author)

  8. A novel method to quantify the emission and conversion of VOCs in the smoking of electronic cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2015-11-01

    An analytical technique was developed for the quantitation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in three different forms of electronic cigarette (EC): solution, vapor, and aerosol. Through the application of the mass change tracking (MCT) approach, the consumed amount of the solution was measured to track the conversion of targets between the different phases. The concentration of aerosol plus vapor (A&V) decreased exponentially (559 to 129 g m-3) with increasing puff velocity (0.05 to 1 L min-1). A strong correlation existed between sampling volume and consumed solution mass (R2 = 0.9972 ± 0.0021 (n = 4)). In the EC solution, acetic acid was considerably high (25.8 μg mL-1), along with trace quantities of some VOCs (methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, propionic acid, and i-butyric acid: 0.24 ± 0.15 μg mL-1 (n = 4)). In the aerosol samples, many VOCs (n-butyraldehyde, n-butyl acetate, benzene, xylene, styrene, n-valeric acid, and n-hexanoic acid) were newly produced (138 ± 250 μg m-3). In general, the solution-to-aerosol (S/A) conversion was significant: e.g., 1,540% for i-butyric acid. The emission rates of all targets computed based on their mass in aerosol/ consumed solution (ng mL-1) were from 30.1 (p-xylene) to 398 (methyl ethyl ketone), while those of carboxyls were much higher from 166 (acetic acid) to 5,850 (i-butyric acid).

  9. The impact of biogenic VOC emissions on photochemical ozone formation during a high ozone pollution episode in the Iberian Peninsula in the 2003 summer season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Castell

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Throughout Europe the summer of 2003 was exceptionally warm, especially July and August. The European Environment Agency (EEA reported several ozone episodes, mainly in the first half of August. These episodes were exceptionally long-lasting, spatially extensive, and associated to high temperatures. In this paper, the 10$ndash;15 August 2003 ozone pollution event has been analyzed using meteorological and regional air quality modelling. During this period the threshold values of the European Directive 2002/3/EC were exceeded in various areas of the Iberian Peninsula.

    The aim of this paper is to computationally understand and quantify the influence of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emissions in the formation of tropospheric ozone during this high ozone episode. Being able to differentiate how much ozone comes from biogenic emissions alone and how much comes from the interaction between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions would be helpful to develop a feasible and effective ozone control strategy. The impact on ozone formation was also studied in combination with various anthropogenic emission reduction strategies, i.e., when anthropogenic VOC emissions and/or NOx emissions are reduced. The results show a great dependency of the BVOC contribution to ozone formation on the antropoghenic reduction scenario. In rural areas, the impact due to a NOx and/or VOC reduction does not change the BVOC impact. Nevertheless, within big cities or industrial zones, a NOx reduction results in a decrease of the biogenic impact in ozone levels that can reach 85 μg/m3, whereas an Anthropogenic Volatile Organic Compound (AVOC reduction results in a decrease of the BVOC contribution on ozone formation that varies from 0 to 30 μg/m3 with respect to the contribution at the same points in the 2003 base scenario. On the other hand, downwind of the big cities, a decrease in NOx produces

  10. 76 FR 9656 - Approval and Promulgation of the Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Control of Volatile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ...; Control of Volatile Organic Compound Emissions From Industrial Solvent Cleaning Operations AGENCY... control techniques guidelines (CTG). This amendment reduces VOC emissions from industrial solvent cleaning... sources of VOC emissions covered by EPA's CTG: Industrial Cleaning Solvents (see EPA...

  11. Catalytic incineration of CO and VOC emissions over supported metal oxide catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Per-Olof

    1999-05-01

    Catalytic incineration is one of the methods to reduce the emissions of CO and VOCs. Low operation temperature and low catalyst cost are essential parameters for catalytic incinerators. Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts are frequently used today, but the cheaper metal oxide catalysts can be very competitive if comparable overall activity is obtained. This thesis concerns how it is possible to decrease the operation temperature for supported metal oxide catalysts by using different supports, active metal oxides and additives. In the thesis it is demonstrated that different copper oxide based catalysts have the best activity and durability for complete oxidation among several tested metal oxide catalysts. CuO{sub x} supported on TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed increased activity with the CuO{sub x} loading up to the threshold coverage for formation of crystalline CuO particles, which is 12 {mu}mol/m{sup 2} on TiO{sub 2} and 6 {mu}mol/m{sup 2} on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Up to the threshold coverage for CuO formation, well dispersed copper oxide species were formed on TiO{sub 2}, and a dispersed copper aluminate surface phase was formed on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Durability tests showed accelerated sintering of TiO{sub 2} by copper, but stabilisation was possible by modification of the TiO{sub 2} with CeO{sub x} before the deposition of CuO{sub x}. The stabilisation was obtained by formation of a Ce-O-Ti surface phase. Addition of CeO{sub x} also enhanced the activity of the copper oxide species thanks to favourable interaction between the active copper oxide species and the CeO{sub x} on the support, which could be seen as increased reducibility in TPR experiments. The increased activity and reducibility was also observed for CuO{sub x} supported on ceria modified Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In this regard it was shown that CuO{sub x} deposited on CeO{sub 2}(001) surfaces was substantially more active for CO oxidation than copper oxide deposited on CeO{sub 2}(111) Surfaces. This

  12. The reduction of formaldehyde and VOCs emission from wood-based flooring by green adhesive using cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sumin

    2010-10-15

    To discuss the reduction of formaldehyde and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from engineered flooring, cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL)-formaldehyde (CF) resin and CF/PVAc resin were applied for the maple face of the veneer bonding on plywood. The CF resin was used to replace urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin in the formaldehyde-based resin system in order to reduce formaldehyde and VOC emissions from the adhesives used between the plywoods and fancy veneers. For the CF/PVAc resins, 5, 10, 20 or 30% of PVAc was added to the CF resin. The CF/PVAc resins showed better bonding than the commercial natural tannin adhesive with a higher level of wood penetration. The standard formaldehyde emission test and a VOC analyzer were used to determine the formaldehyde and VOC emissions, respectively, from the engineered floorings. The CF resin and CF/PVAc resin systems with UV coating satisfied the E(1) and E(0) grades of the Korean Standard. TVOC emission was slightly increased by the PVAc addition.

  13. Controlling spontaneous emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodahl, Peter

    dots (QDs) embedded in 3D photonic crystals consisting of air spheres in titanium dioxide. Performing time-resolved experiments, we show that the photonic crystals control the emission decay rate of excitons confined in the QDs1,2. By varying the lattice parameter of the photonic crystals, we...

  14. Securing and reporting for 2008 and 2010 on the amount and type of VOC emissions from plants in the scope of the 31th BImSchV; Sicherung und Berichterstattung fuer 2008 und 2010 ueber Menge und Art der VOC-Emissionen aus Anlagen im Geltungsbereich der 31.BImSchV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tebert, Christian; Volz, Susanne [Institut fuer Oekologie und Politik GmbH (OEKOPOL), Hamburg (Germany); Theloke, Jochen [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER)

    2011-09-15

    The Directive 1999/13/EC (also called ''VOC-directive'' or ''Solvents Directive'') obliges the Member States of the European Union to a preparation of a report on the implementation of this Directive every three years. The target of a project of the Federal Environment Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) is to assist the federal government in meeting the reporting requirements and to relieve the Federal States during data acquisition as possible. For this, an estimation of the CMR material types and quantities of CMR is focused. Recommendations are pronounced to determine the total emissions of VOCs from plants within the scope of the 31th BImSchV (Federal Nuisance Control Ordinance). The research project investigated the requirements for data provision in the individual Federal States and the possibilities for data delivery in addition to a full survey of the Federal States.

  15. 76 FR 20598 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Control of Emissions of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... going through http://www.regulations.gov your e-mail address will be automatically captured and included...-21-25 ``Control of VOC emissions from reinforced plastic composites production operations,'' which... regulated by and complying with chapter 3745-76, which regulates non-methane organic emissions from...

  16. Organic liquids storage tanks volatile organic compounds (VOCS) emissions dispersion and risk assessment in developing countries: the case of Dar-es-Salaam City, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Msafiri M

    2006-05-01

    The emission estimation of nine volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from eight organic liquids storage tanks companies in Dar-es-Salaam City Tanzania has been done by using US EPA standard regulatory storage tanks emission model (TANKS 4.9b). Total VOCs atmospheric emission has been established to be 853.20 metric tones/yr. It has been established further that petrol storage tanks contribute about 87% of total VOCs emitted, while tanks for other refined products and crude oil were emitting 10% and 3% of VOCs respectively. Of the eight sources (companies), the highest emission value from a single source was 233,222.94 kg/yr and the lowest single source emission value was 6881.87 kg/yr. The total VOCs emissions estimated for each of the eight sources were found to be higher than the standard level of 40,000 kg/yr per source for minor source according to US EPA except for two sources, which were emitting VOCs below the standard level. The annual emissions per single source for each of the VOCs were found to be below the US EPA emissions standard which is 2,000 kg/yr in all companies except the emission of hexane from company F1 which was slightly higher than the standard. The type of tanks used seems to significantly influence the emission rate. Vertical fixed roof tanks (VFRT) emit a lot more than externally floating roof tanks (EFRT) and internally floating roof tanks (IFRT). The use of IFRT and EFRT should be encouraged especially for storage of petrol which had highest atmospheric emission contribution. Model predicted atmospheric emissions are less than annual losses measured by companies in all the eight sources. It is possible that there are other routes for losses beside atmospheric emissions. It is therefore important that waste reduction efforts in these companies are directed not only to reducing atmospheric emissions, but also prevention of the spillage and leakage of stored liquid and curbing of the frequently reported illegal siphoning of stored products

  17. On speciation of VOC localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S.; Chang, J.; Wang, J.

    2011-12-01

    Most of the gas-phase chemical mechanisms successfully used in gas-phase atmospheric chemical processes, such as CBM-Z, RADM2 or SAPRC-07, treat hundreds of VOC as lumped organic species by their chemical characteristics. Most of the model results are compared with total VOC observations, and it is not appropriate to compare lumped VOC simulations to observations even if there are separate VOC observations like Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS). While the PAMS Air Quality Model (PAMS-AQM) is developed, separate organic species observed by PAMS without a doubt can be directly compared with model simulations. From the past case study (Chen et al., 2010), it shows a major and very significant finding in that detailed emissions of VOC in the existing emissions database are often in error in Taiwan or other countries due to the fact that the annual VOC emissions are classified into hundreds of species-specific emissions by using the speciation factors following the protocol of the U.S. EPA (AP-42). Based on all PAMS observations from 2006-2007, four base cases with well comparable meteorological simulations were selected for the unified correction for all sources in Taiwan. After the PAMS species emissions are modified, the diurnal patterns and simulation-observation correlation for most of the PAMS species are improved, and the concentration levels are more comparable with those of observations. More expanded case studies also revealed necessary corrections for the PAMS species emissions. Sensitivity analyses for lumped organic species with modified PAMS species emissions are also conducted. After modified PAMS emissions are added into lumped VOC emissions, there is an increase of only 10% of totally VOC emissions. While the sources of the lumped VOC emissions are changed, ozone formation shows no significant change with modified lumped VOC emissions. This helps to support the argument that for ozone simulation, the lumped VOC processes balance out

  18. Characterization of Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions at Sites of Oil Sands Extraction and Upgrading in northern Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, J.; Simpson, I. J.; Meinardi, S.; Blake, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    The crude oil reserves in Canada's oil sands are second only to Saudi Arabia, holding roughly 173 billion barrels of oil in the form of bitumen, an unconventional crude oil which does not flow and cannot be pumped without heating or dilution. Oil sands deposits are ultimately used to make the same petroleum products as conventional forms of crude oil, though more processing is required. Hydrocarbons are the basis of oil, coal and natural gas and are an important class of gases emitted into the atmosphere during oil production, particularly because of their effects on air quality and human health. However, they have only recently begun to be independently assessed in the oil sands regions. As part of the 2008 ARCTAS airborne mission, whole air samples were collected in the boundary layer above the surface mining operations of northern Alberta. Gas chromatography analysis revealed enhanced concentrations of 53 VOCs (C2 to C10) over the mining region. When compared to local background levels, the measured concentrations were enhanced up to 1.1-400 times for these compounds. To more fully characterize emissions, ground-based studies were conducted in summer 2010 and winter 2011 in the oil sands mining and upgrading areas. The data from the 200 ground-based samples revealed enhancements in the concentration of 65 VOCs. These compounds were elevated up to 1.1-3000 times above background concentrations and include C2-C8 alkanes, C1-C5 alkyl nitrates, C2-C4 alkenes and potentially toxic aromatic compounds such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes.

  19. Effects of Cold Temperature and Ethanol Content on VOC Emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supporting information Table S6 provides emission rates in g/km of volatile organic compounds measured from gasoline vehicle exhaust during chassis dynamometer...

  20. Alternative control technology document for bakery oven emissions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, C.W.

    1992-12-01

    The document was produced in response to a request by the baking industry for Federal guidance to assist in providing a more uniform information base for State decision-making with regard to control of bakery oven emissions. The information in the document pertains to bakeries that produce yeast-leavened bread, rolls, buns, and similar products but not crackers, sweet goods, or baked foodstuffs that are not yeast leavened. Information on the baking processes, equipment, operating parameters, potential emissions from baking, and potential emission control options are presented. Catalytic and regenerative oxidation are identified as the most appropriate existing control technologies applicable to VOC emissions from bakery ovens. Cost analyses for catalytic and regenerative oxidation are included. A predictive formula for use in estimating oven emissions has been derived from source tests done in junction with the development of the document. Its use and applicability are described.

  1. Using growth and decline factors to project VOC emissions from oil and gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Whitney; Harper, Kiera; Barickman, Patrick; Delaney, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Projecting future-year emission inventories in the oil and gas sector is complicated by the fact that there is a life cycle to the amount of production from individual wells and thus from well fields in aggregate. Here we present a method to account for that fact in support of regulatory policy development. This approach also has application to air quality modeling inventories by adding a second tier of refinement to the projection methodology. Currently, modeling studies account for the future decrease in emissions due to new regulations based on the year those regulations are scheduled to take effect. The addition of a year-by-year accounting of production decline provides a more accurate picture of emissions from older, uncontrolled sources. This proof of concept approach is focused solely on oil production; however, it could be used for the activity and components of natural gas production to compile a complete inventory for a given area.

  2. Health evaluation of volatile organic compound (VOC) emission from exotic wood products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeskov, L; Witterseh, T; Funch, L W

    2009-01-01

    analyses by climate chamber measurement (iroko, ramin, sheesham, merbau, and rubber tree). Samples of exotic wood (rubber tree and belalu) were further analyzed for emission of chemical compounds by migration into artificial saliva and for content of pesticides and allergenic natural rubber latex (NR latex......) (rubber tree). The toxicological effects of all substances identified were evaluated and the lowest concentrations of interest (LCI) assessed. An R-value was calculated for each wood product (R-value below 1 is considered to be unproblematic as regards health). Emission from the evaluated exotic wood only...

  3. Using Multiple Regression in Estimating (semi) VOC Emissions and Concentrations at the European Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Thomsen, Marianne; Pistocchi, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    for an in-depth risk assessment. Uncertainty measures are not available for the RAR data; however, uncertainties for the applied regression models are given in the paper. Evaluation of the methods reveals that between 79% and 93% of all emission and PEC estimates are within one order of magnitude...... of the reported RAR values. Bearing in mind that the domain of the method comprises organic industrial high-production volume chemicals, four chemicals, prioritized in the Water Framework Directive and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, were used to test the method for estimated emissions...

  4. Root anoxia effects on physiology and emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) under short- and long-term inundation of trees from Amazonian floodplains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho-Nunez, Araceli; Knothe, Nina Maria; Costa, Wallace R; Maria Astrid, Liberato R; Kleiss, Betina; Rottenberger, Stefanie; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are affected by a variety of biotic and abiotic factors such as light intensity, temperature, CO2 and drought. Another stress factor, usually overlooked but very important for the Amazon region, is flooding. We studied the exchange of VOCs in relation to CO2 exchange and transpiration of 8 common tree species from the Amazonian floodplain forest grown up from seeds using a dynamic enclosure system. Analysis of volatile organics was performed by PTR-MS fast online measurements. Our study confirmed emissions of ethanol and acetaldehyde at the beginning of root anoxia after inundation, especially in less anoxia adapted species such as Vatairea guianensis, but not for Hevea spruceana probably due to a better adapted metabolism. In contrast to short-term inundation, long-term flooding of the root system did not result in any emission of ethanol or/and acetaldehyde. Emission of other VOCs, such as isoprenoids, acetone, and methanol exhibited distinct behavior related to the origin (igapó or várzea type of floodplain) of the tree species. Also physiological activities exhibited different response patterns for trees from igapó or várzea. In general, isoprenoid emissions increased within the course of some days of short-term flooding. After a long period of waterlogging, VOC emissions decreased considerably, along with photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance. However, even under long-term testing conditions, two tree species did not show any significant decrease or increase in photosynthesis. In order to understand ecophysiological advantages of the different responses we need field investigations with adult tree species.

  5. Using Multiple Regression in Estimating (semi) VOC Emissions and Concentrations at the European Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Thomsen, Marianne; Pistocchi, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a simple method for estimating emissions and predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) in water and air for organic chemicals that are used in household products and industrial processes. The method has been tested on existing data for 63 organic high-production volume che...

  6. Reducing odorous VOC emissions from swine manure using soybean peroxidase and peroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air emissions from swine production facilities can cause odor nuisance issues. Peroxidase enzymes have been used to treat phenolic compounds in industrial wastewaters, but little is known about their efficacy for treating swine manure. The objective of the research was to determine the optimum app...

  7. Global dataset of biogenic VOC emissions calculated by the MEGAN model over the last 30 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sindelarova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGANv2.1 together with the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA meteorological fields were used to create a global emission dataset of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC available on a monthly basis for the time period of 1980–2010. This dataset is called MEGAN-MACC. The model estimated mean annual total BVOC emission of 760 Tg (C yr−1 consisting of isoprene (70%, monoterpenes (11%, methanol (6%, acetone (3%, sesquiterpenes (2.5% and other BVOC species each contributing less than 2%. Several sensitivity model runs were performed to study the impact of different model input and model settings on isoprene estimates and resulted in differences of up to ±17% of the reference isoprene total. A greater impact was observed for a sensitivity run applying parameterization of soil moisture deficit that led to a 50% reduction of isoprene emissions on a global scale, most significantly in specific regions of Africa, South America and Australia. MEGAN-MACC estimates are comparable to results of previous studies. More detailed comparison with other isoprene inventories indicated significant spatial and temporal differences between the datasets especially for Australia, Southeast Asia and South America. MEGAN-MACC estimates of isoprene, α-pinene and group of monoterpenes showed a reasonable agreement with surface flux measurements at sites located in tropical forests in the Amazon and Malaysia. The model was able to capture the seasonal variation of isoprene emissions in the Amazon forest.

  8. Evaluations of NOx and highly reactive VOC emission inventories in Texas and their implications for ozone plume simulations during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.-W.; McKeen, S. A.; Frost, G. J.; Lee, S.-H.; Trainer, M.; Richter, A.; Angevine, W. M.; Atlas, E.; Bianco, L.; Boersma, K. F.; Brioude, J.; Burrows, J. P.; de Gouw, J.; Fried, A.; Gleason, J.; Hilboll, A.; Mellqvist, J.; Peischl, J.; Richter, D.; Rivera, C.; Ryerson, T.; Te Lintel Hekkert, S.; Walega, J.; Warneke, C.; Weibring, P.; Williams, E.

    2011-11-01

    Satellite and aircraft observations made during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS) detected strong urban, industrial and power plant plumes in Texas. We simulated these plumes using the Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model with input from the US EPA's 2005 National Emission Inventory (NEI-2005), in order to evaluate emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the cities of Houston and Dallas-Fort Worth. We compared the model results with satellite retrievals of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns and airborne in-situ observations of several trace gases including NOx and a number of VOCs. The model and satellite NO2 columns agree well for regions with large power plants and for urban areas that are dominated by mobile sources, such as Dallas. However, in Houston, where significant mobile, industrial, and in-port marine vessel sources contribute to NOx emissions, the model NO2 columns are approximately 50%-70% higher than the satellite columns. Similar conclusions are drawn from comparisons of the model results with the TexAQS 2006 aircraft observations in Dallas and Houston. For Dallas plumes, the model-simulated NO2 showed good agreement with the aircraft observations. In contrast, the model-simulated NO2 is ~60% higher than the aircraft observations in the Houston plumes. Further analysis indicates that the NEI-2005 NOx emissions over the Houston Ship Channel area are overestimated while the urban Houston NOx emissions are reasonably represented. The comparisons of model and aircraft observations confirm that highly reactive VOC emissions originating from industrial sources in Houston are underestimated in NEI-2005. The update of VOC emissions based on Solar Occultation Flux measurements during the field campaign leads to improved model simulations of ethylene, propylene, and formaldehyde. Reducing NOx emissions in the Houston Ship Channel and increasing highly reactive VOC emissions

  9. Evaluations of NOx and highly reactive VOC emission inventories in Texas and their implications for ozone plume simulations during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ryerson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Satellite and aircraft observations made during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS detected strong urban, industrial and power plant plumes in Texas. We simulated these plumes using the Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem model with input from the US EPA's 2005 National Emission Inventory (NEI-2005, in order to evaluate emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs in the cities of Houston and Dallas-Fort Worth. We compared the model results with satellite retrievals of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2 columns and airborne in-situ observations of several trace gases including NOx and a number of VOCs. The model and satellite NO2 columns agree well for regions with large power plants and for urban areas that are dominated by mobile sources, such as Dallas. However, in Houston, where significant mobile, industrial, and in-port marine vessel sources contribute to NOx emissions, the model NO2 columns are approximately 50%–70% higher than the satellite columns. Similar conclusions are drawn from comparisons of the model results with the TexAQS 2006 aircraft observations in Dallas and Houston. For Dallas plumes, the model-simulated NO2 showed good agreement with the aircraft observations. In contrast, the model-simulated NO2 is ~60% higher than the aircraft observations in the Houston plumes. Further analysis indicates that the NEI-2005 NOx emissions over the Houston Ship Channel area are overestimated while the urban Houston NOx emissions are reasonably represented. The comparisons of model and aircraft observations confirm that highly reactive VOC emissions originating from industrial sources in Houston are underestimated in NEI-2005. The update of VOC emissions based on Solar Occultation Flux measurements during the field campaign leads to improved model simulations of ethylene, propylene, and formaldehyde. Reducing NOx emissions in the Houston Ship Channel and increasing highly

  10. Evaluations of NOx and highly reactive VOC emission inventories in Texas and their implications for ozone plume simulations during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ryerson

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Satellite and aircraft observations made during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS detected strong urban, industrial and power plant plumes in Texas. We simulated these plumes using the Weather Research and Forecasting – Chemistry (WRF-Chem model with input from the US EPA's 2005 National Emission Inventory (NEI-2005, in order to evaluate emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs in the cities of Houston and Dallas-Fort Worth. We compared the model results with satellite retrievals of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2 columns and airborne in-situ observations of several trace gases including NOx and a number of VOCs. The model and satellite NO2 columns agree well for regions with large power plants and for urban areas that are dominated by mobile sources, such as Dallas. However, in Houston, where significant mobile, industrial, and in-port marine vessel sources contribute to NOx emissions, the model NO2 columns are approximately 50 %–70 % higher than the satellite columns. Similar conclusions are drawn from comparisons of the model results with the TexAQS 2006 aircraft observations in Dallas and Houston. For Dallas plumes, the model-simulated NO2 showed good agreement with the aircraft observations. In contrast, the model-simulated NO2 is ~60 % higher than the aircraft observations in the Houston plumes. Further analysis indicates that the NEI-2005 NOx emissions over the Houston Ship Channel area are overestimated while the urban Houston NOx emissions are reasonably represented. The comparisons of model and aircraft observations confirm that highly reactive VOC emissions originating from industrial sources in Houston are underestimated in NEI-2005. The update of VOC emissions based on Solar Occultation Flux measurements during the field campaign leads to improved model simulations of ethylene, propylene, and formaldehyde. Reducing NOx emissions in the Houston Ship Channel and increasing highly

  11. 长江三角洲地区基于喷涂工艺的溶剂源 VOCs 排放特征%Process-based Emission Characteristics of Volatile Organic Compounds(VOCs) from Paint Industry in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫梓伟; 牛贺; 陆思华; 邵敏; 勾斌

    2015-01-01

    了解挥发性有机物(volatile organic compounds,VOCs)的溶剂源排放特征是制定长江三角洲地区 PM2.5和臭氧防控策略的关键.本研究通过罐采样-GC-MS/ FID 测定了长江三角洲地区重点喷涂行业(集装箱喷涂、造船喷涂、木器喷涂和汽车喷涂业)的 VOCs 排放特征.结果表明,长江三角洲地区喷涂行业排放的主要 VOCs 组分为甲苯、二甲苯、乙苯等芳香烃类物质,三者之和占总 VOCs 的质量分数为79%~99%.生产工艺的不同对 VOCs 的排放组成影响并不大,废气处理装置中活性炭吸附对 VOCs 的组成并无明显影响,而催化燃烧的处理过程会使 VOCs 的排放组成产生显著变化,乙烯排放明显增大,同时也使得催化燃烧处理最大增量反应活性(maximum increment reactivity,MIR)值高于活性炭吸附处理后的 MIR 值,说明不同的处理措施的使用将影响 VOCs 对臭氧的生成作用.%Understanding the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission characteristics from solvent usage industry is essential to reduce PM2. 5 and O3 in Yangtze River Delta region. In this work, VOCs source characteristics of ship container, shipbuilding, wood, and automobile painting industry were measured using canister-GC-MS/ FID analysis system. The results showed that VOCs emitted from these industrial sectors were mainly aromatics, such as toluene, xylene, and ethylbenzene, accounting for 79% - 99% of total VOCs. The VOCs treatment facilities of activated carbon adsorption had little impact on changing the composition patterns of VOCs, while catalytic combustion treatments produced more alkenes. The combustion treatment of VOCs changed the maximum increment reactivity (MIR) of the VOCs emissions, and was thus very likely to change the ozone formation potentials.

  12. Silica deactivation of bead VOC catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libanati, C.; Pereira, C.J. [Research Division, W. R. Grace and Co., Columbia, MD (United States); Ullenius, D.A. [Grace TEC Systems, De Pere, WI (United States)

    1998-01-15

    Catalytic oxidation is a key technology for controlling the emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from industrial plants. The present paper examines the deactivation by silica of bead VOC catalysts in a flexographic printing application. Post mortem analyses of field-aged catalysts suggest that organosilicon compounds contained in the printing ink diffuse into the catalyst and deposit as silica particles in the micropores. Laboratory activity evaluation of aged catalysts suggests that silica deposition is non-selective and that silica masks the noble metal active site

  13. Composition of gaseous organic carbon during ECOCEM in Beirut, Lebanon: new observational constraints for VOC anthropogenic emission evaluation in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Thérèse; Borbon, Agnès; Afif, Charbel; Sauvage, Stéphane; Leonardis, Thierry; Gaimoz, Cécile; Locoge, Nadine

    2017-01-01

    The relative importance of eastern Mediterranean emissions is suspected to be largely underestimated compared to other regions worldwide. Here we use detailed speciated measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to evaluate the spatial heterogeneity of VOC urban emission composition and the consistency of regional and global emission inventories downscaled to Lebanon (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme, EMEP; Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project, ACCMIP; and MACCity, Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate and megaCITY Zoom for the Environment). The assessment was conducted through the comparison of the emission ratios (ERs) extracted from the emission inventories to the ones obtained from the hourly observations collected at a suburban site in Beirut, Lebanon, during summer and winter ECOCEM (Emissions and Chemistry of Organic Carbon in the Eastern Mediterranean) campaigns. The observed ERs were calculated using two independent methods. ER values from both methods agree very well and are comparable to the ones of the road transport sector from near-field measurements for more than 80 % of the species. There is no significant seasonality in ER for more than 90 % of the species, unlike the seasonality usually observed in other cities worldwide. Regardless of the season, ERs agree within a factor of 2 between Beirut and other representative cities worldwide, except for the unburned fuel fraction and ethane. ERs of aromatics (except benzene) are higher in Beirut compared to northern post-industrialized countries and even the Middle Eastern city Mecca. The comparison of the observed ER to the ones extracted from the ACCMIP and MACCity global emission inventories suggests that the overall speciation of anthropogenic sources for major hydrocarbons that act as ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors in ACCMIP is better represented than other species. The comparison of the specific road transport ERs, relative

  14. Forest-atmosphere exchange of ozone: sensitivity to very reactive biogenic VOC emissions and implications for in-canopy photochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Wolfe

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the fate of ozone within and above forested environments is vital to assessing the anthropogenic impact on ecosystems and air quality at the urban-rural interface. Observed forest-atmosphere exchange of ozone is often much faster than explicable by stomatal uptake alone, suggesting the presence of additional ozone sinks within the canopy. Using the Chemistry of Atmosphere-Forest Exchange (CAFE model in conjunction with summer noontime observations from the 2007 Biosphere Effects on Aerosols and Photochemistry Experiment (BEARPEX-2007, we explore the viability and implications of the hypothesis that ozonolysis of very reactive but yet unidentified biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC can influence the forest-atmosphere exchange of ozone. Non-stomatal processes typically generate 67 % of the observed ozone flux, but reactions of ozone with measured BVOC, including monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, can account for only 2 % of this flux during the selected timeframe. By incorporating additional emissions and chemistry of a proxy for very reactive VOC (VRVOC that undergo rapid ozonolysis, we demonstrate that an in-canopy chemical ozone sink of ~2 × 108 molec cm−3 s−1 can close the ozone flux budget. Even in such a case, the 65 min chemical lifetime of ozone is much longer than the canopy residence time of ~2 min, highlighting that chemistry can influence reactive trace gas exchange even when it is "slow" relative to vertical mixing. This level of VRVOC ozonolysis could enhance OH and RO2 production by as much as 1 pptv s−1 and substantially alter their respective vertical profiles depending on the actual product yields. Reaction products would also contribute significantly to the oxidized VOC budget and, by extension, secondary organic aerosol mass. Given the potentially significant ramifications of a chemical ozone flux for both in-canopy chemistry and estimates of ozone

  15. Forest-atmosphere exchange of ozone: sensitivity to very reactive biogenic VOC emissions and implications for in-canopy photochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Wolfe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the fate of ozone within and above forested environments is vital to assessing the anthropogenic impact on ecosystems and air quality at the urban-rural interface. Observed forest-atmosphere exchange of ozone is often much faster than explicable by stomatal uptake alone, suggesting the presence of additional ozone sinks within the canopy. Using the Chemistry of Atmosphere-Forest Exchange (CAFE model in conjunction with summer noontime observations from the 2007 Biosphere Effects on Aerosols and Photochemistry Experiment (BEARPEX-2007, we explore the viability and implications of the hypothesis that ozonolysis of very reactive but yet unidentified biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC can influence the forest-atmosphere exchange of ozone. Non-stomatal processes typically generate 67% of the observed ozone flux, but reactions of ozone with measured BVOC, including monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, can account for only 2% of this flux during the selected timeframe. By incorporating additional emissions and chemistry of a proxy for very reactive VOC (VRVOC that undergo rapid ozonolysis, we demonstrate that an in-canopy chemical ozone sink of ~2×108 molecules cm−3 s−1 can close the ozone flux budget. Even in such a case, the 65 min chemical lifetime of ozone is much longer than the canopy residence time of ~2 min, highlighting that chemistry can influence reactive trace gas exchange even when it is "slow" relative to vertical mixing. This level of VRVOC ozonolysis could enhance OH and RO2 production by as much as 1 pptv s−1 and substantially alter their respective vertical profiles depending on the actual product yields. Reaction products would also contribute significantly to the oxidized VOC budget and, by extension, secondary organic aerosol mass. Given the potentially significant ramifications of a chemical ozone flux for both in-canopy chemistry and estimates of ozone

  16. The Development of a SPME-GC/MS Method for the Analysis of VOC Emissions from Historic Plastic and Rubber Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Curran, K.; Underhill, M.; Gibson, L. T.; Strlic, M.

    2015-01-01

    Analytical methods have been developed for the analysis of VOC emissions from historic plastic and rubber materials using SPME-GC/MS. Parameters such as analysis temperature, sampling time and choice of SPME fibre coating were investigated and sampling preparation strategies explored, including headspace sampling in vials and in gas sampling bags. The repeatability of the method was evaluated. It was found that a 7 d accumulation time at room temperature, followed by sampling using a DVB/CAR/...

  17. [VOCs tax policy on China's economy development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Xin; Wang, Yu-Fei; Wang, Hai-Lin; Hao, Zheng-Ping; Wang, Zheng

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, environmental tax was designed to control volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was used to explore the impacts of environmental tax (in forms of indirect tax) on the macro-economy development at both national and sector levels. Different levels of tax were simulated to find out the proper tax rate. It is found out that imposing environmental tax on high emission sectors can cause the emission decreased immediately and can lead to negative impacts on macro-economy indicators, such as GDP (gross domestic products), total investment, total product and the whole consumption etc. However, only the government income increased. In addition, the higher the tax rate is, the more pollutants can be reduced and the worse economic effects can be caused. Consequently, it is suggested that, the main controlling policies of VOCs abatement should be mandatory orders, and low environmental tax can be implemented as a supplementary.

  18. VOC methods and levels in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomboi, M.T. [Area de Contaminacion Atmosferica, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    Ozone precursors began to be studied in the eighties in Spain, in order to know their levels and composition in areas, which had high concentrations of other atmospheric polluting agents. At the end of the eighties, VOC were incorporated into the air quality networks in urban areas in order to anticipate at the derived amendments of the entrance into force on the Directive 92/72/CEE of 1992 on air pollution by ozone. At the same time, field campaigns for VOC toxics were started in specific industrial areas and the zones with high traffic. More recently, the air quality networks have been orientated to non-urban areas, to cover the knowledge of VOC in semi-urban and rural areas. On the other hand, the role of the biogenic emissions and the role that their chemical and photochemical products play in atmospheric chemistry was becoming important in the nineties. Therefore some research projects, e.g. 'Biogenic Emissions in the Mediterranean Area (BEMA)', were developed in order to understand the vegetation emissions in the Mediterranean area in relation to anthropogenic compounds and to get information on their participation in tropospheric ozone formation. VOC have been sampled at European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) sites since 1999, based on recommendations from the EMEP Workshop on Measurements of Hydrocarbons/VOC in Lindau 1989. Collection of light hydrocarbons started in 1999, whereas measurements of carbonyls have just started in 2003. In this work, the most important sampling and analysis techniques to determine ozone precursors and to control VOC are shown, as well as the main results obtained in projects, networks and measurement campaigns performed with these methods.

  19. Characterization of odorous charge and photochemical reactivity of VOC emissions from a full-scale food waste treatment plant in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zhe; Liu, Jianguo; Song, Mingying; Wang, Xiaowei; Ren, Lianhai; Kong, Xin

    2015-03-01

    Food waste treatment plants (FWTPs) are usually associated with odorous nuisance and health risks, which are partially caused by volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. This study investigated the VOC emissions from a selected full-scale FWTP in China. The feedstock used in this plant was mainly collected from local restaurants. For a year, the FWTP was closely monitored on specific days in each season. Four major indoor treatment units of the plant, including the storage room, sorting/crushing room, hydrothermal hydrolysis unit, and aerobic fermentation unit, were chosen as the monitoring locations. The highest mean concentration of total VOC emissions was observed in the aerobic fermentation unit at 21,748.2-31,283.3 μg/m3, followed by the hydrothermal hydrolysis unit at 10,798.1-23,144.4 μg/m3. The detected VOC families included biogenic compounds (oxygenated compounds, hydrocarbons, terpenes, and organosulfur compounds) and abiogenic compounds (aromatic hydrocarbons and halocarbons). Oxygenated compounds, particularly alcohols, were the most abundant compounds in all samples. With the use of odor index analysis and principal components analysis, the hydrothermal hydrolysis and aerobic fermentation units were clearly distinguished from the pre-treatment units, as characterized by their higher contributions to odorous nuisance. Methanthiol was the dominant odorant in the hydrothermal hydrolysis unit, whereas aldehyde was the dominant odorant in the aerobic fermentation unit. Terpenes, specifically limonene, had the highest level of propylene equivalent concentration during the monitoring periods. This concentration can contribute to the increase in the atmospheric reactivity and ozone formation potential in the surrounding air.

  20. Reactivity-based industrial volatile organic compounds emission inventory and its implications for ozone control strategies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaoming; Chen, Xiaofang; Zhang, Jiani; Shi, Tianli; Sun, Xibo; Fan, Liya; Wang, Liming; Ye, Daiqi

    2017-08-01

    Increasingly serious ozone (O3) pollution, along with decreasing NOx emission, is creating a big challenge in the control of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in China. More efficient and effective measures are assuredly needed for controlling VOCs. In this study, a reactivity-based industrial VOCs emission inventory was established in China based on the concept of ozone formation potential (OFP). Key VOCs species, major VOCs sources, and dominant regions with high reactivity were identified. Our results show that the top 15 OFP-based species, including m/p-xylene, toluene, propene, o-xylene, and ethyl benzene, contribute 69% of the total OFP but only 30% of the total emission. The architectural decoration industry, oil refinery industry, storage and transport, and seven other sources constituted the top 10 OFP subsectors, together contributing a total of 85%. The provincial and spatial characteristics of OFP are generally consistent with those of mass-based inventory. The implications for O3 control strategies in China are discussed. We propose a reactivity-based national definition of VOCs and low-reactive substitution strategies, combined with evaluations of health risks. Priority should be given to the top 15 or more species with high reactivity through their major emission sources. Reactivity-based policies should be flexibly applied for O3 mitigation based on the sensitivity of O3 formation conditions.

  1. Relative contribution of oxygenated hydrocarbons to the total biogenic VOC emissions of selected mid-European agricultural and natural plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Georg; Brunda, Monika; Puxbaum, Hans; Hewitt, C. Nicholas; Duckham, S. Craig; Rudolph, Jochen

    Emission rates of more than 50 individual VOCs were determined for eight plant species and three different types of grass land typical for natural deciduous and agricultural vegetation in Austria. In addition to the emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes, 33 biogenic oxygenated volatile organic compounds (BOVOCs) were detected. Of these, 2-methyl-l-propanol, 1-butanal, 2-butanal, 1-pentanol, 3-pentanol, 1-hexanol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, butanal and ethylhexylacetate were observed for the first time as plant emissions. In terms of prevalence of one of the groups of emitted VOCs (isoprene, terpenes, BOVOCs) the grain plants wheat and rye, grape, oilseed rape and the decidous trees hombeam and birch could be classified as "BOVOC"-emitters. For the grass plots examined, BOVOCs and terpenes appear to be of equal importance. The emission rates of the total assigned organic plant emissions ranged from 0.01 μ g -1 h -1 for wheat to 0.8 μg g -1 h -1 for oak (based on dry leaf weight). Intercomparison with available data from other studies show that our emission rates are rather at the lower end of reported ranges. The influence of the stage of growth was examined for rye, rape (comparing emissions of blossoming and nonblossoming plants) and for grape (with and without fruit). Emission rate differences for different stages of growth varied from nondetectable for blossoming and nonblossoming rye to a factor of six for the grape with fruits vs grape without fruits (emission rate based on dry leaf weight). The major decidous tree in Austria (beech) is a terpene emitter, with the contribution of BOVOCs below 5% of the total assigned emissions of 0.2 μg g -1 h -1 for the investigations of 20°C.

  2. Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

    2007-09-07

    Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal

  3. Effect of bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) attack on bark VOC emissions of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Rajendra P.; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Blomqvist, Minna; Holopainen, Toini; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Päivi; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2016-02-01

    Climate warming driven storms are evident causes for an outbreak of the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) resulting in the serious destruction of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) forests in northern Europe. Conifer species are major sources of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in the boreal zone. Climate relevant BVOC emissions are expected to increase when conifer trees defend against bark beetle attack by monoterpene (MT)-rich resin flow. In this study, BVOC emission rates from the bark surface of beetle-attacked and non-attacked spruce trees were measured from two outbreak areas, Iitti and Lahti in southern Finland, and from one control site at Kuopio in central Finland. Beetle attack increased emissions of total MTs 20-fold at Iitti compared to Kuopio, but decreased the emissions of several sesquiterpenes (SQTs) at Iitti. At the Lahti site, the emission rate of α-pinene was positively correlated with mean trap catch of bark beetles. The responsive individual MTs were tricyclene, α-pinene, camphene, myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole and bornyl acetate in both of the outbreak areas. Our results suggest that bark beetle outbreaks affect local BVOC emissions from conifer forests dominated by Norway spruce. Therefore, the impacts of insect outbreaks are worth of consideration to global BVOC emission models.

  4. Energy recovery efficiency and cost analysis of VOC thermal oxidation pollution control technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warahena, Aruna S K; Chuah, Yew Khoy

    2009-08-01

    Thermal oxidation of VOC is extremely energy intensive, and necessitates high efficiency heat recovery from the exhaust heat. In this paper, two independent parameters heat recovery factor (HRF) and equipment cost factor (ECF) are introduced. HRF and ECF can be used to evaluate separately the merits of energy efficiency and cost effectiveness of VOC oxidation systems. Another parameter equipment cost against heat recovery (ECHR) which is a function of HRF and ECF is introduced to evaluate the merit of different systems for the thermal oxidation of VOC. Respective cost models were derived for recuperative thermal oxidizer (TO) and regenerative thermal oxidizer (RTO). Application examples are presented to show the use and the importance of these parameters. An application examples show that TO has a lower ECF while RTO has a higher HRF. However when analyzed using ECHR, RTO would be of advantage economically in longer periods of use. The analytical models presented can be applied in similar environmental protection systems.

  5. Major reactive species of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their sources in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO; Min; FU; Linlin; LIU; Ying; LU; Sihua; ZHANG; Yuanhan

    2005-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are important precursors of atmospheric chemical processes. As a whole mixture, the ambient VOCs show very strong chemical reactivity. Based on OH radical loss rates in the air, the chemical reactivity of VOCs in Beijing was calculated. The results revealed that alkenes, accounting for only about 15% in the mixing ratio of VOCs, provide nearly 75% of the reactivity of ambient VOCs and the C4 to C5 alkenes were the major reactive species among the alkenes. The study of emission characteristics of various VOCs sources indicated that these alkenes are mainly from vehicle exhaust and gasoline evaporation. The reduction of alkene species in these two sources will be effective in photochemical pollution control in Beijing.

  6. Optimization of an Innovative Biofiltration System as a VOC Control Technology for Aircraft Painting Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-20

    Cladosporium resinae (ATCC 34066), Cladosporium sphaerospermum (ATCC 200384), Exophiala lecanii-corni (CBS 102400), Mucor rouxii (ATCC 44260), and...degrade all VOCs tested except for styrene under the conditions imposed. Cladosporium resinae was able to degrade both organic acids, all of the ketones...2002). Cladosporium Cladosporium Exophiala Mucor Phanerochaete resinae sphaerospermum lecanii-corni rouxii chrysosporium No carbon source Glucose

  7. CORONA DESTRUCTION: AN INNOVATIVE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR VOCS AND AIR TOXICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper discusses the work and results to date leading to the demonstration of the corona destruction process at pilot scale. The research effort in corona destruction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and air toxics has shown significant promise for providing a valuable co...

  8. Emission control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor); Chung, J. Landy (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and apparatus utilizing hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions from combustion flue gas streams. The methods and apparatus may further be modified to reduce NOx emissions. Continuous concentration of hydrogen peroxide to levels approaching or exceeding propellant-grade hydrogen peroxide facilitates increased system efficiency. In this manner, combustion flue gas streams can be treated for the removal of SOx and heavy metals, while isolating useful by-products streams of sulfuric acid as well as solids for the recovery of the heavy metals. Where removal of NOx emissions is included, nitric acid may also be isolated for use in fertilizer or other industrial applications.

  9. Measurements of VOC/SVOC emission factors from burning incenses in an environmental test chamber: influence of temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoukian, A; Buiron, D; Temime-Roussel, B; Wortham, H; Quivet, E

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the influence of three environmental indoor parameters (i.e., temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rate) on the emission of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) during incense burning. Experiments have been carried out using an environmental test chamber. Statistical results from a classical two-level full factorial design highlight the predominant effect of ventilation on emission factors. The higher the ventilation, the higher the emission factor. Moreover, thanks to these results, an estimation of the concentration range for the compounds under study can be calculated and allows a quick look of indoor pollution induced by incense combustion. Carcinogenic substances (i.e., benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, and formaldehyde) produced from the incense combustion would be predicted in typical living indoors conditions to reach instantaneous concentration levels close to or higher than air quality exposure threshold values.

  10. Controlling radiated emissions by design

    CERN Document Server

    Mardiguian, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The 3rd edition of Controlling Radiated Emissions by Design has been updated to reflect the latest changes in the field. New to this edition is material related to technical advances, specifically super-fast data rates on wire pairs, with no increase in RF interference. Throughout the book, details are given to control RF emissions using EMC design techniques. This book retains the step-by-step approach for incorporating EMC into every new design from the ground up. It describes the selection of quieter IC technologies, their implementation into a noise-free printed circuit layout, and the gathering of these into a low emissions package. Also included is how to design an I/O filter, along with connectors and cable considerations. All guidelines are supported throughout with comprehensive calculated examples. Design engineers, EMC specialists, and technicians will benefit from learning about the development of more efficient and economical control of emissions.

  11. Evaluation of emission control strategies to reduce ozone pollution in the Paso del Norte region using a photochemical air quality modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Victor Hugo

    Air pollution emissions control strategies to reduce ozone precursor pollutants are analyzed by applying a photochemical modeling system. Simulations of air quality conditions during an ozone episode which occurred in June, 2006 are undertaken by increasing or reducing area source emissions in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico. Two air pollutants are primary drivers in the formation of tropospheric ozone. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) undergo multiple chemical reactions under favorable meteorological conditions to form ozone, which is a secondary pollutant that irritates respiratory systems in sensitive individuals especially the elderly and young children. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency established National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to limit ambient air pollutants such as ozone by establishing an 8-hour average concentration of 0.075 ppm as the threshold at which a violation of the standard occurs. Ozone forms primarily due reactions in the troposphere of NOx and VOC emissions generated primarily by anthropogenic sources in urban regions. Data from emissions inventories indicate area sources account for ˜15 of NOx and ˜45% of regional VOC emissions. Area sources include gasoline stations, automotive paint bodyshops and nonroad mobile sources. Multiplicity of air pollution emissions sources provides an opportunity to investigate and potentially implement air quality improvement strategies to reduce emissions which contribute to elevated ozone concentrations. A baseline modeling scenario was established using the CAMx photochemical air quality model from which a series of sensitivity analyses for evaluating air quality control strategies were conducted. Modifications to area source emissions were made by varying NOx and / or VOC emissions in the areas of particular interest. Model performance was assessed for each sensitivity analysis. Normalized bias (NB) and normalized error (NE) were used to identify

  12. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  13. Biofiltration of wastewater lift station emissions: evaluation of VOC removal in the presence of H{sub 2}S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Alvaro; Rathibandla, Snehasheela; Jones, Kim; Cabezas, Jose [Texas A and M University-Kingsville, Department of Environmental Engineering, Kingsville, TX (United States)

    2008-02-15

    The capacity of biofilter systems to remove volatile organic compounds in the presence of high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide was investigated for applications in wastewater lift stations. The treatment system was an enclosed unit composed of a biotrickling filter coupled with a biofilter. The biofilter media were plastic hollow spherical balls filled with a compost mixture; and the biotrickling filter media was a structured plastic packing. The gases from the pumping station wet well were a mixture of H{sub 2}S and low concentration aliphatic and aromatic VOCs, toluene being the most significant in concentrations of 41 ppb. The H{sub 2}S concentration was 314 ppm with fluctuations of 100 ppm resulting from pumping cycles at the station. No inhibition effect was detected from the simultaneous biological removal of VOCs and H{sub 2}S: toluene removal efficiency was 91% with the two sections contributing approximately equally to the pollutant removal; and the average removal of H{sub 2}S was 74%. A traditional open-in-ground biofilter filled with wood chips and compost, existing in the site, attained similar removal efficiencies for toluene, but the elimination capacity of the biotrickling/biofilter system was 3.3-times higher than the open biofilter. (orig.)

  14. Environmental control of terpene emissions from Cistus monspeliensis L. in natural Mediterranean shrublands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoal, A; Fernandez, C; Lavoir, A-V; Olivier, R; Lecareux, C; Greff, S; Roche, P; Vila, B

    2010-02-01

    The large amount of volatile organic compound (VOC) emitted by vegetation modifies air quality contributing to both tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol production. A better understanding of the factors controlling VOC emissions by vegetation is mandatory in order to improve emission estimates derived from tropospheric chemistry models. Although the Mediterranean shrublands are particularly abundant and rich in emitting species, their emission potential is poorly known. Focusing on a VOC-emitting shrub species widespread in the Mediterranean area (Cistus monspeliensis L.), we measured and analysed its emissions of terpenes taking into account the age of individuals, the season of sampling and the soil type. Sampling was done under natural environmental conditions. Species of the genus Cistus are frequently reported to be storing species, although we found only one stored monoterpene and three sesquiterpenes in very low amount. Major emitted compounds were alpha-pinene and beta-myrcene. Total terpene emissions were not influenced by plant age but emission of some individual terpenes was positively correlated with age. A strong seasonal effect was evidenced. A larger amount of terpenes was emitted during spring and summer than during fall and winter. Summer emission rates were nearly 70 times higher than winter emission rates. Total and individual terpene emissions were influenced by soil type; emissions on siliceous substrate were ca. seven times higher than those on calcareous substrate. In conclusion, it appears clearly that environmental factors such as soil nature and season should be taken into account in order to achieve improved modelling of terpene emissions by shrub species.

  15. Development and demonstration of a method to monitor the effects of measures to reduce VOC emissions in the EU. LIFE 95/NL/A11/NL/365/ZHL [1996-1998] (Final Report )

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuken, M.P.; Oss, R.F. van

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, TNO was granted by the European Commission to carry out in the framework of the LIFE programme a project entitled "Development and dem-onstration of a method to monitor the effects of measures to reduce VOC emis-sions in the EU". An additional grant was supplied by the Dutch Ministry for Ho

  16. 688 AMBIENT VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    The VOCs were classified thus: aromatics 41%, halogenated 42%, esters 3%, ketones 8%, ... and Industrial emission were identified as sources of VOCs in the studied industrial area with ... canisters, or by dynamic or diffusive adsorption .... The GC/FID was standardized and ... with CS2 was prepared from stock standard in.

  17. DEVELOPING A NO-VOC WOOD TOPCOAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper reports an evaluation of a new low-VOC (volatile organic compound) wood coating technology, its performance characteristics, and its application and emissions testing. The low-VOC wood coating selected for the project was a two-component, water-based epoxy coating. Poly...

  18. Exhaust constituent emission factors of printed circuit board pyrolysis processes and its exhaust control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hung-Lung; Lin, Kuo-Hsiung

    2014-01-15

    The printed circuit board (PCB) is an important part of electrical and electronic equipment, and its disposal and the recovery of useful materials from waste PCBs (WPCBs) are key issues for waste electrical and electronic equipment. Waste PCB compositions and their pyrolysis characteristics were analyzed in this study. In addition, the volatile organic compound (VOC) exhaust was controlled by an iron-impregnated alumina oxide catalyst. Results indicated that carbon and oxygen were the dominant components (hundreds mg/g) of the raw materials, and other elements such as nitrogen, bromine, and copper were several decades mg/g. Exhaust constituents of CO, H2, CH4, CO2, and NOx, were 60-115, 0.4-4.0, 1.1-10, 30-95, and 0-0.7mg/g, corresponding to temperatures ranging from 200 to 500°C. When the pyrolysis temperature was lower than 300°C, aromatics and paraffins were the major species, contributing 90% of ozone precursor VOCs, and an increase in the pyrolysis temperature corresponded to a decrease in the fraction of aromatic emission factors. Methanol, ethylacetate, acetone, dichloromethane, tetrachloromethane and acrylonitrile were the main species of oxygenated and chlorinated VOCs. The emission factors of some brominated compounds, i.e., bromoform, bromophenol, and dibromophenol, were higher at temperatures over 400°C. When VOC exhaust was flowed through the bed of Fe-impregnated Al2O3, the emission of ozone precursor VOCs could be reduced by 70-80%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report No. 4, annual summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerner, J.; Su, Wei; Yan, Hui [and others

    1997-07-01

    Heating softwood in a low-headspace environment draws out the VOCs from the wood, without removing the water. The VOCs can be collected from the headspace, and represent a valuable product. The VOC-depleted wood can then be dried conventionally with much reduced emissions. Heating can be accomplished through radiofrequency (RF) or steam. For lumber, steam is inefficient, but brief RF treatment under low-headspace conditions draws out 80% of the VOCs. The power used is quite low, since the RF energy is not used to remove water, but only to maintain the wood at a set temperature. The technology is now at the pre-pilot stage. Either steam or RF can be used for particle, OSB, and veneer, again under low-headspace conditions. Increasing steam temperature facilitates VOC removal. In order to understand the mechanism of VOC release in lumber, the transport of water and VOCs to the surface is being studied as a function of sample size and orientation. Characterization of the terpenes and resin/fatty acids from a control set of trees is underway in order to define the seasonal influence on VOCs.

  20. Impacts of seasonal and regional variability in biogenic VOC emissions on surface ozone in the Pearl River Delta region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Situ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the BVOC emissions in November 2010 over the Pearl River Delta (PRD region in southern China have been estimated by the latest version of a Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC emission model (MEGAN v2.1. The evaluation of MEGAN performance at a representative forest site within this region indicates MEGAN can estimate BVOC emissions reasonably well in this region except overestimating isoprene emission in autumn for reasons that are discussed in this manuscript. Along with the output from MEGAN, the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem is used to estimate the impacts of BVOC emissions on surface ozone in the PRD region. The results show BVOC emissions increase the daytime ozone peak by ~3 ppb on average, and the max hourly impacts of BVOC emissions on the daytime ozone peak is 24.8 ppb. Surface ozone mixing ratios in the central area of Guangzhou-Foshan and the western Jiangmen are most sensitive to BVOC emissions BVOCs from outside and central PRD influence the central area of Guangzhou-Foshan and the western Jiangmen significantly while BVOCs from rural PRD mainly influence the western Jiangmen. The impacts of BVOC emissions on surface ozone differ in different PRD cities, and the impact varies in different seasons. Foshan and Jiangmen being most affected in autumn, result in 6.0 ppb and 5.5 ppb increases in surface ozone concentrations, while Guangzhou and Huizhou become more affected in summer. Three additional experiments concerning the sensitivity of surface ozone to MEGAN input variables show that surface ozone is more sensitive to landcover change, followed by emission factors and meteorology.

  1. Impacts of seasonal and regional variability in biogenic VOC emissions on surface ozone in the Pearl River Delta region, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Situ, S.; Guenther, Alex B.; Wang, X. J.; Jiang, X.; Turnipseed, A.; Wu, Z.; Bai, J.; Wang, X.

    2013-12-05

    In this study, the BVOC emissions in November 2010 over the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in southern China have been estimated by the latest version of a Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) emission model (MEGAN v2.1). The evaluation of MEGAN performance at a representative forest site within this region indicates MEGAN can estimate BVOC emissions reasonably well in this region except overestimating isoprene emission in autumn for reasons that are discussed in this manuscript. Along with the output from MEGAN, the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to estimate the impacts of BVOC emissions on surface ozone in the PRD region. The results show BVOC emissions increase the daytime ozone peak by *3 ppb on average, and the max hourly impacts of BVOC emissions on the daytime ozone peak is 24.8 ppb. Surface ozone mixing ratios in the central area of Guangzhou- Foshan and the western Jiangmen are most sensitive to BVOC emissions BVOCs from outside and central PRD influence the central area of Guangzhou-Foshan and the western Jiangmen significantly while BVOCs from rural PRD mainly influence the western Jiangmen. The impacts of BVOC emissions on surface ozone differ in different PRD cities, and the impact varies in different seasons. Foshan and Jiangmen being most affected in autumn, result in 6.0 ppb and 5.5 ppb increases in surface ozone concentrations, while Guangzhou and Huizhou become more affected in summer. Three additional experiments concerning the sensitivity of surface ozone to MEGAN input variables show that surface ozone is more sensitive to landcover change, followed by emission factors and meteorology.

  2. EVALUATION OF LOW-VOC LATEX PAINTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of four commercially available low-VOC (volatile organic compound) latex paints as substitutes for conventional latex paints by assessing both their emission characteristics and their performance as coatings. Bulk analysis indicated that ...

  3. Demand specifying variables and current ventilation rate requirements with respect to the future use of voc sensing for dcv control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub

    Demand Controlled Ventilation (DCV) is a well established principle to provide a certain indoor environmental quality, defined both in the terms of air quality and thermal comfort. This is accomplished by adjusting the supplied airflow rate according to a certain demand indicator, which conventio......Demand Controlled Ventilation (DCV) is a well established principle to provide a certain indoor environmental quality, defined both in the terms of air quality and thermal comfort. This is accomplished by adjusting the supplied airflow rate according to a certain demand indicator, which...... conventionally has been the temperature or the CO2-concentration. When compared to schedule driven ventilation, application of DCV can lead to substantial energy savings. However, CO2 is the pollutant related to human occupancy and it does not provide any indication of so called building-related pollution...... be also taken into account in the ventilation control. Recent development in gas sensing technology resulted in a new generation of relatively cheap and practically applicable sensors that can offer measurements of some of the pollutants mentioned above – mainly Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC...

  4. Simulated changes in biogenic VOC emissions and ozone formation from habitat expansion of Acer Rubrum (red maple)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewniak, Beth A.; Snyder, Peter K.; Steiner, Allison L.; Twine, Tracy E.; Wuebbles, Donald J.

    2014-01-01

    A new vegetation trend is emerging in northeastern forests of the United States, characterized by an expansion of red maple at the expense of oak. This has changed emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), primarily isoprene and monoterpenes. Oaks strongly emit isoprene while red maple emits a negligible amount. This species shift may impact nearby urban centers because the interaction of isoprene with anthropogenic nitrogen oxides can lead to tropospheric ozone formation and monoterpenes can lead to the formation of particulate matter. In this study the Global Biosphere Emissions and Interactions System was used to estimate the spatial changes in BVOC emission fluxes resulting from a shift in forest composition between oak and maple. A 70% reduction in isoprene emissions occurred when oak was replaced with maple. Ozone simulations with a chemical box model at two rural and two urban sites showed modest reductions in ozone concentrations of up to 5-6 ppb resulting from a transition from oak to red maple, thus suggesting that the observed change in forest composition may benefit urban air quality. This study illustrates the importance of monitoring and representing changes in forest composition and the impacts to human health indirectly through changes in BVOCs.

  5. Compost spreading in Mediterranean shrubland indirectly increases biogenic emissions by promoting growth of VOC-emitting plant parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Romain; Lavoir, Anne-Violette; Ormeño, Elena; Mouillot, Florent; Greff, Stéphane; Lecareux, Caroline; Staudt, Michael; Fernandez, Catherine

    2011-07-01

    We investigated the effect of sewage sludge compost spreading on plant growth and leaf terpene emissions and content of Quercus coccifera, Rosmarinus officinalis and Cistus albidus in a Mediterranean shrubland. Measurements were performed during 3 consecutive summers on 2 different plots treated in 2002 or 2007 with 50 or 100 tons of compost per hectare, corresponding to observations carried out 2 months to 7 years after spreading. A slight nutrient enrichment of soil and leaves ( R. officinalis and C. albidus) was observed, especially for phosphorous. Terpene emissions were not affected by compost spreading, although they tended to increase on treated plots after 6 and 7 years for R. officinalis and C. albidus respectively. Terpene content was not affected by any compost treatment. Leaf and stem growth were significantly enhanced by compost spreading after 2 and/or 7 years in all species with little difference between doses. Total leaf biomass on the last growth units was increased by more than 50% in C. albidus and more than 90% in Q. coccifera. The results suggest that compost spreading in Meditteranean shrublands has no or little direct effect on leaf terpene emissions, but indirectly leads to their increase through leaf biomass enhancement. Simulation of terpene emissions at stand level revealed an increase of terpene fluxes ranging between 6 and 13%, depending on the plant species. Overall, compost spreading was assessed to result in an emission rate of 1.1 kg ha -1 y -1 for a typical Q. coccifera shrubland, but can reach 2.6 kg ha -1 y -1 for a typical R. officinalis shrubland.

  6. Exhaust emission control and diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Christopher John; Upadhyay, Devesh

    2006-11-14

    A diesel engine emission control system uses an upstream oxidation catalyst and a downstream SCR catalyst to reduce NOx in a lean exhaust gas environment. The engine and upstream oxidation catalyst are configured to provide approximately a 1:1 ratio of NO to NO2 entering the downstream catalyst. In this way, the downstream catalyst is insensitive to sulfur contamination, and also has improved overall catalyst NOx conversion efficiency. Degradation of the system is determined when the ratio provided is no longer near the desired 1:1 ratio. This condition is detected using measurements of engine operating conditions such as from a NOx sensor located downstream of the catalysts. Finally, control action to adjust an injected amount of reductant in the exhaust gas based on the actual NO to NO2 ratio upstream of the SCR catalyst and downstream of the oxidation catalyst.

  7. Biomonitoring of VOC emissions from the coating process at DaimlerChrysler - an inside view of motivation factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, H.U. [DaimlerChrysler AG, Sindelfingen (Germany); Kostka-Rick, R. [Biologisch Ueberwachen und Bewerten, Echterdingen (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    To reduce ambient air pollution by solvents in the Boeblingen/Sindelfingen area, water-based paints were introduced in the Sindelfingen factory in the early nineties. Effect monitoring using plants was to clarify what effects the coating process had on the environment and to what extent the environmental impact was reduced by water-based paint technology. Depending on the results, the new method was to be optimized. In terms of the environmental liability legislation, the findings were to permit a self-appraisal of production effects. Between 1992 and 1996, a special bio-indication process tailored to the solvent emissions from the paint shop was developed. From 37 different plant species and varieties, nasturtium, different varieties of bush bean and of tomato were selected as bio-indicators, reacting specifically and sensitively to the solvent emissions. The monitoring plants were exposed at 13 different sites on the factory premises and in the urban area of Sindelfingen for air quality monitoring. Since 1992, more than 9,700 plants have been exposed and investigated and some 125,000 injury scores have been recorded. (orig.)

  8. An Analysis of Air Pollution Control Technologies for Shipyard Emitted Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    A typical absorption control unit consists of a raised column or tower that is packed with reticulated spheres or layered distribution trays. The...existing spray operations. The technology has been demonstrated using acrylics, polyesters, cellulosics , alkyds, and commercial paints and lacquers

  9. Plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ozone (O3) polluted atmospheres: the ecological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Delia M; Blande, James D; Souza, Silvia R; Nerg, Anne-Marja; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2010-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is an important secondary air pollutant formed as a result of photochemical reactions between primary pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). O3 concentrations in the lower atmosphere (troposphere) are predicted to continue increasing as a result of anthropogenic activity, which will impact strongly on wild and cultivated plants. O3 affects photosynthesis and induces the development of visible foliar injuries, which are the result of genetically controlled programmed cell death. It also activates many plant defense responses, including the emission of phytogenic VOCs. Plant emitted VOCs play a role in many eco-physiological functions. Besides protecting the plant from abiotic stresses (high temperatures and oxidative stress) and biotic stressors (competing plants, micro- and macroorganisms), they drive multitrophic interactions between plants, herbivores and their natural enemies e.g., predators and parasitoids as well as interactions between plants (plant-to-plant communication). In addition, VOCs have an important role in atmospheric chemistry. They are O3 precursors, but at the same time are readily oxidized by O3, thus resulting in a series of new compounds that include secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Here, we review the effects of O3 on plants and their VOC emissions. We also review the state of current knowledge on the effects of ozone on ecological interactions based on VOC signaling, and propose further research directions.

  10. Odor and VOC Emissions from Pan Frying of Mackerel at Three Stages: Raw, Well-Done, and Charred

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Hyeon Ahn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Many classes of odorants and volatile organic compounds that are deleterious to our wellbeing can be emitted from diverse cooking activities. Once emitted, they can persist in our living space for varying durations. In this study, various volatile organic compounds released prior to and during the pan frying of fish (mackerel were analyzed at three different cooking stages (stage 1 = raw (R, stage 2 = well-done (W, and stage 3 = overcooked/charred (O. Generally, most volatile organic compounds recorded their highest concentration levels at stage 3 (O, e.g., 465 (trimethylamine and 106 ppb (acetic acid. In contrast, at stage 2 (W, the lowest volatile organic compounds emissions were observed. The overall results of this study confirm that trimethylamine is identified as the strongest odorous compound, especially prior to cooking (stage 1 (R and during overcooking leading to charring (stage 3 (O. As there is a paucity of research effort to measure odor intensities from pan frying of mackerel, this study will provide valuable information regarding the management of indoor air quality.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF THE CONTROLLABILITY OF CONDENSIBLE EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study to gain insights into the condensible emissions area from an air toxics perspective, with emphasis on controllability and chemical composition of these emissions. he study compiled existing data on condensible emissions; determined the chemical...

  12. Locating industrial VOC sources with aircraft observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, P; Gioli, B; Dugheri, S; Salvini, A; Matese, A; Bonacchi, A; Zaldei, A; Cupelli, V; Miglietta, F

    2011-05-01

    Observation and characterization of environmental pollution, focussing on Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), in a high-risk industrial area, are particularly important in order to provide indications on a safe level of exposure, indicate eventual priorities and advise on policy interventions. The aim of this study is to use the Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) method to measure VOCs, directly coupled with atmospheric measurements taken on a small aircraft environmental platform, to evaluate and locate the presence of VOC emission sources in the Marghera industrial area. Lab analysis of collected SPME fibres and subsequent analysis of mass spectrum and chromatograms in Scan Mode allowed the detection of a wide range of VOCs. The combination of this information during the monitoring campaign allowed a model (Gaussian Plume) to be implemented that estimates the localization of emission sources on the ground.

  13. Catalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Muhammad Shahzad; Razzak, Shaikh A.; Hossain, Mohammad M.

    2016-09-01

    Emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is one of the major contributors to air pollution. The main sources of VOCs are petroleum refineries, fuel combustions, chemical industries, decomposition in the biosphere and biomass, pharmaceutical plants, automobile industries, textile manufacturers, solvents processes, cleaning products, printing presses, insulating materials, office supplies, printers etc. The most common VOCs are halogenated compounds, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, aromatic compounds, and ethers. High concentrations of these VOCs can cause irritations, nausea, dizziness, and headaches. Some VOCs are also carcinogenic for both humans and animals. Therefore, it is crucial to minimize the emission of VOCs. Among the available technologies, the catalytic oxidation of VOCs is the most popular because of its versatility of handling a range of organic emissions under mild operating conditions. Due to that fact, there are numerous research initiatives focused on developing advanced technologies for the catalytic destruction of VOCs. This review discusses recent developments in catalytic systems for the destruction of VOCs. Review also describes various VOCs and their sources of emission, mechanisms of catalytic destruction, the causes of catalyst deactivation, and catalyst regeneration methods.

  14. 天津市O3生成与其前体物NOx、VOCs排放的相关性研究%Study of the Correlationship between O3 Generation and its Precursors NOx and VOCs E-mission in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周阳; 王艳丽; 陈璐; 王伟; 张丽娜; 吉晟

    2014-01-01

    The SO2 and NOx emission data from Tianjin pollution source survey of 2010 and industrial volatile organic compounds estimation data were used as main sources to establish Tianjin air pollutant emission inventory.The meteorological fields of Tianjin Area in January,April,July,October 2010 were simulated using MM5.Finally,CMAQ model was used and several scenarios were designed to analyze the correlation ship between the O3 concentration change and NOx and VOCs emission change.The results indi-cated that O3 generation in Tianjin was limited by VOCs.O3 concentration might continue to increase when more and more NOx emis-sions were cut down,but VOCs reduction was beneficial to O3 control.In summer,more than 40% VOCs emission was needed to be cut down to avoid the O3 increase in Tianjin.%以天津市2010年污染源普查数据中 SO2、NOx及颗粒物排放数据以及各行业挥发性有机物调查核算数据为主要数据源,制作天津市大气污染物排放清单,用 MM5模型模拟2010年天津市地区1、4、7、10月的气象场,通过 CMAQ 模型,设置不同计算情景,分析天津市ρ(O3)变化与 NOx 及挥发性有机物的排放量变化关系。结果表明,天津市的 O3生成处于VOCs控制区,随着天津市 NOx减排力度的不断加大,ρ(O3)可能呈上升趋势,在夏季,需要削减40%以上挥发性有机物,以避免ρ(O3)进一步上升。

  15. Mineralization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) over the catalyst CuO-Co3O4-CeO2 and its applications in industrial odor control

    KAUST Repository

    Somekawa, Shouichi

    2011-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present at ppm levels were decomposed over the catalyst CuO-Co3O4-CeO2 (Cu:Co:Ce = 10:45:45 in mol) in an attempt to scale up for industrial odor control. In addition to enhancing the catalytic activity, CuO-Co3O4 and CeO2 helped, respectively, to maintain the strength of the pelleted catalysts and inhibit their sintering. Using toluene as a VOC model compound, kinetic analysis of the total oxidation to carbon dioxide was conducted. The odor emitted from paint-drying processes could be eliminated effectively using CuO-Co3O4-CeO2 (Cu:Co:Ce = 10:45:45) pelleted catalysts (188 ml) in a large-scale system. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. VOCs Control in Polyester Plant (I)%聚酯生产装置的挥发性有机物控制(上)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟继承

    2016-01-01

    本文介绍了聚酯装置中挥发性有机物(VOCs)的特性及产生过程,详细探讨了聚酯装置在运行状态下挥发性有机物的控制技术。认为国内聚酯工程的理论研究已达到一定水平,绿色制造技术的关键点在于对聚酯生产反应过程的研究及挥发性有机物的控制。%The paper introduces the characteristic and generation process for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in polyester plant, discusses in details the VOCs control technology in running polyester plant. The theoretical research on polyester engineering technology has reached a certain level in China, and the key for realizing green production of polyester lies in the research on the reaction process and the VOCs control during production.

  17. Effects of NO x and VOCs from five emission sources on summer surface O3 over the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yu; An, Junling; Li, Jian; Chen, Yong; Li, Ying; Liu, Xingang; Hu, Min

    2014-07-01

    The impacts of emissions from industry, power plant, transportation, residential, and biogenic sources on daily maximum surface ozone (O3DM) over the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region in North China in the summer of 2007 were examined in a modeling study. The modeling system consisted of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the photochemical dispersion model, CAMx. The factor separation technique (FST) was used to quantify the effect of individual emission source types and the synergistic interactions among two or more types. Additionally, the effectiveness of emission reduction scenarios was explored. The industry, power plant, and transportation emission source types were found to be the most important in terms of their individual effects on O3DM. The key contributor to high surface O3 was power plant emissions, with a peak individual effect of 40 ppbv in the southwestern BTH area. The individual effect from the biogenic emission category was quite low. The synergistic effects from the combinations of each pair of anthropogenic emission types suppressed O3 formation, while the synergistic effects for combinations of three were favorable for O3 formation when the industrial and power plant emission source types coexisted. The quadruple synergistic effects were positive only with the combination of power plant, transportation, residential, and biogenic sources, while the quintuple synergistic effect showed only minor impacts on O3DM concentrations. A 30% reduction in industrial and transportation sources produced the most effective impacts on O3 concentrations, with a maximum decrease of 20 ppbv. These results suggested that the synergistic impacts among emission source types should be considered when formulating emission control strategies for O3 reduction.

  18. 75 FR 59973 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Control of Volatile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ...) covered by control techniques guidelines (CTG). This amendment reduces VOC emissions from industrial... Compounds from Specific Processes). COMAR 26.11.19.09-1--Control of VOC Emissions from Industrial Solvent... Volatile Organic Compound Emissions From Industrial Solvent Cleaning Operations AGENCY:...

  19. Short-Term Intra-Subject Variation in Exhaled Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs in COPD Patients and Healthy Controls and Its Effect on Disease Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Phillips

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs are of interest for their potential to diagnose disease non-invasively. However, most breath VOC studies have analyzed single breath samples from an individual and assumed them to be wholly consistent representative of the person. This provided the motivation for an investigation of the variability of breath profiles when three breath samples are taken over a short time period (two minute intervals between samples for 118 stable patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD and 63 healthy controls and analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC/MS. The extent of the variation in VOC levels differed between COPD and healthy subjects and the patterns of variation differed for isoprene versus the bulk of other VOCs. In addition, machine learning approaches were applied to the breath data to establish whether these samples differed in their ability to discriminate COPD from healthy states and whether aggregation of multiple samples, into single data sets, could offer improved discrimination. The three breath samples gave similar classification accuracy to one another when evaluated separately (66.5% to 68.3% subjects classified correctly depending on the breath repetition used. Combining multiple breath samples into single data sets gave better discrimination (73.4% subjects classified correctly. Although accuracy is not sufficient for COPD diagnosis in a clinical setting, enhanced sampling and analysis may improve accuracy further. Variability in samples, and short-term effects of practice or exertion, need to be considered in any breath testing program to improve reliability and optimize discrimination.

  20. Role of sectoral and multi-pollutant emission control strategies in improving atmospheric visibility in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Zhuang, Guoshun; Lin, Yanfen

    2014-01-01

    The Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system is used to investigate the response of atmospheric visibility to the emission reduction from different sectors (i.e. industries, traffic and power plants) in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Visibility improvement from exclusive reduction of NOx or VOC emission was most inefficient. Sulfate and organic aerosol would rebound if NOx emission was exclusively reduced from any emission sector. The most efficient way to improve the atmospheric visibility was proven to be the multi-pollutant control strategies. Simultaneous emission reductions (20-50%) on NOx, VOC and PM from the industrial and mobile sectors could result in 0.3-1.0 km visibility improvement. And the emission controls on both NOx (85%) and SO2 (90%) from power plants gained the largest visibility improvement of up to 4.0 km among all the scenarios. The seasonal visibility improvement subject to emission controls was higher in summer while lower in the other seasons.

  1. [Evaluation and selection of VOCs treatment technologies in packaging and printing industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Lin; Wang, Jun-Hui; Zhu, Chun-Lei; Nie, Lei; Hao, Zheng-Ping

    2014-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play an important role in urban air pollution. Activities of industries including the packaging and printing industries are regarded as the major sources. How to select the suitable treating techniques is the major problem for emission control. In this article, based on the VOCs emission characteristics of the packaging and printing industry and the existing treatment technologies, using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model, an evaluation system for VOCs selection was established and all the technologies used for treatment were assessed. It showed that the priority selection was in the following order: Carbon Fiber Adsorption-Desorption > Granular Carbon Adsorption-Desorption > Thermal Combustion > Regenerative Combustion > Catalytic combustion > Rotary adsorption-concentration and combustion > Granular Carbon adsorption-concentration and combustion. Carbon Fiber Adsorption-Desorption was selected as the best available technology due to its highest weight among those technologies.

  2. New method for simulation of VOC emission from building materials and measurement of mass transfer parameters%建材VOC散发过程模拟与传质参数测定新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋伟; 孔庆媛; 李洪枚

    2013-01-01

    建材中挥发性有机化合物(VOC)的散发是一个复杂传质过程.为准确把握传质特性,首先建立了一套描述干建材散发行为的显性完全解析模型,适用于模拟对人体最不利的无换气情况;代入有关文献中的传质参数预测了环境舱浓度,与文献中对应的实验数据及数值算法预测值吻合良好.然后基于对模型的分析提出一套简便快捷的实验方法,能够利用不同VOC背景值下干建材在密闭舱中散发的平衡浓度或逐时浓度,求取预测散发过程的4个重要的传质参数:可散发浓度C0、扩散系数D、分配系数K和对流传质系数hm;实验部分测算了两类密度板中甲醛散发的C0、D、K、hm,代入数值算法预测了密闭舱和直流舱的环境舱浓度,与实验数据吻合良好.该套模型和测定方法能够应用于建材散发的模拟研究.%Emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from building materials is a complex process of mass transfer. To have a clear picture of mass transfer characteristics, this paper first established an explicitly fully analytical model describing VOC emission behavior from dry building materials, which is applicable to emission simulation in static chamber that is most unfavorable to human health. The VOC concentration in the chamber predicted based on the mass transfer parameters in literature is in good agreement with corresponding experimental data and numerical calculation in literature. Based on this model, an experimental method is proposed for convenient, rapid and simultaneous measurement of four important mass transfer parameters for VOC emission prediction (emittable concentration C0, diffusion coefficient D, partition coefficient K and convection mass transfer coefficient hm) by making use of emission equilibrium or process concentration in a static chamber at a series of background concentrations. With the values of C0, D, K and hm for formaldehyde emission mass transfer obtained

  3. 75 FR 60013 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Control of Volatile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... control techniques guidelines (CTG). This amendment reduces VOC emissions from industrial solvent cleaning... Volatile Organic Compounds Emissions From Industrial Solvent Cleaning Operations AGENCY: Environmental... Emissions from Industrial Solvent Cleaning Operations,'' that is located in the ``Rules and...

  4. POCP for individual VOC under European conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altenstedt, J.; Pleijel, K.

    1998-09-01

    Ground level ozone has been recognised as one of the most important environmental threats on the regional scale in Europe. Ozone is today considered to be harmful to human health already at the relatively low concentrations present in southern Scandinavia. The fact that ozone has the potential to damage vegetation at these concentrations is already well known. Ozone also gives rise to degradation of materials and is one of the gases which adds to the greenhouse effect. Ground level ozone is formed from nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the presence of sunlight. The only way to reduce ozone is therefore to reduce the emissions of the precursors. Ranking individual VOC by their ozone formation potential can make emission reductions more environmentally efficient and save time and money. POCP values give a ranking of the ozone formation ability of an individual VOC relative to other VOC. A critical analysis of the POCP concept has been performed which shows that the background emissions of NO{sub x} and VOC affect the POCP values to a large extent. Based on the critical analysis, five scenarios with different background emissions of NO{sub x} and VOC were selected for calculation of POCP values. These scenarios were chosen because they reflect the variation in POCP values which arise in different environments within Europe. The range thus indicates POCP values which are intended to be applicable within Europe. POCP values for 83 different VOC are presented in the form of ranges in this report. 42 refs, 13 figs, 3 tabs

  5. Overview of VOC emissions and chemistry from PTR-TOF-MS measurements during the SusKat-ABC campaign: high acetaldehyde, isoprene and isocyanic acid in wintertime air of the Kathmandu Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Chinmoy; Sinha, Vinayak; Kumar, Vinod; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Panday, Arnico; Mahata, Khadak S.; Rupakheti, Dipesh; Kathayat, Bhogendra; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2016-03-01

    The Kathmandu Valley in Nepal suffers from severe wintertime air pollution. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are key constituents of air pollution, though their specific role in the valley is poorly understood due to insufficient data. During the SusKat-ABC (Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley-Atmospheric Brown Clouds) field campaign conducted in Nepal in the winter of 2012-2013, a comprehensive study was carried out to characterise the chemical composition of ambient Kathmandu air, including the determination of speciated VOCs, by deploying a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) - the first such deployment in South Asia. In the study, 71 ion peaks (for which measured ambient concentrations exceeded the 2σ detection limit) were detected in the PTR-TOF-MS mass scan data, highlighting the chemical complexity of ambient air in the valley. Of the 71 species, 37 were found to have campaign average concentrations greater than 200 ppt and were identified based on their spectral characteristics, ambient diel profiles and correlation with specific emission tracers as a result of the high mass resolution (m / Δm > 4200) and temporal resolution (1 min) of the PTR-TOF-MS. The concentration ranking in the average VOC mixing ratios during our wintertime deployment was acetaldehyde (8.8 ppb) > methanol (7.4 ppb) > acetone + propanal (4.2 ppb) > benzene (2.7 ppb) > toluene (1.5 ppb) > isoprene (1.1 ppb) > acetonitrile (1.1 ppb) > C8-aromatics ( ˜ 1 ppb) > furan ( ˜ 0.5 ppb) > C9-aromatics (0.4 ppb). Distinct diel profiles were observed for the nominal isobaric compounds isoprene (m / z = 69.070) and furan (m / z = 69.033). Comparison with wintertime measurements from several locations elsewhere in the world showed mixing ratios of acetaldehyde ( ˜ 9 ppb), acetonitrile ( ˜ 1 ppb) and isoprene ( ˜ 1 ppb) to be among the highest reported to date. Two "new" ambient compounds, namely formamide (m / z = 46.029) and acetamide (m / z

  6. World Calibration Center for VOC (WCC-VOC), a new Facility for the WMO-GAW-Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappenglueck, B.-

    2002-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are recognized to be important precursors of tropospheric ozone as well as other oxidants and organic aerosols. In order to design effective control measures for the reduction of photooxidants, photochemical processes have to be understood and the sources of the precursors known. Reliable and representative measurements of VOCs are necessary to describe the anthropogenic and biogenic sources, to follow the photochemical degradation of VOCs in the troposphere. Measurement of VOCs is of key importance for the understanding of tropospheric chemistry. Tropospheric VOCs have been one of the recommended measurements to be made within the GAW programme. The purpose will be to monitor their atmospheric abundance, to characterize the various compounds with regard to anthropogenic and biogenic sources and to evaluate their role in the tropospheric ozone formation process. An international WMO/GAW panel of experts for VOC measurements developed the rational and objectives for this GAW activity and recommended the configuration and required activities of the WCC-VOC. In reflection of the complexity of VOC measurements and the current status of measurement technology, a "staged" approach was adopted. Stage 1 measurements: C2-C9 hydrocarbons, including alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, dienes and monocyclics. (The WCC-VOC operates currently under this mode). Stage 2 measurements: C10-C14 hydrocarbons, including higher homologs of the Stage 1 set as well as biogenic hydrocarbon compounds. Stage 3 measurements: Oxygenated VOCs, including alcohols, carbonyls, carboxylic acids. The Quality Assurance/Science Activity Centre (QA/SAC) Germany currently has established the World Calibration Centre for VOC (WCC-VOC). The WCC-VOC has operated in the research mode und has become operational recently. From now on, the WCC-VOC conducts one round-robin calibration audit per year at all global stations that measure VOCs and assists other stations in setting up VOC

  7. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of

  8. Sulfur Dioxide Emission Control, Blockade and Drainage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the present status of sulfur dioxide emission from thermal plants in China, tells the main problems existing in its emission control and finally gives out suggestions to the problems, that is, to constitute complete standards and regulations and enhancesupervision accordingly.

  9. Evaporation Controlled Emission in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus; Nielsen, Peter V.; Heiselberg, Per

    -scale ventilated room when the emission is fully or partly evaporation controlled. The objective of the present research work has been to investigate the change of emission rates from small-scale experiments to full-scale ventilated rooms and to investigate the influence of the local air velocity field near...

  10. Farm-scale testing of soybean peroxidase and calcium peroxide for surficial swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Devin L.; Koziel, Jacek A.; Bruning, Kelsey; Parker, David B.

    2017-10-01

    The swine industry, regulatory agencies, and the public are interested in farm-tested methods for controlling gaseous emissions from swine barns. In earlier lab- and pilot-scale studies, a renewable catalyst consisting of soybean peroxidase (SBP) mixed with calcium peroxide (CaO2) was found to be effective in mitigating gaseous emissions from swine manure. Thus, a farm-scale experiment was conducted at the university's 178-pig, shallow-pit, mechanically-ventilated swine barn to evaluate SBP/CaO2 as a surficial manure pit additive under field conditions. The SBP was applied once at the beginning of the 42-day experiment at an application rate of 2.28 kg m-2 with 4.2% CaO2 added by weight. Gas samples were collected from the primary barn exhaust fans. As compared to the control, significant reductions in gaseous emissions were observed for ammonia (NH3, 21.7%), hydrogen sulfide (H2S, 79.7%), n-butyric acid (37.2%), valeric acid (47.7%), isovaleric acid (39.3%), indole (31.2%), and skatole (43.5%). Emissions of dimethyl disulfide/methanethiol (DMDS/MT) increased by 30.6%. Emissions of p-cresol were reduced by 14.4% but were not statistically significant. There were no significant changes to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O). The total (material + labor) treatment cost was 2.62 per marketed pig, equivalent to 1.5% of the pig market price. The cost of CaO2 catalyst was ∼60% of materials cost. The cost of soybean hulls (SBP source) was 0.60 per marketed pig, i.e., only 40% of materials cost.

  11. Variable emissivity laser thermal control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Joseph R.

    1994-01-01

    A laser thermal control system for a metal vapor laser maintains the wall mperature of the laser at a desired level by changing the effective emissivity of the water cooling jacket. This capability increases the overall efficiency of the laser.

  12. Optimal strategies for VOC emission abatement produced by solvent evaporation. The Italian case study; Strategie ottimali per la riduzione delle emissioni di composti organici volatili da uso di solventi: il caso italiano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetrella, G.; Cirillo, M.C. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-07-01

    This work analyses technologies and costs of VOC (volatile organic compounds) abatement in the activities which belong to the solvent evaporation sector, and then it singles out the most successful strategies from the costs point of view to reduce the sector emissions on the base of fixed abatement objectives. The Italian case is discussed. [Italian] Il lavoro analizza tecnologie e costi di abbattimento dei COV (composti organici volatili) nel settore evaporazione solventi, e individua la strategia piu' efficace dal punto di vista dei costi per ridurre le emissioni del settore sulla base di prefissati obiettivi di abbattimento. Analizza la situazione italiana.

  13. Locating industrial VOC sources with aircraft observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toscano, P., E-mail: p.toscano@ibimet.cnr.it [Institute for Biometeorology (IBIMET - CNR), Via G. Caproni 8, 50145 Firenze (Italy); Gioli, B. [Institute for Biometeorology (IBIMET - CNR), Via G. Caproni 8, 50145 Firenze (Italy); Dugheri, S. [Careggi Hospital-University of Florence, Occupational Health Division, Largo Palagi 1, 50100 Florence (Italy); Salvini, A. [Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 13, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Matese, A. [Institute for Biometeorology (IBIMET - CNR), Via G. Caproni 8, 50145 Firenze (Italy); Bonacchi, A. [Careggi Hospital-University of Florence, Occupational Health Division, Largo Palagi 1, 50100 Florence (Italy); Zaldei, A. [Institute for Biometeorology (IBIMET - CNR), Via G. Caproni 8, 50145 Firenze (Italy); Cupelli, V. [Careggi Hospital-University of Florence, Occupational Health Division, Largo Palagi 1, 50100 Florence (Italy); Miglietta, F. [Institute for Biometeorology (IBIMET - CNR), Via G. Caproni 8, 50145 Firenze (Italy); Fondazione Edmund Mach, Via Mach 1, San Michele all' Adige, Trento (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    Observation and characterization of environmental pollution, focussing on Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), in a high-risk industrial area, are particularly important in order to provide indications on a safe level of exposure, indicate eventual priorities and advise on policy interventions. The aim of this study is to use the Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) method to measure VOCs, directly coupled with atmospheric measurements taken on a small aircraft environmental platform, to evaluate and locate the presence of VOC emission sources in the Marghera industrial area. Lab analysis of collected SPME fibres and subsequent analysis of mass spectrum and chromatograms in Scan Mode allowed the detection of a wide range of VOCs. The combination of this information during the monitoring campaign allowed a model (Gaussian Plume) to be implemented that estimates the localization of emission sources on the ground. - Highlights: > Flight plan aimed at sampling industrial area at various altitudes and locations. > SPME sampling strategy was based on plume detection by means of CO{sub 2}. > Concentrations obtained were lower than the limit values or below the detection limit. > Scan mode highlighted presence of {gamma}-butyrolactone (GBL) compound. > Gaussian dispersion modelling was used to estimate GBL source location and strength. - An integrated strategy based on atmospheric aircraft observations and dispersion modelling was developed, aimed at estimating spatial location and strength of VOC point source emissions in industrial areas.

  14. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo [Shanghai Univ. of Electric Power (China); Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations.

  15. Improvement of health risk factors after reduction of VOC concentrations in industrial and urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Jorge Esteban Colman; Kohajda, Tibor; Aguilar, Myriam Elisabeth; Massolo, Laura Andrea; Sánchez, Erica Yanina; Porta, Atilio Andrés; Opitz, Philipp; Wichmann, Gunnar; Herbarth, Olf; Mueller, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    After reductions of fugitive and diffuse emissions by an industrial complex, a follow-up study was performed to determine the time variability of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the lifetime cancer risk (LCR). Passive samplers (3 M monitors) were placed outdoors (n = 179) and indoors (n = 75) in industrial, urban, and control areas for 4 weeks. Twenty-five compounds including n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatics, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and terpenes were determined by GC/MS. The results show a significant decrease of all VOCs, especially in the industrial area and to a lesser extent in the urban area. The median outdoor concentration of benzene in the industrial area declined compared to the former study, around 85% and about 50% in the urban area, which in the past was strongly influenced by industrial emissions. Other carcinogenic compounds like styrene and tetrachloroethylene were reduced to approximately 60%. VOC concentrations in control areas remained nearly unchanged. According to the determined BTEX ratios and interspecies correlations, in contrast to the previous study, traffic was identified as the main emission source in the urban and control areas and showed an increased influence in the industrial area. The LCR, calculated for benzene, styrene, and tetrachloroethylene, shows a decrease of one order of magnitude in accordance to the decreased total VOC concentrations and is now acceptable according to values proposed by the World Health Organization.

  16. Economic growth and carbon emission control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenyu

    The question about whether environmental improvement is compatible with continued economic growth remains unclear and requires further study in a specific context. This study intends to provide insight on the potential for carbon emissions control in the absence of international agreement, and connect the empirical analysis with theoretical framework. The Chinese electricity generation sector is used as a case study to demonstrate the problem. Both social planner and private problems are examined to derive the conditions that define the optimal level of production and pollution. The private problem will be demonstrated under the emission regulation using an emission tax, an input tax and an abatement subsidy respectively. The social optimal emission flow is imposed into the private problem. To provide tractable analytical results, a Cobb-Douglas type production function is used to describe the joint production process of the desired output and undesired output (i.e., electricity and emissions). A modified Hamiltonian approach is employed to solve the system and the steady state solutions are examined for policy implications. The theoretical analysis suggests that the ratio of emissions to desired output (refer to 'emission factor'), is a function of productive capital and other parameters. The finding of non-constant emission factor shows that reducing emissions without further cutting back the production of desired outputs is feasible under some circumstances. Rather than an ad hoc specification, the optimal conditions derived from our theoretical framework are used to examine the relationship between desired output and emission level. Data comes from the China Statistical Yearbook and China Electric Power Yearbook and provincial information of electricity generation for the year of 1993-2003 are used to estimate the Cobb-Douglas type joint production by the full information maximum likelihood (FIML) method. The empirical analysis shed light on the optimal

  17. COMPOSITIVE EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEM OF GASOLINE VEHICLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Ruibin; CHEN Zijian

    2006-01-01

    The working principle of a kind of compositive emission control system is inquired into,which includes exhaust heater, secondary air supplement, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), thermal reactor and catalytic converter, etc. The purification effect of CO, HC and NOx emission of the gasoline spark ignite (S.I.) engine is studied. The entire vehicle driving cycle tests based on the national emission standard and a series of the gasoline engine-testing bench tests including full load characteristic experiment, load characteristic experiment and idle speed experiment are done. The results show that the system has a very good emission control effect to CO, HC and NOx of gasoline engine. The construction of the system is very simple and can be mounted on the exhaust pipe conveniently without any alteration of the vehicle-use gasoline engine.

  18. Covering the different steps of the coffee processing: Can headspace VOC emissions be exploited to successfully distinguish between Arabica and Robusta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzi, Ilaria; Taiti, Cosimo; Marone, Elettra; Magnelli, Susanna; Gonnelli, Cristina; Mancuso, Stefano

    2017-12-15

    This work was performed to evaluate the possible application of PTR-ToF-MS technique in distinguishing between Coffea arabica (Arabica) and Coffea canephora var. robusta (Robusta) commercial stocks in each step of the processing chain (green beans, roasted beans, ground coffee, brews). volatile organic compounds (VOC) spectra from coffee samples of 7 Arabica and 6 Robusta commercial stocks were recorded and submitted to multivariate statistical analysis. Results clearly showed that, in each stage of the coffee processing, the volatile composition of coffee is highly influenced by the species. Actually, with the exception of green beans, PTR-ToF-MS technique was able to correctly recognize Arabica and Robusta samples. Particularly, among 134 tentatively identified VOCs, some masses (16 for roasted coffee, 12 for ground coffee and 12 for brewed coffee) were found to significantly discriminate the two species. Therefore, headspace VOC analyses was showed to represent a valuable tool to distinguish between Arabica and Robusta. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantitative Estimate of Unorganized Emission of VOCs from Petroleum Refinery Wastwater Treatment%石化炼油废水处理VOCs无组织排放定量估算研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴晓波; 邱贤锋; 何金平; 王文成; 陈选文

    2012-01-01

    炼油厂废水处理中无组织排放VOCs是石化企业污染源核查的重要内容。概述了影响VOCs挥发因素,利用基于MATLAB神经网络工具箱的图形用户界面GUI,并且使用在某石化企业所收集的相关数据,建立了石化企业炼油废水处理中无组织排放VOCs的定量模型。通过实验,证明了模型具有更广泛的应用范围,弥补了新建项目环境影响评价中的缺陷。%In view of the fact that unorganized emission of VOSc from Wastwater Treatment is one of the major pollution sources of a petroleum refinery, this paper studies effecting factors of VOCs volatilization and establishes a quantitative model of unorganized VOCs emission from Wastewater Treatment on the basis of the data from a petroleum refinery by means of GUI of MATLAB neural network toolbox. Experiments prove that the model fits for a wide range of applications, which will im- prove project environment impact assessments.

  20. Holistic control of ship noise emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Borelli Davide; Gaggero Tomaso; Rizzuto Enrico; Schenone Corrado

    2016-01-01

    The sustainability of anthropogenic activities at sea is recently gaining more and more attention. As regards shipping, emissions from ships into the environment of various nature (engine exhaust gases, anti-fouling paints leaching, ballast exchange, releases at sea of oil and other noxious liquid or solid cargoes, of sewage and of garbage) have been recognized as sources of pollution and therefore controlled and limited since a long time. The subject of noise emission...

  1. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds (Cl-VOCs) in environment - sources, potential human health impacts, and current remediation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Binbin; Lei, Chao; Wei, Chaohai; Zeng, Guangming

    2014-10-01

    Chlorinated volatile organic compounds (Cl-VOCs), including polychloromethanes, polychloroethanes and polychloroethylenes, are widely used as solvents, degreasing agents and a variety of commercial products. These compounds belong to a group of ubiquitous contaminants that can be found in contaminated soil, air and any kind of fluvial mediums such as groundwater, rivers and lakes. This review presents a summary of the research concerning the production levels and sources of Cl-VOCs, their potential impacts on human health as well as state-of-the-art remediation technologies. Important sources of Cl-VOCs principally include the emissions from industrial processes, the consumption of Cl-VOC-containing products, the disinfection process, as well as improper storage and disposal methods. Human exposure to Cl-VOCs can occur through different routes, including ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact. The toxicological impacts of these compounds have been carefully assessed, and the results demonstrate the potential associations of cancer incidence with exposure to Cl-VOCs. Most Cl-VOCs thus have been listed as priority pollutants by the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) of China, Environmental Protection Agency of the U.S. (U.S. EPA) and European Commission (EC), and are under close monitor and strict control. Yet, more efforts will be put into the epidemiological studies for the risk of human exposure to Cl-VOCs and the exposure level measurements in contaminated sites in the future. State-of-the-art remediation technologies for Cl-VOCs employ non-destructive methods and destructive methods (e.g. thermal incineration, phytoremediation, biodegradation, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) and reductive dechlorination), whose advantages, drawbacks and future developments are thoroughly discussed in the later sections.

  2. Advanced CIDI Emission Control System Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Christine

    2006-05-31

    Ford Motor Company, with ExxonMobil and FEV, participated in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Ultra-Clean Transportation Fuels Program with the goal to develop an innovative emission control system for light-duty diesel vehicles. The focus on diesel engine emissions was a direct result of the improved volumetric fuel economy (up to 50%) and lower CO2 emissions (up to 25%) over comparable gasoline engines shown in Europe. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) with aqueous urea as the NOx reductant and a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF) were chosen as the primary emission control system components. The program expected to demonstrate more than 90% durable reduction in particulate matter (PM) and NOx emissions on a light-duty truck application, based on the FTP-75 drive cycle. Very low sulfur diesel fuel (<15 ppm-wt) enabled lower PM emissions, reduced fuel economy penalty due to the emission control system and improved long-term system durability. Significant progress was made toward a durable system to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 emission standards on a 6000 lbs light-duty truck. A 40% reduction in engine-out NOx emissions was achieved with a mid-size prototype diesel engine through engine recalibration and increased exhaust gas recirculation. Use of a rapid warm-up strategy and urea SCR provided over 90% further NOx reduction while the CDPF reduced tailpipe PM to gasoline vehicle levels. Development work was conducted to separately improve urea SCR and CDPF system durability, as well as improved oxidation catalyst function. Exhaust gas NOx and ammonia sensors were also developed further. While the final emission control system did not meet Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx after 120k mi of aging on the dynamometer, it did meet the standards for HC, NMOG, and PM, and an improved SCR catalyst was shown to have potential to meet the NOx standard, assuming the DOC durability could be improved further. Models of DOC and SCR function were developed to guide the study of several key

  3. Time Resolved Measurements of Speciated Tailpipe Emissions from Motor Vehicles: Trends with Emission Control Technology, Cold Start Effects, and Speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Greg T; Zhao, Yunliang; Saliba, Georges; Frodin, Bruce; Maddox, Christine; Weber, Robert J; Chang, M-C Oliver; Maldonado, Hector; Sardar, Satya; Robinson, Allen L; Goldstein, Allen H

    2016-12-20

    Experiments were conducted at the California Air Resources Board Haagen-Smit Laboratory to understand changes in vehicle emissions in response to stricter emissions standards over the past 25 years. Measurements included a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for a wide range of spark ignition gasoline vehicles meeting varying levels of emissions standards, including all certifications from Tier 0 up to Partial Zero Emission Vehicle. Standard gas chromatography (GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HLPC) analyses were employed for drive-cycle phase emissions. A proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer measured time-resolved emissions for a wide range of VOCs. Cold-start emissions occur almost entirely in the first 30-60 s for newer vehicles. Cold-start emissions have compositions that are not significantly different across all vehicles tested and are markedly different from neat fuel. Hot-stabilized emissions have varying importance depending on species and may require a driving distance of 200 miles to equal the emissions from a single cold start. Average commute distances in the U.S. suggest the majority of in-use vehicles have emissions dominated by cold starts. The distribution of vehicle ages in the U.S. suggests that within several years only a few percent of vehicles will have significant driving emissions compared to cold-start emissions.

  4. 工业挥发性有机物排放控制的有效途径研究%Emission Control Way of Volatile Organic Compounds in Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江梅; 张国宁; 魏玉霞; 邹兰; 张明慧

    2011-01-01

    挥发性有机物(VOCs)由于易挥发性,其控制途径有别于其他大气污染物.通过对VOCs排放特点的研究,提出了源头控制、有组织排放控制、无组织排放控制和总量控制四类控制途径,并对每类控制途径的控制方式进行了分析比较.%Due to the volatile nature,the way of controlling way of VOCs was different from other atmospheric pollutants.By analyzing the emission characteristics of VOCs,four kinds of control way were proposed,which were the source control,organized emission control,fugitive emission control and the total amount control,and the control modes of each control way were also analyzed and compared.

  5. Performance of a pilot-scale biotrickling filter in controlling the volatile organic compound emissions in a furniture manufacturing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Soria, Vicente; Gabaldón, Carmen; Penya-Roja, Josep M; Palau, Jordi; Alvarez-Hornos, F Javier; Sempere, Feliu; Soriano, Carlos

    2009-08-01

    A 0.75-m3 pilot-scale biotrickling filter was run for over 1 yr in a Spanish furniture company to evaluate its performance in the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) contained in the emission of two different paint spray booths. The first one was an open front booth used to manually paint furniture, and the second focus was an automatically operated closed booth operated to paint pieces of furniture. In both cases, the VOC emissions were very irregular, with rapid and extreme fluctuations. The pilot plant was operated at an empty bed residence time (EBRT) ranging from 10 to 40 sec, and good removal efficiencies of VOCs were usually obtained. When a buffering activated carbon prefilter was installed, the system performance was improved considerably, so a much better compliance with legal constraints was reached. After different shutdowns in the factory, the period to recover the previous performance of the biotrickling reactor was minimal. A weekend dehydration strategy was developed and implemented to control the pressure drop associated with excessive biomass accumulation.

  6. [Study on volatile organic compounds emission of straw combustion and management countermeasure in Wuhan city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bi-Jie

    2013-12-01

    Straw combustion is an important anthropogenic source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in China. Emissions of VOCs from straw combustion significantly affect climate forcing and human health. A reliable estimation of VOCs emission from the source is the important prerequisite for emission impact assessment and control strategy in the urban or regional areas. VOCs emissions from straw combustion in Wuhan City and the districts were estimated by factor analysis method, which was based on the yield of major farm crops in the period of 2005-2011. Moreover, Cultivated-land Emission Intensity (Ie) and Regional Emission Intensity (Ir) were also calculated. VOCs Emissions from straw combustion in Wuhan City were (3,163 +/- 139) t in the period of 2005-2011; Ie and Ir was (1.52 +/- 0.06) t x km(-2) and (0.37 +/- 0.02) t x km(-2), respectively; Straw combustion of grain and oilseed crops was the main source of the emissions; 21 kinds of VOCs should be listed as the priority control pollutants for straw combustion in Wuhan City. The order of successively decreasing VOCs emission of districts in Wuhan City was Huangpi District, Xinzhou District, Jiangxia District, Caidian District, Hannan District, and Dongxihu District, the former 4 districts contributed to almost 90% VOCs emissions of the Wuhan City. Huangpi District, Xinzhou District, Jiangxia District, and Hannan District should be regarded as priority control areas of VOCs emission from straw combustion in Wuhan City. Much attention should be paid to Jiangxia District, which was nationally representative. Ie and Ir are important basic data for ecological risk assessment of some kind of pollutants emitted from straw combustion in the urban or regional areas. Furthermore, straw utilization model according to agricultural cyclic economy is a feasible way to cope with the environmental problem of straw combustion.

  7. [Diesel emission control technologies: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong; Weng, Duan; Zi, Xin-Yun

    2007-06-01

    The authors reviewed the researches on diesel emission control for both new engine technologies and aftertreatment technologies. Emphases were focused on the recent advancements of the diesel particulate filter (DPF) and the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO(x). In addition, it was explored for the future development in this field.

  8. CONTROLLING ODOROUS EMISSIONS FROM IRON FOUNDRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the control of odorous emissions from iron foundries. he main process sources of odors in iron foundries are mold and core making, casting, and sand shakeout. he odors are usually caused by chemicals, which may be present as binders and other additives to the...

  9. Control of formaldehyde and TVOC emission from wood-based flooring composites at various manufacturing processes by surface finishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sumin

    2010-04-15

    This paper assesses the reproducibility of testing formaldehyde and TVOC emission behavior from wood flooring composites bonded by urea-formaldehyde resin at various manufacturing steps for surface finishing materials. The surface adhesion step of laminate flooring for this research was divided into two steps; HDF only and HDF with LPMs. In the case of engineered flooring, the manufacturing steps were divided into three steps; plywood only, fancy veneer bonded on plywood and UV coated on fancy veneer with plywood. Formaldehyde and VOCs emission decreased at the process of final surface finishing materials; LPMs were applied on the surface of HDF for laminate flooring. Although emissions increased when fancy veneer was bonded onto plywood in the case of engineered flooring, emission was dramatically reduced up to similar level with plywood only when final surface finishing; UV-curable coating was applied on fancy veneer. This study suggests that formaldehyde and VOCs emission from floorings can be controlled at manufacturing steps for surface finishing. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Observations of VOC emissions and photochemical products over US oil- and gas-producing regions using high-resolution H3O+ CIMS (PTR-ToF-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Koss

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available VOCs related to oil and gas extraction operations in the United States were measured by H3O+ chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (H3O+ ToF-CIMS/PTR-ToF-MS from aircraft during the Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNEX campaign in March–April 2015. This work presents an overview of major VOC species measured in nine oil- and gas-producing regions, and a more detailed analysis of H3O+ ToF-CIMS measurements in the Permian Basin within Texas and New Mexico. Mass spectra are dominated by small photochemically produced oxygenates and compounds typically found in crude oil: aromatics, cyclic alkanes, and alkanes. Mixing ratios of aromatics were frequently as high as those measured downwind of large urban areas. In the Permian, the H3O+ ToF-CIMS measured a number of underexplored or previously unreported species, including aromatic and cycloalkane oxidation products, nitrogen heterocycles including pyrrole (C4H5N and pyrroline (C4H7N, H2S, and a diamondoid (adamantane or unusual monoterpene. We additionally assess the specificity of a number of ion masses resulting from H3O+ ion chemistry previously reported in the literature, including several new or alternate interpretations.

  11. Observations of VOC emissions and photochemical products over US oil- and gas-producing regions using high-resolution H3O+ CIMS (PTR-ToF-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Abigail; Yuan, Bin; Warneke, Carsten; Gilman, Jessica B.; Lerner, Brian M.; Veres, Patrick R.; Peischl, Jeff; Eilerman, Scott; Wild, Rob; Brown, Steven S.; Thompson, Chelsea R.; Ryerson, Thomas; Hanisco, Thomas; Wolfe, Glenn M.; St. Clair, Jason M.; Thayer, Mitchell; Keutsch, Frank N.; Murphy, Shane; de Gouw, Joost

    2017-08-01

    VOCs related to oil and gas extraction operations in the United States were measured by H3O+ chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (H3O+ ToF-CIMS/PTR-ToF-MS) from aircraft during the Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNEX) campaign in March-April 2015. This work presents an overview of major VOC species measured in nine oil- and gas-producing regions, and a more detailed analysis of H3O+ ToF-CIMS measurements in the Permian Basin within Texas and New Mexico. Mass spectra are dominated by small photochemically produced oxygenates and compounds typically found in crude oil: aromatics, cyclic alkanes, and alkanes. Mixing ratios of aromatics were frequently as high as those measured downwind of large urban areas. In the Permian, the H3O+ ToF-CIMS measured a number of underexplored or previously unreported species, including aromatic and cycloalkane oxidation products, nitrogen heterocycles including pyrrole (C4H5N) and pyrroline (C4H7N), H2S, and a diamondoid (adamantane) or unusual monoterpene. We additionally assess the specificity of a number of ion masses resulting from H3O+ ion chemistry previously reported in the literature, including several new or alternate interpretations.

  12. Assessment of the controllability of condensible emissions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shareef, G.S.; Waddell, J.T.

    1990-10-01

    The report gives results of a study to gain insights into the condensible emissions area from an air toxics perspective, with emphasis on controllability and chemical composition of these emissions. The study: compiled existing data on condensible emissions; determined the chemical composition of condensible emissions, where possible; identified source categories that are major emitters of condensibles; evaluated the effectiveness of various control devices in reducing condensible emissions; and evaluated how the performance of currently available control technologies can be improved to better control condensible emissions. Two data bases were developed: the Condensibles Data Base contains 43 emission source categories; the Specialized Condensibles Data Base focuses on the chemical composition of condensible emissions.

  13. CO2 sensor versus Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) sensor – analysis of field measurement data and implications for demand controlled ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    and CO2 sensors, presence detection sensor and supply/return air flow were logged. VOC and CO2 signals were in agreement with respect to indicated need for mechanical ventilation for 49 % of occupied time (81 % of whole measuring period). VOC measurement would clearly trigger the mechanical ventilation...

  14. The impact of transportation control measures on emission reductions during the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Wu, Ye; Yang, Liu; Fu, Lixin; He, Kebin; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming; Chen, Jinchuan; Li, Chunyan

    2010-01-01

    Traffic congestion and air pollution were two major challenges for the planners of the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing. The Beijing municipal government implemented a package of temporary transportation control measures during the event. In this paper, we report the results of a recent research project that investigated the effects of these measures on urban motor vehicle emissions in Beijing. Bottom-up methodology has been used to develop grid-based emission inventories with micro-scale vehicle activities and speed-dependent emission factors. The urban traffic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM 10) during the 2008 Olympics were reduced by 55.5%, 56.8%, 45.7% and 51.6%, respectively, as compared to the grid-based emission inventory before the Olympics. Emission intensity was derived from curbside air quality monitoring at the North 4th Ring Road site, located about 7 km from the National Stadium. Comparison between the emission intensity before and during the 2008 Olympics shows a reduction of 44.5% and 49.0% in daily CO and NO x emission from motor vehicles. The results suggest that reasonable traffic system improvement strategies along with vehicle technology improvements can contribute to controlling total motor vehicle emissions in Beijing after the Olympic Games.

  15. 77 FR 45307 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans: Georgia; Control Techniques...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ...-1-.02(2)(qq) VOC Emissions from Large Petroleum Dry Cleaners; The July 19, 2012, draft SIP revision... Rework Facilities which addresses the applicability thresholds for Barrow, Bartow, Carroll, Hall, Newton... the control of VOC emissions from paper, film and foil coating operations. On January 3, 1991, April...

  16. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program: Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.T. Amrhein; R.T. Bailey; W. Downs; M.J. Holmes; G.A. Kudlac; D.A. Madden

    1999-07-01

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses - BH), and wet flue gas desulfurization systems (WFGD). Development work concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, with an emphasis on the control of mercury. The AECDP project is jointly funded by the US Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (OCDO), and Babcock and Wilcox, a McDermott company (B and W). This report discusses results of all three phases of the AECDP project with an emphasis on Phase III activities. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on characterization of the emissions of mercury and other air toxics and the control of these emissions for typical operating conditions of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment. Some general comments that can be made about the control of air toxics while burning a high-sulfur bituminous coal are as follows: (1) particulate control devices such as ESP's and baghouses do a good job of removing non-volatile trace metals, (2) particulate control devices (ESPs and baghouses) effectively remove the particulate-phase mercury, but the particulate-phase mercury was only a small fraction of the total for the coals tested, (3) wet scrubbing can effectively remove hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, and (4) wet scrubbers show good potential for the removal of mercury when operated under certain conditions, however, for certain applications, system enhancements can be required to achieve

  17. Catalyst screening for the VOC decomposition using adsorption and oxygen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.H.; Ogata, A. [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are directly related to the formation of photochemical smog and the secondary aerosol formation, particularly in urban areas. As such, VOC pollution control is a high priority in air quality management. Non-thermal plasmas (NTPs) have been considered for the abatement of VOCs, but 3 key factors must be addressed, notably improve the energy efficiency, have less NOx formation and acceptable material balance. A recent trend in the use of NTP for air pollution control is the combination of NTP with a catalyst. This combined process is subdivided into single-stage and two-stage depending on the position of the catalyst. Ozone-assisted catalysis is the two-stage system. This study focused on the decomposition of VOCs using a single-stage plasma-driven catalysis (PDC) system, and demonstrated the effectiveness of the PDC in terms of energy efficiency, product selectivity and carbon balance. The PDC reactor has a strong dependence on the oxygen content in the oxidation of VOCs. The potentials of various catalysts for cycled system were evaluated in terms of adsorption capability of VOC and enhancement factor (EF). The study focused on zeolites with a large surface area. Nanometer-sized active metals were also loaded on the zeolite surfaces, and their catalytic activity was tested. The metal nanoparticles supported on zeolites enhanced the catalytic activities considerably. ICCD camera observation of the discharge plasma on the surface of catalyst provided an important insight into the understanding of discharge plasma and catalyst. The area of discharge plasma expanded over a wide range by the metal nanoparticles. This physical influence was found to be closely related to the enhanced performance of the plasma-driven catalyst process. 15 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Development and application of a multi-channel monitoring system for near real-time VOC measurement in a hazardous waste management facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Je, Chung-hwan; Stone, Richard; Oberg, Steven G

    2007-09-01

    This paper describes the development and application of a multi-channel monitoring system for recording, processing, and analyzing volatile organic compound (VOC) levels discharged to the atmosphere from a walk-in hood in a hazardous waste management facility. The monitoring system consists of an array of PID (photo ionization detector) sensors and a networked control program that provides operational schematic diagram, performs data analyses, and illustrates real-time graphical displays. Furthermore, the system records potential worker exposures, exhaust filtration efficiency and environmental release levels. Multi-channel continuous monitoring of VOCs is successfully implemented during chemical bulking operations. It is shown that a real-time monitoring system is effective for early warning detection of hazardous chemicals and for predicting the performance of adsorption filters used for VOC removal. In addition, a connected local weather visualization system supports efforts to minimize potential health and environmental impacts of VOC emissions to surrounding areas.

  19. 78 FR 55234 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Indiana; Volatile Organic Compound Emission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... Compound Emission Control Measures for Industrial Solvent Cleaning for Northwest Indiana AGENCY... of Environmental Management (IDEM) submitted revisions to its volatile organic compound (VOC... less than or equal to 8 millimeters of mercury; (2) several work practices must be...

  20. VOCs Speciation From Steam Boiler Stacks of Industries Located in Naucalpan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, G. M.; Tejeda, D. D.; Bremauntz, M. P.; Valdez, A.; Montufar, P. C.; Martinez, M. A.; Sierra, M. J.; Gonzalez, C. A.

    2007-05-01

    Results of VOCs speciation from industrial steam boiler stacks located in Naucalpan are presented and discussed. This municipality is located north of the Metropolitan Zone of the Valley of Mexico (MZVM). Speciation of VOCs is important to generate information about sources of pollution, to update emission inventories, to study the dynamics of pollutants in the atmosphere, and to estimate possible risks of population exposure. This information is valuable for decision making on air pollution control strategies. Samples from 35 steam boilers form industries burning Diesel, LPG, or CNG were taken using the US-EPA Method 18. Selected samples from the use of different fuels were analyzed using gas chromatography and flame ionization detection (GC-FID) according to US-EPA protocol TO-14. The VOCs analyzed included alkanes of 9 carbons or less, alkenes of 7 carbons or less and aromatics (families of benzene). The results show consistency on the VOCs detected on Diesel samples. The main compounds found were 1- Butene+iButylene, m/p-Xylene, Ethane, Propene, Propane, Acetylene, 2Me-1Butene, and Toluene. The average concentrations of these compounds were in the range of 130 to 385 ppbC. The results of LPG samples did not show a definite pattern of VOCs, although light components predominate and, in some samples, Toluene and Xylene. These last components were not expected for industries reporting the use of LPG, perhaps due to the use of a combination of fuels and mistakes in the reports of fuel used at the time of sampling. The analysis of CNG samples show predominance of light VOCs, in the range of 90 to 300 ppbC. As in the case of LPG, some aromatics showed high concentrations in some samples analyzed perhaps due to the use of different fuels in the boiler. The results of this study are the first results of VOCs speciation obtained form exhaust gases from stacks of Mexican industries. The data reported are valuable to analyze emission inventories of VOCs and to better

  1. VOCs and odors: key factors in selecting `green` building materials?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, C. [Steven Winter Associates Inc., Norwalk, CT and Washington DC (United States)

    1998-12-01

    The current state of knowledge available for selecting building materials on the basis of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and odors is reviewed. The significance of VOCs and odors in building materials is related to their role in influencing indoor air quality. As far as toxicity is concerned, many of the VOCs detected in indoor air are relatively inert when considered singly. They are not however, unimportant because in actual fact they are invariably found in mixtures some of which can be toxic. Although knowledge of VOCs is incomplete, it is important to specify ozone-resistant polymeric building products, i.e. those that are chemically stable and inert to oxidation. In addition to VOCs, attention should also be focused on semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) since they are even more persistent than VOCs and tend to offgas for prolonged periods of time. Similarly, it is reasonable to specify low-odor materials. Inclusion of issues related to complex indoor chemistry, less volatile emissions, in addition to VOCs and odor, should in time result in expanded choices of building materials that promote indoor air quality. 16 refs.,2 tabs.

  2. Implications of diesel emissions control failures to emission factors and road transport NOx evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Papadimitriou, Giannis; Ligterink, Norbert; Hausberger, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Diesel NOx emissions have been at the forefront of research and regulation scrutiny as a result of failures of late vehicle technologies to deliver on-road emissions reductions. The current study aims at identifying the actual emissions levels of late light duty vehicle technologies, including Euro 5 and Euro 6 ones. Mean NOx emission factor levels used in the most popular EU vehicle emission models (COPERT, HBEFA and VERSIT+) are compared with latest emission information collected in the laboratory over real-world driving cycles and on the road using portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS). The comparison shows that Euro 5 passenger car (PC) emission factors well reflect on road levels and that recently revealed emissions control failures do not call for any significant corrections. However Euro 5 light commercial vehicles (LCVs) and Euro 6 PCs in the 2014-2016 period exhibit on road emission levels twice as high as used in current models. Moreover, measured levels vary a lot for Euro 6 vehicles. Scenarios for future evolution of Euro 6 emission factors, reflecting different degree of effectiveness of emissions control regulations, show that total NOx emissions from diesel Euro 6 PC and LCV may correspond from 49% up to 83% of total road transport emissions in 2050. Unless upcoming and long term regulations make sure that light duty diesel NOx emissions are effectively addressed, this will have significant implications in meeting future air quality and national emissions ceilings targets.

  3. Significant light and temperature dependent monoterpene emissions from European beech (fagus sylvatiga L.) and their potential impact on the European VOC budget

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dindorf, T.; Kuhn, U.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Schebeske, G.; Ciccioli, P.; Holzke, C.; Köble, R.; Seufert, G.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2006-01-01

    By using a dynamic branch enclosure system the emission of monoterpenes from European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) was investigated during two consecutive summer vegetation periods in the years of 2002 and 2003 in Germany. All measurements were performed under field conditions within the framework of

  4. Boreal forest fire emissions in fresh Canadian smoke plumes: C1-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs, CO2, CO, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Boreal regions comprise about 17 % of the global land area, and they both affect and are influenced by climate change. To better understand boreal forest fire emissions and plume evolution, 947 whole air samples were collected aboard the NASA DC-8 research aircraft in summer 2008 as part of the ARCTAS-B field mission, and analyzed for 79 non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs using gas chromatography. Together with simultaneous measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, CH2O, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN, these measurements represent the most comprehensive assessment of trace gas emissions from boreal forest fires to date. Based on 105 air samples collected in fresh Canadian smoke plumes, 57 of the 80 measured NMVOCs (including CH2O were emitted from the fires, including 45 species that were quantified from boreal forest fires for the first time. After CO2, CO and CH4, the largest emission factors (EFs for individual species were formaldehyde (2.1 ± 0.2 g kg−1, followed by methanol, NO2, HCN, ethene, α-pinene, β-pinene, ethane, benzene, propene, acetone and CH3CN. Globally, we estimate that boreal forest fires release 2.4 ± 0.6 Tg C yr−1 in the form of NMVOCs, with approximately 41 % of the carbon released as C1-C2 NMVOCs and 21 % as pinenes. These are the first reported field measurements of monoterpene emissions from boreal forest fires, and we speculate that the pinenes, which are relatively heavy molecules, were detected in the fire plumes as the result of distillation of stored terpenes as the vegetation is heated. Their inclusion in smoke chemistry models is expected to improve model predictions of secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation. The fire-averaged EF of dichloromethane or CH2Cl2, (6.9 ± 8.6 × 10−4 g kg−1, was not significantly different from zero and supports recent findings that its global biomass burning source appears to have been overestimated. Similarly, we found no evidence for emissions of chloroform (CHCl3 or methyl

  5. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report No. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, P.; Yan, Hui; Banerjee, S. [and others

    1997-10-01

    This progress report summarizes three accomplishments in a study of low volatile organic compound (VOC) drying of lumber and wood panel products. A mathematical model for predicting moisture emissions from particle was constructed and is being extended to VOCs. VOCs emissions from drying boards show that VOCs appear to be evenly released from all surfaces. Preliminary results from monthly analyses of loblolly pines indicate that resin acids appear to decrease between March to August, and that no consistent trends are apparent for terpenes. 3 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Implementation of VOC source reduction practices in a manufactured house and in school classrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, A.T.; Apte, M.G.; Shendell, D.G.; Beal, D.; McIlvaine, J.E.R.

    2002-01-01

    Detailed studies of a new manufactured house and four new industrialized relocatable school classrooms were conducted to determine the emission sources of formaldehyde and other VOCs and to identify and implement source reduction practices. Procedures were developed to generate VOC emission factors that allowed reasonably accurate predictions of indoor air VOC concentrations. Based on the identified sources of formaldehyde and other aldehydes, practices were developed to reduce the concentrations of these compounds in new house construction. An alternate ceiling panel reduced formaldehyde concentrations in the classrooms. Overall, the classrooms had relatively low VOC concentrations.

  7. Emission of volatile organic compounds from silage: Compounds, sources, and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Sasha D.; Howard, Cody; Muck, Richard E.; Franco, Roberta B.; Montes, Felipe; Green, Peter G.; Mitloehner, Frank; Trabue, Steven L.; Rotz, C. Alan

    2013-10-01

    storage of silage. Aldehydes may also be produced aerobically by spoilage microorganisms through the oxidation of alcohols. Abiotic reactions may be important for production of methanol and esters. Although silage additives appear to affect VOC production in individual studies, bacterial inoculants have not shown a consistent effect on ethanol, and effects on other VOCs have not been studied. Production of acetic acid is understood, and production could be minimized, but a decrease could lead to an increase in other, more volatile and more reactive, VOCs. Chemical additives designed for controlling yeasts and undesirable bacteria show promise for reducing ethanol production in corn silage. More work is needed to understand silage VOC production and emission from silage, including: additional measurements of VOC concentrations or production in silage of all types, and an exploration of the causes of variability; accurate on-farm measurements of VOC emission, including an assessment of the importance of individual ensiling stages and practices that could reduce emission of existing VOCs; and work on understanding the sources of silage VOCs and possible approaches for reducing production.

  8. [Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of atmospheric VOCs in the downtown area of Guangzhou, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Li, Hong; Wang, Xue-Zhong; Zhang, Xin-Min; Wen, Chong

    2013-12-01

    The measurements of 31 kinds of VOCs in the ambient air of a site were carried out in the downtown of Guangzhou by online method from November 5, 2009 to November 9, 2009. The ambient level and composition characteristics, temporal variation characteristics, sources identification, and chemical reactivity of VOCs were studied, and the health risk of VOCs in the ambient air in the study area was assessed by using the international recognized health risk assessment method. Results showed that the mean and the range of the mass concentrations of 31 VOCs were 114.51 microg x m(-3) and 29.42-546.06 microg x m(-3), respectively. The mass concentrations of 31 VOCs, and those of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics all showed a changing trend of higher in the morning and in the evening, and lower at noontime. Vehicular exhaust, gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas evaporates were the main sources of VOCs with the volatilization of paints and solvents being important emission sources. Toluene, trans-2-butene, m/p-xylene, i-butane, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were the key reactive species among the 31 VOCs. Vehicular exhaust and gasoline evaporation were the main sources of VOCs leading to the formation of ozone. Health risk assessment showed that n-hexane, 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene and o-xylene had no appreciable risk of adverse non-cancer health effect on the exposed population, but 1, 3-butadiene and benzene had potential cancer risk. By comparing the corresponding data about health risk assessment of benzene compounds in some cities in China, it is concluded that benzene can impose relatively high cancer risk to the exposed populations in the ambient air of some cities in China. Therefore, strict countermeasures should be taken to further control the pollution of benzene in the ambient air of cities, and it is imperative to start the related studies and develop the atmospheric environmental health criteria and national ambient air quality

  9. The effect of warming and enhanced ultraviolet radiation on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds from European aspen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maja, Mengistu M., E-mail: mengistu.maja@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O.Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Kasurinen, Anne; Holopainen, Toini [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O.Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu (Finland); Holopainen, Jarmo K. [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O.Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2016-03-15

    Different environmental stress factors often occur together but their combined effects on plant secondary metabolism are seldom considered. We studied the effect of enhanced ultraviolet (UV-B) (31% increase) radiation and temperature (ambient + 2 °C) singly and in combination on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from 2-year-old clones of European aspen (Populus tremula L.). Plants grew in 36 experimental plots (6 replicates for Control, UV-A, UV-B, T, UV-A + T and UV-B + T treatments), in an experimental field. VOCs emitted from shoots were sampled from two (1 male and 1 female) randomly selected saplings (total of 72 saplings), per plot on two sampling occasions (June and July) in 2014. There was a significant UV-B × temperature interaction effect on emission rates of different VOCs. Isoprene emission rate was increased due to warming, but warming also modified VOC responses to both UV-A and UV-B radiation. Thus, UV-A increased isoprene emissions without warming, whereas UV-B increased emissions only in combination with warming. Warming-modified UV-A and UV-B responses were also seen in monoterpenes (MTs), sesquiterpenes (SQTs) and green leaf volatiles (GLVs). MTs showed also a UV × gender interaction effect as females had higher emission rates under UV-A and UV-B than males. UV × gender and T × gender interactions caused significant differences in VOC blend as there was more variation (more GLVs and trans-β-caryophyllene) in VOCs from female saplings compared to male saplings. VOCs from the rhizosphere were also collected from each plot in two exposure seasons, but no significant treatment effects were observed. Our results suggest that simultaneous warming and elevated-UV-radiation increase the emission of VOCs from aspen. Thus the contribution of combined environmental factors on VOC emissions may have a greater impact to the photochemical reactions in the atmosphere compared to the impact of individual factors acting alone

  10. Controlling nanowire emission profile using conical taper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Mørk, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    The influence of a conical taper on nanowire light emission is studied. For nanowires with divergent output beams, the introduction of tapers improves the emission profile and increase the collection efficiency of the detection optics.......The influence of a conical taper on nanowire light emission is studied. For nanowires with divergent output beams, the introduction of tapers improves the emission profile and increase the collection efficiency of the detection optics....

  11. Dejima VOC dan rangaku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Wibawarta

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Japan and the Netherlands have maintained a special relationship for about 300years since the adoption of the National Seclusion policy, the so-called sakoku bythe Tokugawa shogunate (1603-1867. The Dutch began trading with Japan andengaging with Japanese society in 1600, when a Dutch ship, De Liefde, arrived inKyushu. The Tokugawa government measures regarding foreign policy includedregulations on foreign access to Japan and a prohibition on Japanese goingabroad. Between the middle of the seventeenth to the early nineteenth century,Japan was characterized by a stable political pattern in which representativesof the VOC (Dutch East India Company, were the only Europeans with a rightto trade in Japan. In the course of this period, the Japanese evaluation of theDutch changed from regarding them as commercial agents to seeing them asimporters of European knowledge. This paper is especially concerned with theinfluence of the so-called ‘Dutch Studies’ (rangaku on the early modernizationof Japan, especially with regard to medicine and the natural sciences. Thisresearch examines the development of rangaku and the trading between Japanand VOC at Dejima.

  12. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report No. 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, W.; Yan, H.; Hooda, U.; Wild, M.P.; Banerjee, S. [Inst. of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Shmulsky, R.; Thompson, A.; Ingram, L.; Conners, T. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This study was initiated by an Institute of Paper Science and Technology finding that heating softwood in a low-headspace environment removed much of the VOCs without removing the water. This offered the possibility of removing VOCs from wet wood, capturing them as a product, and then drying the VOC-depleted wood conventionally with little or no VOC controls. Two means of low-headspace heating were explored: steam and radiofrequency (RF). It was found in the previous year, that while both steam and RF were able to drive out VOCs, steam was impracticably slow for lumber. Hence the effect of RF or microwave on wood was the principal focus of the work reported here. Finally, in order to understand the mechanism of VOC release, the transport of the VOCs in wood was studied, together with the seasonal effects that influence VOC concentration in trees.

  13. Control of aggregation-induced emission by DNA hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shaoguang; Langenegger, Simon Matthias; Häner, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Aggregation-induced emission (AIE) was studied by hybridization of dialkynyl-tetraphenylethylene (DATPE) modified DNA strands. Molecular aggregation and fluorescence of DATPEs are controlled by duplex formation.

  14. 75 FR 958 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; 2002 Base Year Emission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... emissions modeling software, MOBILE6. The FMVCP and RVP emission reductions are then removed from the base... and/or VOC) accounting for any growth that occurs during the six year period following the baseline... source emissions accounting for all mobile control measures. The MVEBs for the 2008 RFP are shown...

  15. 挥发性有机化合物排污权交易有偿使用初始价格定价研究%Study on the Initial Pricing of Paying for the use of the VOCs Pollution Emission Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文韬; 邹海英; 余秋良

    2016-01-01

    Initial pricing of paying for the use of pollution emission rights is one of the key links and core technologies for the construction of emission trading market. This paper based on the research and analysis of the initial pricing method, points out the the rationality and feasibility of the recovery cost pricing method in actually. According to this pricing method, the initial price of VOCs in Shunde City, which as an example, was determined as 8000 yuan per ton by investigating the pollution control cost of the enterprises. Then on this basis, we provide the analysis of the economic impact of paid use emission rights both from the industry level and enterprise level in Shunde.%排污权有偿使用定价是排污权有偿使用和交易制度建设的关键环节与核心技术之一。本文在对排污权有偿使用初始价格核算方法研究分析的基础上,指出恢复成本法在实际定价中的合理性和可行性;并以广东省佛山市顺德区为例,根据企业成本调查结果,研究制定VOCs排污权有偿使用初始价格,从理论上初步拟定为8000元/吨,在此基础上从行业层面和企业层面分析顺德区排污权有偿使用的经济影响。

  16. Evidence of 1991-2013 decrease of biogenic secondary organic aerosol in response to SO2 emission controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, Eloise A.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Turner, Jay R.; Mickley, Loretta J.

    2017-05-01

    Air quality policy to decrease fine particulate matter mass concentrations (PM2.5) in the US has mainly targeted sulfate aerosol through controls on sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. Organic aerosol (OA) instead of sulfate is now the dominant component of total PM2.5. Long-term surface observations (1991-2013) in the Southeast US in summer show parallel decreases in sulfate (2.8%-4.0% a-1) and OA (1.6%-1.9% a-1). Decline of anthropogenic OA emissions is uncertain but is unlikely to fully explain this trend because most OA in the Southeast US in summer is biogenic. We conducted a 1991-2013 simulation with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model including inventory decreases in anthropogenic SO2, NO x , and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions, constant anthropogenic primary OA emissions, and a new mechanism of aqueous-phase SOA formation from isoprene. This simulation reproduces the observed long-term decreases of sulfate and OA, and attributes the OA decrease to decline in the OA yield from biogenic isoprene as sulfate decreases (driving lower aqueous aerosol volume and acidity). Interannual OA variability in the model (mainly driven by isoprene) is also well correlated with observations. This result provides support for a large air quality co-benefit of SO2 emission controls in decreasing biogenic OA as well as sulfate.

  17. Ozone production and its sensitivity to NOx and VOCs: results from the DISCOVER-AQ field experiment, Houston 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzuca, Gina M.; Ren, Xinrong; Loughner, Christopher P.; Estes, Mark; Crawford, James H.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Dickerson, Russell R.

    2016-11-01

    An observation-constrained box model based on the Carbon Bond mechanism, version 5 (CB05), was used to study photochemical processes along the NASA P-3B flight track and spirals over eight surface sites during the September 2013 Houston, Texas deployment of the NASA Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from COlumn and VERtically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) campaign. Data from this campaign provided an opportunity to examine and improve our understanding of atmospheric photochemical oxidation processes related to the formation of secondary air pollutants such as ozone (O3). O3 production and its sensitivity to NOx and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were calculated at different locations and times of day. Ozone production efficiency (OPE), defined as the ratio of the ozone production rate to the NOx oxidation rate, was calculated using the observations and the simulation results of the box and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) models. Correlations of these results with other parameters, such as radical sources and NOx mixing ratio, were also evaluated. It was generally found that O3 production tends to be more VOC-sensitive in the morning along with high ozone production rates, suggesting that control of VOCs may be an effective way to control O3 in Houston. In the afternoon, O3 production was found to be mainly NOx-sensitive with some exceptions. O3 production near major emissions sources such as Deer Park was mostly VOC-sensitive for the entire day, other urban areas near Moody Tower and Channelview were VOC-sensitive or in the transition regime, and areas farther from downtown Houston such as Smith Point and Conroe were mostly NOx-sensitive for the entire day. It was also found that the control of NOx emissions has reduced O3 concentrations over Houston but has led to larger OPE values. The results from this work strengthen our understanding of O3 production; they indicate that controlling NOx emissions will provide

  18. The Tropical Forest and Fire Emissions Experiment: method evaluation of volatile organic compound emissions measured by PTR-MS, FTIR, and GC from tropical biomass burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Karl

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatile Organic Compound (VOC emissions from fires in tropical forest fuels were quantified using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTRMS, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and gas chromatography (GC coupled to PTRMS (GC-PTR-MS. We investigated VOC emissions from 19 controlled laboratory fires at the USFS (United States Forest Service Fire Sciences Laboratory and 16 fires during an intensive airborne field campaign during the peak of the burning season in Brazil in 2004. The VOC emissions were dominated by oxygenated VOCs (OVOC (OVOC/NMHC ~4:1, NMHC: non-methane hydrocarbons The specificity of the PTR-MS instrument, which measures the mass to charge ratio of VOCs ionized by H3O+ ions, was validated by gas chromatography and by intercomparing in-situ measurements with those obtained from an open path FTIR instrument. Emission ratios for methyl vinyl ketone, methacrolein, crotonaldehyde, acrylonitrile and pyrrole were measured in the field for the first time. Our measurements show a higher contribution of OVOCs than previously assumed for modeling purposes. Comparison of fresh (<15 min and aged (>1 h–1 d smoke suggests altered emission ratios due to gas phase chemistry for acetone but not for acetaldehyde and methanol. Emission ratios for numerous, important, reactive VOCs with respect to acetonitrile (a biomass burning tracer are presented.

  19. Spontaneous emission control in a tunable hybrid photonic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frimmer, M.; Koenderink, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate control of the rate of spontaneous emission in a tunable hybrid photonic system that consists of two canonical building blocks for spontaneous emission control, an optical antenna and a mirror, each providing a modification of the local density of optical states (LDOS).

  20. 40 CFR 52.987 - Control of hydrocarbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of hydrocarbon emissions. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Louisiana § 52.987 Control of hydrocarbon... compliance date of January 1, 1980. This shall result in an estimated hydrocarbon emission reduction of...

  1. Temperature Dependence of Factors Controlling Isoprene Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Damon, Megan R.; Douglass, Anne R.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of variability in the formaldehyde (HCHO) columns measured by the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to isoprene emissions in the southeastern United States for 2005-2007. The data show that the inferred, regional-average isoprene emissions varied by about 22% during summer and are well correlated with temperature, which is known to influence emissions. Part of the correlation with temperature is likely associated with other causal factors that are temperature-dependent. We show that the variations in HCHO are convolved with the temperature dependence of surface ozone, which influences isoprene emissions, and the dependence of the HCHO column to mixed layer height as OMI's sensitivity to HCHO increases with altitude. Furthermore, we show that while there is an association of drought with the variation in HCHO, drought in the southeastern U.S. is convolved with temperature.

  2. Gaseous emissions from plants in controlled environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubay, Denis T.

    1988-01-01

    Plant growth in a controlled ecological life support system may entail the build-up over extended time periods of phytotoxic concentrations of volatile organic compounds produced by the plants themselves. Ethylene is a prominent gaseous emission of plants, and is the focus of this report. The objective was to determine the rate of ethylene release by spring wheat, white potato, and lettuce during early, middle, and late growth stages, and during both the light and dark segments of the diurnal cycle. Plants grown hydroponically using the nutrient film technique were covered with plexiglass containers for 4 to 6 h. At intervals after enclosure, gas samples were withdrawn with a syringe and analyzed for ethylene with a gas chromatograph. Lettuce produced 10 to 100 times more ethylene than wheat or potato, with production rates ranging from 141 to 158 ng g-dry/wt/h. Wheat produced from 1.7 to 14.3 ng g-dry/wt/h, with senescent wheat producing the least amount and flowering wheat the most. Potatoes produced the least amount of ethylene, with values never exceeding 5 ng g-dry/wt/h. Lettuce and potatoes each produced ethylene at similar rates whether in dark period or light period. Ethylene sequestering of 33 to 43 percent by the plexiglass enclosures indicated that these production estimates may be low by one-third to one-half. These results suggest that concern for ethylene build-up in a contained atmosphere should be greatest when growing lettuce, and less when growing wheat or potato.

  3. Ozone response to emission changes: a modeling study during the MCMA-2006/MILAGRO Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Song

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of ozone production to precursor emissions was investigated under five different meteorological conditions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA during the MCMA-2006/MILAGRO field campaign using the gridded photochemical model CAMx driven by observation-nudged WRF meteorology. Precursor emissions were constrained by the comprehensive data from the field campaign and the routine ambient air quality monitoring network. Simulated plume mixing and transport were examined by comparing with measurements from the G-1 aircraft during the campaign. The observed concentrations of ozone precursors and ozone were reasonably well reproduced by the model. The effects of reducing precursor emissions on urban ozone production were performed for three representative emission control scenarios. A 50% reduction in VOC emissions led to 7 to 22 ppb decrease in daily maximum ozone concentrations, while a 50% reduction in NOx emissions leads to 4 to 21 ppb increase, and 50% reductions in both NOx and VOC emission decrease the daily maximum ozone concentrations up to 10 ppb. These results along with a chemical indicator analysis using the chemical production ratios of H2O2 to HNO3 demonstrate that the MCMA urban core region is VOC-limited for all meteorological episodes, which is consistent with the results from MCMA-2003 field campaign; however the degree of the VOC-sensitivity is higher during MCMA-2006 due to lower VOCs, lower VOC reactivity and moderately higher NOx emissions. Ozone formation in the surrounding mountain/rural area is mostly NOx-limited, but can be VOC-limited, and the range of the NOx-limited or VOC-limited areas depends on meteorology.

  4. Ozone response to emission changes: a modeling study during the MCMA-2006/MILAGRO campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zhang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of ozone production to precursor emissions was investigated under five different meteorological conditions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA during the MCMA-2006/MILAGRO field campaign using the gridded photochemical model CAMx driven by observation-nudged WRF meteorology. Precursor emissions were constrained by the comprehensive data from the field campaign and the routine ambient air quality monitoring network. Simulated plume mixing and transport were examined by comparing with measurements from the G-1 aircraft during the campaign. The observed concentrations of ozone precursors and ozone were well reproduced by the model. The effects of reducing precursor emissions on urban ozone production were performed for three representative emission control strategies. A 50% reduction in VOC emissions led to 7 to 22 ppb decrease in daily maximum ozone concentrations, while a 50% reduction in NOx emissions leads to 4 to 21 ppb increase, and 50% reductions in both NOx and VOC emission decrease the daily maximum ozone concentrations up to 10 ppb. These results along with a chemical indicator analysis using the chemical production ratios of H2O2 to HNO3 demonstrate that the MCMA urban core region is VOC-limited for all meteorological episodes, which is consistent with the results from MCMA-2003 field campaign; however the degree of the VOC-sensitivity is higher in the MCMA-2006 due to lower VOC/NOx emission ratio and VOC reactivity. Ozone formation in the surrounding mountain/rural area is mostly NOx-limited, but can be VOC-limited, and the range of the NOx-limited or VOC-limited areas depends on meteorology.

  5. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC measurements in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-chung Chang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We measured levels of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs at seven sites in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region of China during the Air Quality Monitoring Campaign spanning 4 October to 3 November 2004. Two of the sites, Guangzhou (GZ and Xinken (XK, were intensive sites at which we collected multiple daily canister samples. The observations reported here provide a look at the VOC distribution, speciation, and photochemical implications in the PRD region. Alkanes constituted the largest percentage (>40% in mixing ratios of the quantified VOCs at six sites; the exception was one major industrial site that was dominated by aromatics (about 52%. Highly elevated VOC levels occurred at GZ during two pollution episodes; however, the chemical composition of VOCs did not exhibit noticeable changes during these episodes. We calculated the OH loss rate to estimate the chemical reactivity of all VOCs. Of the anthropogenic VOCs, alkenes played a predominant role in VOC reactivity at GZ, whereas the contributions of reactive aromatics were more important at XK. Our preliminary analysis of the VOC correlations suggests that the ambient VOCs at GZ came directly from local sources (i.e., automobiles; those at XK were influenced by both local emissions and transportation of air mass from upwind areas.

  6. Controls of nitrous oxide emission after simulated cattle urine deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Khagendra Raj; Thomsen, Anton Gårde; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    Urine deposited during grazing is a significant source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O). The potential for N2O emissions from urine patches is high, and a better understanding of controls is needed. This study investigated soil nitrogen (N) dynamics and N2O emissions from cattle urine, and effe......Urine deposited during grazing is a significant source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O). The potential for N2O emissions from urine patches is high, and a better understanding of controls is needed. This study investigated soil nitrogen (N) dynamics and N2O emissions from cattle urine...

  7. Reduction of odorous VOC in phenolics solutions and swine manure slurry using soybean peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    A research project was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of low-activity soybean peroxidase (SBP; 0.75 U/mg) and H2O2 for reducing emissions of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) from standard solutions (phenol and 4-methylphenol; 1 mM each) and swine manure slurry. VOC emissions were measu...

  8. A comparative study in treating two VOC mixtures in trickle bed air biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhangli; Kim, Daekeun; Sorial, George A

    2007-06-01

    Two independent parallel trickling bed air biofilters (TBABs) ("A" and "B") with two different typical VOC mixtures were investigated. Toluene, styrene, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), and methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) were the target VOCs in the mixtures. Biofilter "A" was fed equal molar ratio of the VOCs and biofilter "B" was fed a mixture based on EPA 2003 emission report. Backwashing and substrate starvation operation were conducted as biomass control. Biofilter "A" and "B" maintained 99% overall removal efficiency for influent concentration up to 500 and 300 ppmv under backwashing operating condition, respectively. The starvation study indicated that it can be an effective biomass control for influent concentrations up to 250 ppmv for biofilter "A" and 300 ppmv for "B". Re-acclimation of biofilter performance was delayed with increase of influent concentration for both biofilters. Starvation operation helped the biofilter to recover at low concentrations and delayed re-acclimation at high concentrations. Furthermore, re-acclamation for biofilter "B" was delayed due to its high toluene content as compared to biofilter "A". The pseudo first-order removal rate constant decreased with increase of volumetric loading rate for both biofilters. MEK and MIBK were completely removed in the upper 3/8 media depth. While biofilter depth utilization for the removal of styrene and toluene increased with increase of influent concentrations for both biofilters. However, toluene removal utilized more biofilter depth for biofilter "B" as compared to biofilter "A".

  9. 78 FR 6736 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District... regulations that control VOCs, NO X , and PM emissions. Rules 301-306 limit emissions of air pollutants... Toxic Control Measure to Reduce Emissions of Toxic Air Contaminants from Outdoor Residential...

  10. Advanced Combustion and Emission Control Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The Advanced Combustion and Emission Control (ACEC) Technical Team is focused on removing technical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high-efficiency, emission-compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light-duty vehicle powertrains (i.e., passenger car, minivan, SUV, and pickup trucks).

  11. EVALUATION AND PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF INNOVATIVE LOW-VOC CONTACT ADHESIVES IN WOOD LAMINATING OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an evaluation and assessment of the perfor-mance, economics, and emission reduction potential upon application of low-volatile organic compound (VOC) waterborne contact adhesive formulations specifically ina manual laminating operation for assembling s...

  12. Toxic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs in the Atmospheric Environment: Regulatory Aspects and Monitoring in Japan and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, so-called air toxics or toxic air pollutants, have been detected in the atmospheric air at low concentration levels, causing public concern about the adverse effect of long-term exposure to HAPs on human health. Most HAPs belong to volatile organic compounds (VOCs. More seriously, most of them are known carcinogens or probably carcinogenic to humans. The objectives of this paper were to report the regulatory aspects and environmental monitoring management of toxic VOCs designated by Japan and Korea under the Air Pollution Control Act, and the Clean Air Conservation Act, respectively. It can be found that the environmental quality standards and environmental monitoring of priority VOCs (i.e., benzene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and dichloromethane have been set and taken by the state and local governments of Japan since the early 2000, but not completely established in Korea. On the other hand, the significant progress in reducing the emissions of some toxic VOCs, including acrylonitrile, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, 1,2-dichloroethane, dichloromethane, chloroform, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene in Japan was also described as a case study in the brief report paper.

  13. Control of ammonia and urea emissions from urea manufacturing facilities of Petrochemical Industries Company (PIC), Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A R; Al-Awadi, L; Al-Rashidi, M S

    2016-06-01

    Petrochemical Industries Company (PIC) in Kuwait has mitigated the pollution problem of ammonia and urea dust by replacing the melting and prilling units of finished-product urea prills with an environmentally friendly granulation process. PIC has financed a research project conducted by the Coastal and Air Pollution Program's research staff at the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research to assess the impact of pollution control strategies implemented to maintain a healthy productive environment in and around the manufacturing premises. The project was completed in three phases: the first phase included the pollution monitoring of the melting and prilling units in full operation, the second phase covered the complete shutdown period where production was halted completely and granulation units were installed, and the last phase encompassed the current modified status with granulation units in full operation. There was substantial decrease in ammonia emissions, about 72%, and a 52.7% decrease in urea emissions with the present upgrading of old melting and prilling units to a state-of-the-art technology "granulation process" for a final finished product. The other pollutants, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), have not shown any significant change, as the present modification has not affected the sources of these pollutants. Petrochemical Industries Company (PIC) in Kuwait has ammonia urea industries, and there were complaints about ammonia and urea dust pollution. PIC has resolved this problem by replacing "melting and prilling unit" of final product urea prills by more environmentally friendly "granulation unit." Environmental Pollution and Climate Program has been assigned the duty of assessing the outcome of this change and how that influenced ammonia and urea dust emissions from the urea manufacturing plant.

  14. Developments and advances in emission control technology. SP-1120

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Automotive emission control is an increasingly complex subject that continues to be of vital importance. Tighter emission standards as well as requirements for increased emission system performance and durability have resulted in ongoing development and continuing advances in emission control technology. A great deal of attention continues to be focused on technologies for emission control during cold-start. Detailed analyses are required to determine fundamental mechanisms which govern emission control under a wide variety of operating conditions. Effects of possible catalyst poisons as well as the mechanical durability of aftertreatment systems are being evaluated. Engine, vehicle, and aftertreatment sensors are being utilized to monitor and ensure emission control performance. Improved analytical techniques are being used to help understand emissions problems and to suggest avenues to solutions. Papers assembled in this volume touch on all of these areas. Catalyst durability papers address issues related to hot vibration testing and catalyst durability based on substrate surface area. A variety of papers related to the chemical composition of fuels address issues such as fuel hydrocarbon and NO conversion in three-way catalysts, fuel composition effects on emissions in urban traffic, and fuel sulfur effects on catalysts and on-board diagnostics (OBD-II) systems. Information useful for understanding the performance of cold-start technologies is described in papers on a numerical method for predicting warm-up characteristics of catalysts systems, axial characterization of warmup and underfloor catalytic converters, and EHC impact on extended soak times. Other approaches for reducing cold-start emissions are addressed in papers on in-cylinder catalysts and the use of intake air oxygen enrichment technology. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

  15. Diffusion and Evaporation-Controlled Emission in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus

    In emission studies reported in literature little effort has been made to investigate the emission from building materials in ventilated enclosures from a fluid dynamics point of view. Furthermore, most of the existing emission models are empirical relations that are based on specific pollutants...... change rate, local air velocity and local turbulence intensity as the mass transfer coefficient increases in proportion to these parameters. The experimental results moreover exhibit the behaviour of a diffusion-controlled emission process at the end of the experiments. A simplified version of the model...... and sources. This work provides an investigation based on fundamental fluid dynamics and mass transfer theory to obtain a general understanding of the mechanisms involved in the emission from building materials in ventilated rooms. In addition, a generally applicable model for prediction of surface emission...

  16. Impact of emission control on regional air quality: an observational study of air pollutants before, during and after the Beijing Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shulan; Gao, Jian; Zhang, Yuechong; Zhang, Jingqiao; Cha, Fahe; Wang, Tao; Ren, Chun; Wang, Wenxing

    2014-01-01

    An observational study on trace gases and PM2.5 was conducted at three sites in and around Beijing, during the Olympic season from 2007 to 2009. Air quality improved significantly during the Olympic Games due to the special emission control measures. However, concentrations of the primary pollutants and PM were found to have risen significantly after the Games. Although the major O3 precursors (NO(x) and VOCs) were well controlled during the Olympic season, O3 was still found to be the highest in 2008, based on the data of ground-based observation. All this information suggests that while control of regional emissions for the Beijing Olympic Games did improved the air quality in Beijing, more efforts will be needed for the continuous improvement of regional air quality, especially for significant reductions of O3 and fine particulate pollution, and not only in Beijing, but also in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.

  17. Performance evaluation of a biotrickling filter treating a mixture of oxygenated VOCs during intermittent loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempere, Feliu; Gabaldón, Carmen; Martínez-Soria, Vicente; Marzal, Paula; Penya-roja, Josep M; Javier Álvarez-Hornos, F

    2008-11-01

    Laboratory scale-studies on the biodegradation of a 1:1:1 weight mixture of three oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ethanol, ethyl acetate, and methyl-ethyl ketone (MEK) in a biotrickling filter (BTF) were carried out using two identically sized columns, filled with different polypropylene rings. The performance of the BTFs was examined for a period of 10 months applying several operational strategies. Similar performance was obtained for both supports. Intermittent flow rate of trickling liquid was shown beneficial to improve the removal efficiency (RE). Continuous feeding of VOC resulted in an excessive accumulation of biomass so high pressure drop was developed in less than 20-30 d of operation. Intermittent VOC loading with night and weekend feed cut-off periods passing dry air, but without addition of water, was shown as a successful operational mode to control the thickness of the biofilm. In this case, operation at high inlet loads (ILs) was extended for more than 75 d maintaining high REs and low pressure drops. Outlet emission concentrations lower than 100 mg Cm(-3) were obtained for ILs up to 100 g Cm(-3)h(-1) working at 15s of empty bed residence time. The most easily biodegradable compounds ethanol and ethyl acetate were used primarily than MEK. After a 3-wk-starvation period, the system performance was almost restored since the first d of operation, being the removal of the less biodegradable compound, MEK, partially deteriorated.

  18. Revisiting factors controlling methane emissions from high-Arctic tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mastepanov, M.; Sigsgaard, Charlotte; Tagesson, Håkan Torbern;

    2013-01-01

    controlling methane emission, i.e. temperature and water table position. Late in the growing season CH4 emissions were found to be very similar between the study years (except the extremely dry 2010) despite large differences in climatic factors (temperature and water table). Late-season bursts of CH4...... short-term control factors (temperature and water table). Our findings suggest the importance of multiyear studies with a continued focus on shoulder seasons in Arctic ecosystems....

  19. Plant leaves as indoor air passive samplers for volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Todd A; Doucette, William J

    2015-03-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) enter indoor environments through internal and external sources. Indoor air concentrations of VOCs vary greatly but are generally higher than outdoors. Plants have been promoted as indoor air purifiers for decades, but reports of their effectiveness differ. However, while air-purifying applications may be questionable, the waxy cuticle coating on leaves may provide a simple, cost-effective approach to sampling indoor air for VOCs. To investigate the potential use of plants as indoor air VOC samplers, a static headspace approach was used to examine the relationship between leaf and air concentrations, leaf lipid contents and octanol-air partition coefficients (Koa) for six VOCs and four plant species. The relationship between leaf and air concentrations was further examined in an actual residence after the introduction of several chlorinated VOC emission sources. Leaf-air concentration factors (LACFs), calculated from linear regressions of the laboratory headspace data, were found to increase as the solvent extractable leaf lipid content and Koa value of the VOC increased. In the studies conducted in the residence, leaf concentrations paralleled the changing air concentrations, indicating a relatively rapid air to leaf VOC exchange. Overall, the data from the laboratory and residential studies illustrate the potential for plant leaves to be used as cost effective, real-time indoor air VOC samplers.

  20. Emission Facilities - Erosion & Sediment Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Erosion and Sediment Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control program. The following sub-facility types related to...

  1. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urban air: How chemistry affects the interpretation of positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bin; Shao, Min; de Gouw, Joost; Parrish, David D.; Lu, Sihua; Wang, Ming; Zeng, Limin; Zhang, Qian; Song, Yu; Zhang, Jianbo; Hu, Min

    2012-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured online at an urban site in Beijing in August-September 2010. Diurnal variations of various VOC species indicate that VOCs concentrations were influenced by photochemical removal with OH radicals for reactive species and secondary formation for oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs). A photochemical age-based parameterization method was applied to characterize VOCs chemistry. A large part of the variability in concentrations of both hydrocarbons and OVOCs was explained by this method. The determined emission ratios of hydrocarbons to acetylene agreed within a factor of two between 2005 and 2010 measurements. However, large differences were found for emission ratios of some alkanes and C8 aromatics between Beijing and northeastern United States secondary formation from anthropogenic VOCs generally contributed higher percentages to concentrations of reactive aldehydes than those of inert ketones and alcohols. Anthropogenic primary emissions accounted for the majority of ketones and alcohols concentrations. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was also used to identify emission sources from this VOCs data set. The four resolved factors were three anthropogenic factors and a biogenic factor. However, the anthropogenic factors are attributed here to a common source at different stages of photochemical processing rather than three independent sources. Anthropogenic and biogenic sources of VOCs concentrations were not separated completely in PMF. This study indicates that photochemistry of VOCs in the atmosphere complicates the information about separated sources that can be extracted from PMF and the influence of photochemical processing must be carefully considered in the interpretation of source apportionment studies based upon PMF.

  2. Controlling nitrous oxide emissions from grassland livestock production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Gebauer, G.; Rodriguez, M.; Sapek, A.; Jarvis, S.C.; Corré, W.J.; Yamulki, S.

    1998-01-01

    There is growing awareness that grassland livestock production systems are major sources of nitrous oxide (N2O). Controlling these emissions requires a thorough understanding of all sources and controlling factors at the farm level. This paper examines the various controlling factors and proposes

  3. Characteristics of Ambient Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs Measured in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Qiang Zhou

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the characteristics of ambient abundance of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in Shanghai, one of the biggest metropolis of China, VOCs were measured with a gas chromatography system equipped with a mass-selective detector (GC/MSD from July 2006 to February 2010. An intensive measurement campaign was conducted (eight samples per day with a 3 hour interval during May 2009. The comparison of ambient VOCs collected in different regions of Shanghai shows that the concentrations are slightly higher in the busy commercial area (28.9 ppbv at Xujiaui than in the urban administrative area (24.3 ppbv at Pudong. However, during the intensive measurement period, the concentrations in the large steel industrial area (28.7 ppbv at Baoshan were much higher than in the urban administrative area (18 ppbv at Pudong, especially for alkanes, alkenes, and toluene. The seasonal variations of ambient VOC concentrations measured at the Xujiahui sampling site indicate that the VOC concentrations are significantly affected by meteorological conditions (such as wind direction and precipitation. In addition, although alkanes are the most abundant VOCs at the Xujiahui measurement site, the most important VOCs contributing to ozone formation potential (OFP are aromatics, accounting for 57% of the total OFP. The diurnal variations of VOC concentrations show that VOC concentrations are higher on weekdays than in weekends at the Xujiahui sampling site, suggesting that traffic condition and human activities have important impacts on VOC emissions in Shanghai. The evidence also shows that the major sources of isoprene are mainly resulted from gasoline evaporation at a particular time (06:00–09:00 in the busy commercial area. The results gained from this study provide useful information for better understanding the characteristics of ambient VOCs and the sources of VOCs in Shanghai.

  4. Total OH reactivity study from VOC photochemical oxidation in the SAPHIR chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Z.; Tillmann, R.; Hohaus, T.; Fuchs, H.; Novelli, A.; Wegener, R.; Kaminski, M.; Schmitt, S. H.; Wahner, A.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that hydroxyl radicals (OH) act as a dominant reactive species in the degradation of VOCs in the atmosphere. In recent field studies, directly measured total OH reactivity often showed poor agreement with OH reactivity calculated from VOC measurements (e.g. Nölscher et al., 2013; Lu et al., 2012a). This "missing OH reactivity" is attributed to unaccounted biogenic VOC emissions and/or oxidation products. The comparison of total OH reactivity being directly measured and calculated from single component measurements of VOCs and their oxidation products gives us a further understanding on the source of unmeasured reactive species in the atmosphere. This allows also the determination of the magnitude of the contribution of primary VOC emissions and their oxidation products to the missing OH reactivity. A series of experiments was carried out in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR in Jülich, Germany, to explore in detail the photochemical degradation of VOCs (isoprene, ß-pinene, limonene, and D6-benzene) by OH. The total OH reactivity was determined from the measurement of VOCs and their oxidation products by a Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) with a GC/MS/FID system, and directly measured by a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) at the same time. The comparison between these two total OH reactivity measurements showed an increase of missing OH reactivity in the presence of oxidation products of VOCs, indicating a strong contribution to missing OH reactivity from uncharacterized oxidation products.

  5. Degradation Pathways for Geogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Soil Gases from the Solfatara Crater (Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassi, F.; Venturi, S.; Cabassi, J.; Capecchiacci, F.; Nisi, B., Sr.; Vaselli, O.

    2014-12-01

    The chemical composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in soil gases from the Solfatara crater (Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy) was analyzed to investigate the effects of biogeochemical processes occurring within the crater soil on gases discharged from the hydrothermal reservoir and released into the atmosphere through diffuse degassing. In this system, two fumarolic vents (namely Bocca Grande and Bocca Nuova) are the preferential pathways for hydrothermal fluid uprising. For our goal, the chemistry of VOCs discharged from these sites were compared to that of soil gases. Our results highlighted that C4-C9 alkanes, alkenes, S-bearing compounds and alkylated aromatics produced at depth were the most prone to degradation processes, such as oxidation-reduction and hydration-dehydration reactions, as well as to microbial activity. Secondary products, which were enriched in sites characterized by low soil gas fluxes, mostly consisted of aldheydes, ketons, esters, ethers, organic acids and, subordinately, alcohols. Benzene, phenol and hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs) produced at depth were able to transit through the soil almost undisturbed, independently on the emission rate of diffuse degassing. The presence of cyclics was possibly related to an independent low-temperature VOC source, likely within sedimentary formations overlying the hydrothermal reservoir. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were possibly due to air contamination. This study demonstrated the strict control of biogeochemical processes on the behaviour of hydrothermal VOCs that, at least at a local scale, may have a significant impact on air quality. Laboratory experiments conducted at specific chemical-physical conditions and in presence of different microbial populations may provide useful information for the reconstruction of the degradation pathways controlling fate and behaviour of VOCs in the soil.

  6. VOCs-Mediated Location of Olive Fly Larvae by the Braconid Parasitoid Psyttalia concolor: A Multivariate Comparison among VOC Bouquets from Three Olive Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunti, Giulia; Benelli, Giovanni; Conte, Giuseppe; Mele, Marcello; Caruso, Giovanni; Gucci, Riccardo; Flamini, Guido; Canale, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Herbivorous activity induces plant indirect defenses, as the emission of herbivorous-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs), which could be used by parasitoids for host location. Psyttalia concolor is a larval pupal endoparasitoid, attacking a number of tephritid flies including B. oleae. In this research, we investigated the olfactory cues routing host location behavior of P. concolor towards B. oleae larvae infesting three different olive cultivars. VOCs from infested and healthy fruits were identified using GC-MS analyses. In two-choice behavioral assays, P. concolor females preferred infested olive cues, which also evoked ovipositional probing by female wasps. GC-MS analysis showed qualitative and quantitative differences among volatiles emitted by infested and healthy olives. Volatile emissions were peculiar for each cultivar analyzed. Two putative HIPVs were detected in infested fruits, regardless of the cultivar, the monoterpene (E)-β-ocimene, and the sesquiterpene (E-E)-α-farnesene. Our study adds basic knowledge to the behavioral ecology of P. concolor. From an applied point of view, the field application of the above-mentioned VOCs may help to enhance effectiveness of biological control programs and parasitoid mass-rearing techniques.

  7. VOCs-Mediated Location of Olive Fly Larvae by the Braconid Parasitoid Psyttalia concolor: A Multivariate Comparison among VOC Bouquets from Three Olive Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Giunti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbivorous activity induces plant indirect defenses, as the emission of herbivorous-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs, which could be used by parasitoids for host location. Psyttalia concolor is a larval pupal endoparasitoid, attacking a number of tephritid flies including B. oleae. In this research, we investigated the olfactory cues routing host location behavior of P. concolor towards B. oleae larvae infesting three different olive cultivars. VOCs from infested and healthy fruits were identified using GC-MS analyses. In two-choice behavioral assays, P. concolor females preferred infested olive cues, which also evoked ovipositional probing by female wasps. GC-MS analysis showed qualitative and quantitative differences among volatiles emitted by infested and healthy olives. Volatile emissions were peculiar for each cultivar analyzed. Two putative HIPVs were detected in infested fruits, regardless of the cultivar, the monoterpene (E-β-ocimene, and the sesquiterpene (E-E-α-farnesene. Our study adds basic knowledge to the behavioral ecology of P. concolor. From an applied point of view, the field application of the above-mentioned VOCs may help to enhance effectiveness of biological control programs and parasitoid mass-rearing techniques.

  8. The effects of energy paths and emission controls and standards on future trends in China's emissions of primary air pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y.; J. Zhang; C. P. Nielsen

    2014-01-01

    To examine the efficacy of China's actions to control atmospheric pollution, three levels of growth of energy consumption and three levels of implementation of emission controls are estimated, generating a total of nine combined activity-emission control scenarios that are then used to estimate trends of national emissions of primary air pollutants through 2030. The emission control strategies are expected to have more effects than the energy paths on the fu...

  9. Volatile organic chemical emissions from structural insulated panel (SIP) materials and implications for indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, Alfred T.

    2003-09-01

    The emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from structural insulated panel (SIP) materials were investigated. Specimens of newly produced SIPs and associated panel adhesives were obtained from two relatively large manufacturers. Additionally, specimens of the oriented strand board (OSB) used as the inner and outer sheathing and the extruded polystyrene core for the SIP were obtained from one manufacturer. Using small-scale chambers, emissions of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetic acid and other VOCs from SIPs, OSB and polystyrene were measured over a period of four months and from the adhesives over two months. SIP specimens overlaid by gypsum board panels were also tested over four months. The predominant VOCs emitted by the SIPs included acetic acid, pentanal, hexanal and styrene. The emissions of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were relatively low. Acetic acid and the aldehydes derived from the OSB, while styrene derived from the polystyrene. One of the SIPs emitted toluene and methyl acetate. The adhesives primarily emitted a mixture of hydrocarbons. The emission rates of most VOCs from the SIP/gypsum board assemblies were approximately the same or higher than their respective emission rates from the unfinished SIPs. Modeling using VOC emission factors obtained for the SIP/gypsum board assemblies demonstrated the potential for SIP materials to degrade indoor air quality in houses. A field study to investigate VOC concentrations and emission rates in SIP houses relative to closely matched conventionally constructed houses is necessary to determine the actual impacts of SIPs. If significant impacts are observed, to it may be desirable to develop control measures to reduce the emissions of VOCs from SIPs, such as the substitution of lower emitting materials or the use of vapor diffusion barriers.

  10. Temporal variability and sources of VOCs in urban areas of the eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltsonoudis, Christos; Kostenidou, Evangelia; Florou, Kalliopi; Psichoudaki, Magda; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2016-11-01

    During the summer of 2012 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were monitored by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) in urban sites, in Athens and Patras, two of the largest cities in Greece. Also, during the winter of 2013, PTR-MS measurements were conducted in the center of the city of Athens. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to the VOC measurements to gain insights about their sources. In summer most of the measured VOCs were due to biogenic and traffic emissions. Isoprene, monoterpenes, and several oxygenated VOCs (oVOCs) originated mainly from vegetation either directly or as oxidation products. Isoprene average concentrations in Patras and Athens were 1 and 0.7 ppb respectively, while the monoterpene concentrations were 0.3 and 0.9 ppb respectively. Traffic was the main source of aromatic compounds during summer. For Patras and Athens the average concentrations of benzene were 0.1 and 0.2 ppb, of toluene 0.3 and 0.8 ppb, and of the xylenes 0.3 and 0.7 ppb respectively. Winter measurements in Athens revealed that biomass burning used for residential heating was a major VOC source contributing both aromatic VOCs and biogenic compounds such as monoterpenes. Several episodes related to biomass burning were identified and emission ratios (ERs) and emission factors (EFs) were estimated.

  11. 77 FR 36341 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... Exposure to Ozone, PM and NO X a. Deposition of Nitrogen b. Visibility Effects c. Plant and Ecosystem... Associated With Exposure to Ozone, PM and NO X a. What are the health effects of ozone? b. What are the... compounds (VOC) and NO X in the presence of heat and sunlight. Standards that reduce NO X emissions will...

  12. Emission of volatile organic compounds from religious and ritual activities in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewangan, Shippi; Chakrabarty, Rajan; Zielinska, Barbara; Pervez, Shamsh

    2013-11-01

    Worshipping activity is a customary practice related with many religions and cultures in various Asian countries, including India. Smoke from incense burning in religious and ritual places produces a large number of health-damaging and carcinogenic air pollutants include volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as formaldehyde, benzene, 1,3 butadiene, styrene, etc. This study evaluates real-world VOCs emission conditions in contrast to other studies that examined emissions from specific types of incense or biomass material. Sampling was conducted at four different religious places in Raipur City, District Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India: (1) Hindu temples, (2) Muslim graveyards (holy shrines), (3) Buddhist temples, and (4) marriage ceremony. Concentrations of selected VOCs, respirable particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter, ritual venues have shown different pattern of VOC EFs compared to laboratory-based controlled chamber studies.

  13. China's Total Emission Control Policy: a Critical Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Chazhong; Chen Ji; Wang Jinnan; Long Feng

    2009-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive environmental management system, many countries establish emission control targets for mass emissions of a pollutant.Such targets are often the key objective of an environmental policy, such as an emission trading program.In China, however, it is more than just an objective of one particular policy; it has become a concept that has influenced many national environmental policies and activities.The objective of this article is to review the implementation of the total emission control policy in the past 10 years and explore emerging issues in its implementa-tion.The article has three sections: a summary of the implementa-tion experience, issues with the design and implementation of the policy, and policy recommendations.

  14. CONTROL OF GAS EMISSION AT COAL FACE IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞启香; 付建华

    1991-01-01

    All the underground coal mines in China are gassy mines. The gas emission at coal face increasingly grows with the increase of working depth and coal output,for example,the gas emission at a full mechanized coal face of mine No.2 at Yongquan with a daily output of 2,000t/d is up to 66--72m3/min. Special gas emission phenomena such as gas blowout, gas and coal outburst etc. have occurred at some faces, which threatens the safe production of face, obstructs the growth of productivity and limits the full play of mechanized equipment. In this paper, gas at face is divided, according to its origin, into three constituents, namely, coming from the coal wall, mined coal and goaf; and a formula for calculation is given. Also, the characteristics of the variation of gas emission at coal face, and thesinfluence of mining sequence of a group of seams and supplied air quantity on the gas emission are discussed. Furthermore, based on the regularity of gas emission st coal face from the above three sources, and on the experiences of years, three principles on controlling gas emission at coal face are presented, that are managing the gas on classification basis, harnessing each source separately and comprehensive prevention and control. Finally, technical measures for prevention and treatment of the accumulation of gas in the upper corner of face, at the working place of coal-winning machine and in the bottom trough of conveyor are introduced.

  15. Responses of future air quality to emission controls over North Carolina, Part II: Analyses of future-year predictions and their policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Liu, Xiao-Huan; Olsen, Kristen M.; Wang, Wen-Xing; Do, Bebhinn A.; Bridgers, George M.

    2010-07-01

    The MM5/CMAQ system evaluated in Part I paper is applied to study the impact of emission control on future air quality over North Carolina (NC). Simulations are conducted at a 4-km horizontal grid resolution for four one-month periods, i.e., January, June, July, and August 2009 and 2018. Simulated PM 2.5 in 2009 and 2018 show distribution patterns similar to those in 2002. PM 2.5 concentrations over the whole domain in January and July reduced by 5.8% and 23.3% in 2009 and 12.0% and 35.6% in 2018, respectively, indicating that the planned emission control strategy has noticeable effects on PM 2.5 reduction in this region, particularly in summer. More than 10% and 20% of 1-h and 8-h O 3 mixing ratios are reduced in July 2009 and 2018, respectively, demonstrating the effectiveness of emission control for O 3 reduction in summer. However, O 3 mixing ratios in January 2009 and 2018 increase by more than 5% because O 3 chemistry is VOC-limited in winter and the effect of NO x reduction dominates over that of VOC reduction under such a condition. The projected emission control simulated at 4-km will reduce the number of sites in non-attainment for max 8-h O 3 from 49 to 23 in 2009 and to 1 in 2018 and for 24-h average PM 2.5 from 1 to 0 in 2009 and 2018 based on the latest 2008 O 3 and 2006 PM 2.5 standards. The variability in model predictions at different grid resolutions contributes to 1-3.8 ppb and 1-7.9 μg m -3 differences in the projected future-year design values for max 8-h O 3 and 24-h average PM 2.5, respectively.

  16. Primary production control of methane emission from wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, G. J.; Chanton, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    Based on simultaneous measurements of CO2 and CH4 exchange in wetlands extending from subarctic peatlands to subtropical marshes, a positive correlation between CH4 emission and net ecosystem production is reported. It is suggested that net ecosystem production is a master variable integrating many factors which control CH4 emission in vegetated wetlands. It is found that about 3 percent of the daily net ecosystem production is emitted back to the atmosphere as CH4. With projected stimulation of primary production and soil microbial activity in wetlands associated with elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, the potential for increasing CH4 emission from inundated wetlands, further enhancing the greenhouse effect, is examined.

  17. Positional control of plasmonic fields and electron emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Word, R. C.; Fitzgerald, J. P. S.; Könenkamp, R., E-mail: rkoe@pdx.edu [Department of Physics, Portland State University, 1719 SW 10th Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97201 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    We report the positional control of plasmonic fields and electron emission in a continuous gap antenna structure of sub-micron size. We show experimentally that a nanoscale area of plasmon-enhanced electron emission can be motioned by changing the polarization of an exciting optical beam of 800 nm wavelength. Finite-difference calculations are presented to support the experiments and to show that the plasmon-enhanced electric field distribution of the antenna can be motioned precisely and predictively.

  18. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in surface coating materials: Their compositions and potential as an alternative fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Trieu-Vuong; Choi, In-Young; Son, Youn-Suk; Song, Kyu-Yong; Sunwoo, Young; Kim, Jo-Chun

    2016-03-01

    A sampling system was designed to determine the composition ratios of VOCs emitted from 31 surface coating materials (SCMs). Representative architectural, automotive, and marine SCMs in Korea were investigated. Toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene were the predominant VOCs. The VOC levels (wt%) from automotive SCMs were significantly higher than those from architectural and marine paints. It was found that target SCMs comprised mainly VOCs with 6-10 carbon atoms in molecules, which could be adsorbed by activated carbon. The saturated activated carbon which had already adsorbed toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene was combusted. The saturated activated carbon was more combustible than new activated carbon because it comprised inflammable VOCs. Therefore, it could be an alternative fuel when using in a "fuelization system". To use the activated carbon as a fuel, a control technology of VOCs from a coating process was also designed and introduced.

  19. Purge and trap method to determine alpha factors of VOC liquid-phase mass transfer coefficients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A theoretical approach and laboratory practice of determining the alpha factors of volatile organic compound (VOC) liquid-phase mass transfer coefficients are present in this study.Using Purge Trap Concentrator, VOC spiked water samples are purged by high-purity nitrogen in the laboratory, the VOC liquid-phase mass transfer rate constants under the laboratory conditions are then obtained by observing the variation of VOCs purged out of the water with the purge time.The alpha factors of VOC liquid-phase mass transfer coefficients are calculated as the ratios of the liquid-phase mass transfer rate constants in real water samples to their counterparts in pure water under the same experimental conditions. This direct and fast approach is easy to control in the laboratory, and would benefit mutual comparison among researchers, so might be useful for thestudy of VOC mass transfer across the liquid-gas interface.

  20. A new method for convenient and quick determination of the mass transfer characteristics of VOC emission from the wood furniture%木家具挥发性污染物散发传质特性测定新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋伟; 孔庆媛; 李洪枚

    2013-01-01

    The paper is aimed at introducing a new method for convenient and quick determination of the mass transfer characteristics of the volatile organic compounds(VOC) from the wood furniture. As is known, VOC emission is one of such emissions, which involves a complex process of mass transfer with negative environmental effects. For our research convenience, we have worked out a clear outline to show the mass transfer characteristics and brought forward an experimental method for convenient, quick and simultaneous measurement of the four significant mass transfer parameters of the target VOC: the emission concentration ρ0, the diffusion coefficient D, the partition coefficient K and the convection mass transfer coefficient hm by making use of the mass transfer equilibrium or process concentrations in a chamber with no proper ventilation under a series of loading factors Lf. Detailedly speaking, we have established a method for analyzing a fully analytical model of furniture emission in the chamber without proper ventilation deduced by Laplace Transform. On the one hand, a linear relationship can be found and represented between the reciprocal of equilibrium concentrations and the reciprocal of Lf, whose slope and intercept are the simple function of ρ0 and K. By data fitting, we could easily obtain the slope and intercept as well as ρ0 and K. On the other hand, a linear relationship can also be expressed by the relationship between the logarithm of dimensionless excess concentrations and the time elapsed, with the slope and intercept being the simple function of D and hm. By data fitting, it would be possible to deduce the slope and intercept as well as D and hm very simply, too. In addition, in the experiments we have done, we have applied this method to study ρ0, D, K, hm of formaldehyde and TVOC mass transfer from a piece of wood furniture made of medium density fiberboards(MDF) and polyurethane paint (PU) . The results of our experiments show a coefficient of

  1. Controlling spontaneous emission of light by photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodahl, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Photonic bandgap crystals were proposed almost two decades ago as a unique tool for controlling propagation and emission of light. Since then the research field of photonic crystals has exploded and many beautiful demonstrations of the use of photonic crystals and fibers for molding light...... propagation have appeared that hold great promises for integrated optics. These major achievements solidly demonstrate the ability to control propagation of light. In contrast, an experimental demonstration of the use of photonic crystals for timing the emission of light has so far lacked. In a recent...... publication in Nature, we have demonstrated experimentally that both the direction and time of spontaneous emission can be controlled, thereby confirming the original proposal by Eli Yablonovich that founded the field of photonic crystals. We believe that this work opens new opportunities for solid...

  2. Controlling formaldehyde emissions with boiler ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Jennifer; Abu-Daabes, Malyuba; Banerjee, Sujit

    2005-07-01

    Fluidized wood ash reduces formaldehyde in air from about 20 to formaldehyde reduction increases with increasing moisture content of the ash. Sorption of formaldehyde to ash can be substantially accounted for by partitioning to the water contained in the ash followed by rate-controlling binding to the ash solids. Adsorption occurs at temperatures of up to 165 degrees C; oxidation predominates thereafter. It is proposed that formaldehyde could be stripped from an air stream in a fluidized bed containing ash, which could then be returned to a boiler to incinerate the formaldehyde.

  3. Coal-fueled diesel technology development Emissions Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kleunen, W.; Kaldor, S.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1994-01-01

    GEESI Emissions Control program activity ranged from control concept testing of 10 CFM slipstream from a CWS fuel single cylinder research diesel engine to the design, installation, and operation of a full-size Emissions Control system for a full-size CWS fuel diesel engine designed for locomotive operation.Early 10 CFM slipstream testing program activity was performed to determine Emissions Characteristics and to evaluate Emissions Control concepts such a Barrier filtration, Granular bed filtration, and Cyclone particulate collection for reduction of particulate and gaseous emissions. Use of sorbent injection into the engine exhaust gas upstream of the barrier filter or use of sorbent media in the granular bed filter were found to provide reduction of exhaust gas SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in addition to collection of ash particulate. Emergence of the use of barrier filtration as a most practical Emissions Control concept disclosed a need to improve cleanability of the filter media in order to avoid reduction of turbocharger performance by excessive barrier filter pressure drop. The next progression of program activity, after the slipstream feasibility state, was 500 CFM cold flow testing of control system concepts. The successful completion of 500 CFM cold flow testing of the Envelope Filter led to a subsequent progression to a similar configuration Envelope Filter designed to operate at 500 CFM hot gas flow from the CWS fuel research diesel engine in the GETS engine test laboratory. This Envelope Filter included the design aspect proven by cold flow testing as well as optimization of the selection of the installed filter media.

  4. HYDROGEN AND VOC RETENTION IN WASTE BOXES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PACE ME; MARUSICH RM

    2008-11-21

    The Hanford Waste Management Project Master Documented Safety Analysis (MDSA) (HNF-14741, 2003) identifies derived safety controls to prevent or mitigate the risks of a single-container deflagration during operations requiring moving, venting or opening transuranic (TRU)-waste containers. The issue is whether these safety controls are necessary for operations involving TRU-waste boxes that are being retrieved from burial at the Hanford Site. This paper investigates the potential for a deflagration hazard within these boxes and whether safety controls identified for drum deflagration hazards should be applied to operations involving these boxes. The study evaluates the accumulation of hydrogen and VOCs within the waste box and the transport of these gases and vapors out of the waste box. To perform the analysis, there were numerous and major assumptions made regarding the generation rate and the transport pathway dimensions and their number. Since there is little actual data with regards to these assumptions, analyses of three potential configurations were performed to obtain some indication of the bounds of the issue (the concentration of hydrogen or flammable VOCs within a waste box). A brief description of each of the three cases along with the results of the analysis is summarized.

  5. Controlling spontaneous emission of light by photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodahl, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Photonic bandgap crystals were proposed almost two decades ago as a unique tool for controlling propagation and emission of light. Since then the research field of photonic crystals has exploded and many beautiful demonstrations of the use of photonic crystals and fibers for molding light...... propagation have appeared that hold great promises for integrated optics. These major achievements solidly demonstrate the ability to control propagation of light. In contrast, an experimental demonstration of the use of photonic crystals for timing the emission of light has so far lacked. In a recent...

  6. Modeling the uncertainty of several VOC and its impact on simulated VOC and ozone in Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shuai; Choi, Yunsoo; Roy, Anirban; Li, Xiangshang; Jeon, Wonbae; Souri, Amir Hossein

    2015-11-01

    A WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ modeling system was used to study Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions and their impact on surface VOC and ozone concentrations in southeast Texas during September 2013. The model was evaluated against the ground-level Automated Gas Chromatograph (Auto-GC) measurement data from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ). The comparisons indicated that the model over-predicted benzene, ethylene, toluene and xylene, while under-predicting isoprene and ethane. The mean biases between simulated and observed values of each VOC species showed clear daytime, nighttime, weekday and weekend variations. Adjusting the VOC emissions using simulated/observed ratios improved model performance of each VOC species, especially mitigating the mean bias substantially. Simulated monthly mean ozone showed a minor change: a 0.4 ppb or 1.2% increase; while a change of more than 5 ppb was seen in hourly ozone data on high ozone days, this change moved model predictions closer to observations. The CMAQ model run with the adjusted emissions better reproduced the variability in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)'s Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) formaldehyde (HCHO) columns. The adjusted model scenario also slightly better reproduced the aircraft HCHO concentrations from NASA's DISCOVER-AQ campaign conducted during the simulation episode period; Correlation, Mean Bias and RMSE improved from 0.34, 1.38 ppb and 2.15 ppb to 0.38, 1.33 ppb and 2.08 ppb respectively. A process analysis conducted for both industrial/urban and rural areas suggested that chemistry was the main process contributing to ozone production in both areas, while the impact of chemistry was smaller in rural areas than in industrial and urban areas. For both areas, the positive chemistry contribution increased in the sensitivity simulation largely due to the increase in emissions. Nudging VOC emissions to match the observed concentrations shifted the ozone hotspots

  7. Modeling study of natural emissions, source apportionment, and emission control of atmospheric mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Suraj K.

    ) and CAMNet (Canadian Atmospheric Mercury Measurement Network). The model estimated a total deposition of 474 Mg yr-1 to the CONUS (Contiguous United States) domain, with two-thirds being dry deposited. Reactive gaseous mercury contributed the most to 60% of deposition. Emission speciation distribution is a key factor for local deposition as contribution from large point sources can be as high as 75% near (lead to advancement in state-of-the-art control technologies that alleviate the impact of mercury on ecosystem and human health. This part of the work applies a sorption model to simulate adsorption of mercury in flue gases, onto a confined-bed of activated carbon. The model's performances were studied at various flue gas flow rates, inlet mercury concentrations and adsorption bed temperatures. The process simulated a flue gas, with inlet mercury concentration of 300 ppb, entering at a velocity of 0.3 m s-1 from the bottom into a fixed bed (inside bed diameter of 1 m and 3 m bed height; bed temperature of 25 °C) of activated carbon (particle size of 0.004 m with density of 0.5 g cm-3 and surface area of 90.25 cm2 g -1). The model result demonstrated that a batch of activated carbon bed was capable of controlling mercury emission for approximately 275 days after which further mercury uptake starts to decrease till it reaches about 500 days when additional control ceases. An increase in bed temperature significantly reduces mercury sorption capacity of the activated carbon. Increase in flue gas flow rate may result in faster consumption of sorption capacity initially but at a later stage, the sorption rate decreases due to reduced sorption capacity. Thus, overall sorption rate remains unaffected. The activated carbon's effective life (time to reach saturation) is not affected by inlet mercury concentration, implying that the designing and operation of a mercury sorption process can be done independently. The results provide quantitative indication for designing

  8. Distribution and emission of chloropicrin applied as gelatin capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chloropicrin (CP) is a potential methyl bromide alternative for controlling soil-borne pests. However, the compound is highly volatile that poses strong exposure risks for humans and the environment because of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. A gelatin capsule formulation was developed as...

  9. Photochemical grid model implementation of VOC, NOx, and O3 source apportionment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. F. Kwok

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For the purposes of developing optimal emissions control strategies, efficient approaches are needed to identify the major sources or groups of sources that contribute to elevated ozone (O3 concentrations. Source based apportionment techniques implemented in photochemical grid models track sources through the physical and chemical processes important to the formation and transport of air pollutants. Photochemical model source apportionment has been used to estimate impacts of specific sources, groups of sources (sectors, sources in specific geographic areas, and stratospheric and lateral boundary inflow on O3. The implementation and application of a source apportionment technique for O3 and its precursors, nitrogen oxides (NOx and volatile organic compounds (VOC, for the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model are described here. The Integrated Source Apportionment Method (ISAM O3 approach is a hybrid of source apportionment and source sensitivity in that O3 production is attributed to precursor sources based on O3 formation regime (e.g., for a NOx-sensitive regime, O3 is apportioned to participating NOx emissions. This implementation is illustrated by tracking multiple emissions source sectors and lateral boundary inflow. NOx, VOC, and O3 attribution to tracked sectors in the application are consistent with spatial and temporal patterns of precursor emissions. The O3 ISAM implementation is further evaluated through comparisons of apportioned ambient concentrations and deposition amounts with those derived from brute force zero-out scenarios, with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.58 and 0.99 depending on specific combination of target species and tracked precursor emissions. Low correlation coefficients occur for chemical regimes that have strong non-linearity in O3 sensitivity, which demonstrates different functionalities between source apportionment and zero-out approaches, depending on whether sources of interest are either to

  10. VOC signatures from North American oil and gas sources (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, I. J.; Marrero, J.; Blake, N. J.; Barletta, B.; Hartt, G.; Meinardi, S.; Schroeder, J.; Apel, E. C.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Blake, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Between 2008 and 2013 UC Irvine has used its whole air sampling (WAS) technique to investigate VOC source signatures from a range of oil and gas sources in North America, including five separate field campaigns at the Alberta oil sands (1 airborne, 4 ground-based); the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill (airborne and ship-based); the 2012 airborne Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Project (DC3) mission over oil and gas wells in Colorado, Texas and Oklahoma; and the 2013 ground-based Barnett Shale Campaign in Texas. Each campaign has characterized more than 80 individual C1-C10 VOCs including alkanes, alkenes and aromatics. For example, oil sands are an extra-heavy, unconventional crude oil that is blended with diluent in order to flow, and upgraded into synthetic crude oil. The VOC signature at the oil sands mining and upgrading facilities is alkane-rich, and the fuel gas associated with these operations has an i-butane/n-butane ratio similar to that of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). In addition to light alkanes, enhanced levels of benzene were observed over US oil and natural gas wells during DC3, likely because of its use in hydrofracking fluid. A series of VOC emission ratios from North American petrochemical sources will be presented and compared, including oil sands, conventional oil and hydrofracking operations.

  11. Emissions inventories and options for control SUMMARY REPORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart RJ; Amstel AR van; Born GJ van den; Kroeze C; MTV; LAE

    1994-01-01

    This report is the final summary report of the project "Social causes of the greenhouse effect ; emissions inventories and options for control", funded by the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP) and the Environment Directorate of the Ministry of Housing,

  12. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Testing at Building 348, Kelly AFB, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    At the request of HQ AFLC/ SGB , the USAFOEHL conducted a stack sampling survey to determine total volatile organic compounds (VOC) being emitted from...Occupational and Environmental Health Laboratory (USAFOEHL/ECQ). The survey was requested by HQ AFLC/ SGB .to estimate VOC emissions through each of...stardards. 2. Range and Sensitivity 2.1 This method was validated over the range of 1417-5940 mg/M at an atmospheric temperature and pressure of 24 0C

  13. New insights into the parametrization of temperature and light responses of mono - and sesquiterpene emissions from Aleppo pine and rosemary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudt, M.; Bourgeois, I.; Al Halabi, R.; Song, W.; Williams, J.

    2017-03-01

    Phytogenic emission of large volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as monoterpenes (MTs) and sesquiterpenes (SQTs) are key precursors to the formation and growth of atmospheric particles. However, controlled environment studies to elucidate emission responses to temperature and light are still sparse. In this study, the volatile contents and emission responses of Aleppo pine and Rosemary have been investigated. These two common Mediterranean species store semivolatiles inside (resin ducts) and outside (trichomes) their foliage tissues respectively. Both species emitted mainly MTs with basal emission rates of around 5 (Rosemary) and 10 (pine) μg g-1 h-1 and SQTs about one order of magnitude lower. In Aleppo pine, two volatile sources could be clearly distinguished: 1) de-novo synthesized emission of (E)-β-ocimene and linalool, which accounted for about 70% of the total VOC release, were not found in foliar VOC extracts and expressed light dependency (LD) and temperature responses typical for enzyme driven emissions; and 2) storage-derived emissions of various MTs and SQTs whose emissions increased exponentially with temperature, showed no light dependency and were all present in leaf extracts. In Rosemary, all emitted MTs and SQTs including many oxygenated compounds, showed responses typical for stored volatiles and were all found in leaf extracts. The emissions of individual volatiles or volatile classes could be well described with the commonly applied empirical algorithms developed for LD or non LD emissions. However, the shapes of the temperature responses, and hence the deduced coefficient values, were significantly different between oxygenated and non-oxygenated compounds. They also differed between the storage-derived emissions of the two plant species, for individual VOCs or VOC classes. We address the possible reasons for this variation in temperature responses and argue that they are mostly due to molecular interactions along the species specific leaf

  14. Mercury emission, control and measurement from coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei-Ping [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering; Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States). Inst. for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology; Cao, Yan [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States). Inst. for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology; Zhang, Kai [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Coal-fired electric power generation accounts for 65% of U.S. emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), 22% of nitrogen oxides (NOx), and 37% of mercury (Hg). The proposed Clear Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) will attempt to regulate these emissions using a cap-and-trade program to replace a number of existing regulatory requirements that will impact this industry over the next decade. Mercury emissions remain the largest source that has not yet been efficiently controlled, in part because this is one of the most expensive to control. Mercury is a toxic, persistent pollutant that accumulates in the food chain. During the coal combustion process, when both sampling and accurate measurements are challenging, we know that mercury is present in three species: elemental, oxidized and particulate. There are three basic types of mercury measurement methods: Ontario Hydro Method, mercury continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) and sorbent-based monitoring. Particulate mercury is best captured by electrostatic precipitators (ESP). Oxidized mercury is best captured in wet scrubbers. Elemental mercury is the most difficult to capture, but selective catalytic reduction units (SCRs) are able to convert elemental mercury to oxidized mercury allowing it to be captured by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). This works well for eastern coals with high chlorine contents, but this does not work well on the Wyoming Powder River Basin (PRB) coals. However, no good explanation for its mechanism, correlations of chlorine content in coal with SCR performance, and impacts of higher chlorine content in coal on FGD re-emission are available. The combination of SCR and FGD affords more than an 80% reduction in mercury emissions in the case of high chlorine content coals. The mercury emission results from different coal ranks, boilers, and the air pollution control device (APCD) in power plant will be discussed. Based on this UAEPA new regulation, most power plants

  15. Optimal control of photoelectron emission by realistic waveforms

    CERN Document Server

    Solanpää, Janne; Räsänen, Esa

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental techniques in multicolor waveform synthesis allow the temporal shaping of strong femtosecond laser pulses with applications in the control of quantum mechanical processes in atoms, molecules, and nanostructures. Prediction of the shapes of the optimal waveforms can be done computationally using quantum optimal control theory (QOCT). In this work we bring QOCT to experimental feasibility by providing an optimal control scheme with realistic pulse representation. We apply the technique to optimal control of above-threshold photoelectron emission from a one-dimensional hydrogen atom. By mixing different spectral channels and thus lowering the intensity requirements for individual channels, the resulting optimal pulses can extend the cutoff energies by at least up to 50% and bring up the electron yield by several orders of magnitude. Insights into the electron dynamics for optimized photoelectron emission are obtained with a semiclassical two-step model.

  16. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION RATES FROM MIXED DECIDUOUS AND CONIFEROUS FORESTS IN NORTHERN WISCONSIN, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from forests play an important role in regulating the atmospheric trace gas composition including global tropospheric ozone concentrations. However, more information is needed on VOC emission rates from different forest regio...

  17. Investment and emission control under technology and pollution externalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heal, Geoffrey [Graduate School of Business, Columbia University, 616 Uris Hall, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Tarui, Nori [Department of Economics, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2424 Maile Way, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    This paper studies incentives to develop advanced pollution abatement technology when technology may spillover across agents and pollution abatement is a public good. We are motivated by a variety of pollution control issues where solutions require the development and implementation of new pollution abatement technologies. We show that at the Nash equilibrium of a simultaneous-move game with R and D investment and emission abatement, whether the free rider effect prevails and under-investment and excess emissions occur depends on the degree of technology spillovers and the effect of R and D on the marginal abatement costs. There are cases in which, contrary to conventional wisdom, Nash equilibrium investments in emissions reductions exceed the first-best case. (author)

  18. The effects of energy paths and emission controls and standards on future trends in China's emissions of primary air pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To examine the efficacy of China's actions to control atmospheric pollution, three levels of growth of energy consumption and three levels of implementation of emission controls are estimated, generating a total of nine combined activity-emission control scenarios that are then used to estimate trends of national emissions of primary air pollutants through 2030. The emission control strategies are expected to have more effects than the energy paths on the future emission trends for all the concerned pollutants. As recently promulgated national action plans of air pollution prevention and control (NAPAPPC are implemented, China's anthropogenic pollutant emissions should decline. For example, the emissions of SO2, NOx, total primary particulate matter (PM, PM10, and PM2.5 are estimated to decline 7%, 20%, 41%, 34%, and 31% from 2010 to 2030, respectively, in the "best guess" scenario that includes national commitment of energy saving policy and partial implementation of NAPAPPC. Should the issued/proposed emission standards be fully achieved, a less likely scenario, annual emissions would be further reduced, ranging from 17% (for primary PM2.5 to 29% (for NOx declines in 2015, and the analogue numbers would be 12% and 24% in 2030. The uncertainties of emission projections result mainly from the uncertain operational conditions of swiftly proliferating air pollutant control devices and lack of detailed information about emission control plans by region. The predicted emission trends by sector and chemical species raise concerns about current pollution control strategies: the potential for emissions abatement in key sectors may be declining due to the near saturation of emission control devices use; risks of ecosystem acidification could rise because emissions of alkaline base cations may be declining faster than those of SO2; and radiative forcing could rise because emissions of positive-forcing carbonaceous aerosols may decline more slowly than

  19. Control of Several Emissions during Olive Pomace Thermal Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Miranda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomass plays an important role as an energy source, being an interesting alternative to fossil fuels due to its environment-friendly and sustainable characteristics. However, due to the exposure of customers to emissions during biomass heating, evolved pollutants should be taken into account and controlled. Changing raw materials or mixing them with another less pollutant biomass could be a suitable step to reduce pollution. This work studied the thermal behaviour of olive pomace, pyrenean oak and their blends under combustion using thermogravimetric analysis. It was possible to monitor the emissions released during the process by coupling mass spectrometry analysis. The experiments were carried out under non-isothermal conditions at the temperature range 25–750 °C and a heating rate of 20 °C·min−1. The following species were analysed: aromatic compounds (benzene and toluene, sulphur emissions (sulphur dioxide, 1,4-dioxin, hydrochloric acid, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides. The results indicated that pollutants were mainly evolved in two different stages, which are related to the thermal degradation steps. Thus, depending on the pollutant and raw material composition, different emission profiles were observed. Furthermore, intensity of the emission profiles was related, in some cases, to the composition of the precursor.

  20. Concentration, ozone formation potential and source analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a thermal power station centralized area: A study in Shuozhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yulong; Peng, Lin; Li, Rumei; Li, Yinghui; Li, Lijuan; Bai, Huiling

    2017-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from two sampling sites (HB and XB) in a power station centralized area, in Shuozhou city, China, were sampled by stainless steel canisters and measured by gas chromatography-mass selective detection/flame ionization detection (GC-MSD/FID) in the spring and autumn of 2014. The concentration of VOCs was higher in the autumn (HB, 96.87 μg/m(3); XB, 58.94 μg/m(3)) than in the spring (HB, 41.49 μg/m(3); XB, 43.46 μg/m(3)), as lower wind speed in the autumn could lead to pollutant accumulation, especially at HB, which is a new urban area surrounded by residential areas and a transportation hub. Alkanes were the dominant group at both HB and XB in both sampling periods, but the contribution of aromatic pollutants at HB in the autumn was much higher than that of the other alkanes (11.16-19.55%). Compared to other cities, BTEX pollution in Shuozhou was among the lowest levels in the world. Because of the high levels of aromatic pollutants, the ozone formation potential increased significantly at HB in the autumn. Using the ratio analyses to identify the age of the air masses and analyze the sources, the results showed that the atmospheric VOCs at XB were strongly influenced by the remote sources of coal combustion, while at HB in the spring and autumn were affected by the remote sources of coal combustion and local sources of vehicle emission, respectively. Source analysis conducted using the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model at Shuozhou showed that coal combustion and vehicle emissions made the two largest contributions (29.98% and 21.25%, respectively) to atmospheric VOCs. With further economic restructuring, the influence of vehicle emissions on the air quality should become more significant, indicating that controlling vehicle emissions is key to reducing the air pollution.

  1. Control emissions in sulphate paper paste. Control de emisiones en las fabricas de pasta de sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagerstrom, P.

    1993-01-01

    The maximum levels of gaseous emissions into the atmosphere (SOx, NOx and chlorinated derivatives) for sulphate type paper paste are showed. The usual sources of these emissions and those technologies currently used for their control are presented. Finally an economical estimation is given to install these technologies in a new factory.

  2. 78 FR 36776 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Emission Control System Performance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... AGENCY Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Emission Control System Performance... an information collection request (ICR), ``Emission Control System Performance Warranty Regulations and Voluntary Aftermarket Part Certification Program (Renewal)'' (EPA ICR No. 0116.10, OMB Control...

  3. Review on Volatile Organic Compounds Emission from Wood Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu; YU Yaoming; SHEN Jun; LIU Ming

    2006-01-01

    The problem of indoor air quality (IAQ) is mainly caused by the volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission from the wood-based composites. As a material for decoration, furniture manufacturing or building, wood-based composite is one of the sources of VOC emissions. Most of them are formaldehyde, terpene, ketone and benzene. The paper reviews on VOC emission of wood-based composites at home and abroad, including the source of the VOC, its impacts on IAQ, its emission during processing and using, the usual sampling and analyse methods of VOC in different conditions. Meanwhile, main problems existed in the past researches are summarized and some suggestions are put forward.

  4. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Augenstein

    1999-01-11

    ''Conventional'' waste landfills emit methane, a potent greenhouse gas, in quantities such that landfill methane is a major factor in global climate change. Controlled landfilling is a novel approach to manage landfills for rapid completion of total gas generation, maximizing gas capture and minimizing emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated and brought to much earlier completion by improving conditions for biological processes (principally moisture levels) in the landfill. Gas recovery efficiency approaches 100% through use of surface membrane cover over porous gas recovery layers operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project's results at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California are, to date, highly encouraging. Two major controlled landfilling benefits would be the reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions.

  5. 76 FR 74014 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Illinois; Volatile Organic Compound Emission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... Compound Emission Control Measures for Chicago and Metro-East St. Louis Ozone Nonattainment Areas AGENCY... compound (VOC) rules for approval into its State Implementation Plan (SIP). The purpose of these rules is... does not exceed 8.00 millimeters of mercury (mmHg) or by use of add-on control (i.e., an afterburner...

  6. Revisiting factors controlling methane emissions from high-Arctic tundra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mastepanov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The northern latitudes are experiencing disproportionate warming relative to the mid-latitudes, and there is growing concern about feedbacks between this warming and methane production and release from high-latitude soils. Studies of methane emissions carried out in the Arctic, particularly those with measurements made outside the growing season, are underrepresented in the literature. Here we present results of 5 yr (2006–2010 of automatic chamber measurements at a high-Arctic location in Zackenberg, NE Greenland, covering both the growing seasons and two months of the following freeze-in periods. The measurements show clear seasonal dynamics in methane emission. The start of the growing season and the increase in CH4 fluxes were strongly related to the date of snowmelt. Within each particular growing season, CH4 fluxes were highly correlated with the soil temperature (R2 > 0.75, which is probably explained by high seasonality of both variables, and weakly correlated with the water table. The greatest variability in fluxes between the study years was observed during the first part of the growing season. Somewhat surprisingly, this variability could not be explained by commonly known factors controlling methane emission, i.e. temperature and water table position. Late in the growing season CH4 emissions were found to be very similar between the study years (except the extremely dry 2010 despite large differences in climatic factors (temperature and water table. Late-season bursts of CH4 coinciding with soil freezing in the autumn were observed during at least three years. The cumulative emission during the freeze-in CH4 bursts was comparable in size with the growing season emission for the year 2007, and about one third of the growing season emissions for the years 2009 and 2010. In all three cases the CH4 burst was accompanied by a corresponding episodic increase in CO2 emission, which can compose a significant contribution to the annual CO2

  7. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs in Conventional and High Performance School Buildings in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lexuan Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs has been an indoor environmental quality (IEQ concern in schools and other buildings for many years. Newer designs, construction practices and building materials for “green” buildings and the use of “environmentally friendly” products have the promise of lowering chemical exposure. This study examines VOCs and IEQ parameters in 144 classrooms in 37 conventional and high performance elementary schools in the U.S. with the objectives of providing a comprehensive analysis and updating the literature. Tested schools were built or renovated in the past 15 years, and included comparable numbers of conventional, Energy Star, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED-certified buildings. Indoor and outdoor VOC samples were collected and analyzed by thermal desorption, gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy for 94 compounds. Aromatics, alkanes and terpenes were the major compound groups detected. Most VOCs had mean concentrations below 5 µg/m3, and most indoor/outdoor concentration ratios ranged from one to 10. For 16 VOCs, the within-school variance of concentrations exceeded that between schools and, overall, no major differences in VOC concentrations were found between conventional and high performance buildings. While VOC concentrations have declined from levels measured in earlier decades, opportunities remain to improve indoor air quality (IAQ by limiting emissions from building-related sources and by increasing ventilation rates.

  8. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Conventional and High Performance School Buildings in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lexuan; Su, Feng-Chiao; Batterman, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been an indoor environmental quality (IEQ) concern in schools and other buildings for many years. Newer designs, construction practices and building materials for “green” buildings and the use of “environmentally friendly” products have the promise of lowering chemical exposure. This study examines VOCs and IEQ parameters in 144 classrooms in 37 conventional and high performance elementary schools in the U.S. with the objectives of providing a comprehensive analysis and updating the literature. Tested schools were built or renovated in the past 15 years, and included comparable numbers of conventional, Energy Star, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)-certified buildings. Indoor and outdoor VOC samples were collected and analyzed by thermal desorption, gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy for 94 compounds. Aromatics, alkanes and terpenes were the major compound groups detected. Most VOCs had mean concentrations below 5 µg/m3, and most indoor/outdoor concentration ratios ranged from one to 10. For 16 VOCs, the within-school variance of concentrations exceeded that between schools and, overall, no major differences in VOC concentrations were found between conventional and high performance buildings. While VOC concentrations have declined from levels measured in earlier decades, opportunities remain to improve indoor air quality (IAQ) by limiting emissions from building-related sources and by increasing ventilation rates. PMID:28117727

  9. Spontaneous Emission Control in a Tunable Hybrid Photonic System

    CERN Document Server

    Frimmer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate control of the rate of spontaneous emission in a tunable hybrid photonic system that consists of two canonical building blocks for spontaneous emission control, an optical antenna and a mirror, each providing a modification of the local density of optical states (LDOS).We couple fluorophores to a plasmonic antenna to create a superemitter with an enhanced decay rate. In a superemitter analog of the seminal Drexhage experiment we probe the LDOS of a nanomechanically approached mirror. Due to the electrodynamic interaction of the antenna with its own mirror image the superemitter traces the inverse LDOS of the mirror, in stark contrast to a bare source, whose decay rate is proportional to the mirror LDOS.

  10. Spontaneous emission control in a tunable hybrid photonic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimmer, Martin; Koenderink, A Femius

    2013-05-24

    We experimentally demonstrate control of the rate of spontaneous emission in a tunable hybrid photonic system that consists of two canonical building blocks for spontaneous emission control, an optical antenna and a mirror, each providing a modification of the local density of optical states (LDOS). We couple fluorophores to a plasmonic antenna to create a superemitter with an enhanced decay rate. In a superemitter analog of the seminal Drexhage experiment we probe the LDOS of a nanomechanically approached mirror. Because of the electrodynamic interaction of the antenna with its own mirror image, the superemitter traces the inverse of the LDOS enhancement provided by the mirror, in stark contrast to a bare source, whose decay rate is proportional to the mirror LDOS.

  11. Control of mercury emissions: policies, technologies, and future trends

    OpenAIRE

    Rhee, Seung-Whee

    2015-01-01

    Seung-Whee Rhee Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyonggi University, Suwon, Republic of Korea Abstract: Owing to the Minamata Convention on Mercury and the Global Mercury Partnership, policies and regulations on mercury management in advanced countries were intensified by a mercury phaseout program in the mercury control strategy. In developing countries, the legislative or regulatory frameworks on mercury emissions are not established specifically, but mercury management is designed...

  12. Control of mercury emissions: policies, technologies, and future trends

    OpenAIRE

    Rhee, Seung-Whee

    2015-01-01

    Seung-Whee Rhee Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyonggi University, Suwon, Republic of Korea Abstract: Owing to the Minamata Convention on Mercury and the Global Mercury Partnership, policies and regulations on mercury management in advanced countries were intensified by a mercury phaseout program in the mercury control strategy. In developing countries, the legislative or regulatory frameworks on mercury emissions are not established specifically, but mercury management is designed...

  13. Gaseous emissions from ceramics manufactured with urban sewage sludge during firing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusidó, J A; Cremades, L V; González, M

    2003-01-01

    The re-use of sewage sludge without any treatment as primary material-mixed with clays-in order to obtain structural ceramics for buildings has been successfully improved. In the Ecobrick project, the firing of a mixture of specific percentages of three components (clays, sludges and forest debris) resulted in a lighter and more thermal and acoustic insulating brick, compared with conventional clay-bricks. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission from the manufacturing of ceramics is the most important aspect to control. In the Ecobrick project VOC emissions were monitored by using a bench-scale furnace. The study was conducted using an EPA recommended sampling train and portable sampling tubes that were thermally desorbed and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Drying of raw sewage-sludge and firing processes were considered separately. In this paper, we present VOC emissions coming from the firing step of the Ecobrick production.

  14. A Review on Diesel Soot Emission, its Effect and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The diesel engines are energy efficient, but their particulate (soot emissions are responsible of severe environmental and health problems. This review provides a survey on published information regarding diesel soot emission, its adverse effects on the human health, environment, vegetations, climate, etc. The legislations to limit diesel emissions and ways to minimize soot emission are also summarized. Soot particles are suspected to the development of cancer; cardiovascular and respiratory health effects; pollution of air, water, and soil; impact agriculture productivity, soiling of buildings; reductions in visibility; and global climate change. The review covers important recent developments on technologies for control of particulate matter (PM; diesel particulate filters (DPFs, summarizing new filter and catalyst materials and DPM measurement. DPF technology is in a state of optimization and cost reduction. New DPF regeneration strategies (active, passive and plasma-assisted regenerations as well as the new learning on the fundamentals of soot/catalyst interaction are described. Recent developments in diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC are also summarized showing potential issues with advanced combustion strategies, important interactions on NO2 formation, and new formulations for durability. Finally, systematic compilation of the concerned newer literature on catalytic oxidation of soot in a well conceivable tabular form is given. A total of 156 references are cited. ©2010 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 2nd June 2010, Revised: 17th June 2010; Accepted: 24th June 2010[How to Cite: R. Prasad, V.R. Bella. (2010. Review on Diesel Soot Emission, its Effect and Control. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 5(2: 69-86. doi:10.9767/bcrec.5.2.794.69-86][DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.5.2.794.69-86 || or local:   http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/794 ]Cited by in: ACS 1 |

  15. On-board diagnosis of emission control system malfunctions in electronically controlled spark ignition engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azzoni, P.M. [ENEA, Bologna (Italy); Rizzoni, G. [Nuclear Materials and Equipment Corp., Apollo, PA (United States). Energy Conversion Div.; Minelli, G. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Facolta di Ingegneria

    1993-09-01

    This paper discusses simulation and experimental results of a study aimed at diagnosing faults associated with an automotive engine exhaust emissions control system. Parity space methods are applied to a model of the engine intake, fueling, combustion and exhaust dynamics to diagnose faults in sensors and actuators used by the exhaust emissions control system. The results indicate that a mix of linear dynamic and nonlinear static models permit the design of an effective diagnostic strategy.

  16. Solid state carbon nanotube device for controllable trion electroluminescence emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shuang; Ma, Ze; Wei, Nan; Liu, Huaping; Wang, Sheng; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2016-03-01

    Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a direct chirality-dependent bandgap and reduced dimensionality-related quantum confinement effects, which are closely related to the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, taking advantage of the large energy separations between neutral singlet excitons and charged excitons, i.e. trions in CNTs, we have achieved for the first time all trion electroluminescence (EL) emission from chirality-sorted (8,3) and (8,4) CNT-based solid state devices. We showed that strong trion emission can be obtained as a result of localized impact excitation and electrically injected holes, with an estimated efficiency of ~5 × 10-4 photons per injected hole. The importance of contact-controlled carrier injection (including symmetric and asymmetric contact configurations) and EL spectral stability for gradually increasing bias were also investigated. The realization of electrically induced pure trion emission opens up a new opportunity for CNT film-based optoelectronic devices, providing a new degree of freedom in controlling the devices to extend potential applications in spin or magnetic optoelectronics fields.Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a direct chirality-dependent bandgap and reduced dimensionality-related quantum confinement effects, which are closely related to the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, taking advantage of the large energy separations between neutral singlet excitons and charged excitons, i.e. trions in CNTs, we have achieved for the first time all trion electroluminescence (EL) emission from chirality-sorted (8,3) and (8,4) CNT-based solid state devices. We showed that strong trion emission can be obtained as a result of localized impact excitation and electrically injected holes, with an estimated efficiency of ~5 × 10-4 photons per injected hole. The importance of contact-controlled carrier injection (including symmetric and asymmetric contact configurations) and EL spectral stability for

  17. Smartphone-based sensing system using ZnO and graphene modified electrodes for VOCs detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Diming; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Xing; Xu, Gang; Lu, Yanli; Liu, Qingjun

    2017-07-15

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) detection is in high demand for clinic treatment, environment monitoring, and food quality control. Especially, VOCs from human exhaled breath can serve as significant biomarkers of some diseases, such as lung cancer and diabetes. In this study, a smartphone-based sensing system was developed for real-time VOCs monitoring using alternative current (AC) impedance measurement. The interdigital electrodes modified with zinc oxide (ZnO), graphene, and nitrocellulose were used as sensors to produce impedance responses to VOCs. The responses could be detected by a hand-held device, sent out to a smartphone by Bluetooth, and reported with concentration on an android program of the smartphone. The smartphone-based system was demonstrated to detect acetone at concentrations as low as 1.56ppm, while AC impedance spectroscopy was used to distinguish acetone from other VOCs. Finally, measurements of the exhalations from human being were carried out to obtain the concentration of acetone in exhaled breath before and after exercise. The results proved that the smartphone-based system could be applied on the detection of VOCs in real settings for healthcare diagnosis. Thus, the smartphone-based system for VOCs detection provided a convenient, portable and efficient approach to monitor VOCs in exhaled breath and possibly allowed for early diagnosis of some diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Controlling automotive exhaust emissions: successes and underlying science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twigg, Martyn V

    2005-04-15

    Photochemical reactions of vehicle exhaust pollutants were responsible for photochemical smog in many cities during the 1960s and 1970s. Engine improvements helped, but additional measures were needed to achieve legislated emissions levels. First oxidation catalysts lowered hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide, and later nitrogen oxides were reduced to nitrogen in a two-stage process. By the 1980s, exhaust gas could be kept stoichiometric and hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides were simultaneously converted over a single 'three-way catalyst'. Today, advanced three-way catalyst systems emissions are exceptionally low. NOx control from lean-burn engines demands an additional approach because NO cannot be dissociated under lean conditions. Current lean-burn gasoline engine NOx control involves forming a nitrate phase and periodically enriching the exhaust to reduce it to nitrogen, and this is being modified for use on diesel engines. Selective catalytic reduction with ammonia is an alternative that can be very efficient, but it requires ammonia or a compound from which it can be obtained. Diesel engines produce particulate matter, and, because of health concerns, filtration processes are being introduced to control these emissions. On heavy duty diesel engines the exhaust gas temperature is high enough for NO in the exhaust to be oxidised over a catalyst to NO2 that smoothly oxidises particulate material (PM) in the filter. Passenger cars operate at lower temperatures, and it is necessary to periodically burn the PM in air at high temperatures.

  19. Rapid leaf development drives the seasonal pattern of volatile organic compound (VOC) fluxes in a 'coppiced' bioenergy poplar plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilli, Federico; Gioli, Beniamino; Fares, Silvano; Terenzio, Zenone; Zona, Donatella; Gielen, Bert; Loreto, Francesco; Janssens, Ivan A; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2016-03-01

    Leaves of fast-growing, woody bioenergy crops often emit volatile organic compounds (VOC). Some reactive VOC (especially isoprene) play a key role in climate forcing and may negatively affect local air quality. We monitored the seasonal exchange of VOC using the eddy covariance technique in a 'coppiced' poplar plantation. The complex interactions of VOC fluxes with climatic and physiological variables were also explored by using an artificial neural network (Self Organizing Map). Isoprene and methanol were the most abundant VOC emitted by the plantation. Rapid development of the canopy (and thus of the leaf area index, LAI) was associated with high methanol emissions and high rates of gross primary production (GPP) since the beginning of the growing season, while the onset of isoprene emission was delayed. The highest emissions of isoprene, and of isoprene photo-oxidation products (Methyl Vinyl Ketone and Methacrolein, iox ), occurred on the hottest and sunniest days, when GPP and evapotranspiration were highest, and formaldehyde was significantly deposited. Canopy senescence enhanced the exchange of oxygenated VOC. The accuracy of methanol and isoprene emission simulations with the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature increased by applying a function to modify their basal emission factors, accounting for seasonality of GPP or LAI. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Red:far-red light conditions affect the emission of volatile organic compounds from barley (Hordeum vulgare), leading to altered biomass allocation in neighbouring plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegge, Wouter; Ninkovic, Velemir; Glinwood, Robert; Welschen, Rob A M; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Pierik, Ronald

    2015-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play various roles in plant-plant interactions, and constitutively produced VOCs might act as a cue to sense neighbouring plants. Previous studies have shown that VOCs emitted from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar 'Alva' cause changes in biomass allocation in plants of the cultivar 'Kara'. Other studies have shown that shading and the low red:far-red (R:FR) conditions that prevail at high plant densities can reduce the quantity and alter the composition of the VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis thaliana, but whether this affects plant-plant signalling remains unknown. This study therefore examines the effects of far-red light enrichment on VOC emissions and plant-plant signalling between 'Alva' and 'Kara'. The proximity of neighbouring plants was mimicked by supplemental far-red light treatment of VOC emitter plants of barley grown in growth chambers. Volatiles emitted by 'Alva' under control and far-red light-enriched conditions were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 'Kara' plants were exposed to the VOC blend emitted by the 'Alva' plants that were subjected to either of the light treatments. Dry matter partitioning, leaf area, stem and total root length were determined for 'Kara' plants exposed to 'Alva' VOCs, and also for 'Alva' plants exposed to either control or far-red-enriched light treatments. Total VOC emissions by 'Alva' were reduced under low R:FR conditions compared with control light conditions, although individual volatile compounds were found to be either suppressed, induced or not affected by R:FR. The altered composition of the VOC blend emitted by 'Alva' plants exposed to low R:FR was found to affect carbon allocation in receiver plants of 'Kara'. The results indicate that changes in R:FR light conditions influence the emissions of VOCs in barley, and that these altered emissions affect VOC-mediated plant-plant interactions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  1. Impact of air pressure on volatile organic compound emissions from a carpet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高鹏; 邓琴琴; LIN; Chao-hsin; 杨旭东

    2009-01-01

    The measurement of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from materials is normally conducted under standard environmental conditions, i.e., (23±1) ℃ temperature, (50±5)% relative humidity, and 0.1 MPa pressure. In order to define VOC emissions in non-standard environmental conditions, it is necessary to study the impact of key environmental parameters on emissions. This paper evaluates the impact of air pressure on VOC emissions from an aircraft carpet. The correlation between air pressure and VOC diffusion coefficient is derived, and the emission model is applied to studying the VOC emissions under pressure conditions of less than 0.1 MPa.

  2. Reactivity of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in summer of 2004 in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Huang; Min Shao; Sihua Lu; Ying Liu

    2008-01-01

    Ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled at six sites in Beijing in the summer of 2004 and analyzed byGCMS. The chemical reactivities of 73 quantified VOCs species were evaluated by OH loss rates (L<,OH) and ozone formationpotentials (OFPs). Top 15 reactive species, mainly alkenes and aromatics, were identified by these two methods, and accounted formore than 70% of total reactivity of VOCs. In urban areas, isoprene was the most reactive species in term of OH loss rate,contributing 11.4% to the Loft of VOCs. While toluene, accounting for 9.4% of OFPs, appeared to have a long-time role in thephotochemical processes. Tongzhou site is obviously influenced by local chemical industry, but the other five sites showed typicalurban features influenced mainly by vehicular emissions.2008 Min Shao. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Urban air chemistry and diesel vehicles emissions: Quantifying small and big hydrocarbons by CIMS to improve emission inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, B. T.; Derstroff, B.; Edtbauer, A.; VanderSchelden, G. S.; Williams, J.

    2017-10-01

    Emissions from vehicles are a major source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urban environments. Photochemical oxidation of VOCs emitted from vehicle exhaust contributes to O3 and PM2.5 formation, harmful pollutants that major urban areas struggle to control. How will a shift to a diesel engine fleet impact urban air chemistry? Diesel vehicles are a growing fraction of the passenger vehicle fleet in Europe as a result of a deliberate policy to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions from the transportation sector (Sullivan et al., 2004). In countries such as France the diesel passenger fleet was already ∼50% of the total in 2009, up from 20% in 1995. Dunmore et al. (2015) have recently inferred that in London, HO radical loss rates to organic compounds is dominated by diesel engine emissions. In the US, increasingly more stringent vehicles emission standards and requirement for improved energy efficiency means spark ignition passenger vehicle emissions have declined significantly over the last 20 years, resulting in the urban diesel fleet traffic (freight trucks) having a growing importance as a source of vehicle pollution (McDonald et al., 2013). The recent scandal involving a major car manufacturer rigging emission controls for diesel passenger cars is a reminder that real world emissions of VOCs from diesel engines are not well understood nor thoroughly accounted for in air quality modeling.

  4. City-specific vehicle emission control strategies to achieve stringent emission reduction targets in China's Yangtze River Delta region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Zhao, Bin; Wu, Xiaomeng; Shu, Jiawei; Hao, Jiming

    2017-01-01

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region is one of the most prosperous and densely populated regions in China and is facing tremendous pressure to mitigate vehicle emissions and improve air quality. Our assessment has revealed that mitigating vehicle emissions of NOx would be more difficult than reducing the emissions of other major vehicular pollutants (e.g., CO, HC and PM2.5) in the YRD region. Even in Shanghai, where the emission control implemented are more stringent than in Jiangsu and Zhejiang, we observed little to no reduction in NOx emissions from 2000 to 2010. Emission-reduction targets for HC, NOx and PM2.5 are determined using a response surface modeling tool for better air quality. We design city-specific emission control strategies for three vehicle-populated cities in the YRD region: Shanghai and Nanjing and Wuxi in Jiangsu. Our results indicate that even if stringent emission control consisting of the Euro 6/VI standards, the limitation of vehicle population and usage, and the scrappage of older vehicles is applied, Nanjing and Wuxi will not be able to meet the NOx emissions target by 2020. Therefore, additional control measures are proposed for Nanjing and Wuxi to further mitigate NOx emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles.

  5. Solid state carbon nanotube device for controllable trion electroluminescence emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shuang; Ma, Ze; Wei, Nan; Liu, Huaping; Wang, Sheng; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2016-03-28

    Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a direct chirality-dependent bandgap and reduced dimensionality-related quantum confinement effects, which are closely related to the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, taking advantage of the large energy separations between neutral singlet excitons and charged excitons, i.e. trions in CNTs, we have achieved for the first time all trion electroluminescence (EL) emission from chirality-sorted (8,3) and (8,4) CNT-based solid state devices. We showed that strong trion emission can be obtained as a result of localized impact excitation and electrically injected holes, with an estimated efficiency of ∼5 × 10(-4) photons per injected hole. The importance of contact-controlled carrier injection (including symmetric and asymmetric contact configurations) and EL spectral stability for gradually increasing bias were also investigated. The realization of electrically induced pure trion emission opens up a new opportunity for CNT film-based optoelectronic devices, providing a new degree of freedom in controlling the devices to extend potential applications in spin or magnetic optoelectronics fields.

  6. Crystal Phase Quantum Well Emission with Digital Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assali, S; Lähnemann, J; Vu, T T T; Jöns, K D; Gagliano, L; Verheijen, M A; Akopian, N; Bakkers, E P A M; Haverkort, J E M

    2017-09-18

    One of the major challenges in the growth of quantum well and quantum dot heterostructures is the realization of atomically sharp interfaces. Nanowires provide a new opportunity to engineer the band structure as they facilitate the controlled switching of the crystal structure between the zinc-blende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) phases. Such a crystal phase switching results in the formation of crystal phase quantum wells (CPQWs) and quantum dots (CPQDs). For GaP CPQWs, the inherent electric fields due to the discontinuity of the spontaneous polarization at the WZ/ZB junctions lead to the confinement of both types of charge carriers at the opposite interfaces of the WZ/ZB/WZ structure. This confinement leads to a novel type of transition across a ZB flat plate barrier. Here, we show digital tuning of the visible emission of WZ/ZB/WZ CPQWs in a GaP nanowire by changing the thickness of the ZB barrier. The energy spacing between the sharp emission lines is uniform and is defined by the addition of single ZB monolayers. The controlled growth of identical quantum wells with atomically flat interfaces at predefined positions featuring digitally tunable discrete emission energies may provide a new route to further advance entangled photons in solid state quantum systems.

  7. Technology for CO{sub 2} emission monitoring and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, E.L. Jr.; Unkefer, P.J.; Pendergrass, J.H.; Parkinson, W.J.; Loose, V.W.; Brainard, J.R.

    1998-12-31

    The authors examined three specific areas relative to CO{sub 2} emissions and controls: (1) the effect of deregulation of the utility industry on emissions, (2) the role of advanced power systems in reducing emissions, and (3) developing CO{sub 2} mitigation technologies. In this work the Energy Technologies program office at Los Alamos attempted to initiate an integrated approach that includes a range of tasks involving both point and distributed CO{sub 2} control. The authors have examined evolving mitigation (separation and sequestration) technologies for CO{sub 2} disposal. The separation of hydrogen gas from high-temperature CO{sub 2}-containing streams is a critical component of carbon dioxide mitigation technology, and cost-effective point sequestration will require separation of CO{sub 2} from H{sub 2}. They investigated four types of separation techniques: two high-temperature membrane technologies, an intermediate-temperature membrane technology, and a separation technology based on the formation of CO{sub 2} hydrate compounds through reaction of CO{sub 2} with water at near freezing conditions. At Los Alamos, sequestration technologies are being developed along three principal areas: mineral sequestration of CO{sub 2}, the enhancement of natural sinks using biotechnology methods, and the conversion of CO{sub 2} to methanol using high-temperature photolysis.

  8. Emission control of gas effluents from geothermal power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axtmann, R C

    1975-01-01

    Geothermal steam at the world's five largest power plants contains from 0.15 to 30% noncondensable gases including CO(2), H(2)S, H(2), CH(4), N(2), H(3)BO(3), and NH(3). At four of the plants the gases are first separated from the steam and then discharged to the environment; at the fifth, the noncondensables exhaust directly to the atmosphere along with spent steam. Some CO(2) and sulfur emission rates rival those from fossil-fueled plants on a per megawatt-day basis. The ammonia and boron effluents can interfere with animal and plant life. The effects of sulfur (which emerges as H(2)S but may oxidize to SO(2)) on either ambient air quality or longterm human health are largely unknown. Most geothermal turbines are equipped with direct contact condensers which complicate emission control because they provide two or more pathways for the effluents to reach the environment. Use of direct contact condensers could permit efficient emission control if coupled to processes that produce saleable quantities of purified carbon dioxide and elemental sulfur.

  9. Revisiting factors controlling methane emissions from high-Arctic tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mastepanov, M.; Sigsgaard, C.; Tagesson, T.;

    2013-01-01

    with measurements made outside the growing season, are underrepresented in the literature. Here we present results of 5 yr (2006-2010) of automatic chamber measurements at a high-Arctic location in Zackenberg, NE Greenland, covering both the growing seasons and two months of the following freeze-in periods...... explained by high seasonality of both variables, and weakly correlated with the water table. The greatest variability in fluxes between the study years was observed during the first part of the growing season. Somewhat surprisingly, this variability could not be explained by commonly known factors...... controlling methane emission, i.e. temperature and water table position. Late in the growing season CH4 emissions were found to be very similar between the study years (except the extremely dry 2010) despite large differences in climatic factors (temperature and water table). Late-season bursts of CH4...

  10. Assessment of Industrial VOC Gas-Scrubber Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, H

    2004-02-13

    Gas scrubbers for air-pollution control of volatile organic compounds (VOC) cover a wide range of technologies. In this review, we have attempted to evaluate the single-pass scrubber destruction and removal efficiencies (DREs) for a range of gas-scrubber technologies. We have focused primarily on typical industrial DREs for the various technologies, typical problems, and any DRE-related experiential information available. The very limited literature citations found suggest significant differences between actual versus design performance in some technologies. The potentially significant role of maintenance in maintaining DREs was also investigated for those technologies. An in-depth portrayal of the entire gas scrubbing industry is elusive. Available literature sources suggest significant differences between actual versus design performance in some technologies. Lack of scrubber system maintenance can contribute to even larger variances. ''Typical'' industrial single-pass performance of commonly used VOC gas scrubbers generally ranged from {approx}80 to 99%. Imperfect solid and/or liquid particulates capture (possibly as low as 95% despite design for 99+% capture efficiency) can also lead to VOC releases. Changing the VOC composition in the gas stream without modifying scrubber equipment or operating conditions could also lead to significant deterioration in attainable destruction and removal efficiencies.

  11. T2VOC user`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falta, R.W. [Clemson Univ., Clemson, SC (United States). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Pruess, K.; Finsterle, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Battistelli, A. [AQUATER S.p.A., San Lorenzo in Campo, (Italy)

    1995-03-01

    T2VOC is a numerical simulator for three-phase, three-component, non-isothermal flow of water, air, and a volatile organic compound (VOC) in multidimensional heterogeneous porous media. Developed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, T2VOC is an extension of the TOUGH2 general-purpose simulation program. This report is a self-contained guide to application of T2VOC to subsurface contamination problems involving nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). It gives a technical description of the T2VOC code, including a discussion of the physical processes modeled, and the mathematical and numerical methods used. Detailed instructions for preparing input data are presented along with several illustrative sample problems.

  12. 我国空气中挥发性有机物标准体系建设的对策和建议%Countermeasures for System Building of VOCs Standards in Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁; 王倩; 杜健; 郭健

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,the definition and danger of volatile organic pollutants were introduced.Emissions standards,control strategy and management experience of VOCs in America,Europe and Japan were also de-scribed.The situation and problems of emissions characterization,emissions standards and management of VOCs in china were discussed.Suggestions were made to screen of optimal control list,to revise emissions standards and to develop VOCs gas standards.%介绍了挥发性有机物(VOCs)的界定与危害,以及美国、欧盟、日本 VOCs的排放标准、控制经验、效果、气体标准样品研究现状等。分析了我国 VOCs的污染、标准体系建设、标准样品等研究现状及存在的问题,提出我国应建立 VOCs筛选优控名单、制定并完善行业排放标准和监测方法体系,以及开展 VOCs气体标准样品研究等相关对策和建议。

  13. Application of high silica zeolite ZSM-5 in a hybrid treatment process based on sequential adsorption and ozonation for VOCs elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitan, Hicham; Manero, Marie Hélène; Valdés, Héctor

    2016-03-01

    In this study, a hydrophobic synthetic zeolite, namely ZSM-5 is chosen as an adsorbent/catalyst for toluene removal. Experimental results showed that toluene adsorption onto ZSM-5 was favourable, following a Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. ZSM-5 zeolite was regenerated using gaseous ozone at low temperature. Adsorbed toluene was oxidised, releasing mainly CO2 and H2O. Traces of oxidation by-products such as acetic acid and acetaldehyde were formed and remained adsorbed after the oxidativate regeneration with ozone. After four successive cycles of adsorption/ozonation, the adsorption efficiency was not affected (92%-99%). These results showed that volatile organic compound (VOC) removal by adsorption onto ZSM-5 zeolite followed by ozone regeneration could be used as a promising hybrid process for the control of VOC emissions in terms of efficiency.

  14. Non-methane biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from boreal peatland microcosms under warming and water table drawdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faubert, P; Tiiva, P; Nakam, TA

    2011-01-01

    BVOC groups. Only isoprene emission was significantly increased by warming, parallel to the increased leaf number of the dominant sedge Eriophorum vaginatum. BVOC emissions from peat soil were higher under the control and warming treatments than water table drawdown, suggesting an increased activity...... assessed the combined effect of warming and water table drawdown on the BVOC emissions from boreal peatland microcosms. We also assessed the treatment effects on the BVOC emissions from the peat soil after the 7-week long experiment. Emissions of isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, other reactive VOCs...... and other VOCs were sampled using a conventional chamber technique, collected on adsorbent and analyzed by GC–MS. Carbon emitted as BVOCs was less than 1% of the CO2 uptake and up to 3% of CH4 emission. Water table drawdown surpassed the direct warming effect and significantly decreased the emissions of all...

  15. Characterizing the chemical evolution of air masses via multi-platform measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during CalNEX: Composition, OH reactivity, and potential SOA formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; Bon, D.; Warneke, C.; Lerner, B. M.; Williams, E. J.; Holloway, J. S.; Pollack, I. B.; Ryerson, T. B.; Atlas, E. L.; Blake, D. R.; Herndon, S. C.; Zahniser, M. S.; Vlasenko, A. L.; Li, S.; Alvarez, S. L.; Rappenglueck, B.; Flynn, J. H.; Grossberg, N.; Lefer, B. L.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are critical components in the photochemical production of ozone (O3) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). During the CalNex 2010 field campaign, an extensive set of VOCs were measured at the Pasadena ground site, and aboard the NOAA WP-3D aircraft and the WHOI Research Vessel Atlantis. The measurements from each platform provide a unique perspective into the emissions, transport, and atmospheric processing of VOCs within the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). The observed enhancement ratios of the hydrocarbons measured on all three platforms are in good agreement and are generally well correlated with carbon monoxide (CO), indicating the prevalence of on-road VOC emission sources throughout the SoCAB. Offshore measurements aboard the ship and aircraft are used to characterize the air mass composition as a function of the land/sea-breeze effect. VOC ratios and other trace gases are used to identify air masses containing relatively fresh emissions that were often associated with offshore flow and re-circulated continental air associated with onshore flow conditions. With the prevailing southwesterly airflow pattern in the LAB throughout the daytime, the Pasadena ground site effectively functions as a receptor site and is used to characterize primary VOC emissions from downtown Los Angeles and to identify the corresponding secondary oxidation products. The chemical evolution of air masses as a function of the time of day is investigated in order to determine the relative impacts of primary emissions vs. secondary VOC products on OH reactivity and potential SOA formation. The reactivity of VOCs with the hydroxyl radical (OH) at the Pasadena site was dominated by the light hydrocarbons, isoprene, and oxygenated VOCs including aldehydes (secondary products) and alcohols (primary anthropogenic emissions). Toluene and benzaldehyde, both of which are associated with primary anthropogenic emissions, are the predominant VOC precursors to the

  16. Method of electron emission control in RF guns

    CERN Document Server

    Khodak, I V

    2001-01-01

    The electron emission control method for a RF gun is considered.According to the main idea of the method,the additional resonance system is created in a cathode region where the RF field strength could be varied using the external pulse equipment. The additional resonance system is composed of a coaxial cavity coupled with a RF gun cylindrical cavity via an axial hole. Computed results of radiofrequency and electrodynamic performances of such a two-cavity system and results of the RF gun model pilot study are presented in. Results of particle dynamics simulation are described.

  17. Volatile organic compound emissions from unconventional natural gas production: Source signatures and air quality impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarthout, Robert F.

    compliance in downwind cities. A health risk assessment showed no increase in cancer or chronic non-cancer risk at locations near natural gas wells in Pennsylvania, but the contribution of natural gas emissions to total risk was 3-6 times higher near wells. These results will assist policy makers, natural gas producers, and citizen stakeholders in crafting effective policies to control VOC emissions from natural gas production activities.

  18. 利用SOF-FTIR监测重庆晏家工业区挥发性有机物排放%Monitoring of VOCs Emissions of Yanjia Industrial Park in Chongqing Based on SOF-FTIR Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟崇治; 刘芮伶; 许丽萍; 金岭; 余家燕; 李礼; 刘敏

    2015-01-01

    挥发性有机物(VOCs)是光化学污染物的主要前体物,是影响城市和区域大气质量的重要污染物.工业生产过程中排放的VOCs种类、来源和污染特征复杂,测量中存在许多未知因素,且一直缺乏便捷和快速的监测手段.利用基于太阳直射光的车载太阳掩星傅里叶红外光谱技术(Solar Occultation Flux-FTIR,SOF-FTIR)快速扫描长寿晏家工业区并进行实时VOCs监测,获得其垂直柱浓度,大多浓度最大值位于10~60 ppm·m区间,且该工业区易形成局地污染汇聚.

  19. N2O and NO2 Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks with Advanced Emission Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2014-12-01

    Diesel engines are the largest source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions nationally, and also a major contributor to the black carbon (BC) fraction of fine particulate matter (PM). Recently, diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have become standard equipment on new heavy-duty diesel trucks. However, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out nitric oxide (NO) to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in continuously regenerating DPFs leads to increased tailpipe emission of NO2. This is of potential concern due to the toxicity of NO2 and the resulting increases in atmospheric formation of other air pollutants such as ozone, nitric acid, and fine PM. While use of SCR reduces emissions of both NO and NO2, it may lead to increased emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. Here we report results from on-road measurements of heavy-duty diesel truck emissions conducted at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg of diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to individual truck attributes, including engine model year and installed emission control equipment. Between 2009 and 2013, the fraction of DPF-equipped trucks at the Port of Oakland increased from 2 to 99%, and median engine age decreased from 11 to 6 years. Over the same period, fleet-average emission factors for black carbon and NOx decreased by 76 ± 22% and 53 ± 8%, respectively. However, direct emissions of NO2 increased, and consequently the NO2/NOx emission ratio increased from 0.03 ± 0.02 to 0.18 ± 0.03. Older trucks retrofitted with DPFs emitted approximately 3.5 times more NO2 than newer trucks equipped with both DPF and SCR. Preliminary data from summer 2014 measurements at the Caldecott Tunnel suggest that some older trucks have negative emission factors for N2O, and that for newer trucks, N2O emission factors have changed sign and

  20. Spatial/temporal variations and source apportionment of VOCs monitored at community scale in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chang Ho; Zhu, Xianlei; Fan, Zhi-hua

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize spatial/temporal variations of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using a community-scale monitoring approach and identify the main sources of concern in Paterson, NJ, an urban area with mixed sources of VOCs. VOC samples were simultaneously collected from three local source-dominated (i.e., commercial, industrial, and mobile) sites in Paterson and one background site in Chester, NJ (located ∼58 km southwest of Paterson). Samples were collected using the EPA TO-15 method from midnight to midnight, one in every sixth day over one year. Among the 60 analyzed VOCs, ten VOCs (acetylene, benzene, dichloromethane, ethylbenzene, methyl ethyl ketone, styrene, toluene, m,p-xylene, o-xylene, and p-dichlorobenzene) were selected to examine their spatial/temporal variations. All of the 10 VOCs in Paterson were significantly higher than the background site (pp-xylene, o-xylene, and p-dichlorobenzene measured at the commercial site were significantly higher than the industrial/mobile sites (pp-dichlorobenzene) were significantly different by season (pp<0.05). These results are consistent with literature data, indicating the impact of anthropogenic VOC sources on air pollution in Paterson. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis was applied for 24-hour integrated VOC measurements in Paterson over one year and identified six contributing factors, including motor vehicle exhausts (20%), solvents uses (19%), industrial emissions (16%), mobile+stationery sources (12%), small shop emissions (11%), and others (22%). Additional locational analysis confirmed the identified sources were well matched with point sources located upwind in Paterson. The study demonstrated the community-scale monitoring approach can capture spatial variation of VOCs in an urban community with mixed VOC sources. It also provided robust data to identify major sources of concern in the community.

  1. Photoelectron Imaging of OXIDE.VOC Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patros, Kellyn M.; Mann, Jennifer; Chick Jarrold, Caroline

    2016-06-01

    Perturbations of the bare O2- and O4- electronic structure arising from VOC (VOC = hexane, isoprene, benzene and benzene.D6) interactions are investigated using anion photoelectron imaging at 2.33 and 3.49 eV photon energies. Trends observed from comparing features in the spectra include VOC-identity-dependent electron affinities of the VOC complexes relative to the bare oxide clusters, due to enhance stability in the anion complex relative to the neutral. Autodetachment is observed in all O4-.VOC spectra and only isoprene with O2-. In addition, the intensities of transitions to states correlated with the singlet states of O2 neutral via detachment from the O2-.VOC anion complexes show dramatic VOC-identity variations. Most notably, benzene as a complex partner significantly enhances these transitions relative to O2- and O2-.hexane. A less significant enhancement is also observed in the O2-.isoprene complex. This enhancement may be due to the presence of low-lying triplet states in the complex partners.

  2. 77 FR 10424 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Volatile Organic Compound Emission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Compound Emission Control Measures for Milwaukee and Sheboygan Ozone Nonattainment Areas AGENCY... organic compound (VOC) rules for approval into its State Implementation Plan (SIP). The purpose of these... millimeters (mm) of mercury (Hg) and the solvent or solvent solution must be collected and stored in...

  3. The effect of warming and enhanced ultraviolet radiation on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds from European aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maja, Mengistu M; Kasurinen, Anne; Holopainen, Toini; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2016-03-15

    Different environmental stress factors often occur together but their combined effects on plant secondary metabolism are seldom considered. We studied the effect of enhanced ultraviolet (UV-B) (31% increase) radiation and temperature (ambient +2 °C) singly and in combination on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from 2-year-old clones of European aspen (Populus tremula L.). Plants grew in 36 experimental plots (6 replicates for Control, UV-A, UV-B, T, UV-A+T and UV-B+T treatments), in an experimental field. VOCs emitted from shoots were sampled from two (1 male and 1 female) randomly selected saplings (total of 72 saplings), per plot on two sampling occasions (June and July) in 2014. There was a significant UV-B×temperature interaction effect on emission rates of different VOCs. Isoprene emission rate was increased due to warming, but warming also modified VOC responses to both UV-A and UV-B radiation. Thus, UV-A increased isoprene emissions without warming, whereas UV-B increased emissions only in combination with warming. Warming-modified UV-A and UV-B responses were also seen in monoterpenes (MTs), sesquiterpenes (SQTs) and green leaf volatiles (GLVs). MTs showed also a UV × gender interaction effect as females had higher emission rates under UV-A and UV-B than males. UV × gender and T × gender interactions caused significant differences in VOC blend as there was more variation (more GLVs and trans-β-caryophyllene) in VOCs from female saplings compared to male saplings. VOCs from the rhizosphere were also collected from each plot in two exposure seasons, but no significant treatment effects were observed. Our results suggest that simultaneous warming and elevated-UV-radiation increase the emission of VOCs from aspen. Thus the contribution of combined environmental factors on VOC emissions may have a greater impact to the photochemical reactions in the atmosphere compared to the impact of individual factors acting alone.

  4. PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF DIMETHYLAMINE VAPORS EMISSION: HERBICIDE PRODUCTION PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorana Arsenijević

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The widely used herbicide, dimethylamine salt of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D-DMA, is usually prepared by mixing a dimethylamine (DMA aqueous solution with a solid 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D. The vapors of the both, reactants and products, are potentially hazardous for the environment. The contribution of DMA vapors in overall pollution from this process is most significant, concerning vapor pressures data of these pollutants. Therefore, the control of the air pollution in the manufacture and handling of methylamines is very important. Within this paper, the optimal air pollution control system in preparation of 2,4-D-DMA was developed for the pesticides manufacturing industry. This study employed the simple pollution prevention concept to reduce the emission of DMA vapors at the source. The investigations were performed on the pilot plant scale. To reduce the emission of DMA vapors, the effluent gases from the herbicide preparation zone were passed through the packed bed scrubber (water - scrubbing medium, and the catalytic reactor in sequence. The end result is a substantially improved air quality in the working area, as well as in the urbanized areas located near the chemical plant.

  5. Landfill aeration for emission control before and during landfill mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raga, Roberto; Cossu, Raffaello; Heerenklage, Joern; Pivato, Alberto; Ritzkowski, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The landfill of Modena, in northern Italy, is now crossed by the new high velocity railway line connecting Milan and Bologna. Waste was completely removed from a part of the landfill and a trench for the train line was built. With the aim of facilitating excavation and further disposal of the material extracted, suitable measures were defined. In order to prevent undesired emissions into the excavation area, the aerobic in situ stabilisation by means of the Airflow technology took place before and during the Landfill Mining. Specific project features involved the pneumatic leachate extraction from the aeration wells (to keep the leachate table low inside the landfill and increase the volume of waste available for air migration) and the controlled moisture addition into a limited zone, for a preliminary evaluation of the effects on process enhancement. Waste and leachate were periodically sampled in the landfill during the aeration before the excavation, for quality assessment over time; the evolution of biogas composition in the landfill body and in the extraction system for different plant set-ups during the project was monitored, with specific focus on uncontrolled migration into the excavation area. Waste biological stability significantly increased during the aeration (waste respiration index dropped to 33% of the initial value after six months). Leachate head decreased from 4 to 1.5m; leachate recirculation tests proved the beneficial effects of moisture addition on temperature control, without hampering waste aerobization. Proper management of the aeration plant enabled the minimization of uncontrolled biogas emissions into the excavation area.

  6. CAN SORBENT-BASED GAS PHASE AIR CLEANING FOR VOCS SUBSTITUTE FOR VENTILATION IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William; Fisk, William J.

    2007-08-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge about the suitability of sorbent-based air cleaning for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the air in commercial buildings, as needed to enable reductions in ventilation rates and associated energy savings. The principles of sorbent air cleaning are introduced, criteria are suggested for sorbent systems that can counteract indoor VOC concentration increases from reduced ventilation, major findings from research on sorbent performance for this application are summarized, and related priority research needs are identified. Major conclusions include: sorbent systems can remove a broad range of VOCs with moderate to high efficiency, sorbent technologies perform effectively when challenged with VOCs at the low concentrations present indoors, and there is a large uncertainty about the lifetime and associated costs of sorbent air cleaning systems when used in commercial buildings for indoor VOC control. Suggested priority research includes: experiments to determine sorbent system VOC removal efficiencies and lifetimes considering the broad range and low concentration of VOCs indoors; evaluations of in-situ regeneration of sorbents; and an updated analysis of the cost of sorbent air cleaning relative to the cost of ventilation.

  7. The effects of emission control strategies on light-absorbing carbon emissions from a modern heavy-duty diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael A; Olson, Michael R; Liu, Z Gerald; Schauer, James J

    2015-06-01

    Control of atmospheric black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) has been proposed as an important pathway to climate change mitigation, but sources of BC and BrC are still not well understood. In order to better identify the role of modern heavy-duty diesel engines on the production of BC and BrC, emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine operating with different emission control strategies were examined using a source dilution sampling system. The effect of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) on light-absorbing carbon (LAC) was evaluated at three steady-state engine operation modes: idle, 50% speed and load, and 100% speed and load. LAC was measured with four different engine configurations: engine out, DOC out, DPF out, and engine out with an altered combustion calibration. BC and BrC emission rates were measured with the Aethalometer (AE-31). EC and BC emission rates normalized to the mass of CO₂emitted increased with increasing engine speed and load. Emission rates normalized to brake-specific work did not exhibit similar trends with speed and load, but rather the highest emission rate was measured at idle. EC and OC emissions were reduced by 99% when the DOC and DPF architecture was applied. The application of a DPF was equally effective at removing 99% of the BC fraction of PM, proving to be an important control strategy for both LAC and PM. BC emissions were unexpectedly increased across the DOC, seemingly due to a change aerosol optical properties. Removal of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) flow due to simulated EGR cooler failure caused a large increase in OC and BrC emission rates at idle, but had limited influence during high load operation. LAC emissions proved to be sensitive to the same control strategies effective at controlling the total mass of diesel PM. In the context of black carbon emissions, very small emission rates of brown carbon were measured over a range of control technologies and engine operating

  8. Volatile organic compound (VOC) determination in working atmospheres; Determinacion de compuestos organicos volatiles (VOC) en ambiente laboral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blass A, Georgina; Panama T, Luz A; Corrales C, Deyanira [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The present work describes, in a synthesized way, the implementation and application of procedures based on the normativity related to the subject of the volatile organic compounds (Volatile Organic Compounds VOC), that allow to sample, quantify and evaluate the present contamination in the working atmosphere of a refinery due to the fugitive emissions of VOC and other substances. In accordance with the corresponding normativity, more than 189 organic compounds denominated dangerous air polluting agents (Hazardous Air Pollutants, HAP) can be found in a working atmosphere, but they are the 11 main HAP that can be found in a refinery. In the present article the work made for the sampling and quantification of 5 of the 11 dangerous polluting agents of the air: benzene, toluene, xylene, iso-octane and naphthalene. [Spanish] El presente trabajo describe, de manera sintetizada, la implementacion y aplicacion de procedimientos basados en la normatividad relacionada al tema de los compuestos organicos volatiles (Volatil Organic Compounds, VOC), que permiten muestrear, cuantificar y evaluar la contaminacion presente en el ambiente laboral de una refineria debido a las emisiones fugitivas de VOC y otras sustancias. De acuerdo con la normatividad correspondiente, mas de 189 compuestos organicos denominados contaminantes peligrosos del aire (Hazardous Air Pollutants, HAP), pueden ser encontrados en un ambiente laboral, pero son 11 los principales HAP que pueden ser hallados en una refineria. En el presente articulo se informa el trabajo realizado para el muestreo y cuantificacion de 5 de los 11 contaminantes peligrosos del aire: benceno, tolueno, xileno, iso-octano y naftaleno.

  9. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC Removal by Vapor Permeation at Low VOC Concentrations: Laboratory Scale Results and Modeling for Scale Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Moulin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum transformation industries have applied membrane processes for solvent and hydrocarbon recovery as an economic alternative to reduce their emissions and reuse evaporated components. Separation of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs (toluene-propylene-butadiene from air was performed using a poly dimethyl siloxane (PDMS/α-alumina membrane. The experimental set-up followed the constant pressure/variable flow set-up and was operated at ~21 °C. The membrane is held in a stainless steel module and has a separation area of 55 × 10−4 m². Feed stream was set to atmospheric pressure and permeate side to vacuum between 3 and 5 mbar. To determine the performance of the module, the removed fraction of VOC was analyzed by Gas Chromatography/Flame Ionization Detector (GC/FID. The separation of the binary, ternary and quaternary hydrocarbon mixtures from air was performed at different flow rates and more especially at low concentrations. The permeate flux, permeance, enrichment factor, separation efficiency and the recovery extent of the membrane were determined as a function of these operating conditions. The permeability coefficients and the permeate flux through the composite PDMS-alumina membrane follow the order given by the Hildebrand parameter: toluene > 1,3-butadiene > propylene. The simulated data for the binary VOC/air mixtures showed fairly good agreement with the experimental results in the case of 1,3-butadiene and propylene. The discrepancies observed for toluene permeation could be minimized by taking into account the effects of the porous support and an influence of the concentration polarization. Finally, the installation of a 0.02 m2 membrane module would reduce 95% of the VOC content introduced at real concentration conditions used in the oil industry.

  10. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Removal by Vapor Permeation at Low VOC Concentrations: Laboratory Scale Results and Modeling for Scale Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollar-Perez, Georgette; Carretier, Emilie; Lesage, Nicolas; Moulin, Philippe

    2011-03-03

    Petroleum transformation industries have applied membrane processes for solvent and hydrocarbon recovery as an economic alternative to reduce their emissions and reuse evaporated components. Separation of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (toluene-propylene-butadiene) from air was performed using a poly dimethyl siloxane (PDMS)/α-alumina membrane. The experimental set-up followed the constant pressure/variable flow set-up and was operated at ~21 °C. The membrane is held in a stainless steel module and has a separation area of 55 × 10-4 m². Feed stream was set to atmospheric pressure and permeate side to vacuum between 3 and 5 mbar. To determine the performance of the module, the removed fraction of VOC was analyzed by Gas Chromatography/Flame Ionization Detector (GC/FID). The separation of the binary, ternary and quaternary hydrocarbon mixtures from air was performed at different flow rates and more especially at low concentrations. The permeate flux, permeance, enrichment factor, separation efficiency and the recovery extent of the membrane were determined as a function of these operating conditions. The permeability coefficients and the permeate flux through the composite PDMS-alumina membrane follow the order given by the Hildebrand parameter: toluene > 1,3-butadiene > propylene. The simulated data for the binary VOC/air mixtures showed fairly good agreement with the experimental results in the case of 1,3-butadiene and propylene. The discrepancies observed for toluene permeation could be minimized by taking into account the effects of the porous support and an influence of the concentration polarization. Finally, the installation of a 0.02 m2 membrane module would reduce 95% of the VOC content introduced at real concentration conditions used in the oil industry.

  11. Source apportionment of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs)and their characteristics in Chengdu, southwest of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuanyuan; Xie, Shaodong; Li, Jing; Li, Yaqi

    2017-04-01

    Chengdu, located in the largest basin region in the world, suffers from increasing ground-level ozone and aerosol pollutions. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are one of the prominent precursors of ground-level ozone and aerosols. Ambient VOCs were measured continuously using an online gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector (GC-MS/FID) with a time resolution of 1 hour from 28 August 2016 to 7 October 2016 at Pixian in Chengdu. 99 measurements of VOCs were conducted including 28 alkanes, 11 alkenes, 16 aromatics, 13 oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and 29 halocarbons, acetylene, and acetonitrile. Based on the hourly average data, positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used to better understand the emission sources of VOCs in Chengdu. The average mixing ratios of alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, OVOCs, halocarbons, acetylene, and acetonitrile were respectively 14.49 ppbv, 4.92 ppbv, 5.14 ppbv, 9.74 ppbv, 7.77 ppbv, 3.56 ppbv, and 0.43 ppbv. Six sources were extracted by using PMF model. Liquefied petroleum gas, background and petrochemical industries contributed 28%, 19%, 18% to the total ambient VOCs, respectively. Biogenic emission (14%), Gasoline vehicles (13%), Solvent use (8%) were also identified as major sources of ambient VOCs at Pixian.

  12. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Augenstein; Ramin Yazdani; Rick Moore; Michelle Byars; Jeff Kieffer; Professor Morton Barlaz; Rinav Mehta

    2000-02-26

    Controlled landfilling is an approach to manage solid waste landfills, so as to rapidly complete methane generation, while maximizing gas capture and minimizing the usual emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated to more rapid and earlier completion to full potential by improving conditions (principally moisture, but also temperature) to optimize biological processes occurring within the landfill. Gas is contained through use of surface membrane cover. Gas is captured via porous layers, under the cover, operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project has been ongoing under NETL sponsorship for the past several years near Davis, CA. Results have been extremely encouraging. Two major benefits of the technology are reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times, more predictably, than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role both in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions and in US renewable energy. The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with

  13. 40 CFR 1060.104 - What running loss emission control requirements apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What running loss emission control... STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1060.104 What running loss emission control requirements apply? (a) Engines and equipment must meet running loss requirements as follows:...

  14. Air Pollutant Emissions Projections for the Cement and Steel Industry in China and the Impact of Emissions Control Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Khanna, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    China’s cement and steel industry accounts for approximately half of the world’s total cement and steel production. These two industries are two of the most energy-intensive and highest carbon dioxide (CO2)-emitting industries and two of the key industrial contributors to air pollution in China. For example, the cement industry is the largest source of particulate matter (PM) emissions in China, accounting for 40 percent of its industrial PM emissions and 27 percent of its total national PM emissions. The Chinese steel industry contributed to approximately 20 percent of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions and 27 percent of PM emissions for all key manufacturing industries in China in 2013. In this study, we analyzed and projected the total PM and SO2 emissions from the Chinese cement and steel industry from 2010–2050 under three different scenarios: a Base Case scenario, an Advanced scenario, and an Advanced EOP (end-of-pipe) scenario. We used bottom-up emissions control technologies data and assumptions to project the emissions. In addition, we conducted an economic analysis to estimate the cost for PM emissions reductions in the Chinese cement industry using EOP control technologies, energy efficiency measures, and product change measures. The results of the emissions projection showed that there is not a substantial difference in PM emissions between the Base Case and Advanced scenarios, for both the cement and steel industries. This is mainly because PM emissions in the cement industry caused mainly by production process and not the fuel use. Since our forecast for the cement production in the Base Case and Advanced scenarios are not too different from each other, this results in only a slight difference in PM emissions forecast for these two scenarios. Also, we assumed a similar share and penetration rate of control technologies from 2010 up to 2050 for these two scenarios for the cement and steel industry. However, the Advanced EOP

  15. A New Biomass Control Method Using Ozone in Biofilters Treating Gaseous VOCs%利用臭氧控制VOCs生物过滤塔生物量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷风; 席劲瑛; 胡洪营; 唐好

    2012-01-01

    Excessive biomass accumulation is one main problem which will deteriorate the performance stability of biofilters during long-term operation. In order to systematically explore the feasibility of using ozone to control biomass accumulation within biofilters, the influence of ozone on toluene removal performance, pressure drop through filter bed and porosity, biomass growth and carbon balance of biofilters was examined. The results showed adding ozone of concentration no more than 220 mg/m3 wouldn' t adversely affect toluene removal capacity of biofilters. When the inlet ozone concentration achieved 180-220 mg/m3, ozone could significantly control excessive biomass accumulation, improve the filter bed structure and stabilize the pressure drop through filter bed. Furthermore, accelerating the mineralization rate of toluene was the dominant way of biomass accumulation control by ozone.%生物过滤塔在挥发性有机物和恶臭气体处理方面具有良好的应用前景,但生物量过度累积是影响其运行稳定性的主要问题.为了探讨利用臭氧控制生物量过度累积的可行性,该研究系统考察了连续投加臭氧对于生物过滤塔甲苯去除性能、填料层压降及空隙率、生物量增长以及碳平衡的影响.研究结果表明,臭氧浓度为0~220 mg/m3时,投加臭氧不会降低生物过滤塔的甲苯去除性能;臭氧浓度为100~220 mg/m3时,投加臭氧可以显著控制生物量过度累积、优化填料层结构和控制压降快速升高.进一步研究表明,提高甲苯的矿化率是臭氧控制生物量快速累积的主要途径.

  16. Methane emissions from process equipment at natural gas production sites in the United States: pneumatic controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David T; Pacsi, Adam P; Sullivan, David W; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Harrison, Matthew; Keen, Kindal; Fraser, Matthew P; Daniel Hill, A; Sawyer, Robert F; Seinfeld, John H

    2015-01-06

    Emissions from 377 gas actuated (pneumatic) controllers were measured at natural gas production sites and a small number of oil production sites, throughout the United States. A small subset of the devices (19%), with whole gas emission rates in excess of 6 standard cubic feet per hour (scf/h), accounted for 95% of emissions. More than half of the controllers recorded emissions of 0.001 scf/h or less during 15 min of measurement. Pneumatic controllers in level control applications on separators and in compressor applications had higher emission rates than controllers in other types of applications. Regional differences in emissions were observed, with the lowest emissions measured in the Rocky Mountains and the highest emissions in the Gulf Coast. Average methane emissions per controller reported in this work are 17% higher than the average emissions per controller in the 2012 EPA greenhouse gas national emission inventory (2012 GHG NEI, released in 2014); the average of 2.7 controllers per well observed in this work is higher than the 1.0 controllers per well reported in the 2012 GHG NEI.

  17. Low VOC Barrier Coating for Industrial Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Technology Certification Program HAP Hazardous Air Pollutant HW hazardous waste LVBC low VOC barrier coating MEK methyl ethyl ketone MIL-DTL...peeling, blistering , tape adhesion, pull-off adhesion, film thickness, and LVBC/ZVT patch test adhesion testing in an acceptable or better manner...significant reductions in the amount of hazardous waste generated by the Navy. The ZVT technology contains less than 5 g/l of VOC and the resulting

  18. Implications of diesel emissions control failures to emission factors and road transport NOx evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ntziachristos, L.; Papadimitriou, G.; Ligterink, N.; Hausberger, S.

    2016-01-01

    Diesel NOx emissions have been at the forefront of research and regulation scrutiny as a result of failures of late vehicle technologies to deliver on-road emissions reductions. The current study aims at identifying the actual emissions levels of late light duty vehicle technologies, including Euro

  19. PROCEEDINGS: LOW- AND NO-VOC COATING TECHNOLOGIES - 2ND BIENNIAL INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report documents an international conference that provided a forum for the exchange of technical information on coating technologies. It focused on improved and emerging technologies that result in fewer volatile organic compound (VOC) and toxic air emissions that those from ...

  20. Methanol and other VOC fluxes from a Danish beech forest during late springtime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schade, Gunnar W.; Solomon, Sheena J.; Dellwik, Ebba;

    2011-01-01

    In-canopy mixing ratio gradients and above-canopy fluxes of several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured using a commercial proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest in Denmark. Fluxes of methanol were bidirectional: Emission...

  1. Application of microturbines to control emissions from associated gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Darren D.

    2013-04-16

    A system for controlling the emission of associated gas produced from a reservoir. In an embodiment, the system comprises a gas compressor including a gas inlet in fluid communication with an associated gas source and a gas outlet. The gas compressor adjusts the pressure of the associated gas to produce a pressure-regulated associated gas. In addition, the system comprises a gas cleaner including a gas inlet in fluid communication with the outlet of the gas compressor, a fuel gas outlet, and a waste product outlet. The gas cleaner separates at least a portion of the sulfur and the water from the associated gas to produce a fuel gas. Further, the system comprises a gas turbine including a fuel gas inlet in fluid communication with the fuel gas outlet of the gas cleaner and an air inlet. Still further, the system comprises a choke in fluid communication with the air inlet.

  2. Integrated transportation and energy sector CO2 emission control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Münster, Ebbe

    2006-01-01

    due to the high share of fluctuating renewable energy produced in the country. In the future, such issue will apply to other countries who plan to use a high share of renewable energy. In short, the energy sector can help the transport sector to replace oil by renewable energy and combined heat......This paper analyses the mutual benefits of integrating strategies for future energy and transport CO2 emissions control. The paper illustrates and quantifies the mutual benefits of integrating the transport and the energy sector in the case of Denmark. Today this issue is very relevant in Denmark...... and power production (CHP), while the transport sector can assist the energy system in integrating a higher degree of intermittent energy and CHP. Two scenarios for partial conversion of the transport fleet have been considered. One is battery cars combined with hydrogen fuel cell cars, while the other...

  3. Application of microturbines to control emissions from associated gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Darren D.

    2013-04-16

    A system for controlling the emission of associated gas produced from a reservoir. In an embodiment, the system comprises a gas compressor including a gas inlet in fluid communication with an associated gas source and a gas outlet. The gas compressor adjusts the pressure of the associated gas to produce a pressure-regulated associated gas. In addition, the system comprises a gas cleaner including a gas inlet in fluid communication with the outlet of the gas compressor, a fuel gas outlet, and a waste product outlet. The gas cleaner separates at least a portion of the sulfur and the water from the associated gas to produce a fuel gas. Further, the system comprises a gas turbine including a fuel gas inlet in fluid communication with the fuel gas outlet of the gas cleaner and an air inlet. Still further, the system comprises a choke in fluid communication with the air inlet.

  4. Controlling the Emission of Electromagnetic Sources by Coordinate transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Yu; Ran, Lixin; Chen, Hongsheng; Kong, Jin Au

    2007-01-01

    The coordinate transformation on the space that contains electromagnetic sources is studied. We find that, not only the permittivity and permeability tensors of the media, but also the sources inside the media will take another form in order to behave equivalently as the original case. It is demonstrated that, a source of arbitrary shape and position in the free space can be replaced by an appropriately designed metamaterial coating with current distributed on the inner surface and would not be detected by outer observers, because the emission of the source can be controlled at will in this way. As examples, we show how to design conformal antennas by covering the sources with transformation media. The method proposed in this letter provides a completely new approach to develop novel active EM devices.

  5. Hydrologic and Biogeochemical Controls on Hyporheic N2O Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, A. M.; Reeder, W. J.; Farrell, T. B.; Tonina, D.; Feris, K. P.; Benner, S. G.

    2016-12-01

    The hyporheic zones (HZ) of streams and rivers may be a significant source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, but the hydrological and biogeochemical controls on if and how much N2O is released from the HZ are not well constrained. We employed a multidisciplinary approach to examine HZ N2O emissions that included a column experiment and two large-scale flume experiments in which we controlled initial particulate organic matter, exogenous nitrate loading, flow rates, and streambed geomorphology at the scales of a natural stream. In both 1D (column) and 2D (flume) experiments, hyporheic flow paths and residence times were modeled and measured with tracers. We measured in-situ pore water concentrations of dissolved oxygen and inorganic nitrogen species, including dissolved N2O. We observed both N2O production and consumption along HZ flow paths. Our results indicate that N2O generation and consumption are dictated by hyporheic residence times and biological nitrogen reduction rates. For N2O to be released from the HZ, residence times must be sufficiently long (or reaction rates must be sufficiently fast) to promote reduction of nitrate to N2O. However, if residence times are too long (or reaction rates are too fast) N2O will be converted to N2. As a result, only a small fraction of HZ flow paths will produce N2O at a given time. For example, although we observed concentrations up to 122 μg L-1 N-N2O in the HZ, most of this N2O was reduced to N2 before leaving the HZ and entering the surface stream water. We also observed that higher N2O concentrations in the HZ correspond to high surface water nitrate and low carbon reactivity in the sediments. The conceptual model supported by these flume and column experiments suggests that both reduction of nitrate loading and increased hyporheic residence times may moderate the potential for N2O emissions from stream hyporheic zones.

  6. A Review on Diesel Soot Emission, its Effect and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad, R.; Venkateswara R. Bella

    2011-01-01

    The diesel engines are energy efficient, but their particulate (soot) emissions are responsible of severe environmental and health problems. This review provides a survey on published information regarding diesel soot emission, its adverse effects on the human health, environment, vegetations, climate, etc. The legislations to limit diesel emissions and ways to minimize soot emission are also summarized. Soot particles are suspected to the development of cancer; cardiovascular and respiratory...

  7. [Emission characteristics and safety evaluation of volatile organic compounds in manufacturing processes of automotive coatings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Pei-Yuan; Li, Jian-Jun; Liao, Dong-Qi; Tu, Xiang; Xu, Mei-Ying; Sun, Guo-Ping

    2013-12-01

    Emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated in an automotive coating manufacturing enterprise. Air samples were taken from eight different manufacturing areas in three workshops, and the species of VOCs and their concentrations were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Safety evaluation was also conducted by comparing the concentration of VOCs with the permissible concentration-short term exposure limit (PC-STEL) regulated by the Ministry of Health. The results showed that fifteen VOCs were detected in the indoor air of the automotive coatings workshop, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, methyl isobutyl ketone, propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate, trimethylbenzene and ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, Their concentrations widely ranged from 0.51 to 593.14 mg x m(-3). The concentrations of TVOCs were significantly different among different manufacturing processes. Even in the same manufacturing process, the concentrations of each component measured at different times were also greatly different. The predominant VOCs of indoor air in the workshop were identified to be ethylbenzene and butyl acetate. The concentrations of most VOCs exceeded the occupational exposure limits, so the corresponding control measures should be taken to protect the health of the workers.

  8. Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations and Emission Rates in New Manufactured and Site-Built Houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armin Rudd

    2008-10-30

    This study was conducted with the primary objective of characterizing and comparing the airborne concentrations and the emission rates of total VOCs and selected individual VOCs, including formaldehyde, among a limited number of new manufactured and site-built houses.

  9. Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) on Board of the Zeppelin NT during the PEGASOS Campaign in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Julia; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Beck, Harry; Rohrer, Franz; Broch, Sebastian; Fuchs, Hendrik; Gomm, Sebastian; Holland, Frank; Lu, Keding; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Mentel, Thomas; Rose, Bernhard; Wegener, Robert; Wahner, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    encompassing different emission regimes (anthropogenic and biogenic) in both the Netherlands and in Italy, and on the fate of VOCs in the nocturnal boundary layer. Third, we also present how the VOC concentrations relate to other substances such as CO, NOx, O3 and the OH reactivity. Especially the comparison of VOC Data with the measured OH reactivity will reveal more insight into the 'missing reactivity'. Acknowledgement: PEGASOS project funded by the European Commission under the Framework Program 7 (FP7-ENV-2010-265148)

  10. Using a source-receptor approach to characterize the volatile organic compounds from control device exhaust in a science park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Fan; Liang, Jeng-Jong

    2013-03-01

    The science parks have helped shape Taiwan as a high-tech island with a good reputation worldwide. But some complaints on air pollution from the science parks have recently risen. To better understand the environmental effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from various high-tech factories in a science park, this study uses a source-receptor approach to characterize the environmental effects of VOCs from control device exhaust in Taichung Science Park. The chemical mass balance model (CMB8.2) of field measurements of 30 stacks and ambient air at nine sites was used to identify the source and relative contribution of ambient VOCs. The exhaust gas of various pollution control devices was also sampled by drawing a stream of the gases from the exhaust duct at its sampling port. The VOC source profile of each control device exhaust was determined using a database of noncharacteristic compounds. Monthly ambient concentrations of 167 VOCs were divided into monsoon datasets to investigate the effect of monsoon conditions on the emission of VOCs in the science park. This study also suggests a method for determining the optimum source profile in source-receptor modeling, and identifies and analyzes the sources of ambient VOCs at nine sites during southwest and northeast monsoons. Results show a direct relationship between the relative contribution of each source and its control device efficiency. The proposed source-receptor approach can characterize the environmental effect of air pollutants from various factories and successfully assess the efficiency of various control devices.

  11. Emissions control of volatile organic compounds in petroleum industry; Controle de emissoes de compostos organicos volateis na industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierres, Ricardo; Moreira, Andrea Cristina de Castro Araujo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). P e D de Energia e Desenvolvimento Sustentavel (PDEDS)

    2004-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds are among the most common pollutants emitted by refining processes. The sources of these emissions should be controlled for preserving the ambient air quality. This article outlines the main factors to be considered for defining an effective emissions control strategy and compares the major characteristics of the available control technologies. (author)

  12. Predicting the emission of volatile organic compounds from silage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a precursor to smog, emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere is an environmental concern in some regions. The major VOC emission source from farms is silage, with emissions coming from the silo face, mixing wagon, and feed bunk. The major compounds emitted are alcohols wit...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2036 - 1990 base year emission inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...—Fairless Hills 1990 VOC and NOX emissions for six emission units (no. 3 blast furnace, no.1 open hearth.... 1 open hearth furnace are 6.9 TPY and 455.5 TPY, respectively. The VOC and NOX emissions from the...

  14. Cold temperature effects on speciated MSAT emissions from light duty vehicles operating on gasoline and ethanol blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions of speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including mobile source air toxics (MSATs), were measured in vehicle exhaust from three light-duty gasoline vehicles. Vehicle testing was conducted using a three phase LA92 driving cycle on a temperature controlled chassis...

  15. Cold temperature effects on speciated MSAT emissions from light duty vehicles operating on gasoline and ethanol blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions of speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including mobile source air toxics (MSATs), were measured in vehicle exhaust from three light-duty gasoline vehicles. Vehicle testing was conducted using a three phase LA92 driving cycle on a temperature controlled chassis...

  16. VOCs in Arid soils: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Volatile Organic Compounds In Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) focuses on technologies to clean up volatile organic compounds and associated contaminants in soil and groundwater at arid sites. The initial host site is the 200 West Area at DOE`s Hanford site in southeastern Washington state. The primary VOC contaminant is carbon tetrachloride, in association with heavy metals and radionuclides. An estimated 580--920 metric tons of carbon tetrachloride were disposed of between 1955 and 1973, resulting in extensive soil and groundwater contamination. The VOC-Arid ID schedule has been divided into three phases of implementation. The phased approach provides for: rapid transfer of technologies to the Environmental Restoration (EM-40) programs once demonstrated; logical progression in the complexity of demonstrations based on improved understanding of the VOC problem; and leveraging of the host site EM-40 activities to reduce the overall cost of the demonstrations. During FY92 and FY93, the primary technology demonstrations within the ID were leveraged with an ongoing expedited response action at the Hanford 200 West Area, which is directed at vapor extraction of VOCs from the vadose (unsaturated) zone. Demonstration efforts are underway in the areas of subsurface characterization including: drilling and access improvements, off-gas and borehole monitoring of vadose zone VOC concentrations to aid in soil vapor extraction performance evaluation, and treatment of VOC-contaminated off-gas. These current demonstration efforts constitute Phase 1 of the ID and, because of the ongoing vadose zone ERA, can result in immediate transfer of successful technologies to EM-40.

  17. Quantification and Controls of Wetland Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNicol, Gavin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-10

    Wetlands cover only a small fraction of the Earth’s land surface, but have a disproportionately large influence on global climate. Low oxygen conditions in wetland soils slows down decomposition, leading to net carbon dioxide sequestration over long timescales, while also favoring the production of redox sensitive gases such as nitrous oxide and methane. Freshwater marshes in particular sustain large exchanges of greenhouse gases under temperate or tropical climates and favorable nutrient regimes, yet have rarely been studied, leading to poor constraints on the magnitude of marsh gas sources, and the biogeochemical drivers of flux variability. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California was once a great expanse of tidal and freshwater marshes but underwent drainage for agriculture during the last two centuries. The resulting landscape is unsustainable with extreme rates of land subsidence and oxidation of peat soils lowering the surface elevation of much of the Delta below sea level. Wetland restoration has been proposed as a means to slow further subsidence and rebuild peat however the balance of greenhouse gas exchange in these novel ecosystems is still poorly described. In this dissertation I first explore oxygen availability as a control on the composition and magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions from drained wetland soils. In two separate experiments I quantify both the temporal dynamics of greenhouse gas emission and the kinetic sensitivity of gas production to a wide range of oxygen concentrations. This work demonstrated the very high sensitivity of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide production to oxygen availability, in carbon rich wetland soils. I also found the temporal dynamics of gas production to follow a sequence predicted by thermodynamics and observed spatially in other soil or sediment systems. In the latter part of my dissertation I conduct two field studies to quantify greenhouse gas exchange and understand the carbon sources for

  18. Mercury Emission Control Technologies for PPL Montana-Colstrip Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John P. Kay; Michael L. Jones; Steven A. Benson

    2007-04-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) was asked by PPL Montana LLC (PPL) to provide assistance and develop an approach to identify cost-effective options for mercury control at its coal-fired power plants. The work conducted focused on baseline mercury level and speciation measurement, short-term parametric testing, and week long testing of mercury control technology at Colstrip Unit 3. Three techniques and various combinations of these techniques were identified as viable options for mercury control. The options included oxidizing agents or sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) such as chlorine-based SEA1 and an EERC proprietary SEA2 with and without activated carbon injection. Baseline mercury emissions from Colstrip Unit 3 are comparatively low relative to other Powder River Basin (PRB) coal-fired systems and were found to range from 5 to 6.5 g/Nm3 (2.9 to 3.8 lb/TBtu), with a rough value of approximately 80% being elemental upstream of the scrubber and higher than 95% being elemental at the outlet. Levels in the stack were also greater than 95% elemental. Baseline mercury removal across the scrubber is fairly variable but generally tends to be about 5% to 10%. Parametric results of carbon injection alone yielded minimal reduction in Hg emissions. SEA1 injection resulted in 20% additional reduction over baseline with the maximum rate of 400 ppm (3 gal/min). Week long testing was conducted with the combination of SEA2 and carbon, with injection rates of 75 ppm (10.3 lb/hr) and 1.5 lb/MMacf (40 lb/hr), respectively. Reduction was found to be an additional 30% and, overall during the testing period, was measured to be 38% across the scrubber. The novel additive injection method, known as novel SEA2, is several orders of magnitude safer and less expensive than current SEA2 injection methods. However, used in conjunction with this plant configuration, the technology did not demonstrate a significant level of mercury reduction. Near-future use of this

  19. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Pu-Xian

    2013-07-31

    This final report to the Department of Energy (DOE) and National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for DE-EE0000210 covers the period from October 1, 2009 to July 31, 2013. Under this project, DOE awarded UConn about $1,248,242 to conduct the research and development on a new class of 3D composite nanostructure based catalysts for lean NOx emission control. Much of the material presented here has already been submitted to DOE/NETL in quarterly technical reports. In this project, through a scalable solution process, we have successfully fabricated a new class of catalytic reactors, i.e., the composite nanostructure array (nano-array) based catalytic converters. These nanocatalysts, distinct from traditional powder washcoat based catalytic converters, directly integrate monolithic substrates together with nanostructures with well-defined size and shape during the scalable hydrothermal process. The new monolithic nanocatalysts are demonstrated to be able to save raw materials including Pt-group metals and support metal oxides by an order of magnitude, while perform well at various oxidation (e.g., CO oxidation and NO oxidation) and reduction reactions (H{sub 2} reduction of NOx) involved in the lean NOx emissions. The size, shape and arrangement of the composite nanostructures within the monolithic substrates are found to be the key in enabling the drastically reduced materials usage while maintaining the good catalytic reactivity in the enabled devices. The further understanding of the reaction kinetics associated with the unique mass transport and surface chemistry behind is needed for further optimizing the design and fabrication of good nanostructure array based catalytic converters. On the other hand, the high temperature stability, hydrothermal aging stability, as well as S-poisoning resistance have been investigated in this project on the nanocatalysts, which revealed promising results toward good chemical and mechanical robustness, as well as S

  20. Direct green waste land application: How to reduce its impacts on greenhouse gas and volatile organic compound emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu-Barker, Xia; Burger, Martin; Horwath, William R; Green, Peter G

    2016-06-01

    Direct land application as an alternative to green waste (GW) disposal in landfills or composting requires an understanding of its impacts on greenhouse gas (GHG) and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. We investigated the effects of two approaches of GW direct land application, surface application and soil incorporation, on carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4), and VOC emissions for a 12month period. Five treatments were applied in fall 2013 on fallow land under a Mediterranean climate in California: 30cm height GW on surface; 15cm height GW on surface; 15cm height GW tilled into soil; control+till; control+no till. In addition, a laboratory experiment was conducted to develop a mechanistic understanding of the influence of GW application on soil O2 consumption and GHG emission. The annual cumulative N2O, CO2 and VOC emissions ranged from 1.6 to 5.5kgN2O-Nha(-1), 5.3 to 40.6MgCO2-Cha(-1) and 0.6 to 9.9kgVOCha(-1), respectively, and were greatly reduced by GW soil incorporation compared to surface application. Application of GW quickly consumed soil O2 within one day in the lab incubation. These results indicate that to reduce GHG and VOC emissions of GW direct land application, GW incorporation into soil is recommended.

  1. Optical sensors for process control and emissions monitoring in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. W. Alendorf; D. K. Ottensen; D. W. Hahn; T. J. Kulp; U. B. Goers

    1999-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has a number of ongoing projects developing optical sensors for industrial environments. Laser-based sensors can be attractive for relatively harsh environments where extractive sampling is difficult, inaccurate, or impractical. Tools developed primarily for laboratory research can often be adapted for the real world and applied to problems far from their original uses. Spectroscopic techniques, appropriately selected, have the potential to impact the bottom line of a number of industries and industrial processes. In this paper the authors discuss three such applications: a laser-based instrument for process control in steelmaking, a laser-induced breakdown method for hazardous metal detection in process streams, and a laser-based imaging sensor for evaluating surface cleanliness. Each has the potential to provide critical, process-related information in a real-time, continuous manner. These sensor techniques encompass process control applications and emissions monitoring for pollution prevention. They also span the range from a field-tested pre-commercial prototype to laboratory instrumentation. Finally, these sensors employ a wide range of sophistication in both the laser source and associated analytical spectroscopy. In the ultimate applications, however, many attributes of the sensors are in common, such as the need for robust operation and hardening for harsh industrial environments.

  2. Humidity control of particle emissions in aeolian systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna Neuman, Cheryl; Sanderson, Steven

    2008-06-01

    Humidity is an important control of the wind speed required to entrain particles into an air flow and is well known to vary on a global scale, as do dust emissions. This paper reports on wind tunnel experiments which quantify this control through placing a polymer capacitance sensor immediately at the bed surface. The sensor measured changes in the humidity (RH) of the pore air in real time. RH was varied between 15% and 80% and the critical wind speed determined for the release of particles to the air stream. The results strongly support earlier suggestions that fine particles are most affected in relatively dry atmospheres, particularly those which are tightly packed. An analytical model is proposed to describe this relationship which depends on determination of the matric potential from the Kelvin equation. The total contact area between particle asperities adjoined by pendular rings is represented as a power function of the number of layers of adsorbed water. The value of the exponent appears to be governed by the surface roughness of the particles and their packing arrangement. Parallel developments in colloid interface science and atomic force microscopy, relevant to industrial and pharmaceutical applications, support these conclusions in principle and will likely have an important bearing on future progress in parameterization of the proposed model.

  3. Comparison of the Decomposition VOC Profile during Winter and Summer in a Moist, Mid-Latitude (Cfb) Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Shari L.; Perrault, Katelynn A.; Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues; Nizio, Katie D.; Focant, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with decomposition is an emerging field in forensic taphonomy due to their importance in locating human remains using biological detectors such as insects and canines. A consistent decomposition VOC profile has not yet been elucidated due to the intrinsic impact of the environment on the decomposition process in different climatic zones. The study of decomposition VOCs has typically occurred during the warmer months to enable chemical profiling of all decomposition stages. The present study investigated the decomposition VOC profile in air during both warmer and cooler months in a moist, mid-latitude (Cfb) climate as decomposition occurs year-round in this environment. Pig carcasses (Sus scrofa domesticus L.) were placed on a soil surface to decompose naturally and their VOC profile was monitored during the winter and summer months. Corresponding control sites were also monitored to determine the natural VOC profile of the surrounding soil and vegetation. VOC samples were collected onto sorbent tubes and analyzed using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography – time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS). The summer months were characterized by higher temperatures and solar radiation, greater rainfall accumulation, and comparable humidity when compared to the winter months. The rate of decomposition was faster and the number and abundance of VOCs was proportionally higher in summer. However, a similar trend was observed in winter and summer demonstrating a rapid increase in VOC abundance during active decay with a second increase in abundance occurring later in the decomposition process. Sulfur-containing compounds, alcohols and ketones represented the most abundant classes of compounds in both seasons, although almost all 10 compound classes identified contributed to discriminating the stages of decomposition throughout both seasons. The advantages of GC×GC-TOFMS were demonstrated for

  4. Ozone sensitivity to its precursor emissions in northeastern Mexico for a summer air pollution episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, A; Vanoye, A Y; Mendoza, A

    2013-10-01

    A summer episode was modeled to address the expected response of ambient air O3 to hypothetical emission control scenarios in northeastern Mexico, and in particular in the Monterrey Metropolitan Area (MMA). This region is of interest because the MMA holds one of the worst air quality problems in the country and levels of air pollutants in the rest of northeastern Mexico are starting to be a concern. The MM5-SMOKE-CMAQ platform was used to conduct the numerical experiments. Twenty-four control scenarios were evaluated, combining the level of emission controls of O3 precursors (NO(x) and volatile organic compounds [VOCs]) from 0% to 50%. For the MMA, VOC-only controls result in the best option to reduce O3 concentrations, though the benefit is limited to the urban core. This same strategy results in negligible benefits for the rest of northeastern Mexico. NO(x) controls result in an increase in O3 concentration within the MMA of up to 20 ppbv and a decrease at downwind locations of up to 11 ppbv, with respect to the base-case scenario. Indicator ratios were also used to probe for NO(x)-sensitive and VOC-sensitive areas. Locations with an important influence of NO(x) point sources (i.e., Monclova and Nava/Acuña) are quite sensitive to changes in NO(x) emissions. Border cities in the Rio Bravo/Grande Valley tend to be marginally NO(x)-sensitive. Overall, the MMA seems to be dominated by a VOC-sensitive regime, while the rest of the region would tend to have a NO(x)-sensitive response. The results obtained serve to expand the current knowledge on the chemical regimes that dominate this region (VOC- or NO(x)-sensitive), and thus could help guide public policies related to emission regional control strategies.

  5. Data-driven analysis of the effectiveness of evaporative emissions control systems of passenger cars in real world use condition: Time and spatial mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gennaro, Michele; Paffumi, Elena; Martini, Giorgio

    2016-03-01

    This paper assesses the effectiveness of the evaporative emissions control systems of European passenger cars on the basis of real-world activity data. The study relies on two large datasets of driving patterns from conventional fuel vehicles collected by means of on-board GPS systems, consisting of 4.5 million trips and parking events recorded by monitoring 28,000 vehicles over one month. Real world evaporative emissions are estimated using a model that associates a carbon canister desorption event to each trip and a fuel vapour generation event to each parking. The mass of volatile organic compounds released into the air is calculated taking into account the hot-soak, permeation and breathing emission mechanisms. The analysis is based on 36 scenarios, defined by varying the climate conditions, the fuel vapour pressure, the tank material, the tank headspace volume, the purging volume flow rate and the mass of the activated carbon contained in the canister. The results show that in May 4 out of the 18 scenarios considered for Modena and 6 out of the 18 scenarios considered for Firenze lead to evaporative emissions values above the current type approval limit (i.e. 2 [g/day] per vehicle). In July, these numbers increase to 10 out of the 18 scenarios for Modena and to 12 out of the 18 scenarios for Firenze. Looking at the fleet distribution a share of approximately 20% of the fleet is characterised by evaporative emissions higher than the limit in May, increasing to 48% in July, with a peak value of 98%. The emission peak value is estimated to be approximately 4 [g/day] in May and 8 [g/day] in July, while the time-dependent results show emission rates up to nearly 15 [g/s] in Modena and 30 [g/s] in Firenze, with a respective cumulative value in July up to 0.4 and 0.8 tons of VOCs per day. The space-dependent results show a value of the emissions in July of approximately 4-to-8 [kg/km2/day] in the city areas. These results confirm previous findings from the authors

  6. A demonstration of biofiltration for VOC removal in petrochemical industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lan; Huang, Shaobin; Wei, Zongmin

    2014-05-01

    A biotrickling filter demo has been set up in a petrochemical factory in Sinopec Group for about 10 months with a maximum inlet gas flow rate of 3000 m3 h(-1). The purpose of this project is to assess the ability of the biotrickling filter to remove hardly biodegradable VOCs such as benzene, toluene and xylene which are recalcitrant and poorly water soluble and commonly found in petrochemical factories. Light-weight hollow ceramic balls (Φ 5-8 cm) were used as the packing media treated with large amounts of circulating water (2.4 m3 m(-2) h(-1)) added with bacterial species. The controlled empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 240 s is a key parameter for reaching a removal efficiency of 95% for benzene, toluene, xylene, and 90% for total hydrocarbons. The demo has been successfully adopted and practically applied in waste air treatments in many petrochemical industries for about two years. The net inlet concentrations of benzene, toluene and xylene were varied from 0.5 to 3 g m(-3). The biofiltration process is highly efficient for the removal of hydrophobic and recalcitrant VOCs with various concentrations from the petrochemical factories. The SEM analysis of the bacterial community in the BTF during VOC removal showed that Pseudomonas putida and Klebsiella sp. phylum were dominant and shutdown periods could play a role in forming the community structural differences and leading to the changes of removal efficiencies.

  7. Aromatic VOCs global influence in the ozone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Perez, David; Pozzer, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are a subgroup of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) of special interest in the atmosphere of urban and semi-urban areas. Aromatics form a high fraction of VOCs, are highly reactive and upon oxidation they are an important source of ozone. These group of VOCs are released to the atmosphere by processes related to biomass burning and fossil fuel consumption, while they are removed from the atmosphere primarily by OH reaction and by dry deposition. In addition, a branch of aromatics (ortho-nitrophenols) produce HONO upon photolysis, which is responsible of certain amount of the OH recycling. Despite their importance in the atmosphere in anthropogenic polluted areas, the influence of aromatics in the ozone production remains largely unknown. This is of particular relevance, being ozone a pollutant with severe side effects on air quality, health and climate. In this work the atmospheric impacts at global scale of the most emitted aromatic VOCs in the gas phase (benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzene, styrene, phenol, benzaldehyde and trimethylbenzenes) are analysed and assessed. Specifically, the impact on ozone due to aromatic oxidation is estimated, as this is of great interest in large urban areas and can be helpful for developing air pollution control strategies. Further targets are the quantification of the NOx loss and the OH recycling due to aromatic oxidation. In order to investigate these processes, two simulations were performed with the numerical chemistry and climate simulation ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model. The simulations compare two cases, one with ozone concentrations when aromatics are present or the second one when they are missing. Finally, model simulated ozone is compared against a global set of observations in order to better constrain the model accuracy.

  8. Physical and chemical characterisation of PM emissions from two ships operating in European emission control areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moldanová, J.; Fridell, E.; Winnes, H.; Holmin-Fridell, S.; Boman, J.; Jedynska, A.; Tishkova, V.; Demirdjian, B.; Joulie, S.; Bladt, H.; Ivleva, N.P.; Niessner, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper emission factors (EFs) for particulate matter (PM) and some sub-components as well as gaseous substances were investigated in two onboard measurement campaigns. Emissions from two 4-stroke main engines were measured under stable-load conditions. The impact of varying engine load on the

  9. An Equivalent Emission Minimization Strategy for Causal Optimal Control of Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Zentner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges during the development of operating strategies for modern diesel engines is the reduction of the CO2 emissions, while complying with ever more stringent limits for the pollutant emissions. The inherent trade-off between the emissions of CO2 and pollutants renders a simultaneous reduction difficult. Therefore, an optimal operating strategy is sought that yields minimal CO2 emissions, while holding the cumulative pollutant emissions at the allowed level. Such an operating strategy can be obtained offline by solving a constrained optimal control problem. However, the final-value constraint on the cumulated pollutant emissions prevents this approach from being adopted for causal control. This paper proposes a framework for causal optimal control of diesel engines. The optimization problem can be solved online when the constrained minimization of the CO2 emissions is reformulated as an unconstrained minimization of the CO2 emissions and the weighted pollutant emissions (i.e., equivalent emissions. However, the weighting factors are not known a priori. A method for the online calculation of these weighting factors is proposed. It is based on the Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman (HJB equation and a physically motivated approximation of the optimal cost-to-go. A case study shows that the causal control strategy defined by the online calculation of the equivalence factor and the minimization of the equivalent emissions is only slightly inferior to the non-causal offline optimization, while being applicable to online control.

  10. The impact of speciated VOCs on regional ozone increment derived from measurements at the UK EMEP supersites between 1999 and 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Malley

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of 27 volatile organic compounds (VOC on the regional O3 increment was investigated using measurements made at the UK EMEP supersites Harwell (1999–2001 and 2010–2012 and Auchencorth (2012. Ozone at these sites is representative of rural O3 in south-east England and northern UK, respectively. Monthly-diurnal regional O3 increment was defined as the difference between the regional and hemispheric background O3 concentrations, respectively derived from oxidant vs. NOx correlation plots, and cluster analysis of back trajectories arriving at Mace Head, Ireland. At Harwell, which had substantially greater regional ozone increments than at Auchencorth, variation in the regional O3 increment mirrored afternoon depletion of VOCs due to photochemistry (after accounting for diurnal changes in boundary layer mixing depth, and weighting VOC concentrations according to their photochemical ozone creation potential. A positive regional O3 increment occurred consistently during the summer, during which time afternoon photochemical depletion was calculated for the majority of measured VOCs, and to the greatest extent for ethene and m + p-xylene. This indicates that, of the measured VOCs, ethene and m + p-xylene emissions reduction would be most effective in reducing the regional O3 increment, but that reductions in a larger number of VOCs would be required for further improvement. The VOC diurnal photochemical depletion was linked to the sources of the VOC emissions through the integration of gridded VOC emissions estimates over 96 h air-mass back trajectories. This demonstrated that the effectiveness of VOC gridded emissions for use in measurement and modelling studies is limited by the highly aggregated nature of the 11 SNAP source sectors in which they are reported, as monthly variation in speciated VOC trajectory emissions did not reflect monthly changes in individual VOC diurnal photochemical depletion. Additionally, the major VOC emission

  11. Honing in on phenotypes: comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography of herbivory-induced volatile emissions and novel opportunities for system-level analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaquerel, Emmanuel; Baldwin, Ian T

    2013-01-01

    Plant volatile organic compound (VOC) production requires a complex network of biochemical pathways, which, although well mapped from a biochemical point of view, remains only partly understood with regard to its physiological and genetic regulation. Additionally, although analytical procedures for plant VOC measurement have become increasingly faster and more sensitive in recent years, pinpointing relevant shifts in VOC production from the thousands of molecular fragments that are generated by modern mass spectrometer instruments remains challenging. Here we discuss novel opportunities for system-wide analysis provided by the implementation of non-targeted data processing and multivariate statistics in VOC analysis. We illustrate the value of implementing non-targeted data processing with examples of recent findings from our group on the interactive control exerted by salivary components of a lepidopteran herbivore, Manduca sexta, on herbivory-induced VOC emissions in the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata. Finally, we briefly discuss the use of multi-platform data integration for probing the nature of metabolic and regulatory systems underlying VOC emissions.

  12. [Study on feasible emission control level of air pollutions for cement industry ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chun; Jiang, Mei; Zou, Lan; Li, Xiao-qian; Wei, Yu-xia; Zhao, Guo-hua; Zhang, Guo-ning

    2014-09-01

    The revised National Emission Standard of Air Pollutions for Cement Industry has been issued, which will be effective for the new enterprises and the existing enterprises on Mar. 1st, 2014 and July 1st, 2015, respectively. In the process of revision, the key technical issues on determination of standard limits was how to determine the feasible emission control level of air pollutions. Feasible emission control requirements were put forward, according to air pollutants emission, technologies, environmental management requirements and foreign standards, etc. The main contents of the revised standard include expanding the scope of application, increasing the pollutants, improving the particulate and NO emissions control level, and increasing special emission limits applied to key areas of air pollutants. The standard will become the gripper of pollution prevention, total emission reduction, structural adjustment and optimization of the layout, and will promote scientific and technical progression for the cement industry.

  13. The community ecology of isoprene emissions from terrestrial plants and implications for other phytogenic volatiles (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerdau, M.; Fuentes, J. D.; Shugart, H. H.

    2013-12-01

    In the 1960's Frits Went published some of the first English language descriptions of volatile organic carbon (VOC) emissions from plants. Within 15 years it was well understood that the dominant phytogenic VOC was isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene). The years that followed saw a host of studies on the physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology of isoprene emissions, and many of the most important controls at these scales have been elucidated and incorporated into large-scale models of isoprene emissions to the atmosphere. In addition, extensive surveys of isoprene emissions from high latitude, temperate, and tropical ecosystems have consistently found enormous variations in emissions across taxa, and the mechanisms underlying this variability remain the largest unknown in current models of isoprene emissions. We integrate community ecological modeling with isoprene emissions modeling to develop a predictive model of isoprene emissions across decadal to centennial time scales. The model combines an individual-based model of forest succession that includes architectural and biodiversity changes over succession after disturbance with a species-based canopy-scale emissions model. We parameterize this model for the southeastern United States, a region that is well studied both in terms of forests succession and in terms of isoprene emission. Our results highlight the sensitivity of isoprene emissions to successional stage and species composition. From this effort we predict that the largest impacts of global environmental change on isoprene emissions will occur through effects on community composition and structure rather than through direct impacts on primary and secondary metabolism. We also predict that land use and disturbance history will continue to have dramatic impacts on isoprene emissions from terrestrial ecosystems through their effects on canopy structure and community composition, even in the face of climate change and nutrient deposition. We suggest

  14. Release of VOCs and particles during use of nanofilm spray products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørgaard, Asger W; Jensen, Keld A; Janfelt, Christian; Lauritsen, Frants R; Clausen, Per A; Wolkoff, Peder

    2009-10-15

    Here, we present emission data on VOCs and particles emitted during simulated use of four commercial nanofilm spray products (NFPs) used for making easy-to-clean or self-cleaning surfaces on floors, ceramic tiles, and windows. The aim was to characterize the emitted VOCs and to provide specific source strength data for VOCs and particles released to the airduring use of the products. Containers with NFP were mounted on a spray-stand inside a closed stainless steel chamber with no air exchange. NFPs were sprayed in amounts corresponding to 1 m2 surface toward a target plate at a distance of 35 cm. Released VOCs were measured by a combination of air sampling on Tenax TA adsorbent followed by thermal desorption GC/MS and GC/FID analysis and real time measurements using a miniature membrane inlet mass spectrometer. Particles were measured using a fast mobility particle sizer and an aerosol particle sizer. A number of VOCs were identified, including small alcohols, ketones and ethers, chlorinated acetones, a perfluorinated silane, limonene, and cyclic siloxanes. The number of generated particles was on the order of 3 x 10(8) to 2 x 10(10) particles/m3 per g sprayed NFP and were dominated by nanosize particles.

  15. Estimates of increased black carbon emissions from electrostatic precipitators during powdered activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Herek L

    2012-07-03

    The behavior of mercury sorbents within electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is not well-understood, despite a decade or more of full-scale testing. Recent laboratory results suggest that powdered activated carbon exhibits somewhat different collection behavior than fly ash in an ESP and particulate filters located at the outlet of ESPs have shown evidence of powdered activated carbon penetration during full-scale tests of sorbent injection for mercury emissions control. The present analysis considers a range of assumed differential ESP collection efficiencies for powdered activated carbon as compared to fly ash. Estimated emission rates of submicrometer powdered activated carbon are compared to estimated emission rates of particulate carbon on submicrometer fly ash, each corresponding to its respective collection efficiency. To the extent that any emitted powdered activated carbon exhibits size and optical characteristics similar to black carbon, such emissions could effectively constitute an increase in black carbon emissions from coal-based stationary power generation. The results reveal that even for the low injection rates associated with chemically impregnated carbons, submicrometer particulate carbon emissions can easily double if the submicrometer fraction of the native fly ash has a low carbon content. Increasing sorbent injection rates, larger collection efficiency differentials as compared to fly ash, and decreasing sorbent particle size all lead to increases in the estimated submicrometer particulate carbon emissions.

  16. Energy, Carbon-emission and Financial Savings from Thermostat Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasing, T J [ORNL; Schroeder, Dana [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

    2013-08-01

    Among the easiest approaches to energy, and cost, savings for most people is the adjustment of thermostats to save energy. Here we estimate savings of energy, carbon, and money in the United States of America (USA) that would result from adjusting thermostats in residential and commercial buildings by about half a degree Celsius downward during the heating season and upward during the cooling season. To obtain as small a unit as possible, and therefore the least likely to be noticeable by most people, we selected an adjustment of one degree Fahrenheit (0.56 degree Celsius) which is the gradation used almost exclusively on thermostats in the USA and is the smallest unit of temperature that has been used historically. Heating and/or cooling of interior building space for personal comfort is sometimes referred to as space conditioning, a term we will use for convenience throughout this work without consideration of humidity. Thermostat adjustment, as we use the term here, applies to thermostats that control the indoor temperature, and not to other thermostats such as those on water heaters. We track emissions of carbon only, rather than of carbon dioxide, because carbon atoms change atomic partners as they move through the carbon cycle, from atmosphere to biosphere or ocean and, on longer time scales, through the rock cycle. To convert a mass of carbon to an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide (thereby including the mass of the 2 oxygen atoms in each molecule) simply multiply by 3.67.

  17. Cost-effective control of SO2 emissions in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cofala, J.; Amann, M.; Gyarfas, F.; Schoepp, F.; Boudri, J.C.; Hordijk, L.; Kroeze, C.; Li Junfeng,; Dai Lin, D.; Panwar, T.S.; Gupta, S.

    2004-01-01

    Despite recent efforts to limit the growth of SO2 emissions in Asia, the negative environmental effects of sulphur emissions are likely to further increase in the future. This paper presents an extension of the RAINS-Asia integrated assessment model for acidification in Asia with an optimisation rou

  18. Emissions of Transport Refrigeration Units with CARB Diesel, Gas-to-Liquid Diesel, and Emissions Control Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R. A.; Chernich, D.; Burnitzki, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Miyasato, M.; Lucht, E.; van der Merwe, D.; Schaberg, P.

    2010-05-01

    A novel in situ method was used to measure emissions and fuel consumption of transport refrigeration units (TRUs). The test matrix included two fuels, two exhaust configurations, and two TRU engine operating speeds. Test fuels were California ultra low sulfur diesel and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel. Exhaust configurations were a stock muffler and a Thermo King pDPF diesel particulate filter. The TRU engine operating speeds were high and low, controlled by the TRU user interface. Results indicate that GTL diesel fuel reduces all regulated emissions at high and low engine speeds. Application of a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions, sometimes almost entirely. The application of both GTL diesel and a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions at high engine speed, but showed an increase in oxides of nitrogen at low engine speed.

  19. New trends in emission control in the European Union

    CERN Document Server

    Merkisz, Jerzy; Radzimirski, Stanislaw

    2014-01-01

    This book discusses recent changes in the European legislation for exhaust emissions from motor vehicles. It starts with a comprehensive explanation of both the structure and range of applicability of new regulations, such as Euro 5 and Euro 6 for light-duty vehicles and Euro VI for heavy-duty vehicles. Then it introduces the most important issues in in-service conformity and conformity of production for vehicles, describing the latest procedures for performing exhaust emissions tests under both bench and operating conditions. Subsequently, it reports on portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) and their application for assessing the emissions of gaseous and particulate matter alike, under actual operating conditions and in all transport modes. Lastly, the book presents selected findings from exhaust emissions research on engines for a variety of transport vehicles, such as light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles, as well as non-road vehicles, which include farm tractors, groundwork and forest machinery, diese...

  20. Volatile organic compounds emission control in industrial pollution source using plasma technology coupled with F-TiO2/γ-Al2O3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tao; Chen, Rui; Xia, Ni; Li, Xiaoyang; He, Xianxian; Zhao, Wenjuan; Carr, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds' (VOCs) effluents, which come from many industries, are triggering serious environmental problems. As an emerging technology, non-thermal plasma (NTP) technology is a potential technology for VOCs emission control. NTP coupled with F-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 is used for toluene removal from a gaseous influent at normal temperature and atmospheric pressure. NTP is generated by dielectric barrier discharge, and F-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 can be prepared by sol-gel method in the laboratory. In the experiment, the different packed materials were packed into the plasma reactor, including γ-Al2O3, TiO2/γ-Al2O3 and F-TiO2/γ-Al2O3. Through a series of characterization methods such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy and Brunner-Emmet-Teller measurements, the results show that the particle size distribution of F-TiO2 is relatively smaller than that of TiO2, and the pore distribution of F-TiO2 is more uniformly distributed than that of TiO2. The relationships among toluene removal efficiency, reactor input energy density, and the equivalent capacitances of air gap and dielectric barrier layer were investigated. The results show that the synergistic technology NTP with F-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 resulted in greater enhancement of toluene removal efficiency and energy efficiency. Especially, when packing with F-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 in NTP reactor, toluene removal efficiency reaches 99% and higher. Based on the data analysis of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, the experimental results showed that NTP reactor packed with F-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 resulted in a better inhibition for by-products formation effectively in the gas exhaust.

  1. How light, temperature, and measurement and growth [CO2] interactively control isoprene emission in hybrid aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinemets, Ülo; Sun, Zhihong

    2015-02-01

    Plant isoprene emissions have been modelled assuming independent controls by light, temperature and atmospheric [CO2]. However, the isoprene emission rate is ultimately controlled by the pool size of its immediate substrate, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP), and isoprene synthase activity, implying that the environmental controls might interact. In addition, acclimation to growth [CO2] can shift the share of the control by DMADP pool size and isoprene synthase activity, and thereby alter the environmental sensitivity. Environmental controls of isoprene emission were studied in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides) saplings acclimated either to ambient [CO2] of 380 μmol mol(-1) or elevated [CO2] of 780 μmol mol(-1). The data demonstrated strong interactive effects of environmental drivers and growth [CO2] on isoprene emissions. Light enhancement of isoprene emission was the greatest at intermediate temperatures and was greater in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants, indicating greater enhancement of the DMADP supply. The optimum temperature for isoprene emission was higher at lower light, suggesting activation of alternative DMADP sinks at higher light. In addition, [CO2] inhibition of isoprene emission was lost at a higher temperature with particularly strong effects in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. Nevertheless, DMADP pool size was still predicted to more strongly control isoprene emission at higher temperatures in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. We argue that interactive environmental controls and acclimation to growth [CO2] should be incorporated in future isoprene emission models at the level of DMADP pool size.

  2. Modeled and observed ozone sensitivity to mobile-source emissions in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zavala

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The emission characteristics of mobile sources in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA have changed significantly over the past few decades in response to emission control policies, advancements in vehicle technologies and improvements in fuel quality, among others. Along with these changes, concurrent non-linear changes in photochemical levels and criteria pollutants have been observed, providing a unique opportunity to understand the effects of perturbations of mobile emission levels on the photochemistry in the region using observational and modeling approaches. The observed historical trends of ozone (O3, carbon monoxide (CO and nitrogen oxides (NOx suggest that ozone production in the MCMA has changed from a low to a high VOC-sensitive regime over a period of 20 years. Comparison of the historical emission trends of CO, NOx and hydrocarbons derived from mobile-source emission studies in the MCMA from 1991 to 2006 with the trends of the concentrations of CO, NOx, and the CO/NOx ratio during peak traffic hours also indicates that fuel-based fleet average emission factors have significantly decreased for CO and VOCs during this period whereas NOx emission factors do not show any strong trend, effectively reducing the ambient VOC/NOx ratio.

    This study presents the results of model analyses on the sensitivity of the observed ozone levels to the estimated historical changes in its precursors. The model sensitivity analyses used a well-validated base case simulation of a high pollution episode in the MCMA with the mathematical Decoupled Direct Method (DDM and the standard Brute Force Method (BFM in the 3-D CAMx chemical transport model. The model reproduces adequately the observed historical trends and current photochemical levels. Comparison of the BFM and the DDM sensitivity techniques indicates that the model yields ozone values that increase linearly with

  3. Modeled and observed ozone sensitivity to mobile-source emissions in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zavala

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The emission characteristics of mobile sources in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA have changed significantly over the past few decades in response to emission control policies, advancements in vehicle technologies and improvements in fuel quality, among others. Along with these changes, concurrent non-linear changes in photochemical levels and criteria pollutants have been observed, providing a unique opportunity to understand the effects of perturbations of mobile emission levels on the photochemistry in the region using observational and modeling approaches. The observed historical trends of ozone (O3, carbon monoxide (CO and nitrogen oxides (NOx suggest that ozone production in the MCMA has changed from a low to a high VOC-sensitive regime over a period of 20 years. Comparison of the historical emission trends of CO, NOx and hydrocarbons derived from mobile-source emission studies in the MCMA from 1991 to 2006 with the trends of the concentrations of CO, NOx, and the CO/NOx ratio during peak traffic hours also indicates that fuel-based fleet average emission factors have significantly decreased for CO and VOCs during this period whereas NOx emission factors do not show any strong trend, effectively reducing the ambient VOC/NOx ratio.

    This study presents the results of model analyses on the sensitivity of the observed ozone levels to the estimated historical changes in its precursors. The model sensitivity analyses used a well-validated base case simulation of a high pollution episode in the MCMA with the mathematical Decoupled Direct Method (DDM and the standard Brute Force Method (BFM in the 3-D CAMx chemical transport model. The model reproduces adequately the observed historical trends and current photochemical levels. Comparison of the BFM and the DDM sensitivity techniques indicates that the model yields ozone values that increase linearly with

  4. Modeled and observed ozone sensitivity to mobile-source emissions in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, M.; Lei, W.; Molina, M. J.; Molina, L. T.

    2009-01-01

    The emission characteristics of mobile sources in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) have changed significantly over the past few decades in response to emission control policies, advancements in vehicle technologies and improvements in fuel quality, among others. Along with these changes, concurrent non-linear changes in photochemical levels and criteria pollutants have been observed, providing a unique opportunity to understand the effects of perturbations of mobile emission levels on the photochemistry in the region using observational and modeling approaches. The observed historical trends of ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) suggest that ozone production in the MCMA has changed from a low to a high VOC-sensitive regime over a period of 20 years. Comparison of the historical emission trends of CO, NOx and hydrocarbons derived from mobile-source emission studies in the MCMA from 1991 to 2006 with the trends of the concentrations of CO, NOx, and the CO/NOx ratio during peak traffic hours also indicates that fuel-based fleet average emission factors have significantly decreased for CO and VOCs during this period whereas NOx emission factors do not show any strong trend, effectively reducing the ambient VOC/NOx ratio. This study presents the results of model analyses on the sensitivity of the observed ozone levels to the estimated historical changes in its precursors. The model sensitivity analyses used a well-validated base case simulation of a high pollution episode in the MCMA with the mathematical Decoupled Direct Method (DDM) and the standard Brute Force Method (BFM) in the 3-D CAMx chemical transport model. The model reproduces adequately the observed historical trends and current photochemical levels. Comparison of the BFM and the DDM sensitivity techniques indicates that the model yields ozone values that increase linearly with NOx emission reductions and decrease linearly with VOC emission reductions only up to 30% from the

  5. Controlling spontaneous emission dynamics in semiconductor micro cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayral, B.

    Spontaneous emission of light can be controlled, cavity quantum electrodynamics tells us, and many experiments in atomic physics demonstrated this fact. In particular, coupling an emitter to a resonant photon mode of a cavity can enhance its spontaneous emission rate: this is the so-called Purcell effect. Though appealing it might seem to implement these concepts for the benefit of light-emitting semiconductor devices, great care has to be taken as to which emitter/cavity system should be used. Semiconductor quantum boxes prove to be good candidates for witnessing the Purcell effect. Also, low volume cavities having a high optical quality in other words a long photon storage time are required. State-of-the-art fabrication techniques of such cavities are presented and discussed.We demonstrate spontaneous emission rate enhancement for InAs/GaAs quantum boxes in time-resolved and continuous-wave photoluminescence experiments. This is done for two kinds of cavities, namely GaAs/AlAs micropillars (global enhancement by a factor of 5), and GaAs microdisks (global enhancement by a factor of 20). Prospects for lasers, light-emitting diodes and single photon sources based on the Purcell effect are discussed. L'émission spontanée de lumière peut être contrôlée, ainsi que nous l'enseigne l'électrodynamique quantique en cavité, ce fait a été démontré expérimentalement en physique atomique. En particulier, coupler un émetteur à un mode photonique résonnant d'une cavité peut exalter son taux d'émission spontanée : c'est l'effet Purcell. Bien qu'il semble très prometteur de mettre en pratique ces concepts pour améliorer les dispositifs semi-conducteurs émetteurs de lumière, le choix du système émetteur/cavité est crucial. Nous montrons que les boîtes quantiques semi-conductrices sont des bons candidats pour observer l'effet Purcell. Il faut par ailleurs des cavités de faible volume ayant une grande qualité optique en d'autres mots un long temps de

  6. The impact from emitted NO{sub x} and VOC in an aircraft plume. Model results for the free troposphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleijel, K.

    1998-04-01

    The chemical fate of gaseous species in a specific aircraft plume is investigated using an expanding box model. The model treats the gas phase chemical reactions in detail, while other parameters are subject to a high degree of simplification. Model simulations were carried out in a plume up to an age of three days. The role of emitted VOC, NO{sub x} and CO as well as of background concentrations of VOC, NO{sub x} and ozone on aircraft plume chemistry was investigated. Background concentrations were varied in a span of measured values in the free troposphere. High background concentrations of VOC were found to double the average plume production of ozone and organic nitrates. In a high NO{sub x} environment the plume production of ozone and organic nitrates decreased by around 50%. The production of nitric acid was found to be less sensitive to background concentrations of VOC, and increased by up to 50% in a high NO{sub x} environment. Mainly, emitted NO{sub x} caused the plume production of ozone, nitric acid and organic nitrates. The ozone production during the first hours is determined by the relative amount of NO{sub 2} in the NO{sub x} emissions. The impact from emitted VOC was in relative values up to 20% of the ozone production and 65% of the production of organic nitrates. The strongest relative influence from VOC was found in an environment characterized by low VOC and high NO{sub x} background concentrations, where the absolute peak production was lower than in the other scenarios. The effect from emitting VOC and NO{sub x} at the same time added around 5% for ozone, 15% for nitric acid and 10% for organic nitrates to the plume production caused by NO{sub x} and VOC when emitted separately 47 refs, 15 figs, 4 tabs

  7. Use of Combined Observational- and Model-Derived Photochemical Indicators to Assess the O3-NOx-VOC System Sensitivity in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson R. Carrillo-Torres

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric levels of O3 have historically exceeded the official annual Mexican standards within the Monterrey Metropolitan Area (MMA in NE Mexico. High-frequency and high-precision measurements of tropospheric O3, NOy, NO2, NO, CO, SO2, PM10 and PM2.5 were made at the Obispado monitoring site near the downtown MMA from September 2012 to August 2013. The seasonal cycles of O3 and NOy are driven by changes in meteorology and to a lesser extent by variations in primary emissions. The NOy levels were positively correlated with O3 precursors and inversely correlated with O3 and wind speed. Recorded data were used to assess the O3-Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC-NOx system’s sensitivity through an observational-based approach. The photochemical indicator O3/NOy was derived from measured data during the enhanced O3 production period (12:00–18:00 Central Daylight Time (CDT, GMT-0500. The O3/NOy ratios calculated for this time period showed that the O3 production within the MMA is VOC sensitive. A box model simulation of production rates of HNO3 (PHNO3 and total peroxides (Pperox carried out for O3 episodes in fall and spring confirmed the VOC sensitivity within the MMA environment. No significant differences were observed in O3/NOy from weekdays to weekends or for PHNO3/Pperox ratios, confirming the limiting role of VOCs in O3 production within the MMA. The ratified photochemical regime observed may allow the environmental authorities to revise and verify the current policies for air quality control within the MMA.

  8. Field Testing Pulsed Power Inverters in Welding Operations to Control Heavy Metal Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    FINAL REPORT Field Testing Pulsed Power Inverters in Welding Operations to Control Heavy Metal Emissions ESTCP Project WP-200212...PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER Field Testing Pulsed Power Inverters in Welding Operations to Control Heavy Metal Emissions 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  9. Engine Performance (Section C: Emission Control Systems). Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Module 3. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rains, Larry

    This engine performance (emission control systems) module is one of a series of competency-based modules in the Missouri Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Topics of this module's five units are: positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) and evaporative emission control systems; exhaust gas recirculation (EGR); air injection and catalytic converters;…

  10. Exhaust emissions of volatile organic compounds of powered two-wheelers: effect of cold start and vehicle speed. Contribution to greenhouse effect and tropospheric ozone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costagliola, M Antonietta; Murena, Fabio; Prati, M Vittoria

    2014-01-15

    Powered two-wheeler (PTW) vehicles complying with recent European type approval standards (stages Euro 2 and Euro 3) were tested on chassis dynamometer in order to measure exhaust emissions of about 25 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the range C1-C7, including carcinogenic compounds as benzene and 1,3-butadiene. The fleet consists of a moped (engine capacity ≤ 50 cm(3)) and three fuel injection motorcycles of different engine capacities (150, 300 and 400 cm(3)). Different driving conditions were tested (US FPT cycle, constant speed). Due to the poor control of the combustion and catalyst efficiency, moped is the highest pollutant emitter. In fact, fuel injection strategy and three way catalyst with lambda sensor are able to reduce VOC motorcycles' emission of about one order of magnitude with respect to moped. Cold start effect, that is crucial for the assessment of actual emission of PTWs in urban areas, was significant: 30-51% of extra emission for methane. In the investigated speed range, moped showed a significant maximum of VOC emission factor at minimum speed (10 km/h) and a slightly decreasing trend from 20 to 60 km/h; motorcycles showed on the average a less significant peak at 10 km/h, a minimum at 30-40 km/h and then an increasing trend with a maximum emission factor at 90 km/h. Carcinogenic VOCs show the same pattern of total VOCs. Ozone Formation Potential (OFP) was estimated by using Maximum Incremental Reactivity scale. The greatest contribution to tropospheric ozone formation comes from alkenes group which account for 50-80% to the total OFP. VOC contribution effect on greenhouse effect is negligible with respect to CO2 emitted.

  11. Environmental factors controlling methane emissions from peatlands in northern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dise, Nancy B.; Gorham, Eville; Verry, Elon S.

    1993-01-01

    The environmental factors affecting the emission of methane from peatlands were investigated by correlating CH4 emission data for two years, obtained from five different peatland ecosystems in northern Minnesota, with peat temperature, water table position, and degree of peat humification. The relationship obtained between the CH4 flux and these factors was compared to results from a field manipulation experiment in which the water table was artificially raised in three experimental plots within the driest peatland. It was found that peat temperature, water table position, and degree of peat humification explained 91 percent of the variance in log CH4 flux, successfully predicted annual CH4 emission from individual wetlands, and predicted the change in flux due to the water table manipulation. Raising the water table in the bog corrals by an average of 6 cm in autumn 1989 and 10 cm in summer 1990 increased CH4 emission by 2.5 and 2.2 times, respectively.

  12. Indoor air quality (IAQ) assessment in a multistorey shopping mall by high-spatial-resolution monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodio, M; Dambruoso, P R; de Gennaro, Gianluigi; de Gennaro, L; Loiotile, A Demarinis; Marzocca, A; Stasi, F; Trizio, L; Tutino, M

    2014-12-01

    In order to assess indoor air quality (IAQ), two 1-week monitoring campaigns of volatile organic compounds (VOC) were performed in different areas of a multistorey shopping mall. High-spatial-resolution monitoring was conducted at 32 indoor sites located in two storehouses and in different departments of a supermarket. At the same time, VOC concentrations were monitored in the mall and parking lot area as well as outdoors. VOC were sampled at 48-h periods using diffusive samplers suitable for thermal desorption. The samples were then analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The data analysis and chromatic maps indicated that the two storehouses had the highest VOC concentrations consisting principally of terpenes. These higher TVOC concentrations could be a result of the low efficiency of the air exchange and intake systems, as well as the large quantity of articles stored in these small spaces. Instead, inside the supermarket, the food department was the most critical area for VOC concentrations. To identify potential emission sources in this department, a continuous VOC analyzer was used. The findings indicated that the highest total VOC concentrations were present during cleaning activities and that these activities were carried out frequently in the food department. The study highlights the importance of conducting both high-spatial-resolution monitoring and high-temporal-resolution monitoring. The former was able to identify critical issues in environments with a complex emission scenario while the latter was useful in interpreting the dynamics of each emission source.

  13. Emission of greenhouse gases from controlled incineration of cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Sun, Xiucui; Taniguchi, Miki; Takaoka, Masaki; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Fujiwara, Taku

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emission is a potential limiting factor in livestock farming development. While incineration is one approach to minimize livestock manure, there are concerns about significant levels of nitrogen and organic compounds in manure as potential sources of greenhouse gas emissions (N2O and CH4). In this study, the effects of various incineration conditions, such as the furnace temperature and air ratio on N2O and CH4 formation behaviour, of cattle manure (as a representative livestock manure) were investigated in a pilot rotary kiln furnace. The results revealed that N2O emissions decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing air ratio. In addition, CH4 emissions tended to be high above 800 degrees C at a low air ratio. The emission factors for N2O and CH4 under the general conditions (combustion temperature of 800-850 degrees C and air ratio of 1.4) were determined to be 1.9-6.0% g-N2O-N/g-N and 0.0046-0.26% g-CH4/g-burning object, respectively. The emission factor for CH4 differed slightly from the published values between 0.16 and 0.38% g-CH4/g-burning object. However, the emission factor for N2O was much higher than the currently accepted value of 0.7% g-N2O-N/g-N and, therefore, it is necessary to revise the N2O emission factor for the incineration of livestock manure.

  14. Effects of After-Treatment Control Technologies on Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Dallmann, T. R.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hering, S. V.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel engines are major emitters of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and the black carbon (BC) fraction of particulate matter (PM). Diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have recently become standard on new heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT). There is concern that DPFs may increase ultrafine particle (UFP) and total particle number (PN) emissions while reducing PM mass emissions. Also, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out NO to NO2 in continuously regenerating DPFs may lead to increased tailpipe emission of NO2 and near-roadway concentrations that exceed the 1-hr national ambient air quality standard. Increased NO2 emissions can also promote formation of ozone and secondary PM. We report results from ongoing on-road studies of HDDT emissions at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in California's San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to each truck's engine model year and installed emission controls. At both sites, DPF use significantly increased the NO2/NOx emission ratio. DPFs also significantly increased NO2 emissions when installed as retrofits on older trucks with higher baseline NOx emissions. While SCR systems on new trucks effectively reduce total NOx emissions and mitigate these undesirable DPF-related NO2 emissions, they also lead to significant emission of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas. When expressed on a CO2-equivalent basis, the N2O emissions increase offsets the fuel economy gain (i.e., the CO2 emission reduction) associated with SCR use. At the Port, average NOx, BC and PN emission factors from new trucks equipped with DPF and SCR were 69 ± 15%, 92 ± 32% and 66 ± 35% lower, respectively, than modern trucks without these emission controls. In contrast, at the Tunnel, PN emissions from older trucks retrofit with DPFs were ~2 times greater than modern trucks without DPFs. The difference

  15. Control technology for radioactive emissions to the atmosphere at US Department of Energy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, E.B.

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection agency (EPA) on existing technology for the control of radionuclide emissions into the air from US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, and to provide EPA with information on possible additional control technologies that could be used to further reduce these emissions. Included in this report are generic discussions of emission control technologies for particulates, iodine, rare gases, and tritium. Also included are specific discussions of existing emission control technologies at 25 DOE facilities. Potential additional emission control technologies are discussed for 14 of these facilities. The facilities discussed were selected by EPA on the basis of preliminary radiation pathway analyses. 170 references, 131 figures, 104 tables.

  16. Quantification of Gas Emissions from Refinieries, Gas Stations, Oil Wells and Agriculture using Optical Solar Occultation Flux and Tracer Correlation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellqvist, J.; Samuelsson, J.; Marianne, E.; Brohede, S.; Andersson, P.; Johansson, J.; Isoz, O.; Tisopulos, L.; Polidori, A.; Pikelnaya, O.

    2016-12-01

    Industrial volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions may contribute significantly to ozone formation. In order to investigate how much small sources contribute to the VOC concentrations in the Los Angeles metropolitan area a comprehensive emission study has been carried out on behalf of the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). VOC emissions from major sources such as refineries, oil wells, petrol stations oil depots and oil platforms were measured during September and October 2015 using several unique optical methods, including the Solar Occultation Flux method (SOF) and tracer correlation technique based on extractive FTIR and DOAS combined with an open path multi reflection cell. In addition, measurements of ammonia emissions from farming in Chino were demonstrated. The measurements in this study were quality assured by carrying out a controlled source gas release study and side by side measurements with several other techniques. The results from the field campaign show that the emissions from the above mentioned sources are largely underestimated in inventories with potential impact on the air quality in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. The results show that oil and gas production is a very significant VOC emission source. In this presentation the techniques will be discussed together with the main results from the campaign including the quality assurance work.

  17. VOC transport in vented drums containing simulated waste sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Rae, C.; Connolly, M.J.

    1994-02-01

    A model is developed to estimate the volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement in a lab-scale vented waste drum containing simulated waste sludge. The VOC transport model estimates the concentration using the measured VOC concentration beneath the drum lid and model parameters defined or estimated from process knowledge of drum contents and waste drum configuration. Model parameters include the VOC diffusion characteristic across the filter vent, VOC diffusivity in air, size of opening in the drum liner lid, the type and number of layers of polymer bags surrounding the waste, VOC permeability across the polymer, and the permeable surface area of the polymer bags. Comparison of model and experimental results indicates that the model can accurately estimate VOC concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement. The model may be useful in estimating the VOC concentration in actual waste drums.

  18. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air from Nisyros Island (Dodecanese Archipelago, Greece): Natural versus anthropogenic sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassi, F; Capecchiacci, F; Giannini, L; Vougioukalakis, G E; Vaselli, O

    2013-09-01

    This study presents the chemical composition of VOCs in air and gas discharges collected at Nisyros Island (Dodecanese Archipelago, Greece). The main goals are i) to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic VOC sources and ii) to evaluate their impact on local air quality. Up to 63 different VOCs were recognized and quantitatively determined in 6 fumaroles and 19 air samples collected in the Lakki caldera, where fumarolic emissions are located, and the outer ring of the island, including the Mandraki village and the main harbor. Air samples from the crater area show significant concentrations of alkanes, alkenes, cyclic, aromatics, and S- and O-bearing heterocycles directly deriving from the hydrothermal system, as well as secondary O-bearing compounds from oxidation of primary VOCs. At Mandraki village, C6H6/Σ(methylated aromatics) and Σ(linear)/Σ(branched) alkanes ratios <1 allow to distinguish an anthropogenic source related to emissions from outlet pipes of touristic and private boats and buses.

  19. Quantifying the effects of China's pollution control on atmospheric mercury emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, H.

    2014-12-01

    China has conducted series of air pollution control policies to reduce the pollutant emissions. Although not specifically for mercury (Hg), those policies are believed to have co-benefits on atmospheric Hg emission control. On the basis of field-tests data and updated information of energy conservation and emission control, we have developed multiple-year inventories of anthropogenic mercury emissions in China from 2005 to 2012. Three scenarios (scenario 0(S0), scenario 1(S1), scenario 2(S2)) with different emission controls and energy path are designed for prediction of the future Hg emissions for the country. In particular, comprehensive assessments has been conducted to evaluate the evolution of emission factors, recent emission trends, effects of control measures as well as the reliability of our results. The national total emissions of anthropogenic Hg are estimated to increase from 679.0 metric tons (t) in 2005 to 749.8 t in 2012, with the peak at 770.6 t in 2011. The annual growth rate of emissions can then be calculated at 2.1% during 2005-2011, much lower than that of energy consumption or economy of the country. Coal combustion, gold metallurgy and nonferrous metal smelting are the most significant Hg sources of anthropogenic origin, accounting together for 85% of national total emissions. Tightened air pollution controls in China should be important reasons for the smooth emission trends. Compared with 2005, 299 t Hg were reduced in 2010 from power plants, iron and steel smelting, nonferrous-smelting and cement production, benefiting from the improvement of control measures for those sectors. The speciation of Hg emissions is relatively stable for recent years, with the mass fractions of around 55%, 9% and 6% for Hg0, Hg2+ and Hgp respectively. Integrating the policy commitments on energy saving, different from the most conservative case S0, S2 shares the same energy path with S1, but includes more stringent emission control. Under those scenarios, we

  20. Definition and Control Indicators of Volatile Organic Compounds in China%我国挥发性有机物定义和控制指标的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江梅; 邹兰; 李晓倩; 车飞; 赵国华; 李刚; 张国宁

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds ( VOCs) are the most complex of a wide range of pollutants that harms human health and ecological environment. However, various countries around the world differ on its definition and control indicators. Its definition, control indicators and monitoring methods of our country and local standards were also different. Based on detailed analysis of the definitions and control indicators of VOCs, the recommendations were proposed: the definition of VOCs should be different according to the different concerns between “air quality management” and “pollution emissions management”; base on different control way from production source, technological process, terminal emission, total discharge control, the control indicators system consists of 10 indicators; to formulate industry VOCs emissions standards, the most effective control way and indicators should be chosen according to characteristics of production process, way of VOCs emissions and possible control measures, etc.%挥发性有机物(VOCs)种类繁多,对人体健康和生态环境危害大,是最为复杂的一类污染物。世界各国对其定义以及控制指标有所区别,我国的国家标准和地方标准对其也没有统一的定义,控制指标和对应的监测方法也各有不同。通过对国内外现行 VOCs 定义和控制指标的深入分析,提出 VOCs 的定义应根据“空气质量管理”与“污染源排放管理”关注问题的不同而有所区别;从生产源头、工艺过程、末端排放、总量控制等不同控制途径,建立的 VOCs 控制指标体系由10项指标构成;在制订行业 VOCs 排放标准时,应根据行业生产工艺特点、 VOCs 排放方式、可能采取的控制措施等,从中选择最有效的控制方式和指标(或指标组合)。

  1. GEIGER BRICKEL BENEFITS FROM LOW -VOC COATINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midwest Research Institute, under a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), conducted a study to identify wood furniture manufacturing facilities that had converted to low-volatile organic compound (VOC)/hazardous air pollutant (HAP) wood furnit...

  2. Contribution of low vapor pressure-volatile organic compounds (LVP-VOCs) from consumer products to ozone formation in urban atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyeong-Moo; McKone, Thomas E.; Bennett, Deborah H.

    2015-05-01

    Because recent laboratory testing indicates that some low vapor pressure-volatile organic compounds (LVP-VOC) solvents readily evaporate at ambient conditions, LVP-VOCs used in some consumer product formulations may contribute to ozone formation. The goal of this study is to determine the fraction of LVP-VOCs available for ozone formation from the use of consumer products for two hypothetical emissions. This study calculates and compares the fraction of consumed product available for ozone formation as a result of (a) volatilization to air during use and (b) down-the-drain disposal. The study also investigates the impact of different modes of releases on the overall fraction available in ambient air for ozone formation. For the portion of the LVP-VOCs volatilized to air during use, we applied a multi-compartment mass-balance model to track the fate of emitted LVP-VOCs in a multimedia urban environment. For the portion of the LVP-VOCs disposed down the drain, we used a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) fate model to predict the emission rates of LVP-VOCs to ambient air at WWTPs or at the discharge zone of the facilities and then used these results as emissions in the multimedia urban environment model. In a WWTP, the LVP-VOCs selected in this study are primarily either biodegraded or removed via sorption to sludge depending on the magnitude of the biodegradation half-life and the octanol-water partition coefficient. Less than 0.2% of the LVP-VOCs disposed down the drain are available for ozone formation. In contrast, when the LVP-VOC in a consumer product is volatilized from the surface to which it has been applied, greater than 90% is available for photochemical reactions either at the source location or in the downwind areas. Comparing results from these two modes of releases allows us to understand the importance of determining the fraction of LVP-VOCs volatilized versus disposed down the drain when the product is used by consumers. The results from this study

  3. Trends of VOC exposures among a nationally representative sample: Analysis of the NHANES 1988 through 2004 data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Feng-Chiao; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Batterman, Stuart

    2011-09-01

    Exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitous due to emissions from personal, commercial and industrial products, but quantitative and representative information regarding long term exposure trends is lacking. This study characterizes trends from 1988 to 2004 for the 15 VOCs measured in blood in five cohorts of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a large and representative sample of U.S. adults. Trends were evaluated at various percentiles using linear quantile regression (QR) models, which were adjusted for solvent-related occupations and cotinine levels. Most VOCs showed decreasing trends at all quantiles, e.g., median exposures declined by 2.5 (m,p-xylene) to 6.4 (tetrachloroethene) percent per year over the 15 year period. Trends varied by VOC and quantile, and were grouped into three patterns: similar decreases at all quantiles (including benzene, toluene); most rapid decreases at upper quantiles (ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, o-xylene, styrene, chloroform, tetrachloroethene); and fastest declines at central quantiles (1,4-dichlorobenzene). These patterns reflect changes in exposure sources, e.g., upper-percentile exposures may result mostly from occupational exposure, while lower percentile exposures arise from general environmental sources. Both VOC emissions aggregated at the national level and VOC concentrations measured in ambient air also have declined substantially over the study period and are supportive of the exposure trends, although the NHANES data suggest the importance of indoor sources and personal activities on VOC exposures. While piecewise QR models suggest that exposures of several VOCs decreased little or any during the 1990's, followed by more rapid decreases from 1999 to 2004, questions are raised concerning the reliability of VOC data in several of the NHANES cohorts and its applicability as an exposure indicator, as demonstrated by the modest correlation between VOC levels in blood and personal air

  4. Spatial/temporal variations and source apportionment of VOCs monitored at community scale in an urban area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ho Yu

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize spatial/temporal variations of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs using a community-scale monitoring approach and identify the main sources of concern in Paterson, NJ, an urban area with mixed sources of VOCs. VOC samples were simultaneously collected from three local source-dominated (i.e., commercial, industrial, and mobile sites in Paterson and one background site in Chester, NJ (located ∼58 km southwest of Paterson. Samples were collected using the EPA TO-15 method from midnight to midnight, one in every sixth day over one year. Among the 60 analyzed VOCs, ten VOCs (acetylene, benzene, dichloromethane, ethylbenzene, methyl ethyl ketone, styrene, toluene, m,p-xylene, o-xylene, and p-dichlorobenzene were selected to examine their spatial/temporal variations. All of the 10 VOCs in Paterson were significantly higher than the background site (p<0.01. Ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, o-xylene, and p-dichlorobenzene measured at the commercial site were significantly higher than the industrial/mobile sites (p<0.01. Seven VOCs (acetylene, benzene, dichloromethane, methyl ethyl ketone, styrene, toluene, and p-dichlorobenzene were significantly different by season (p<0.05, that is, higher in cold seasons than in warm seasons. In addition, dichloromethane, methyl ethyl ketone, and toluene were significantly higher on weekdays than weekend days (p<0.05. These results are consistent with literature data, indicating the impact of anthropogenic VOC sources on air pollution in Paterson. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF analysis was applied for 24-hour integrated VOC measurements in Paterson over one year and identified six contributing factors, including motor vehicle exhausts (20%, solvents uses (19%, industrial emissions (16%, mobile+stationery sources (12%, small shop emissions (11%, and others (22%. Additional locational analysis confirmed the identified sources were well matched with point sources located upwind in

  5. Mercury mass flow in iron and steel production process and its implications for mercury emission control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengyang; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Hai; Gao, Wei; Wu, Qingru; Hao, Jiming

    2016-05-01

    The iron and steel production process is one of the predominant anthropogenic sources of atmospheric mercury emissions worldwide. In this study, field tests were conducted to study mercury emission characteristics and mass flows at two iron and steel plants in China. It was found that low-sulfur flue gas from sintering machines could contribute up to 41% of the total atmospheric mercury emissions, and desulfurization devices could remarkably help reduce the emissions. Coal gas burning accounted for 17%-49% of the total mercury emissions, and therefore the mercury control of coal gas burning, specifically for the power plant burning coal gas to generate electricity, was significantly important. The emissions from limestone and dolomite production and electric furnaces can contribute 29.3% and 4.2% of the total mercury emissions from iron and steel production. More attention should be paid to mercury emissions from these two processes. Blast furnace dust accounted for 27%-36% of the total mercury output for the whole iron and steel production process. The recycling of blast furnace dust could greatly increase the atmospheric mercury emissions and should not be conducted. The mercury emission factors for the coke oven, sintering machine and blast furnace were 0.039-0.047gHg/ton steel, and for the electric furnace it was 0.021gHg/ton steel. The predominant emission species was oxidized mercury, accounting for 59%-73% of total mercury emissions to air.

  6. Advanced Catalytic Converter in Gasoline Enginer Emission Control: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust emission from automobile source has become a major contributor to the air pollution and environmental problem. Catalytic converter is found to be one of the most effective tools to reduce the overwhelming exhaust pollutants in our environment. The development of sustainable catalytic converter still remains a critical issue due to the stringent exhaust emission regulations. Another issue such as price and availability of the precious metal were also forced the automotive industry to investigate the alternatives for producing a better replacement for the material used in catalytic converter. This paper aims at reviewing the present development and improvement on the catalytic converter used on the reduction of exhaust emission in order to meet the regulations and market demand. The use of new catalyst such as to replace the noble metal material of Platinum (Pt, Palladium (Pd and Rhodium (Rh has been reviewed. Material such as zeolite, nickel oxide and metal oxide has been found to effectively reduce the emission than the commercial converter. The preparation method of the catalyst has also evolved through the years as it is to ensure a good characteristic of a good monolith catalyst. Ultrasonic treatment with combination of electroplating technique, citrate method and Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO has been found as the latest novel preparation method on producing an effective catalyst in reducing the exhaust emission.

  7. Controlling photon emission from silicon for photonic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalem, Seref

    2014-03-01

    The importance of a photon source that would be compatible with silicon circuitry is crucial for data communication networks. A photon source with energies ranging from UV to near infrared can be activated in Si as originationg from defects related to dislocations, vacancies, strain induced band edge transitions and quantum confinement effects. Using an etching method developed in this work, one can also enhance selectively the UV-VIS, band edge emission and emissions at telecom wavelengths, which are tunable depending on surface treatment. Deuterium D2O etching favors near infrared emission with a characteristic single peak at 1320 nm at room temperature. The result offers an exciting solution to advanced microelectronics The method involves the treatment of Si surface by deuterium Deuterium containing acid vapor, resulting in a layer that emits at 1320 nm. Etching without deuterium, a strong band edge emission can be induced at 1150 nm or an emission at 1550 nm can be created depending on the engineered surface structure of silicon. Schottky diodes fabricated on treated surfaces exhibit a strong rectifying characteristics in both cases.

  8. Evaluating a space-based indicator of surface ozone sensitivity to emissions of NOx vs. NMVOC over major northern mid-latitude source regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, X.; Fiore, A. M.; Murray, L. T.; Valin, L.

    2016-12-01

    Determining the most effective strategy for mitigating local surface ozone pollution requires knowledge of the relative ambient concentration of NOx to VOCs in the air. Satellite observations of the tropospheric column ratio of HCHO (a marker of VOCs) to NO2 (a marker of NOx) have been used as an indicator to identify areas which would benefit from reducing NOx emissions (NOx-sensitive, HCHO:NO2 > 2), and areas where reducing VOC emission leads to lower ozone (VOC-sensitive or NOx-saturated, HCHO:NO2 DOMINO, SP) products with GEOS-Chem simulations. The spatiotemporal correlation between the modeled and observed indicator ratio is mainly influenced by the choice of NO2 product, while the mean bias depends on the choice of HCHO product. Applying a regime classification method that adjusts these uncertainties, we investigate the decadal trend of surface ozone sensitivity from the space over the three regions. Some megacities (e.g., Chicago, New York, Guangzhou) show a clear transition from VOC-limited to NOx-limited ozone production regimes, resulting from emission control strategies over the past decade.

  9. Controlled Emissivity Coatings to Delay Ignition of Polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnier, Rodolphe; Ferry, Laurent; Gallard, Benjamin; Boudenne, Abderrahim; Lavaud, François

    2015-10-12

    Semi-opaque to opaque films containing small amounts of various aluminium particles to decrease emissivity were easily prepared and coated onto low-density polyethylene (LDPE) sheets. The thermal-radiative properties (reflectivity, transmissivity and absorptivity) of the films were measured and related to the aluminum particles' content, size and nature. Time-to-ignition of samples was assessed using a cone calorimeter at different heat flux values (35, 50 and 75 kW/m²). The coatings allowed significant ignition delay and, in some cases, changed the material behaviour from thermally thin to thick behaviour. These effects are related both to their emissivity and transmissivity. A lower emissivity, which decreases during the degradation, and a lower transmissivity are the key points to ensure an optimal reaction-to-fire.

  10. Controlled Emissivity Coatings to Delay Ignition of Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe Sonnier

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Semi-opaque to opaque films containing small amounts of various aluminium particles to decrease emissivity were easily prepared and coated onto low-density polyethylene (LDPE sheets. The thermal-radiative properties (reflectivity, transmissivity and absorptivity of the films were measured and related to the aluminum particles’ content, size and nature. Time-to-ignition of samples was assessed using a cone calorimeter at different heat flux values (35, 50 and 75 kW/m2. The coatings allowed significant ignition delay and, in some cases, changed the material behaviour from thermally thin to thick behaviour. These effects are related both to their emissivity and transmissivity. A lower emissivity, which decreases during the degradation, and a lower transmissivity are the key points to ensure an optimal reaction-to-fire.

  11. Characteristics and Source Apportionment of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the Northern Suburb of Nanjing%南京北郊大气 VOCs 变化特征及来源解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安俊琳; 朱彬; 王红磊; 杨辉

    2014-01-01

    Based on the data of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) collected continuously from 1st Mar, 2011 to 29th Feb, 2012 in the northern suburb of Nanjing, characteristics of their variability, differences of ratios of tracers and source apportionment by principal component analysis/ absolute principal component scores (PCA/ APCS) were analyzed. The results showed that the total VOCs mixing ratios were 43. 52 × 10 - 9 , which accounted for 45. 1% of alkanes, alkenes for 25. 3% , alkyne for 7. 3% , and aromatics for 22. 3% . There was an obviously seasonal variation of VOCs, with the maximum in summer and the minimum in winter. There was an obvious seasonal variation of VOCs component, with highest alkanes in winter, highest alkenes in summer, highest aromatic in spring, and highest alkyne in winter. By using the specific pollutant ratios ( hydrocarbons/ acetylene and toluene/ benzene) method, it indicated that the observation site was greatly affected by the surrounding industrial areas. Source analysis of VOCs by PCA/ APCS mode showed that the sources consisted of industrial production sources, automobile emission sources, combustion sources, industrial production volatilization sources, solvent use sources and biogenic emission sources. In addition, there were seasonal variations. Overall, the sources related to industrial production activities represented 45% - 63% of VOCs, and they were followed by automobile emission sources, which represented 34% -50% .%利用2011-03-01~2012-02-29南京北郊大气 VOCs 观测资料,对大气 VOCs 浓度变化特征和特征物比值差异展开研究,并应用 PCA/ APCS 受体模型对不同季节 VOCs 来源进行了解析.结果表明,南京大气总 VOCs 体积混合比为43.52×10-9,其中烷烃占45.1%、烯烃占25.3%、炔烃占7.3%和芳香烃占22.3%.总 VOCs 体积混合比呈现夏季高,冬季低的季节变化. VOCs 组分中烷烃在冬季最高,烯烃夏季最高,芳香烃春季最高,炔烃冬季最高.特征物比值(VOCs

  12. The effects of recent control policies on trends in emissions of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants and CO2 in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, Junying; Nielsen, Chris

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effects of China's national policies of energy conservation and emission control during 2005–2010, inter-annual emission trends of gaseous pollutants, primary aerosols, and CO2 are estimated with a bottom-up framework. The control measures led to improved energy efficiency and/or increased penetration of emission control devices at power plants and other important industrial sources, yielding reduced emission factors for all evaluated species except NOx. The national emissions ...

  13. Occupational hygiene in terms of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols at two solid waste management plants in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtinen, Jenni, E-mail: jenni.k.lehtinen@jyu.fi [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Tolvanen, Outi; Nivukoski, Ulla; Veijanen, Anja; Hänninen, Kari [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Odorous VOCs: acetic acid, 2,3-butanedione, ethyl acetate, alpha-pinene and limonene. ► VOC concentrations did not exceed occupational exposure limit concentrations. ► 2,3-Butanedione as the health effecting compound is discussed. ► Endotoxin concentrations may cause health problems in waste treatment. - Abstract: Factors affecting occupational hygiene were measured at the solid waste transferring plant at Hyvinkää and at the optic separation plant in Hämeenlinna. Measurements consisted of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols including microbes, dust and endotoxins. The most abundant compounds in both of the plants were aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, esters of carboxylic acids, ketones and terpenes. In terms of odour generation, the most important emissions were acetic acid, 2,3-butanedione, ethyl acetate, alpha-pinene and limonene due to their low threshold odour concentrations. At the optic waste separation plant, limonene occurred at the highest concentration of all single compounds of identified VOCs. The concentration of any single volatile organic compound did not exceed the occupational exposure limit (OEL) concentration. However, 2,3-butanedione as a health risk compound is discussed based on recent scientific findings linking it to lung disease. Microbe and dust concentrations were low at the waste transferring plant. Only endotoxin concentrations may cause health problems; the average concentration inside the plant was 425 EU/m{sup 3} which clearly exceeded the threshold value of 90 EU/m{sup 3}. In the wheel loader cabin the endotoxin concentrations were below 1 EU/m{sup 3}. High microbial and endotoxin concentrations were measured in the processing hall at the optic waste separation plant. The average concentration of endotoxins was found to be 10,980 EU/m{sup 3}, a concentration which may cause health risks. Concentrations of viable fungi were quite high in few measurements in the control room. The most

  14. The control of NO sub x emissions from PFBC systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minchener, A.J.; Kelsall, G.J. (British Coal Corporation Stoke Orchard (UK). Coal Research Establishment)

    1990-06-01

    Studies at the Coal Research Establishment of the British Coal Corporation have shown that emissions of NO{sub x} from pressurised fluidised-bed combustion systems are inherently low (typically 150ppm at 3% oxygen, dry basis). With staged combustion and/or ammonia injection, NO{sub x} emissions can be reduced to below 50ppm, which is well within the relevant current and proposed European Community legislative limits for coal-fired power generation. These very low NO{sub x} levels can apparently be achieved while excellent combustion performance is maintained. 13 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Diesel emission control: Catalytic filters for particulate removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Fino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The European diesel engine industry represents a vital sector across the Continent, with more than 2 million direct work positions and a turnover of over 400 billion Euro. Diesel engines provide large paybacks to society since they are extensively used to transport goods, services and people. In recent years increasing attention has been paid to the emissions from diesel engines which, like gasoline engine emissions, include carbon monoxide (CO, hydrocarbons (HC and oxides of nitrogen (NOx. Diesel engines also produce significant levels of particulate matter (PM, which consists mostly of carbonaceous soot and a soluble organic fraction (SOF of hydrocarbons that have condensed on the soot.

  16. SOA Formation Potential of Emissions from Soil and Leaf Litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiola, C. L.; Vanderschelden, G. S.; Wen, M.; Cobos, D. R.; Jobson, B. T.; VanReken, T. M.

    2013-12-01

    In the United States, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from natural sources exceed all anthropogenic sources combined. VOCs participate in oxidative chemistry in the atmosphere and impact the concentrations of ozone and particulate material. The formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is particularly complex and is frequently underestimated using state-of-the-art modeling techniques. We present findings that suggest emissions of important SOA precursors from soil and leaf litter are higher than current inventories would suggest, particularly under conditions typical of Fall and Spring. Soil and leaf litter samples were collected at Big Meadow Creek from the University of Idaho Experimental Forest. The dominant tree species in this area of the forest are ponderosa pine, Douglas-fir, and western larch. Samples were transported to the laboratory and housed within a 0.9 cubic meter Teflon dynamic chamber where VOC emissions were continuously monitored with a GC-FID-MS and PTR-MS. Aerosol was generated from soil and leaf litter emissions by pumping the emissions into a 7 cubic meter Teflon aerosol growth chamber where they were oxidized with ozone in the absence of light. The evolution of particle microphysical and chemical characteristics was monitored over the following eight hours. Particle size distribution and chemical composition were measured with a SMPS and HR-ToF-AMS respectively. Monoterpenes dominated the emission profile with emission rates up to 283 micrograms carbon per meter squared per hour. The dominant monoterpenes emitted were beta-pinene, alpha-pinene, and delta-3-carene in descending order. The composition of the SOA produced was similar to biogenic SOA formed from oxidation of ponderosa pine emissions and alpha-pinene. Measured soil/litter monoterpene emission rates were compared with modeled canopy emissions. Results suggest that during fall and spring when tree emissions are lower, monoterpene emissions within forests may be

  17. Delay-feedback control strategy for reducing CO2 emission of traffic flow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Dong; Zhu, Wen-Xing

    2015-06-01

    To study the signal control strategy for reducing