WorldWideScience

Sample records for vo2max running velocity

  1. The highest velocity and the shortest duration permitting attainment of VO2max during running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Turnes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n2p226   The severe-intensity domain has important applications for the prescription of running training and the elaboration of experimental designs. The objectives of this study were: 1 to investigate the validity of a previously proposed model to estimate the shortest exercise duration (TLOW and the highest velocity (VHIGH at which VO2max is reached during running, and 2 to evaluate the effects of aerobic training status on these variables. Eight runners and eight physically active subjects performed several treadmill running exercise tests to fatigue in order to mathematically estimate and to experimentally determine TLOW and VHIGH. The relationship between the time to achieve VO2max and time to exhaustion (Tlim was used to estimate TLOW. VHIGH was estimated using the critical velocity model. VHIGH was assumed to be the highest velocity at which VO2 was equal to or higher than the average VO2max minus one standard deviation. TLOW was defined as Tlim associated with VHIGH. Runners presented better aerobic fitness and higher VHIGH (22.2 ± 1.9 km.h-1 than active subjects (20.0 ± 2.1 km.h-1. However, TLOW did not differ between groups (runners: 101 ± 39 s; active subjects: 100 ± 35 s. TLOW and VHIGH were not well estimated by the model proposed, with high coefficients of variation (> 6% and a low correlation coefficient (r<0.70, a fact reducing the validity of the model. It was concluded that aerobic training status positively affected only VHIGH. Furthermore, the model proposed presented low validity to estimate the upper boundary of the severe-intensity domain (i.e., VHIGH, irrespective of the subjects’ training status.

  2. Relationship between running kinematic changes and time limit at vVO2max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo De Lucca

    2012-06-01

    Exhaustive running at maximal oxygen uptake velocity (vVO2max can alter running kinematic parameters and increase energy cost along the time. The aims of the present study were to compare characteristics of ankle and knee kinematics during running at vVO2max and to verify the relationship between changes in kinematic variables and time limit (Tlim. Eleven male volunteers, recreational players of team sports, performed an incremental running test until volitional exhaustion to determine vVO2max and a constant velocity test at vVO2max. Subjects were filmed continuously from the left sagittal plane at 210 Hz for further kinematic analysis. The maximal plantar flexion during swing (p<0.01 was the only variable that increased significantly from beginning to end of the run. Increase in ankle angle at contact was the only variable related to Tlim (r=0.64; p=0.035 and explained 34% of the performance in the test. These findings suggest that the individuals under study maintained a stable running style at vVO2max and that increase in plantar flexion explained the performance in this test when it was applied in non-runners.

  3. Estimated VO2max and its corresponding velocity predict performance of amateur runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ribeiro Ramalho Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of runners, with a proportional increase in their involvement in amateur street competition. Identification of the determinants of performance in this population appears necessary for optimization of time devoted to training. The objective of this study was to ascertain the association between estimated maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, critical velocity (CV and VO2max velocity (VVO2max and athletic performance in the 3.6 km (uphill and 10 and 21.1 km (flatland events. Twelve amateur runners (nine male, mean age 36 ± 5 years underwent five tests: 1 and 5 km race on level ground, 3.6 km race with slope (≈8%, and indirect VO2max measurement. CV was determined from the linear relationship between distance and run time on the first two tests. The subjects then took part in two official 10 km and 21.1 km (half marathon races. VVO2max was calculated from the VO2max through a metabolic equation. VO2max showed the best association with running performance in the 10 and 21.1 km events. For the uphill race, VVO2max showed a better association. Overall, the variable with the highest average association was VO2max (0.91±0.07, followed by VVO2max (0.90±0.04 and VC (0.87±0.06. This study showed strong associations between physiological variables established by low-cost, user-friendly indirect methods and running performance in the 10 and 21.1 km (flatland and 3.6 km (uphill running events.

  4. Time limit and time at VO2max' during a continuous and an intermittent run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarie, S; Koralsztein, J P; Billat, V

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify, by track field tests, whether sub-elite runners (n=15) could (i) reach their VO2max while running at v50%delta, i.e. midway between the speed associated with lactate threshold (vLAT) and that associated with maximal aerobic power (vVO2max), and (ii) if an intermittent exercise provokes a maximal and/or supra maximal oxygen consumption longer than a continuous one. Within three days, subjects underwent a multistage incremental test during which their vVO2max and vLAT were determined; they then performed two additional testing sessions, where continuous and intermittent running exercises at v50%delta were performed up to exhaustion. Subject's gas exchange and heart rate were continuously recorded by means of a telemetric apparatus. Blood samples were taken from fingertip and analysed for blood lactate concentration. In the continuous and the intermittent tests peak VO2 exceeded VO2max values, as determined during the incremental test. However in the intermittent exercise, peak VO2, time to exhaustion and time at VO2max reached significantly higher values, while blood lactate accumulation showed significantly lower values than in the continuous one. The v50%delta is sufficient to stimulate VO2max in both intermittent and continuous running. The intermittent exercise results better than the continuous one in increasing maximal aerobic power, allowing longer time at VO2max and obtaining higher peak VO2 with lower lactate accumulation.

  5. Running Performance, VO2max, and Running Economy: The Widespread Issue of Endogenous Selection Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgen, Nicolai T

    2018-05-01

    Studies in sport and exercise medicine routinely use samples of highly trained individuals in order to understand what characterizes elite endurance performance, such as running economy and maximal oxygen uptake VO 2max . However, it is not well understood in the literature that using such samples most certainly leads to biased findings and accordingly potentially erroneous conclusions because of endogenous selection bias. In this paper, I review the current literature on running economy and VO 2max , and discuss the literature in light of endogenous selection bias. I demonstrate that the results in a large part of the literature may be misleading, and provide some practical suggestions as to how future studies may alleviate endogenous selection bias.

  6. A comparison of VO2max and metabolic variables between treadmill running and treadmill skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepp, Kriston K; Janot, Jeffrey M

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in VO2max and metabolic variables between treadmill running and treadmill skating. This study also examined VO2max responses during a continuous skating treadmill protocol and a discontinuous skating treadmill protocol. Sixteen male high school hockey players, who had a mean age of 16 +/- 1 years and were of an above-average fitness level, participated in this study. All subjects completed 4 exercise trials: a 1-hour skating treadmill familiarization trial, a treadmill running trial, and 2 randomized skating treadmill trials. Minute ventilation (VE), oxygen consumption VO2), carbon dioxide production VCO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and heart rate were averaged every 15 seconds up to VO2max for each exercise test. The results showed that there was a significant difference (P skating treadmill protocol. There was also a significant difference for maximal RER between the discontinuous and continuous skating treadmill protocol and between the discontinuous skating treadmill protocol and running treadmill protocol. In conclusion, the running treadmill elicited a greater VO2max (mL.kg.min) than the skating treadmill did, but when it comes to specificity of ice skating, the skating treadmill may be ideal. Also, there was no significant difference between the discontinuous and continuous skating treadmill protocols. Therefore, a continuous protocol is possible on the skating treadmill without compromising correct skating position and physiologic responses. However, the continuous skating treadmill protocol should undergo validation before other scientists, coaches, and strength and conditioning professionals can apply it correctly.

  7. Validation of a ramp running protocol for determination of the true VO2max in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ayachi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the field of comparative physiology, it remains to be established whether the concept of VO2max is valid in the mouse and, if so, how this value can be accurately determined. In humans, VO2max is generally considered to correspond to the plateau observed when VO2 no longer rises with an increase in workload. In contrast, the concept of VO2peak tends to be used in murine studies. The objectives of the present study were to determine whether (i a continuous ramp protocol yielded a higher VO2peak than a stepwise, incremental protocol, and (ii the VO2peak measured in the ramp protocol corresponded to VO2max. The three protocols (based on intensity-controlled treadmill running until exhaustion with eight female FVB/N mice were performed in random order: (a an incremental protocol that begins at 10 m.min-1 speed and increases by 3 m.min-1 every 3 min. (b a ramp protocol with slow acceleration (3 m.min-2, and (c a ramp protocol with fast acceleration (12 m.min-2. Each protocol was performed with two slopes (0° and 25°. Hence, each mouse performed six exercise tests. We found that the value of VO2peak was protocol-dependent (p 8 mmol.l-1 and a respiratory exchange ratio >1. The total duration of the 3 m.min-2 0° ramp protocol was shorter than that of the incremental protocol. Taken as a whole, our results suggest that VO2max in the mouse is best determined by applying a ramp exercise protocol with slow acceleration and no treadmill slope.

  8. Relationship between running kinematic changes and time limit at vVO2max. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n4p428

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Iberes Lopes Melo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n4p428Exhaustive running at maximal oxygen uptake velocity (vVO2max can alter running kinematic parameters and increase energy cost along the time. The aims of the present study were to compare characteristics of ankle and knee kinematics during running at vVO2max and to verify the relationship between changes in kinematic variables and time limit (Tlim. Eleven male volunteers, recreational players of team sports, performed an incremental running test until volitional exhaustion to determine vVO2max and a constant velocity test at vVO2max. Subjects were filmed continuously from the left sagittal plane at 210 Hz for further kinematic analysis. The maximal plantar flexion during swing (p<0.01 was the only variable that increased significantly from beginning to end of the run. Increase in ankle angle at contact was the only variable related to Tlim (r=0.64; p=0.035 and explained 34% of the performance in the test. These findings suggest that the individuals under study maintained a stable running style at vVO2max and that increase in plantar flexion explained the performance in this test when it was applied in non-runners.

  9. Changes in Running Economy, Respiratory Exchange Ratio and VO2max in Runners following a 10-day Altitude Training Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebel, Sebastian R; Newhouse, Ian; Thompson, David S; Johnson, Vineet B K

    2017-01-01

    Running economy (RE) and VO 2 max are important predictors of endurance performance for elite and semi-elite endurance athletes, with RE being an appropriate predictor in a homogenous running population. Altitude training has been observed to change RE (mL.kg -1 .min -1 ), and VO 2 max due to alterations resulting from acclimatization. This study tracked changes in RE and VO 2 max before and after a 10-day altitude training camp at 1828 meters. VO 2 max, RE expressed calorically, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER), were measured below anaerobic threshold (AT) to observe differences between pre-and post-altitude training. Eight varsity cross-country runners between the ages of 18 and 22 years performed an incremental treadmill test, pre- and post-10-day altitude training. Paired samples t-tests were used to statistically analyze the data. Average RE (VO 2 mL.kg -1 .min -1 ) improved following altitude intervention ( M = 56.44 ± 4.28) compared to pre-altitude training (61.30 ± 7.56). These differences were statistically significant t ( 7 )= 2.71, p =.014. RE expressed as kcals.kg -1 .km -1 improved following altitude training (16.73 ± 2.96) compared to (18.44 ± 4.04) pre-altitude training and was statistically significant t( 7 ) =3.08, p = .008. RER taken during the last minute of steady-state was higher (0.97, ± .019) post-altitude training, compared to (0.90 ± .043) pre-altitude. These differences were statistically significant t ( 7 ) -3.62, p =.008. VO 2 max (mL.kg -1 .min -1 ) was lower in 6 out of 8 participants (63.91, ± 8.65) post-altitude compared to (69.90, ± 10.80) pre-altitude and was statistically significant t( 7 ) = 2.33, p =.026. The observed improvements in RE may be beneficial for endurance athletes competing and/or training at moderate altitudes near 1828 meters.

  10. Efeito da intensidade do exercício de corrida intermitente 30s:15s no tempo de manutenção no ou próximo do VO2max Effect of intensity of intermittent running exercise 30s:15s at the time maintenance at or near VO2max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alves de Aguiar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo comparou o tempo mantido acima de 90% (t90VO2max e de 95% VO2max (t95VO2max em três diferentes intensidades de exercício. Após a realização de um teste incremental para determinar o VO2max, oito estudantes de educação física ativos (23 ± 3 anos executaram três sessões de exercícios intermitentes (100, 110 e 120% da velocidade do VO2max (vVO2max com razão esforço:recuperação de 30s:15s. O t95VO2max foi significantemente maior em 110%vVO2max (EI110% (218,1 ± 81,6 s quando comparado a 100%vVO2max (EI100% (91,9 ± 75,2s e a 120%vVO2max (EI120% (126,3 ± 29,4 s, porém sem diferença entre EI100% e EI120%. O t90VO2max somente apresentou diferença significante entre EI110% e EI120%. Portanto, conclui-se que durante exercício intermitente com razão 30s:15s, a intensidade de 110%vVO2max apresenta-se mais adequada para manter o VO2 próximo ou no VO2max por um tempo maior.The present study compared the time maintained above 90% (t90VO2max or 95% VO2max (t95VO2max in three different exercise intensities. After performing an incremental test to determine VO2max, eight physical education active students (23 ± 3 years performed three intermittent exercise sessions (100, 110 e 120% velocity of VO2max (vVO2max with ratio effort:recovery of 30s:15s. The t95%VO2max was significantly higher at 110%vVO2max (EI110% (218.1 ± 81.6s compared to 100% vVO2max (EI100% (91.9 ± 75.2s and 120%vVO2max (EI120% (126.3 ± 29.4s, but without differences between EI100% and EI120%. The t90%vVO2max was significantly different only between EI110% and 120%. Therefore, we conclude that during intermittent exercise with ratio 30s:15s, the intensity of 110%vVO2max appears more appropriate to maintain VO2max for a longer time.

  11. Determinants of time limit at velocity corresponding to VO2max in physically active individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Gonçalves Ribeiro

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n1p69 The objective of the present study was to determine the relationship between time limit (Tlim at VO2Máx velocity (VVO2Máx and the variables VO2Máx, VVO2Máx, running economy (RE, ventilatory threshold (VT, strength test (9-10 maximum repetitions, velocity at maximal anaerobic running test (VMART, vertical jump test and body fat percentage. The sample was composed of 18 male volunteers, aged between 18 and 45 years old, non-athletes, but physically active. The study was carried out during fi ve visits, on non-consecutive days and at approximately the same time each day: visit 1 - signature of informed consent form, medical history, anthropometric assessment, aerobic power test and familiarization with Tlim test; visit 2 - RE test and Tlim test; visit 3 - familiarization with VMART test; visit 4 - familiarization with vertical jump and 9-10 maximum repetition tests and VMART test; visit 5 - vertical jump and 9-10 maximum repetition tests. Low (r = 0.220 to – 0.359 and non-signifi cant correlations (p = 0.281 to 0.935 were observed between Tlim and the selected variables, characterizing the low predictive value of Tlim for the sample studied. Thus, and because of the considerable inter-individual variability in Tlim, no variable was identifi ed that was capable of satisfactorily predicting Tlim.

  12. Determinants of time limit at velocity corresponding to VO2max in physically active individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson da Silva Novaes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the relationship between time limit (Tlim at VO2Máx velocity (VVO2Máx and the variables VO2Máx, VVO2Máx, running economy (RE, ventilatory threshold (VT, strength test (9-10 maximum repetitions, velocity at maximal anaerobic running test (VMART, vertical jump test and body fat percentage. The sample was composed of 18 male volunteers, aged between 18 and 45 years old, non-athletes, but physically active. The study was carried out during fi ve visits, on non-consecutive days and at approximately the same time each day: visit 1 - signature of informed consent form, medical history, anthropometric assessment, aerobic power test and familiarization with Tlim test; visit 2 - RE test and Tlim test; visit 3 - familiarization with VMART test; visit 4 - familiarization with vertical jump and 9-10 maximum repetition tests and VMART test; visit 5 - vertical jump and 9-10 maximum repetition tests. Low (r = 0.220 to – 0.359 and non-significant correlations (p = 0.281 to 0.935 were observed between Tlim and the selected variables, characterizing the low predictive value of Tlim for the sample studied. Thus, and because of the considerable inter-individual variability in Tlim, no variable was identified that was capable of satisfactorily predicting Tlim. Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a relação do tempo limite (Tlim na velocidade do VO2Máx (VVO2Máx com as variáveis VO2Máx, VVO2Máx, economia de corrida (EC, limiar ventilatório (LV, força isotônica (determinada pelo teste de 9-10 RM, velocidade no teste máximo de corrida anaeróbica (VMART, impulsão vertical e percentual de gordura (%G . A amostra foi composta por 18 voluntários do sexo masculino, com idade entre 18 e 45 anos, não atletas, regularmente ativos. O estudo foi realizado em cinco visitas, em dias não consecutivos e aproximadamente no mesmo horário, compostas de: visita 1 - assinatura do termo de

  13. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Healthy Untrained Men: Effects on VO2max, Jump Performance and Flexibility of Soccer and Moderate-Intensity Continuous Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Sporiš, Goran; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of recreational soccer (SOC) compared to moderate-intensity continuous running (RUN) on all health-related physical fitness components in healthy untrained men. Sixty-nine participants were recruited and randomly assigned to one of three groups, of which sixty-four completed the study: a soccer training group (SOC; n = 20, 34±4 (means±SD) years, 78.1±8.3 kg, 179±4 cm); a running group (RUN; n = 21, 32±4 years, 78.0±5.5 kg, 179±7 cm); or a passive control group (CON; n = 23, 30±3 years, 76.6±12.0 kg, 178±8 cm). The training intervention lasted 12 weeks and consisted of three 60-min sessions per week. All participants were tested for each of the following physical fitness components: maximal aerobic power, minute ventilation, maximal heart rate, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump with arm swing (CMJ), sit-and-reach flexibility, and body composition. Over the 12 weeks, VO2max relative to body weight increased more (psoccer training and moderate-intensity running, partly due to large decreases in body mass. Additionally soccer training induced pronounced positive effects on jump performance and flexibility, making soccer an effective broad-spectrum fitness training intervention. PMID:26305880

  14. Time limit and VO2 slow component at intensities corresponding to VO2max in swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, R J; Cardoso, C S; Soares, S M; Ascensão, A; Colaço, P J; Vilas-Boas, J P

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure, in swimming pool conditions and with high level swimmers, the time to exhaustion at the minimum velocity that elicits maximal oxygen consumption (TLim at vVO(2)max), and the corresponding VO(2) slow component (O(2)SC). The vVO(2)max was determined through an intermittent incremental test (n = 15). Forty-eight hours later, TLim was assessed using an all-out swim at vVO(2)max until exhaustion. VO(2) was measured through direct oximetry and the swimming velocity was controlled using a visual light-pacer. Blood lactate concentrations and heart rate values were also measured. Mean VO(2)max for the incremental test was 5.09 +/- 0.53 l/min and the corresponding vVO(2)max was 1.46 +/- 0.06 m/s. Mean TLim value was 260.20 +/- 60.73 s and it was inversely correlated with the velocity of anaerobic threshold (r = -0.54, p energy cost of the respiratory muscles (r = 0.51), for p swimming pool, in high level swimmers performing at vVO(2)max, and that higher TLim seems to correspond to higher expected O(2)SC amplitude. These findings seem to bring new data with application in middle distance swimming.

  15. The effect of Iron Supplying on VO2 MAX and Haematology Parameter on Menstrual Woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nailuvar Sinaga, Rika; Sari Harahap, Novita; Mediyana Sari, Rima

    2018-03-01

    One of the supporting factors to have good aerobic endurance requires high VO2 max levels supported by good quality and quantity level of Haematology parameter especially such as erythrocytes, hematocrit and hemoglobin. One of the components in hemoglobin is iron which functions as theoxygen transport to parts of all body required in the process of metabolism. The objective of this research was to find out the difference between VO2 Max and Haematology parameter between iron supplying and no iron supplyingonmenstrual woman. The type of this research is quasi experimental research with non-randomized control group Pretest-Postest Design. The subjectsarethe studentsat faculty of Sports Sciences, Medan State University with the criteria of female gender, monthly regular menstrual cycle, having the level of health and the level of training, willing to be a sample by filling out informed consent. The total number of research subjectsis twenty students, divided into two groups namely the treatment group and the control group. The hematology parameter was measuredby Haemotology analyzer and VO2 Max was measured by multi-stage run. The result showed that there was a significant effect of iron supplyingon the increase of erythrocyte level on menstrual women, hemotocrit, haemoglobin and an increase in VO2 Max. Iron supplying on menstrual woman has the effect on the increase of erythrocyte, hematocrit, hemoglobin level and VO2 Max

  16. Effects of erythrocyte infusion on VO2max at high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Jette Feveile; Sawka, M N; Muza, S R

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated whether autologous erythrocyte infusion would ameliorate the decrement in maximal O2 uptake (VO2max) experienced by lowlanders when they ascend to high altitude. VO2max was measured in 16 men (treadmill running) at sea level (SL) and on the 1st (HA1) and 9th (HA9) days...... of high-altitude (4,300 m) residence. After VO2max was measured at SL, subjects were divided into two matched groups (n = 8). Twenty-four hours before ascent to high altitude, the experimental group received a 700-ml infusion of autologous erythrocytes and saline (42% hematocrit), whereas the control...... group received only saline. The VO2max of erythrocyte-infused [54 +/- 1 (SE) ml.kg-1.min-1] and control subjects (52 +/- 2 ml.kg-1.min-1) did not differ at SL before infusion. The decrement in VO2max on HA1 did not differ between groups, averaging 26% overall, despite higher (P

  17. Is Recreational Soccer Effective for Improving VO2max A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Čović, Nedim; Sporiš, Goran; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport worldwide, with a long history and currently more than 500 million active participants, of whom 300 million are registered football club members. On the basis of scientific findings showing positive fitness and health effects of recreational soccer, FIFA (Fédération Internationale de Football Association) introduced the slogan "Playing football for 45 min twice a week-best prevention of non-communicable diseases" in 2010. The objective of this paper was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature to determine the effects of recreational soccer on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Six electronic databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, CINAHL and Google Scholar) were searched for original research articles. A manual search was performed to cover the areas of recreational soccer, recreational physical activity, recreational small-sided games and VO2max using the following key terms, either singly or in combination: recreational small-sided games, recreational football, recreational soccer, street football, street soccer, effect, maximal oxygen uptake, peak oxygen uptake, cardiorespiratory fitness, VO2max. The inclusion criteria were divided into four sections: type of study, type of participants, type of interventions and type of outcome measures. Probabilistic magnitude-based inferences for meta-analysed effects were based on standardised thresholds for small, moderate and large changes (0.2, 0.6 and 1.2, respectively) derived from between-subject standard deviations for baseline fitness. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Mean differences showed that VO2max increased by 3.51 mL/kg/min (95 % CI 3.07-4.15) over a recreational soccer training programme in comparison with other training models. The meta-analysed effects of recreational soccer on VO2max compared with the controls of no exercise, continuous running and strength

  18. Effects of chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibition on V'O2max and exercise capacity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojewoda, M; Przyborowski, K; Sitek, B; Zakrzewska, A; Mateuszuk, L; Zoladz, J A; Chlopicki, S

    2017-03-01

    Acute inhibition of NOS by L-NAME (N ω -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) is known to decrease maximal oxygen consumption (V'O 2max ) and impair maximal exercise capacity, whereas the effects of chronic L-NAME treatment on V'O 2max and exercise performance have not been studied so far. In this study, we analysed the effect of L-NAME treatment, (LN2 and LN12, respectively) on V'O 2max and exercise capacity (in maximal incremental running and prolonged sub-maximal incremental running tests), systemic NO bioavailability (plasma nitrite (NO 2 - ) and nitrate (NO 3 - )) and prostacyclin (PGI 2 ) production in C57BL6/J mice. Mice treated with L-NAME for 2 weeks (LN2) displayed higher V'O 2max and better running capacity than age-matched control mice. In LN2 mice, NO bioavailability was preserved, as evidenced by maintained NO 2 - plasma concentration. PGI 2 production was activated (increased 6-keto-PGF 1α plasma concentration) and the number of circulating erythrocytes (RBC) and haemoglobin concentration were increased. In mice treated with L-NAME for 12 weeks (LN12), NO bioavailability was decreased (lower NO 2 - plasma concentration), and 6-keto-PGF 1α plasma concentration and RBC number were not elevated compared to age-matched control mice. However, LN12 mice still performed better during the maximal incremental running test despite having lower V'O 2max . Interestingly, the LN12 mice showed poorer running capacity during the prolonged sub-maximal incremental running test. To conclude, short-term (2 weeks) but not long-term (12 weeks) treatment with L-NAME activated robust compensatory mechanisms involving preservation of NO2- plasma concentration, overproduction of PGI 2 and increased number of RBCs, which might explain the fully preserved exercise capacity despite the inhibition of NOS.

  19. Cinética do consumo de oxigênio e tempo limite na vvo2max: comparação entre homens e mulheres Oxygen uptake kinetics and threshold time at the vVO2max: tomparison between men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Silva Marques de Azevedo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi investigada a influência do gênero no tempo limite (Tlim e na cinética do VO2 durante corrida na velocidade associada ao VO2max (vVO2max em nove homens e nove mulheres, todos adultos, jovens e sedentários, com idades entre 20 e 30 anos. Homens e mulheres realizaram dois testes em esteira rolante, sendo um teste incremental para determinar VO2max (42,66 ± 4,50 vs. 32,92 ± 6,03mL.kg-1.min-1 e vVO2max (13.2 ± 1.5 vs. 10,3 ± 2,0km.h-1, respectivamente. Um segundo teste com carga constante na vVO2max até a exaustão. O Tlim e a cinética do VO2 foram determinados. Não houve diferença significante entre homens e mulheres para constante de tempo (τ (35,76 ± 21,03 vs. 36,5 ± 6,21s, respectivamente; P = 0,29; Tlim (308 ± 84,3 vs. 282,11 ± 57,19s, respectivamente; P = 0,68, tempo para atingir o VO2max (TAVO2max (164,48 ± 96,73 vs. 167,88 ± 28,59s, respectivamente; P = 0,29, tempo para atingir o VO2max em percentual do Tlim (%Tlim (50,24 ± 16,93 vs. 62,63 ± 16,60%, respectivamente; P = 0,19, tempo mantido no VO2max (TMVO2max (144,08 ± 42,55 vs. 114,23 ± 76,96s, respectivamente; P = 0,13. Estes resultados sugerem que a cinética do VO2 e o Tlim são similares entre homens e mulheres sedentários na vVO2max.The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gender on Tthre and VO2 response during running exercise performed at vVO2max. Therefore, eighteen untrained individuals (9 male and 9 female with normal weight and aged between 20 - 30 years (VO2max = 42.66 ± 4.50 vs 32.92 ± 6.03 mL.kg-1.min-1 and vVO2max = 13.2 ± 1.5 vs 10.3 ± 2.0 km.h-1, for male and female, respectively were assessed. Subjects performed two exercise tests on treadmill. First one was an incremental test to determine VO2max, velocity at VO2max (vVO2max and second test was performed at steady velocity - vVO2max - until exhaustion. The threshold time (Tthre and VO2 kinetics response was determined. No significant differences were observed between men

  20. Multiple variables explain the variability in the decrement in VO2max during acute hypobaric hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robergs, R A; Quintana, R; Parker, D L; Frankel, C C

    1998-06-01

    We used multiple regression analyses to determine the relationships between the decrement in sea level (SL, 760 Torr) VO2max during hypobaric hypoxia (HH) and variables that could alter or be related to the decrement in VO2max. HH conditions consisted of 682 Torr, 632 Torr, and 566 Torr, and the measured independent variables were SL-VO2max, SL lactate threshold (SL-LT), the change in hemoglobin saturation at VO2max between 760 and 566 Torr (delta SaO2max), lean body mass (LBM), and gender. Male (N = 14) and female (N = 14) subjects of varied fitness, training status, and residential altitude (1,640-2,460 m) completed cycle ergometry tests of VO2max at each HH condition under randomized and single-blinded conditions. VO2max decreased significantly from 760 Torr after 682 Torr (approximately 915 m) (3.5 +/- 0.9 to 3.4 +/- 0.8 L.min-1, P = 0.0003). Across all HH conditions, the slope of the relative decrement in VO2max (%VO2max) during HH was -9.2%/100 mm Hg (-8.1%/1000 m) with an initial decrease from 100% estimated to occur below 705 Torr (610 m). Step-wise multiple regression revealed that SL-VO2max, SL-LT, delta SaO2max, LBM, and gender each significantly combined to account for 89.03% of the variance in the decrement in VO2max (760-566 Torr) (P decrement in VO2max during HH. The unique variance explanation afforded by SL-LT, LBM, and gender suggests that issues pertaining to oxygen diffusion within skeletal muscle may add to the explanation of between subjects variability in the decrement in VO2max during HH.

  1. Overspeed HIIT in Lower-Body Positive Pressure Treadmill Improves Running Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojanovic, Boris; Shultz, Rebecca; Feihl, Francois; Matheson, Gordon

    2015-12-01

    Optimal high-intensity interval training (HIIT) regimens for running performance are unknown, although most protocols result in some benefit to key performance factors (running economy (RE), anaerobic threshold (AT), or maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max)). Lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) treadmills offer the unique possibility to partially unload runners and reach supramaximal speeds. We studied the use of LBPP to test an overspeed HIIT protocol in trained runners. Eleven trained runners (35 ± 8 yr, VO2max, 55.7 ± 6.4 mL·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) were randomized to an LBPP (n = 6) or a regular treadmill (CON, n = 5), eight sessions over 4 wk of HIIT program. Four to five intervals were run at 100% of velocity at VO2max (vVO2max) during 60% of time to exhaustion at vVO2max (Tlim) with a 1:1 work:recovery ratio. Performance outcomes were 2-mile track time trial, VO2max, vVO2max, vAT, Tlim, and RE. LBPP sessions were carried out at 90% body weight. Group-time effects were present for vVO2max (CON, 17.5 vs. 18.3, P = 0.03; LBPP, 19.7 vs. 22.3 km·h⁻¹; P HIIT protocol at 100% vVO2max improves field performance, vVO2max, VO2max and submaximal HR in trained runners. Improvements are similar if intervals are run on a regular treadmill or at higher speeds on a LPBB treadmill with 10% body weight reduction. LBPP could provide an alternative for taxing HIIT sessions.

  2. PELATIHAN LARI SIRKUIT 2 X 10 MENIT DAN PELATIHAN LARI KONTINYU 2 X 10 MENIT DAPAT MENINGKATKAN VO2 MAX TAEKWONDOIN PUTRA KABUPATEN MANGGARAI - NTT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Sesilia Noy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available VO2 max is very important in everyday life, so as to facilitate any physicalactivity, specially for athletes in order to achieve maximum performance. In aneffort to increase VO2 max training should be carried out regularly, measured andplanned. This study aims to determine the increase in VO2 max through circuittraining run and run continuously. The sample is taekwondoin son Manggarai-NTTwith an average age of 15 years. This study is an experimental study with the studydesign used was Randomized Pre and Post Test Group desigen. With a totalsample of 7 people in each group. Samples were randomly selected. Treatmentgroup 1 (KP1 given training run circuit 2 x 10 minute and Treatment Group 2(KP2 are given continuous training run 2 x 10 minute. Training carried out for 6weeks with a frequency of four times a week starting at 17:00 to 18:00 pm locatedat Frans Sales Lega Airport Manggarai-NTT. The analysis showed an increase inVO2 max was significantly (p <0.05 against both groups fled. In both groups thecircuit run by Pulse Oxymeter and Norma Cooper an increase in VO2 max with p<0.05, as well as a continuous run either by Pulse Oxymeter and Norma Cooperwith an increase in VO2 max value of p <0.05. The results of this analysis meansthat either the training or circuit training run run continuously to improve VO2max. Based on a comparison of test data by an independent test after training inboth groups either by Pulse Oxymeter and Norma Cooper in get p values > 0.05, orthere is no significant difference. Based on these results it can be concluded thatthe run circuit training and continuous training run together can increase VO2 maxand there was no significant difference. The results of this study are expected toincrease the knowledge of coaches, teachers and taekwondoin to perform trainingon a regular basis and are also expected to do similar research that examines VO2max with different training.

  3. MAXIMAL OXIGEN UPTAKE (VO2 MAX AS THE INDICATOR OF PHYSICAL WORKING CAPACITY IN SPORTSMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvezdana Rajkovaca

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The term “aerobic capacity” represents the sum of aerobic metabolic processes in human organism. It is the basis of the physical working capacity. Value of the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max is the best indicator for the aerobic capacity evaluation.The purpose of this study was to check the possibility of using VO2max as the indicator of aerobic capacity in sportsmen and to check differences in VO2max values in regard to non-sportsmen.The goals were: 1.Analyses of the VO2max values in sportsmen of various sports 2. Comparison of values of sportsmen with the values of non-sportsmen.This study included 67 sportsmen (rowers, football players and judoists and 28 nonsportsmen. VO2max was measured by using a direct method.The results obtained show statistically higher VO2max values in rowers (4,52 L/min - 55,8 mL/kg/min in regard to football players (4,2 L/min – 53,6 mL/kg/min, judoists (3,58 L/min - 47,2 mL/ kg/min and non-sportsmen (3,28 L/min – 42,3 mL/kg/min. Successful rowing requires high anaerobic capacity and, therefore, high VO2max.These results show higher values of VO2max in sportsmen in regard to non-sportsmen, which is the result of training only.

  4. Human mitochondrial haplogroup H: the highest VO2max consumer--is it a paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Redondo, Diana; Marcuello, Ana; Casajús, José A; Ara, Ignacio; Dahmani, Yahya; Montoya, Julio; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; López-Pérez, Manuel J; Díez-Sánchez, Carmen

    2010-03-01

    Mitochondrial background has been demonstrated to influence maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max), in mLkg(-1)min(-1)), but this genetic influence can be compensated for by regular exercise. A positive correlation among electron transport chain (ETC) coupling, ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production has been established, and mitochondrial variants have been reported to show differences in their ETC performance. In this study, we examined in detail the VO(2max) differences found among mitochondrial haplogroups. We recruited 81 healthy male Spanish Caucasian individuals and determined their mitochondrial haplogroup. Their VO(2max) was determined using incremental cycling exercise (ICE). VO(2max) was lower in J than in non-J haplogroup individuals (P=0.04). The H haplogroup was responsible for this difference (VO(2max); J vs. H; P=0.008) and this group also had significantly higher mitochondrial oxidative damage (mtOD) than the J haplogroup (P=0.04). In agreement with these results, VO(2max) and mtOD were positively correlated (P=0.01). Given that ROS production is the major contributor to mtOD and consumes four times more oxygen per electron than the ETC, our results strongly suggest that ROS production is responsible for the higher VO(2max) found in the H variant. These findings not only contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underneath VO(2max), but also help to explain some reported associations between mitochondrial haplogroups and mtOD with longevity, sperm motility, premature aging and susceptibility to different pathologies.

  5. Familial aggregation of VO(2max) response to exercise training: results from the HERITAGE Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, C; An, P; Rice, T; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Gagnon, J; Pérusse, L; Leon, A S; Rao, D C

    1999-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that individual differences in the response of maximal O(2) uptake (VO(2max)) to a standardized training program are characterized by familial aggregation. A total of 481 sedentary adult Caucasians from 98 two-generation families was exercise trained for 20 wk and was tested for VO(2max) on a cycle ergometer twice before and twice after the training program. The mean increase in VO(2max) reached approximately 400 ml/min, but there was considerable heterogeneity in responsiveness, with some individuals experiencing little or no gain, whereas others gained >1.0 l/min. An ANOVA revealed that there was 2.5 times more variance between families than within families in the VO(2max) response variance. With the use of a model-fitting procedure, the most parsimonious models yielded a maximal heritability estimate of 47% for the VO(2max) response, which was adjusted for age and sex with a maternal transmission of 28% in one of the models. We conclude that the trainability of VO(2max) is highly familial and includes a significant genetic component.

  6. Associations between VO2max and vitality in older workers: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Beek Allard J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To prevent early exit from work, it is important to study which factors contribute to healthy ageing. One concept that is assumed to be closely related to, and therefore may influence healthy ageing, is vitality. Vitality consists of both a mental and a physical component, and is characterised by a perceived high energy level, decreased feelings of fatigue, and feeling fit. Since VO2max gives an indication of one's aerobic fitness, which can be improved by increased levels of physical activity, and because feeling fit is one of the main characteristics of vitality, it is hypothesised that VO2max is related to vitality. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the associations between VO2max and vitality. Methods In 427 older workers (aged 45 + years participating in the Vital@Work study, VO2max was estimated at baseline using the 2-km UKK walk test. Vitality was measured by both the UWES Vitality Scale and the RAND-36 Vitality Scale. Associations were analysed using linear regression analyses. Results The linear regression models, adjusted for age, showed a significant association between VO2max and vitality measured with the RAND-36 Vitality Scale (β = 0.446; 95% CI: 0.220-0.673. There was no significant association between VO2max and vitality measured with the UWES (β = -0.006; 95% CI:-0.017 - 0.006, after adjusting for age, gender and chronic disease status. Conclusions VO2max was associated with a general measure of vitality (measured with the RAND-36 Vitality Scale, but not with occupational health related vitality (measured with the UWES Vitality Scale. The idea that physical exercise can be used as an effective tool for improving vitality was supported in this study. Trial registration NTR1240

  7. Associations between VO2max and vitality in older workers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strijk, Jorien E; Proper, Karin I; Klaver, Linda; van der Beek, Allard J; van Mechelen, Willem

    2010-11-09

    To prevent early exit from work, it is important to study which factors contribute to healthy ageing. One concept that is assumed to be closely related to, and therefore may influence healthy ageing, is vitality. Vitality consists of both a mental and a physical component, and is characterised by a perceived high energy level, decreased feelings of fatigue, and feeling fit. Since VO2max gives an indication of one's aerobic fitness, which can be improved by increased levels of physical activity, and because feeling fit is one of the main characteristics of vitality, it is hypothesised that VO2max is related to vitality. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the associations between VO2max and vitality. In 427 older workers (aged 45 + years) participating in the Vital@Work study, VO2max was estimated at baseline using the 2-km UKK walk test. Vitality was measured by both the UWES Vitality Scale and the RAND-36 Vitality Scale. Associations were analysed using linear regression analyses. The linear regression models, adjusted for age, showed a significant association between VO2max and vitality measured with the RAND-36 Vitality Scale (β = 0.446; 95% CI: 0.220-0.673). There was no significant association between VO2max and vitality measured with the UWES (β = -0.006; 95% CI:-0.017 - 0.006), after adjusting for age, gender and chronic disease status. VO2max was associated with a general measure of vitality (measured with the RAND-36 Vitality Scale), but not with occupational health related vitality (measured with the UWES Vitality Scale). The idea that physical exercise can be used as an effective tool for improving vitality was supported in this study. NTR1240.

  8. HEART RATE VARIABILITY AND BODY COMPOSITION AS VO2MAX DETERMINANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Humberto León-Ariza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max is the gold standard in the cardiorespiratory endurance assessment. Objective: This study aimed to develop a mathematical model that contains variables to determine the VO2max of sedentary people. Methods: Twenty participants (10 men and 10 women with a mean age of 19.8±1.77 years were included. For each participant, body composition (percentage of fat and muscle, heart rate variability (HRV at rest (supine and standing, and VO2max were evaluated through an indirect test on a cycloergometer. A multivariate linear regression model was developed from the data obtained, and the model assumptions were verified. Results: Using the data obtained, including percentage of fat (F, percentage of muscle (M, percentage of power at very low frequency (VLF, α-value of the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFAα1, heart rate (HR in the resting standing position, and age of the participants, a model was established for men, which was expressed as VO2max = 4.216 + (Age*0.153 + (F*0.110 - (M*0.053 - (VLF*0.649 - (DFAα1*2.441 - (HR*0.014, with R2 = 0.965 and standard error = 0.146 L/min. For women, the model was expressed as VO2max = 1.947 - (Age*0.047 + (F*0.024 + (M*0.054 + (VLF*1.949 - (DFAα1*0.424 - (HR*0.019, with R2 = 0.987 and standard error = 0.077 L/min. Conclusion: The obtained model demonstrated the influence exerted by body composition, the autonomic nervous system, and age in the prediction of VO2max.

  9. PENGEMBANGAN PERSAMAAN VO2 MAX DAN EVALUASI HR MAX (STUDI AWAL PADA PEKERJA PRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnawan Adi Wicaksono

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Kapasitas fisik maksimum seseorang direpresentasikan dengan nilai konsumsi oksigen maksimum (VO2 Max dan denyut nadi maksimum (HR Max yang memberikan suatu informasi batasan kemampuan fisik maksimum seseorang dalam melakukan pekerjaan. Penelitian kali ini mempunyai tujuan untuk mencari nilai VO2 Max pekerja pria Indonesia untuk nantinya akan dikembangkan suatu persamaan prediksi VO2 Max yang didekati dengan hubungan linier antara denyut nadi (Heart Rate seperti yang dilakukan Astrand (2003, tinggi badan (Chatterjee et al, 2006, berat badan (Akalan et al, 2008, usia (Magrani et al, 2009 dan mengevaluasi persamaan HR Max manakah yang dapat diaplikasikan untuk mendekati nilai denyut nadi maksimum pekerja Indonesia. Responden dalam penelitian kali ini adalah 12  pekerja industri pria yang diambil dari beberapa industri di Depok dan sekitarnya. Kriteria responden yang berpartisipasi dalam penelitian kali ini adalah: berusia 20-40 tahun, bukan perokok baik aktif maupun pasif, sehat , tidak mengkonsumsi makanan, kafein, alkohol minimal 2 jam sebelum eksperimen (Balderrama et. al, 2007.Eksperimen yang dilakukan menggunakan metode maximal test dengan protokol treadmill. Adapun peralatan yang digunakan adalah seperangkat alat pengukur kondisi fisiologi Fitmate MED (COSMED srl-Italy terdiri dari Heart Rate Transmitter, Heart Rate Receiver, V mask (Hans Rudolph Inc,dan treadmill SportArt@60.  Eksperimen dilakukan menjadi dua bagian, yaitu istirahat dan tahap bekerja.Aktivitas istirahat terdiri dari tidur selama 20 menit, duduk selama 20 menit dan berdiri selama 10 menit. Eksperimen tahap kedua yaitu tahap kerja yang terdiri dari latihan selama 5 menit. Responden dipersilakan beristirahat selama 15 menit, setelah itu responden melaksanakan maximal test detik hingga responden merasa tidak sanggup lagi melanjutkan eksperimen. Hasil penelitian model prediksi VO2 max untuk pekerja industri pria mempunyai nilai 2,78 ± 0,5 liter/menit dan dengan regresi linier

  10. EVALUATION AND COMPARISON OF VO2MAX ASSESSMENT MODELS IN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolboli Lotfali

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluation and comparison of VO2max assessment models in students. Thirty students from high schools of Ardabil city were selected randomly and served as subjects in this study (age: 15.73±0.69 year, height: 169.46±8.1 cm, weight: 61.70±9.32 kg. Subjects were divided into two groups. In one group Rockport test was used to estimate their VO2 max and in other group Balk test was used for the same purpose. Also, the VO2max of both groups were examined by a standard treadmill test and the results were compared with the results of field tests. The one way of ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc tests were used for data analysis (p>0/05. The results showed that there were significant differences between the results of the field tests and standard treadmill test (Bruce: 40.93±5.83 vs. Rockport: 58.71±2.73 and Balke: 52.09± 6.18. As a result of these findings it was concluded that the regression equations used in this study used is not suitable for 15-17 (yr boys and does not estimate their aerobic power correctly.

  11. Predição da potência aeróbia (VO2máx de crianças e adolescentes em teste incremental na esteira rolante Prediction of aerobic power (VO2max of children and adolescents during an incremental treadmill test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Andrade Machado

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2máx é a quantidade máxima de energia que pode ser produzida pelo metabolismo aeróbio em determinada unidade de tempo, podendo ser determinado direta ou indiretamente através de equações preditivas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi elaborar uma equação preditiva específica para determinar o VO2máx de meninos de 10 a 16 anos. Quarenta e dois meninos realizaram teste ergoespirométrico de corrida em esteira rolante com velocidade inicial de 9 km/h até exaustão voluntária. Através da regressão linear múltipla foi possível desenvolver a seguinte equação para a determinação indireta do VO2máx: VO2máx (ml/min = -1574,06 + (141,38 x Vpico + (48,34 * Massa corporal, com erro padrão de estimativa = 191,5 ml/min (4,10 ml/kg/min e o coeficiente de determinação = 0,934. Sugerimos que esta é uma fórmula adequada para predizer o VO2máx para esta população.The maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max is the maximal quantity of energy that can be produced by the aerobic metabolism in certain time unity. It can be determined direct or indirectly by predictive equations. The objective of this study was to make a specific predictive equation to determine the VO2max from boys aged 10-16 years-old. Forty-two boys underwent a treadmill running ergospirometric test, with the initial velocity set at 9 km/h, until voluntary exhaustion. By the multiple linear regression was possible to develop the following equation for the indirect determination of the VO2max: VO2max (ml/min = -1574.06 + (141.38 x Vpeak + (48.34 * Body mass, with standard error of estimate = 191.5 ml/min (4.10 ml/kg/min and coefficient of determination = 0.934. We suggest that this formula is appropriate to predict VO2max for this population.

  12. Pengaruh metode latihan dan daya tahan otot tungkai terhadap hasil peningkatan kapasitas VO2Max pemain bola basket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorius Pito Wahyu Prakoso

    2017-09-01

    Abstract This study aims to determine: (1 differences in the influence of methods of circuit training and interval method of training on the increase in capacity VO2Max basketball (2 the difference of increase in capacity VO2Max basketball resilient tall limb muscle and muscular endurance leg lower the increase in capacity VO2Max basketball, and (3 the interaction between exercise and limb muscle endurance against the increase in capacity VO2Max basketball. This research method used experiments with 2 x 2 factorial design study. The research sample of 20 children trained were taken with purposive sampling technique. Data were analyzed using analysis of variants (ANOVA. The results of this study indicate that: (1 there is no significant difference between exercise training method circuit training and training methods interval training against the increase in capacity VO2Max basketball, (2 There are no significant differences in increase in capacity VO2Max basketball among students who have the endurance of leg muscle and durability of  low leg muscle, (3 there is no interaction between the method of training (circuit training and interval training and leg muscle endurance against the increase in capacity VO2Max basketball.

  13. Exercise-induced prostacyclin release positively correlates with VO(2max) in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, J A; Majerczak, J; Duda, K; Chłopicki, S

    2009-01-01

    In this study we have evaluated the effect of maximal incremental cycling exercise (IE) on the systemic release of prostacyclin (PGI(2)), assessed as plasma 6-keto-PGF(1alpha) concentration in young healthy men. Eleven physically active - untrained men (mean +/- S.D.) aged 22.7 +/- 2.1 years; body mass 76.3 +/- 9.1 kg; BMI 23.30 +/- 2.18 kg . m(-2); maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) 46.5 +/- 3.9 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1), performed an IE test until exhaustion. Plasma concentrations of 6-keto-PGF(1alpha), lactate, and cytokines were measured in venous blood samples taken prior to the exercise and at the exhaustion. The net exercise-induced increase in 6-keto-PGF(1alpha) concentration, expressed as the difference between the end-exercise minus pre-exercise concentration positively correlated with VO(2max) (r=0.78, p=0.004) as well as with the net VO(2) increase at exhaustion (r=0.81, p=0.003), but not with other respiratory, cardiac, metabolic or inflammatory parameters of the exercise (minute ventilation, heart rate, plasma lactate, IL-6 or TNF-alpha concentrations). The exercise-induced increase in 6-keto-PGF(1alpha) concentration?? was significantly higher (p=0.008) in a group of subjects (n=5) with the highest VO(2max) when compared to the group of subjects with the lowest VO(2max), in which no increase in 6-keto-PGF(1alpha) concentration was found. In conclusion, we demonstrated, to our knowledge for the first time, that exercise-induced release of PGI(2) in young healthy men correlates with VO(2max), suggesting that vascular capacity to release PGI(2) in response to physical exercise represents an important factor characterizing exercise tolerance. Moreover, we postulate that the impairment of exercise-induced release of PGI(2) leads to the increased cardiovascular hazard of vigorous exercise.

  14. Applicability of an Indirect VO2max Test: Its Association with the 400 Meters Freestyle Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Veronese da Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the VO2max using a previously validated indirect test for non-expert adult swimmers and to verify its connection with the 400 meters freestyle test. A total of 17 non-expert male swimmers (21.5 ± 3.12 years were evaluated. Body composition measurements included body weight (74 ± 9.41 kg, height (172.9 ± 5.21 cm and body fat percentage (15.2 ± 4.15 %. Two tests were conducted on different days; the 400 meters freestyle (400 MF and the Progressive Swim Test (PSwT, respectively. The participant's heart rate frequency before and after the test (BHR and AHR was analyzed, as well as the subjective perception of effort (RPE, the number of laps covered (NLP, and the time of test execution measured in minutes. Significant differences were identified in all variables (p - 0.60 was found between AHR and execution time (r > - 0.70, as well as between the VO2max estimated by the PSwT and the 400 MF performance test (r > - 0.70. The Bland-Altman Plot showed that the values discovered were within the established concordance limits of 95% (±1.96 SD. A negative correlation between a swimming test and a test that estimates the VO2max occurred, and the PSwT showed results of greater approximation of the aerobic power of non-expert swimmers. In conclusion, the PSwT is applicable for non-expert adult swimmers.

  15. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AEROBIC POWER AND REPEATED SPRINT ABILITY IN YOUNG SOCCER PLAYERS WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF VO2 MAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostam Alizadeh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In some team sports such as soccer which is interval, athletes need to prepare themselves immediatelyfor the next activity. Therefore it is very important to have enough information on characteristics of recovery phase and quick recovery to the first situation and to have the minimum speed reduction. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between aerobic power and repeated sprint ability (RSA or decrementindex in young soccer players in three different levels of Vo2max. Methods: For this reason 41 volunteers were divided in to three groups with different levels of Vo2max ml.kg-1.min-1 low 37.22 ± 2.3 (n= 18, age 17.1 ± 0.9 year, height 170.6 ± 0.76 cm, weight 67.1 ± 5.05 kg medium 46.46± 1.97 ml.kg-1.min-1 (n= 13, age 17.6± 0.76year, height 173.8 ± 4.84 cm, weight 65.9 ± 4.92 kg and high 55.63 ± 1.52 ml.kg-1.min-1 (n=10, age 17.4 ±0.69 year, height 177 ± 3.23 cm, weight 71.4 ± 3.94 kg. To determine Vo2max a graded exercise test until volitional exhaustion on treadmill was used, and also RAST was used to measure RSA. The lactate accumulation was measured before and after RSA protocol. Pearson's correlation was used to determine the correlation between the aerobic power and RSA. The results indicated that there are significant relationship between Vo2max anddecremental index in low Vo2max group (r= 0.86, p= 0.001, no significant relationship medium Vo2max group (r= 0.14, p= 0.63 and negative significant relationship in high Vo2max group (r= - 0.64, p= 0.04. There are no significant relationship between Lactate accumulation and decremental index in medium (r= 0.005, p= 0.98 and high Vo2max groups (r=0.27, p= 0.45. Discussion: It is possible that the recovery of inter muscular resources relates to aerobic ability, but there are other factors effective in RSA rather than Vo2max and Lactate accumulation. The current study showed a normal curved relationship between Vo2max and RSA.

  16. Exercise tolerance during VO2max testing is a multifactorial psychobiological phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgley, Adrian W; Earle, Keith; McNaughton, Lars R; Siegler, Jason C; Clough, Peter; Earle, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    Fifty-nine men completed a VO 2max test and a questionnaire to establish reasons for test termination, perceived exercise reserve (difference between actual test duration and the duration the individual perceived could have been achieved if continued until physical limitation), and perception of verbal encouragement. Participants gave between 1 and 11 factors as reasons for test termination, including leg fatigue, various perceptions of physical discomfort, safety concerns, and achievement of spontaneously set goals. The two most common main reasons were leg fatigue and breathing discomfort, which were predicted by pre-to-post test changes in pulmonary function (p = 0.038) and explosive leg strength (p = 0.042; R 2  = 0.40). Median (interquartile range) perceived exercise reserve, was 45 (50) s. Two-thirds of participants viewed verbal encouragement positively, whereas one-third had a neutral or negative perception. This study highlights the complexity of exercise tolerance during VO 2max testing and more research should explore these novel findings.

  17. Increases in .VO2max with "live high-train low" altitude training: role of ventilatory acclimatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhite, Daniel P; Mickleborough, Timothy D; Laymon, Abigail S; Chapman, Robert F

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the percentage of the increase in whole body maximal oxygen consumption (.VO(2max)) that is accounted for by increased respiratory muscle oxygen uptake after altitude training. Six elite male distance runners (.VO(2max) = 70.6 ± 4.5 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) and one elite female distance runner (.VO(2max)) = 64.7 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) completed a 28-day "live high-train low" training intervention (living elevation, 2,150 m). Before and after altitude training, subjects ran at three submaximal speeds, and during a separate session, performed a graded exercise test to exhaustion. A regression equation derived from published data was used to estimate respiratory muscle .VO(2) (.VO(2RM)) using our ventilation (.VE) values. .VO(2RM) was also estimated retrospectively from a larger group of distance runners (n = 22). .VO(2max) significantly (p altitude (196 ± 59 ml min(-1)), while (.VE) at .VO(2max) also significantly (p altitude (201 ± 36 ml min(-1)), along with a 10.8 ± 2.1 l min(-1) increase in (.VE), thus requiring an estimated 27 % of Δ .VO(2max) Our data suggest that a substantial portion of the improvement in .VO(2max) with chronic altitude training goes to fuel the respiratory muscles as opposed to the musculature which directly contributes to locomotion. Consequently, the time-course of decay in ventilatory acclimatization following return to sea-level may have an impact on competitive performance.

  18. 10 km running performance predicted by a multiple linear regression model with allometrically adjusted variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Cesar C C; Barros, Ronaldo V; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Gagliardi, João F L; Lima-Silva, Adriano E; Lambert, Mike I; Pires, Flavio O

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the power of VO 2max , peak treadmill running velocity (PTV), and running economy (RE), unadjusted or allometrically adjusted, in predicting 10 km running performance. Eighteen male endurance runners performed: 1) an incremental test to exhaustion to determine VO 2max and PTV; 2) a constant submaximal run at 12 km·h -1 on an outdoor track for RE determination; and 3) a 10 km running race. Unadjusted (VO 2max , PTV and RE) and adjusted variables (VO 2max 0.72 , PTV 0.72 and RE 0.60 ) were investigated through independent multiple regression models to predict 10 km running race time. There were no significant correlations between 10 km running time and either the adjusted or unadjusted VO 2max . Significant correlations (p 0.84 and power > 0.88. The allometrically adjusted predictive model was composed of PTV 0.72 and RE 0.60 and explained 83% of the variance in 10 km running time with a standard error of the estimate (SEE) of 1.5 min. The unadjusted model composed of a single PVT accounted for 72% of the variance in 10 km running time (SEE of 1.9 min). Both regression models provided powerful estimates of 10 km running time; however, the unadjusted PTV may provide an uncomplicated estimation.

  19. Why is VO2 max after altitude acclimatization still reduced despite normalization of arterial O2 content?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Radegran, G

    2003-01-01

    Acute hypoxia (AH) reduces maximal O2 consumption (VO2 max), but after acclimatization, and despite increases in both hemoglobin concentration and arterial O2 saturation that can normalize arterial O2 concentration ([O2]), VO2 max remains low. To determine why, seven lowlanders were studied at VO2......% of the cardiac output perfused the legs, in CH the legs received only 67%. Pulmonary VO2 max (4.1 +/- 0.3 l/min at SL) fell to 2.2 +/- 0.1 l/min in AH (P normalization...... of arterial [O2] is explained by two circulatory effects of altitude: 1) failure of cardiac output to normalize and 2) preferential redistribution of cardiac output to nonexercising tissues. Oxygen transport from blood to muscle mitochondria, on the other hand, appears unaffected by CH....

  20. Initial Weekly HRV Response is Related to the Prospective Change in VO2max in Female Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esco, M R; Flatt, A A; Nakamura, F Y

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the early response in weekly measures of HRV, when derived from a smartphone application, were related to the eventual change in VO2max following an off-season training program in female soccer athletes. 9 female collegiate soccer players participated in an 11-week off-season conditioning program. In the week immediately before and after the training program, each participant performed a test on a treadmill to determine maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Daily measures of the log-transformed root mean square of successive R-R intervals (lnRMSSD) were performed by the participants throughout week 1 and week 3 of the conditioning program. The mean and coefficient of variation (CV) lnRMSSD values of week 1 showed small (r=- 0.13, p=0.74) and moderate (r=0.57, p=0.11), respectively, non-significant correlations to the change in VO2max at the end of the conditioning program (∆VO2max). Significant and near-perfect correlation was found between the change in the weekly mean lnRMSSD values from weeks 1 and 3 (∆lnRMSSDM) and ∆VO2max (r=0.90, p=0.002). The current results have identified that the initial change in weekly mean lnRMSSD from weeks 1 to 3 of a conditioning protocol was strongly associated with the eventual adaptation of VO2max. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Effect of blood haemoglobin concentration on V(O2,max) and cardiovascular function in lowlanders acclimatised to 5260 m

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Rådegran, G; Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2002-01-01

    not alter peak CO. However, LBF and vascular conductance are higher at altitude when [Hb] is lowered to sea level values, with both relating closely to catecholamine and potassium concentrations. This suggests that the lack of effect of [Hb] on V(O(2),max) may involve reciprocal changes in LBF via local...

  2. Endurance training increases exercise-induced prostacyclin release in young, healthy men--relationship with VO2max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Jerzy A; Majerczak, Joanna; Duda, Krzysztof; Chłopicki, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the effect of 5 weeks of moderate-intensity endurance training on the basal and exercise-induced systemic release of prostacyclin (PGI(2)), as assessed by plasma 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) concentration. Twelve physically active young men with the following characteristics participated in this study (the mean +/- SD): age, 22.7 +/- 2.0 years; body mass, 76.8 +/- 8.9 kg; BMI, 23.48 +/- 2.17 kg x m(-2); and maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2 max)), 46.1 +/- 4.0 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1). Plasma 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) concentrations were measured in venous blood samples taken prior to the exercise and at exhaustion (at VO(2 max)) before and after completing the training protocol. On average, the training resulted in a significant increase in VO(2 max) (p = 0.03), power output at VO(2 max) (p = 0.001) and a significant increase (p = 0.05) in the net-exercise-induced increase in plasma 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) concentration (Delta 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) i.e., the difference between the end-exercise and pre-exercise 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) concentrations). No effect of training on the basal PGI(2) concentration was found. Interestingly, within the study sample (n = 12), two subgroups could be defined with a differential pattern of response with respect to Delta 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) concentrations. In one subgroup (n = 7), a significant increase in Delta 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) concentration after training was found (p < 0.02) (responders). This enhancement in the exercise-induced PGI(2) release was accompanied by a significant (p < 0.05) increase in VO(2 max) after training. In contrast, in another subgroup (n = 5), there was no observed effect of training on the Delta 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) concentration and the VO(2 max) after training (non-responders). In both of these subgroups, training did not influence the basal PGI(2) concentration. In conclusion, the endurance training resulted in the adaptive augmentation of the systemic release of PGI(2) in response to exercise

  3. Predicted VO2max and effectiveness of external chest compression by Chinese nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Leo S T; Jones, Alice Y M; Rainer, Timothy H

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the influence of sex and body position on external chest compression (ECC) to a manikin by Chinese nurses and to determine the relationship between rescuer's predicted VO2max and ECC depth. A total of 40 nurses performed ECC on a manikin for 5 min in the standing (S) and bed-mount kneeling (K) position, then completed a Chester step-test, in 3 separate days. The rate and depth of compressions and oxygen consumption during ECC were measured. Mean compression rate recorded was above 100/min in both positions throughout ECC. Mean compression depth for male participants was more than 38 mm for 5 min in the K-position but only 3 min in the S-position. Female participants achieved this compression depth for less than 90 s in the K-position but not at all in the S-position. Irrespective of sex, the K-position appears to facilitate effective ECC. The relationship between aerobic fitness of female nurses and their ability to perform effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation warrants further investigation.

  4. Spanish genetic admixture is associated with larger V(O2) max decrement from sea level to 4338 m in Peruvian Quechua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutsaert, Tom D; Parra, Esteban J; Shriver, Mark D; Gamboa, Alfredo; Palacios, Jose-Antonio; Rivera, Maria; Rodriguez, Ivette; León-Velarde, Fabiola

    2003-08-01

    Quechua in the Andes may be genetically adapted to altitude and able to resist decrements in maximal O2 consumption in hypoxia (DeltaVo2 max). This hypothesis was tested via repeated measures of Vo2 max (sea level vs. 4338 m) in 30 men of mixed Spanish and Quechua origins. Individual genetic admixture level (%Spanish ancestry) was estimated by using ancestry-informative DNA markers. Genetic admixture explained a significant proportion of the variability in DeltaVo2 max after control for covariate effects, including sea level Vo2 max and the decrement in arterial O2 saturation measured at Vo2 max (DeltaSpO2 max) (R2 for admixture and covariate effects approximately 0.80). The genetic effect reflected a main effect of admixture on DeltaVo2 max (P = 0.041) and an interaction between admixture and DeltaSpO2 max (P = 0.018). Admixture predicted DeltaVo2 max only in subjects with a large DeltaSpO2 max (P = 0.031). In such subjects, DeltaVo2 max was 12-18% larger in a subgroup of subjects with high vs. low Spanish ancestry, with least squares mean values (+/-SE) of 739 +/- 71 vs. 606 +/- 68 ml/min, respectively. A trend for interaction (P = 0.095) was also noted between admixture and the decrease in ventilatory threshold at 4338 m. As previously, admixture predicted DeltaVo2 max only in subjects with a large decrease in ventilatory threshold. These findings suggest that the genetic effect on DeltaVo2 max depends on a subject's aerobic fitness. Genetic effects may be more important (or easier to detect) in athletic subjects who are more likely to show gas-exchange impairment during exercise. The results of this study are consistent with the evolutionary hypothesis and point to a better gas-exchange system in Quechua.

  5. The ergogenic effect of recombinant human erythropoietin on VO2max depends on the severity of arterial hypoxemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robach, Paul; Calbet, Jose A L; Thomsen, Jonas J

    2008-01-01

    degrees of acute hypoxia in eight rhEpo-treated subjects. Following prolonged rhEpo treatment, the gain in systemic VO(2)max observed in normoxia (6-7%) persisted during mild hypoxia (8% at inspired O(2) fraction (F(I)O(2)) of 0.173) and was even larger during moderate hypoxia (14-17% at F(I)O(2) = 0...... redistribution of cardiac output toward the exercising legs, whereas this advantageous effect disappeared during severe hypoxia, leaving augmented CaO(2) alone insufficient for improving peak leg O(2) delivery and VO(2). Finally, that VO(2)max was largely dependent on CaO(2) during moderate hypoxia but became...

  6. High-Impact Aerobic and Zumba Fitness on Increasing VO2MAX, Heart Rate Recovery and Skinfold Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suminar, T. J.; Kusnanik, N. W.; Wiriawan, O.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of this study is to determine the significant effect of high-impact aerobics exercise, and Zumba fitness on increasing VO2Max, decreasing of heart rate recovery, and decreasing of skinfold thickness. A sample of this study is 30 members aerobics of student activity unit. Type of this study was quantitative by using a quasi-experimental design method. The design of this study used Matching-Only Design. Data were Analyzed by using the t test (paired t-test). The samples divided into three groups consisted of experimental group I, experimental group II, and control group. They were given a treatment for 8 weeks or 24 meeting. For the data, retrieval is done by MFT test, heart rate recovery test, and skinfold thickness test. Furthermore, the result was analyzed by using SPSS 21 series. In conclusion, significant effect of high-impact aerobics and Zumba fitness on increasing VO2Max, heart rate recovery, skinfold thickness.

  7. The effect of urinary cadmium on cardiovascular fitness as measured by VO2 max in white, black and Mexican Americans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egwuogu, Heartley; Shendell, Derek G.; Okosun, Ike S.; Goodfellow, Lynda

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: We explored potential effects of cadmium exposure on cardiovascular fitness measures, including gender and racial/ethnic differences. Methods: Data were from the 1999 to 2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); 1963 participating subjects were included in our analysis. Volume of oxygen consumed at sub-maximum activity (VO 2 max) were recorded in a series of graded exercises; the goal was to elicit 75% of predetermined age-specific heart rates. Cadmium from urine samples was measured in the laboratory using standard methods. Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to determine potential relationships. Results: Increased urinary cadmium concentrations were generally associated with decreased estimated VO 2 max values. Gender and racial/ethnic differences were also observed. Specifically, associations were statistically significant for white males and Mexican American females. Conclusion: Inverse associations between urinary cadmium concentrations and estimated VO 2 max values were observed, including racial and gender differences. The implications of such gender and racial/ethnic differences on long-term cardiovascular health and health disparities of present public health concern warrant further investigation

  8. Effect of Omega-3 PUFAs Supplementation with Lifestyle Modification on Anthropometric Indices and Vo2 max in Overweight Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghravan, Simin; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali; Mazaheri, Reza; Alizadeh, Zahra; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali

    2016-05-01

    Despite the fact that the recommendations of counteracting obesity advocate for changing lifestyle and physical activity habits, the prevalence of obesity continues to rise. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of omega-3 PUFAs supplementation with lifestyle modification on anthropometric indices and Vo2max in overweight women. Fifty overweight women aged between 20 to 45 years were recruited in this interventional study. Women randomly were divided into two experimental groups (n = 25). Group 1 received omega-3 supplement, aerobic exercise program, and a healthy diet education. Group 2 was similar to group 1, except in that patients received placebo instead of omega-3 capsules. Experimental and placebo group subjects were asked to take one supplementary capsule every day, for 8 weeks. Anthropometric indices were measured in the fourth and eighth weeks of the trial. The maximum aerobic capacity (Vo2max) was determined using a gas analysis device. The level of significance for comparing the results before and after the trial was considered at P study (P modification has positive effects on anthropometric indices and Vo2max in overweight women.

  9. Endurance running performance in athletes with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, W; Williams, C; Nute, M G

    1990-01-01

    Laboratory assessment was made during maximal and submaximal exercise on 16 endurance trained male runners with asthma (aged 35 +/- 9 years) (mean +/- S.D.). Eleven of these asthmatic athletes had recent performance times over a half-marathon, which were examined in light of the results from the laboratory tests. The maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) of the group was 61.8 +/- 6.3 ml kg-1 min-1 and the maximum ventilation (VEmax) was 138.7 +/- 24.7 l min-1. These maximum cardio-respiratory responses to exercise were positively correlated to the degree of airflow obstruction, defined as the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (expressed as a percentage of predicted normal). The half-marathon performance times of 11 of the athletes ranged from those of recreational to elite runners (82.4 +/- 8.8 min, range 69-94). Race pace was correlated with VO2max (r = 0.863, P less than 0.01) but the highest correlation was with the running velocity at a blood lactate concentration of 2 mmol l-1 (r = 0.971, P less than 0.01). The asthmatic athletes utilized 82 +/- 4% VO2max during the half-marathon, which was correlated with the %VO2max at 2 mmol l-1 blood lactate (r = 0.817, P less than 0.01). The results of this study suggest that athletes with mild to moderate asthma can possess high VO2max values and can develop a high degree of endurance fitness, as defined by their ability to sustain a high percentage of VO2max over an endurance race. In athletes with more severe airflow obstruction, the maximum ventilation rate may be reduced and so VO2max may be impaired. The athletes in the present study have adapted to this limitation by being able to sustain a higher %VO2max before the accumulation of blood lactate, which is an advantage during an endurance race. Therefore, with appropriate training and medication, asthmatics can successfully participate in endurance running at a competitive level.

  10. Effects of exercise and group counselling on body composition and VO2max in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, Kirsten K; Birkebaek, Camilla; Ravn, Pernille; Andersen, Marianne S; Glintborg, Dorte

    2013-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is often associated with an increased waist circumference and with lower cardio-respiratory fitness as a consequence of obesity, which may be improved by physical activity. To investigate the effect of high-intensity aerobic training combined with group counselling sessions on anthropometry and cardio-respiratory fitness in women with PCOS. Seventeen sedentary, overweight women with PCOS were randomized in a cross-over design to 16 weeks of intervention: eight weeks high-intensity aerobic exercise was followed by eight weeks of group counselling (n = 8) or vice versa (n = 9). Fourteen of the women completed the tests. Waist circumference, body mass index and maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2max) ) were measured at baseline, cross-over and post-intervention. There was a decrease in waist circumference (119.9 vs. 106.5 cm) and body mass index (34.9 vs. 34.4 kg/m(2) ) and an increase in VO(2max) (2554.9 vs. 2807.9 mL/min) during the intervention period (t = 16 weeks, n = 14), all p group which started with group counselling (2.9 vs. 0.6 kg, t = 16 weeks, n = 14, p = 0.055). Exercise in groups followed by counselling or vice versa had beneficial effects on waist circumference, weight, and VO(2max) in women with PCOS. Future studies should examine possible beneficial effects of combined group counselling and exercise on weight loss and adherence to exercise protocols among women with PCOS. © 2013 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Effects of exercise and group counselling on body composition and VO(2max) in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roessler, Kirsten Kaya; Birkebaek, Camilla; Ravn, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    with group counselling sessions on anthropometry and cardio-respiratory fitness in women with PCOS. DESIGN: Seventeen sedentary, overweight women with PCOS were randomized in a cross-over design to 16 weeks of intervention: Eight weeks high intensity aerobic exercise was followed by eight weeks group...... counselling (n=8) or vice versa (n=9). Fourteen of the women completed the tests. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Waist circumference, body mass index and maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2max) ) were measured at baseline, cross-over and post-intervention. RESULTS: Waist circumference (119.9 vs. 106.5 cm) and body mass...

  12. The effect of acute L-Carnitine supplementation on the blood lactate, glucose, VO2max and power in trained men: a brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arazi H

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Probably L-Carnitine can induce increasing of Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, decreasing of lactic acid production and performance improvements due to the reinforcement of long chain fatty acid oxidation and stabilize of Coenzyme A (CoASH to free Coenzyme A (COA. Based on this, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute L-Carnitine supplementation on blood lactate, glucose, VO2max and anaerobic power in trained men.Methods: Sixteen trained men (aged 19-23 volunteers from University of Guilan, facul-ty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences participated as subjects in this investiga-tion. Subjects divided to aerobic (A and anaerobic (An group randomly. In a double blind design, subjects participated in two separated tests by one week. Subjects ingested 3 grams of L-Carnitine supplementation or placebo (maltodextrin 90 minute before aerobic and anaerobic exercise. For aerobic activity used shuttle run 20 meter and for anaerobic activity used RAST test. Blood samples were collected 5 minute prior at rest and 4 minute post tests. Participants were asked in the morning to obtain fasting blood samples and perform tests. A t-test was used to detect differences between supplementa-tion and placebo groups in each exercise.Results: L-Carnitine group ((A 141.25±20.62 and (An 145.38±55.47 significantly had lower lactate concentration than placebo ((A 151.00±20.85 and (An 152.50±28.59 after tests (P≤0.05. L-Carnitine group ((A 136.00±19.74 and (An 115.50±13.64 had significa-ntly higher blood glucose compared to placebo ((A 121.62±15.65 and (An 110.12±12.63 too (P≤0.05. Also, VO2max, mean and maximum anaerobic power in L-Carnitine group were significantly more than ones in placebo (P<0.05.Conclusion: These findings indicate that acute oral supplementation of L-Carnitine can induce fatigue decreasing and improvement of aerobic and anaerobic performance.

  13. Høyintensiv aerob intervalltrening utført som ekstrembolk fører ikke til endringer i VO2max hos elitesyklister og ??riatleter

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Frank-Gøran

    2014-01-01

    HENSIKT: Studien hadde til hensikt å undersøke virkningen av høyintensiv aerob intervalltrening (HAIT) på maksimalt oksygenopptak (VO2max) og tid på Time trial (TT) hos elitesyklister og triatleter. METODE: 11 forsøkspersoner, n=7 HAIT (31±9) og n=4 kontroll (27±11), VO2max HAIT 62.6±6.4, VO2max 65.6±5.7 gjennomførte denne studien. HAIT gjennomførte 14 intervalløkter (4x4 løpeintervaller på tredemølle, 3-5%stigning, 90-95% av Hfmax, 3 minutter aktiv hvile på ca. 70% av Hfmax) over ti dager,et...

  14. Estimativa das contribuições dos sistemas anaeróbio lático e alático durante exercícios de cargas constantes em intensidades abaixo do VO2max Estimation of contributions of the anaerobic lactic and alactic systems during constant-load exercises at intensities below the VO2max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos David Silva-Cavalcante

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi estimar as contribuições do metabolismo anaeróbio lático (MAL e alático (MAA em intensidades abaixo do consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2max. Dez homens (23 ± 4 anos, 176,4 ± 6,8 cm, 72,4 ± 8,2 kg, 12,0 ± 4,5 % de gordura corporal realizaram um teste progressivo até a exaustão voluntária para identificação do VO2max, da potência correspondente ao VO2max (WVO2max e do segundo limiar ventilatório (LV2. Na segunda e na terceira visita foram realizados seis testes de cargas constantes (três testes por sessão com intensidades abaixo do VO2max. Houve uma predominância do MAL sobre o MAA durante os exercícios submáximos a partir da intensidade correspondente ao LV2, sendo significativamente maior em 90% VO2max (p The purpose this study was that estimated contributions of the anaerobic lactic (MAL and alactic (MAA metabolism during constant load exercises at intensities below the maximal oxygen capacity uptake (VO2max. Ten males (23 ± 4 years, 176.4 ± 6.8 cm, 72.4 ± 8.2 kg, 12.0 ± 4.5 % of fat body performed in the first visit a progressive test until exhaustion to identification of VO2max, power output corresponding to the VO2max (WVO2max and second ventilatory threshold (LV2. On the second and third visit, the participants performed six constant workload tests (3 per session with intensities below VO2max. There was a predominance of MAL about MAA during the exercises sub-maximal from intensity corresponding to the LV2, being significantly higher at 90% VO2max (p < 0.05. Thus, these results may help coaches to implement training loads appropriate to their athletes, according to the metabolic demand of the competition.

  15. The role of haemoglobin mass on VO(2)max following normobaric 'live high-train low' in endurance-trained athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robach, Paul; Siebenmann, Christoph; Jacobs, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    It remains unclear by which mechanism 'live high-train low' (LHTL) altitude training increases exercise performance. Haematological and skeletal muscle adaptations have both been proposed. To test the hypotheses that (i) LHTL improves maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max) and (ii) this improvement is ...

  16. Seasonal variation of VO 2 max and the VO2-work rate relationship in elite Alpine skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Micah A; Breil, Fabio A; Lehmann, Andrea D; Hoppeler, Hans; Vogt, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Alpine ski performance relates closely to both anaerobic and aerobic capacities. During their competitive season, skiers greatly reduce endurance and weight training, and on-snow training becomes predominant. To typify this shift, we compared exhaustive ramp cycling and squat (SJ) and countermovement jumping (CMJ) performance in elite males before and after their competitive season. In postseason compared with preseason: 1) maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) normalized to bodyweight was higher (55.2 +/- 5.2 vs 52.7 +/- 3.6 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1), P jump height was greater in SJ (47.4 +/- 4.4 vs 44.7 +/- 4.3 cm, P skiing seemingly provides an ample cardiovascular training stimulus for skiers to maintain their aerobic capacities during the racing season. We conclude that aerobic fitness and leg explosiveness can be maintained in-season but may be compromised by heavy or excessive preseason training. In addition, ramp test V O2/W slope analysis could be useful for monitoring both positive and negative responses to training.

  17. Peak Velocity as an Alternative Method for Training Prescription in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline de Carvalho Picoli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the efficiency of an aerobic physical training program prescribed according to either velocity associated with maximum oxygen uptake (vVO2max or peak running speed obtained during an incremental treadmill test (Vpeak_K in mice.Methods: Twenty male Swiss mice, 60 days old, were randomly divided into two groups with 10 animals each: 1. group trained by vVO2max (GVO2, 2. group trained by Vpeak_K (GVP. After the adaptation training period, an incremental test was performed at the beginning of each week to adjust training load and to determine the amount of VO2 and VCO2 fluxes consumed, energy expenditure (EE and run distance during the incremental test. Mice were submitted to 4 weeks of aerobic exercise training of moderate intensity (velocity referring to 70% of vVO2max and Vpeak_K in a programmable treadmill. The sessions lasted from 30 to 40 min in the first week, to reach 60 min in the fourth week, in order to provide the mice with a moderate intensity exercise, totaling 20 training sessions.Results: Mice demonstrated increases in VO2max (ml·kg−1·min−1 (GVO2 = 49.1% and GVP = 56.2%, Vpeak_K (cm·s−1 (GVO2 = 50.9% and GVP = 22.3%, EE (ml·kg−0,75·min−1 (GVO2 = 39.9% and GVP = 51.5%, and run distance (cm (GVO2 = 43.5% and GVP = 33.4%, after 4 weeks of aerobic training (time effect, P < 0.05; there were no differences between the groups.Conclusions: Vpeak_K, as well as vVO2max, can be adopted as an alternative test to determine the performance and correct prescription of systemized aerobic protocol training to mice.

  18. Peak Velocity as an Alternative Method for Training Prescription in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picoli, Caroline de Carvalho; Romero, Paulo Vitor da Silva; Gilio, Gustavo R; Guariglia, Débora A; Tófolo, Laize P; de Moraes, Solange M F; Machado, Fabiana A; Peres, Sidney B

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the efficiency of an aerobic physical training program prescribed according to either velocity associated with maximum oxygen uptake (vVO 2max ) or peak running speed obtained during an incremental treadmill test (V peak_K ) in mice. Methods: Twenty male Swiss mice, 60 days old, were randomly divided into two groups with 10 animals each: 1. group trained by vVO 2max (GVO 2 ), 2. group trained by V peak_K (GVP). After the adaptation training period, an incremental test was performed at the beginning of each week to adjust training load and to determine the amount of VO 2 and VCO 2 fluxes consumed, energy expenditure (EE) and run distance during the incremental test. Mice were submitted to 4 weeks of aerobic exercise training of moderate intensity (velocity referring to 70% of vVO 2max and V peak_K ) in a programmable treadmill. The sessions lasted from 30 to 40 min in the first week, to reach 60 min in the fourth week, in order to provide the mice with a moderate intensity exercise, totaling 20 training sessions. Results: Mice demonstrated increases in VO 2max (ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ) (GVO 2 = 49.1% and GVP = 56.2%), V peak_K (cm·s -1 ) (GVO 2 = 50.9% and GVP = 22.3%), EE (ml·kg -0,75 ·min -1 ) (GVO 2 = 39.9% and GVP = 51.5%), and run distance (cm) (GVO 2 = 43.5% and GVP = 33.4%), after 4 weeks of aerobic training (time effect, P < 0.05); there were no differences between the groups. Conclusions: V peak_K , as well as vVO 2max , can be adopted as an alternative test to determine the performance and correct prescription of systemized aerobic protocol training to mice.

  19. Seasonal variations in VO2max, O2-cost, O2-deficit, and performance in elite cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losnegard, Thomas; Myklebust, Håvard; Spencer, Matt; Hallén, Jostein

    2013-07-01

    Long-term effects of training are important information for athletes, coaches, and scientists when associating changes in physiological indices with changes in performance. Therefore, this study monitored changes in aerobic and anaerobic capacities and performance in a group of elite cross-country skiers during a full sport season. Thirteen men (age, 23 ± 2 years; height, 182 ± 6 cm; body mass, 76 ± 8 kg; V2 roller ski skating VO2max, 79.3 ± 4.4 ml·kg·min or 6.0 ± 0.5 L·min) were tested during the early, middle, and late preparation phase: June (T1), August (T2), and October (T3); during the competition phase: January/February (T4); and after early precompetition phase: June (T5). O2-cost during submaximal efforts, V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, accumulated oxygen deficit (ΣO2-deficit), and performance during a 1,000-m test were determined in the V2 ski skating technique on a roller ski treadmill. Subjects performed their training on an individual basis, and detailed training logs were categorized into different intensity zones and exercise modes. Total training volume was highest during the summer months (early preseason) and decreased toward and through the winter season, whereas the volume of high-intensity training increased (all p size; ES = 0.63-1.37, moderate to large, all p country skiers induced no significant changes in V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak but improved performance, O2-cost, and ΣO2-deficit.

  20. Consumo máximo de oxígeno (vo2max en bomberos: revisión sistemática de estudios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Rojas Quirós

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumo máximo de oxígeno (VO2max en bomberos: revisión sistemática de estudios. El trabajo de bombero es catalogada como una profesión de riesgo, con alto requerimiento físico; en los últimos años el bombero ha adquirido más competencias que la propia de apagar incendios, entre ellas las intervenciones en accidentes de tránsito, incidentes con materiales peligrosos, rescates, fuegos forestales, entre otros. La imagen del bombero tradicional ha dado paso a nuevos profesionales preparados para afrontar todo tipo de desastres por lo que se habla en la actualidad del bombero completo. El objetivo de este estudio fue revisar sistemáticamente la evidencia científica sobre los valores de consumo máximo de oxígeno (VO2max que presentan los bomberos. Se incluyeron un total de 19 estudios, publicados entre los años 2002 y 2012, de las bases de datos de EBSCOhost, SpringerLink, SPORTDiscus, Medline, Embase y Scielo; además de revistas como Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, Occupational Medicine y Psicothema. Se concluye con esta revisión, con base a los resultados de los estudios, que las diferentes poblaciones de bomberos, oscilan un VO2max de 39,20 a 58,21 ml/kg/min, que varía según la condición inicial que tienen los bomberos en los diferentes estudios que proponen los autores; en general se determina que un bombero debe poseer valores de VO2max por encima de los 43 ml/kg/min, lo cual es lo mínimo recomendable para al menos poseer una buena capacidad aeróbica que le permita desenvolverse en sus funciones básicas como bombero.

  1. Comparison of physiological and acid-base balance response during uphill, level and downhill running performed at constant velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejczyk, Marcin; Więcek, M; Szymura, J; Szyguła, Z

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the physiological and the acid-base balance response to running at various slope angles. Ten healthy men 22.3 ± 1.56 years old participated in the study. The study consisted of completing the graded test until exhaustion and three 45-minute runs. For the first 30 minutes, runs were performed with an intensity of approximately 50% VO2max, while in the final 15 minutes the slope angle of treadmill was adjusted (0°; +4.5°; -4.5°), and a fixed velocity of running was maintained. During concentric exercise, a significant increase in the levels of physiological indicators was reported; during eccentric exercise, a significant decrease in the level of the analyzed indicators was observed. Level running did not cause significant changes in the indicators of acid-base balance. The indicators of acid-base balance changed significantly in the case of concentric muscle work (in comparison to level running) and after the eccentric work, significant and beneficial changes were observed in most of the biochemical indicators. The downhill run can be used for a partial regeneration of the body during exercise, because during this kind of effort an improvement of running economy was observed, and this type of effort did not impair the acid-base balance of body.

  2. Sex differences in the effects of 12 weeks sprint interval training on body fat mass and the rates of fatty acid oxidation and VO2max during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Liam; Slevin, Mark; Bradburn, Steven; Liu, Donghui; Murgatroyd, Chris; Morrissey, George; Carroll, Michael; Piasecki, Mathew; Gilmore, William S; McPhee, Jamie S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether very short duration, very high intensity sprint interval training (SIT) leads to loss of body fat mass in association with improvements to VO 2 max and fatty acid oxidation, and to assess the extent of sex dimorphism in these physiological responses. A total of 24 men and 17 women (mean (SEM) age: 39 (±2) years; body mass index 24.6 (0.6)) completed measurements of the maximal rate of oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) and fatty acid oxidation (FATmax). Body fat and lean mass were measured by dual emission x-ray absorptiometry, and fasting blood lipid, glucose and insulin profiles were assessed before and after training. SIT consisted of 4×20 s sprints on a cycle ergometer at approximately 175% VO 2 max, three times per week for 12 weeks. Fat mass decreased by 1.0 kg, although men lost statistically significantly more fat than women both when expressed in Kg and as % body fat. VO 2 max increased by around 9%, but women improved VO 2 max significantly more than men. FATmax improved by around 13%, but fasting plasma glucose, insulin, total triglyceride, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) did not change after training, while low-density lipoprotein decreased by 8% (p=0.028) and the HDL:Total Cholesterol ratio improved by 6%. There were no sex differences in these metabolic responses to training. These results show lower body fat %, and higher rates of fatty acid oxidation and VO 2 max after 12 weeks of training for just 4 min per week. Notably, women improved VO 2 max more than men, while men lost more fat than women.

  3. Sex differences in the effects of 12 weeks sprint interval training on body fat mass and the rates of fatty acid oxidation and VO2max during exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Liam; Slevin, Mark; Bradburn, Steven; Liu, Donghui; Murgatroyd, Chris; Morrissey, George; Carroll, Michael; Piasecki, Mathew; Gilmore, William S; McPhee, Jamie S

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine whether very short duration, very high intensity sprint interval training (SIT) leads to loss of body fat mass in association with improvements to VO2max and fatty acid oxidation, and to assess the extent of sex dimorphism in these physiological responses. Methods A total of 24 men and 17 women (mean (SEM) age: 39 (±2) years; body mass index 24.6 (0.6)) completed measurements of the maximal rate of oxygen uptake (VO2max) and fatty acid oxidation (FATmax). Body fat and lean mass were measured by dual emission x-ray absorptiometry, and fasting blood lipid, glucose and insulin profiles were assessed before and after training. SIT consisted of 4×20 s sprints on a cycle ergometer at approximately 175% VO2max, three times per week for 12 weeks. Results Fat mass decreased by 1.0 kg, although men lost statistically significantly more fat than women both when expressed in Kg and as % body fat. VO2max increased by around 9%, but women improved VO2max significantly more than men. FATmax improved by around 13%, but fasting plasma glucose, insulin, total triglyceride, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) did not change after training, while low-density lipoprotein decreased by 8% (p=0.028) and the HDL:Total Cholesterol ratio improved by 6%. There were no sex differences in these metabolic responses to training. Conclusions These results show lower body fat %, and higher rates of fatty acid oxidation and VO2max after 12 weeks of training for just 4 min per week. Notably, women improved VO2max more than men, while men lost more fat than women. PMID:27900150

  4. Effectiveness of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIT) and Continuous Endurance Training for VO2max Improvements: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanović, Zoran; Sporiš, Goran; Weston, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    Enhancing cardiovascular fitness can lead to substantial health benefits. High-intensity interval training (HIT) is an efficient way to develop cardiovascular fitness, yet comparisons between this type of training and traditional endurance training are equivocal. Our objective was to meta-analyse the effects of endurance training and HIT on the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) of healthy, young to middle-aged adults. Six electronic databases were searched (MEDLINE, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, CINAHL and Google Scholar) for original research articles. A search was conducted and search terms included 'high intensity', 'HIT', 'sprint interval training', 'endurance training', 'peak oxygen uptake', and 'VO2max'. Inclusion criteria were controlled trials, healthy adults aged 18-45 years, training duration ≥2 weeks, VO2max assessed pre- and post-training. Twenty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. This resulted in 723 participants with a mean ± standard deviation (SD) age and initial fitness of 25.1 ± 5 years and 40.8 ± 7.9 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), respectively. We made probabilistic magnitude-based inferences for meta-analysed effects based on standardised thresholds for small, moderate and large changes (0.2, 0.6 and 1.2, respectively) derived from between-subject SDs for baseline VO2max. The meta-analysed effect of endurance training on VO2max was a possibly large beneficial effect (4.9 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); 95 % confidence limits ±1.4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)), when compared with no-exercise controls. A possibly moderate additional increase was observed for typically younger subjects (2.4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); ±2.1 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and interventions of longer duration (2.2 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); ±3.0 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)), and a small additional improvement for subjects with lower baseline fitness (1.4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); ±2.0 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)). When compared with no-exercise controls

  5. Comparison of structured and unstructured physical activity training on predicted VO2max and heart rate variability in adolescents - a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vivek Kumar; Subramanian, Senthil Kumar; Radhakrishnan, Krishnakumar; Rajendran, Rajathi; Ravindran, Balasubramanian Sulur; Arunachalam, Vinayathan

    2017-05-01

    Physical inactivity contributes to many health issues. The WHO-recommended physical activity for adolescents encompasses aerobic, resistance, and bone strengthening exercises aimed at achieving health-related physical fitness. Heart rate variability (HRV) and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) are considered as noninvasive measures of cardiovascular health. The objective of this study is to compare the effect of structured and unstructured physical training on maximal aerobic capacity and HRV among adolescents. We designed a single blinded, parallel, randomized active-controlled trial (Registration No. CTRI/2013/08/003897) to compare the physiological effects of 6 months of globally recommended structured physical activity (SPA), with that of unstructured physical activity (USPA) in healthy school-going adolescents. We recruited 439 healthy student volunteers (boys: 250, girls: 189) in the age group of 12-17 years. Randomization across the groups was done using age and gender stratified randomization method, and the participants were divided into two groups: SPA (n=219, boys: 117, girls: 102) and USPA (n=220, boys: 119, girls: 101). Depending on their training status and gender the participants in both SPA and USPA groups were further subdivided into the following four sub-groups: SPA athlete boys (n=22) and girls (n=17), SPA nonathlete boys (n=95) and girls (n=85), USPA athlete boys (n=23) and girls (n=17), and USPA nonathlete boys (n=96) and girls (n=84). We recorded HRV, body fat%, and VO2 max using Rockport Walk Fitness test before and after the intervention. Maximum aerobic capacity and heart rate variability increased significantly while heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and body fat percentage decreased significantly after both SPA and USPA intervention. However, the improvement was more in SPA as compared to USPA. SPA is more beneficial for improving cardiorespiratory fitness, HRV, and reducing body fat percentage in terms of

  6. A acurácia da determinação do VO2max e do limiar anaeróbio La exactitud en la determinacion del VO2máx y del umbral anaerobico Accuracy of VO2max and anaerobic threshold determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar N Granja Filho

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available São raros estudos que tratam da acurácia de parâmetros de trocas gasosas durante o esforço, com a população brasileira. OBJETIVO: Determinar a confiabilidade do consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2max e do limiar anaeróbio (LAn, assim como, a objetividade do segundo (LAn em adultos jovens saudáveis. MÉTODOS: Foram aplicados dois testes de esforço máximo, a partir dos quais dois observadores independentes determinaram o LAn através do método de inspeção visual. Os dados foram tratados por meio da análise de regressão, coeficiente de correlação intraclasse (CCI, ANOVA com dois fatores com teste post hoc de Tukey e teste t pareado para alfa Son raros los estudios que tratan de la exactitud de los parámetros de cambios gaseosos durante el esfuerzo con la población brasileña. OBJETIVO: Determinar la confiabilidad del consumo máximo de oxigeno (VO2max y del umbral anaeróbico (LAn, así como la objetividad del segundo, (LAn en adultos jovenes saludables. MÉTODOS: Fueron aplicados dos tests de esfuerzo máximo, a partir de los cuales dos observadores independientes determinaron el LAn a través del método de inspección visual. Los datos fueron tratados por medio del análisis de regresión, coeficiente de relación intraclase (CCI, ANOVA com dos factores con test post hoc de Tukey y el test t apareado para alfa Studies on the accuracy of the gas exchange and ventilation parameters during exertion involving the Brazilian population are scarce in literature. OBEJCTIVE: To determine the reliability of the maximal oxygen intake (VO2max and anaerobic threshold (AnT, as well as the objectivity of the AnT determination in Brazilian healthy youth adults. METHODS: Two tests of maximal exertion were applied. Two independent observers applied the visual inspection method for the AnT determination. The data were compared by means of the regression analysis, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, two-way ANOVA and the paired t-test for an

  7. High-intensity interval running is perceived to be more enjoyable than moderate-intensity continuous exercise: implications for exercise adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jonathan D; Close, Graeme L; MacLaren, Don P M; Gregson, Warren; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to objectively quantify ratings of perceived enjoyment using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale following high-intensity interval running versus moderate-intensity continuous running. Eight recreationally active men performed two running protocols consisting of high-intensity interval running (6 × 3 min at 90% VO(2max) interspersed with 6 × 3 min active recovery at 50% VO(2max) with a 7-min warm-up and cool down at 70% VO(2max)) or 50 min moderate-intensity continuous running at 70% VO(2max). Ratings of perceived enjoyment after exercise were higher (P running compared with continuous running (88 ± 6 vs. 61 ± 12) despite higher (P running may be relevant for improving exercise adherence, since running is a low-cost exercise intervention requiring no exercise equipment and similar relative exercise intensities have previously induced health benefits in patient populations.

  8. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngeraa, Tobias; Pedersen, Lars Møller; Mantoni, T

    2013-01-01

    for eight subjects, respectively, were excluded from analysis because of insufficient signal quality. Running increased mean arterial pressure and mean MCA velocity and induced rhythmic oscillations in BP and in MCA velocity corresponding to the difference between step rate and heart rate (HR) frequencies....... During running, rhythmic oscillations in arterial BP induced by interference between HR and step frequency impact on cerebral blood velocity. For the exercise as a whole, average MCA velocity becomes elevated. These results suggest that running not only induces an increase in regional cerebral blood flow...

  9. Effect of tapering after a period of high-volume sprint interval training on running performance and muscular adaptations in moderately trained runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Casper; Almquist, Nicki Winfield; Kvorning, Thue

    2018-01-01

    The effect of tapering following a period of high-volume sprint interval training (SIT) and a basic volume of aerobic training on performance and muscle adaptations in moderately trained runners was examined. Eleven (8 males, 3 females) runners (maximum oxygen uptake (VO2-max): 56.8±2.9 mL·min(-1...... running test at 90% of vVO2-max to exhaustion (RRT). In addition, a biopsy from m. vastus lateralis was obtained at rest. Performance during RRT was better (P... at 60% of vVO2-max was lower (P

  10. Effect of single physical exercise at 35% VO2 max. intensity on secretion activity of pancreas β-cells and 125J-insulin binding and degradation ability by erythrocyte receptors in children with diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczesniak, L.; Rychlewski, T.; Banaszak, F.; Kasprzak, Z.; Walczak, M.

    1994-01-01

    In this report we showed research results of effect of single physical exercise on cycloergometer at 35% VO 2 max. intensity on 125 J-insulin binding and degradation ability by erythrocyte receptors in children with diabetes mellitus, secreting and non-secreting endogenous insulin. Insulin secretion was evaluated by measurement of C-peptide by Biodet test (Serono) of sensitivity threshold at 0.3 μg/ml. We indicated in children non-secreting endogenous insulin (n=32) there is statistically essential lower 125 J-insulin binding with erythrocyte receptor in comparison to children group with C-peptide. Physical exercise on cycloergometer at 35% VO 2 max. intensity caused different reaction in range of physiological indices, like acid-base parameters, level of glucose and 125 J-insulin binding and degradation. In children devoid of endogenous insulin we indicated statistically nonessential changes in 125 J-insulin degradation by non-impaired erythrocytes and by hemolizate, as well. 125 J-insulin binding after physical exercise increased in both groups, though change amplitude was different. Obtained research results allowed us to conclude, in children with I-type diabetes, that in dependence of impairment degree of pancreas βcells sensitivity of insulin receptor and/or number of receptors on erythrocyte surface is different

  11. Progression in Running Intensity or Running Volume and the Development of Specific Injuries in Recreational Runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Daniel; Rasmussen, Sten; Sørensen, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    -training. Participants were randomized to one of two running schedules: Schedule Intensity(Sch-I) or Schedule Volume(Sch-V). Sch-I progressed the amount of high intensity running (≥88% VO2max) each week. Sch-V progressed total weekly running volume. Global positioning system watch or smartphone collected data on running...

  12. Running on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, Peter C; Hovgaard-Hansen, Line; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and time to exhaustion while running on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill (LBPPT) at normal body weight (BW) as well as how BW support affects respiratory responses, ground reaction forces, and stride characteristics.......This study investigated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and time to exhaustion while running on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill (LBPPT) at normal body weight (BW) as well as how BW support affects respiratory responses, ground reaction forces, and stride characteristics....

  13. Maximal metabolic rates during voluntary exercise, forced exercise, and cold exposure in house mice selectively bred for high wheel-running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Enrico L; Chappell, Mark A; Gomes, Fernando R; Malisch, Jessica L; Garland, Theodore

    2005-06-01

    Selective breeding for high wheel-running activity has generated four lines of laboratory house mice (S lines) that run about 170% more than their control counterparts (C lines) on a daily basis, mostly because they run faster. We tested whether maximum aerobic metabolic rates (V(O2max)) have evolved in concert with wheel-running, using 48 females from generation 35. Voluntary activity and metabolic rates were measured on days 5+6 of wheel access (mimicking conditions during selection), using wheels enclosed in metabolic chambers. Following this, V(O2max) was measured twice on a motorized treadmill and twice during cold-exposure in a heliox atmosphere (HeO2). Almost all measurements, except heliox V(O2max), were significantly repeatable. After accounting for differences in body mass (S running speeds on the treadmill. However, running speeds and V(O2max) during voluntary exercise were significantly higher in S lines. Nevertheless, S mice never voluntarily achieved the V(O2max) elicited during their forced treadmill trials, suggesting that aerobic capacity per se is not limiting the evolution of even higher wheel-running speeds in these lines. Our results support the hypothesis that S mice have genetically higher motivation for wheel-running and they demonstrate that behavior can sometimes evolve independently of performance capacities. We also discuss the possible importance of domestication as a confounding factor to extrapolate results from this animal model to natural populations.

  14. In healthy elderly postmenopausal women variations in BMD and BMC at various skeletal sites are associated with differences in weight and lean body mass rather than by variations in habitual physical activity, strength or VO2max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöffl, I; Kemmler, W; Kladny, B; Vonstengel, S; Kalender, W A; Engelke, K

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was an integrated cross-sectional investigation for answering the question whether differences in bone mineral density in elderly postmenopausal women are associated with differences in habitual physical activity and unspecific exercise levels. Two hundred and ninety nine elderly women (69-/+3 years), without diseases or medication affecting bone metabolism were investigated. The influence of weight, body composition and physical activity on BMD was measured at multiple sites using different techniques (DXA, QCT, and QUS). Physical activity and exercise level were assessed by questionnaire, maximum strength of the legs and aerobic capacity. Variations in physical activity or habitual exercise had no effect on bone. The only significant univariate relation between strength/VO(2)max and BMD/BMC that remained after adjusting for confounding variables was between arm BMD (DXA) and hand-grip strength. The most important variable for explaining BMD was weight and for cortical BMC of the femur (QCT) lean body mass. Weight and lean body mass emerge as predominant predictors of BMD in normal elderly women, whereas the isolated effect of habitual physical activity, unspecific exercise participation, and muscle strength on bone parameters is negligible. Thus, an increase in the amount of habitual physical activity will probably have no beneficial impact on bone.

  15. [Physiological differences between cycling and running].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Grégoire

    2009-08-05

    This review compares the differences in systemic responses (VO2max, anaerobic threshold, heart rate and economy) and in underlying mechanisms of adaptation (ventilatory and hemodynamic and neuromuscular responses) between cycling and running. VO2max is specific to the exercise modality. Overall, there is more physiological training transfer from running to cycling than vice-versa. Several other physiological differences between cycling and running are discussed: HR is different between the two activities both for maximal and sub-maximal intensities. The delta efficiency is higher in running. Ventilation is more impaired in cycling than running due to mechanical constraints. Central fatigue and decrease in maximal strength are more important after prolonged exercise in running than in cycling.

  16. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during running

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyngeraa, T. S.; Pedersen, L. M.; Mantoni, T.; Belhage, B.; Rasmussen, L. S.; van Lieshout, J. J.; Pott, F. C.

    2013-01-01

    Running induces characteristic fluctuations in blood pressure (BP) of unknown consequence for organ blood flow. We hypothesized that running-induced BP oscillations are transferred to the cerebral vasculature. In 15 healthy volunteers, transcranial Doppler-determined middle cerebral artery (MCA)

  17. Energy expenditure and influence of physiologic factors during marathon running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Mark; Sothern, Melinda; Koss, Cathie; Tuuri, Georgianna; Vanvrancken, Connie; Kontos, Anthony; Bonis, Marc

    2007-11-01

    This study examined energy expenditure and physiologic determinants for marathon performance in recreational runners. Twenty recreational marathon runners participated (10 males aged 41 +/- 11.3 years, 10 females aged 42.7 +/- 11.7 years). Each subject completed a V(.-)O2max and a 1-hour treadmill run at recent marathon pace, and body composition was indirectly determined via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The male runners exhibited higher V(.-)O2max (ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) values (52.6 +/- 5.5) than their female counterparts (41.9 +/- 6.6), although ventilatory threshold (T-vent) values were similar between groups (males: 76.2 +/- 6.1 % of V(.-)O2max, females: 75.1 +/- 5.1%). The male runners expended more energy (2,792 +/- 235 kcal) for their most recent marathon as calculated from the 1-hour treadmill run at marathon pace than the female runners (2,436 +/- 297 kcal). Body composition parameters correlated moderately to highly (r ranging from 0.50 to 0.87) with marathon run time. Also, V(.-)O2max (r = -0.73) and ventilatory threshold (r = -0.73) moderately correlated with marathon run time. As a group, the participants ran near their ventilatory threshold for their most recent marathon (r = 0.74). These results indicate the influence of body size on marathon run performance. In general, the larger male and female runners ran slower and expended more kilocalories than smaller runners. Regardless of marathon finishing time, the runners maintained a pace near their T-vent, and as T-vent or V(.-)O2max increased, marathon performance time decreased.

  18. The effect of repeated periods of speed endurance training on performance, running economy, and muscle adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovgaard, C; Almquist, N W; Bangsbo, J

    2018-02-01

    The effect of repeated intense training interventions was investigated in eight trained male runners (maximum oxygen uptake [VO 2 -max]: 59.3±3.2 mL/kg/min, mean±SD) who performed 10 speed endurance training (SET; repeated 30-seconds "all-out" bouts) and 10 aerobic moderate-intensity training sessions during two 40-day periods (P1 and P2) separated by ~80 days of habitual training. Before and after both P1 and P2, subjects completed an incremental test to exhaustion to determine VO 2 -max and a repeated running test at 90% vVO 2 -max to exhaustion (RRT) to determine short-term endurance capacity. In addition, running economy (RE) was measured at 60% vVO 2 -max (11.9±0.5 km/h) and v10-km (14.3±0.9 km/h), a 10-km track-running test was performed, and a biopsy from m. vastus lateralis was collected. 10-km performance and VO 2 -max (mL/min) were the same prior to P1 and P2, whereas RE was better (P<.05) before P2 than before P1. During P1 and P2, 10-km performance (2.9% and 2.3%), VO 2 -max (2.1% and 2.6%), and RE (1.9% and 1.8% at 60% vVO 2 -max; 1.6% and 2.0% at v10-km) improved (P<.05) to the same extent, respectively. Performance in RRT was 20% better (P<.05) after compared to before P2, with no change in P1. No changes in muscle expression of Na + ,K + -ATPase α1, α2 and β1, NHE1, SERCA1 and SERCA2, actin, and CaMKII were found during neither P1 nor P2. Thus, the present study demonstrates that a second period of intense training leads to improved short-term performance and further improved RE, whereas 10-km performance and VO 2 -max improve to the same extent as during the first period. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effects of Heavy Strength Training on Running Performance and Determinants of Running Performance in Female Endurance Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikmoen, Olav; Raastad, Truls; Seynnes, Olivier; Bergstrøm, Kristoffer; Ellefsen, Stian; Rønnestad, Bent R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training to normal endurance training on running performance and running economy in well-trained female athletes. We hypothesized that the added strength training would improve performance and running economy through altered stiffness of the muscle-tendon complex of leg extensors. Methods Nineteen female endurance athletes [maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 53±3 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, 5.8 h weekly endurance training] were randomly assigned to either normal endurance training (E, n = 8) or normal endurance training combined with strength training (E+S, n = 11). The strength training consisted of four leg exercises [3 x 4–10 repetition maximum (RM)], twice a week for 11 weeks. Muscle strength, 40 min all-out running distance, running performance determinants and patellar tendon stiffness were measured before and after the intervention. Results E+S increased 1RM in leg exercises (40 ± 15%) and maximal jumping height in counter movement jump (6 ± 6%) and squat jump (9 ± 7%, p running economy, fractional utilization of VO2max or VO2max. There were also no change in running distance during a 40 min all-out running test in neither of the groups. Conclusion Adding heavy strength training to endurance training did not affect 40 min all-out running performance or running economy compared to endurance training only. PMID:26953893

  20. Factors affecting running economy in trained distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Philo U; Pyne, David B; Telford, Richard D; Hawley, John A

    2004-01-01

    Running economy (RE) is typically defined as the energy demand for a given velocity of submaximal running, and is determined by measuring the steady-state consumption of oxygen (VO2) and the respiratory exchange ratio. Taking body mass (BM) into consideration, runners with good RE use less energy and therefore less oxygen than runners with poor RE at the same velocity. There is a strong association between RE and distance running performance, with RE being a better predictor of performance than maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in elite runners who have a similar VO2max). RE is traditionally measured by running on a treadmill in standard laboratory conditions, and, although this is not the same as overground running, it gives a good indication of how economical a runner is and how RE changes over time. In order to determine whether changes in RE are real or not, careful standardisation of footwear, time of test and nutritional status are required to limit typical error of measurement. Under controlled conditions, RE is a stable test capable of detecting relatively small changes elicited by training or other interventions. When tracking RE between or within groups it is important to account for BM. As VO2 during submaximal exercise does not, in general, increase linearly with BM, reporting RE with respect to the 0.75 power of BM has been recommended. A number of physiological and biomechanical factors appear to influence RE in highly trained or elite runners. These include metabolic adaptations within the muscle such as increased mitochondria and oxidative enzymes, the ability of the muscles to store and release elastic energy by increasing the stiffness of the muscles, and more efficient mechanics leading to less energy wasted on braking forces and excessive vertical oscillation. Interventions to improve RE are constantly sought after by athletes, coaches and sport scientists. Two interventions that have received recent widespread attention are strength training and

  1. The Relationship between Running Velocity and the Energy Cost of Turning during Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamoto, Yoichi; Yamada, Yosuke; Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Higaki, Yasuki; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Ball game players frequently perform changes of direction (CODs) while running; however, there has been little research on the physiological impact of CODs. In particular, the effect of running velocity on the physiological and energy demands of CODs while running has not been clearly determined. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between running velocity and the energy cost of a 180°COD and to quantify the energy cost of a 180°COD. Nine male university students (aged 18–22 years) participated in the study. Five shuttle trials were performed in which the subjects were required to run at different velocities (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 km/h). Each trial consisted of four stages with different turn frequencies (13, 18, 24 and 30 per minute), and each stage lasted 3 minutes. Oxygen consumption was measured during the trial. The energy cost of a COD significantly increased with running velocity (except between 7 and 8 km/h, p = 0.110). The relationship between running velocity and the energy cost of a 180°COD is best represented by a quadratic function (y = −0.012+0.066x +0.008x2, [r = 0.994, p = 0.001]), but is also well represented by a linear (y = −0.228+0.152x, [r = 0.991, prunning velocities have relatively high physiological demands if the COD frequency increases, and that running velocities affect the physiological demands of CODs. These results also showed that the energy expenditure of COD can be evaluated using only two data points. These results may be useful for estimating the energy expenditure of players during a match and designing shuttle exercise training programs. PMID:24497913

  2. Improvement of energy expenditure prediction from heart rate during running

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlot, Keyne; Borne, Rachel; Richalet, Jean-Paul; Chapelot, Didier; Pichon, Aurélien; Cornolo, Jérémy; Brugniaux, Julien Vincent

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to develop new equations that predict exercise-induced energy expenditure (EE) more accurately than previous ones during running by including new parameters as fitness level, body composition and/or running intensity in addition to heart rate (HR). Original equations predicting EE were created from data obtained during three running intensities (25%, 50% and 70% of HR reserve) performed by 50 subjects. Five equations were conserved according to their accuracy assessed from error rates, interchangeability and correlations analyses: one containing only basic parameters, two containing VO 2max  or speed at VO 2max  and two including running speed with or without HR. Equations accuracy was further tested in an independent sample during a 40 min validation test at 50% of HR reserve. It appeared that: (1) the new basic equation was more accurate than pre-existing equations (R 2  0.809 versus. 0,737 respectively); (2) the prediction of EE was more accurate with the addition of VO 2max  (R 2  = 0.879); and (3) the equations containing running speed were the most accurate and were considered to have good agreement with indirect calorimetry. In conclusion, EE estimation during running might be significantly improved by including running speed in the predictive models, a parameter readily available with treadmill or GPS. (paper)

  3. The Effect of Training at 2100-m Altitude on Running Speed and Session Rating of Perceived Exertion at Different Intensities in Elite Middle-Distance Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Avish P; Saunders, Philo U; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Clark, Brad; Stanley, Jamie; Robertson, Eileen Y; Thompson, Kevin G

    2017-04-01

    To determine the effect of training at 2100-m natural altitude on running speed (RS) during training sessions over a range of intensities relevant to middle-distance running performance. In an observational study, 19 elite middle-distance runners (mean ± SD age 25 ± 5 y, VO 2 max, 71 ± 5 mL · kg -1 · min -1 ) completed either 4-6 wk of sea-level training (CON, n = 7) or a 4- to 5-wk natural altitude-training camp living at 2100 m and training at 1400-2700 m (ALT, n = 12) after a period of sea-level training. Each training session was recorded on a GPS watch, and athletes also provided a score for session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE). Training sessions were grouped according to duration and intensity. RS (km/h) and sRPE from matched training sessions completed at sea level and 2100 m were compared within ALT, with sessions completed at sea level in CON describing normal variation. In ALT, RS was reduced at altitude compared with sea level, with the greatest decrements observed during threshold- and VO 2 max-intensity sessions (5.8% and 3.6%, respectively). Velocity of low-intensity and race-pace sessions completed at a lower altitude (1400 m) and/or with additional recovery was maintained in ALT, though at a significantly greater sRPE (P = .04 and .05, respectively). There was no change in velocity or sRPE at any intensity in CON. RS in elite middle-distance athletes is adversely affected at 2100-m natural altitude, with levels of impairment dependent on the intensity of training. Maintenance of RS at certain intensities while training at altitude can result in a higher perceived exertion.

  4. Cadetes of the Academia do Polícia Militar do Estado do Rio de Janeiro Correlación entre VO2 max, gordura relativa y perfil lipídico, en cadetes de la Academia de Policía Militar del Estado de Río de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. H. M. Dantas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to verify the correlation level among the max, the relative fat and the profile lipídico of 51 Cadets (Age = 23.63 3.58 years; Weight = 74.13 ± 10.46 kg; Height = 1.76 ± 0.06 m; IMC = 23.99 2.76 kg/m2, of the masculine gender, of the Academy of the Military police of the State of Rio de Janeiro, of the year of 2007. The subjects were active and participants of the military physical training (TFM accomplished five times a week, with duration of 60 minutes for session. They were appraised: the max for ergoespirometria (I record of progressive effort, with constant inclination of 3% and initial speed of 4,0km/h, the relative fat (% G - I record of three cutaneous folds and the profile lipídico, through the method Enzymatic Calorimétrico in the variables: total cholesterol (CT, triglicérides (TG, lipoproteína of density high-cholesterol (HDL-C and lipoproteína of density low-cholesterol (LDL-C. The test of correlation of Spearman presented correlation significant between max and TG (r = -0,289; p = 0,04,  max and HDL-C (r = 0,277; p = 0,049,% G and TG (r = 0,296; p = 0,035,% G and HDL-C (r = 0,338; p = 0,015. Like this, these discoveries point a discreet relationship between the profile lipídico and the maximum consumption of oxygen corroborating the need to consider other factors as the feeding and the intensity of the exercises in the investigation of this relationship.

    Key Words: training,  VO2 max, relative fat, lipidic profile.

     

    El objetivo del presente estudio es establecer el nivel de correlación entre el  VO2 max, la grasa relativa y el perfil lipídico de 51 cadetes varones (Edad = 23.63 ± 3.58 años; Peso = 74.13 ± 10.46 Kg.; Talla = 1.76  ± 0.06 m; IMC = 23.99 ± 2.76 Kg. /m2 de la Academia de la Policía Militar del Estado de Río de Janeiro, del año de 2007. Los sujetos son f

  5. Metabolic cost of running is greater on a treadmill with a stiffer running platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A H; McKerrow, Alexander D; Kohn, Tertius A

    2017-08-01

    Exercise testing on motorised treadmills provides valuable information about running performance and metabolism; however, the impact of treadmill type on these tests has not been investigated. This study compared the energy demand of running on two laboratory treadmills: an HP Cosmos (C) and a Quinton (Q) model, with the latter having a 4.5 times stiffer running platform. Twelve experienced runners ran identical bouts on these treadmills at a range of four submaximal velocities (reported data is for the velocity that approximated 75-81% VO 2max ). The stiffer treadmill elicited higher oxygen consumption (C: 46.7 ± 3.8; Q: 50.1 ± 4.3 ml·kg -1 · min -1 ), energy expenditure (C: 16.0 ± 2.5; Q: 17.7 ± 2.9 kcal · min -1 ), carbohydrate oxidation (C: 9.6 ± 3.1; Q: 13.0 ± 3.9 kcal · min -1 ), heart rate (C: 155 ± 16; Q: 163 ± 16 beats · min -1 ) and rating of perceived exertion (C: 13.8 ± 1.2; Q: 14.7 ± 1.2), but lower fat oxidation (C: 6.4 ± 2.3; Q: 4.6 ± 2.5 kcal · min -1 ) (all analysis of variance treadmill comparisons P running depending on the running platform stiffness.

  6. Predictors of high-intensity running capacity in collegiate women during a soccer game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, William P; Stout, Jeffrey R; Wells, Adam J; Gonzalez, Adam M; Mangine, Gerald T; Fragala, Maren S; Hoffman, Jay R

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine which physiological assessments best predicted high-intensity running (HIR) performance during a women's collegiate soccer game. A secondary purpose was to examine the relationships among physiological performance measures including muscle architecture on soccer performance (distance covered, HIR, and sprints during the game) during a competitive collegiate women's soccer game. Ten National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I women soccer players performed physiological assessments within a 2-week period before a competitive regulation soccer game performed during the spring season. Testing consisted of height, body mass, ultrasound measurement of dominant (DOMleg), and nondominant leg (NDOMleg) vastus lateralis for muscle thickness (MT) and pennation angle (PA), VO2max, running economy, and Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) for peak power (PP), mean power (MP), and fatigue rate (FR). During the game, distance run, HIR, and sprints were measured using a 10-Hz global positioning system. Stepwise regression revealed that VO2max, dominant leg thickness, and dominant leg PA were the strongest predictors of HIR distance during the game (R = 0.989, SEE = 115.5 m, p = 0.001). V[Combining Dot Above]O2max was significantly correlated with total distance run (r = 0.831; p = 0.003), HIR (r = 0.755; p = 0.012), WAnTPP (r = -0.737; p = 0.015), WAnTPP·kg (r = -0.706; p = 0.022), and WAnTFR (r = -0.713; p = 0.021). DOMlegMT was significantly correlated with WAnTFR (r = 0.893; p = 0.001). DOMlegPA was significantly correlated with WAnTFR (r = 0.740; p = 0.023). The NDOMlegPA was significantly correlated to peak running velocity (r = 0.781; p = 0.013) and WAnT MP·kg (r = 0.801; p = 0.01). Results of this study indicate that V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and muscle architecture are important characteristics of NCAA Division I women soccer players and may predict HIR distance during a competitive contest.

  7. Mechanical alterations during interval-training treadmill runs in high-level male team-sport players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Olivier; Brocherie, Franck; Morin, Jean-Benoit; Millet, Grégoire P

    2017-01-01

    To examine mechanical alterations during interval-training treadmill runs in high-level team-sport players. Within-participants repeated measures. Twenty high-level male field-hockey players performed six 30-s runs at 5.53±0.19ms -1 corresponding to 115% of their velocity associated with maximal oxygen uptake (vVO 2max ) with 30-s passive recovery on an instrumented treadmill. Continuous measurement of running kinetics/kinematics and spring-mass characteristics were performed and values were subsequently averaged over 20s (8th-28ths) for comparison. Contact time (+1.1±4.3%; p=0.044), aerial time (+4.1±5.3%; p=0.001), step length (+2.4±2.2%; pteam-sport players modified their mechanical behaviour towards lower vertical stiffness while preserving a constant leg stiffness. Maintenance of running velocity induced longer step lengths and decreased step frequencies that were also accompanied by increased impact loading rates. These mechanical alterations occurred early during the set. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effects of Backwards Running Training on Forward Running Economy in Trained Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, Jason D; Laubach, Lloyd L; Vanderburgh, Paul M; Jackson, Kurt J

    2016-03-01

    Backwards running (BR) results in greater cardiopulmonary response and muscle activity compared with forward running (FR). BR has traditionally been used in rehabilitation for disorders such as stroke and lower leg extremity injuries, as well as in short bursts during various athletic events. The aim of this study was to measure the effects of sustained backwards running training on forward running economy in trained male athletes. Eight highly trained, male runners (26.13 ± 6.11 years, 174.7 ± 6.4 cm, 68.4 ± 9.24 kg, 8.61 ± 3.21% body fat, 71.40 ± 7.31 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) trained with BR while harnessed on a treadmill at 161 m·min(-1) for 5 weeks following a 5-week BR run-in period at a lower speed (134 m·min(-1)). Subjects were tested at baseline, postfamiliarized, and post-BR training for body composition, a ramped VO2max test, and an economy test designed for trained male runners. Subjects improved forward running economy by 2.54% (1.19 ± 1.26 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), p = 0.032) at 215 m·min(-1). VO2max, body mass, lean mass, fat mass, and % body fat did not change (p > 0.05). Five weeks of BR training improved FR economy in healthy, trained male runners without altering VO2max or body composition. The improvements observed in this study could be a beneficial form of training to an already economical population to improve running economy.

  9. The effect of repeated periods of speed endurance training on performance, running economy and muscle adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Casper; Almquist, Nicki Winfield; Bangsbo, Jens

    2018-01-01

    sessions during two 40-day periods (P1 and P2) separated by ~80 days of habitual training. Before and after both P1 and P2, subjects completed an incremental test to exhaustion to determine VO2 -max and a repeated running test at 90% vVO2 -max to exhaustion (RRT) to determine short-term endurance capacity......, with no change in P1. No changes in muscle expression of Na(+) ,K(+) -ATPase α1, α2 and β1, NHE1, SERCA1 and SERCA2, actin and CamKII were found during neither P1 nor P2. Thus, the present study demonstrates that a second period of intense training leads to improved short-term performance and further improved RE...

  10. Physical Activity Enhances Metabolic Fitness Independently of Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Marathon Runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Laye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High levels of cardiovascular fitness (CRF and physical activity (PA are associated with decreased mortality and risk to develop metabolic diseases. The independent contributions of CRF and PA to metabolic disease risk factors are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that runners who run consistently >50 km/wk and/or >2 marathons/yr for the last 5 years have superior metabolic fitness compared to matched sedentary subjects (CRF, age, gender, and BMI. Case-control recruitment of 31 pairs of runner-sedentary subjects identified 10 matched pairs with similar VO2max (mL/min/kg (similar-VO2max. The similar-VO2max group was compared with a group of age, gender, and BMI matched pairs who had the largest difference in VO2max (different-VO2max. Primary outcomes that defined metabolic fitness including insulin response to an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting lipids, and fasting insulin were superior in runners versus sedentary controls despite similar VO2max. Furthermore, performance (velocity at VO2max, running economy, improved exercise metabolism (lactate threshold, and skeletal muscle levels of mitochondrial proteins were superior in runners versus sedentary controls with similar VO2max. In conclusion subjects with a high amount of PA have more positive metabolic health parameters independent of CRF. PA is thus a good marker against metabolic diseases.

  11. Metabolic responses to prolonged work during treadmill and water immersion running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangolias, D D; Rhodes, E C; Taunton, J E; Belcastro, A N; Coutts, K D

    2000-12-01

    The primary aim of this study was to compare the physiological responses to prolonged treadmill (TM) and water immersion to the neck (WI) running at threshold intensity. Ten endurance runners performed TM and WI running VO2max tests. Subjects completed submaximal performance tests at ventilatory threshold (Tvent) intensities under TM and WI conditions and responses at 15 and 42 minutes examined. VO2 was lower in WI (p<0.05) at maximal effort and Tvent. The Tvent VO2 intensities interpolated from the TM and WI VO2max tests were performed in both TM (i.e., TM@TM(tvent),TM@WI(tvent), corresponding to 77.6 and 71.3% respectively of TM VO2max) and WI conditions (i.e., WI@TM(tvent), WI@WI(tvent), corresponding to 85.5% and 78.2% respectively of WI VO2max). Each of the dependent variables was analyzed using a 3-way repeated measures ANOVA (2 conditions X 2 exercise intensities X 7 time points during exercise). VO2max values were significantly lower in the WI (52.4(5.1) ml.kg(-1) min(-1)) versus TM (59.7(6.5) ml.kg(-1) min(-1)) condition. VO2 during submaximal tests were similar during the TM and WI conditions. HR and [BLa] responses to exercise at and above WI(tvent) were similar during short-term exercise, but values tended to be lower during prolonged exercise in the WI condition. There were no statistical differences in VE responses in the 2 conditions, however as with HR and [BLa] an upward trend was noted with TM exercise over the 42 minute duration of the tests. RPE at WI(tvent) was similar for TM and WI exercise sessions, however, RPE at TM(tvent) was higher during WI compared to TM running. Cardiovascular drift was observed during prolonged TM but not WI running. Results suggest differences in metabolic responses to prolonged submaximal exercise in WI, however it can be used effectively for cross training.

  12. Comparative analysis of the 1-mile run test evaluation formulae: assessment of aerobic capacity in male law enforcement officers aged 20-23 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayihan, Gürhan; Özkan, Ali; Köklü, Yusuf; Eyuboğlu, Ender; Akça, Firat; Koz, Mitat; Ersöz, Gülfem

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare values of aerobic performance in the 1-mile run test (1-MRT) using different formulae. Aerobic capacities of 351 male volunteers working for the Turkish National Police within the age range of 20-23 years were evaluated by the 1-MRT and the 20-metre shuttle run (20-MST). VO2max values were estimated by the prediction equations developed by George et al. (1993), Cureton et al. (1995) and Kline et al. (1987) for the 1-MRT and by Leger and Lambert (1982) for the 20-MST. The difference between the results of the different formulae was significant (p = 0.000). The correlation coefficient between the estimated VO2max using Cureton's equation, George's equation, Kline's equation and the 20-MST were 0.691 (p compares the use of 3 different formulae to estimate VO2max from 1-mile run/walk performance in male law enforcement officers aged 20-23 years for the first time and reports the most accurate formula to use when evaluating aerobic capacities of large numbers of healthy individuals.

  13. The baseline serum value of α-amylase is a significant predictor of distance running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Danese, Elisa; Tarperi, Cantor; La Torre, Antonio; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Schena, Federico

    2015-02-01

    This study was planned to investigate whether serum α-amylase concentration may be associated with running performance, physiological characteristics and other clinical chemistry analytes in a large sample of recreational athletes undergoing distance running. Forty-three amateur runners successfully concluded a 21.1 km half-marathon at 75%-85% of their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Blood was drawn during warm up and 15 min after conclusion of the run. After correction for body weight change, significant post-run increases were observed for serum values of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, creatine kinase (CK), iron, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), triglycerides, urea and uric acid, whereas the values of body weight, glomerular filtration rate, total and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol were significantly decreased. The concentration of serum α-amylase was unchanged. In univariate analysis, significant associations with running performance were found for gender, VO2max, training regimen and pre-run serum values of α-amylase, CK, glucose, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, LDH, urea and uric acid. In multivariate analysis, only VO2max (p=0.042) and baseline α-amylase (p=0.021) remained significant predictors of running performance. The combination of these two variables predicted 71% of variance in running performance. The baseline concentration of serum α-amylase was positively correlated with variation of serum glucose during the trial (r=0.345; p=0.025) and negatively with capillary blood lactate at the end of the run (r=-0.352; p=0.021). We showed that the baseline serum α-amylase concentration significantly and independently predicts distance running performance in recreational runners.

  14. Effects of velocity and weight support on ground reaction forces and metabolic power during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Alena M; Kram, Rodger

    2008-08-01

    The biomechanical and metabolic demands of human running are distinctly affected by velocity and body weight. As runners increase velocity, ground reaction forces (GRF) increase, which may increase the risk of an overuse injury, and more metabolic power is required to produce greater rates of muscular force generation. Running with weight support attenuates GRFs, but demands less metabolic power than normal weight running. We used a recently developed device (G-trainer) that uses positive air pressure around the lower body to support body weight during treadmill running. Our scientific goal was to quantify the separate and combined effects of running velocity and weight support on GRFs and metabolic power. After obtaining this basic data set, we identified velocity and weight support combinations that resulted in different peak GRFs, yet demanded the same metabolic power. Ideal combinations of velocity and weight could potentially reduce biomechanical risks by attenuating peak GRFs while maintaining aerobic and neuromuscular benefits. Indeed, we found many combinations that decreased peak vertical GRFs yet demanded the same metabolic power as running slower at normal weight. This approach of manipulating velocity and weight during running may prove effective as a training and/or rehabilitation strategy.

  15. Maximum run-up behavior of tsunamis under non-zero initial velocity condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baran AYDIN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The tsunami run-up problem is solved non-linearly under the most general initial conditions, that is, for realistic initial waveforms such as N-waves, as well as standard initial waveforms such as solitary waves, in the presence of initial velocity. An initial-boundary value problem governed by the non-linear shallow-water wave equations is solved analytically utilizing the classical separation of variables technique, which proved to be not only fast but also accurate analytical approach for this type of problems. The results provide important information on maximum tsunami run-up qualitatively. We observed that, although the calculated maximum run-ups increase significantly, going as high as double that of the zero-velocity case, initial waves having non-zero fluid velocity exhibit the same run-up behavior as waves without initial velocity, for all wave types considered in this study.

  16. EFFECTS OF RUN-UP VELOCITY ON PERFORMANCE, KINEMATICS, AND ENERGY EXCHANGES IN THE POLE VAULT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas P. Linthorne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of run-up velocity on the peak height achieved by the athlete in the pole vault and on the corresponding changes in the athlete's kinematics and energy exchanges. Seventeen jumps by an experienced male pole vaulter were video recorded in the sagittal plane and a wide range of run-up velocities (4.5-8.5 m/s was obtained by setting the length of the athlete's run-up (2-16 steps. A selection of performance variables, kinematic variables, energy variables, and pole variables were calculated from the digitized video data. We found that the athlete's peak height increased linearly at a rate of 0.54 m per 1 m/s increase in run-up velocity and this increase was achieved through a combination of a greater grip height and a greater push height. At the athlete's competition run-up velocity (8.4 m/s about one third of the rate of increase in peak height arose from an increase in grip height and about two thirds arose from an increase in push height. Across the range of run-up velocities examined here the athlete always performed the basic actions of running, planting, jumping, and inverting on the pole. However, he made minor systematic changes to his jumping kinematics, vaulting kinematics, and selection of pole characteristics as the run-up velocity increased. The increase in run-up velocity and changes in the athlete's vaulting kinematics resulted in substantial changes to the magnitudes of the energy exchanges during the vault. A faster run-up produced a greater loss of energy during the take-off, but this loss was not sufficient to negate the increase in run-up velocity and the increase in work done by the athlete during the pole support phase. The athlete therefore always had a net energy gain during the vault. However, the magnitude of this gain decreased slightly as run-up velocity increased

  17. Increase in Leg Stiffness Reduces Joint Work During Backpack Carriage Running at Slow Velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Bernard; Netto, Kevin; Morris, Susan

    2017-10-01

    Optimal tuning of leg stiffness has been associated with better running economy. Running with a load is energetically expensive, which could have a significant impact on athletic performance where backpack carriage is involved. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of load magnitude and velocity on leg stiffness. We also explored the relationship between leg stiffness and running joint work. Thirty-one healthy participants ran overground at 3 velocities (3.0, 4.0, 5.0 m·s -1 ), whilst carrying 3 load magnitudes (0%, 10%, 20% weight). Leg stiffness was derived using the direct kinetic-kinematic method. Joint work data was previously reported in a separate study. Linear models were used to establish relationships between leg stiffness and load magnitude, velocity, and joint work. Our results found that leg stiffness did not increase with load magnitude. Increased leg stiffness was associated with reduced total joint work at 3.0 m·s -1 , but not at faster velocities. The association between leg stiffness and joint work at slower velocities could be due to an optimal covariation between skeletal and muscular components of leg stiffness, and limb attack angle. When running at a relatively comfortable velocity, greater leg stiffness may reflect a more energy efficient running pattern.

  18. Mean platelet volume (MPV) predicts middle distance running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Danese, Elisa; Skafidas, Spyros; Tarperi, Cantor; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Schena, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Running economy and performance in middle distance running depend on several physiological factors, which include anthropometric variables, functional characteristics, training volume and intensity. Since little information is available about hematological predictors of middle distance running time, we investigated whether some hematological parameters may be associated with middle distance running performance in a large sample of recreational runners. The study population consisted in 43 amateur runners (15 females, 28 males; median age 47 years), who successfully concluded a 21.1 km half-marathon at 75-85% of their maximal aerobic power (VO2max). Whole blood was collected 10 min before the run started and immediately thereafter, and hematological testing was completed within 2 hours after sample collection. The values of lymphocytes and eosinophils exhibited a significant decrease compared to pre-run values, whereas those of mean corpuscular volume (MCV), platelets, mean platelet volume (MPV), white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils and monocytes were significantly increased after the run. In univariate analysis, significant associations with running time were found for pre-run values of hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), MPV, reticulocyte hemoglobin concentration (RetCHR), and post-run values of MCH, RDW, MPV, monocytes and RetCHR. In multivariate analysis, in which running time was entered as dependent variable whereas age, sex, blood lactate, body mass index, VO2max, mean training regimen and the hematological parameters significantly associated with running performance in univariate analysis were entered as independent variables, only MPV values before and after the trial remained significantly associated with running time. After adjustment for platelet count, the MPV value before the run (p = 0.042), but not thereafter (p = 0.247), remained significantly associated with running

  19. Mean platelet volume (MPV predicts middle distance running performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lippi

    Full Text Available Running economy and performance in middle distance running depend on several physiological factors, which include anthropometric variables, functional characteristics, training volume and intensity. Since little information is available about hematological predictors of middle distance running time, we investigated whether some hematological parameters may be associated with middle distance running performance in a large sample of recreational runners.The study population consisted in 43 amateur runners (15 females, 28 males; median age 47 years, who successfully concluded a 21.1 km half-marathon at 75-85% of their maximal aerobic power (VO2max. Whole blood was collected 10 min before the run started and immediately thereafter, and hematological testing was completed within 2 hours after sample collection.The values of lymphocytes and eosinophils exhibited a significant decrease compared to pre-run values, whereas those of mean corpuscular volume (MCV, platelets, mean platelet volume (MPV, white blood cells (WBCs, neutrophils and monocytes were significantly increased after the run. In univariate analysis, significant associations with running time were found for pre-run values of hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, red blood cell distribution width (RDW, MPV, reticulocyte hemoglobin concentration (RetCHR, and post-run values of MCH, RDW, MPV, monocytes and RetCHR. In multivariate analysis, in which running time was entered as dependent variable whereas age, sex, blood lactate, body mass index, VO2max, mean training regimen and the hematological parameters significantly associated with running performance in univariate analysis were entered as independent variables, only MPV values before and after the trial remained significantly associated with running time. After adjustment for platelet count, the MPV value before the run (p = 0.042, but not thereafter (p = 0.247, remained significantly associated with running

  20. Effect of 8 weeks of concurrent plyometric and running training on spatiotemporal and physiological variables of novice runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Molina, Josué; Ogueta-Alday, Ana; Camara, Jesus; Stickley, Christopher; García-López, Juan

    2018-03-01

    Concurrent plyometric and running training has the potential to improve running economy (RE) and performance through increasing muscle strength and power, but the possible effect on spatiotemporal parameters of running has not been studied yet. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of 8 weeks of concurrent plyometric and running training on spatiotemporal parameters and physiological variables of novice runners. Twenty-five male participants were randomly assigned into two training groups; running group (RG) (n = 11) and running + plyometric group (RPG) (n = 14). Both groups performed 8 weeks of running training programme, and only the RPG performed a concurrent plyometric training programme (two sessions per week). Anthropometric, physiological (VO 2max , heart rate and RE) and spatiotemporal variables (contact and flight times, step rate and length) were registered before and after the intervention. In comparison to RG, the RPG reduced step rate and increased flight times at the same running speeds (P running training entails a reduction in step rate, as well as increases in VT speed, RCT speed, peak speed and VO 2max . Athletes could benefit from plyometric training in order to improve their strength, which would contribute to them attaining higher running speeds.

  1. The influence of surface on the running velocities of elite and amateur orienteer athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hébert-Losier, K; Jensen, Kurt; Mourot, L

    2014-01-01

    We compared the reduction in running velocities from road to off-road terrain in eight elite and eight amateur male orienteer athletes to investigate whether this factor differentiates elite from amateur athletes. On two separate days, each subject ran three 2-km time trials and three 20-m sprints...... "all-out" on a road, on a path, and in a forest. On a third day, the running economy and maximal aerobic power of individuals were assessed on a treadmill. The elite orienteer ran faster than the amateur on all three surfaces and at both distances, in line with their better running economy and aerobic....... Of course, cognitive, mental, and physical attributes other than the ability to run on different surfaces are required for excellence in orienteering (e.g., a high aerobic power). However, we suggest that athlete-specific assessment of running performance on various surfaces and distances might assist...

  2. Effect of speed endurance training and reduced training volume on running economy and single muscle fiber adaptations in trained runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovgaard, Casper; Christiansen, Danny; Christensen, Peter M; Almquist, Nicki W; Thomassen, Martin; Bangsbo, Jens

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether improved running economy with a period of speed endurance training and reduced training volume could be related to adaptations in specific muscle fibers. Twenty trained male (n = 14) and female (n = 6) runners (maximum oxygen consumption (VO 2 -max): 56.4 ± 4.6 mL/min/kg) completed a 40-day intervention with 10 sessions of speed endurance training (5-10 × 30-sec maximal running) and a reduced (36%) volume of training. Before and after the intervention, a muscle biopsy was obtained at rest, and an incremental running test to exhaustion was performed. In addition, running at 60% vVO 2 -max, and a 10-km run was performed in a normal and a muscle slow twitch (ST) glycogen-depleted condition. After compared to before the intervention, expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) was lower (P economy at 60% vVO 2 -max (11.6 ± 0.2 km/h) and at v10-km (13.7 ± 0.3 km/h) was ~2% better (P economy with intense training may be related to changes in expression of proteins linked to energy consuming processes in primarily ST muscle fibers. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  3. Frequentist and Bayesian Orbital Parameter Estimaton from Radial Velocity Data Using RVLIN, BOOTTRAN, and RUN DMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Benjamin Earl; Wright, Jason Thomas; Wang, Sharon

    2015-08-01

    For this hack session, we will present three tools used in analyses of radial velocity exoplanet systems. RVLIN is a set of IDL routines used to quickly fit an arbitrary number of Keplerian curves to radial velocity data to find adequate parameter point estimates. BOOTTRAN is an IDL-based extension of RVLIN to provide orbital parameter uncertainties using bootstrap based on a Keplerian model. RUN DMC is a highly parallelized Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm that employs an n-body model, primarily used for dynamically complex or poorly constrained exoplanet systems. We will compare the performance of these tools and their applications to various exoplanet systems.

  4. Normobaric Hypoxia and Submaximal Exercise Effects on Running Memory and Mood State in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongsuk; Gerhart, Hayden D; Stavres, Jon; Fennell, Curtis; Draper, Shane; Glickman, Ellen L

    2017-07-01

    An acute bout of exercise can improve cognitive function in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. However, limited research supports the improvement of cognitive function and mood state in women. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of hypoxia and exercise on working memory and mood state in women. There were 15 healthy women (age = 22 ± 2 yr) who completed the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics-4th Edition (ANAM), including the Running Memory Continuous Performance Task (RMCPT) and Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) in normoxia (21% O2), at rest in normoxia and hypoxia (12.5% O2), and during cycling exercise at 60% and 40% Vo2max in hypoxia. RMCPT was not significantly impaired at 30 (100.3 ± 17.2) and 60 (96.6 ± 17.3) min rest in hypoxia compared to baseline in normoxia (97.0 ± 17.0). However, RMCPT was significantly improved during exercise (106.7 ± 20.8) at 60% Vo2max compared to 60 min rest in hypoxia. Following 30 (-89.4 ± 48.3) and 60 min of exposure to hypoxia (-79.8 ± 55.9) at rest, TMD was impaired compared with baseline (-107.1 ± 46.2). TMD was significantly improved during exercise (-108.5 ± 42.7) at 40% Vo2max compared with 30 min rest in hypoxia. Also, RMCPT was significantly improved during exercise (104.0 ± 19.1) at 60% Vo2max compared to 60 min rest in hypoxia (96.6 ± 17.3). Hypoxia and an acute bout of exercise partially influence RMCPT and TMD. Furthermore, a moderate-intensity bout of exercise (60%) may be a more potent stimulant for improving cognitive function than low-intensity (40%) exercise. The present data should be considered by aeromedical personnel performing cognitive tasks in hypoxia.Seo Y, Gerhart HD, Stavres J, Fennell C, Draper S, Glickman EL. Normobaric hypoxia and submaximal exercise effects on running memory and mood state in women. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(7):627-632.

  5. Índices fisiológicos associados com a "performance" aeróbia em corredores de "endurance": efeitos da duração da prova Índices fisiológicos asociados a la "performance" aerobia en competidores de "endurance": efectos de la duración de la prueba Physiological indexes associated with aerobic performance in endurance runners: effects of race duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Sérgio Denadai

    2004-10-01

    .000m (17,9 ± 0,9 fueron significantemente diferentes. La regresión múltiple stepwise mostró que el LAn fue el único elemento de predicción de la performance de la v5.000m, explicando el 50% de la variación de esta performance. Para la v1.500m, el Tlim y la vVO2max explicaron el 88% de la variación de la performance. Con base en nuestros resultados, se puede concluir que la validez de los índices fisiológicos (VO2max, vVO2max, Tlim, EC y LAn, para la predicción de la performance aerobia de atletas de endurance depende de la distancia de la prueba (1.500 x 5.000m analizada.The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, the velocity at VO2max (vVO2max, time to exhaustion at vVO2max (Tlim, running economy (RE and anaerobic threshold (AnT to predict the aerobic performance of the endurance athletes. Fourteen well-trained long-distance runners (33.4 ± 4.4 yr.; 62.7 ± 4.3 kg; 166.1 ± 5.0 cm; VO2max = 60.4 ± 5.9 ml.kg-1.min-1 underwent the following tests: a simulated competitions in the distances of 1500 and 5000 m and; b laboratory treadmill tests to determine their VO2max, vVO2max, Tlim, EC and AnT. The velocities (km/h at vVO2max (18.7 + 0.8, LAn (17.3 + 1.1 v1500 m (19.9 + 0.8 and v5000 m (17.9 + 0.9 were significantly different. A stepwise multiple-regression analysis revealed that AnT alone was the best single predictor of v-5000 m and explained 50% of the variability in 5000 m running velocity. For v1.500 m, Tlim and vVO2max explained 88 % of the variability of the performance. We conclude that, in a group of well-trained long-distance runners, the validity of the physiological indexes (VO2max, vVO2max, Tlim, EC e LAn to predict the aerobic performance is dependent of the distance (1500 x 5000 m analyzed.

  6. EFFECTS OF A SAND RUNNING SURFACE ON THE KINEMATICS OF SPRINTING AT MAXIMUM VELOCITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P E Alcaraz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Performing sprints on a sand surface is a common training method for improving sprint-specific strength. For maximum specificity of training the athlete’s movement patterns during the training exercise should closely resemble those used when performing the sport. The aim of this study was to compare the kinematics of sprinting at maximum velocity on a dry sand surface to the kinematics of sprinting on an athletics track. Five men and five women participated in the study, and flying sprints over 30 m were recorded by video and digitized using biomechanical analysis software. We found that sprinting on a sand surface was substantially different to sprinting on an athletics track. When sprinting on sand the athletes tended to ‘sit’ during the ground contact phase of the stride. This action was characterized by a lower centre of mass, a greater forward lean in the trunk, and an incomplete extension of the hip joint at take-off. We conclude that sprinting on a dry sand surface may not be an appropriate method for training the maximum velocity phase in sprinting. Although this training method exerts a substantial overload on the athlete, as indicated by reductions in running velocity and stride length, it also induces detrimental changes to the athlete’s running technique which may transfer to competition sprinting.

  7. Effects of human head hair on performance and thermoregulatory responses during 10-km outdoor running in healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Ruediger Pisani Martini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n2p155   The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of human head hair on performance and thermoregulatory responses during 10-km outdoor running in healthy men. Twelve healthy males (29.5 ± 3.7 years, 174.9 ± 4.3 cm, 72.7 ± 3.2 kg and VO2max 44.6 ± 3.4 ml.kg-1.min-1 participated in two self-paced outdoor 10-km running trials separated by 7 days: 1 HAIR, subjects ran with their natural head hair; 2 NOHAIR, subjects ran after their hair had been totally shaved. Average running velocity was calculated from each 2-km running time. Rectal temperature, heart rate and physiological strain index were measured before and after the 10-km runs and at the end of each 2 km. The rate of heat storage was measured every 2 km. The environmental stress (WBGT was measured every 10 min. The running velocity (10.9 ± 1 and 10.9 ± 1.1 km.h-1, heart rate (183 ± 10 and 180 ± 12 bpm, rectal temperature (38.82 ± 0.29 and 38.81 ± 0.49oC, physiological strain index (9 ± 1 and 9 ± 1, or heat storage rate (71.9 ± 64.1 and 80.7 ± 56.7 W.m-1 did not differ between the HAIR and NOHAIR conditions, respectively (p>0.05. There was no difference in WBGT between the HAIR and NOHAIR conditions (24.0 ± 1.4 and 23.2 ± 1.5ºC, respectively; p=0.10. The results suggest that shaved head hair does not alter running velocity or thermoregulatory responses during 10-km running under the sun.

  8. INDIRECT CALORIMETRY DURING ULTRADISTANCE RUNNING: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L. Dumke

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to determine the energy expenditure during ultradistance trail running. A portable metabolic unit was carried by a male subject for the first 64.5 km portion of the Western States 100 running race. Calibrations were done with known gases and volumes at ambient temperature, humidity and pressure (23-40.5 °C and 16-40% respectively. Altitude averaged 1692.8 ± 210 m during data collection. The male subject (36 yrs, 75 kg, VO2max of 67.0 ml·kg-1·min-1 had an average (mean ± SD heart rate of 132 ± 9 bpm, oxygen consumption of 34.0 ± 6.8 ml·kg-1·min-1, RER of 0.91 ± 0.04, and VE of 86.0 ± 14.3 L·min-1 during the 21.7 km measuring period. This represented an average of 51% VO2max and 75% heart rate maximum. Energy expenditure was 12.6 ± 2.5 kcals·min-1, or 82.7 ± 16.6 kcals·km-1 (134 ± 27 kcals·mile-1 at 68.3 ± 12.5% carbohydrate. Extrapolation of this data would result in an energy expenditure of >13,000 kcals for the 160 km race, and an exogenous carbohydrate requirement of >250 kcal·hr-1. The energy cost of running for this subject on separate, noncompetitive occasions ranged from 64.9 ± 8.5 to 74.4 ± 5.5 kcals·km-1 (105 ± 14 to 120 ± 9 kcals·mile-1. Ultradistance trail running increases energy expenditure above that of running on nonundulating terrain, which may result in underestimating energy requirements during these events and subsequent undernourishment and suboptimal performance.

  9. Effect of speed endurance and strength training on performance, running economy and muscular adaptations in endurance-trained runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorup Petersen, Jacob; Tybirk, Jonas; Gunnarsson, Thomas Petursson

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of combined strength and speed endurance (SE) training along with a reduced training volume on performance, running economy and muscular adaptations in endurance-trained runners. METHODS: Sixteen male endurance runners (VO2-max: ~60 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) were rand...... and speed endurance training, along with a reduced training volume, can improve short-term exercise capacity and induce muscular adaptations related to anaerobic capacity in endurance-trained runners.......PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of combined strength and speed endurance (SE) training along with a reduced training volume on performance, running economy and muscular adaptations in endurance-trained runners. METHODS: Sixteen male endurance runners (VO2-max: ~60 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) were...... randomly assigned to either a combined strength and SE training (CSS; n = 9) or a control (CON; n = 7) group. For 8 weeks, CSS replaced their normal moderate-intensity training (~63 km week(-1)) with SE (2 × week(-1)) and strength training (2 × week(-1)) as well as aerobic high (1 × week(-1)) and moderate...

  10. Effects of an individual 12-week community-located "start-to-run" program on physical capacity, walking, fatigue, cognitive function, brain volumes, and structures in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feys, Peter; Moumdjian, Lousin; Van Halewyck, Florian; Wens, Inez; Eijnde, Bert O; Van Wijmeersch, Bart; Popescu, Veronica; Van Asch, Paul

    2017-11-01

    Exercise therapy studies in persons with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) primarily focused on motor outcomes in mid disease stage, while cognitive function and neural correlates were only limitedly addressed. This pragmatic randomized controlled study investigated the effects of a remotely supervised community-located "start-to-run" program on physical and cognitive function, fatigue, quality of life, brain volume, and connectivity. In all, 42 pwMS were randomized to either experimental (EXP) or waiting list control (WLC) group. The EXP group received individualized training instructions during 12 weeks (3×/week), to be performed in their community aiming to participate in a running event. Measures were physical (VO 2max , sit-to-stand test, Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12)) and cognitive function (Rao's Brief Repeatable Battery (BRB), Paced Auditory Serial Attention Test (PASAT)), fatigue (Fatigue Scale for Motor and Cognitive Function (FSMC)), quality of life (Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale-29 (MSIS-29)), and imaging. Brain volumes and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were quantified using FSL-SIENA/FIRST and FSL-TBSS. In all, 35 pwMS completed the trial. Interaction effects in favor of the EXP group were found for VO 2max , sit-to-stand test, MSWS-12, Spatial Recall Test, FSMC, MSIS-29, and pallidum volume. VO 2max improved by 1.5 mL/kg/min, MSWS-12 by 4, FSMC by 11, and MSIS-29 by 14 points. The Spatial Recall Test improved by more than 10%. Community-located run training improved aerobic capacity, functional mobility, visuospatial memory, fatigue, and quality of life and pallidum volume in pwMS.

  11. Effect of beta-alanine supplementation on the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA during treadmill running: Pre/post 2 treatment experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misic Mark

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background β-Alanine (βA has been shown to improve performance during cycling. This study was the first to examine the effects of βA supplementation on the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA during incremental treadmill running. Methods Seventeen recreationally-active men (mean ± SE 24.9 ± 4.7 yrs, 180.6 ± 8.9 cm, 79.25 ± 9.0 kg participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pre/post test 2-treatment experimental design. Subjects participated in two incremental treadmill tests before and after 28 days of supplementation with either βA (6.0 g·d-1(βA, n = 8 or an equivalent dose of Maltodextrin as the Placebo (PL, n = 9. Heart rate, percent heart rate maximum (%HRmax, %VO2max@OBLA (4.0 mmol.L-1 blood lactate concentration and VO2max (L.min-1 were determined for each treadmill test. Friedman test was used to determine within group differences; and Mann-Whitney was used to determine between group differences for pre and post values (p Results The βA group experienced a significant rightward shift in HR@OBLA beats.min-1 (p 2max@OBLA increased (p 2max (L.min-1 decreased (p Conclusions βA supplementation for 28 days enhanced sub-maximal endurance performance by delaying OBLA. However, βA supplemented individuals had a reduced aerobic capacity as evidenced by the decrease in VO2max values post supplementation.

  12. Intensity related changes of running economy in recreational level distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeroff, Tobias; Bernardi, Andreas; Niederer, Daniel; Wilke, Jan; Vogt, Lutz; Banzer, Winfried

    2017-09-01

    Running economy (RE) is often described as a key demand of running performance. The variety of currently used assessment methods with different running intensities and outcomes restricts interindividual comparability of RE in recreational level runners. The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of RE, assessed as oxygen cost (OC) and caloric unit cost (CUC), on running speed at individual physiological thresholds. Eighteen recreational runners performed: 1) a graded exercise test to estimate first ventilatory threshold (VT1), respiratory compensation point (RCP) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max); 2) discontinuous RE assessment to determine relative OC in milliliters per kilogram per kilometer (mL/kg/km) and CUC in kilocalories per kilogram per kilometer (kcal/kg/km) at three different running intensities: VT1, RCP and at a third standardized reference point (TP) in between. OC (mL/kg/km; at VT1: 235.4±26.2; at TP: 227.8±23.4; at RCP: 224.9±21.9) and CUC (kcal/kg/km at VT1: 1.18±0.13; at TP: 1.14±0.12; at RCP: 1.13±0.11) decreased with increasing intensities (P≤0.01). Controlling for the influence of sex OC and CUC linearly correlated with running speed at RCP and VO2max (P≤0.01). RE, even assessed at low intensity, is strongly related to running performance in recreational athletes. Both calculation methods used (OC and CUC) are sensitive for monitoring intensity related changes of substrate utilization. RE values decreased with higher running intensity indicating an increase of anaerobic and subsequent decrease of aerobic substrate utilization.

  13. Running performance at high running velocities is impaired but V'O(₂max and peripheral endothelial function are preserved in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Wojewoda

    Full Text Available It has been reported that IL-6 knockout mice (IL-6⁻/⁻ possess lower endurance capacity than wild type mice (WT, however the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. The aim of the present work was to examine whether reduced endurance running capacity in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice is linked to impaired maximal oxygen uptake (V'O(₂max, decreased glucose tolerance, endothelial dysfunction or other mechanisms. Maximal running velocity during incremental running to exhaustion was significantly lower in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice than in WT mice (13.00±0.97 m·min⁻¹ vs. 16.89±1.15 m·min⁻¹, P<0.02, respectively. Moreover, the time to exhaustion during running at 12 m·min⁻¹ in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice was significantly shorter (P<0.05 than in WT mice. V'O(₂max in IL-6⁻/⁻ (n = 20 amounting to 108.3±2.8 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹ was similar as in WT mice (n = 22 amounting to 113.0±1.8 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, (P = 0.16. No difference in maximal COX activity between the IL-6⁻/⁻ and WT mice in m. soleus and m. gastrocnemius was found. Moreover, no impairment of peripheral endothelial function or glucose tolerance was found in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice. Surprisingly, plasma lactate concentration during running at 8 m·min⁻¹ as well at maximal running velocity in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice was significantly lower (P<0.01 than in WT mice. Interestingly, IL-6⁻/⁻ mice displayed important adaptive mechanisms including significantly lower oxygen cost of running at a given speed accompanied by lower expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺-ATPase and lower plasma lactate concentrations during running at submaximal and maximal running velocities. In conclusion, impaired endurance running capacity in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice could not be explained by reduced V'O(₂max, endothelial dysfunction or impaired muscle oxidative capacity. Therefore, our results indicate that IL-6 cannot be regarded as a major regulator of exercise capacity but rather as a modulator of endurance

  14. Running performance at high running velocities is impaired but V'O(₂max) and peripheral endothelial function are preserved in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojewoda, Marta; Kmiecik, Katarzyna; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Fortin, Dominique; Onopiuk, Marta; Jakubczyk, Justyna; Sitek, Barbara; Fedorowicz, Andrzej; Majerczak, Joanna; Kaminski, Karol; Chlopicki, Stefan; Zoladz, Jerzy Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported that IL-6 knockout mice (IL-6⁻/⁻) possess lower endurance capacity than wild type mice (WT), however the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. The aim of the present work was to examine whether reduced endurance running capacity in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice is linked to impaired maximal oxygen uptake (V'O(₂max)), decreased glucose tolerance, endothelial dysfunction or other mechanisms. Maximal running velocity during incremental running to exhaustion was significantly lower in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice than in WT mice (13.00±0.97 m·min⁻¹ vs. 16.89±1.15 m·min⁻¹, P<0.02, respectively). Moreover, the time to exhaustion during running at 12 m·min⁻¹ in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice was significantly shorter (P<0.05) than in WT mice. V'O(₂max) in IL-6⁻/⁻ (n = 20) amounting to 108.3±2.8 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹ was similar as in WT mice (n = 22) amounting to 113.0±1.8 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, (P = 0.16). No difference in maximal COX activity between the IL-6⁻/⁻ and WT mice in m. soleus and m. gastrocnemius was found. Moreover, no impairment of peripheral endothelial function or glucose tolerance was found in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice. Surprisingly, plasma lactate concentration during running at 8 m·min⁻¹ as well at maximal running velocity in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice was significantly lower (P<0.01) than in WT mice. Interestingly, IL-6⁻/⁻ mice displayed important adaptive mechanisms including significantly lower oxygen cost of running at a given speed accompanied by lower expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺-ATPase and lower plasma lactate concentrations during running at submaximal and maximal running velocities. In conclusion, impaired endurance running capacity in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice could not be explained by reduced V'O(₂max), endothelial dysfunction or impaired muscle oxidative capacity. Therefore, our results indicate that IL-6 cannot be regarded as a major regulator of exercise capacity but rather as a modulator of endurance

  15. Running Performance at High Running Velocities Is Impaired but V′O2max and Peripheral Endothelial Function Are Preserved in IL-6−/− Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojewoda, Marta; Kmiecik, Katarzyna; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Fortin, Dominique; Onopiuk, Marta; Jakubczyk, Justyna; Sitek, Barbara; Fedorowicz, Andrzej; Majerczak, Joanna; Kaminski, Karol; Chlopicki, Stefan; Zoladz, Jerzy Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported that IL-6 knockout mice (IL-6−/−) possess lower endurance capacity than wild type mice (WT), however the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. The aim of the present work was to examine whether reduced endurance running capacity in IL-6−/− mice is linked to impaired maximal oxygen uptake (V′O2max), decreased glucose tolerance, endothelial dysfunction or other mechanisms. Maximal running velocity during incremental running to exhaustion was significantly lower in IL-6−/− mice than in WT mice (13.00±0.97 m.min−1 vs. 16.89±1.15 m.min−1, P<0.02, respectively). Moreover, the time to exhaustion during running at 12 m.min−1 in IL-6−/− mice was significantly shorter (P<0.05) than in WT mice. V′O2max in IL-6−/− (n = 20) amounting to 108.3±2.8 ml.kg−1.min−1 was similar as in WT mice (n = 22) amounting to 113.0±1.8 ml.kg−1.min−1, (P = 0.16). No difference in maximal COX activity between the IL-6−/− and WT mice in m. soleus and m. gastrocnemius was found. Moreover, no impairment of peripheral endothelial function or glucose tolerance was found in IL-6−/− mice. Surprisingly, plasma lactate concentration during running at 8 m.min−1 as well at maximal running velocity in IL-6−/− mice was significantly lower (P<0.01) than in WT mice. Interestingly, IL-6−/− mice displayed important adaptive mechanisms including significantly lower oxygen cost of running at a given speed accompanied by lower expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase and lower plasma lactate concentrations during running at submaximal and maximal running velocities. In conclusion, impaired endurance running capacity in IL-6−/− mice could not be explained by reduced V′O2max, endothelial dysfunction or impaired muscle oxidative capacity. Therefore, our results indicate that IL-6 cannot be regarded as a major regulator of exercise capacity but rather as a modulator of endurance performance. Furthermore, we

  16. High-intensity sprint fatigue does not alter constant-submaximal velocity running mechanics and spring-mass behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Jean-Benoit; Tomazin, Katja; Samozino, Pierre; Edouard, Pascal; Millet, Guillaume Y

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the changes in constant velocity spring-mass behavior after high intensity sprint fatigue in order to better interpret the results recently reported after ultra-long distance (ULD) exercises. Our hypothesis was that after repeated sprints (RS), subjects may likely experience losses of force such as after ULD, but the necessity to modify their running pattern to attenuate the overall impact at each step (such as after ULD) may not be present. Eleven male subjects performed four sets of five 6-s sprints with 24-s recovery between sprints and 3 min between sets, on a sprint treadmill and on a bicycle ergometer. For each session, their running mechanics and spring-mass characteristics were measured at 10 and 20 km h(-1) on an instrumented treadmill before and after RS. Two-way (period and velocity) ANOVAs showed that high-intensity fatigue did not induce any change in the constant velocity running pattern at low or high velocity, after both running and cycling RS, despite significant decreases (P < 0.001) in maximal power (-27.1 ± 8.2% after running RS and -15.4 ± 11.5 % after cycling RS) and knee extensors maximal voluntary force (-18.8 ± 6.7 % after running RS and -15.0 ± 7.6 % after cycling RS). These results bring indirect support to the hypothesis put forward in recent ULD studies that the changes in running mechanics observed after ULD are likely not related to the decrease in strength capabilities, but rather to the necessity for subjects to adopt a protective running pattern.

  17. Caffeine stimulates voluntary wheel running in mice without increasing aerobic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claghorn, Gerald C; Thompson, Zoe; Wi, Kristianna; Van, Lindsay; Garland, Theodore

    2017-03-01

    The "energy drink" Red Bull and the "sports drink" Gatorade are often marketed to athletes, with claims that they cause performance gains. However, both are high in sugars, and also consumed by non-athletes. Few studies have addressed the effects of these drinks or their biologically active components in rodent exercise models. We used three experiments to test effects on both voluntary exercise behavior and maximal aerobic capacity in lines of mice known to differ in "athletic" traits. Mice from four replicate High Runner (HR) lines have been selectively bred for voluntary running on wheels, and run approximately three times as many revolutions per day as do mice from four non-selected Control (C) lines. HR mice also have higher endurance and maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2 max) during forced treadmill exercise. In Experiment 1, we tested the hypothesis that Gatorade or Red Bull might cause or allow mice to increase their voluntary wheel running. On days 5 and 6 of 6days of wheel access, as is used to select breeders, HR mice ran 3.3-fold more than C, and females ran 1.2-fold more than males, with no linetype by sex interaction. On day 7, mice were administered Gatorade, Red Bull or tap water. During the subsequent 19-hour period, Gatorade had no statistical effect on running, but Red Bull significantly increased distance run by both sexes and in both HR and C lines. The increase in distance run caused by Red Bull was attributable to time spent running, not an increase in mean (or maximum) speed. As previous studies have found that sucrose alone does not generally increase wheel running, we tested two other active ingredients in Red Bull, caffeine and taurine, in Experiment 2. With a similar testing protocol, caffeine alone and caffeine+taurine increased running by about half the magnitude of Red Bull. In Experiment 3, we tested the hypothesis that Red Bull or caffeine alone can increase physiological performance ability during aerobic exercise, measured as VO 2

  18. Associations between VO2max and vitality in older workers: A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijk, J.E.; Proper, K.I.; Klaver, L.; Beek, A.J. van der; Mechelen, W. van

    2010-01-01

    Background. To prevent early exit from work, it is important to study which factors contribute to healthy ageing. One concept that is assumed to be closely related to, and therefore may influence healthy ageing, is vitality. Vitality consists of both a mental and a physical component, and is

  19. Improving Running Economy by Transitioning to Minimalist Footwear: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindlein, K; Zech, A; Zoch, A; Braumann, K-M; Hollander, K

    2018-05-25

    Ongoing debates about benefits and risks of barefoot- and minimally-shod running have, to date, revealed no conclusive findings for long-term effects on physical performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an 8-week transition to minimalist footwear (MFW) on running economy (RE). Randomised controlled trial. Thirty-two male, habitually-shod runners were assigned randomly to an 8-week training intervention either in minimalist (=intervention group) or conventional running shoes (=control group). The intervention consisted of a gradual increase in use of the new footwear by 5% of the individual weekly distance. Before and after the intervention, a VO 2 max test was followed by a submaximal RE test at 70% and 80% of vVO 2 max in both shoe conditions 7days later. RE was measured at the submaximal tests and expressed as caloric unit cost (kcalkg -1 km -1 ) and oxygen consumption (mlkg -1 km -1 ). RE improved in the intervention group over time compared to the control group with small to moderate effect sizes (ES) in both shoe conditions: Effects on RE (kcalkg -1 km -1 ) in conventional running shoes: ES vVO 2 70%: 0.68 (95% CI: -0.14 to 1.51), ES vVO 2 80%: 0.78 (95% CI: 0-1.56). In minimalist footwear: ES vVO 2 70%: 0.3 (95% CI: -0.54 to 1.14), ES vVO 2 80%: 0.42 (95% CI: -0.41 to 1.25). These effects were not statistically significant (p>0.05). The repeated-measures ANOVA also showed no group by time interactions for all submaximal RE testing conditions (p>0.05). Although not reaching statistical significance, training in MFW compared to CRS resulted in small to moderate improvements in RE. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cardiovascular responses during deep water running versus shallow water running in school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anerao Urja M, Shinde Nisha K, Khatri SM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Overview: As the school going children especially the adolescents’ need workout routine; it is advisable that the routine is imbibed in the school’s class time table. In India as growing number of schools provide swimming as one of the recreational activities; school staff often fails to notice the boredom that is caused by the same activity. Deep as well as shallow water running can be one of the best alternatives to swimming. Hence the present study was conducted to find out the cardiovascular response in these individuals. Methods: This was a Prospective Cross-Sectional Comparative Study done in 72 healthy school going students (males grouped into 2 according to the interventions (Deep water running and Shallow water running. Cardiovascular parameters such as Heart rate (HR, Saturation of oxygen (SpO2, Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max and Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE were assessed. Results: Significant improvements in cardiovascular parameters were seen in both the groups i.e. by both the interventions. Conclusion: Deep water running and Shallow water running can be used to improve cardiac function in terms of various outcome measures used in the study.

  1. Study on control method of running velocity for the permanent magnet-HTSC hybrid magnetically levitated conveyance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, R.; Ikeda, M.; Sasaki, R.; Ohashi, S.

    2011-01-01

    The hybrid magnetically levitated carrying system is developed. Control method of running velocity of the carrier is studied. Running velocity is controlled by current of the propulsion coils. Propulsion characteristcs are improved. We have developed the magnetically levitated carrying system. In this system, pinning force of high temperature bulk super conductor (HTSC) is used for the levitation and guidance. Four HTSCs are installed on the carrier. The magnetic rail is set on the ground, and flux from the magnetic rail is pinned by HTSCs. To increase levitation force, repulsive force of the permanent magnet is used. The hybrid levitation system is composed. The permanent magnet is installed under the load stage of the carrier. Repulsive force by the permanent magnet between the load stage on the carrier and the magnetic rail on the ground is used to support the load weight. Levitation and guidance one by pinning effect of the YBaCuO HTSC in the carrier is used to levitate the carrier body. The load stage is separated from the carrier flame and can move freely for vertical direction levitation. For the propulsion system, electromagnet is installed on the surface of the magnetic rail. In this paper, control method of running velocity of the carrier is studied. Propulsion force is given as follows; Air core copper coils are installed on the magnetic rail. Interaction between current of these coils and permanent magnets on the carrier generates propulsion force. Running velocity is controlled by current of the propulsion coils. It is also changed by position of the carrier and the load weight. From the results, stability of the propulsion system is given, and propulsion characteristics are improved.

  2. Study on control method of running velocity for the permanent magnet-HTSC hybrid magnetically levitated conveyance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishio, R.; Ikeda, M.; Sasaki, R. [Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Ohashi, S., E-mail: ohashi@kansai-u.ac.jp [Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    The hybrid magnetically levitated carrying system is developed. Control method of running velocity of the carrier is studied. Running velocity is controlled by current of the propulsion coils. Propulsion characteristcs are improved. We have developed the magnetically levitated carrying system. In this system, pinning force of high temperature bulk super conductor (HTSC) is used for the levitation and guidance. Four HTSCs are installed on the carrier. The magnetic rail is set on the ground, and flux from the magnetic rail is pinned by HTSCs. To increase levitation force, repulsive force of the permanent magnet is used. The hybrid levitation system is composed. The permanent magnet is installed under the load stage of the carrier. Repulsive force by the permanent magnet between the load stage on the carrier and the magnetic rail on the ground is used to support the load weight. Levitation and guidance one by pinning effect of the YBaCuO HTSC in the carrier is used to levitate the carrier body. The load stage is separated from the carrier flame and can move freely for vertical direction levitation. For the propulsion system, electromagnet is installed on the surface of the magnetic rail. In this paper, control method of running velocity of the carrier is studied. Propulsion force is given as follows; Air core copper coils are installed on the magnetic rail. Interaction between current of these coils and permanent magnets on the carrier generates propulsion force. Running velocity is controlled by current of the propulsion coils. It is also changed by position of the carrier and the load weight. From the results, stability of the propulsion system is given, and propulsion characteristics are improved.

  3. The effects of swimming and running on energy intake during 2 hours of recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, C P; Flynn, M G; Braun, W A; Boardley, D J

    1999-12-01

    To determine energy intake in the 2 hrs after swimming (S) and running (R) at the same relative exercise intensity and duration (71.8 +/- 2.5% VO2max; 45 min) to evaluate whether a difference in recovery energy intake could explain the greater body fat observed in swimmers relative to runners. this was a randomized crossover design. running exercise was conducted on a motorized treadmill (Quinton) while swimming was conducted in a 45.7 m pool. eight well-trained competitive male triathletes participated in this investigation. subjects were blinded to the purpose of the study and swam and ran on separate occasions for 45 min at 71.8 +/- 2.5% of VO2max. Subjects were then placed in a room with a variety of foods and beverages for 2 hrs after R and S. energy intake (kJ/2 hrs and kcal/2 hrs) was determined by weighing and measuring the food remaining in the room after 2 hrs of postexercise recovery. Expired gases, heart rates, and Ratings of Perceived Exertion were obtained at 15 min intervals throughout exercise. Blood samples for serum glucose and lactate were obtained preexercise and immediately, 15 min, and 135 min postexercise. Perceived hunger and thirst ratings were obtained after the subjects were seated in the room containing the food. Serum glucose was significantly (p energy intake (4584 +/- 611 kJ/2 hrs; 1095 +/- 146 kcal/2 hrs for R and 4383 +/- 484 kJ/2 hrs; 1047 +/- 116 kcal for S) or blood lactate. The type of exercise, swimming or running, did not significantly influence energy intake during 2 hours of postexercise recovery.

  4. Effects of a 4-week high-intensity interval training on pacing during 5-km running trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the influence of a 4-week high-intensity interval training on the pacing strategy adopted by runners during a 5-km running trial. Sixteen male recreational long-distance runners were randomly assigned to a control group (CON, n=8 or a high-intensity interval training group (HIIT, n=8. The HIIT group performed high-intensity interval-training twice per week, while the CON group maintained their regular training program. Before and after the training period, the runners performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion to measure the onset of blood lactate accumulation, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, and peak treadmill speed (PTS. A submaximal constant-speed test to measure the running economy (RE and a 5-km running trial on an outdoor track to establish pacing strategy and performance were also done. During the 5-km running trial, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE and time to cover the 5-km trial (T5 were registered. After the training period, there were significant improvements in the HIIT group of ∼7 and 5% for RE (P=0.012 and PTS (P=0.019, respectively. There was no significant difference between the groups for VO2max (P=0.495 or onset of blood lactate accumulation (P=0.101. No difference was found in the parameters measured during the 5-km trial before the training period between HIIT and CON (P>0.05. These findings suggest that 4 weeks of HIIT can improve some traditional physiological variables related to endurance performance (RE and PTS, but it does not alter the perception of effort, pacing strategy, or overall performance during a 5-km running trial.

  5. Forecasting to velocities harness racing on average, long, superlong distances (marathon run

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klochko L.I.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The prospects of increase of sporting results are shown in a marathon. The sportsmen of high qualification are investigational in age from 17 to 27 years. Sportsmen are practice mainly on distance of 1500m. The degree of deoxygenation during at run with different speed and his attitude is certain toward a maximal deoxygenation. The degree of including of anaerobic metabolism is during work of different power. The indexes of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism allow to forecast sporting results in at run.

  6. Effect of Compression Garments on Physiological Responses After Uphill Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struhár, Ivan; Kumstát, Michal; Králová, Dagmar Moc

    2018-03-01

    Limited practical recommendations related to wearing compression garments for athletes can be drawn from the literature at the present time. We aimed to identify the effects of compression garments on physiological and perceptual measures of performance and recovery after uphill running with different pressure and distributions of applied compression. In a random, double blinded study, 10 trained male runners undertook three 8 km treadmill runs at a 6% elevation rate, with the intensity of 75% VO2max while wearing low, medium grade compression garments and high reverse grade compression. In all the trials, compression garments were worn during 4 hours post run. Creatine kinase, measurements of muscle soreness, ankle strength of plantar/dorsal flexors and mean performance time were then measured. The best mean performance time was observed in the medium grade compression garments with the time difference being: medium grade compression garments vs. high reverse grade compression garments. A positive trend in increasing peak torque of plantar flexion (60º·s-1, 120º·s-1) was found in the medium grade compression garments: a difference between 24 and 48 hours post run. The highest pain tolerance shift in the gastrocnemius muscle was the medium grade compression garments, 24 hour post run, with the shift being +11.37% for the lateral head and 6.63% for the medial head. In conclusion, a beneficial trend in the promotion of running performance and decreasing muscle soreness within 24 hour post exercise was apparent in medium grade compression garments.

  7. Effect of clay type on the velocity and run-out distance of cohesive sediment gravity flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Megan; Baas, Jaco H.; Malarkey, Jonathan; Kane, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Novel laboratory experiments in a lock-exchange flume filled with natural seawater revealed that sediment gravity flows (SGFs) laden with kaolinite clay (weakly cohesive), bentonite clay (strongly cohesive) and silica flour (non-cohesive) have strongly contrasting flow properties. Knowledge of cohesive clay-laden sediment gravity flows is limited, despite clay being one of the most abundant sediment types on earth and subaqueous SGFs transporting the greatest volumes of sediment on our planet. Cohesive SGFs are particularly complex owing to the dynamic interplay between turbulent and cohesive forces. Cohesive forces allow the formation of clay flocs and gels, which increase the viscosity and shear strength of the flow, and attenuate shear-induced turbulence. The experimental SGFs ranged from dilute turbidity currents to dense debris flows. For each experiment, the run-out distance, head velocity and thickness distribution of the deposit were measured, and the flow properties were recorded using high-resolution video. Increasing the volume concentration of kaolinite and bentonite above 22% and 17%, respectively, reduced both the maximum head velocity and the run-out distances of the SGFs. We infer that increasing the concentration of clay particles enhances the opportunity for the particles to collide and flocculate, thus increasing the viscosity and shear strength of the flows at the expense of turbulence, and reducing their forward momentum. Increasing the volume concentration in the silica-flour laden flows from 1% to 46% increased the maximum head velocity, owing to the gradual increase in excess density. Thereafter, however, intergranular friction is inferred to have attenuated the turbulence, causing a rapid reduction in the maximum head velocity and run-out distance as suspended sediment concentration was increased. Moving from flows carrying bentonite via kaolinite to silica flour, a progressively larger volumetric suspended sediment concentration was needed

  8. Effects of size, sex, and voluntary running speeds on costs of locomotion in lines of laboratory mice selectively bred for high wheel-running activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Enrico L; Kelly, Scott A; Gomes, Fernando R; Chappell, Mark A; Garland, Theodore

    2006-01-01

    Selective breeding for over 35 generations has led to four replicate (S) lines of laboratory house mice (Mus domesticus) that run voluntarily on wheels about 170% more than four random-bred control (C) lines. We tested whether S lines have evolved higher running performance by increasing running economy (i.e., decreasing energy spent per unit of distance) as a correlated response to selection, using a recently developed method that allows for nearly continuous measurements of oxygen consumption (VO2) and running speed in freely behaving animals. We estimated slope (incremental cost of transport [COT]) and intercept for regressions of power (the dependent variable, VO2/min) on speed for 49 males and 47 females, as well as their maximum VO2 and speeds during wheel running, under conditions mimicking those that these lines face during the selection protocol. For comparison, we also measured COT and maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max) during forced exercise on a motorized treadmill. As in previous studies, the increased wheel running of S lines was mainly attributable to increased average speed, with males also showing a tendency for increased time spent running. On a whole-animal basis, combined analysis of males and females indicated that COT during voluntary wheel running was significantly lower in the S lines (one-tailed P=0.015). However, mice from S lines are significantly smaller and attain higher maximum speeds on the wheels; with either body mass or maximum speed (or both) entered as a covariate, the statistical significance of the difference in COT is lost (one-tailed P> or =0.2). Thus, both body size and behavior are key components of the reduction in COT. Several statistically significant sex differences were observed, including lower COT and higher resting metabolic rate in females. In addition, maximum voluntary running speeds were negatively correlated with COT in females but not in males. Moreover, males (but not females) from the S lines exhibited

  9. Resistance training and aerobic training improve muscle strength and aerobic capacity in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvardsen, Lars H; Overgaard, Kristian; Heje, Karen

    2018-01-01

    after a run-in period of 12 weeks without exercise. Three times weekly the participants performed aerobic exercise on an ergometer bike or resistance exercise with unilateral training of knee and elbow flexion/extension. Primary outcomes were maximal oxygen consumption velocity (VO2 -max) and maximal...

  10. Four weeks of running sprint interval training improves cardiorespiratory fitness in young and middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Taura N; Thomas, Matthew P L; Schmale, Matthew S; Copeland, Jennifer L; Hazell, Tom J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 4-week running sprint interval training protocol to improve both aerobic and anaerobic fitness in middle-aged adults (40-50 years) as well as compare the adaptations to younger adults (20-30 years). Twenty-eight inactive participants - 14 young 20-30-year-olds (n = 7 males) and 14 middle-aged 40-50-year-olds (n = 5 males) - completed 4 weeks of running sprint interval training (4 to 6, 30-s "all-out" sprints on a curved, self-propelled treadmill separated by 4 min active recovery performed 3 times per week). Before and after training, all participants were assessed for maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), 2000 m time trial performance, and anaerobic performance on a single 30-s sprint. There were no interactions between group and time for any tested variable, although training improved relative VO2max (young = 3.9, middle-aged = 5.2%; P < 0.04), time trial performance (young = 5.9, middle-aged = 8.2%; P < 0.001), peak sprint speed (young = 9.3, middle-aged = 2.2%; P < 0.001), and average sprint speed (young = 6.8, middle-aged = 11.6%; P < 0.001) in both young and middle-aged groups from pre- to post-training on the 30-s sprint test. The current study demonstrates that a 4-week running sprint interval training programme is equally effective at improving aerobic and anaerobic fitness in younger and middle-aged adults.

  11. COMPARISON OF LIVE HIGH: TRAIN LOW ALTITUDE AND INTERMITTENT HYPOXIC EXPOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare E. Humberstone-Gough

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Live High:Train Low (LHTL altitude training is a popular ergogenic aid amongst athletes. An alternative hypoxia protocol, acute (60-90 min daily Intermittent Hypoxic Exposure (IHE, has shown potential for improving athletic performance. The aim of this study was to compare directly the effects of LHTL and IHE on the running and blood characteristics of elite triathletes. Changes in total haemoglobin mass (Hbmass, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, velocity at VO2max (vVO2max, time to exhaustion (TTE, running economy, maximal blood lactate concentration ([La] and 3 mM [La] running speed were compared following 17 days of LHTL (240 h of hypoxia, IHE (10.2 h of hypoxia or Placebo treatment in 24 Australian National Team triathletes (7 female, 17 male. There was a clear 3.2 ± 4.8% (mean ± 90% confidence limits increase in Hbmass following LHTL compared with Placebo, whereas the corresponding change of -1.4 ± 4.5% in IHE was unclear. Following LHTL, running economy was 2.8 ± 4.4% improved compared to IHE and 3mM [La] running speed was 4.4 ± 4.5% improved compared to Placebo. After IHE, there were no beneficial changes in running economy or 3mM [La] running speed compared to Placebo. There were no clear changes in VO2max, vVO2max and TTE following either method of hypoxia. The clear difference in Hbmass response between LHTL and IHE indicated that the dose of hypoxia in IHE was insufficient to induce accelerated erythropoiesis. Improved running economy and 3mM [La] running speed following LHTL suggested that this method of hypoxic exposure may enhance performance at submaximal running speeds. Overall, there was no evidence to support the use of IHE in elite triathletes

  12. Effect of 8 Weeks Soccer Training on Health and Physical Performance in Untrained Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Jaelson G; da Silva, Juliano F; Carminatti, Lorival J; Guglielmo, Luiz G A; Diefenthaeler, Fernando

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to analyze the physiological, neuromuscular, and biochemical responses in untrained women after eight weeks of regular participation in small-sided soccer games compared to aerobic training. Twenty-seven healthy untrained women were divided into two groups [soccer group (SG = 17) and running group (RG = 10)]. Both groups trained three times per week for eight weeks. The variables measured in this study were maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max), relative velocity at VO 2 max (vVO 2 max), peak velocity, relative intensity at lactate threshold (vLT), relative intensity at onset of blood lactate accumulation (vOBLA), peak force, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, and cholesterol ratio (LDL/HDL). VO 2 max, vLT, and vOBLA increased significantly in both groups (12.8 and 16.7%, 11.1 and 15.3%, 11.6 and 19.8%, in SG and RG respectively). However, knee extensors peak isometric strength and triglyceride levels, total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL did not differ after eight weeks of training in both groups. On the other hand, the LDL/HDL ratio significantly reduced in both groups. In conclusion, eight weeks of regular participation in small-sided soccer games was sufficient to increase aerobic performance and promote health benefits related to similar aerobic training in untrained adult women.

  13. Effect of 8 Weeks Soccer Training on Health and Physical Performance in Untrained Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaelson G. Ortiz, Juliano F. da Silva, Lorival J. Carminatti, Luiz G.A. Guglielmo, Fernando Diefenthaeler

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the physiological, neuromuscular, and biochemical responses in untrained women after eight weeks of regular participation in small-sided soccer games compared to aerobic training. Twenty-seven healthy untrained women were divided into two groups [soccer group (SG = 17 and running group (RG = 10]. Both groups trained three times per week for eight weeks. The variables measured in this study were maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, relative velocity at VO2max (vVO2max, peak velocity, relative intensity at lactate threshold (vLT, relative intensity at onset of blood lactate accumulation (vOBLA, peak force, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, and cholesterol ratio (LDL/HDL. VO2max, vLT, and vOBLA increased significantly in both groups (12.8 and 16.7%, 11.1 and 15.3%, 11.6 and 19.8%, in SG and RG respectively. However, knee extensors peak isometric strength and triglyceride levels, total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL did not differ after eight weeks of training in both groups. On the other hand, the LDL/HDL ratio significantly reduced in both groups. In conclusion, eight weeks of regular participation in small-sided soccer games was sufficient to increase aerobic performance and promote health benefits related to similar aerobic training in untrained adult women.

  14. RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF PHYSIOLOGICAL DATA OBTAINED WITHIN A CYCLE-RUN TRANSITION TEST IN AGE-GROUP TRIATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Vleck

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the validity and reliability of a sequential "Run-Bike-Run" test (RBR in age-group triathletes. Eight Olympic distance (OD specialists (age 30.0 ± 2.0 years, mass 75.6 ± 1.6 kg, run VO2max 63.8 ± 1.9 ml·kg-1·min-1, cycle VO2peak 56.7 ± 5.1 ml·kg-1·min-1 performed four trials over 10 days. Trial 1 (TRVO2max was an incremental treadmill running test. Trials 2 and 3 (RBR1 and RBR2 involved: 1 a 7-min run at 15 km·h-1 (R1 plus a 1-min transition to 2 cycling to fatigue (2 W·kg-1 body mass then 30 W each 3 min; 3 10-min cycling at 3 W·kg-1 (Bsubmax; another 1-min transition and 4 a second 7-min run at 15 km·h-1 (R2. Trial 4 (TT was a 30-min cycle - 20-min run time trial. No significant differences in absolute oxygen uptake (VO2, heart rate (HR, or blood lactate concentration ([BLA] were evidenced between RBR1 and RBR2. For all measured physiological variables, the limits of agreement were similar, and the mean differences were physiologically unimportant, between trials. Low levels of test-retest error (i.e. ICC <0.8, CV<10% were observed for most (logged measurements. However [BLA] post R1 (ICC 0.87, CV 25.1%, [BLA] post Bsubmax (ICC 0.99, CV 16.31 and [BLA] post R2 (ICC 0.51, CV 22.9% were least reliable. These error ranges may help coaches detect real changes in training status over time. Moreover, RBR test variables can be used to predict discipline specific and overall TT performance. Cycle VO2peak, cycle peak power output, and the change between R1 and R2 (deltaR1R2 in [BLA] were most highly related to overall TT distance (r = 0.89, p < 0. 01; r = 0.94, p < 0.02; r = 0.86, p < 0.05, respectively. The percentage of TR VO2max at 15 km·h-1, and deltaR1R2 HR, were also related to run TT distance (r = -0.83 and 0.86, both p < 0.05

  15. Effect of Compression Garments on Physiological Responses After Uphill Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Struhár Ivan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Limited practical recommendations related to wearing compression garments for athletes can be drawn from the literature at the present time. We aimed to identify the effects of compression garments on physiological and perceptual measures of performance and recovery after uphill running with different pressure and distributions of applied compression. In a random, double blinded study, 10 trained male runners undertook three 8 km treadmill runs at a 6% elevation rate, with the intensity of 75% VO2max while wearing low, medium grade compression garments and high reverse grade compression. In all the trials, compression garments were worn during 4 hours post run. Creatine kinase, measurements of muscle soreness, ankle strength of plantar/dorsal flexors and mean performance time were then measured. The best mean performance time was observed in the medium grade compression garments with the time difference being: medium grade compression garments vs. high reverse grade compression garments. A positive trend in increasing peak torque of plantar flexion (60o·s-1, 120o·s-1 was found in the medium grade compression garments: a difference between 24 and 48 hours post run. The highest pain tolerance shift in the gastrocnemius muscle was the medium grade compression garments, 24 hour post run, with the shift being +11.37% for the lateral head and 6.63% for the medial head. In conclusion, a beneficial trend in the promotion of running performance and decreasing muscle soreness within 24 hour post exercise was apparent in medium grade compression garments.

  16. Swimming and cycling overloaded training in triathlon has no effect on running kinematics and economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzetti, S; Margaritis, I; Guezennec, C Y

    2005-04-01

    The aim of the study was to verify whether an overloaded training (OT) in triathlon deteriorates running kinematics (RK) and running economy (RE). Thirteen well-trained male long-distance triathletes (age: 28.1 +/- 4.3 yrs; V.O (2max): 65.0 +/- 3.1 ml O (2) . min (-1) . kg (-1)) were divided into two groups: completed an individualized OT program (OG; n = 7) or maintained a normal level of training (NT) (CG; n = 6) for a duration of 3 weeks. Every week, each triathlete completed a standardized questionnaire to quantify the influence of training loads on mood state. To reach OT, total training load (h . 3 wk (-1)) was increased by 24 %; swimming and cycling total volumes were increased by 46 and 57 %, respectively, but the distance run was not modified in order to limit the risk of injuries. RK and RE were determined on treadmill test at 12 km . h (-1) before and after the 3 weeks. The 3-week swimming and cycling OT in triathlon was sufficiently stressful to alter mood state but not to deteriorate the running kinematics and economy parameters in our previously well-trained male long-distance triathletes.

  17. [High versus moderate intense running exercise - effects on cardiometabolic risk-factors in untrained males].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Lell, M; Scharf, M; Fraunberger, L; von Stengel, S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction | The philosophy on how to improve cardiometabolic risk factors most efficiently by endurance exercise is still controversial. To determine the effect of high-intensity (interval) training (HI[I]T) vs. moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) training on cardiometabolic risk factors we conducted a 16-week crossover randomized controlled trial. Methods | 81 healthy untrained middle aged men were randomly assigned to a HI(I)T-group and a control-group that started the MICE running program after their control status. HI(I)T consisted of running exercise around or above the individual anaerobic threshold (≈ 80- 100 % HRmax); MICE focused on continuous running exercise at ≈ 65-77.5 % HRmax. Both protocols were comparable with respect to energy consumption. Study endpoints were cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), metabolic syndrome Z-score (MetS-Z-score), intima-media-thickness (IMT) and body composition. Results | VO2max-changes in this overweighed male cohort significantly (p=0.002) differ between HIIT (14.7 ± 9.3 %, p=0.001) and MICE (7.9 ± 7.4 %,p=0.001). LVMI, as determined via magnetic resonance imaging, significantly increased in both exercise groups (HIIT: 8.5 ± 5.4 %, p=0.001 vs. MICE: 5.3 ± 4.0 %, p=0.001), however the change was significantly more pronounced (p=0.005) in the HIIT-group. MetS-Z-score (HIIT: -2.06 ± 1.31, p=0.001 vs. MICE: -1.60 ± 1.77, p=0.001) and IMT (4.6 ± 5.9 % p=0.011 vs. 4.4 ± 8.1 %, p=0.019) did not show significant group-differences. Reductions of fat mass (-4.9 ± 9.0 %, p=0.010 vs. -9.5 ± 9.4, p=0.001) were significantly higher among the MICE-participants (p=0.034), however, the same was true (p=0.008) for lean body mass (0.5 ± 2.3 %, p=0.381 vs. -1.3 ± 2.0 %, p=0.003). Conclusion | In summary high-intensity interval training tends to impact cardiometabolic health more favorable compared with a moderate-intensity continuous endurance exercise protocol.

  18. Influence of BDNF Genotype and Exercise on BDNF Serum Levels and VO2 Max after Acute Exercise and Post Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-29

    memory and decision- making) ( termed FAC henceforth) to traditional AFPT (LC). The FAC training incorporated motions from real world actions (e.g...Comparison of Executive Attention Function in Normally-aging Long - term Tai Chi, Meditation, and Aerobic Fitness Practitioners vs. Sedentary Adults...on short - term plasticity,” Experimental Brain Research, vol. 213, pp. 415-422, 2011. 16. J.L. Etnier and Y-K. Chang, “The effect of physical

  19. Plasma volume expansion does not increase maximal cardiac output or VO2 max in lowlanders acclimatized to altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, José A L; Rådegran, Göran; Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2004-01-01

    liter of 6% dextran 70 (BV = 6.32 +/- 0.34 liters). PV expansion had no effect on Qmax, maximal O2 consumption (VO2), and exercise capacity. Despite maximal systemic O2 transport being reduced 19% due to hemodilution after PV expansion, whole body VO2 was maintained by greater systemic O2 extraction (P...... VO2 during exercise regardless of PV. Pulmonary ventilation, gas exchange, and acid-base balance were essentially unaffected by PV expansion. Sea......With altitude acclimatization, blood hemoglobin concentration increases while plasma volume (PV) and maximal cardiac output (Qmax) decrease. This investigation aimed to determine whether reduction of Qmax at altitude is due to low circulating blood volume (BV). Eight Danish lowlanders (3 females, 5...

  20. Exercise training does not improve myocardial diastolic tissue velocities in Type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenonen Arja

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myocardial diastolic tissue velocities are reduced already in newly onset Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D. Poor disease control may lead to left ventricular (LV systolic dysfunction and heart failure. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of exercise training on myocardial diastolic function in T2D patients without ischemic heart disease. Methods 48 men (52.3 ± 5.6 yrs with T2D were randomized to supervised training four times a week and standard therapy (E, or standard treatment alone (C for 12 months. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, oxygen consumption (VO2max, and muscle strength (Sit-up were measured. Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI was used to determine the average maximal mitral annular early (Ea and late (Aa diastolic as well as systolic (Sa velocities, systolic strain (ε and strain rate (έ from the septum, and an estimation of left ventricular end diastolic pressure (E/Ea. Results Exercise capacity (VO2max, E 32.0 to 34.7 vs. C 32.6 to 31.5 ml/kg/min, p = .001, muscle strength (E 12.7 to 18.3 times vs. C 14.6 to 14.7 times, p 1c (E 8.2 to 7.5% vs. C 8.0 to 8.4%, p = .006 improved significantly in the exercise group compared to the controls (ANOVA. Systolic blood pressure decreased in the E group (E 144 to 138 mmHg vs. C 146 to 144 mmHg, p = .04. Contrary to risk factor changes diastolic long axis relaxation did not improve significantly, early diastolic velocity Ea from 8.1 to 7.9 cm/s for the E group vs. C 7.4 to 7.8 cm/s (p = .85, ANOVA. Likewise, after 12 months the mitral annular systolic velocity, systolic strain and strain rate, as well as E/Ea were unchanged. Conclusion Exercise training improves endurance and muscle fitness in T2D, resulting in better glycemic control and reduced blood pressure. However, myocardial diastolic tissue velocities did not change significantly. Our data suggest that a much longer exercise intervention may be needed in order to reverse diastolic impairment in diabetics, if at all

  1. Progression in Running Intensity or Running Volume and the Development of Specific Injuries in Recreational Runners: Run Clever, a Randomized Trial Using Competing Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramskov, Daniel; Rasmussen, Sten; Sørensen, Henrik; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Lind, Martin; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2018-06-12

    Study Design Randomized clinical trial, etiology. Background Training intensity and volume have been proposed to be associated with specific running-related injuries. If such an association exists, secondary preventive measures could be initiated by clinicians based on symptoms of a specific injury diagnosis. Objectives To test the following hypotheses: (i) A running schedule focusing on intensity will increase the risk of sustaining Achilles tendinopathy, gastrocnemius injuries and plantar fasciitis compared with hypothesized volume-related injuries. (ii) A running schedule focusing on running volume will increase the risk of sustaining patellofemoral pain syndrome, iliotibial band syndrome and patellar tendinopathy compared with hypothesized intensity-related injuries. Methods Healthy recreational runners were included in a 24-week follow-up, divided into 8-week preconditioning and 16-week specific focus-training. Participants were randomized to one of two running schedules: Schedule Intensity(Sch-I) or Schedule Volume(Sch-V). Sch-I progressed the amount of high intensity running (≥88% VO2max) each week. Sch-V progressed total weekly running volume. Global positioning system watch or smartphone collected data on running. Running-related injuries were diagnosed based on a clinical examination. Estimates were risk difference (RD) and 95%CI. Results Of 447 runners, a total of 80 sustained an injury (Sch-I n=36; Sch-V n=44). Risk of intensity injuries in Sch-I were: RD 2-weeks =-0.8%[-5.0;3.4]; RD 4-weeks =-0.8%[-6.7;5.1]; RD 8-weeks =-2.0%[-9.2;5.1]; RD 16-weeks =-5.1%[-16.5;6.3]. Risk of volume injuries in Sch-V were: RD 2-weeks =-0.9%[-5.0;3.2]; RD 4-weeks =-2.0%[-7.5;3.5]; RD 8-weeks =-3.2%[-9.1;2.7]; RD 16-weeks =-3.4%[-13.2;6.2]. Conclusion No difference in risk of hypothesized intensity and volume specific running-related injuries exist between running schedules focused on progression in either running intensity or volume. Level of Evidence Etiology, level 1

  2. Mild evaporative cooling applied to the torso provides thermoregulatory benefits during running in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filingeri, D; Fournet, D; Hodder, S; Havenith, G

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the effects of mild evaporative cooling applied to the torso, before or during running in the heat. Nine male participants performed three trials: control-no cooling (CTR), pre-exercise cooling (PRE-COOL), and during-exercise cooling (COOL). Trials consisted of 10-min neutral exposure and 50-min heat exposure (30 °C; 44% humidity), during which a 30-min running protocol (70% VO2max ) was performed. An evaporative cooling t-shirt was worn before the heat exposure (PRE-COOL) or 15 min after the exercise was started (COOL). PRE-COOL significantly lowered local skin temperature (Tsk ) (up to -5.3 ± 0.3 °C) (P benefits during exercise in the heat. However, the timing of application was critical in inducing different thermoregulatory responses. These findings provide novel insights on the thermoregulatory role of Tsk during exercise in the heat. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Effects of cognitive stimulation with a self-modeling video on time to exhaustion while running at maximal aerobic velocity: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagin, Vincent; Gonzales, Benoît R; Groslambert, Alain

    2015-04-01

    This study assessed whether video self-modeling improves running performance and influences the rate of perceived exertion and heart rate response. Twelve men (M age=26.8 yr., SD=6; M body mass index=22.1 kg.m(-2), SD=1) performed a time to exhaustion running test at 100 percent maximal aerobic velocity while focusing on a video self-modeling loop to synchronize their stride. Compared to the control condition, there was a significant increase of time to exhaustion. Perceived exertion was lower also, but there was no significant change in mean heart rate. In conclusion, the video self-modeling used as a pacer apparently increased endurance by decreasing perceived exertion without affecting the heart rate.

  4. The Effects of a 6-Week Strength Training on Critical Velocity, Anaerobic Running Distance, 30-M Sprint and Yo-Yo Intermittent Running Test Performances in Male Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, Bettina; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Kandemir, Gokhan; Hazir, Tahir; Klose, Andreas; Naclerio, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of a moderate intensity strength training on changes in critical velocity (CV), anaerobic running distance (D'), sprint performance and Yo-Yo intermittent running test (Yo-Yo IR1) performances. two recreational soccer teams were divided in a soccer training only group (SO; n = 13) and a strength and soccer training group (ST; n = 13). Both groups were tested for values of CV, D', Yo-Yo IR1 distance and 30-m sprint time on two separate occasions (pre and post intervention). The ST group performed a concurrent 6-week upper and lower body strength and soccer training, whilst the SO group performed a soccer only training. after the re-test of all variables, the ST demonstrated significant improvements for both, YoYo IR1 distance (p = 0.002) and CV values (psoccer training significantly improves CV, Yo-Yo IR1 whilst moderately improving 30-m sprint performances in non-previously resistance trained male soccer players. Critical Velocity can be recommended to coaches as an additional valid testing tool in soccer.

  5. Effects of Obstacles on the Dynamics of Kinesins, Including Velocity and Run Length, Predicted by a Model of Two Dimensional Motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woochul Nam

    Full Text Available Kinesins are molecular motors which walk along microtubules by moving their heads to different binding sites. The motion of kinesin is realized by a conformational change in the structure of the kinesin molecule and by a diffusion of one of its two heads. In this study, a novel model is developed to account for the 2D diffusion of kinesin heads to several neighboring binding sites (near the surface of microtubules. To determine the direction of the next step of a kinesin molecule, this model considers the extension in the neck linkers of kinesin and the dynamic behavior of the coiled-coil structure of the kinesin neck. Also, the mechanical interference between kinesins and obstacles anchored on the microtubules is characterized. The model predicts that both the kinesin velocity and run length (i.e., the walking distance before detaching from the microtubule are reduced by static obstacles. The run length is decreased more significantly by static obstacles than the velocity. Moreover, our model is able to predict the motion of kinesin when other (several motors also move along the same microtubule. Furthermore, it suggests that the effect of mechanical interaction/interference between motors is much weaker than the effect of static obstacles. Our newly developed model can be used to address unanswered questions regarding degraded transport caused by the presence of excessive tau proteins on microtubules.

  6. Ergogenic effect of varied doses of coffee-caffeine on maximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endurance performance index (VO2 max, run time & number of exercise laps) were measured and recorded. Result: Repeated measures ANOVA was used to assess the level of significant difference between caffeine doses and placebo dose in VO2 max, run time and number of exercise laps. The result showed no ...

  7. Physiological characteristics of the best Eritrean runners-exceptional running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Alejandro; Esteve-Lanao, Jonathan; Oliván, Jesús; Gómez-Gallego, Félix; San Juan, Alejandro F; Santiago, Catalina; Pérez, Margarita; Chamorro-Viña, Carolina; Foster, Carl

    2006-10-01

    Despite their young age, limited training history, and lack of running tradition compared with other East African endurance athletes (e.g., Kenyans and Ethiopians), male endurance runners from Eritrea have recently attained important running successes. The purposes of our study were (i) to document the main physical and physiological characteristics of elite black Eritrean distance runners (n = 7; age: 22 +/- 3 years) and (ii) to compare them with those of their elite white Spanish counterparts. For this second purpose we selected a control group of elite Spanish runners (n = 9; 24 +/- 2 years), owing to the traditionally high success of Spanish athletes in long-distance running compared with other white runners, especially in cross-country competitions. The subjects' main anthropometric characteristics were determined, together with their maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and VO2 (mL.kg(-1).min(-1)), blood lactate, and ammonia concentrations while running at 17, 19, or 21 km.h(-1). The body mass index (18.9 +/- 1.5 kg.m(-2)) and maximal calf circumference (30.9 +/- 1.5 cm) was lower in Eritreans than in Spaniards (20.5 +/- 1.7 kg.m(-2) and 33.9 +/- 2.0 cm, respectively) (p economy of Eritreans is associated, at least partly, with anthropometric variables. Comparison of their submaximal running cost with other published data suggests that superior running economy, rather than enhanced aerobic capacity, may be the common denominator in the success of black endurance runners of East African origin.

  8. Effect of training in minimalist footwear on oxygen consumption during walking and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellar, D; Judge, L W

    2015-06-01

    The present study sought to examine the effect of 5 weeks of training with minimalist footwear on oxygen consumption during walking and running. Thirteen college-aged students (male n = 7, female n = 6, age: 21.7±1.4 years, height: 168.9±8.8 cm, weight: 70.4±15.8 kg, VO2max: 46.6±6.6 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) participated in the present investigation. The participants did not have experience with minimalist footwear. Participants underwent metabolic testing during walking (5.6 km·hr(-1)), light running (7.2 km·hr(-1)), and moderate running (9.6 km·hr(-1)). The participants completed this assessment barefoot, in running shoes, and in minimalist footwear in a randomized order. The participants underwent 5 weeks of training with the minimalist footwear. Afterwards, participants repeated the metabolic testing. Data was analyzed via repeated measures ANOVA. The analysis revealed a significant (F4,32= 7.576, [Formula: see text]=0.408, p ≤ 0.001) interaction effect (time × treatment × speed). During the initial assessment, the minimalist footwear condition resulted in greater oxygen consumption at 9.6 km·hr(-1) (p ≤ 0.05) compared to the barefoot condition, while the running shoe condition resulted in greater oxygen consumption than both the barefoot and minimalist condition at 7.2 and 9.6 km·hr(-1). At post-testing the minimalist footwear was not different at any speed compared to the barefoot condition (p> 0.12). This study suggests that initially minimalist footwear results in greater oxygen consumption than running barefoot, however; with utilization the oxygen consumption becomes similar.

  9. The effects of high intensity interval training in normobaric hypoxia on aerobic capacity in basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, Miłosz; Zając, Adam; Maszczyk, Adam; Roczniok, Robert; Poprzęcki, Stanisław; Garbaciak, Wiesław; Zając, Tomasz

    2013-12-18

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of 3-week high intensity interval training in normobaric hypoxia (IHT) on aerobic capacity in basketball players. Twelve male well trained basketball players, randomly divided into a hypoxia (H) group (n=6; age: 22±1.6 years; VO2max: 52.6±3.9 ml/kg/min; body height - BH: 188.8±6.1 cm; body mass - BM: 83.9±7.2 kg; % of body fat - FAT%: 11.2±3.1%), and a control (C) group (n=6; age: 22±2.4 years; VO2max: 53.0±5.2 ml/kg/min; BH: 194.3 ± 6.6 cm; BM: 99.9±11.1 kg; FAT% 11.0±2.8 %) took part in the study. The training program applied during the study was the same for both groups, but with different environmental conditions during the selected interval training sessions. For 3 weeks, all subjects performed three high intensity interval training sessions per week. During the interval training sessions, the H group trained in a normobaric hypoxic chamber at a simulated altitude of 2500 m, while the group C performed interval training sessions under normoxia conditions also inside the chamber. Each interval running training sessions consisted of four to five 4 min bouts at 90% of VO2max velocity determined in hypoxia (vVO2max-hyp) for the H group and 90% of velocity at VO2max determined in normoxia for the group C. The statistical post-hoc analysis showed that the training in hypoxia caused a significant (ptraining in normoxia caused an increase (ptraining protocol with high intensity intervals (4 to 5 × 4 min bouts at 90% of vVO2max-hyp) is an effective training means for improving aerobic capacity at sea level in basketball players.

  10. Meta-Analyses of the Effects of Habitual Running on Indices of Health in Physically Inactive Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespanhol Junior, Luiz Carlos; Pillay, Julian David; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert

    2015-10-01

    In order to implement running to promote physical activity, it is essential to quantify the extent to which running improves health. The aim was to summarise the literature on the effects of endurance running on biomedical indices of health in physically inactive adults. Electronic searches were conducted in October 2014 on PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, PEDro, the Cochrane Library and LILACS, with no limits of date and language of publication. Randomised controlled trials (with a minimum of 8 weeks of running training) that included physically inactive but healthy adults (18-65 years) were selected. The studies needed to compare intervention (i.e. endurance running) and control (i.e., no intervention) groups. Two authors evaluated study eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias; a third author resolved any uncertainties. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to summarise the estimates for length of training and sex. A dose-response analysis was performed with random-effects meta-regression in order to investigate the relationship between running characteristics and effect sizes. After screening 22,380 records, 49 articles were included, of which 35 were used to combine data on ten biomedical indices of health. On average the running programs were composed of 3.7 ± 0.9 sessions/week, 2.3 ± 1.0 h/week, 14.4 ± 5.4 km/week, at 60-90% of the maximum heart rate, and lasted 21.5 ± 16.8 weeks. After 1 year of training, running was effective in reducing body mass by 3.3 kg [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.1-2.5], body fat by 2.7% (95% CI 5.1-0.2), resting heart rate by 6.7 min(-1) (95% CI 10.3-3.0) and triglycerides by 16.9 mg dl(-1) (95% CI 28.1-5.6). Also, running significantly increased maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) by 7.1 ml min(-1) kg(-1) (95% CI 5.0-9.1) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol by 3.3 mg dl(-1) (95% CI 1.2-5.4). No significant effect was found for lean body mass, body mass index, total cholesterol and low

  11. The Effects of Acute Post Exercise Consumption of Two Cocoa-Based Beverages with Varying Flavanol Content on Indices of Muscle Recovery Following Downhill Treadmill Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschek, Katelyn; Pritchett, Robert; Bergman, Ethan; Pritchett, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Dietary flavanols have been associated with reduced oxidative stress, however their efficacy in promoting recovery after exercise induced muscle damage is unclear. This study examined the effectiveness of acute consumption of cocoa-flavanols on indices of muscle recovery including: subsequent exercise performance, creatine kinase, muscle tenderness, force, and self-perceived muscle soreness. Eight endurance-trained athletes (VO2max 64.4 ± 7.6 mL/kg/min) completed a downhill running protocol to induce muscle soreness, and 48-h later completed a 5-K (kilometer) time trial. Muscle recovery measurements were taken at PRE, 24 h-POST, 48 h-POST, and POST-5K. Participants consumed 1.0 g of carbohydrate per kilogram of body weight of a randomly assigned beverage (CHOC: 0 mg flavanols vs. CocoaCHOC: 350 mg flavanols per serving) immediately after the downhill run and again 2 h later. The same protocol was repeated three weeks later with the other beverage. An ANOVA revealed no significant difference (p = 0.97) between trials for 5 K completion time (CHOC 1198.3 ± 160.6 s, CocoaCHOC 1195.5 ± 148.8 s). No significant difference was found for creatine kinase (CK) levels (p = 0.31), or muscle soreness (p = 0.21) between groups over time. These findings suggest that the acute addition of cocoa flavanols to low-fat chocolate milk offer no additional recovery benefits. PMID:24362706

  12. The Effects of Acute Post Exercise Consumption of Two Cocoa-Based Beverages with Varying Flavanol Content on Indices of Muscle Recovery Following Downhill Treadmill Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn Peschek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary flavanols have been associated with reduced oxidative stress, however their efficacy in promoting recovery after exercise induced muscle damage is unclear. This study examined the effectiveness of acute consumption of cocoa-flavanols on indices of muscle recovery including: subsequent exercise performance, creatine kinase, muscle tenderness, force, and self-perceived muscle soreness. Eight endurance-trained athletes (VO2max 64.4 ± 7.6 mL/kg/min completed a downhill running protocol to induce muscle soreness, and 48-h later completed a 5-K (kilometer time trial. Muscle recovery measurements were taken at PRE, 24 h-POST, 48 h-POST, and POST-5K. Participants consumed 1.0 g of carbohydrate per kilogram of body weight of a randomly assigned beverage (CHOC: 0 mg flavanols vs. CocoaCHOC: 350 mg flavanols per serving immediately after the downhill run and again 2 h later. The same protocol was repeated three weeks later with the other beverage. An ANOVA revealed no significant difference (p = 0.97 between trials for 5 K completion time (CHOC 1198.3 ± 160.6 s, CocoaCHOC 1195.5 ± 148.8 s. No significant difference was found for creatine kinase (CK levels (p = 0.31, or muscle soreness (p = 0.21 between groups over time. These findings suggest that the acute addition of cocoa flavanols to low-fat chocolate milk offer no additional recovery benefits.

  13. Resistance training and aerobic training improve muscle strength and aerobic capacity in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markvardsen, Lars H; Overgaard, Kristian; Heje, Karen; Sindrup, Søren H; Christiansen, Ingelise; Vissing, John; Andersen, Henning

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Eighteen CIDP patients treated with subcutaneous immunoglobulin performed 12 weeks of aerobic exercise and 12 weeks of resistance exercise after a run-in period of 12 weeks without exercise. Three times weekly the participants performed aerobic exercise on an ergometer bike or resistance exercise with unilateral training of knee and elbow flexion/extension. Primary outcomes were maximal oxygen consumption velocity (VO 2 -max) and maximal combined isokinetic muscle strength (cIKS) of knee and elbow flexion/extension. VO 2 -max and muscle strength were unchanged during run-in (-4.9% ± 10.3%, P = 0.80 and -3.7% ± 10.1%, P = 0.17, respectively). Aerobic exercise increased VO 2 -max by 11.0% ± 14.7% (P = 0.02). Resistance exercise resulted in an increase of 13.8% ± 16.0% (P = 0.0004) in cIKS. Aerobic exercise training and resistance exercise training improve fitness and strength in CIDP patients. Muscle Nerve 57: 70-76, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Factores que afectan al rendimiento en carreras de fondo. [Factors affecting long-distance running performance].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ogueta-Alday

    2016-07-01

    and runners are interested on learning about the factors that affect long-distance running performance. Facing this new reality, scientific literature has been concerned about the aforementioned factors, and the amount of studies has considerably grown. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to analyse factors affecting long-distance running performance from different points of view. Literature review was performed through 3 different databases (Medline, SportDiscus and Google Scholar and the factors were classified into 5 main groups, subdivided into different sections: 1- environmental (air/wind, temperature, humidity, altitude and slope of the ground, 2- training-related (endurance, resistance, training in hot environments and in altitude, 3- physiological (VO2max, thersholds, running economy, age, gender, muscle fibre type, fatigue and race, 4- biomechanical (anthropometry, leg-stiffness, flexibility, foot strike pattern, footwear, foot orthoses and spatio-temporal parameters and 5- psychological (intervention strategies, direction of attention and music. Even though the influence of some of these factors on running performance in quite well-known, the influence of some psychological (direction of attention and music and biomechanical factors (foot strike pattern and spatio-temporal parameters is still unclear. There are few studies or the results cannot be generalized. Future studies and the progress of new technologies and measurement tools will provide a better understanding.

  15. Ventilatory threshold during incremental running can be estimated using EMG shorts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikkanen, Olli; Vilavuo, Toivo; Finni, Taija; Hu, Min; Cheng, Sulin; Tolvanen, Pekka

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined whether shorts with textile electromyographic (EMG) electrodes can be used to detect second ventilatory threshold (V T2 ) during incremental treadmill running. Thirteen recreationally active (REC) and eight endurance athletes were measured for EMG, heart rate, blood lactate and respiratory gases during VO 2max test (3 min ramps, 1 km ⋅ h −1 increments). V T2 , onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA) and EMG threshold (EMG T ) were determined. In athletes, OBLA occurred at 56 ± 6 mL ⋅ kg −1  ⋅ min −1 , V T2 occurred at 59 ± 6 mL ⋅ kg −1  ⋅ min −1 , and EMG T at 62 ± 6 mL ⋅ kg −1  ⋅ min −1 without significant differences between methods (analysis of variance: ANOVA). In REC participants, OBLA occurred at 40 ± 10 mL ⋅ kg −1  ⋅ min −1 , V T2 occurred at 43 ± 7 mL ⋅ kg −1  ⋅ min −1 , and EMG T at 41 ± 9 mL ⋅ kg −1  ⋅ min −1 without significant differences between methods (ANOVA). For the entire group, correlation between EMG T and V T2 was 0.86 (P < 0.001) and 0.84 (P < 0.001) between EMG T and OBLA. Limits of agreement between EMG T and V T2 were narrower in athletes than in REC participants. Thus, it is concluded that estimation of V T2 using EMG T in athletes is more valid than in REC participants. In practice, experienced runners could use online feedback from EMG garments to monitor whether their running intensity is near V T2 . (paper)

  16. Ventilatory threshold during incremental running can be estimated using EMG shorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Olli; Hu, Min; Vilavuo, Toivo; Tolvanen, Pekka; Cheng, Sulin; Finni, Taija

    2012-04-01

    The present study examined whether shorts with textile electromyographic (EMG) electrodes can be used to detect second ventilatory threshold (V(T2)) during incremental treadmill running. Thirteen recreationally active (REC) and eight endurance athletes were measured for EMG, heart rate, blood lactate and respiratory gases during VO(2max) test (3 min ramps, 1 km·h(-1) increments). V(T)(2), onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA) and EMG threshold (EMG(T)) were determined. In athletes, OBLA occurred at 56 ± 6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), V(T2) occurred at 59 ± 6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), and EMG(T) at 62 ± 6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) without significant differences between methods (analysis of variance: ANOVA). In REC participants, OBLA occurred at 40 ± 10 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), V(T2) occurred at 43 ± 7 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), and EMG(T) at 41 ± 9 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) without significant differences between methods (ANOVA). For the entire group, correlation between EMG(T) and V(T2) was 0.86 (P < 0.001) and 0.84 (P < 0.001) between EMG(T) and OBLA. Limits of agreement between EMG(T) and V(T2) were narrower in athletes than in REC participants. Thus, it is concluded that estimation of V(T2) using EMG(T) in athletes is more valid than in REC participants. In practice, experienced runners could use online feedback from EMG garments to monitor whether their running intensity is near V(T2). © 2012 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine

  17. Effects of acute supplementation of Panax ginseng on endurance running in a hot & humid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Fadzel Wong Chee; Keong, Chen Chee; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Athletes in Malaysia need to perform in a hot and humid environment due to the climatic nature of the country. c0 hronic supplementation of Panax ginseng (PG) (a deciduous perennial plant belonging to the Araliaceae family) enhances physical performance. As the ergogenic effect of acute supplementation of PG on endurance performance has not been explored in the Malaysian population especially in a hot and humid condition this study was taken up. Methods: Nine heat adapted recreational runners (age : 25.4 ± 6.9 yr, body mass : 57.6 ± 8.4 kg; body height : 168.3 ± 7.6 cm) were recruited in this placebo-controlled double-blind randomized study. Subjects ingested 200 mg of PG one hour before the exercise test on treadmill at 70 per cent of their VO2max in a laboratory environment of 31 °C and 70 per cent relative humidity. They drank 3 ml/kg body weight of cool water every 20 min during the exercise to prevent adverse effects of dehydration. Blood samples were drawn every 20 min for the analysis of glucose, lactate, insulin and free fatty acids. Oxygen uptake was determined every 20 min while heart rate, body and skin temperatures, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded every 10 min during the trials. Results: Endurance running time to exhaustion did not differ between PG and placebo trials. Heart rate, skin temperature, core body temperature, oxygen uptake, RPE, plasma insulin, glucose, free fatty acid and lactate levels during the endurance exercise did not show any significant differences between the trials. Interpretation & conclusions: We conclude that acute supplementation of 200 mg of PG did not affect the endurance running performance of the heat-adapted male recreational runners in the heat. PMID:21321426

  18. Effects of acute supplementation of caffeine on cardiorespiratory responses during endurance running in a hot & humid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Wong Chee; Keong, Chen Chee; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2010-07-01

    Athletes in Malaysia need to perform in a hot and humid climate. Chronic supplementation of caffeine on endurance performance have been studied extensively in different populations. However, concurrent research on the effects of acute supplementation of caffeine on cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise in the Malaysian context especially in a hot and humid environment is unavailable. Nine heat adapted recreational Malaysian male runners (aged: 25.4+/-6.9 yr) who were nonusers of caffeine (23.7+/-12.6 mg per day) were recruited in this placebo--controlled double--blind randomized study. Caffeine (5 mg per kg of body weight) or placebo was ingested in the form of a capsule one hour prior to the running exercise trial at 70 per cent of VO2max on a motorised treadmill in a heat-controlled laboratory (31 degrees C, 70% relative humidity). Subjects drank 3 ml of cool water per kg of body weight every 20 min during the running trials to avoid the adverse effects of dehydration. Heart rate, core body temperature and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded at intervals of 10 min, while oxygen consumption was measured at intervals of 20 min. Running time to exhaustion was significantly (Pexercise from their respective resting values in both trials (P<0.001). Our study showed that ingestion of 5 mg of caffeine per kg of body weight improved the endurance running performance but did not impose any significant effect on other individual cardiorespiratory parameters of heat-acclimated recreational runners in hot and humid conditions.

  19. Evaluation of Cooper 12-minute walk/run test as a marker of cardiorespiratory fitness in young urban children with persistent asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisgerber, Michael; Danduran, Michael; Meurer, John; Hartmann, Kathryn; Berger, Stuart; Flores, Glenn

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate Cooper 12-minute run/walk test (CT12) as a one-time estimate of cardiorespiratory fitness and marker of fitness change compared with treadmill fitness testing in young children with persistent asthma. A cohort of urban children with asthma participated in the asthma and exercise program and a subset completed pre- and postintervention fitness testing. Treadmill fitness testing was conducted by an exercise physiologist in the fitness laboratory at an academic children's hospital. CT12 was conducted in a college recreation center gymnasium. Forty-five urban children with persistent asthma aged 7 to 14 years participated in exercise interventions. A subset of 19 children completed pre- and postintervention exercise testing. Participants completed a 9-week exercise program where they participated in either swimming or golf 3 days a week for 1 hour. A subset of participants completed fitness testing by 2 methods before and after program completion. CT12 results (meters), maximal oxygen consumption ((.)Vo2max) (mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)), and treadmill exercise time (minutes). CT12 and maximal oxygen consumption were moderately correlated (preintervention: 0.55, P = 0.003; postintervention: 0.48, P = 0.04) as one-time measures of fitness. Correlations of the tests as markers of change over time were poor and nonsignificant. In children with asthma, CT12 is a reasonable one-time estimate of fitness but a poor marker of fitness change over time.

  20. Favorable effect of aerobic exercise on arterial pressure and aortic pulse wave velocity during stress testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milatz, Florian; Ketelhut, Sascha; Ketelhut, Sascha; Ketelhut, Reinhard G

    2015-07-01

    Increased central pulse wave velocity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The favorable influence of exercise on arterial stiffness (AS) and blood pressure (BP) has been reported exclusively at rest. The present study investigated the influence of a single bout of acute cycling on AS and BP during recovery and, moreover, during cold pressor stress testing. 32 healthy men (33.7 ± 8 years, BMI 24 ± 2.5 kg/m²) performed a 60 minute endurance exercise on a bicycle ergometer (45 % VO2max). Before and after exercise aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) as well as central and peripheral BP were measured non-invasively at rest and at the end of a 2 minute cold pressor test (CPT). Even after 60 minutes of recovery aPWV (- 0.22 ± 0.3 m / sec) was significantly reduced (p Exercise decreased peripheral (- 8 ± 7 mmHg) and central (- 7 ± 8 mmHg) systolic BP as well as peripheral (- 3 ± 5 mmHg) and central (- 4 ± 7 mmHg) diastolic BP (p exercise, there was a significant reduction in aPWV (- 0.19 ± 0.3 m / sec), peripheral (- 6 ± 10 mmHg) and central (- 5 ± 8 mmHg) systolic BP as well as peripheral (- 3 ± 6 mmHg) and central (- 3 ± 6 mmHg) diastolic BP during CPT after exercise (p exercise leads not only to decreased BP but even more reduces aPWV as a measure of AS even after 60 minutes of recovery. In particular, the investigation provides evidence that acute moderate-intensity exercise has a favorable effect on BP and aPWV during stress testing.

  1. Supervised physical exercise improves VO2max, quality of life, and health in early stage breast cancer patients: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Carla, Soraya; López Tarruella, Sara; Jérez, Yolanda; Marquez Rodas, Iván; Galvao, Daniel A.; Newton, Robert U.; Cubedo, Ricardo; Sampedro Molinuevo, Javier; Barakat Carballo, Ruben Omar; Martín, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer patients suffer impairment in cardiorespiratory fitness after treatment for primary disease, affecting patients’ health and survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of a pragmatic exercise intervention to improve cardiorespiratory fitness of breast cancer patients after primary treatment.

  2. A Study on Work Ability Index and Physical Work Capacity on the Base of Fax Equation VO(2) Max in Male Nursing Hospital Staff in Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Ehsanollah; Dehghan, Habibollah; Zeinodini, Mohhamad; Yousefi, Hosseinali; Hasanzadeh, Akbar

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this research is to establish the ability of employees by work ability index (WAI), physical work capacity (PWC), and finding the correlation between them. Establishing the PWC index with attention to WAI values for the purpose of saving in costs and time of PWC measurements is another aim of this project. The present research is an analytic cross-sectional and one-trail study. The study population consists of 228 randomly selected registered nurses from hospitals in Isfahan (Iran). The WAI and PWC were established through WAI questionnaire and Fax equation and by using ergometer bicycle, respectively. The resulting data were analyzed using SPSS 16 software. Average WAI and PWC among the study population were 38.25±4.4 and 4.45±0.7, respectively. Pearson test results showed no significant correlation between PWC and WAI in different age groups (r=0.3 and P>0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the variables of age and diagnosed diseases were the most effective factors of WAI (β=0.18 and P>0.05). Pearson test revealed a significant correlation between the number of diagnosed diseases and PWC index in age groups of 40-49 years. Average WAI in this research, like other studies on similar jobs is in the acceptable level of >36. Work ability index and PWC index in different age groups did not show a significant correlation and this suggests that there are essential discrepancies in work ability evaluations made by each index and it is not possible to predict PWC index using WAI values. Given the PWC results and the level of nursing staff's activity (low, medium) the WAI is a suitable instrument to establish the professionals' abilities. This study revealed that 27.6% of individuals were subject to medium-low work ability risk (WAIworking and increased working hours.

  3. Changes in Blood Pressure, Body Composition, and Vo2max after 10 Weeks of High Intense Interval Training and Ginger Consumption in Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shila Nayebifar

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, HIIT and ginger consumption can be a good strategy to improve systolic and diastolic blood pressures in women. Also, this kind of trainings is an effective approach in improving cardiorespiratory function and body composition in the population of overweight women.

  4. The acute effects of intermittent treadmill running on hunger and plasma acylated ghrelin concentration in individuals with obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholipour M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Body weight is regulated by both food intake and energy expenditure. Ghrelin, a hormone produced by the stomach and pancreas, enhances appetite. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of intermittent treadmill running on acylated ghrelin and appetite in individuals with obesity."n"nMethods : Nine inactive male students, with a mean age of 20.56±0.48 yrs, a body mass index of 32.68±0.84 kg/m2 and a maximum oxygen uptake of 34.21±1.48 ml/kg/min, participated in the study in two trials (control and exercise in a counterbalanced, randomized design. The protocol included intermittent running with a constant intensity at 65% of VO2 max on a treadmill. Blood samples were collected before, during, and 2h after cessation of the exercise."n"nResults : Acylated ghrelin concentrations and hunger ratings decreased significantly in the second phase and remained lower than baseline (P=0.006 and P=0.002, respectively at the end of the exercise. The total area under the curve values and hunger ratings (all P<0.0005 were significantly lower in the exercise trial compared with the control state. Similarly, growth hormone rose significantly at the second phase and remained higher than baseline (P=0.033 at the

  5. Running the running

    OpenAIRE

    Cabass, Giovanni; Di Valentino, Eleonora; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Pajer, Enrico; Silk, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We use the recent observations of Cosmic Microwave Background temperature and polarization anisotropies provided by the Planck satellite experiment to place constraints on the running $\\alpha_\\mathrm{s} = \\mathrm{d}n_{\\mathrm{s}} / \\mathrm{d}\\log k$ and the running of the running $\\beta_{\\mathrm{s}} = \\mathrm{d}\\alpha_{\\mathrm{s}} / \\mathrm{d}\\log k$ of the spectral index $n_{\\mathrm{s}}$ of primordial scalar fluctuations. We find $\\alpha_\\mathrm{s}=0.011\\pm0.010$ and $\\beta_\\mathrm{s}=0.027\\...

  6. Effect of Wheelchair Running on Recovery of Blood Lactate and Physical Performance after High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise – An Experimental Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan G

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Repetitive sprint sport players perform high intensity exercise only for a small percentage of a total game and such periods are often instrumental in determining the eventual outcome. Recovery is a key factor for performance, and constant lack of recovery or insufficient recovery turns into overtraining which is detrimental in achieving peak performance. The purpose was to find out the effect of wheelchair running on the physical performance recovery after high-intensity intermittent exercise. Method: Ten sportsmen having the age range from 20 to 29, VO2max Ranges from 60.51 to 64.29 were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. After filling pre-participation questionnaire and 30-min of supine rest, Blood lactate and the field tests for the measurement of static balance, power, speed and agility were applied. The subjects were made to run in the treadmill and to increase the intensity to reach the Target Heart Rate (THR. After 1-min the subjects were given rest for 15-s and after that they started exercise again and thus the subjects completed several bouts of such exercises until exhaustion followed by either Passive rest or wheelchair running for the duration of 10 minutes. Parameters were measures after completed the exercise bout and after the recovery. Results: After the recovery in experimental group significant improvement found only in blood lactate (p<0.01 and no significant changes found in other parameters while in control group no significant changes found in all parameters. There was no significant difference found in all the parameters including blood lactate between the groups. Conclusion: Both wheelchair running and passive recovery are same in the efficiency of blood lactate removal and restoration of physical performance following intense intermittent exercise.

  7. Maternal exposure to Western diet affects adult body composition and voluntary wheel running in a genotype-specific manner in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Layla; Kay, Jarren C; Thompson, Zoe; Singleton, Jennifer M; Claghorn, Gerald C; Albuquerque, Ralph L; Ho, Brittany; Ho, Brett; Sanchez, Gabriela; Garland, Theodore

    2017-10-01

    Some human diseases, including obesity, Type II diabetes, and numerous cancers, are thought to be influenced by environments experienced in early life, including in utero. Maternal diet during the perinatal period may be especially important for adult offspring energy balance, potentially affecting both body composition and physical activity. This effect may be mediated by the genetic background of individuals, including, for example, potential "protective" mechanisms for individuals with inherently high levels of physical activity or high basal metabolic rates. To examine some of the genetic and environmental factors that influence adult activity levels, we used an ongoing selection experiment with 4 replicate lines of mice bred for high voluntary wheel running (HR) and 4 replicate, non-selected control lines (C). Dams (half HR and half C) were fed a "Western" diet (WD, high in fat and sucrose) or a standard diet (SD) from 2weeks prior to mating until their pups could feed on solid food (14days of age). We analyzed dam and litter characteristics from birth to weaning, and offspring mass and physical activity into adulthood. One male offspring from each litter received additional metabolic and behavioral tests. Maternal WD caused pups to eat solid food significantly earlier for C litters, but not for HR litters (interaction of maternal environment and genotype). With dam mass as a covariate, mean pup mass was increased by maternal WD but litter size was unaffected. HR dams had larger litters and tended to have smaller pups than C dams. Home-cage activity of juvenile focal males was increased by maternal WD. Juvenile lean mass, fat mass, and fat percent were also increased by maternal WD, but food consumption (with body mass as a covariate) was unaffected (measured only for focal males). Behavior in an elevated plus maze, often used to indicate anxiety, was unaffected by maternal WD. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO 2 max) was also unaffected by maternal WD, but HR had

  8. Measuring fitness of Kenyan children with polyparasitic infections using the 20-meter shuttle run test as a morbidity metric.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaya L Bustinduy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available To date, there has been no standardized approach to the assessment of aerobic fitness among children who harbor parasites. In quantifying the disability associated with individual or multiple chronic infections, accurate measures of physical fitness are important metrics. This is because exercise intolerance, as seen with anemia and many other chronic disorders, reflects the body's inability to maintain adequate oxygen supply (VO(2 max to the motor tissues, which is frequently linked to reduced quality-of-life in terms of physical and job performance. The objective of our study was to examine the associations between polyparasitism, anemia, and reduced fitness in a high risk Kenyan population using novel implementation of the 20-meter shuttle run test (20mSRT, a well-standardized, low-technology physical fitness test.Four villages in coastal Kenya were surveyed during 2009-2010. Children 5-18 years were tested for infection with Schistosoma haematobium (Sh, malaria, filaria, and geohelminth infections by standard methods. After anthropometric and hemoglobin testing, fitness was assessed with the 20 mSRT. The 20 mSRT proved easy to perform, requiring only minimal staff training. Parasitology revealed high prevalence of single and multiple parasitic infections in all villages, with Sh being the most common (25-62%. Anemia prevalence was 45-58%. Using multiply-adjusted linear modeling that accounted for household clustering, decreased aerobic capacity was significantly associated with anemia, stunting, and wasting, with some gender differences.The 20 mSRT, which has excellent correlation with VO(2, is a highly feasible fitness test for low-resource settings. Our results indicate impaired fitness is common in areas endemic for parasites, where, at least in part, low fitness scores are likely to result from anemia and stunting associated with chronic infection. The 20 mSRT should be used as a common metric to quantify physical fitness and compare sub

  9. Heat acclimation responses of an ultra-endurance running group preparing for hot desert-based competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ricardo J S; Crockford, Michael J; Moore, Jonathan P; Walsh, Neil P

    2014-01-01

    Heat acclimation induces adaptations that improve exercise tolerance in hot conditions. Here we report novel findings into the effects of ultra-marathon specific exercise load in increasing hot ambient conditions on indices of heat acclimation. Six male ultra-endurance runners completed a standard pre-acclimation protocol at 20°C ambient temperature (T amb), followed by a heat acclimation protocol consisting of six 2 h running exercise-heat exposures (EH) at 60% VO2max on a motorised treadmill in an environmental chamber. Three EH were performed at 30°C T amb, followed by another three EH at 35°C T amb. EH were separated by 48 h within T amb and 72 h between T amb. Nude body mass (NBM), blood and urine samples were collected pre-exercise; while NBM and urine were collected post-exercise. Rectal temperature (T re), heart rate (HR), thermal comfort rating (TCR) and rating of perceived exertion were measured pre-exercise and monitored every 5 min during exercise. Water was provided ad libitum during exercise. Data were analysed using a repeated measures and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), with post hoc Tukey's HSD. Significance was accepted as Pheat acclimation in all ultra-endurance runners. Further, heat acclimation responses occurred with increasing EH to 35°C T amb. Preventing exertional heat illnesses and optimising performance outcomes in ultra-endurance runners may occur with exposure to at least 2 h of exercise-heat stress on at least two occasions in the days leading up to multi-stage ultra-marathon competition in the heat.

  10. The effects of a pre-workout supplement containing caffeine, creatine, and amino acids during three weeks of high-intensity exercise on aerobic and anaerobic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Abbie E; Fukuda, David H; Kendall, Kristina L; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2010-02-15

    A randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel design study was used to examine the effects of a pre-workout supplement combined with three weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on aerobic and anaerobic running performance, training volume, and body composition. Twenty-four moderately-trained recreational athletes (mean +/- SD age = 21.1 +/- 1.9 yrs; stature = 172.2 +/- 8.7 cm; body mass = 66.2 +/- 11.8 kg, VO2max = 3.21 +/- 0.85 l.min-1, percent body fat = 19.0 +/- 7.1%) were assigned to either the active supplement (GT, n = 13) or placebo (PL, n = 11) group. The active supplement (Game Time(R), Corr-Jensen Laboratories Inc., Aurora, CO) was 18 g of powder, 40 kcals, and consisted of a proprietary blend including whey protein, cordyceps sinensis, creatine, citrulline, ginseng, and caffeine. The PL was also 18 g of powder, 40 kcals, and consisted of only maltodextrin, natural and artificial flavors and colors. Thirty minutes prior to all testing and training sessions, participants consumed their respective supplements mixed with 8-10 oz of water. Both groups participated in a three-week HIIT program three days per week, and testing was conducted before and after the training. Cardiovascular fitness (VO2max) was assessed using open circuit spirometry (Parvo-Medics TrueOne(R) 2400 Metabolic Measurement System, Sandy, UT) during graded exercise tests on a treadmill (Woodway, Pro Series, Waukesha, WI). Also, four high-speed runs to exhaustion were conducted at 110, 105, 100, and 90% of the treadmill velocity recorded during VO2max, and the distances achieved were plotted over the times-to-exhaustion. Linear regression was used to determine the slopes (critical velocity, CV) and y-intercepts (anaerobic running capacity, ARC) of these relationships to assess aerobic and anaerobic performances, respectively. Training volumes were tracked by summing the distances achieved during each training session for each subject. Percent body fat (%BF) and lean

  11. The effects of a pre-workout supplement containing caffeine, creatine, and amino acids during three weeks of high-intensity exercise on aerobic and anaerobic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendall Kristina L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel design study was used to examine the effects of a pre-workout supplement combined with three weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT on aerobic and anaerobic running performance, training volume, and body composition. Methods Twenty-four moderately-trained recreational athletes (mean ± SD age = 21.1 ± 1.9 yrs; stature = 172.2 ± 8.7 cm; body mass = 66.2 ± 11.8 kg, VO2max = 3.21 ± 0.85 l·min-1, percent body fat = 19.0 ± 7.1% were assigned to either the active supplement (GT, n = 13 or placebo (PL, n = 11 group. The active supplement (Game Time®, Corr-Jensen Laboratories Inc., Aurora, CO was 18 g of powder, 40 kcals, and consisted of a proprietary blend including whey protein, cordyceps sinensis, creatine, citrulline, ginseng, and caffeine. The PL was also 18 g of powder, 40 kcals, and consisted of only maltodextrin, natural and artificial flavors and colors. Thirty minutes prior to all testing and training sessions, participants consumed their respective supplements mixed with 8-10 oz of water. Both groups participated in a three-week HIIT program three days per week, and testing was conducted before and after the training. Cardiovascular fitness (VO2max was assessed using open circuit spirometry (Parvo-Medics TrueOne® 2400 Metabolic Measurement System, Sandy, UT during graded exercise tests on a treadmill (Woodway, Pro Series, Waukesha, WI. Also, four high-speed runs to exhaustion were conducted at 110, 105, 100, and 90% of the treadmill velocity recorded during VO2max, and the distances achieved were plotted over the times-to-exhaustion. Linear regression was used to determine the slopes (critical velocity, CV and y-intercepts (anaerobic running capacity, ARC of these relationships to assess aerobic and anaerobic performances, respectively. Training volumes were tracked by summing the distances achieved during each training session for each subject

  12. Ecologically Valid Carbohydrate Intake during Soccer-Specific Exercise Does Not Affect Running Performance in a Fed State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P. Funnell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of carbohydrate intake on self-selected soccer-specific running performance. Sixteen male soccer players (age 23 ± 4 years; body mass 76.9 ± 7.2 kg; predicted VO2max = 54.2 ± 2.9 mL∙kg−1∙min−1; soccer experience 13 ± 4 years completed a progressive multistage fitness test, familiarisation trial and two experimental trials, involving a modified version of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST to simulate a soccer match in a fed state. Subjects completed six 15 min blocks (two halves of 45 min of intermittent shuttle running, with a 15-min half-time. Blocks 3 and 6, allowed self-selection of running speeds and sprint times, were assessed throughout. Subjects consumed 250 mL of either a 12% carbohydrate solution (CHO or a non-caloric taste matched placebo (PLA before and at half-time of the LIST. Sprint times were not different between trials (CHO 2.71 ± 0.15 s, PLA 2.70 ± 0.14 s; p = 0.202. Total distance covered in self-selected blocks (block 3: CHO 2.07 ± 0.06 km; PLA 2.09 ± 0.08 km; block 6: CHO 2.04 ± 0.09 km; PLA 2.06 ± 0.08 km; p = 0.122 was not different between trials. There was no difference between trials for distance covered (p ≥ 0.297 or mean speed (p ≥ 0.172 for jogging or cruising. Blood glucose concentration was greater (p < 0.001 at the end of half-time during the CHO trial. In conclusion, consumption of 250 mL of 12% CHO solution before and at half-time of a simulated soccer match does not affect self-selected running or sprint performance in a fed state.

  13. Critical force during tethered swimming for the evaluation of aerobic capacity and prediction of performances in freestyle swimming DOI:10.5007/1980-0037.2010v12n1p14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Papoti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the relationship of critical force (Fcrit with lactate threshold (LLNA and the intensity corresponding to VO2max (iVO2max in tethered swimming (TS, and their correlation with maximal performance in 400-m (V400 and 30-min (VT30 freestyle swimming (FS. Seven swimmers were submitted to a TS incremental test for the determination of LLNA and iVO2max. For the determination of Fcrit, the swimmers performed four exercises to exhaustion at intensities (F corresponding to 87%, 104%, 118% and 134% of iVO2max for the calculation of time limits (Tlim. Fcrit corresponded to the linear coefficient of the ratio between F and 1/tlim. The maximal performance in FS corresponded to the mean velocity obtained during maximal exercise of 400-m and 30-min crawl swimming. Fcrit (51.97 ± 4.02 N was significantly lower than iVO2max (60.21 ± 8.73 N but not than LLNA (45.89 ± 8.73. Fcrit was significantly correlated with iVO2max (0.97, LLNA (0.88, V400 (0.85, and VT30 (0.86. These data suggest that Fcrit can be used for the determination of aerobic capacity, prescription of a TS training program, and prediction of performance in FS.

  14. Critical force during tethered swimming for the evaluation of aerobic capacity and prediction of performances in freestyle swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Papoti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the relationship of critical force (Fcrit with lactate threshold (LLNA and the intensity corresponding to VO2max (iVO2max in tethered swimming (TS, and their correlation with maximal performance in 400-m (V400 and 30-min (VT30 freestyle swimming (FS. Seven swimmers were submitted to a TS incremental test for the determination of LLNA and iVO2max. For the determination of Fcrit, the swimmers performed four exercises to exhaustion at intensities (F corresponding to 87%, 104%, 118% and 134% of iVO2max for the calculation of time limits (Tlim. Fcrit corresponded to the linear coefficient of the ratio between F and 1/tlim. The maximal performance in FS corresponded to the mean velocity obtained during maximal exercise of 400-m and 30-min crawl swimming. Fcrit (51.97 ± 4.02 N was significantly lower than iVO2max (60.21 ± 8.73 N but not than LLNA (45.89 ± 8.73. Fcrit was significantly correlated with iVO2max (0.97, LLNA (0.88, V400 (0.85, and VT30 (0.86. These data suggest that Fcrit can be used for the determination of aerobic capacity, prescription of a TS training program, and prediction of performance in FS.

  15. Liquidity Runs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matta, R.; Perotti, E.

    2016-01-01

    Can the risk of losses upon premature liquidation produce bank runs? We show how a unique run equilibrium driven by asset liquidity risk arises even under minimal fundamental risk. To study the role of illiquidity we introduce realistic norms on bank default, such that mandatory stay is triggered

  16. Running economy and energy cost of running with backpacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Volker; Cramer, Leoni; Heitkamp, Hans-Christian

    2018-05-02

    Running is a popular recreational activity and additional weight is often carried in backpacks on longer runs. Our aim was to examine running economy and other physiological parameters while running with a 1kg and 3 kg backpack at different submaximal running velocities. 10 male recreational runners (age 25 ± 4.2 years, VO2peak 60.5 ± 3.1 ml·kg-1·min-1) performed runs on a motorized treadmill of 5 minutes durations at three different submaximal speeds of 70, 80 and 90% of anaerobic lactate threshold (LT) without additional weight, and carrying a 1kg and 3 kg backpack. Oxygen consumption, heart rate, lactate and RPE were measured and analysed. Oxygen consumption, energy cost of running and heart rate increased significantly while running with a backpack weighing 3kg compared to running without additional weight at 80% of speed at lactate threshold (sLT) (p=0.026, p=0.009 and p=0.003) and at 90% sLT (p<0.001, p=0.001 and p=0.001). Running with a 1kg backpack showed a significant increase in heart rate at 80% sLT (p=0.008) and a significant increase in oxygen consumption and heart rate at 90% sLT (p=0.045 and p=0.007) compared to running without additional weight. While running at 70% sLT running economy and cardiovascular effort increased with weighted backpack running compared to running without additional weight, however these increases did not reach statistical significance. Running economy deteriorates and cardiovascular effort increases while running with additional backpack weight especially at higher submaximal running speeds. Backpack weight should therefore be kept to a minimum.

  17. FUTSAL MATCH-RELATED FATIGUE AFFECTS RUNNING PERFORMANCE AND NEUROMUSCULAR PARAMETERS BUT NOT FINISHING KICK SPEED OR ACCURACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Milioni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of futsal match-related fatigue on running performance, neuromuscular variables, and finishing kick speed and accuracy. Methods: Ten professional futsal players participated in the study (age: 22.2±2.5 years; and initially performed an incremental protocol to determine maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max : 50.6±4.9 mL.kg-1.min-1. Next, simulated games were performed, in four periods of 10 min during which heart rate and blood lactate concentration were monitored. The entire games were video recorded for subsequent automatic tracking. Before and immediately after the simulated game, neuromuscular function was measured by maximal isometric force of knee extension, voluntary activation using twitch interpolation technique, and electromyographic activity. Before, at half time, and immediately after the simulated game, the athletes also performed a set of finishing kicks for ball speed and accuracy measurements. Results: Total distance covered (1st half: 1986.6±74.4 m; 2nd half: 1856.0±129.7 m – P=0.00 and distance covered per minute (1st half: 103.2±4.4 m.min-1; 2nd half: 96.4±7.5 m.min-1 – P=0.00 demonstrated significant declines during the simulated game, as well as maximal isometric force of knee extension (Before: 840.2±66.2 N; After: 751.6±114.3 N – P=0.04 and voluntary activation (Before: 85.9±7.5%; After: 74.1±12.3% – P=0.04, however ball speed and accuracy during the finishing kicks were not significantly affected.Conclusion: Therefore, we conclude that despite the decline in running performance and neuromuscular variables presenting an important manifestation of central fatigue, this condition apparently does not affect the speed and accuracy of finishing kicks.

  18. Physiological and performance changes from the addition of a sprint interval program to wrestling training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzad, Babak; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Agha-Alinejad, Hamid; Curby, David G; Bayati, Mahdi; Bahraminejad, Morteza; Mäestu, Jarek

    2011-09-01

    Increasing the level of physical fitness for competition is the primary goal of any conditioning program for wrestlers. Wrestlers often need to peak for competitions several times over an annual training cycle. Additionally, the scheduling of these competitions does not always match an ideal periodization plan and may require a modified training program to achieve a high level of competitive fitness in a short-time frame. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 4 weeks of sprint-interval training (SIT) program, on selected aerobic and anaerobic performance indices, and hormonal and hematological adaptations, when added to the traditional Iranian training of wrestlers in their preseason phase. Fifteen trained wrestlers were assigned to either an experimental (EXP) or a control (CON) group. Both groups followed a traditional preparation phase consisting of learning and drilling technique, live wrestling and weight training for 4 weeks. In addition, the EXP group performed a running-based SIT protocol. The SIT consisted of 6 35-m sprints at maximum effort with a 10-second recovery between each sprint. The SIT protocol was performed in 2 sessions per week, for the 4 weeks of the study. Before and after the 4-week training program, pre and posttesting was performed on each subject on the following: a graded exercise test (GXT) to determine VO(2)max, the velocity associated with V(2)max (νVO(2)max), maximal ventilation, and peak oxygen pulse; a time to exhaustion test (T(max)) at their νVO(2)max; and 4 successive Wingate tests with a 4-minute recovery between each trial for the determination of peak and mean power output (PPO, MPO). Resting blood samples were also collected at the beginning of each pre and posttesting period, before and after the 4-week training program. The EXP group showed significant improvements in VO(2)max (+5.4%), peak oxygen pulse (+7.7%) and T(max) (+32.2%) compared with pretesting. The EXP group produced significant increases

  19. How to run 100 meters ?

    OpenAIRE

    Aftalion, Amandine

    2016-01-01

    A paraitre dans SIAP; The aim of this paper is to bring a mathematical justification to the optimal way of organizing one's effort when running. It is well known from physiologists that all running exercises of duration less than 3mn are run with a strong initial acceleration and a decelerating end; on the contrary, long races are run with a final sprint. This can be explained using a mathematical model describing the evolution of the velocity, the anaerobic energy, and the propulsive force: ...

  20. Running Linux

    CERN Document Server

    Dalheimer, Matthias Kalle

    2006-01-01

    The fifth edition of Running Linux is greatly expanded, reflecting the maturity of the operating system and the teeming wealth of software available for it. Hot consumer topics such as audio and video playback applications, groupware functionality, and spam filtering are covered, along with the basics in configuration and management that always made the book popular.

  1. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Delaere

    2013-01-01

    Since the LHC ceased operations in February, a lot has been going on at Point 5, and Run Coordination continues to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities. In the last months, the Pixel detector was extracted and is now stored in the pixel lab in SX5; the beam pipe has been removed and ME1/1 removal has started. We regained access to the vactank and some work on the RBX of HB has started. Since mid-June, electricity and cooling are back in S1 and S2, allowing us to turn equipment back on, at least during the day. 24/7 shifts are not foreseen in the next weeks, and safety tours are mandatory to keep equipment on overnight, but re-commissioning activities are slowly being resumed. Given the (slight) delays accumulated in LS1, it was decided to merge the two global runs initially foreseen into a single exercise during the week of 4 November 2013. The aim of the global run is to check that we can run (parts of) CMS after several months switched off, with the new VME PCs installed, th...

  2. EFFECT OF IMMEDIATE AND DELAYED COLD WATER IMMERSION AFTER A HIGH INTENSITY EXERCISE SESSION ON SUBSEQUENT RUN PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ned Brophy-Williams

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of cold water immersion (CWI performed immediately or 3 h after a high intensity interval exercise session (HIIS on next-day exercise performance. Eight male athletes performed three HIIS at 90%VO2max velocity followed by either a passive recovery (CON, CWI performed immediately post-exercise (CWI(0 or CWI performed 3 h post-exercise (CWI(3. Recovery trials were performed in a counter balanced manner. Participants then returned 24 h later and completed a muscle soreness and a totally quality recovery perception (TQRP questionnaire, which was then followed by the Yoyo Intermittent Recovery Test [level 1] (YRT. Venous blood samples were collected pre-HIIS and pre-YRT to determine C-Reactive Protein (CRP levels. Significantly more shuttles were performed during the YRT following CWI(0 compared to the CON trial (p=0.017, ES = 0. 8, while differences between the CWI(3 and the CON trials approached significance (p = 0.058, ES = 0.5. Performance on the YRT between the CWI(0 and CWI(3 trials were similar (p = 0.147, ES = 0. 3. Qualitative analyses demonstrated a 98% and 92% likely beneficial effect of CWI(0 and CWI(3 on next day performance, compared to CON, respectively, while CWI(0 resulted in a 79% likely benefit when compared to CWI(3. CRP values were significantly lower pre-YRT, compared to baseline, following CWI(0 (p = 0.0.36 and CWI(3 (p = 0.045, but were similar for CON (p = 0.157. Muscle soreness scores were similar between trials (p = 1.10, while TQRP scores were significantly lower for CON compared to CWI(0 (p = 0.002 and CWI(3 (p = 0.024. Immediate CWI resulted in superior next-day YRT performance compared to CON, while delayed (3 h CWI was also likely to be beneficial. Qualitative analyses suggested that CWI(0 resulted in better performance than CWI(3. These results are important for athletes who do not have immediate access to CWI following exercise

  3. Applied physiology of triathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, M L; Douglas, P S

    1995-04-01

    The triathlon is a 3-event endurance sport in which athletes compete sequentially in swimming, cycling and running. The primary determinant of success is the ability to sustain a high rate of energy expenditure for prolonged periods of time. Exercise training-induced physiological adaptations in virtually all systems of the body allow the athlete to accomplish this. Aerobic capacity (measured as maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max), economy of motion (submaximal VO2) and fractional utilisation of maximal capacity (%VO2max) reflect the integrated responses of these physiological adaptations. Numerous studies have reported relatively high mean VO2max values for various groups of triathletes that are comparable to those reported for athletes in single-event endurance sports and clearly above those reported for untrained individuals. In shorter distance triathlons and in studies using recreational (rather than elite) triathletes, VO2max is related to performance in the corresponding event of the triathlon (e.g. tethered swimming VO2max with swim time). In longer events and with more elite triathletes, VO2max correlates less well with performance. The physiological adaptations that correspond to and facilitate improved VO2max occur centrally in the cardiovascular system, centred on increased maximal cardiac output, and peripherally in the metabolic systems, centred around increased arterio-venous O2 (a-v O2) difference. While a high VO2max in individuals is clearly of importance to triathlon performance, energy output must be sustained for long periods of time, making economy of motion also very important. Studies suggests that competitive swimmers have better swimming economy than triathletes. However, since many triathletes have previously been competitive swimmers this finding is questionable. The finding suggests that triathletes from nonswimming backgrounds would benefit from improving swimming technique rather than concentrating training workouts solely on distance. In

  4. Running Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Running Club

    2011-01-01

    The cross country running season has started well this autumn with two events: the traditional CERN Road Race organized by the Running Club, which took place on Tuesday 5th October, followed by the ‘Cross Interentreprises’, a team event at the Evaux Sports Center, which took place on Saturday 8th October. The participation at the CERN Road Race was slightly down on last year, with 65 runners, however the participants maintained the tradition of a competitive yet friendly atmosphere. An ample supply of refreshments before the prize giving was appreciated by all after the race. Many thanks to all the runners and volunteers who ensured another successful race. The results can be found here: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/default.aspx CERN participated successfully at the cross interentreprises with very good results. The teams succeeded in obtaining 2nd and 6th place in the Mens category, and 2nd place in the Mixed category. Congratulations to all. See results here: http://www.c...

  5. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Christophe Delaere

    2013-01-01

    The focus of Run Coordination during LS1 is to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities, to smooth interactions between subsystems and to ensure that all are ready in time to resume operations in 2015 with a fully calibrated and understood detector. After electricity and cooling were restored to all equipment, at about the time of the last CMS week, recommissioning activities were resumed for all subsystems. On 7 October, DCS shifts began 24/7 to allow subsystems to remain on to facilitate operations. That culminated with the Global Run in November (GriN), which   took place as scheduled during the week of 4 November. The GriN has been the first centrally managed operation since the beginning of LS1, and involved all subdetectors but the Pixel Tracker presently in a lab upstairs. All nights were therefore dedicated to long stable runs with as many subdetectors as possible. Among the many achievements in that week, three items may be highlighted. First, the Strip...

  6. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Chamizo

    2012-01-01

      On 17th January, as soon as the services were restored after the technical stop, sub-systems started powering on. Since then, we have been running 24/7 with reduced shift crew — Shift Leader and DCS shifter — to allow sub-detectors to perform calibration, noise studies, test software upgrades, etc. On 15th and 16th February, we had the first Mid-Week Global Run (MWGR) with the participation of most sub-systems. The aim was to bring CMS back to operation and to ensure that we could run after the winter shutdown. All sub-systems participated in the readout and the trigger was provided by a fraction of the muon systems (CSC and the central RPC wheel). The calorimeter triggers were not available due to work on the optical link system. Initial checks of different distributions from Pixels, Strips, and CSC confirmed things look all right (signal/noise, number of tracks, phi distribution…). High-rate tests were done to test the new CSC firmware to cure the low efficiency ...

  7. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Rakness.

    2013-01-01

    After three years of running, in February 2013 the era of sub-10-TeV LHC collisions drew to an end. Recall, the 2012 run had been extended by about three months to achieve the full complement of high-energy and heavy-ion physics goals prior to the start of Long Shutdown 1 (LS1), which is now underway. The LHC performance during these exciting years was excellent, delivering a total of 23.3 fb–1 of proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, 6.2 fb–1 at 7 TeV, and 5.5 pb–1 at 2.76 TeV. They also delivered 170 μb–1 lead-lead collisions at 2.76 TeV/nucleon and 32 nb–1 proton-lead collisions at 5 TeV/nucleon. During these years the CMS operations teams and shift crews made tremendous strides to commission the detector, repeatedly stepping up to meet the challenges at every increase of instantaneous luminosity and energy. Although it does not fully cover the achievements of the teams, a way to quantify their success is the fact that that...

  8. The Impact of Firefighter Personal Protective Equipment and Treadmill Protocol on Maximal Oxygen Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Bakri, Ilham; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Son, Su-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of firefighter personal protective equipment (PPE) on the determination of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) while using two different treadmill protocols: a progressive incline protocol (PIP) and a progressive speed protocol (PSP), with three clothing conditions (Light-light clothing; Boots-PPE with rubber boots; Shoes-PPE with running shoes). Bruce protocol with Light was performed for a reference test. Results showed there was no difference in VO2max between Bruce Light, PIP Light, and PSP Light. However, VO2max was reduced in Boots and Shoes with shortened maximal performance time (7 and 6 min reduced for PIP Boots and Shoes, respectively; 11 and 9 min reduced for PSP Boots and Shoes, respectively), whereas the increasing rate of VO2 in Boots and Shoes during submaximal exercise was greater compared with Light. Wearing firefighter boots compared with wearing running shoes also significantly affected submaximal VO2 but not VO2max. These results suggest that firefighters’ maximal performance determined from a typical VO2max test without wearing PPE may overestimate the actual performance capability of firefighters wearing PPE. PMID:23668854

  9. Physical activity enhances metabolic fitness independently of cardiorespiratory fitness in marathon runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laye, M J; Nielsen, M B; Hansen, L S

    2015-01-01

    High levels of cardiovascular fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) are associated with decreased mortality and risk to develop metabolic diseases. The independent contributions of CRF and PA to metabolic disease risk factors are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that runners who run consisten......High levels of cardiovascular fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) are associated with decreased mortality and risk to develop metabolic diseases. The independent contributions of CRF and PA to metabolic disease risk factors are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that runners who run...... consistently >50 km/wk and/or >2 marathons/yr for the last 5 years have superior metabolic fitness compared to matched sedentary subjects (CRF, age, gender, and BMI). Case-control recruitment of 31 pairs of runner-sedentary subjects identified 10 matched pairs with similar VO2max (mL/min/kg) (similar-VO2max......). The similar-VO2max group was compared with a group of age, gender, and BMI matched pairs who had the largest difference in VO2max (different-VO2max). Primary outcomes that defined metabolic fitness including insulin response to an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting lipids, and fasting insulin were superior...

  10. Running Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Running Club

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 29th September at 18h. The 5.5km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found at http://cern.ch/club...

  11. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Christophe Delaere

    2012-01-01

      On Wednesday 14 March, the machine group successfully injected beams into LHC for the first time this year. Within 48 hours they managed to ramp the beams to 4 TeV and proceeded to squeeze to β*=0.6m, settings that are used routinely since then. This brought to an end the CMS Cosmic Run at ~Four Tesla (CRAFT), during which we collected 800k cosmic ray events with a track crossing the central Tracker. That sample has been since then topped up to two million, allowing further refinements of the Tracker Alignment. The LHC started delivering the first collisions on 5 April with two bunches colliding in CMS, giving a pile-up of ~27 interactions per crossing at the beginning of the fill. Since then the machine has increased the number of colliding bunches to reach 1380 bunches and peak instantaneous luminosities around 6.5E33 at the beginning of fills. The average bunch charges reached ~1.5E11 protons per bunch which results in an initial pile-up of ~30 interactions per crossing. During the ...

  12. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Delaere

    2012-01-01

      With the analysis of the first 5 fb–1 culminating in the announcement of the observation of a new particle with mass of around 126 GeV/c2, the CERN directorate decided to extend the LHC run until February 2013. This adds three months to the original schedule. Since then the LHC has continued to perform extremely well, and the total luminosity delivered so far this year is 22 fb–1. CMS also continues to perform excellently, recording data with efficiency higher than 95% for fills with the magnetic field at nominal value. The highest instantaneous luminosity achieved by LHC to date is 7.6x1033 cm–2s–1, which translates into 35 interactions per crossing. On the CMS side there has been a lot of work to handle these extreme conditions, such as a new DAQ computer farm and trigger menus to handle the pile-up, automation of recovery procedures to minimise the lost luminosity, better training for the shift crews, etc. We did suffer from a couple of infrastructure ...

  13. The application of soccer performance testing protocols to the non-elite player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, J; Robergs, R; Weingart, H

    2006-03-01

    The application of performance testing for the evaluation of non-elite soccer players has received little attention. The purpose of this investigation was to use tests developed for elite soccer players to evaluate performance in non-elite soccer players and compare performance test results between elite (literature) and non-elite (data) players. Thirteen male soccer players volunteered to participate. The tests included a treadmill VO2max test, 20 m sprint, vertical jump (VJ), 30 s Wingate cycle ergometer test, the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST), and 2 20-m multi-stage shuttle runs to exhaustion (fatigue test). Actual VO2max (absolute and relative) scores were correlated with the estimated VO2max scores (fatigue test), 20 m sprint, VJ, and 30 s Wingate using a Pearson's product-moment correlation. A paired t-test was conducted on the fatigue test trials. Non-significant relationships were observed between actual VO2max scores and estimated VO2max from the fatigue test (absolute and relative terms). Non-significant relationships were also observed between peak and average power output (Wingate), 20 m sprint, and VJ. Mean heart rates (HRs) throughout the LIST was 165+/-7 bpm, which represented 88% of HRmax. The results of this study demonstrate that to elicit physiological differences between elite and non-elite players, assessment must include both an aerobic and anaerobic component.

  14. Running Performance Differences Between Men and Women (An Update)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheuvront, C. N; Carter, R; DeRuisseau, K. C; Moffatt, R. J

    2005-01-01

    More than a decade ago it was reported in the journal Nature that the slope of improvement in the men's and women's running records, extrapolated from mean running velocity plotted against historical...

  15. Reliability, validity and usefulness of 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test in Female Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedim Čović

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the reliability, validity and usefulness of the 30-15IFT in competitive female soccer players. METHODS: Seventeen elite female soccer players participated in the study. A within subject test-retest study design was utilized to assess the reliability of the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (IFT. Seven days prior to 30-15IFT, subjects performed a continuous aerobic running test (CT under laboratory conditions to assess the criterion validity of the 30-15IFT. End running velocity (VCT and VIFT, peak heart rate (HRpeak and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max were collected and/or estimated for both tests. RESULTS: VIFT (ICC = 0.91; CV = 1.8%, HRpeak (ICC = 0.94; CV = 1.2%, and VO2max (ICC = 0.94; CV = 1.6% obtained from the 30-15IFT were all deemed highly reliable (p>0.05. Pearson product moment correlations between the CT and 30-15IFT for VO2max, HRpeak and end running velocity were large (r = 0.67, p=0.013, very large (r = 0.77, p=0.02 and large (r = 0.57, p=0.042, respectively. CONCLUSION: Current findings suggest that the 30 -15IFT is a valid and reliable intermittent aerobic fitness test of elite female soccer players. The findings have also provided practitioners with evidence to support the accurate detection of meaningful individual changes in VIFT of 0.5 km/h (1 stage and HRpeak of 2 bpm. This information may assist coaches in monitoring ‘real’ aerobic fitness changes to better inform training of female intermittent team sport athletes. Lastly, coaches could use the 30-15IFT as a practical alternative to laboratory based assessments to assess and monitor intermittent aerobic fitness changes in their athletes. Keywords: 30-15 intermittent fitness test, aerobic, cardiorespiratory fitness, intermittent activity, soccer, high intensity interval training.

  16. Lymphocyte Apoptosis in Smokers and Non-Smokers Following Different Intensity of Exercises and Relation with Lactate

    Science.gov (United States)

    PARK, KYUNG-SHIN; LEE, YANG

    2011-01-01

    Purposes of this study were 1) to examine the exercise intensity where lymphocyte apoptosis index (AI) is significantly increased in smokers and non-smokers, 2) to find out whether AI is associated with level of lactate (L). Fourteen healthy untrained smokers (≤ 1 pack year, n=7) and non-smokers (n=7) aged 18 to 26 were recruited. Each subject conducted three treadmill runs at different intensities randomly. Running distance for all three runs was equivalent to 30 minute run at 70% VO2max. AI and L were analyzed at rest (Pre), immediately after (Post), and 1 h following (1 h post) each run. Data was analyzed using two way repeated measures ANOVA. Smokers showed higher AI than non-smokers at Post in 60% (12.5±0.62% vs. 9.97±0.51, psmokers and non-smokers. The strong positive relationship between AI and L was detected (r=.739, smokers vs. r=.793, non-smokers). Smokers tend to have higher AI than non-smokers following runs at 60% and 70% VO2max, but not following a run at 80% VO2max. An increase in AI following a run at 60% VO2max indicates that lymphocyte apoptosis can be increased following moderate intensity exercise. Since L and AI at post were increased in dose-dependent manner to exercise intensity, it is suggested that an increase in lactate production during exercise might contribute to the increase in lymphocyte apoptosis. PMID:27182363

  17. Effects of exercise program on physiological functions in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heli, Valkeinen; Ihab, Hajjar; Kun, Hu; Brad, Manor; Jessica, Wisocky; Vera, Novak

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine effects of mixed interval aerobic and strength training (MAST) program on physiological functions in older women with metabolic syndrome. 12 subjects were randomly assigned to the exercise group (16-week MAST program) or the control group. Outcomes included oxygen uptake (VO 2max ), cerebral blood flow velocity (BFV) and cognitive functions. The exercise group demonstrated increased VO 2max and certain improvements in cognitive functions. No changes were observed in BFV for both groups. These results can be used as a preliminary data for planning larger studies.

  18. Hearts and minds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauthier, Claudine Joëlle; Lefort, Muriel; Mekary, Saïd

    2015-01-01

    of disease was investigated within 2 groups of healthy younger and older adults. Age-related changes in executive function, elasticity of the aortic arch, cardiorespiratory fitness, and cerebrovascular reactivity were quantified, as well as the association between these parameters within the older group...... velocity; p = 0.046) and higher cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2 max; p = 0.036). Furthermore, VO2 max was found to be negatively associated with blood oxygenation level dependent cerebrovascular reactivity to CO2 in frontal regions involved in the task (p = 0.038) but positively associated...

  19. Physical Workload and Work Capacity across Occupational Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Brighenti-Zogg

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine physical performance criteria of different occupational groups by investigating physical activity and energy expenditure in healthy Swiss employees in real-life workplaces on workdays and non-working days in relation to their aerobic capacity (VO2max. In this cross-sectional study, 337 healthy and full-time employed adults were recruited. Participants were classified (nine categories according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988 and merged into three groups with low-, moderate- and high-intensity occupational activity. Daily steps, energy expenditure, metabolic equivalents and activity at different intensities were measured using the SenseWear Mini armband on seven consecutive days (23 hours/day. VO2max was determined by the 20-meter shuttle run test. Data of 303 subjects were considered for analysis (63% male, mean age: 33 yrs, SD 12, 101 from the low-, 102 from the moderate- and 100 from the high-intensity group. At work, the high-intensity group showed higher energy expenditure, metabolic equivalents, steps and activity at all intensities than the other groups (p<0.001. There were no significant differences in physical activity between the occupational groups on non-working days. VO2max did not differ across groups when stratified for gender. The upper workload limit was 21%, 29% and 44% of VO2max in the low-, moderate- and high-intensity group, respectively. Men had a lower limit than women due to their higher VO2max (26% vs. 37%, when all groups were combined. While this study did confirm that the average workload limit is one third of VO2max, it showed that the average is misrepresenting the actual physical work demands of specific occupational groups, and that it does not account for gender-related differences in relative workload. Therefore, clinical practice needs to consider these differences with regard to a safe return to work, particularly for the high-intensity group.

  20. Physical Workload and Work Capacity across Occupational Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighenti-Zogg, Stefanie; Mundwiler, Jonas; Schüpbach, Ulla; Dieterle, Thomas; Wolfer, David Paul; Leuppi, Jörg Daniel; Miedinger, David

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine physical performance criteria of different occupational groups by investigating physical activity and energy expenditure in healthy Swiss employees in real-life workplaces on workdays and non-working days in relation to their aerobic capacity (VO2max). In this cross-sectional study, 337 healthy and full-time employed adults were recruited. Participants were classified (nine categories) according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988 and merged into three groups with low-, moderate- and high-intensity occupational activity. Daily steps, energy expenditure, metabolic equivalents and activity at different intensities were measured using the SenseWear Mini armband on seven consecutive days (23 hours/day). VO2max was determined by the 20-meter shuttle run test. Data of 303 subjects were considered for analysis (63% male, mean age: 33 yrs, SD 12), 101 from the low-, 102 from the moderate- and 100 from the high-intensity group. At work, the high-intensity group showed higher energy expenditure, metabolic equivalents, steps and activity at all intensities than the other groups (pphysical activity between the occupational groups on non-working days. VO2max did not differ across groups when stratified for gender. The upper workload limit was 21%, 29% and 44% of VO2max in the low-, moderate- and high-intensity group, respectively. Men had a lower limit than women due to their higher VO2max (26% vs. 37%), when all groups were combined. While this study did confirm that the average workload limit is one third of VO2max, it showed that the average is misrepresenting the actual physical work demands of specific occupational groups, and that it does not account for gender-related differences in relative workload. Therefore, clinical practice needs to consider these differences with regard to a safe return to work, particularly for the high-intensity group. PMID:27136206

  1. A influência do genótipo da ECA sobre a aptidão cardiovascular de jovens do sexo masculino moderadamente ativos The influence of ACE genotype on cardiovascular fitness of moderately active young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeeser Alves Almeida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O gene da enzima conversora de angiotensina (gene ECA tem sido amplamente estudado em relação a fenótipos de aptidão cardiorrespiratória, contudo a associação do genótipo da ECA com corridas de meia-distância tem sido pouco investigada. OBJETIVO: O presente estudo investigou a possível influência da enzima conversora de angiotensina (ECA (I/D sobre a aptidão cardiovascular e o desempenho em corridas de meia-distância por parte de brasileiros jovens do sexo masculino. A validade da previsão de VO2max em relação ao genótipo da ECA também foi analisada. MÉTODOS: Um grupo homogêneo de homens jovens moderadamente ativos foi avaliado em um teste de corrida (V1600 m; m.min-1 e em um teste adicional em esteira ergométrica para a determinação de VO2max. Posteriormente, o [(0,177*V1600m + 8.101] VO2max real e previsto foi comparado com os genótipos da ECA. RESULTADOS: O VO2max e V1600m registrados para os genótipos DD, ID e II foram 45,6 (1,8; 51,9 (0,8 e 54,4 (1,0 mL.kg-1.min-1 e 211,2 (8,3; 249,1 (4,3 e 258,6 (5,4 m.min-1, respectivamente e foram significativamente mais baixos para os genótipos DD (p BACKGROUND: The angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene (ACE gene has been broadly studied as for cardiorespiratory fitness phenotypes, but the association of the ACE genotype to middle-distance running has been poorly investigated. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the possible influence of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE genotype (I/D on cardiovascular fitness and middle-distance running performance of Brazilian young males. The validity of VO2max to predict the ACE genotype was also analyzed. METHODS: A homogeneous group of moderately active young males were evaluated in a 1,600 m running track test (V1600m; m.min-1 and in an incremental treadmill test for VO2max determination. Subsequently, the actual and the predicted [(0.177*V1600m + 8.101] VO2max were compared to ACE genotypes. RESULTS: The VO2max and V1600m

  2. Dr. Sheehan on Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, George A.

    This book is both a personal and technical account of the experience of running by a heart specialist who began a running program at the age of 45. In its seventeen chapters, there is information presented on the spiritual, psychological, and physiological results of running; treatment of athletic injuries resulting from running; effects of diet…

  3. Aerobic fitness and performance in elite female futsal players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC Barbero-Alvarez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its growing popularity, few studies have investigated specific physiological demands for elite female futsal. The aim of this study was to determine aerobic fitness in elite female futsal players using laboratory and field testing. Fourteen female futsal players from the Venezuelan National team (age =21.2±4.0 years; body mass =58.6±5.6 kg; height =161±5.0 cm performed a progressive maximal treadmill test under laboratory conditions. Players also performed a progressive intermittent futsal-specific field test for endurance, the Futsal Intermittent Endurance Test (FIET, until volitional fatigue. Outcome variables were exercise heart rate (HR, VO2, post-exercise blood lactate concentrations ([La]b and running speeds (km • h -2 . During the treadmill test, VO2max, maximal aerobic speed (MAS, HR and peak [La]b were 45.3±5.6 ml • kg-1 • min-1, 12.5±1.77 km • h -2 , 197±8 beats • min-1 and 11.3±1.4 mmol • l-1, respectively. The FIET total distance, peak running velocity, peak HR and [La]b were 1125.0±121.0 m, 15.2±0.5 km • h -2 , 199±8 beats • min-1 and 2.5±2.2 mmol • l-1, respectively. The FIET distance and peak speed were strongly associated (r= 0.85-87, p<0.0001 with VO2max and MAS, respectively. Peak HR and [La]b were not significantly different between tests. Elite female futsal players possess moderate aerobic fitness. Furthermore, the FIET can be considered as a valid field test to determine aerobic fitness in elite level female futsal players.

  4. The effects of a multi-ingredient supplement on markers of muscle damage and inflammation following downhill running in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhne, Jessica L; Ormsbee, Michael J; McKune, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    The effects of a multi-ingredient performance supplement (MIPS) on markers of inflammation and muscle damage, perceived soreness and lower limb performance are unknown in endurance-trained female athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of MIPS (NO-Shotgun®) pre-loaded 4 weeks prior to a single-bout of downhill running (DHR) on hsC-Reactive Protein (hsCRP), interleukin (IL)-6, creatine kinase (CK), muscle soreness, lower limb circumferences and performance. Trained female runners ( n  = 8; 29 ± 5.9 years) (VO 2max : ≥ 50 ml -1 .kg -1 .min -1 , midfollicular phase (7-11 days post-menses) were randomly assigned in a double-blind manner into two groups: MIPS ( n  = 4) ingested one serving of NO Shotgun daily for 28 days prior to DHR and 30 min prior to all post-testing visits; Control (CON) ( n  = 4) consumed an isocaloric maltodextrin placebo in an identical manner to MIPS. hsCRP, IL-6, CK, perceived soreness, limb circumferences, and performance measures (flexibility, squat jump peak power) were tested on 5 occasions; immediately before (PRE), immediately post-DHR, 24, 48 and 72 h post-DHR. There were main effects of time for CK ( p  = 0.05), pain pressure threshold (right tibialis anterior ( p  = 0.010), right biceps femoris ( p  = 0.01), and left iliotibial band (ITB) ( p  = 0.05) across all time points), and maximum squat jump power ( p  = 0.04). Compared with 24 h post-DHR, maximum squat jump power was significantly lower at 48 h post-DHR ( p  = 0.05). Lower body perceived soreness was significantly increased at 24 h ( p  = 0.02) and baseline to 48 h ( p  = 0.02) post DHR. IL-6 peaked immediately post-DHR ( p  = 0.03) and hsCRP peaked at 24 h post-DHR ( p  = 0.06). Calculation of effect sizes indicated a moderate attenuation of hsCRP in MIPS at 72 h post-DHR. Consumption of MIPS for 4 weeks prior to a single bout of DHR attenuated inflammation three days post, but did

  5. KINETIC CONSEQUENCES OF CONSTRAINING RUNNING BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Mercer

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known that impact forces increase with running velocity as well as when stride length increases. Since stride length naturally changes with changes in submaximal running velocity, it was not clear which factor, running velocity or stride length, played a critical role in determining impact characteristics. The aim of the study was to investigate whether or not stride length influences the relationship between running velocity and impact characteristics. Eight volunteers (mass=72.4 ± 8.9 kg; height = 1.7 ± 0.1 m; age = 25 ± 3.4 years completed two running conditions: preferred stride length (PSL and stride length constrained at 2.5 m (SL2.5. During each condition, participants ran at a variety of speeds with the intent that the range of speeds would be similar between conditions. During PSL, participants were given no instructions regarding stride length. During SL2.5, participants were required to strike targets placed on the floor that resulted in a stride length of 2.5 m. Ground reaction forces were recorded (1080 Hz as well as leg and head accelerations (uni-axial accelerometers. Impact force and impact attenuation (calculated as the ratio of head and leg impact accelerations were recorded for each running trial. Scatter plots were generated plotting each parameter against running velocity. Lines of best fit were calculated with the slopes recorded for analysis. The slopes were compared between conditions using paired t-tests. Data from two subjects were dropped from analysis since the velocity ranges were not similar between conditions resulting in the analysis of six subjects. The slope of impact force vs. velocity relationship was different between conditions (PSL: 0.178 ± 0.16 BW/m·s-1; SL2.5: -0.003 ± 0.14 BW/m·s-1; p < 0.05. The slope of the impact attenuation vs. velocity relationship was different between conditions (PSL: 5.12 ± 2.88 %/m·s-1; SL2.5: 1.39 ± 1.51 %/m·s-1; p < 0.05. Stride length was an important factor

  6. Running and osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willick, Stuart E; Hansen, Pamela A

    2010-07-01

    The overall health benefits of cardiovascular exercise, such as running, are well established. However, it is also well established that in certain circumstances running can lead to overload injuries of muscle, tendon, and bone. In contrast, it has not been established that running leads to degeneration of articular cartilage, which is the hallmark of osteoarthritis. This article reviews the available literature on the association between running and osteoarthritis, with a focus on clinical epidemiologic studies. The preponderance of clinical reports refutes an association between running and osteoarthritis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Skeletal muscle alterations and exercise performance decrease in erythropoietin-deficient mice: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mille-Hamard Laurence

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Erythropoietin (EPO is known to improve exercise performance by increasing oxygen blood transport and thus inducing a higher maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max. Furthermore, treatment with (or overexpression of EPO induces protective effects in several tissues, including the myocardium. However, it is not known whether EPO exerts this protective effect when present at physiological levels. Given that EPO receptors have been identified in skeletal muscle, we hypothesized that EPO may have a direct, protective effect on this tissue. Thus, the objectives of the present study were to confirm a decrease in exercise performance and highlight muscle transcriptome alterations in a murine EPO functional knock-out model (the EPO-d mouse. Methods We determined VO2max peak velocity and critical speed in exhaustive runs in 17 mice (9 EPO-d animals and 8 inbred controls, using treadmill enclosed in a metabolic chamber. Mice were sacrificed 24h after a last exhaustive treadmill exercise at critical speed. The tibialis anterior and soleus muscles were removed and total RNA was extracted for microarray gene expression analysis. Results The EPO-d mice’s hematocrit was about 50% lower than that of controls (p  1.4 and 115 were strongly down-regulated (normalized ratio  Conclusions Our results showed that the lack of functional EPO induced a decrease in the aerobic exercise capacity. This decrease was correlated with the hematocrit and reflecting poor oxygen supply to the muscles. The observed alterations in the muscle transcriptome suggest that physiological concentrations of EPO exert both direct and indirect muscle-protecting effects during exercise. However, the signaling pathway involved in these protective effects remains to be described in detail.

  8. Creatine supplementation prevents acute strength loss induced by concurrent exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Salles Painelli, Vítor; Alves, Victor Tavares; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Lancha, Antonio Herbert; Gualano, Bruno; Roschel, Hamilton

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the effect of creatine (CR) supplementation on the acute interference induced by aerobic exercise on subsequent maximum dynamic strength (1RM) and strength endurance (SE, total number of repetitions) performance. Thirty-two recreationally strength-trained men were submitted to a graded exercise test to determine maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max: 41.56 ± 5.24 ml kg(-1) min(-1)), anaerobic threshold velocity (ATv: 8.3 ± 1.18 km h(-1)), and baseline performance (control) on the 1RM and SE (4 × 80 % 1RM to failure) tests. After the control tests, participants were randomly assigned to either a CR (20 g day(-1) for 7 days followed by 5 g day(-1) throughout the study) or a placebo (PL-dextrose) group, and then completed 4 experimental sessions, consisting of a 5-km run on a treadmill either continuously (90 % ATv) or intermittently (1:1 min at vVO2max) followed by either a leg- or bench-press SE/1RM test. CR was able to maintain the leg-press SE performance after the intermittent aerobic exercise when compared with C (p > 0.05). On the other hand, the PL group showed a significant decrease in leg-press SE (p ≤ 0.05). CR supplementation significantly increased bench-press SE after both aerobic exercise modes, while the bench-press SE was not affected by either mode of aerobic exercise in the PL group. Although small increases in 1RM were observed after either continuous (bench press and leg press) or intermittent (bench press) aerobic exercise in the CR group, they were within the range of variability of the measurement. The PL group only maintained their 1RM. In conclusion, the acute interference effect on strength performance observed in concurrent exercise may be counteracted by CR supplementation.

  9. The relation between knee muscle strength and performance tests in orienteering athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çinar-Medeni, Özge; Colakoglu, Fatma F; Yüce, Koray; Ipekoğlu, Gökhan; Baltaci, Gul

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of knee muscle strength on performance tests in orienteers. Thirty-seven orienteers were voluntarily included in this study. Isokinetic knee flexor and extensor muscles' strength was assessed at 120°/s velocity for both "dominant leg" (DL) and "non-dominant leg" (NDL). "Single-legged hop test" (SLHT), "flamingo balance test" (FBT), "star excursion balance test" (SEBT), vertical jump-and-reach test (for anaerobic power), T-drill test and 20-meter shuttle run test (for aerobic power) were carried out. Correlation and regression analyses were performed on the data. VO2max levels showed moderate correlations with DL's "flexor peak torque" (FPT) and NDL's "extensor peak torque" (EPT) and FPT values respectively (r=0.49, r=0.38, r=0.58). FPT of NDL was a predictor of VO2max level (R2=0.33). Anaerobic power has a relationship with EPT of NDL (r=0.43) and T-drill test with EPT and FPT values of both DL and NDL respectively (r=-0.35, r=-0.63, r=-0.53, r=-0.58). EPT of NDL was a predictor for anaerobic power (R2=0.19) and FPT of DL for agility (R2=0.40). Nonparametric linear regression results showed that EPT is a predictor in DL (median slope=-0.71, P=0.01), and FPT in NDL (median slope=-0.90, P=0.006) for FBT. FPT was a predictor of SEBT scores for both legs (0.13

  10. Electron run-away

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinson, I.B.

    1975-01-01

    The run-away effect of electrons for the Coulomb scattering has been studied by Dricer, but the question for other scattering mechanisms is not yet studied. Meanwhile, if the scattering is quasielastic, a general criterion for the run-away may be formulated; in this case the run-away influence on the distribution function may also be studied in somewhat general and qualitative manner. (Auth.)

  11. Triathlon: running injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, Andrea M; Dixit, Sameer; Cosgarea, Andrew J

    2012-12-01

    The running portion of the triathlon represents the final leg of the competition and, by some reports, the most important part in determining a triathlete's overall success. Although most triathletes spend most of their training time on cycling, running injuries are the most common injuries encountered. Common causes of running injuries include overuse, lack of rest, and activities that aggravate biomechanical predisposers of specific injuries. We discuss the running-associated injuries in the hip, knee, lower leg, ankle, and foot of the triathlete, and the causes, presentation, evaluation, and treatment of each.

  12. Influência da forma de indução à acidose na determinação da intensidade de lactato mínimo em corredores de longa distância Influence of the acidosis induction manner in the determination of minimal lactate threshold in endurance runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Santhiago

    2008-08-01

    determination of the minimum lactate (LACmin intensity in endurance runners. Fourteen male endurance runners took part in as subjects of this study. The athletes accomplished three protocols: 1 a incremental exercise test in treadmill running, with increments of 1 km.h-1 at each 3 minutes, to determine the running velocity of anaerobic threshold (OBLA, aerobic threshold (Laer, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max and maximum consumption speed of oxygen (vVO2max; 2 a lactate minimum test with inducing lactic acidosis in athletics track (LACminp, that it constituted of two maximum efforts of 233m with interval of 1 minute, with 8 minutes of passive recovery, followed by a incremental exercise test similar to the first protocol, and 3 a lactate minimum test with inducing lactic acidosis in treadmill running (LACmine, constituted by two maximum efforts of 1 minute and 45 seconds with interval of 1 minute, in the running speed of 120% of the vVO2max, followed by the same procedures of the second protocol. Samples of blood were collected from the earlobe to the end of each loads of 3 minutes in all the protocols and in the 7th minute of recovery of the tests of the LACmine and the LACminp. The variance analysis (ANOVA showed that there were significant differences between the speeds of LACmine (13,23 ± 1,78 km.h-1 and OBLA (14,67 ± 1,44 km.h-1. These results suggest that the determination of the running speed corresponding to the lactate minimum is dependent of the protocol used for the inducing lactic acidosis. Besides, LACmine underestimated the running speed corresponding to OBLA and should not be used to measure the aerobic capacity in long distance runners.

  13. Overcoming the "Run" Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Patricia E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that it is not simply experiencing anxiety that affects mathematics performance but also how one responds to and regulates that anxiety (Lyons and Beilock 2011). Most people have faced mathematics problems that have triggered their "run response." The issue is not whether one wants to run, but rather…

  14. Overuse injuries in running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Rasmussen, Sten; Jørgensen, Jens Erik

    2016-01-01

    What is an overuse injury in running? This question is a corner stone of clinical documentation and research based evidence.......What is an overuse injury in running? This question is a corner stone of clinical documentation and research based evidence....

  15. PRECIS Runs at IITM

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. PRECIS Runs at IITM. Evaluation experiment using LBCs derived from ERA-15 (1979-93). Runs (3 ensembles in each experiment) already completed with LBCs having a length of 30 years each, for. Baseline (1961-90); A2 scenario (2071-2100); B2 scenario ...

  16. The LHCb Run Control

    CERN Document Server

    Alessio, F; Callot, O; Duval, P-Y; Franek, B; Frank, M; Galli, D; Gaspar, C; v Herwijnen, E; Jacobsson, R; Jost, B; Neufeld, N; Sambade, A; Schwemmer, R; Somogyi, P

    2010-01-01

    LHCb has designed and implemented an integrated Experiment Control System. The Control System uses the same concepts and the same tools to control and monitor all parts of the experiment: the Data Acquisition System, the Timing and the Trigger Systems, the High Level Trigger Farm, the Detector Control System, the Experiment's Infrastructure and the interaction with the CERN Technical Services and the Accelerator. LHCb's Run Control, the main interface used by the experiment's operator, provides access in a hierarchical, coherent and homogeneous manner to all areas of the experiment and to all its sub-detectors. It allows for automated (or manual) configuration and control, including error recovery, of the full experiment in its different running modes. Different instances of the same Run Control interface are used by the various sub-detectors for their stand-alone activities: test runs, calibration runs, etc. The architecture and the tools used to build the control system, the guidelines and components provid...

  17. Running Economy from a Muscle Energetics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared R. Fletcher

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The economy of running has traditionally been quantified from the mass-specific oxygen uptake; however, because fuel substrate usage varies with exercise intensity, it is more accurate to express running economy in units of metabolic energy. Fundamentally, the understanding of the major factors that influence the energy cost of running (Erun can be obtained with this approach. Erun is determined by the energy needed for skeletal muscle contraction. Here, we approach the study of Erun from that perspective. The amount of energy needed for skeletal muscle contraction is dependent on the force, duration, shortening, shortening velocity, and length of the muscle. These factors therefore dictate the energy cost of running. It is understood that some determinants of the energy cost of running are not trainable: environmental factors, surface characteristics, and certain anthropometric features. Other factors affecting Erun are altered by training: other anthropometric features, muscle and tendon properties, and running mechanics. Here, the key features that dictate the energy cost during distance running are reviewed in the context of skeletal muscle energetics.

  18. Telomere length and long-term endurance exercise: does exercise training affect biological age? A pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Beate Ø Østhus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomeres are potential markers of mitotic cellular age and are associated with physical ageing process. Long-term endurance training and higher aerobic exercise capacity (VO(2max are associated with improved survival, and dynamic effects of exercise are evident with ageing. However, the association of telomere length with exercise training and VO(2max has so far been inconsistent. Our aim was to assess whether muscle telomere length is associated with endurance exercise training and VO(2max in younger and older people. METHODS: Twenty men; 10 young (22-27 years and 10 old (66-77 years, were studied in this cross-sectional study. Five out of 10 young adults and 5 out of 10 older were endurance athletes, while other halves were exercising at a medium level of activity. Mean telomere length was measured as telomere/single copy gene-ratio (T/S-ratio using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. VO(2max was measured directly running on a treadmill. RESULTS: Older endurance trained athletes had longer telomere length compared with older people with medium activity levels (T/S ratio 1.12±0.1 vs. 0.92±0.2, p = 0.04. Telomere length of young endurance trained athletes was not different than young non-athletes (1.47±0.2 vs. 1.33±0.1, p = 0.12. Overall, there was a positive association between T/S ratio and VO(2max (r = 0.70, p = 0.001. Among endurance trained athletes, we found a strong correlation between VO(2max and T/S ratio (r = 0.78, p = 0.02. However, corresponding association among non-athlete participants was relatively weak (r = 0.58, p = 0.09. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that VO(2max is positively associated with telomere length, and we found that long-term endurance exercise training may provide a protective effect on muscle telomere length in older people.

  19. Symmetry in running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raibert, M H

    1986-03-14

    Symmetry plays a key role in simplifying the control of legged robots and in giving them the ability to run and balance. The symmetries studied describe motion of the body and legs in terms of even and odd functions of time. A legged system running with these symmetries travels with a fixed forward speed and a stable upright posture. The symmetries used for controlling legged robots may help in elucidating the legged behavior of animals. Measurements of running in the cat and human show that the feet and body sometimes move as predicted by the even and odd symmetry functions.

  20. RUNNING INJURY DEVELOPMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Karen Krogh; Hulme, Adam; Damsted, Camma

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Behavioral science methods have rarely been used in running injury research. Therefore, the attitudes amongst runners and their coaches regarding factors leading to running injuries warrants formal investigation. PURPOSE: To investigate the attitudes of middle- and long-distance runners...... able to compete in national championships and their coaches about factors associated with running injury development. METHODS: A link to an online survey was distributed to middle- and long-distance runners and their coaches across 25 Danish Athletics Clubs. The main research question was: "Which...... factors do you believe influence the risk of running injuries?". In response to this question, the athletes and coaches had to click "Yes" or "No" to 19 predefined factors. In addition, they had the possibility to submit a free-text response. RESULTS: A total of 68 athletes and 19 coaches were included...

  1. Running Injury Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Johansen, Karen; Hulme, Adam; Damsted, Camma

    2017-01-01

    Background: Behavioral science methods have rarely been used in running injury research. Therefore, the attitudes amongst runners and their coaches regarding factors leading to running injuries warrants formal investigation. Purpose: To investigate the attitudes of middle- and long-distance runners...... able to compete in national championships and their coaches about factors associated with running injury development. Methods: A link to an online survey was distributed to middle- and long-distance runners and their coaches across 25 Danish Athletics Clubs. The main research question was: “Which...... factors do you believe influence the risk of running injuries?”. In response to this question, the athletes and coaches had to click “Yes” or “No” to 19 predefined factors. In addition, they had the possibility to submit a free-text response. Results: A total of 68 athletes and 19 coaches were included...

  2. The LHCb Run Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessio, F; Barandela, M C; Frank, M; Gaspar, C; Herwijnen, E v; Jacobsson, R; Jost, B; Neufeld, N; Sambade, A; Schwemmer, R; Somogyi, P [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Callot, O [LAL, IN2P3/CNRS and Universite Paris 11, Orsay (France); Duval, P-Y [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Franek, B [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Galli, D, E-mail: Clara.Gaspar@cern.c [Universita di Bologna and INFN, Bologna (Italy)

    2010-04-01

    LHCb has designed and implemented an integrated Experiment Control System. The Control System uses the same concepts and the same tools to control and monitor all parts of the experiment: the Data Acquisition System, the Timing and the Trigger Systems, the High Level Trigger Farm, the Detector Control System, the Experiment's Infrastructure and the interaction with the CERN Technical Services and the Accelerator. LHCb's Run Control, the main interface used by the experiment's operator, provides access in a hierarchical, coherent and homogeneous manner to all areas of the experiment and to all its sub-detectors. It allows for automated (or manual) configuration and control, including error recovery, of the full experiment in its different running modes. Different instances of the same Run Control interface are used by the various sub-detectors for their stand-alone activities: test runs, calibration runs, etc. The architecture and the tools used to build the control system, the guidelines and components provided to the developers, as well as the first experience with the usage of the Run Control will be presented

  3. Relationship between throwing velocity, muscle power, and bar velocity during bench press in elite handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Mario C; van den Tilaar, Roland; Vescovi, Jason D; Gonzalez-Badillo, Juan Jose

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between ball-throwing velocity during a 3-step running throw and dynamic strength, power, and bar velocity during a concentric-only bench-press exercise in team-handball players. Fourteen elite senior male team-handball players volunteered to participate. Each volunteer had power and bar velocity measured during a concentric-only bench-press test with 26, 36, and 46 kg, as well as having 1-repetition-maximum (1-RMBP) strength determined. Ball-throwing velocity was evaluated with a standard 3-step running throw using a radar gun. Ball-throwing velocity was related to the absolute load lifted during the 1-RMBP (r = .637, P = .014), peak power using 36 kg (r = .586, P = .028) and 46 kg (r = .582, P = .029), and peak bar velocity using 26 kg (r = .563, P = .036) and 36 kg (r = .625, P = .017). The results indicate that throwing velocity of elite team-handball players is related to maximal dynamic strength, peak power, and peak bar velocity. Thus, a training regimen designed to improve ball-throwing velocity in elite male team-handball players should include exercises that are aimed at increasing both strength and power in the upper body.

  4. Running from Paris to Beijing: biomechanical and physiological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Guillaume Y; Morin, Jean-Benoît; Degache, Francis; Edouard, Pascal; Feasson, Léonard; Verney, Julien; Oullion, Roger

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological and biomechanical changes occurring in a subject after running 8,500 km in 161 days (i.e. 52.8 km daily). Three weeks before, 3 weeks after (POST) and 5 months after (POST+5) running from Paris to Beijing, energy cost of running (Cr), knee flexor and extensor isokinetic strength and biomechanical parameters (using a treadmill dynamometer) at different velocities were assessed in an experienced ultra-runner. At POST, there was a tendency toward a 'smoother' running pattern, as shown by (a) a higher stride frequency and duty factor, and a reduced aerial time without a change in contact time, (b) a lower maximal vertical force and loading rate at impact and (c) a decrease in both potential and kinetic energy changes at each step. This was associated with a detrimental effect on Cr (+6.2%) and a loss of strength at all angular velocities for both knee flexors and extensors. At POST+5, the subject returned to his original running patterns at low but not at high speeds and maximal strength remained reduced at low angular velocities (i.e. at high levels of force). It is suggested that the running pattern changes observed in the present study were a strategy adopted by the subject to reduce the deleterious effects of long distance running. However, the running pattern changes could partly be linked to the decrease in maximal strength.

  5. Allometric scaling of body mass in running economy data: An important consideration in modeling marathon performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lundstrom, Christopher John; Biltz, George R.; Snyder, Eric M.; Ingraham, Stacy Jean

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare metabolic variables during submaximal running as predictors of marathon performance. Running economy (RE) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) data were gathered during a 30 min incremental treadmill run completed within 2 weeks prior to running a 42.2-km marathon. Paces during the treadmill run progressed every 5 min from 75-100% of 10-km race velocity. Variables at each stage were analyzed as predictors of relative marathon performance (RMP) in compe...

  6. Joint kinematics and kinetics of overground accelerated running versus running on an accelerated treadmill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caekenberghe, Ine Van; Segers, Veerle; Aerts, Peter; Willems, Patrick; De Clercq, Dirk

    2013-07-06

    Literature shows that running on an accelerated motorized treadmill is mechanically different from accelerated running overground. Overground, the subject has to enlarge the net anterior-posterior force impulse proportional to acceleration in order to overcome linear whole body inertia, whereas on a treadmill, this force impulse remains zero, regardless of belt acceleration. Therefore, it can be expected that changes in kinematics and joint kinetics of the human body also are proportional to acceleration overground, whereas no changes according to belt acceleration are expected on a treadmill. This study documents kinematics and joint kinetics of accelerated running overground and running on an accelerated motorized treadmill belt for 10 young healthy subjects. When accelerating overground, ground reaction forces are characterized by less braking and more propulsion, generating a more forward-oriented ground reaction force vector and a more forwardly inclined body compared with steady-state running. This change in body orientation as such is partly responsible for the changed force direction. Besides this, more pronounced hip and knee flexion at initial contact, a larger hip extension velocity, smaller knee flexion velocity and smaller initial plantarflexion velocity are associated with less braking. A larger knee extension and plantarflexion velocity result in larger propulsion. Altogether, during stance, joint moments are not significantly influenced by acceleration overground. Therefore, we suggest that the overall behaviour of the musculoskeletal system (in terms of kinematics and joint moments) during acceleration at a certain speed remains essentially identical to steady-state running at the same speed, yet acting in a different orientation. However, because acceleration implies extra mechanical work to increase the running speed, muscular effort done (in terms of power output) must be larger. This is confirmed by larger joint power generation at the level of

  7. Joint kinematics and kinetics of overground accelerated running versus running on an accelerated treadmill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Caekenberghe, Ine; Segers, Veerle; Aerts, Peter; Willems, Patrick; De Clercq, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Literature shows that running on an accelerated motorized treadmill is mechanically different from accelerated running overground. Overground, the subject has to enlarge the net anterior–posterior force impulse proportional to acceleration in order to overcome linear whole body inertia, whereas on a treadmill, this force impulse remains zero, regardless of belt acceleration. Therefore, it can be expected that changes in kinematics and joint kinetics of the human body also are proportional to acceleration overground, whereas no changes according to belt acceleration are expected on a treadmill. This study documents kinematics and joint kinetics of accelerated running overground and running on an accelerated motorized treadmill belt for 10 young healthy subjects. When accelerating overground, ground reaction forces are characterized by less braking and more propulsion, generating a more forward-oriented ground reaction force vector and a more forwardly inclined body compared with steady-state running. This change in body orientation as such is partly responsible for the changed force direction. Besides this, more pronounced hip and knee flexion at initial contact, a larger hip extension velocity, smaller knee flexion velocity and smaller initial plantarflexion velocity are associated with less braking. A larger knee extension and plantarflexion velocity result in larger propulsion. Altogether, during stance, joint moments are not significantly influenced by acceleration overground. Therefore, we suggest that the overall behaviour of the musculoskeletal system (in terms of kinematics and joint moments) during acceleration at a certain speed remains essentially identical to steady-state running at the same speed, yet acting in a different orientation. However, because acceleration implies extra mechanical work to increase the running speed, muscular effort done (in terms of power output) must be larger. This is confirmed by larger joint power generation at the level

  8. The efficacy of downhill running as a method to enhance running economy in trained distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Andrew J; Ingham, Stephen A; Folland, Jonathan P

    2018-06-01

    Running downhill, in comparison to running on the flat, appears to involve an exaggerated stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) due to greater impact loads and higher vertical velocity on landing, whilst also incurring a lower metabolic cost. Therefore, downhill running could facilitate higher volumes of training at higher speeds whilst performing an exaggerated SSC, potentially inducing favourable adaptations in running mechanics and running economy (RE). This investigation assessed the efficacy of a supplementary 8-week programme of downhill running as a means of enhancing RE in well-trained distance runners. Nineteen athletes completed supplementary downhill (-5% gradient; n = 10) or flat (n = 9) run training twice a week for 8 weeks within their habitual training. Participants trained at a standardised intensity based on the velocity of lactate turnpoint (vLTP), with training volume increased incrementally between weeks. Changes in energy cost of running (E C ) and vLTP were assessed on both flat and downhill gradients, in addition to maximal oxygen uptake (⩒O 2max). No changes in E C were observed during flat running following downhill (1.22 ± 0.09 vs 1.20 ± 0.07 Kcal kg -1  km -1 , P = .41) or flat run training (1.21 ± 0.13 vs 1.19 ± 0.12 Kcal kg -1  km -1 ). Moreover, no changes in E C during downhill running were observed in either condition (P > .23). vLTP increased following both downhill (16.5 ± 0.7 vs 16.9 ± 0.6 km h -1 , P = .05) and flat run training (16.9 ± 0.7 vs 17.2 ± 1.0 km h -1 , P = .05), though no differences in responses were observed between groups (P = .53). Therefore, a short programme of supplementary downhill run training does not appear to enhance RE in already well-trained individuals.

  9. Validez y fiabilidad del sensor láser del sistema BioLaserSport® para el análisis de la velocidad de la carrera. (Validity and reliability of the laser sensor of BioLaserSport® system for the analysis of the running velocity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Aguado-Gómez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl análisis de la velocidad de carrera mediante sensores láser permite la obtención de datos en tiempo real siendo ventajosos frente a otros sistemas. El objetivo de este estudio fue valorar la validez y fiabilidad del sensor láser del sistema BioLaserSportÒ para el cálculo de velocidades medias y máximas mediante estadísticos relativos y absolutos. Los participantes fueron 17 varones (20.85 ± 1.54 años. Se utilizó un sensor láser tipo 1 (LDM301, Jenoptik, Germany que registró posiciones de los deportistas a 2000 Hz. Los datos se trataron con la rutina DSL-30 creada con DasyLab v.10.0. Para la validación se utilizó un sistema de fotogrametría-2D con una cámara de alta velocidad (Exilim High Speed EX-F1, Casio y SkillSpector v.1.3.2. (Video4coach, Grubbemollevej. Además, se utilizaron foto-células de doble haz (Polifemo Light, Microgate, Italy y un cronómetro Racetime2 (Microgate, Italy. Se registraron, durante dos días, tres series de 30 m de carrera a máxima velocidad. El sensor láser proporcionó, con relación a la fotogrametría, diferencias en las velocidades medias y máximas de -0.11 m·s-1 y 0.14 m·s-1, respectivamente, con unos coeficientes de correlación superiores a 0.86, y mayores de 0.92 con las foto-células para las velocidades medias. Este mostró una excelente fiabilidad test-retest para las velocidades medias con un coeficiente de correlación intraclase (ICC entre 0.7-0.9 y un error estándar de la media (SEM y SEM%, intrasesión e intersesión, menor de 0.05 m·s-1 y 0.12 m·s-1, respectivamente, y menores de 0.75% y de 2%, respectivamente. Para las velocidades máximas, los valores fueron menores de 0.10 m·s-1 y 0.17 m·s-1, respectivamente, y en ambos casos menores a 1.36% y 1,89%. El láser fue capaz de identificar mínimos cambios detectables (MDC y MDC% intrasesión, para ambas variables, menores a 0.14 m·s-1 y 0.29 m·s-1, respectivamente (AbstractSpeed running analysis using laser

  10. Running Boot Camp

    CERN Document Server

    Toporek, Chuck

    2008-01-01

    When Steve Jobs jumped on stage at Macworld San Francisco 2006 and announced the new Intel-based Macs, the question wasn't if, but when someone would figure out a hack to get Windows XP running on these new "Mactels." Enter Boot Camp, a new system utility that helps you partition and install Windows XP on your Intel Mac. Boot Camp does all the heavy lifting for you. You won't need to open the Terminal and hack on system files or wave a chicken bone over your iMac to get XP running. This free program makes it easy for anyone to turn their Mac into a dual-boot Windows/OS X machine. Running Bo

  11. The Relationship between Running Economy and Biomechanical Variables in Distance Runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaruga, Marcus Peikriszwili; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Peyre-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre; Avila, Aluisio Otavio Vargas; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Coertjens, Marcelo; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro; Silva, Eduardo Marczwski; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the relationship between running economy (RE) and biomechanical parameters in a group running at the same relative intensity and same absolute velocity. Sixteen homogeneous male long-distance runners performed a test to determine RE at 4.4 m.s[superscript -1], corresponding to 11.1% below velocity at the ventilatory…

  12. Fermilab DART run control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleynik, G.; Engelfried, J.; Mengel, L.

    1996-01-01

    DART is the high speed, Unix based data acquisition system being developed by Fermilab in collaboration with seven High Energy Physics Experiments. This paper describes DART run control, which has been developed over the past year and is a flexible, distributed, extensible system for the control and monitoring of the data acquisition systems. The authors discuss the unique and interesting concepts of the run control and some of the experiences in developing it. They also give a brief update and status of the whole DART system

  13. Fermilab DART run control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleynik, G.; Engelfried, J.; Mengel, L.

    1995-05-01

    DART is the high speed, Unix based data acquisition system being developed by Fermilab in collaboration with seven High Energy Physics Experiments. This paper describes DART run control, which has been developed over the past year and is a flexible, distributed, extensible system for the, control and monitoring of the data acquisition systems. We discuss the unique and interesting concepts of the run control and some of our experiences in developing it. We also give a brief update and status of the whole DART system

  14. Lymphocyte Apoptosis in Smokers and Non-Smokers Following Different Intensity of Exercises and Relation with Lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Shin; Lee, Yang

    Purposes of this study were 1) to examine the exercise intensity where lymphocyte apoptosis index (AI) is significantly increased in smokers and non-smokers, 2) to find out whether AI is associated with level of lactate (L). Fourteen healthy untrained smokers (≤ 1 pack year, n =7) and non-smokers ( n =7) aged 18 to 26 were recruited. Each subject conducted three treadmill runs at different intensities randomly. Running distance for all three runs was equivalent to 30 minute run at 70% VO 2max . AI and L were analyzed at rest (Pre), immediately after (Post), and 1 h following (1 h post) each run. Data was analyzed using two way repeated measures ANOVA. Smokers showed higher AI than non-smokers at Post in 60% (12.5±0.62% vs. 9.97±0.51, p vs. 15.6±0.41, p smokers and non-smokers. The strong positive relationship between AI and L was detected ( r =.739, smokers vs. r =.793, non-smokers). Smokers tend to have higher AI than non-smokers following runs at 60% and 70% VO 2max, but not following a run at 80% VO 2max . An increase in AI following a run at 60% VO 2max indicates that lymphocyte apoptosis can be increased following moderate intensity exercise. Since L and AI at post were increased in dose-dependent manner to exercise intensity, it is suggested that an increase in lactate production during exercise might contribute to the increase in lymphocyte apoptosis.

  15. 'Outrunning' the running ear

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    In even the most experienced hands, an adequate physical examination of the ears can be difficult to perform because of common problems such as cerumen blockage of the auditory canal, an unco- operative toddler or an exasperated parent. The most common cause for a running ear in a child is acute purulent otitis.

  16. Nerve conduction velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003927.htm Nerve conduction velocity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a test to see ...

  17. The velocity of sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews the work carried out on the velocity of sound in liquid alkali metals. The experimental methods to determine the velocity measurements are described. Tables are presented of reported data on the velocity of sound in lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium. A formula is given for alkali metals, in which the sound velocity is a function of shear viscosity, atomic mass and atomic volume. (U.K.)

  18. Wave Run-up on Slender Piles in Design Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Frigaard, Peter; Damsgaard, M. L.

    2011-01-01

    in the design of Horns Reef 1. As a consequence damage was observed on the platforms. This has been the situation for several sites and design tools for platform loads are lacking. As a consequence a physical model test study was initiated at Aalborg University to clarify wave run-up on cylindrical piles...... to the pile an empirical factor is included on the velocity head. The evaluation of the calculation model shows that an accurate design rule can be established even in breaking wave conditions. However, calibration of a load model showed that it was necessary to increase the run-up factor on the velocity head...

  19. Ubuntu Up and Running

    CERN Document Server

    Nixon, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Ubuntu for everyone! This popular Linux-based operating system is perfect for people with little technical background. It's simple to install, and easy to use -- with a strong focus on security. Ubuntu: Up and Running shows you the ins and outs of this system with a complete hands-on tour. You'll learn how Ubuntu works, how to quickly configure and maintain Ubuntu 10.04, and how to use this unique operating system for networking, business, and home entertainment. This book includes a DVD with the complete Ubuntu system and several specialized editions -- including the Mythbuntu multimedia re

  20. Voluntary resistance running wheel activity pattern and skeletal muscle growth in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legerlotz, Kirsten; Elliott, Bradley; Guillemin, Bernard; Smith, Heather K

    2008-06-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the pattern of voluntary activity of young rats in response to resistance loading on running wheels and to determine the effects of the activity on the growth of six limb skeletal muscles. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (4 weeks old) were housed individually with a resistance running wheel (R-RUN, n = 7) or a conventional free-spinning running wheel (F-RUN, n = 6) or without a wheel, as non-running control animals (CON, n = 6). The torque required to move the wheel in the R-RUN group was progressively increased, and the activity (velocity, distance and duration of each bout) of the two running wheel groups was recorded continuously for 45 days. The R-RUN group performed many more, shorter and faster bouts of running than the F-RUN group, yet the mean daily distance was not different between the F-RUN (1.3 +/- 0.2 km) and R-RUN group (1.4 +/- 0.6 km). Only the R-RUN resulted in a significantly (P RUN and R-RUN led to a significantly greater wet mass relative to increase in body mass and muscle fibre cross-sectional area in the soleus muscle compared with CON. We conclude that the pattern of voluntary activity on a resistance running wheel differs from that on a free-spinning running wheel and provides a suitable model to induce physiological muscle hypertrophy in rats.

  1. Active Recovery After High-Intensity Interval-Training Does Not Attenuate Training Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thimo Wiewelhove

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: High-intensity interval training (HIIT can be extremely demanding and can consequently produce high blood lactate levels. Previous studies have shown that lactate is a potent metabolic stimulus, which is important for adaptation. Active recovery (ACT after intensive exercise, however, enhances blood lactate removal in comparison with passive recovery (PAS and, consequently, may attenuate endurance performance improvements. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of regular ACT on training adaptations during a HIIT mesocycle.Methods: Twenty-six well-trained male intermittent sport athletes (age: 23.5 ± 2.5 years; O2max: 55.36 ± 3.69 ml min kg-1 participated in a randomized controlled trial consisting of 4 weeks of a running-based HIIT mesocycle with a total of 12 HIIT sessions. After each training session, participants completed 15 min of either moderate jogging (ACT or PAS. Subjects were matched to the ACT or PAS groups according to age and performance. Before the HIIT program and 1 week after the last training session, the athletes performed a progressive incremental exercise test on a motor-driven treadmill to determine O2max, maximum running velocity (vmax, the running velocity at which O2max occurs (vO2max, and anaerobic lactate threshold (AT. Furthermore, repeated sprint ability (RSA were determined.Results: In the whole group the HIIT mesocycle induced significant or small to moderate changes in vmax (p < 0.001, effect size [ES] = 0.65,, vO2max (p < 0.001, ES = 0.62, and AT (p < 0.001, ES = 0.56 compared with the values before the intervention. O2max and RSA remained unchanged throughout the study. In addition, no significant differences in the changes were noted in any of the parameters between ACT and PAS except for AT (p < 0.05, ES = 0.57.Conclusion: Regular use of individualized ACT did not attenuate training adaptations during a HIIT mesocycle compared to PAS. Interestingly, we found that the ACT

  2. Estimating Stair Running Performance Using Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro V. Ojeda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Stair running, both ascending and descending, is a challenging aerobic exercise that many athletes, recreational runners, and soldiers perform during training. Studying biomechanics of stair running over multiple steps has been limited by the practical challenges presented while using optical-based motion tracking systems. We propose using foot-mounted inertial measurement units (IMUs as a solution as they enable unrestricted motion capture in any environment and without need for external references. In particular, this paper presents methods for estimating foot velocity and trajectory during stair running using foot-mounted IMUs. Computational methods leverage the stationary periods occurring during the stance phase and known stair geometry to estimate foot orientation and trajectory, ultimately used to calculate stride metrics. These calculations, applied to human participant stair running data, reveal performance trends through timing, trajectory, energy, and force stride metrics. We present the results of our analysis of experimental data collected on eleven subjects. Overall, we determine that for either ascending or descending, the stance time is the strongest predictor of speed as shown by its high correlation with stride time.

  3. Influence of footwear designed to boost energy return on running economy in comparison to a conventional running shoe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, J; Mcgrath, R; Brook, O; Taylor, P J; Dillon, S

    2016-01-01

    Running economy is a reflection of the amount of inspired oxygen required to maintain a given velocity and is considered a determining factor for running performance. Athletic footwear has been advocated as a mechanism by which running economy can be enhanced. New commercially available footwear has been developed in order to increase energy return, although their efficacy has not been investigated. This study aimed to examine the effects of energy return footwear on running economy in relation to conventional running shoes. Twelve male runners completed 6-min steady-state runs in conventional and energy return footwear. Overall, oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio, shoe comfort and rating of perceived exertion were assessed. Moreover, participants subjectively indicated which shoe condition they preferred for running. Differences in shoe comfort and physiological parameters were examined using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, whilst shoe preferences were tested using a chi-square analysis. The results showed that VO2 and respiratory exchange ratio were significantly lower, and shoe comfort was significantly greater, in the energy return footwear. Given the relationship between running economy and running performance, these observations indicate that the energy return footwear may be associated with enhanced running performance in comparison to conventional shoes.

  4. É possível determinar a economia de corrida através do teste progressivo até a exaustão? Is possible to predict running economy using maximal incremental exercise test?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Cássio de Moraes Bertuzzi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a possibilidade de se estimar a economia de corrida (EC a partir do coeficiente angular gerado pela relação VO2 vs. intensidade de testes progressivos até a exaustão (EC INCLINA. Para tanto, 16 corredores de provas de longa duração (idade 32 ± 7 anos, massa corporal 70,0 ± 6,7 kg, estatura 173,3 ± 5,0 cm, O2máx 57,9 ± 5,8 ml·kg-1·min-1 foram submetidos a um teste incremental e a dois testes de cargas constantes (12 km·h-1 e a intensidade de 90% do segundo limiar ventilatório para a mensuração da EC. Foram detectadas correlações fracas entre o EC INCLINA e a EC estabelecida a 12 km·h-1 (r = 0,49; p = 0,054 e na intensidade de 90% do segundo limiar ventilatório (r = 0,55; p = 0,027. Além disso, o EC INCLINA também estava negativamente correlacionado com a concentração sanguínea de lactato (r = -0,75; p = 0,001 e a razão de troca respiratória (r = -0,80; p The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between running economy (RE and the slope of the regression line obtained as the individual relationship between oxygen uptake and the corresponding intensity in the incremental test (EC INCLINA. Sixteen recreational long-distance runners (age 32 ± 7 years, body mass 70,0 ± 6.7 kg, height 173.3 ± 5.0 cm, VO2max 57.9 ± 5.8 ml·kg-1·min-1 performed a progressive incremental test and two submaximal workload tests (at 12 km·h-1 and 90% second ventilatory threshold to determine the RE. There was significant correlation between EC INCLINA and RE measured at 12 km·h-1 (r = 0.49; p = 0.054 and at 90% second ventilatory threshold (r = 0.55; p = 0.027. In addition, EC INCLINA also was negatively correlated with peak blood lactate (r = -0.75; p = 0.001 and peak respiratory exchange rate (r = -0.80; p < 0.001. These findings suggest that EC INCLINA would be an alternative parameter employed to determine the endurance performance in recreational long

  5. ATLAS people can run!

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira; Pauline Gagnon

    It must be all the training we are getting every day, running around trying to get everything ready for the start of the LHC next year. This year, the ATLAS runners were in fine form and came in force. Nine ATLAS teams signed up for the 37th Annual CERN Relay Race with six runners per team. Under a blasting sun on Wednesday 23rd May 2007, each team covered the distances of 1000m, 800m, 800m, 500m, 500m and 300m taking the runners around the whole Meyrin site, hills included. A small reception took place in the ATLAS secretariat a week later to award the ATLAS Cup to the best ATLAS team. For the details on this complex calculation which takes into account the age of each runner, their gender and the color of their shoes, see the July 2006 issue of ATLAS e-news. The ATLAS Running Athena Team, the only all-women team enrolled this year, won the much coveted ATLAS Cup for the second year in a row. In fact, they are so good that Peter Schmid and Patrick Fassnacht are wondering about reducing the women's bonus in...

  6. Underwater running device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogure, Sumio; Matsuo, Takashiro; Yoshida, Yoji

    1996-01-01

    An underwater running device for an underwater inspection device for detecting inner surfaces of a reactor or a water vessel has an outer frame and an inner frame, and both of them are connected slidably by an air cylinder and connected rotatably by a shaft. The outer frame has four outer frame legs, and each of the outer frame legs is equipped with a sucker at the top end. The inner frame has four inner frame legs each equipped with a sucker at the top end. The outer frame legs and the inner frame legs are each connected with the outer frame and the inner frame by the air cylinder. The outer and the inner frame legs can be elevated or lowered (or extended or contracted) by the air cylinder. The sucker is connected with a jet pump-type negative pressure generator. The device can run and move by repeating attraction and releasing of the outer frame legs and the inner frame legs alternately while maintaining the posture of the inspection device stably. (I.N.)

  7. Test results of Run-1 and Run-2 in steam generator safety test facility (SWAT-3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, A.; Yatabe, Toshio; Tanabe, Hiromi; Hiroi, Hiroshi

    2003-07-01

    Large leak sodium-water reaction tests were carried out using SWAT-1 rig and SWAT-3 facility in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) O-arai Engineering Center to obtain the data on the design of the prototype LMFBR Monju steam generator against a large leak accident. This report provides the results of SWAT-3 Runs 1 and 2. In Runs 1 and 2, the heat transfer tube bundle of the evaporator, fabricated by TOSHIBA/IHI, were used, and the pressure relief line was located at the top of evaporator. The water injection rates in the evaporator were 6.7 kg/s and 14.2 (initial)-9.7 kg/s in Runs 1 and 2 respectively, which corresponded to 3.3 tubes and 7.1 (initial)-4.8 tubes failure in actual size system according to iso-velocity modeling. Approximately two hundreds of measurement points were provided to collect data such as pressure, temperature, strain, sodium level, void, thrust load, acceleration, displacement, flow rate, and so on in each run. Initial spike pressures were 1.13 MPa and 2.62 MPa nearest to injection point in Runs 1 and 2 respectively, and the maximum quasi-steady pressures in evaporator were 0.49 MPa and 0.67 MPa in Runs 1 and 2. No secondary tube failure was observed. The rupture disc of evaporator (RD601) burst at 1.1s in Run-1 and at 0.7s in Run-2 after water injected, and the pressure relief system was well-functioned though a few items for improvement were found. (author)

  8. The design of the run Clever randomized trial: running volume, -intensity and running-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramskov, Daniel; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Sørensen, Henrik; Parner, Erik; Lind, Martin; Rasmussen, Sten

    2016-04-23

    Injury incidence and prevalence in running populations have been investigated and documented in several studies. However, knowledge about injury etiology and prevention is needed. Training errors in running are modifiable risk factors and people engaged in recreational running need evidence-based running schedules to minimize the risk of injury. The existing literature on running volume and running intensity and the development of injuries show conflicting results. This may be related to previously applied study designs, methods used to quantify the performed running and the statistical analysis of the collected data. The aim of the Run Clever trial is to investigate if a focus on running intensity compared with a focus on running volume in a running schedule influences the overall injury risk differently. The Run Clever trial is a randomized trial with a 24-week follow-up. Healthy recreational runners between 18 and 65 years and with an average of 1-3 running sessions per week the past 6 months are included. Participants are randomized into two intervention groups: Running schedule-I and Schedule-V. Schedule-I emphasizes a progression in running intensity by increasing the weekly volume of running at a hard pace, while Schedule-V emphasizes a progression in running volume, by increasing the weekly overall volume. Data on the running performed is collected by GPS. Participants who sustain running-related injuries are diagnosed by a diagnostic team of physiotherapists using standardized diagnostic criteria. The members of the diagnostic team are blinded. The study design, procedures and informed consent were approved by the Ethics Committee Northern Denmark Region (N-20140069). The Run Clever trial will provide insight into possible differences in injury risk between running schedules emphasizing either running intensity or running volume. The risk of sustaining volume- and intensity-related injuries will be compared in the two intervention groups using a competing

  9. Aerobic fitness testing in 6- to 9-year-old children: reliability and validity of a modified Yo-Yo IR1 test and the Andersen test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahler, T; Bendiksen, Mads; Krustrup, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study analysed the reliability and validity of two intermittent running tests (the Yo-Yo IR1 test and the Andersen test) as tools for estimating VO(2max) in children under the age of 10. Two groups, aged 6-7 years (grade 0, n = 18) and 8-9 years (grade 2, n = 16), carried out two repetitions...

  10. Positional Match Running Performance in Elite Gaelic Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Shane; Solan, Barry; Collins, Kieran D; Doran, Dominic A

    2016-08-01

    Malone, S, Solan, B, Collins, KD, and Doran, DA. Positional match running performance in elite Gaelic football. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2292-2298, 2016-There is currently limited information available on match running performance in Gaelic football. The objective of the current study was to report on the match running profile of elite male Gaelic football and assess positional running performance. In this observational study, 50 elite male Gaelic football players wore 4-Hz global positioning systems units (VX Sports) across 30 competitive games with a total of 215 full game data sets collected. Activity was classed according to total distance, high-speed distance (≥17 km·h), sprint distance (≥22 km·h), mean velocity (km·h), peak velocity (km·h), and number of accelerations. The average match distance was 8,160 ± 1,482 m, reflective of a relative distance of 116 ± 21 m·min, with 1,731 ± 659 m covered at high speed, which is reflective of a relative high-speed distance of 25 ± 9 m·min. The observed sprint distance was 445 ± 169 m distributed across 44 sprint actions. The peak velocity was 30.3 ± 1.8 km·h with a mean velocity of 6.5 ± 1.2 km·h. Players completed 184 ± 40 accelerations, which represent 2.6 ± 0.5 accelerations per minute. There were significant differences between positional groups for both total running distance, high-speed running distance, and sprint distance, with midfielders covering more total and high-speed running distance, compared with other positions (p football match play.

  11. Bioenergetic constraints on tactical decision making in middle distance running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A M; Whipp, B J

    2002-04-01

    The highest velocity that a runner can sustain during middle distance races is defined by the intersection of the runner's individual velocity-time curve and the distance-time curve. The velocity-time curve is presumably fixed at the onset of a race; however, whereas the race distance is ostensibly fixed, the actual distance-time curve is not. That is, it is possible for a runner to run further than the race distance if he or she runs wide on bends in track races. In this instance, the point of intersection of the individual velocity-time curve and the distance-time curve will move downwards and to the right, reducing the best average velocity that can be sustained for the distance. To illustrate this point, the race tactics used by the gold and silver medallists at 800 m and 5000 m in the Sydney Olympics were analysed. The paths taken by the runners were carefully tracked and the total distance they covered during the races and the average velocity they sustained over the distances they actually covered were calculated. In both the Olympic 800 m and 5000 m finals, for example, the winner was not the runner who ran at the highest average velocity in the race. Rather, the winners of these races were able to husband their metabolic resources to better effect by running closer to the actual race distance. Race results in middle distance running events are dependent not just on the energetic potential of the runners at the start of the race and their strategy for pace allocation, but also on the effect of their tactical approach to positioning on the total distance covered in the race. Middle distance runners should be conscious of minimising the distance covered in races if they wish to optimise their performance.

  12. Barefoot running: biomechanics and implications for running injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Allison R; Davis, Irene S

    2012-01-01

    Despite the technological developments in modern running footwear, up to 79% of runners today get injured in a given year. As we evolved barefoot, examining this mode of running is insightful. Barefoot running encourages a forefoot strike pattern that is associated with a reduction in impact loading and stride length. Studies have shown a reduction in injuries to shod forefoot strikers as compared with rearfoot strikers. In addition to a forefoot strike pattern, barefoot running also affords the runner increased sensory feedback from the foot-ground contact, as well as increased energy storage in the arch. Minimal footwear is being used to mimic barefoot running, but it is not clear whether it truly does. The purpose of this article is to review current and past research on shod and barefoot/minimal footwear running and their implications for running injuries. Clearly more research is needed, and areas for future study are suggested.

  13. Water velocity meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, C. W.; Smith, D. L.

    1970-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive drag sphere velocity meter with a zero to 6 ft/sec range measures steady-state flow. When combined with appropriate data acquisition system, it is suited to applications where large numbers of simultaneous measurements are needed for current mapping or velocity profile determination.

  14. Estimation of vector velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    Using a pulsed ultrasound field, the two-dimensional velocity vector can be determined with the invention. The method uses a transversally modulated ultrasound field for probing the moving medium under investigation. A modified autocorrelation approach is used in the velocity estimation. The new...

  15. Instrument for measuring flow velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffo, J.

    1977-01-01

    The design described here means to produce a 'more satisfying instrument with less cost' than comparable instruments known up to now. Instead of one single turbine rotor, two similar ones but with opposite blade inclination and sense of rotation are to be used. A cylindrical measuring body is carrying in its axis two bearing blocks whose shape is offering little flow resistance. On the shaft, supported by them, the two rotors run in opposite direction a relatively small axial distance apart. The speed of each rotor is picked up as pulse recurrence frequency by a transmitter and fed to an electronic measuring unit. Measuring errors as they are caused for single rotors by turbulent flow, profile distortion of the velocity, or viscous flow are to be eliminated by means of the contrarotating turbines and the subsequently added electronic unit, because in these cases the adulterating increase of the angular velocity of one rotor is compensated by a corresponding deceleration of the other rotor. The mean value then indicated by the electronic unit has high accurancy of measurement. (RW) [de

  16. Reducing gravity takes the bounce out of running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polet, Delyle T; Schroeder, Ryan T; Bertram, John E A

    2018-02-13

    In gravity below Earth-normal, a person should be able to take higher leaps in running. We asked 10 subjects to run on a treadmill in five levels of simulated reduced gravity and optically tracked centre-of-mass kinematics. Subjects consistently reduced ballistic height compared with running in normal gravity. We explain this trend by considering the vertical take-off velocity (defined as maximum vertical velocity). Energetically optimal gaits should balance the energetic costs of ground-contact collisions (favouring lower take-off velocity), and step frequency penalties such as leg swing work (favouring higher take-off velocity, but less so in reduced gravity). Measured vertical take-off velocity scaled with the square root of gravitational acceleration, following energetic optimality predictions and explaining why ballistic height decreases in lower gravity. The success of work-based costs in predicting this behaviour challenges the notion that gait adaptation in reduced gravity results from an unloading of the stance phase. Only the relationship between take-off velocity and swing cost changes in reduced gravity; the energetic cost of the down-to-up transition for a given vertical take-off velocity does not change with gravity. Because lower gravity allows an elongated swing phase for a given take-off velocity, the motor control system can relax the vertical momentum change in the stance phase, thus reducing ballistic height, without great energetic penalty to leg swing work. Although it may seem counterintuitive, using less 'bouncy' gaits in reduced gravity is a strategy to reduce energetic costs, to which humans seem extremely sensitive. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Cardioprotective Effect of High Intensity Interval Training and Nitric Oxide Metabolites (NO2 (-), NO3 (-)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Aliasghar; Gaeini, Abbasali; Shekarfroush, Shahnaz; Khoshbaten, Ali

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) on nitric oxide metabolites (NO2(-), NO3(-)) and myocardial infarct size after Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R) injury in healthy male rats. A total of 44 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups including HIIT (n=8), HIIT + IR protocol (n=14), control (n=8), and control + IR (n=14). Each training session of HIIT consisted of 1 hour of exercise in three stages: 6-minute running at 50-60% VO2max for warm-up; 7 intervals of 7-minute running on treadmill with a slope of 5° to 20° (4 minutes with an intensity of 80-100% VO2max and 3 minutes at 50-60% VO2max); and 5-minute running at 50-60% VO2max for cool-down. The control group did not participate in any exercise program. Nitric Oxide (NO) and its metabolites were measured by using Griess reaction test. The results showed that eight weeks of exercise training exerted a significantly increasing effect on nitrite (8.55 μmol per liter, equivalent to 34.79%), nitrate (62.02 μmol per liter, equivalent to 149.48%), and NOx (66 μmol per liter, equivalent to 98.11%) in the HIIT group compared with the control group. The results showed myocardial infract size (IS) was significantly smaller (23.2%, PHIIT program can protect the heart from I/R injury and decrease myocardial infarction.

  18. Critical evaluation of oxygen-uptake assessment in swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ana; Figueiredo, Pedro; Pendergast, David; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Vilas-Boas, João P; Fernandes, Ricardo J

    2014-03-01

    Swimming has become an important area of sport science research since the 1970s, with the bioenergetic factors assuming a fundamental performance-influencing role. The purpose of this study was to conduct a critical evaluation of the literature concerning oxygen-uptake (VO2) assessment in swimming, by describing the equipment and methods used and emphasizing the recent works conducted in ecological conditions. Particularly in swimming, due to the inherent technical constraints imposed by swimming in a water environment, assessment of VO2max was not accomplished until the 1960s. Later, the development of automated portable measurement devices allowed VO2max to be assessed more easily, even in ecological swimming conditions, but few studies have been conducted in swimming-pool conditions with portable breath-by-breath telemetric systems. An inverse relationship exists between the velocity corresponding to VO2max and the time a swimmer can sustain it at this velocity. The energy cost of swimming varies according to its association with velocity variability. As, in the end, the supply of oxygen (whose limitation may be due to central-O2 delivery and transportation to the working muscles-or peripheral factors-O2 diffusion and utilization in the muscles) is one of the critical factors that determine swimming performance, VO2 kinetics and its maximal values are critical in understanding swimmers' behavior in competition and to develop efficient training programs.

  19. Darlington up and running

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Show, Don

    1993-01-01

    We've built some of the largest and most successful generating stations in the world. Nonetheless, we cannot take our knowledge and understanding of the technology for granted. Although, I do believe that we are getting better, building safer, more efficient plants, and introducing significant improvements to our existing stations. Ontario Hydro is a large and technically rich organization. Even so, we realize that partnerships with others in the industry are absolutely vital. I am thinking particularly of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. We enjoy a very close relationship with Aecl, and their support was never more important than during the N/A Investigations. In recent years, we've strengthened our relationship with Aecl considerably. For example, we recently signed an agreement with Aecl, making available all of the Darlington 900 MW e design. Much of the cooperation between Ontario Hydro and Aecl occurs through the CANDU Engineering Authority and the CANDU Owners Group (CO G). These organizations are helping both of US to greatly improve cooperation and efficiency, and they are helping ensure we get the biggest return on our CANDU investments. CO G also provides an important information network which links CANDU operators in Canada, here in Korea, Argentina, India, Pakistan and Romania. In many respects, it is helping to develop the strong partnerships to support CANDU technology worldwide. We all benefit in the long run form sharing information and resources

  20. Running Technique is an Important Component of Running Economy and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOLLAND, JONATHAN P.; ALLEN, SAM J.; BLACK, MATTHEW I.; HANDSAKER, JOSEPH C.; FORRESTER, STEPHANIE E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite an intuitive relationship between technique and both running economy (RE) and performance, and the diverse techniques used by runners to achieve forward locomotion, the objective importance of overall technique and the key components therein remain to be elucidated. Purpose This study aimed to determine the relationship between individual and combined kinematic measures of technique with both RE and performance. Methods Ninety-seven endurance runners (47 females) of diverse competitive standards performed a discontinuous protocol of incremental treadmill running (4-min stages, 1-km·h−1 increments). Measurements included three-dimensional full-body kinematics, respiratory gases to determine energy cost, and velocity of lactate turn point. Five categories of kinematic measures (vertical oscillation, braking, posture, stride parameters, and lower limb angles) and locomotory energy cost (LEc) were averaged across 10–12 km·h−1 (the highest common velocity < velocity of lactate turn point). Performance was measured as season's best (SB) time converted to a sex-specific z-score. Results Numerous kinematic variables were correlated with RE and performance (LEc, 19 variables; SB time, 11 variables). Regression analysis found three variables (pelvis vertical oscillation during ground contact normalized to height, minimum knee joint angle during ground contact, and minimum horizontal pelvis velocity) explained 39% of LEc variability. In addition, four variables (minimum horizontal pelvis velocity, shank touchdown angle, duty factor, and trunk forward lean) combined to explain 31% of the variability in performance (SB time). Conclusions This study provides novel and robust evidence that technique explains a substantial proportion of the variance in RE and performance. We recommend that runners and coaches are attentive to specific aspects of stride parameters and lower limb angles in part to optimize pelvis movement, and ultimately enhance performance

  1. Normalization of elevated cardiac, kidney, and hemolysis plasma markers within 48 h in Mexican Tarahumara runners following a 78 km race at moderate altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk Lund; Espino, Diana; Infante-Ramírez, Rocío

    2014-01-01

    ) participated in a 78 km race in Chihuahua, Mexico at 2,400 m above sea level. Cardiac, kidney, and hematology plasma markers were measured pre-race and h, 3 h, 6 h, 24 h, and 48 h post-race. Anthropometry, blood pressure, pulse rate, electrocardiography, HbA1c, hemoglobin and VO2max (estimated from...... the race was 68 (11)%VO2 max. Mean SpO2 was 92 (3)% h post-race, but had returned to pre-race values after 48 h....... The plasma concentrations of mid-regional proatrial natiuretic peptide and copeptin returned to pre-race concentrations after 1 and 6 h, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Altered cardiac, renal, and hemolysis plasma markers were normalized after 48 h following 78 km of running, suggesting that the impact...

  2. Backward running or absence of running from Creutz ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giedt, Joel; Weinberg, Evan

    2011-01-01

    We extract the running coupling based on Creutz ratios in SU(2) lattice gauge theory with two Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation. Depending on how the extrapolation to zero fermion mass is performed, either backward running or an absence of running is observed at strong bare coupling. This behavior is consistent with other findings which indicate that this theory has an infrared fixed point.

  3. Physiological demands of running during long distance runs and triathlons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausswirth, C; Lehénaff, D

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this review article is to identify the main metabolic factors which have an influence on the energy cost of running (Cr) during prolonged exercise runs and triathlons. This article proposes a physiological comparison of these 2 exercises and the relationship between running economy and performance. Many terms are used as the equivalent of 'running economy' such as 'oxygen cost', 'metabolic cost', 'energy cost of running', and 'oxygen consumption'. It has been suggested that these expressions may be defined by the rate of oxygen uptake (VO2) at a steady state (i.e. between 60 to 90% of maximal VO2) at a submaximal running speed. Endurance events such as triathlon or marathon running are known to modify biological constants of athletes and should have an influence on their running efficiency. The Cr appears to contribute to the variation found in distance running performance among runners of homogeneous level. This has been shown to be important in sports performance, especially in events like long distance running. In addition, many factors are known or hypothesised to influence Cr such as environmental conditions, participant specificity, and metabolic modifications (e.g. training status, fatigue). The decrease in running economy during a triathlon and/or a marathon could be largely linked to physiological factors such as the enhancement of core temperature and a lack of fluid balance. Moreover, the increase in circulating free fatty acids and glycerol at the end of these long exercise durations bear witness to the decrease in Cr values. The combination of these factors alters the Cr during exercise and hence could modify the athlete's performance in triathlons or a prolonged run.

  4. Leg-adjustment strategies for stable running in three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peuker, Frank; Maufroy, Christophe; Seyfarth, André

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of the center of mass (CoM) in the sagittal plane in humans and animals during running is well described by the spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP). With appropriate parameters, SLIP running patterns are stable, and these models can recover from perturbations without the need for corrective strategies, such as the application of additional forces. Rather, it is sufficient to adjust the leg to a fixed angle relative to the ground. In this work, we consider the extension of the SLIP to three dimensions (3D SLIP) and investigate feed-forward strategies for leg adjustment during the flight phase. As in the SLIP model, the leg is placed at a fixed angle. We extend the scope of possible reference axes from only fixed horizontal and vertical axes to include the CoM velocity vector as a movement-related reference, resulting in six leg-adjustment strategies. Only leg-adjustment strategies that include the CoM velocity vector produced stable running and large parameter domains of stability. The ability of the model to recover from perturbations along the direction of motion (directional stability) depended on the strategy for lateral leg adjustment. Specifically, asymptotic and neutral directional stability was observed for strategies based on the global reference axis and the velocity vector, respectively. Additional features of velocity-based leg adjustment are running at arbitrary low speed (kinetic energy) and the emergence of large domains of stable 3D running that are smoothly transferred to 2D SLIP stability and even to 1D SLIP hopping. One of the additional leg-adjustment strategies represented a large convex region of parameters where stable and robust hopping and running patterns exist. Therefore, this strategy is a promising candidate for implementation into engineering applications, such as robots, for instance. In a preliminary comparison, the model predictions were in good agreement with the experimental data, suggesting that the 3D SLIP is an

  5. Mechanical Alterations during 800-m Self-Paced Track Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Olivier; Millet, Gregoire P; Micallef, Jean-Paul

    2017-04-01

    We assessed the time course of running mechanical alterations during an 800-m. On a 200-m indoor track, 18 physical education students performed an 800-m self-paced run. Once per lap, ground reaction forces were measured by a 5-m-long force platform system, and used to determine running kinetics/kinematics and spring-mass characteristics. Compared with 100 m (19.4±1.8 km.h -1 ) running velocity progressively decreased at 300, 500 m but levelled-off at 700 m marks (-5.7±4.6, -10.4±8.3, and -9.1±13.5%, respectively; Ppush-off forces (-5.1±7.2%, P0.05) and leg compression (+2.8±3.9%; P>0.05) remained unchanged, whereas centre of mass vertical displacement (+24.0±7.0%; P0.05). During an 800 m by physical education students, highest running velocity was achieved early during the run, with a progressive decrease in the second half of the trial. While vertical ground force characteristics remained unchanged, non-specialist runners produced lower peak braking and push-off forces, in turn leading to shorter stride length. Spring-mass model characteristics changed toward lower vertical stiffness values, whereas leg stiffness did not change. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Velocity Feedback Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Choi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Transient response such as ringing in a control system can be reduced or removed by velocity feedback. It is a useful control technique that should be covered in the relevant engineering laboratory courses. We developed velocity feedback experiments using two different low cost technologies, viz., operational amplifiers and microcontrollers. These experiments can be easily integrated into laboratory courses on feedback control systems or microcontroller applications. The intent of developing these experiments was to illustrate the ringing problem and to offer effective, low cost solutions for removing such problem. In this paper the pedagogical approach for these velocity feedback experiments was described. The advantages and disadvantages of the two different implementation of velocity feedback were discussed also.

  7. The critical ionization velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raadu, M.A.

    1980-06-01

    The critical ionization velocity effect was first proposed in the context of space plasmas. This effect occurs for a neutral gas moving through a magnetized plasma and leads to rapid ionization and braking of the relative motion when a marginal velocity, 'the critical velocity', is exceeded. Laboratory experiments have clearly established the significance of the critical velocity and have provided evidence for an underlying mechanism which relies on the combined action of electron impact ionization and a collective plasma interaction heating electrons. There is experimental support for such a mechanism based on the heating of electrons by the modified two-stream instability as part of a feedback process. Several applications to space plasmas have been proposed and the possibility of space experiments has been discussed. (author)

  8. High Velocity Gas Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A video tape related to orbital debris research is presented. The video tape covers the process of loading a High Velocity Gas Gun and firing it into a mounted metal plate. The process is then repeated in slow motion.

  9. Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Jorming; Ladiges, Warren

    2015-12-02

    Voluntary wheel running in the mouse is used to assess physical performance and endurance and to model exercise training as a way to enhance health. Wheel running is a voluntary activity in contrast to other experimental exercise models in mice, which rely on aversive stimuli to force active movement. This protocol consists of allowing mice to run freely on the open surface of a slanted, plastic saucer-shaped wheel placed inside a standard mouse cage. Rotations are electronically transmitted to a USB hub so that frequency and rate of running can be captured via a software program for data storage and analysis for variable time periods. Mice are individually housed so that accurate recordings can be made for each animal. Factors such as mouse strain, gender, age, and individual motivation, which affect running activity, must be considered in the design of experiments using voluntary wheel running. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Effects of three warm-up regimens of equal distance on VO2 kinetics during supramaximal exercise in Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, K; Hiraga, A; Takahashi, T; Ohmura, H; Jones, J H

    2010-11-01

    Several studies have indicated that even low-intensity warm-up increases O(2) transport kinetics and that high-intensity warm-up may not be needed in horses. However, conventional warm-up exercise for Thoroughbred races is more intense than those utilised in previous studies of equine warm-up responses. To test the hypothesis that warm-up exercise at different intensities alters the kinetics and total contribution of aerobic power to total metabolic power in subsequent supramaximal (sprint) exercise in Thoroughbred horses. Nine well-trained Thoroughbreds ran until fatigue at 115% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) 10 min after warming-up under each of 3 protocols of equal running distance: 400 s at 30% VO2max (LoWU), 200 s at 60% VO2max (MoWU) and 120 s at 100% VO2max (HiWU). Variables measured during exercise were rates of O(2) and CO(2) consumption/production (VO2,VO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), heart rate, blood lactate concentration and accumulation rate and blood gas variables. VO2 was significantly higher in HiWU than in LoWU at the onset of the sprint exercise and HR was significantly higher in HiWU than in LoWU throughout the sprint. Accumulation of blood lactate, RER, P(a)CO(2) and PvCO2 in the first 60 s were significantly lower in HiWU than in LoWU and MoWU. There were no significant differences in stroke volume, run time or arterial-mixed venous O(2) concentration. These results suggest HiWU accelerates kinetics and reduces reliance on net anaerobic power compared with LoWU at the onset of the subsequent sprint. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  11. Limb skeletal muscle adaptation in athletes after training at altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mizuno, M; Juel, C; Bro-Rasmussen, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Morphological and biochemical characteristics of biopsies obtained from gastrocnemius (GAS) and triceps brachii muscle (TRI), as well as maximal O2 uptake (VO2 max) and O2 deficit, were determined in 10 well-trained cross-country skiers before and after a 2-wk stay (2,100 m above sea level......) and training (2,700 m above sea level) at altitude. On return to sea level, VO2 max was the same as the prealtitude value, whereas an increase in O2 deficit (29%) and in short-term running performance (17%) was observed (P less than 0.05). GAS showed maintained capillary supply but a 10% decrease...... increase in buffer capacity of GAS and short-term running time (P less than 0.05). Thus the present study indicates no effect of 2 wk of altitude training on VO2 max but provides evidence to suggest an improvement in short-term exercise performance, which may be the result of an increase in muscle buffer...

  12. Effective action and brane running

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevik, Iver; Ghoroku, Kazuo; Yahiro, Masanobu

    2004-01-01

    We address the renormalized effective action for a Randall-Sundrum brane running in 5D bulk space. The running behavior of the brane action is obtained by shifting the brane position without changing the background and fluctuations. After an appropriate renormalization, we obtain an effective, low energy brane world action, in which the effective 4D Planck mass is independent of the running position. We address some implications for this effective action

  13. Asymmetric information and bank runs

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Chao

    2007-01-01

    It is known that sunspots can trigger panic-based bank runs and that the optimal banking contract can tolerate panic-based runs. The existing literature assumes that these sunspots are based on a publicly observed extrinsic randomizing device. In this paper, I extend the analysis of panic-based runs to include an asymmetric-information, extrinsic randomizing device. Depositors observe different, but correlated, signals on the stability of the bank. I find that if the signals that depositors o...

  14. Aerobic Fitness of Starter and Non-Starter Soccer Players in the Champion’s League

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevas Giorgos

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To identify individual response patterns in selected aerobic fitness variables of regular starters (ST; N = 7 and non-starters (Non-ST; N = 10, top level professional soccer players were tested for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, velocity at 4 mM of lactate (V4, velocity at maximal oxygen uptake (νVO2max and oxygen pulse (O2-pulse in July and December following consecutive periods of fixture congestion. V4 was the only variable that increased significantly in December compared to July (15.1 ± 0.5 vs. 14.6 ± 0.5, p = 0.001. There was an almost certain beneficial large mean team change for V4 (ES = 1.2 (0.67; 1.57, 100/0/0, while beneficial mean team changes were less likely for νVO2max and O2-pulse [ES = 0.31 (-0.08; 0.70, 68/30/2 and ES = 0.24 (0.01; 0.49, 64/36/0, respectively] and unclear for VO2max (ES = 0.02 (-0.31; 0.70, 18/69/13. With the exception of V4 where 10 out of 17 players (7 ST and 3 Non-ST showed positive changes higher than the biological variability, all other variables were characterized by a substantial proportion of changes lower than the biological variability. The present study demonstrated that aerobic fitness variables that require maximal effort may be characterized by greater variability of the individual response pattern compared to that of submaximal aerobic fitness variables irrespective of the accumulated game time. Submaximal aerobic fitness variables appear to be more informative in the physiological evaluation of top level soccer players and this may be an advantage during exposure to periods of consecutive games.

  15. A Running Start: Resource Guide for Youth Running Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Seth; Becker, Andrew; Armstrong, Tess

    2016-01-01

    The lack of physical activity is an epidemic problem among American youth today. In order to combat this, many schools are incorporating youth running programs as a part of their comprehensive school physical activity programs. These youth running programs are being implemented before or after school, at school during recess at the elementary…

  16. Changes in Running Mechanics During a 6-Hour Running Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanelli, Nicola; Taboga, Paolo; Lazzer, Stefano

    2017-05-01

    To investigate changes in running mechanics during a 6-h running race. Twelve ultraendurance runners (age 41.9 ± 5.8 y, body mass 68.3 ± 12.6 kg, height 1.72 ± 0.09 m) were asked to run as many 874-m flat loops as possible in 6 h. Running speed, contact time (t c ), and aerial time (t a ) were measured in the first lap and every 30 ± 2 min during the race. Peak vertical ground-reaction force (F max ), stride length (SL), vertical downward displacement of the center of mass (Δz), leg-length change (ΔL), vertical stiffness (k vert ), and leg stiffness (k leg ) were then estimated. Mean distance covered by the athletes during the race was 62.9 ± 7.9 km. Compared with the 1st lap, running speed decreased significantly from 4 h 30 min onward (mean -5.6% ± 0.3%, P running, reaching the maximum difference after 5 h 30 min (+6.1%, P = .015). Conversely, k vert decreased after 4 h, reaching the lowest value after 5 h 30 min (-6.5%, P = .008); t a and F max decreased after 4 h 30 min through to the end of the race (mean -29.2% and -5.1%, respectively, P running, suggesting a possible time threshold that could affect performance regardless of absolute running speed.

  17. CDF run II run control and online monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arisawa, T.; Ikado, K.; Badgett, W.; Chlebana, F.; Maeshima, K.; McCrory, E.; Meyer, A.; Patrick, J.; Wenzel, H.; Stadie, H.; Wagner, W.; Veramendi, G.

    2001-01-01

    The authors discuss the CDF Run II Run Control and online event monitoring system. Run Control is the top level application that controls the data acquisition activities across 150 front end VME crates and related service processes. Run Control is a real-time multi-threaded application implemented in Java with flexible state machines, using JDBC database connections to configure clients, and including a user friendly and powerful graphical user interface. The CDF online event monitoring system consists of several parts: the event monitoring programs, the display to browse their results, the server program which communicates with the display via socket connections, the error receiver which displays error messages and communicates with Run Control, and the state manager which monitors the state of the monitor programs

  18. Anthropometrical, physiological, and tracked power profiles of elite taekwondo athletes 9 weeks before the Olympic competition phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Nick; Nolan, Emily; Wheeler, Keane

    2011-10-01

    Physiological, anthropometric, and power profiling data were retrospectively analyzed from 4 elite taekwondo athletes from the Australian National Olympic team 9 weeks from Olympic departure. Power profiling data were collected weekly throughout the 9-week period. Anthropometric skinfolds generated a lean mass index (LMI). Physiological tests included a squat jump and bench throw power profile, bleep test, 20-m sprint test, running VO2max test, and bench press and squat 3 repetition maximum (3RM) strength tests. After this, the athletes power, velocity, and acceleration profile during unweighted squat jumps and single-leg jumps were tracked using a linear position transducer. Increases in power, velocity, and acceleration between weeks and bilateral comparisons were analyzed. Athletes had an LMI of 37.1 ± 0.4 and were 173.9 ± 0.2 m and 67 ± 1.1 kg. Relatively weaker upper body (56 ± 11.97 kg 3RM bench press) compared to lower body strength (88 ± 2.89 kg 3RM squat) was shown alongside a VO2max of 53.29 ml(-1)·min(-1)·kg, and a 20-m sprint time of 3.37 seconds. Increases in all power variables for single-leg squat and squat jumps were found from the first session to the last. Absolute peak power in single-leg squat jumps increased by 13.4-16% for the left and right legs with a 12.9% increase in squat jump peak power. Allometrically scaled peak power showed greater increases for single-leg (right leg: 18.55%; left: 23.49%) and squat jump (14.49%). The athlete's weight did not change significantly throughout the 9-week mesocycle. Progressions in power increases throughout the weeks were undulating and can be related to the intensity of the prior week's training and athlete injury. This analysis has shown that a 9-week mesocycle before Olympic departure that focuses on core lifts has the ability to improve power considerably.

  19. Modified circular velocity law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djeghloul, Nazim

    2018-05-01

    A modified circular velocity law is presented for a test body orbiting around a spherically symmetric mass. This law exhibits a distance scale parameter and allows to recover both usual Newtonian behaviour for lower distances and a constant velocity limit at large scale. Application to the Galaxy predicts the known behaviour and also leads to a galactic mass in accordance with the measured visible stellar mass so that additional dark matter inside the Galaxy can be avoided. It is also shown that this circular velocity law can be embedded in a geometrical description of spacetime within the standard general relativity framework upon relaxing the usual asymptotic flatness condition. This formulation allows to redefine the introduced Newtonian scale limit in term of the central mass exclusively. Moreover, a satisfactory answer to the galactic escape speed problem can be provided indicating the possibility that one can also get rid of dark matter halo outside the Galaxy.

  20. The changes in running economy during puberty in overweight and normal weight boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciejczyk Marcin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: running economy (RE is important indicator of endurance performance. During puberty dynamic changes in body composition and function are observed, as such RE is also expected to change. The aim of the study was to compare the running economy (RE in overweight and normoweight boys during a running exercise performed with constant velocity, and the assessment of changes in RE during puberty.

  1. Effect of training and detraining on monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 1 and MCT4 in Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaoka, Yu; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Mukai, Kazutaka; Hiraga, Atsushi; Takemasa, Tohru; Hatta, Hideo

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of training and detraining on the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 1 and MCT4 levels in the gluteus medius muscle of Thoroughbred horses. Twelve Thoroughbred horses were used for the analysis. For 18 weeks, all the horses underwent high-intensity training (HIT), with running at 90-110% maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max ) for 3 min, 5 days week(-1). Thereafter, the horses either underwent detraining for 6 weeks by either 3 min of moderate-intensity training (MIT) at 70% VO2 max, 5 days week(-1) (HIT-MIT group) or stall rest (HIT-SR group). The horses underwent an incremental exercise test, VO2 max was measured and resting muscle samples were obtained from the middle gluteus muscle at 0, 18 and 24 weeks. The content of MCT1 and MCT4 proteins increased after 18 weeks of HIT. At the end of this period, an increase was noted in the citrate synthase activity, while phosphofructokinase activity remained unchanged. After 6 weeks of detraining, all these indexes returned to the pretraining levels in the HIT-SR group. However, in the HIT-MIT group, the increase in the MCT1 protein content and citrate synthase activity was maintained after 6 weeks of MIT, while the MCT4 protein content decreased to the pretraining value. These results suggest that the content of MCT1 and MCT4 proteins increases after HIT in Thoroughbred horses. In addition, the increase in the MCT1 protein content and oxidative capacity induced by HIT can be maintained by MIT of 70% VO2 max, but the increase in the MCT4 protein content cannot be maintained by MIT.

  2. The Prescribed Velocity Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    The- velocity level in a room ventilated by jet ventilation is strongly influenced by the supply conditions. The momentum flow in the supply jets controls the air movement in the room and, therefore, it is very important that the inlet conditions and the numerical method can generate a satisfactory...

  3. Multidisc neutron velocity selector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosta, L.; Zsigmond, Gy.; Farago, B.; Mezei, F.; Ban, K.; Perendi, J.

    1987-12-01

    The prototype of a velocity selector for neutron monochromatization in the 4-20 A wavelength range is presented. The theoretical background of the multidisc rotor system is given together with a description of the mechanical construction and electronic driving system. The first tests and neutron measurements prove easy handling and excellent parameters. (author) 6 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs

  4. The Effect of 8 Weeks High-intensity Interval Training on Myostatin and Follistatin Gene Expression in Gastrocnemius Muscle of the Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Biglari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of 8 weeks High-intensity Interval Training (HIIT on the expression of two muscle growth regulating genes (myostatin and follistatin in gastrocnemius muscle of healthy male rats. Materials and Methods: 16 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups in the same number: control and HIIT. HIIT program was underwent 40 min each session, three sessions in a week for eight weeks. Each exercise training session consisted of 5 min warm-up and cool-down at 40-50 % VO2max, 30 min interval running including 4 min high-intensity (85-90% VO2max and 2 min active recovery (at 50-60% VO2max. Rats in control group did not do any exercise training program. 48 h after the last training session, rats` gastrocnemius muscle was extracted and the expression of myostatin and follistatin genes was determined by Real Time-PCR. For statistical data analysis, independent t-test was used. Results: The expression of myostatin was significantly reduced 68% in HIIT group in comparison with the control group (p0.05. Gastrocnemius muscle weight was significantly increased 23% in the HIIT group compared to the control group (p<0.05. Conclusion: Results indicated that HIIT lead to significant reduction in the expression of myostatin gene and increase in the weight of gastrocnemius muscle in rats.

  5. Reliable Prediction of Insulin Resistance by a School-Based Fitness Test in Middle-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Varness

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 Determine the predictive value of a school-based test of cardiovascular fitness (CVF for insulin resistance (IR; (2 compare a “school-based” prediction of IR to a “laboratory-based” prediction, using various measures of fitness and body composition. Methods. Middle school children (n=82 performed the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER, a school-based CVF test, and underwent evaluation of maximal oxygen consumption treadmill testing (VO2 max, body composition (percent body fat and BMI z score, and IR (derived homeostasis model assessment index [HOMAIR]. Results. PACER showed a strong correlation with VO2 max/kg (rs = 0.83, P<.001 and with HOMAIR (rs = −0.60, P<.001. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that a school-based model (using PACER and BMI z score predicted IR similar to a laboratory-based model (using VO2 max/kg of lean body mass and percent body fat. Conclusions. The PACER is a valid school-based test of CVF, is predictive of IR, and has a similar relationship to IR when compared to complex laboratory-based testing. Simple school-based measures of childhood fitness (PACER and fatness (BMI z score could be used to identify childhood risk for IR and evaluate interventions.

  6. Agreement of physical activity questionnaire with cardiorespiratory fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fatima Glaner

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Many health benefi ts are associated with physical activity level (PAL, but no standardized approaches to measurement exist, and comparisons and surveillance are problematic. The aim of this study was to verify the level ofagreement between the results of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ: short and the Habitual Physical Activity Questionnaire (HPAQ with true cardiorespiratory fi tness (VO2max, in order to classify young men and women ashaving PAL that is either adequate or inadequate for good health. A convenience sample was studied, composed of 105 young adults (43 male physical education students; 28 female physical education students; 34 males not studying physicaleducation. Both questionnaires were self-administered under the identical conditions. Values for VO2max were obtained using Cooper’s 12 min running test. Subjects were classifi ed as having PAL and VO2max that were adequate or inadequatefor good health. The cut off points used to defi ne adequate VO2max ≥44 ml/kg/min-1 for men and ≥33 ml/kg/min-1 for women. Agreement was assessed using a 2x2 contingency table. Percentage agreement ranged from 51.10% to 64.70% for theHPAQ and was 47.06% for the IPAQ. Agreement was higher for the HPAQ than for the IPAQ. Women overestimated their PAL by HPAQ and men underestimated their PAL by both questionnaires. The fi ndings of this study suggest that the HPAQ tends to be more accurate than the IPAQ. RESUMOMuitos benefícios à saúde são associados ao nível de atividade física (NAF, mas não existem medidas padronizadas para tal e, comparações e monitorações são difíceis. O propósito deste estudo foi verifi car a concordância do Questionário Internacional para Atividades Físicas (IPAQ – curto e do Questionário de Atividades Físicas Habituais (QAFH com a aptidão cardiorrespiratória (VO2max, para classifi car homens e mulheres jovens, com níveis de atividade física (NAF recomendado, ou não, para a sa

  7. Association between aerobic fitness and cerebrovascular function with neurocognitive functions in healthy, young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jungyun; Kim, Kiyoung; Brothers, R Matthew; Castelli, Darla M; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2018-05-01

    Studies of the effects of physical activity on cognition suggest that aerobic fitness can improve cognitive abilities. However, the physiological mechanisms for the cognitive benefit of aerobic fitness are less well understood. We examined the association between aerobic fitness and cerebrovascular function with neurocognitive functions in healthy, young adults. Participants aged 18-29 years underwent measurements of cerebral vasomotor reactivity (CVMR) in response to rebreathing-induced hypercapnia, maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) during cycle ergometry to voluntary exhaustion, and simple- and complex-neurocognitive assessments at rest. Ten subjects were identified as having low-aerobic fitness (LF aerobic fitness (HF > 80th fitness percentile). There were no LF versus HF group differences in cerebrovascular hemodynamics during the baseline condition. Changes in middle cerebral artery blood velocity and CVMR during hypercapnia were elevated more in the HF than the LF group. Compared to the LF, the HF performed better on a complex-cognitive task assessing fluid reasoning, but not on simple attentional abilities. Statistical modeling showed that measures of VO 2 max, CVMR, and fluid reasoning were positively inter-correlated. The relationship between VO 2 max and fluid reasoning, however, did not appear to be reliably mediated by CVMR. In conclusion, a high capacity for maximal oxygen uptake among healthy, young adults was associated with greater CVMR and better fluid reasoning, implying that high-aerobic fitness may promote cerebrovascular and cognitive functioning abilities.

  8. Physiological and Biomechanical Mechanisms of Distance Specific Human Running Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M A

    2017-08-01

    Running events range from 60-m sprints to ultra-marathons covering 100 miles or more, which presents an interesting diversity in terms of the parameters for successful performance. Here, we review the physiological and biomechanical variations underlying elite human running performance in sprint to ultramarathon distances. Maximal running speeds observed in sprint disciplines are achieved by high vertical ground reaction forces applied over short contact times. To create this high force output, sprint events rely heavily on anaerobic metabolism, as well as a high number and large cross-sectional area of type II fibers in the leg muscles. Middle distance running performance is characterized by intermediates of biomechanical and physiological parameters, with the possibility of unique combinations of each leading to high-level performance. The relatively fast velocities in mid-distance events require a high mechanical power output, though ground reaction forces are less than in sprinting. Elite mid-distance runners exhibit local muscle adaptations that, along with a large anaerobic capacity, provide the ability to generate a high power output. Aerobic capacity starts to become an important aspect of performance in middle distance events, especially as distance increases. In distance running events, V˙O2max is an important determinant of performance, but is relatively homogeneous in elite runners. V˙O2 and velocity at lactate threshold have been shown to be superior predictors of elite distance running performance. Ultramarathons are relatively new running events, as such, less is known about physiological and biomechanical parameters that underlie ultra-marathon performance. However, it is clear that performance in these events is related to aerobic capacity, fuel utilization, and fatigue resistance. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in

  9. Running continuous academic adoption programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tobias Alsted

    Running successful academic adoption programmes requires executive support, clear strategies, tactical resources and organisational agility. These two presentations will discuss the implementation of strategic academic adoption programs down to very concrete tool customisations to meet specific...

  10. Turkey Run Landfill Emissions Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — landfill emissions measurements for the Turkey run landfill in Georgia. This dataset is associated with the following publication: De la Cruz, F., R. Green, G....

  11. Phthalate SHEDS-HT runs

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Inputs and outputs for SHEDS-HT runs of DiNP, DEHP, DBP. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Moreau, M., J. Leonard, K. Phillips, J. Campbell,...

  12. Multidisk neutron velocity selectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammouda, B.

    1992-01-01

    Helical multidisk velocity selectors used for neutron scattering applications have been analyzed and tested experimentally. Design and performance considerations are discussed along with simple explanation of the basic concept. A simple progression is used for the inter-disk spacing in the 'Rosta' design. Ray tracing computer investigations are presented in order to assess the 'coverage' (how many absorbing layers are stacked along the path of 'wrong' wavelength neutrons) and the relative number of neutrons absorbed in each disk (and therefore the relative amount of gamma radiation emitted from each disk). We discuss whether a multidisk velocity selector can be operated in the 'reverse' configuration (i.e. the selector is turned by 180 0 around a vertical axis with the rotor spun in the reverse direction). Experimental tests and calibration of a multidisk selector are reported together with evidence that a multidisk selector can be operated in the 'reverse' configuration. (orig.)

  13. Effects of marathon fatigue on running kinematics and economy

    OpenAIRE

    Nicol , Caroline; Komi , P V; Marconnet , P

    1991-01-01

    International audience; The influence of marathon fatigue on both running kinematics and economy was investigated with 8 subjects. The measurements included a treadmill test at 3 steady submaximal speeds performed before and after the marathon. One complete left leg cycle was videotaped at 100 Hz from the left side at each speed. The analysis included contact time (braking and push-off') and flight time as well as displacements and angular velocities of the left hip and knee. This analysis wa...

  14. 1995 and 1996 Upper Three Runs Dye Study Data Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.

    1998-06-01

    This report presents an analysis of dye tracer studies conducted on Upper Three Runs. The revised STREAM code was used to analyze these studies and derive a stream velocity and a dispersion coefficient for use in aqueous transport models. These models will be used to facilitate the establishment of aqueous effluent limits and provide contaminant transport information to emergency management in the event of a release

  15. Wave Run-Up on Cylindrical and Cone Shaped Foundations for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vos, Leen; Frigaard, Peter; De Rouck, Julien

    2007-01-01

    During the last decade, several offshore wind-farms were built and offshore wind energy promises to be a suitable alternative to provide green energy. However, there are still some engineering challenges in placing the foundations of offshore wind turbines. For example, wave run-up and wave impacts....... The results show that the shape of the foundation substantially affects the maximum run-up level, increasing the expected run-up value. A new relationship between the wave climate (regular and irregular waves) and the run-up is suggested. For this, the velocity stagnation head theory is adjusted and second...... order Stokes equations are used to calculate the wave kinematics in the crest. The variation of the run-up around the pile is measured and it is found that the position with the lowest run-up level is located under 135°, while the run-up at that position amounts to approximately 40% to 50...

  16. Lymphocyte Apoptosis in Smokers and Non-Smokers Following Different Intensity of Exercises and Relation with Lactate

    OpenAIRE

    PARK, KYUNG-SHIN; LEE, YANG

    2011-01-01

    Purposes of this study were 1) to examine the exercise intensity where lymphocyte apoptosis index (AI) is significantly increased in smokers and non-smokers, 2) to find out whether AI is associated with level of lactate (L). Fourteen healthy untrained smokers (? 1 pack year, n=7) and non-smokers (n=7) aged 18 to 26 were recruited. Each subject conducted three treadmill runs at different intensities randomly. Running distance for all three runs was equivalent to 30 minute run at 70% VO2max. AI...

  17. HIIT och dess effekt på löpekonomi hos vältränade löpare och triatleter

    OpenAIRE

    Kalenius, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background: Running economy is one of the key factors to achieve top performance in endurance events. Little evidence exists for improving running economy using high-intensity interval training while running.   Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine how HIIT affects running economy and VO2max.   Method: 14 well-trained athletes (age 35 ± 8,9 years, height 175 ± 11,7 cm and weight 69 ± 12,2 kg) were divided into two separate groups (HIIT and Control). HIIT group performed 3 HIIT ...

  18. Consideration of wear rates at high velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Chad S.

    The development of the research presented here is one in which high velocity relative sliding motion between two bodies in contact has been considered. Overall, the wear environment is truly three-dimensional. The attempt to characterize three-dimensional wear was not economically feasible because it must be analyzed at the micro-mechanical level to get results. Thus, an engineering approximation was carried out. This approximation was based on a metallographic study identifying the need to include viscoplasticity constitutive material models, coefficient of friction, relationships between the normal load and velocity, and the need to understand wave propagation. A sled test run at the Holloman High Speed Test Track (HHSTT) was considered for the determination of high velocity wear rates. In order to adequately characterize high velocity wear, it was necessary to formulate a numerical model that contained all of the physical events present. The experimental results of a VascoMax 300 maraging steel slipper sliding on an AISI 1080 steel rail during a January 2008 sled test mission were analyzed. During this rocket sled test, the slipper traveled 5,816 meters in 8.14 seconds and reached a maximum velocity of 1,530 m/s. This type of environment was never considered previously in terms of wear evaluation. Each of the features of the metallography were obtained through micro-mechanical experimental techniques. The byproduct of this analysis is that it is now possible to formulate a model that contains viscoplasticity, asperity collisions, temperature and frictional features. Based on the observations of the metallographic analysis, these necessary features have been included in the numerical model, which makes use of a time-dynamic program which follows the movement of a slipper during its experimental test run. The resulting velocity and pressure functions of time have been implemented in the explicit finite element code, ABAQUS. Two-dimensional, plane strain models

  19. Effects of 6-week pre-season plyometric training to performance characteristics in female handball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kale Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 6-week pre-season plyometric training on the performance characteristics in female handball players. Nineteen female handball players voluntarily participated in the study. They were divided into 2 groups [experimental group (ETG; N = 10, and control group (NTG; N = 9]. Both groups continued regular pre-season training for 6-weeks. The ETG also did plyometric training. Sprints (10 m, 20 m, and 30 m, squat jump (SJ, countermovement jump (CMJ, anaerobic power and capacity (AP and AC, and aerobic variables at fixed blood lactate levels (FBLLs [running velocity (RV, heart rate (HR, and oxygen consumption (VO2] were compared before and after the training. The results have shown that there are significant differences in SJ and CMJ (p<0.05, all sprints (p<0.01, AP and AC (p<0.05, VO2max (p<0.01, RV, HR, and VO2 at each of FBLLs (p<0.01 between pre- and post-training results of ETG. Pre- and post training results also showed significant differences in SJ and CMJ (p<0.05, all sprints (p<0.01, and AP (p<0.05 in NTG. In conclusion, was found that a 6-week plyometric training is an important parameter in addition to physical fitness, technical, and tactical training for the female handball players who get prepared for the woman handball super league which affects pre-season performance characteristics.

  20. The effect of recreational soccer training and running on postural balance in untrained men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Krustrup, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of intense intermittent exercise performed as soccer training or interval running in comparison with continuous endurance running exercise on postural balance in young healthy untrained males. Young sedentary men were randomized to soccer training...... strength and countermovement jump velocity. Postural control was improved in response to 12 weeks of soccer training and high-intensity interval running, respectively, while less-marked changes were observed following continuous running. Notably, the reduced variability in CoP acceleration after soccer...

  1. Does treadmill running performance, heart rate and breathing rate response during maximal graded exercise improve after volitional respiratory muscle training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, K; Sharma, V K; Subramanian, S K

    2017-05-10

    Maximal physical exertion in sports usually causes fatigue in the exercising muscles, but not in the respiratory muscles due to triggering of the Respiratory muscle metabo-reflex, a sympathetic vasoconstrictor response leading to preferential increment in blood flow to respiratory muscles. 1 We planned to investigate whether a six week yogic pranayama based Volitional Respiratory Muscle Training (VRMT) can improve maximal Graded Exercise Treadmill Test (GXTT) performance in healthy adult recreational sportspersons. Consecutive, consenting healthy adult recreational sportspersons aged 20.56±2.49 years (n=30), volunteered to 'baseline recording' of resting heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), respiratory rate (RR), and Bruce ramp protocol maximal GXTT until volitional exhaustion providing total test time (TTT), derived VO2max, Metabolic Equivalent of Task (METs), HR and BP response during maximal GXTT and drop in recovery HR data. After six weeks of observation, they underwent 'pre-intervention recording' followed by supervised VRMT intervention for 6 weeks (30 minutes a day; 5 days a week) and then 'post-intervention recording'. Repeated measures ANOVA with pairwise t statistical comparison was used to analyse the data. After supervised VRMT, we observed significant decrease in their resting supine RR (prespiratory muscle aerobic capacity, attenuation of respiratory muscle metabo-reflex, increase in cardiac stroke volume and autonomic resetting towards parasympatho-dominance. Yogic Pranayama based VRMT can be used in sports conditioning programme of athletes to further improve their maximal exercise performance, and as part of rehabilitation training during return from injury.

  2. Children's Fitness. Managing a Running Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, J. Scott; Tuckman, Bruce W.

    1987-01-01

    A running program to increase the cardiovascular fitness levels of fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children is described. Discussed are the running environment, implementation of a running program, feedback, and reinforcement. (MT)

  3. Barefoot running survey: Evidence from the field

    OpenAIRE

    David Hryvniak; Jay Dicharry; Robert Wilder

    2014-01-01

    Background: Running is becoming an increasingly popular activity among Americans with over 50 million participants. Running shoe research and technology has continued to advance with no decrease in overall running injury rates. A growing group of runners are making the choice to try the minimal or barefoot running styles of the pre-modern running shoe era. There is some evidence of decreased forces and torques on the lower extremities with barefoot running, but no clear data regarding how thi...

  4. Examples of Vector Velocity Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter M.; Pedersen, Mads M.; Hansen, Kristoffer L.

    2011-01-01

    To measure blood flow velocity in vessels with conventional ultrasound, the velocity is estimated along the direction of the emitted ultrasound wave. It is therefore impossible to obtain accurate information on blood flow velocity and direction, when the angle between blood flow and ultrasound wa...

  5. Running for extinction? Aerobic exercise as an augmentation of exposure therapy in panic disorder with agoraphobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Sophie; Wieder, Gesine; Einsle, Franziska; Petzold, Moritz B; Janßen, Christiane; Mumm, Jennifer L M; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Fydrich, Thomas; Plag, Jens; Ströhle, Andreas

    2018-06-01

    Exposure-based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (eb-CBT) represents the most evidence-based psychotherapeutic approach in anxiety disorders. However, its efficacy may be limited by a delay in onset of action and a substantial number of patients does not respond sufficiently to treatment. In this context, aerobic exercise was found to be effective in reducing clinical anxiety as well as to improve (elements of) disorder-specific CBT in some mental disorders. We therefore investigated the effect of aerobic exercise supplementary to an eb-CBT in panic disorder and agoraphobia (PD/AG). 77 patients with PD/AG performed a 30 min treadmill task with moderate or low intensity (70% or 30% of the maximal oxygen uptake [VO 2max ]) prior to five exposure sessions within a standardized seven-week CBT. At baseline, after completing the treatment period (post) and six month after post (follow-up), several measures of (un)specific psychopathology (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale [Ham-A], Mobility Inventory [MI], Panic and Agoraphobia Scale [PAS], Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire [ACQ], Body Sensations Questionnaire [BSQ]) were established to assess for clinical changes. All patients experienced a significant improvement of symptoms from baseline to post (for all measures p < .001) but repeated-measures analyses of variance found a trend towards a significant time × group interaction in the Ham-A in favor for the moderate intense exercise group (f[1, 74] = 4.15, p = .045, α=.025). This trend, however, disappeared at follow-up since the low-intense exercise group further improved significantly in Ham-A after post. Our findings therefore might point to an accelerating effect of moderate-intense exercise within an exposure-based CBT for AG/PD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Red light running camera assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    In the 2004-2007 period, the Mission Street SE and 25th Street SE intersection in Salem, Oregon showed relatively few crashes attributable to red light running (RLR) but, since a high number of RLR violations were observed, the intersection was ident...

  7. Teaching Bank Runs through Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, David T.

    2009-01-01

    The author advocates the use of films to supplement textbook treatments of bank runs and panics in money and banking or general banking classes. Modern students, particularly those in developed countries, tend to be unfamiliar with potential fragilities of financial systems such as a lack of deposit insurance or other safety net mechanisms. Films…

  8. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  9. Does Addiction Run in Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Makes Someone More Likely to Get Addicted to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard ... news is that many children whose parents had drug problems don't become addicted when they grow up. The chances of addiction are higher, but it doesn't have to ...

  10. Running codes through the web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.E.H.

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Clark presented a report and demonstration of running atomic physics codes through the WWW. The atomic physics data is generated from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) codes that calculate electron impact excitation, ionization, photoionization, and autoionization, and inversed processes through detailed balance. Samples of Web interfaces, input and output are given in the report

  11. Preventing Running Injuries through Barefoot Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Priscilla M.; Smith, Darla R.

    2008-01-01

    Running has become a very popular lifetime physical activity even though there are numerous reports of running injuries. Although common theories have pointed to impact forces and overpronation as the main contributors to chronic running injuries, the increased use of cushioning and orthotics has done little to decrease running injuries. A new…

  12. Comparison of minimalist footwear strategies for simulating barefoot running: a randomized crossover study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Hollander

    Full Text Available Possible benefits of barefoot running have been widely discussed in recent years. Uncertainty exists about which footwear strategy adequately simulates barefoot running kinematics. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of athletic footwear with different minimalist strategies on running kinematics. Thirty-five distance runners (22 males, 13 females, 27.9 ± 6.2 years, 179.2 ± 8.4 cm, 73.4 ± 12.1 kg, 24.9 ± 10.9 km x week(-1 performed a treadmill protocol at three running velocities (2.22, 2.78 and 3.33 m x s(-1 using four footwear conditions: barefoot, uncushioned minimalist shoes, cushioned minimalist shoes, and standard running shoes. 3D kinematic analysis was performed to determine ankle and knee angles at initial foot-ground contact, rate of rear-foot strikes, stride frequency and step length. Ankle angle at foot strike, step length and stride frequency were significantly influenced by footwear conditions (p<0.001 at all running velocities. Posthoc pairwise comparisons showed significant differences (p<0.001 between running barefoot and all shod situations as well as between the uncushioned minimalistic shoe and both cushioned shoe conditions. The rate of rear-foot strikes was lowest during barefoot running (58.6% at 3.33 m x s(-1, followed by running with uncushioned minimalist shoes (62.9%, cushioned minimalist (88.6% and standard shoes (94.3%. Aside from showing the influence of shod conditions on running kinematics, this study helps to elucidate differences between footwear marked as minimalist shoes and their ability to mimic barefoot running adequately. These findings have implications on the use of footwear applied in future research debating the topic of barefoot or minimalist shoe running.

  13. Running: Improving Form to Reduce Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Running is often perceived as a good option for "getting into shape," with little thought given to the form, or mechanics, of running. However, as many as 79% of all runners will sustain a running-related injury during any given year. If you are a runner-casual or serious-you should be aware that poor running mechanics may contribute to these injuries. A study published in the August 2015 issue of JOSPT reviewed the existing research to determine whether running mechanics could be improved, which could be important in treating running-related injuries and helping injured runners return to pain-free running.

  14. Run-off from roofs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.

    1985-01-01

    In order to find the run-off from roof material a roof has been constructed with two different slopes (30 deg C and 45 deg C). Beryllium-7 and caesium-137 has been used as tracers. Considering new roof material the pollution removed by runoff processes has been shown to be very different for various roof materials. The pollution is much more easily removed from silicon-treated material than from porous red-tile roof material. Caesium is removed more easily than beryllium. The content of caesium in old roof materials is greater in red-tile than in other less-porous materials. However, the measured removal from new material does not correspond to the amount accumulated in the old. This could be explained by weathering and by saturation effects. This last effect is probably the more important. The measurements on old material indicates a removal of 44-86% of the caesium pollution by run-off, whereas the measurement on new showed a removal of only 31-50%. It has been demonstrated that the pollution concentration in the run-off water could be very different from that in rainwater. The work was part of the EEC Radiation Protection Programme and done under a subcontract with Association Euratom-C.E.A. No. SC-014-BIO-F-423-DK(SD) under contract No. BIO-F-423-81-F. (author)

  15. Better in the long run

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Last week, the Chamonix workshop once again proved its worth as a place where all the stakeholders in the LHC can come together, take difficult decisions and reach a consensus on important issues for the future of particle physics. The most important decision we reached last week is to run the LHC for 18 to 24 months at a collision energy of 7 TeV (3.5 TeV per beam). After that, we’ll go into a long shutdown in which we’ll do all the necessary work to allow us to reach the LHC’s design collision energy of 14 TeV for the next run. This means that when beams go back into the LHC later this month, we’ll be entering the longest phase of accelerator operation in CERN’s history, scheduled to take us into summer or autumn 2011. What led us to this conclusion? Firstly, the LHC is unlike any previous CERN machine. Because it is a cryogenic facility, each run is accompanied by lengthy cool-down and warm-up phases. For that reason, CERN’s traditional &...

  16. LHC Report: Positive ion run!

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team

    2011-01-01

    The current LHC ion run has been progressing very well. The first fill with 358 bunches per beam - the maximum number for the year - was on Tuesday, 15 November and was followed by an extended period of steady running. The quality of the beam delivered by the heavy-ion injector chain has been excellent, and this is reflected in both the peak and the integrated luminosity.   The peak luminosity in ATLAS reached 5x1026 cm-2s-1, which is a factor of ~16 more than last year's peak of 3x1025 cm-2s-1. The integrated luminosity in each of ALICE, ATLAS and CMS is now around 100 inverse microbarn, already comfortably over the nominal target for the run. The polarity of the ALICE spectrometer and solenoid magnets was reversed on Monday, 28 November with the aim of delivering another sizeable amount of luminosity in this configuration. On the whole, the LHC has been behaving very well recently, ensuring good machine availability. On Monday evening, however, a faulty level sensor in the cooling towe...

  17. GASIFICATION TEST RUN TC06

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services, Inc.

    2003-08-01

    This report discusses test campaign TC06 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Reactor was operated as a pressurized gasifier during TC06. Test run TC06 was started on July 4, 2001, and completed on September 24, 2001, with an interruption in service between July 25, 2001, and August 19, 2001, due to a filter element failure in the PCD caused by abnormal operating conditions while tuning the main air compressor. The reactor temperature was varied between 1,725 and 1,825 F at pressures from 190 to 230 psig. In TC06, 1,214 hours of solid circulation and 1,025 hours of coal feed were attained with 797 hours of coal feed after the filter element failure. Both reactor and PCD operations were stable during the test run with a stable baseline pressure drop. Due to its length and stability, the TC06 test run provided valuable data necessary to analyze long-term reactor operations and to identify necessary modifications to improve equipment and process performance as well as progressing the goal of many thousands of hours of filter element exposure.

  18. Running jobs in the vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNab, A; Stagni, F; Garcia, M Ubeda

    2014-01-01

    We present a model for the operation of computing nodes at a site using Virtual Machines (VMs), in which VMs are created and contextualized for experiments by the site itself. For the experiment, these VMs appear to be produced spontaneously 'in the vacuum' rather having to ask the site to create each one. This model takes advantage of the existing pilot job frameworks adopted by many experiments. In the Vacuum model, the contextualization process starts a job agent within the VM and real jobs are fetched from the central task queue as normal. An implementation of the Vacuum scheme, Vac, is presented in which a VM factory runs on each physical worker node to create and contextualize its set of VMs. With this system, each node's VM factory can decide which experiments' VMs to run, based on site-wide target shares and on a peer-to-peer protocol in which the site's VM factories query each other to discover which VM types they are running. A property of this system is that there is no gate keeper service, head node, or batch system accepting and then directing jobs to particular worker nodes, avoiding several central points of failure. Finally, we describe tests of the Vac system using jobs from the central LHCb task queue, using the same contextualization procedure for VMs developed by LHCb for Clouds.

  19. Development of an optimal velocity selection method with velocity obstacle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Geuk; Oh, Jun Ho [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    The Velocity obstacle (VO) method is one of the most well-known methods for local path planning, allowing consideration of dynamic obstacles and unexpected obstacles. Typical VO methods separate a velocity map into a collision area and a collision-free area. A robot can avoid collisions by selecting its velocity from within the collision-free area. However, if there are numerous obstacles near a robot, the robot will have very few velocity candidates. In this paper, a method for choosing optimal velocity components using the concept of pass-time and vertical clearance is proposed for the efficient movement of a robot. The pass-time is the time required for a robot to pass by an obstacle. By generating a latticized available velocity map for a robot, each velocity component can be evaluated using a cost function that considers the pass-time and other aspects. From the output of the cost function, even a velocity component that will cause a collision in the future can be chosen as a final velocity if the pass-time is sufficiently long enough.

  20. Run Clever - No difference in risk of injury when comparing progression in running volume and running intensity in recreational runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Daniel; Rasmussen, Sten; Sørensen, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    Background/aim: The Run Clever trial investigated if there was a difference in injury occurrence across two running schedules, focusing on progression in volume of running intensity (Sch-I) or in total running volume (Sch-V). It was hypothesised that 15% more runners with a focus on progression...... in volume of running intensity would sustain an injury compared with runners with a focus on progression in total running volume. Methods: Healthy recreational runners were included and randomly allocated to Sch-I or Sch-V. In the first eight weeks of the 24-week follow-up, all participants (n=839) followed...... participants received real-time, individualised feedback on running intensity and running volume. The primary outcome was running-related injury (RRI). Results: After preconditioning a total of 80 runners sustained an RRI (Sch-I n=36/Sch-V n=44). The cumulative incidence proportion (CIP) in Sch-V (reference...

  1. Measurement of cardiorespiratory fitness in children from two commonly used field tests after accounting for body fatness and maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Michael J; Fraser, Meegan; Lizamore, Catherine A; Draper, Nick; Shearman, Jeremy P; Kimber, Nicholas E

    2014-03-27

    Body fat and maturation both influence cardiorespiratory fitness, however few studies have taken these variables into account when using field tests to predict children's fitness levels. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between two field tests of cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m Maximal Multistage Shuttle Run [20-MST], 550 m distance run [550-m]) and direct measurement of VO2max after adjustment for body fatness and maturity levels. Fifty-three participants (25 boys, 28 girls, age 10.6 ± 1.2 y, mean ± SD) had their body fat levels estimated using bioelectrical impedance (16.6% ± 6.0% and 20.0% ± 5.8% for boys and girls, respectively). Participants performed in random order, the 20-MST and 550-m run followed by a progressive treadmill test to exhaustion during which gas exchange measures were taken. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed that the participants' performance in the 20-MST and 550-m run were highly correlated to VO2max obtained during the treadmill test to exhaustion (r = 0.70 and 0.59 for 20-MST and 550-m run, respectively). Adjusting for body fatness and maturity levels in a multivariate regression analysis increased the associations between the field tests and VO2max (r = 0.73 for 20-MST and 0.65 for 550-m). We may conclude that both the 20-MST and the 550-m distance run are valid field tests of cardiorespiratory fitness in New Zealand 8-13 year old children and incorporating body fatness and maturity levels explains an additional 5-7% of the variance.

  2. Impact of police body armour and equipment on mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Paddy C; Handcock, Phil J; Rehrer, Nancy J

    2013-11-01

    Body armour is used widely by law enforcement and other agencies but has received mixed reviews. This study examined the influence of stab resistant body armour (SRBA) and mandated accessories on physiological responses to, and the performance of, simulated mobility tasks. Fifty-two males (37 ± 9.2 yr, 180.7 ± 6.1 cm, 90.2 ± 11.6 kg, VO2max 50 ± 8.5 ml kg(-1) min(-1), BMI 27.6 ± 3.1, mean ± SD) completed a running VO2max test and task familiarisation. Two experimental sessions were completed (≥4 days in between) in a randomised counterbalanced order, one while wearing SRBA and appointments (loaded) and one without additional load (unloaded). During each session participants performed five mobility tasks: a balance task, an acceleration task that simulated exiting a vehicle, chin-ups, a grappling task, and a manoeuvrability task. A 5-min treadmill run (zero-incline at 13 km·h(-1), running start) was then completed. One min after the run the five mobility tasks were repeated. There was a significant decrease in performance during all tasks with loading (p tasks; completed fewer chin-ups; and had greater physiological cost (↑ %HRmax, ↑ %VO2max, ↑ RER) and perceptual effort (↑ RPE) during the 5-min run. Mean performance decreases ranged from 13 to 42% while loaded, with further decreases of 6-16% noted after the 5-min run. Unloaded task performance was no different between phases. Wearing SRBA and appointments significantly reduced mobility during key task elements and resulted in greater physiological effort. These findings could have consequences for optimal function in the working environment and therefore officer and public safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Control rod velocity limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cearley, J.E.; Carruth, J.C.; Dixon, R.C.; Spencer, S.S.; Zuloaga, J.A. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a velocity control arrangement for a reciprocable, vertically oriented control rod for use in a nuclear reactor in a fluid medium, the control rod including a drive hub secured to and extending from one end therefrom. The control device comprises: a toroidally shaped control member spaced from and coaxially positioned around the hub and secured thereto by a plurality of spaced radial webs thereby providing an annular passage for fluid intermediate the hub and the toroidal member spaced therefrom in coaxial position. The side of the control member toward the control rod has a smooth generally conical surface. The side of the control member away from the control rod is formed with a concave surface constituting a single annular groove. The device also comprises inner and outer annular vanes radially spaced from one another and spaced from the side of the control member away from the control rod and positioned coaxially around and spaced from the hub and secured thereto by spaced radial webs thereby providing an annular passage for fluid intermediate the hub and the vanes. The vanes are angled toward the control member, the outer edge of the inner vane being closer to the control member and the inner edge of the outer vane being closer to the control member. When the control rod moves in the fluid in the direction toward the drive hub the vanes direct a flow of fluid turbulence which provides greater resistance to movement of the control rod in the direction toward the drive hub than in the other direction

  4. Velocity Dispersions Across Bulge Types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabricius, Maximilian; Bender, Ralf; Hopp, Ulrich; Saglia, Roberto; Drory, Niv; Fisher, David

    2010-01-01

    We present first results from a long-slit spectroscopic survey of bulge kinematics in local spiral galaxies. Our optical spectra were obtained at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope with the LRS spectrograph and have a velocity resolution of 45 km/s (σ*), which allows us to resolve the velocity dispersions in the bulge regions of most objects in our sample. We find that the velocity dispersion profiles in morphological classical bulge galaxies are always centrally peaked while the velocity dispersion of morphologically disk-like bulges stays relatively flat towards the center--once strongly barred galaxies are discarded.

  5. LHCb siliicon detectors: the Run 1 to Run 2 transition and first experience of Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Rinnert, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    LHCb is a dedicated experiment to study New Physics in the decays of heavy hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The detector includes a high precision tracking system consisting of a silicon-strip vertex detector (VELO) surrounding the pp interaction region, a large- area silicon-strip detector located upstream of a dipole magnet (TT), and three stations of silicon- strip detectors (IT) and straw drift tubes placed downstream (OT). The operational transition of the silicon detectors VELO, TT and IT from LHC Run 1 to Run 2 and first Run 2 experiences will be presented. During the long shutdown of the LHC the silicon detectors have been maintained in a safe state and operated regularly to validate changes in the control infrastructure, new operational procedures, updates to the alarm systems and monitoring software. In addition, there have been some infrastructure related challenges due to maintenance performed in the vicinity of the silicon detectors that will be discussed. The LHCb silicon dete...

  6. On linear relationship between shock velocity and particle velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dandache, H.

    1986-11-01

    We attempt to derive the linear relationship between shock velocity U s and particle velocity U p from thermodynamic considerations, taking into account an ideal gas equation of state and a Mie-Grueneisen equation of state for solids. 23 refs

  7. Uncertainty assessment of 3D instantaneous velocity model from stack velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuele Maesano, Francesco; D'Ambrogi, Chiara

    2015-04-01

    stack velocities available inside the area, interpolated using the kriging geo-statistical method. The stack velocities are intersected with the position of the horizons in time domain and from this information we build a pseudo-well to calculate the initial velocity and the gradient of increase (or decrease) of velocity with depth inside the considered rock volume. The experiment is aimed to obtain estimation and a representation of the uncertainty related to the geo-statistical interpolation of velocity data in a 3D model and to have an independent control of the final results using the well markers available inside the test area as constraints. The project GeoMol is co-funded by the Alpine Space Program as part of the European Territorial Cooperation 2007-2013. The project integrates partners from Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Slovenia and Switzerland and runs from September 2012 to June 2015. Further information on www.geomol.eu

  8. Barefoot running: does it prevent injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly; Curry, Emily J; Matzkin, Elizabeth G

    2013-11-01

    Endurance running has evolved over the course of millions of years and it is now one of the most popular sports today. However, the risk of stress injury in distance runners is high because of the repetitive ground impact forces exerted. These injuries are not only detrimental to the runner, but also place a burden on the medical community. Preventative measures are essential to decrease the risk of injury within the sport. Common running injuries include patellofemoral pain syndrome, tibial stress fractures, plantar fasciitis, and Achilles tendonitis. Barefoot running, as opposed to shod running (with shoes), has recently received significant attention in both the media and the market place for the potential to promote the healing process, increase performance, and decrease injury rates. However, there is controversy over the use of barefoot running to decrease the overall risk of injury secondary to individual differences in lower extremity alignment, gait patterns, and running biomechanics. While barefoot running may benefit certain types of individuals, differences in running stance and individual biomechanics may actually increase injury risk when transitioning to barefoot running. The purpose of this article is to review the currently available clinical evidence on barefoot running and its effectiveness for preventing injury in the runner. Based on a review of current literature, barefoot running is not a substantiated preventative running measure to reduce injury rates in runners. However, barefoot running utility should be assessed on an athlete-specific basis to determine whether barefoot running will be beneficial.

  9. HTML 5 up and running

    CERN Document Server

    Pilgrim, Mark

    2010-01-01

    If you don't know about the new features available in HTML5, now's the time to find out. This book provides practical information about how and why the latest version of this markup language will significantly change the way you develop for the Web. HTML5 is still evolving, yet browsers such as Safari, Mozilla, Opera, and Chrome already support many of its features -- and mobile browsers are even farther ahead. HTML5: Up & Running carefully guides you though the important changes in this version with lots of hands-on examples, including markup, graphics, and screenshots. You'll learn how to

  10. Inequality in the long run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piketty, Thomas; Saez, Emmanuel

    2014-05-23

    This Review presents basic facts regarding the long-run evolution of income and wealth inequality in Europe and the United States. Income and wealth inequality was very high a century ago, particularly in Europe, but dropped dramatically in the first half of the 20th century. Income inequality has surged back in the United States since the 1970s so that the United States is much more unequal than Europe today. We discuss possible interpretations and lessons for the future. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Electroweak processes at Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Spalla, Margherita; Sestini, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    We present a summary of the studies of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model at LHC after the first year of data taking of Run2, focusing on possible results to be achieved with the analysis of full 2015 and 2016 data. We discuss the measurements of W and Z boson production, with particular attention to the precision determination of basic Standard Model parameters, and the study of multi-boson interactions through the analysis of boson-boson final states. This work is the result of the collaboration between scientists from the ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments.

  12. Running gratings in photoconductive materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukhtarev, N. V.; Kukhtareva, T.; Lyuksyutov, S. F.

    2005-01-01

    Starting from the three-dimensional version of a standard photorefractive model (STPM), we obtain a reduced compact Set of equations for an electric field based on the assumption of a quasi-steady-state fast recombination. The equations are suitable for evaluation of a current induced by running...... gratings at small-contrast approximation and also are applicable for the description of space-charge wave domains. We discuss spatial domain and subharmonic beam formation in bismuth silicon oxide (BSO) crystals in the framework of the small-contrast approximation of STPM. The experimental results...

  13. Google Wave Up and Running

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrate, Andres

    2010-01-01

    Catch Google Wave, the revolutionary Internet protocol and web service that lets you communicate and collaborate in realtime. With this book, you'll understand how Google Wave integrates email, instant messaging (IM), wiki, and social networking functionality into a powerful and extensible platform. You'll also learn how to use its features, customize its functions, and build sophisticated extensions with Google Wave's open APIs and network protocol. Written for everyone -- from non-techies to ninja coders -- Google Wave: Up and Running provides a complete tour of this complex platform. You'

  14. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  15. The PS locomotive runs again

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Over forty years ago, the PS train entered service to steer the magnets of the accelerator into place... ... a service that was resumed last Tuesday. Left to right: Raymond Brown (CERN), Claude Tholomier (D.B.S.), Marcel Genolin (CERN), Gérard Saumade (D.B.S.), Ingo Ruehl (CERN), Olivier Carlier (D.B.S.), Patrick Poisot (D.B.S.), Christian Recour (D.B.S.). It is more than ten years since people at CERN heard the rumbling of the old PS train's steel wheels. Last Tuesday, the locomotive came back into service to be tested. It is nothing like the monstrous steel engines still running on conventional railways -just a small electric battery-driven vehicle employed on installing the magnets for the PS accelerator more than 40 years ago. To do so, it used the tracks that run round the accelerator. In fact, it is the grandfather of the LEP monorail. After PS was commissioned in 1959, the little train was used more and more rarely. This is because magnets never break down, or hardly ever! In fact, the loc...

  16. Introduction to vector velocity imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Udesen, Jesper; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov

    Current ultrasound scanners can only estimate the velocity along the ultrasound beam and this gives rise to the cos() factor on all velocity estimates. This is a major limitation as most vessels are close to perpendicular to the beam. Also the angle varies as a function of space and time making ...

  17. Effect of Minimalist Footwear on Running Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillinov, Stephen M.; Laux, Sara; Kuivila, Thomas; Hass, Daniel; Joy, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although minimalist footwear is increasingly popular among runners, claims that minimalist footwear enhances running biomechanics and efficiency are controversial. Hypothesis: Minimalist and barefoot conditions improve running efficiency when compared with traditional running shoes. Study Design: Randomized crossover trial. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Fifteen experienced runners each completed three 90-second running trials on a treadmill, each trial performed in a different type of footwear: traditional running shoes with a heavily cushioned heel, minimalist running shoes with minimal heel cushioning, and barefoot (socked). High-speed photography was used to determine foot strike, ground contact time, knee angle, and stride cadence with each footwear type. Results: Runners had more rearfoot strikes in traditional shoes (87%) compared with minimalist shoes (67%) and socked (40%) (P = 0.03). Ground contact time was longest in traditional shoes (265.9 ± 10.9 ms) when compared with minimalist shoes (253.4 ± 11.2 ms) and socked (250.6 ± 16.2 ms) (P = 0.005). There was no difference between groups with respect to knee angle (P = 0.37) or stride cadence (P = 0.20). When comparing running socked to running with minimalist running shoes, there were no differences in measures of running efficiency. Conclusion: When compared with running in traditional, cushioned shoes, both barefoot (socked) running and minimalist running shoes produce greater running efficiency in some experienced runners, with a greater tendency toward a midfoot or forefoot strike and a shorter ground contact time. Minimalist shoes closely approximate socked running in the 4 measurements performed. Clinical Relevance: With regard to running efficiency and biomechanics, in some runners, barefoot (socked) and minimalist footwear are preferable to traditional running shoes. PMID:26131304

  18. Effects of a concurrent strength and endurance training on running performance and running economy in recreational marathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrauti, Alexander; Bergermann, Matthias; Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a concurrent strength and endurance training program on running performance and running economy of middle-aged runners during their marathon preparation. Twenty-two (8 women and 14 men) recreational runners (mean ± SD: age 40.0 ± 11.7 years; body mass index 22.6 ± 2.1 kg·m⁻²) were separated into 2 groups (n = 11; combined endurance running and strength training program [ES]: 9 men, 2 women and endurance running [E]: 7 men, and 4 women). Both completed an 8-week intervention period that consisted of either endurance training (E: 276 ± 108 minute running per week) or a combined endurance and strength training program (ES: 240 ± 121-minute running plus 2 strength training sessions per week [120 minutes]). Strength training was focused on trunk (strength endurance program) and leg muscles (high-intensity program). Before and after the intervention, subjects completed an incremental treadmill run and maximal isometric strength tests. The initial values for VO2peak (ES: 52.0 ± 6.1 vs. E: 51.1 ± 7.5 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) and anaerobic threshold (ES: 3.5 ± 0.4 vs. E: 3.4 ± 0.5 m·s⁻¹) were identical in both groups. A significant time × intervention effect was found for maximal isometric force of knee extension (ES: from 4.6 ± 1.4 to 6.2 ± 1.0 N·kg⁻¹, p marathon running velocities (2.4 and 2.8 m·s⁻¹) and submaximal blood lactate thresholds (2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 mmol·L⁻¹). Stride length and stride frequency also remained unchanged. The results suggest no benefits of an 8-week concurrent strength training for running economy and coordination of recreational marathon runners despite a clear improvement in leg strength, maybe because of an insufficient sample size or a short intervention period.

  19. Diffraction imaging and velocity analysis using oriented velocity continuation

    KAUST Repository

    Decker, Luke

    2014-08-05

    We perform seismic diffraction imaging and velocity analysis by separating diffractions from specular reflections and decomposing them into slope components. We image slope components using extrapolation in migration velocity in time-space-slope coordinates. The extrapolation is described by a convection-type partial differential equation and implemented efficiently in the Fourier domain. Synthetic and field data experiments show that the proposed algorithm is able to detect accurate time-migration velocities by automatically measuring the flatness of events in dip-angle gathers.

  20. Running Parallel Discrete Event Simulators on Sierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jefferson, D. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-12-03

    In this proposal we consider porting the ROSS/Charm++ simulator and the discrete event models that run under its control so that they run on the Sierra architecture and make efficient use of the Volta GPUs.

  1. ATLAS inner detector: the Run 1 to Run 2 transition, and first experience from Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Dobos, Daniel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is equipped with a tracking system, the Inner Detector, built using different technologies, silicon planar sensors (pixel and micro-strip) and gaseous drift- tubes, all embedded in a 2T solenoidal magnetic field. For the LHC Run II, the system has been upgraded; taking advantage of the long showdown, the Pixel Detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), a fourth layer of pixel detectors, installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm from the beam axis. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point and the increase of Luminosity that LHC will face in Run-2, a new read-out chip within CMOS 130nm and two different silicon sensor pixel technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. SCT and TRT systems consolidation was also carri...

  2. Adding run history to CLIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Sharon M.; Eick, Christoph F.

    1991-01-01

    To debug a C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) program, certain 'historical' information about a run is needed. It would be convenient for system builders to have the capability to request such information. We will discuss how historical Rete networks can be used for answering questions that help a system builder detect the cause of an error in a CLIPS program. Moreover, the cost of maintaining a historical Rete network is compared with that for a classical Rete network. We will demonstrate that the cost for assertions is only slightly higher for a historical Rete network. The cost for handling retraction could be significantly higher; however, we will show that by using special data structures that rely on hashing, it is also possible to implement retractions efficiently.

  3. Radial velocity asymmetries from jets with variable velocity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerqueira, A. H.; Vasconcelos, M. J.; Velazquez, P. F.; Raga, A. C.; De Colle, F.

    2006-01-01

    We have computed a set of 3-D numerical simulations of radiatively cooling jets including variabilities in both the ejection direction (precession) and the jet velocity (intermittence), using the Yguazu-a code. In order to investigate the effects of jet rotation on the shape of the line profiles, we also introduce an initial toroidal rotation velocity profile. Since the Yguazu-a code includes an atomic/ionic network, we are able to compute the emission coefficients for several emission lines, and we generate line profiles for the Hα, [O I]λ6300, [S II]λ6716 and [N II]λ6548 lines. Using initial parameters that are suitable for the DG Tau microjet, we show that the computed radial velocity shift for the medium-velocity component of the line profile as a function of distance from the jet axis is strikingly similar for rotating and non-rotating jet models

  4. Robotic Bipedal Running : Increasing disturbance rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssen, J.G.D.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the research presented in this thesis is to increase the understanding of the human running gait. The understanding of the human running gait is essential for the development of devices, such as prostheses and orthoses, that enable disabled people to run or that enable able people to

  5. Barefoot running survey: Evidence from the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hryvniak

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Prior studies have found that barefoot running often changes biomechanics compared to shod running with a hypothesized relationship of decreased injuries. This paper reports the result of a survey of 509 runners. The results suggest that a large percentage of this sample of runners experienced benefits or no serious harm from transitioning to barefoot or minimal shoe running.

  6. Comparison of minimalist footwear strategies for simulating barefoot running: a randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Karsten; Argubi-Wollesen, Andreas; Reer, Rüdiger; Zech, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Possible benefits of barefoot running have been widely discussed in recent years. Uncertainty exists about which footwear strategy adequately simulates barefoot running kinematics. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of athletic footwear with different minimalist strategies on running kinematics. Thirty-five distance runners (22 males, 13 females, 27.9 ± 6.2 years, 179.2 ± 8.4 cm, 73.4 ± 12.1 kg, 24.9 ± 10.9 km x week(-1)) performed a treadmill protocol at three running velocities (2.22, 2.78 and 3.33 m x s(-1)) using four footwear conditions: barefoot, uncushioned minimalist shoes, cushioned minimalist shoes, and standard running shoes. 3D kinematic analysis was performed to determine ankle and knee angles at initial foot-ground contact, rate of rear-foot strikes, stride frequency and step length. Ankle angle at foot strike, step length and stride frequency were significantly influenced by footwear conditions (prunning velocities. Posthoc pairwise comparisons showed significant differences (prunning barefoot and all shod situations as well as between the uncushioned minimalistic shoe and both cushioned shoe conditions. The rate of rear-foot strikes was lowest during barefoot running (58.6% at 3.33 m x s(-1)), followed by running with uncushioned minimalist shoes (62.9%), cushioned minimalist (88.6%) and standard shoes (94.3%). Aside from showing the influence of shod conditions on running kinematics, this study helps to elucidate differences between footwear marked as minimalist shoes and their ability to mimic barefoot running adequately. These findings have implications on the use of footwear applied in future research debating the topic of barefoot or minimalist shoe running.

  7. Fractals control in particle's velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongping; Liu Shutang; Shen Shulan

    2009-01-01

    Julia set, a fractal set of the literature of nonlinear physics, has significance for the engineering applications. For example, the fractal structure characteristics of the generalized M-J set could visually reflect the change rule of particle's velocity. According to the real world requirement, the system need show various particle's velocity in some cases. Thus, the control of the nonlinear behavior, i.e., Julia set, has attracted broad attention. In this work, an auxiliary feedback control is introduced to effectively control the Julia set that visually reflects the change rule of particle's velocity. It satisfies the performance requirement of the real world problems.

  8. Southern high-velocity stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augensen, H.J.; Buscombe, W.

    1978-01-01

    Using the model of the Galaxy presented by Eggen, Lynden-Bell and Sandage (1962), plane galactic orbits have been calculated for 800 southern high-velocity stars which possess parallax, proper motion, and radial velocity data. The stars with trigonometric parallaxes were selected from Buscombe and Morris (1958), supplemented by more recent spectroscopic data. Photometric parallaxes from infrared color indices were used for bright red giants studied by Eggen (1970), and for red dwarfs for which Rodgers and Eggen (1974) determined radial velocities. A color-color diagram based on published values of (U-B) and (B-V) for most of these stars is shown. (Auth.)

  9. Water velocity influences prey detection and capture by drift-feeding juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    John J. Piccolo; Nicholas F. Hughes; Mason D. Bryant

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effects of water velocity on prey detection and capture by drift-feeding juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and steelhead (sea-run rainbow trout,Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus) in laboratory experiments. We used repeated-measures analysis of variance to test the effects of velocity, species, and the velocity x species interaction on prey capture...

  10. Prediction Equations of Energy Expenditure in Chinese Youth Based on Step Frequency during Walking and Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Liu, Yu; Li, Jing Xian; Li, Haipeng; Chen, Peijie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study set out to examine the relationship between step frequency and velocity to develop a step frequency-based equation to predict Chinese youth's energy expenditure (EE) during walking and running. Method: A total of 173 boys and girls aged 11 to 18 years old participated in this study. The participants walked and ran on a…

  11. Performance of the SLD Barrel CRID during the 1992 physics data run

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iwasaki, Y.; Suekane, F.; Toge, N.; Yuta, H.; Baird, K.; Jacques, P.; Kalelkar, M.; Plano, R.; Stamer, P.; Word, G.; Bean, A.; Caldwell, D.O.; Duboscq, J.; Huber, J.; Lu, A.; Mathys, L.; McHugh, S.; Yellin, S.; Ben-David, R.; Manly, S.; Snyder, J.; Turk, J.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Colye, P.; Coyne, D.; Liu, X.; Williams, D.A.; Coller, J.; Shank, J.T.; Whitaker, J.S.; d'Oliveira, A.; Johnson, R.A.; Martinez, J.; Meadows, B.; Nussbaum, M.; Santha, A.K.S.; Sokoloff, M.D.; Stockdale, I.; Wilson, R.J.

    1992-11-01

    The SLD Barrel Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector was fully operational in the 1992 physics data run. The electron drift velocity and magnetic field deflection of electron trajectories have been measured. Cherenkov rings have been observed from both the liquid and gas radiators. The number and the resolution of the angle of Cherenkov photons have been measured to be approximately equal to design specifications

  12. Regulation of substrate use during the marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriet, Lawrence L

    2007-01-01

    The energy required to run a marathon is mainly provided through oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria of the active muscles. Small amounts of energy from substrate phosphorylation are also required during transitions and short periods when running speed is increased. The three inputs for adenosine triphosphate production in the mitochondria include oxygen, free adenosine diphosphate and inorganic phosphate, and reducing equivalents. The reducing equivalents are derived from the metabolism of fat and carbohydrate (CHO), which are mobilised from intramuscular stores and also delivered from adipose tissue and liver, respectively. The metabolism of fat and CHO is tightly controlled at several regulatory sites during marathon running. Slower, recreational runners run at 60-65% maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) for approximately 3:45:00 and faster athletes run at 70-75% for approximately 2:45:00. Both groups rely heavily on fat and CHO fuels. However, elite athletes run marathons at speeds requiring between 80% and 90% VO(2max), and finish in times between 2:05:00 and 2:20:00. They are highly adapted to oxidise fat and must do so during training. However, they compete at such high running speeds, that CHO oxidation (also highly adapted) may be the exclusive source of energy while racing. Further work with elite athletes is needed to examine this possibility.

  13. Sound Velocity in Soap Foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Gong-Tao; Lü Yong-Jun; Liu Peng-Fei; Li Yi-Ning; Shi Qing-Fan

    2012-01-01

    The velocity of sound in soap foams at high gas volume fractions is experimentally studied by using the time difference method. It is found that the sound velocities increase with increasing bubble diameter, and asymptotically approach to the value in air when the diameter is larger than 12.5 mm. We propose a simple theoretical model for the sound propagation in a disordered foam. In this model, the attenuation of a sound wave due to the scattering of the bubble wall is equivalently described as the effect of an additional length. This simplicity reasonably reproduces the sound velocity in foams and the predicted results are in good agreement with the experiments. Further measurements indicate that the increase of frequency markedly slows down the sound velocity, whereas the latter does not display a strong dependence on the solution concentration

  14. Settling velocities in batch sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, A.M.; Thompson, B.E.

    1982-10-01

    The sedimentation of mixtures containing one and two sizes of spherical particles (44 and 62 μm in diameter) was studied. Radioactive tracing with 57 Co was used to measure the settling velocities. The ratio of the settling velocity U of uniformly sized particles to the velocity predicted to Stokes' law U 0 was correlated to an expression of the form U/U 0 = epsilon/sup α/, where epsilon is the liquid volume fraction and α is an empirical constant, determined experimentally to be 4.85. No effect of viscosity on the ratio U/U 0 was observed as the viscosity of the liquid medium was varied from 1x10 -3 to 5x10 -3 Pa.s. The settling velocities of particles in a bimodal mixture were fit by the same correlation; the ratio U/U 0 was independent of the concentrations of different-sized particles

  15. Online Wavelet Complementary velocity Estimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righettini, Paolo; Strada, Roberto; KhademOlama, Ehsan; Valilou, Shirin

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a new online Wavelet Complementary velocity Estimator (WCE) over position and acceleration data gathered from an electro hydraulic servo shaking table. This is a batch estimator type that is based on the wavelet filter banks which extract the high and low resolution of data. The proposed complementary estimator combines these two resolutions of velocities which acquired from numerical differentiation and integration of the position and acceleration sensors by considering a fixed moving horizon window as input to wavelet filter. Because of using wavelet filters, it can be implemented in a parallel procedure. By this method the numerical velocity is estimated without having high noise of differentiators, integration drifting bias and with less delay which is suitable for active vibration control in high precision Mechatronics systems by Direct Velocity Feedback (DVF) methods. This method allows us to make velocity sensors with less mechanically moving parts which makes it suitable for fast miniature structures. We have compared this method with Kalman and Butterworth filters over stability, delay and benchmarked them by their long time velocity integration for getting back the initial position data. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mathematical analysis of running performance and world running records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péronnet, F; Thibault, G

    1989-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an empirical model relating human running performance to some characteristics of metabolic energy-yielding processes using A, the capacity of anaerobic metabolism (J/kg); MAP, the maximal aerobic power (W/kg); and E, the reduction in peak aerobic power with the natural logarithm of race duration T, when T greater than TMAP = 420 s. Accordingly, the model developed describes the average power output PT (W/kg) sustained over any T as PT = [S/T(1 - e-T/k2)] + 1/T integral of T O [BMR + B(1 - e-t/k1)]dt where S = A and B = MAP - BMR (basal metabolic rate) when T less than TMAP; and S = A + [Af ln(T/TMAP)] and B = (MAP - BMR) + [E ln(T/TMAP)] when T greater than TMAP; k1 = 30 s and k2 = 20 s are time constants describing the kinetics of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, respectively, at the beginning of exercise; f is a constant describing the reduction in the amount of energy provided from anaerobic metabolism with increasing T; and t is the time from the onset of the race. This model accurately estimates actual power outputs sustained over a wide range of events, e.g., average absolute error between actual and estimated T for men's 1987 world records from 60 m to the marathon = 0.73%. In addition, satisfactory estimations of the metabolic characteristics of world-class male runners were made as follows: A = 1,658 J/kg; MAP = 83.5 ml O2.kg-1.min-1; 83.5% MAP sustained over the marathon distance. Application of the model to analysis of the evolution of A, MAP, and E, and of the progression of men's and women's world records over the years, is presented.

  17. Running Club - Nocturne des Evaux

    CERN Multimedia

    Running club

    2017-01-01

    Les coureurs du CERN sont encore montés sur les plus hautes marches du podium lors de la course interentreprises. Cette course d’équipe qui se déroule de nuit et par équipe de 3 à 4 coureurs est unique dans la région de par son originalité : départ groupé toutes les 30 secondes, les 3 premiers coureurs doivent passer la ligne d’arrivée ensemble. Double victoire pour le running club a la nocturne !!!! 1ère place pour les filles et 22e au classement général; 1ère place pour l'équipe mixte et 4e au général, battant par la même occasion le record de l'épreuve en mixte d'environ 1 minute; 10e place pour l'équipe homme. Retrouvez tous les résultats sur http://www.chp-geneve.ch/web-cms/index.php/nocturne-des-evaux

  18. LHCf completes its first run

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    LHCf, one of the three smaller experiments at the LHC, has completed its first run. The detectors were removed last week and the analysis of data is continuing. The first results will be ready by the end of the year.   One of the two LHCf detectors during the removal operations inside the LHC tunnel. LHCf is made up of two independent detectors located in the tunnel 140 m either side of the ATLAS collision point. The experiment studies the secondary particles created during the head-on collisions in the LHC because they are similar to those created in a cosmic ray shower produced when a cosmic particle hits the Earth’s atmosphere. The focus of the experiment is to compare the various shower models used to estimate the primary energy of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. The energy of proton-proton collisions at the LHC will be equivalent to a cosmic ray of 1017eV hitting the atmosphere, very close to the highest energies observed in the sky. “We have now completed the fir...

  19. Daytime Running Lights. Public Consultation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    The Road Safety Authority is considering the policy options available to promote the use of Daytime Running Lights (DRL), including the possibility of mandating the use of DRL on all vehicles. An EC Directive would make DRL mandatory for new vehicles from 2011 onwards and by 2024 it is predicted that due to the natural replacement of the national fleet, almost all vehicles would be equipped with DRL. The RSA is inviting views on introducing DRL measures earlier, whereby all road vehicles would be required to use either dipped head lights during hours of daylight or dedicated DRL from next year onwards. The use of DRL has been found to enhance the visibility of vehicles, thereby increasing road safety by reducing the number and severity of collisions. This paper explores the benefits of DRL and the implications for all road users including pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists. In order to ensure a comprehensive consideration of all the issues, the Road Safety Authority is seeking the views and advice of interested parties.

  20. Seasonal variations in body composition, maximal oxygen uptake, and gas exchange threshold in cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Metin; Korkmaz Eryılmaz, Selcen; Aydoğan, Sami

    2018-01-01

    In order to ensure that athletes achieve their highest performance levels during competitive seasons, monitoring their long-term performance data is crucial for understanding the impact of ongoing training programs and evaluating training strategies. The present study was thus designed to investigate the variations in body composition, maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2max ), and gas exchange threshold values of cross-country skiers across training phases throughout a season. In total, 15 athletes who participate in international cross-country ski competitions voluntarily took part in this study. The athletes underwent incremental treadmill running tests at 3 different time points over a period of 1 year. The first measurements were obtained in July, during the first preparation period; the second measurements were obtained in October, during the second preparation period; and the third measurements were obtained in February, during the competition period. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), body fat (%), as well as VO 2max values and gas exchange threshold, measured using V-slope method during the incremental running tests, were assessed at all 3 time points. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 20 package software. Significant differences between the measurements were assessed using Friedman's twoway variance analysis with a post hoc option. The athletes' body weights and BMI measurements at the third point were significantly lower compared with the results of the second measurement ( p exchange threshold, running speed at the gas exchange threshold, VO 2max , amount of oxygen consumed at gas exchange threshold level (VO 2GET ), maximal heart rate (HR max ), and heart rate at gas exchange threshold level (HR GET ) values did not significantly differ between the measurement time points ( p >0.05). VO 2max and gas exchange threshold values recorded during the third measurements, the timing of which coincided with the competitive season of the cross-country skiers

  1. Physiological responses of young thoroughbred horses to intermittent high-intensity treadmill training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmura, Hajime; Matsui, Akira; Hada, Tetsuro; Jones, James H

    2013-08-17

    Training of young Thoroughbred horses must balance development of cardiopulmonary function and aerobic capacity with loading of the musculoskeletal system that can potentially cause structural damage and/or lameness. High-speed equine treadmills are sometimes used to supplement exercise on a track in the training of young Thoroughbreds because the horse can run at high speeds but without the added weight of a rider. We tested the hypothesis that intermittent high-intensity exercise on a treadmill of young Thoroughbred horses entering training can enhance development of aerobic capacity (VO2max) and running performance more than conventional training under saddle, and do so without causing lameness. Twelve yearling Thoroughbreds trained for 8 months with conventional riding (C) only, conventional riding plus a short (2 month, S) interval of once-per-week high-intensity treadmill exercise, or a long (8 month, L) interval of once-per-week high-intensity treadmill exercise. Three treadmill exercise tests evaluated VO2max, oxygen transport and running performance variables in June of the yearling year (only for L), October of the yearling year and April of the 2-year-old year. No horses experienced lameness during the study. Aerobic capacity increased in all groups after training. In both October and April, VO2max in L was higher than in C, but did not differ between L and S or S and C. Running speeds eliciting VO2max also increased in all groups after training, with S (809±3 m/s) and L (804±9 m/s) higher than C (764±27 m/s). Maximum heart rate decreased for all groups after training. Hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration increased for L throughout training. Young Thoroughbred horses can increase aerobic capacity and running performance more than by strictly using track training under saddle with the addition of intermittent high-intensity treadmill exercise, and they can do so without experiencing lameness. This finding suggests that young racehorses might be able

  2. A case study of an iron-deficient female Olympic 1500-m runner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedlar, Charles R; Whyte, Gregory P; Burden, Richard; Moore, Brian; Horgan, Gill; Pollock, Noel

    2013-11-01

    This case study examines the impact of low serum ferritin (sFe) on physiological assessment measures and performance in a young female 1500-m runner undertaking approximately 95-130 km/wk training. The study spans 4 race seasons and an Olympic Games. During this period, 25 venous blood samples were analyzed for sFe and hemoglobin (Hb); running economy, VO(2max), and lactate threshold were measured on 6 occasions separated by 8-10 mo. Training was carefully monitored including 65 monitored treadmill training runs (targeting an intensity associated with the onset of blood lactate accumulation) using blood lactate and heart rate. Performances at competitive track events were recorded. All data were compared longitudinally. Mean sFe was 24.5 ± 7.6 μg/L (range 10-47), appearing to be in gradual decline with the exception of 2 data points (37 and 47 μg/L) after parenteral iron injections before championships, when the lowest values tended to occur, coinciding with peak training volumes. Each season, 1500-m performance improved, from 4:12.8 in year 1 to 4:03.5 in year 4. VO(2max) (69.8 ± 2.0 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)) and running economy (%VO(2max) at a fixed speed of 16 km/h; max 87.8%, min 80.3%) were stable across time and lactate threshold improved (from 14 to 15.5 km/h). Evidence of anemia (Hb <12 g/dL) was absent. These unique data demonstrate that in 1 endurance athlete, performance can continue to improve despite an apparent iron deficiency. Raising training volume may have caused increased iron utilization; however, the effect of this on performance is unknown. Iron injections were effective in raising sFe in the short term but did not appear to affect the long-term pattern.

  3. Impact Accelerations of Barefoot and Shod Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M; Seegmiller, J; McGowan, C P

    2016-05-01

    During the ground contact phase of running, the body's mass is rapidly decelerated resulting in forces that propagate through the musculoskeletal system. The repetitive attenuation of these impact forces is thought to contribute to overuse injuries. Modern running shoes are designed to reduce impact forces, with the goal to minimize running related overuse injuries. Additionally, the fore/mid foot strike pattern that is adopted by most individuals when running barefoot may reduce impact force transmission. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of the barefoot running form (fore/mid foot strike & decreased stride length) and running shoes on running kinetics and impact accelerations. 10 healthy, physically active, heel strike runners ran in 3 conditions: shod, barefoot and barefoot while heel striking, during which 3-dimensional motion analysis, ground reaction force and accelerometer data were collected. Shod running was associated with increased ground reaction force and impact peak magnitudes, but decreased impact accelerations, suggesting that the midsole of running shoes helps to attenuate impact forces. Barefoot running exhibited a similar decrease in impact accelerations, as well as decreased impact peak magnitude, which appears to be due to a decrease in stride length and/or a more plantarflexed position at ground contact. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Thermoregulatory responses to skin wetting during prolonged treadmill running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, D R; Nagle, F J; Mookerjee, S; Darr, K C; Ng, A V; Voss, S G; Napp, J P

    1987-02-01

    We examined the physiological responses to skin wetting during a 120-min level treadmill run to assess whether skin wetting would reduce the dehydration and the increase in core temperature associated with prolonged exercise. Testing was conducted in an environmental chamber (T = 29.5 degrees C, wind velocity = 3 m X sec-1) under two different humidity conditions (33 or 66% relative humidity). Ten male subjects performed two runs in each humidity condition; one served as a control run. The other included spraying the body with 50 ml of water (T = 29.5 degrees C) every 10 min. Spraying had no effect on rectal temperature (Tre), heart rate, oxygen consumption, perceived exertion, sweat loss, or percent change in plasma volume in both the humid and the dry conditions. Spraying produced a significant reduction in mean skin temperature (Tsk), which increased the (Tre - Tsk) gradient. At the same time, overall skin conductance (K) was decreased, presumably as a result of cutaneous vasoconstriction due to the low Tsk. Since heat transfer from the body's core to the skin is expressed by the equation: heat transfer = K X (Tre - Tsk) the spraying had no effect on heat transfer away from the core, and Tre remained unchanged.

  5. Physiological characteristics of elite short- and long-distance triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Grégoire P; Dréano, Patrick; Bentley, David J

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the physiological responses in cycling and running of elite short-distance (ShD) and long-distance (LD) triathletes. Fifteen elite male triathletes participating in the World Championships were divided into two groups (ShD and LD) and performed a laboratory trial that comprised submaximal treadmill running, maximal then submaximal ergometry cycling and then an additional submaximal run. "In situ" best ShD triathlon performances were also analysed for each athlete. ShD demonstrated a significantly faster swim time than LD whereas .VO(2max) (ml kg(-1) min(-1)), cycling economy (W l(-1) min(-1)), peak power output (.W(peak),W) and ventilatory threshold (%.VO(2max)) were all similar between ShD and LD. Moreover, there were no differences between the two groups in the change (%) in running economy from the first to the second running bout. Swimming time was correlated to .W(peak)(r=-0.76; Ptriathlon was correlated to .W(peak)(r=-0.83; P<0.05) in LD. In conclusion, ShD triathletes had a faster swimming time but did not exhibit different maximal or submaximal physiological characteristics measured in cycling and running than LD triathletes.

  6. Development and validation of the European Cluster Assimilation Techniques run libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facskó, G.; Gordeev, E.; Palmroth, M.; Honkonen, I.; Janhunen, P.; Sergeev, V.; Kauristie, K.; Milan, S.

    2012-04-01

    The European Commission funded the European Cluster Assimilation Techniques (ECLAT) project as a collaboration of five leader European universities and research institutes. A main contribution of the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) is to provide a wide range global MHD runs with the Grand Unified Magnetosphere Ionosphere Coupling simulation (GUMICS). The runs are divided in two categories: Synthetic runs investigating the extent of solar wind drivers that can influence magnetospheric dynamics, as well as dynamic runs using measured solar wind data as input. Here we consider the first set of runs with synthetic solar wind input. The solar wind density, velocity and the interplanetary magnetic field had different magnitudes and orientations; furthermore two F10.7 flux values were selected for solar radiation minimum and maximum values. The solar wind parameter values were constant such that a constant stable solution was archived. All configurations were run several times with three different (-15°, 0°, +15°) tilt angles in the GSE X-Z plane. The result of the 192 simulations named so called "synthetic run library" were visualized and uploaded to the homepage of the FMI after validation. Here we present details of these runs.

  7. Velocity distribution in snow avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, K.; Ito, Y.

    1997-12-01

    In order to investigate the detailed structure of snow avalanches, we have made snow flow experiments at the Miyanomori ski jump in Sapporo and systematic observations in the Shiai-dani, Kurobe Canyon. In the winter of 1995-1996, a new device to measure static pressures was used to estimate velocities in the snow cloud that develops above the flowing layer of avalanches. Measurements during a large avalanche in the Shiai-dani which damaged and destroyed some instruments indicate velocities increased rapidly to more than 50 m/s soon after the front. Velocities decreased gradually in the following 10 s. Velocities of the lower flowing layer were also calculated by differencing measurement of impact pressure. Both recordings in the snow cloud and in the flowing layer changed with a similar trend and suggest a close interaction between the two layers. In addition, the velocity showed a periodic change. Power spectrum analysis of the impact pressure and the static pressure depression showed a strong peak at a frequency between 4 and 6 Hz, which might imply the existence of either ordered structure or a series of surges in the flow.

  8. A maximal cycle test with good validity and high repeatability in adults of all ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, L; Tolstrup, J S; Larsen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    indirectly in both tests and measured directly in one test. Agreement between the direct measurement and the indirect estimate of VO2max and repeatability of the indirect estimates of VO2max were examined by Bland-Altman plots, limits of agreement (LOA) and coefficient of repeatability (CR). The indirect...... method (mean VO2max=3 132 ml · min(-1)) underestimated VO2max as compared to the direct method (mean VO2max=3 190 ml · min(-1)) in men (bias: 58 ml · min(-1) (95% LOA-450 and 565)) and overestimated VO2max in women (mean VO2max=2 328 vs. 2 258 ml · min(-1), bias: - 70 ml · min(-1) (95% LOA-468 and 328...

  9. Design of ProjectRun21

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsted, Camma; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Sørensen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Participation in half-marathon has been steeply increasing during the past decade. In line, a vast number of half-marathon running schedules has surfaced. Unfortunately, the injury incidence proportion for half-marathoners has been found to exceed 30% during 1-year follow......-up. The majority of running-related injuries are suggested to develop as overuse injuries, which leads to injury if the cumulative training load over one or more training sessions exceeds the runners' load capacity for adaptive tissue repair. Owing to an increase of load capacity along with adaptive running...... the association between running experience or running pace and the risk of running-related injury. METHODS: Healthy runners using Global Positioning System (GPS) watch between 18 and 65 years will be invited to participate in this 14-week prospective cohort study. Runners will be allowed to self-select one...

  10. Velocity Estimate Following Air Data System Failure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McLaren, Scott A

    2008-01-01

    .... A velocity estimator (VEST) algorithm was developed to combine the inertial and wind velocities to provide an estimate of the aircraft's current true velocity to be used for command path gain scheduling and for display in the cockpit...

  11. Should the Air Force Teach Running Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    barefoot running, and gait training techniques. Current research indicates efficiencies in running with a forefoot or midfoot- strike gait, and a...recent retrospective study showed a lower injury rate in forefoot - strike runners as compared with heel- strike runners. However, there are no...barefoot-like” fashion and allows a forefoot or midfoot- strike gait, as opposed to the heel- strike gait style often seen with traditional running

  12. Running-in as an Engineering Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Jamari, Jamari

    2007-01-01

    Running-in is a process which can be found in daily lives. This phenomenon occurs after the start of the contact between fresh solid surfaces, resulting in changes in the surface topography, friction and wear. Before the contacting engineering solid surfaces reach a steady-state operation situation this running-n enhances the contact performance. Running-in is very complex and is a vast problem area. A lot of variable occurs in the running-in process, physically, mechanically or chemically. T...

  13. Run 2 ATLAS Trigger and Detector Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Solovyanov, Oleg; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The 2nd LHC run has started in June 2015 with a proton-proton centre-of-mass collision energy of 13 TeV. During the years 2016 and 2017, LHC delivered an unprecedented amount of luminosity under the ever-increasing challenging conditions in terms of peak luminosity, pile-up and trigger rates. In this talk, the LHC running conditions and the improvements made to the ATLAS experiment in the course of Run 2 will be discussed, and the latest ATLAS detector and ATLAS trigger performance results from the Run 2 will be presented.

  14. How to run ions in the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Küchler, D; Manglunki, D; Scrivens, R

    2014-01-01

    In the light of different running scenarios potential source improvements will be discussed (e.g. one month every year versus two month every other year and impact of the different running options [e.g. an extended ion run] on the source). As the oven refills cause most of the down time the oven design and refilling strategies will be presented. A test stand for off-line developments will be taken into account. Also the implications on the necessary manpower for extended runs will be discussed

  15. ATLAS detector performance in Run1: Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Burghgrave, B; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS operated with an excellent efficiency during the Run 1 data taking period, recording respectively in 2011 and 2012 an integrated luminosity of 5.3 fb-1 at √s = 7 TeV and 21.6 fb-1 at √s = 8TeV. The Liquid Argon and Tile Calorimeter contributed to this effort by operating with a good data quality efficiency, improving over the whole Run 1. This poster presents the Run 1 overall status and performance, LS1 works and Preparations for Run 2.

  16. Cosmic string induced peculiar velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Dalen, A.; Schramm, D.N.

    1987-02-01

    We calculate analytically the probability distribution for peculiar velocities on scales from 10h -1 to 60h -1 Mpc with cosmic string loops as the dominant source of primordial gravitational perturbations. We consider a range of parameters βGμ appropriate for both hot (HDM) and cold (CDM) dark matter scenarios. An Ω = 1 CDM Universe is assumed with the loops randomly placed on a smooth background. It is shown how the effects can be estimated of loops breaking up and being born with a spectrum of sizes. It is found that to obtain large scale streaming velocities of at least 400 km/s it is necessary that either a large value for βGμ or the effect of loop fissioning and production details be considerable. Specifically, for optimal CDM string parameters Gμ = 10 -6 , β = 9, h = .5, and scales of 60h -1 Mpc, the parent size spectrum must be 36 times larger than the evolved daughter spectrum to achieve peculiar velocities of at least 400 km/s with a probability of 63%. With this scenario the microwave background dipole will be less than 800 km/s with only a 10% probability. The string induced velocity spectrum is relatively flat out to scales of about 2t/sub eq//a/sub eq/ and then drops off rather quickly. The flatness is a signature of string models of galaxy formation. With HDM a larger value of βGμ is necessary for galaxy formation since accretion on small scales starts later. Hence, with HDM, the peculiar velocity spectrum will be larger on large scales and the flat region will extend to larger scales. If large scale peculiar velocities greater than 400 km/s are real then it is concluded that strings plus CDM have difficulties. The advantages of strings plus HDM in this regard will be explored in greater detail in a later paper. 27 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  17. Angle independent velocity spectrum determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    An ultrasound imaging system (100) includes a transducer array (102) that emits an ultrasound beam and produces at least one transverse pulse-echo field that oscillates in a direction transverse to the emitted ultrasound beam and that receive echoes produced in response thereto and a spectral vel...... velocity estimator (110) that determines a velocity spectrum for flowing structure, which flows at an angle of 90 degrees and flows at angles less than 90 degrees with respect to the emitted ultrasound beam, based on the received echoes....

  18. Effect of step width manipulation on tibial stress during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meardon, Stacey A; Derrick, Timothy R

    2014-08-22

    Narrow step width has been linked to variables associated with tibial stress fracture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of step width on bone stresses using a standardized model of the tibia. 15 runners ran at their preferred 5k running velocity in three running conditions, preferred step width (PSW) and PSW±5% of leg length. 10 successful trials of force and 3-D motion data were collected. A combination of inverse dynamics, musculoskeletal modeling and beam theory was used to estimate stresses applied to the tibia using subject-specific anthropometrics and motion data. The tibia was modeled as a hollow ellipse. Multivariate analysis revealed that tibial stresses at the distal 1/3 of the tibia differed with step width manipulation (p=0.002). Compression on the posterior and medial aspect of the tibia was inversely related to step width such that as step width increased, compression on the surface of tibia decreased (linear trend p=0.036 and 0.003). Similarly, tension on the anterior surface of the tibia decreased as step width increased (linear trend p=0.029). Widening step width linearly reduced shear stress at all 4 sites (pstresses experienced by the tibia during running were influenced by step width when using a standardized model of the tibia. Wider step widths were generally associated with reduced loading of the tibia and may benefit runners at risk of or experiencing stress injury at the tibia, especially if they present with a crossover running style. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 10-20-30 training increases performance and lowers blood pressure and VEGF in runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliemann, Lasse; Gunnarsson, Thomas P; Hellsten, Ylva; Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-10-01

    The present study examined the effect of training by the 10-20-30 concept on performance, blood pressure (BP), and skeletal muscle angiogenesis as well as the feasibility of completing high-intensity interval training in local running communities. One hundred sixty recreational runners were divided into either a control group (CON; n = 28), or a 10-20-30 training group (10-20-30; n = 132) replacing two of three weekly training sessions with 10-20-30 training for 8 weeks and performance of a 5-km run (5-K) and BP was measured. VO2max was measured and resting muscle biopsies were taken in a subgroup of runners (n = 18). 10-20-30 improved 5-K time (38 s) and lowered systolic BP (2 ± 1 mmHg). For hypertensive subjects in 10-20-30 (n = 30), systolic and diastolic BP was lowered by 5 ± 4 and 3 ± 2 mmHg, respectively, which was a greater reduction than in the non-hypertensive subjects (n = 102). 10-20-30 increased VO2max but did not influence muscle fiber area, distribution or capillarization, whereas the expression of the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was lowered by 22%. No changes were observed in CON. These results suggest that 10-20-30 training is an effective and easily implemented training intervention improving endurance performance, VO2max and lowering BP in recreational runners, but does not affect muscle morphology and reduces muscle VEGF. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Run-away electrons and plasma pinching in a high-current diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanenkov, G.V.

    1984-01-01

    The electrons run-away process in space-confined plasma with current is considered. It has been found that the effect of the proper magnetic field of a current leads to appearance, in add tion to the Dreicer mechanism, of other run-away mechanism in the process of radial oscillations of electrons accelerating near the axis. The appearance of run-away electrons from a thermal velocities region occurs in the course of collisions as well as radial drift. The thresholds of Dreicer run-away and drift are determined. The conditions of formation of Z-pinch current envelope and its collisionless compression by the ''snow plough'' type for the 10-100 ns of high-current accelerator pulse duration are elucidated

  1. Evaluation of bacterial run and tumble motility parameters through trajectory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaomeng; Lu, Nanxi; Chang, Lin-Ching; Nguyen, Thanh H.; Massoudieh, Arash

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a method for extraction of the behavior parameters of bacterial migration based on the run and tumble conceptual model is described. The methodology is applied to the microscopic images representing the motile movement of flagellated Azotobacter vinelandii. The bacterial cells are considered to change direction during both runs and tumbles as is evident from the movement trajectories. An unsupervised cluster analysis was performed to fractionate each bacterial trajectory into run and tumble segments, and then the distribution of parameters for each mode were extracted by fitting mathematical distributions best representing the data. A Gaussian copula was used to model the autocorrelation in swimming velocity. For both run and tumble modes, Gamma distribution was found to fit the marginal velocity best, and Logistic distribution was found to represent better the deviation angle than other distributions considered. For the transition rate distribution, log-logistic distribution and log-normal distribution, respectively, was found to do a better job than the traditionally agreed exponential distribution. A model was then developed to mimic the motility behavior of bacteria at the presence of flow. The model was applied to evaluate its ability to describe observed patterns of bacterial deposition on surfaces in a micro-model experiment with an approach velocity of 200 μm/s. It was found that the model can qualitatively reproduce the attachment results of the micro-model setting.

  2. Tělesné složení jako určující faktor aerobní zdatnosti a tělesné výkonnosti českých dětí Body composition as a determining factor in the aerobic fitness and physical performance of Czech children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Bunc

    2006-02-01

    body composition variables and aerobic fitness (VO2max.kg–1 and parameters of physical performance, ie. calculated total work (CTW and maximal power output (MPO on the treadmill in a group of Czech children and youth. The interdependence between frequently used indicators of aerobic fitness (VO2max.kg–1, CTW, and MPO, and BC (% BF, FFM, BCM and ECM/BCM were studied in a group of 1235 Czech children (756 boys and 479 girls aged from 6 to 14 years. Both aerobic fitness and physical performance variables were assessed by means of an incremental treadmill test with a constant slope of 5%. The age dependent initial speed was increased by 1 km.h–1 till subjective exhaustion. Body composition was determined by whole body bioimpedance measurements using a modified prediction equation for children. The percentage of BF was negatively correlated with VO2max.kg–1, and CTW. Both FFM and BCM were positively related to CTW, MPO, and VO2max.kg–1. The ECM/BCM relationship was negatively related to VO2max.kg–1 and CTW. In conclusion, BC is an important determinant of physical performance in the laboratory (treadmill exercise tests and in the field (running and/or walking tests. The BC parameters significantly influence the variables that could be used for characterisation of aerobic fitness. The results further demonstrate that when oxygen consumption is not feasible, physical performance characteristics together with parameters of BC seem to be a good predictor of aerobic fitness. This may be very helpful in large population studies.

  3. The Impact of Endurance Training on Functional Parameters During the Preparation Phase among Cross-Country Skiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiška Peter

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the study, we have tried to demonstrate the effect of endurance training on changes in functional parameters during the preparation phase (12-week mesocycle among cross-country skiers. The group consisted of 10 male cross-country skiers (age: 21.4 ±5 year who completed control (1st 6 week mesocycle and experimental period (2nd 6 week mesocycle.We focused on the following time-varying parameters: changes in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, the level of aerobic (AeT and anaerobic thresholds (AT, maximum heart rate (HRmax and performance on the running treadmill. The intra-individual monitoring of each athlete revealed statistical significance of VO2max (mid_VO2max = 69.48 ± 5.72 l.kg-1.min-1, post_ VO2max = 70.96 ± 5.67 ml.kg-1.min-1; p≤0.05 and the level of AT (mid_AT = 86.2 ± 5.43 %, post_AT = 87.8 ± 5.59 %; p≤0.01 the performance on the running treadmill (mid_t = 14:54 ± 1:43 min., post_t = 15:30 ± 1:50 min.; p≤0.05.The significant changes were recorded in the AeT(pre_AeT = 70.3 ± 7.56 %, mid_AeT = 72.5 ± 7.59 %; p≤0.05 in theHRmax(pre_HRmax = 190 ± 8.04 bpm, mid_HRmax = 189 bpm, post_HRmax = 188 ± 7.34 bpm; p = n.s. during control period. We assume that the significant differences occurred as a result of adaptation changes due to training stimuli, which were induced by changes in functional parameters. Increased training volume in zone lower level of oxygen regime (A1, upper level of oxygen regime (A2 and upper level of lactate tolerance(T2 during experimental period elicited changes which reflected the increase functional parameters and performance on the running treadmill compared to that of control period.

  4. Responding for sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement: effect of pre-running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W

    2006-01-10

    Six male albino Wistar rats were placed in running wheels and exposed to a fixed interval 30-s schedule that produced either a drop of 15% sucrose solution or the opportunity to run for 15s as reinforcing consequences for lever pressing. Each reinforcer type was signaled by a different stimulus. To assess the effect of pre-running, animals were allowed to run for 1h prior to a session of responding for sucrose and running. Results showed that, after pre-running, response rates in the later segments of the 30-s schedule decreased in the presence of a wheel-running stimulus and increased in the presence of a sucrose stimulus. Wheel-running rates were not affected. Analysis of mean post-reinforcement pauses (PRP) broken down by transitions between successive reinforcers revealed that pre-running lengthened pausing in the presence of the stimulus signaling wheel running and shortened pauses in the presence of the stimulus signaling sucrose. No effect was observed on local response rates. Changes in pausing in the presence of stimuli signaling the two reinforcers were consistent with a decrease in the reinforcing efficacy of wheel running and an increase in the reinforcing efficacy of sucrose. Pre-running decreased motivation to respond for running, but increased motivation to work for food.

  5. ROTATIONAL VELOCITIES FOR M DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, J. S.; Ramsey, L. W.; Jones, H. R. A.; Pavlenko, Y.; Barnes, J. R.; Pinfield, D. J.; Gallardo, J.

    2009-01-01

    We present spectroscopic rotation velocities (v sin i) for 56 M dwarf stars using high-resolution Hobby-Eberly Telescope High Resolution Spectrograph red spectroscopy. In addition, we have also determined photometric effective temperatures, masses, and metallicities ([Fe/H]) for some stars observed here and in the literature where we could acquire accurate parallax measurements and relevant photometry. We have increased the number of known v sin i values for mid M stars by around 80% and can confirm a weakly increasing rotation velocity with decreasing effective temperature. Our sample of v sin is peak at low velocities (∼3 km s -1 ). We find a change in the rotational velocity distribution between early M and late M stars, which is likely due to the changing field topology between partially and fully convective stars. There is also a possible further change in the rotational distribution toward the late M dwarfs where dust begins to play a role in the stellar atmospheres. We also link v sin i to age and show how it can be used to provide mid-M star age limits. When all literature velocities for M dwarfs are added to our sample, there are 198 with v sin i ≤ 10 km s -1 and 124 in the mid-to-late M star regime (M3.0-M9.5) where measuring precision optical radial velocities is difficult. In addition, we also search the spectra for any significant Hα emission or absorption. Forty three percent were found to exhibit such emission and could represent young, active objects with high levels of radial-velocity noise. We acquired two epochs of spectra for the star GJ1253 spread by almost one month and the Hα profile changed from showing no clear signs of emission, to exhibiting a clear emission peak. Four stars in our sample appear to be low-mass binaries (GJ1080, GJ3129, Gl802, and LHS3080), with both GJ3129 and Gl802 exhibiting double Hα emission features. The tables presented here will aid any future M star planet search target selection to extract stars with low v

  6. The Effect of Training in Minimalist Running Shoes on Running Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Sarah T; Standifird, Tyler; Rivera, Jessica; Johnson, A Wayne; Mitchell, Ulrike; Hunter, Iain

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of minimalist running shoes on oxygen uptake during running before and after a 10-week transition from traditional to minimalist running shoes. Twenty-five recreational runners (no previous experience in minimalist running shoes) participated in submaximal VO2 testing at a self-selected pace while wearing traditional and minimalist running shoes. Ten of the 25 runners gradually transitioned to minimalist running shoes over 10 weeks (experimental group), while the other 15 maintained their typical training regimen (control group). All participants repeated submaximal VO2 testing at the end of 10 weeks. Testing included a 3 minute warm-up, 3 minutes of running in the first pair of shoes, and 3 minutes of running in the second pair of shoes. Shoe order was randomized. Average oxygen uptake was calculated during the last minute of running in each condition. The average change from pre- to post-training for the control group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 3.1 ± 15.2% and 2.8 ± 16.2%, respectively. The average change from pre- to post-training for the experimental group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 8.4 ± 7.2% and 10.4 ± 6.9%, respectively. Data were analyzed using a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA. There were no significant interaction effects, but the overall improvement in running economy across time (6.15%) was significant (p = 0.015). Running in minimalist running shoes improves running economy in experienced, traditionally shod runners, but not significantly more than when running in traditional running shoes. Improvement in running economy in both groups, regardless of shoe type, may have been due to compliance with training over the 10-week study period and/or familiarity with testing procedures. Key pointsRunning in minimalist footwear did not result in a change in running economy compared to running in traditional footwear

  7. EnergyPlus Run Time Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Buhl, Fred; Haves, Philip

    2008-09-20

    EnergyPlus is a new generation building performance simulation program offering many new modeling capabilities and more accurate performance calculations integrating building components in sub-hourly time steps. However, EnergyPlus runs much slower than the current generation simulation programs. This has become a major barrier to its widespread adoption by the industry. This paper analyzed EnergyPlus run time from comprehensive perspectives to identify key issues and challenges of speeding up EnergyPlus: studying the historical trends of EnergyPlus run time based on the advancement of computers and code improvements to EnergyPlus, comparing EnergyPlus with DOE-2 to understand and quantify the run time differences, identifying key simulation settings and model features that have significant impacts on run time, and performing code profiling to identify which EnergyPlus subroutines consume the most amount of run time. This paper provides recommendations to improve EnergyPlus run time from the modeler?s perspective and adequate computing platforms. Suggestions of software code and architecture changes to improve EnergyPlus run time based on the code profiling results are also discussed.

  8. Running with technology: Where are we heading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Mueller, Florian 'Floyd'

    2014-01-01

    technique- related information in run-training interfaces. From that finding, this paper presents three questions to be addressed by designers of future run-training interfaces. We believe that addressing these questions will support creation of expedient interfaces that improve runners’ technique...

  9. The Second Student-Run Homeless Shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    From 1983-2011, the Harvard Square Homeless Shelter (HSHS) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, was the only student-run homeless shelter in the United States. However, college students at Villanova, Temple, Drexel, the University of Pennsylvania, and Swarthmore drew upon the HSHS model to open their own student-run homeless shelter in Philadelphia,…

  10. Performance evaluation and financial market runs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, W.B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a model in which performance evaluation causes runs by fund managers and results in asset fire sales. Performance evaluation nonetheless is efficient as it disciplines managers. Optimal performance evaluation combines absolute and relative components in order to make runs less

  11. Impact of Running Away on Girls' Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrane, Lisa E.; Chen, Xiaojin

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of running away on pregnancy in the subsequent year among U.S. adolescents. We also investigated interactions between running away and sexual assault, romance, and school disengagement. Pregnancy among females between 11 and 17 years (n = 6100) was examined utilizing the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add…

  12. Teaching Bank Runs with Classroom Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkenborg, Dieter; Kaplan, Todd; Miller, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Once relegated to cinema or history lectures, bank runs have become a modern phenomenon that captures the interest of students. In this article, the authors explain a simple classroom experiment based on the Diamond-Dybvig model (1983) to demonstrate how a bank run--a seemingly irrational event--can occur rationally. They then present possible…

  13. Training errors and running related injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Østergaard; Buist, Ida; Sørensen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the link between training characteristics (volume, duration, frequency, and intensity) and running related injuries.......The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the link between training characteristics (volume, duration, frequency, and intensity) and running related injuries....

  14. Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David; Nizalova, Olena

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to minimum wages at young ages could lead to adverse longer-run effects via decreased labor market experience and tenure, and diminished education and training, while beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition. Evidence suggests that as individuals reach their late 20s, they earn less the longer…

  15. Long Run Relationship Between Agricultural Production And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study sought to estimate the impact of agricultural production on the long run economic growth in Nigeria using the Vector Error Correction Methodology. The result shows that long run relationship exists between agricultural production and economic growth in Nigeria. Among the variables in the model, crop production ...

  16. Differences in physical fitness and throwing velocity among elite and amateur male handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorostiaga, E M; Granados, C; Ibáñez, J; Izquierdo, M

    2005-04-01

    This study compared physical characteristics (body height, body mass [BM], body fat [BF], and free fatty mass [FFM]), one repetition maximum bench-press (1RM (BP)), jumping explosive strength (VJ), handball throwing velocity, power-load relationship of the leg and arm extensor muscles, 5- and 15-m sprint running time, and running endurance in two handball male teams: elite team, one of the world's leading teams (EM, n = 15) and amateur team, playing in the Spanish National Second Division (AM, n = 15). EM had similar values in body height, BF, VJ, 5- and 15-m sprint running time and running endurance than AM. However, the EM group gave higher values in BM (95.2 +/- 13 kg vs. 82.4 +/- 10 kg, p vs. 72.4 +/- 7 kg, p vs. 83 +/- 10 kg, p vs. 21.8 +/- 1.6 m . s (-1), p vs. 22.9 +/- 1.4 m . s (-1), p individual values of velocity at 30 % of 1RM (BP) and individual values of ball velocity during a standing throw. Significant correlations were observed in EM, but not in AM, between the individual values of velocity during 3-step running throw and the individual values of velocity at 30 % of 1RM (BP) (r = 0.72, p individual values of power at 100 % of body mass during half-squat actions (r = 0.62, p < 0.05). The present results suggest that more muscular and powerful players are at an advantage in handball. The differences observed in free fatty mass could partly explain the differences observed between groups in absolute maximal strength and muscle power. In EM, higher efficiency in handball throwing velocity may be associated with both upper and lower extremity power output capabilities, whereas in AM this relationship may be different. Endurance capacity does not seem to represent a limitation for elite performance in handball.

  17. Fitness effects of 10-month frequent low-volume ball game training or interval running for 8-10-year-old school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malte Nejst; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Ørntoft, Christina Øyangen

    2017-01-01

    performing either 5 × 12 min/wk small-sided football plus other ball games (SSG, n = 62) or interval running (IR, n = 61). Whole-body DXA scans, flamingo balance, standing long-jump, 20 m sprint, and Yo-Yo IR1 children's tests (YYIR1C) were performed before and after the intervention. Mean running velocity...

  18. Orthopaedic Perspective on Barefoot and Minimalist Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jonathan; Neumann, Julie; Tao, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, there has been a movement toward barefoot and minimalist running. Advocates assert that a lack of cushion and support promotes a forefoot or midfoot strike rather than a rearfoot strike, decreasing the impact transient and stress on the hip and knee. Although the change in gait is theorized to decrease injury risk, this concept has not yet been fully elucidated. However, research has shown diminished symptoms of chronic exertional compartment syndrome and anterior knee pain after a transition to minimalist running. Skeptics are concerned that, because of the effects of the natural environment and the lack of a standardized transition program, barefoot running could lead to additional, unforeseen injuries. Studies have shown that, with the transition to minimalist running, there is increased stress on the foot and ankle and risk of repetitive stress injuries. Nonetheless, despite the large gap of evidence-based knowledge on minimalist running, the potential benefits warrant further research and consideration.

  19. Running injuries - changing trends and demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Karl B

    2011-01-01

    Running injuries are common. Recently the demographic has changed, in that most runners in road races are older and injuries now include those more common in master runners. In particular, Achilles/calf injuries, iliotibial band injury, meniscus injury, and muscle injuries to the hamstrings and quadriceps represent higher percentages of the overall injury mix in recent epidemiologic studies compared with earlier ones. Evidence suggests that running mileage and previous injury are important predictors of running injury. Evidence-based research now helps guide the treatment of iliotibial band, patellofemoral syndrome, and Achilles tendinopathy. The use of topical nitroglycerin in tendinopathy and orthotics for the treatment of patellofemoral syndrome has moderate to strong evidence. Thus, more current knowledge about the changing demographics of runners and the application of research to guide treatment and, eventually, prevent running injury offers hope that clinicians can help reduce the high morbidity associated with long-distance running.

  20. Impact of carbohydrate mouth rinsing on time to exhaustion during Ramadan: A randomized controlled trial in Jordanian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataineh, Mo'ath F; Al-Nawaiseh, Ali M; Abu Altaieb, Mohammad H; Bellar, David M; Hindawi, Omar S; Judge, Lawrence W

    2018-04-01

    Mouth rinsing using a carbohydrate (CHO) solution has been suggested to improve physical performance in fasting participants. This study examined the effects of CHO mouth rinsing during Ramadan fasting on running time to exhaustion and on peak treadmill speed (V peak ). In a counterbalanced crossover design, 18 sub-elite male runners (Age: 21 ± 2 years, Weight: 68.1 ± 5.7 kg, VO 2max : 55.4 ± 4.8 ml/kg/min) who observed Ramadan completed a familiarization trial and three experimental trials. The three trials included rinsing and expectorating a 25 mL bolus of either a 7.5% sucrose solution (CHO), a flavour and taste matched placebo solution (PLA) for 10 s, or no rinse (CON). The treatments were performed prior to an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion. Three-day dietary and exercise records were obtained on two occasions and analysed. Anthropometric characteristics were obtained and recorded for all participants. A main effect for mouth rinse on peak velocity (V peak ) (CHO: 17.6 ± 1.5 km/h; PLA: 17.1 ± 1.4 km/h; CON: 16.7 ± 1.2 km/h; P  .05). Energy availability from dietary analysis, body weight, and fat-free mass did not change during the last two weeks of Ramadan (P > .05). This study concludes that carbohydrate mouth rinsing improves running time to exhaustion and peak treadmill speed under Ramadan fasting conditions.

  1. The drift velocity monitoring system of the CMS barrel muon chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Altenhoefer, Georg Friedrich; Heidemann, Carsten Andreas; Reithler, Hans; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel Francois

    2017-01-01

    The drift velocity is a key parameter of drift chambers. Its value depends on several parameters: electric field, pressure, temperature, gas mixture, and contamination, for example, by ambient air. A dedicated Velocity Drift Chamber (VDC) with 1-L volume has been built at the III. Phys. Institute A, RWTH Aachen, in order to monitor the drift velocity of all CMS barrel muon Drift Tube chambers. A system of six VDCs was installed at CMS and has been running since January 2011. We present the VDC monitoring system, its principle of operation, and measurements performed.

  2. The drift velocity monitoring system of the CMS barrel muon chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenhöfer, Georg; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Reithler, Hans; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    The drift velocity is a key parameter of drift chambers. Its value depends on several parameters: electric field, pressure, temperature, gas mixture, and contamination, for example, by ambient air. A dedicated Velocity Drift Chamber (VDC) with 1-L volume has been built at the III. Phys. Institute A, RWTH Aachen, in order to monitor the drift velocity of all CMS barrel muon Drift Tube chambers. A system of six VDCs was installed at CMS and has been running since January 2011. We present the VDC monitoring system, its principle of operation, and measurements performed.

  3. ATLAS strip detector: Operational Experience and Run1 → Run2 transition

    CERN Document Server

    NAGAI, K; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS SCT operational experience and the detector performance during the RUN1 period of LHC will be reported. Additionally the preparation outward to RUN2 during the long shut down 1 will be mentioned.

  4. Excessive Progression in Weekly Running Distance and Risk of Running-related Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R.O.; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2014-01-01

    Study Design An explorative, 1-year prospective cohort study. Objective To examine whether an association between a sudden change in weekly running distance and running-related injury varies according to injury type. Background It is widely accepted that a sudden increase in running distance...... is strongly related to injury in runners. But the scientific knowledge supporting this assumption is limited. Methods A volunteer sample of 874 healthy novice runners who started a self-structured running regimen were provided a global-positioning-system watch. After each running session during the study...... period, participants were categorized into 1 of the following exposure groups, based on the progression of their weekly running distance: less than 10% or regression, 10% to 30%, or more than 30%. The primary outcome was running-related injury. Results A total of 202 runners sustained a running...

  5. Muscle Damage and Metabolic Responses to Repeated-Sprint Running With and Without Deceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minahan, Clare L; Poke, Daniel P; Morrison, Jaime; Bellinger, Phillip M

    2018-04-04

    Minahan, CL, Poke, DP, Morrison, J, and Bellinger, PM. Muscle damage and metabolic responses to repeated-sprint running with and without deceleration. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-This study aimed to determine whether repeated-sprint running with deceleration aggravates markers of muscle damage or delays the recovery of performance compared with repeated-sprint running without deceleration. Fourteen male team-sport athletes performed 2 randomly ordered testing sessions on a nonmotorized treadmill with one session requiring participants to decelerate (TMd) within 4 seconds before stopping or immediately step to the side of the treadmill belt at the completion of each sprint (TMa). Peak and mean velocities, speed decrement, blood lactate concentrations, and oxygen uptake were monitored during the repeated-sprint running protocols. Countermovement vertical jump (CMJ) performance, perceived muscle soreness, sit-and-reach flexibility, plasma creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and myoglobin (Mb) concentrations were quantified immediately before and after and 45 minutes, 24 and 48 hours after repeated-sprint running protocols. Although muscle damage was indicated by increases in CK, LDH, and Mb (p ≤ 0.05) in both groups, there was no significant effect of condition (TMa vs. TMd) on any of the measured performance or physiological variables (p > 0.05). The present study indicated that the removal of deceleration from repeated-sprint running on a nonmotorized treadmill has no effect on metabolism or performance during or after repeated-sprint running or markers of muscle damage.

  6. Optimal velocity in the race over variable slope trace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroński, Ryszard; Samoraj, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The minimum-time running problem is reconsidered. The time of covering a given distance is minimized. The function that should be found is the runner's velocity that varies with the distance. The Hill-Keller model of motion is employed. It is based on the Newton second law and an equation of power balance. The new element of the current approach is that the trace slope angle varies with the distance. The problem is formulated and solved in optimal control applying the Chebyshev direct pseudospectral method. The essential finding is that the optimal velocity during the cruise is constant regardless of the local slope of the terrain. Such result is valid if the inequality constraints imposed on the propulsive force or the energy are not active.

  7. Rocker shoe, minimalist shoe, and standard running shoe : A comparison of running economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobhani, Sobhan; Bredeweg, Steven; Dekker, Rienk; Kluitenberg, Bas; van den Heuvel, Edwin; Hijmans, Juha; Postema, Klaas

    Objectives: Running with rocker shoes is believed to prevent lower limb injuries. However, it is not clear how running in these shoes affects the energy expenditure. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to assess the effects of rocker shoes on running economy in comparison with standard and

  8. Comparison of different volumes of high intensity interval training on cardiac autonomic function in sedentary young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhati, Pooja; Bansal, Vishal; Moiz, Jamal Ali

    2017-08-24

    Purpose The present study was conducted to compare the effects of low volume of high intensity interval training (LVHIIT) and high volume of high intensity interval training (HVHIIT) on heart rate variability (HRV) as a primary outcome measure, and on maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), body composition, and lower limb muscle strength as secondary outcome measures, in sedentary young women. Methods Thirty-six participants were recruited in this study. The LVHIIT group (n = 17) performed one 4-min bout of treadmill running at 85%-95% maximum heart rate (HRmax), followed by 3 min of recovery by running at 70% HRmax, three times per week for 6 weeks. The HVHIIT group (n = 15) performed four times 4-min bouts of treadmill running at 85%-95% HRmax, interspersed with 3-min of recovery by running at 70% HRmax, 3 times per week for 6 weeks. All criterion measures were measured before and after training in both the groups. Results Due to attrition of four cases, data of 32 participants was used for analysis. A significant increase in high frequency (HF) power (p high frequency power (LF/HF) ratio (p body composition, and muscle strength. Conclusion The study results suggest that both LVHIIT and HVHIIT are equally effective in improving VO2max, body composition, and muscle strength, in sedentary young women. However, HVHIIT induces parasympathetic dominance as well, as measured by HRV.

  9. Run-up of tsunamis and long waves in terms of surf-similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.

    2008-01-01

    of the surf-similarity parameter and the amplitude to depth ratio determined at some offshore location. We use the analytical expressions to analyze the impact of tsunamis on beaches and relate the discussion to the recent Indian Ocean tsunami from December 26, 2004. An important conclusion is that extreme...... run-up combined with extreme flow velocities occurs for surf-similarity parameters of the order 3-6, and for typical tsunami wave periods this requires relatively mild beach slopes. Next, we compare the theoretical solutions to measured run-up of breaking and non-breaking irregular waves on steep...

  10. The effect of shoe type on gait in forefoot strike runners during a 50-km run

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Kasmer

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: More runners adopted a more posterior initial contact area after the 50-km run in the traditional shoe type than in the minimalist shoe type. The runners who adopted a more posterior initial contact area were more closely associated with an increased median frequency of the medial gastrocnemius, which suggests there may be a change in motor unit recruitment pattern during long-distance, sustained velocity running. The increased peak pressures observed in the medial forefoot in the minimalist shoe type may predispose to metatarsal stress fractures in the setting of improper training.

  11. The effect of footwear on running performance and running economy in distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Joel T; Bellenger, Clint R; Thewlis, Dominic; Tsiros, Margarita D; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2015-03-01

    The effect of footwear on running economy has been investigated in numerous studies. However, no systematic review and meta-analysis has synthesised the available literature and the effect of footwear on running performance is not known. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of footwear on running performance and running economy in distance runners, by reviewing controlled trials that compare different footwear conditions or compare footwear with barefoot. The Web of Science, Scopus, MEDLINE, CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), EMBASE, AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine), CINAHL and SPORTDiscus databases were searched from inception up until April 2014. Included articles reported on controlled trials that examined the effects of footwear or footwear characteristics (including shoe mass, cushioning, motion control, longitudinal bending stiffness, midsole viscoelasticity, drop height and comfort) on running performance or running economy and were published in a peer-reviewed journal. Of the 1,044 records retrieved, 19 studies were included in the systematic review and 14 studies were included in the meta-analysis. No studies were identified that reported effects on running performance. Individual studies reported significant, but trivial, beneficial effects on running economy for comfortable and stiff-soled shoes [standardised mean difference (SMD) beneficial effect on running economy for cushioned shoes (SMD = 0.37; P beneficial effect on running economy for training in minimalist shoes (SMD = 0.79; P beneficial effects on running economy for light shoes and barefoot compared with heavy shoes (SMD running was identified (P running economy. Certain models of footwear and footwear characteristics can improve running economy. Future research in footwear performance should include measures of running performance.

  12. CMB constraints on running non-Gaussianity

    OpenAIRE

    Oppizzi, Filippo; Liguori, Michele; Renzi, Alessandro; Arroja, Frederico; Bartolo, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    We develop a complete set of tools for CMB forecasting, simulation and estimation of primordial running bispectra, arising from a variety of curvaton and single-field (DBI) models of Inflation. We validate our pipeline using mock CMB running non-Gaussianity realizations and test it on real data by obtaining experimental constraints on the $f_{\\rm NL}$ running spectral index, $n_{\\rm NG}$, using WMAP 9-year data. Our final bounds (68\\% C.L.) read $-0.3< n_{\\rm NG}

  13. Running Injuries During Adolescence and Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabak, Brian J; Snitily, Brian; Milani, Carlo J E

    2016-02-01

    The popularity of running among young athletes has significantly increased over the past few decades. As the number of children who participate in running increases, so do the potential number of injuries to this group. Proper care of these athletes includes a thorough understanding of the unique physiology of the skeletally immature athlete and common injuries in this age group. Treatment should focus on athlete education, modification of training schedule, and correction of biomechanical deficits contributing to injury. Early identification and correction of these factors will allow a safe return to running sports. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. ATLAS Strip Detector: Operational Experience and Run1-> Run2 Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Nagai, Koichi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Large hadron collider was operated very successfully during the Run1 and provided a lot of opportunities of physics studies. It currently has a consolidation work toward to the operation at $\\sqrt{s}=14 \\mathrm{TeV}$ in Run2. The ATLAS experiment has achieved excellent performance in Run1 operation, delivering remarkable physics results. The SemiConductor Tracker contributed to the precise measurement of momentum of charged particles. This paper describes the operation experience of the SemiConductor Tracker in Run1 and the preparation toward to the Run2 operation during the LS1.

  15. Electricity prices and fuel costs. Long-run relations and short-run dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Hassan

    2009-01-01

    The paper examines the long-run relation and short-run dynamics between electricity prices and three fossil fuel prices - coal, natural gas and crude oil - using annual data for the U.S. for 1960-2007. The results suggest (1) a stable long-run relation between real prices for electricity and coal (2) Bi-directional long-run causality between coal and electricity prices. (3) Insignificant long-run relations between electricity and crude oil and/or natural gas prices. And (4) no evidence of asymmetries in the adjustment of electricity prices to deviations from equilibrium. A number of implications are addressed. (author)

  16. Relationship between lower limbs kinematic variables and effectiveness of sprint during maximum velocity phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzik, Artur; Konieczny, Grzegorz; Grzesik, Kamila; Stawarz, Mateusz; Winiarski, Sławomir; Rokita, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the relationships between time of running over a 15-25 m section of a 30-meter run along a straight line and changes in the angle and angular velocity observed in ankle, knee and hip joints. Therefore, the authors attempted to answer the question of whether a technique of lower limbs movement during the phase of sprint maximum velocity significantly correlates with the time of running over this section. A group of 14 young people from the Lower Silesia Voivodeship Team participated in the experiment. A Fusion Smart Speed System was employed for running time measurements. The kinematic data were recorded using Noraxon MyoMotion system. There were observed statistically significant relationships between sprint time over a section from 15 to 25 m and left hip rotation (positive) and between this time and left and right ankle joint dorsi-plantar flexion (negative). During the maximum velocity phase of a 30 m sprint, the effect of dorsi-plantar flexion performed in the whole range of motion was found to be beneficial. This can be attributed to the use of elastic energy released in the stride cycle. Further, hip rotation should be minimized, which makes the stride aligned more along a line of running (a straight line) instead of from side to side.

  17. Exercise increases blood flow to locomotor, vestibular, cardiorespiratory and visual regions of the brain in miniature swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, M. D.; Armstrong, R. B.; Godfrey, D. A.; Laughlin, M. H.; Ross, C. D.; Wilkerson, M. K.

    2001-01-01

    1. The purpose of these experiments was to use radiolabelled microspheres to measure blood flow distribution within the brain, and in particular to areas associated with motor function, maintenance of equilibrium, cardiorespiratory control, vision, hearing and smell, at rest and during exercise in miniature swine. Exercise consisted of steady-state treadmill running at intensities eliciting 70 and 100 % maximal oxygen consumption (V(O(2),max)). 2. Mean arterial pressure was elevated by 17 and 26 % above that at rest during exercise at 70 and 100 % V(O(2),max), respectively. 3. Mean brain blood flow increased 24 and 25 % at 70 and 100 % V(O(2),max), respectively. Blood flow was not locally elevated to cortical regions associated with motor and somatosensory functions during exercise, but was increased to several subcortical areas that are involved in the control of locomotion. 4. Exercise elevated perfusion and diminished vascular resistance in several regions of the brain related to the maintenance of equilibrium (vestibular nuclear area, cerebellar ventral vermis and floccular lobe), cardiorespiratory control (medulla and pons), and vision (dorsal occipital cortex, superior colliculi and lateral geniculate body). Conversely, blood flow to regions related to hearing (cochlear nuclei, inferior colliculi and temporal cortex) and smell (olfactory bulbs and rhinencephalon) were unaltered by exercise and associated with increases in vascular resistance. 5. The data indicate that blood flow increases as a function of exercise intensity to several areas of the brain associated with integrating sensory input and motor output (anterior and dorsal cerebellar vermis) and the maintenance of equilibrium (vestibular nuclei). Additionally, there was an intensity-dependent decrease of vascular resistance in the dorsal cerebellar vermis.

  18. Higher cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in males could not be attributed to physical activity, sports practice or sedentary behavior in young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Henrique Constantino Coledam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to analyze if the association between sex with cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness is independent of physical activity, sports practice and sedentary behavior in young people. A cross-sectional study involving 729 participants aged 10 to 17 years. Physical activity, sports practice and sedentary behavior were assessed through a questionnaire. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using 20m shuttle run test and were analyzed: VO2max, number of laps and health-related criteria. Muscular fitness was assessed with 90o push-up test and number of repetition and health-related criteria was analyzed. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate β coeficients and Poisson regression estimated prevalence ratios (PR. Male sex was associated to higher cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max β = 9.04 to 9.77, Laps PR=1.67 to 1.80, health-related criteria PR=2.03 to 2.09 and the same occurred with muscular fitness (repetitions PR=2.81 to 3.01, health-related criteria PR=1.91 to 2.09. Similarly, the stratification of the sample according to physical activity, sports practice and sedentary behavior did not change the associations between sex with cardiorespiratory (VO2max β=8.07 to 10.00, Laps PR=1.49 to 1.85, health-related criteria PR=1.64 to 2.27 and muscular fitness (repetitions PR=2.24 to 3.22, health-related criteria PR=1.76 to 2.06. These data suggest that higher cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in males could not be attributed to physical activity, sports practice or sedentary behavior in young people.

  19. Positional differences in the cardiorespiratory, autonomic, and somatic profiles of professional soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Semjon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to optimize training in soccer, knowledge about the specific position fitness demands and characteristics is required. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine whether there are position specific differences in somatic, cardiorespiratory and autonomic cardiac profiles of professional senior Czech soccer players. Methods: All players (N = 120 were divided into six groups according to field positions: goalkeeper (GK; n = 11, external defenders (ED; n = 15, central defenders (CD; n = 18, external midfielders (EM; n = 18, central midfielders (CM; n = 24 and forwards (F; n = 34. Players underwent anthropometrical and heart rate variability (HRV assessment, and a maximal incremental running test in order to obtain maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max and heart rate. HRV variables were transformed using the natural logarithm (Ln. Results: GK and CD were significantly (p = .005 heavier than ED, EM, CM, and F; while F were significantly (p = .026 heavier than CM and EM. GK and CD were significantly (p = .008 taller than ED, EM, CM, F; and EM were significantly (p = .041 shorter than CM and F. The only significant (p = .043 difference in percentage of body fat was observed in CD compared with CM. A significantly (p = .021 lower VO2max was observed for GK compared with ED, CD, EM, CM, and F. Supine HRV was significantly (p = .039 lower for Ln LF/HF in GK compared with F. Standing HRV was significantly (p = .03 lower for Ln LF in CD compared with both ED and F, significantly (p = .028 higher for Ln LF/HF in ED compared with CD and EM. Conclusions: In soccer, specific positions are associated with different height, body mass and aerobic capacity. A lower VO2max and vagal activity in GK compared with other playing positions may not be considered as disadvantage for performance in this specific playing position.

  20. Efficacy of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal) in improving cardiorespiratory endurance in healthy athletic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Bakhtiar; Shetty, A; Langade, Deepak G

    2015-01-01

    Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal) has been traditionally used for various actions ranging from vitalizer, improve endurance and stamina, promote longevity, improve immunity, and male and female fertility. However, clinical studies are needed to prove the clinical efficacy of this herb, especially in cardiovascular endurance and physical performance. This prospective, double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy of Ashwagandha roots extract in enhancing cardiorespiratory endurance and improving the quality of life (QOL) in 50 healthy male/female athletic adults. Cardiorespiratory endurance was assessed by measuring the oxygen consumption at peak physical exertion (VO2 max) levels during a 20 m shuttle run test. The World Health Organization self-reported QOL questionnaire (physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environmental factors) was used to assess the QOL. Student's t-test was used to compare the differences in a mean and change from baseline VO2 max levels, whereas Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to assess changes in QOL scores from baseline in the two groups. There was a greater increase from baseline (P < 0.0001) in the mean VO2 max with KSM-66 Ashwagandha (n = 24) compared to placebo (n = 25) at 8 weeks (4.91 and 1.42, respectively) and at 12 weeks (5.67 and 1.86 respectively). The QOL scores for all subdomains significantly improved to a greater extent in the Ashwagandha group at 12 weeks compared to placebo (P < 0.05). The findings suggest that Ashwagandha root extract enhances the cardiorespiratory endurance and improves QOL in healthy athletic adults.

  1. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M.; Hand, Taryn M.; Larson-Meyer, D. Enette; Austin, Kathleen J.; Alexander, Brenda M.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2016-01-01

    In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18–40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX) treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline), immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3–36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS) were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014) and PYY3–36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively), also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance. PMID:27096869

  2. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M; Hand, Taryn M; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Austin, Kathleen J; Alexander, Brenda M; Manore, Melinda M

    2016-04-18

    In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18-40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX) treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline), immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3-36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS) were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014) and PYY3-36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p exercise, indicating appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively), also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance.

  3. Muscle Fiber Characteristics, Satellite Cells and Soccer Performance in Young Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas I. Metaxas, Athanasios Mandroukas, Efstratios Vamvakoudis, Kostas Kotoglou, Björn Ekblom, Konstantinos Mandroukas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to examine the muscle fiber type, composition and satellite cells in young male soccer players and to correlate them to cardiorespiratory indices and muscle strength. The participants formed three Groups: Group A (n = 13, 11.2 ± 0.4yrs, Group B (n=10, 13.1 ± 0.5yrs and Group C (n = 9, 15.2 ± 0.6yrs. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis. Peak torque values of the quadriceps and hamstrings were recorded and VO2max was measured on the treadmill. Group C had lower type I percentage distribution compared to A by 21.3% (p < 0.01, while the type IIA relative percentage was higher by 18.1% and 18.4% than in Groups A and B (p < 0.05. Groups B and C had higher cross-sectional area (CSA values in all fiber types than in Group A (0.05 < p < 0.001. The number of satellite cells did not differ between the groups. Groups B and C had higher peak torque at all angular velocities and absolute VO2max in terms of ml·min-1 than Group A (0.05 < p < 0.001. It is concluded that the increased percentage of type IIA muscle fibers noticed in Group C in comparison to the Groups A and B should be mainly attributed to the different workload exercise and training programs. The alteration of myosin heavy chain (MHC isoforms composition even in children is an important mechanism for skeletal muscle characteristics. Finally, CSA, isokinetic muscle strength and VO2max values seems to be expressed according to age.

  4. Common running musculoskeletal injuries among recreational half ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    probing the prevalence and nature of running musculoskeletal injuries in the 12 months preceding ... or agony, and which prevented them from physical activity for ..... injuries to professional football players: Developing the UEFA model.

  5. TEK twisted gradient flow running coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Margarita García; Keegan, Liam; Okawa, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    We measure the running of the twisted gradient flow coupling in the Twisted Eguchi-Kawai (TEK) model, the SU(N) gauge theory on a single site lattice with twisted boundary conditions in the large N limit.

  6. Orthotic intervention in forefoot and rearfoot strike running patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, Carrie Laughton; Davis, Irene McClay; Hamill, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    To compare the differential effect of custom orthoses on the lower extremity mechanics of a forefoot and rearfoot strike pattern. Fifteen subjects ran with both a forefoot and a rearfoot strike pattern with and without orthoses. Lower extremity kinematic and kinetic variables were compared between strike pattern and orthotic conditions. Foot orthoses have been shown to be effective in controlling excessive rearfoot motion in rearfoot strikers. The effect of orthotic intervention on rearfoot motion in forefoot strikers has not been previously reported. Five trials were collected for each condition. Peak rearfoot eversion, eversion excursion, eversion velocity, peak inversion moment, and inversion work were compared between conditions. Kinematic variables in the sagittal plane of the rearfoot and in the frontal and sagittal plane of the knee were also determined. Increased rearfoot excursions and velocities and decreased peak eversion were noted in the forefoot strike pattern compared to the rearfoot strike pattern. Orthotic intervention, however,did not significantly change rearfoot motion in either strike pattern. Reductions in internal rotation and abduction of the knee were noted with orthotic intervention. Foot orthoses do not differentially effect rearfoot motion of a rearfoot strike and a forefoot strike running pattern. Orthotic intervention has a larger and more systematic effect on rearfoot kinetics compared to rearfoot kinematics.

  7. Run-2 Supersymmetry searches in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Soffer, Abner; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Despite the absence of experimental evidence, weak scale supersymmetry remains one of the best motivated and studied Standard Model extensions. With the large increase in collision energy with the LHC Run-2 (from 8TeV to 13 TeV) the sensitivity to heavy strongly produced SUSY particles (squarks and gluinos) increases tremendously. This talk presents recent ATLAS Run-2 searches for such particles in final states including jets, missing transverse momentum, and possibly light leptons.

  8. Running heavy-quark masses in DIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekhin, S.; Moch, S.

    2011-07-01

    We report on determinations of the running mass for charm quarks from deep-inelastic scattering reactions. The method provides complementary information on this fundamental parameter from hadronic processes with space-like kinematics. The obtained values are consistent with but systematically lower than the world average as published by the PDG. We also address the consequences of the running mass scheme for heavy-quark parton distributions in global fits to deep-inelastic scattering data. (orig.)

  9. The meaning of running away for girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Einat; Cohavi, Ayelet

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this qualitative research was to understand how runaway girls perceive the processes involved in leaving home and the meaning they attribute to it. Findings are based on in-depth interviews with 10 Israeli girls aged 13-17 with a history of running away from home. The meaning of running away as it emerged from the girls' descriptions of their lives prior to leaving home was that of survival - both psychological and physical. The girls' stories centered on their evolving experiences of alienation, loneliness and detachment, and the failure of significant relationships at home and outside of home to provide them with the support they needed. These experiences laid the ground for the "final moments" before leaving, when a feeling of "no alternative," a hope for a better future, and various particular triggers led the girls to the decision to leave home. Participants' insights about the dynamics leading to running-away center on the meaning of family relationships, particularly those with the mother, as constituting the girl's psychological home. The girls seemed to perceive running away as an inevitability, rather than a choice, and even portrayed the running away as "living suicide." Yet, their stories clearly demonstrate their ability to cope and the possession of strengths and skills that enabled them to survive in extremely difficult home situations. The findings of this research highlight the importance of improving services for reaching out and supporting girls who are on the verge of running away from home. Such services should be tailored to the needs of girls who experience extreme but often silenced distress at home, and should facilitate alternative solutions to the girls' plight other than running away. An understanding of the dynamics leading to running away from the girls' perspective has the potential to improve the efficacy of services provided by contributing to the creation of a caring, empowering, understanding and trustful professional

  10. The risks and benefits of running barefoot or in minimalist shoes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kyle P; Hanney, William J; Rothschild, Carey E

    2014-11-01

    The popularity of running barefoot or in minimalist shoes has recently increased because of claims of injury prevention, enhanced running efficiency, and improved performance compared with running in shoes. Potential risks and benefits of running barefoot or in minimalist shoes have yet to be clearly defined. To determine the methodological quality and level of evidence pertaining to the risks and benefits of running barefoot or in minimalist shoes. In September 2013, a comprehensive search of the Ovid MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL databases was performed by 2 independent reviewers. Included articles were obtained from peer-reviewed journals in the English language with no limit for year of publication. Final inclusion criteria required at least 1 of the following outcome variables: pain, injury rate, running economy, joint forces, running velocity, electromyography, muscle performance, or edema. Systematic review. Level 3. Two reviewers appraised each article using the Downs and Black checklist and appraised each for level of evidence. Twenty-three articles met the criteria for this review. Of 27 possible points on the Downs and Black checklist, articles scored between 13 and 19 points, indicating a range of evidence from very limited to moderate. Moderate evidence supports the following biomechanical differences when running barefoot versus in shoes: overall less maximum vertical ground reaction forces, less extension moment and power absorption at the knee, less foot and ankle dorsiflexion at ground contact, less ground contact time, shorter stride length, increased stride frequency, and increased knee flexion at ground contact. Because of lack of high-quality evidence, no definitive conclusions can be drawn regarding specific risks or benefits to running barefoot, shod, or in minimalist shoes.

  11. Effect of different cycling frequencies during incremental exercise on the venous plasma potassium concentration in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, J A; Duda, K; Majerczak, J; Thor, P

    2002-01-01

    The effect of different muscle shortening velocity was studied during cycling at a pedalling rate of 60 and 120 rev.min(-1) on the [K+]v in humans. Twenty-one healthy young men aged 22.5+/-2.2 years, body mass 72.7+/-6.4 kg, VO2 max 3.720+/-0.426 l. min(-1), performed an incremental exercise test until exhaustion. The power output increased by 30 W every 3 min, using an electrically controlled ergometer Ergoline 800 S (see Zoladz et al. J. Physiol. 488: 211-217, 1995). The test was performed twice: once at a cycling frequency of 60 rev.min(-1) (test A) and a few days later at a frequency of 120 rev. min(-1) (test B). At rest and at the end of each step (i.e. the last 15 s) antecubital venous blood samples for [K+]p were taken. Gas exchange variables were measured continuously (breath-by-breath) using Oxycon Champion Jaeger. The pre-exercise [K+]v in both tests was not significantly different amounting to 4.24+/-0.36 mmol.l(-1) in test A, and 4.37+/-0.45 mmol.l(-1) in test B. However, the [K+]p during cycling at 120 rev. min(-1) was significantly higher (p<0.001, ANOVA for repeated measurements) at each power output when compared to cycling at 60 rev.min(-1). The maximal power output reached 293+/-31 W in test A which was significantly higher (p<0.001) than in test B, which amounted to 223+/-40 W. The VO2max values in both tests reached 3.720+/-0.426 l. min(-1) vs 3.777+/-0.514 l. min(-1). These values were not significantly different. When the [K+]v was measured during incremental cycling exercise, a linear increase in [K+]v was observed in both tests. However, a significant (p<0.05) upward shift in the [K+]v and a % VO2max relationship was detected during cycling at 120 rev.min(-1). The [K+]v measured at the VO2max level in tests A and B amounted to 6.00+/-0.47 mmol.l-1 vs 6.04+/-0.41 mmol.l-1, respectively. This difference was not significant. It may thus be concluded that: a) generation of the same external mechanical power output during cycling at a pedalling

  12. [Osteoarthritis from long-distance running?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, E; Wörtler, K; Imhoff, A

    2005-06-01

    Long distance running has become a fashionable recreational activity. This study investigated the effects of external impact loading on bone and cartilage introduced by performing a marathon race. Seven beginners were compared to six experienced recreational long distance runners and two professional athletes. All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the hip and knee before and after a marathon run. Coronal T1 weighted and STIR sequences were used. The pre MRI served as a baseline investigation and monitored the training effect. All athletes demonstrated normal findings in the pre run scan. All but one athlete in the beginner group demonstrated joint effusions after the race. The experienced and professional runners failed to demonstrate pathology in the post run scans. Recreational and professional long distance runners tolerate high impact forces well. Beginners demonstrate significant changes on the post run scans. Whether those findings are a result of inadequate training (miles and duration) warrant further studies. We conclude that adequate endurance training results in adaptation mechanisms that allow the athlete to compensate for the stresses introduced by long distance running and do not predispose to the onset of osteoarthritis. Significant malalignment of the lower extremity may cause increased focal loading of joint and cartilage.

  13. Running With an Elastic Lower Limb Exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Michael S; Kota, Sridhar; Young, Aaron; Ferris, Daniel P

    2016-06-01

    Although there have been many lower limb robotic exoskeletons that have been tested for human walking, few devices have been tested for assisting running. It is possible that a pseudo-passive elastic exoskeleton could benefit human running without the addition of electrical motors due to the spring-like behavior of the human leg. We developed an elastic lower limb exoskeleton that added stiffness in parallel with the entire lower limb. Six healthy, young subjects ran on a treadmill at 2.3 m/s with and without the exoskeleton. Although the exoskeleton was designed to provide ~50% of normal leg stiffness during running, it only provided 24% of leg stiffness during testing. The difference in added leg stiffness was primarily due to soft tissue compression and harness compliance decreasing exoskeleton displacement during stance. As a result, the exoskeleton only supported about 7% of the peak vertical ground reaction force. There was a significant increase in metabolic cost when running with the exoskeleton compared with running without the exoskeleton (ANOVA, P exoskeletons for human running are human-machine interface compliance and the extra lower limb inertia from the exoskeleton.

  14. Metadata aided run selection at ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckingham, R M; Gallas, E J; Tseng, J C-L; Viegas, F; Vinek, E

    2011-01-01

    Management of the large volume of data collected by any large scale scientific experiment requires the collection of coherent metadata quantities, which can be used by reconstruction or analysis programs and/or user interfaces, to pinpoint collections of data needed for specific purposes. In the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, we have collected metadata from systems storing non-event-wise data (Conditions) into a relational database. The Conditions metadata (COMA) database tables not only contain conditions known at the time of event recording, but also allow for the addition of conditions data collected as a result of later analysis of the data (such as improved measurements of beam conditions or assessments of data quality). A new web based interface called 'runBrowser' makes these Conditions Metadata available as a Run based selection service. runBrowser, based on PHP and JavaScript, uses jQuery to present selection criteria and report results. It not only facilitates data selection by conditions attributes, but also gives the user information at each stage about the relationship between the conditions chosen and the remaining conditions criteria available. When a set of COMA selections are complete, runBrowser produces a human readable report as well as an XML file in a standardized ATLAS format. This XML can be saved for later use or refinement in a future runBrowser session, shared with physics/detector groups, or used as input to ELSSI (event level Metadata browser) or other ATLAS run or event processing services.

  15. Rearfoot striking runners are more economical than midfoot strikers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogueta-Alday, Ana; Rodríguez-Marroyo, José Antonio; García-López, Juan

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to analyze the influence of foot strike pattern on running economy and biomechanical characteristics in subelite runners with a similar performance level. Twenty subelite long-distance runners participated and were divided into two groups according to their foot strike pattern: rearfoot (RF, n = 10) and midfoot (MF, n = 10) strikers. Anthropometric characteristics were measured (height, body mass, body mass index, skinfolds, circumferences, and lengths); physiological (VO2max, anaerobic threshold, and running economy) and biomechanical characteristics (contact and flight times, step rate, and step length) were registered during both incremental and submaximal tests on a treadmill. There were no significant intergroup differences in anthropometrics, VO2max, or anaerobic threshold measures. RF strikers were 5.4%, 9.3%, and 5.0% more economical than MF at submaximal speeds (11, 13, and 15 km·h respectively, although the difference was not significant at 15 km·h, P = 0.07). Step rate and step length were not different between groups, but RF showed longer contact time (P Foot strike pattern affected both contact and flight times, which may explain the differences in running economy.

  16. Velocity distribution of fragments of catastrophic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Yasuhiko; Kato, Manabu; Mizutani, Hitoshi

    1992-01-01

    Three dimensional velocities of fragments produced by laboratory impact experiments were measured for basalts and pyrophyllites. The velocity distribution of fragments obtained shows that the velocity range of the major fragments is rather narrow, at most within a factor of 3 and that no clear dependence of velocity on the fragment mass is observed. The NonDimensional Impact Stress (NDIS) defined by Mizutani et al. (1990) is found to be an appropriate scaling parameter to describe the overall fragment velocity as well as the antipodal velocity.

  17. A LABORATORY TEST FOR THE EXAMINATION OF ALACTIC RUNNING PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Kibele

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A new testing procedure is introduced to evaluate the alactic running performance in a 10s sprint task with near-maximal movement velocity. The test is performed on a motor-equipped treadmill with inverted polarity that increases mechanical resistance instead of driving the treadmill belt. As a result, a horizontal force has to be exerted against the treadmill surface in order to overcome the resistant force of the engine and to move the surface in a backward direction. For this task, subjects lean with their hands towards the front safety barrier of the treadmill railing with a slightly inclined body posture. The required skill resembles the pushing movement of bobsleigh pilots at the start of a race. Subjects are asked to overcome this mechanical resistance and to cover as much distance as possible within a time period of 10 seconds. Fifteen male students (age: 27.7 ± 4.1 years, body height: 1.82 ± 0.46 m, body mass: 78.3 ± 6.7 kg participated in a study. As the resistance force was set to 134 N, subjects ran 35.4 ± 2.6 m on the average corresponding to a mean running velocity of 3.52 ± 0.25 m·s-1. The validity of the new test was examined by statistical inference with various measures related to alactic performance including a metabolic equivalent to estimate alactic capacity (2892 ± 525 mL O2, an estimate for the oxygen debt (2662 ± 315 ml, the step test by Margaria to estimate alactic energy flow (1691 ± 171 W, and a test to measure the maximal strength in the leg extensor muscles (2304 ± 351 N. The statistical evaluation showed that the new test is in good agreement with the theoretical assumptions for alactic performance. Significant correlation coefficients were found between the test criteria and the measures for alactic capacity (r = 0.79, p < 0.01 as well as alactic power (r = 0.77, p < 0.01. The testing procedure is easy to administer and it is best suited to evaluate the alactic capacity for bobsleigh pilots as well as for

  18. Electron velocity and momentum density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    A null 4-vector eta + sigma/sub μ/based on Dirac's relativistic electron equation, is shown explicitly for a plane wave and various Coulomb states. This 4-vector constitutes a mechanical ''model'' for the electron in those staes, and expresses the important spinor quantities represented conventionally by n, f, g, m, j, kappa, l, and s. The model for a plane wave agrees precisely with the relation between velocity and phase gradient customarily used in quantum theory, but the models for Coulomb states contradict that relation

  19. Model for radionuclide transport in running waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Karin; Elert, Mark [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-11-15

    Two sites in Sweden are currently under investigation by SKB for their suitability as places for deep repository of radioactive waste, the Forsmark and Simpevarp/Laxemar area. As a part of the safety assessment, SKB has formulated a biosphere model with different sub-models for different parts of the ecosystem in order to be able to predict the dose to humans following a possible radionuclide discharge from a future deep repository. In this report, a new model concept describing radionuclide transport in streams is presented. The main difference from the previous model for running water used by SKB, where only dilution of the inflow of radionuclides was considered, is that the new model includes parameterizations also of the exchange processes present along the stream. This is done in order to be able to investigate the effect of the retention on the transport and to be able to estimate the resulting concentrations in the different parts of the system. The concentrations determined with this new model could later be used for order of magnitude predictions of the dose to humans. The presented model concept is divided in two parts, one hydraulic and one radionuclide transport model. The hydraulic model is used to determine the flow conditions in the stream channel and is based on the assumption of uniform flow and quasi-stationary conditions. The results from the hydraulic model are used in the radionuclide transport model where the concentration is determined in the different parts of the stream ecosystem. The exchange processes considered are exchange with the sediments due to diffusion, advective transport and sedimentation/resuspension and uptake of radionuclides in biota. Transport of both dissolved radionuclides and sorbed onto particulates is considered. Sorption kinetics in the stream water phase is implemented as the time scale of the residence time in the stream water probably is short in comparison to the time scale of the kinetic sorption. In the sediment

  20. Model for radionuclide transport in running waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Karin; Elert, Mark

    2005-11-01

    Two sites in Sweden are currently under investigation by SKB for their suitability as places for deep repository of radioactive waste, the Forsmark and Simpevarp/Laxemar area. As a part of the safety assessment, SKB has formulated a biosphere model with different sub-models for different parts of the ecosystem in order to be able to predict the dose to humans following a possible radionuclide discharge from a future deep repository. In this report, a new model concept describing radionuclide transport in streams is presented. The main difference from the previous model for running water used by SKB, where only dilution of the inflow of radionuclides was considered, is that the new model includes parameterizations also of the exchange processes present along the stream. This is done in order to be able to investigate the effect of the retention on the transport and to be able to estimate the resulting concentrations in the different parts of the system. The concentrations determined with this new model could later be used for order of magnitude predictions of the dose to humans. The presented model concept is divided in two parts, one hydraulic and one radionuclide transport model. The hydraulic model is used to determine the flow conditions in the stream channel and is based on the assumption of uniform flow and quasi-stationary conditions. The results from the hydraulic model are used in the radionuclide transport model where the concentration is determined in the different parts of the stream ecosystem. The exchange processes considered are exchange with the sediments due to diffusion, advective transport and sedimentation/resuspension and uptake of radionuclides in biota. Transport of both dissolved radionuclides and sorbed onto particulates is considered. Sorption kinetics in the stream water phase is implemented as the time scale of the residence time in the stream water probably is short in comparison to the time scale of the kinetic sorption. In the sediment

  1. An electromyographic-based test for estimating neuromuscular fatigue during incremental treadmill running

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camic, Clayton L; Kovacs, Attila J; Hill, Ethan C; Calantoni, Austin M; Yemm, Allison J; Enquist, Evan A; VanDusseldorp, Trisha A

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were two fold: (1) to determine if the model used for estimating the physical working capacity at the fatigue threshold (PWC FT ) from electromyographic (EMG) amplitude data during incremental cycle ergometry could be applied to treadmill running to derive a new neuromuscular fatigue threshold for running, and (2) to compare the running velocities associated with the PWC FT , ventilatory threshold (VT), and respiratory compensation point (RCP). Fifteen college-aged subjects (21.5  ±  1.3 y, 68.7  ±  10.5 kg, 175.9  ±  6.7 cm) performed an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion with bipolar surface EMG signals recorded from the vastus lateralis. There were significant (p < 0.05) mean differences in running velocities between the VT (11.3  ±  1.3 km h −1 ) and PWC FT (14.0  ±  2.3 km h −1 ), VT and RCP (14.0  ±  1.8 km h −1 ), but not the PWC FT and RCP. The findings of the present study indicated that the PWC FT model could be applied to a single continuous, incremental treadmill test to estimate the maximal running velocity that can be maintained prior to the onset of neuromuscular fatigue. In addition, these findings suggested that the PWC FT , like the RCP, may be used to differentiate the heavy from severe domains of exercise intensity. (paper)

  2. How Biomechanical Improvements in Running Economy Could Break the 2-hour Marathon Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogkamer, Wouter; Kram, Rodger; Arellano, Christopher J

    2017-09-01

    A sub-2-hour marathon requires an average velocity (5.86 m/s) that is 2.5% faster than the current world record of 02:02:57 (5.72 m/s) and could be accomplished with a 2.7% reduction in the metabolic cost of running. Although supporting body weight comprises the majority of the metabolic cost of running, targeting the costs of forward propulsion and leg swing are the most promising strategies for reducing the metabolic cost of running and thus improving marathon running performance. Here, we calculate how much time could be saved by taking advantage of unconventional drafting strategies, a consistent tailwind, a downhill course, and specific running shoe design features while staying within the current International Association of Athletic Federations regulations for record purposes. Specifically, running in shoes that are 100 g lighter along with second-half scenarios of four runners alternately leading and drafting, or a tailwind of 6.0 m/s, combined with a 42-m elevation drop could result in a time well below the 2-hour marathon barrier.

  3. Joint contact loading in forefoot and rearfoot strike patterns during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Brandon D; Derrick, Timothy R

    2013-09-03

    Research concerning forefoot strike pattern (FFS) versus rearfoot strike pattern (RFS) running has focused on the ground reaction force even though internal joint contact forces are a more direct measure of the loads responsible for injury. The main purpose of this study was to determine the internal loading of the joints for each strike pattern. A secondary purpose was to determine if converted FFS and RFS runners can adequately represent habitual runners with regards to the internal joint loading. Using inverse dynamics to calculate the net joint moments and reaction forces and optimization techniques to estimate muscle forces, we determined the axial compressive loading at the ankle, knee, and hip. Subjects consisted of 15 habitual FFS and 15 habitual RFS competitive runners. Each subject ran at a preferred running velocity with their habitual strike pattern and then converted to the opposite strike pattern. Plantar flexor muscle forces and net ankle joint moments were greater in the FFS running compared to the RFS running during the first half of the stance phase. The average contact forces during this period increased by 41.7% at the ankle and 14.4% at the knee joint during FFS running. Peak ankle joint contact force was 1.5 body weights greater during FFS running (pstrike pattern. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Kinesiological Analysis of Stationary Running Performed in Aquatic and Dry Land Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Alberton Cristine

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to analyze the electromyographic (EMG signals of the rectus femoris (RF, vastus lateralis (VL, semitendinosus (ST and short head of the biceps femoris (BF during the performance of stationary running at different intensities in aquatic and dry land environments. The sample consisted of 12 female volunteers who performed the stationary running exercise in aquatic and dry land environments at a submaximal cadence (80 beats·min-1 controlled by a metronome and at maximal velocity, with EMG signal measurements from the RF, VL, ST and BF muscles. The results showed a distinct pattern between environments for each muscle examined. For the submaximal cadence of 80 beats·min-1, there was a reduced magnitude of the EMG signal in the aquatic environment, except for the ST muscle, the pattern of which was similar in both environments. In contrast to the submaximal cadence, the pattern of the EMG signal from all of the muscles showed similar magnitudes for both environments and phases of movement at maximal velocity, except for the VL muscle. Therefore, the EMG signals from the RF, VL, ST and BF muscles of women during stationary running had different patterns of activation over the range of motion between aquatic and dry land environments for different intensities. Moreover, the neuromuscular responses of the lower limbs were optimized by an increase in intensity from submaximal cadence to maximal velocity.

  5. Velocity distribution of women's 30-km cross-country skiing during Olympic Games from 2002-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Wlodzimierz S; Dancewicz-Nosko, Dorota; Giovanis, Vasilios

    2017-12-01

    Within several investigated endurance sport disciplines the distribution of load of the best competitors has a manner of evenly or slightly rising velocity values. Unfortunately many other competitors have usually diminishing values or when they are very poor they have evenly values. The aim of this study was to investigate distribution of velocity within 30-km cross-country female skiers. Cross-country skiing runs were investigated of Olympic Games 2002-2014 (Salt Lake City, Turin, Vancouver, Sochi). At every race two 15 km or three 10 km loops of the same vertical profile were taken into account. The competitors were divided onto: A - winners, B - medallists, C - competitors who obtained places 4 to 10 at the finish line (medium runners), D - competitors who obtained places 11 to 30 at the finish line (poor runners). Velocity data presented on the web pages of several institutions were utilized. The competitors had their velocity distributed in a manner with usually diminishing values. While comparing velocity of sequential loops with the mean velocity the difference for the poor runners reached the value of almost 6 %, which was too high. There was significant (usually negative) correlation coefficient between values of velocity deviation for the first and second loops and the mean value of velocity for the entire distance for the better runners and mixed, i.e. positive and negative values for the poorer runners. It was postulated investigations of velocity distribution should be introduced in coaching in order to inform competitors about their running. This advise is especially important for the poorer runners. Up to now cross country skiers run for themselves. It should be discussed whether the tactics used by road and track runners, i.e. running with pace makers, can be introduced in cross country skiing. Also the use of a drone during training can be used in order to maintain proper pace.

  6. The ATLAS Tau Trigger Performance during LHC Run 1 and Prospects for Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Mitani, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS tau trigger is designed to select hadronic decays of the tau leptons. Tau lepton plays an important role in Standard Model (SM) physics, such as in Higgs boson decays. Tau lepton is also important in beyond the SM (BSM) scenarios, such as supersymmetry and exotic particles, as they are often produced preferentially in these models. During the 2010-2012 LHC run (Run1), the tau trigger was accomplished successfully, which leads several rewarding results such as evidence for $H\\rightarrow \\tau\\tau$. From the 2015 LHC run (Run2), LHC will be upgraded and overlapping interactions per bunch crossing (pile-up) are expected to increase by a factor two. It will be challenging to control trigger rates while keeping interesting physics events. This paper summarized the tau trigger performance in Run1 and its prospects for Run2.

  7. Low- and high-volume of intensive endurance training significantly improves maximal oxygen uptake after 10-weeks of training in healthy men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnt Erik Tjønna

    Full Text Available Regular exercise training improves maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, but the optimal intensity and volume necessary to obtain maximal benefit remains to be defined. A growing body of evidence suggests that exercise training with low-volume but high-intensity may be a time-efficient means to achieve health benefits. In the present study, we measured changes in VO2max and traditional cardiovascular risk factors after a 10 wk. training protocol that involved three weekly high-intensity interval sessions. One group followed a protocol which consisted of 4×4 min at 90% of maximal heart rate (HRmax interspersed with 3 min active recovery at 70% HRmax (4-AIT, the other group performed a single bout protocol that consisted of 1×4 min at 90% HRmax (1-AIT. Twenty-six inactive but otherwise healthy overweight men (BMI: 25-30, age: 35-45 y were randomized to either 1-AIT (n = 11 or 4-AIT (n = 13. After training, VO2max increased by 10% (∼5.0 mL⋅kg(-1⋅min(-1 and 13% (∼6.5 mL⋅kg(-1⋅min(-1 after 1-AIT and 4-AIT, respectively (group difference, p = 0.08. Oxygen cost during running at a sub-maximal workload was reduced by 14% and 13% after 1-AIT and 4-AIT, respectively. Systolic blood pressure decreased by 7.1 and 2.6 mmHg after 1-AIT and 4-AIT respectively, while diastolic pressure decreased by 7.7 and 6.1 mmHg (group difference, p = 0.84. Both groups had a similar ∼5% decrease in fasting glucose. Body fat, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and ox-LDL cholesterol only were significantly reduced after 4-AIT. Our data suggest that a single bout of AIT performed three times per week may be a time-efficient strategy to improve VO2max and reduce blood pressure and fasting glucose in previously inactive but otherwise healthy middle-aged individuals. The 1-AIT type of exercise training may be readily implemented as part of activities of daily living and could easily be translated into programs designed to improve public health

  8. Effect of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections on physical fitness of school children in Côte d'Ivoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Müller

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are important public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa causing malnutrition, anemia, and retardation of physical and cognitive development. However, the effect of these diseases on physical fitness remains to be determined. METHODOLOGY: We investigated the relationship between schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis and physical performance of children, controlling for potential confounding of Plasmodium spp. infections and environmental parameters (i.e., ambient air temperature and humidity. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 156 school children aged 7-15 years from Côte d'Ivoire. Each child had two stool and two urine samples examined for helminth eggs by microscopy. Additionally, children underwent a clinical examination, were tested for Plasmodium spp. infection with a rapid diagnostic test, and performed a maximal multistage 20 m shuttle run test to assess their maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2 max as a proxy for physical fitness. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium, Plasmodium spp., Schistosoma mansoni, hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infections was 85.3%, 71.2%, 53.8%, 13.5% and 1.3%, respectively. Children with single, dual, triple, quadruple and quintuple species infections showed VO(2 max of 52.7, 53.1, 52.2, 52.6 and 55.6 ml kg(-1 min(-1, respectively. The VO(2 max of children with no parasite infections was 53.5 ml kg(-1 min(-1. No statistically significant difference was detected between any groups. Multivariable analysis revealed that VO(2 max was influenced by sex (reference: female, coef. = 4.02, p<0.001 and age (years, coef. = -1.23, p<0.001, but not by helminth infection and intensity, Plasmodium spp. infection, and environmental parameters. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: School-aged children in Côte d'Ivoire showed good physical fitness, irrespective of their helminth infection status. Future studies on children

  9. Effect of Deworming on Physical Fitness of School-Aged Children in Yunnan, China: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Peiling; Wu, Fang-Wei; Du, Zun-Wei; Hattendorf, Jan; Chen, Ran; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Kriemler, Susi; Krauth, Stefanie J.; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Utzinger, Jürg; Steinmann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background There is considerable debate on the health impacts of soil-transmitted helminth infections. We assessed effects of deworming on physical fitness and strength of children in an area in Yunnan, People's Republic of China, where soil-transmitted helminthiasis is highly endemic. Methodology The double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between October 2011 and May 2012. Children, aged 9–12 years, were treated with either triple-dose albendazole or placebo, and monitored for 6 months post-treatment. The Kato-Katz and Baermann techniques were used for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infections. Physical fitness was assessed with a 20-m shuttle run test, where the maximum aerobic capacity within 1 min of exhaustive exercise (VO2 max estimate) and the number of 20-m laps completed were recorded. Physical strength was determined with grip strength and standing broad jump tests. Body height and weight, the sum of skinfolds, and hemoglobin levels were recorded as secondary outcomes. Principal Findings Children receiving triple-dose albendazole scored slightly higher in the primary and secondary outcomes than placebo recipients, but the difference lacked statistical significance. Trichuris trichiura-infected children had 1.6 ml kg−1 min−1 (P = 0.02) less increase in their VO2 max estimate and completed 4.6 (P = 0.04) fewer 20-m laps than at baseline compared to non-infected peers. Similar trends were detected in the VO2 max estimate and grip strength of children infected with hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides, respectively. In addition, the increase in the VO2 max estimate from baseline was consistently higher in children with low-intensity T. trichiura and hookworm infections than in their peers with high-intensity infections of all soil-transmitted helminths (range: 1.9–2.1 ml kg−1 min−1; all P<0.05). Conclusions/Significance We found no strong evidence for significant improvements in physical fitness and

  10. Not Just Running: Coping with and Managing Everyday Life through Road-Running

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Simon

    2014-01-01

    From the external form, running looks like running. Yet this alikeness masks a hugely divergent practice consisting of different movements, meanings and experiences. In this paper I wish to shed light upon some of these different ‘ways of running’ and in turn identify a range of the sometimes surprising, sometimes significant and sometimes banal benefits that road-running can gift its practitioners beyond simply exercise and physical fitness. Drawing on an innovative mapping and ethnographic ...

  11. The OB run-away stars from Sco-Cen and Orion reviewed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaauw, A.

    1989-01-01

    The author studies the past paths of the run-away star Zeta Oph from the OB association Sco-Cen, and of the run-away stars AE Aur, Mu Col and 53 Ari from the OB association Ori OB1, in connection with the question of the origin of these high velocities. Should the binary-hypothesis be adhered to (supernova explosion of one of the components) or, perhaps, dynamical evolution in young, dense clusters offer a clue to this phenomenon? It is shown that the latter hypothesis is very unlikely to apply to Zeta Oph. For the run-away stars from Orion conclusive evidence may well be obtained in the course of the next decade, from improved accuracy of the proper motions

  12. Simulation of nonlinear wave run-up with a high-order Boussinesq model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Madsen, Per A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the numerical simulation of nonlinear wave run-up within a highly accurate Boussinesq-type model. Moving wet–dry boundary algorithms based on so-called extrapolating boundary techniques are utilized, and a new variant of this approach is proposed in two horizontal dimensions....... As validation, computed results involving the nonlinear run-up of periodic as well as transient waves on a sloping beach are considered in a single horizontal dimension, demonstrating excellent agreement with analytical solutions for both the free surface and horizontal velocity. In two horizontal dimensions...... cases involving long wave resonance in a parabolic basin, solitary wave evolution in a triangular channel, and solitary wave run-up on a circular conical island are considered. In each case the computed results compare well against available analytical solutions or experimental measurements. The ability...

  13. The Kinematics and Kinetics of the Running Pattern of Two-, Four-, and Six-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Virginia L.

    1983-01-01

    The running patterns of two-, four-, and six-year-old children were analyzed to determine how age and sex differences affected selected kinematic and kinetic variables. Differences tended to involve displacement, velocity, and magnitude of force measures. Sex differences concerning the leg swing were noted. (Author/PP)

  14. Cerebral Hemodynamics and Executive Function During Exercise and Recovery in Normobaric Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavres, Jon; Gerhart, Hayden D; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Glickman, Ellen L; Seo, Yongsuk

    2017-10-01

    Hypoxia and exercise each exhibit opposing effects on executive function, and the mechanisms for this are not entirely clear. This study examined the influence of cerebral oxygenation and perfusion on executive function during exercise and recovery in normobaric hypoxia (NH) and normoxia (N). There were 18 subjects who completed cycling trials in NH (12.5% FIo2) and N (20.93% FIo2). Right prefrontal cortex (PFC) oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb) and middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAbv) were collected during executive function challenges [mathematical processing and running memory continuous performance task (RMCPT)] at baseline, following 30 min of acclimation, during 20 min of cycling (60% Vo2max), and at 1, 15, 30, and 45 min following exercise. Results indicated effects of time for Math, RMCPT, and O2Hb; but not for MCAbv. Results also indicated effects of condition for O2Hb. Math scores were improved by 8.0% during exercise and remained elevated at 30 min of recovery (12.5%), RMCPT scores significantly improved at all time points (7.5-11.9%), and O2Hb increased by 662.2% and 440.9% during exercise in N and NH, respectively, and remained elevated through 15 min of recovery in both conditions. These results support the influence of PFC oxygenation and perfusion on executive function during exercise and recovery in N and NH.Stavres J, Gerhart HD, Kim J-H, Glickman EL, Seo Y. Cerebral hemodynamics and executive function during exercise and recovery in normobaric hypoxia. Aerosp Med Hum Perform 2017; 88(10):911-917.

  15. Students' Gender Stereotypes about Running in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E.; Lin, Shuqiong; Gao, Zan; Francis, Xueying

    2018-01-01

    Two hundred forty-six students (132 boys, 114 girls) were tracked from fifth to eighth grades, and changes in gender stereotypes about running as a male sport, running performance, interest in running, and intention for future running participation were assessed. Results revealed that neither sex held gender stereotypes about running as a male…

  16. ALICE HLT Run 2 performance overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Lindenstruth, Volker; ALICE Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    For the LHC Run 2 the ALICE HLT architecture was consolidated to comply with the upgraded ALICE detector readout technology. The software framework was optimized and extended to cope with the increased data load. Online calibration of the TPC using online tracking capabilities of the ALICE HLT was deployed. Offline calibration code was adapted to run both online and offline and the HLT framework was extended to support that. The performance of this schema is important for Run 3 related developments. An additional data transport approach was developed using the ZeroMQ library, forming at the same time a test bed for the new data flow model of the O2 system, where further development of this concept is ongoing. This messaging technology was used to implement the calibration feedback loop augmenting the existing, graph oriented HLT transport framework. Utilising the online reconstruction of many detectors, a new asynchronous monitoring scheme was developed to allow real-time monitoring of the physics performance of the ALICE detector, on top of the new messaging scheme for both internal and external communication. Spare computing resources comprising the production and development clusters are run as a tier-2 GRID site using an OpenStack-based setup. The development cluster is running continuously, the production cluster contributes resources opportunistically during periods of LHC inactivity.

  17. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, A Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger successfully collected collision data during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at different centre-of-mass energies between 900 GeV and 8TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware Level-1 and a software-based high level trigger (HLT) that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. In Run-2, the LHC will operate at centre-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV and higher luminosity, resulting in up to five times higher rates of processes of interest. A brief review of the ATLAS trigger system upgrades that were implemented between Run-1 and Run-2, allowing to cope with the increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving the efficiency to select physics processes of interest, will be given. This includes changes to the Level-1 calorimeter and muon trigger systems, the introduction of a new Level-1 topological trigger module and the merging of the previously two-level HLT system into a single event processing farm. A few examples will be shown, such as the impressive performance improvements in the HLT trigger algorithms used to identify leptons, hadrons and global event quantities like missing transverse energy. Finally, the status of the commissioning of the trigger system and its performance during the 2015 run will be presented. (paper)

  18. Exercise economy in skiing and running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eLosnegard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Substantial inter-individual variations in exercise economy exist even in highly trained endurance athletes. The variation is believed to be determined partly by intrinsic factors. Therefore, in the present study, we compared exercise economy in V2-skating, double poling and uphill running. Ten highly trained male cross-country skiers (23 ± 3 years, 180 ± 6 cm, 75 ± 8 kg, VO2peak running: 76.3 ± 5.6 mL•kg-1•min-1 participated in the study. Exercise economy and VO2peak during treadmill running, ski skating (V2 technique and double poling were compared based on correlation analysis with subsequent criteria for interpreting the magnitude of correlation (r. There was a very large correlation in exercise economy between V2-skating and double poling (r = 0.81 and a large correlation between V2-skating and running (r = 0.53 and double poling and running (r = 0.58. There were trivial to moderate correlations between exercise economy and VO2peak (r = 0.00-0.23, cycle rate (r = 0.03-0.46, body mass (r = -0.09-0.46 and body height (r = 0.11-0.36. In conclusion, the inter-individual variation in exercise economy could only moderately be explained by differences in VO2peak, body mass and body height and therefore we suggest that other intrinsic factors contribute to the variation in exercise economy between highly trained subjects.

  19. The CMS trigger in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mia

    2018-01-01

    During its second period of operation (Run 2) which started in 2015, the LHC will reach a peak instantaneous luminosity of approximately 2$\\times 10^{34}$~cm$^{-2}s^{-1}$ with an average pile-up of about 55, far larger than the design value. Under these conditions, the online event selection is a very challenging task. In CMS, it is realised by a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 (L1) Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm.\\\\ In order to face this challenge, the L1 trigger has undergone a major upgrade compared to Run 1, whereby all electronic boards of the system have been replaced, allowing more sophisticated algorithms to be run online. Its last stage, the global trigger, is now able to perform complex selections and to compute high-level quantities, like invariant masses. Likewise, the algorithms that run in the HLT went through big improvements; in particular, new ap...

  20. Chaotic inflation with curvaton induced running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2014-01-01

    While dust contamination now appears as a likely explanation of the apparent tension between the recent BICEP2 data and the Planck data, we will here explore the consequences of a large running in the spectral index as suggested by the BICEP2 collaboration as an alternative explanation of the app......While dust contamination now appears as a likely explanation of the apparent tension between the recent BICEP2 data and the Planck data, we will here explore the consequences of a large running in the spectral index as suggested by the BICEP2 collaboration as an alternative explanation...... of the apparent tension, but which would be in conflict with prediction of the simplest model of chaotic inflation. The large field chaotic model is sensitive to UV physics, and the nontrivial running of the spectral index suggested by the BICEP2 collaboration could therefore, if true, be telling us some...... the possibility that the running could be due to some other less UV sensitive degree of freedom. As an example, we ask if it is possible that the curvature perturbation spectrum has a contribution from a curvaton, which makes up for the large running in the spectrum. We find that this effect could mask...

  1. Habitual Minimalist Shod Running Biomechanics and the Acute Response to Running Barefoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Nicholas; Darragh, Ian A J; Divekar, Nikhil V; Lamberts, Robert P

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether habitual minimalist shoe runners present with purported favorable running biomechanithat reduce running injury risk such as initial loading rate. Eighteen minimalist and 16 traditionally cushioned shod runners were assessed when running both in their preferred training shoe and barefoot. Ankle and knee joint kinetics and kinematics, initial rate of loading, and footstrike angle were measured. Sagittal ankle and knee joint stiffness were also calculated. Results of a two-factor ANOVA presented no group difference in initial rate of loading when participants were running either shod or barefoot; however, initial loading rate increased for both groups when running barefoot (p=0.008). Differences in footstrike angle were observed between groups when running shod, but not when barefoot (minimalist:8.71±8.99 vs. traditional: 17.32±11.48 degrees, p=0.002). Lower ankle joint stiffness was found in both groups when running barefoot (p=0.025). These findings illustrate that risk factors for injury potentially differ between the two groups. Shoe construction differences do change mechanical demands, however, once habituated to the demands of a given shoe condition, certain acute favorable or unfavorable responses may be moderated. The purported benefits of minimalist running shoes in mimicking habitual barefoot running is questioned, and risk of injury may not be attenuated. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Neural network-based run-to-run controller using exposure and resist thickness adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Shane; Barry, Ronan

    2003-06-01

    This paper describes the development of a run-to-run control algorithm using a feedforward neural network, trained using the backpropagation training method. The algorithm is used to predict the critical dimension of the next lot using previous lot information. It is compared to a common prediction algorithm - the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) and is shown to give superior prediction performance in simulations. The manufacturing implementation of the final neural network showed significantly improved process capability when compared to the case where no run-to-run control was utilised.

  3. The running pattern and its importance in running long-distance gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Hoffman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The running pattern is individual for each runner, regardless of distance. We can characterize it as the sum of the data of the runner (age, height, training time, etc. and the parameters of his run. Building the proper technique should focus first and foremost on the work of movement coordination and the power of the runner. In training the correct running steps we can use similar tools as working on deep feeling. The aim of this paper was to define what we can call a running pattern, what is its influence in long-distance running, and the relationship between the training technique and the running pattern. The importance of a running pattern in long-distance racing is immense, as the more distracted and departed from the norm, the greater the harm to the body will cause it to repetition in long run. Putting on training exercises that shape the technique is very important and affects the running pattern significantly.

  4. Transport of mass goods on the top run and bottom run of belt conveyors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, D

    1977-06-01

    For combined coal winning from the collieries 'General Blumenthal' and 'Ewald Fortsetzung' a large belt conveyor plant was taken into operation which is able to transport 1360 tons/h in the top run and 300 tons/h of dirt in the bottom run. The different types of coal are transported separately in intermittent operation with the aid of bunker systems connected to the front and rear of the belt conveyor. Persons can be transported in the top run as well as in the bottom run.

  5. Excavatability Assessment of Weathered Sedimentary Rock Mass Using Seismic Velocity Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bin Mohamad, Edy Tonnizam; Noor, Muhazian Md; Isa, Mohamed Fauzi Bin Md.; Mazlan, Ain Naadia; Saad, Rosli

    2010-01-01

    Seismic refraction method is one of the most popular methods in assessing surface excavation. The main objective of the seismic data acquisition is to delineate the subsurface into velocity profiles as different velocity can be correlated to identify different materials. The physical principal used for the determination of excavatability is that seismic waves travel faster through denser material as compared to less consolidated material. In general, a lower velocity indicates material that is soft and a higher velocity indicates more difficult to be excavated. However, a few researchers have noted that seismic velocity method alone does not correlate well with the excavatability of the material. In this study, a seismic velocity method was used in Nusajaya, Johor to assess the accuracy of this seismic velocity method with excavatability of the weathered sedimentary rock mass. A direct ripping run by monitoring the actual production of ripping has been employed at later stage and compared to the ripper manufacturer's recommendation. This paper presents the findings of the seismic velocity tests in weathered sedimentary area. The reliability of using this method with the actual rippability trials is also presented.

  6. Excavatability Assessment of Weathered Sedimentary Rock Mass Using Seismic Velocity Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Mohamad, Edy Tonnizam; Saad, Rosli; Noor, Muhazian Md; Isa, Mohamed Fauzi Bin Md.; Mazlan, Ain Naadia

    2010-12-01

    Seismic refraction method is one of the most popular methods in assessing surface excavation. The main objective of the seismic data acquisition is to delineate the subsurface into velocity profiles as different velocity can be correlated to identify different materials. The physical principal used for the determination of excavatability is that seismic waves travel faster through denser material as compared to less consolidated material. In general, a lower velocity indicates material that is soft and a higher velocity indicates more difficult to be excavated. However, a few researchers have noted that seismic velocity method alone does not correlate well with the excavatability of the material. In this study, a seismic velocity method was used in Nusajaya, Johor to assess the accuracy of this seismic velocity method with excavatability of the weathered sedimentary rock mass. A direct ripping run by monitoring the actual production of ripping has been employed at later stage and compared to the ripper manufacturer's recommendation. This paper presents the findings of the seismic velocity tests in weathered sedimentary area. The reliability of using this method with the actual rippability trials is also presented.

  7. Application of Vectors to Relative Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin-Lam, Toh

    2004-01-01

    The topic 'relative velocity' has recently been introduced into the Cambridge Ordinary Level Additional Mathematics syllabus under the application of Vectors. In this note, the results of relative velocity and the 'reduction to rest' technique of teaching relative velocity are derived mathematically from vector algebra, in the hope of providing…

  8. Questions Students Ask: About Terminal Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Earl R.; Nelson, Jim

    1984-01-01

    If a ball were given an initial velocity in excess of its terminal velocity, would the upward force of air resistance (a function of velocity) be greater than the downward force of gravity and thus push the ball back upwards? An answer to this question is provided. (JN)

  9. Balance velocities of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joughin, I.; Fahnestock, M.; Ekholm, Simon

    1997-01-01

    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetery data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail......, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning....

  10. Is running associated with degenerative joint disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panush, R.S.; Schmidt, C.; Caldwell, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Little information is available regarding the long-term effects, if any, of running on the musculoskeletal system. The authors compared the prevalence of degenerative joint disease among 17 male runners with 18 male nonrunners. Running subjects (53% marathoners) ran a mean of 44.8 km (28 miles)/wk for 12 years. Pain and swelling of hips, knees, ankles and feet and other musculoskeletal complaints among runners were comparable with those among nonrunners. Radiologic examinations (for osteophytes, cartilage thickness, and grade of degeneration) also were without notable differences among groups. They did not find an increased prevalence of osteoarthritis among the runners. Our observations suggest that long-duration, high-mileage running need to be associated with premature degenerative joint disease in the lower extremities

  11. Jefferson Lab Data Acquisition Run Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardan Gyurjyan; Carl Timmer; David Abbott; William Heyes; Edward Jastrzembski; David Lawrence; Elliott Wolin

    2004-01-01

    A general overview of the Jefferson Lab data acquisition run control system is presented. This run control system is designed to operate the configuration, control, and monitoring of all Jefferson Lab experiments. It controls data-taking activities by coordinating the operation of DAQ sub-systems, online software components and third-party software such as external slow control systems. The main, unique feature which sets this system apart from conventional systems is its incorporation of intelligent agent concepts. Intelligent agents are autonomous programs which interact with each other through certain protocols on a peer-to-peer level. In this case, the protocols and standards used come from the domain-independent Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents (FIPA), and the implementation used is the Java Agent Development Framework (JADE). A lightweight, XML/RDF-based language was developed to standardize the description of the run control system for configuration purposes

  12. Instrumental Variables in the Long Run

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casey, Gregory; Klemp, Marc Patrick Brag

    2017-01-01

    In the study of long-run economic growth, it is common to use historical or geographical variables as instruments for contemporary endogenous regressors. We study the interpretation of these conventional instrumental variable (IV) regressions in a general, yet simple, framework. Our aim...... quantitative implications for the field of long-run economic growth. We also use our framework to examine related empirical techniques. We find that two prominent regression methodologies - using gravity-based instruments for trade and including ancestry-adjusted variables in linear regression models - have...... is to estimate the long-run causal effect of changes in the endogenous explanatory variable. We find that conventional IV regressions generally cannot recover this parameter of interest. To estimate this parameter, therefore, we develop an augmented IV estimator that combines the conventional regression...

  13. Evaluation of anaerobic capacity in soccer players using a maximal shuttle run test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Gomes de Almeida

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n1p88   The aim of this study was to investigate whether a 300-m shuttle run test predicts anaerobic capacity, expressed as mean power output in the Wingate test, in a group of professional soccer players. Twenty-one soccer players (21 ± 2 years; 76.8 ± 7.0 kg; 179.8 ± 6.7 cm from a first division team of the São Paulo Soccer Federation participated in the study. In the first session, the players were submitted to the Wingate test for the determination of relative peak power output, relative mean power output and fatigue index. In the second session, the players underwent a shuttle run test which consisted of a maximum sprint of 20 m at the highest speed possible until completing a distance of 300 m. The total run time and mean velocity over the 20 m (V20m were recorded. Blood samples were collected before and after the 300-m shuttle run test for the determination of lactate concentration ([LAC]. Pearson’s correlation between the Wingate and 300-m shuttle run test variables showed that only relative mean power output was significantly correlated with total run time (r = - 0.75 and V20m (r = 0.72. [LAC] showed a significant increase (p < 0.05 when comparing the values obtained before (2.1 ± 1.0 mM and after (14.3 ± 2.4 mM the shuttle run test. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the 300-m shuttle run test can predict anaerobic capacity in professional soccer players.

  14. Initial results from the NSTX Real-Time Velocity diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podesta, M.; Bell, R. E.

    2011-10-01

    A new diagnostic for fast measurements of plasma rotation through active charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS) was installed on NSTX. The diagnostic infers toroidal rotation from carbon ions undergoing charge-exchange with neutrals from a heating Neutral Beam (NB). Each of the 4 channels, distributed along the outer major radius, includes active views intercepting the NB and background views missing the beam. Estimated uncertainties in the measured velocity are system. Signals are acquired on 2 CCD detectors, each controlled by a dedicated PC. Spectra are fitted in real-time through a C++ processing code and velocities are made available to the Plasma Control System for future implementation of feedback on velocity. Results from the initial operation during the 2011 run are discussed, emphasizing the fast dynamics of toroidal rotation, e . g . during L-H mode transition and breaking caused by instabilities and by externally-imposed magnetic perturbations. Work supported by USDOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  15. Critical velocities in He II for independently varied superfluid and normal fluid velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baehr, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments were performed to measure the critical velocity in pure superflow and compare to the theoretical prediction; to measure the first critical velocity for independently varied superfluid and normal fluid velocities; and to investigate the propagation of the second critical velocity from the thermal counterflow line through the V/sub n/,-V/sub s/ quadrant. The experimental apparatus employed a thermal counterflow heater to adjust the normal fluid velocity, a fountain pump to vary the superfluid velocity, and a level sensing capacitor to measure the superfluid velocity. The results of the pure superfluid critical velocity measurements indicate that this velocity is temperature independent contrary to Schwarz's theory. It was found that the first critical velocity for independently varied V/sub n/ and V/sub s/ could be described by a linear function of V/sub n/ and was otherwise temperature independent. It was found that the second critical velocity could only be distinguished near the thermal counterflow line

  16. The NLstart2run study: running related injuries in novice runners : Running related injuries in novice runners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluitenberg, Bas

    2015-01-01

    Hardlopen is wereldwijd een populaire sport welke vaak wordt beoefend voor de positieve gezondheidseffecten. Er is echter een keerzijde. Hardlopers worden vaak geplaagd door blessures. Een probleem waar veelal beginners tegenaan lopen. Dit proefschrift beschrijft de NLstart2run studie, een onderzoek

  17. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uythoven, Jan [CERN; Boccardi, Andrea [CERN; Bravin, Enrico [CERN; Goddard, Brennan [CERN; Hemelsoet, Georges-Henry [CERN; Höfle, Wolfgang [CERN; Jacquet, Delphine [CERN; Kain, Verena [CERN; Mazzoni, Stefano [CERN; Meddahi, Malika [CERN; Valuch, Daniel [CERN; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana [Fermilab

    2014-07-01

    To minimize the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  18. Luminosity Measurements at LHCb for Run II

    CERN Multimedia

    Coombs, George

    2018-01-01

    A precise measurement of the luminosity is a necessary component of many physics analyses, especially cross-section measurements. At LHCb two different direct measurement methods are used to determine the luminosity: the “van der Meer scan” (VDM) and the “Beam Gas Imaging” (BGI) methods. A combined result from these two methods gave a precision of less than 2% for Run I and efforts are ongoing to provide a similar result for Run II. Fixed target luminosity is determined with an indirect method based on the single electron scattering cross-section.

  19. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, J; Bravin, E; Goddard, B; Hemelsoet, GH; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Kain, V; Mazzoni, S; Meddahi, M; Valuch, D

    2015-01-01

    To minimise the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  20. Running-mass inflation model and WMAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covi, Laura; Lyth, David H.; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Odman, Carolina J.

    2004-01-01

    We consider the observational constraints on the running-mass inflationary model, and, in particular, on the scale dependence of the spectral index, from the new cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy measurements performed by WMAP and from new clustering data from the SLOAN survey. We find that the data strongly constraints a significant positive scale dependence of n, and we translate the analysis into bounds on the physical parameters of the inflaton potential. Looking deeper into specific types of interaction (gauge and Yukawa) we find that the parameter space is significantly constrained by the new data, but that the running-mass model remains viable

  1. Causal Analysis of Railway Running Delays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Harrod, Steven

    Operating delays and network propagation are inherent characteristics of railway operations. These are traditionally reduced by provision of time supplements or “slack” in railway timetables and operating plans. Supplement allocation policies must trade off reliability in the service commitments...... Denmark (the Danish infrastructure manager). The statistical analysis of the data identifies the minimum running times and the scheduled running time supplements and investigates the evolution of train delays along given train paths. An improved allocation of time supplements would result in smaller...

  2. Some physiological demands of a half-marathon race on recreational runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C; Nute, M L

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the physiological demands of a half-marathon race on a group of ten recreational runners (8 men and 2 women). The average running speed was 223.1 +/- 22.7 m.min-1 (mean +/- SD) for the group and this represented 79 +/- 5% VO2 max for these runners. There was a good correlation between VO2 max and performance time for the race (4 = -0.81; p less than 0.01) and an even better correlation between running speed equivalent to a blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol.l-1 and performance times (r = -0.877; p less than 0.01). The blood lactate concentration os 4 of the runners at the end of the race was 5.65 +/- 1.42 mmol.l-1 (mean +/- SD) and the estimated energy expenditure for the group was 6.22 M.J. While there was only a poor correlation between total energy expenditure and performance time for the race, the correlation coefficient was improved when the energy expenditure of each individual was expressed in KJ.kg-1 min-1 (r = 0.938; p less than 0.01).

  3. 10-20-30 training increases performance and lowers blood pressure and VEGF in runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gliemann, Lasse; Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson; Hellsten, Ylva

    2015-01-01

    into either a control group (CON; n = 28), or a 10-20-30 training group (10-20-30; n = 132) replacing two of three weekly training sessions with 10-20-30 training for 8 weeks and performance of a 5-km run (5-K) and BP was measured. VO2max was measured and resting muscle biopsies were taken in a subgroup......The present study examined the effect of training by the 10-20-30 concept on performance, blood pressure (BP), and skeletal muscle angiogenesis as well as the feasibility of completing high-intensity interval training in local running communities. One hundred sixty recreational runners were divided......-20-30 increased VO2max but did not influence muscle fiber area, distribution or capillarization, whereas the expression of the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was lowered by 22%. No changes were observed in CON. These results suggest that 10-20-30 training is an effective and easily...

  4. Does respiratory muscle training increase physical performance?