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Sample records for vmh bst pvn

  1. AA, mating of BST magnet halves

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    The AA had 2 types of bending magnets: BLG (window-frame,long and narrow) and BST (H-type, short and wide). The BST had a steel length of 2.71 m, a "good field" width of 0.564 m, and a weight of about 75 t. Here we see the mating of two BST halves.

  2. EXERCISE-INDUCED SYMPATHETIC FFA MOBILIZATION IN VMH-LESIONED RATS IS NORMALIZED BY FASTING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balkan, B.; Dijk, G. van; Strubbe, J.H.; Bruggink, J.E.; Steffens, A.B.

    This study investigates whether reduced sympathetic responses during physical exercise in ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH)-lesioned obese rats are the direct result of damage to hypothalamic circuits or a secondary effect of the altered metabolism in obesity. Obese, VMH-lesioned rats and lean

  3. Lamination sheet of AA BST magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The AA had 2 types of bending magnets: BLG (window-frame, long and narrow)and BST (H-type, short and wide). The BST had a very wide aperture, 0.564 m of "good field". To demonstrate the size, the petite AA secretary, Val Mansfield, poses with a lamination sheet. See also 7811105, 7906163, 8006050.

  4. Systemic Glucoregulation by Glucose-Sensing Neurons in the Ventromedial Hypothalamic Nucleus (VMH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Takashi; Minokoshi, Yasuhiko

    2017-05-01

    The ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) regulates glucose production in the liver as well as glucose uptake and utilization in peripheral tissues, including skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue, via efferent sympathetic innervation and neuroendocrine mechanisms. The action of leptin on VMH neurons also increases glucose uptake in specific peripheral tissues through the sympathetic nervous system, with improved insulin sensitivity. On the other hand, subsets of VMH neurons, such as those that express steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1), sense changes in the ambient glucose concentration and are characterized as glucose-excited (GE) and glucose-inhibited (GI) neurons whose action potential frequency increases and decreases, respectively, as glucose levels rise. However, how these glucose-sensing (GE and GI) neurons in the VMH contribute to systemic glucoregulation remains poorly understood. In this review, we provide historical background and discuss recent advances related to glucoregulation by VMH neurons. In particular, the article describes the role of GE neurons in the control of peripheral glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity, which depend on mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 of the neurons, as well as that of GI neurons in the control of hepatic glucose production through hypoglycemia-induced counterregulatory mechanisms.

  5. BST2/Tetherin enhances entry of human cytomegalovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasinath Viswanathan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Interferon-induced BST2/Tetherin prevents budding of vpu-deficient HIV-1 by tethering mature viral particles to the plasma membrane. BST2 also inhibits release of other enveloped viruses including Ebola virus and Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV, indicating that BST2 is a broadly acting antiviral host protein. Unexpectedly however, recovery of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV from supernatants of BST2-expressing human fibroblasts was increased rather than decreased. Furthermore, BST2 seemed to enhance viral entry into cells since more virion proteins were released into BST2-expressing cells and subsequent viral gene expression was elevated. A significant increase in viral entry was also observed upon induction of endogenous BST2 during differentiation of the pro-monocytic cell line THP-1. Moreover, treatment of primary human monocytes with siRNA to BST2 reduced HCMV infection, suggesting that BST2 facilitates entry of HCMV into cells expressing high levels of BST2 either constitutively or in response to exogenous stimuli. Since BST2 is present in HCMV particles we propose that HCMV entry is enhanced via a reverse-tethering mechanism with BST2 in the viral envelope interacting with BST2 in the target cell membrane. Our data suggest that HCMV not only counteracts the well-established function of BST2 as inhibitor of viral egress but also employs this anti-viral protein to gain entry into BST2-expressing hematopoietic cells, a process that might play a role in hematogenous dissemination of HCMV.

  6. Enhanced activation of RVLM-projecting PVN neurons in rats with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Zheng, Hong; Patel, Kaushik P

    2012-04-15

    Previous studies have indicated that there is increased activation of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in rats with chronic heart failure (CHF); however, it is not clear if the preautonomic neurons within the PVN are specifically overactive. Also, it is not known if these neurons have altered responses to baroreceptor or osmotic challenges. Experiments were conducted in rats with CHF (6-8 wk after coronary artery ligation). Spontaneously active neurons were recorded in the PVN, of which 36% were antidromically activated from the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). The baseline discharge rate in RVLM-projecting PVN (PVN-RVLM) neurons from CHF rats was significantly greater than in sham-operated (sham) rats (6.0 ± 0.6 vs. 2.6 ± 0.3 spikes/s, P neurons by 80% in CHF rats compared with 37% in sham rats. Fifty-two percent of spontaneously active PVN-RVLM neurons responded to changes in the mean arterial pressure (MAP). The changes in discharge rate in PVN-RVLM neurons after a reduction in MAP (+52 ± 7% vs. +184 ± 61%) or an increase in MAP (-42 ± 8% vs. -71 ± 6%) were significantly attenuated in rats with CHF compared with sham rats. Most PVN-RVLM neurons (63%), including all barosensitive PVN-RVLM neurons, were excited by an internal carotid artery injection of hypertonic NaCl (2.1 osmol/l), whereas a smaller number (7%) were inhibited. The increase in discharge rate in PVN-RVLM neurons to hypertonic stimulation was significantly enhanced in rats with CHF compared with sham rats (134 ± 15% vs. 92 ± 13%). Taken together, these data suggest that PVN-RVLM neurons are more active under basal conditions and this overactivation is mediated by an enhanced glutamatergic tone in rats with CHF. Furthermore, this enhanced activation of PVN-RVLM neurons may contribute to the altered responses to baroreceptor and osmotic challenges observed during CHF.

  7. Activation of afferent renal nerves modulates RVLM-projecting PVN neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Zheng, Hong; Liu, Xuefei; Patel, Kaushik P

    2015-05-01

    Renal denervation for the treatment of hypertension has proven to be successful; however, the underlying mechanism/s are not entirely clear. To determine if preautonomic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) respond to afferent renal nerve (ARN) stimulation, extracellular single-unit recording was used to investigate the contribution of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM)-projecting PVN (PVN-RVLM) neurons to the response elicited during stimulation of ARN. In 109 spontaneously active neurons recorded in the PVN of anesthetized rats, 25 units were antidromically activated from the RVLM. Among these PVN-RVLM neurons, 84% (21/25) were activated by ARN stimulation. The baseline discharge rate was significantly higher in these neurons than those PVN-RVLM neurons not activated by ARN stimulation (16%, 4/25). The responsiveness of these neurons to baroreflex activation induced by phenylephrine and activation of cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) was also examined. Almost all of the PVN neurons that responded to ARN stimulation were sensitive to baroreflex (95%) and CSAR (100%). The discharge characteristics for nonevoked neurons (not activated by RVLM antidromic stimulation) showed that 23% of these PVN neurons responded to ARN stimulation. All the PVN neurons that responded to ARN stimulation were activated by N-methyl-D-aspartate, and these responses were attenuated by the glutamate receptor blocker AP5. These experiments demonstrated that sensory information originating in the kidney is integrated at the level of preautonomic neurons within the PVN, providing a novel mechanistic insight for use of renal denervation in the modulation of sympathetic outflow in disease states such as hypertension and heart failure. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Coping with dehydration: sympathetic activation and regulation of glutamatergic transmission in the hypothalamic PVN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardgett, Megan E.; Chen, Qing-Hui; Guo, Qing; Calderon, Alfredo S.; Andrade, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    Autonomic and endocrine profiles of chronic hypertension and heart failure resemble those of acute dehydration. Importantly, all of these conditions are associated with exaggerated sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) driven by glutamatergic activation of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Here, studies sought to gain insight into mechanisms of disease by determining the role of PVN ionotropic glutamate receptors in supporting SNA and mean arterial pressure (MAP) during dehydration and by elucidating mechanisms regulating receptor activity. Blockade of PVN N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors reduced (P dehydrated (DH) (48 h water deprivation) rats, but had no effect in euhydrated (EH) controls. Blockade of PVN α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors had no effect in either group. NMDA in PVN caused dose-dependent increases of renal SNA and MAP in both groups, but the maximum agonist evoked response (Emax) of the renal SNA response was greater (P dehydration increases excitatory NMDA receptor tone in PVN. Reduced glial-mediated glutamate uptake was identified as a key contributing factor. Defective glutamate uptake in PVN could therefore be an important, but as yet unexplored, mechanism driving sympathetic hyperactivity in chronic cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24671240

  9. The great escape: viral strategies to counter BST-2/tetherin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L Douglas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The interferon-induced BST-2 protein has the unique ability to restrict the egress of HIV-1, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, Ebola virus, and other enveloped viruses. The observation that virions remain attached to the surface of BST-2-expressing cells led to the renaming of BST-2 as "tetherin". However, viral proteins such as HIV-1 Vpu, simian immunodeficiency virus Nef, and KSHV K5 counteract BST-2, thereby allowing mature virions to readily escape from infected cells. Since the anti-viral function of BST-2 was discovered, there has been an explosion of research into several aspects of this intriguing interplay between host and virus. This review focuses on recent work addressing the molecular mechanisms involved in BST-2 restriction of viral egress and the species-specific countermeasures employed by various viruses.

  10. Hydrogen sulphide in the RVLM and PVN has no effect on cardiovascular regulation

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    Eloise eStreeter

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S is now recognised as an important signalling molecule and has been shown to have vasodilator and cardio-protectant effects. More recently it has been suggested that H2S may also act within the brain to reduce blood pressure. In the present study we have demonstrated the presence of the H2S producing enzyme, cystathionine  synthase (CBS in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN, brain regions with key cardiovascular regulatory functions. The cardiovascular role of H2S was investigated by determining the blood pressure (BP, heart rate (HR and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (LSNA responses elicited by a H2S donor (NaHS, sodium hydrogen sulphide or inhibitors of CBS, microinjected into the RVLM and PVN. In anaesthetised WKY rats bilateral microinjections of NaHS (0.2 – 2000 pmol/side into the RVLM did not significantly affect BP, HR or LSNA, compared to vehicle. Similarly, when the CBS inhibitors, amino-oxyacetate (AOA (0.1 – 1.0 nmol/side or hydroxylamine (HA (0.2 – 2.0 nmol/side, were administered into the RVLM, there were no significant effects on the cardiovascular variables compared to vehicle. Microinjections into the PVN of NaHS, HA and AOA had no consistent significant effects on BP, HR or LSNA compared to vehicle. We also investigated the cardiovascular responses to NaHS microinjected into the RVLM and PVN in SHR rats. Again, there were no significant effects on BP, HR and LSNA. Together, these results suggest that H2S in the RVLM and PVN does not have a major role in cardiovascular regulation.

  11. High salt intake enhances swim stress-induced PVN vasopressin cell activation and active stress coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, N C; Gilman, T L; Daws, L C; Toney, G M

    2018-07-01

    Stress contributes to many psychiatric disorders; however, responsivity to stressors can vary depending on previous or current stress exposure. Relatively innocuous heterotypic (differing in type) stressors can summate to result in exaggerated neuronal and behavioral responses. Here we investigated the ability of prior high dietary sodium chloride (salt) intake, a dehydrating osmotic stressor, to enhance neuronal and behavioral responses of mice to an acute psychogenic swim stress (SS). Further, we evaluated the contribution of the osmo-regulatory stress-related neuropeptide arginine vasopressin (VP) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), one of only a few brain regions that synthesize VP. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of high dietary salt intake on responsivity to heterotypic stress and the potential contribution of VPergic-mediated neuronal activity on high salt-induced stress modulation, thereby providing insight into how dietary (homeostatic) and environmental (psychogenic) stressors might interact to facilitate psychiatric disorder vulnerability. Salt loading (SL) with 4% saline for 7 days was used to dehydrate and osmotically stress mice prior to exposure to an acute SS. Fluid intake and hematological measurements were taken to quantify osmotic dehydration, and serum corticosterone levels were measured to index stress axis activation. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to stain for the immediate early gene product c-Fos to quantify effects of SL on SS-induced activation of neurons in the PVN and extended amygdala - brain regions that are synaptically connected and implicated in responding to osmotic stress and in modulation of SS behavior, respectively. Lastly, the role of VPergic PVN neurons and VP type 1 receptor (V1R) activity in the amygdala in mediating effects of SL on SS behavior was evaluated by quantifying c-Fos activation of VPergic PVN neurons and, in functional experiments, by nano-injecting the V1R selective

  12. Recombinant adeno-associated virus: efficient transduction of the rat VMH and clearance from blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margriet A van Gestel

    Full Text Available To promote the efficient and safe application of adeno-associated virus (AAV vectors as a gene transfer tool in the central nervous system (CNS, transduction efficiency and clearance were studied for serotypes commonly used to transfect distinct areas of the brain. As AAV2 was shown to transduce only small volumes in several brain regions, this study compares the transduction efficiency of three AAV pseudotyped vectors, namely AAV2/1, AAV2/5 and AAV2/8, in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH. No difference was found between AAV2/1 and AAV2/5 in transduction efficiency. Both AAV2/1 and AAV2/5 achieved a higher transduction rate than AAV2/8. One hour after virus administration to the brain, no viral particles could be traced in blood, indicating that no or negligible numbers of virions crossed the blood-brain barrier. In order to investigate survival of AAV in blood, clearance was determined following systemic AAV administration. The half-life of AAV2/1, AAV2/2, AAV2/5 and AAV2/8 was calculated by determining virus clearance rates from blood after systemic injection. The half-life of AAV2/2 was 4.2 minutes, which was significantly lower than the half-lives of AAV2/1, AAV2/5 and AAV2/8. With a half-life of more than 11 hours, AAV2/8 particles remained detectable in blood significantly longer than AAV2/5. We conclude that application of AAV in the CNS is relatively safe as no AAV particles are detectable in blood after injection into the brain. With a half-life of 1.67 hours of AAV2/5, a systemic injection with 1×109 genomic copies of AAV would be fully cleared from blood after 2 days.

  13. Improved flexoelectricity in PVDF/barium strontium titanate (BST) nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xinping; Zhou, Yang; Liu, Jie; Chu, Baojin

    2018-04-01

    The flexoelectric effect of polymers is normally much weaker than that of ferroelectric oxides. In order to improve the flexoelectric response of the poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) ferroelectric polymer, PVDF/Ba0.67Si0.33TiO3 (BST) nanocomposites were fabricated. BST nanofibers were prepared by the electrospinning method, and the fibers were further surface modified with H2O2 to achieve a stronger interfacial interaction between the fibers and polymer matrix. Due to the high dielectric properties and strong flexoelectric effect of the BST, both dielectric constant and flexoelectric response of the composite with 25 vol. % surface modified BST are 3-4 times higher than those of PVDF. The dependence of the dielectric constant and the flexoelectric coefficient on the composition of the nanocomposites can be fitted by the empirical Yamada model, and the dielectric constant and the flexoelectric coefficient are correlated by a linear relationship. This study provides an approach to enhance the flexoelectric response of PVDF-based polymers.

  14. (BST) and some bioassays using Neem ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of Neem (Azadirachta indica A.Juss) and Wild custard-apple (Annona senegalensis Pers) were extracted using ethanol and extracts were screened for bioactivity against brine shrimp larvae. The bioactive extracts in the brine shrimp test (BST) were investigated for correlation with aphid nematode and ...

  15. Optical study of BST films combining ellipsometry and reflectivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Železný, Vladimír; Chvostová, Dagmar; Pajasová, Libuše; Jelínek, Miroslav; Kocourek, Tomáš; Daniš, S.; Valvoda, V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 255, č. 10 (2009), s. 5280-5283 ISSN 0169-4332 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : BST thin films * optical properties Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.616, year: 2009

  16. BST-PINK PANTHER. An intelligent CAMAC crate controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troester, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    A technical and functional description of the PINK system for intelligent, distributed data acquisition, data formatting, and data reduction is presented. The system has been developed to bypass some of the constraints of CAMAC when collecting data with the high-resolution π 0 spectrometers of the Basel-Stockholm-Thessaloniki (BST) Collaboration at CERN. (orig.)

  17. Endogenous Murine BST-2/Tetherin Is Not a Major Restriction Factor of Influenza A Virus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Londrigan

    Full Text Available BST-2 (tetherin, CD317, HM1.24 restricts virus growth by tethering enveloped viruses to the cell surface. The role of BST-2 during influenza A virus infection (IAV is controversial. Here, we assessed the capacity of endogenous BST-2 to restrict IAV in primary murine cells. IAV infection increased BST-2 surface expression by primary macrophages, but not alveolar epithelial cells (AEC. BST-2-deficient AEC and macrophages displayed no difference in susceptibility to IAV infection relative to wild type cells. Furthermore, BST-2 played little role in infectious IAV release from either AEC or macrophages. To examine BST-2 during IAV infection in vivo, we infected BST-2-deficient mice. No difference in weight loss or in viral loads in the lungs and/or nasal tissues were detected between BST-2-deficient and wild type animals. This study rules out a major role for endogenous BST-2 in modulating IAV in the mouse model of infection.

  18. The amphiphilic hydrophobin Vmh2 plays a key role in one step synthesis of hybrid protein-gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politi, Jane; De Stefano, Luca; Longobardi, Sara; Giardina, Paola; Rea, Ilaria; Methivier, Christophe; Pradier, Claire-Marie; Casale, Sandra; Spadavecchia, Jolanda

    2015-12-01

    We report a simple and original method to synthesize gold nanoparticles in which a fungal protein, the hydrophobin Vmh2 from Pleurotus ostreatus and dicarboxylic acid-terminated polyethylene-glycol (PEG) has been used as additional components in a one step process, leading to hybrid protein-metal nanoparticles (NPs). The nanoparticles have been characterized by ultra-violet/visible, infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, dynamic light scattering and also by electron microscopy imaging. The results of these analytical techniques highlight nanometric sized, stable, hybrid complexes of about 12 nm, with outer surface rich in functional chemical groups. Interaction with protein and antibodies has also been exploited. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. KAJIAN SIFAT OPTIK FILM TIPIS BST DIDADAH NIOBIUM DAN TANTALUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Huriawati

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research thin films of Barium Strontium Titanate (BST has been synthesis with different compositions Ba0,5Sr0,5TiO3 and Ba0,25Sr0,75TiO3 which doped by Nb2O5 (Niobium and Ta2O5 (Tantalum on Si (100 type-p substrate. Thin films were produced by chemical solution deposition technique (CSD and spin coating technique with annealing temperature at 850oC, 900oC dan 950oC. Rotation velocity at 3000 rpm and time of rotation is 30 seconds. Characterization of Films is optic Characterization (absorbance ana reflectance. From the Characterizations were obtained BNST thin film with 5% doping and anneling temperature at 8500C as photodiode light sensor which applied in electronic circuit.

  20. ATR FT-IR spectroscopy on Vmh2 hydrophobin self-assembled layers for Teflon membrane bio-functionalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portaccio, M.; Gravagnuolo, A.M.; Longobardi, S.; Giardina, P.; Rea, I.; De Stefano, L.; Cammarota, M.; Lepore, M.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Hydrophobin self-assembled layers on Teflon in different preparation conditions were investigated. • ATR collection data geometry allowed samples examination without any particular preparation. • Amide content, lipid/amide and carbohydrate/amide ratios of the protein layer were estimated. • Secondary structure of protein was determined for the examined samples. • FT-IR demonstrated to be of extreme relevance in monitoring hydrophobin self-assembled layers preparation. - Abstract: Surface functionalization by layers of hydrophobins, amphiphilic proteins produced by fungi offers a promising and green strategy for fabrication of biomedical and bioanalytical devices. The layering process of the Vmh2 hydrophobin from Pleurotus ostreatus on Teflon membrane has been investigated by Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy. In particular, protein layers obtained with hydrophobin purified with two different procedures and in various coating conditions have been examined. The layers have been characterized by quantifying the amide I and amide II band area together with the lipid/amide ratio and carbohydrate/amide ratio. This characterization can be very useful in evaluating the best purification strategy and coating conditions. Moreover the analysis of the secondary structure of the layered protein using the deconvolution procedure of amide I band indicate the prevalent contribution from β-sheet state. The results inferred by infrared spectroscopy have been also confirmed by scanning electron microscopy imaging

  1. ATR FT-IR spectroscopy on Vmh2 hydrophobin self-assembled layers for Teflon membrane bio-functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portaccio, M., E-mail: marianna.portaccio@unina2.it [Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale – Seconda Università di Napoli, Via S.M. di Costantinopoli, 16-80134 Napoli (Italy); Gravagnuolo, A.M., E-mail: alfredomaria.gravagnuolo@unina.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università “Federico II”, Via Cintia, 21- 80126 Napoli (Italy); Longobardi, S., E-mail: sara.longobardi@unina.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università “Federico II”, Via Cintia, 21- 80126 Napoli (Italy); Giardina, P., E-mail: paola.giardina@unina.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università “Federico II”, Via Cintia, 21- 80126 Napoli (Italy); Rea, I., E-mail: ilaria.rea@na.imm.cnr.it [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, CNR, Via P. Castellino, 111-80131 Napoli (Italy); De Stefano, L., E-mail: luca.destefano@na.imm.cnr.it [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, CNR, Via P. Castellino, 111-80131 Napoli (Italy); Cammarota, M., E-mail: marcella.cammarota@unina2.it [Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale – Seconda Università di Napoli, Via S.M. di Costantinopoli, 16-80134 Napoli (Italy); Lepore, M., E-mail: maria.lepore@unina2.it [Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale – Seconda Università di Napoli, Via S.M. di Costantinopoli, 16-80134 Napoli (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Hydrophobin self-assembled layers on Teflon in different preparation conditions were investigated. • ATR collection data geometry allowed samples examination without any particular preparation. • Amide content, lipid/amide and carbohydrate/amide ratios of the protein layer were estimated. • Secondary structure of protein was determined for the examined samples. • FT-IR demonstrated to be of extreme relevance in monitoring hydrophobin self-assembled layers preparation. - Abstract: Surface functionalization by layers of hydrophobins, amphiphilic proteins produced by fungi offers a promising and green strategy for fabrication of biomedical and bioanalytical devices. The layering process of the Vmh2 hydrophobin from Pleurotus ostreatus on Teflon membrane has been investigated by Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy. In particular, protein layers obtained with hydrophobin purified with two different procedures and in various coating conditions have been examined. The layers have been characterized by quantifying the amide I and amide II band area together with the lipid/amide ratio and carbohydrate/amide ratio. This characterization can be very useful in evaluating the best purification strategy and coating conditions. Moreover the analysis of the secondary structure of the layered protein using the deconvolution procedure of amide I band indicate the prevalent contribution from β-sheet state. The results inferred by infrared spectroscopy have been also confirmed by scanning electron microscopy imaging.

  2. Ginseng Purified Dry Extract, BST204, Improved Cancer Chemotherapy-Related Fatigue and Toxicity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jung Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer related fatigue (CRF is one of the most common side effects of cancer and its treatments. A large proportion of cancer patients experience cancer-related physical and central fatigue so new strategies are needed for treatment and improved survival of these patients. BST204 was prepared by incubating crude ginseng extract with ginsenoside-β-glucosidase. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of BST204, mixture of ginsenosides on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU-induced CRF, the glycogen synthesis, and biochemical parameters in mice. The mice were randomly divided into the following groups: the naïve normal (normal, the HT-29 cell inoculated (xenograft, xenograft and 5-FU treated (control, xenograft + 5-FU + BST204-treated (100 and 200 mg/kg (BST204, and xenograft + 5-FU + modafinil (13 mg/kg treated group (modafinil. Running wheel activity and forced swimming test were used for evaluation of CRF. Muscle glycogen, serum inflammatory cytokines, aspartic aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatinine (CRE, white blood cell (WBC, neutrophil (NEUT, red blood cell (RBC, and hemoglobin (HGB were measured. Treatment with BST204 significantly increased the running wheel activity and forced swimming time compared to the control group. Consistent with the behavioral data, BST204 markedly increased muscle glycogen activity and concentrations of WBC, NEUT, RBC, and HGB. Also, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6, AST, ALT, and CRE levels in the serum were significantly reduced in the BST204-treated group compared to the control group. This result suggests that BST204 may improve chemotherapy-related fatigue and adverse toxic side effects.

  3. Social status and sex independently influence androgen receptor expression in the eusocial naked mole-rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Melissa M; Goldman, Bruce D; Forger, Nancy G

    2008-08-01

    Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) are eusocial rodents that live in large subterranean colonies including a single breeding female and 1-3 breeding males; all other members of the colony, known as subordinates, are reproductively suppressed. We recently found that naked mole-rats lack many of the sex differences in the brain and spinal cord commonly found in other rodents. Instead, neural morphology is influenced by breeding status, such that breeders, regardless of sex, have more neurons than subordinates in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH), and larger overall volumes of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and medial amygdala (MeA). To begin to understand how breeding status influences brain morphology, we examined the distribution of androgen receptor (AR) immunoreactivity in gonadally intact breeders and subordinates of both sexes. All animals had AR+ nuclei in many of the same regions positive for AR in other mammals, including the VMH, BST, PVN, MeA, and the ventral portion of the premammillary nucleus (PMv). We also observed diffuse labeling throughout the preoptic area, demonstrating that distribution of the AR protein in presumptive reproductive brain nuclei is well-conserved, even in a species that exhibits remarkably little sexual dimorphism. In contrast to other rodents, however, naked mole-rats lacked AR+ nuclei in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and hippocampus. Males had more AR+ nuclei in the MeA, VMH, and PMv than did females. Surprisingly, breeders had significantly fewer AR+ nuclei than subordinates in all brain regions examined (VMH, BST, PVN, MeA, and PMv). Thus, social status is strongly correlated with AR immunoreactivity in this eusocial species.

  4. Etching characteristic and mechanism of BST thin films using inductively coupled Cl2/Ar plasma with additive CF4 gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gwan-Ha; Kim, Kyoung-Tae; Kim, Dong-Pyo; Kim, Chang-Il

    2004-01-01

    BST thin films were etched with inductively coupled CF 4 /(Cl 2 +Ar) plasmas. The maximum etch rate of the BST thin films was 53.6 nm/min for a 10% CF 4 to the Cl 2 /Ar gas mixture at RF power of 700 W, DC bias of -150 V, and chamber pressure of 2 Pa. Small addition of CF 4 to the Cl 2 /Ar mixture increased chemical effect. Consequently, the increased chemical effect caused the increase in the etch rate of the BST thin films. To clarify the etching mechanism, the surface reaction of the BST thin films was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

  5. BST2/CD317 counteracts human coronavirus 229E productive infection by tethering virions at the cell surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shiu-Mei [Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei Veterans General Hospital and Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei 11217, Taiwan (China); Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Kuo-Jung [Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei Veterans General Hospital and Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei 11217, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chin-Tien, E-mail: chintien@ym.edu.tw [Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei Veterans General Hospital and Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei 11217, Taiwan (China); Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-20

    Bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST2), an interferon-inducible antiviral factor, has been shown to block the release of various enveloped viruses from cells. It has also been identified as an innate immune system component. Most enveloped viruses subject to BST2 restriction bud at the plasma membrane. Here we report our findings that (a) the production of human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) progeny viruses, whose budding occurs at the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC), markedly decreases in the presence of BST2; and (b) BST2 knockdown expression results in enhanced HCoV-229E virion production. Electron microscopy analyses indicate that HCoV-229E virions are tethered to cell surfaces or intracellular membranes by BST2. Our results suggest that BST2 exerts a broad blocking effect against enveloped virus release, regardless of whether budding occurs at the plasma membrane or intracellular compartments. - Highlights: • BST2 knockdown expression results in enhanced HCoV-229E egress. • HCoV-229E virions are tethered to cell surfaces or intracellular membranes by BST2. • HCoV-229E infection at high MOI can significantly downregulate HeLa BST2 and rescue HIV-1 egress.

  6. Gas Sensing Performance of Pure and Modified BST Thick Film Resistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. JAIN

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Barium Strontium Titanate (BST-(Ba0.87Sr0.13TiO3 ceramic powder was prepared by mechanochemical process. The thick films of different thicknesses of BST were prepared by screen-printing technique and gas-sensing performance of these films was tested for various gases. The films showed highest response and selectivity to ammonia gas. The pure BST film was surface modified by surfactant CrO3 by using dipping technique. The surface modified film suppresses the response to ammonia and enhances to H2S gas. The surface modification of films changes the adsorption-desorption relationship with the target gas and shifts its selectivity. The gas response, selectivity, response and recovery time of the pure and modified films were measured and presented.

  7. Up-regulation of bone marrow stromal protein 2 (BST2) in breast cancer with bone metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Dongqing; Cao, Jie; Li, Zhen; Zheng, Xin; Yao, Yao; Li, Wanglin; Yuan, Ziqiang

    2009-01-01

    Bone metastases are frequent complications of breast cancer. Recent literature implicates multiple chemokines in the formation of bone metastases in breast cancer. However, the molecular mechanism of metastatic bone disease in breast cancer remains unknown. We have recently made the novel observation of the BST2 protein expression in human breast cancer cell lines. The purpose of our present study is to investigate the expression and the role of BST2 in bone metastatic breast cancer. cDNA microarray analysis was used to compare the BST2 gene expression between a metastatic to bone human breast cancer cell line (MDA-231BO) and a primary human breast cancer cell line (MDA-231). The BST2 expression in one bone metastatic breast cancer and seven non-bone metastatic breast cancer cell lines were also determined using real-time RT-PCR and Western blot assays. We then employed tissue array to further study the BST2 expression in human breast cancer using array slides containing 20 independent breast cancer tumors that formed metastatic bone lesions, 30 non-metastasis-forming breast cancer tumors, and 8 normal breast tissues. In order to test the feasibility of utilizing BST2 as a serum marker for the presence of bone metastasis in breast cancer, we had measured the BST2 expression levels in human serums by using ELISA on 43 breast cancer patients with bone metastasis, 43 breast cancer patients without bone metastasis, and 14 normal healthy controls. The relationship between cell migration and proliferation and BST2 expression was also studied in a human breast recombinant model system using migration and FACS analysis. The microarray demonstrated over expression of the BST2 gene in the bone metastatic breast cancer cell line (MDA-231BO) compared to the primary human breast cancer cell line (MDA-231). The expression of the BST2 gene was significantly increased in the bone metastatic breast cancer cell lines and tumor tissues compared to non-bone metastatic breast cancer

  8. Optical Modulation of BST/STO Thin Films in the Terahertz Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ying; Shi, Songjie; Zhou, Ling; Ling, Furi; Yao, Jianquan

    2018-04-01

    The {Ba}_{0.7} {Sr}_{0.3} {TiO}3 (BST) thin film (30.3 nm) deposited on a {SrTiO}3 (STO) film/silicon substrate sample was modulated by 532 nm continuous-wave laser in the range of 0.2-1 THz at room temperature. The refractive index variation was observed to linearly increase at the highest 3.48 for 0.5 THz with the pump power increasing to 400 mW. It was also found that the BST/STO sample had a larger refractive index variation and was more sensitive to the external optical field than a BST monolayer due to the epitaxial strain induced by the STO film. The electric displacement-electric field loops results revealed that the increasing spontaneous polarization with the STO film that was induced was responsible for the larger refractive index variation of the BST/STO sample. In addition, the real and imaginary part of the permittivity were observed increasing along with the external field increasing, due to the soft mode hardening.

  9. Effects of BST and high energy diet on gene expression in mammary parenchyma of dairy heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Joyce Lew

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary energy and recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST injection to identify genes that might control mammogenesis. Total RNA was extracted from the parenchymal tissue of 32 heifers randomly assigned to one of four treatments: two diets (a standard diet and a high energy, high protein diet, each with or without bST. To perform microarray experiments, RNA samples were pooled (2 animals/pool before reverse transcription and labeling with Cy3 or Cy5. A 4-node loop design was used to examine the differential gene expression among treatments using a bovine-specific cDNA microarray (National Bovine Functional Genomics Consortium Library, NBFGC containing 18,263 unique expressed sequence tags (EST. Significance levels of differential gene expression among treatments were assessed using a mixed model approach. Injection of bST altered the expression of 12 % of the genes on NBFGC slide related to tissue development, whereas 6% were altered by diet. Administration of bST increases the expression of genes positively related to cell proliferation and mammary parenchyma to a greater extent than a high energy diet.

  10. Bst1 is required for Candida albicans infecting host via facilitating cell wall anchorage of Glycosylphosphatidyl inositol anchored proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zou, Zui; Huang, Xin; Shen, Hui; He, Li Juan; Chen, Si Min; Li, Li Ping; Yan, Lan; Zhang, Shi Qun; Zhang, Jun Dong; Xu, Zheng; Xu, Guo Tong; An, Mao Mao; Jiang, Yuan Ying

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidyl inositol anchored proteins (GPI-APs) on fungal cell wall are essential for invasive infections. While the function of inositol deacylation of GPI-APs in mammalian cells has been previously characterized the impact of inositol deacylation in fungi and implications to host infection remains largely unexplored. Herein we describe our identification of BST1, an inositol deacylase of GPI-Aps in Candida albicans, was critical for GPI-APs cell wall attachment and host infection. BST1-deficient C. albicans (bst1Δ/Δ) was associated with severely impaired cell wall anchorage of GPI-APs and subsequen unmasked β-(1,3)-glucan. Consistent with the aberrant cell wall structures, bst1Δ/Δ strain did not display an invasive ability and could be recognized more efficiently by host immune systems. Moreover, BST1 null mutants or those expressing Bst1 variants did not display inositol deacylation activity and exhibited severely attenuated virulence and reduced organic colonization in a murine systemic candidiasis model. Thus, Bst1 can facilitate cell wall anchorage of GPI-APs in C. albicans by inositol deacylation, and is critical for host invasion and immune escape. PMID:27708385

  11. Identification of novel key amino acids at the interface of the transmembrane domains of human BST-2 and HIV-1 Vpu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiaojing; Hu, Siqi; Li, Jian; Xu, Fengwen; Mei, Shan; Zhou, Jinming; Cen, Shan; Jin, Qi; Guo, Fei

    2013-08-06

    BST-2 (bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2) is an interferon-inducible protein that inhibits virus release by tethering viral particles to the cell surface. This antiviral activity of BST-2 is antagonized by HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu. Vpu physically interacts with BST-2 through their mutual transmembrane (TM) domains. In this study, we utilized the BRET assay and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method to further characterize the interaction of BST-2 and Vpu. Amino acids I34, L37, P40 and L41 in the TM domain of BST-2, and L11, A18 and W22 in the TM domain of Vpu were identified to be critical for the interaction between BST-2 and Vpu. The residues P40 in the TM domain of BST-2 and L11 in the TM domain of Vpu were shown, for the first time, to be important for their interaction. Furthermore, triple-amino-acid substitutions, 14-16 (AII to VAA) and 26-28 (IIE to AAA) in Vpu TM, not the single-residue mutation, profoundly disrupted BST-2/Vpu interaction. The results of MD simulation revealed significant conformational changes of the BST-2/Vpu complex as a result of mutating P40 of BST-2 and L11, 14-16 (AII to VAA) and 26-28 (IIE to AAA) of Vpu. In addition, disrupting the interaction between BST-2 and Vpu rendered BST-2 resistant to Vpu antagonization. Through use of the BRET assay, we identified novel key residues P40 in the TM domain of BST-2 and L11 in the TM domain of Vpu that are important for their interaction. These results add new insights into the molecular mechanism behind BST-2 antagonization by HIV-1 Vpu.

  12. Ultrahigh frequency tunability of aperture-coupled microstrip antenna via electric-field tunable BST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hong-Lei; Xue, Qian; Gao, Xiao-Yang; Yao, Feng-Rui; Lu, Shi-Yang; Wang, Ye-Long; Liu, Chun-Heng; Zhang, Yong-Cheng; Lü, Yue-Guang; Li, Shan-Dong

    2015-12-01

    A composite ceramic with nominal composition of 45.0 wt%(Ba0.5Sr0.5)TiO3-55.0 wt%MgO (acronym is BST-MgO) is sintered for fabricating a frequency reconfigurable aperture-coupled microstrip antenna. The calcined BST-MgO composite ceramic exhibits good microwave dielectric properties at X-band with appropriate dielectric constant ɛr around 85, lower dielectric loss tan δ about 0.01, and higher permittivity tunability 14.8% at 8.33 kV/cm. An ultrahigh E-field tunability of working frequency up to 11.0% (i.e., from 9.1 GHz to 10.1 GHz with a large frequency shift of 1000 MHz) at a DC bias field from 0 to 8.33 kV/cm and a considerably large center gain over 7.5 dB are obtained in the designed frequency reconfigurable microstrip antenna. These results demonstrate that BST materials are promising for the frequency reconfigurable antenna. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11074040) and the Key Project of Shandong Provincial Department of Science and Technology, China (Grant No. ZR2012FZ006).

  13. Miniaturized and reconfigurable notch antenna based on a BST ferroelectric thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Hung Viet [Institut d' Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes (IETR), IUT Saint-Brieuc, Université de Rennes 1, 22004 Saint-Brieuc (France); CEA-LETI, Minatec, 17 avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Benzerga, Ratiba, E-mail: ratiba.benzerga@univ-rennes1.fr [Institut d' Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes (IETR), IUT Saint-Brieuc, Université de Rennes 1, 22004 Saint-Brieuc (France); Borderon, Caroline [IETR, Université de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssinière, 44322 Nantes (France); Delaveaud, Christophe [CEA-LETI, Minatec, 17 avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Sharaiha, Ala [Institut d' Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes (IETR), IUT Saint-Brieuc, Université de Rennes 1, 22004 Saint-Brieuc (France); Renoud, Raphael [IETR, Université de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssinière, 44322 Nantes (France); Paven, Claire Le [Institut d' Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes (IETR), IUT Saint-Brieuc, Université de Rennes 1, 22004 Saint-Brieuc (France); Pavy, Sabrina; Nadaud, Kevin; Gundel, Hartmut W. [IETR, Université de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssinière, 44322 Nantes (France)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • A miniature and agile antenna based on a BST MIM capacitor is simulated and made. • Mn{sup 2+} doped BST thin films are synthesized by chemical deposition and spin coating. • Permittivity and losses of the BST thin film are respectively 225 and 0.02 at 1 GHz. • A miniaturization rate of 70% is obtained with a MIM capacitance of 3.7 pF. • A frequency tunability of 14.5% and a tunability performance of 0.04 are measured. - Abstract: This work deals with the design, realization and characterization of a miniature and frequency agile antenna based on a ferroelectric Ba{sub 0,80}Sr{sub 0,20}TiO{sub 3} thin film. The notch antenna is loaded with a variable metal/insulator/metal (MIM) capacitor and is achieved by a monolithic method. The MIM capacitance is 3.7 pF, which results in a resonant frequency of 670 MHz compared to 2.25 GHz for the unloaded simulated antenna; the resulting miniaturization rate is 70%. The characterization of the antenna prototype shows a frequency tunable rate of 14.5% under an electric field of 375 kV/cm, with a tunability performance η = 0.04.

  14. Viral Restriction Activity of Feline BST2 Is Independent of Its N-Glycosylation and Induction of NF-κB Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiran Wang

    Full Text Available BST2 (CD317, tetherin, HM1.24 is an interferon-inducible transmembrane protein which can directly inhibit the release of enveloped virus particles from infected cells, and its anti-viral activity is reported to be related to the specific topological arrangement of its four structural domains. The N-terminal cytoplasmic tail of feline BST2 (fBST2 is characterized by a shorter N-terminal region compared to those of other known homologs. In this study, we investigated the functional impact of modifying the cytoplasmic tail region of fBST2 and its molecular mechanism. The fBST2 protein with the addition of a peptide at the N-terminus retained anti-release activity against human immunodeficiency virus type-1 and pseudovirus based on feline immunodeficiency virus at a weaker level compared with the wild-type fBST2. However, the fBST2 protein with addition of a peptide internally in the ectodomain proximal to the GPI anchor still retained its anti-viral activity well. Notably, the N-glycosylation state and the cell surface level of the N-terminally modified variants were unlike those of the wild-type protein, while no difference was observed in their intracellular localizations. However, in contrast to human BST2, the wild-type fBST2 did not show the ability to activate NF-κB. Consistent with previous reports, our findings showed that adding a peptide in the cytoplasmic tail region of fBST2 may influence its anti-viral activity. The shorter N-terminal cytoplasmic region of fBST2 compared with human BST2 did not apparently affect its anti-viral activity, which is independent of its N-glycosylation and ability to activate NF-κB.

  15. BstXI RFLP in the human inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor light chain gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leveillard, T; Bourguignon, J; Sesbouee, R; Hanauer, A; Salier, J P; Diarra-Mehrpour, M; Martin, J P

    1988-03-25

    The 1.2 kb EcoRI/SmaI fragment of lambdaHuLITI2 was used as probe. lambdaHuLITI2 is a full length cDNA clone coding for human inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor light chain isolated from immunochemical screening of a lambdagt11 library. Its sequence coding for HI-30 and alpha-1-microglobulin is in agreement. BstXI identifies five invariant bands at 5.0 kb, 2.3 kb, 1.5 kb, 1.1 kb, and 0.7 kb and a diallelic polymorphism with DNA fragments at 2.0 kb or 1.7 kb.

  16. Antiviral Inhibition of Enveloped Virus Release by Tetherin/BST-2: Action and Counteraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart J. D. Neil

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tetherin (BST2/CD317 has been recently recognized as a potent interferon-induced antiviral molecule that inhibits the release of diverse mammalian enveloped virus particles from infected cells. By targeting an immutable structure common to all these viruses, the virion membrane, evasion of this antiviral mechanism has necessitated the development of specific countermeasures that directly inhibit tetherin activity. Here we review our current understanding of the molecular basis of tetherin’s mode of action, the viral countermeasures that antagonize it, and how virus/tetherin interactions may affect viral transmission and pathogenicity.

  17. Integration of BST varactors with surface acoustic wave device by film transfer technology for tunable RF filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Hideki; Tanaka, Shuji; Kimura, Tetsuya; Koutsaroff, Ivoyl P; Kadota, Michio; Hashimoto, Ken-ya; Esashi, Masayoshi

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a film transfer process to integrate barium strontium titanate (BST) metal–insulator–metal (MIM) structures with surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices on a lithium niobate (LN) substrate. A high-quality BST film grown on a Si substrate above 650 °C was patterned into the MIM structures, and transferred to a LN substrate below 130 °C by Ar-plasma-activated Au–Au bonding and the Si lost wafer process. Simple test SAW devices with the transferred BST variable capacitors (VCs) were fabricated and characterized. The resonance frequency of a one-port SAW resonator with the VC connected in series changed from 999 to 1018 MHz, when a dc bias voltage of 3 V was applied to the VC. Although the observed frequency tuning range was smaller than expected due to the degradation of BST in the process, the experimental result demonstrated that a tunable SAW filter with the transferred BST VCs was feasible. (paper)

  18. Tunable dielectric properties of Barium Magnesium Niobate (BMN) doped Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) thin films by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alema, Fikadu; Reinholz, Aaron; Pokhodnya, Konstantin

    2013-03-01

    We report on the tunable dielectric properties of Mg and Nb co-doped Ba0.45Sr0.55TiO3 (BST) thin film prepared by the magnetron sputtering using BST target (pure and doped with BaMg0.33Nb0.67O3 (BMN)) on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Al2O3 4'' wafers at 700 °C under oxygen atmosphere. The electrical measurements are conducted on 2432 metal-ferroelectric-metal capacitors using Pt as the top and bottom electrode. The crystalline structure, microstructure, and surface morphology of the films are analyzed and correlated to the films dielectric properties. The BMN doped and undoped BST films have shown tunabilities of 48% and 52%; and leakage current densities of 2.2x10-6 A/cm2 and 3.7x10-5 A/cm2, respectively at 0.5 MV/cm bias field. The results indicate that the BMN doped film exhibits a lower leakage current with no significant decrease in tunability. Due to similar electronegativity and ionic radii, it was suggested that both Mg2+ (accepter-type) and Nb5+ (donor-type) dopants substitutTi4+ ion in BST. The improvement in the film dielectric losses and leakage current with insignificant loss of tunability is attributed to the adversary effects of Mg2+ and Nb5+ in BST.

  19. Association Study between the CD157/BST1 Gene and Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Japanese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Yokoyama

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available CD157, also referred to as bone marrow stromal cell antigen-1 (BST-1, is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored molecule that promotes pre-B-cell growth. Previous studies have reported associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the CD157/BST1 gene with Parkinson’s disease. In an attempt to determine whether SNPs or haplotypes in the CD157/BST1 are associated with other brain disorders, we performed a case-control study including 147 autism spectrum disorder (ASD patients at Kanazawa University Hospital in Japan and 150 unselected Japanese volunteers by the sequence-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction method combined with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Of 93 SNPs examined, two SNPs showed significantly higher allele frequencies in cases with ASDs than in unaffected controls (rs4301112, OR = 6.4, 95% CI = 1.9 to 22, p = 0.0007; and rs28532698, OR = 6.2, 95% CI = 1.8 to 21, p = 0.0012; Fisher’s exact test; p < 0.002 was considered significant after multiple testing correction. In addition, CT genotype in rs10001565 was more frequently observed in the ASD group than in the control group (OR = 15, 95% CI = 2.0 to 117, p = 0.0007; Fisher’s exact test. The present data indicate that genetic variation of the CD157/BST1 gene might confer susceptibility to ASDs.

  20. The role of BST2/tetherin in infection with the feline retroviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Isabelle; Hosie, Margaret J.; Willett, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    The recently identified host restriction factor tetherin (BST-2, CD317) potently inhibits the release of nascent retrovirus particles from infected cells. Recently, we reported the identification and characterization of tetherin as a novel feline retroviral restriction factor. Based on homology to human tetherin we identified a putative tetherin gene in the genome of the domestic cat (Felis catus) which was found to be expressed in different feline cell lines both prior to and post treatment with either type I or type II interferon (IFN). The predicted structure of feline tetherin (feTHN) was that of a type II single-pass transmembrane protein encoding an N-terminal transmembrane anchor, central predicted coiled-coil bearing extracellular domain to promote dimerization, and a C-terminal GPI-anchor, consistent with conservation of structure between human and feline tetherin. FeTHN displayed potent inhibition of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particle release in single-cycle replication assays. Notably, feTHN activity was resistant to antagonism by HIV-1 Vpu. However, stable ectopic expression of feTHN mRNA in different feline cell lines had no inhibitory effect on the growth of diverse primary or cell culture-adapted strains of FIV. Hence, whereas feline tetherin efficiently blocks viral particle release in single-cycle replication assays, it might not prevent dissemination of feline retroviruses in vivo. PMID:21715020

  1. Effect of farm and simulated laboratory cold environmental conditions on the performance and physiological responses of lactating dairy cows supplemented with bovine somatotropin (BST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, B. A.; Johnson, H. D.; Li, R.; Collier, R. J.

    1990-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of bovine somatotropin (BST) supplementation in twelve lactating dairy cows maintained in cold environmental conditions. Six cows were injected daily with 25 mg of BST; the other six were injected with a control vehicle. Cows were maintained under standard dairy management during mid-winter for 30 days. Milk production was recorded twice daily, and blood samples were taken weekly. Animals were then transferred to environmentally controlled chambers and exposed to cycling thermoneutral (15° to 20° C) and cycling cold (-5° to +5° C) temperatures for 10 days in a split-reversal design. Milk production, feed and water intake, body weights and rectal temperatures were monitored. Blood samples were taken on days 1, 3, 5, 8 and 10 of each period and analyzed for plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), cortisol, insulin and prolactin. Under farm conditions, BST-treated cows produced 11% more milk than control-treated cows and in environmentally controlled chambers produced 17.4% more milk. No differences due to BST in feed or water intake, body weights or rectal temperatures were found under laboratory conditions. Plasma T3 and insulin increased due to BST treatment while no effect was found on cortisol, prolactin or T4. The results showed that the benefits of BST supplementation in lactating dairy cows were achieved under cold environmental conditions.

  2. Effect of BST film thickness on the performance of tunable interdigital capacitors grown by MBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Cedric J. G.; Freeze, Christopher R.; Stemmer, Susanne; York, Robert A.

    2017-12-01

    Voltage-tunable, interdigital capacitors (IDCs) were fabricated on Ba0.29Sr0.71TiO3 grown by hybrid molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). In this growth technique, we utilize the metal-organic precursor titanium tetraisopropoxide rather than solid-source Ti as with conventional MBE. Two samples of varying BaxSr(1-x)TiO3 (BST) thicknesses were fabricated and analyzed. High-quality, epitaxial Pt electrodes were deposited by sputtering from a high-purity Pt target at 825 °C. The Pt electrodes were patterned and etched by argon ion milling, passivated with reactively sputtered SiO2, and then metallized with lift-off Ti/Au. The fabricated devices consisted of two-port IDCs embedded in ground-signal-ground, coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission lines to enable radio-frequency (RF) probing. The sample included open and thru de-embedding structures to remove pad and CPW parasitic impedances. Two-port RF scattering (S) parameters were measured from 100 MHz to 40 GHz while DC bias was stepped from 0 V to 100 V. The IDCs exhibit a high zero-bias radio-frequency (RF) quality factor (Q) approaching 200 at 1 GHz and better than 2.3:1 capacitance tuning for the 300-nm-thick sample. Differences in the Q(V) and C(V) response with varying thicknesses indicate that unknown higher order material phenomena are contributing to the loss and tuning characteristics of the material.

  3. TLR-4 engagement of dendritic cells confers a BST-2/tetherin-mediated restriction of HIV-1 infection to CD4+ T cells across the virological synapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanchet Fabien P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dendritic cells and their subsets, located at mucosal surfaces, are among the first immune cells to encounter disseminating pathogens. The cellular restriction factor BST-2/tetherin (also known as CD317 or HM1.24 potently restricts HIV-1 release by retaining viral particles at the cell surface in many cell types, including primary cells such as macrophages. However, BST-2/tetherin does not efficiently restrict HIV-1 infection in immature dendritic cells. Results We now report that BST-2/tetherin expression in myeloid (myDC and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC can be significantly up-regulated by IFN-α treatment and TLR-4 engagement with LPS. In contrast to HeLa or 293T cells, infectious HIV-1 release in immature DC and IFN-α–matured DC was only modestly affected in the absence of Vpu compared to wild-type viruses. Strikingly, immunofluorescence analysis revealed that BST-2/tetherin was excluded from HIV containing tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs in both immature DC and IFN-α–matured DC. In contrast, in LPS-mediated mature DC, BST-2/tetherin exerted a significant restriction in transfer of HIV-1 infection to CD4+ T cells. Additionally, LPS, but not IFN-α stimulation of immature DC, leads to a dramatic redistribution of cellular restriction factors to the TEM as well as at the virological synapse between DC and CD4+ T cells. Conclusions In conclusion, we demonstrate that TLR-4 engagement in immature DC significantly up-regulates the intrinsic antiviral activity of BST-2/tetherin, during cis-infection of CD4+ T cells across the DC/T cell virological synapse. Manipulating the function and potency of cellular restriction factors such as BST-2/tetherin to HIV-1 infection, has implications in the design of antiviral therapeutic strategies.

  4. Osteochondral Biopsy Analysis Demonstrates That BST-CarGel Treatment Improves Structural and Cellular Characteristics of Cartilage Repair Tissue Compared With Microfracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méthot, Stéphane; Changoor, Adele; Tran-Khanh, Nicolas; Hoemann, Caroline D.; Stanish, William D.; Restrepo, Alberto; Shive, Matthew S.; Buschmann, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The efficacy and safety of BST-CarGel, a chitosan-based medical device for cartilage repair, was compared with microfracture alone at 1 year during a multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT) in the knee. The quality of repair tissue of osteochondral biopsies collected from a subset of patients was compared using blinded histological assessments. Methods The international RCT evaluated repair tissue quantity and quality by 3-dimensional quantitative magnetic resonance imaging as co-primary endpoints at 12 months. At an average of 13 months posttreatment, 21/41 BST-CarGel and 17/39 microfracture patients underwent elective second look arthroscopies as a tertiary endpoint, during which ICRS (International Cartilage Repair Society) macroscopic scoring was carried out, and osteochondral biopsies were collected. Stained histological sections were evaluated by blinded readers using ICRS I and II histological scoring systems. Collagen organization was evaluated using a polarized light microscopy score. Results BST-CarGel treatment resulted in significantly better ICRS macroscopic scores (P = 0.0002) compared with microfracture alone, indicating better filling, integration, and tissue appearance. Histologically, BST-CarGel resulted in a significant improvement of structural parameters—Surface Architecture (P = 0.007) and Surface/Superficial Assessment (P = 0.042)—as well as cellular parameters—Cell Viability (P = 0.006) and Cell Distribution (P = 0.032). No histological parameters were significantly better for the microfracture group. BST-CarGel treatment also resulted in a more organized repair tissue with collagen stratification more similar to native hyaline cartilage, as measured by polarized light microscopy scoring (P = 0.0003). Conclusion Multiple and independent analyses in this biopsy substudy demonstrated that BST-CarGel treatment results in improved structural and cellular characteristics of repair tissue at 1 year posttreatment compared with

  5. The Homolog of the Gene bstA of the BTP1 Phage from Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium ST313 Is an Antivirulence Gene in Salmonella enterica Serovar Dublin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Espinel, Irene Cartas; Spiegelhauer, Malene Roed

    2018-01-01

    -pathogen interaction in S. Dublin, a mutant where this gene was deleted (S. Dublin ΔbstA) and a mutant which was further genetically complemented with bstA (S. Dublin 3246-C) were constructed and tested in models of in vitro and in vivo infection as well as during growth competition assays in M9 medium, Luria...... macrophages and higher net replication within human THP-1 cells. Furthermore, during mouse infections, S. Dublin ΔbstA was more virulent than the wild type following a single intraperitoneal infection and showed an increased competitive index during competitive infection assays. Deletion of bstA did...... not affect either the amount of cytokines released by THP-1 macrophages or the cytotoxicity toward these cells. The histology of the livers and spleens of mice infected with the wild-type strain and the S. Dublin ΔbstA mutant revealed similar levels of inflammation between the two groups. The gene...

  6. Efeito da utilização da somatotropina bovina recombinante (bST sobre a produção de leite em búfalas Effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST utilization on milk production from buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mendes Jorge

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o resultado da utilização da somatotropina bovina recombinante (bST atuando na produção de leite em búfalas da raça Murrah. Empregaram-se 28 búfalas multíparas da raça Murrah, divididas em dois grupos homogêneos de 14 animais, recebendo os seguintes tratamentos: Grupo 1 ¾ Controle (solução salina e Grupo 2 ¾ 500 mg de bST/cabeça a cada 14 dias, durante 7 meses. Búfalas tratadas com bST exibiram incrementos de 48,52%, 32,80% e 32,80% nas produções total de leite, corrigida, depois, para 4% de gordura e média diária, respectivamente. A somatotropina elevou a produção total de gordura sem alterar a porcentagem dela no leite. A administração de bST não afetou a porcentagem de proteína do leite todavia, a produção total de proteína foi aumentada. Quanto à duração da lactação, o tratamento com bST diferiu do controle, o que demonstra a maior persistência da lactação de búfalas tratadas com bST.The objective of this work was to study the effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST utilization on milk production from Murrah buffaloes. Twenty eight multiparous Murrah buffaloes were used and divided into two homogeneous groups of 14 animals, receiving the following treatments: Group 1 ¾ Control (salt solution and Group 2 ¾ 500 mg of bST/head every 14 days during 7 months. Buffaloes treated with bST presented increase of 48.52%, 32.80% and 32.80% on total milk yield, adjusted to 4% of fat and average daily milk yield, respectively. Somatotropin increased total fat milk yield without alter fat percentage of milk. Administration of bST did not affect protein percentage of milk while total protein milk yield increased. As for the lactating period, the treatment with bST differed of the control, what might have denoted in larger persistence of the lactation from buffaloes treated with bST.

  7. X-ray diffraction and surface acoustic wave analysis of BST/Pt/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mseddi, Souhir; Hedi Ben Ghozlen, Mohamed [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, Universite de Sfax, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Njeh, Anouar [Unite de Physique, Informatique et Matematiques, Faculte des Sciences de Gafsa, Universite de Gafsa, 2112 Gafsa (Tunisia); Schneider, Dieter [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Material- und Strahltechnologie, Winterbergstrasse 28, 1277 Dresden (Germany); Fuess, Hartmut [Institute of Materials Science, University of Technology, Petersenstr.23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    High dielectric constant and electrostriction property of (Ba, Sr)Ti0{sub 3} (BST) thin films result in an increasing interest for dielectric devices and microwave acoustic resonator. Barium strontium titanate (Ba{sub 0.645}Sr{sub 0.355}TiO{sub 3}) films of about 300 nm thickness are grown on Pt(111)/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si(001) substrates by rf magnetron sputtering deposition techniques. X-ray diffraction is applied for the microstructural characterization. The BST films exhibit a cubic perovskite structure with a dense and smooth surface. A laser acoustic waves (LA-waves) technique is used to generate surface acoustic waves (SAW) propagating in the BST films. Young's modulus E and the Poisson ratio {nu} of TiO{sub 2,} Pt and BST films in different propagation directions are derived from the measured dispersion curves. Estimation of BST elastics constants are served in SAW studies. Impact of stratification process on SAW, propagating along [100] and [110] directions of silicon substrate, has been interpreted on the basis of ordinary differential equation (ODE) and stiffness matrix method (SMM). A good agreement is observed between experimental and calculated dispersion curves. The performed calculations are strongly related to the implemented crystallographic data of each layer. Dispersion curves are found to be sensitive to the SAW propagation direction and the stratification process for the explored frequency ranges 50-250 MHz, even though it corresponds to a wave length clearly higher than the whole films thickness.

  8. Phaseolus vulgaris Leuco-Agglutinin Tracing of Intrahypothalamic Connections of the Lateral, Ventromedial, Dorsomedial and Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nuclei in the Rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, G.J. ter; Luiten, P.G.M.

    Intrahypothalamic connections of the lateral (LHA), ventromedial (VMH), dorsomedial (DMH) and paraventricular (PVN) hypothalamic nuclei were studied with anterograde transport of iontophoretically injected Phaseolus vulgaris leuco-agglutinin and the immunocytochemical detection of labeled

  9. Species-specific activity of SIV Nef and HIV-1 Vpu in overcoming restriction by tetherin/BST2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Jia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Tetherin, also known as BST2, CD317 or HM1.24, was recently identified as an interferon-inducible host-cell factor that interferes with the detachment of virus particles from infected cells. HIV-1 overcomes this restriction by expressing an accessory protein, Vpu, which counteracts tetherin. Since lentiviruses of the SIV(smm/mac/HIV-2 lineage do not have a vpu gene, this activity has likely been assumed by other viral gene products. We found that deletion of the SIV(mac239 nef gene significantly impaired virus release in cells expressing rhesus macaque tetherin. Virus release could be restored by expressing Nef in trans. However, Nef was unable to facilitate virus release in the presence of human tetherin. Conversely, Vpu enhanced virus release in the presence of human tetherin, but not in the presence of rhesus tetherin. In accordance with the species-specificity of Nef in mediating virus release, SIV Nef downregulated cell-surface expression of rhesus tetherin, but did not downregulate human tetherin. The specificity of SIV Nef for rhesus tetherin mapped to four amino acids in the cytoplasmic domain of the molecule that are missing from human tetherin, whereas the specificity of Vpu for human tetherin mapped to amino acid differences in the transmembrane domain. Nef alleles of SIV(smm, HIV-2 and HIV-1 were also able to rescue virus release in the presence of both rhesus macaque and sooty mangabey tetherin, but were generally ineffective against human tetherin. Thus, the ability of Nef to antagonize tetherin from these Old World primates appears to be conserved among the primate lentiviruses. These results identify Nef as the viral gene product of SIV that opposes restriction by tetherin in rhesus macaques and sooty mangabeys, and reveal species-specificity in the activities of both Nef and Vpu in overcoming tetherin in their respective hosts.

  10. Electrical Properties of Photodiode Ba0.25Sr0.75TiO3 (BST Thin Film Doped with Ferric Oxide on p-type Si (100 Substrate using Chemical Solution Deposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irzaman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have grown pure Ba0.25Sr0.75TiO3 (BST and BST doped by Ferric Oxide Fe2O3 (BFST with doping variations of 5%, 10%, and 15% above type-p Silicon (100 substrate using the chemical solution deposition (CSD method with spin coating technique at rotation speed of 3000 rpm, for 30 seconds. BST thin film are made with a concentration of 1 M 2-methoxyethanol and annealing temperature of 850OC for the Si (100 substrate. Characterization of the thin film is performed for the electrical properties such as the current-voltage (I-V curve using Keithley model 2400 as well as dielectric constant, time constant, pyroelectric characteristics, and depth measurement. The results show that the thin film depth increases if the concentration of the Ferric Oxide doping increases. The I-V characterization shows that the BST and BFST thin film has photodiode properties. The dielectric constant increases with the addition of doping. The maximum dielectric constant value is obtained for 15 % doping concentration namely 83.1 for pure BST and 6.89, 11.1, 41.63 and 83.1, respectively for the Ferric Oxide doping based BST with concentration of 5%, 10%, and 15%. XRD spectra of 15 % of ferric oxide doped BST thin film tetragonal phase, we carried out the lattice constant were a = b = 4.203 Å; c = 4.214 Å; c/a ratio = 1.003

  11. INTERACCIÓN COLIBRÍ-FLOR EN TRES REMANENTES DE BOSQUE TROPICAL SECO (BST DEL MUNICIPIO DE CHIMICHAGUA (CESAR, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL LEÓN-CAMARGO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizó la interacción colibrí-planta en tres remanentes de bosque tropical seco (BsT, ubicados en el municipio de Chimichagua (Cesar, Colombia con base en la observación de las visitas a los recursos florales y en los análisis de las cargas de polen en el pico y en otras partes del cuerpo de las aves. Se registró la época de floración y la abundancia de flores producidas por las plantas utilizadas por los colibríes y se midió la cantidad y calidad del néctar. En cinco muestreos que cubrieron la variabilidad de la precipitación en la zona de estudio, se capturaron a 17 individuos. Se realizaron 218 observaciones (visitas de dos especies de colibríes Lepidopyga goudoti y Phaethornis anthophilus, los cuales visitaron a 31 especies de plantas. Para el caso de las observaciones sobre visitas de los colibríes a las plantas, Arrabidaea cf. corallina fue la más importante (IVIR=0.14840 en los tres remanentes de vegetación estudiados, seguida por Aphelandra pulcherrima (IVIR=0.05356 y Pogonopus speciosus (IVIR=0.02773. Otra especie importante pero con valores bajos fue Cochlospermum vitifolium. De acuerdo con los análisis de cargas de polen, el recurso más importante fue Pogonopus speciosus con un valor de IVIR=0.29643, seguido por Aphelandra pulcherrima (IVIR=0.09286 y Hemistylus cf. odontophylla (IVIR=0.03294. En el análisis general para los tres sitios (Tabla 3, los recursos más importantes para los colibríes fueron Pogonopus speciosus (IVIR=0.06207, Aphelandra pulcherrima (IVIR=0.06021 y Cochlospermum vitifolium (IVIR=0.01095. Lepidopyga goudoti utiliza 22 especies de plantas, mientras que P. anthophilus solamente utiliza siete. Las flores visitadas fueron en su mayoría tubulares con colores brillantes y contrastantes como el rojo, el morado y el violeta y se encontró buen ajuste entre su tamaño y la longitud y la forma del pico de los colibríes. También se presentaron visitas a flores de color blanco y amarillo como

  12. Anxiety- and depression-like behavior in mice lacking the CD157/BST1 gene, a risk factor for Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga eLopatina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available CD157, known as bone marrow stromal cell antigen-1, is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored ADP-ribosyl cyclase that supports the survival and function of B-lymphocytes and hematopoietic or intestinal stem cells. Although CD157/Bst1 is a risk locus in Parkinson’s disease (PD, little is known about the function of CD157 in the nervous system and contribution to PD progression. Here, we show that no apparent motor dysfunction was observed in young knockout (CD157-/- male mice under less aging-related effects on behaviors. CD157-/- mice exhibited anxiety-related and depression-like behaviors compared with wild-type mice. These behaviors were rescued through treatment with anti-psychiatric drugs and oxytocin. CD157 was weakly expressed in the amygdala and c-Fos immunoreactivity was less evident in CD157-/- mice than in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate for the first time that CD157 plays a role as a neuro-regulator and suggest a potential role in pre-motor symptoms in PD.

  13. Three-dimensional supercapacitors composed of Ba{sub 0.65}Sr{sub 0.35}TiO{sub 3} (BST)/NiSi{sub 2}/silicon microchannel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Tao; Zhang Huayan; Wang Fei; Shi Jing; Ci Pengliang [Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, and Department of Electronic Engineering, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Minhang District, Shanghai 200241 (China); Wang Lianwei, E-mail: lwwang@ee.ecnu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, and Department of Electronic Engineering, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Minhang District, Shanghai 200241 (China); Ge Shuli; Wang Qingjiang [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241 (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Material Sciences, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2011-03-25

    Three-dimensional (3D) supercapacitors consisting of Ba{sub 0.65}Sr{sub 0.35}TiO{sub 3} (BST)/NiSi{sub 2}/silicon microchannel plate (MCP) stacked structure have been fabricated. The silicon MCP produced by electrochemical etching is utilized as a backbone of the 3D structure on which a nickel silicide current collector layer and Ba{sub 0.65}Sr{sub 0.35}TiO{sub 3} dielectric layer are deposited successively by electroless plating and the sol-gel method, respectively. The morphology and structure of the 3D BST/NiSi{sub 2}/Si-MCP structure are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the electrochemical properties are determined by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronopotentiometry. The structure exhibits excellent capacitive behavior with a maximum capacitance of 784 F g{sup -1}. After 700 charging/discharging cycles, the C{sub f} decreases slightly with only a 5.7% loss and is stable after more than 700 cycles. The BST/NiSi{sub 2}/Si-MCP 3D structure is a potential supercapacitor in industrial applications.

  14. Selegiline Ameliorates Depression-Like Behavior in Mice Lacking the CD157/BST1 Gene, a Risk Factor for Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoka Kasai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD, a neurodegenerative disorder, is accompanied by various non-motor symptoms including depression and anxiety, which may precede the onset of motor symptoms. Selegiline is an irreversible monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B inhibitor, and is widely used in the treatment of PD and major depression. However, there are few reports about the effects of selegiline on non-motor symptoms in PD. The aim of this study was to explore the antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of selegiline, using CD157/BST1 knockout (CD157 KO mouse, a PD-related genetic model displaying depression and anxiety, compared with other antiparkinsonian drugs and an antidepressant, and was to investigate the effects of selegiline on biochemical parameters in emotion-related brain regions. A single administration of selegiline (1–10 mg/kg dose-dependently reduced immobility time in the forced swimming test (FST in CD157 KO mice, but not C57BL/6N wild-type (WT mice. At 10 mg/kg, but not 3 mg/kg, selegiline significantly increased climbing time in CD157 KO mice. A single administration of the antiparkinsonian drugs pramipexole (a dopamine (DA D2/D3 receptor agonist or rasagiline (another MAO-B inhibitor, and repeated injections of a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA, mirtazapine, also decreased immobility time, but did not increase climbing time, in CD157 KO mice. The antidepressant-like effects of 10 mg/kg selegiline were comparable to those of 10 mg/kg rasagiline, and tended to be stronger than those of 1 mg/kg rasagiline. After the FST, CD157 KO mice showed decreases in striatal and hippocampal serotonin (5-HT content, cortical norepinephrine (NE content, and plasma corticosterone concentration. A single administration of selegiline at 10 mg/kg returned striatal 5-HT, cortical NE, and plasma corticosterone levels to those observed in WT mice. In the open field test (OFT, repeated administration of mirtazapine had anxiolytic effects

  15. Iodometric and Molecular Detection of ESBL Production Among Clinical Isolates of E. coli Fingerprinted by ERIC-PCR: The First Egyptian Report Declares the Emergence of E. coli O25b-ST131clone Harboring blaGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Badawy, Mohamed F; Tawakol, Wael M; Maghrabi, Ibrahim A; Mansy, Moselhy S; Shohayeb, Mohamed M; Ashour, Mohammed S

    2017-09-01

    The extensive use of β-lactam antibiotics has led to emergence and spread of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of 7 different ESBL genes (bla TEM , bla SHV , bla CTX-M , bla VEB , bla PER , bla GES , and bla OXA-10 ) and O25b-ST131 high-risk clone among 61 clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. Also, one broad-spectrum β-lactamase (bla OXA-1 ) was investigated. This study was also constructed to evaluate iodometric overlay method in detection of ESBL production. Phenotypic identification of E. coli isolates using API 20E revealed 18 distinct biotypes. DNA fingerprinting using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) differentiated all isolates into 2 main phylogenetic groups with 60 distinct genetic profiles. Elevated values of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 50 and MIC 90 for third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins were observed. Phenotypic tests revealed that 85.24% of isolates were ESBL producers. The incidence rates of bla TEM , bla SHV , bla CTX-M , bla GES , bla OXA-1 , and bla OXA-10 among E. coli ESBL producer phenotype were 69.23%, 25%, 96.15%, 3.85%, 11.54%, and 48%, respectively. On the other hand, bla VEB and bla PER were not detected. Sequencing of bla TEM and bla SHV revealed that bla TEM-214 and bla SHV-11 were the most prevalent variants. Group characterization of bla CTX-M revealed that bla CTX-M-1 was the most prevalent group of bla CTX-M family. It was found that 30.77% of E. coli ESBL producers belonged to O25b-ST131 clone harboring bla CTX-M-15 . This study concluded that iodometric overlay method was 100% sensitive in detection of ESBL production. To our knowledge, this is the first Egyptian study that declares the emergence of E. coli O25b-ST131 harboring bla GES .

  16. Optical and structural study of BST multilayers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Železný, Vladimír; Chvostová, Dagmar; Pajasová, Libuše; Jelínek, Miroslav; Kocourek, Tomáš; Daniš, S.; Valvoda, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2010), 538-541 ISSN 1454-4164 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0591 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ellipsometry * structure * ferroelectric multilayers Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.412, year: 2010

  17. Differential expression of appetite-regulating genes in avian models of anorexia and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, J; Yuan, J; Gilbert, E R; Siegel, P B; Cline, M A

    2017-08-01

    Chickens from lines that have been selected for low (LWS) or high (HWS) juvenile body weight for more than 57 generations provide a unique model by which to research appetite regulation. The LWS display different severities of anorexia, whereas all HWS become obese. In the present study, we measured mRNA abundance of various factors in appetite-associated nuclei in the hypothalamus. The lateral hypothalamus (LHA), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), dorsomedial nucleus (DMN) and arcuate nucleus (ARC) were collected from 5 day-old chicks that were fasted for 180 minutes or provided with continuous access to food. Fasting increased neuropeptide Y receptor subtype 1 (NPYR1) mRNA in the LHA and c-Fos in the VMH, at the same time as decreasing c-Fos in the LHA, neuropeptide Y receptor subtype 5 and ghrelin in the PVN, and neuropeptide Y receptor subtype 2 in the ARC. Fasting increased melanocortin receptor subtype 3 (MC3R) expression in the DMN and NPY in the ARC of LWS but not HWS chicks. Expression of NPY was greater in LWS than HWS in the DMN. neuropeptide Y receptor subtype 5 mRNA was greater in LWS than HWS in the LHA, PVN and ARC. Expression of orexin was greater in LWS than HWS in the LHA. There was greater expression of NPYR1, melanocortin receptor subtype 4 and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript in HWS than LWS and mesotocin in LWS than HWS in the PVN. In the ARC, agouti-related peptide and MC3R were greater in LWS than HWS and, in the VMH, orexin receptor 2 and leptin receptor were greater in LWS than HWS. Greater mesotocin in the PVN, orexin in the LHA and ORXR2 in the VMH of LWS may contribute to their increased sympathetic tone and anorexic phenotype. The results of the present study also suggest that an increased hypothalamic anorexigenic tone in the LWS over-rides orexigenic factors such as NPY and AgRP that were more highly expressed in LWS than HWS in several nuclei. Published 2017. This article is a U

  18. The Progress in Localization Initiatives in PDC, BST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosli Darmawan; Hasni Hassan; Anwar Abdul Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear Malaysia has been established since 1972. It has evolves from laying the foundation for infrastructure and human resources in nuclear technology; research and development in nuclear applications; producing new products and prototypes; and finally, transferring the products and technology to the end users such as the industry and communities. While Nuclear Malaysia has been able to develop various nuclear applications, there are areas which have been left behind. Most of the facilities and instruments for nuclear Research and Development are imported. Although Nuclear Malaysia has been able to operate and maintain the facilities, there are occasions where the foreign experts and components need to be sought for. This dependency on foreign technology has cost Nuclear Malaysia a lot, especially in the maintenance and procurement of new instruments and spare parts. To reduce this dependency, some localization initiatives have been conducted by various groups in Nuclear Malaysia. This paper discusses the recent progress and achievement of localization initiatives undertaken by PDC on the related technology which has reduced the dependency on foreign experts and technology. (author)

  19. Chronic stress induces sex-specific alterations in methylation and expression of corticotropin-releasing factor gene in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Sterrenburg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the higher prevalence of depression in women than in men is well known, the neuronal basis of this sex difference is largely elusive. METHODS: Male and female rats were exposed to chronic variable mild stress (CVMS after which immediate early gene products, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF mRNA and peptide, various epigenetic-associated enzymes and DNA methylation of the Crf gene were determined in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN, oval (BSTov and fusiform (BSTfu parts of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and central amygdala (CeA. RESULTS: CVMS induced site-specific changes in Crf gene methylation in all brain centers studied in female rats and in the male BST and CeA, whereas the histone acetyltransferase, CREB-binding protein was increased in the female BST and the histone-deacetylase-5 decreased in the male CeA. These changes were accompanied by an increased amount of c-Fos in the PVN, BSTfu and CeA in males, and of FosB in the PVN of both sexes and in the male BSTov and BSTfu. In the PVN, CVMS increased CRF mRNA in males and CRF peptide decreased in females. CONCLUSIONS: The data confirm our hypothesis that chronic stress affects gene expression and CRF transcriptional, translational and secretory activities in the PVN, BSTov, BSTfu and CeA, in a brain center-specific and sex-specific manner. Brain region-specific and sex-specific changes in epigenetic activity and neuronal activation may play, too, an important role in the sex specificity of the stress response and the susceptibility to depression.

  20. Surface hydrolysis of polyacrylonitrile with nitrile hydrolysing enzymes from Micrococcus luteus BST20

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischer-Colbrie, G.; Matamá, T.; Heumann, S.; Martínková, Ludmila; Cavaco Paulo, A.; Gubitz, G.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 129, č. 1 (2007), s. 62-68 ISSN 0168-1656 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC D25.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : micrococcus luteus * nitrilase * polyacrylonitrile Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.565, year: 2007

  1. Fabrication and Crystal Structure of Sol-Gel Deposited BST Thin Films with Compositional Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czekaj D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present research technology of compositionally graded barium strontium titanate Ba1-xSrxTiO3 thin films deposited on stainless steel substrates by sol-gel spin coating followed with thermal annealing at T = 650°C is reported. Results of thermal behavior of the sol-gel derived powders with compositions used for fabrication of graded structure (i.e. with Sr mole fraction x = 0.5, 0.4 and 0.3 are described. X-ray diffraction studies of the phase composition and crystal structure of such complex thin film configuration are given. It was found that gel powders exhibited a large total weight loss of about Δm ≈ 44-47%. Three stages of weight loss took place at temperature ranges: below T ≈ 300°C, at ΔT ≈ 300-500°C and between T = 600°C and T = 800°C. Phase analysis has shown that the dominating phase is Ba0.67Sr0.33TiO3 compound while the second phase is Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 or Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 for “up-graded” and “down-graded” structure, respectively.

  2. Gas sensing properties of Cu and Cr activated BST thick films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    attention from scientists and engineers. Even in the ... tion do not necessarily lead to equilibrium of the internal structure of the ... received much attention because of their multisensing ..... chrominated sensor was highly selective to H2S gas.

  3. The effect of leptin receptor deficiency and fasting on cannabinoid receptor 1 mRNA expression in the rat hypothalamus, brainstem and nodose ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelsing, Jacob; Larsen, Philip Just; Vrang, Niels

    2009-10-02

    Despite ample evidence for the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the control of appetite, food intake and energy balance, relatively little is known about the regulation of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB(1)R) expression in respect to leptin signalling and fasting. In the present study, we examined CB(1)R mRNA levels in lean (Fa/?) and obese (fa/fa) male Zucker rats under basal and food-restricted conditions. Using stereological sampling principles coupled with semi-quantitative radioactive in situ hybridization we provide semi-quantitative estimates of CB(1)R mRNA expression in key appetite regulatory hypothalamic and brainstem areas, as well as in the nodose ganglia. Whereas no effect of fasting were determined on CB(1)R mRNA levels in the paraventricular (PVN) and ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) nucleus, in the brainstem dorsal vagal complex or nodose ganglion of lean Zucker rats, CB(1)R mRNA levels were consistently elevated in obese Zucker rats pointing to a direct influence of disrupted leptin signalling on CB(1)R mRNA regulation.

  4. The selfish brain: competition for energy resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehm, H L; Kern, W; Peters, A

    2006-01-01

    Although the brain constitutes only 2% of the body mass, its metabolism accounts for 50% of total body glucose utilization. This delicate situation is aggravated by the fact that the brain depends on glucose as energy substrate. Thus, the contour of a major problem becomes evident: how can the brain maintain constant fluxes of large amounts of glucose to itself in the presence of powerful competitors as fat and muscle tissue. Activity of cortical neurons generates an "energy on demand" signal which eventually mediates the uptake of glucose from brain capillaries. Because energy stores in the circulation (equivalent to ca. 5 g glucose) are also limited, a second signal is required termed "energy on request"; this signal is responsible for the activation of allocation processes. The term "allocation" refers to the activation of the "behavior control column" by an input from the hippocampus-amygdala system. As far as eating behavior is concerned the behavior control column consists of the ventral medial hypothalamus (VMH) and periventricular nucleus (PVN). The PVN represents the central nucleus of the brain's stress systems, the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Activation of the sympatico-adrenal system inhibits glucose uptake by peripheral tissues by inhibiting insulin release and inducing insulin resistance and increases hepatic glucose production. With an inadequate "energy on request" signal neuroglucopenia would be the consequence. A decrease in brain glucose can activate glucose-sensitive neurons in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) with the release of orexigenic peptides which stimulate food intake. If the energy supply of the brain depends on activation of the LH rather than on increased allocation to the brain, an increase in body weight is evitable. An increase in fat mass will generate feedback signals as leptin and insulin, which activate the arcuate nucleus. Activation of arcuate nucleus in turn will

  5. Distribution of vasopressin in the brain of the eusocial naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Greta J; De Vries, Geert J; Goldman, Sharry L; Goldman, Bruce D; Forger, Nancy G

    2007-02-20

    Naked mole-rats are eusocial rodents that live in large subterranean colonies in which one queen breeds with one to three males. All other animals are nonbreeding subordinates. The external features of male and female subordinates, including their genitalia, are remarkably monomorphic, as is their behavior. Because vasopressin (VP) is associated with social behaviors and sex differences in other species, its distribution in naked mole-rats was of interest. We used immunohistochemistry to examine VP in the brains of subordinate and breeding naked mole-rats of both sexes. As in other mammals, VP-immunoreactive (-ir) somata were found in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei (SON) and VP-ir projections from these nuclei ran through the internal and external zone of the median eminence. However, naked mole-rats had very few VP-ir cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and none in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN); the extensive network of fine-caliber VP-ir fibers usually seen in projection sites of the BST and SCN were also absent. Equally unexpected was the abundance of large-caliber VP-ir fibers in the dorsomedial septum. VP immunoreactivity was generally similar in all groups, with the exception of VP-ir cell number in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH). Breeders had a population of labeled cells in the DMH that was absent, or nearly absent, in subordinates. Future studies on the function of VP in these areas are needed to determine how the atypical distribution of VP immunoreactivity relates to eusociality and the unusual physiology of naked mole-rats.

  6. Regulation of hypothalamic neuronal sensing and food intake by ketone bodies and fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Foll, Christelle; Dunn-Meynell, Ambrose A; Miziorko, Henri M; Levin, Barry E

    2014-04-01

    Metabolic sensing neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) alter their activity when ambient levels of metabolic substrates, such as glucose and fatty acids (FA), change. To assess the relationship between a high-fat diet (HFD; 60%) intake on feeding and serum and VMH FA levels, rats were trained to eat a low-fat diet (LFD; 13.5%) or an HFD in 3 h/day and were monitored with VMH FA microdialysis. Despite having higher serum levels, HFD rats had lower VMH FA levels but ate less from 3 to 6 h of refeeding than did LFD rats. However, VMH β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) and VMH-to-serum β-OHB ratio levels were higher in HFD rats during the first 1 h of refeeding, suggesting that VMH astrocyte ketone production mediated their reduced intake. In fact, using calcium imaging in dissociated VMH neurons showed that ketone bodies overrode normal FA sensing, primarily by exciting neurons that were activated or inhibited by oleic acid. Importantly, bilateral inhibition of VMH ketone production with a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase inhibitor reversed the 3- to 6-h HFD-induced inhibition of intake but had no effect in LFD-fed rats. These data suggest that a restricted HFD intake regimen inhibits caloric intake as a consequence of FA-induced VMH ketone body production by astrocytes.

  7. Sex differences in the neural circuit that mediates female sexual receptivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan-Cato, Loretta M.

    2011-01-01

    Female sexual behavior in rodents, typified by the lordosis posture, is hormone-dependent and sex-specific. Ovarian hormones control this behavior via receptors in the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus (VMH). This review considers the sex differences in the morphology, neurochemistry and neural circuitry of the VMH to gain insights into the mechanisms that control lordosis. The VMH is larger in males compared with females, due to more synaptic connections. Another sex difference is the responsiveness to estradiol, with males exhibiting muted, and in some cases reverse, effects compared with females. The lack of lordosis in males may be explained by differences in synaptic organization or estrogen responsiveness, or both, in the VMH. However, given that damage to other brain regions unmasks lordosis behavior in males, a male-typical VMH is unlikely the main factor that prevents lordosis. In females, key questions remain regarding the mechanisms whereby ovarian hormones modulate VMH function to promote lordosis. PMID:21338620

  8. The Moderating Influence of Broad-Scope Trust on Customer-Seller Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    , respectively, this study investigates the moderating influence of BST on relationships between satisfaction, narrow-scope trust, and loyalty and also examines the direct influence of BST on these variables. The results indicate that whereas BST negatively moderates relationships between satisfaction and narrow......-scope trust and between narrow-scope trust and loyalty, BST positively moderates the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty. In addition, it is demonstrated that BST positively influences customer satisfaction and narrow-scope trust...

  9. Steroidogenic factor 1 directs programs regulating diet-induced thermogenesis and leptin action in the ventral medial hypothalamic nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transcription factor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is exclusively expressed in the brain in the ventral medial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) and is required for the development of this nucleus. However, the physiological importance of transcriptional programs regulated by SF-1 in the VMH is not wel...

  10. PI3K in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus mediates estrogenic actions on energy expenditure in female mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrogens act in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) to regulate body weight homeostasis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these estrogenic effects are unknown. We show that activation of estrogen receptor-a (ERa) stimulates neural firing of VMH neurons expressing ERa, and these ...

  11. UCP2 Regulates Mitochondrial Fission and Ventromedial Nucleus Control of Glucose Responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Chitoku; Kim, Jung Dae; Impellizzeri, Daniela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Liu, Zhong-Wu; Diano, Sabrina

    2016-02-25

    The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) plays a critical role in regulating systemic glucose homeostasis. How neurons in this brain area adapt to the changing metabolic environment to regulate circulating glucose levels is ill defined. Here, we show that glucose load results in mitochondrial fission and reduced reactive oxygen species in VMH neurons mediated by dynamin-related peptide 1 (DRP1) under the control of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2). Probed by genetic manipulations and chemical-genetic control of VMH neuronal circuitry, we unmasked that this mitochondrial adaptation determines the size of the pool of glucose-excited neurons in the VMH and that this process regulates systemic glucose homeostasis. Thus, our data unmasked a critical cellular biological process controlled by mitochondrial dynamics in VMH regulation of systemic glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evidence that NMDA-dependent limbic neural plasticity in the right hemisphere mediates pharmacological stressor (FG-7142)-induced lasting increases in anxiety-like behavior. Study 1--Role of NMDA receptors in efferent transmission from the cat amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamec, R E

    1998-01-01

    The anxiogenic beta-carboline, FG-7142, produces intense anxiety in humans and anxiety-like behavior in animals. FG-7142 also mimics the effects of exogenous stressors. In cats, FG-7142 lastingly changes defensive and aggressive behavior. Long-term potentiation (LTP) of neural transmission between limbic structures known to modulate feline defensive response to threat accompany behavioral changes. A series of three reports describes experiments designed to test the hypothesis that behavioral changes depend upon an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-based LTP of efferent transmission from the amygdala. This first study characterizes the dose and time effects of injection of the NMDA receptor blocker 7-amino-phosphono-heptanoic acid (AP7) on efferent transmission from the cat amygdala to the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH). Effects of doses of 0.5-10mg/kg (i.v.) of AP7 on potentials evoked in the VMH by single pulse stimulation of the basal amygdala were examined. In order to localize the action of the drug, concurrent measurements were taken of potentials evoked in the VMH by stimulation of the efferent fibers from the amygdala to the VMH (ventral amygdalofugal pathway, VAF). There was a dose-dependent reduction in the amygdalo-VMH evoked potential. The greatest reduction occurred at 5 mg/kg. Effects peaked at 10 min, and persisted for at least 1 h after injection. In contrast, AP7 increased the VAF-VMH-evoked potential at 10 min after injection, with a maximal increase at 5mg/kg. The data suggest that NMDA receptors intrinsic to the amygdala modulate excitatory efferent transmission from amygdala to VMH in the cat. It is speculated that a glutamatergic projection to gamma-aminobutyric acid tonic inhibitory systems in the VMH accounts for the VAF-VMH results.

  13. Ventromedial hypothalamic expression of Bdnf is required to establish normal patterns of afferent GABAergic connectivity and responses to hypoglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kamitakahara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH controls energy and glucose homeostasis through direct connections to a distributed network of nuclei in the hypothalamus, midbrain, and hindbrain. Structural changes in VMH circuit morphology have the potential to alter VMH function throughout life, however, molecular signals responsible for specifying its neural connections are not fully defined. The VMH contains a high density of neurons that express brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a potent neurodevelopmental effector known to regulate neuronal survival, growth, differentiation, and connectivity in a number of neural systems. In the current study, we examined whether BDNF impacts the afferent and efferent connections of the VMH, as well as energy homeostatic function. Methods: To determine if BDNF is required for VMH circuit formation, a transgenic mouse model was used to conditionally delete Bdnf from steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1 expressing neurons of the VMH prior to the onset of establishing neural connections with other regions. Projections of SF1 expressing neurons were visualized with a genetically targeted fluorescent label and immunofluorescence was used to measure the density of afferents to SF1 neurons in the absence of BDNF. Physiological changes in body weight and circulating blood glucose were also evaluated in the mutant mice. Results: Our findings suggest that BDNF is required to establish normal densities of GABAergic afferents onto SF1 neurons located in the ventrolateral part of the VMH. Furthermore, loss of BDNF from VMH SF1 neurons results in impaired physiological responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that BDNF is required for formation and/or maintenance of inhibitory inputs to SF1 neurons, with enduring effects on glycemic control. Author Video: Author Video Watch what authors say about their articles Keywords: Ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus

  14. Hypothalamic involvement in stress-induced hypocalcemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aou, S; Ma, J; Hori, T

    1993-08-20

    Although hormonal regulation of blood calcium homeostasis has been intensively investigated in the peripheral organs, the involvement of the central nervous system in calcium regulation is still poorly understood. In the present study, we found that (1) bilateral lesions of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH), but not those of the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus or the lateral hypothalamic area, eliminated immobilization (IMB)-induced hypocalcemia, and (2) electrical stimulation of the VMH decreased the blood calcium level. The results suggest that the VMH has a hypocalcemic function and plays a role in IMB-induced hypocalcemia.

  15. Paraventricular Nucleus Modulates Excitatory Cardiovascular Reflexes during Electroacupuncture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjen-A-Looi, Stephanie C.; Guo, Zhi-Ling; Fu, Liang-Wu; Longhurst, John C.

    2016-01-01

    The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) regulates sympathetic outflow and blood pressure. Somatic afferent stimulation activates neurons in the hypothalamic PVN. Parvocellular PVN neurons project to sympathoexcitatory cardiovascular regions of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (rVLM). Electroacupuncture (EA) stimulates the median nerve (P5-P6) to modulate sympathoexcitatory responses. We hypothesized that the PVN and its projections to the rVLM participate in the EA-modulation of sympathoexcitatory cardiovascular responses. Cats were anesthetized and ventilated. Heart rate and mean blood pressure were monitored. Application of bradykinin every 10-min on the gallbladder induced consistent pressor reflex responses. Thirty-min of bilateral EA stimulation at acupoints P5-P6 reduced the pressor responses for at least 60-min. Inhibition of the PVN with naloxone reversed the EA-inhibition. Responses of cardiovascular barosensitive rVLM neurons evoked by splanchnic nerve stimulation were reduced by EA and then restored with opioid receptor blockade in the PVN. EA at P5-P6 decreased splanchnic evoked activity of cardiovascular barosensitive PVN neurons that also project directly to the rVLM. PVN neurons labeled with retrograde tracer from rVLM were co-labeled with μ-opioid receptors and juxtaposed to endorphinergic fibers. Thus, the PVN and its projection to rVLM are important in processing acupuncture modulation of elevated blood pressure responses through a PVN opioid mechanism. PMID:27181844

  16. Chronic infusion of enalaprilat into hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates angiotensin II-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Yu, Xiao-Jing; Yang, Qing; Qi, Jie; Su, Qing; Suo, Yu-Ping; Yue, Li-Ying; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Qin, Da-Nian

    2014-01-01

    The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) in the brain is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We hypothesized that inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension via restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines. Rats underwent subcutaneous infusions of ANG II or saline and bilateral PVN infusions of ACE inhibitor enalaprilat (ENL, 2.5 μg/h) or vehicle for 4 weeks. ANG II infusion resulted in higher mean arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy as indicated by increased whole heart weight/body weight ratio, whole heart weight/tibia length ratio, left ventricular weight/tibia length ratio, and mRNA expressions of cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide and beta-myosin heavy chain. These ANG II-infused rats had higher PVN levels of glutamate, norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase, pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) and the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and lower PVN levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid, interleukin (IL)-10 and the 67-kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67), and higher plasma levels of PICs, norepinephrine and aldosterone, and lower plasma IL-10, and higher renal sympathetic nerve activity. However, PVN treatment with ENL attenuated these changes. PVN microinjection of ANG II induced increases in IL-1β and IL-6, and a decrease in IL-10 in the PVN, and pretreatment with angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) antagonist losartan attenuated these changes. These findings suggest that ANG II infusion induces an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the PVN, and PVN inhibition of the RAS restores neurotransmitters and cytokines in the PVN, thereby attenuating ANG II-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • Chronic ANG II infusion results in sympathetic hyperactivity and cardiac hypertrophy. • PVN inhibition of ACE

  17. Chronic infusion of enalaprilat into hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates angiotensin II-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ykang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhang, Dong-Mei [Department of Physiology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Yu, Xiao-Jing; Yang, Qing; Qi, Jie; Su, Qing [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Suo, Yu-Ping [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shanxi Provincial People' s Hospital, Taiyuan 030012 (China); Yue, Li-Ying [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhu, Guo-Qing [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Qin, Da-Nian, E-mail: dnqin@stu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China)

    2014-02-01

    The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) in the brain is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We hypothesized that inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension via restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines. Rats underwent subcutaneous infusions of ANG II or saline and bilateral PVN infusions of ACE inhibitor enalaprilat (ENL, 2.5 μg/h) or vehicle for 4 weeks. ANG II infusion resulted in higher mean arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy as indicated by increased whole heart weight/body weight ratio, whole heart weight/tibia length ratio, left ventricular weight/tibia length ratio, and mRNA expressions of cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide and beta-myosin heavy chain. These ANG II-infused rats had higher PVN levels of glutamate, norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase, pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) and the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and lower PVN levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid, interleukin (IL)-10 and the 67-kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67), and higher plasma levels of PICs, norepinephrine and aldosterone, and lower plasma IL-10, and higher renal sympathetic nerve activity. However, PVN treatment with ENL attenuated these changes. PVN microinjection of ANG II induced increases in IL-1β and IL-6, and a decrease in IL-10 in the PVN, and pretreatment with angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) antagonist losartan attenuated these changes. These findings suggest that ANG II infusion induces an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the PVN, and PVN inhibition of the RAS restores neurotransmitters and cytokines in the PVN, thereby attenuating ANG II-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • Chronic ANG II infusion results in sympathetic hyperactivity and cardiac hypertrophy. • PVN inhibition of ACE

  18. Cloning, identification, and functional analysis of bone marrow stromal cell antigen-2 from sika deer (Cervus nippon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiawen; Bian, Shuai; Liu, Meichun; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Siming; Bai, Xueyuan; Zhao, Daqing; Zhao, Yu

    2018-06-30

    BST-2(tetherin/CD317/HM1.24) has been identified as a cellular antiviral factor that inhibits the release of a wide range of enveloped viruses from infected cells. Orthologs of BST-2 have been identified in several species including humans, monkeys, cows, sheep, pigs, and mice. In this study, we cloned the gene and characterized the protein of the BST-2 homolog from sika deer (Cervus nippon). cnBST-2 shares 37.8% and 74.2% identity with the BST-2 homologs from Homo sapiens and Ovis aries, respectively. The extracellular domain of cnBST-2 has two putative N-linked glycosylation sites and three potential dimerization sites. cnBST-2 was shown to be expressed on the cell surface, like human BST-2. Exogenous expression of cnBST-2 resulted in potent inhibition of HIV-1 particle release in 293T cells; however, this activity resisted antagonism by HIV-1 Vpu. Moreover, cnBST-2 was not able to activate nuclear factor-κB, in contrast to human BST-2. This study is the first report of the isolation and characterization of BST-2 from C. nippon. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Brief Report: Using Behavioral Skills Training to Teach Skateboarding Skills to a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Benjamin R.; Lafasakis, Michael; Spector, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of behavioral skills training (BST) on the skateboarding skills of an 11-year-old male with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). BST was used in a multiple-probe across skills design to teach five target skateboarding skills. Imitation of an additional skill was also assessed outside of BST sessions.…

  20. The Expression of BTS-2 Enhances Cell Growth and Invasiveness in Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Quoc Thang; Oue, Naohide; Yamamoto, Yuji; Shigematsu, Yoshinori; Sekino, Yohei; Sakamoto, Naoya; Sentani, Kazuhiro; Uraoka, Naohiro; Tiwari, Mamata; Yasui, Wataru

    2017-06-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most common types of cancer in developed countries. Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST2) gene, which encodes BST2 transmembrane glycoprotein, is overexpressed in several cancer types. In the present study, we analyzed the expression and function of BST2 in RCC. BST2 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 123 RCC cases. RNA interference was used to inhibit BST2 expression in a RCC cell line. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that 32% of the 123 RCC cases were positive for BST2. BST2 expression was positively associated with tumour stage. Furthermore, BST2 expression was an independent predictor of survival in patients with RCC. BST2 siRNA-transfected Caki-1 cells displayed significantly reduced cell growth and invasive activity relative to negative control siRNA-transfected cells. These results suggest that BST2 plays an important role in the progression of RCC. Because BST2 is expressed on the cell membrane, BST2 is a good therapeutic target for RCC. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  1. Electrical stimulation of the ventromedial hypothalamus enhances both fat utilization and metabolic rate that precede and parallel the inhibition of feeding behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruffin, MP; Nicolaidis, S

    1999-01-01

    The effects of ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) stimulation on various metabolic parameters in freely moving animals were measured using a specific indirect calorimetric chamber associated with a quantitative measurement of locomotor activity, which allows the separate measurement of locomotor energy

  2. Noradrenergic and GABAergic systems in the medial hypothalamus are activated during hypoglycemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beverly, JL; De Vries, MG; Bouman, SD; Arseneau, LM

    Noradrenergic and GABAergic systems in the medial hypothalamus influence plasma glucose and may be activated during glucoprivation. Microdialysis probes were placed into the ventromedial nucleus (VMH), lateral hypothalamus (LHA), and paraventricular nucleus (PVH) of male Sprague-Dawley rats to

  3. Role of FAT/CD36 in fatty acid sensing, energy, and glucose homeostasis regulation in DIO and DR rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Foll, Christelle; Dunn-Meynell, Ambrose A; Levin, Barry E

    2015-02-01

    Hypothalamic fatty acid (FA) sensing neurons alter their activity utilizing the FA translocator/receptor, FAT/CD36. Depletion of ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) CD36 with adeno-associated viral vector expressing CD36 shRNA (AAV CD36 shRNA) leads to redistribution of adipose stores and insulin resistance in outbred rats. This study assessed the requirement of VMH CD36-mediated FA sensing for the regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis in postnatal day 5 (P5) and P21 selectively bred diet-induced obese (DIO) and diet-resistant (DR) rats using VMH AAV CD36 shRNA injections. P5 CD36 depletion altered VMH neuronal FA sensing predominantly in DIO rats. After 10 wk on a 45% fat diet, DIO rats injected with VMH AAV CD36 shRNA at P21 ate more and gained more weight than DIO AAV controls, while DR AAV CD36 shRNA-injected rats gained less weight than DR AAV controls. VMH CD36 depletion increased inguinal fat pad weights and leptin levels in DIO and DR rats. Although DR AAV CD36 shRNA-injected rats became as obese as DIO AAV controls, only DIO control and CD36 depleted rats became insulin-resistant on a 45% fat diet. VMH CD36 depletion stunted linear growth in DIO and DR rats. DIO rats injected with AAV CD36 shRNA at P5 had increased fat mass, mostly due to a 45% increase in subcutaneous fat. They were also insulin-resistant with an associated 71% increase of liver triglycerides. These results demonstrate that VMH CD36-mediated FA sensing is a critical factor in the regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis and fat deposition in DIO and DR rats.

  4. Metabolic mystery: Aging, obesity, diabetes and ventromedial hypothalamus

    OpenAIRE

    Mobbs, Charles V.; Moreno, Cesar L.; Poplawski, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We propose that energy balance, glucose homeostasis, and aging are all regulated largely by the same nutrient-sensing neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH)., Although the central role of these neurons in regulating energy balance is clear, their role in regulating glucose homeostasis has only become more clear recently. It is the latter function that may be most relevant to aging and lifespan, by controlling the rate of glucose metabolism. Specifically, glucose-sensing neurons in VMH...

  5. Inhibition of TNF-α in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by inhibiting neurohormonal excitation in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Xin-Ai; Jia, Lin-Lin [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Cui, Wei [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhang, Meng [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Chen, Wensheng [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Yuan, Zu-Yi [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Guo, Jing [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Li, Hui-Hua [Key Laboratory of Remodeling-related Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Pathology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069 (China); Zhu, Guo-Qing [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Liu, Hao, E-mail: haoliu75@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Kang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ykang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China)

    2014-11-15

    We hypothesized that chronic inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) delays the progression of hypertension and attenuates cardiac hypertrophy by up-regulating anti-inflammatory cytokines, reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs), decreasing nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and NAD(P)H oxidase activities, as well as restoring the neurotransmitters balance in the PVN of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Adult normotensive Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) and SHR rats received bilateral PVN infusion of a TNF-α blocker (pentoxifylline or etanercept) or vehicle for 4 weeks. SHR rats showed higher mean arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy compared with WKY rats, as indicated by increased whole heart weight/body weight ratio, whole heart weight/tibia length ratio, left ventricular weight/tibia length ratio, and cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and beta-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC) mRNA expressions. Compared with WKY rats, SHR rats had higher PVN levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, PICs, the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), NF-κB p65 activity, mRNA expressions of NOX-2 and NOX-4, and lower PVN levels of IL-10 and 67-kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67), and higher plasma norepinephrine. PVN infusion of pentoxifylline or etanercept attenuated all these changes in SHR rats. These findings suggest that SHR rats have an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, as well as an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the PVN; and chronic inhibition of TNF-α in the PVN delays the progression of hypertension by restoring the balances of neurotransmitters and cytokines in the PVN, and attenuating PVN NF-κB p65 activity and oxidative stress, thereby attenuating hypertension-induced sympathetic hyperactivity and cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • Spontaneously hypertensive rats exhibit neurohormonal excitation in the PVN. • PVN inhibition of

  6. Inhibition of NF-κB activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by modulating cytokines and attenuating oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Xiao-Jing [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhang, Dong-Mei [Department of Physiology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Jia, Lin-Lin; Qi, Jie; Song, Xin-Ai; Tan, Hong [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Cui, Wei [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Chen, Wensheng [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Zhu, Guo-Qing [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Qin, Da-Nian, E-mail: dnqin@stu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Kang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ykang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China)

    2015-05-01

    We hypothesized that chronic inhibition of NF-κB activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) delays the progression of hypertension and attenuates cardiac hypertrophy by up-regulating anti-inflammatory cytokines, reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs), attenuating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and NAD(P)H oxidase in the PVN of young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Young normotensive Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) and SHR rats received bilateral PVN infusions with NF–κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) or vehicle for 4 weeks. SHR rats had higher mean arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy as indicated by increased whole heart weight/body weight ratio, whole heart weight/tibia length ratio, left ventricular weight/tibia length ratio, cardiomyocyte diameters of the left cardiac ventricle, and mRNA expressions of cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and beta-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC). These SHR rats had higher PVN levels of proinflammatory cytokines (PICs), reactive oxygen species (ROS), the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), NAD(P)H oxidase activity, mRNA expression of NOX-2 and NOX-4, and lower PVN IL-10, and higher plasma levels of PICs and NE, and lower plasma IL-10. PVN infusion of NF-κB inhibitor PDTC attenuated all these changes. These findings suggest that NF-κB activation in the PVN increases sympathoexcitation and hypertensive response, which are associated with the increases of PICs and oxidative stress in the PVN; PVN inhibition of NF-κB activity attenuates PICs and oxidative stress in the PVN, thereby attenuates hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • Spontaneously hypertensive rats exhibit neurohormonal excitation in the PVN. • PVN inhibition of NF-κB attenuates hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy. • PVN inhibition of NF-κB attenuates hypertension-induced neurohormonal excitation. • PVN inhibition of NF-κB attenuates hypertension-induced imbalance of cytokines

  7. The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor in the ventromedial hypothalamus reduces short-term food intake in male mice by regulating nutrient sensor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Melissa A; Brown, Jacob D; Ayala, Jennifer E; Stoffers, Doris A; Sandoval, Darleen A; Seeley, Randy J; Ayala, Julio E

    2017-12-01

    Pharmacological activation of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) reduces food intake. Here, we assessed whether suppression of food intake by GLP-1R agonists (GLP-1RA) in this region is dependent on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). We found that pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis, and thus activation of AMPK, in the VMH attenuates the anorectic effect of the GLP-1R agonist exendin-4 (Ex4), indicating that glucose metabolism and inhibition of AMPK are both required for this effect. Furthermore, we found that Ex4-mediated anorexia in the VMH involved mTOR but not acetyl-CoA carboxylase, two downstream targets of AMPK. We support this by showing that Ex4 activates mTOR signaling in the VMH and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells. In contrast to the clear acute pharmacological impact of the these receptors on food intake, knockdown of the VMH Glp1r conferred no changes in energy balance in either chow- or high-fat-diet-fed mice, and the acute anorectic and glucose tolerance effects of peripherally dosed GLP-1RA were preserved. These results show that the VMH GLP-1R regulates food intake by engaging key nutrient sensors but is dispensable for the effects of GLP-1RA on nutrient homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Hypothalamic deep brain stimulation reduces weight gain in an obesity-animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P Melega

    Full Text Available Prior studies of appetite regulatory networks, primarily in rodents, have established that targeted electrical stimulation of ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH can alter food intake patterns and metabolic homeostasis. Consideration of this method for weight modulation in humans with severe overeating disorders and morbid obesity can be further advanced by modeling procedures and assessing endpoints that can provide preclinical data on efficacy and safety. In this study we adapted human deep brain stimulation (DBS stereotactic methods and instrumentation to demonstrate in a large animal model the modulation of weight gain with VMH-DBS. Female Göttingen minipigs were used because of their dietary habits, physiologic characteristics, and brain structures that resemble those of primates. Further, these animals become obese on extra-feeding regimens. DBS electrodes were first bilaterally implanted into the VMH of the animals (n = 8 which were then maintained on a restricted food regimen for 1 mo following the surgery. The daily amount of food was then doubled for the next 2 mo in all animals to produce obesity associated with extra calorie intake, with half of the animals (n = 4 concurrently receiving continuous low frequency (50 Hz VMH-DBS. Adverse motoric or behavioral effects were not observed subsequent to the surgical procedure or during the DBS period. Throughout this 2 mo DBS period, all animals consumed the doubled amount of daily food. However, the animals that had received VMH-DBS showed a cumulative weight gain (6.1±0.4 kg; mean ± SEM that was lower than the nonstimulated VMH-DBS animals (9.4±1.3 kg; p<0.05, suggestive of a DBS-associated increase in metabolic rate. These results in a porcine obesity model demonstrate the efficacy and behavioral safety of a low frequency VMH-DBS application as a potential clinical strategy for modulation of body weight.

  9. The ventromedial hypothalamus oxytocin induces locomotor behavior regulated by estrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Kazumi; Murata, Takuya; Matsuoka, Satoshi

    2016-10-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that excitation of neurons in the rat ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) induced locomotor activity. An oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) exists in the VMH and plays a role in regulating sexual behavior. However, the role of Oxtr in the VMH in locomotor activity is not clear. In this study we examined the roles of oxytocin in the VMH in running behavior, and also investigated the involvement of estrogen in this behavioral change. Microinjection of oxytocin into the VMH induced a dose-dependent increase in the running behavior in male rats. The oxytocin-induced running activity was inhibited by simultaneous injection of Oxtr-antagonist, (d(CH2)5(1), Try(Me)(2), Orn(8))-oxytocin. Oxytocin injection also induced running behavior in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats. Pretreatment of the OVX rats with estrogen augmented the oxytocin-induced running activity twofold, and increased the Oxtr mRNA in the VMH threefold. During the estrus cycle locomotor activity spontaneously increased in the dark period of proestrus. The Oxtr mRNA was up-regulated in the proestrus afternoon. Blockade of oxytocin neurotransmission by its antagonist before the onset of the dark period of proestrus decreased the following nocturnal locomotor activity. These findings demonstrate that Oxtr in the VMH is involved in the induction of running behavior and that estrogen facilitates this effect by means of Oxtr up-regulation, suggesting the involvement of oxytocin in the locomotor activity of proestrus female rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ovarian hormone deprivation reduces oxytocin expression in Paraventricular Nucleus preautonomic neurons and correlates with baroreflex impairment in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Ulisses De Melo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases including hypertension increases dramatically in women after menopause, however the mechanisms involved remain incompletely understood. Oxytocinergic (OTergic neurons are largely present within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN. Several studies have shown that OTergic drive from PVN to brainstem increases baroreflex sensitivity and improves autonomic control of the circulation. Since preautonomic PVN neurons express different types of estrogen receptors, we hypothesize that ovarian hormone deprivation causes baroreflex impairment, autonomic imbalance and hypertension by negatively impacting OTergic drive and oxytocin levels in pre-autonomic neurons. Here, we assessed oxytocin gene and protein expression (qPCR and immunohistochemistry within PVN subnuclei in sham-operated and ovariectomized Wistar rats. Conscious hemodynamic recordings were used to assess resting blood pressure and heart rate and the autonomic modulation of heart and vessels was estimated by power spectral analysis. We observed that the ovarian hormone deprivation in ovariectomized rats decreased baroreflex sensitivity, increased sympathetic and reduced vagal outflows to the heart and augmented the resting blood pressure. Of note, ovariectomized rats had reduced PVN oxytocin mRNA and protein expression in all pre-autonomic PVN subnuclei. Furthermore, reduced PVN oxytocin protein levels were positively correlated with decreased baroreflex sensitivity and negatively correlated with increased LF/HF ratio. These findings suggest that reduced oxytocin expression in OTergic neurons of the PVN contributes to the baroreflex dysfunction and autonomic dysregulation observed with ovarian hormone deprivation.

  11. Time-dependent effects of neuropeptide Y infusion in the paraventricular hypothalamus on ingestive and associated behaviors in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, G; Strubbe, JH

    In this study the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) in the daily regulation of feeding, drinking, locomotor activity, and nestbox occupation was investigated. These behaviors were recorded during and after bilateral infusion of NPY into the PVN of

  12. Vasopressin and oxytocin neurons of the human supraoptic and paraventricular nucleus: size changes in relation to age and sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishunina, T. A.; Swaab, D. F.

    1999-01-01

    The hypothalamic supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei consist of arginine vasopressin (AVP)- and oxytocin (OT)-synthesizing neurons that send projections to the neurohypophysis, whereas the PVN also projects to other brain areas. A growing body of evidence in animals suggests the

  13. On the Correctness of Atomic Multi-Writer Registers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-07

    END; 4 END; FOR i .. 1 TO in DO w FORj 1: 1 TO mn DO Scan..VN~i,,1 VNji,j]; END; FOR, 1~ TO mDO Scan..OVN~i,,3:0 OVNIs ,,1; END; FOR~ :. 1 TO in DO Scan...OVNfj, k] = OVNI , k]w PVNj, k], = PVN[j,kju = PVN[j, kt = PVN, kw for all writers k as desired. 13 0 This result permits us to think of the values...OVN[,,?):- OVNI ,j); END; FOR I= 1 TO in DO Scan-PVN(.,jl :. PVN(i,ji; END; Scan..Volue[sj :- Valsu.(a]; -e END; - Same-Scans. 1; % REP EAT FOR I TO m DO

  14. Angiotensin type 1a receptors in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus protect against diet-induced obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kloet, Annette D.; Pati, Dipanwita; Wang, Lei; Hiller, Helmut; Sumners, Colin; Frazier, Charles J.; Seeley, Randy J.; Herman, James P.; Woods, Stephen C.; Krause, Eric G.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased levels of angiotensin-II (Ang-II), which activates angiotensin type-1a receptors (AT1a) to influence cardiovascular function and energy homeostasis. To test the hypothesis that specific AT1a within the brain control these processes, we utilized the Cre/lox system to delete AT1a from the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) of mice. PVN AT1a deletion did not affect body mass or adiposity when mice were maintained on standard chow. However, maintenance on a high-fat diet revealed a gene by environment interaction whereby mice lacking AT1a in the PVN had increased food intake and decreased energy expenditure that augmented body mass and adiposity relative to controls. Despite this increased adiposity, PVN AT1a deletion reduced systolic blood pressure, suggesting that this receptor population mediates the positive correlation between adiposity and blood pressure. Gene expression studies revealed that PVN AT1a deletion decreased hypothalamic expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone and oxytocin, neuropeptides known to control food intake and sympathetic nervous system activity. Whole cell patch clamp recordings confirmed that PVN AT1a deletion eliminates responsiveness of PVN parvocellular neurons to Ang-II, and suggest that Ang-II responsiveness is increased in obese wild-type mice. Central inflammation is associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disorders and PVN AT1a deletion reduced indices of hypothalamic inflammation. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that PVN AT1a regulate energy balance during environmental challenges that promote metabolic and cardiovascular pathologies. The implication is that the elevated Ang-II that accompanies obesity serves as a negative feedback signal that activates PVN neurons to alleviate weight gain. PMID:23486953

  15. Glucose and insulin induce Ca2+ signaling in nesfatin-1 neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantulga, Darambazar; Maejima, Yuko; Nakata, Masanori; Yada, Toshihiko

    2012-04-20

    Nucleobindin-2 derived nesfatin-1 in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) plays a role in inhibition of feeding. The neural pathways downstream of PVN nesfatin-1 have been extensively investigated. However, regulation of the PVN nesfatin-1 neurons remains unclear. Since starvation decreases and refeeding stimulates nesfatin-1 expression specifically in the PVN, this study aimed to clarify direct effects of meal-evoked metabolic factors, glucose and insulin, on PVN nesfatin-1 neurons. High glucose (10mM) and insulin (10(-13)M) increased cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in 55 of 331 (16.6%) and 32 of 249 (12.9%) PVN neurons, respectively. Post [Ca(2+)](i) measurement immunocytochemistry identified that 58.2% of glucose-responsive and 62.5% of insulin-responsive neurons were immunoreactive to nesfatin-1. Furthermore, a fraction of the glucose-responsive nesfatin-1 neurons also responded to insulin, and vice versa. Some of the neurons that responded to neither glucose nor insulin were recruited to [Ca(2+)](i) increases by glucose and insulin in combination. Our data demonstrate that glucose and insulin directly interact with and increase [Ca(2+)](i) in nesfatin-1 neurons in the PVN, and that the nesfatin-1 neuron is the primary target for them in the PVN. The results suggest that high glucose- and insulin-induced activation of PVN nesfatin-1 neurons serves as a mechanism through which meal ingestion stimulates nesfatin-1 neurons in the PVN and thereby produces satiety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in responsiveness to serotonin on rat ventromedial hypothalamic neurons after food deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, F; Nishihara, M; Torii, K; Takahashi, M

    1996-07-01

    The effects of food deprivation on responsiveness of neurons in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) to serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) were investigated using brain slices in vitro along with behavioral changes in vivo during fasting. Adult male rats were fasted for 48 h starting at the beginning of the dark phase (lights on: 0700-1900 h). The animals showed a significant loss of body weight on the second day of fasting and an increase in food consumption on the first day of refeeding. During fasting, voluntary locomotor activity was significantly increased in the light phase but not during the dark phase. Plasma catecholamine levels were not affected by fasting. In vitro electrophysiological study showed that, in normally fed rats, 5-HT and NE induced both excitatory and inhibitory responses, while GABA and NPY intensively suppressed unit activity in the VMH. Food deprivation for 48 h significantly changed the responsiveness of VMH neurons to 5-HT, for instance, the ratio of neurons whose activity was facilitated by 5-HT was significantly decreased. The responsiveness of VMH neurons to NE, GABA, and NPY was not affected by food deprivation. These results suggest that food deprivation decreases the facilitatory response of VMH neurons to 5-HT, and that this change in responsiveness to 5-HT is at least partially involved in the increase in food intake motivation and locomotor activity during fasting.

  17. Long-term increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A expression in ventromedial hypotalamus causes hyperphagia and alters the hypothalamic lipidomic profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Mera

    Full Text Available Lipid metabolism in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH has emerged as a crucial pathway in the regulation of feeding and energy homeostasis. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT 1A is the rate-limiting enzyme in mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation and it has been proposed as a crucial mediator of fasting and ghrelin orexigenic signalling. However, the relationship between changes in CPT1A activity and the intracellular downstream effectors in the VMH that contribute to appetite modulation is not fully understood. To this end, we examined the effect of long-term expression of a permanently activated CPT1A isoform by using an adeno-associated viral vector injected into the VMH of rats. Peripherally, this procedure provoked hyperghrelinemia and hyperphagia, which led to overweight, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. In the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH, long-term CPT1AM expression in the VMH did not modify acyl-CoA or malonyl-CoA levels. However, it altered the MBH lipidomic profile since ceramides and sphingolipids increased and phospholipids decreased. Furthermore, we detected increased vesicular γ-aminobutyric acid transporter (VGAT and reduced vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2 expressions, both transporters involved in this orexigenic signal. Taken together, these observations indicate that CPT1A contributes to the regulation of feeding by modulating the expression of neurotransmitter transporters and lipid components that influence the orexigenic pathways in VMH.

  18. FAT/CD36: a major regulator of neuronal fatty acid sensing and energy homeostasis in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Foll, Christelle; Dunn-Meynell, Ambrose; Musatov, Serguei; Magnan, Christophe; Levin, Barry E

    2013-08-01

    Hypothalamic "metabolic-sensing" neurons sense glucose and fatty acids (FAs) and play an integral role in the regulation of glucose, energy homeostasis, and the development of obesity and diabetes. Using pharmacologic agents, we previously found that ~50% of these neurons responded to oleic acid (OA) by using the FA translocator/receptor FAT/CD36 (CD36). For further elucidation of the role of CD36 in neuronal FA sensing, ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) CD36 was depleted using adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector expressing CD36 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in rats. Whereas their neuronal glucosensing was unaffected by CD36 depletion, the percent of neurons that responded to OA was decreased specifically in glucosensing neurons. A similar effect was seen in total-body CD36-knockout mice. Next, weanling rats were injected in the VMH with CD36 AAV shRNA. Despite significant VMH CD36 depletion, there was no effect on food intake, body weight gain, or total carcass adiposity on chow or 45% fat diets. However, VMH CD36-depleted rats did have increased plasma leptin and subcutaneous fat deposition and markedly abnormal glucose tolerance. These results demonstrate that CD36 is a critical factor in both VMH neuronal FA sensing and the regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis.

  19. Alpha2delta-1 in SF1+ Neurons of the Ventromedial Hypothalamus Is an Essential Regulator of Glucose and Lipid Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Felsted

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The central mechanisms controlling glucose and lipid homeostasis are inadequately understood. We show that α2δ-1 is an essential regulator of glucose and lipid balance, acting in steroidogenic factor-1 (SF1 neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH. These effects are body weight independent and involve regulation of SF1+ neuronal activity and sympathetic output to metabolic tissues. Accordingly, mice with α2δ-1 deletion in SF1 neurons exhibit glucose intolerance, altered lipolysis, and decreased cholesterol content in adipose tissue despite normal energy balance regulation. Profound reductions in the firing rate of SF1 neurons, decreased sympathetic output, and elevated circulating levels of serotonin are associated with these alterations. Normal calcium currents but reduced excitatory postsynaptic currents in mutant SF1 neurons implicate α2δ-1 in the promotion of excitatory synaptogenesis separate from its canonical role as a calcium channel subunit. Collectively, these findings identify an essential mechanism that regulates VMH neuronal activity and glycemic and lipid control and may be a target for tackling metabolic disease. : Felsted et al. show a required role of the calcium channel subunit and thrombospondin receptor α2δ-1 in regulating glucose and lipid homeostasis in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH. These effects are caused by regulation of SF1+ neuronal activity in the VMH through non-canonical mechanisms and concomitant influences on sympathetic output. Keywords: diabetes, VMH, hypothalamus, glucose, norepinephrine, serotonin, excitability, lipid, SF1

  20. Canada continues use prohibition of gene recombination cattle somatotropin; Kanada wa idenshikumikaegyu seicho horumon no shiyo kinshi wo keizoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-05

    Canada continued use prohibition of gene recombination cattle somatotropin (BST) which stimulated milk increased production of this company in spite of request of Monsanto Co.. The cow that BST was administered is based on the report of veterinary surgeon that causes reproductive function and lowering in the life, dysbasia and increase in the mastitis on this. From the research report that BST causes thyroid gland cyst of the male rat in U.S.A., consumer organization and environment group petition FDA for the elimination of BST from the U.S.A. market. In the meantime, Monsanto Co. in the report which Canada adopted, chemical structure is different, and it reports that it uses BST of other company in which dosing method and dosing frequency differ and disregards the report of Cornell university in which the life of the cow administered more and more does not lower BST. (translated by NEDO)

  1. 39% access time improvement, 11% energy reduction, 32 kbit 1-read/1-write 2-port static random-access memory using two-stage read boost and write-boost after read sensing scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yasue; Moriwaki, Shinichi; Kawasumi, Atsushi; Miyano, Shinji; Shinohara, Hirofumi

    2016-04-01

    We propose novel circuit techniques for 1 clock (1CLK) 1 read/1 write (1R/1W) 2-port static random-access memories (SRAMs) to improve read access time (tAC) and write margins at low voltages. Two-stage read boost (TSR-BST) and write word line boost (WWL-BST) after the read sensing schemes have been proposed. TSR-BST reduces the worst read bit line (RBL) delay by 61% and RBL amplitude by 10% at V DD = 0.5 V, which improves tAC by 39% and reduces energy dissipation by 11% at V DD = 0.55 V. WWL-BST after read sensing scheme improves minimum operating voltage (V min) by 140 mV. A 32 kbit 1CLK 1R/1W 2-port SRAM with TSR-BST and WWL-BST has been developed using a 40 nm CMOS.

  2. TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling and PPAR-γ within the paraventricular nucleus are involved in the effects of telmisartan in hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hong-Bao; Li, Xiang; Huo, Chan-Juan; Su, Qing; Guo, Jing [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Yuan, Zu-Yi [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhu, Guo-Qing [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Shi, Xiao-Lian, E-mail: shxl@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Liu, Jin-Jun, E-mail: jupet@163.com [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Kang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ykang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an 710061 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Previous findings from our laboratory and others indicate that the main therapeutic effect of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) antagonists is to decrease blood pressure and exert anti-inflammatory effects in the cardiovascular system. In this study, we determined whether AT1-R antagonist telmisartan within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates hypertension and hypothalamic inflammation via both the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) in the PVN in hypertensive rats. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were treated for 4 weeks through bilateral PVN infusion with the AT1-R antagonist telmisartan (TEL, 10 μg/h), or losartan (LOS, 20 μg/h), or the PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 (GW, 100 μg/h), or vehicle via osmotic minipump. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was recorded by a tail-cuff occlusion method. PVN tissue and blood were collected for the measurement of AT1-R, PPAR-γ, pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TLR4, MyD88, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity and plasma norepinephrine (NE), respectively. Hypertensive rats exhibited significantly higher level of AT1-R and lower level of PPAR-γ in the PVN. PVN treatment with TEL attenuated MAP, improved cardiac hypertrophy, reduced TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, iNOS levels, and plasma NE in SHR but not in WKY rats. These results were associated with reduced TLR4, MyD88 and NF-κB levels and increased PPAR-γ level in the PVN of hypertensive rats. Our findings suggest that TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling and PPAR-γ within the PVN are involved in the beneficial effects of telmisartan in hypertension. - Highlights: • PVN infusion of TEL in spontaneously hypertensive rats is reported. • PVN infusion of TEL attenuates hypertension and proinflammatory cytokines in PVN. • PVN blockade of AT1-R attenuates

  3. Development of a metrology method for composition and thickness of barium strontium titanate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remmel, Thomas; Werho, Dennis; Liu, Ran; Chu, Peir

    1998-01-01

    Thin films of barium strontium titanate (BST) are being investigated as the charge storage dielectric in advanced memory devices, due to their promise for high dielectric constant. Since the capacitance of BST films is a function of both stoichiometry and thickness, implementation into manufacturing requires precise metrology methods to monitor both of these properties. This is no small challenge, considering the BST film thicknesses are 60 nm or less. A metrology method was developed based on X-ray Fluorescence and applied to the measurement of stoichiometry and thickness of BST thin films in a variety of applications

  4. Thyroid Hormone Receptor Beta in the Ventromedial Hypothalamus Is Essential for the Physiological Regulation of Food Intake and Body Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saira Hameed

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The obesity epidemic is a significant global health issue. Improved understanding of the mechanisms that regulate appetite and body weight will provide the rationale for the design of anti-obesity therapies. Thyroid hormones play a key role in metabolic homeostasis through their interaction with thyroid hormone receptors (TRs, which function as ligand-inducible transcription factors. The TR-beta isoform (TRβ is expressed in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH, a brain area important for control of energy homeostasis. Here, we report that selective knockdown of TRβ in the VMH of adult mice results in severe obesity due to hyperphagia and reduced energy expenditure. The observed increase in body weight is of a similar magnitude to murine models of the most extreme forms of monogenic obesity. These data identify TRβ in the VMH as a major physiological regulator of food intake and energy homeostasis.

  5. Paraventricular Stimulation with Glutamate Elicits Bradycardia and Pituitary Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Daniel N.; Miyamoto, Michael; Keil, Lanny C.; Dallman, Mary F.

    1989-01-01

    The excitatory neurotransmitter, L-glutamate (0.5 M, pH 7.4), or the organic acid, acetate (0.5 M, pH 7.4), was microinjected (50 nl over 2 min) directly into the paraventricular nuclei (PVN) of pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized rats while arterial blood pressure and heart rate and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), vasopressin, and oxytocin were measured. Activation of PVN neurons with L-glutamate led to increases in plasma ACTH, vasopressin, and oxytocin and a profound bradycardia (-80 beats/min) with little change in arterial blood pressure. Microinjection of acetate had no effect on the above variables. The decrease in heart rate was shown to be dependent on the concentration of glutamate injected and the volume of injectate. The bradycardia was mediated through the autonomic nervous system because ganglionic blockade (pentolinium tartrate) eliminated the response; atropine and propranolol severely attenuated the bradycardia. The bradycardia was greatest when L-glutamate was microinjected into the caudal PVN. Injections into the rostral PVN or into nuclei surrounding the PVN led to small or nonsignificant decreases in heart rate. Focal electric stimulation (2-50 pA) of the PVN also led to decreases in heart rate and arterial blood pressure. These data suggest that activation of PVN neurons leads to the release of ACTH, vasopressin, and oxytocin from the pituitary and a bradycardia that is mediated by the autonomic nervous system.

  6. Regulation of Arterial Pressure By The Paraventricular Nucleus in Conscious Rats: Interactions Among Glutamate, GABA, and Nitric Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Cardoso Martins-Pinge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paraventricular nucleus (PVN of the hypothalamus is an important site for autonomic and neuroendocrine regulation. Experiments in anesthetized animals and in vitro indicate an interaction among gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, nitric oxide (NO and glutamate in the PVN. The cardiovascular role of the PVN and interactions of these neurotransmitters in conscious animals have not been evaluated fully. In chronically instrumented conscious rats, mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR responses to microinjections (100 nl in the region of the PVN were tested. Bilateral blockade of ionotropic excitatory amino acid (EAA receptors (kynurenic acid, Kyn in the PVN produced small but significant decreases in MAP and HR. GABAA receptor blockade (bicuculline, Bic, and inhibition of NO synthase (N-(G-monomethyl-L-arginine, L-NMMA each increased MAP and HR. The NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP produced depressor responses that were attenuated by Bic. NO synthase inhibition potentiated both pressor responses to the selective EAA agonist, N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA, and depressor responses to Kyn. Increases in MAP and HR due to Bic were blunted by prior blockade of EAA receptors. Thus, pressor responses to GABA blockade require EAA receptors and GABA neurotransmission contributes to NO inhibition. Tonic excitatory effects of glutamate in the PVN are tonically attenuated by NO. These data demonstrate that, in the PVN of conscious rats, GABA, glutamate and NO interact in a complex fashion to regulate arterial pressure and heart rate under normal conditions.

  7. GABA in Paraventricular Nucleus Regulates Adipose Afferent Reflex in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ding

    Full Text Available Chemical stimulation of white adipose tissue (WAT induces adipose afferent reflex (AAR, and thereby causes a general sympathetic activation. Paraventricular nucleus (PVN is important in control of sympathetic outflow. This study was designed to investigate the role of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA in PVN in regulating the AAR.Experiments were carried out in anesthetized rats. Renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA and mean arterial pressure (MAP were continuously recorded. AAR was evaluated by the RSNA and MAP responses to electrical stimulation of the right epididymal WAT (eWAT afferent nerve. Electrical stimulation of eWAT afferent nerve increase RSNA. Bilateral microinjection of the GABAA receptor agonist isoguvacine or the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen attenuated the AAR. The effect of isoguvacine on the AAR was greater than that of baclofen. The GABAA receptor antagonist gabazine enhanced the AAR, while the GABAB receptor antagonist CGP-35348 had no significant effect on the AAR. Bilateral PVN microinjection of vigabatrin, a selective GABA-transaminase inhibitor, to increase endogenous GABA levels in the PVN abolished the AAR. The inhibitory effect of vigabatrin on the AAR was attenuated by the pretreatment with gabazine or CGP-35348. Pretreatment with combined gabazine and CGP-35348 abolished the effects of vigabatrin.Activation of GABAA or GABAB receptors in the PVN inhibits the AAR. Blockade of GABAA receptors in the PVN enhances the AAR. Endogenous GABA in the PVN plays an important role in regulating the AAR.

  8. Chronic infusion of epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates hypertension and sympathoexcitation by restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Qiu-Yue; Li, Hong-Bao; Qi, Jie; Yu, Xiao-Jing; Huo, Chan-Juan; Li, Xiang; Bai, Juan; Gao, Hong-Li; Kou, Bo; Liu, Kai-Li; Zhang, Dong-Dong; Chen, Wen-Sheng; Cui, Wei; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Shi, Xiao-Lian; Kang, Yu-Ming

    2016-11-16

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the brain are involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG), one of the active compounds in green tea, has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and vascular protective properties. This study was designed to determine whether chronic infusion of EGCG into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates ROS and sympathetic activity and delays the progression of hypertension by up-regulating anti-inflammatory cytokines, reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) and decreasing nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity, as well as restoring the neurotransmitters balance in the PVN of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Adult normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and SHR received bilateral PVN infusion of EGCG (20μg/h) or vehicle via osmotic minipumps for 4 weeks. SHR showed higher mean arterial pressure, plasma proinflammatory cytokines and circulating norepinephrine (NE) levels compared with WKY rats. SHR also had higher PVN levels of the subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase (gp91 phox ), ROS, tyrosine hydroxylase, and PICs; increased NF-κB activity; and lower PVN levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and 67kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67) than WKY rats. PVN infusion of EGCG attenuated all these changes in SHR. These findings suggest that SHR have an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, as well as an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the PVN. Chronic inhibition of ROS in the PVN restores the balance of neurotransmitters and cytokines in the PVN, thereby attenuating hypertensive response and sympathetic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates the renin–angiotensin system and proinflammatory cytokines in hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Qing; Qin, Da-Nian; Wang, Fu-Xin; Ren, Jun; Li, Hong-Bao; Zhang, Meng; Yang, Qing; Miao, Yu-Wang; Yu, Xiao-Jing; Qi, Jie; Zhu, Zhiming; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Kang, Yu-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To explore whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger (tempol) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates renin–angiotensin system (RAS) and proinflammatory cytokines (PICs), and decreases the blood pressure and sympathetic activity in angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension. Methods and results: Male Sprague–Dawley rats were infused intravenously with ANG II (10 ng/kg per min) or normal saline (NS) for 4 weeks. These rats were treated with bilateral PVN infusion of oxygen free radical scavenger tempol (TEMP, 20 μg/h) or vehicle (artificial cerebrospinal fluid, aCSF) for 4 weeks. ANG II infusion resulted in increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). These ANG II-infused rats also had higher levels of gp91 phox (a subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) in the PVN than the control animals. Treatment with PVN infusion of TEMP attenuated the overexpression of gp91 phox , ACE and IL-1β within the PVN, and decreased sympathetic activity and MAP in ANG II-infused rats. Conclusion: These findings suggest that ANG II infusion induces elevated PICs and oxidative stress in the PVN, which contribute to the sympathoexcitation in hypertension. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates the renin–angiotensin system, proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in ANG II-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • The effect of chronic inhibiting PVN superoxide on hypertension was investigated. • ANG II infusion induced increased proinflammatory cytokines and superoxide in PVN. • ANG II infusion resulted in oxidative stress, sympathoexcitation and hypertension. • Chronic inhibiting PVN superoxide attenuates RAS and cytokines in hypertension

  10. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates the renin–angiotensin system and proinflammatory cytokines in hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Qing [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Qin, Da-Nian, E-mail: dnqin@stu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Wang, Fu-Xin [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jiamusi University, Jiamusi 154002 (China); Ren, Jun [Center for Cardiovascular Research and Alternative Medicine, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Li, Hong-Bao; Zhang, Meng; Yang, Qing; Miao, Yu-Wang; Yu, Xiao-Jing; Qi, Jie [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhu, Zhiming [Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Daping Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing Institute of Hypertension, Chongqing 400042 (China); Zhu, Guo-Qing [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Kang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ykang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China)

    2014-04-15

    Aims: To explore whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger (tempol) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates renin–angiotensin system (RAS) and proinflammatory cytokines (PICs), and decreases the blood pressure and sympathetic activity in angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension. Methods and results: Male Sprague–Dawley rats were infused intravenously with ANG II (10 ng/kg per min) or normal saline (NS) for 4 weeks. These rats were treated with bilateral PVN infusion of oxygen free radical scavenger tempol (TEMP, 20 μg/h) or vehicle (artificial cerebrospinal fluid, aCSF) for 4 weeks. ANG II infusion resulted in increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). These ANG II-infused rats also had higher levels of gp91{sup phox} (a subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) in the PVN than the control animals. Treatment with PVN infusion of TEMP attenuated the overexpression of gp91{sup phox}, ACE and IL-1β within the PVN, and decreased sympathetic activity and MAP in ANG II-infused rats. Conclusion: These findings suggest that ANG II infusion induces elevated PICs and oxidative stress in the PVN, which contribute to the sympathoexcitation in hypertension. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates the renin–angiotensin system, proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in ANG II-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • The effect of chronic inhibiting PVN superoxide on hypertension was investigated. • ANG II infusion induced increased proinflammatory cytokines and superoxide in PVN. • ANG II infusion resulted in oxidative stress, sympathoexcitation and hypertension. • Chronic inhibiting PVN superoxide attenuates RAS and cytokines in hypertension.

  11. Angiotensin type 1a receptors in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus control cardiovascular reactivity and anxiety-like behavior in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Hiller, Helmut; Smith, Justin A; de Kloet, Annette D; Krause, Eric G

    2016-09-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that deletion of angiotensin type 1a receptors (AT1a) from the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN) attenuates anxiety-like behavior, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, and cardiovascular reactivity. We used the Cre/LoxP system to generate male mice with AT1a specifically deleted from the PVN. Deletion of the AT1a from the PVN reduced anxiety-like behavior as indicated by increased time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze. In contrast, PVN AT1a deletion had no effect on HPA axis activation subsequent to an acute restraint challenge but did reduce hypothalamic mRNA expression for corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). To determine whether PVN AT1a deletion inhibits cardiovascular reactivity, we measured systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability (HRV) using telemetry and found that PVN AT1a deletion attenuated restraint-induced elevations in systolic blood pressure and elicited changes in HRV indicative of reduced sympathetic nervous activity. Consistent with the decreased HRV, PVN AT1a deletion also decreased adrenal weight, suggestive of decreased adrenal sympathetic outflow. Interestingly, the altered stress responsivity of mice with AT1a deleted from the PVN was associated with decreased hypothalamic microglia and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Collectively, these results suggest that deletion of AT1a from the PVN attenuates anxiety, CRH gene transcription, and cardiovascular reactivity and reduced brain inflammation may contribute to these effects. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Fatty acid-induced astrocyte ketone production and the control of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Foll, Christelle; Levin, Barry E

    2016-06-01

    Obesity and Type 2 diabetes are major worldwide public health issues today. A relationship between total fat intake and obesity has been found. In addition, the mechanisms of long-term and excessive high-fat diet (HFD) intake in the development of obesity still need to be elucidated. The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) is a major site involved in the regulation of glucose and energy homeostasis where "metabolic sensing neurons" integrate metabolic signals from the periphery. Among these signals, fatty acids (FA) modulate the activity of VMH neurons using the FA translocator/CD36, which plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis. During low-fat diet (LFD) intake, FA are oxidized by VMH astrocytes to fuel their ongoing metabolic needs. However, HFD intake causes VMH astrocytes to use FA to generate ketone bodies. We postulate that these astrocyte-derived ketone bodies are exported to neurons where they produce excess ATP and reactive oxygen species, which override CD36-mediated FA sensing and act as a signal to decrease short-term food intake. On a HFD, VMH astrocyte-produced ketones reduce elevated caloric intake to LFD levels after 3 days in rats genetically predisposed to resist (DR) diet-induced obesity (DIO), but not leptin-resistant DIO rats. This suggests that, while VMH ketone production on a HFD can contribute to protection from obesity, the inherent leptin resistance overrides this inhibitory action of ketone bodies on food intake. Thus, astrocytes and neurons form a tight metabolic unit that is able to monitor circulating nutrients to alter food intake and energy homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Topography of subnuclei of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in rats and sensitivity of their neurons to insulin defficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goufman, E.I.

    1985-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to study the reaction of paraventricular nuclei (PVN) subnuclei to insulin deficiency and to elevation of the blood glucose level under conditions of experimental alloxan diabetes. Experiments were carried out on 15 control and 15 experimental mature male Wistar rats. The state of the carbohydrate metabolism of the diabetic and control animals was judged by the blood glucose and radioimmune insulin levels. The results of these investigations show that both magnocellular and parvocellular neurons of PVN react to alloxan diabetes, which supports the hypothesis that PVN of the hypothalamus participates in the control of carbohydrate metabolism

  14. Comparison of Computer Based Instruction to Behavior Skills Training for Teaching Staff Implementation of Discrete-Trial Instruction with an Adult with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosik, Melissa R.; Williams, W. Larry; Garrido, Natalia; Lee, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, behavior skills training (BST) is compared to a computer based training package for teaching discrete trial instruction to staff, teaching an adult with autism. The computer based training package consisted of instructions, video modeling and feedback. BST consisted of instructions, modeling, rehearsal and feedback. Following…

  15. 78 FR 28275 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation; Safety Approval Performance Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... provide as a service, scenario based physiology training, which includes hypobaric chamber training. BST may offer its scenario based physiology altitude training as a service to a prospective launch and...: Notification of criteria used to evaluate the Black Sky Training, Inc. (BST) safety approval application...

  16. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The thick films of different thicknesses of BST were prepared by screen-printing technique and gas-sensing performance of these films was tested for various gases. The films showed highest response and selectivity to ammonia gas. The effect of film thickness on gas response was also studied. As prepared BST thick films ...

  17. Evaluation of Efficiency of Schoenly Trap for Collecting Adult Sarcosaprophagous Dipterans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordonez Gloria, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    Communities of adult sarcosaprophagous dipterans were evaluated using both Schoenly traps (BST) baited with rabbit carcasses and the traditional forensic methodology (TradC) in the Sabana de Bogota ́ , Colombia. During 42 sampling days, 2,726 adult dipterans were collected (2,291 by BST and 435...

  18. Evaluation of efficiency of Schoenly trap for collecting adult sarcosaprophagous dipterans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordonez, A.; Garcia, M. D.; Fagua, G.

    Communities of adult sarcosaprophagous dipterans were evaluated using both Schoenly traps (BST) baited with rabbit carcasses and the traditional forensic methodology (TradC) in the Sabana de Bogota, Colombia. During 42 sampling days, 2,726 adult dipterans were collected (2,291 by BST and 435 by

  19. The Effects of Postprocessing on Physical and Solution Deposition of Complex Oxide Thin Films for Tunable Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    BST film capacitor devices were fabricated using physical and chemical solution deposition techniques. The typical dielectric constant of the...electrode loss, and the parallel resistor- capacitor circuit represents the capacitance and the dielectric loss, assuming lead inductance is...Thin barium strontium titanate (BST) films are being developed as dielectric film for use in tunable radio frequency (RF)/microwave applications. Thin

  20. Apoptosis during sexual differentiation of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the rat brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chung, W. C.; Swaab, D. F.; de Vries, G. J. [=Geert J.

    2000-01-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) in the rat forebrain differs between males and females. To test whether apoptosis may contribute to the development of sex differences in the BST, the incidence of apoptosis was determined in sham-treated males and sham-treated females sacrificed on

  1. Evaluating Behavioral Skills Training with and without Simulated in Situ Training for Teaching Safety Skills to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltenberger, Raymond; Gross, Amy; Knudson, Peter; Bosch, Amanda; Jostad, Candice; Breitwieser, Carrie Brower

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of behavioral skills training (BST) to BST plus simulated in situ training (SIT) for teaching safety skills to children to prevent gun play. The results were evaluated in a posttest only control group design. Following the first assessment, participants in both training groups and the control group who did not…

  2. A Comparison of Staff Training Methods for Effective Implementation of Discrete Trial Teaching for Learners with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Kaneen Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Discrete trial teaching is an effective procedure for teaching a variety of skills to children with autism. However, it must be implemented with high integrity to produce optimal learning. Behavioral Skills Training (BST) is a staff training procedure that has been demonstrated to be effective. However, BST is time and labor intensive, and with…

  3. Exposure level from selected base station tower around Kuala Nerus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health risk due to RF radiation exposure from base station tower (BST) has been debated for years leading to public concerns. Thus, this preliminary study aims to measure, evaluate and analyze the exposure level on three selected BST around Kuala Nerus. The measurement of exposure level in terms of voltage ...

  4. Efferent connections from the lateral hypothalamic region and the lateral preoptic area to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, P J; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Mikkelsen, J D

    1994-01-01

    , iontophoretic injections of the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin were delivered into distinct areas of the lateral hypothalamic region. Neurons of the intermediate hypothalamic area projected mainly to the PVN subnuclei, which contained parvicellular neuroendocrine cells. In contrast...

  5. The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus has a pivotal role in regulation of prolactin release in lactating rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, J Z; Kanyicska, B; Nagy, G Y

    1986-08-01

    The affect of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) lesions on PRL secretory response to suckling was studied in adult female rats. Basal levels of PRL were similar in the control and lesioned groups. Substantial decreases in PRL levels occurred after separation of pups from their mothers in the control as well as lesioned animals. When mothers and pups were reunited, the circulating PRL concentrations of the control groups rose immediately from basal values of 50-100 micrograms/liter to reach peaks of 450-550 micrograms/liter. PVN lesions significantly decreased the suckling-induced rise of PRL levels. Furthermore, PVN lesions abolished the high amplitude, episodic pattern of PRL release in continuously lactating rats. These findings are consistent with the view that PVN neurons produce PRL releasing factor(s), which is (are) required for normal secretory patterns of PRL in lactating rats.

  6. Overactivity of Liver-Related Neurons in the Paraventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus: Electrophysiological Findings in db/db Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong; Molinas, Adrien J R; Miyata, Kayoko; Qiao, Xin; Zsombok, Andrea

    2017-11-15

    Preautonomic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus play a large role in the regulation of hepatic functions via the autonomic nervous system. Activation of hepatic sympathetic nerves increases glucose and lipid metabolism and contributes to the elevated hepatic glucose production observed in the type 2 diabetic condition. This augmented sympathetic output could originate from altered activity of liver-related PVN neurons. Remarkably, despite the importance of the brain-liver pathway, the cellular properties of liver-related neurons are not known. In this study, we provide the first evidence of overall activity of liver-related PVN neurons. Liver-related PVN neurons were identified with a retrograde, trans-synaptic, viral tracer in male lean and db/db mice and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were conducted. In db/db mice, the majority of liver-related PVN neurons fired spontaneously; whereas, in lean mice the majority of liver-related PVN neurons were silent, indicating that liver-related PVN neurons are more active in db/db mice. Persistent, tonic inhibition was identified in liver-related PVN neurons; although, the magnitude of tonic inhibitory control was not different between lean and db/db mice. In addition, our study revealed that the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1-dependent increase of excitatory neurotransmission was reduced in liver-related PVN neurons of db/db mice. These findings demonstrate plasticity of liver-related PVN neurons and a shift toward excitation in a diabetic mouse model. Our study suggests altered autonomic circuits at the level of the PVN, which can contribute to autonomic dysfunction and dysregulation of neural control of hepatic functions including glucose metabolism. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A growing body of evidence suggests the importance of the autonomic control in the regulation of hepatic metabolism, which plays a major role in the development and progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus

  7. Increased production of peptide deformylase eliminates retention of formylmethionine in bovine somatotropin overproduced in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, W C; Bentle, K A; Schlittler, M R; Schwane, A C; O'Neil, J P; Bogosian, G

    1996-10-03

    In Escherichia coli and most other microorganisms, peptide synthesis is started at methionine start codons which are read only by N-formyl-methionine-tRNA. The formyl group is normally removed from the N-terminal Met residue of the peptide by peptide deformylase (PDF). However, it has been observed that overproduction of proteins in recombinant bacteria often yields protein products which are incompletely deformylated. Certain proteins could be poor substrates for PDF and exhibit incomplete deformylation, particularly when they are overproduced. Strains of E. coli which overproduce bovine somatotropin (BST) have a significant fraction of the BST with the formyl group retained. The PDF gene was isolated and positioned into a BST production vector in such a way that the BST and PDF genes were coexpressed. In strains containing this coexpression vector, the levels of PDF were increased and formylated BST was undetectable.

  8. The projection and synaptic organisation of NTS afferent connections with presympathetic neurons, GABA and nNOS neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affleck, V.S.; Coote, J.H.; Pyner, S.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated sympathetic nerve activity, strongly associated with cardiovascular disease, is partly generated from the presympathetic neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). The PVN-presympathetic neurons regulating cardiac and vasomotor sympathetic activity receive information about cardiovascular status from receptors in the heart and circulation. These receptors signal changes via afferent neurons terminating in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), some of which may result in excitation or inhibition of PVN-presympathetic neurons. Understanding the anatomy and neurochemistry of NTS afferent connections within the PVN could provide important clues to the impairment in homeostasis cardiovascular control associated with disease. Transynaptic labelling has shown the presence of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-containing neurons and GABA interneurons that terminate on presympathetic PVN neurons any of which may be the target for NTS afferents. So far NTS connections to these diverse neuronal pools have not been demonstrated and were investigated in this study. Anterograde (biotin dextran amine – BDA) labelling of the ascending projection from the NTS and retrograde (fluorogold – FG or cholera toxin B subunit – CTB) labelling of PVN presympathetic neurons combined with immunohistochemistry for GABA and nNOS was used to identify the terminal neuronal targets of the ascending projection from the NTS. It was shown that NTS afferent terminals are apposed to either PVN-GABA interneurons or to nitric oxide producing neurons or even directly to presympathetic neurons. Furthermore, there was evidence that some NTS axons were positive for vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vGLUT2). The data provide an anatomical basis for the different functions of cardiovascular receptors that mediate their actions via the NTS–PVN pathways. PMID:22698695

  9. Chronic infusion of lisinopril into hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus modulates cytokines and attenuates oxidative stress in rostral ventrolateral medulla in hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hong-Bao [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Qin, Da-Nian, E-mail: dnqin@stu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Ma, Le [Department of Public Health, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Miao, Yu-Wang [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhang, Dong-Mei [Department of Physiology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Lu, Yan [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Sanaitang Hospital, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Song, Xin-Ai [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhu, Guo-Qing [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Kang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ykang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China)

    2014-09-01

    The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) play a critical role in the generation and maintenance of sympathetic nerve activity. The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) in the brain is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. This study was designed to determine whether inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in the PVN modulates cytokines and attenuates oxidative stress (ROS) in the RVLM, and decreases the blood pressure and sympathetic activity in renovascular hypertensive rats. Renovascular hypertension was induced in male Sprague–Dawley rats by the two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) method. Renovascular hypertensive rats received bilateral PVN infusion with ACE inhibitor lisinopril (LSP, 10 μg/h) or vehicle via osmotic minipump for 4 weeks. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and plasma proinflammatory cytokines (PICs) were significantly increased in renovascular hypertensive rats. The renovascular hypertensive rats also had higher levels of ACE in the PVN, and lower level of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the RVLM. In addition, the levels of PICs, the chemokine MCP-1, the subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase (gp91{sup phox}) and ROS in the RVLM were increased in hypertensive rats. PVN treatment with LSP attenuated those changes occurring in renovascular hypertensive rats. Our findings suggest that the beneficial effects of ACE inhibition in the PVN in renovascular hypertension are partly due to modulation cytokines and attenuation oxidative stress in the RVLM. - Highlights: • Chronic ACE inhibition in PVN on renovascular hypertension was investigated. • 2K1C resulted in sympathoexcitation, increased plasma PICs and hypertension. • 2K1C rats had higher levels of cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in RVLM. • Chronic inhibiting PVN ACE attenuates cytokines and ROS in RVLM in hypertension.

  10. Chronic infusion of lisinopril into hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus modulates cytokines and attenuates oxidative stress in rostral ventrolateral medulla in hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hong-Bao; Qin, Da-Nian; Ma, Le; Miao, Yu-Wang; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Lu, Yan; Song, Xin-Ai; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Kang, Yu-Ming

    2014-01-01

    The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) play a critical role in the generation and maintenance of sympathetic nerve activity. The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) in the brain is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. This study was designed to determine whether inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in the PVN modulates cytokines and attenuates oxidative stress (ROS) in the RVLM, and decreases the blood pressure and sympathetic activity in renovascular hypertensive rats. Renovascular hypertension was induced in male Sprague–Dawley rats by the two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) method. Renovascular hypertensive rats received bilateral PVN infusion with ACE inhibitor lisinopril (LSP, 10 μg/h) or vehicle via osmotic minipump for 4 weeks. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and plasma proinflammatory cytokines (PICs) were significantly increased in renovascular hypertensive rats. The renovascular hypertensive rats also had higher levels of ACE in the PVN, and lower level of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the RVLM. In addition, the levels of PICs, the chemokine MCP-1, the subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase (gp91 phox ) and ROS in the RVLM were increased in hypertensive rats. PVN treatment with LSP attenuated those changes occurring in renovascular hypertensive rats. Our findings suggest that the beneficial effects of ACE inhibition in the PVN in renovascular hypertension are partly due to modulation cytokines and attenuation oxidative stress in the RVLM. - Highlights: • Chronic ACE inhibition in PVN on renovascular hypertension was investigated. • 2K1C resulted in sympathoexcitation, increased plasma PICs and hypertension. • 2K1C rats had higher levels of cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in RVLM. • Chronic inhibiting PVN ACE attenuates cytokines and ROS in RVLM in hypertension

  11. Electroacupuncture Improved the Function of Myocardial Ischemia Involved in the Hippocampus-Paraventricular Nucleus-Sympathetic Nerve Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Cui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the hippocampus-paraventricular nucleus- (PVN- sympathetic nerve pathway in electroacupuncture (EA at the heart meridian for the treatment of myocardial ischemia by observing PVN neuronal discharge, sympathetic nerve discharge, and hemodynamics parameters. Sprague Dawley (SD rats were equally divided into four groups: Sham, Model, Model + EA, and Model + EA + Lesion. The model rat was established by ligating the left anterior descending branch of the coronary artery. Changes in the sympathetic nerve discharge and hemodynamic parameters were observed. The Model + EA exhibited a significantly lower discharge frequency of PVN neurons compared with the Model. The Model + EA + Lesion had a significantly higher discharge frequency compared with the Model + EA. The total discharge frequency of PVN neurons and interneurons were positively correlated with the sympathetic nerve discharge. The total discharge frequency of PVN neurons was positively correlated with heart rate (HR and negatively correlated with mean arterial pressure (MAP and rate pressure product (RPP. The discharge frequency of interneurons was positively correlated with HR and negatively correlated with MAP and RPP. The hippocampus-PVN-sympathetic nerve pathway is involved in electroacupuncture at the heart meridian and interneurons are the key neurons in PVNs.

  12. Deleterious effect of salusin-β in paraventricular nucleus on sympathetic activity and blood pressure via NF-κB signaling in a rat model of obesity hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaodong; Wang, Yanchun; Ren, Kuang

    2015-08-01

    The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) has been shown to play a critical role in regulating blood pressure and sympathetic activity in obesity hypertension (OH). Salusin-β is a bioactive peptide with potential roles in mediating cardiovascular activity. The study was designed to test the hypothesis that salusin-β in the PVN can modulate sympathetic activity and blood pressure in OH. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to induce OH by a 12-week feeding of a high-fat diet (42% kcal as fat). Microinjection of salusin-β into the PVN increased the renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) in a dose-dependent manner, whereas salusin-β antibody elicited significant decreases in RSNA, MAP and HR, and abolished the effects of salusin-β only in the OH rats. As expected, the OH rats had a higher norepinephrine level, which was further increased by salusin-β. Furthermore, salusin-β in the PVN accelerated the nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-KB) and the degradation of IKB-α (an endogenous inhibitor of NF-KB). Pretreatment with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (an exogenous inhibitor of NF-KB) decreased RSNA, MAP and HR, and abolished the effects of salusin-β in the PVN in the OH rats. We concluded that salusin-β in the PVN markedly increased sympathetic outflow and blood pressure in diet-induced OH rats via NF-κB signaling.

  13. Activation of hypothalamic RIP-Cre neurons promotes beiging of WAT via sympathetic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baile; Li, Ang; Li, Xiaomu; Ho, Philip Wl; Wu, Donghai; Wang, Xiaoqi; Liu, Zhuohao; Wu, Kelvin Kl; Yau, Sonata Sy; Xu, Aimin; Cheng, Kenneth Ky

    2018-04-01

    Activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and beige fat by cold increases energy expenditure. Although their activation is known to be differentially regulated in part by hypothalamus, the underlying neural pathways and populations remain poorly characterized. Here, we show that activation of rat-insulin-promoter-Cre (RIP-Cre) neurons in ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) preferentially promotes recruitment of beige fat via a selective control of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) outflow to subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT), but has no effect on BAT Genetic ablation of APPL2 in RIP-Cre neurons diminishes beiging in sWAT without affecting BAT, leading to cold intolerance and obesity in mice. Such defects are reversed by activation of RIP-Cre neurons, inactivation of VMH AMPK, or treatment with a β3-adrenergic receptor agonist. Hypothalamic APPL2 enhances neuronal activation in VMH RIP-Cre neurons and raphe pallidus, thereby eliciting SNS outflow to sWAT and subsequent beiging. These data suggest that beige fat can be selectively activated by VMH RIP-Cre neurons, in which the APPL2-AMPK signaling axis is crucial for this defending mechanism to cold and obesity. © 2018 The Authors.

  14. AFRRI (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute) Reports, October, November and December 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    pulsive motility (7), diarrhea (10), anorexia (29, present ported by the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Defense Nuclear Agency, under...there was no significant interaction be- food than the rats with VMH lesions alone this was teen time and treatment groups (h’= 1.74. df= 12. not a

  15. Effects of intestinal bypass surgery on appetite, food intake, and body weight in obese and lean rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, A; Koopmans, H S; Vasselli, J R; Reichman, M

    1978-04-01

    Jejunoileal bypass surgery or sham surgery was performed in female rats made obese with ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) knife cuts, and in lean control rats. After bypass surgery, the VMH rats underate and lost weight until they reached the body weight of the control sham rats, and they then maintained their weight at control levels. Bypass surgery in lean rats produced much smaller reductions in food intake and body weight. Both bypass groups initially consumed less of a sucrose solution and milk diet during 1 h/day tests, but their intakes returned to near normal levels during the second postoperative month. Reconnection of the intestinal tract in the VMH-bypass rats led to renewed hyperphagia and return to obese body weights. A second experiment revealed that bypass surgery reduces food intake and body weight in genetically obese (fatty) rats, but this effect is not as pronounced as that displayed by VMH rats. These results confirm recent clinical observations that reduced appetite and caloric intake are the major causes of the weight loss produced by intestinal bypass surgery.

  16. Leptin and insulin engage specific PI3K subunits in hypothalamic SF1 neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Woo Sohn

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH regulates energy balance and glucose homeostasis. Leptin and insulin exert metabolic effects via their cognate receptors expressed by the steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1 neurons within the VMH. However, detailed cellular mechanisms involved in the regulation of these neurons by leptin and insulin remain to be identified. Methods: We utilized genetically-modified mouse models and performed patch-clamp electrophysiology experiments to resolve this issue. Results: We identified distinct populations of leptin-activated and leptin-inhibited SF1 neurons. In contrast, insulin uniformly inhibited SF1 neurons. Notably, we found that leptin-activated, leptin-inhibited, and insulin-inhibited SF1 neurons are distinct subpopulations within the VMH. Leptin depolarization of SF1 neuron also required the PI3K p110β catalytic subunit. This effect was mediated by the putative transient receptor potential C (TRPC channel. On the other hand, hyperpolarizing responses of SF1 neurons by leptin and insulin required either of the p110α or p110β catalytic subunits, and were mediated by the putative ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP channel. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that specific PI3K catalytic subunits are responsible for the acute effects of leptin and insulin on VMH SF1 neurons, and provide insights into the cellular mechanisms of leptin and insulin action on VMH SF1 neurons that regulate energy balance and glucose homeostasis. Author Video: Author Video Watch what authors say about their articles Keywords: Cellular mechanism, Conditional knockout mouse, Patch clamp technique, Functional heterogeneity, Homeostasis

  17. CaMKII Regulates Synaptic NMDA Receptor Activity of Hypothalamic Presympathetic Neurons and Sympathetic Outflow in Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De-Pei; Zhou, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Jixiang; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2017-11-01

    NMDAR activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is increased and critically involved in heightened sympathetic vasomotor tone in hypertension. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) binds to and modulates NMDAR activity. In this study, we determined the role of CaMKII in regulating NMDAR activity of PVN presympathetic neurons in male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). NMDAR-mediated EPSCs and puff NMDA-elicited currents were recorded in spinally projecting PVN neurons in SHRs and male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. The basal amplitude of evoked NMDAR-EPSCs and puff NMDA currents in retrogradely labeled PVN neurons were significantly higher in SHRs than in WKY rats. The CaMKII inhibitor autocamtide-2-related inhibitory peptide (AIP) normalized the increased amplitude of NMDAR-EPSCs and puff NMDA currents in labeled PVN neurons in SHRs but had no effect in WKY rats. Treatment with AIP also normalized the higher frequency of NMDAR-mediated miniature EPSCs of PVN neurons in SHRs. CaMKII-mediated phosphorylation level of GluN2B serine 1303 (S1303) in the PVN, but not in the hippocampus and frontal cortex, was significantly higher in SHRs than in WKY rats. Lowering blood pressure with celiac ganglionectomy in SHRs did not alter the increased level of phosphorylated GluN2B S1303 in the PVN. In addition, microinjection of AIP into the PVN significantly reduced arterial blood pressure and lumbar sympathetic nerve discharges in SHRs. Our findings suggest that CaMKII activity is increased in the PVN and contributes to potentiated presynaptic and postsynaptic NMDAR activity to elevate sympathetic vasomotor tone in hypertension. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Heightened sympathetic vasomotor tone is a major contributor to the development of hypertension. Although glutamate NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated excitatory drive in the hypothalamus plays a critical role in increased sympathetic output in hypertension, the molecular mechanism involved in

  18. Decreased absorption of midazolam in the stomach due to low pH induced by co-administration of Banha-sasim-tang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hyeon Jo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Banha-sasim-tang (BST, which consists of seven different herbs, is one of the most popular herbal formulae for treating gastrointestinal disorders in Eastern Asia. The commonly used herbal medicine is often co-administered with other therapeutic drugs, which raises the possibility of herb–drug interactions and may modify the clinical safety profile of therapeutic drugs. Methods We investigated the potential herb–drug interactions between BST extract and midazolam (MDZ in mice. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC of MDZ and 1ʹ-hydroxymidazolam (1ʹ-OH-MDZ was evaluated for both oral and intraperitoneal administration of MDZ, following oral administration of BST (0.5 and 1 g/kg. Results It was found that the AUC of MDZ and 1ʹ-OH-MDZ was lower in case of oral administration of MDZ. Administration of BST extract was not associated with hepatic cytochrome P450 activity. BST extract induced a strong reduction in pH and it has been reported that oral mucosal absorption of MDZ is lower at low pH. The decreased absorption rate of MDZ might be caused by the ingredients of BST and may not be related to other factors such as increased excretion of MDZ by P-glycoprotein. Conclusions The altered pharmacokinetics of midazolam caused by co-administration with BST in vivo could be attributed to a decrease in pH and subsequent reduction of MDZ absorption rate.

  19. A single dose of bovine somatotropin 5 days before the end of progestin-based estrous synchronization increases prolificacy in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, F; Hernández-Cerón, J; Orozco, V; Hernández, J A; Gutiérrez, C G

    2007-11-01

    Bovine somatotropin (bST) enhances ovarian follicular and embryonic development in sheep and cattle. In the present study, the objective was to assess whether bST given 5 days before the end of progestin-based estrous synchronization improves prolificacy and lambing rate in sheep. Pelibuey ewes (n=92) exhibiting estrous cycles at regular intervals received an intravaginal sponge containing 45mg of FGA for 12 days. Five days before sponge withdrawal, ewes were treated with either 125mg of bST sc (bST group; n=47) or saline solution (control; n=45). After the sponge was removed, ewes were observed for estrus and subsequently mated twice. Lambing rate and prolificacy was determined at birth. Blood samples were taken from the time of treatment until day 15 after estrus in eight ewes from the bST group and nine from the control group. Concentrations of IGF-I were determined by immunoradiometric assay and progesterone by RIA. Treatment with bST increased (P0.05). IGF-I concentrations were greater (PProgesterone concentrations did not vary (P>0.05) between groups. It is concluded that a single dose of bST 5 days before progestin withdrawal increases lambing rate and prolificacy in sheep. These effects are associated with an increase in circulating concentrations of IGF-I.

  20. Enhanced astroglial GABA uptake attenuates tonic GABAA inhibition of the presympathetic hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus neurons in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Sudip; Jo, Ji Yoon; Lee, Sang Ung; Lee, Young Jae; Lee, So Yeong; Ryu, Pan Dong; Lee, Jung Un; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Park, Jin Bong

    2015-08-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) generates persistent tonic inhibitory currents (Itonic) and conventional inhibitory postsynaptic currents in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) via activation of GABAA receptors (GABAARs). We investigated the pathophysiological significance of astroglial GABA uptake in the regulation of Itonic in the PVN neurons projecting to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (PVN-RVLM). The Itonic of PVN-RVLM neurons were significantly reduced in heart failure (HF) compared with sham-operated (SHAM) rats. Reduced Itonic sensitivity to THIP argued for the decreased function of GABAAR δ subunits in HF, whereas similar Itonic sensitivity to benzodiazepines argued against the difference of γ2 subunit-containing GABAARs in SHAM and HF rats. HF Itonic attenuation was reversed by a nonselective GABA transporter (GAT) blocker (nipecotic acid, NPA) and a GAT-3 selective blocker, but not by a GAT-1 blocker, suggesting that astroglial GABA clearance increased in HF. Similar and minimal Itonic responses to bestrophin-1 blockade in SHAM and HF neurons further argued against a role for astroglial GABA release in HF Itonic attenuation. Finally, the NPA-induced inhibition of spontaneous firing was greater in HF than in SHAM PVN-RVLM neurons, whereas diazepam induced less inhibition of spontaneous firing in HF than in SHAM neurons. Overall, our results showed that combined with reduced GABAARs function, the enhanced astroglial GABA uptake-induced attenuation of Itonic in HF PVN-RVLM neurons explains the deficit in tonic GABAergic inhibition and increased sympathetic outflow from the PVN during heart failure. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Mct8 and trh co-expression throughout the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus is modified by dehydration-induced anorexia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Salas, Elena; Mengod, Guadalupe; García-Luna, Cinthia; Soberanes-Chávez, Paulina; Matamoros-Trejo, Gilberto; de Gortari, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is a neuropeptide with endocrine and neuromodulatory effects. TRH from the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) participates in the control of energy homeostasis; as a neuromodulator TRH has anorexigenic effects. Negative energy balance decreases PVN TRH expression and TSH concentration; in contrast, a particular model of anorexia (dehydration) induces in rats a paradoxical increase in TRH expression in hypophysiotropic cells from caudal PVN and high TSH serum levels, despite their apparent hypothalamic hyperthyroidism and low body weight. We compared here the mRNA co-expression pattern of one of the brain thyroid hormones' transporters, the monocarboxylate transporter-8 (MCT8) with that of TRH in PVN subdivisions of dehydration-induced anorexic (DIA) and control rats. Our aim was to identify whether a low MCT8 expression in anorexic rats could contribute to their high TRH mRNA content.We registered daily food intake and body weight of 7-day DIA and control rats and analyzed TRH and MCT8 mRNA co-expression throughout the PVN by double in situ hybridization assays. We found that DIA rats showed increased number of TRHergic cells in caudal PVN, as well as a decreased percentage of TRH-expressing neurons that co-expressed MCT8 mRNA signal. Results suggest that the reduced proportion of double TRH/MCT8 expressing cells may be limiting the entry of hypothalamic triiodothyronine to the greater number of TRH-expressing neurons from caudal PVN and be in part responsible for the high TRH expression in anorexia rats and for the lack of adaptation of their hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis to their low food intake.

  2. Cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex response to intermedin microinjection into paraventricular nucleus is mediated by nitric oxide and γ-amino butyric acid in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong; Sun, Hai-jian; Chang, Jin-rui; Ding, Lei; Gao, Qing; Tang, Chao-shu; Zhu, Guo-qing; Zhou, Ye-bo

    2014-10-01

    Intermedin (IMD) is a member of calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and involves in the regulation of cardiovascular function in both peripheral tissues and central nervous system (CNS). Paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of hypothalamus is an important site in the control of cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) which participates in sympathetic over-excitation of hypertension. The aim of this study is to investigate whether IMD in the PVN is involved in the inhibition of CSAR and its related mechanism in hypertension. Rats were subjected to two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) surgery to induce renovascular hypertension or sham-operation (Sham). Acute experiments were carried out four weeks later under anesthesia. The CSAR was evaluated with the renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses to the epicardial application of capsaicin. The RSNA and MAP were recorded in sinoaortic-denervated, cervical-vagotomized and anesthetized rats. Bilateral PVN microinjection of IMD (25 pmol) caused greater decrease in the CSAR in 2K1C rats than in Sham rats, which was prevented by pretreatment with adrenomedullin (AM) receptor antagonist AM22-52, non-selective nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NAME or γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)B receptor blocker CGP-35348. PVN pretreatment with CGRP receptor antagonist CGRP8-37 or GABA(A) receptor blocker gabazine had no significant effect on the CSAR response to IMD. AM22-52, L-NAME and CGP-35348 in the PVN could increase CSAR in Sham and 2K1C rats. These data indicate that IMD in the PVN inhibits CSAR via AM receptor, and both NO and GABA in the PVN involve in the effect of IMD on CSAR in Sham and renovascular hypertensive rats. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  3. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 reduces hypothalamic excitation in rats with adriamycin-induced heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The paraventricular nucleus (PVN of the hypothalamus plays an important role in the progression of heart failure (HF. We investigated whether cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibition in the PVN attenuates the activities of sympathetic nervous system (SNS and renin-angiotensin system (RAS in rats with adriamycin-induced heart failure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Heart failure was induced by intraperitoneal injection of adriamycin over a period of 2 weeks (cumulative dose of 15 mg/kg. On day 19, rats received intragastric administration daily with either COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib (CLB or normal saline. Treatment with CLB reduced mortality and attenuated both myocardial atrophy and pulmonary congestion in HF rats. Compared with the HF rats, ventricle to body weight (VW/BW and lung to body weight (LW/BW ratios, heart rate (HR, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP, left ventricular peak systolic pressure (LVPSP and maximum rate of change in left ventricular pressure (LV±dp/dtmax were improved in HF+CLB rats. Angiotensin II (ANG II, norepinephrine (NE, COX-2 and glutamate (Glu in the PVN were increased in HF rats. HF rats had higher levels of ANG II and NE in plasma, higher level of ANG II in myocardium, and lower levels of ANP in plasma and myocardium. Treatment with CLB attenuated these HF-induced changes. HF rats had more COX-2-positive neurons and more corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH positive neurons in the PVN than did control rats. Treatment with CLB decreased COX-2-positive neurons and CRH positive neurons in the PVN of HF rats. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that PVN COX-2 may be an intermediary step for PVN neuronal activation and excitatory neurotransmitter release, which further contributes to sympathoexcitation and RAS activation in adriamycin-induced heart failure. Treatment with COX-2 inhibitor attenuates sympathoexcitation and RAS activation in adriamycin-induced heart failure.

  4. Angiotensin Type-2 Receptors Influence the Activity of Vasopressin Neurons in the Paraventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kloet, Annette D; Pitra, Soledad; Wang, Lei; Hiller, Helmut; Pioquinto, David J; Smith, Justin A; Sumners, Colin; Stern, Javier E; Krause, Eric G

    2016-08-01

    It is known that angiotensin-II acts at its type-1 receptor to stimulate vasopressin (AVP) secretion, which may contribute to angiotensin-II-induced hypertension. Less well known is the impact of angiotensin type-2 receptor (AT2R) activation on these processes. Studies conducted in a transgenic AT2R enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter mouse revealed that although AT2R are not themselves localized to AVP neurons within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), they are localized to neurons that extend processes into the PVN. In the present set of studies, we set out to characterize the origin, phenotype, and function of nerve terminals within the PVN that arise from AT2R-enhanced green fluorescent protein-positive neurons and synapse onto AVP neurons. Initial experiments combined genetic and neuroanatomical techniques to determine that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons derived from the peri-PVN area containing AT2R make appositions onto AVP neurons within the PVN, thereby positioning AT2R to negatively regulate neuroendocrine secretion. Subsequent patch-clamp electrophysiological experiments revealed that selective activation of AT2R in the peri-PVN area using compound 21 facilitates inhibitory (ie, GABAergic) neurotransmission and leads to reduced activity of AVP neurons within the PVN. Final experiments determined the functional impact of AT2R activation by testing the effects of compound 21 on plasma AVP levels. Collectively, these experiments revealed that AT2R expressing neurons make GABAergic synapses onto AVP neurons that inhibit AVP neuronal activity and suppress baseline systemic AVP levels. These findings have direct implications in the targeting of AT2R for disorders of AVP secretion and also for the alleviation of high blood pressure.

  5. Emergence of the sub-THz central peak at phase transitions in artificial BaTiO3/(Ba,Sr)TiO3 superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhonov, Yu.A.; Razumnaya, A.G.; Torgashev, V.I.; Zakharchenko, I.N.; Yuzyuk, Yu.I.; El Marssi, M.; Ortega, N.; Kumar, A.; Katiyar, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    A prominent central peak in the sub-THz frequency range was observed in the Raman spectra of BaTiO 3 /(Ba,Sr)TiO 3 (BT/BST) superlattice grown on (001)MgO substrate. Both soft and central mode show an anomaly around 200 K and 280 K, which can be correlated with orthorhombic to monoclinic phase transition of BST and BT, respectively. The observed temperature dependence of the central mode enabled us to explain rather broad temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity previously observed in BT/BST superlattices. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Restriction genes for retroviruses influence the risk of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexø, Bjørn A; Hansen, Bettina; Nissen, Kari K

    2013-01-01

    known for a long time. Today human restriction genes for retroviruses include amongst others TRIMs, APOBEC3s, BST2 and TREXs. We have therefore looked for a role of these retroviral restriction genes in MS using genetic epidemiology. We here report that markers in two TRIMs, TRIM5 and TRIM22...... and a marker in BST2, associated statistically with the risk of getting MS, while markers in or near APOBEC3s and TREXs showed little or no effect. This indicates that the two TRIMs and BST2 influence the risk of disease and thus supports the hypothesis of a viral involvement....

  7. Transient Response in Monolithic Mach-Zehnder Optical Modulator Using (Ba,Sr)TiO3 Film Sputtered at Low Temperature on Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masato; Nagata, Kazuma; Tanushi, Yuichiro; Yokoyama, Shin

    2007-04-01

    We have fabricated Mach-Zhender interferometers (MZIs) using the (Ba,Sr)TiO3 (BST) film sputter-deposited at 450 °C, which is a critical temperature for the process after metallization. An optical modulation of about 10% is achieved when 200 V is applied (electric field in BST is 1.2× 104 V/cm). However, the response time of optical modulation to step function voltage is slow (1.0-6.3 s). We propose a model for the slow transient behavior based on movable ions and a long dielectric relaxation time for the BST film, and good qualitative agreement is obtained with experimental results.

  8. Real-time observations of interface formation for barium strontium titanate films on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.H.; Suvorova, N.A.; Irene, E.A.; Auciello, O.; Schultz, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Ba .5 Sr .5 TiO 3 (BST) film growth by ion sputtering on bare and thermally oxidized silicon was observed in real time using in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry and time of flight ion scattering and recoil spectrometry techniques. At the outset of BST film deposition on silicon, an approximately 30 Aa film with intermediate static dielectric constant (K∼12) and refractive index (n∼2.6 at photon energies of 1.5-3.25 eV) interface layer formed on bare silicon. The interface layer growth rate was greatly reduced on an oxidized silicon substrate. The results have profound implications on the static dielectric constant of BST

  9. Evolution of the mammary capillary network and carbonic anhydrase activity throughout lactation and during somatotropin treatment in goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Cvek, Katarina; Dahlborn, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    involved in the coordination of mammary blood flow (MBF) and metabolic activity. Milk vein blood velocity was determined as a measure of MBF, and fine needle mammary biopsies were obtained at different time points during lactation and by the end of a 14-d bovine somatotropin (BST) treatment initiated 3...... almost tripled in size, whereas number of capillaries surrounding each alveolus decreased by 1/3, and CA activity more than halved. BST treatment did not affect capillary traits but increased number of alveoli in mammary sections, and BST thus appeared to be targeted mostly towards the mammary epithelial...

  10. Effects of α2A Adrenoceptors on Norepinephrine Secretion from the Locus Coeruleus during Chronic Stress-Induced Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-ping Huang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stressors can often lead to the development of psychological disorders, such as depression and anxiety. The locus coeruleus (LC is a stress sensitive brain region located in the pons, with noradrenergic neurons that project to the hypothalamus, especially the paraventricular nucleus (PVN of the hypothalamus. The purpose of this paper is to better understand how alpha 2A-adrenoceptors (α2A-ARs and LC-hypothalamus noradrenergic system participate in the pathophysiological mechanism of depression. In vivo norepinephrine (NE release in the PVN triggered by electrical stimulation in the LC was detected with carbon fiber electrodes in depression model of rats induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS. Also, the extracellular level of NE in the PVN was measured by microdialysis in vivo without any stimulation in the LC. The alpha 2-adrenoceptor (α2-AR antagonist yohimbine and α2A-ARs antagonist BRL-44408 maleate were systemically administered to rats to determine the effects of α2A-ARs on NE release in the PVN. The peak value of elicited NE release signals in the PVN induced by electrical stimulation in the LC in the CUMS rats were lower than that in the control rats. The extracellular levels of NE in the PVN of the CUMS rats were significantly less than that of the control rats. Intraperitoneal injection of yohimbine or BRL-44408 maleate significantly potentiated NE release in the PVN of the CUMS rats. The CUMS significantly increased protein expression levels of α2A-AR in the hypothalamus, and BRL-44408 maleate significantly reversed the increase of α2A-AR protein expression levels in the CUMS rats. Our results suggest that the CUMS could significantly facilitate the effect of α2-adrenoceptor-mediated presynaptic inhibition and decrease the release of NE in the PVN from LC. Blockade of the inhibitory action of excessive α2A-adrenergic receptors in the CUMS rats could increase the level of NE in the PVN, which is effective in

  11. GABAergic and cortical and subcortical glutamatergic axon terminals contain CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leire Reguero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Type-1 cannabinoid receptors (CB(1R are enriched in the hypothalamus, particularly in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH that participates in homeostatic and behavioral functions including food intake. Although CB(1R activation modulates excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in the brain, CB(1R contribution to the molecular architecture of the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic terminals in the VMH is not known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the precise subcellular distribution of CB(1R in the VMH to better understand the modulation exerted by the endocannabinoid system on the complex brain circuitries converging into this nucleus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Light and electron microscopy techniques were used to analyze CB(1R distribution in the VMH of CB(1R-WT, CB(1R-KO and conditional mutant mice bearing a selective deletion of CB(1R in cortical glutamatergic (Glu-CB(1R-KO or GABAergic neurons (GABA-CB(1R-KO. At light microscopy, CB(1R immunolabeling was observed in the VMH of CB(1R-WT and Glu-CB(1R-KO animals, being remarkably reduced in GABA-CB(1R-KO mice. In the electron microscope, CB(1R appeared in membranes of both glutamatergic and GABAergic terminals/preterminals. There was no significant difference in the percentage of CB(1R immunopositive profiles and CB(1R density in terminals making asymmetric or symmetric synapses in CB(1R-WT mice. Furthermore, the proportion of CB(1R immunopositive terminals/preterminals in CB(1R-WT and Glu-CB(1R-KO mice was reduced in GABA-CB(1R-KO mutants. CB(1R density was similar in all animal conditions. Finally, the percentage of CB(1R labeled boutons making asymmetric synapses slightly decreased in Glu-CB(1R-KO mutants relative to CB(1R-WT mice, indicating that CB(1R was distributed in cortical and subcortical excitatory synaptic terminals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our anatomical results support the idea that the VMH is a relevant hub candidate in

  12. Water deprivation increases Fos expression in hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor neurons induced by right atrial distension in awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Mauricio; Rorato, Rodrigo; Castro, Margaret; Machado, Benedito H; Antunes-Rodrigues, Jose; Elias, Lucila L K

    2008-11-01

    Atrial mechanoreceptors, sensitive to stretch, contribute in regulating heart rate and intravascular volume. The information from those receptors reaches the nucleus tractus solitarius and then the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), known to have a crucial role in the regulation of cardiovascular function. Neurons in the PVN synthesize CRF, AVP, and oxytocin (OT). Stimulation of atrial mechanoreceptors was performed in awake rats implanted with a balloon at the junction of the superior vena cava and right atrium. Plasma ACTH, AVP, and OT concentrations and Fos, CRF, AVP, and OT immunolabeling in the PVN were determined after balloon inflation in hydrated and water-deprived rats. The distension of the balloon increased the plasma ACTH concentrations, which were higher in water-deprived than in hydrated rats (P neurons in the parvocellular PVN, which was higher in the water-deprived than in the hydrated group (P neurons after distension in hydrated and water-deprived groups, compared with respective controls. In conclusion, parvocellular CRF neurons showed an increase of Fos expression induced by stimulation of right atrial mechanoreceptors, suggesting that CRF participates in the cardiovascular reflex adjustments elicited by volume loading. Activation of CRF neurons in the PVN by cardiovascular reflex is affected by osmotic stimulation.

  13. Effects of chronic restraint stress on social behaviors and the number of hypothalamic oxytocin neurons in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Li, Han-Xia; Shou, Xiao-Jing; Xu, Xin-Jie; Song, Tian-Jia; Han, Song-Ping; Zhang, Rong; Han, Ji-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) and vasopressin (AVP) are considered to be related to mammalian social behavior and the regulation of stress responses. The present study investigated the effects of chronic homotypic restraint stress (CHRS) on social behaviors and anxiety, as well as its repercussions on OXT- and AVP-positive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) nuclei in rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats receiving CHRS were exposed to repeated restraint stress of 30min per day for 10days. Changes in social approach behaviors were evaluated with the three-chambered social approach task. Changes in anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated in the light-dark box test. The number of neurons expressing oxytocin and/or vasopressin in PVN and SON were examined by immunohistochemistry techniques. The results demonstrated that social approach was increased and anxiety was decreased following 10-day exposure to CHRS. Furthermore, the number of OXT-immunoreactive cells in PVN was increased significantly, whereas no change in SON was seen. The number of AVP immunoreactive cells either in PVN or SON was unaffected. The results of this study suggest that certain types of stress could be effective in the treatment of social dysfunction in persons with mental disorders such as autism, social anxiety disorder. The therapeutic effects may be mediated by changes in the function of OXT neurons in PVN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. GHRELIN ACTIVATES HYPOPHYSIOTROPIC CORTICOTROPIN-RELEASING FACTOR NEURONS INDEPENDENTLY OF THE ARCUATE NUCLEUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Agustina; Portiansky, Enrique; Sánchez-Jaramillo, Edith; Zigman, Jeffrey M.; Perello, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has established that the hormone ghrelin engages the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal neuroendocrine axis via activation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). The neuronal circuitry that mediates this effect of ghrelin is currently unknown. Here, we show that ghrelin-induced activation of PVN CRF neurons involved inhibition of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inputs, likely via ghrelin binding sites that were localized at GABAergic terminals within the PVN. While ghrelin activated PVN CRF neurons in the presence of neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor antagonists or in arcuate nucleus (ARC)-ablated mice, it failed to do it so in mice with ghrelin receptor expression limited to ARC agouti gene related protein (AgRP)/NPY neurons. These data support the notion that ghrelin activates PVN CRF neurons via inhibition of local GABAergic tone, in an ARC-independent manner. Furthermore, these data suggest that the neuronal circuits mediating ghrelin’s orexigenic action vs. its role as a stress signal are anatomically dissociated. PMID:26874559

  15. Leptin activates oxytocin neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in both control and diet-induced obese rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Perello

    Full Text Available The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin acts in the brain to reduce body weight and fat mass. Recent studies suggest that parvocellular oxytocin (OXT neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN can mediate body weight reduction through inhibition of food intake and increased energy expenditure. However, the role of OXT neurons of the PVN as a primary target of leptin has not been investigated. Here, we studied the potential role of OXT neurons of the PVN in leptin-mediated effects on body weight regulation in fasted rats. We demonstrated that intracerebroventricular (ICV leptin activates STAT3 phosphorylation in OXT neurons of the PVN, showed that this occurs in a subpopulation of OXT neurons that innervate the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS, and provided further evidence suggesting a role of OXT to mediate leptin's actions on body weight. In addition, our results indicated that OXT neurons are responsive to ICV leptin and mediate leptin effects on body weight in diet induced obese (DIO rats, which are resistant to the anorectic effects of the hormone. Thus, we conclude that leptin targets a specific subpopulation of parvocellular OXT neurons of the PVN, and that this action may be important for leptin's ability to reduce body weight in both control and obese rats.

  16. Cross talk between AT1 receptors and Toll-like receptor 4 in microglia contributes to angiotensin II-derived ROS production in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancardi, Vinicia Campana; Stranahan, Alexis M; Krause, Eric G; de Kloet, Annette D; Stern, Javier E

    2016-02-01

    ANG II is thought to increase sympathetic outflow by increasing oxidative stress and promoting local inflammation in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. However, the relative contributions of inflammation and oxidative stress to sympathetic drive remain poorly understood, and the underlying cellular and molecular targets have yet to be examined. ANG II has been shown to enhance Toll-like receptor (TLR)4-mediated signaling on microglia. Thus, in the present study, we aimed to determine whether ANG II-mediated activation of microglial TLR4 signaling is a key molecular target initiating local oxidative stress in the PVN. We found TLR4 and ANG II type 1 (AT1) receptor mRNA expression in hypothalamic microglia, providing molecular evidence for the potential interaction between these two receptors. In hypothalamic slices, ANG II induced microglial activation within the PVN (∼65% increase, P receptors and TLR4 in mediating ANG II-dependent microglial activation and oxidative stress within the PVN. More broadly, our results support a functional interaction between the central renin-angiotensin system and innate immunity in the regulation of neurohumoral outflows from the PVN. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Net-zero building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In its experimental work on research and development of innovative technologies for low income housing on the Innovation Site on the CSIR campus in Pretoria, the Building Science and Technology (BST) competence area identified a number...

  18. A Systematic Review of Literature Using Business Systems Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rana, Mohammad Bakhtiar; Morgan, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    , international business (IB) studies do not tend to borrow much from this sub-field. This paper reviews BST literature from 1992 to 2015 and seeks to identify its contributions and gaps, in ways that can be helpful for future research in IB. Trend analysis of BST literature and mapping this sub-field suggests......Business system theory (BST) lies at the intersection of organization theory, political economy and sociology. It is gaining incremental attention in the field of management, particularly in cross-border and comparative studies of the structure, strategy and management of multinationals. Yet...... that the BST research stream can be identified in relation to four ‘broad themes’ which we describe as junctures- i.e. comparative business systems, internationalisation and MNC management, organizational capability and innovation, and transnational communities. Mapping and pattern recognition of the ‘themes...

  19. THE STUDY OF HIGH DIELECTRIC CONSTANT MECHANISM OF La-DOPED Ba0.67Sr0.33TiO3 CERAMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; He, Bo; Liu, Han Xing

    It is a common and effective method to enhance the dielectric properties of BST ceramics by adding rare-earth elements. In this paper, it is important to analyze the cause of the high dielectric constant behavior of La-doped BST ceramics. The results show that proper rare earth La dopant (0.2≤x≤0.7) may greatly increase the dielectric constant of BST ceramics, and also improve the temperature stability, evidently. According to the current-voltage (J-V) characteristics, the proper La-doped BST ceramics may reach the better semiconductivity, with the decrease and increase in La doping, the ceramics are insulators. By using the Schottky barrier model and electric microstructure model to find the surface or grain boundary potential barrier height, the width of the depletion layer and grain size do play an important role in impacting the dielectric constant.

  20. Evaluating the educational environment of an international animal model-based wet lab course for undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail Ch. Sideris

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: Students seem to positively rate the ESMSC educational environment. Junior as well as KCL students appear to be more enthusiastic. Further research should focus on the optimal strategy for early involvement and motivation of various students' groups in BST.

  1. An FPGA Based Multiprocessing CPU for Beam Synchronous Timing in CERN's SPS and LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ballester, F J; Gras, J J; Lewis, J; Savioz, J J; Serrano, J

    2003-01-01

    The Beam Synchronous Timing system (BST) will be used around the LHC and its injector, the SPS, to broadcast timing meassages and synchronize actions with the beam in different receivers. To achieve beam synchronization, the BST Master card encodes messages using the bunch clock, with a nominal value of 40.079 MHz for the LHC. These messages are produced by a set of tasks every revolution period, which is every 89 us for the LHC and every 23 us for the SPS, therefore imposing a hard real-time constraint on the system. To achieve determinism, the BST Master uses a dedicated CPU inside its main Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) featuring zero-delay hardware task switching and a reduced instruction set. This paper describes the BST Master card, stressing the main FPGA design, as well as the associated software, including the LynxOS driver and the tailor-made assembler.

  2. High Performance Nano-Constituent Buffer Layer Thin Films to Enable Low Cost Integrated On-the-Move Communications Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cole, M. W; Nothwang, W. D; Hubbard, C; Ngo, E; Hirsch, S

    2004-01-01

    Successful integration of paraelectric Ba1-xSrxTiO3 (BST) based thin films with affordable Si substrates has a potential significant commercial impact as the demand for high-frequency tunable devices intensifies...

  3. ORF Sequence: NC_001138 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s, required for proper discrimination between resident ER proteins and Golgi-bound cargo molecules; Bst1p [S...ER that negatively regulates COPII vesicle formation, prevents production of vesicles with defective subunit

  4. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Section 06 - 08*) of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A vacuum-tank, two bending magnets (BST06 and BST07 in blue) with a quadrupole (QDN07, in red) in between, another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and a further tank . The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of BST06 contained the stack core pickup for stochastic cooling (see 7906193, 7906190, 8005051), the two other tanks served mainly as vacuum chambers in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on BST06. *) see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984)

  5. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... Health risk due to RF radiation exposure from base station tower (BST) ... Thus, this preliminary study aims to measure, evaluate and ..... [7] Ulcek J L, Cleveland R F Jr. Evaluating compliance with FCC guidelines for human.

  6. Breed and selection line differences in the temperament of beef cattle - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i2.16426

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus José Rodrigues Paranhos da Costa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The temperament of four beef cattle breeds were measured using a flight time test (FT and a behavior score test (BST. FT was defined as the time taken by animals to cross a distance of 2 m after weight scale. The BST used a visual assessment of cattle behavior in which the results of four categories defined the score: movements, breathing intensity, vocalization and kicking. FT and BST coefficients of heritability were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood, considering half siblings. Caracu presented a lower BST value than the other breeds. Nellore presented intermediate results, followed by Guzerat and Gyr with similar and higher means (p p= -0.36; p s = -0.63; p Bos indicus cattle.  

  7. Milk by Any Other Name... Consumer Benefits from Labeled Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Dhar, Tirtha; Foltz, Jeremy D.

    2004-01-01

    This article uses revealed preferences of consumers to study the consumer benefits from rBST-free and organic labeled milk. The article specifies and estimates a quadratic AIDS demand system model for different milk types using U.S. supermarket scanner data. The introduction of rBST-free and organic milk is used to estimate consumer benefits that are decomposed into two components, competitive and variety effects. Results show significant consumer benefits from organic milk and to a lesser ex...

  8. Flexoelectricity in Nanostructures: Theory, Nanofabrication and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-13

    of BST samples was measured by a thermocouple (Fluke, 179, Everett, WA) and validated with the 1D, steady-state heat conduction model [35...where , are the ambient and heat source temperature, and L, h, P, k, Ac are the length, convective heat transfer coefficient, plate perimeter...thermal conductivity, and cross-section area of BST samples, respectively. Fig. 4 represents the schematic of 1D, steady-state heat conduction model and

  9. Købstadens navn - navne i Købstaden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Rikke Steenholt

    2012-01-01

    De vestsjællandske købstæders navne har forskellig oprindelse. Byens navne er stereotype, men enkelte navne skiller sig ud, f.eks. Grundvig i Nykøbing og Kordilgade i Kalundborg.......De vestsjællandske købstæders navne har forskellig oprindelse. Byens navne er stereotype, men enkelte navne skiller sig ud, f.eks. Grundvig i Nykøbing og Kordilgade i Kalundborg....

  10. Effect of rare earth substitution on properties of barium strontium titanate ceramic and its multiferroic composite with nickel cobalt ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahuja, Poonam; Kotnala, R.K.; Tandon, R.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Rare earth ions Dy 3+ , Gd 3+ and Sm 3+ have been substituted in Ba 0.95 Sr 0.05 TiO 3 (BST). • Ni 0.8 Co 0.2 Fe 2 O 4 has been used as ferrimagnetic phase to obtain composites. • Substitution of these ions increases dielectric constant of BST and composites. • Magnetoelectric coefficient of composites increases on substitution of these ions. - Abstract: Effect of substitution of rare earth ions (Dy 3+ , Gd 3+ and Sm 3+ ) on various properties of Ba 0.95 Sr 0.05 TiO 3 (BST) i.e. the composition Ba 0.95−1.5x Sr 0.05 R x TiO 3 (where x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and R are rare earths Dy, Gd, Sm) and that of their multiferroic composite with Ni 0.8 Co 0.2 Fe 2 O 4 (NCF) has been studied. Shifting of peaks corresponding to different compositions in the X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the substitution of rare earth ions at both Ba 2+ and Ti 4+ sites in BST. It is clear from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images that rare earth substitution in BST increases its grain size in both pure and composite samples. Substitution of rare earth ions results in increase in value of dielectric constant of pure and composite samples. Sm substitution in BST significantly decreases its Curie temperature. Dy substituted pure and composite samples possess superior ferroelectric properties as confirmed by polarization vs electric field (P–E) loops. Composite samples containing Dy, Gd and Sm substituted BST as ferroelectric phase possess lower values of remanent and saturation magnetizations in comparison to composite sample containing pure BST as ferroelectric phase (BSTC). Rare earth substituted composite samples possess higher value of magnetoelectric coefficient as compared to that for BSTC

  11. Investigation of Voltage-Activated BAW Devices and Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-04

    strontium titanate (STO) and barium-strontium titanate (BST), with the ultimate objective of creating high- performance, reconfigurable filters and...induced piezoelectricity in thin-film strontium titanate (STO) and barium-strontium titanate (BST), with the ultimate objective of creating high...this work 1. The effect of patterned vs. unpatterned acoustic Bragg reflector on barium strontium titanate solidly mounted resonator. Authors: George

  12. AA, bending magnet, BLG

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    The very particular lattice of the AA required 2 types of dipole (bending magnets; BLG, long and narrow; BST, short and wide). The BLG had a steel length of 4.70 m, a good field width of 0.24 m, and a weight of about 70 t. Jean-Claude Brunet inspects the lower half of a BLG. For the BST magnets see 7811105 and 8006036.

  13. AA, assembly of wide bending magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    The very particular lattice of the AA required 2 types of dipoles (bending magnets; BST, short and wide; BLG, long and narrow). The wide ones had a steel length of 2.71 m, a "good field" width of 0.564 m, and a weight of about 75 t. Here we see the copper coils being hoisted onto the lower half of a BST. See also 7811105, 8006050. For a BLG, see 8001044.

  14. Feline tetherin is characterized by a short N-terminal region and is counteracted by the feline immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celestino, Michele; Calistri, Arianna; Del Vecchio, Claudia; Salata, Cristiano; Chiuppesi, Flavia; Pistello, Mauro; Borsetti, Alessandra; Palù, Giorgio; Parolin, Cristina

    2012-06-01

    Tetherin (BST2) is the host cell factor that blocks the particle release of some enveloped viruses. Two putative feline tetherin proteins differing at the level of the N-terminal coding region have recently been described and tested for their antiviral activity. By cloning and comparing the two reported feline tetherins (called here cBST2(504) and cBST2*) and generating specific derivative mutants, this study provides evidence that feline tetherin has a shorter intracytoplasmic domain than those of other known homologues. The minimal tetherin promoter was identified and assayed for its ability to drive tetherin expression in an alpha interferon-inducible manner. We also demonstrated that cBST2(504) is able to dimerize, is localized at the cellular membrane, and impairs human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particle release, regardless of the presence of the Vpu antagonist accessory protein. While cBST2(504) failed to restrict wild-type feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) egress, FIV mutants, bearing a frameshift at the level of the envelope-encoding region, were potently blocked. The transient expression of the FIV envelope glycoprotein was able to rescue mutant particle release from feline tetherin-positive cells but did not antagonize human BST2 activity. Moreover, cBST2(504) was capable of specifically immunoprecipitating the FIV envelope glycoprotein. Finally, cBST2(504) also exerted its function on HIV-2 ROD10 and on the simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239. Taken together, these results show that feline tetherin does indeed have a short N-terminal region and that the FIV envelope glycoprotein is the predominant factor counteracting tetherin restriction.

  15. Critical evaluation of a badminton-specific endurance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Michael; Faude, Oliver; Wegmann, Melissa; Meyer, Tim

    2014-03-01

    To overcome the limitations of traditional 1-dimensional fitness tests in analyzing physiological properties of badminton players, a badminton-specific endurance test (BST) was created. This study aimed at analyzing the influence of various fitness dimensions on BST performance. 18 internationally competing male German badminton players (22.4 ± 3.2 y, 79.2 ± 7.7 kg, 1.84 ± 0.06 m, world-ranking position [WRP] 21-501) completed a straight-sprint test, a change-of-direction speed test, various jump tests (countermovement jump, drop jump, standing long jump), a multistage running test (MST), and the BST. During this on-court field test players have to respond to a computerized sign indicating direction and speed of badminton-specific movements by moving into the corresponding corners. Significant correlations were found between performance in MST and BST (individual anaerobic threshold [IAT], r = .63, P = .005; maximum velocity [Vmax], r = .60, P = .009). A negative correlation (r = -.59, P = .014) was observed between IAT in BST and drop-jump contact time. No further associations between performance indices could be detected. Apart from a small portion explained by MST results (IAT, R2 = .40; Vmax, R2 = .36), the majority of BST performance cannot be explained by the determined physiological correlates. Moreover, it was impossible to predict the WRP of a player on the basis of BST results (r = -.15, P = .55). Neither discipline-specific performance nor basic physiological properties were appropriately reflected by a BST in elite badminton players. This does not substantiate its validity for regular use as a testing tool. However, it may be useful for monitoring on-court training sessions.

  16. Bone Marrow Stromal Antigen 2 Is a Novel Plasma Biomarker and Prognosticator for Colorectal Carcinoma: A Secretome-Based Verification Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sum-Fu Chiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The cancer cell secretome has been recognized as a valuable reservoir for identifying novel serum/plasma biomarkers for different cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC. This study aimed to verify four CRC cell-secreted proteins (tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2/trophoblast cell surface antigen 2 (TACSTD2/TROP2, tetraspanin-6 (TSPAN6, bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST2, and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 16 (NGFR as potential plasma CRC biomarkers. Methods. The study population comprises 152 CRC patients and 152 controls. Target protein levels in plasma and tissue samples were assessed by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results. Among the four candidate proteins examined by ELISA in a small sample set, only BST2 showed significantly elevated plasma levels in CRC patients versus controls. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the overexpression of BST2 in CRC tissues, and higher BST2 expression levels correlated with poorer 5-year survival (46.47% versus 65.57%; p=0.044. Further verification confirmed the elevated plasma BST2 levels in CRC patients (2.35 ± 0.13 ng/mL versus controls (1.04 ± 0.03 ng/mL (p<0.01, with an area under the ROC curve (AUC being 0.858 comparable to that of CEA (0.867. Conclusion. BST2, a membrane protein selectively detected in CRC cell secretome, may be a novel plasma biomarker and prognosticator for CRC.

  17. The Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Narrative Abilities in a Group of Italian Normally Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzanica, Francesco; Ambrogi, Federico; Salvadorini, Renata; Sai, Elena; Pozzoli, Raffaella; Barillari, Maria Rosaria; Scarponi, Letizia; Schindler, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Only limited and conflicting information is available regarding the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and narrative abilities. Besides, the role fathers' SES plays in the development of their children's narrative abilities has never been investigated. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between fathers' and mothers' SES and narrative abilities of their children assessed with the Italian version of the Bus Story Test (I-BST). A total of 505 normally developing Italian children were enrolled in the study. Information regarding parents' educational level and employment was collected for each child. Narrative abilities were evaluated using the I-BST. The relationships between parents' employment, educational level, and I-BST scores were analyzed by univariate and multivariate regression analysis. In univariate analysis, both fathers' and mothers' education and employment were associated with most I-BST subscale scores, especially when higher educational and employment levels were contrasted with the lowest educational and employment levels. In multiple regression analysis, significant associations were found only between the fathers' working status and educational level and I-BST subscale scores. Parental education and employment might impact narrative abilities of children. When both fathers' and mothers' SES variables are considered together, only fathers' education and working status seemed to be associated with I-BST scores. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Composition-control of magnetron-sputter-deposited (BaxSr1-x)Ti1+yO3+z thin films for voltage tunable devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jaemo; Auciello, O.; Baumann, P. K.; Streiffer, S. K.; Kaufman, D. Y.; Krauss, A. R.

    2000-01-01

    Precise control of composition and microstructure is critical for the production of (BaxSr1-x)Ti1+yO3+z (BST) dielectric thin films with the large dependence of permittivity on electric field, low losses, and high electrical breakdown fields that are required for successful integration of BST into tunable high-frequency devices. Here, we present results on composition-microstructure-electrical property relationships for polycrystalline BST films produced by magnetron-sputter deposition, that are appropriate for microwave and millimeter-wave applications such as varactors and frequency triplers. Films with controlled compositions were grown from a stoichiometric Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 target by control of the background processing gas pressure. It was determined that the (Ba+Sr)/Ti ratios of these BST films could be adjusted from 0.73 to 0.98 by changing the total (Ar+O2) process pressure, while the O2/Ar ratio did not strongly affect the metal ion composition. Film crystalline structure and dielectric properties as a function of the (Ba+Sr)/Ti ratio are discussed. Optimized BST films yielded capacitors with low dielectric losses (0.0047), among the best reported for sputtered BST, while still maintaining tunabilities suitable for device applications.

  19. Composition-control of magnetron-sputter-deposited (BaxSr1-x)Ti1+yO3+z thin films for voltage tunable devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jaemo; Auciello, O.; Baumann, P. K.; Streiffer, S. K.; Kaufman, D. Y.; Krauss, A. R.

    2000-01-01

    Precise control of composition and microstructure is critical for the production of (Ba x Sr 1-x )Ti 1+y O 3+z (BST) dielectric thin films with the large dependence of permittivity on electric field, low losses, and high electrical breakdown fields that are required for successful integration of BST into tunable high-frequency devices. Here, we present results on composition-microstructure-electrical property relationships for polycrystalline BST films produced by magnetron-sputter deposition, that are appropriate for microwave and millimeter-wave applications such as varactors and frequency triplers. Films with controlled compositions were grown from a stoichiometric Ba 0.5 Sr 0.5 TiO 3 target by control of the background processing gas pressure. It was determined that the (Ba+Sr)/Ti ratios of these BST films could be adjusted from 0.73 to 0.98 by changing the total (Ar+O 2 ) process pressure, while the O 2 /Ar ratio did not strongly affect the metal ion composition. Film crystalline structure and dielectric properties as a function of the (Ba+Sr)/Ti ratio are discussed. Optimized BST films yielded capacitors with low dielectric losses (0.0047), among the best reported for sputtered BST, while still maintaining tunabilities suitable for device applications. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  20. Fabrication and characterization of Ba sub x Sr sub 1 sub - sub x TiO sub 3 /YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub x /SrTiO sub 3 structure

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, J; Park, S Y; Lee Jae Sik; No, K; Sung, T H; Park, Y

    2002-01-01

    Ba sub x Sr sub 1 sub - sub x TiO sub 3 (BST)/YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub x (YBCO)/SrTiO sub 3 (STO) structures were deposited, and the microstructure, orientation and electrical characteristics were investigated. (00l) oriented YBCO thin films were deposited on STO substrates using pulsed laser deposition, and (h00) oriented BST thin films were deposited on YBCO/STO substrates using electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma assisted metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). A new phase was formed at the interface between YBCO and BST films and was speculated to be (Ba sub x Y sub 1 sub - sub x)(Ti sub y Y sub 1 sub - sub y)O sub 3. Ba-rich BST films showed a higher dielectric loss than Sr-rich BST films did, which indicates that Sr-rich BST films are more suited for application to microwave devices. The dielectric loss of the films was reduced as temperature decreased, which may be due to the conductivity change of YBCO film and the formation of a conduction path rather than a dielectric property change ...

  1. Improvement in crystallization and electrical properties of barium strontium titanate thin films by gold doping using metal-organic deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.-W.; Nien, S.-W.; Lee, K.-C.; Wu, M.-C.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of gold (Au) on the crystallization, dielectric constant and leakage current density of barium strontium titanate (BST) thin films was investigated. BST thin films with various gold concentrations were prepared via a metal-organic deposition process. The X-ray diffraction shows enhanced crystallization as well as expanded lattice constants for the gold-doped BST films. Thermal analysis reveals that the gold dopant induces more complete decomposition of precursor for the doped films than those of undoped ones. The leakage current density of BST films is greatly reduced by the gold dopant over a range of biases (1-5 V). The distribution of gold was confirmed by electron energy loss spectroscopy and found to be inside the BST grains, not in the grain-boundaries. Gold acted as a catalyst, inducing the nucleation of crystallites and improving the crystallinity of the structure. Its addition is shown to be associated to the improvement of the electrical properties of BST films

  2. Role of the paraventricular nucleus in the reflex diuresis to pulmonary lymphatic obstruction in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Rishabh Charan; Sharma, Ravindra Kumar; Gulati, Kavita; Ravi, Krishnan

    2016-01-01

    The changes in urine flow and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) due to pulmonary lymphatic obstruction (PLO) were examined in anesthetized, artificially ventilated New Zealand white rabbits. PLO was produced by pressurizing an isolated pouch created in the right external jugular vein at the points of entry of the right lymphatic ducts. During this maneuver, urine flow increased from 8.5 ± 0.3 mL/10 min to 12 ± 0.5 mL/10 min (P acid microinjections into the PVN. The results show that (i) neurons in the PVN are an important relay site in the reflex arc, which is activated by PLO; and (ii) this activation is regulated by glutamatergic and partly by GABAergic input to the PVN.

  3. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript is present in hypothalamic neuroendocrine neurones and is released to the hypothalamic-pituitary portal circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, P J; Seier, V; Fink-Jensen, A

    2003-01-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is present in a number of hypothalamic nuclei. Besides actions in circuits regulating feeding behaviour and stress responses, the hypothalamic functions of CART are largely unknown. We report that CART immunoreactivity is present in hypothalami......, supraoptic, paraventricular (PVN) and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus. In the PVN, CART-positive neuroendocrine neurones were found in all of cytoarchitectonically identified nuclei. In the periventricular nucleus, approximately one-third of somatostatin cells were also CART......-immunoreactive. In the medial parvicellular subnucleus of the PVN, CART and FG coexisted with thyrotrophin-releasing hormone, whereas very few of the corticotrophin-releasing hormone containing cells were CART-immunoreactive. In the arcuate nucleus, CART was extensively colocalized with pro...

  4. Hypocretin/orexin signaling in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus is essential for the expression of nicotine withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Zabala, Ainhoa; Flores, África; Maldonado, Rafael; Berrendero, Fernando

    2012-02-01

    Hypocretin (orexin) signaling is involved in drug addiction. In this study, we investigated the role of these hypothalamic neuropeptides in nicotine withdrawal by using behavioral and neuroanatomical approaches. Nicotine withdrawal syndrome was precipitated by mecamylamine (2 mg/kg, subcutaneous) in C57BL/6J nicotine-dependent mice (25 mg/kg/day for 14 days) pretreated with the hypocretin receptor 1 (Hcrtr-1) antagonist SB334867 (5 and 10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), the hypocretin receptor 2 antagonist TCSOX229 (5 and 10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), and in preprohypocretin knockout mice. c-Fos expression was analyzed in several brain areas related to nicotine dependence by immunofluorescence techniques. Retrograde tracing with rhodamine-labeled fluorescent latex microspheres was used to determine whether the hypocretin neurons project directly to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), and SB334867 was locally administered intra-PVN (10 nmol/side) to test the specific involvement of Hcrtr-1 in this brain area during nicotine withdrawal. Somatic signs of nicotine withdrawal were attenuated in mice pretreated with SB334867 and in preprohypocretin knockout mice. No changes were found in TCSOX229 pretreated animals. Nicotine withdrawal increased the percentage of hypocretin cells expressing c-Fos in the perifornical, dorsomedial, and lateral hypothalamus. In addition, the increased c-Fos expression in the PVN during withdrawal was dependent on hypocretin transmission through Hcrtr-1 activation. Hypocretin neurons directly innervate the PVN and the local infusion of SB334867 into the PVN decreased the expression of nicotine withdrawal. These data demonstrate that hypocretin signaling acting on Hcrtr-1 in the PVN plays a crucial role in the expression of nicotine withdrawal. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Visualization of oxytocin release that mediates paired pulse facilitation in hypothalamic pathways to brainstem autonomic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón A Piñol

    Full Text Available Recent work has shown that oxytocin is involved in more than lactation and uterine contraction. The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN contains neuroendocrine neurons that control the release of hormones, including vasopressin and oxytocin. Other populations of PVN neurons do not release hormones, but rather project to and release neurotransmitters onto other neurons in the CNS involved in fluid retention, thermoregulation, sexual behavior and responses to stress. Activation of oxytocin receptors can be cardioprotective and reduces the adverse cardiovascular consequences of anxiety and stress, yet how oxytocin can affect heart rate and cardiac function is unknown. While anatomical work has shown the presence of peptides, including oxytocin, in the projections from the PVN to parasympathetic nuclei, electrophysiological studies to date have only demonstrated release of glutamate and activation of fast ligand gated receptors in these pathways. In this study, using rats, we directly show, using sniffer CHO cells that express oxytocin receptors and the Ca2+ indicator R-GECO, that optogenetic activation of channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2 expressing PVN fibers in the brainstem activates oxytocin receptors in the dorsomotor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV. We also demonstrate that while a single photoactivation of PVN terminals only activates glutamatergic receptors in brainstem cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs, neurons that dominate the neural control of heart rate, both the paired pulse facilitation, and sustained enhancement of glutamate release in this pathway is mediated by activation of oxytocin receptors. Our results provide direct evidence that a pathway from the PVN likely releases oxytocin and enhances short-term plasticity of this critical autonomic connection.

  6. Cardiovascular responses to chemical stimulation of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus in the rat: role of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Kawabe

    Full Text Available The mechanism of cardiovascular responses to chemical stimulation of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARCN was studied in urethane-anesthetized adult male Wistar rats. At the baseline mean arterial pressure (BLMAP close to normal, ARCN stimulation elicited decreases in MAP and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA. The decreases in MAP elicited by ARCN stimulation were attenuated by either gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, neuropeptide Y (NPY, or beta-endorphin receptor blockade in the ipsilateral hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN. Combined blockade of GABA-A, NPY1 and opioid receptors in the ipsilateral PVN converted the decreases in MAP and SNA to increases in these variables. Conversion of inhibitory effects on the MAP and SNA to excitatory effects following ARCN stimulation was also observed when the BLMAP was decreased to below normal levels by an infusion of sodium nitroprusside. The pressor and tachycardic responses to ARCN stimulation at below normal BLMAP were attenuated by blockade of melanocortin 3/4 (MC3/4 receptors in the ipsilateral PVN. Unilateral blockade of GABA-A receptors in the ARCN increased the BLMAP and heart rate (HR revealing tonic inhibition of the excitatory neurons in the ARCN. ARCN stimulation elicited tachycardia regardless of the level of BLMAP. ARCN neurons projecting to the PVN were immunoreactive for glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67, NPY, and beta-endorphin. These results indicated that: 1 at normal BLMAP, decreases in MAP and SNA induced by ARCN stimulation were mediated via GABA-A, NPY1 and opioid receptors in the PVN, 2 lowering of BLMAP converted decreases in MAP following ARCN stimulation to increases in MAP, and 3 at below normal BLMAP, increases in MAP and HR induced by ARCN stimulation were mediated via MC3/4 receptors in the PVN. These results provide a base for future studies to explore the role of ARCN in cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Visualization of Oxytocin Release that Mediates Paired Pulse Facilitation in Hypothalamic Pathways to Brainstem Autonomic Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñol, Ramón A.; Jameson, Heather; Popratiloff, Anastas; Lee, Norman H.; Mendelowitz, David

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has shown that oxytocin is involved in more than lactation and uterine contraction. The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) contains neuroendocrine neurons that control the release of hormones, including vasopressin and oxytocin. Other populations of PVN neurons do not release hormones, but rather project to and release neurotransmitters onto other neurons in the CNS involved in fluid retention, thermoregulation, sexual behavior and responses to stress. Activation of oxytocin receptors can be cardioprotective and reduces the adverse cardiovascular consequences of anxiety and stress, yet how oxytocin can affect heart rate and cardiac function is unknown. While anatomical work has shown the presence of peptides, including oxytocin, in the projections from the PVN to parasympathetic nuclei, electrophysiological studies to date have only demonstrated release of glutamate and activation of fast ligand gated receptors in these pathways. In this study, using rats, we directly show, using sniffer CHO cells that express oxytocin receptors and the Ca2+ indicator R-GECO, that optogenetic activation of channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) expressing PVN fibers in the brainstem activates oxytocin receptors in the dorsomotor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV). We also demonstrate that while a single photoactivation of PVN terminals only activates glutamatergic receptors in brainstem cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs), neurons that dominate the neural control of heart rate, both the paired pulse facilitation, and sustained enhancement of glutamate release in this pathway is mediated by activation of oxytocin receptors. Our results provide direct evidence that a pathway from the PVN likely releases oxytocin and enhances short-term plasticity of this critical autonomic connection. PMID:25379676

  8. Blood-borne interleukin-1β acts on the subfornical organ to upregulate the sympathoexcitatory milieu of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shun-Guang; Yu, Yang; Felder, Robert B

    2018-03-01

    We previously reported that microinjection of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) into the subfornical organ (SFO) elicits a pressor response accompanied by increases in inflammation and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity in the SFO and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). The present study sought to determine whether blood-borne IL-1β induces similar neurochemical changes in the SFO and PVN and, if so, whether increased inflammation and RAS activity at the SFO level orchestrate the sympathoexcitatory response to circulating IL-1β. In urethane-anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats, intravenous injection of IL-1β (500 ng) increased blood pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve activity, and mRNA for angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensin II type 1a receptor, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL-1β, as well as the tumor necrosis factor-α p55 receptor and the IL-1 receptor, in the SFO and PVN. Pretreatment with SFO microinjections of the angiotensin II type 1a receptor blocker losartan (1 µg), the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (1 µg), or the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor NS-398 (2 µg) attenuated expression of these excitatory mediators in the SFO and downstream in the PVN and the IL-1β-induced pressor responses. An SFO lesion minimized the IL-1β-induced expression of inflammatory and RAS components as well as c-Fos, an indicator of neuronal excitation, in the PVN. These studies demonstrate that circulating IL-1β, which increases in cardiovascular disorders such as hypertension and heart failure, acts on the SFO to increase inflammation and RAS activity in the SFO and PVN and that intervening in these neurochemical processes in the SFO can significantly reduce the sympathetic response.

  9. Hypothalamic Dysfunction of the Thrombospondin Receptor α2δ-1 Underlies the Overeating and Obesity Triggered by Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeira, Joshua W.; Felsted, Jennifer A.; Teillon, Sarah; Daftary, Shabrine; Panessiti, Micaella; Wirth, Jena; Sena-Esteves, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, TrkB, are critical components of the neural circuitry controlling appetite and body weight. Diminished BDNF signaling in mice results in severe hyperphagia and obesity. In humans, BDNF haploinsufficiency and the functional Bdnf Val66Met polymorphism have been linked to elevated food intake and body weight. The mechanisms underlying this dysfunction are poorly defined. We demonstrate a chief role of α2δ-1, a calcium channel subunit and thrombospondin receptor, in triggering overeating in mice with central BDNF depletion. We show reduced α2δ-1 cell-surface expression in the BDNF mutant ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), an energy balance-regulating center. This deficit contributes to the hyperphagia exhibited by BDNF mutant mice because selective inhibition of α2δ-1 by gabapentin infusion into wild-type VMH significantly increases feeding and body weight gain. Importantly, viral-mediated α2δ-1 rescue in BDNF mutant VMH significantly mitigates their hyperphagia, obesity, and liver steatosis and normalizes deficits in glucose homeostasis. Whole-cell recordings in BDNF mutant VMH neurons revealed normal calcium currents but reduced frequency of EPSCs. These results suggest calcium channel-independent effects of α2δ-1 on feeding and implicate α2δ-1–thrombospondin interactions known to facilitate excitatory synapse assembly. Our findings identify a central mechanism mediating the inhibitory effects of BDNF on feeding. They also demonstrate a novel and critical role for α2δ-1 in appetite control and suggest a mechanism underlying weight gain in humans treated with gabapentinoid drugs. PMID:24403154

  10. Effect of injection of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides of GAD isozymes into rat ventromedial hypothalamus on food intake and locomotor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannai, M; Ichikawa, M; Nishihara, M; Takahashi, M

    1998-02-16

    In the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays a role in regulating feeding and running behaviors. The GABA synthetic enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), consists of two isozymes, GAD65 and GAD67. In the present study, the phosphorothioated antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) of each GAD isozyme were injected bilaterally into the VMH of male rats, and food intake, body weight and locomotor activity were monitored. ODNs were incorporated in the water-absorbent polymer (WAP, 0.2 nmol/microliter) so that ODNs were retained at the injection site. Each antisense ODN of GAD65 or GAD67 tended to reduce food intake on day 1 (day of injection=day 0) though not significantly. An injection combining both antisense ODNs significantly decreased food intake only on day 1, but body weight remained significantly lower than the control for 5 days. This suppression of body weight gain could be attributed to a significant increase in locomotor activity between days 3 and 5. Individual treatment with either ODNs did not change locomotor activity. The increase in daily locomotor activity in the group receiving the combined antisense ODNs occurred mainly during the light phase. Neither vehicle (WAP) nor control ODN affected food intake, body weight and locomotor activity. Histological studies indicated that antisense ODN distributed within 800 micron from the edge of the area where WAP was located 24 h after the injection gradually disappeared within days, but still remained within 300 micron m distance even 7 days after the injection. Antisense ODN was effectively incorporated by all the cell types examined, i.e., neurons, astrocytes and microglias. Further, HPLC analysis revealed that antisense ODNs of GAD isozymes, either alone or combined, decreased the content of GABA by 50% in VMH 24 h after the injection. These results indicate that suppression of GABA synthesis by either of the GAD isozymes is synergistically involved in suppressing food

  11. GABA regulates the rat hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis via different GABA-A receptor alpha-subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Jens D; Bundzikova, Jana; Larsen, Marianne Hald

    2008-01-01

    dependent on the composition of the GABA-A receptor subunits through which they act. We show here that positive modulators of alpha(1)-subtype containing GABA-A receptors with zolpidem (10 mg/kg) increase HPA activity in terms of increase in plasma corticosterone and induction of Fos in the PVN, whereas...... after positive modulation of GABA-A receptors composed of alpha(1)-subunit(s) affects a selective afferent system than the PVN, which is distinct from another afferent system(s) activated by non alpha(1)-containing GABA-A receptors....

  12. Glucose concentrations modulate brain-derived neurotrophic factor responsiveness of neurones in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, W; Ferguson, A V

    2017-04-01

    The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is critical for normal energy balance and has been shown to contain high levels of both brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin-receptor kinase B mRNA. Microinjections of BDNF into the PVN increase energy expenditure, suggesting that BDNF plays an important role in energy homeostasis through direct actions in this nucleus. The present study aimed to examine the postsynaptic effects of BDNF on the membrane potential of PVN neurones, and also to determine whether extracellular glucose concentrations modulated these effects. We used hypothalamic PVN slices from male Sprague-Dawley rats to perform whole cell current-clamp recordings from PVN neurones. BDNF was bath applied at a concentration of 2 nmol L -1 and the effects on membrane potential determined. BDNF caused depolarisations in 54% of neurones (n=25; mean±SEM, 8.9±1.2 mV) and hyperpolarisations in 23% (n=11; -6.7±1.4 mV), whereas the remaining cells were unaffected. These effects were maintained in the presence of tetrodotoxin (n=9; 56% depolarised, 22% hyperpolarised, 22% nonresponders), or the GABA a antagonist bicuculline (n=12; 42% depolarised, 17% hyperpolarised, 41% nonresponders), supporting the conclusion that these effects on membrane potential were postsynaptic. Current-clamp recordings from PVN neurones next examined the effects of BDNF on these neurones at varying extracellular glucose concentrations. Larger proportions of PVN neurones hyperpolarised in response to BDNF as the glucose concentrations decreased [10 mmol L -1 glucose 23% (n=11) of neurones hyperpolarised, whereas, at 0.2 mmol L -1 glucose, 71% showed hyperpolarising effects (n=12)]. Our findings reveal that BDNF has direct GABA A independent effects on PVN neurones, which are modulated by local glucose concentrations. The latter observation further emphasises the critical importance of using physiologically relevant conditions in an investigation of the central

  13. M-octopamine injected into the paraventricular nucleus induces eating in rats: a comparison with noradrenaline-induced eating.

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, P. J.; Paterson, I. A.

    1989-01-01

    1. The effects on food intake in rats of injection of m- and p-octopamine into the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus were examined, and compared to the effects of noradrenaline (NA). 2. m-Octopamine injected into the PVN induced a dose-dependent increase in food intake, with the maximal effect occurring at a dose of 25 nmol. p-Octopamine did not elicit eating unless it was administered to animals pretreated with the monoamine oxidase inhibitor, pargyline. 3. The effects of pre...

  14. Thyroid hormones induce browning of white fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Noelia; Moreno-Navarrete, José M; Contreras, Cristina; Rial-Pensado, Eva; Fernø, Johan; Nogueiras, Rubén; Diéguez, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The canonical view about the effect of thyroid hormones (THs) on thermogenesis assumes that the hypothalamus acts merely as a modulator of the sympathetic outflow on brown adipose tissue (BAT). Recent data have challenged that vision by demonstrating that THs act on the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) to inhibit AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which regulates the thermogenic program in BAT, leading to increased thermogenesis and weight loss. Current data have shown that in addition to activation of brown fat, the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) might also be an important thermogenic mechanism. However, the possible central effects of THs on the browning of white fat remain unclear. Here, we show that 3,3′,5,5′ tetraiodothyroxyne (T4)-induced hyperthyroidism promotes a marked browning of WAT. Of note, central or VMH-specific administration of 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine (T3) recapitulates that effect. The specific genetic activation of hypothalamic AMPK in the VMH reversed the central effect of T3 on browning. Finally, we also showed that the expression of browning genes in human WAT correlates with serum T4. Overall, these data indicate that THs induce browning of WAT and that this mechanism is mediated via the central effects of THs on energy balance. PMID:27913573

  15. Hypothalamic AMPK and fatty acid metabolism mediate thyroid regulation of energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Miguel; Varela, Luis; Vázquez, María J; Rodríguez-Cuenca, Sergio; González, Carmen R; Velagapudi, Vidya R; Morgan, Donald A; Schoenmakers, Erik; Agassandian, Khristofor; Lage, Ricardo; Martínez de Morentin, Pablo Blanco; Tovar, Sulay; Nogueiras, Rubén; Carling, David; Lelliott, Christopher; Gallego, Rosalía; Oresic, Matej; Chatterjee, Krishna; Saha, Asish K; Rahmouni, Kamal; Diéguez, Carlos; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2010-09-01

    Thyroid hormones have widespread cellular effects; however it is unclear whether their effects on the central nervous system (CNS) contribute to global energy balance. Here we demonstrate that either whole-body hyperthyroidism or central administration of triiodothyronine (T3) decreases the activity of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), increases sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity and upregulates thermogenic markers in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Inhibition of the lipogenic pathway in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) prevents CNS-mediated activation of BAT by thyroid hormone and reverses the weight loss associated with hyperthyroidism. Similarly, inhibition of thyroid hormone receptors in the VMH reverses the weight loss associated with hyperthyroidism. This regulatory mechanism depends on AMPK inactivation, as genetic inhibition of this enzyme in the VMH of euthyroid rats induces feeding-independent weight loss and increases expression of thermogenic markers in BAT. These effects are reversed by pharmacological blockade of the SNS. Thus, thyroid hormone-induced modulation of AMPK activity and lipid metabolism in the hypothalamus is a major regulator of whole-body energy homeostasis.

  16. Hypothalamic AMPK and fatty acid metabolism mediate thyroid regulation of energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Miguel; Varela, Luis; Vázquez, María J.; Rodríguez-Cuenca, Sergio; González, Carmen R.; Velagapudi, Vidya R.; Morgan, Donald A.; Schoenmakers, Erik; Agassandian, Khristofor; Lage, Ricardo; de Morentin, Pablo Blanco Martínez; Tovar, Sulay; Nogueiras, Rubén; Carling, David; Lelliott, Christopher; Gallego, Rosalía; Orešič, Matej; Chatterjee, Krishna; Saha, Asish K.; Rahmouni, Kamal; Diéguez, Carlos; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid hormones have widespread cellular effects; however it is unclear whether their effects on the central nervous system (CNS) contribute to global energy balance. Here, we demonstrate that either whole body hyperthyroidism or central administration of triiodothyronine (T3) decreases the activity of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), increases sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity and upregulates thermogenic markers in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Inhibition of the lipogenic pathway in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) prevents CNS-mediated activation of BAT by thyroid hormone and reverses the weight loss associated with hyperthyroidism. Similarly inhibition of thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) in the VMH reverses the weight loss associated with hyperthyroidism. This regulatory mechanism depends on AMPK inactivation as genetic ablation of this enzyme in the VMH of euthyroid rats induces feeding-independent weight loss and increases expression of thermogenic markers in BAT. These effects are reversed by pharmacological blockade of the SNS. Thus, thyroid-hormone-induced modulation of AMPK activity and lipid metabolism in the hypothalamus is an important regulator of energy homeostasis. PMID:20802499

  17. Central nervous system-specific knockout of steroidogenic factor 1 results in increased anxiety-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liping; Kim, Ki Woo; Ikeda, Yayoi; Anderson, Kimberly K; Beck, Laurel; Chase, Stephanie; Tobet, Stuart A; Parker, Keith L

    2008-06-01

    Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) plays key roles in adrenal and gonadal development, expression of pituitary gonadotropins, and development of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH). If kept alive by adrenal transplants, global knockout (KO) mice lacking SF-1 exhibit delayed-onset obesity and decreased locomotor activity. To define specific roles of SF-1 in the VMH, we used the Cre-loxP system to inactivate SF-1 in a central nervous system (CNS)-specific manner. These mice largely recapitulated the VMH structural defect seen in mice lacking SF-1 in all tissues. In multiple behavioral tests, mice with CNS-specific KO of SF-1 had significantly more anxiety-like behavior than wild-type littermates. The CNS-specific SF-1 KO mice had diminished expression or altered distribution in the mediobasal hypothalamus of several genes whose expression has been linked to stress and anxiety-like behavior, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor, the type 2 receptor for CRH (Crhr2), and Ucn 3. Moreover, transfection and EMSAs support a direct role of SF-1 in Crhr2 regulation. These findings reveal important roles of SF-1 in the hypothalamic expression of key regulators of anxiety-like behavior, providing a plausible molecular basis for the behavioral effect of CNS-specific KO of this nuclear receptor.

  18. Activation of SF1 Neurons in the Ventromedial Hypothalamus by DREADD Technology Increases Insulin Sensitivity in Peripheral Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Eulalia A; Okamoto, Shiki; Ishikawa, Ayako Wendy; Yokota, Shigefumi; Wada, Nobuhiro; Hirabayashi, Takahiro; Saito, Kumiko; Sato, Tatsuya; Takagi, Kazuyo; Wang, Chen-Chi; Kobayashi, Kenta; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Shioda, Seiji; Yoshimura, Yumiko; Minokoshi, Yasuhiko

    2017-09-01

    The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) regulates glucose and energy metabolism in mammals. Optogenetic stimulation of VMH neurons that express steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) induces hyperglycemia. However, leptin acting via the VMH stimulates whole-body glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity in some peripheral tissues, and this effect of leptin appears to be mediated by SF1 neurons. We examined the effects of activation of SF1 neurons with DREADD (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) technology. Activation of SF1 neurons by an intraperitoneal injection of clozapine- N -oxide (CNO), a specific hM3Dq ligand, reduced food intake and increased energy expenditure in mice expressing hM3Dq in SF1 neurons. It also increased whole-body glucose utilization and glucose uptake in red-type skeletal muscle, heart, and interscapular brown adipose tissue, as well as glucose production and glycogen phosphorylase a activity in the liver, thereby maintaining blood glucose levels. During hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, such activation of SF1 neurons increased insulin-induced glucose uptake in the same peripheral tissues and tended to enhance insulin-induced suppression of glucose production by suppressing gluconeogenic gene expression and glycogen phosphorylase a activity in the liver. DREADD technology is thus an important tool for studies of the role of the brain in the regulation of insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  19. Hypoglycemia: Role of Hypothalamic Glucose-Inhibited (GI) Neurons in Detection and Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunxue; Teegala, Suraj B; Khan, Bilal A; Gonzalez, Christina; Routh, Vanessa H

    2018-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is a profound threat to the brain since glucose is its primary fuel. As a result, glucose sensors are widely located in the central nervous system and periphery. In this perspective we will focus on the role of hypothalamic glucose-inhibited (GI) neurons in sensing and correcting hypoglycemia. In particular, we will discuss GI neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) which express neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and in the perifornical hypothalamus (PFH) which express orexin. The ability of VMH nNOS-GI neurons to depolarize in low glucose closely parallels the hormonal response to hypoglycemia which stimulates gluconeogenesis. We have found that nitric oxide (NO) production in low glucose is dependent on oxidative status. In this perspective we will discuss the potential relevance of our work showing that enhancing the glutathione antioxidant system prevents hypoglycemia associated autonomic failure (HAAF) in non-diabetic rats whereas VMH overexpression of the thioredoxin antioxidant system restores hypoglycemia counterregulation in rats with type 1 diabetes.We will also address the potential role of the orexin-GI neurons in the arousal response needed for hypoglycemia awareness which leads to behavioral correction (e.g., food intake, glucose administration). The potential relationship between the hypothalamic sensors and the neurocircuitry in the hindbrain and portal mesenteric vein which is critical for hypoglycemia correction will then be discussed.

  20. Hypoglycemia: Role of Hypothalamic Glucose-Inhibited (GI Neurons in Detection and Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxue Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypoglycemia is a profound threat to the brain since glucose is its primary fuel. As a result, glucose sensors are widely located in the central nervous system and periphery. In this perspective we will focus on the role of hypothalamic glucose-inhibited (GI neurons in sensing and correcting hypoglycemia. In particular, we will discuss GI neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH which express neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS and in the perifornical hypothalamus (PFH which express orexin. The ability of VMH nNOS-GI neurons to depolarize in low glucose closely parallels the hormonal response to hypoglycemia which stimulates gluconeogenesis. We have found that nitric oxide (NO production in low glucose is dependent on oxidative status. In this perspective we will discuss the potential relevance of our work showing that enhancing the glutathione antioxidant system prevents hypoglycemia associated autonomic failure (HAAF in non-diabetic rats whereas VMH overexpression of the thioredoxin antioxidant system restores hypoglycemia counterregulation in rats with type 1 diabetes.We will also address the potential role of the orexin-GI neurons in the arousal response needed for hypoglycemia awareness which leads to behavioral correction (e.g., food intake, glucose administration. The potential relationship between the hypothalamic sensors and the neurocircuitry in the hindbrain and portal mesenteric vein which is critical for hypoglycemia correction will then be discussed.

  1. Emergence in Taiwan of novel imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii ST455 causing bloodstream infection in critical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hao-Yuan; Huang, Chih-Wei; Chen, Chyi-Liang; Wang, Yi-Hsin; Chang, Chee-Jen; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun

    2015-12-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most important nosocomial pathogens worldwide. This study aimed to use multilocus sequence typing (MLST) for the epidemiological surveillance of A. baumannii isolates in Taiwan and analyze the clinical presentations and patients' outcome. MLST according to both Bartual's PubMLST and Pasteur's MLST schemes was applied to characterize bloodstream imipenem-resistant A. baumannii (IRAB) infection in intensive care units in a medical center. A total of 39 clinical IRAB bloodstream isolates in 2010 were enrolled. We also collected 13 imipenem-susceptible A. baumannii (ISAB) bloodstream isolates and 30 clinical sputum isolates (24 IRAB and 6 ISAB) for comparison. Clinical presentations and outcome of the patients were analyzed. We found that infection by ST455(B)/ST2(P) and inappropriate initial therapy were statistically significant risk factors for mortality. More than one-third of the IRAB isolates belonged to ST455(B)/ST2(P). Most ST455(B)/ST2(P) (80%) carried ISAba1-blaOXA-23, including 10 (66.7%) with Tn2006 (ISAba1-blaOXA-23-ISAba1) in an AbaR4-type resistance island. ST455(B)/ST2(P) appears to evolve from ST208(B)/ST2(P) of clonal complex (CC) 92(B)/CC2(P). In this hospital-based study, A. baumannii ST455 accounted for 38.5% of IRAB bacteremia, with a high mortality of 86.7%. Approximately 85% of ST455(B)/ST2(P)bacteremia had a primary source of ventilation-associated pneumonia. We report the emergence in Taiwan of IRAB ST455(B)/ST2(P), which is the current predominant clone of IRAB in our hospital and has been causing bacteremia with high mortality in critical patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. In situ study of interface reactions of ion beam sputter deposited (Ba0.5Sr0.5)TiO3 films on Si, SiO2, and Ir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Y.; Mueller, A.H.; Irene, E.A.; Auciello, O.; Krauss, A.; Schultz, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    (Ba 0.5 ,Sr 0.5 )TiO 3 (BST) thin films were deposited on MgO, Si, SiO 2 and Ir surfaces by ion beam sputter deposition in oxygen at 700 degree C. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) has been used to investigate the evolution of the BST films on different surfaces during both deposition and postannealing processes. First, the optical constants of the BST films in the photon energy range of 1.5 - 4.5 eV were determined by SE analysis on crystallized BST films deposited on MgO single crystal substrates. The interfaces in BST/Si and BST/SiO 2 /Si structure were examined by SE and Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiles. Subcutaneous oxidation in the BST/Ir structure was observed by in situ SE during both ion beam sputter deposition and postdeposition annealing in oxygen at 700 degree C. A study of the thermal stability of the Ir/TiN/SiO 2 /Si structure in oxygen at 700 degree C was carried out using in situ SE. The oxidation of Ir was confirmed by x-ray diffraction. The surface composition and morphology evolution after oxidation were investigated by time of flight mass spectroscopy of recoiled ions (TOF-MSRI) and atomic force microscopy. It has been found that Ti from the underlying TiN barrier layer diffused through the Ir layer onto the surface and thereupon became oxidized. It was also shown that the surface roughness increases with increasing oxidation time. The implications of the instability of Ir/TiN/SiO 2 /Si structure on the performance of capacitor devices based on this substrate are discussed. It has been shown that a combination of in situ SE and TOF-MSRI provides a powerful methodology for in situ monitoring of complex oxide film growth and postannealing processes. copyright 1999 American Vacuum Society

  3. Structure and optical band-gap energies of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films fabricated by RF magnetron plasma sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zhimou; Suzuki, Masato; Yokoyama, Shin

    2005-01-01

    The structure and optical band-gap energies of Ba 0.5 Sr 0.5 TiO 3 (BST0.5) thin films prepared on SiO 2 /Si and fused quartz substrates by RF magnetron plasma sputtering were studied in terms of deposition temperature and film thickness. Highly (100)-oriented BST0.5 thin films were successfully sputtered on a Si substrate with an approximately 1.0-μm-thick SiO 2 layer at a deposition temperature of above 450degC. The optical transmittance of BST0.5 thin films weakly depended on the magnitude of X-ray diffraction (XRD) peak intensity. This is very helpful for monolithic integration of BST0.5 films for electrooptical functions directly onto a SiO 2 /Si substrate. The band-gap energies showed a strong dependence on the deposition temperature and film thickness. It was mainly related to the quantum size effect and the influence of the crystallinity of thin films, such as grain boundaries, grain size, oriented growth, and the existence of an amorphous phase. The band-gap energy values, which were much larger than those of single crystals, decreased with the increase in the deposition temperature and the thickness of BST0.5 thin films. The band-gap energy of 311-nm-thick amorphous BST0.5 thin film was about 4.45 eV and that of (100)-oriented BST0.5 thin film with a thickness of 447 nm was about 3.89 eV. It is believed that the dependence of the band-gap energies of the thin films on the crystallinity for various values of deposition temperature and film thickness means that there could be application in integrated optical devices. (author)

  4. Novel speed test for evaluation of badminton-specific movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Christian M; Karlsen, Anders; Nybo, Lars

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we developed a novel badminton-specific speed test (BST). The test was designed to mimic match play. The test starts in the center of the court and consists of 5 maximal actions to sensors located in each of the 4 corners of the court. The 20 actions are performed in randomized order as dictated by computer screen shots displayed 1 second after completion of the previous action. We assessed day-to-day variation in elite players, and specificity of the test was evaluated by comparing 30-m sprint performance and time to complete the BST in 20 elite players, 21 skilled players, and 20 age-matched physical active subjects (non-badminton players). Sprint performance was similar across groups, whereas the elite players were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) faster in the BST (total test time: 32.3 ± 1.1 seconds; average: 1.6 seconds per action) than the skilled (34.1 ± 2.0 seconds) and non-badminton players (35.7 ± 1.7 seconds). Day-to-day coefficient of variation (CV) of the BST was 0.7% for the elite players, whereas CV for repeated tests on the same day was 1.7% for elite, 2.6% for skilled, and 2.5% for non-badminton players. On this basis, we suggest that the BST may be valuable for evaluation of short-term maximal movement speed in badminton players. Thus, the BST seems to be sport specific, as it may discriminate between groups (elite, less trained players, and non-badminton players) with similar sprinting performance, and the low test-retest variation may allow for using the BST to evaluate longitudinal changes, for example, training effects or seasonal variations.

  5. Interactions between dopamine and oxytocin in the control of sexual behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskerville, Tracey A; Douglas, Alison J

    2008-01-01

    Dopamine and oxytocin are two key neuromodulators involved in reproductive behaviours, such as mating and maternal care. Much evidence underlies their separate roles in such behaviours, but particularly in sexual behaviour. It is generally believed that central dopaminergic and oxytocinergic systems work together to regulate the expression of penile erection, but relatively little is known regarding how they interact. Thus, this review aims to discuss neuroanatomical proof, neuromodulator secretory profiles in the hypothalamus and behavioural pharmacological evidence which support a dopamine-oxytocin link in three hypothalamic nuclei that have been implicated in sexual behaviour, namely the medial preoptic nucleus, supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus (PVN). We also aim to provide an overview of potential dopamine-mediated transduction pathways that occur within these nuclei and are correlated with the exhibition of penile erection. The PVN provides the most convincing evidence for a dopamine-oxytocin link and it is becoming increasingly apparent that parvocellular oxytocinergic neurons in the PVN, in part, mediate the effects of dopamine to elicit penile erection. However, while we show that oxytocin neurons express dopamine receptors, other evidence on whether dopaminergic activation of PVN oxytocin cells involves a direct and/or indirect mechanism is inconclusive and further evidence is required to establish whether the two systems interact synergistically or sequentially in the regulation of penile erection.

  6. Increased expression of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in paraventricular and supraoptic neurons in illnesses with prolonged osmotic or nonosmotic stimulation of vasopressin release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panayotacopoulou, Maria T.; Malidelis, Yiannis I.; Fliers, Eric; Bouras, Constantin; Ravid, Rivka; Swaab, Dick F.

    2002-01-01

    Our previous studies indicated that in the human para-ventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) - the first and rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis - is localized mainly in magnocellular neurons and that antemortem factors regulate its expression. The

  7. Paraventricular nucleus of the human hypothalamus in primary hypertension: Activation of corticotropin-releasing hormone neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goncharuk, Valeri D.; van Heerikhuize, Joop; Swaab, Dick F.; Buijs, Ruud M.

    2002-01-01

    By using quantitative immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization techniques, we studied corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-producing neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in patients who suffered from primary hypertension and died due to acute cardiac failure. The control

  8. Combined VEGF and CXCR4 antagonism targets the GBM stem cell population and synergistically improves survival in an intracranial mouse model of glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Amy; Sengupta, Rajarshi; Warrington, Nicole M; Smith, Erin; Wen, Patrick Y; Brekken, Rolf A; Romagnoli, Barbara; Douglas, Garry; Chevalier, Eric; Bauer, Michael P; Dembowsky, Klaus; Piwnica-Worms, David; Rubin, Joshua B

    2014-10-30

    Glioblastoma recurrence involves the persistence of a subpopulation of cells with enhanced tumor-initiating capacity (TIC) that reside within the perivascular space, or niche (PVN). Anti-angiogenic therapies may prevent the formation of new PVN but have not prevented recurrence in clinical trials, suggesting they cannot abrogate TIC activity. We hypothesized that combining anti-angiogenic therapy with blockade of PVN function would have superior anti-tumor activity. We tested this hypothesis in an established intracranial xenograft model of GBM using a monoclonal antibody specific for murine and human VEGF (mcr84) and a Protein Epitope Mimetic (PEM) CXCR4 antagonist, POL5551. When doses of POL5551 were increased to overcome an mcr84-induced improvement in vascular barrier function, combinatorial therapy significantly inhibited intracranial tumor growth and improved survival. Anti-tumor activity was associated with significant changes in tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis, and a reduction in the numbers of perivascular cells expressing the TIC marker nestin. A direct effect on TICs was demonstrated for POL5551, but not mcr84, in three primary patient-derived GBM isolates. These findings indicate that targeting the structure and function of the PVN has superior anti-tumor effect and provide a strong rationale for clinical evaluation of POL5551 and Avastin in patients with GBM.

  9. A carbon nanotube/polyvanillin composite film as an electrocatalyst for the electrochemical oxidation of nitrite and its application as a nitrite sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Dongyun [College of Chemistry and Molecular Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Hu Chengguo [College of Chemistry and Molecular Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)], E-mail: cghu@whu.edu.cn; Peng Yanfen [College of Chemistry and Molecular Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Hu Shengshui [College of Chemistry and Molecular Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)], E-mail: sshu@whu.edu.cn

    2009-08-30

    We report a simple method for the stable dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in water by vanillin and controllable surface addition onto carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFE) via electropolymerization. We have characterized these polyvanillin-carbon nanotube (PVN-MWNT) composite films with techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and voltammetry. These investigations showed that the films have a uniform porous nanostructure with a large surface area. This PVN-MWNT composite-modified CFE (PVN-MWNT/CFE) exhibited a sensitive response to the electrochemical oxidation of nitrite. Under optimal working conditions, the oxidation peak current of nitrite linearly increased with its concentration in the range of 0.2 {mu}M-3.1 mM, with the system exhibiting a lower detection limit of 50 nM (S/N = 3). We successfully applied the PVN-MWNT/CFE system to the determination of nitrite from lake water. The efficient recovery of nitrite indicated that this electrode was able to detect nitrite in real samples.

  10. Immunotoxic destruction of distinct catecholaminergic neuron populations disrupts the reproductive response to glucoprivation in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    I'Anson, Helen; Sundling, Lois A; Roland, Shannon M; Ritter, Sue

    2003-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that hindbrain catecholamine (norepinephrine or epinephrine) neurons, in addition to their essential role in glucoprivic feeding, are responsible for suppressing estrous cycles during chronic glucoprivation. Normally cycling female rats were given bilateral injections of the retrogradely transported ribosomal toxin, saporin, conjugated to monoclonal dopamine beta-hydroxylase antibody (DSAP) into the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus to selectively destroy norepinephrine and epinephrine neurons projecting to the PVN. Controls were injected with unconjugated saporin. After recovery, we assessed the lesion effects on estrous cyclicity under basal conditions and found that DSAP did not alter estrous cycle length. Subsequently, we examined effects of chronic 2-deoxy-d-glucose-induced glucoprivation on cycle length. After two normal 4- to 5-d cycles, rats were injected with 2-deoxy-d-glucose (200 mg/kg every 6 h for 72 h) beginning 24 h after detection of estrus. Chronic glucoprivation increased cycle length in seven of eight unconjugated saporin rats but in only one of eight DSAP rats. Immunohistochemical results confirmed loss of dopamine beta-hydroxylase immunoreactivity in PVN. Thus, hindbrain catecholamine neurons with projections to the PVN are required for inhibition of reproductive function during chronic glucose deficit but are not required for normal estrous cyclicity when metabolic fuels are in abundance.

  11. Up-regulation of corticotropin releasing hormone is associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    established in literature that stress signals such as psoriasis prompts the release of CRH from the hypothalamus paraventricular nucleus (PVN). CRH in turn triggers ACTH release from anterior pituitary [8] which ultimately controls the glucocorticoid discharge from adrenal cortex. Several of the glucocorticoids, which include ...

  12. The course of paraventricular hypothalamic efferents to autonomic structures in medulla and spinal cord

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, P.G.M.; Horst, G.J. ter; Karst, H.; Steffens, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    By application of the anterograde transport technique of Phaseolus vulgaris leuco-agglutinin the descending autonomic projection of the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus was investigated. The Phaseolus lectin technique allowed the detection of the cells of origin in the paraventricular PVN, the

  13. Differential effects of recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated neuropeptide Y overexpression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and lateral hypothalamus on feeding behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiesjema, Birgitte; Adan, Roger A. H.; Luijendijk, Mieneke C. M.; Kalsbeek, Andries; la Fleur, Susanne E.

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that neuropeptide Y (NPY) increases food intake. The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the lateral hypothalamus (LH) are both involved in the acute, hyperphagic effects of NPY. Although it is obvious that increased energy intake may lead to obesity, it is less

  14. Paraventricular hypothalamic adrenoceptors and energy metabolism in exercising rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheurink, Anton J.W.; Steffens, Anton B.; Gaykema, Ron P.A.

    The role of adrenoceptors in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in the exercise-induced changes in plasma norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), corticosterone, free fatty acids (FFA), and blood glucose was investigated in rats. Exercise consisted of strenuous swimming against a countercurrent for 15

  15. Neuromedin U receptor 2 knockdown in the paraventricular nucleus modifies behavioral responses to obesogenic high-fat food and leads to increased body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzon, C R; Johnson, S B; McCue, D L; Li, D; Green, T A; Hommel, J D

    2014-01-31

    Neuromedin U (NMU) is a highly conserved neuropeptide which regulates food intake and body weight. Transgenic mice lacking NMU are hyperphagic and obese, making NMU a novel target for understanding and treating obesity. Neuromedin U receptor 2 (NMUR2) is a high-affinity receptor for NMU found in discrete regions of the central nervous system, in particular the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), where it may be responsible for mediating the anorectic effects of NMU. We hypothesized that selective knock down of NMUR2 in the PVN of rats would increase their sensitivity to the reinforcing properties of food resulting in increased intake and preference for high-fat obesogenic food. To this end, we used viral-mediated RNAi to selectively knock down NMUR2 gene expression in the PVN. In rats fed a standard chow, NMUR2 knockdown produced no significant effect on food intake or body weight. However, when the same rats were fed a high-fat diet (45% fat), they consumed significantly more food, gained more body weight, and had increased feed efficiency relative to controls. Furthermore, NMUR2 knockdown rats demonstrated significantly greater binge-type food consumption of the high-fat diet and showed a greater preference for higher-fat food. These results demonstrate that NMUR2 signaling in the PVN regulates consumption and preference for high-fat foods without disrupting feeding behavior associated with non-obesogenic standard chow. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Neural Mechanisms and Delayed Gastric Emptying of Liquid Induced Through Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, Wilson Ranu Ramirez; Ozaki, Michiko Regina; Vinagre, Adriana Mendes; Collares, Edgard Ferro; Almeida, Eros Antonio de

    2015-01-01

    In pathological situations, such as acute myocardial infarction, disorders of motility of the proximal gut can trigger symptoms like nausea and vomiting. Acute myocardial infarction delays gastric emptying (GE) of liquid in rats. Investigate the involvement of the vagus nerve, α 1-adrenoceptors, central nervous system GABA B receptors and also participation of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in GE and gastric compliance (GC) in infarcted rats. Wistar rats, N = 8-15 in each group, were divided as INF group and sham (SH) group and subdivided. The infarction was performed through ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. GC was estimated with pressure-volume curves. Vagotomy was performed by sectioning the dorsal and ventral branches. To verify the action of GABA B receptors, baclofen was injected via icv (intracerebroventricular). Intravenous prazosin was used to produce chemical sympathectomy. The lesion in the PVN of the hypothalamus was performed using a 1mA/10s electrical current and GE was determined by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (% GR) of a saline meal. No significant differences were observed regarding GC between groups; vagotomy significantly reduced % GR in INF group; icv treatment with baclofen significantly reduced %GR. GABA B receptors were not conclusively involved in delaying GE; intravenous treatment with prazosin significantly reduced GR% in INF group. PVN lesion abolished the effect of myocardial infarction on GE. Gastric emptying of liquids induced through acute myocardial infarction in rats showed the involvement of the vagus nerve, alpha1- adrenergic receptors and PVN

  17. The role of oxytocin and vasopressin in conditioned mate guarding behavior in the female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Amanda; Bellevue, Shannon; Vosberg, Daniel; Wenzel, Kerstin; Roorda, Sieger; Pfaus, James G

    2015-05-15

    We have shown previously that female rats given their first copulatory experiences with the same male rat display mate guarding behavior in the presence of that male provided a female competitor is also present. Females given access to the familiar male show more Fos induction within regions of the brain that contain oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) cell bodies, notably the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular nuclei (PVN) relative to females given sexual experience with different males. The present experiments examined whether the Fos induction we previously observed within the SON and PVN occurred within OT and/or AVP neurons, and whether exogenous administration of OT or AVP prior to female rats first sexual experience could potentiate the acquisition of mate guarding behavior. Female rats that display conditioned mate guarding had significantly more double-labeled Fos/OT neurons in both SON and PVN, and significantly more Fos/AVP neurons in the PVN. Peripheral administration of OT or AVP prior to their first sexual experience with the familiar male facilitated different aspects of mate guarding: OT augmented affiliative behaviors and presenting responses whereas AVP augmented interference behavior. These results indicate that female rats' first experiences with sexual reward when paired with the same male induce changes to bonding networks in the brain. Moreover peripheral administration of OT or AVP during their first sexual experience can augment different aspects of mate guarding behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The stress system in depression and neurodegeneration: Focus on the human hypothalamus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, A.-M.; Meynen, G.; Swaab, D.F.

    2008-01-01

    The stress response is mediated by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system. Activity of the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) forms the basis of the activity of the HPA-axis. The CRH neurons induce adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)

  19. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by addictive drugs: different pathways, common outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armario, Antonio

    2010-07-01

    Addictive drugs (opiates, ethanol, cannabinoids (CBs), nicotine, cocaine, amphetamines) induce activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, with the subsequent release of adrenocorticotropic hormone and glucocorticoids. The sequence of events leading to HPA activation appears to start within the brain, suggesting that activation is not secondary to peripheral homeostatic alterations. The precise neurochemical mechanisms and brain pathways involved are markedly dependent on the particular drug, although it is assumed that information eventually converges into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Whereas some drugs may act on the hypothalamus or directly within PVN neurons (i.e. ethanol), others exert their primary action outside the PVN (i.e. CBs, nicotine, cocaine). Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) has a critical role in most cases, but the changes in c-fos and CRH gene expression in the PVN also reveal differences among drugs. More studies are needed to understand how addictive drugs act on this important neuroendocrine system and their functional consequences. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The alpha(2)-adrenoceptors do not modify the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase, corticoliberine, and neuropeptide Y producing hypothalamic magnocellular neurons ion the Long Evans and Brattleboro rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundzikova, J; Pirnik, Z; Zelena, D

    2010-01-01

    The hypothalamic supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei are activated by body salt-fluid variations. Stimulation of alpha(2)-adrenoceptors by an agonist-xylazine (XYL) activates oxytocinergic but not vasopressinergic magnocellular neurons. In this study, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), cort...

  1. Zolpidem, a selective GABA(A) receptor alpha1 subunit agonist, induces comparable Fos expression in oxytocinergic neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular and accessory but not supraoptic nuclei in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiss, Alexander; Søderman, Andreas; Bundzikova, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Functional activation of oxytocinergic (OXY) cells in the hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN), supraoptic (SON), and accessory (ACC) nuclei was investigated in response to acute treatment with Zolpidem (a GABA(A) receptor agonist with selectivity for alpha(1) subunits) utilizing dual Fos/OXY immun...

  2. Ambipolar Small-Molecule:Polymer Blend Semiconductors for Solution-Processable Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minji; Hwang, Hansu; Park, Won-Tae; Khim, Dongyoon; Yeo, Jun-Seok; Kim, Yunseul; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Noh, Yong-Young; Kim, Dong-Yu

    2017-01-25

    We report on the fabrication of an organic thin-film semiconductor formed using a blend solution of soluble ambipolar small molecules and an insulating polymer binder that exhibits vertical phase separation and uniform film formation. The semiconductor thin films are produced in a single step from a mixture containing a small molecular semiconductor, namely, quinoidal biselenophene (QBS), and a binder polymer, namely, poly(2-vinylnaphthalene) (PVN). Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on QBS/PVN blend semiconductor are then assembled using top-gate/bottom-contact device configuration, which achieve almost four times higher mobility than the neat QBS semiconductor. Depth profile via secondary ion mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy images indicate that the QBS domains in the films made from the blend are evenly distributed with a smooth morphology at the bottom of the PVN layer. Bias stress test and variable-temperature measurements on QBS-based OFETs reveal that the QBS/PVN blend semiconductor remarkably reduces the number of trap sites at the gate dielectric/semiconductor interface and the activation energy in the transistor channel. This work provides a one-step solution processing technique, which makes use of soluble ambipolar small molecules to form a thin-film semiconductor for application in high-performance OFETs.

  3. Morphometric analysis of the suprachiasmatic and paraventricular nuclei in the human brain: sex differences and age-dependent changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, M. A.; Fliers, E.; Goudsmit, E.; Swaab, D. F.

    1988-01-01

    The size, shape and cellular morphology of the suprachiasmatic (SCN) and paraventricular nuclei (PVN) in the human hypothalamus were examined in relation to sex and age. In both nuclear regions the following parameters were determined: length of the rostrocaudal axis, maximum cross sectional area,

  4. Cellular plasticity in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei after prolonged dehydration in the desert rodent Meriones shawi: Vasopressin and GFAP immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamrani, Halima; Elgot, Abdeljalil; El Hiba, Omar; Fèvre-Montange, Michelle

    2011-02-23

    Supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei are part of the hypothalamic-neurohypophysial system, they constitute the main source for vasopressin and they represent also obvious examples of activity-dependent neuroglial plasticity. Certain physiological conditions such as dehydration are accompanied by a structural remodeling of the neurons, their synaptic inputs and their surrounding glia. In the present work, an adult Meriones shawi (a rodent adapted to desert life) is used as an animal model. Using GFAP and vasopressin expressions as indicators successively of astrocytes and neuronal activations, the effect of a prolonged episode of water deprivation on the SON and PVN, hypothalamus nuclei were examined. We studied the immunoreactivity of GFAP and vasopressin in various hydration states (total deprivation of drinking water for 1 and 2months compared to hydrated animals). Prolonged dehydration produces an important decrease of GFAP immunoreactivity in both SON and PVN after 1 and 2months of water restriction. This decrease is accompanied by increased vasopressin immunoreactivity following the same periods of water deprivation. These findings may explain a real communication between vasopressin neurons and their surrounding astrocytes, thus the retraction of astrocytes and their processes is accompanied by an enhancement of vasopressin neuron density and their projecting fibers in response to this osmotic stress situation. Furthermore, these data could open further investigations concerning the possible involvement of the communication between astrocytes and vasopressin neurons in both PVN and SON in the regulation of Meriones hydrous balance and resistance to dehydration. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Gene expression analysis in the human hypothalamus in depression by laser microdissection and real-time PCR: the presence of multiple receptor imbalances.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, S.S.; Kamphuis, W.; Huitinga, I.; Zhou, J.N.; Swaab, D.F.

    2008-01-01

    Hyperactivity of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus is a prominent feature in depression and may be important in the etiology of this disease. The activity of the CRF neurons in the stress response is modulated by a number of factors

  6. Colocalization of connexin 36 and corticotropin-releasing hormone in the mouse brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Ana C

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gap junction proteins, connexins, are expressed in most endocrine and exocrine glands in the body and are at least in some glands crucial for the hormonal secretion. To what extent connexins are expressed in neurons releasing hormones or neuropeptides from or within the central nervous system is, however, unknown. Previous studies provide indirect evidence for gap junction coupling between subsets of neuropeptide-containing neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN of the hypothalamus. Here we employ double labeling and retrograde tracing methods to investigate to what extent neuroendocrine and neuropeptide-containing neurons of the hypothalamus and brainstem express the neuronal gap junction protein connexin 36. Results Western blot analysis showed that connexin 36 is expressed in the PVN. In bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice, which specifically express the reporter gene Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP under the control of the connexin 36 gene promoter, EGFP expression was detected in magnocellular (neuroendocrine and in parvocellular neurons of the PVN. Although no EGFP/connexin36 expression was seen in neurons containing oxytocin or vasopressin, EGFP/connexin36 was found in subsets of PVN neurons containing corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH, and in somatostatin neurons located along the third ventricle. Moreover, CRH neurons in brainstem areas, including the lateral parabrachial nucleus, also expressed EGFP/connexin 36. Conclusion Our data indicate that connexin 36 is expressed in subsets of neuroendocrine and CRH neurons in specific nuclei of the hypothalamus and brainstem.

  7. Effects of concurrent enteral hyperalimentation with chemo-radiotherapy in patients with oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Keiko; Ohno, Seiji; Kohno, Michiko; Narikawa, Gen; Sasabe, Eri; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    We compared the nutritional condition, immunological function, and frequency of adverse effects during concurrent chemoradiotherapy for oral cancer between patients simultaneously receiving enteral hyperalimentation (Racol) (n=20; EHA group) and patients receiving peripheral vein nutrition (n=20; PVN group). Although there was no significant difference in the change of body weight between the two groups, the decrease of plasma albumin values in the EHA group appeared later than in the PVN group. In the PVN group, the number of lymphocytes and lymphocyte blastogenesis significantly decreased on and after day 14. On the other hand, in the EHA group, the number of lymphocytes decreased only on day 14 and no decrease in lymphocyte blastogenesis was observed. While stomatitis developed in all patients, the severity was lower in the EHA group than the PVN one. These results suggest that the simultaneous administration of Racol during concurrent chemoradiotherapy for oral cancer inhibits the deterioration of nutritional and immunological conditions as well as the severity of stomatitis. This nutrient therapy is therefore considered to be a supportive therapy for oral cancer patients. (author)

  8. Neuroanatomical circuitry between kidney and rostral elements of brain: a virally mediated transsynaptic tracing study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ye-Ting; He, Zhi-Gang; Liu, Tao-Tao; Feng, Mao-Hui; Zhang, Ding-Yu; Xiang, Hong-Bing

    2017-02-01

    The identity of higher-order neurons and circuits playing an associative role to control renal function is not well understood. We identified specific neural populations of rostral elements of brain regions that project multisynaptically to the kidneys in 3-6 days after injecting a retrograde tracer pseudorabies virus (PRV)-614 into kidney of 13 adult male C57BL/6J strain mice. PRV-614 infected neurons were detected in a number of mesencephalic (e.g. central amygdala nucleus), telencephalic regions and motor cortex. These divisions included the preoptic area (POA), dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), lateral hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus (Arc), suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), periventricular hypothalamus (PeH), and rostral and caudal subdivision of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). PRV-614/Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) double-labeled cells were found within DMH, Arc, SCN, PeH, PVN, the anterodorsal and medial POA. A subset of neurons in PVN that participated in regulating sympathetic outflow to kidney was catecholaminergic or serotonergic. PRV-614 infected neurons within the PVN also contained arginine vasopressin or oxytocin. These data demonstrate the rostral elements of brain innervate the kidney by the neuroanatomical circuitry.

  9. Inner capillary diameter of hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of female rat increases during lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortés-Sol Albertina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of the endothelial cell (EC in blood flow regulation within the central nervous system has been little studied. Here, we explored EC participation in morphological changes of the anterior hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN microvasculature of female rats at two reproductive stages with different metabolic demand (virginity and lactation. We measured the inner capillary diameter (ICD of 800 capillaries from either the magnocellular or parvocellular regions. The space occupied by neural (somas, dendrites and axons and glial, but excluding vascular elements of the neurovascular compartment was also measured in 100-μm2 sample fields of both PVN subdivisions. Results The PVN of both groups of animals showed ICDs that ranged from 3 to 10 microns. The virgin group presented mostly capillaries with small ICD, whereas the lactating females exhibited a significant increment in the percentage of capillaries with larger ICD. The space occupied by the neural and glial elements of the neurovascular compartment did not show changes with lactation. Conclusions Our findings suggest that during lactation the microvasculature of the PVN of female rats undergoes dynamic, transitory changes in blood flow as represented by an increment in the ICD through a self-cytoplasmic volume modification reflected by EC changes. A model of this process is proposed.

  10. Administração de somatotropina bovina no período pré-parto sobre parâmetros produtivos, sanitários e reprodutivos da primeira lactação de vacas holandesas Bovine somatotropin administration during pre-delivery period to productive, sanitary and reproductive parameters of holstein cows' first lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Dagher Cassoli

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a administração de somatotropina bovina (bST no período pré-parto, sobre o desempenho na primeira lactação, foram utilizadas 18 novilhas gestantes, de modo que 9 receberam injeções subcutâneas de 500mg de bST nos dias 21 e 9 antes da data prevista para o parto. Os animais foram alimentados com dieta total, 2 vezes ao dia, e os dados coletados foram relativos a parâmetros sanitários, produtivos e reprodutivos na primeira lactação. A administração de bST não afetou os parâmetros sanitários (retenção de placenta, metrite, deslocamento de abomaso, febre do leite e cetose e reprodutivo (cisto folicular. Entretanto, o uso de bST no pré-parto levou à variação de escore de condição corporal (ECC 65% maior, adiantou o pico de produção de leite em 9,7 dias e diminuiu os dias em lactação em 21,8 dias em relação ao controle (P The effects of pre-delivery administration of bovine somatotropin (bST on first lactation performance were evaluated in this study, which involved eighteen Holstein pregnant heifers. Nine animals were supplemented with subcutaneous injections of 500 mg of bST, on days 21 and 9 prior expected delivery, and 9 were not supplemented (control group. Animals were fed total mixed ration, twice daily. Data evaluated in this experiment were related to sanitary, reproductive and productive parameters during first lactation. Administration of bST did not affect parameters related to sanity (retained placenta, metritis, displacement abomasum, milk fever, ketosis, reproduction (follicular cysts. However, heifers supplemented with bST showed changes of body condition score 65% greater, anticipated milk production peak in 9.7 days and decreased number of days in lactation in 21,8 days, compared to the non-supplemented ones (p < 0.05. Milk production peak and milk production corrected for 305 days were not affected by bST administration.

  11. Materials science and integration bases for fabrication of (BaxSr1-x)TiO3 thin film capacitors with layered Cu-based electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, W.; Kabius, B.; Hiller, J. M.; Saha, S.; Carlisle, J. A.; Auciello, O.; Chang, R. P. H.; Ramesh, R.

    2003-11-01

    The synthesis and fundamental material properties of layered TiAl/Cu/Ta electrodes were investigated to achieve the integration of Cu electrodes with high-dielectric constant (κ) oxide thin films for application to the fabrication of high-frequency devices. The Ta layer is an excellent diffusion barrier to inhibit deleterious Cu diffusion into the Si substrate, while the TiAl layer provides an excellent barrier against oxygen diffusion into the Cu layer to inhibit Cu oxidation during the growth of the high-κ layer in an oxygen atmosphere. Polycrystalline (BaxSr1-x)TiO3 (BST) thin films were grown on the Cu-based bottom electrode by rf magnetron sputtering at temperatures in the range 400-600 °C in oxygen, to investigate the performance of BST/Cu-based capacitors. Characterization of the Cu-based layered structure using surface analytical methods showed that two amorphous oxide layers were formed on both sides of the TiAl barrier, such that the oxide layer on the free surface of the TiAl layer correlates with TiAlOx, while the oxide layer at the TiAl/Cu interface is an Al2O3-rich layer. This double amorphous barrier layer structure effectively prevents oxygen penetration towards the underlying Cu and Ta layers. The TiAlOx interfacial layer, which has a relatively low dielectric constant compared with BST, reduced the total capacitance of the BST thin film capacitors. In addition, the layered electrode-oxide interface roughening observed during the growth of BST films at high temperature, due to copper grain growth, resulted in large dielectric loss on the fabricated BST capacitors. These problems were solved by growing the BST layer at 450 °C followed by a rapid thermal annealing at 700 °C. This process significantly reduced the thickness of the TiAlOx layer and interface roughness resulting in BST capacitors exhibiting properties suitable for the fabrication of high-performance high-frequency devices. In summary, relatively high dielectric constant (280), low

  12. Respuesta estral y tasa de preñez en cabras en anestro estacional tratadas con progestágenos y somatotropina bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Martínez Aguilar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se probó si la administración de la hormona del crecimiento bovino (bST durante el tratamiento para inducir la ovulación en cabras en anestro mejora la fertilidad. A 109 cabras adultas de 1 a 5 partos se les insertó una esponja intravaginal de acetato de fluorogestona (FGA durante 12 días. Al retirar la esponja todas las cabras recibieron 300 UI de gonadotropina coriónica equina (eCG. Cinco días antes de retirar el progestágeno, las cabras fueron asignadas al azar a dos grupos, 1 125 mg de bST vía subcutánea (n=53, 2 Testigo (n=56 sin bST. En siete cabras de cada grupo se determinaron las concentraciones de factor de crecimiento parecido a la insulina tipo I (IGF-I y de insulina diariamente a partir de la inyección de bST hasta el día 7 post estro. Una proporción mayor (P<0.05 de animales del grupo bST (73.5 % mostraron estro (testigo, 51.7 %. El porcentaje de concepción fue similar (P=0.12 entre grupos (bST, 82.0 % vs testigo, 65.5 %. La tasa de preñez fue mayor (P<0.01 en el grupo bST (60.3 % que en el testigo (33.9 %. La proporción de partos múltiples fue igual (P=0.9 entre los grupos (bST, 59 % vs testigo, 63 %. Las concentraciones de IGF-I e insulina fueron más altas (P<0.01 en el grupo bST. Se concluye que la administración de la hormona del crecimiento bovina durante el tratamiento para inducir la ovulación en cabras en anestro aumentó la proporción de animales en estro y la tasa de preñez.

  13. Materials science and integration bases for fabrication of (BaxSr1-x)TiO3 thin film capacitors with layered Cu-based electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, W.; Kabius, B.; Hiller, J.M.; Saha, S.; Carlisle, J.A.; Auciello, O.; Chang, R.P.H.; Ramesh, R.

    2003-01-01

    The synthesis and fundamental material properties of layered TiAl/Cu/Ta electrodes were investigated to achieve the integration of Cu electrodes with high-dielectric constant (κ) oxide thin films for application to the fabrication of high-frequency devices. The Ta layer is an excellent diffusion barrier to inhibit deleterious Cu diffusion into the Si substrate, while the TiAl layer provides an excellent barrier against oxygen diffusion into the Cu layer to inhibit Cu oxidation during the growth of the high-κ layer in an oxygen atmosphere. Polycrystalline (Ba x Sr 1-x )TiO 3 (BST) thin films were grown on the Cu-based bottom electrode by rf magnetron sputtering at temperatures in the range 400-600 deg. C in oxygen, to investigate the performance of BST/Cu-based capacitors. Characterization of the Cu-based layered structure using surface analytical methods showed that two amorphous oxide layers were formed on both sides of the TiAl barrier, such that the oxide layer on the free surface of the TiAl layer correlates with TiAlO x , while the oxide layer at the TiAl/Cu interface is an Al 2 O 3 -rich layer. This double amorphous barrier layer structure effectively prevents oxygen penetration towards the underlying Cu and Ta layers. The TiAlO x interfacial layer, which has a relatively low dielectric constant compared with BST, reduced the total capacitance of the BST thin film capacitors. In addition, the layered electrode-oxide interface roughening observed during the growth of BST films at high temperature, due to copper grain growth, resulted in large dielectric loss on the fabricated BST capacitors. These problems were solved by growing the BST layer at 450 deg. C followed by a rapid thermal annealing at 700 deg. C. This process significantly reduced the thickness of the TiAlO x layer and interface roughness resulting in BST capacitors exhibiting properties suitable for the fabrication of high-performance high-frequency devices. In summary, relatively high

  14. Circadian control of the daily plasma glucose rhythm: an interplay of GABA and glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsbeek, Andries; Foppen, Ewout; Schalij, Ingrid; Van Heijningen, Caroline; van der Vliet, Jan; Fliers, Eric; Buijs, Ruud M

    2008-09-15

    The mammalian biological clock, located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), imposes its temporal structure on the organism via neural and endocrine outputs. To further investigate SCN control of the autonomic nervous system we focused in the present study on the daily rhythm in plasma glucose concentrations. The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is an important target area of biological clock output and harbors the pre-autonomic neurons that control peripheral sympathetic and parasympathetic activity. Using local administration of GABA and glutamate receptor (ant)agonists in the PVN at different times of the light/dark-cycle we investigated whether daily changes in the activity of autonomic nervous system contribute to the control of plasma glucose and plasma insulin concentrations. Activation of neuronal activity in the PVN of non-feeding animals, either by administering a glutamatergic agonist or a GABAergic antagonist, induced hyperglycemia. The effect of the GABA-antagonist was time dependent, causing increased plasma glucose concentrations only when administered during the light period. The absence of a hyperglycemic effect of the GABA-antagonist in SCN-ablated animals provided further evidence for a daily change in GABAergic input from the SCN to the PVN. On the other hand, feeding-induced plasma glucose and insulin responses were suppressed by inhibition of PVN neuronal activity only during the dark period. These results indicate that the pre-autonomic neurons in the PVN are controlled by an interplay of inhibitory and excitatory inputs. Liver-dedicated sympathetic pre-autonomic neurons (responsible for hepatic glucose production) and pancreas-dedicated pre-autonomic parasympathetic neurons (responsible for insulin release) are controlled by inhibitory GABAergic contacts that are mainly active during the light period. Both sympathetic and parasympathetic pre-autonomic PVN neurons also receive excitatory inputs, either from the

  15. Effect of Detergents on Galactoside Binding by Melibiose Permeases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Anowarul; Hariharan, Parameswaran; Chae, Pil Seok; Guan, Lan

    2015-09-29

    The effect of various detergents on the stability and function of the melibiose permeases of Escherichia coli (MelBEc) and Salmonella typhimurium (MelBSt) was studied. In n-dodecyl-β-d-maltoside (DDM) or n-undecyl-β-d-maltoside (UDM), WT MelBSt binds melibiose with an affinity similar to that in the membrane. However, with WT MelBEc or MelBSt mutants (Arg141 → Cys, Arg295 → Cys, or Arg363 → Cys), galactoside binding is not detected in these detergents, but binding to the phosphotransferase protein IIA(Glc) is maintained. In the amphiphiles lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol (MNG-3) or glyco-diosgenin (GDN), galactoside binding with all of the MelB proteins is observed, with slightly reduced affinities. MelBSt is more thermostable than MelBEc, and the thermostability of either MelB is largely increased in MNG-3 or GDN. Therefore, the functional defect with DDM or UDM likely results from the relative instability of the sensitive MelB proteins, and stability, as well as galactoside binding, is retained in MNG-3 or GDN. Furthermore, isothermal titration calorimetry of melibiose binding with MelBSt shows that the favorable entropic contribution to the binding free energy is decreased in MNG-3, indicating that the conformational dynamics of MelB is restricted in this detergent.

  16. Properties of barium strontium titanate at millimeter wave frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osman, Nurul [Department of Physics, Universiti Putra Malaysia (Malaysia); Free, Charles [Department of Engineering and Design, University of Sussex (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-24

    The trend towards using higher millimetre-wave frequencies for communication systems has created a need for accurate characterization of materials to be used at these frequencies. Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) is a ferroelectric material whose permittivity is known to change as a function of applied electric field and have found varieties of application in electronic and communication field. In this work, new data on the properties of BST characterize using the free space technique at frequencies between 145 GHz and 155 GHz for both thick film and bulk samples are presented. The measurement data provided useful information on effective permittivity and loss tangent for all the BST samples. Data on the material transmission, reflection properties as well as loss will also be presented. The outcome of the work shows through practical measurement, that BST has a high permittivity with moderate losses and the results also shows that BST has suitable properties to be used as RAM for high frequency application.

  17. Molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Ludden

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: E. coli O25b-ST131 has disseminated worldwide in hospitals and the community. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which E. coli O25b-ST131 accounts for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBLproducing E. coli from clinical samples from all sources in this region. Methods: Between January and June 2010 ESBL-producing E. coli were collected from 94 routine samples including 47 from residents of 25 nursing homes, 15 categorized as hospital acquired and 32 others. PCR was performed for detection of bla CTX-M, bla OXA-1, bla TEM, bla SHV and for the identification of members of the E. coli O25b:ST131 clonal group. PFGE was carried out using Xba I in accordance with PulseNet protocols. Results: The majority (97% of isolates harbored a bla CTX-M gene.E. coli O25b-ST131 accounted for 87% of all ESBL-producing E. coliand for 96% of isolates from nursing home residents. Conclusion:The E. coli O25b-ST131 clonal group predominated in the collection of ESBL-producing E. coli, particularly in nursing home isolates. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2014; 4(3: 92-96

  18. Narrative retelling in children with neurodevelopmental disorders: is there a role for nonverbal temporal-sequencing skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnels, Jakob Åsberg; Hagberg, Bibbi; Gillberg, Christopher; Miniscalco, Carmela

    2013-10-01

    Oral narrative retelling is often problematic for children with communicative and neurodevelopmental disorders. However, beyond a suggested role of language level, little is known about the basis of narrative performance. In this study we examine whether oral narrative retelling might be associated not just with language level but also with skills related to nonverbal narrative temporal sequencing. A diagnostically heterogeneous sample of Swedish-speaking children with a full scale IQ >70 was included in the study (N = 55; age 6-9 years). Narrative retelling skills were measured using the three subscores from the bus story test (BST). Independent predictors included (1) temporal sequencing skills according to a picture arrangement test and (2) a language skills factor consisting of definitional vocabulary and receptive grammar. Regression analyses show that language skills predicted BST Sentence Length and Subordinate Clauses subscores, while both temporal sequencing and language were independently linked with the BST Information subscore. When subdividing the sample based on nonverbal temporal sequencing level, a significant subgroup difference was found only for BST Information. Finally, a principal component analysis shows that temporal sequencing and BST Information loaded on a common factor, separately from the language measures. It is concluded that language level is an important correlate of narrative performance more generally in this diagnostically heterogeneous sample, and that nonverbal temporal sequencing functions are important especially for conveying story information. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  19. Fabrication and Enhanced Thermoelectric Properties of Alumina Nanoparticle-Dispersed Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Tae Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alumina nanoparticle-dispersed bismuth-antimony-tellurium matrix (Al2O3/BST composite powders were fabricated by using ball milling process of alumina nanoparticle about 10 nm and p-type bismuth telluride nanopowders prepared from the mechanochemical process (MCP. The fabricated Al2O3/BST composite powders were a few hundreds of nanometer in size, with a clear Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 phase. The composite powders were consolidated into p-type bulk composite by spark plasma sintering process. High-resolution TEM images reveal that alumina nanoparticles were dispersed among the grain boundary or in the matrix grain. The sintered 0.3 vol.% Al2O3/BST composite exhibited significantly improved power factor and reduced thermal conductivity in the temperature ranging from 293 to 473 K compared to those of pure BST. From these results, the highly increased ZT value of 1.5 was obtained from 0.3 vol.% Al2O3/BST composite at 323 K.

  20. Preparation and Thermoelectric Properties of Graphite/Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenhua; Zhou, Hongyu; Mu, Xin; He, Danqi; Ji, Pengxia; Hou, Weikang; Wei, Ping; Zhu, Wanting; Nie, Xiaolei; Zhao, Wenyu

    2018-06-01

    Bismuth telluride zone-melting alloys are the most commercially used thermoelectric materials. However, the zone-melting ingots have weak machinability due to the strong preferred orientation. Here, non-textured graphite/Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 (G/BST) composites were prepared by a powder metallurgy method combined with cold-pressing and annealing treatments. The composition, microstructure, and thermoelectric properties of the G/BST composites with different mass percentages of G were investigated. It was found that G addition could effectively reduce the thermal conductivity and slightly improve the electrical properties of the BST, which resulted in a large enhancement in the figure-of-merit, ZT. The largest ZT for the xG/BST composites with x = 0.05% reached 1.05 at 320 K, which is increased by 35% as compared with that of the G-free BST materials. This work provided an effective method for preparing non-textured Bi2Te3-based TE materials with a simple process, low cost, and large potential in scale production.

  1. The central extended amygdala in fear and anxiety: Closing the gap between mechanistic and neuroimaging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Andrew S; Shackman, Alexander J

    2017-11-30

    Anxiety disorders impose a staggering burden on public health, underscoring the need to develop a deeper understanding of the distributed neural circuits underlying extreme fear and anxiety. Recent work highlights the importance of the central extended amygdala, including the central nucleus of the amygdala (Ce) and neighboring bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST). Anatomical data indicate that the Ce and BST form a tightly interconnected unit, where different kinds of threat-relevant information can be integrated to assemble states of fear and anxiety. Neuroimaging studies show that the Ce and BST are engaged by a broad spectrum of potentially threat-relevant cues. Mechanistic work demonstrates that the Ce and BST are critically involved in organizing defensive responses to a wide range of threats. Studies in rodents have begun to reveal the specific molecules, cells, and microcircuits within the central extended amygdala that underlie signs of fear and anxiety, but the relevance of these tantalizing discoveries to human experience and disease remains unclear. Using a combination of focal perturbations and whole-brain imaging, a new generation of nonhuman primate studies is beginning to close this gap. This work opens the door to discovering the mechanisms underlying neuroimaging measures linked to pathological fear and anxiety, to understanding how the Ce and BST interact with one another and with distal brain regions to govern defensive responses to threat, and to developing improved intervention strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Preferential growth and enhanced dielectric properties of Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 thin films with preannealed Pt bottom electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xiaohong; Ren Yinjuan; Zhang Caiyun; Zhu Jiliang; Zhu Jianguo; Xiao Dingquan; Defaÿ, Emmanuel; Aïd, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Ba 0.7 Sr 0.3 TiO 3 (BST) thin films, about 100 nm in thickness, were prepared on unannealed and 700 °C-preannealed Pt bottom electrodes by the ion beam sputtering and post-deposition annealing method. It was found that the preannealed Pt layer has a more compact structure, making it not only a bottom electrode but also a good template for high-quality BST thin film growth. The BST films deposited on preannealed Pt bottom electrodes showed (0 0 l)-preferred orientation, dense and uniform microstructure with no intermediate phase formed at the film/electrode interface, and thus enhanced dielectric properties. As a result, the typical relative dielectric constant and tunability (under a dc electric field of 1 MV cm −1 ) reach 180 and 50.1%, respectively, for the BST thin films with preannealed Pt bottom electrodes, which are significantly higher than those (166 and 41.3%, respectively) for the BST thin films deposited on unannealed Pt bottom electrodes. (paper)

  3. Ion beam sputter deposited TiAlN films for metal-insulator-metal (Ba,Sr)TiO{sub 3} capacitor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.-Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Wang, S.-C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Technology, No. 1, Nantai St, Yung-Kang City, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, J.-S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Huang, J.-L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: jlh888@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2008-09-01

    The present study evaluated the feasibility of TiAlN films deposited using the ion beam sputter deposition (IBSD) method for metal-insulator-metal (MIM) (Ba,Sr)TiO{sub 3} (BST) capacitors. The BST films were crystallized at temperatures above 650 deg. C. TiAlN films deposited using the IBSD method were found having smooth surface and low electrical resistivity at high temperature conditions. TiAlN films showed a good diffusion barrier property against BST components. The J-E (current density-electric field) characteristics of Al/BST/TiAlN capacitors were good, with a high break down electric field of {+-} 2.5 MV/cm and a leakage current density of about 1 x 10{sup -5} A/cm{sup 2} at an applied field of {+-} 0.5 MV/cm. Thermal stress and lateral oxidation that occurred at the interface damaged the capacitor stacking structure. Macro holes that dispersed on the films resulted in higher leakage current and inconsistent J-E characteristics. Vacuum annealing with lower heating rate and furnace cooling, and a Ti-Al adhesion layer between TiAlN and the SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate can effectively minimize the stress effect. TiAlN film deposited using IBSD can be considered as a potential electrode and diffusion barrier material for MIM BST capacitors.

  4. Preferential growth and enhanced dielectric properties of Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 thin films with preannealed Pt bottom electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaohong; Defaÿ, Emmanuel; Aïd, Marc; Ren, Yinjuan; Zhang, Caiyun; Zhu, Jiliang; Zhu, Jianguo; Xiao, Dingquan

    2013-03-01

    Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 (BST) thin films, about 100 nm in thickness, were prepared on unannealed and 700 °C-preannealed Pt bottom electrodes by the ion beam sputtering and post-deposition annealing method. It was found that the preannealed Pt layer has a more compact structure, making it not only a bottom electrode but also a good template for high-quality BST thin film growth. The BST films deposited on preannealed Pt bottom electrodes showed (0 0 l)-preferred orientation, dense and uniform microstructure with no intermediate phase formed at the film/electrode interface, and thus enhanced dielectric properties. As a result, the typical relative dielectric constant and tunability (under a dc electric field of 1 MV cm-1) reach 180 and 50.1%, respectively, for the BST thin films with preannealed Pt bottom electrodes, which are significantly higher than those (166 and 41.3%, respectively) for the BST thin films deposited on unannealed Pt bottom electrodes.

  5. Roles of grain boundary and oxygen vacancies in Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}TiO{sub 3} films for resistive switching device application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Xiaobing, E-mail: xiaobing-yan@126.com, E-mail: mseyanx@nus.edu.sg [Key Laboratory of Digital Medical Engineering of Hebei Province, College of Electron and Information Engineering, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Li, Yucheng; Zhao, Jianhui; Li, Yan [Key Laboratory of Digital Medical Engineering of Hebei Province, College of Electron and Information Engineering, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Bai, Gang [College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhu, Siqi [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Information and Sensing Technologies of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2016-01-18

    Oxygen vacancies are widely thought to be responsible for resistive switching (RS) effects based on polycrystalline oxides films. It is also well known that grain boundaries (GB) serve as reservoirs for accumulating oxygen vacancies. Here, Ar gas was introduced to enlarge the size of GB and increase the quantity of oxygen vacancies when the Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}TiO{sub 3} (BST) films were deposited by pulse laser deposition technique. The experimental results indicate that the RS properties of the device exhibits better in the Ar-introduced BST films than in the O{sub 2}-grown BST films. High resolution transmission electron microscopy images show that an amorphous region GB with large size appears between two lattice planes corresponding to oxygen vacancies defects in the Ar-introduced BST. Fourier-transform infrared reflectivity spectroscopy results also reveal highly accumulated oxygen vacancies in the Ar-introduced BST films. And we propose that the conduction transport of the cell was dominantly contributed from not ions migration of oxygen vacancies but the electrons in our case according to the value of activation energies of two kinds of films.

  6. Acoustoelastic effect of textured (Ba,Sr)TiO{sub 3} thin films under an initial mechanical stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamel, Marwa; Mseddi, Souhir; Njeh, Anouar; Ben Ghozlen, Mohamed Hédi [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, Sfax (Tunisia); Donner, Wolfgang [Institute of Materials Science, University of Technology, Alarich-Weiss-Strasse.2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-12-14

    Acoustoelastic (AE) analysis of initial stresses plays an important role as a nondestructive tool in current engineering. Two textured BST (Ba{sub 0.65}Sr{sub 0.35}TiO{sub 3}) thin films, with different substrate to target distance, were grown on Pt(111)/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si(001) substrate by rf-magnetron sputtering deposition techniques. A conventional “sin{sup 2} ψ” method to determine residual stress and strain in BST films by X-ray diffraction is applied. A laser acoustic waves (LA-waves) technique is used to generate surface acoustic waves (SAW) propagating in both samples. Young's modulus E and Poisson ratio ν of BST films in different propagation directions are derived from the measured dispersion curves. Estimation of effective second-order elastic constants of BST thin films in stressed states is served in SAW study. This paper presents an original investigation of AE effect in prestressed Ba{sub 0.65}Sr{sub 0.35}TiO{sub 3} films, where the effective elastic constants and the effect of texture on second and third order elastic tensor are considered and used. The propagation behavior of Rayleigh and Love waves in BST thin films under residual stress is explored and discussed. The guiding velocities affected by residual stresses, reveal some shifts which do not exceed four percent mainly in the low frequency range.

  7. Microwave-hydrothermal synthesis of barium strontium titanate nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, A.Z.; Moura, F.; Onofre, T.B.; Ramirez, M.A.; Varela, J.A.; Longo, E.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Barium strontium titanate nanoparticles were obtained by the Hydrothemal microwave technique (HTMW) → This is a genuine technique to obtain nanoparticles at low temperature and short times → Barium strontium titanate free of carbonates with tetragonal structure was grown at 130 o C. - Abstract: Hydrothermal-microwave method (HTMW) was used to synthesize crystalline barium strontium titanate (Ba 0.8 Sr 0.2 TiO 3 ) nanoparticles (BST) in the temperature range of 100-130 o C. The crystallization of BST with tetragonal structure was reached at all the synthesis temperatures along with the formation of BaCO 3 as a minor impurity at lower syntheses temperatures. Typical FT-IR spectra for tetragonal (BST) nanoparticles presented well defined bands, indicating a substantial short-range order in the system. TG-DTA analyses confirmed the presence of lattice OH- groups, commonly found in materials obtained by HTMW process. FE/SEM revealed that lower syntheses temperatures led to a morphology that consisted of uniform grains while higher syntheses temperature consisted of big grains isolated and embedded in a matrix of small grains. TEM has shown BST nanoparticles with diameters between 40 and 80 nm. These results show that the HTMW synthesis route is rapid, cost effective, and could serve as an alternative to obtain BST nanoparticles.

  8. Bedside Teaching in Australian Clinical Schools: A National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen L. Indraratna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Bedside teaching (BST of medical students has become less common in recent years; however, there have been strong recommendations made in the literature to continue this teaching modality for the valued benefits it provides. The purpose of the present study is to explore the perceptions and opinions of bedside teaching among senior Australian medical students. Methods. Medical students at Australian universities were surveyed by means of an electronic questionnaire. The results were collected and analysed. Results. A total of 517 responses were received from students at 15 universities and 94 different clinical sites. The percentage of students who identified BST as very important ranged from 62.5% in psychiatry to 90.4% in internal medicine. The optimal class size was nominated as 3-4 students, and students favoured a style where one individual performs a complete examination, with the remainder allowed to elicit the key sign afterwards. Students felt 3-4 hours of BST per week to be ideal. Advantages identified to BST included provision of feedback and elicitation of clinical signs. Disadvantages included time constraints and excessive class sizes. Conclusions. The unique benefits of BST result in its high demand by students, regardless of the discipline being taught.

  9. Electronic structure of barium strontium titanate by soft-x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Y.; Underwood, J.H.; Gullikson, E.M.; Perera, R.C.C.

    1997-01-01

    Perovskite-type titanates, such as Strontium Titanate (STO), Barium Titanate (BTO), and Lead Titanate (PTO) have been widely studied because they show good electric and optical properties. In recent years, thin films of Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) have been paid much attention as dielectrics of dynamic random access memory (DRAM) capacitors. BST is a better insulator with a higher dielectric constant than STO and can be controlled in a paraelectric phase with an appropriate ratio of Ba/Sr composition, however, few studies have been done on the electronic structure of the material. Studies of the electronic structure of such materials can be beneficial, both for fundamental physics research and for improving technological applications. BTO is a famous ferroelectric material with a tetragonal structure, in which Ti and Ba atoms are slightly displaced from the lattice points. On the other hand, BST keeps a paraelectric phase, which means that the atoms are still at the cubic lattice points. It should be of great interest to see how this difference of the local structure around Ti atoms between BTO and BST effects the electronic structure of these two materials. In this report, the authors present the Ti L 2,3 absorption spectra of STO, BTO, and BST measured with very high accuracy in energy of the absorption features

  10. Electronic structure of barium strontium titanate by soft-x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, Y. [Mitsubishi Electric Co., Hyogo (Japan); Underwood, J.H.; Gullikson, E.M.; Perera, R.C.C. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Perovskite-type titanates, such as Strontium Titanate (STO), Barium Titanate (BTO), and Lead Titanate (PTO) have been widely studied because they show good electric and optical properties. In recent years, thin films of Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) have been paid much attention as dielectrics of dynamic random access memory (DRAM) capacitors. BST is a better insulator with a higher dielectric constant than STO and can be controlled in a paraelectric phase with an appropriate ratio of Ba/Sr composition, however, few studies have been done on the electronic structure of the material. Studies of the electronic structure of such materials can be beneficial, both for fundamental physics research and for improving technological applications. BTO is a famous ferroelectric material with a tetragonal structure, in which Ti and Ba atoms are slightly displaced from the lattice points. On the other hand, BST keeps a paraelectric phase, which means that the atoms are still at the cubic lattice points. It should be of great interest to see how this difference of the local structure around Ti atoms between BTO and BST effects the electronic structure of these two materials. In this report, the authors present the Ti L{sub 2,3} absorption spectra of STO, BTO, and BST measured with very high accuracy in energy of the absorption features.

  11. Ce-doping effects on electronic structures of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S Y; Cheng, B L; Wang, Can; Button, T W; Dai, S Y; Jin, K J; Lu, H B; Zhou, Y L; Chen, Z H; Yang, G Z

    2006-01-01

    In order to clarify the basic reason why Ce doping can dramatically decrease the leakage current in Ba 0.5 Sr 0.5 TiO 3 (BST) as reported in our previous work (Wang et al 2005 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38 2253), we have employed x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the optical transmittance technique to study the electronic structure of undoped and 1.0 at% Ce-doped BST (CeBST) films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition. XPS results show that Ce doping has a strong influence on the valence band and core levels of BST films, and that the Fermi level is lowered by about 0.35 eV by Ce doping. Optical transmittance measurements demonstrate that the energy gap is expanded with Ce doping. These Ce-doping effects can induce an increase in the barrier height for the thermionic emission and eventually reduce leakage current in CeBST thin films

  12. Ion beam sputter deposited TiAlN films for metal-insulator-metal (Ba,Sr)TiO3 capacitor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.-Y.; Wang, S.-C.; Chen, J.-S.; Huang, J.-L.

    2008-01-01

    The present study evaluated the feasibility of TiAlN films deposited using the ion beam sputter deposition (IBSD) method for metal-insulator-metal (MIM) (Ba,Sr)TiO 3 (BST) capacitors. The BST films were crystallized at temperatures above 650 deg. C. TiAlN films deposited using the IBSD method were found having smooth surface and low electrical resistivity at high temperature conditions. TiAlN films showed a good diffusion barrier property against BST components. The J-E (current density-electric field) characteristics of Al/BST/TiAlN capacitors were good, with a high break down electric field of ± 2.5 MV/cm and a leakage current density of about 1 x 10 -5 A/cm 2 at an applied field of ± 0.5 MV/cm. Thermal stress and lateral oxidation that occurred at the interface damaged the capacitor stacking structure. Macro holes that dispersed on the films resulted in higher leakage current and inconsistent J-E characteristics. Vacuum annealing with lower heating rate and furnace cooling, and a Ti-Al adhesion layer between TiAlN and the SiO 2 /Si substrate can effectively minimize the stress effect. TiAlN film deposited using IBSD can be considered as a potential electrode and diffusion barrier material for MIM BST capacitors

  13. MANAJEMEN PEMBINAAN PRESTASI PADA KLUB BULUTANGKIS SE-KABUPATEN WONOSOBO TAHUN 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Septian Williyanto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The type of this research is a quantitative with descriptive approach/ survey. Based on result of the research, it know that the founding program in the ABS Club, BST, Indoraya, and Tunas Perkasa have run well. Whereas for Baker Club and Mutiara haven’t run well because both of club haven’t do tryout program. The management system in a BST club have good management because it have a good active organization.While, for the ABS club, Baker, Indoraya, Mutiara, and Tunas Perkasa haven’t run well because of personal managed. The program of exercise that be done of ABS club, Baker, BST, Indoraya and Tunas Perkasa have run well. While for a Mutiara club haven’t run well and must add some exercise schedule. Facilities and Infrastructures of the ABS and BST club have a good because it facilitate by fitness center for supporting exercise program. Although, for Baker club, Indoraya, Mutiara, and Tunas Perkasa is still not enough and need some add some facilities. Funding in ABS and Baker club have good because it have sponsor however for BST club, Indoraya, Mutiara, and Tunas Perkasa haven’t not good. The conclusion of the research is the founding management that running by badminton club in Wonosobo Regency in years 2015 not maximumenough

  14. Bone marrow-derived microglia infiltrate into the paraventricular nucleus of chronic psychological stress-loaded mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Ataka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microglia of the central nervous system act as sentinels and rapidly react to infection or inflammation. The pathophysiological role of bone marrow-derived microglia is of particular interest because they affect neurodegenerative disorders and neuropathic pain. The hypothesis of the current study is that chronic psychological stress (chronic PS induces the infiltration of bone marrow-derived microglia into hypothalamus by means of chemokine axes in brain and bone marrow. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here we show that bone marrow-derived microglia specifically infiltrate the paraventricular nucleus (PVN of mice that received chronic PS. Bone marrow derived-microglia are CX3CR1(lowCCR2(+CXCR4(high, as distinct from CX3CR1(highCCR2(-CXCR4(low resident microglia, and express higher levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β but lower levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. Chronic PS stimulates the expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 in PVN neurons, reduces stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 in the bone marrow and increases the frequency of CXCR4(+ monocytes in peripheral circulation. And then a chemokine (C-C motif receptor 2 (CCR2 or a β3-adrenoceptor blockade prevents infiltration of bone marrow-derived microglia in the PVN. CONCLUSION: Chronic PS induces the infiltration of bone marrow-derived microglia into PVN, and it is conceivable that the MCP-1/CCR2 axis in PVN and the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in bone marrow are involved in this mechanism.

  15. Forced swimming-induced oxytocin release into blood and brain: Effects of adrenalectomy and corticosterone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, Luz; Plotsky, Paul M; Neumann, Inga D; de Jong, Trynke R

    2017-03-01

    The oxytocin (OXT) system is functionally linked to the HPA axis in a reciprocal and complex manner. Certain stressors are known to cause the simultaneous release of OXT and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) followed by corticosterone (CORT). Furthermore, brain OXT attenuates ACTH and CORT responses. Although there are some indications of CORT influencing OXT neurotransmission, specific effects of CORT on neurohypophyseal or intra-hypothalamic release of OXT have not been studied in detail. In the present set of experiments, adult male rats were adrenalectomized (ADX) or sham-operated and fitted with a jugular vein catheter and/or microdialysis probe targeting the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Blood samples and dialysates were collected before and after forced swimming (FS) and analyzed for CORT, ACTH and AVP concentrations (in plasma) and OXT concentrations (in plasma and dialysates). Experimental treatments included acute infusion of CORT (70 or 175μg/kg i.v.) 5min prior to FS, or subcutaneous placement of 40% CORT pellets resulting in stable CORT levels in the normal basal range. Although ADX did not alter basal OXT concentrations either in plasma or in microdialysates from the PVN, it did cause an exaggerated peripheral secretion of OXT and a blunted intra-PVN release of OXT in response to FS. CORT pellets did not influence either of these ADX-induced effects, while acute infusion of 175μg/kg CORT rescued the stress-induced rise in OXT release within the PVN and modestly increased peripheral OXT secretion. In conclusion, these results indicate that CORT regulates both peripheral and intracerebral OXT release, but in an independent manner. Whereas the peripheral secretion of OXT occurs simultaneously to HPA axis activation in response to FS and is modestly influenced by CORT, HPA axis activation and circulating CORT strongly contribute to the stress-induced stimulation of OXT release within the PVN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  16. Modulation of the activity of vasopressinergic neurons by estrogen in rats refed with normal or sodium-free food after fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio-Oliveira, F; Traslaviña, G A A; Borges, B D B; Franci, C R

    2015-01-22

    Feeding increases plasma osmolality and ovarian steroids may influence the balance of fluids. Vasopressin (AVP) neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) express estrogen receptor type β (ERβ), but not estrogen receptor type α (ERα). The circumventricular organs express ERα and project efferent fibers to the PVN and SON. Our aim was to assess whether interactions exist between food state-related osmolality changes and the action of estrogen on AVP neuron activity and estrogen receptor expression. We assessed plasma osmolality and AVP levels; fos-coded protein (FOS)- and AVP-immunoreactivity (-IR) and FOS-IR and ERα-IR in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) and organ vasculosum lamina terminalis (OVLT) in estrogen-primed and unprimed ovariectomized rats under the provision of ad libitum food, 48h of fasting, and subsequent refeeding with standard chow or sodium-free food. Refeeding with standard chow increased plasma osmolality and AVP as well as the co-expression of FOS-IR/AVP-IR in the PVN and SON. These responses were not altered by estrogen, with the exception of the decreases in FOS-IR/AVP-IR in the lateral PVN. During refeeding, estrogen modulates only a subpopulation of AVP neurons in the lateral PVN. FOS-ERα co-expression in the ventral median preoptic nucleus (vMnPO) was reduced by estrogen and increased after refeeding with standard chow following fasting. It appears that estrogen may indirectly modulate the activity of AVP neurons, which are involved in the mechanism affected by hyperosmolality-induced refeeding after fasting. This indirect action of estrogen can be at least in part via ERα in the vMnPO. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Superoxide Anions and NO in the Paraventricular Nucleus Modulate the Cardiac Sympathetic Afferent Reflex in Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Bo Lu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to explore the hypothesis that the endogenous superoxide anions (O2− and nitric oxide (NO system of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN regulates the cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR contributing to sympathoexcitation in obese rats induced by a high-fat diet (42% kcal as fat for 12 weeks. CSAR was evaluated by monitoring the changes of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA and the mean arterial pressure (MAP responses to the epicardial application of capsaicin (CAP in anaesthetized rats. In obese rats with hypertension (OH group or without hypertension (OB group, the levels of PVN O2−, angiotensinII (Ang II, Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase were elevated, whereas neural NO synthase (nNOS and NO were significantly reduced. Moreover, CSAR was markedly enhanced, which promoted the elevation of plasma norepinephrine levels. The enhanced CSAR was attenuated by PVN application of the superoxide scavenger polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase (PEG-SOD and the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP, and was strengthened by the superoxide dismutase inhibitor diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DETC and the nNOS inhibitor N(ω-propyl-l-arginine hydrochloride (PLA; conversely, there was a smaller CSAR response to PLA or SNP in rats that received a low-fat (12% kcal diet. Furthermore, PVN pretreatment with the AT1R antagonist losartan or with PEG-SOD, but not SNP, abolished Ang II-induced CSAR enhancement. These findings suggest that obesity alters the PVN O2− and NO system that modulates CSAR and promotes sympathoexcitation.

  18. Embryonic GABA(B receptor blockade alters cell migration, adult hypothalamic structure, and anxiety- and depression-like behaviors sex specifically in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Stratton

    Full Text Available Neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN regulate the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and the autonomic nervous system. Females lacking functional GABA(B receptors because of a genetic disruption of the R1 subunit have altered cellular characteristics in and around the PVN at birth. The genetic disruption precluded appropriate assessments of physiology or behavior in adulthood. The current study was conducted to test the long term impact of a temporally restricting pharmacological blockade of the GABA(B receptor to a 7-day critical period (E11-E17 during embryonic development. Experiments tested the role of GABA(B receptor signaling in fetal development of the PVN and later adult capacities for adult stress related behaviors and physiology. In organotypic slices containing fetal PVN, there was a female specific, 52% increase in cell movement speeds with GABA(B receptor antagonist treatment that was consistent with a sex-dependent lateral displacement of cells in vivo following 7 days of fetal exposure to GABA(B receptor antagonist. Anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors, open-field activity, and HPA mediated responses to restraint stress were measured in adult offspring of mothers treated with GABA(B receptor antagonist. Embryonic exposure to GABA(B receptor antagonist resulted in reduced HPA axis activation following restraint stress and reduced depression-like behaviors. There was also increased anxiety-like behavior selectively in females and hyperactivity in males. A sex dependent response to disruptions of GABA(B receptor signaling was identified for PVN formation and key aspects of physiology and behavior. These changes correspond to sex specific prevalence in similar human disorders, namely anxiety disorders and hyperactivity.

  19. Structural and optical properties of electro-optic material. Sputtered (Ba,Sr)TiO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masato; Xu, Zhimou; Tanushi, Yuichiro; Yokoyama, Shin

    2006-01-01

    In order to develop a novel ring resonator optical switch, we have studied the structural and optical properties of the electro-optic material (Ba,Sr)TiO 3 (BST) deposited by RF sputtering on a SiO 2 cladding layer (1.0 μm). The crystallinity of the BST films is evaluated by X-ray diffraction and the optical propagation loss of the waveguides is measured using a He-Ne laser. As a result, it is found that there is a strong relationship between the optical propagation loss and crystallinity of the sputtered film. It is suggested that the propagating light is influenced by the crystal property, for example, the grain size and density of the polycrystalline BST film. (author)

  20. Valor nutritivo y utilización para producción de leche del bagazo de alfalfa ensilado con diferentes aditivos

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, V.; Fernández, E.; González, G.; Remón, J.

    2011-01-01

    Mediante pruebas de ingestión, digestibilidad de la materia orgánica (DMO) y lactación se ha estudiado el valor nutritivo del bagazo de alfalfa ensilado sin aditivos (BST), tratado con ácido fórmico (BF) y con formaldehído-sulfúrico (BFS). En la prueba de lactación el bagazo de alfalfa se comparó con heno de alfalfa de calidad media.La ingestión de MO en corderos fue mayor para los bagazos BFS y BF, un 16,4 y 9,3 % respectivamente, que la de BST. La DMO fue 54,4; 60,7 y 61,8 % para BST, BF y ...

  1. Real-time observations of interface formation for barium strontium titanate films on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, A. H.; Suvorova, N. A.; Irene, E. A.; Auciello, O.; Schultz, J. A.

    2002-05-01

    Ba.5Sr.5TiO3 (BST) film growth by ion sputtering on bare and thermally oxidized silicon was observed in real time using in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry and time of flight ion scattering and recoil spectrometry techniques. At the outset of BST film deposition on silicon, an approximately 30 Å film with intermediate static dielectric constant (K˜12) and refractive index (n˜2.6 at photon energies of 1.5-3.25 eV) interface layer formed on bare silicon. The interface layer growth rate was greatly reduced on an oxidized silicon substrate. The results have profound implications on the static dielectric constant of BST.

  2. Plasma etching of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thin films using inductively coupled Cl2/Ar and BCl3/Cl2/Ar plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gwan-Ha; Kim, Kyoung-Tae; Kim, Dong-Pyo; Kim, Chang-Il

    2005-01-01

    BST thin films were etched with inductively coupled plasmas. A chemically assisted physical etch of BST was experimentally confirmed by ICP under various gas mixtures. After a 20% addition of BCl 3 to the Cl 2 /Ar mixture, resulting in an increased the chemical effect. As increases of RF power and substrate power, and decrease of working pressure, the ion energy flux and chlorine atoms density increased. The maximum etch rate of the BST thin films was 90.1 nm/min, and at the RF power, substrate power, and working pressure were 700 W, 300 W, and 1.6 Pa, respectively. It was proposed that sputter etching is dominant etching mechanism while the contribution of chemical reaction is relatively low due to low volatility of etching products

  3. Understanding the Interplay Between Consumer Knowledge, Trust and Relationship Satisfaction in Financial Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Grønholdt, Lars; Josiassen, Alexander

    , this study contributes to previous research by examining how consumer knowledge O/U affects two types of trust (broad-scope trust and narrow-scope trust) and consumer relationship satisfaction. Trust does not only concern consumer trust in individual companies (i.e., narrow.-scope confidence NST), but also...... concerns consumer confidence in the broader business context in which consumers plan and implement their behavior (i.e., broad scope trust, BST). NST is defined as "the expectation that the service provider can be relied on to deliver on its promises’, while BST is defined as ‘the expectation....../U a consumer becomes, the higher/lower NST and levels of relationship satisfaction will be. Second, it is demonstrated that BST has a negative moderating effect on the relationship between knowledge O/U and satisfaction, such that knowledge O/U has a higher positive/negative effect on relationship satisfaction...

  4. An Evaluation of Behavioral Skills Training for Teaching Caregivers How to Support Social Skill Development in Their Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mahfuz; Simpson, Andrea; Danaher, Katey; Haesen, James; Makela, Tanya; Thomson, Kendra

    2018-06-01

    Limited research has explored how to best train caregivers to support their child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) despite caregivers being well suited to promote generalization and maintenance of their child's skills in the natural environment. Children with ASD have been shown to benefit from social skill training, which is not always conducted in the natural context. This research examined the efficacy of behavioral skills training (BST) with, and without in situ training (IST), for teaching caregivers how to also use BST to support their child's context-specific social skills. Although caregivers met mastery criterion within BST sessions, their skills did not generalize to the natural environment until IST was introduced. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  5. Interfacial characteristics and dielectric properties of Ba0.65Sr0.35TiO3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan Zuci; Zhang Baishun; Zhang Tianjin; Zhao Xingzhong; Pan Ruikun; Ma Zhijun; Jiang Juan

    2008-01-01

    Ba 0.65 Sr 0.35 TiO 3 (BST) thin films were deposited on Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling data show that each element component of the BST film possesses a uniform distribution from the outermost surface to subsurface, but obvious Ti-rich is present to BST/Pt interface because Ti 4+ cations are partially reduced to form amorphous oxides such as TiO x (x -7 A/cm 2 at 1.23 V and lower than 5.66 x 10 -6 A/cm 2 at 2.05 V as well as breakdown strength is above 3.01 x 10 5 V/cm

  6. Effect of bovine somatotropin (500 mg) administered at ten-day intervals on ovulatory responses, expression of estrus, and fertility in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, F; Narciso, C; Oliveira, R; Cerri, R L A; Correa-Calderón, A; Chebel, R C; Santos, J E P

    2010-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of administering 500 mg of recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST) every 10 d on ovulatory responses, estrous behavior, and fertility of lactating Holstein cows. Lactating dairy cows were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: a control with no administration of bST (73 primiparous and 120 multiparous cows) or 6 consecutive administrations of 500 mg of bST (83 primiparous and 123 multiparous cows) given subcutaneously at 10-d intervals starting 61+/-3 d postpartum (study d 0), concurrent with the initiation of the timed artificial insemination (AI). Blood samples were collected thrice weekly from 61+/-3 to 124+/-3 d in milk (DIM), and plasma samples were analyzed for concentrations of estradiol, glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, and progesterone. The estrous cycle of cows was presynchronized with 2 injections of PGF(2alpha) at 37+/-3 and 51+/-3 DIM, and the Ovsynch timed AI protocol was initiated at 61+/-3 DIM. Ovaries were scanned to determine ovulatory responses during the Ovsynch protocol. Pregnancy was diagnosed at 33 and 66 d after AI. Body condition was scored on study d 0, 10, 42, and 76. Sixty-four cows were fitted with a pressure mounting sensor with radiotelemetric transmitters to monitor estrous behavior. Treatment of lactating dairy cows with 500 mg of bST at 10-d intervals increased yields of milk and milk components in the first 2 mo after treatment. Body condition of bST-treated cows remained unaltered, whereas control cows gained BCS. Treatment with bST increased concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1 chronically, but concentrations of insulin and glucose increased only transiently in the first 7 d after the first injection of bST. Concentrations of progesterone during and after the Ovsynch protocol remained unaltered after treatment with bST; likewise, ovulatory responses during the Ovsynch protocol were mostly unaltered by treatment. Concentration of estradiol tended to be

  7. Increased cleavage and blastocyst rate in ewes treated with bovine somatotropin 5 days before the end of progestin-based estrous synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Pardo, A; Hernández-Cerón, J; Rojas-Maya, S; Valencia, J; Rodríguez-Cortez, A; Gutiérrez, C G

    2011-05-01

    Treatment with bovine somatotropin (bST) during estrous synchronization increased fertility and prolificacy in sheep. In the present study, a single dose of bST 5 days before the end of progestin treatment improved cleavage and embryo development. Stage of estrous cycle was synchronized in ewes (n=32) with progestin and superovulation was induced by use of FSH. Five days before the end of progestin treatment, ewes were randomly assigned to two groups: bST group (n=16) received a depot injection of 125 mg of bST sc (Lactotropina, Elanco, México) and the control group (n=16) received saline solution. Estrous was detected with rams fitted with an apron every 2 h and estrous sheep were mated every 8 h whilst in estrous. Embryos were recovered on Day 7 post mating, assessed microscopically and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde. Cell number in blastocysts was counted after Hoechst 33342 staining. Plasma concentrations of IGF-I, insulin and progesterone were determined in eight sheep per group from the day of bST treatment to the day of embryo recovery. Cleavage rate, percentage of transferable embryos (transferable embryos/cleaved) and percentage of embryos reaching the blastocyst stage (blastocyst/cleaved) were compared between groups by logistic regression. IGF-I, insulin and progesterone plasma concentrations were analyzed by ANOVA for repeated measurements and cell number by ANOVA. Cleavage rate was greater (Psheep. Plasma concentrations of IGF-I and insulin were greater (Pprogesterone concentrations (P=0.5). It is concluded that bST injection 5 days before progestin removal increases cleavage rate and the proportion of embryos that reach the blastocyst stage. These effects are associated with an increase in IGF-I and insulin concentrations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Optical properties of amorphous Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 thin films obtained by metal organic decomposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Fei; Xu, Zhimou

    2009-08-01

    In this study, the amorphous Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 (BST0.7) thin films were grown onto fused quartz and silicon substrates at low temperature by using a metal organic decomposition (MOD)-spin-coating procedure. The optical transmittance spectrum of amorphous BST0.7 thin films on fused quartz substrates has been recorded in the wavelength range 190~900 nm. The films were highly transparent for wavelengths longer than 330 nm; the transmission drops rapidly at 330 nm, and the cutoff wavelength occurs at about 260 nm. In addition, we also report the amorphous BST0.7 thin film groove-buried type waveguides with 90° bent structure fabricated on Si substrates with 1.65 μm thick SiO2 thermal oxide layer. The design, fabrication and optical losses of amorphous BST0.7 optical waveguides were presented. The amorphous BST0.7 thin films were grown onto the SiO2/Si substrates by using a metal organic decomposition (MOD)-spin-coating procedure. The optical propagation losses were about 12.8 and 9.4 dB/cm respectively for the 5 and 10 μm wide waveguides at the wavelength of 632.8 nm. The 90° bent structures with a small curvature of micrometers were designed on the basis of a double corner mirror structure. The bend losses were about 1.2 and 0.9 dB respectively for 5 and 10 μm wide waveguides at the wavelength of 632.8 nm. It is expected for amorphous BST0.7 thin films to be used not only in the passive optical interconnection in monolithic OEICs but also in active waveguide devices on the Si chip.

  9. Diamagnetism to ferromagnetism in Sr-substituted epitaxial BaTiO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singamaneni, Srinivasa Rao, E-mail: ssingam@ncsu.edu; Prater, John T. [Materials Science Division, Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Punugupati, Sandhyarani; Narayan, Jagdish [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2016-04-04

    We report on the ferromagnetic-like behavior in otherwise diamagnetic BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) thin films upon doping with non-magnetic element Sr having the composition Ba{sub 0.4}Sr{sub 0.6}TiO{sub 3} (BST). The epitaxial integration of BST (∼800 nm) thick films on Si (100) substrate was achieved using MgO (40 nm) and TiN (20 nm) as buffer layers to prepare BST/MgO/TiN/Si (100) heterostructure by pulsed laser deposition. The c-axis oriented and cube-on-cube epitaxial BST is formed on Si (100) as evidenced by the in-plane and out-of-plane X-ray diffraction. All the deposited films are relaxed through domain matching epitaxy paradigm as observed from X-ray diffraction pattern and A{sub 1}TO{sub 3} mode (at 521.27 cm{sup −1}) of Raman spectra. As-deposited BST thin films reveal ferromagnetic-like properties, which persist up to 400 K. The magnetization decreases two-fold upon oxygen annealing. In contrast, as-deposited un-doped BTO films show diamagnetism. Electron spin resonance measurements reveal no evidence of external magnetic impurities. XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra show significant changes influenced by Sr doping in BTO. The ferromagnetic-like behavior in BST could be due to the trapped electron donors from oxygen vacancies resulting from Sr-doping.

  10. Novel speed test for evaluation of badminton specific movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Møller; Karlsen, Anders; Nybo, Lars

    2015-01-01

    In this study we developed a novel badminton speed test (BST). The test was designed to mimic match play. The test starts in the center of the court and consists of five maximal actions to sensors located in each of the four corners of the court. The 20 actions are performed in randomized order...... as dictated by computer screen shots displayed one second following completion of the previous action. We assessed day-to-day variation in elite players and specificity of the test was evaluated by comparing 30 meter sprint performance and time to complete the BST in 20 elite, 21 skilled players and 20 age...

  11. Barium strontium titanate powders prepared by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brankovic, G.; Brankovic, Z.; Goes, M.S.; Paiva-Santos, C.O.; Cilense, M.; Varela, J.A.; Longo, E.

    2005-01-01

    Ultasonic spray pyrolysis (SP) has been investigated for the production of the barium strontium titanate (BST) powders from the polymeric precursors. The processing parameters, such as flux of aerosol and temperature profile inside the furnace, were optimized to obtain single phase BST. The powders were characterized by the methods of X-ray diffraction analysis, SEM, EDS and TEM. The obtained powders were submicronic, consisting of spherical, polycrystalline particles, with internal nanocrystalline structure. Crystallite size of 10 nm, calculated using Rietveld refinement, is in a good agreement with results of HRTEM

  12. Strong composition dependence of resistive switching in Ba1-xSrxTiO3 thin films on semiconducting substrates and its thermodynamic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Moradi, Omid; Şen, Canhan; Sen, Canhan; Boni, A. G.; Pintilie, L.; Mısırlıoğlu, Burç; Misirlioglu, Burc

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we report on the variability of the Schottky effect in solution processed Ba1-xSrxTiO3 films (BST, x = 0, 0.5) grown on 0.5% Nb doped SrTiO3 substrates with top Pt electrodes (NSTO/BST/Pt). The films display leakage currents accompanied by varying degrees of hystereses in the current-voltage measurements. The magnitude of the leakage and hystereses depend on the Sr content. We focus on the current-voltage (I-V) behavior of our samples in the light of thermodynamic theory of ferr...

  13. Synthesis and characterization of nickel oxide doped barium strontium titanate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, M. [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Bengal Institute of Technology Kolkata (India); Mukherjee, S. [Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata (India); Maitra, S. [Govt. College of Engg. and Ceramic Technology, Kolkata (India)

    2012-01-15

    Barium strontium titanate (BST) ceramics (Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4})TiO{sub 3} were synthesized by solid state sintering using barium carbonate, strontium carbonate and rutile as the precursor materials. The samples were doped with nickel oxide in different proportions. Different phases present in the sintered samples were determined from X-ray diffraction investigation and the distribution of different phases in the microstructure was assessed from scanning electron microscopy study. It was observed that the dielectric properties of BST were modified significantly with nickel oxide doping. These ceramics held promise for applications in tuned circuits. (author)

  14. Merged Search Algorithms for Radio Frequency Identification Anticollision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bih-Yaw Shih

    2012-01-01

    The arbitration algorithm for RFID system is used to arbitrate all the tags to avoid the collision problem with the existence of multiple tags in the interrogation field of a transponder. A splitting algorithm which is called Binary Search Tree (BST is well known for multitags arbitration. In the current study, a splitting-based schema called Merged Search Tree is proposed to capture identification codes correctly for anticollision. Performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with the original BST according to time and power consumed during the arbitration process. The results show that the proposed model can reduce searching time and power consumed to achieve a better performance arbitration.

  15. Dielectric properties of BaMg1/3Nb2/3O3 doped Ba0.45Sr0.55Tio3 thin films for tunable microwave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alema, Fikadu; Pokhodnya, Konstantin

    2015-11-01

    Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 (BMN) doped and undoped Ba0.45Sr0.55TiO3 (BST) thin films were deposited via radio frequency magnetron sputtering on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Al2O3 substrates. The surface morphology and chemical state analyses of the films have shown that the BMN doped BST film has a smoother surface with reduced oxygen vacancy, resulting in an improved insulating properties of the BST film. Dielectric tunability, loss, and leakage current (LC) of the undoped and BMN doped BST thin films were studied. The BMN dopant has remarkably reduced the dielectric loss (˜38%) with no significant effect on the tunability of the BST film, leading to an increase in figure of merit (FOM). This is attributed to the opposing behavior of large Mg2+ whose detrimental effect on tunability is partially compensated by small Nb5+ as the two substitute Ti4+ in the BST. The coupling between MgTi″ and VO•• charged defects suppresses the dielectric loss in the film by cutting electrons from hopping between Ti ions. The LC of the films was investigated in the temperature range of 300-450K. A reduced LC measured for the BMN doped BST film was correlated to the formation of defect dipoles from MgTi″, VO•• and NbTi• charged defects. The carrier transport properties of the films were analyzed in light of Schottky thermionic emission (SE) and Poole-Frenkel (PF) emission mechanisms. The result indicated that while the carrier transport mechanism in the undoped film is interface limited (SE), the conduction in the BMN doped film was dominated by bulk processes (PF). The change of the conduction mechanism from SE to PF as a result of BMN doping is attributed to the presence of uncoupled NbTi• sitting as a positive trap center at the shallow donor level of the BST.

  16. Active Structural Fibers for Multifunctional Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-06

    containing Ba (OH)28H2O and Sr (OH)28H2O. In order to study the influence of the ratio of barium and strontium on the energy density of the film, BST...used. The cathodic electrolytic deposition procedure uses a high electric field to deposit ions on the electrode, forming in our case metal oxide...films with 7 different ratios of Ba:Sr were fabricated. A 10 nm gold coating was sputtered (Pelco SC-7) on the BST film to serve as the other electrode

  17. Effects of a Supervised versus an Unsupervised Combined Balance and Strength Training Program on Balance and Muscle Power in Healthy Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, André; Kressig, Reto W; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Gschwind, Yves J; Pfenninger, Barbara; Bruegger, Othmar; Granacher, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Losses in lower extremity muscle strength/power, muscle mass and deficits in static and particularly dynamic balance due to aging are associated with impaired functional performance and an increased fall risk. It has been shown that the combination of balance and strength training (BST) mitigates these age-related deficits. However, it is unresolved whether supervised versus unsupervised BST is equally effective in improving muscle power and balance in older adults. This study examined the impact of a 12-week BST program followed by 12 weeks of detraining on measures of balance and muscle power in healthy older adults enrolled in supervised (SUP) or unsupervised (UNSUP) training. Sixty-six older adults (men: 25, women: 41; age 73 ± 4 years) were randomly assigned to a SUP group (2/week supervised training, 1/week unsupervised training; n = 22), an UNSUP group (3/week unsupervised training; n = 22) or a passive control group (CON; n = 22). Static (i.e., Romberg Test) and dynamic (i.e., 10-meter walk test) steady-state, proactive (i.e., Timed Up and Go Test, Functional Reach Test), and reactive balance (e.g., Push and Release Test), as well as lower extremity muscle power (i.e., Chair Stand Test; Stair Ascent and Descent Test) were tested before and after the active training phase as well as after detraining. Adherence rates to training were 92% for SUP and 97% for UNSUP. BST resulted in significant group × time interactions. Post hoc analyses showed, among others, significant training-related improvements for the Romberg Test, stride velocity, Timed Up and Go Test, and Chair Stand Test in favor of the SUP group. Following detraining, significantly enhanced performances (compared to baseline) were still present in 13 variables for the SUP group and in 10 variables for the UNSUP group. Twelve weeks of BST proved to be safe (no training-related injuries) and feasible (high attendance rates of >90%). Deficits of balance and lower extremity muscle power can be

  18. Printed Barium Strontium Titanate capacitors on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sette, Daniele [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology LIST, Materials Research and Technology Department, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Kovacova, Veronika [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Defay, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.defay@list.lu [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology LIST, Materials Research and Technology Department, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg)

    2015-08-31

    In this paper, we show that Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) films can be prepared by inkjet printing of sol–gel precursors on platinized silicon substrate. Moreover, a functional variable capacitor working in the GHz range has been made without any lithography or etching steps. Finally, this technology requires 40 times less precursors than the standard sol–gel spin-coating technique. - Highlights: • Inkjet printing of Barium Strontium Titanate films • Deposition on silicon substrate • Inkjet printed silver top electrode • First ever BST films thinner than 1 μm RF functional variable capacitor that has required no lithography.

  19. MANAJEMEN PEMBINAAN PRESTASI PADA KLUB BULUTANGKIS SE-KABUPATEN WONOSOBO TAHUN 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Septian Williyanto; Hermawan Pamot Raharjo

    2016-01-01

    The type of this research is a quantitative with descriptive approach/ survey. Based on result of the research, it know that the founding program in the ABS Club, BST, Indoraya, and Tunas Perkasa have run well. Whereas for Baker Club and Mutiara haven’t run well because both of club haven’t do tryout program. The management system in a BST club have good management because it have a good active organization.While, for the ABS club, Baker, Indoraya, Mutiara, and Tunas Perkasa ha...

  20. Tailorable Release of Small Molecules Utilizing Plant Viral Nanoparticles and Fibrous Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jing

    We have engineered Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV) derived plant viral nanoparticles (PVNs) within a fibrous matrix to optimize its application for delivery and controlled release of active ingredients. RCNMV's structure and unique response to divalent cation depletion and re-addition enables the infusion of small molecules into its viral capsid through a pore formation mechanism. While this PVN technology shows a potential use in nano-scale therapeutic drug delivery, its inherent molecular dynamics to environmental stimuli places a constraint on its application and functionality as a vehicle for tailorable release of loading cargo. In this study, we enhance the understanding of the PVN technology by elucidating its mechanism for loading and triggered release of doxorubicin (Dox), a chemotherapeutic drug for breast cancer. Of critical importance is the methodology for manipulation of Dox's loading capacity and its binding location on either the exterior or interior of the virion capsid. The ability to control the active ingredient binding location provides an additional approach of tunable release from the PVN delivery vehicle besides its inherent pH- and ion- responsive release of loading cargo. The efficacious and controlled release strategy for agricultural active ingredients, such as nematicides, is also a large social need right now. Crop infestation of plant parasite nematodes causes in excess of 157 billion in worldwide crop damage annually. If an effective control strategy for these pests could be developed, it is estimated that the current market for effective nematicides is between 700 million and $1 billion each year worldwide. In this study, we report on the utilization of PVN technology to encapsulate the biological nematicide, abamectin (Abm), within the PVN's interior capsid (PVNAbm). Creating PVNAbm addresses Abm's issues of soil immobility while rendering a controlled release strategy for its bioavailability to root knot nematodes (RKNs

  1. Sexually dimorphic gene regulation in brain as a target for endocrine disrupters: Developmental exposure of rats to 4-methylbenzylidene camphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerkel, Kirsten; Durrer, Stefan; Henseler, Manuel; Schlumpf, Margret; Lichtensteiger, Walter

    2007-01-01

    The developing neuroendocrine brain represents a potential target for endocrine active chemicals. The UV filter 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) exhibits estrogenic activity, but also interferes with the thyroid axis. We investigated effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to 4-MBC in the same rat offspring at brain and reproductive organ levels. 4-MBC (7, 24, 47 mg/kg/day) was administered in chow to the parent generation before mating, during gestation and lactation, and to the offspring until adulthood. mRNA of estrogen target genes involved in control of sexual behavior and gonadal functions was measured by real-time RT-PCR in ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) and medial preoptic area (MPO) of adult offspring. 4-MBC exposure affected mRNA levels of ER alpha, progesterone receptor (PR), preproenkephalin (PPE) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in a sex- and region-specific manner. In order to assess possible changes in sensitivity of target genes to estrogens, offspring were gonadectomized on day 70, injected with estradiol (E2, 10 or 50 μg/kg s.c.) or vehicle on day 84, and sacrificed 6 h later. The acute induction of PR mRNA, and repression (at 6 h) of PPE mRNA by E2 was enhanced by 4-MBC in male and female VMH and female MPO, whereas male MPO exhibited reduced responsiveness of both genes. Steroid receptor coactivator SRC-1 mRNA levels were increased in female VMH and MPO. The data indicate profound sex- and region-specific alterations in the regulation of estrogen target genes at brain level. Effect patterns in baseline and E2-induced gene expression differ from those in uterus and prostate

  2. Testicular regulation of neuronal glucose and monocarboxylate transporter gene expression profiles in CNS metabolic sensing sites during acute and recurrent insulin-induced hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavaiya, Kamlesh V; Paranjape, Sachin A; Briski, Karen P

    2007-01-01

    Recurrent insulin-induced hypoglycemia (RIIH) impairs glucose counter-regulatory function in male humans and rodents and, in the latter, diminishes neuronal activation in CNS structures that monitor metabolic homeostasis, including the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) and dorsal vagal complex (DVC). We investigated whether habituated neuronal reactivity in CNS sensing sites to hypoglycemia is correlated with modified monocarboxylate and/or glucose uptake by using quantitative real-time RT-PCR to analyze neuronal monocarboxylate transporter (MCT2) and glucose transporter variant (GLUT and GLUT4) gene expression profiles in the microdissected LHA, ventromedial nucleus hypothalamus (VMH), and DVC after one or multiple insulin injections. Because orchidectomy (ORDX) maintains uniform glycemic responses to RIIH in male rats, we also examined whether regional gene response patterns are testes dependent. In the intact male rat DVC, MCT2, GLUT3, and GLUT4 gene expression was not altered by acute hypoglycemia but was enhanced by RIIH. MCT2 and GLUT3 mRNA levels in the ORDX rat DVC did not differ among groups, but GLUT4 transcripts were progressively increased by acute and recurrent hypoglycemia. Precedent hypoglycemia decreased or increased basal MCT2 and GLUT4 gene expression, respectively, in the intact rat LHA; LHA GLUT3 transcription was augmented by RIIH in intact rats only. Acute hypoglycemia suppressed MCT2, GLUT3, and GLUT4 gene expression in the intact rat VMH, a response that was abolished by RIIH. In ORDX rats, VMH gene transcript levels were unchanged in response to one dose of insulin but were selectively diminished during RIIH. These data demonstrate site-specific, testes-dependent effects of acute and recurrent hypoglycemia on neuronal metabolic substrate transporter gene expression in characterized rat brain metabolic sensing loci and emphasize the need to assess the impact of potential alterations in glucose and lactate uptake during RIIH on general and

  3. Sensitization of restraint-induced corticosterone secretion after chronic restraint in rats: Involvement of 5-HT7 receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Iglesias, Brenda B.; Mendoza-Garrido, María E.; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel; Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Noyola-Díaz, Martha; Terrón, José A.

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress. We examined the effect of chronic restraint stress (CRS; 20 min/day) as compared to control (CTRL) conditions for 14 days, on: 1) restraint-induced ACTH and corticosterone (CORT) secretion in rats pretreated with vehicle or SB-656104 (a 5-HT7 receptor antagonist); 2) 5-HT7 receptor-like immunoreactivity (5-HT7-LI) and protein in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and adrenal glands (AG); 3) baseline levels of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA), and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio in PVN and AG; and 4) 5-HT-like immunoreactivity (5-HT-LI) in AG and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) protein in PVN and AG. On day 15, animals were subdivided into Treatment and No treatment groups. Treatment animals received an i.p. injection of vehicle or SB-656104; No Treatment animals received no injection. Sixty min later, Treatment animals were either decapitated with no further stress (0 min) or submitted to acute restraint (10, 30, 60 or 120 min); hormone serum levels were measured. No Treatment animals were employed for the rest of measurements. CRS decreased body weight gain and increased adrenal weight. In CTRL animals, acute restraint increased ACTH and CORT secretion in a time of restraint-dependent manner; both responses were inhibited by SB-656104. Exposure to CRS abolished ACTH but magnified CORT responses to restraint as compared to CTRL conditions; SB-656104 had no effect on ACTH levels but significantly inhibited sensitized CORT responses. In CTRL animals, 5-HT7-LI was detected in magnocellular and parvocellular subdivisions of PVN and sparsely in adrenal cortex. Exposure to CRS decreased 5-HT7-LI and protein in the PVN, but increased 5-HT7-LI in the adrenal cortex and protein in whole AG. Higher 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels were detected in PVN and AG from CRS animals but 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio increased in AG only. Finally, whereas 5-HT-LI was sparsely observed in the adrenal cortex

  4. New model. Local financing for local energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detroy, Florent

    2015-01-01

    While evoking the case of the VMH Energies company in the Poitou-Charentes region, and indicating the difference between France and Germany in terms of wind and photovoltaic energy production potential, of number of existing local companies, and of citizen-based funding, this article shows that renewable energies could put the energy production financing in France into question again, with a more important participation of local communities and of their inhabitants. The author describes how the law on energy transition makes this possible, notably with the strengthening of citizen participation. The author evokes some French local experiments and the case of Germany where this participation is already very much developed

  5. Large dielectric constant ({epsilon}/{epsilon}{sub 0}>6000) Ba{sub 0.4}Sr{sub 0.6}TiO{sub 3} thin films for high-performance microwave phase shifters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, C. M. [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Rivkin, T. V. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Parilla, P. A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Perkins, J. D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Ginley, D. S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Kozyrev, A. B. [Electrotechnical University of St. Petersburg, St. Petersburg, Russia 197376 (Russian Federation); Oshadchy, V. N. [Electrotechnical University of St. Petersburg, St. Petersburg, Russia 197376 (Russian Federation); Pavlov, A. S. [Electrotechnical University of St. Petersburg, St. Petersburg, Russia 197376 (Russian Federation)

    2000-04-03

    We deposited epitaxial Ba{sub 0.4}Sr{sub 0.6}TiO{sub 3} (BST) films via laser ablation on MgO and LaAlO{sub 3} (LAO) substrates for tunable microwave devices. Postdeposition anneals ({approx}1100 degree sign C in O{sub 2}) improved the morphology and overall dielectric properties of films on both substrates, but shifted the temperature of maximum dielectric constant (T{sub max}) up for BST/LAO and down for BST/MgO. These substrate-dependent T{sub max} shifts had opposite effects on the room-temperature dielectric properties. Overall, BST films on MgO had the larger maximum dielectric constant ({epsilon}/{epsilon}{sub 0}{>=}6000) and tunability ({delta}{epsilon}/{epsilon}{>=}65%), but these maxima occurred at 227 K. 30 GHz phase shifters made from similar films had figures of merit (ratio of maximum phase shift to insertion loss) of {approx}45 degree sign /dB and phase shifts of {approx}400 degree sign under 500 V ({approx}13 V/{mu}m) bias, illustrating their utility for many frequency-agile microwave devices. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  6. Influence of bismuth on properties and microstructures of Sr0⋅5Ba0 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tric detectors, tunable microwave devices, phase shifters, electroluminescence display etc (Liou and Chiou 1997;. Liu et al 2000). So, Sr1–xBaxTiO3 films have gained in- creasing interest in the investigation and fabrication of thin films. The exploitation of BST thin films for applications in nonvolatile memory of high memory ...

  7. Sexual behavior reduces hypothalamic androgen receptor immunoreactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Guasti, Alonso; Swaab, Dick; Rodríguez-Manzo, Gabriela

    2003-01-01

    Male sexual behavior is regulated by limbic areas like the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN), the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), the nucleus accumbens (nAcc) and the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN). Neurons in these brain areas are rich in androgen receptors (AR) and express

  8. A quantitative analysis on the interfacial effect in the Pt/Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3/La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 heterostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, J; Wang, Y; Tian, H Y; Zhou, X Y; Chan, H L W; Choy, C L; Cao, L X; Zhao, B R

    2006-01-01

    The heterostructure of Pt/Ba 0.5 Sr 0.5 TiO 3 /La 0.67 Sr 0.33 MnO 3 (Pt/BST/LSMO) with the BST thickness ranging from 120 to 550 nm was fabricated by pulsed laser deposition. The dielectric constant (ε) of the heterostructure was measured under different electrical fields (E) and frequency (f). A strong thickness dependence of the value of ε, the ε-E dependence and the ε-f dependence were observed, which can be well explained by the series-capacitor model, based on the assumption that the heterostructure electrically consists of a 'bulk' layer and an interfacial layer between the Pt and BST layers. The dielectric properties of the 'bulk' layer and the interface layer were obtained. At room temperature, the dielectric constant of the 'bulk' layer was 1204 (at 100 kHz) and had a power law dependence on frequency. The ratio of thickness over the dielectric constant (d i /ε i ) of the interface layer, which was used to characterize the property of the Pt/BST interface, was found to be around 0.08 nm at room temperature and to be independent of frequency

  9. Establishing Fire Safety Skills Using Behavioral Skills Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houvouras, Andrew J., IV; Harvey, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    The use of behavioral skills training (BST) to educate 3 adolescent boys on the risks of lighters and fire setting was evaluated using in situ assessment in a school setting. Two participants had a history of fire setting. After training, all participants adhered to established rules: (a) avoid a deactivated lighter, (b) leave the training area,…

  10. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-15

    Jan 15, 2018 ... Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) is only a kind of energy emitted from a ... Rapid development in wireless technology has led to an increase of the ... disturbed if the transmission path of the radio signal from BST does not ...

  11. Effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin application intervals on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST) application intervals on chemical composition of milk from Girolando cows with productivity below 20 L/milk/day and animals with productivity above 20.1 liters/milk/day. The study included 30 Girolando cows with production ranging ...

  12. Contingency management adapted for African-American adolescents with obesity enhances youth weight loss with caregiver participation: a multiple baseline pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartlieb, Kathryn Brogan; Naar, Sylvie; Ledgerwood, David M; Templin, Thomas N; Ellis, Deborah A; Donohue, Bradley; Cunningham, Phillippe B

    2015-12-07

    Contingency management (CM) interventions, which use operant conditioning principles to encourage completion of target behavioral goals, may be useful for improving adherence to behavioral skills training (BST). Research-to-date has yet to explore CM for weight loss in minority adolescents. To examine the effects of CM in improving adolescent weight loss when added to BST. The study utilized an innovative experimental design that builds upon multiple baseline approaches as recommended by the National Institutes of Health. Six obese African-American youth and their primary caregivers living in Detroit, Michigan, USA. Adolescents received between 4 and 12 weeks of BST during a baseline period and subsequently received CM targeting weight loss. Youth weight. Linear mixed effects modeling was used in the analysis. CM did not directly affect adolescent weight loss above that of BST (p=0.053). However, when caregivers were involved in CM session treatment, contingency management had a positive effect on adolescent weight loss. The estimated weight loss due to CM when caregivers also attended was 0.66 kg/week (pcontingency management for minority youth weight loss. Lessons learned from contingency management program implementation are also discussed in order to inform practice.

  13. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Information for Authors ... A manuscript must present results of original, unpublished work. ... At this stage, JESS does not accept separate BibTeX files and does not provi de a bst file for ...

  14. Innovative integrative bedside teaching model improves tutors’ self-assessments of teaching skills and attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itai Gat

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patient bedside is the ideal setting for teaching physical examination, medical interviewing, and interpersonal skills. Herein we describe a novel model for bedside teaching (BST practiced during tutor training workshop and its resulting effect on practitioners’ self assessment of teaching skills and perceptions. Methods: One-day tutor training workshop included theoretical knowledge supplementation regarding tutors’ roles as well as implementing practical tools for clinical education, mainly BST model. The model, which emphasizes simultaneous clinical and communication teaching in a stepwise approach, was practiced by consecutive simulations with a gradual escalation of difficulty and adjusted instruction approaches. Pre- and post-workshop-adjusted questionnaires using a Likert scale of 1 to 4 were completed by participants and compared. Results: Analysis was based on 25 out of 48 participants who completed both questionnaires. Significantly improved teaching skills were demonstrated upon workshop completion (mean 3.3, SD 0.5 compared with pre-training (mean 2.6, SD 0.6; p<0.001 with significant increase in most examined parameters. Significantly improved tutor's roles internalization was demonstrated after training completion (mean 3.7, SD 0.3 compared with pre-workshop (mean 3.5 SD 0.5; p=0.002. Discussion: Successful BST involves combination of clinical and communication skills. BST model practiced during the workshop may contribute to improved teaching skills in this challenging environment.

  15. Low temperature perovskite crystallization of highly tunable dielectric Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 thick films deposited by ion beam sputtering on platinized silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X. H.; Guigues, B.; Defaÿ, E.; Dubarry, C.; Aïd, M.

    2009-02-01

    Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 (BST) thick films with thickness up to 1 μm were deposited on Pt-coated silicon substrates by ion beam sputtering, followed by an annealing treatment. It is demonstrated that pure well-crystallized perovskite phase could be obtained in thick BST films by a low temperature process (535 °C). The BST thick films show highly tunable dielectric properties with tunability (at 800 kV/cm) up to 51.0% and 66.2%, respectively, for the 0.5 and 1 μm thick films. The relationship between strains and dielectric properties was systematically investigated in the thick films. The results suggest that a comparatively larger tensile thermal in-plane strain (0.15%) leads to the degradation in dielectric properties of the 0.5 μm thick film; besides, strong defect-related inhomogeneous strains (˜0.3%) make the dielectric peaks smearing and broadening in the thick films, which, however, preferably results in high figure-of-merit factors over a wide operating temperature range. Moreover, the leakage current behavior in the BST thick films was found to be dominated by the space-charge-limited-current mechanism, irrespective of the film thickness.

  16. Low temperature perovskite crystallization of highly tunable dielectric Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 thick films deposited by ion beam sputtering on platinized silicon substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, X. H.; Defaye, E.; Aied, M.; Guigues, B.; Dubarry, C.

    2009-01-01

    Ba 0.7 Sr 0.3 TiO 3 (BST) thick films with thickness up to 1 μm were deposited on Pt-coated silicon substrates by ion beam sputtering, followed by an annealing treatment. It is demonstrated that pure well-crystallized perovskite phase could be obtained in thick BST films by a low temperature process (535 deg. C). The BST thick films show highly tunable dielectric properties with tunability (at 800 kV/cm) up to 51.0% and 66.2%, respectively, for the 0.5 and 1 μm thick films. The relationship between strains and dielectric properties was systematically investigated in the thick films. The results suggest that a comparatively larger tensile thermal in-plane strain (0.15%) leads to the degradation in dielectric properties of the 0.5 μm thick film; besides, strong defect-related inhomogeneous strains (∼0.3%) make the dielectric peaks smearing and broadening in the thick films, which, however, preferably results in high figure-of-merit factors over a wide operating temperature range. Moreover, the leakage current behavior in the BST thick films was found to be dominated by the space-charge-limited-current mechanism, irrespective of the film thickness

  17. Basic surgical training in Ireland: the impact of operative experience, training program allocation and mentorship on trainee satisfaction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, K E

    2013-12-01

    Application to the Irish basic surgical training (BST) program in Ireland has decreased progressively over the past 5 years. We hypothesised that this decline was secondary to dissatisfaction with training correlated with reduced operative experience and lack of mentorship among BSTs.

  18. Brief strategic therapy in first myocardial infarction patients with increased levels of stress: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowska, Jadwiga Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of interventions targeting chronic stress levels on clinical outcomes among myocardial infarction (MI) patients with increased levels of stress. To examine the impact of the addition of brief strategic therapy (BST) to usual care (UC) on clinical outcomes in first MI patients with increased levels of stress. Eighty-one patients were randomly assigned to BST in conjunction with UC (medical treatment, risk factor information, and guidance on unhealthy behavior change) or to UC. The outcome measures were scores on the Perceived Stress Scale, reinfarction and cardiac mortality rates, and scores on the Health Survey. Measures were taken before, post-treatment, and at two follow-ups. Patients subjected to BST showed reduced perceived stress at post-treatment and maintained decreased levels at follow-ups. At 1-year follow-up, they had a lower rate of non-fatal reinfarction, and at 2.5-year follow-up, they had a lower rate of fatal reinfarction. Their mental and physical health was improved at post-treatment and this was sustained at follow-ups. The addition of BST to UC favorably influences the disease course after MI in patients with increased levels of stress.

  19. Parent-Implemented Behavioral Skills Training of Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Rebecca K.; King, Melissa L.; Fischetti, Anthony T.; Lake, Candice M.; Mathews, Therese L.; Warzak, William J.

    2017-01-01

    Impairment in social skills is a primary feature of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Research indicates that social skills are intimately tied to social development and negative social consequences can persist if specific social behaviors are not acquired. The present study evaluated the effects of behavioral skills training (BST) on teaching…

  20. Studies on gas sensing performance of pure and modified barium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of film thickness on gas response was also studied. As prepared. BST thick films ... vity, stability, and response rate, to various kinds of gases and to meet the .... Slopes of the ... increased porosity increases the in-pore adsorption of oxygen and ... state preventing fast decomposition and water formation. NH3 could ...

  1. Epigenetic control of vasopressin expression is maintained by steroid hormones in the adult male rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Catherine J.; Coss, Dylan; Auger, Anthony P.; Forbes-Lorman, Robin M.

    2011-01-01

    Although some DNA methylation patterns are altered by steroid hormone exposure in the developing brain, less is known about how changes in steroid hormone levels influence DNA methylation patterns in the adult brain. Steroid hormones act in the adult brain to regulate gene expression. Specifically, the expression of the socially relevant peptide vasopressin (AVP) within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) of adult brain is dependent upon testosterone exposure. Castration dramatically reduces and testosterone replacement restores AVP expression within the BST. As decreases in mRNA expression are associated with increases in DNA promoter methylation, we explored the hypothesis that AVP expression in the adult brain is maintained through sustained epigenetic modifications of the AVP gene promoter. We find that castration of adult male rats resulted in decreased AVP mRNA expression and increased methylation of specific CpG sites within the AVP promoter in the BST. Similarly, castration significantly increased estrogen receptor α (ERα) mRNA expression and decreased ERα promoter methylation within the BST. These changes were prevented by testosterone replacement. This suggests that the DNA promoter methylation status of some steroid responsive genes in the adult brain is actively maintained by the presence of circulating steroid hormones. The maintenance of methylated or demethylated states of some genes in the adult brain by the presence of steroid hormones may play a role in the homeostatic regulation of behaviorally relevant systems. PMID:21368111

  2. Factors influencing career choice after initial training in surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, Seamus

    2011-03-01

    Irish general surgery faces a recruitment crisis with only 87 of 145 (60%) basic surgical training (BST) places filled in 2009. We assessed basic surgical trainees to identify objective, and potentially modifiable, factors that influence ultimate recruitment into a general surgical career.

  3. 47 CFR 76.987 - New product tiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... marketing purposes and then move them to NPTs. In order for an operator to move a channel from a CPST to an... their BSTs and CPSTs offerings on September 30, 1994. Operators may drop channels or move channels... constitute a fundamental change in their BST or CPSTs. (2) Operators may not drop channels that were offered...

  4. The Effects of Behavioral Skills Training on Implementation of the Picture Exchange Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Rocio; Stone, Karen; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of a behavioral skills training (BST) package to teach the implementation of the first three phases of the picture exchange communication system (PECS) was evaluated with 3 adults who had no history teaching any functional communication system. A multiple baseline design across participants was used to evaluate the effectiveness…

  5. 2142-IJBCS-Article-Bulus Adzu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    3African Institute of Biomedical Science and Technology (AiBST), Wilkins Hospital, Cnr Tongogara/Rekai. Tangwena, Harare, Zimbabwe. 4Director General/Chief Executive Officer, NIPRD, PMB 21, Abuja, Nigeria. *Corresponding author; Current address: Laboratório de Farmacologia, Departamento de Ciências Básicas.

  6. A mathematical model of insulin resistance in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braatz, Elise M; Coleman, Randolph A

    2015-06-01

    This paper introduces a mathematical model representing the biochemical interactions between insulin signaling and Parkinson's disease. The model can be used to examine the changes that occur over the course of the disease as well as identify which processes would be the most effective targets for treatment. The model is mathematized using biochemical systems theory (BST). It incorporates a treatment strategy that includes several experimental drugs along with current treatments. In the past, BST models of neurodegeneration have used power law analysis and simulation (PLAS) to model the system. This paper recommends the use of MATLAB instead. MATLAB allows for more flexibility in both the model itself and in data analysis. Previous BST analyses of neurodegeneration began treatment at disease onset. As shown in this model, the outcomes of delayed, realistic treatment and full treatment at disease onset are significantly different. The delayed treatment strategy is an important development in BST modeling of neurodegeneration. It emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis, and allows for a more accurate representation of disease and treatment interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. HLA-DPB1 typing with polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism technique in Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, T V; Madsen, H O; Morling, N

    1992-01-01

    endonucleases: RsaI, FokI, ApaI, SacI, BstUI, EcoNI, and DdeI, and the DNA fragments were separated by electrophoresis in agarose gels. Altogether, 71 individuals were investigated and 16 different HLA-DPB1 types were observed in 26 different heterozygotic combinations, as well as five possible homozygotes...

  8. Effect of working pressure and annealing temperature on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    roughness was found at higher temperatures as a result of a more heterogeneous growth and less tensions. Keywords. Barium strontium titanate; thin film; pulsed laser deposition; ferroelectric. 1. Introduction. Perovskite barium strontium titanate (BST) thin films are promising candidates for dynamic random access memory.

  9. Palliative self-expandable metal stents for acute malignant colorectal obstruction: clinical outcomes and risk factors for complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jae Pil; Hong, Su Jin; Kim, Shin Hee; Choi, Jong Hyo; Jung, Hee Jae; Cho, Youn Hee; Ko, Bong Min; Lee, Moon Sung

    2014-08-01

    Self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) have been used as palliative treatment or bridge to surgery for obstructions caused by colorectal cancer (CRC). We assessed the long-term outcomes of palliative SEMSs and evaluated the risk factors influencing complications. One hundred and seventy-five patients underwent SEMS placement for acute malignant colorectal obstruction. Of the 72 patients who underwent palliative treatment for primary CRC, 30 patients received chemotherapy (CT) for primary cancer (CT group) and 42 underwent best supportive treatment (BST) without CT (BST group). There was a significant difference in late migration between the CT group and the BST group (20.0% in CT group, 2.4% in BST group, p = 0.018). Response to CT influenced the rate of late obstruction (0% in disease control, 35.7% in disease progression, p = 0.014). However, late obstruction was not associated with stent properties, such as diameter or type (≤22 mm vs. >22 mm, 13.5% vs. 14.3%, p = 1.00; uncovered stent vs. covered stent, 15.5% vs. 7.1%, p = 0.675) and migration (≤22 mm vs. >22 mm, 16.2% vs. 2.9%, p = 0.108; uncovered stent vs. covered stent, 8.6% vs. 14.3%, p = 0.615) in palliative SEMS. The administration of CT increases the rate of stent migration, and disease control by CT can reduce the risk of obstruction by maintaining the luminal patency of palliative SEMSs.

  10. A Brief Group Intervention Using Video Games to Teach Sportsmanship Skills to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Bill R.; Gillis, Jennifer M.; Sevlever, Melina

    2013-01-01

    Impaired social skills represent a fundamental deficit for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Despite the potential importance of "good sportsmanship," this social skill has received relatively little attention in the literature. The current study utilized a Behavioral Skills Training (BST) approach to teach three…

  11. Evaluating the Use of Behavioral Skills Training to Improve School Staffs' Implementation of Behavior Intervention Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Ashley; Knez, Nikki; Kahng, SungWoo

    2015-01-01

    Variations of behavioral skills training (BST) have been used to teach behaviorally oriented skills such as discrete trial teaching, guided compliance, the implementation of the picture exchange system, and safe guarding students with physical disabilities. One area that has not received much attention is evaluating school staff's correct…

  12. Porous (Ba,SrTiO3 ceramics for tailoring dielectric and tunability properties: Modelling and experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana E. Stanculescu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available 3D Finite Element Method simulations were employed in order to describe tunability properties in anisotropic porous paraelectric structures. The simulations predicted that properties of a ceramic can be tailored by using various levels of porosity. Porous Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST ceramics have been studied in order to investigate the influence of porosity on their functional properties. The BST ceramics with various porosity levels have been obtained by solid-state reaction. Lamellar graphite in different concentration of 10, 20 and 35 vol.% was added as sacrificial pore forming agent. The structural, microstructural, dielectric and tunability properties were investigated. By comparison with dense BST ceramic, porous samples present a fracture mode transformation from intragranular to an intergranular fracture and a decrease of grain size. Lower dielectric constants, low dielectric losses, but higher values of tunability than in the dense material were obtained in the porous BST structures as a result of local field inhomogeneity generated by the presence of air pores-ceramic interfaces.

  13. Raman and X-ray diffraction study of (Ba,Sr)TiO3/(Bi,Nd)FeO3 multilayer heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anokhin, A.S.; Bunina, O.A.; Golovko, Yu I.; Mukhortov, V.M.; Yuzyuk, Yu I.; Simon, P.

    2013-01-01

    We report synthesis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman scattering characterisation of epitaxial heterostructures containing alternating (Bi 0.98 Nd 0.02 )FeO 3 (BNFO) and (Ba 0.8 Sr 0.2 TiO 3 ) (BST) layers deposited on (100) MgO substrates. A significant shift of the BST soft mode and partial depolarisation in the Raman spectra of multilayer heterostructures caused by epitaxial strains were observed. Satellite peaks typical for superlattices were observed in the XRD patterns of multilayer heterostructures with layer thicknesses below 30 nm. Raman spectra of the BNFO/BST superlattice with a modulation period of 10 nm revealed hardening of the soft mode and a dominating symmetric-stretching mode at 705 cm −1 due to distortion in FeO 6 octahedra enforced by the epitaxial strain in the superlattice. - Highlights: • BNFO and BST multilayers and superlattices on (100) MgO. • Raman spectra of superlattices exhibit features not observed in bulk BFO. • Satellites in XRD patterns when layer thickness below 30 nm

  14. Long-Endurance Maritime Surveillance with Ocean Glider Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    response to fluid viscosity , as well as magnesium sulfate and boric acid molecules found in seawater (Francois and Garrison 1982). As a result, its...Hemipelagic Terrigenous Clay ) is derived from the Bottom Sediment Type (BST) database maintained by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office Acoustics

  15. Preparation of cauliflower-like shaped Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}TiO{sub 3} powders by modified oxalate co-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Mingli [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)], E-mail: lml@tju.edu.cn; Xu Mingxia [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2009-04-17

    The quantitative barium-strontium titanyl oxalate (Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}TiO(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O, BSTO) precursor powders were prepared by the modified oxalate co-preparation method. It was based on the cation-exchange reaction between the stoichiometric solutions of oxalotitanic acid (H{sub 2}TiO(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}, HTO) and barium + strontium nitrate solution containing stoichiometric quantities of Ba and Sr ions. The pyrolysis of BSTO at 800 deg. C/4 h in air produced the homogeneous cauliflower-like shaped barium-strontium titanate (Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}TiO{sub 3}, BST) powders. The effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on morphology of BSTO and BST powders was also investigated. The characterization studies were carried on the as-dried BSTO and calcined BST powders by various physicochemical techniques, IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), etc. The BSTO and BST powders obtained by aforementioned technique without PEG were homogeneous with spherical shape. The particles grew into spindle shape with the effect of PEG.

  16. Preparation of cauliflower-like shaped Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 powders by modified oxalate co-precipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mingli; Xu Mingxia

    2009-01-01

    The quantitative barium-strontium titanyl oxalate (Ba 0.6 Sr 0.4 TiO(C 2 O 4 ) 2 .4H 2 O, BSTO) precursor powders were prepared by the modified oxalate co-preparation method. It was based on the cation-exchange reaction between the stoichiometric solutions of oxalotitanic acid (H 2 TiO(C 2 O 4 ) 2 , HTO) and barium + strontium nitrate solution containing stoichiometric quantities of Ba and Sr ions. The pyrolysis of BSTO at 800 deg. C/4 h in air produced the homogeneous cauliflower-like shaped barium-strontium titanate (Ba 0.6 Sr 0.4 TiO 3 , BST) powders. The effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on morphology of BSTO and BST powders was also investigated. The characterization studies were carried on the as-dried BSTO and calcined BST powders by various physicochemical techniques, IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), etc. The BSTO and BST powders obtained by aforementioned technique without PEG were homogeneous with spherical shape. The particles grew into spindle shape with the effect of PEG

  17. Influence of rare-earth addition on microstructure and dielectric behavior of Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingji; Zhai Jiwei; Chou Xiujian; Yao Xi

    2008-01-01

    Ba 0.6 Sr 0.4 TiO 3 (BST) ceramics with 0.5 mol% various trivalent rare-earth additions prepared by a solid-state route are investigated. A strong correlation is observed between the microstructure, dielectric properties and rare-earth element dopant. The results display that comparing with the lattice constants of undoped and doped rare-earth BST, the structure transforms from cubic to tetragonal structure. In addition, the dopant improves the tetragonal distortion with the ionic radius of rare earth decreasing, and then deteriorates it with further decreasing. Large ions rare-earth additions effectively suppress the grain growth of BST. It is found that the temperature-permittivity characteristics for the BSTR (R, namely, rare earth) system could be controlled using various rare-earth elements. Especially, such as Sm, Eu, Gd dopants are effective to satisfy the tunable microwave devices application due to the decrease of permittivity and the improvement of dissipation factors of BST ceramic with the accompanying high-tunability

  18. Critical assessment of bone scan quantitation (bone to soft tissue ratios) in the diagnosis of metabolic bone disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogelman, I.; Gordon, D.; Bessent, R.G.

    1981-03-01

    Accurate quantitation from the bone scan image of skeletal uptake of radiopharmaceutical would be of value in the assessment of patients with metabolic bone disease. Repeat measurements of bone to soft tissue (B/ST) ratios on the one set of images were made for 103 subjects, a) by the same observer using lumbar vertebra 2 for the area of bone; b) by the same observer using lumbar vertebra 2 then lumbar vertebra 4; c) by two observers both using lumbar vertebra 2. The median difference between repeat measurements by the same observer was well under 1% but the 5-95 percentile range was -13 to +14%. Between the two observers there was a median difference of 10.6% with a 5-95 percentile range of -11 to +44%. We also measured B/ST ratios in 150 control subjects and 139 patients with various metabolic bone disorders. While statistically significant differences for B/ST ratios were found between the osteomalacia, renal osteodystrophy, Paget's groups, and the control population (P < 0.001 in all cases), there was appreciable overlap between individual patient results and the control range. It is concluded, therefore, that measurement of B/ST ratios for the individual is of limited value in clinical practice.

  19. Different antipsychotics elicit different effects on magnocellular oxytocinergic and vasopressinergic neurons as revealed by Fos immunohistochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiss, A; Bundzikova, J; Pirnik, Z

    2010-01-01

    rats were injected intraperitoneally with haloperidol (1 mg/kg), clozapine (30 mg/kg), olanzapine (30 mg/kg), risperidone (2mg/kg), and vehicle (5% chremophor) and were sacrificed 60 min later by a fixative. Fos, Fos/OXY, and Fos/AVP labelings were visualized by immunohistochemistry in the SON, 5...... accessory (ACS) cell groups, and 4 distinct PVN subdivisions using a computerized light microscope. Most apparent activation of single Fos, Fos/OXY, and Fos/AVP cells was induced by clozapine and olanzapine; effects of risperidone and haloperidol were substantially lower; no colocalizations were revealed...... of risperidone and haloperidol. Variabilities in Fos distribution in the PVN, SON, and ACS induced by antipsychotics may be helpful to understand more precisely the extent of their extra-forebrain actions with possible presumption of their functional impact and side effect consequences....

  20. Leptin inhibits and ghrelin augments hypothalamic noradrenaline release after stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Akio; Okada, Nobukazu; Rokkaku, Kumiko; Honda, Kazufumi; Ishibashi, Shun; Onaka, Tatsushi

    2008-09-01

    Metabolic conditions affect hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal responses to stressful stimuli. Here we examined effects of food deprivation, leptin and ghrelin upon noradrenaline release in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations after stressful stimuli. Food deprivation augmented both noradrenaline release in the PVN and the increase in plasma ACTH concentration following electrical footshocks (FSs). An intracerebroventricular injection of leptin attenuated the increases in hypothalamic noradrenaline release and plasma ACTH concentrations after FSs, while ghrelin augmented these responses. These data suggest that leptin inhibits and ghrelin facilitates neuroendocrine stress responses via noradrenaline release and indicate that a decrease in leptin and an increase in ghrelin release after food deprivation might contribute to augmentation of stress-induced ACTH release in a fasting state.

  1. A New Population of Parvocellular Oxytocin Neurons Controlling Magnocellular Neuron Activity and Inflammatory Pain Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliava, Marina; Melchior, Meggane; Knobloch-Bollmann, H Sophie; Wahis, Jérôme; da Silva Gouveia, Miriam; Tang, Yan; Ciobanu, Alexandru Cristian; Triana Del Rio, Rodrigo; Roth, Lena C; Althammer, Ferdinand; Chavant, Virginie; Goumon, Yannick; Gruber, Tim; Petit-Demoulière, Nathalie; Busnelli, Marta; Chini, Bice; Tan, Linette L; Mitre, Mariela; Froemke, Robert C; Chao, Moses V; Giese, Günter; Sprengel, Rolf; Kuner, Rohini; Poisbeau, Pierrick; Seeburg, Peter H; Stoop, Ron; Charlet, Alexandre; Grinevich, Valery

    2016-03-16

    Oxytocin (OT) is a neuropeptide elaborated by the hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei. Magnocellular OT neurons of these nuclei innervate numerous forebrain regions and release OT into the blood from the posterior pituitary. The PVN also harbors parvocellular OT cells that project to the brainstem and spinal cord, but their function has not been directly assessed. Here, we identified a subset of approximately 30 parvocellular OT neurons, with collateral projections onto magnocellular OT neurons and neurons of deep layers of the spinal cord. Evoked OT release from these OT neurons suppresses nociception and promotes analgesia in an animal model of inflammatory pain. Our findings identify a new population of OT neurons that modulates nociception in a two tier process: (1) directly by release of OT from axons onto sensory spinal cord neurons and inhibiting their activity and (2) indirectly by stimulating OT release from SON neurons into the periphery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pregnancy, bovine somatotropin, and dietary n-3 fatty acids in lactating dairy cows: I. Ovarian, conceptus, and growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor system responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilby, T R; Sozzi, A; Lopez, M M; Silvestre, F T; Ealy, A D; Staples, C R; Thatcher, W W

    2006-09-01

    The objective was to examine effects of bovine somatotropin (bST), pregnancy, and dietary fatty acids on reproductive responses in lactating dairy cows. Beginning at approximately 17 d in milk (DIM), a comparison was made of isoenergetic diets comprising supplementary lipids of whole cottonseed vs. calcium salts of fish oil enriched lipid (FO). Ovulation was synchronized in cows with a presynchronization plus Ovsynch protocol, and cows were inseminated artificially by appointment or not inseminated (d 0 = time of synchronized ovulation; 77 +/- 12 DIM). On d 0 and 11, cows received bST (500 mg) or no bST. All cows were slaughtered on d 17. Number of cows in each group was as follows: control diet had 5 bST-treated cyclic (bST-C), 5 non-bST-treated cyclic (no bST-C), 4 bST-treated pregnant (bST-P), and 5 non-bST-treated pregnant (no bST-P) cows; and cyclic cows fed FO diet had 4 bST-treated (bST-FO) and 5 non-bST-treated cyclic (no bST-FO-C) cows. Feeding FO increased milk production, number of class 1 follicles (2 to 5 mm), and decreased insulin during the period before d 0 compared with control-fed cows. The bST increased milk production, pregnancy rate [83% (5/6) vs. 40% (4/10)], conceptus length (45 vs. 34 cm), and interferon-tau in the uterine luminal flushings (9.4 vs. 5.3 microg) with no effect on interferon-tau mRNA concentration in the conceptus. Treatment with bST increased plasma growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I. Among control-fed cows (cyclic and pregnant), bST decreased progesterone concentration in plasma. Cows fed FO had less plasma insulin than control-fed cyclic cows, and FO altered the plasma GH (bST-FO > bST-C) and IGF-I (bST-C > bST-FO-C) responses to bST injections. Endometrial IGF-I mRNA was reduced in pregnant cows and tended to decrease in those fed FO. The IGF-II mRNA was increased in the endometrium of pregnant and bST-treated cows fed the control diet. Cows fed FO had increased concentrations of IGF-II mRNA, when bST

  3. Plant virus directed fabrication of nanoscale materials and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    Structural features within the internal and external PVN surfaces are amenable to either chemi- cal or genetic modifications for the display of novel moieties...structures: from nanoboomerangs to tetrapods. Nanoscale 7, 344–355. Eggen, R., Verver, J., Wellink, J., De Jong, A., Goldbach, R., van Kammen, A., 1989...in planta expression and for templates for synthetic biology applica- tions. New Phytol. 200, 16–26. Saunders, K., Sainsbury, F., Lomonossoff, G.P

  4. Neural Mechanisms and Delayed Gastric Emptying of Liquid Induced Through Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, Wilson Ranu Ramirez; Ozaki, Michiko Regina; Vinagre, Adriana Mendes; Collares, Edgard Ferro; Almeida, Eros Antonio de, E-mail: erosaa@cardiol.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-15

    In pathological situations, such as acute myocardial infarction, disorders of motility of the proximal gut can trigger symptoms like nausea and vomiting. Acute myocardial infarction delays gastric emptying (GE) of liquid in rats. Investigate the involvement of the vagus nerve, α 1-adrenoceptors, central nervous system GABA{sub B} receptors and also participation of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in GE and gastric compliance (GC) in infarcted rats. Wistar rats, N = 8-15 in each group, were divided as INF group and sham (SH) group and subdivided. The infarction was performed through ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. GC was estimated with pressure-volume curves. Vagotomy was performed by sectioning the dorsal and ventral branches. To verify the action of GABA{sub B} receptors, baclofen was injected via icv (intracerebroventricular). Intravenous prazosin was used to produce chemical sympathectomy. The lesion in the PVN of the hypothalamus was performed using a 1mA/10s electrical current and GE was determined by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (% GR) of a saline meal. No significant differences were observed regarding GC between groups; vagotomy significantly reduced % GR in INF group; icv treatment with baclofen significantly reduced %GR. GABA{sub B} receptors were not conclusively involved in delaying GE; intravenous treatment with prazosin significantly reduced GR% in INF group. PVN lesion abolished the effect of myocardial infarction on GE. Gastric emptying of liquids induced through acute myocardial infarction in rats showed the involvement of the vagus nerve, alpha1- adrenergic receptors and PVN.

  5. The Frequency-Dependent Aerobic Exercise Effects of Hypothalamic GABAergic Expression and Cardiovascular Functions in Aged Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A decline in cardiovascular modulation is a feature of the normal aging process and associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs such as hypertension and stroke. Exercise training is known to promote cardiovascular adaptation in young animals and positive effects on motor and cognitive capabilities, as well as on brain plasticity for all ages in mice. Here, we examine the question of whether aerobic exercise interventions may impact the GABAergic neurons of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN in aged rats which have been observed to have a decline in cardiovascular integration function. In the present study, young (2 months and old (24 months male Wistar rats were divided into young control (YC, old sedentary, old low frequency exercise (20 m/min, 60 min/day, 3 days/week, 12 weeks and old high frequency exercise (20 m/min, 60 min/day, 5 days/week, 12 weeks. Exercise training indexes were obtained, including resting heart rate (HR, blood pressure (BP, plasma norepinephrine (NE, and heart weight (HW-to-body weight (BW ratios. The brain was removed and processed according to the immunofluorescence staining and western blot used to analyze the GABAergic terminal density, the proteins of GAD67, GABAA receptor and gephyrin in the PVN. There were significant changes in aged rats compared with those in the YC. Twelve weeks aerobic exercise training has volume-dependent ameliorated effects on cardiovascular parameters, autonomic nervous activities and GABAergic system functions. These data suggest that the density of GABAergic declines in the PVN is associated with imbalance in autonomic nervous activities in normal aging. Additionally, aerobic exercise can rescue aging-related an overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system and induces modifications the resting BP and HR to lower values via improving the GABAergic system in the PVN.

  6. The Frequency-Dependent Aerobic Exercise Effects of Hypothalamic GABAergic Expression and Cardiovascular Functions in Aged Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhao, Ziqi; Cai, Jiajia; Gu, Boya; Lv, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Li

    2017-01-01

    A decline in cardiovascular modulation is a feature of the normal aging process and associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) such as hypertension and stroke. Exercise training is known to promote cardiovascular adaptation in young animals and positive effects on motor and cognitive capabilities, as well as on brain plasticity for all ages in mice. Here, we examine the question of whether aerobic exercise interventions may impact the GABAergic neurons of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in aged rats which have been observed to have a decline in cardiovascular integration function. In the present study, young (2 months) and old (24 months) male Wistar rats were divided into young control (YC), old sedentary, old low frequency exercise (20 m/min, 60 min/day, 3 days/week, 12 weeks) and old high frequency exercise (20 m/min, 60 min/day, 5 days/week, 12 weeks). Exercise training indexes were obtained, including resting heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), plasma norepinephrine (NE), and heart weight (HW)-to-body weight (BW) ratios. The brain was removed and processed according to the immunofluorescence staining and western blot used to analyze the GABAergic terminal density, the proteins of GAD67, GABAA receptor and gephyrin in the PVN. There were significant changes in aged rats compared with those in the YC. Twelve weeks aerobic exercise training has volume-dependent ameliorated effects on cardiovascular parameters, autonomic nervous activities and GABAergic system functions. These data suggest that the density of GABAergic declines in the PVN is associated with imbalance in autonomic nervous activities in normal aging. Additionally, aerobic exercise can rescue aging-related an overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system and induces modifications the resting BP and HR to lower values via improving the GABAergic system in the PVN. PMID:28713263

  7. Gonadal Steroid Hormones and the Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis

    OpenAIRE

    Handa, Robert J.; Weiser, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis represents a complex neuroendocrine feedback loop controlling the secretion of adrenal glucocorticoid hormones. Central to its function is the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) where neurons expressing corticotropin releasing factor reside. These HPA motor neurons are a primary site of integration leading to graded endocrine responses to physical and psychological stressors. An important regulatory factor that must be considered, pr...

  8. GPR30 is necessary for estradiol-induced desensitization of 5-HT1A receptor signaling in the paraventricular nucleus of the rat hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, C E; Creech, R D; Kimball, P A; Muma, N A; Li, Q

    2012-08-01

    Estrogen therapy used in combination with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment improves SSRI efficacy for the treatment of mood disorders. Desensitization of serotonin 1A (5-HT(1A)) receptors, which takes one to two weeks to develop in animals, is necessary for SSRI therapeutic efficacy. Estradiol modifies 5-HT(1A) receptor signaling and induces a partial desensitization in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the rat within two days, but the mechanisms underlying this effect are currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify the estrogen receptor necessary for estradiol-induced 5-HT(1A) receptor desensitization. We previously showed that estrogen receptor β is not necessary for 5-HT(1A) receptor desensitization and that selective activation of estrogen receptor GPR30 mimics the effects of estradiol in rat PVN. Here, we used a recombinant adenovirus containing GPR30 siRNAs to decrease GPR30 expression in the PVN. Reduction of GPR30 prevented estradiol-induced desensitization of 5-HT(1A) receptor as measured by hormonal responses to the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, (+)8-OH-DPAT. To determine the possible mechanisms underlying these effects, we investigated protein and mRNA levels of 5-HT(1A) receptor signaling components including 5-HT(1A) receptor, Gαz, and RGSz1. We found that two days of estradiol increased protein and mRNA expression of RGSz1, and decreased 5-HT(1A) receptor protein but increased 5-HT(1A) mRNA; GPR30 knockdown prevented the estradiol-induced changes in 5-HT(1A) receptor protein in the PVN. Taken together, these data demonstrate that GPR30 is necessary for estradiol-induced changes in the 5-HT(1A) receptor signaling pathway and desensitization of 5-HT(1A) receptor signaling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Estradiol-induced desensitization of 5-HT1A receptor signaling in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus is independent of estrogen receptor-beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Dania V; Dai, Ying; Thomas, Peter; Carrasco, Gonzalo A; DonCarlos, Lydia L; Muma, Nancy A; Li, Qian

    2010-08-01

    Estradiol regulates serotonin 1A (5-HT(1A)) receptor signaling. Since desensitization of 5-HT(1A) receptors may be an underlying mechanism by which selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) mediate their therapeutic effects and combining estradiol with SSRIs enhances the efficacy of the SSRIs, it is important to determine which estrogen receptors are capable of desensitizating 5-HT(1A) receptor function. We previously demonstrated that selective activation of the estrogen receptor, GPR30, desensitizes 5-HT(1A) receptor signaling in rat hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). However, since estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta), is highly expressed in the PVN, we investigated the role of ERbeta in estradiol-induced desensitization of 5-HT(1A) receptor signaling. We first showed that a selective ERbeta agonist, diarylpropionitrile (DPN) has a 100-fold lower binding affinity than estradiol for GPR30. Administration of DPN did not desensitize 5-HT(1A) receptor signaling in rat PVN as demonstrated by agonist-stimulated hormone release. Second, we used a recombinant adenovirus containing ERbeta siRNAs to decrease ERbeta expression in the PVN. Reductions in ERbeta did not alter the estradiol-induced desensitization of 5-HT(1A) receptor signaling in oxytocin cells. In contrast, in animals with reduced ERbeta, estradiol administration, instead of producing desensitization, augmented the ACTH response to a 5-HT(1A) agonist. Combined with the results from the DPN treatment experiments, desensitization of 5-HT(1A) receptor signaling does not appear to be mediated by ERbeta in oxytocin cells, but that ERbeta, together with GPR30, may play a complex role in central regulation of 5-HT(1A)-mediated ACTH release. Determining the mechanisms by which estrogens induce desensitization may aid in the development of better treatments for mood disorders. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Activation of Hypocretin-1/Orexin-A Neurons Projecting to the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis and Paraventricular Nucleus Is Critical for Reinstatement of Alcohol Seeking by Neuropeptide S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaldi, Massimo; Giordano, Antonio; Severi, Ilenia; Li, Hongwu; Kallupi, Marsida; de Guglielmo, Giordano; Ruggeri, Barbara; Stopponi, Serena; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Cannella, Nazzareno

    2016-03-15

    Environmental conditioning is a major trigger for relapse in abstinent addicts. We showed that activation of the neuropeptide S (NPS) system exacerbates reinstatement vulnerability to cocaine and alcohol via stimulation of the hypocretin-1/orexin-A (Hcrt-1/Ox-A) system. Combining pharmacologic manipulations with immunohistochemistry techniques, we sought to determine how NPS and Hcrt-1/Ox-A systems interact to modulate reinstatement of alcohol seeking in rats. Intrahypothalamic injection of NPS facilitated discriminative cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking. This effect was blocked by the selective Hcrt-1/Ox-A antagonist SB334867 microinjected into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) but not into the ventral tegmental area or the locus coeruleus. Combining double labeling and confocal microscopy analyses, we found that NPS-containing axons are in close apposition to hypothalamic Hcrt-1/Ox-A positive neurons, a significant proportion of which express NPS receptors, suggesting a direct interaction between the two systems. Retrograde tracing experiments showed that intra-PVN or intra-BNST red fluorobead unilateral injection labeled bilaterally Hcrt-1/Ox-A somata, suggesting that NPS could recruit two distinct neuronal pathways. Confirming this assumption, intra-BNST or PVN Hcrt-1/Ox-A injection enhanced alcohol seeking similarly to hypothalamic NPS injection but to a lesser degree. Results suggest that the Hcrt-1/Ox-A neurocircuitry mediating the facilitation of cue-induced reinstatement by NPS involves structures critically involved in stress regulation such as the PVN and the BNST. These findings open to the tempting hypothesis of a role of the NPS system in modulating the interactions between stress and environmental conditioning factors in drug relapse. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. An essential role for the K+-dependent Na+/Ca2+-exchanger, NCKX4, in melanocortin-4-receptor-dependent satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Fang; Lytton, Jonathan

    2014-09-12

    K(+)-dependent Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchangers are broadly expressed in various tissues, and particularly enriched in neurons of the brain. The distinct physiological roles for the different members of this Ca(2+) transporter family are, however, not well described. Here we show that gene-targeted mice lacking the K(+)-dependent Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger, NCKX4 (gene slc24a4 or Nckx4), display a remarkable anorexia with severe hypophagia and weight loss. Feeding and satiety are coordinated centrally by melanocortin-4 receptors (MC4R) in neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). The hypophagic response of Nckx4 knock-out mice is accompanied by hyperactivation of neurons in the PVN, evidenced by high levels of c-Fos expression. The activation of PVN neurons in both fasted Nckx4 knock-out and glucose-injected wild-type animals is blocked by Ca(2+) removal and MC4R antagonists. In cultured hypothalamic neurons, melanocyte stimulating hormone induces an MC4R-dependent and sustained Ca(2+) signal, which requires phospholipase C activity and plasma membrane Ca(2+) entry. The Ca(2+) signal is enhanced in hypothalamic neurons from Nckx4 knock-out animals, and is depressed in cells in which NCKX4 is overexpressed. Finally, MC4R-dependent oxytocin expression in the PVN, a key essential step in satiety, is prevented by blocking phospholipase C activation or Ca(2+) entry. These findings highlight an essential, and to our knowledge previously unknown, role for Ca(2+) signaling in the MC4R pathway that leads to satiety, and a novel non-redundant role for NCKX4-mediated Ca(2+) extrusion in controlling MC4R signaling and feeding behavior. Together, these findings highlight a novel pathway that potentially could be exploited to develop much needed new therapeutics to tackle eating disorders and obesity. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Differential sensitivity to nicotine among hypothalamic magnocellular neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, J D; Jacobsen, Julie; Kiss, Adrian Emil

    2012-01-01

    The magnocellular neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei (SON) either contain vasopressin or oxytocin. Even though both hormones are released after systemic administration of nicotine, the mechanism through which the two populations of neurons are activated...... is not known. This study was carried out in the rat to investigate the effect of increasing doses of nicotine on subsets of magnocellular neurons containing either oxytocin or vasopressin....

  13. Lemon Odor Reduces Stress-induced Neuronal Activation in the Emotion Expression System: An Animal Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanada, Kazue; Sugimoto, Koji; Shutoh, Fumihiro; Hisano, Setsuji

    Perception of particular sensory stimuli from the surroundings can influence emotion in individuals. In an uncomfortable situation, humans protect themselves from some aversive stimulus by acutely evoking a stress response. Animal model studies have contributed to an understanding of neuronal mechanisms underlying the stress response in humans. To study a possible anti-stressful effect of lemon odor, an excitation of neurons secreting corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) as a primary factor of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) was analyzed in animal model experiments, in which rats are restrained in the presence or absence of the odor. The effect was evaluated by measuring expression of c-Fos (an excited neuron marker) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), a key structure of the HPA in the brain. We prepared 3 animal groups: Groups S, L and I. Groups S and L were restrained for 30 minutes while being blown by air and being exposed to the lemon odor, respectively. Group I was intact without any treatment. Two hours later of the onset of experiments, brains of all groups were sampled and processed for microscopic examination. Brain sections were processed for c-Fos immunostaining and/or in situ hybridization for CRH. In Group S but not in Group I, c-Fos expression was found in the PVN. A combined in situ hybridization-immunohistochemical dual labeling revealed that CRH mRNA-expressing neurons express c-Fos. In computer-assisted automatic counting, the incidence of c-Fos-expressing neurons in the entire PVN was statistically lower in Group L than in Group S. Detailed analysis of PVN subregions demonstrated that c-Fos-expressing neurons are fewer in Group L than in Group S in the dorsal part of the medial parvocellular subregion. These results may suggest that lemon odor attenuates the restraint stress-induced neuronal activation including CRH neurons, presumably mimicking an aspect of stress responses in humans.

  14. Agmatine in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus stimulates feeding in rats: involvement of neuropeptide Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taksande, BG; Kotagale, NR; Nakhate, KT; Mali, PD; Kokare, DM; Hirani, K; Subhedar, NK; Chopde, CT; Ugale, RR

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Agmatine, a multifaceted neurotransmitter, is abundantly expressed in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Our aim was to assess (i) the effect of agmatine on feeding behaviour and (ii) its association, if any, with neuropeptide Y (NPY). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Satiated rats fitted with intra-PVN cannulae were administered agmatine, alone or jointly with (i) α2-adrenoceptor agonist, clonidine, or antagonist, yohimbine; (ii) NPY, NPY Y1 receptor agonist, [Leu31, Pro34]-NPY, or antagonist, BIBP3226; or (iii) yohimbine and NPY. Cumulative food intake was monitored at different post-injection time points. Furthermore, the expression of hypothalamic NPY following i.p. treatment with agmatine, alone or in combination with yohimbine (i.p.), was evaluated by immunocytochemistry. KEY RESULTS Agmatine robustly increased feeding in a dose-dependent manner. While pretreatment with clonidine augmented, yohimbine attenuated the orexigenic response to agmatine. Similarly, NPY and [Leu31, Pro34]-NPY potentiated the agmatine-induced hyperphagia, whereas BIBP3226 inhibited it. Moreover, yohimbine attenuated the synergistic orexigenic effect induced by the combination of NPY and agmatine. Agmatine increased NPY immunoreactivity in the PVN fibres and in the cells of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) and this effect was prevented by pretreatment with yohimbine. NPY immunoreactivity in the fibres of the ARC, dorsomedial, ventromedial and lateral nuclei of the hypothalamus was not affected by any of the above treatments. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The orexigenic effect of agmatine is coupled to increased NPY activity mediated by stimulation of α2-adrenoceptors within the PVN. This signifies the importance of agmatine or α2-adrenoceptor modulators in the development of novel therapeutic agents to treat feeding-related disorders. PMID:21564088

  15. An acute injection of corticosterone increases thyrotrophin-releasing hormone expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus but interferes with the rapid hypothalamus pituitary thyroid axis response to cold in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo-Rivera, I; Jaimes-Hoy, L; Cote-Vélez, A; Espinoza-Ayala, C; Charli, J-L; Joseph-Bravo, P

    2014-12-01

    The activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis is rapidly adjusted by energy balance alterations. Glucocorticoids can interfere with this activity, although the timing of this interaction is unknown. In vitro studies indicate that, albeit incubation with either glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonists or protein kinase A (PKA) activators enhances pro-thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (pro-TRH) transcription, co-incubation with both stimuli reduces this enhancement. In the present study, we used primary cultures of hypothalamic cells to test whether the order of these stimuli alters the cross-talk. We observed that a simultaneous or 1-h prior (but not later) activation of GR is necessary to inhibit the stimulatory effect of PKA activation on pro-TRH expression. We tested these in vitro results in the context of a physiological stimulus on the HPT axis in adult male rats. Cold exposure for 1 h enhanced pro-TRH mRNA expression in neurones of the hypophysiotrophic and rostral subdivisions of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, thyrotrophin (TSH) serum levels and deiodinase 2 (D2) activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT). An i.p. injection of corticosterone stimulated pro-TRH expression in the PVN of rats kept at ambient temperature, more pronouncedly in hypophysiotrophic neurones that no longer responded to cold exposure. In corticosterone-pretreated rats, the cold-induced increase in pro-TRH expression was detected only in the rostral PVN. Corticosterone blunted the increase in serum TSH levels and D2 activity in BAT produced by cold in vehicle-injected animals. Thus, increased serum corticosterone levels rapidly restrain cold stress-induced activation of TRH hypophysiotrophic neurones, which may contribute to changing energy expenditure. Interestingly, TRH neurones of the rostral PVN responded to both corticosterone and cold exposure with an amplified expression of pro-TRH mRNA, suggesting that these neurones integrate stress and temperature

  16. Neural Mechanisms and Delayed Gastric Emptying of Liquid Induced Through Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Ranu Ramirez Nunez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In pathological situations, such as acute myocardial infarction, disorders of motility of the proximal gut can trigger symptoms like nausea and vomiting. Acute myocardial infarction delays gastric emptying (GE of liquid in rats. Objective: Investigate the involvement of the vagus nerve, α 1-adrenoceptors, central nervous system GABAB receptors and also participation of paraventricular nucleus (PVN of the hypothalamus in GE and gastric compliance (GC in infarcted rats. Methods: Wistar rats, N = 8-15 in each group, were divided as INF group and sham (SH group and subdivided. The infarction was performed through ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. GC was estimated with pressure-volume curves. Vagotomy was performed by sectioning the dorsal and ventral branches. To verify the action of GABAB receptors, baclofen was injected via icv (intracerebroventricular. Intravenous prazosin was used to produce chemical sympathectomy. The lesion in the PVN of the hypothalamus was performed using a 1mA/10s electrical current and GE was determined by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (% GR of a saline meal. Results: No significant differences were observed regarding GC between groups; vagotomy significantly reduced % GR in INF group; icv treatment with baclofen significantly reduced %GR. GABAB receptors were not conclusively involved in delaying GE; intravenous treatment with prazosin significantly reduced GR% in INF group. PVN lesion abolished the effect of myocardial infarction on GE. Conclusion: Gastric emptying of liquids induced through acute myocardial infarction in rats showed the involvement of the vagus nerve, alpha1- adrenergic receptors and PVN.

  17. Gene expression profiling in the stress control brain region hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus reveals a novel gene network including Amyloid beta Precursor Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deussing Jan M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pivotal role of stress in the precipitation of psychiatric diseases such as depression is generally accepted. This study aims at the identification of genes that are directly or indirectly responding to stress. Inbred mouse strains that had been evidenced to differ in their stress response as well as in their response to antidepressant treatment were chosen for RNA profiling after stress exposure. Gene expression and regulation was determined by microarray analyses and further evaluated by bioinformatics tools including pathway and cluster analyses. Results Forced swimming as acute stressor was applied to C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice and resulted in sets of regulated genes in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN, 4 h or 8 h after stress. Although the expression changes between the mouse strains were quite different, they unfolded in phases over time in both strains. Our search for connections between the regulated genes resulted in potential novel signalling pathways in stress. In particular, Guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha inhibiting 2 (GNAi2 and Amyloid β (A4 precursor protein (APP were detected as stress-regulated genes, and together with other genes, seem to be integrated into stress-responsive pathways and gene networks in the PVN. Conclusions This search for stress-regulated genes in the PVN revealed its impact on interesting genes (GNAi2 and APP and a novel gene network. In particular the expression of APP in the PVN that is governing stress hormone balance, is of great interest. The reported neuroprotective role of this molecule in the CNS supports the idea that a short acute stress can elicit positive adaptational effects in the brain.

  18. Ghrelin is an orexigenic and metabolic signaling peptide in the arcuate and paraventricular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Paul J; Mirza, Aaisha; Fuld, Rebecca; Park, Diana; Vasselli, Joseph R

    2005-08-01

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino acid acylated peptide and is the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). The GHS-R is expressed in hypothalamic nuclei, including the arcuate nucleus (Arc) where it is colocalized with neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons. In the present study, we examined the effects of ghrelin on feeding and energy substrate utilization (respiratory quotient; RQ) following direct injections into either the arcuate or the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. Ghrelin was administered at the beginning of the dark cycle at doses of 15-60 pmol to male and female rats. In feeding studies, food intake was measured 2 and 4 h postinjection. Separate groups of rats were injected with ghrelin, and the RQ (VCO(2)/VO(2)) was measured using an open circuit calorimeter over a 4-h period. Both Arc and PVN injections of ghrelin increased food intake in male and female rats. Ghrelin also increased RQ, reflecting a shift in energy substrate utilization in favor of carbohydrate oxidation. Because these effects are similar to those observed after PVN injection of NPY, we then assessed the impact of coinjecting ghrelin with NPY into the PVN. When rats were pretreated with very low doses of ghrelin (2.5-10 pmol), NPY's (50 pmol) effects on eating and RQ were potentiated. Overall, these data are in agreement with evidence suggesting that ghrelin functions as a gut-brain endocrine hormone implicated in the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. Our findings are also consistent with a possible interactive role of hypothalamic ghrelin and NPY systems.

  19. Endoplasmic reticulum stress increases brain MAPK signaling, inflammation and renin-angiotensin system activity and sympathetic nerve activity in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shun-Guang; Yu, Yang; Weiss, Robert M; Felder, Robert B

    2016-10-01

    We previously reported that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is induced in the subfornical organ (SFO) and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of heart failure (HF) rats and is reduced by inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. The present study further examined the relationship between brain MAPK signaling, ER stress, and sympathetic excitation in HF. Sham-operated (Sham) and HF rats received a 4-wk intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of vehicle (Veh) or the ER stress inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA, 10 μg/day). Lower mRNA levels of the ER stress biomarkers GRP78, ATF6, ATF4, and XBP-1s in the SFO and PVN of TUDCA-treated HF rats validated the efficacy of the TUDCA dose. The elevated levels of phosphorylated p44/42 and p38 MAPK in SFO and PVN of Veh-treated HF rats, compared with Sham rats, were significantly reduced in TUDCA-treated HF rats as shown by Western blot and immunofluorescent staining. Plasma norepinephrine levels were higher in Veh-treated HF rats, compared with Veh-treated Sham rats, and were significantly lower in the TUDCA-treated HF rats. TUDCA-treated HF rats also had lower mRNA levels for angiotensin converting enzyme, angiotensin II type 1 receptor, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, cyclooxygenase-2, and NF-κB p65, and a higher mRNA level of IκB-α, in the SFO and PVN than Veh-treated HF rats. These data suggest that ER stress contributes to the augmented sympathetic activity in HF by inducing MAPK signaling, thereby promoting inflammation and renin-angiotensin system activity in key cardiovascular regulatory regions of the brain.

  20. Identification of the S-transferase like superfamily bacillithiol transferases encoded by Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Varahenage R.; Lapek, John D.; Newton, Gerald L.; Gonzalez, David J.; Pogliano, Kit

    2018-01-01

    Bacillithiol is a low molecular weight thiol found in Firmicutes that is analogous to glutathione, which is absent in these bacteria. Bacillithiol transferases catalyze the transfer of bacillithiol to various substrates. The S-transferase-like (STL) superfamily contains over 30,000 putative members, including bacillithiol transferases. Proteins in this family are extremely divergent and are related by structural rather than sequence similarity, leaving it unclear if all share the same biochemical activity. Bacillus subtilis encodes eight predicted STL superfamily members, only one of which has been shown to be a bacillithiol transferase. Here we find that the seven remaining proteins show varying levels of metal dependent bacillithiol transferase activity. We have renamed the eight enzymes BstA-H. Mass spectrometry and gene expression studies revealed that all of the enzymes are produced to varying levels during growth and sporulation, with BstB and BstE being the most abundant and BstF and BstH being the least abundant. Interestingly, several bacillithiol transferases are induced in the mother cell during sporulation. A strain lacking all eight bacillithiol transferases showed normal growth in the presence of stressors that adversely affect growth of bacillithiol-deficient strains, such as paraquat and CdCl2. Thus, the STL bacillithiol transferases represent a new group of proteins that play currently unknown, but potentially significant roles in bacillithiol-dependent reactions. We conclude that these enzymes are highly divergent, perhaps to cope with an equally diverse array of endogenous or exogenous toxic metabolites and oxidants. PMID:29451913

  1. Cost-of-illness in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis: a cross-sectional survey in Hungarian dermatological centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Orsolya; Brodszky, Valentin; Gulácsi, László; Herédi, Emese; Herszényi, Krisztina; Jókai, Hajnalka; Kárpáti, Sarolta; Baji, Petra; Remenyik, Éva; Szegedi, Andrea; Holló, Péter

    2014-05-01

    Despite the widespread availability of biological drugs in psoriasis, there is a shortage of disease burden studies. To assess the cost-of-illness and quality of life of patients with moderate to severe psoriasis in Hungary. Consecutive patients with Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) > 10 and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) > 10, or treated with traditional systemic (TST) or biological systemic treatment (BST) were included. Demographic data, clinical characteristics, psoriasis related medication, health care utilizations and employment status in the previous 12 months were recorded. Costing was performed from the societal perspective applying the human capital approach. Quality of life was assessed using DLQI and EQ-5D measures. Two-hundred patients were involved (females 32%) with a mean age of 51 (SD 13) years, 103 (52%) patients were on BST. Mean PASI, DLQI and EQ-5D scores were 8 (SD 10), 6 (SD 7) and 0.69 (SD 0.3), respectively. The mean total cost was €9,254/patient/year (SD 8,502) with direct costs accounting for 86%. The main cost driver was BST (mean €7,339/patient/year). Total costs differed significantly across treatment subgroups, mean (SD): no systemic therapy €2,186 (4,165), TST €2,388 (4,106) and BST €15,790 (6,016) (p costs than patients with or without traditional systemic treatment. Our study is the largest in Europe and the first in the CEE region that provides cost-of-illness data in psoriasis involving patients with BST.

  2. Alternative body sites for heat stress measurement in milking cows under tropical conditions and their relationship to the thermal discomfort of the animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martello, Luciane S.; Savastano Junior, Holmer; Silva, Saulo L.; Balieiro, Júlio Cesar C.

    2010-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the relationship among temperatures measured at different anatomical sites of the animal body and their daily pattern as indicative of the thermal stress in lactating dairy cows under tropical conditions. Environmental dry bulb (DBT) and black globe (BGT) temperatures and relative humidity (RH) were recorded. Rectal temperature (RT), respiratory frequency (RF), body surface (BST), internal base of tail (TT), vulva (VT) and auricular temperatures (AT) were collected, from 37 Black and White Holstein cows at 0700, 1300 and 1800 hours. RT showed a moderately and positive correlations with all body temperatures, ranging from 0.59 with TT to 0.64 with BST. Correlations among AT, VT and TT with RF were very similar (from 0.63 to 0.64) and were greater than those observed for RF with RT (0.55) or with BST (0.54). RF and RT were positively correlated to TT (0.63 and 0.59, respectively), AT (r = 0.63 for both) and VT ( r = 0.64 and 0.63, respectively). Positive and very high correlations were observed among AT, VT and TT (from 0.94 to 0.97) indicating good association of temperatures measured in these anatomical sites. Correlations of BST with AT and VT were positive and very similar (0.71 and 0.72, respectively) and lower with TT (0.66). The AT, TT, VT and BST presented similar patterns and follow the variations of DBT through the day. Temperatures measured at different anatomical sites of the animal body have the potential to be used as indicative of the thermal stress in lactating dairy cows.

  3. Influence of subinhibitory-concentration (sub-MIC Cefetoxime on biofilm formation. SEM study of ESBL-producing Salmonella typhi

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    Rahul Narasanna, Manjunath Chavadi, Ajaykumar Oli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In the present study, we have analyzed ESBL-producing S. typhi’s capability in forming a significant amount of biofilm on plastic and glass surface, and the influence of cefetoxime on biofilm development at subinhibitory (Sub-MIC concentration. Methods: Nine strains of cefetoxime-mediated ESBL-producing S. typhi were used in the study. S. typhi formed biofilm on plastic and glass materials; it was demonstrated using micro titre plate (MTP and standard test tube methods. Comparative study of the influence of cefetoxime on biofilm formation in its MIC (128 µg/ml and at sub-MIC (64 µg/ml was demonstrated by microtitre plate method. The biofilm production was observed in SEM images, statistical analysis (ANOVA showed significant increase in cell surface and volume due to the influence of Cefetoxime. Results: Of the nine selected isolates, two S. typhi strains, namely BST 51 and BST 130, produced relatively strong biofilm in the presence of cefetoxime at sub-MIC level (64 µg/ml, comparatively weak biofilm formation at MIC level (128 µg/ml. Typical morphological changes were observed in cefetoxime-resistant strains, S. typhi BST 51 and BST 130, in comparison to cefetoxime-sensitive strain S. typhi BST 63 used as a control. We found an increase in surface and volume of a cell in response to cefetoxime and statistical data (ANOVA proved that resistant strains were significantly different from control strains. Conclusion: The above study clearly shows that cefetoxime at sub-MIC level efficiently induces biofilm formation and promotes changes in morphology of the cell. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2017; 7(2: 67-75

  4. Assessment of therapeutic effect in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism using bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaida, Hayato; Ishibashi, Masatoshi; Baba, Kenkichi; Okuda, Seiya; Hayabuchi, Naofumi; Nishida, Hidemi; Hiromatsu, Yuji

    2005-01-01

    The semi-quantitative method of bone scintigraphy [bone to soft tissue (B/ST) ratio] has been used in diagnosing and evaluating systemic metabolic bone diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate of the therapeutic effect of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHP). The subjects were ten hemodialysis patients with SHP. Seven patients underwent parathyroidectomy (PTX), and 22-Oxacalcitoriol (derivative of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 ) (OCT) was given to three patients. Bone scintigraphy and blood tests [intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), and deoxypridinoline (DPYD)] were performed before and after treatment. Regions of interest were drown around cranium, lumbar vertebrae, femoral neck and soft tissue of left medial thigh to calculate the B/ST ratio. The B/ST ratios of cranium, lumbar vertebrae, and femoral neck were reduced significantly after PTX (cranium, p=0.0079, lumbar vertebrae, p=0.0282, femoral neck, p=0.0252). Intact PTH, ALP, Ca, P, BALP and DPYD levels were reduced significantly after PTX (intact PTH, p=0.003, Ca, p=0.0005, P, p=0.0393, ALP, p=0.005 1, DPYD, p=0.0232, BALP, p=0.0324). After OCT administration, the B/ST ratio of each bony region showed tendency to diminish, although not significantly. Intact PTH levels were reduced significantly, although ALP, BALP, and DPYD levels were not. Ca and P levels were increased significantly because of the medicinal action of OCT. The B/ST ratio of cranium may be non-invasive method and have potential in evaluating the therapeutic effect of SHP. (author)

  5. Neonatal overfeeding attenuates acute central pro-inflammatory effects of short-term high fat diet

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    Guohui eCai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal obesity predisposes individuals to obesity throughout life. In rats, neonatal overfeeding also leads to early accelerated weight gain that persists into adulthood. The phenotype is associated with dysfunction in a number of systems including paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN responses to psychological and immune stressors. However, in many cases weight gain in neonatally overfed rats stabilizes in early adulthood so the animal does not become more obese as it ages. Here we examined if neonatal overfeeding by suckling rats in small litters predisposes them to exacerbated metabolic and central inflammatory disturbances if they are also given a high fat diet in later life. In adulthood we gave the rats normal chow, 3 days, or 3 weeks high fat diet (45% kcal from fat and measured peripheral indices of metabolic disturbance. We also investigated hypothalamic microglial changes, as an index of central inflammation, as well as PVN responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Surprisingly, neonatal overfeeding did not predispose rats to the metabolic effects of a high fat diet. Weight changes and glucose metabolism were unaffected by the early life experience. However, short term (3 day high fat diet was associated with more microglia in the hypothalamus and a markedly exacerbated PVN response to LPS in control rats; effects not seen in the neonatally overfed. Our findings indicate neonatally overfed animals are not more susceptible to the adverse metabolic effects of a short-term high fat diet but may be less able to respond to the central effects.

  6. Novel Antimicrobial Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes Obtained through a Combination of Atomic Layer Deposition and Electrospinning Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, Cristian; Galotto, María Jose; Palma, Juan Luis; Alburquenque, Daniela

    2018-01-01

    The search for new antimicrobial substances has increased in recent years. Antimicrobial nanostructures are one of the most promising alternatives. In this work, titanium dioxide nanotubes were obtained by an atomic layer deposition (ALD) process over electrospun polyvinyl alcohol nanofibers (PVN) at different temperatures with the purpose of obtaining antimicrobial nanostructures with a high specific area. Electrospinning and ALD parameters were studied in order to obtain PVN with smallest diameter and highest deposition rate, respectively. Chamber temperature was a key factor during ALD process and an appropriate titanium dioxide deposition performance was achieved at 200 °C. Subsequently, thermal and morphological analysis by SEM and TEM microscopies revealed hollow nanotubes were obtained after calcination process at 600 °C. This temperature allowed complete polymer removal and influenced the resulting anatase crystallographic structure of titanium dioxide that positively affected their antimicrobial activities. X-ray analysis confirmed the change of titanium dioxide crystallographic structure from amorphous phase of deposited PVN to anatase crystalline structure of nanotubes. These new nanostructures with very large surface areas resulted in interesting antimicrobial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Titanium dioxide nanotubes presented the highest activity against Escherichia coli with 5 log cycles reduction at 200 μg/mL concentration. PMID:29495318

  7. Oxytocin-induced antinociception in the spinal cord is mediated by a subpopulation of glutamatergic neurons in lamina I-II which amplify GABAergic inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlichter Rémy

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that oxytocin (OT, secreted in the superficial spinal cord dorsal horn by descending axons of paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN neurons, produces antinociception and analgesia. The spinal mechanism of OT is, however, still unclear and requires further investigation. We have used patch clamp recording of lamina II neurons in spinal cord slices and immunocytochemistry in order to identify PVN-activated neurons in the superficial layers of the spinal cord and attempted to determine how this neuronal population may lead to OT-mediated antinociception. Results We show that OT released during PVN stimulation specifically activates a subpopulation of lamina II glutamatergic interneurons which are localized in the most superficial layers of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (lamina I-II. This OT-specific stimulation of glutamatergic neurons allows the recruitment of all GABAergic interneurons in lamina II which produces a generalized elevation of local inhibition, a phenomenon which might explain the reduction of incoming Aδ and C primary afferent-mediated sensory messages. Conclusion Our results obtained in lamina II of the spinal cord provide the first clear evidence of a specific local neuronal network that is activated by OT release to induce antinociception. This OT-specific pathway might represent a novel and interesting therapeutic target for the management of neuropathic and inflammatory pain.

  8. Reactive oxygen species in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus alter sympathetic activity during metabolic syndrome.

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    JOSIANE CAMPOS CRUZ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN contains heterogeneous populations of neurons involved in autonomic and neuroendocrine regulation. The PVN plays an important role in the sympathoexcitatory response to increasing circulating levels of angiotensin II (Ang-II, which activates AT1 receptors in the circumventricular organs (OCVs, mainly in the subfornical organ (SFO. Circulating Ang-II induces a de novo synthesis of Ang-II in SFO neurons projecting to pre-autonomic PVN neurons. Activation of AT1 receptors induces intracellular increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to increases in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA. Chronic sympathetic nerve activation promotes a series of metabolic disorders that characterizes the metabolic syndrome (MetS: dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, hyperleptinemia and elevated plasma hormone levels, such as noradrenaline, glucocorticoids, leptin, insulin and Ang-II. This review will discuss the contribution of our laboratory and others regarding the sympathoexcitation caused by peripheral Ang-II-induced reactive oxygen species along the subfornical organ and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. We hypothesize that this mechanism could be involved in metabolic disorders underlying MetS.

  9. Kisspeptin system in ovariectomized mice: Estradiol and progesterone regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marraudino, Marilena; Martini, Mariangela; Trova, Sara; Farinetti, Alice; Ponti, Giovanna; Gotti, Stefano; Panzica, GianCarlo

    2018-06-01

    The kisspeptin system is clustered in two main groups of cell bodies (the periventricular region, RP3V and the arcuate nucleus, ARC) that send fibers mainly to the GnRH neurons and in a few other locations, including the paraventricular nucleus, PVN. In physiological conditions, gonadal hormones modulate the kisspeptin system with expression changes according to different phases of the estrous cycle: the highest being in estrus phase in RP3V and PVN (positive feedback), and in ARC during the diestrus phase (negative feedback). In this work we wanted to study these hormonal fluctuations during the estrous cycle, investigating the role played by progesterone (P) or estradiol (E 2 ), alone or together, on the kisspeptin system. Gonadectomized CD1 female mice were treated with P, E 2 or both (E 2  + P), following a timing of administration that emulates the different phases of estrous cycle, for two cycles of 4 days. As expected, the two cell groups were differentially affected by E 2 ; the RP3V group was positively influenced by E 2 (alone or with the P), whereas in the ARC the administration of E 2 did not affect the system. However P (alone) induced a rise in the kisspeptin immunoreactivity. All the treatments significantly affected the kisspeptin innervation of the PVN, with regional differences, suggesting that these fibers arrive from both RP3V and ARC nuclei. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Optogenetic activation of leptin- and glucose-regulated GABAergic neurons in dorsomedial hypothalamus promotes food intake via inhibitory synaptic transmission to paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus

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    Zesemdorj Otgon-Uul

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH has been considered an orexigenic nucleus, since the DMH lesion reduced food intake and body weight and induced resistance to diet-induced obesity. The DMH expresses feeding regulatory neuropeptides and receptors including neuropeptide Y (NPY, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART, cholecystokinin (CCK, leptin receptor, and melanocortin 3/4 receptors. However, the principal neurons generating the orexigenic function in the DMH remain to be defined. This study aimed to clarify the role of the DMH GABAergic neurons in feeding regulation by using optogenetics and electrophysiological techniques. Methods: We generated the mice expressing ChRFR-C167A, a bistable chimeric channelrhodopsin, selectively in GABAergic neurons of DMH via locally injected adeno-associated virus 2. Food intake after optogenetic activation of DMH GABAergic neurons was measured. Electrophysiological properties of DMH GABAergic neurons were measured using slice patch clamp. Results: Optogenetic activation of DMH GABAergic neurons promoted food intake. Leptin hyperpolarized and lowering glucose depolarized half of DMH GABAergic neurons, suggesting their orexigenic property. Optical activation of axonal terminals of DMH GABAergic neurons at the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN, where anorexigenic neurons are localized, increased inhibitory postsynaptic currents on PVN neurons and promoted food intake. Conclusion: DMH GABAergic neurons are regulated by metabolic signals leptin and glucose and, once activated, promote food intake via inhibitory synaptic transmission to PVN. Keywords: Dorsomedial hypothalamus, GABAergic neuron, Feeding, Leptin, Glucose, Optogenetics

  11. Altered organization of GABAA receptor mRNA expression in the depressed suicide brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O Poulter

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Inter-relationships ordinarily exist between mRNA expression of GABA-A subunits in the frontopolar cortex (FPC of individuals that had died suddenly from causes other than suicide. However, these correlations were largely absent in persons that had died by suicide. In the present investigation, these findings were extended by examining GABA-A receptor expression patterns (of controls and depressed individuals that died by suicide in the orbital frontal cortex (OFC, hippocampus, amygdala. locus coeruleus (LC,and paraventricular nucleus (PVN, all of which have been implicated in either depression, anxiety or stress responsivity. Results Using QPCR analysis, we found that in controls the inter-relations between GABA-A subunits varied across brain regions, being high in the hippocampus and amygdala, intermediate in the LC, and low in the OFC and PVN. The GABA-A subunit inter-relations were markedly different in persons that died by suicide, being reduced in hippocampus and amygdala, stable in the LC, but more coordinated in the OFC and to some extent in the PVN. Conclusions It seems that altered brain region-specific inhibitory signaling, stemming from altered GABA-A subunit coordination, are associated with depression/suicide. Although, it is unknown whether GABA-A subunit re-organization was specifically tied to depression, suicide, or the accompanying distress, these data show that the co-ordinate expression of this transcriptome does vary depending on brain region and is plastic.

  12. Hypothalamic AMPK-ER Stress-JNK1 Axis Mediates the Central Actions of Thyroid Hormones on Energy Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Noelia; Seoane-Collazo, Patricia; Contreras, Cristina; Varela, Luis; Villarroya, Joan; Rial-Pensado, Eva; Buqué, Xabier; Aurrekoetxea, Igor; Delgado, Teresa C; Vázquez-Martínez, Rafael; González-García, Ismael; Roa, Juan; Whittle, Andrew J; Gomez-Santos, Beatriz; Velagapudi, Vidya; Tung, Y C Loraine; Morgan, Donald A; Voshol, Peter J; Martínez de Morentin, Pablo B; López-González, Tania; Liñares-Pose, Laura; Gonzalez, Francisco; Chatterjee, Krishna; Sobrino, Tomás; Medina-Gómez, Gema; Davis, Roger J; Casals, Núria; Orešič, Matej; Coll, Anthony P; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Mittag, Jens; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Malagón, María M; Diéguez, Carlos; Martínez-Chantar, María Luz; Aspichueta, Patricia; Rahmouni, Kamal; Nogueiras, Rubén; Sabio, Guadalupe; Villarroya, Francesc; López, Miguel

    2017-07-05

    Thyroid hormones (THs) act in the brain to modulate energy balance. We show that central triiodothyronine (T3) regulates de novo lipogenesis in liver and lipid oxidation in brown adipose tissue (BAT) through the parasympathetic (PSNS) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS), respectively. Central T3 promotes hepatic lipogenesis with parallel stimulation of the thermogenic program in BAT. The action of T3 depends on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-induced regulation of two signaling pathways in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH): decreased ceramide-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which promotes BAT thermogenesis, and increased c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, which controls hepatic lipid metabolism. Of note, ablation of AMPKα1 in steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) neurons of the VMH fully recapitulated the effect of central T3, pointing to this population in mediating the effect of central THs on metabolism. Overall, these findings uncover the underlying pathways through which central T3 modulates peripheral metabolism. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. α/β-Hydrolase Domain 6 in the Ventromedial Hypothalamus Controls Energy Metabolism Flexibility

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    Alexandre Fisette

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available α/β-Hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6 is a monoacylglycerol hydrolase that degrades the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG. Although complete or peripheral ABHD6 loss of function is protective against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance, the role of ABHD6 in the central control of energy balance is unknown. Using a viral-mediated knockout approach, targeted endocannabinoid measures, and pharmacology, we discovered that mice lacking ABHD6 from neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHKO have higher VMH 2-AG levels in conditions of endocannabinoid recruitment and fail to physiologically adapt to key metabolic challenges. VMHKO mice exhibited blunted fasting-induced feeding and reduced food intake, energy expenditure, and adaptive thermogenesis in response to cold exposure, high-fat feeding, and dieting (transition to a low-fat diet. Our findings identify ABHD6 as a regulator of the counter-regulatory responses to major metabolic shifts, including fasting, nutrient excess, cold, and dieting, thereby highlighting the importance of ABHD6 in the VMH in mediating energy metabolism flexibility.

  14. Hypothalamic miR-219 regulates individual metabolic differences in response to diet-induced weight cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Schroeder

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of a low calorie diet is the most common approach to lose weight. While generally effective at first, it is frequently followed by a relapse where the pre-diet weight is regained, and often exceeded. This pattern of repeated weight loss/regain is referred to as weight cycling and the resulting metabolic response varies greatly between individuals. Objective: We attempted to address the issue of individual differences in the response to weight cycling in male mice. Methods: We first exposed adult wild type mice to repeated cycles of high/low fat food. Next, using a lentiviral approach, we knocked-down or over-expressed miR-219 in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH of an additional mouse cohort and performed a full metabolic assessment. Results: Exposure of wild type males to weight cycling resulted in the division of the cohort into subsets of resistant versus metabolic-syndrome-prone (MS animals, which differed in their metabolic profile and hypothalamic miR-219 levels. Lentiviral knock-down of miR-219 in the VMH led to exacerbation of metabolic syndrome. In contrast, over-expression of miR-219 resulted in moderation of the metabolic syndrome phenotype. Conclusions: Our results suggest a role for miR-219 in the mediation of the metabolic phenotype resulting from repeated weight cycling. Keywords: Weight cycling, Metabolic syndrome, miRNAs, Ventromedial hypothalamus, High fat diet, Diabetes

  15. Alpha2delta-1 in SF1+ Neurons of the Ventromedial Hypothalamus Is an Essential Regulator of Glucose and Lipid Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsted, Jennifer A; Chien, Cheng-Hao; Wang, Dongqing; Panessiti, Micaella; Ameroso, Dominique; Greenberg, Andrew; Feng, Guoping; Kong, Dong; Rios, Maribel

    2017-12-05

    The central mechanisms controlling glucose and lipid homeostasis are inadequately understood. We show that α2δ-1 is an essential regulator of glucose and lipid balance, acting in steroidogenic factor-1 (SF1) neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH). These effects are body weight independent and involve regulation of SF1 + neuronal activity and sympathetic output to metabolic tissues. Accordingly, mice with α2δ-1 deletion in SF1 neurons exhibit glucose intolerance, altered lipolysis, and decreased cholesterol content in adipose tissue despite normal energy balance regulation. Profound reductions in the firing rate of SF1 neurons, decreased sympathetic output, and elevated circulating levels of serotonin are associated with these alterations. Normal calcium currents but reduced excitatory postsynaptic currents in mutant SF1 neurons implicate α2δ-1 in the promotion of excitatory synaptogenesis separate from its canonical role as a calcium channel subunit. Collectively, these findings identify an essential mechanism that regulates VMH neuronal activity and glycemic and lipid control and may be a target for tackling metabolic disease. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Neuroendocrine stress reactivity of male C57BL/6N mice following chronic oral corticosterone exposure during adulthood or adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahanoor, Ziasmin; Sultana, Razia; Baker, Madelyn R; Romeo, Russell D

    2017-12-01

    Adolescence is associated with the maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the major neuroendocrine axis mediating the hormonal stress response. Adolescence is also a period in development marked by a variety of stress-related vulnerabilities, including psychological and physiological dysfunctions. Many of these vulnerabilities are accompanied by a disrupted HPA axis. In adult mice, a model of disrupted HPA function has been developed using oral chronic corticosterone administration via the drinking water, which results in various physiological and neurobehavioral abnormalities, including changes in stress reactivity and anxiety-like behaviors. In an effort to further complement and extend this model, we tested the impact of HPA disruption in adolescent mice. We also examined whether this disruption led to different outcomes depending on whether the treatment happened during adolescence or adulthood. In the current set of experiments, we exposed adult (70days of age) or adolescent (30days of age) male C57BL/6N mice to 4 weeks of either 0 or 25μg/ml oral corticosterone via their drinking water. We measured body weight during treatment and plasma corticosterone levels and activation of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), as indexed by FOS immunohistochemistry, before and after a 30min session of restraint stress. Our data indicate that adolescent animals exposed to chronic corticosterone showed weight loss during treatment, an effect not observed in adults. Further, we found stress failed to elevate plasma corticosterone levels in treated mice, regardless of whether exposure occurred in adulthood or adolescence. Despite this reduced hormonal responsiveness, we found significant neural activation in the PVN of both adult- and adolescent-treated mice, indicating a dissociation between stress-induced peripheral and central stress responses following chronic corticosterone exposure. Moreover, stress-induced neural activation in the PVN was unaffected

  17. Neural mechanism of gastric motility regulation by electroacupuncture at RN12 and BL21: A paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus-dorsal vagal complex-vagus nerve-gastric channel pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Liu, Wen-Jian; Shen, Guo-Ming; Zhang, Meng-Ting; Huang, Shun; He, Ying

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the neural mechanism by which electroacupuncture (EA) at RN12 (Zhongwan) and BL21 (Weishu) regulates gastric motility. METHODS: One hundred and forty-four adult Sprague Dawley rats were studied in four separate experiments. Intragastric pressure was measured using custom-made rubber balloons, and extracellular neuron firing activity, which is sensitive to gastric distention in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC), was recorded by an electrophysiological technique. The expression levels of c-fos, motilin (MTL) and gastrin (GAS) in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) were assayed by immunohistochemistry, and the expression levels of motilin receptor (MTL-R) and gastrin receptor (GAS-R) in both the PVN and the gastric antrum were assayed by western blotting. RESULTS: EA at RN12 + BL21 (gastric Shu and Mu points), BL21 (gastric Back-Shu point), RN12 (gastric Front-Mu point), resulted in increased neuron-activating frequency in the DVC (2.08 ± 0.050, 1.17 ± 0.023, 1.55 ± 0.079 vs 0.75 ± 0.046, P < 0.001) compared with a model group. The expression of c-fos (36.24 ± 1.67, 29.41 ± 2.55, 31.79 ± 3.00 vs 5.73 ± 2.18, P < 0.001), MTL (22.48 ± 2.66, 20.76 ± 2.41, 19.17 ± 1.71 vs 11.68 ± 2.52, P < 0.001), GAS (24.99 ± 2.95, 21.69 ± 3.24, 23.03 ± 3.09 vs 12.53 ± 2.15, P < 0.001), MTL-R (1.39 ± 0.05, 1.22 ± 0.05, 1.17 ± 0.12 vs 0.84 ± 0.06, P < 0.001), and GAS-R (1.07 ± 0.07, 0.91 ± 0.06, 0.78 ± 0.05 vs 0.45 ± 0.04, P < 0.001) increased in the PVN after EA compared with the model group. The expression of MTL-R (1.46 ± 0.14, 1.26 ± 0.11, 0.99 ± 0.07 vs 0.65 ± 0.03, P < 0.001), and GAS-R (1.63 ± 0.11, 1.26 ± 0.16, 1.13 ± 0.02 vs 0.80 ± 0.11, P < 0.001) increased in the gastric antrum after EA compared with the model group. Damaging the PVN resulted in reduced intragastric pressure (13.67 ± 3.72 vs 4.27 ± 1.48, P < 0.001). These data demonstrate that the signals induced by EA stimulation of acupoints RN12 and BL21 are detectable

  18. Selective angiographic embolization of blunt splenic traumatic injuries in adults decreases failure rate of nonoperative management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhullar, Indermeet S; Frykberg, Eric R; Siragusa, Daniel; Chesire, David; Paul, Julia; Tepas, Joseph J; Kerwin, Andrew J

    2012-05-01

    To determine whether angioembolization (AE) in hemodynamically stable adult patients with blunt splenic trauma (BST) at high risk for failure of nonoperative management (NOM) (contrast blush [CB] on computed tomography, high-grade IV-V injuries, or decreasing hemoglobin) results in lower failure rates than reported. The records of patients with BST from July 2000 to December 2010 at a Level I trauma center were retrospectively reviewed using National Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons. Failure of NOM (FNOM) occurred if splenic surgery was required after attempted NOM. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with FNOM. A total of 1,039 patients with BST were found. Pediatric patients (age <17 years), those who died in the emergency department, and those requiring immediate surgery for hemodynamic instability were excluded. Of the 539 (64% of all BST) hemodynamically stable patients who underwent NOM, 104 (19%) underwent AE and 435 (81%) were observed without AE (NO-AE). FNOM for the various groups were as follows: overall NOM (4%), NO-AE (4%), and AE (4%). There was no significant difference in FNOM for NO-AE versus AE for grades I to III: grade I (1% vs. 0%, p = 1), grade II (2% vs. 0%, p = 0.318), and grade III (5% vs. 0%, p = 0.562); however, a significant decrease in FNOM was noted with the addition of AE for grades IV to V: grade IV (23% vs. 3%, p = 0.04) and grade V (63% vs. 9%, p = 0.03). Statistically significant independent risk factors for FNOM were grade IV to V injuries and CB. Application of strictly defined selection criteria for NOM and AE in patients with BST resulted in one of the lowest overall FNOM rates (4%). Hemodynamically stable BST patients are candidates for NOM with selective AE for high-risk patients with grade IV to V injuries, CB on initial computed tomography, and/or decreasing hemoglobin levels. III, therapeutic study.

  19. Investigation of resistive switching in barium strontium titanate thin films for memory applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Wan

    2010-01-01

    Resistive random access memory (RRAM) has attracted much attention due to its low power consumption, high speed operation, non-readout disturbance and high density integration potential and is regarded as one of the most promising candidates for the next generation non-volatile memory. The resistive switching behavior of Mn-doped BaSrTiO 3 (BST) thin films with different crystalline properties was investigated within this dissertation. The laser fluence dependence was checked in order to optimize the RRAM properties. Although the film epitaxial quality was improved by reducing the laser energy during deposition process, the yields fluctuated and only 3% RRAM devices with highest epitaxial quality of BST film shows resistive switching behavior instead of 67% for the samples with worse film quality. It gives a clue that the best thin film quality does not result in the best switching performance, and it is a clear evidence of the importance of the defects to obtain resistive switching phenomena. The bipolar resistive switching behavior was studied with epitaxial BST thin films on SRO/STO. Compared to Pt top electrode, the yield, endurance and reliability were strongly improved for the samples with W top electrode. Whereas the samples with Pt top electrode show a fast drop of the resistance for both high and low resistance states, the devices with W top electrode can be switched for 10 4 times without any obvious degradation. The resistance degradation for devices with Pt top electrode may result from the diffusion of oxygen along the Pt grain boundaries during cycling whereas for W top electrode the reversible oxidation and reduction of a WO x layer, present at the interface between W top electrode and BST film, attributes to the improved switching property. The transition from bipolar to unipolar resistive switching in polycrystalline BST thin films was observed. A forming process which induces a metallic low resistance state is prerequisite for the observation of

  20. Multicomponent doped barium strontium titanate thin films for tunable microwave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alema, Fikadu Legesse

    In recent years there has been enormous progress in the development of barium strontium titanate (BST) films for tunable microwave applications. However, the properties of BST films still remain inferior compared to bulk materials, limiting their use for microwave technology. Understanding the film/substrate mismatch, microstructure, and stoichiometry of BST films and finding the necessary remedies are vital. In this work, BST films were deposited via radio frequency magnetron sputtering method and characterized both analytically and electrically with the aim of optimizing their properties. The stoichiometry, crystal structure, and phase purity of the films were studied by varying the oxygen partial pressure (OPP) and total gas pressure (TGP) in the chamber. A better stoichiometric match between film and target was achieved when the TGP is high (> 30 mTorr). However, the O2/Ar ratio should be adjusted as exceeding a threshold of 2 mTorr in OPP facilitates the formation of secondary phases. The growth of crystalline film on platinized substrates was achieved only with a lower temperature grown buffer layer, which acts as a seed layer by crystallizing when the temperature increases. Concurrent Mg/Nb doping has significantly improved the properties of BST thin films. The doped film has shown an average tunability of 53%, which is only ˜8 % lower than the value for the undoped film. This drop is associated with the Mg ions whose detrimental effects are partially compensated by Nb ions. Conversely, the doping has reduced the dielectric loss by ˜40 % leading to a higher figure of merit. Moreover, the two dopants ensure a charge neutrality condition which resulted in significant leakage current reduction. The presence of large amounts of empty shallow traps related to Nb Ti localize the free carriers injected from the contacts; thus increase the device control voltage substantially (>10 V). A combinatorial thin film synthesis method based on co-sputtering of two BST

  1. Investigation of resistive switching in barium strontium titanate thin films for memory applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Wan

    2010-11-17

    Resistive random access memory (RRAM) has attracted much attention due to its low power consumption, high speed operation, non-readout disturbance and high density integration potential and is regarded as one of the most promising candidates for the next generation non-volatile memory. The resistive switching behavior of Mn-doped BaSrTiO{sub 3} (BST) thin films with different crystalline properties was investigated within this dissertation. The laser fluence dependence was checked in order to optimize the RRAM properties. Although the film epitaxial quality was improved by reducing the laser energy during deposition process, the yields fluctuated and only 3% RRAM devices with highest epitaxial quality of BST film shows resistive switching behavior instead of 67% for the samples with worse film quality. It gives a clue that the best thin film quality does not result in the best switching performance, and it is a clear evidence of the importance of the defects to obtain resistive switching phenomena. The bipolar resistive switching behavior was studied with epitaxial BST thin films on SRO/STO. Compared to Pt top electrode, the yield, endurance and reliability were strongly improved for the samples with W top electrode. Whereas the samples with Pt top electrode show a fast drop of the resistance for both high and low resistance states, the devices with W top electrode can be switched for 10{sup 4} times without any obvious degradation. The resistance degradation for devices with Pt top electrode may result from the diffusion of oxygen along the Pt grain boundaries during cycling whereas for W top electrode the reversible oxidation and reduction of a WO{sub x} layer, present at the interface between W top electrode and BST film, attributes to the improved switching property. The transition from bipolar to unipolar resistive switching in polycrystalline BST thin films was observed. A forming process which induces a metallic low resistance state is prerequisite for the

  2. Spectroscopic and Mechanical Properties of a New Generation of Bulk Fill Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterubbianesi, Riccardo; Orsini, Giovanna; Tosi, Giorgio; Conti, Carla; Librando, Vito; Procaccini, Maurizio; Putignano, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study were to in vitro evaluate the degree of conversion and the microhardness properties of five bulk fill resin composites; in addition, the performance of two curing lamps, used for composites polymerization, was also analyzed. Materials and Methods: The following five resin-based bulk fill composites were tested: SureFil SDR®, Fill Up!™, Filtek™, SonicFill™, and SonicFill2™. Samples of 4 mm in thickness were prepared using Teflon molds filled in one increment and light-polymerized using two LED power units. Ten samples for each composite were cured using Elipar S10 and 10 using Demi Ultra. Additional samples of SonicFill2, (3 and 5 mm-thick) were also tested. The degree of conversion (DC) was determined by Raman spectroscopy, while the Vickers microhardness (VMH) was evaluated using a microhardness tester. The experimental evaluation was carried out on top and bottom sides, immediately after curing (t0), and, on bottom, after 24 h (t24). Two-ways analysis of variance was applied to evaluate DC and VMH-values. In all analyses, the level of significance was set at p composites recorded satisfactory DCs on top and bottom sides. At t0, the top of SDR and SonicFill2 showed the highest DCs-values (85.56 ± 9.52 and 85.47 ± 1.90, respectively), when cured using Elipar S10; using Demi Ultra, SonicFill2 showed the highest DCs-values (90.53 ± 2.18). At t0, the highest DCs-values of bottom sides were recorded by SDR (84.64 ± 11.68), when cured using Elipar S10, and Filtek (81.52 ± 4.14), using Demi Ultra. On top sides, Demi Ultra lamp showed significant higher DCs compared to the Elipar S10 ( p composites showed higher VMH than the flowable or dual curing composites.

  3. Acute inhibition of central c-Jun N-terminal kinase restores hypothalamic insulin signalling and alleviates glucose intolerance in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzler, J; Ganjam, G K; Legler, K; Stöhr, S; Krüger, M; Steger, J; Tups, A

    2013-05-01

    The hypothalamus has been identified as a main insulin target tissue for regulating normal body weight and glucose metabolism. Recent observations suggest that c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK)-signalling plays a crucial role in the development of obesity and insulin resistance because neuronal JNK-1 ablation in the mouse prevented high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) and increased energy expenditure, as well as insulin sensitivity. In the present study, we investigated whether central JNK inhibition is associated with sensitisation of hypothalamic insulin signalling in mice fed a high-fat diet for 3 weeks and in leptin-deficient mice. We determined whether i.c.v. injection of a pharmacological JNK-inhibitor (SP600125) improved impaired glucose homeostasis. By immunohistochemistry, we first observed that JNK activity was increased in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) in both mouse models, relative to normoglycaemic controls. This suggests that up-regulation of JNK in these regions is associated with glucose intolerance and obesity, independent of leptin levels. Acute i.c.v. injection of SP600125 ameliorated glucose tolerance within 30 min in both leptin-deficient and DIO mice. Given the acute nature of i.c.v. injections, these effects cannot be attributed to changes in food intake or energy balance. In a hypothalamic cell line, and in the ARC and VMH of leptin-deficient mice, JNK inhibition by SP600125 consistently improved impaired insulin signalling. This was determined by a reduction of phospho-insulin receptor substrate-1 [IRS-1(Ser612)] protein in a hypothalamic cell line and a decline in the number of pIRS-1(Ser612) immunoreactive cells in the ARC and VMH. Serine 612 phosphorylation of IRS-1 is assumed to negatively regulate insulin signalling. In leptin-deficient mice, in both nuclei, central inhibition of JNK increased the number of cells immunoreactive for phospho-Akt (Ser473) and phospho-GSK-3β (Ser9), which are important

  4. Potential organ donor audit in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hegarty, M

    2010-11-01

    As increasing demand for organs is a challenge for transplant services worldwide it is essential to audit the process of organ donation. To address this, a national audit of potential organ donors was undertaken across hospitals with Intensive Care Units (N = 36). Questionnaires were returned on all patients (n = 2073) who died in these units from 1\\/9\\/07-31\\/8\\/08; 200 (10%) of these patients were considered for Brain Stem Testing (BST), 158 patients (79%) were diagnosed Brain Stem Dead (BSD) and 138 patients (87%) became potential donors. Consent for donation was given by 92 (69%) next of kin and 90 potential donors (65%) became organ donors. There was no evidence of a large number of potential organ donors being missed. Recommendations included completion of BSTs on all appropriate patients, development of support on BST, referral of all BSD patients to the Organ Procurement Service; enhanced co-ordination within hospitals and sustained information\\/education campaigns.

  5. Influence of redeposition on the plasma etching dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stafford, L.; Margot, J.; Delprat, S.; Chaker, M.; Pearton, S. J.

    2007-01-01

    This work reports on measurements of the degree of redeposition of sputtered species during the etching of platinum (Pt), barium-strontium-titanate (BST), strontium-bismuth-tantalate (SBT), and photoresist (PR) in a high-density argon plasma. While PR exhibits a redeposition-free behavior, the degree of redeposition of Pt, BST, and SBT species increases from 10% to 95% as the argon pressure increases from 0.5 to 10 mTorr. These results are in good agreement with the predictions of a simple model accounting for the backscattering of sputtered species following their interaction with the gas phase. Based on these results and using other experimental data reported in the literature, it is further demonstrated that, depending on the plasma etching conditions, redeposition effects can induce misinterpretation of the etch rate data

  6. Polycrystalline Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films on r-plane sapphire: Effect of film thickness on strain and dielectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardin, E. A.; Holland, A. S.; Ghorbani, K.; Akdogan, E. K.; Simon, W. K.; Safari, A.; Wang, J. Y.

    2006-10-01

    Polycrystalline Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST) films grown on r-plane sapphire exhibit strong variation of in-plane strain over the thickness range of 25-400nm. At a critical thickness of ˜200nm, the films are strain relieved; in thinner films, the strain is tensile, while compressive strain was observed in the 400nm film. Microwave properties of the films were measured from 1to20GHz by the interdigital capacitor method. A capacitance tunability of 64% was observed in the 200nm film, while thinner films showed improved Q factor. These results demonstrate the possibility of incorporating frequency agile BST-based devices into the silicon on sapphire process.

  7. Layered Cu-based electrode for high-dielectric constant oxide thin film-based devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, W.; Saha, S.; Carlisle, J.A.; Auciello, O.; Chang, R.P.H.; Ramesh, R.

    2003-01-01

    Ti-Al/Cu/Ta multilayered electrodes were fabricated on SiO 2 /Si substrates by ion beam sputtering deposition, to overcome the problems of Cu diffusion and oxidation encountered during the high dielectric constant (κ) materials integration. The Cu and Ta layers remained intact through the annealing in oxygen environment up to 600 deg. C. The thin oxide layer, formed on the Ti-Al surface, effectively prevented the oxygen penetration toward underneath layers. Complex oxide (Ba x Sr 1-x )TiO 3 (BST) thin films were grown on the layered Ti-Al/Cu/Ta electrodes using rf magnetron sputtering. The deposited BST films exhibited relatively high permittivity (150), low dielectric loss (0.007) at zero bias, and low leakage current -8 A/cm 2 at 100 kV/cm

  8. Thermal strain-induced dielectric anisotropy in Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 thin films grown on silicon-based substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, X. H.; Defaye, E.; Aied, M.; Guigues, B.; Dubarry, C.

    2009-01-01

    Dielectric properties of Ba 0.7 Sr 0.3 TiO 3 (BST) thin films, which were prepared on silicon-based substrates by ion beam sputtering and postdeposition annealing method, were systematically investigated in different electrode configurations of metal-insulator-metal and coplanar interdigital capacitors. It was found that a large dielectric anisotropy exists in the films with better in-plane dielectric properties (higher dielectric permittivity and tunability) than those along the out-of-plane direction. The observed anisotropic dielectric responses are explained qualitatively in terms of a thermal strain effect that is related to dissimilar film strains along the in-plane and out-of-plane directions. Another reason for the dielectric anisotropy is due to different influences of the interfacial low-dielectric layer between the BST film and the substrate (metal electrode).

  9. Effects of post-deposition oxygen annealing on tuning properties of Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 thin-film capacitors for microwave integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.R.; Lai, P.T.; Li, G.Q.; Li, B.; Peng, J.B.; Lo, H.B.

    2005-01-01

    Barium strontium titanate (BST) thin-films deposited on a SiO 2 /Si substrate by argon ion-beam sputtering technique were annealed at 400, 500 and 600 deg. C in oxygen for 30 min, respectively, and were used to fabricate integrated parallel-plate capacitors by standard integrated-circuit technology. These capacitors can achieve tunability greater than 60% at an applied dc voltage of 2 V and a frequency of 100 kHz at room temperature. Considering tunability, loss factor and hysteresis effect, the BST thin-film annealed at 500 deg. C is superior for making tunable microwave integrated capacitors. The effects of annealing treatment in oxygen on the tuning properties of the thin-film capacitors are analyzed, and the results indicate that the tunability is strongly dependent on both oxygen vacancies and negatively charged oxygen, trapped at the grain boundary and/or at the electrode/dielectric interface

  10. Thermal strain-induced dielectric anisotropy in Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 thin films grown on silicon-based substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X. H.; Guigues, B.; Defaÿ, E.; Dubarry, C.; Aïd, M.

    2009-07-01

    Dielectric properties of Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 (BST) thin films, which were prepared on silicon-based substrates by ion beam sputtering and postdeposition annealing method, were systematically investigated in different electrode configurations of metal-insulator-metal and coplanar interdigital capacitors. It was found that a large dielectric anisotropy exists in the films with better in-plane dielectric properties (higher dielectric permittivity and tunability) than those along the out-of-plane direction. The observed anisotropic dielectric responses are explained qualitatively in terms of a thermal strain effect that is related to dissimilar film strains along the in-plane and out-of-plane directions. Another reason for the dielectric anisotropy is due to different influences of the interfacial low-dielectric layer between the BST film and the substrate (metal electrode).

  11. A Reconfigurable Coplanar Waveguide Bowtie Antenna Using an Integrated Ferroelectric Thin-Film Varactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel printed antenna with a frequency reconfigurable feed network is presented. The antenna consists of a bowtie structure patch radiating element in the inner space of an annulus that is on a nongrounded substrate with a ferroelectric (FE Barium Strontium Titanate (BST thin film. The bowtie patch is fed by a coplanar waveguide (CPW transmission line that also includes a CPW-based BST shunt varactor. Reconfiguration of the compact 8 mm × 8 mm system has been demonstrated by shifting the antenna system’s operating frequency 500 MHz in the 7–9 GHz band by applying a DC voltage bias.

  12. Switchable and tunable film bulk acoustic resonator fabricated using barium strontium titanate active layer and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} acoustic reflector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sbrockey, N. M., E-mail: sbrockey@structuredmaterials.com; Tompa, G. S. [Structured Materials Industries, Inc., Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Kalkur, T. S.; Mansour, A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Colorado State University at Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80933 (United States); Khassaf, H.; Yu, H.; Aindow, M.; Alpay, S. P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    A solidly mounted acoustic resonator was fabricated using a Ba{sub 0.60}Sr{sub 0.40}TiO{sub 3} (BST) film deposited by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The device was acoustically isolated from the substrate using a Bragg reflector consisting of three pairs of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} layers deposited by chemical solution deposition. Transmission electron microscopy verified that the Bragg reflector was not affected by the high temperatures and oxidizing conditions necessary to process high quality BST films. Electrical characterization of the resonator demonstrated a quality factor (Q) of 320 and an electromechanical coupling coefficient (K{sub t}{sup 2}) of 7.0% at 11 V.

  13. Spatio-temporal distributions of meso convective systems in NE China and its vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Meiying; Li, Zechun; Zhang, Xiaoling; Li, Xun

    2008-08-01

    Based on the IR cloud imagery from the Chinese FY-2C satellite for June ~ August, 2005 - 2007, statistics is undertaken of meso convective systems (MCS) over NE China and its neighborhood, obtaining the space - time distributions of MCS. MCS include elliptical type( MCC's) , persistent elongated type (PECS's), in shape. Dividing the total MCS into MαMCS, MβMCS and MCC (PECS) . Results show that the number of meso-α MCS (dominantly PECS's) is considerably more than that of meso-β MCS (largely MCCss), which are observed mainly in the NE China plain and Daxing'an Mountains, especially in the entrance to the plain as well as its central ~ northern portion; the MCS occur mainly in June ~ August, particularly in June; the extratropical MCS show two peak phases, one being in 1500-2200 BST the other being 0000-0700 BST as the secondary peaking interval.

  14. Theoretical and experimental study of disordered Ba0.45Sr0.55 TiO3 photoluminescence at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, I.A.; Gurgel, M.F.C.; Santos, L.P.S.; Goes, M.S.; Cava, S.; Cilense, M.; Rosa, I.L.V.; Paiva-Santos, C.O.; Longo, E.

    2006-01-01

    Disordered and crystalline Ba 0.45 Sr 0.55 TiO 3 (BST) powder processed at low temperature was synthesized by the polymeric precursor method. The single-phase perovskite structure of the ceramics was identified by the Raman and X-ray diffraction techniques. Photoluminescence at room temperature was observed only in a disordered BST sample. Increasing the calcination time intensified the photoluminescence (PL), which reached its maximum value in the sample heat treated at 300 deg. C for 30 h. This emission may be correlated with the structural disorder. Periodic ab initio quantum-mechanical calculations using the CRYSTAL98 program can yield important information regarding the electronic and structural properties of crystalline and disordered solids. The experimental and theoretical results indicate the presence of intermediary energy levels in the band gap. This is ascribed to the break in symmetry, which is responsible for visible photoluminescence in the material's disordered state at room temperature

  15. Entrepreneurship in Business Systems Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rana, Mohammad Bakhtiar; Allen, Mathew

    2018-01-01

    of opportunities, challenges, and growth patterns for new ventures or new industries in a society? We provide an overview of the BST framework and then illustrate how it can help to explain entrepreneurial decision-making, motivation, venture/industry creation, rationales behind new business model/ venture...... multinationals’ strategies, structures and decision making. We focus, instead, on a relatively neglected area: how BST can help to explain entrepreneurship. In particular, how can this framework help us to understand 1)why a particular business model is developed, 2) why entrepreneurs tend to make a particular...... type of decision, in a particular way, for a particular context, 3) why firms or new ventures structures, strategies and growth trajectory follow a particular path dependency in a particular institutional context, while 4) complementarity and/or lack of complementarity presents different types...

  16. Influence of Tm-doping on microstructure and luminescence behavior of barium strontium titanate thick films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jingyang; Zhang Tianjin; Pan Ruikun; Ma Zhijun; Wang Jinzhao

    2012-01-01

    Tm-doped Ba 0.8 Sr 0.2 TiO 3 thick films were prepared by the screen-printing technique on the alumina substrate. The microstructure of the Tm-doped BST thick films was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. All the samples showed a typical perovskite polycrystalline structure when sintered at 1260 °C. The substitution behavior of Tm 3+ ion in BST was found to change with increasing the Tm 3+ concentration. The observed Tm-related red emission reaches the maximum at 0.2 mol% Tm 3+ concentration. The effects of concentration quenching on the luminescence intensity were discussed.

  17. Expressão do gene da leptina e seu receptor Ob-Rb no parênquima mamário de novilhas leiteiras Leptin and leptin receptor Ob-Rb gene expression in mammary parenchyma of dairy heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Joyce Lew

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos de uma dieta de alto nível de energia e proteína combinada com a aplicação de bST no perfil de expressão dos genes da leptina e de seu receptor Ob-Rb no parênquima mamário de novilhas leiteiras. Foram utilizadas amostras de parênquima mamário de 32 novilhas holandesas distribuídas aleatoriamente em quatro tratamentos (n=8: dieta com alto ou baixo teor de energia e proteína combinada ou não com a aplicação de bST. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos casualizados com arranjo de tratamentos em esquema fatorial 2 × 2. A extração do RNA total das amostras de tecido foi feita e o nível de expressão gênica foi analisado por qRT-PCR utilizando-se o gene da glicuronidase β como controle, pelo método 2-ΔΔCt. Animais que receberam a dieta com alto conteúdo de energia e proteína apresentaram maior expressão de mRNA de leptina, com aumento de 56%, e menor expressão de mRNA do receptor Ob-Rb, com redução de 18%. Por outro lado, a aplicação de bST resultou em diminuição da expressão do mRNA de leptina e do receptor Ob-Rb em 74% e 23%, respectivamente. Não houve interação entre dieta e aplicação de bST. O aumento na expressão de leptina pode explicar, ao menos em parte, os efeitos negativos da dieta de alta energia e proteína, oferecida no período pré-púbere, sobre a produção de leite de novilhas leiteiras.The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a diet with high level of energy and protein, combined with bST injections, on leptin and leptin-receptor (Ob-Rb gene expression profile in the mammary parenchyma of dairy heifers. Mammary parenchyma samples from 32 Holstein heifers, randomly assigned to one of four treatments (n=8, were utilized: high or low energy and protein diet, with or without bST injection. The experiment was designed in randomized blocks and arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Total RNA was extracted from tissue samples

  18. Life-cycle cost implications of a system using bare SNF transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is planning the use of the Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) to handle transportation, storage, and disposal of civilian spent nuclear fuel. This canister, which would be loaded and sealed at the utility site, would remain sealed through waste emplacement in a Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS). Two sizes of MPCs are now being considered: large and small rail. The large rail canister has design requirements to be compatible with a 125 ton hook weight crane when fully loaded in the pool with fuel assemblies, water, transportation overpack, and the lifting yoke. The small rail canister under the same conditions weighs less than 75 tons. At present, it is estimated that between four and seventeen reactors will not be able to accommodate either canister. One method of accommodating MPCs at all reactors is the use of Bare Spent nuclear fuel Transfer (BST). In this concept, a small transfer cask is used to move small numbers of assemblies from the spent fuel pool to an external transfer station where a large MPC is loaded. After several of these transfers, the MPC is sealed and either stored on-site, transported to a central storage site, or transported to the MGDS. This paper addresses the total system cost implications of use of BST at 20 sites (31 reactors) which are currently projected to be unable to use the large rail MPC. Results are presented parametrically as a function of the BST capital cost and the time required to load a MPC. This analysis indicates use of BST may be economically favorable if the combination of MPC load times and capital expenditures can be kept to a reasonable level

  19. Characteristics of the surface layer of barium strontium titanate thin films deposited by laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craciun, V.; Singh, R. K.

    2000-01-01

    Ba 0.5 Sr 0.5 TiO 3 (BST) thin films grown on Si by an in situ ultraviolet-assisted pulsed laser deposition (UVPLD) technique exhibited significantly higher dielectric constant and refractive index values and lower leakage current densities than films grown by conventional PLD under similar conditions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) investigations have shown that the surface layer of the grown films contained, besides the usual BST perovskite phase, an additional phase with Ba atoms in a different chemical state. PLD grown films always exhibited larger amounts of this phase, which was homogeneously mixed with the BST phase up to several nm depth, while UVPLD grown films exhibited a much thinner (∼1 nm) and continuous layer. The relative fraction of this phase was not correlated with the amount of C atoms present on the surface. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy did not find any BaCO 3 contamination layer, which was believed to be related to this new phase. X-ray diffraction measurement showed that although PLD grown films contained less oxygen atoms, the lattice parameter was closer to the bulk value than that of UVPLD grown films. After 4 keV Ar ion sputtering for 6 min, XPS analysis revealed a small suboxide Ba peak for the PLD grown films. This finding indicates that the average Ba-O bonds are weaker in these films, likely due to the presence of oxygen vacancies. It is suggested here that this new Ba phase corresponds to a relaxed BST surface layer. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  20. Characteristics of the surface layer of barium strontium titanate thin films deposited by laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciun, V.; Singh, R. K.

    2000-04-01

    Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 (BST) thin films grown on Si by an in situ ultraviolet-assisted pulsed laser deposition (UVPLD) technique exhibited significantly higher dielectric constant and refractive index values and lower leakage current densities than films grown by conventional PLD under similar conditions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) investigations have shown that the surface layer of the grown films contained, besides the usual BST perovskite phase, an additional phase with Ba atoms in a different chemical state. PLD grown films always exhibited larger amounts of this phase, which was homogeneously mixed with the BST phase up to several nm depth, while UVPLD grown films exhibited a much thinner (˜1 nm) and continuous layer. The relative fraction of this phase was not correlated with the amount of C atoms present on the surface. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy did not find any BaCO3 contamination layer, which was believed to be related to this new phase. X-ray diffraction measurement showed that although PLD grown films contained less oxygen atoms, the lattice parameter was closer to the bulk value than that of UVPLD grown films. After 4 keV Ar ion sputtering for 6 min, XPS analysis revealed a small suboxide Ba peak for the PLD grown films. This finding indicates that the average Ba-O bonds are weaker in these films, likely due to the presence of oxygen vacancies. It is suggested here that this new Ba phase corresponds to a relaxed BST surface layer.

  1. The Variants Within the COL5A1 Gene are Associated with Reduced Risk of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in Skiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stępień-Słodkowska Marta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the association of the BstUI RFLP C/T (rs 12722 and DpnII RFLP C/T (rs 13946 COL5A1 polymorphisms, individually and as haplotypes, with anterior cruciate ligament ruptures in recreational skiers. Subjects were 138 male recreational skiers with surgically diagnosed primary anterior cruciate ligament ruptures. The control group consisted of 183 apparently healthy male recreational skiers, who were without any self-reported history of ligament or tendon injury. DNA was extracted from buccal cells donated by the subjects and genotyping was carried out using real-time PCR. The genotype distributions for both polymorphisms met Hardy- Weinberg expectations in both groups. There were no significant differences in genotype distribution of allele frequencies of COL5A1 BstUI RFLP C/T and COL5A1 DpnII RFLP C/T polymorphisms between the ACL rupture and control groups. The T-T (BstUI RFLP T, DpnII RFLP T haplotype was the most common (55.6%. The haplotype T-C was not present in any of the subjects. There was an underrepresentation tendency of the C-T haplotype in the study group compared to controls under recessive mode of inheritance. Higher frequency of the COL5A1 BstUI RFLP C/T and COL5A1DpnII RFLP C/T polymorphisms haplotype is associated with reduced risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury in a group of apparently healthy male recreational skiers.

  2. Influence of the Alkyl Side Chain Length on the Thermophysical Properties of Chiral Ionic Liquids with a (1R,2S,5R)-(–)-Menthol Substituent and Data Treatment by Means of Mathematical Gnostics.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Andresová, Adéla; Bendová, Magdalena; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Wagner, Zdeněk; Feder-Kubis, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 242, SEP 2017 (2017), s. 336-348 ISSN 0167-7322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14PL005 Grant - others:NSC(PL) 2011/01/B/ST5/06659 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : chiral ionic liquids * thermophysical properties * mathematical gnostics Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 3.648, year: 2016

  3. Influence of body condition and bovine somatotropin on estrous behavior, reproductive performance, and concentrations of serum somatotropin and plasma fatty acids in postpartum Brahman-influenced cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, R; Looper, M L; Rorie, R W; Lamb, M A; Reiter, S T; Hallford, D M; Kreider, D L; Rosenkrans, C F

    2007-05-01

    Ninety-nine multiparous Brahman-influenced (1/4 to 3/8 Brahman) cows were managed to achieve low (BCS = 4.3 +/- 0.1; n = 50) or moderate (BCS = 6.1 +/- 0.1; n = 49) body condition (BC) to determine the influence of bovine somatotropin (bST) on estrous characteristics, reproductive performance, and concentrations of serum GH and plasma NEFA. Beginning 32 d postpartum, cows within each BC were assigned randomly to treatment with or without bST. Non-bST-treated cows received no treatment, and treated cows were administered bST (Posilac, 500 mg s.c.) on d -35, -21, and -7 before initiation of the breeding season. On d -7, all cows received an intravaginal, controlled internal drug-releasing (CIDR) device. On d 0 (initiation of the 70-d breeding season), the CIDR were removed and cows received prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha). Blood samples were collected from the median caudal vein of the cows at each bST treatment and at d -28 and 0. Estrous behavior was monitored by radiotelemetry during the first 30 d of the breeding season. Growth hormone was increased (P conception rate tended (P = 0.07) to be greater for bST-low BC cows than non-bST-treated cows in low or moderate BC. On d 0, NEFA were greater (P conception rate during the first 30 d of breeding and pregnancy rates during the first 3 d of breeding in postpartum Brahman-influenced cows.

  4. Regulatory interactions of stress and reward on rat forebrain opioidergic and GABAergic circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, A M; Herman, J P; Ulrich-Lai, Y M

    2011-03-01

    Palatable food intake reduces stress responses, suggesting that individuals may consume such ?comfort? food as self-medication for stress relief. The mechanism by which palatable foods provide stress relief is not known, but likely lies at the intersection of forebrain reward and stress regulatory circuits. Forebrain opioidergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid ergic signaling is critical for both reward and stress regulation, suggesting that these systems are prime candidates for mediating stress relief by palatable foods. Thus, the present study (1) determines how palatable ?comfort? food alters stress-induced changes in the mRNA expression of inhibitory neurotransmitters in reward and stress neurocircuitry and (2) identifies candidate brain regions that may underlie comfort food-mediated stress reduction. We used a model of palatable ?snacking? in combination with a model of chronic variable stress followed by in situ hybridization to determine forebrain levels of pro-opioid and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) mRNA. The data identify regions within the extended amygdala, striatum, and hypothalamus as potential regions for mediating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis buffering following palatable snacking. Specifically, palatable snacking alone decreased pro-enkephalin-A (ENK) mRNA expression in the anterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the nucleus accumbens, and decreased GAD65 mRNA in the posterior BST. Chronic stress alone increased ENK mRNA in the hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and hippocampus; increased dynorphin mRNA in the nucleus accumbens; increased GAD65 mRNA in the anterior hypothalamus and BST; and decreased GAD65 mRNA in the dorsal hypothalamus. Importantly, palatable food intake prevented stress-induced gene expression changes in subregions of the hypothalamus, BST, and nucleus accumbens. Overall, these data suggest that complex interactions exist between brain reward and stress pathways and that palatable snacking can

  5. Data analysis on reducing damage on equipment's available in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasif Mohamad; Saipo Bahari Abdul Ratan; Ahmad Firdaus Che Hassan; Mazlipah Mohamed Ramlan; Mohd Hazri Mohd Salleh; Ghazali Bachok

    2010-01-01

    Technical Support Division (BST) in the underlying unit of Instrumentation and Automation Center (PIA), has been entrusted to carry out repair work on the equipment's available at Nuclear Malaysia as well as help rehabilitate and provide advisory services to foreign companies in need of our services. These data taken to determine the cause of damage to seek a solution to reduce damage in future. Tools do get involved are autoclave, Water Distiller, Barometer, Vaccum Pump and Chiller and Freezer. (author)

  6. Extending the socio-sexual brain: arginine-vasopressin immunoreactive circuits in the telencephalon of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Garcia, Marcos; Martin-Sanchez, Ana; Fortes-Marco, Lluis; Martínez-Ricós, Joana; Agustin-Pavón, Carmen; Lanuza, Enrique; Martínez-García, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    Quantitative analysis of the immunoreactivity for arginine-vasopressin (AVP-ir) in the telencephalon of male (intact and castrated) and female CD1 mice allows us to precisely locate two sexually dimorphic (more abundant in intact than castrated males and females) AVP-ir cell groups in the posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the amygdala. Chemoarchitecture (NADPH diaphorase) reveals that the intraamygdaloid AVP-ir cells are located in the intra-amygdaloid BST (BSTIA) rather than the medial amygdala (Me), as previously thought. Then, we have used for the first time tract tracing (combined with AVP immunofluorescence) and fiber-sparing lesions of the BST to analyze the projections of the telencephalic AVP-ir cell groups. The results demonstrate that the posterior BST originates the sexually dimorphic innervation of the lateral septum, the posterodorsal Me and a substance P-negative area in the medioventral striato-pallidum (mvStP).The BSTIA may also contribute to some of these terminal fields. Our material also reveals non-dimorphic AVP-ir processes in two locations of the amygdala. First, the ventral Me shows dendrite-like AVP-ir processes apparently belonging supraoptic neurons, whose possible functions are discussed. Second, the Ce shows sparse, thick AVP-ir axons with high individual variability in density and distribution, whose possible influence on stress coping in relation to the affiliative or agonistic behaviors mediated by the Me are discussed. Finally, we propose that the region of the mvStP showing sexually dimorphic AVP-ir innervation is part of the brain network for socio-sexual behavior, in which it would mediate motivational aspects of chemosensory-guided social interactions.

  7. Effects of Ni and carbon-coated Ni addition on the thermoelectric properties of 25Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}+75Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} base composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sang Min; Dharmaiah, Peyala; Femi, Olu Emmanuel; Lee, Chul Hee; Hong, Soon-Jik, E-mail: hongsj@kongju.ac.kr

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we report the effect of nickel (Ni) and carbon coated nickel (C-Ni) on the thermoelectric and mechanical properties of 25Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}+75Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} (GA) base composites. Ni and C-Ni powders were synthesized using pulse wire evaporation and mixed with 25Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}+75Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} in a planetary ball mill. The morphology of the Ni and C-Ni powders and GA + x (x = none, Ni, or C-Ni) composites were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The thermoelectric properties of the GA + x (x = none, Ni, or C-Ni) composites shows that the addition of Ni increases the carrier concentration while the presence of C-Ni reduces the carrier concentration to a level comparable to the bare sample (x = 0). Subsequently, the Seebeck coefficient of the GA + C-Ni sample increases by about 18% more than in the bare sample. The thermal conductivity of the GA + Ni and GA + C-Ni samples was considerably lower at room temperature compared to the bare sample. The mechanical properties of the GA + Ni and GA + C-Ni composite samples show a three-fold improvement compared to the bare sample. - Highlights: • Ni and carbon-coated Ni nanoparticles were incorporated into 25Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}+75Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} (BST) matrix. • Seebeck coefficient increased by 18% for BST/carbon coated Ni composites. • BST/carbon coated Ni composite reduces the thermal conductivity (21%). • The Vickers hardness of the BST/C-Ni composite samples significantly improved.

  8. Kajian pendahuluan uji toksisitas ekstrak air miselia dan tubuh buah jamur shitake (Lentinus edodes) dengan metode brine shrimp lethality test (BTS)

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Erma NS; Tri Sundari; Arie Ika Susanty; Dwi Riani Octavia Palupi; Isnaeni Isnaeni; Sukardiman Sukardiman

    2012-01-01

    Shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) is one of the wood mushroom types that can be consumed as a food as well as for a medicalpurpose. Lentinan, a polysaccharide contained in shiitake, is well known for its use on cancer medication. Mycelium of Shiitake mushroomcontains lentinan the same as other part of the mushroom like fruity body. Toxicity of the lentinan in mycelium compare to the fruitybody has been first conducted by using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BST). Using Potato Dextrose Broth m...

  9. Power density spectra of modes of orbital motion in strongly curved space-time: obtaining the observable signal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakala, P.; Török, G.; Karas, Vladimír; Dovčiak, Michal; Wildner, M.; Wzientek, D.; Šrámková, E.; Abramowicz, M. A.; Goluchová, K.; Mazur, G. P.; Vincent, F. H.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 439, č. 2 (2014), s. 1933-1939 ISSN 0035-8711 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GPP209/12/P740; EU(XE) COST action MP1304; NCN(PL) UMO-2011/01/B/ST9/05439 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : black holes * accretion disks Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.107, year: 2014

  10. Studies of electrical conductivity and complex initial permeability of multiferroic xBa{sub 0.95}Sr{sub 0.05}TiO{sub 3}-(1-x)BiFe{sub 0.90}Gd{sub 0.10}O{sub 3} ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, Mohammad J., E-mail: mmjulhash@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Department of Physics, Comilla University, Comilla (Bangladesh); Khan, M. N. I. [Materials Science Division, Atomic Energy Center, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Hossain, A. K. M. Akther [Department of Physics, Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    Multiferroic xBa{sub 0.95}Sr{sub 0.05}TiO{sub 3}-(1-x)BiFe{sub 0.90}Gd{sub 0.10}O{sub 3} [xBST-(1-x)BFGO] (x = 0.00, 0.10 and 0.20) ceramics were prepared by the standard solid-state reaction technique. Crystal structure of the ceramics was determined by X-ray diffraction pattern. All the compositions exhibited rhombohedral crystal structure. The tolerance factor ‘t’ varied from 0.847 to 0.864. The AC conductivity spectrum followed the Jonscher’s power law. The Nyquist plots indicated that only grains have the contribution to the resistance in this material and the values of grain resistance (R{sub g}) increased with BST content. The real part of complex initial permeability decreased with the increase in frequency and increased with increasing BST content. Magnetoelectric coefficient was determined for all compositions. The maximum value of magnetoelectric coefficient was found to be 1.467 mV.cm{sup −1}.Oe{sup −1} for x = 0.20.

  11. Robust bivariate error detection in skewed data with application to historical radiosonde winds

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2017-01-18

    The global historical radiosonde archives date back to the 1920s and contain the only directly observed measurements of temperature, wind, and moisture in the upper atmosphere, but they contain many random errors. Most of the focus on cleaning these large datasets has been on temperatures, but winds are important inputs to climate models and in studies of wind climatology. The bivariate distribution of the wind vector does not have elliptical contours but is skewed and heavy-tailed, so we develop two methods for outlier detection based on the bivariate skew-t (BST) distribution, using either distance-based or contour-based approaches to flag observations as potential outliers. We develop a framework to robustly estimate the parameters of the BST and then show how the tuning parameter to get these estimates is chosen. In simulation, we compare our methods with one based on a bivariate normal distribution and a nonparametric approach based on the bagplot. We then apply all four methods to the winds observed for over 35,000 radiosonde launches at a single station and demonstrate differences in the number of observations flagged across eight pressure levels and through time. In this pilot study, the method based on the BST contours performs very well.

  12. First-principles study of the (001) surface of cubic Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuan Xu [Computational Materials Science Center, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Institute for Computational Materials Science, School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)

    2008-06-15

    We have theoretically investigated basic properties of the (001) surface of cubic Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} (BST) by the plane-wave pseudopotential method within the local-density approximation. For the BaSrO{sub 2}-terminated surface, the surface-layer Sr atoms move inward and the surface-layer Ba atoms move outward. Moreover, the displacement of the surface-layer Sr atoms is much larger than the surface-layer Ba atoms. The rumpling of the BaSrO{sub 2}-terminated surface is much larger than that of the Ti{sub 2}O{sub 4}-terminated one. The surface state appears in the band structure of the Ti{sub 2}O{sub 4}-terminated surface of BST. Based on the results of the calculated grand thermodynamic potential, only the BaSrO{sub 2}-terminated surface can exist in the (001) surface of cubic BST. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. First-principles study of the (001) surface of cubic Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuan Xu

    2008-01-01

    We have theoretically investigated basic properties of the (001) surface of cubic Ba 0.5 Sr 0.5 TiO 3 (BST) by the plane-wave pseudopotential method within the local-density approximation. For the BaSrO 2 -terminated surface, the surface-layer Sr atoms move inward and the surface-layer Ba atoms move outward. Moreover, the displacement of the surface-layer Sr atoms is much larger than the surface-layer Ba atoms. The rumpling of the BaSrO 2 -terminated surface is much larger than that of the Ti 2 O 4 -terminated one. The surface state appears in the band structure of the Ti 2 O 4 -terminated surface of BST. Based on the results of the calculated grand thermodynamic potential, only the BaSrO 2 -terminated surface can exist in the (001) surface of cubic BST. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Metabolic safety-margins do not differ between cows of high and low genetic merit for milk production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knight, Christopher Harold; Alamer, Mohammed A; Sorensen, Annette

    2004-01-01

    Three galactopoietic stimuli, frequent milking (4X), bovine somatotrophin (bST) and thyroxine (T4) were used in an additive stair-step design to achieve maximum output (metabolic capacity) in six peak-lactation cows of high genetic merit (HT) and six of low genetic merit (LT). A further six of ea...... the commonly held belief that selective breeding of dairy cows for high milk production has rendered them markedly more susceptible to metabolic disturbances.......Three galactopoietic stimuli, frequent milking (4X), bovine somatotrophin (bST) and thyroxine (T4) were used in an additive stair-step design to achieve maximum output (metabolic capacity) in six peak-lactation cows of high genetic merit (HT) and six of low genetic merit (LT). A further six of each...... elevated heart rate and significant loss of body weight and condition compared with the combination of 4X and bST. As a result, treatments were discontinued, on an individual cow basis, before completion of this 6-week phase. Time on experiment did not differ between HT and LT. The results do not support...

  15. Robust bivariate error detection in skewed data with application to historical radiosonde winds

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying; Hering, Amanda S.; Browning, Joshua M.

    2017-01-01

    The global historical radiosonde archives date back to the 1920s and contain the only directly observed measurements of temperature, wind, and moisture in the upper atmosphere, but they contain many random errors. Most of the focus on cleaning these large datasets has been on temperatures, but winds are important inputs to climate models and in studies of wind climatology. The bivariate distribution of the wind vector does not have elliptical contours but is skewed and heavy-tailed, so we develop two methods for outlier detection based on the bivariate skew-t (BST) distribution, using either distance-based or contour-based approaches to flag observations as potential outliers. We develop a framework to robustly estimate the parameters of the BST and then show how the tuning parameter to get these estimates is chosen. In simulation, we compare our methods with one based on a bivariate normal distribution and a nonparametric approach based on the bagplot. We then apply all four methods to the winds observed for over 35,000 radiosonde launches at a single station and demonstrate differences in the number of observations flagged across eight pressure levels and through time. In this pilot study, the method based on the BST contours performs very well.

  16. Influence of Substrate Biasing on (Ba,Sr)TiO3 Films Prepared by Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Niino, Atsushi; Ohtsu, Yasunori; Misawa, Tatsuya; Yonesu, Akira; Fujita, Hiroharu; Miyake, Shoji

    2004-03-01

    (Ba,Sr)TiO3 (BST) films were deposited by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma sputtering with mirror confinement. DC bias voltage was applied to Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates during deposition to vary the intensity of bombardment of energetic ions and to modify film properties. BST films deposited on the substrates at floating potential (approximately +20 V) were found to be amorphous, while films deposited on +40 V-biased substrates were crystalline in spite of a low substrate temperature below 648 K. In addition, atomic diffusion, which causes deterioration in the electrical properties of the films, was hardly observed in the crystallized films deposited with +40 V bias perhaps due to the low substrate temperature. Plasma diagnoses revealed that application of a positive bias to the substrate reduced the energy of ion bombardment and increased the density of excited neutral particles, which was assumed to result in the promotion of chemical reactions during deposition and the crystallization of BST films at a low temperature.

  17. Effects of in-plane compressive stress on electrical properties of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thin film capacitors prepared by on- and off-axis rf magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Woo Young; Ahn, Kun Ho; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the structural and electrical properties of (Ba,Sr)TiO 3 (BST) thin film capacitors with thicknesses ranging from 18 to 215 nm, which were prepared by on- and off-axis rf magnetron sputtering technique on Pt/SiO 2 /Si substrates. The deposition rate and cation composition ratios of the films were controlled to be the same regardless of the sputtering geometry. All the films show elongations in the out-of-plane lattice spacing, suggesting the presence of compressive stress with a smaller value by on-axis sputtering than by the off-axis system. There was no thickness dependence of the strain in the polycrystalline BST films. The BST films deposited using the on-axis system showed a higher bulk dielectric constant with a higher interfacial capacitance and a lower leakage current level than the films produced by the off-axis system. The strain effect was proposed to explain the correlations between the structural and electrical properties

  18. Comparison of interfaces for (Ba,Sr)TiO3 films deposited on Si and SiO2/Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suvorova, N.A.; Lopez, C.M.; Irene, E.A.; Suvorova, A.A.; Saunders, M.

    2004-01-01

    (Ba,Sr)TiO 3 (BST) thin films were deposited by ion sputtering on both bare and oxidized Si. Spectroscopic ellipsometry results have shown that a SiO 2 underlayer of nearly the same thickness (2.6 nm in average) is found at the Si interface for BST sputter depositions onto nominally bare Si, 1 nm SiO 2 on Si or 3.5 nm SiO 2 on Si. This result was confirmed by high-resolution electron microscopy analysis of the films, and it is believed to be due to simultaneous subcutaneous oxidation of Si and reaction of the BST layer with SiO 2 . Using the conductance method, capacitance-voltage measurements show a decrease in the interface trap density D it of an order of magnitude for oxidized Si substrates with a thicker SiO 2 underlayer. Further reduction of D it was achieved for the capacitors grown on oxidized Si and annealed in forming gas after metallization

  19. Understanding the influence of surface chemical states on the dielectric tunability of sputtered Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Saravanan, K.; Raju, K. C. James

    2014-03-01

    The surface chemical states of RF-magnetron sputtered Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 (BST5) thin films deposited at different oxygen mixing percentage (OMP) was examined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The O1s XPS spectra indicate the existence of three kinds of oxygen species (dissociated oxygen ion O2 -, adsorbed oxide ion O- and lattice oxide ion O2-) on the films’ surface, which strongly depends on OMP. The presence of oxygen species other than lattice oxygen ion makes the films’ surface highly reactivity to atmospheric gases, resulting in the formation of undesired surface layers. The XPS results confirm the formation of surface nitrates for the films deposited under oxygen deficient atmosphere (OMP ≦̸ 25%), whereas the films deposited in oxygen rich atmosphere (OMP ≧̸ 75%) show the presence of metal-hydroxide. The influence of a surface dead layer on the tunable dielectric properties of BST5 films have been studied in detail and are reported. Furthermore, our observations indicate that an optimum ratio of Ar:O2 is essential for achieving desired material and dielectric properties in BST5 thin films. The films deposited at 50% OMP have the highest dielectric tunability of ~65% (@280 kV cm-1), with good ɛ r-E curve symmetry of 98% and low tan δ of 0.018. The figure of merit for these films is about 35, which is promising for frequency agile device applications.

  20. Comparison of interfaces for (Ba,Sr)TiO3 films deposited on Si and SiO2/Si substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvorova, N. A.; Lopez, C. M.; Irene, E. A.; Suvorova, A. A.; Saunders, M.

    2004-03-01

    (Ba,Sr)TiO3(BST) thin films were deposited by ion sputtering on both bare and oxidized Si. Spectroscopic ellipsometry results have shown that a SiO2 underlayer of nearly the same thickness (2.6 nm in average) is found at the Si interface for BST sputter depositions onto nominally bare Si, 1 nm SiO2 on Si or 3.5 nm SiO2 on Si. This result was confirmed by high-resolution electron microscopy analysis of the films, and it is believed to be due to simultaneous subcutaneous oxidation of Si and reaction of the BST layer with SiO2. Using the conductance method, capacitance-voltage measurements show a decrease in the interface trap density Dit of an order of magnitude for oxidized Si substrates with a thicker SiO2 underlayer. Further reduction of Dit was achieved for the capacitors grown on oxidized Si and annealed in forming gas after metallization.

  1. Effects of B2O3-Li2O additions on the dielectric properties of screen printing Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thick films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Yike; Gao, Can; Zhang, Guangzu; Jiang, Shenglin

    2012-01-01

    Ba 0.6 Sr 0.4 TiO 3 (BST) thick films were fabricated on Al 2 O 3 substrate via the screen printing technology by using B 2 O 3 -Li 2 O additions as liquid-phase sintering aids. The effects of doping of B 2 O 3 and Li 2 CO 3 on the phase compositions, microstructures, and dielectric tunable properties of the thick films were investigated systematically. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed that BST diffraction peaks shifted toward higher angle with the B 2 O 3 -Li 2 O doping content, which indicated the substitution of B 3+ and Li + in Ba 2+ site. It was also found that the grain size and electrical properties of the thick film were strongly affected by the glass content. The grain size and the relative permittivity decreased obviously with the increase of B 2 O 3 -Li 2 O additive. In addition, for the thick film with 4.5 wt% glass content, optimized sintering, and electrical properties were obtained: the sintering temperature of 900 C, relative permittivity of 312 (at 10 kHz), dielectric loss of 0.0039, tunability of 16.2% (at 3 kV/mm). These good sintering and electrical properties indicate that BST thick film with B 2 O 3 -Li 2 O addition is benefit for the development of LTCC technology and tunable devices. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. The Harvard Beat Assessment Test (H-BAT): a battery for assessing beat perception and production and their dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Shinya; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Humans have the abilities to perceive, produce, and synchronize with a musical beat, yet there are widespread individual differences. To investigate these abilities and to determine if a dissociation between beat perception and production exists, we developed the Harvard Beat Assessment Test (H-BAT), a new battery that assesses beat perception and production abilities. H-BAT consists of four subtests: (1) music tapping test (MTT), (2) beat saliency test (BST), (3) beat interval test (BIT), and (4) beat finding and interval test (BFIT). MTT measures the degree of tapping synchronization with the beat of music, whereas BST, BIT, and BFIT measure perception and production thresholds via psychophysical adaptive stair-case methods. We administered the H-BAT on thirty individuals and investigated the performance distribution across these individuals in each subtest. There was a wide distribution in individual abilities to tap in synchrony with the beat of music during the MTT. The degree of synchronization consistency was negatively correlated with thresholds in the BST, BIT, and BFIT: a lower degree of synchronization was associated with higher perception and production thresholds. H-BAT can be a useful tool in determining an individual's ability to perceive and produce a beat within a single session. PMID:24324421

  3. The Harvard Beat Assessment Test (H-BAT): a battery for assessing beat perception and production and their dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Shinya; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Humans have the abilities to perceive, produce, and synchronize with a musical beat, yet there are widespread individual differences. To investigate these abilities and to determine if a dissociation between beat perception and production exists, we developed the Harvard Beat Assessment Test (H-BAT), a new battery that assesses beat perception and production abilities. H-BAT consists of four subtests: (1) music tapping test (MTT), (2) beat saliency test (BST), (3) beat interval test (BIT), and (4) beat finding and interval test (BFIT). MTT measures the degree of tapping synchronization with the beat of music, whereas BST, BIT, and BFIT measure perception and production thresholds via psychophysical adaptive stair-case methods. We administered the H-BAT on thirty individuals and investigated the performance distribution across these individuals in each subtest. There was a wide distribution in individual abilities to tap in synchrony with the beat of music during the MTT. The degree of synchronization consistency was negatively correlated with thresholds in the BST, BIT, and BFIT: a lower degree of synchronization was associated with higher perception and production thresholds. H-BAT can be a useful tool in determining an individual's ability to perceive and produce a beat within a single session.

  4. Role of surfactant on thermoelectric behaviors of organic-inorganic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunmi; Roh, Jong Wook; Kim, Hyun-Sik; Chen, Renkun

    2018-05-01

    Hybrid organic/inorganic composites have recently attracted intensive interests as a promising candidate for flexible thermoelectric (TE) devices using inherently soft polymers as well as for increasing the degree of freedom to control TE properties. Experimentally, however, enhanced TE performance in hybrid composites has not been commonly observed, primarily due to inhomogeneous mixing between the inorganic and organic components which leads to limited electrical conduction in the less conductive component and consequently a low power factor in the composites compared to their single-component counterparts. In this study, we investigated the effects of different surfactants on the uniformity of mixing and the TE behaviors of the hybrid composites consisting of Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 (BST) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). We found that compared to dimethyl sulfoxide, which is the most widely used surfactant, Triton X-100 (TX-100) can lead to homogenous dispersion of BST in PEDOT:PSS. By systematically studying the effects of the surfactant concentration, we can attribute the better mixing capability of TX-100 to its non-ionic property, which results in homogenous mixing with a lower critical micelle concentration. Consequently, we observed simultaneous increase in electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient in the BST/PEDOT:PSS composites with the TX-100 surfactant.

  5. AKTIVITAS URIKASE YANG DIHASILKAN DARI BERBAGAI SEL LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM DAN PARAMETER KINETIKANYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Iswantini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Uric acid concentration could be determined by spectrophotometry method. Uric acid was oxidized into allatonin in the presence of uricase and calculated by measuring the decrease of uric acid absorbance at 293 nm. These uricase were obtained from cells of Lactobacillus plantarum. L. plantarum K. Mar. E was isolated from passion fruit skin and L. plantarum Mgs. Psmb and Mgs. Bst from mangosteen. This research was conducted to observe the activity and kinetics of uricase from various cells of L. plantarum by spectrophotometric method. The plate assay method indicated that L. plantarum produced uricase, based on the clear zone about 0,2 mm on glucose yeast peptone medium contained 0,2% uric acid. The optimum condition of uricase activity from the three different sources occured in physiological condition. Uricase activity generated from cells of L. plantarum K. Mar. E, Mgs. Psmb, and Mgs. Bst were 0,1073; 0,0867; and 0,0842 U/mL, respectively. The kinetic parameters for uricase, determined with uric acid as the substrate. Vmax produced by L. plantarum K. Mar. E, Mgs. Psmb, and Mgs. Bst were 1,3635; 0,0316; and 0,0418 U/mL of bacterial culture, respectively and KM 0,1541; 0,0061; and 0,0054 mM, respectively. Uricase activity in various bacterial cells of L. plantarum was stable until the second day

  6. Structural and dielectric properties of barium strontium titanate produced by high temperature hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razak, K.A.; Asadov, A.; Yoo, J.; Haemmerle, E.; Gao, W.

    2008-01-01

    The preparation procedure, structural and dielectric properties of hydrothermally derived Ba x Sr 1-x TiO 3 (BST) were studied. BST with initial Ba compositions of 75, 80, 85 and 90 mol.% were prepared by a high temperature hydrothermal synthesis. The obtained powders were pressed into pellet, cold isostatically pressed and sintered at 1200 deg. C for 3 hours. The phase compositions and lattice parameters of the as prepared powders and sintered samples were analysed using X-ray diffractometry. A fitting software was used to analyse the XRD spectra to separate different phases. It was found that BST powder produced by the high temperature hydrothermal possessed a two-phase structure. This structure became more homogeneous during sintering due to interdiffusion but a small amount of minor phase can still be traced. Samples underwent an abnormal grain growth, whereby some grains grow faster than the other due to the presence of two-phase structure. The grain size increased with increasing Ba amount. Dielectric constant and polarisation increased with increasing Ba content but it was also affected by the electronic state and grain size of the compositions

  7. Social Control of Hypothalamus-Mediated Male Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Taehong; Yang, Cindy F; Chizari, M Delara; Maheswaranathan, Niru; Burke, Kenneth J; Borius, Maxim; Inoue, Sayaka; Chiang, Michael C; Bender, Kevin J; Ganguli, Surya; Shah, Nirao M

    2017-08-16

    How environmental and physiological signals interact to influence neural circuits underlying developmentally programmed social interactions such as male territorial aggression is poorly understood. We have tested the influence of sensory cues, social context, and sex hormones on progesterone receptor (PR)-expressing neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) that are critical for male territorial aggression. We find that these neurons can drive aggressive displays in solitary males independent of pheromonal input, gonadal hormones, opponents, or social context. By contrast, these neurons cannot elicit aggression in socially housed males that intrude in another male's territory unless their pheromone-sensing is disabled. This modulation of aggression cannot be accounted for by linear integration of environmental and physiological signals. Together, our studies suggest that fundamentally non-linear computations enable social context to exert a dominant influence on developmentally hard-wired hypothalamus-mediated male territorial aggression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript is present in hypothalamic neuroendocrine neurones and is released to the hypothalamic-pituitary portal circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, P J; Seier, V; Fink-Jensen, A; Holst, J J; Warberg, J; Vrang, N

    2003-03-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is present in a number of hypothalamic nuclei. Besides actions in circuits regulating feeding behaviour and stress responses, the hypothalamic functions of CART are largely unknown. We report that CART immunoreactivity is present in hypothalamic neuroendocrine neurones. Adult male rats received a systemic injection of the neuronal tracer Fluorogold (FG) 2 days before fixation, and subsequent double- and triple-labelling immunoflourescence analysis demonstrated that neuroendocrine CART-containing neurones were present in the anteroventral periventricular, supraoptic, paraventricular (PVN) and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus. In the PVN, CART-positive neuroendocrine neurones were found in all of cytoarchitectonically identified nuclei. In the periventricular nucleus, approximately one-third of somatostatin cells were also CART-immunoreactive. In the medial parvicellular subnucleus of the PVN, CART and FG coexisted with thyrotrophin-releasing hormone, whereas very few of the corticotrophin-releasing hormone containing cells were CART-immunoreactive. In the arcuate nucleus, CART was extensively colocalized with pro-opiomelanocortin in the ventrolateral part, but completely absent from neuroendocrine neurones of the dorsomedial part. To assess the possible role of CART as a hypothalamic-releasing factor, immunoreactive CART was measured in blood samples from the long portal vessels connecting the median eminence with the anterior pituitary gland. Adult male rats were anaesthetized and the infundibular stalk exposed via a transpharyngeal approach. The long portal vessels were transected and blood collected in 30-min periods (one prestimulatory and three poststimulatory periods). Compared to systemic venous plasma samples, baseline concentrations of immunoreactive CART were elevated in portal plasma. Exposure to sodium nitroprusside hypotension triggered a two-fold elevation of portal CART42

  9. Adrenal-dependent and -independent stress-induced Per1 mRNA in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and prefrontal cortex of male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Lauren E; Christensen, Jenny; Woodruff, Elizabeth R; Morton, Sarah J; Hinds, Laura R; Spencer, Robert L

    2018-01-01

    Oscillating clock gene expression gives rise to a molecular clock that is present not only in the body's master circadian pacemaker, the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), but also in extra-SCN brain regions. These extra-SCN molecular clocks depend on the SCN for entrainment to a light:dark cycle. The SCN has limited neural efferents, so it may entrain extra-SCN molecular clocks through its well-established circadian control of glucocorticoid hormone secretion. Glucocorticoids can regulate the normal rhythmic expression of clock genes in some extra-SCN tissues. Untimely stress-induced glucocorticoid secretion may compromise extra-SCN molecular clock function. We examined whether acute restraint stress during the rat's inactive phase can rapidly (within 30 min) alter clock gene (Per1, Per2, Bmal1) and cFos mRNA (in situ hybridization) in the SCN, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of male and female rats (6 rats per treatment group). Restraint stress increased Per1 and cFos mRNA in the PVN and PFC of both sexes. Stress also increased cFos mRNA in the SCN of male rats, but not when subsequently tested during their active phase. We also examined in male rats whether endogenous glucocorticoids are necessary for stress-induced Per1 mRNA (6-7 rats per treatment group). Adrenalectomy attenuated stress-induced Per1 mRNA in the PVN and ventral orbital cortex, but not in the medial PFC. These data indicate that increased Per1 mRNA may be a means by which extra-SCN molecular clocks adapt to environmental stimuli (e.g. stress), and in the PFC this effect is largely independent of glucocorticoids.

  10. Alteration of NPY and Y1 receptor in dorsomedial and ventromedial areas of hypothalamus in anorectic tumor-bearing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, William T; Xiao, Chun; Dayal, Ramesh; Sheriff, Sulaiman

    2007-02-01

    Although previous studies have implicated NPY in the etiology of experimental cancer anorexia, the results have been difficult to interpret. Studies have suggested that although NPY level and message were decreased in the dorsomedial hypothalamic area (DMA), they were elevated in the ventromedial hypothalamic area (VMA). To better assess specific intra-area alterations of NPY, Y(1) receptor (Y(1) R), and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) in TB rats, we used radioimmunoassay, quantitative real-time RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry. We found that NPY and AgRP mRNA were elevated significantly in whole hypothalamus of anorectic TB rats, while Y(1) R mRNA was decreased. Based on two replicates of four pooled samples each, both NPY and AgRP mRNA appeared to be elevated in the VMA of anorectic TB rats, while only AgRP exhibited a similar increase in the DMA. Levels of NPY were elevated in the VMA of both TB and pair-fed (PF) rats, but in the DMA only PF rats exhibited a significant NPY increase. NPY and Y(1) R immunohistochemistry revealed reduced NPY staining in PVN and ARC nucleus of TB and PF rats. Y(1) R immunostaining was also reduced in the ARC and PVN of TB rats, while PF rats exhibited elevated immunostaining in the PVN. These results continue to implicate dysfunction of NPY feeding systems in experimental cancer anorexia and suggest down-regulation of Y(1) R receptors as well as possible problems in NPY translation.

  11. Maternal Separation during Breastfeeding Induces Gender-Dependent Changes in Anxiety and the GABA-A Receptor Alpha-Subunit in Adult Wistar Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Armando León Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Different models of rodent maternal separation (MS have been used to investigate long-term neurobiological and behavioral changes, associated with early stress. However, few studies have involved the analysis of sex-related differences in central anxiety modulation. This study investigated whether MS during breastfeeding affected adult males and females in terms of anxiety and brain GABA-A receptor-alpha-subunit immunoreactivity. The brain areas analyzed were the amygdale (AM, hippocampus (HP, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, medial preoptic area (POA and paraventricular nucleus (PVN. Rats were housed under a reversed light/dark cycle (lights off at 7∶00 h with access to water and food ad libitum. Animals underwent MS twice daily during the dark cycle from postnatal day 1 to postnatal day 21. Behavior was tested when rats were 65-70 days old using the elevated plus maze and after brains were treated for immunohistochemistry. We found that separated females spent more time in the open arms and showed more head dipping behavior compared with controls. The separated males spent more time in the center of the maze and engaged in more stretching behavior than the controls. Immunohistochemistry showed that separated females had less immunostained cells in the HP, mPFC, PVN and POA, while separated males had fewer immunolabeled cells in the PFC, PVN and AM. These results could indicate that MS has gender-specific effects on anxiety behaviors and that these effects are likely related to developmental alterations involving GABA-A neurotransmission.

  12. Neurotensin releases norepinephrine differentially from perfused hypothalamus of sated and fasted rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.F.; Rezvani, A.H.; Hepler, J.R.; Myers, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The central injection of neurotensin (NT) has been reported to attenuate the intake of food in the fasted animal. To determine whether endogenous norepinephrine (NE) is involved in the satiating effect of NT, the in vivo activity of NE in circumscribed sites in the hypothalamus of the unanesthetized rat was examined. Bilateral guide tubes for push-pull perfusion were implanted stereotaxically to rest permanently above one of several intended sites of perfusion, which included the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), ventromedial nucleus (VMN), and the lateral hypothalamic (LH) area. After endogenous stores of NE at a specific hypothalamic locus were radiolabeled by microinjection of 0.02-0.5 μCi of [ 3 H]NE, an artificial cerebrospinal fluid was perfused at the site at a rate of 20 μl/min over successive intervals of 5.0 min. When 0.05 or 0.1 μg/μl NT was added to the perfusate, the peptide served either to enhance or educe the local release of NE at 50% of the sites of perfusion. In these experiments, the circumscribed effect of NT on the characteristics of catecholamine efflux depended entirely on the state of hunger or satiety of the rat. That is, when NT was perfused in the fully satiated rat, NE release was augmented within the PVn or VMN; conversely, NE release was inhibited in the LH. in the animal fasted for 18-22 h, NT exerted an opposite effect on the activity of NE within the same anatomical loci in that the efflux of NE was enhanced in the LH but attenuated or unaffected in the PVN or VMN. Taken together, these observations provide experimental support for the view-point that NT could act as a neuromodulator of the activity of hypothalamic noradrenergic neurons that are thought to play a functional role in the regulation of food intake

  13. Stress-induced oxytocin release and oxytocin cell number and size in prepubertal and adult male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhas, Sumeet; Liu, Clarissa; Galdamez, Josselyn; So, Veronica M; Romeo, Russell D

    2016-08-01

    Studies indicate that adolescent exposure to stress is a potent environmental factor that contributes to psychological and physiological disorders, though the mechanisms that mediate these dysfunctions are not well understood. Periadolescent animals display greater stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses than adults, which may contribute to these vulnerabilities. In addition to the HPA axis, the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract (HNT) is also activated in response to stress. In adults, stress activates this system resulting in secretion of oxytocin from neurons in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei. However, it is currently unknown whether a similar or different response occurs in prepubertal animals. Given the influence of these hormones on a variety of emotional behaviors and physiological systems known to change as an animal transitions into adulthood, we investigated stress-induced HPA and HNT hormonal responses before and after stress, as well as the number and size of oxytocin-containing cells in the SON and PVN of prepubertal (30d) and adult (70d) male and female rats. Though we found the well-established protracted adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone response in prepubertal males and females, only adult males and prepubertal females showed a significant stress-induced increase in plasma oxytocin levels. Moreover, though we found no pubertal changes in the number of oxytocin cells, we did find a pubertal-related increase in oxytocin somal size in both the SON and PVN of males and females. Taken together, these data indicate that neuroendocrine systems can show different patterns of stress reactivity before and after adolescent development and that these responses can be further modified by sex. Given the impact of these hormones on a variety of systems, it will be imperative to further explore these changes in hormonal stress reactivity and their role in adolescent health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  14. Long-term intensive gymnastic training induced changes in intra- and inter-network functional connectivity: an independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huiyuan; Wang, Junjing; Seger, Carol; Lu, Min; Deng, Feng; Wu, Xiaoyan; He, Yuan; Niu, Chen; Wang, Jun; Huang, Ruiwang

    2018-01-01

    Long-term intensive gymnastic training can induce brain structural and functional reorganization. Previous studies have identified structural and functional network differences between world class gymnasts (WCGs) and non-athletes at the whole-brain level. However, it is still unclear how interactions within and between functional networks are affected by long-term intensive gymnastic training. We examined both intra- and inter-network functional connectivity of gymnasts relative to non-athletes using resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI). R-fMRI data were acquired from 13 WCGs and 14 non-athlete controls. Group-independent component analysis (ICA) was adopted to decompose the R-fMRI data into spatial independent components and associated time courses. An automatic component identification method was used to identify components of interest associated with resting-state networks (RSNs). We identified nine RSNs, the basal ganglia network (BG), sensorimotor network (SMN), cerebellum (CB), anterior and posterior default mode networks (aDMN/pDMN), left and right fronto-parietal networks (lFPN/rFPN), primary visual network (PVN), and extrastriate visual network (EVN). Statistical analyses revealed that the intra-network functional connectivity was significantly decreased within the BG, aDMN, lFPN, and rFPN, but increased within the EVN in the WCGs compared to the controls. In addition, the WCGs showed uniformly decreased inter-network functional connectivity between SMN and BG, CB, and PVN, BG and PVN, and pDMN and rFPN compared to the controls. We interpret this generally weaker intra- and inter-network functional connectivity in WCGs during the resting state as a result of greater efficiency in the WCGs' brain associated with long-term motor skill training.

  15. Epigenetic regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor promoter 1(7) in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzmann, Simone R; Turner, Jonathan D; Mériaux, Sophie B; Meijer, Onno C; Muller, Claude P

    2012-11-01

    Regulation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels is an important stress adaptation mechanism. Transcription factor Nfgi-a and environmentally induced Gr promoter 1 7 methylation have been implicated in fine-tuning the expression of Gr 1 7 transcripts. Here, we investigated Gr promoter 1 7 methylation and Gr 1 7 expression in adult rats exposed to either acute or chronic stress paradigms. A strong negative correlation was observed between the sum of promoter-wide methylation levels and Gr 1 7 transcript levels, independent of the stressor. Methylation of individual sites did not, however, correlate with transcript levels. This suggested that promoter 1 7 was directly regulated by promoter-wide DNA methylation. Although acute stress increased Ngfi-a expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), Gr 1 7 transcript levels remained unaffected despite low methylation levels. Acute stress had little effect on these low methylation levels, except at four hippocampal CpGs. Chronic stress altered the corticosterone response to an acute stressor. In the adrenal and pituitary glands, but not in the brain, this was accompanied by an increase in methylation levels in orchestrated clusters rather than individual CpGs. PVN methylation levels, unaffected by acute or chronic stress, were significantly more variable within- than between-groups, suggesting that they were instated probably during the perinatal period and represent a pre-established trait. Thus, in addition to the known perinatal programming, the Gr 1 7 promoter is epigenetically regulated by chronic stress in adulthood, and retains promoter-wide tissue-specific plasticity. Differences in methylation susceptibility between the PVN in the perinatal period and the peripheral HPA axis tissues in adulthood may represent an important "trait" vs. "state" regulation of the Gr gene.

  16. 17β-Estradiol is required for the sexually dimorphic effects of repeated binge-pattern alcohol exposure on the HPA axis during adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena M Przybycien-Szymanska

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption during adolescence has long-term sexually dimorphic effects on anxiety behavior and mood disorders. We have previously shown that repeated binge-pattern alcohol exposure increased the expression of two critical central regulators of stress and anxiety, corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH and arginine vasopressin (AVP, in adolescent male rats. By contrast, there was no effect of alcohol on these same genes in adolescent females. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that 17β-estradiol (E(2, the predominant sex steroid hormone in females, prevents alcohol-induced changes in CRH and AVP gene expression in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN of the hypothalamus. To test this hypothesis, postnatal day (PND 26 females were ovariectomized and given E(2 replacement or cholesterol as a control. Next, they were given an alcohol exposure paradigm of 1 saline alone, 2 acute (single dose or 3 a repeated binge-pattern. Our results showed that acute and repeated binge-pattern alcohol treatment increased plasma ACTH and CORT levels in both E(2- and Ch-treated groups, however habituation to repeated binge-pattern alcohol exposure was evident only in E(2-treated animals. Further, repeated binge-pattern alcohol exposure significantly decreased CRH and AVP mRNA in Ch-, but not E(2-treated animals, which was consistent with our previous observations in gonad intact females. We further tested the effects of E(2 and alcohol treatment on the activity of the wild type CRH promoter in a PVN-derived neuronal cell line. Alcohol increased CRH promoter activity in these cells and concomitant treatment with E(2 completely abolished the effect. Together our data suggest that E(2 regulates the reactivity of the HPA axis to a repeated stressor through modulation of the habituation response and further serves to maintain normal steady state mRNA levels of CRH and AVP in the PVN in response to a repeated alcohol stressor.

  17. Probiotic Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota relieves stress-associated symptoms by modulating the gut-brain interaction in human and animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, M; Nishida, K; Kataoka-Kato, A; Gondo, Y; Ishikawa, H; Suda, K; Kawai, M; Hoshi, R; Watanabe, O; Igarashi, T; Kuwano, Y; Miyazaki, K; Rokutan, K

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) on gut-brain interactions under stressful conditions. Three double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were conducted to examine the effects of LcS on psychological and physiological stress responses in healthy medical students under academic examination stress. Subjects received LcS-fermented milk or placebo daily for 8 weeks prior to taking a national standardized examination. Subjective anxiety scores, salivary cortisol levels, and the presence of physical symptoms during the intervention were pooled and analyzed. In the animal study, rats were given feed with or without LcS for 2 weeks, then submitted to water avoidance stress (WAS). Plasma corticosterone concentration and the expression of cFos and corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were measured immediately after WAS. In an electrophysiological study, gastric vagal afferent nerve activity was monitored after intragastric administration of LcS to urethane-anesthetized rats. Academic stress-induced increases in salivary cortisol levels and the incidence rate of physical symptoms were significantly suppressed in the LcS group compared with the placebo group. In rats pretreated with LcS, WAS-induced increases in plasma corticosterone were significantly suppressed, and the number of CRF-expressing cells in the PVN was reduced. Intragastric administration of LcS stimulated gastric vagal afferent activity in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that LcS may prevent hypersecretion of cortisol and physical symptoms under stressful conditions, possibly through vagal afferent signaling to the brain and reduced stress reactivity in the PVN. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Protective role of AgRP neuron's PDK1 against salt-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Boyang; Nakata, Masanori; Lu, Ming; Nakae, Jun; Okada, Takashi; Ogawa, Wataru; Yada, Toshihiko

    2018-06-12

    In the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), orexigenic agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons regulate feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. The 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) in AgRP neurons serves as a major signaling molecule for leptin and insulin, the hormones regulating feeding behavior, energy homeostasis and circulation. However, it is unclear whether PDK1 in AGRP neurons is also involved in regulation of blood pressure. This study explored it by generating and analyzing AgRP neuron-specific PDK1 knockout (Agrp-Pdk1 flox/flox ) mice and effect of high salt diet on blood pressure in KO and WT mice was analyzed. Under high salt diet feeding, systolic blood pressure (SBP) of Agrp-Pdk1 flox/flox mice was significantly elevated compared to Agrp-Cre mice. When the high salt diet was switched to control low salt diet, SBP of Agrp-Pdk1 flox/flox mice returned to the basal level observed in Agrp-Cre mice within 1 week. In Agrp-Pdk1 flox/flox mice, urinary noradrenalin excretion and NUCB2 mRNA expression in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were markedly upregulated. Moreover, silencing of NUCB2 in the PVN counteracted the rises in urinary noradrenalin excretions and SBP. These results demonstrate a novel role of PDK1 in AgRP neurons to counteract the high salt diet-induced hypertension by preventing hyperactivation of PVN nesfatin-1 neurons. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Central effects of insulin detemir on feeding, body weight, and metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasselli, Joseph R; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier; Wall, Daniel G; John, Catherine S; Chapman, Colin D; Currie, Paul J

    2017-11-01

    Insulin detemir (DET) is a basal insulin analog that, in contrast to other long-acting forms of insulin, has significant weight-gain-sparing effects in diabetic patients. We hypothesized that this effect of DET may be due to its enhanced catabolic action in the central nervous system. We investigated the long-term effects of single third ventricular (3V) microinjections of equimolar doses of DET and regular insulin in normal male rats on feeding, body weight, energy expenditure (EE), and respiratory quotient (RQ). Also, in acute testing, we assessed the ability of lower doses of DET to alter feeding, EE, and RQ when microinjected directly into the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). The anabolic peptide ghrelin served as a positive control in acute testing. 3V administration of both DET (0.5-2.0 mU) and regular insulin (2.0-8.0 mU) significantly reduced feeding and body weight over 48 and 120 h, respectively, with DET yielding greater inhibitory effects. DET also stimulated greater elevations of EE and reductions of RQ over 72 and 48 h postinjection, respectively. In acute (4 h) testing, microinjections of DET (0.5 mU) into the PVN reduced feeding, increased EE, and reduced RQ, while ghrelin (100 pmol) had the opposite effects. When administered sequentially into the PVN, DET (0.25 and 0.5 mU) reversed ghrelin-induced feeding, EE, and RQ effects. These data support the notion that the weight-sparing effect of DET is at least in part based on its central catabolic action and that enhanced EE and reduced RQ may participate in this effect. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Prolactin-sensitive neurons express estrogen receptor-α and depend on sex hormones for normal responsiveness to prolactin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furigo, Isadora C; Kim, Ki Woo; Nagaishi, Vanessa S; Ramos-Lobo, Angela M; de Alencar, Amanda; Pedroso, João A B; Metzger, Martin; Donato, Jose

    2014-05-30

    Estrogens and prolactin share important target tissues, including the gonads, brain, liver, kidneys and some types of cancer cells. Herein, we sought anatomical and functional evidence of possible crosstalk between prolactin and estrogens in the mouse brain. First, we determined the distribution of prolactin-responsive neurons that express the estrogen receptor α (ERα). A large number of prolactin-induced pSTAT5-immunoreactive neurons expressing ERα mRNA were observed in several brain areas, including the anteroventral periventricular nucleus, medial preoptic nucleus, arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, ventrolateral subdivision of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH), medial nucleus of the amygdala and nucleus of the solitary tract. However, although the medial preoptic area, periventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, retrochiasmatic area, dorsomedial subdivision of the VMH, lateral hypothalamic area, dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus and ventral premammillary nucleus contained significant numbers of prolactin-responsive neurons, these areas showed very few pSTAT5-immunoreactive cells expressing ERα mRNA. Second, we evaluated prolactin sensitivity in ovariectomized mice and observed that sex hormones are required for a normal responsiveness to prolactin as ovariectomized mice showed a lower number of prolactin-induced pSTAT5 immunoreactive neurons in all analyzed brain nuclei compared to gonad-intact females. In addition, we performed hypothalamic gene expression analyses to determine possible post-ovariectomy changes in components of prolactin signaling. We observed no significant changes in the mRNA expression of prolactin receptor, STAT5a or STAT5b. In summary, sex hormones exert a permissive role in maintaining the brain's prolactin sensitivity, most likely through post-transcriptional mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Developmental exposure to PBDE 99 and PCB affects estrogen sensitivity of target genes in rat brain regions and female sexual behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtensteiger, W; Faass, O; Ceccatelli, R; Schlumpf, M [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. of Pharmacology and Toxicology

    2004-09-15

    We recently reported effects of PBDE99 (2,2',4,4'5-pentabromoBDE) on sexual differentiation processes in rat reproductive organs and central nervous system. These studies were prompted by reports on an increase of PBDE levels in human milk, an indicator of the body burden of pregnant women and of potential exposure of the nursing infant, during the last decade. Even higher human adipose tissue and milk levels were reported for North America. PBDE99 is present in human and animal samples and exhibits developmental neurotoxicity in mice. The developing brain is subject to the organizing action of estradiol locally formed from circulating testosterone, and thus represents a target for endocrine active chemicals. One molecular mechanism by which chemicals may interfere with sexual brain differentiation, may be a change in the expression of sex hormone (estrogen)-regulated genes. Such effects may manifest themselves in mRNA expression levels, or in the sensitivity of the genes to estrogen. In order to detect alterations of the latter, more subtle parameter, we have conducted experiments in developmentally chemical-exposed rat offspring that were gonadectomized in adulthood and injected with a challenge dose of estradiol. Effects of PBDE99 were compared with those of a commercial PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254, which had previously been found to influence sexual brain differentiation. We analyzed the expression of estrogen-regulated genes in ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and medial preoptic area (MPO), two brain regions that are part of a network involved in the integration of environmental cues, sexual behavior and gonadal function. Since prominent changes were observed in VMH which is particularly important for female sexual behavior, the study was completed by a behavioral analysis.

  2. Developmental exposure to PBDE 99 and PCB affects estrogen sensitivity of target genes in rat brain regions and female sexual behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtensteiger, W.; Faass, O.; Ceccatelli, R.; Schlumpf, M. [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. of Pharmacology and Toxicology

    2004-09-15

    We recently reported effects of PBDE99 (2,2',4,4'5-pentabromoBDE) on sexual differentiation processes in rat reproductive organs and central nervous system. These studies were prompted by reports on an increase of PBDE levels in human milk, an indicator of the body burden of pregnant women and of potential exposure of the nursing infant, during the last decade. Even higher human adipose tissue and milk levels were reported for North America. PBDE99 is present in human and animal samples and exhibits developmental neurotoxicity in mice. The developing brain is subject to the organizing action of estradiol locally formed from circulating testosterone, and thus represents a target for endocrine active chemicals. One molecular mechanism by which chemicals may interfere with sexual brain differentiation, may be a change in the expression of sex hormone (estrogen)-regulated genes. Such effects may manifest themselves in mRNA expression levels, or in the sensitivity of the genes to estrogen. In order to detect alterations of the latter, more subtle parameter, we have conducted experiments in developmentally chemical-exposed rat offspring that were gonadectomized in adulthood and injected with a challenge dose of estradiol. Effects of PBDE99 were compared with those of a commercial PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254, which had previously been found to influence sexual brain differentiation. We analyzed the expression of estrogen-regulated genes in ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and medial preoptic area (MPO), two brain regions that are part of a network involved in the integration of environmental cues, sexual behavior and gonadal function. Since prominent changes were observed in VMH which is particularly important for female sexual behavior, the study was completed by a behavioral analysis.

  3. Brain activation associated to olfactory conditioned same-sex partner preference in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria-Avila, Genaro A; Cibrian-Llanderal, Tamara; Díaz-Estrada, Victor X; García, Luis I; Toledo-Cárdenas, Rebeca; Pfaus, James G; Manzo, Jorge

    2018-03-01

    Sexual preferences can be strongly modified by Pavlovian learning. For instance, olfactory conditioned same-sex partner preference can occur when a sexually naïve male cohabits with an scented male during repeated periods under the effects of enhanced D2-type activity. Preference is observed days later via social and sexual behaviors. Herein we explored brain activity related to learned same-sex preference (Fos-Immunoreactivity, IR) following exposure to a conditioned odor paired with same-sex preference. During conditioning trials males received either saline or the D2-type receptor agonist quinpirole (QNP) and cohabitated during 24 h with a stimulus male that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus. This was repeated every 4 days, for a total of three trials. In a drug-free final test we assessed socio/sexual partner preference between the scented male and a receptive female. The results indicated that QNP-conditioned males developed a same-sex preference observed via contact, time spent, olfactory investigations, and non-contact erections. By contrast, saline-conditioned and intact (non-exposed to conditioning) males expressed an unconditioned preference for the female. Four days later the males were exposed to almond scent and their brains were processed for Fos-IR. Results indicated that the QNP-conditioned group expressed more Fos-IR in the nucleus accumbens (AcbSh), medial preoptic area (MPA), piriform cortex (Pir) and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) as compared to saline-conditioned. Intact males expressed the lowest Fos-IR in AcbSh and VMH, but the highest in MPA and Pir. We discuss the role of these areas in the learning process of same-sex partner preferences and olfactory discrimination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Anthony Sclafani: Consummate scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasselli, Joseph R; Smith, Gerard P

    2018-03-01

    In this article we review the scientific contributions of Anthony Sclafani, with specific emphasis on his early work on the neural substrate of the ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) hyperphagia-obesity syndrome, and on the development of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Over a period of 20 years Sclafani systematically investigated the neuroanatomical basis of the VMH hyperphagia-obesity syndrome, and ultimately identified a longitudinal oxytocin-containing neural tract contributing to its expression. This tract has since been implicated in mediating the effects of at least two gastrointestinal satiety factors. Sclafani was one of the first investigators to demonstrate DIO in rats as a result of exposure to multiple palatable food items (the "supermarket diet"), and concluded that diet palatability was the primary factor responsible for DIO. Sclafani went on to investigate the potency of specific carbohydrate and fat stimuli for inducing hyperphagia, and in so doing discovered that post-ingestive nutrient effects contribute to the elevated intake of palatable food items. To further investigate this effect, he devised an intragastric infusion system which allowed the introduction of nutrients into the gut paired with the oral intake of flavored solutions, an apparatus her termed the "electronic esophagus". Sclafani coined the term "appetition" to describe the effect of intestinal nutrient sensing on post-ingestive appetite stimulation. Sclafani's productivity in the research areas he chose to investigate has been nothing short of extraordinary, and his studies are characterized by inventive hypothesizing and meticulous experimental design. His results and conclusions, to our knowledge, have never been contradicted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Experimental model to induce obesity in rats Modelo experimental para induzir obesidade em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Von Diemen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of obesity is multifactorial and is becoming a problem of public health, due to its increased prevalence and the consequent repercussion of its comorbidities on the health of the population. The great similarity and homology between the genomes of rodents and humans make these animal models a major tool to study conditions affecting humans, which can be simulated in rats. Obesity can be induced in animals by neuroendocrine, dietary or genetic changes. The most widely used models to induce obesity in rats are a lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH by administering monosodium glutamate or a direct electrical lesion, ovariectomy, feeding on hypercaloric diets and genetic manipulation for obesity.A obesidade tem etiologia multifatorial e está se tornando um problema de saúde pública devido ao aumento da sua prevalência e a conseqüente repercusão das suas comorbidades na saúde da população. A grande similaridade e homologia entre os genomas dos roedores e dos humanos tornam esses modelos animais uma importante ferramenta para o estudo de condições que afetam os humanos e que podem ser simuladas em ratos. A obesidade pode ser induzida em animais com alterações neuroendócrinas, dietéticas ou genéticas. Os modelos mais utilizados para indução de obesidade em ratos são lesão do núcleo hipotalâmico venteromedial (VMH através da administração de glutamato monossódico ou lesão elétrica direta, ooforectomia, alimentação com dietas hipercalóricas e manipulação genética para obesidade.

  6. Role of hypothalamic cannabinoid receptors in post-stroke depression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanshan; Sun, Hong; Liu, Sainan; Wang, Ting; Guan, Jinqun; Jia, Jianjun

    2016-03-01

    One of the most common psychological consequences of stroke is post-stroke depression (PSD). While more than 30 percent of stroke patients eventually develop PSD, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying such a phenomenon have not been well investigated. Given the critical involvement of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and endocannabinoid system in response to stressful stimuli, we evaluated the hypothesis that cannabinoid receptors in the hypothalamus are critical for modulation of post-stroke depression-like behaviors in rats. To this end, rats were treated with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) treatment procedure. We then assessed the expression of CB1 and CB2 receptors in the hypothalamus, and evaluated the effects of pharmacological stimulations of CB1 or CB2 receptors on the expression and development of depression-like behaviors in PSD rats. We found that PSD rats exhibited decreased the expression of CB1 receptor, but not CB2 receptor, in the ventral medial hypothalamus (VMH). Such an effect was not observed in the dorsally adjacent brain regions. Furthermore, intra-VMH injections of CB2 receptor agonist, but not CB1 receptor agonist, attenuated the expression of depression-like behaviors in PSD rats. Finally, repeated intraperitoneal injections of CB1 or CB2 receptor agonists during CUMS treatment inhibited the development of depression-like behaviors in PSD rats. Taken together, these results suggest that decreased CB1 receptor expression is likely associated with the development of post-stroke depression, and CB2 receptor may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment post-stroke depressive disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Are age and sex differences in brain oxytocin receptors related to maternal and infanticidal behavior in naïve mice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olazábal, Daniel E; Alsina-Llanes, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". There is significant variability in the behavioral responses displayed by naïve young and adult mice when first exposed to pups. This variability has been associated with differences in the expression of oxytocin receptors (OXTRs) in the brain in several species. Experiment I investigated the behavioral responses of juvenile, adolescent, and adult CB57BL/6 males and females when first exposed to pups. We found an age increase in maternal females (11% of juveniles, 20% of adolescents, and 50% of young adults), and infanticidal males (0% of juveniles, 30% of adolescents, 44.5% of young adults, and 100% of older adults). Experiment II investigated OXTR density in the brain of juvenile and adult mice. Our results revealed an age decline in the density of OXTR in several brain regions, including the lateral septum, cingulated and posterior paraventricular thalamic nucleus in both males and females. Adult females had higher OXTR density in the ventromedial nucleus/postero-ventral hypothalamus (VMH) and the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), but lower density in the ventral region of the lateral septum (LSv) than juveniles. Males had lower OXTR density in the anterior olfactory area (AOA) compared to juveniles. No age or sex differences were found in the medial preoptic area, and amygdaloid nuclei, among other brain regions. This study suggests that 1) maturation of parental and infanticidal behavioral responses is not reached until adulthood; 2) the pattern of development of OXTR in the mouse brain is unique, region specific, and differs from that observed in other rodents; 3) either up or down regulation of OXTR in a few brain regions (VMH/AOB/LSv/AOA) might contribute to age or sex differences in parental or infanticidal behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Vietnam Petroleum Industry: Positioned for Growth but Ripe for Regional Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    monopolistic character of PVN means the Vietnamese government is a major part of all aspects of the industry. Secondly, faced with increasing demand for...2013, JSTOR. 17 “U.S. EIA, “Vietnam” 20 18 Trong Vu and Simon Hall, “Oil Market Changes as Vietnam Build Another Refinery,” The Wall...Vietnam to Push Ahead with Offshore Exploration.” 23 Ibid. 24 Ibid. 25 Vu and Hall, “Oil Market Changes as Vietnam Build Another Refinery

  9. Choosing the optimal Pareto composition of the charge material for the manufacture of composite blanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalazinsky, A. G.; Kryuchkov, D. I.; Nesterenko, A. V.; Titov, V. G.

    2017-12-01

    The results of an experimental study of the mechanical properties of pressed and sintered briquettes consisting of powders obtained from a high-strength VT-22 titanium alloy by plasma spraying with additives of PTM-1 titanium powder obtained by the hydride-calcium method and powder of PV-N70Yu30 nickel-aluminum alloy are presented. The task is set for the choice of an optimal charge material composition of a composite material providing the required mechanical characteristics and cost of semi-finished products and items. Pareto optimal values for the composition of the composite material charge have been obtained.

  10. Effects of forced swimming stress on thyroid function, pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone and hypothalamus thyrotropin releasing hormone expression in adrenalectomy Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiuyan; Liu, Aihua; Ma, Yanan; Wang, Anyi; Guo, Xinhong; Teng, Weiping; Jiang, Yaqiu

    2016-11-01

    In order to study the impact that is imposed on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis of adrenalectomy male Wistar rats by stress caused by swimming, the blood level of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), the expression of TSHβ mRNA at the pituitary and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) expression at the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were measured. A total of 50 male Wistar rats of 6-8 weeks of age and with an average weight of 190-210 grams were randomly divided into the following two groups: The surgical (without adrenal glands) and non-surgical (adrenalectomy) group. These two groups were then divided into the following five groups, according to the time delay of sacrifice following forced swim (10 min, 2 h, 12 h and 24 h) and control (not subjected to swimming) groups. A bilateral adrenalectomy animal model was established. Serum TSH in the blood was measurement by chemiluminescent immunoassay, and cerebrum tissue were excised for the measurement of TRH expression using an immunohistochemistry assay. In addition, pituitaries were excised for the extraction of total RNA. Finally, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed for quantitation of TSHβ. Following swimming, the serum T3, T4 and TSH, the TSHβ mRNA expression levels in the pituitary and the TRH expression in the PVN of the surgical group were gradually increased. In the non-surgical group, no significant differences were observed in the serum T3, T4 and TSH levels compared with the control group. The TSHβ mRNA expression at the pituitary showed a similar result. Furthermore, the TRH expression at PVN was gradually increased and stress from swimming could increase the blood T4, T3 and TSH levels, TSHβ mRNA expression at the pituitary and TRH expression at the PVN in adrenalectomy Wistar rats. Moreover, the index in the surgical group changed significantly compared with the non-surgical group. In conclusion, the results

  11. Hyperactivity of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Due to Dysfunction of the Hypothalamic Glucocorticoid Receptor in Sigma-1 Receptor Knockout Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Di

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sigma-1 receptor knockout (σ1R-KO mice exhibit a depressive-like phenotype. Because σ1R is highly expressed in the neuronal cells of hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei (PVN, this study investigated the influence of σ1R deficiency on the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis. Here, we show that the levels of basal serum corticosterone (CORT, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF as well as the level of CRF mRNA in PVN did not significantly differ between adult male σ1R-KO mice and wild-type (WT mice. Acute mild restraint stress (AMRS induced a higher and more sustainable increase in activity of HPA axis and CRF expression in σ1R-KO mice. Percentage of dexamethasone (Dex-induced reduction in level of CORT was markedly attenuated in σ1R−/− mice. The levels of glucocorticoid receptor (GR and protein kinase C (PKC phosphorylation were reduced in the PVN of σ1R-KO mice and σ1R antagonist NE100-treated WT mice. The exposure to AMRS in σ1R-KO mice induced a stronger phosphorylation of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB in PVN than that in WT mice. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. injection of PKC activator PMA for 3 days in σ1R-KO mice not only recovered the GR phosphorylation and the percentage of Dex-reduced CORT but also corrected the AMRS-induced hyperactivity of HPA axis and enhancement of CRF mRNA and CREB phosphorylation. Furthermore, the injection (i.c.v. of PMA in σ1R-KO mice corrected the prolongation of immobility time in forced swim test (FST and tail suspension test (TST. These results indicate that σ1R deficiency causes down-regulation of GR by reducing PKC phosphorylation, which attenuates GR-mediated feedback inhibition of HPA axis and facilitates the stress response of HPA axis leading to the production of depressive-like behaviors.

  12. Is non-operative management safe and effective for all splenic blunt trauma? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirocchi, Roberto; Boselli, Carlo; Corsi, Alessia; Farinella, Eriberto; Listorti, Chiara; Trastulli, Stefano; Renzi, Claudio; Desiderio, Jacopo; Santoro, Alberto; Cagini, Lucio; Parisi, Amilcare; Redler, Adriano; Noya, Giuseppe; Fingerhut, Abe

    2013-09-03

    The goal of non-operative management (NOM) for blunt splenic trauma (BST) is to preserve the spleen. The advantages of NOM for minor splenic trauma have been extensively reported, whereas its value for the more severe splenic injuries is still debated. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the available published evidence on NOM in patients with splenic trauma and to compare it with the operative management (OM) in terms of mortality, morbidity and duration of hospital stay. For this systematic review we followed the "Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses" statement. A systematic search was performed on PubMed for studies published from January 2000 to December 2011, without language restrictions, which compared NOM vs. OM for splenic trauma injuries and which at least 10 patients with BST. We identified 21 non randomized studies: 1 Clinical Controlled Trial and 20 retrospective cohort studies analyzing a total of 16,940 patients with BST. NOM represents the gold standard treatment for minor splenic trauma and is associated with decreased mortality in severe splenic trauma (4.78% vs. 13.5% in NOM and OM, respectively), according to the literature. Of note, in BST treated operatively, concurrent injuries accounted for the higher mortality. In addition, it was not possible to determine post-treatment morbidity in major splenic trauma. The definition of hemodynamic stability varied greatly in the literature depending on the surgeon and the trauma team, representing a further bias. Moreover, data on the remaining analyzed outcomes (hospital stay, number of blood transfusions, abdominal abscesses, overwhelming post-splenectomy infection) were not reported in all included studies or were not comparable, precluding the possibility to perform a meaningful cumulative analysis and comparison. NOM of BST, preserving the spleen, is the treatment of choice for the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma grades I and II

  13. The STRATOB study: design of a randomized controlled clinical trial of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Brief Strategic Therapy with telecare in patients with obesity and binge-eating disorder referred to residential nutritional rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesa Gian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are linked with Binge Eating Disorder (BED. Effective interventions to significantly reduce weight, maintain weight loss and manage associated pathologies like BED are tipically combined treatment options (dietetic, nutritional, physical, behavioral, cognitive-behavioral, pharmacological, surgical. Significant difficulties with regard to availability, costs, treatment adherence and long-term efficacy are present. Particularly Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT is the therapeutic approach indicated both in in-patient and in out-patient settings for BED. In recent years systemic and systemic-strategic psychotherapies have been implemented to treat patients with obesity and BED involved in familiar problems. Particularly a brief protocol for the systemic-strategic treatment of BED, using overall the strategic dialogue, has been recently developed. Moreover telemedicine, a new promising low cost method, has been used for obesity with BED in out-patient settings in order to avoid relapse after the in-patient step of treatment and to keep on a continuity of care with the involvement of the same clinical in-patient team. Methods The comparison between CBT and Brief Strategic Therapy (BST will be assessed in a two-arm randomized controlled clinical trial. Due to the novelty of the application of BST in BED treatment (no other RCTs including BST have been carried out, a pilot study will be carried out before conducting a large scale randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT. Both CBT and BST group will follow an in-hospital treatment (diet, physical activity, dietitian counseling, 8 psychological sessions plus 8 out-patient telephone-based sessions of psychological support and monitoring with the same in-patient psychotherapists. Primary outcome measure of the randomized trial will be the change in the Global Index of the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ-45.2. Secondary outcome measures will be the percentage of BED

  14. SU-E-I-74: Image-Matching Technique of Computed Tomography Images for Personal Identification: A Preliminary Study Using Anthropomorphic Chest Phantoms

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    Matsunobu, Y; Shiotsuki, K [Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Morishita, J [Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, JP (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Fingerprints, dental impressions, and DNA are used to identify unidentified bodies in forensic medicine. Cranial Computed tomography (CT) images and/or dental radiographs are also used for identification. Radiological identification is important, particularly in the absence of comparative fingerprints, dental impressions, and DNA samples. The development of an automated radiological identification system for unidentified bodies is desirable. We investigated the potential usefulness of bone structure for matching chest CT images. Methods: CT images of three anthropomorphic chest phantoms were obtained on different days in various settings. One of the phantoms was assumed to be an unidentified body. The bone image and the bone image with soft tissue (BST image) were extracted from the CT images. To examine the usefulness of the bone image and/or the BST image, the similarities between the two-dimensional (2D) or threedimensional (3D) images of the same and different phantoms were evaluated in terms of the normalized cross-correlation value (NCC). Results: For the 2D and 3D BST images, the NCCs obtained from the same phantom assumed to be an unidentified body (2D, 0.99; 3D, 0.93) were higher than those for the different phantoms (2D, 0.95 and 0.91; 3D, 0.89 and 0.80). The NCCs for the same phantom (2D, 0.95; 3D, 0.88) were greater compared to those of the different phantoms (2D, 0.61 and 0.25; 3D, 0.23 and 0.10) for the bone image. The difference in the NCCs between the same and different phantoms tended to be larger for the bone images than for the BST images. These findings suggest that the image-matching technique is more useful when utilizing the bone image than when utilizing the BST image to identify different people. Conclusion: This preliminary study indicated that evaluating the similarity of bone structure in 2D and 3D images is potentially useful for identifying of an unidentified body.

  15. Microwave characteristics of sol-gel based Ag-doped (Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4})TiO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung-Tae; Kim, Cheolbok [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Senior, David E. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universidad Tecnológica de Bolívar Cartagena, 130011 Colombia (Colombia); Kim, Dongsu [Packaging Research Center, Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Gyeonggi-do, 463-816 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Yong-Kyu, E-mail: ykyoon@ece.ufl.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2014-08-28

    Dielectric Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}TiO{sub 3} (BST) thin films with a different concentration of Ag-dopant of 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, and 5 mol % have been prepared using an alkoxide-based sol-gel method on a Pt(111)/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate and their surface morphology and crystallinity have been examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, respectively. An on-chip metal-insulator-metal capacitor has been fabricated with the prepared thin film ferroelectric sample. Concentric coplanar electrodes are used for high frequency electrical characterization with a vector network analyzer and a probe station. The SEM images show that increasing Ag doping concentration leads to a decrease in grain size. XRD reveals that the fabricated films show good BST crystallinity for all the concentration while a doping concentration of 5 mol % starts to show an Ag peak, implying a metallic phase. Improved microwave dielectric loss properties of the BST thin films are observed in a low Ag doping level. Especially, BST with an Ag doping concentration of 1 mol % shows the best properties with a dielectric constant of 269.3, a quality factor of 48.1, a tunability at the electric field of 100 kV/cm of 41.2 %, a leakage-current density of 1.045 × 10{sup −7}A/cm{sup 2} at an electric field of 100 kV/cm and a figure of merit (defined by tunability (%) divided by tan δ (%)) of 19.59 under a dc bias voltage of 10 V at 1 GHz. - Highlights: • High quality Ag-doped Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}TiO{sub 3} (BST) thin films were derived by the sol-gel method. • Doped Ag replaced the A site ions in the ABO{sub 3} type structure. • Doped Ag helped lower leakage current by filling oxygen vacancies, which is a leakage path. • Microwave characteristics of low dielectric loss and good tunability were confirmed. • Great potential is envisioned for low loss tunable microwave applications.

  16. SU-E-I-74: Image-Matching Technique of Computed Tomography Images for Personal Identification: A Preliminary Study Using Anthropomorphic Chest Phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunobu, Y; Shiotsuki, K; Morishita, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Fingerprints, dental impressions, and DNA are used to identify unidentified bodies in forensic medicine. Cranial Computed tomography (CT) images and/or dental radiographs are also used for identification. Radiological identification is important, particularly in the absence of comparative fingerprints, dental impressions, and DNA samples. The development of an automated radiological identification system for unidentified bodies is desirable. We investigated the potential usefulness of bone structure for matching chest CT images. Methods: CT images of three anthropomorphic chest phantoms were obtained on different days in various settings. One of the phantoms was assumed to be an unidentified body. The bone image and the bone image with soft tissue (BST image) were extracted from the CT images. To examine the usefulness of the bone image and/or the BST image, the similarities between the two-dimensional (2D) or threedimensional (3D) images of the same and different phantoms were evaluated in terms of the normalized cross-correlation value (NCC). Results: For the 2D and 3D BST images, the NCCs obtained from the same phantom assumed to be an unidentified body (2D, 0.99; 3D, 0.93) were higher than those for the different phantoms (2D, 0.95 and 0.91; 3D, 0.89 and 0.80). The NCCs for the same phantom (2D, 0.95; 3D, 0.88) were greater compared to those of the different phantoms (2D, 0.61 and 0.25; 3D, 0.23 and 0.10) for the bone image. The difference in the NCCs between the same and different phantoms tended to be larger for the bone images than for the BST images. These findings suggest that the image-matching technique is more useful when utilizing the bone image than when utilizing the BST image to identify different people. Conclusion: This preliminary study indicated that evaluating the similarity of bone structure in 2D and 3D images is potentially useful for identifying of an unidentified body

  17. Adrenocortical and Adipose Responses to High-Altitude-Induced, Long-Term Hypoxia in the Ovine Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean A. Myers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available By late gestation, the maturing hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis aids the fetus in responding to stress. Hypoxia represents a significant threat to the fetus accompanying situations such as preeclampsia, smoking, high altitude, and preterm labor. We developed a model of high-altitude (3,820 m, long-term hypoxia (LTH in pregnant sheep. We describe the impact of LTH on the fetal HPA axis at the level of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN, anterior pituitary corticotrope, and adrenal cortex. At the PVN and anterior pituitary, the responses to LTH are consistent with hypoxia being a potent activator of the HPA axis and potentially maladaptive, while the adrenocortical response to LTH appears to be primarily adaptive. We discuss mechanisms involved in the delicate balance between these seemingly opposing responses that preserve the normal ontogenic rise in fetal plasma cortisol essential for organ maturation and in this species, birth. Further, we examine the response to, and ramifications of, an acute secondary stressor in the LTH fetus. We provide an integrative model on the potential role of adipose in modulating these responses to LTH. Integration of these adaptive responses to LTH plays a key role in promoting normal fetal growth and development under conditions of a chronic stress.

  18. Rats with steroid-induced polycystic ovaries develop hypertension and increased sympathetic nervous system activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ploj Karolina

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder associated with ovulatory dysfunction, abdominal obesity, hyperandrogenism, hypertension, and insulin resistance. Methods Our objectives in this study were (1 to estimate sympathetic-adrenal medullary (SAM activity by measuring mean systolic blood pressure (MSAP in rats with estradiol valerate (EV-induced PCO; (2 to estimate alpha1a and alpha2a adrenoceptor expression in a brain area thought to mediate central effects on MSAP regulation and in the adrenal medulla; (3 to assess hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis regulation by measuring adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and corticosterone (CORT levels in response to novel-environment stress; and (4 to measure abdominal obesity, sex steroids, and insulin sensitivity. Results The PCO rats had significantly higher MSAP than controls, higher levels of alpha1a adrenoceptor mRNA in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN, and lower levels of alpha2a adrenoceptor mRNA in the PVN and adrenal medulla. After exposure to stress, PCO rats had higher ACTH and CORT levels. Plasma testosterone concentrations were lower in PCO rats, and no differences in insulin sensitivity or in the weight of intraabdominal fat depots were found. Conclusion Thus, rats with EV-induced PCO develop hypertension and increased sympathetic and HPA-axis activity without reduced insulin sensitivity, obesity, or hyperandrogenism. These findings may have implications for mechanisms underlying hypertension in PCOS.

  19. Oxytocin attenuates deficits in social interaction but not recognition memory in a prenatal valproic acid-induced mouse model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yuta; Ago, Yukio; Higuchi, Momoko; Hasebe, Shigeru; Nakazawa, Takanobu; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Matsuda, Toshio; Takuma, Kazuhiro

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies have reported that oxytocin ameliorates behavioral abnormalities in both animal models and individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the mechanisms underlying the ameliorating effects of oxytocin remain unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of intranasal oxytocin on impairments in social interaction and recognition memory in an ASD mouse model in which animals are prenatally exposed to valproic acid (VPA). We found that a single intranasal administration of oxytocin restored social interaction deficits for up to 2h in mice prenatally exposed to VPA, but there was no effect on recognition memory impairments. Additionally, administration of oxytocin across 2weeks improved prenatal VPA-induced social interaction deficits for at least 24h. In contrast, there were no effects on the time spent sniffing in control mice. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that intranasal administration of oxytocin increased c-Fos expression in the paraventricular nuclei (PVN), prefrontal cortex, and somatosensory cortex, but not the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions of VPA-exposed mice, suggesting the former regions may underlie the effects of oxytocin. These findings suggest that oxytocin attenuates social interaction deficits through the activation of higher cortical areas and the PVN in an ASD mouse model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The neuroendocrine response to stress under the effect of drugs: Negative synergy between amphetamine and stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Román, Almudena; Ortega-Sánchez, Juan A; Rotllant, David; Gagliano, Humberto; Belda, Xavier; Delgado-Morales, Raúl; Marín-Blasco, Ignacio; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    There have been numerous studies into the interaction between stress and addictive drugs, yet few have specifically addressed how the organism responds to stress when under the influence of psychostimulants. Thus, we studied the effects of different acute stressors (immobilization, interleukin-1β and forced swimming) in young adult male rats simultaneously exposed to amphetamine (AMPH, 4 mg/kg SC), evaluating classic biological markers. AMPH administration itself augmented the plasma hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) hormones, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone, without affecting plasma glucose levels. By contrast, this drug dampened the peripheral HPA axis, as well as the response of glucose to the three stressors. We also found that AMPH administration completely blocked the forced swim-induced expression of the corticotropin-releasing hormone (hnCRH) and it partially reduced c-fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Indeed, this negative synergy in the forced swim test could even be observed with a lower dose of AMPH (1mg/kg, SC), a dose that is usually received in self-administration experiments. In conclusion, when rats that receive AMPH are subjected to stress, a negative synergy occurs that dampens the prototypic peripheral physiological response to stress and activation of the PVN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chlorella vulgaris reduces the impact of stress on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and brain c-fos expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Queiroz, Julia; Marín Blasco, Ignacio; Gagliano, Humberto; Daviu, Nuria; Gómez Román, Almudena; Belda, Xavier; Carrasco, Javier; Rocha, Michelle C; Palermo Neto, João; Armario, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    Predominantly emotional stressors activate a wide range of brain areas, as revealed by the expression of immediate early genes, such as c-fos. Chlorella vulgaris (CV) is considered a biological response modifier, as demonstrated by its protective activities against infections, tumors and stress. We evaluated the effect of acute pretreatment with CV on the peripheral and central responses to forced swimming stress in adult male rats. Pretreatment with CV produced a significant reduction of stress-related hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activation, demonstrated by decreased corticotrophin releasing factor gene expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and lower ACTH response. Hyperglycemia induced by the stressor was similarly reduced. This attenuated neuroendocrine response to stress occurred in parallel with a diminished c-fos expression in most evaluated areas, including the PVN. The data presented in this study reinforce the usefulness of CV to diminish the impact of stressors, by reducing the HPA response. Although our results suggest a central effect of CV, further studies are necessary to understand the precise mechanisms underpinning this effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Modulation of experimental arthritis by vagal sensory and central brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Gabriel Shimizu; Dias, Daniel Penteado Martins; Franchin, Marcelo; Talbot, Jhimmy; Reis, Daniel Gustavo; Menezes, Gustavo Batista; Castania, Jaci Airton; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Resstel, Leonardo Barbosa Moraes; Salgado, Helio Cesar; Cunha, Fernando Queiróz; Cunha, Thiago Mattar; Ulloa, Luis; Kanashiro, Alexandre

    2017-08-01

    Articular inflammation is a major clinical burden in multiple inflammatory diseases, especially in rheumatoid arthritis. Biological anti-rheumatic drug therapies are expensive and increase the risk of systemic immunosuppression, infections, and malignancies. Here, we report that vagus nerve stimulation controls arthritic joint inflammation by inducing local regulation of innate immune response. Most of the previous studies of neuromodulation focused on vagal regulation of inflammation via the efferent peripheral pathway toward the viscera. Here, we report that vagal stimulation modulates arthritic joint inflammation through a novel "afferent" pathway mediated by the locus coeruleus (LC) of the central nervous system. Afferent vagal stimulation activates two sympatho-excitatory brain areas: the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) and the LC. The integrity of the LC, but not that of the PVN, is critical for vagal control of arthritic joint inflammation. Afferent vagal stimulation suppresses articular inflammation in the ipsilateral, but not in the contralateral knee to the hemispheric LC lesion. Central stimulation is followed by subsequent activation of joint sympathetic nerve terminals inducing articular norepinephrine release. Selective adrenergic beta-blockers prevent the effects of articular norepinephrine and thereby abrogate vagal control of arthritic joint inflammation. These results reveals a novel neuro-immune brain map with afferent vagal signals controlling side-specific articular inflammation through specific inflammatory-processing brain centers and joint sympathetic innervations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The depressor response to intracerebroventricular hypotonic saline is sensitive to TRPV4 antagonist RN1734

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire H Feetham

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Several reports have shown that the periventricular region of the brain, including the paraventricular nucleus (PVN, is critical to sensing and responding to changes in plasma osmolality. Further studies also implicate the transient receptor potential ion channel, type V4 (TRPV4 channel in this homeostatic behaviour. In previous work we have shown that TRPV4 ion channels couple to calcium-activated potassium channels in the PVN to decrease action potential firing frequency in response to hypotonicity. In the present study we investigated whether, similarly, intracerebroventricular (ICV application of hypotonic solutions modulated cardiovascular parameters, and if so whether this was sensitive to a TRPV4 channel inhibitor. We found that ICV injection of 270mOsmol artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF decreased mean blood pressure, but not heart rate, compared to naïve mice or mice injected with 300mOsmol ACSF. This effect was abolished by treatment with the TRPV4 inhibitor RN1734. These data suggest that periventricular targets within the brain are capable of generating depressor action in response to TRPV4 ion channel activation. Potentially, in the future, the TRPV4 channel, or the TRPV4–KCa coupling mechanism, may serve as a therapeutic target for treatment of cardiovascular disease.

  4. The orexin-1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 decreases anxiety-like behavior and c-Fos expression in the hypothalamus of rats exposed to cat odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhaven, M W; Cornish, J L; Staples, L G

    2015-02-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the orexin system is involved in modulating anxiety, and we have recently shown that cat odor-induced anxiety in rats is attenuated by the orexin receptor antagonist SB-334867. In the current experiment, c-Fos expression was used to map changes in neuronal activation following SB-334867 administration in the cat odor anxiety model. Male Wistar rats were exposed to cat odor with or without SB-334867 pre-treatment (10 mg/kg, i.p.). A naïve control group not exposed to cat odor was also used. Following cat odor exposure, brains were processed for c-Fos expression. Vehicle-treated rats showed an increase in anxiety-like behaviors (increased hiding and decreased approach toward the cat odor), and increased c-Fos expression in the posteroventral medial amygdala (MePV), paraventricular hypothalamus (PVN) and dorsal premammillary nucleus (PMd). In rats pretreated with SB-334867, approach scores increased and c-Fos expression decreased in the PVN and PMd. These results provide both behavioral and neuroanatomical evidence for the attenuation of cat odor-induced anxiety in rats via the orexin system. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute and repeated ECS treatment increases CRF, POMC and PENK gene expression in selected regions of the rat hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, L; Llewellyn-Jones, V; Fernandez Fernandez, I; Fuentes, J A; Manzanares, J

    1998-01-05

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acute and repeated electroconvulsive shock (ECS) on corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and proenkephalin (PENK) gene expression in selected regions of the brain and pituitary of the rat. Acute ECS increased CRF gene expression in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) by 20%, an effect that was further enhanced to 38% when rats received repeated ECS treatment. Acute and repeated ECS increased POMC gene expression in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) by 49-59% but failed to alter these mRNA levels in the anterior lobe (AL) of the pituitary gland. PENK gene expression was increased by 35% in the nucleus accumbens (NA) and by 180% the ventromedial nucleus (VMN) after acute or repeated ECS treatment but no significant changes were found in the PVN or striatum (ST). Taken together, these results indicate a differential CRF and opioid gene expression regulation after acute or repeated ECS treatment that may be relevant to their therapeutic or side effects in depression.

  6. The effects of prostaglandin E2 on the firing rate activity of thermosensitive and temperature insensitive neurons in the ventromedial preoptic area of the rat hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranels, Heather J; Griffin, John D

    2003-02-21

    In response to an immune system challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), recent work has shown that Fos immunoreactivity is displayed by neurons in the ventromedial preoptic area of the hypothalamus (VMPO). In addition, neurons in this region show distinct axonal projections to the anterior perifornical area (APFx) and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). It has been hypothesized that neurons within the VMPO integrate their local responses to temperature with changes in firing activity that result from LPS induced production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). This may be an important mechanism by which the set-point regulation of thermoeffector neurons in the APFx and PVN is altered, resulting in hyperthermia. To characterize the firing rate activity of VMPO neurons, single-unit recordings were made of neuronal extracellular activity in rat hypothalamic tissue slices. Based on the slope of firing rate as a function of tissue temperature, neurons were classified as either warm sensitive or temperature insensitive. Neurons were then treated with PGE(2) (200 nM) while tissue temperature was held at a constant level ( approximately 36 degrees C). The majority of temperature insensitive neurons responded to PGE(2) with an increase in firing rate activity, while warm sensitive neurons showed a reduction in firing rate. This suggests that both warm sensitive and temperature insensitive neurons in the VMPO may play critical and contrasting roles in the production of a fever during an acute phase response to infection.

  7. The stress system in depression and neurodegeneration: focus on the human hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, A-M; Meynen, G; Swaab, D F

    2008-03-01

    The stress response is mediated by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system. Activity of the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) forms the basis of the activity of the HPA-axis. The CRH neurons induce adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) release from the pituitary, which subsequently causes cortisol release from the adrenal cortex. The CRH neurons co-express vasopressin (AVP) which potentiates the CRH effects. CRH neurons project not only to the median eminence but also into brain areas where they, e.g., regulate the adrenal innervation of the autonomic system and affect mood. The hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system is also involved in stress response. It releases AVP from the PVN and the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and oxytocin (OXT) from the PVN via the neurohypophysis into the bloodstream. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the hypothalamic clock, is responsible for the rhythmic changes of the stress system. Both centrally released CRH and increased levels of cortisol contribute to the signs and symptoms of depression. Symptoms of depression can be induced in experimental animals by intracerebroventricular injection of CRH. Depression is also a frequent side effect of glucocorticoid treatment and of the symptoms of Cushing's syndrome. The AVP neurons in the hypothalamic PVN and SON are also activated in depression, which contributes to the increased release of ACTH from the pituitary. Increased levels of circulating AVP are also associated with the risk for suicide. The prevalence, incidence and morbidity risk for depression are higher in females than in males and fluctuations in sex hormone levels are considered to be involved in the etiology. About 40% of the activated CRH neurons in mood disorders co-express nuclear estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha in the PVN, while estrogen-responsive elements have been found in the CRH gene promoter region, and estrogens stimulate CRH production. An androgen

  8. Synthesis and enhancement of multiferroic properties of (x)Ba{sub 0.95}Sr{sub 0.05}TiO{sub 3}–(1−x)BiFe{sub 0.90}Dy{sub 0.10}O{sub 3} ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M.J. [Department of Physics, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Department of Physics, Comilla University, Comilla (Bangladesh); Khan, M.N.I. [Materials Science Division, Atomic Energy Center, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Akther Hossain, A.K.M., E-mail: akmhossain@phy.buet.ac.bd [Department of Physics, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)

    2016-01-01

    Polycrystalline (x)Ba{sub 0.95}Sr{sub 0.05}TiO{sub 3}–(1−x)BiFe{sub 0.90}Dy{sub 0.10}O{sub 3} [(x)BST–(1−x)BFDO] ceramics were synthesized by the standard solid-state reaction method. Samples prepared from these powders were sintered at various temperatures (900–1000 °C). The crystal structure, microstructure, magnetic, dielectric, complex impedance and magnetoelectric properties of the (x)BST–(1−x)BFDO ceramics were systematically investigated. The X-ray diffraction pattern indicated that (x)BST–(1−x)BFDO ceramics showed a structural transition from rhombohedral to cubic phase. The average grain size increased to a maximum 2.86 μm for x=0.20 and then decreased. M–H plot showed weak ferromagnetism for x=0.00 to 0.30. The magnetization value increased for increasing BST substitution up to x=0.20 due to the modification of crystal structure and then decreased for further increasing due to the nonmagnetic behavior of BST. A significant remnant magnetization (0.086 emu/g) and a coercive magnetic field (103.62 Oe) were also obtained for this solid solution. The complex initial permeability increased with the increase of both BST content (up to x=0.20) and sintering temperatures. The room-temperature dielectric constant increased whereas dielectric loss decreased with increasing BST content because of reducing oxygen vacancies. Impedance spectroscopy analysis confirmed the conducting grains and highly resistive grain boundaries affecting the conductivity but the grains had major contribution in the conduction mechanism. Magnetoelectric voltage coefficient (α{sub ME}) increased with the increase of BST content because of strong interaction between magnetic and ferroelectric domains. The highest value of α{sub ME}=1.67 mV cm{sup −1} Oe{sup −1} was observed for x=0.20 solid solution sintered at T{sub s}=1000 °C because of uniform grains in size and shape at this composition. - Highlights: • (x)BST–(1−x)BFDO ceramics transformed from

  9. Impact of Hymenoptera venom allergy and the effects of specific venom immunotherapy on mast cell metabolites in sensitized children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Cichocka-Jarosz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction and objective. Mast cells (MC are effector cells during severe systemic reactions (SR to Hymenoptera stings. Venom specific immunotherapy (VIT is the treatment of choice for prevention of SR to stings. Tryptase and prostaglandin D[sub]2[/sub] metabolites (PGD[sub]2[/sub] are the markers of MC activation. The study design was to 1. compare baseline values of serum tryptase concentration (BST and PGD[sub]2[/sub] metabolites in children with/without venom sensitization, 2. to evaluate an influence of rush VIT on MC markers in treated children. materials and methods. Sensitized group: 25 children with SR to Hymenoptera sting. Control group: 19 healthy children. Active treatment: 5-day-rush-VIT. BST was evaluated by ImmunoCAP, PGD[sub]2[/sub] metabolites in blood and urine by GC-NICI-MS. results. The baseline blood levels of MC markers were significantly higher, while urinary concentration of 9α,11β-PGF2 was significantly lower in the whole group of venom-sensitized children compared to controls. Severity of SR showed negative correlation with urinary PGD[sub]2[/sub] metabolites, while positive with plasma 9α,11β-PGF2 and BST concentration The highest sensitivity was obtained for plasma 9α,11β-PGF2 whereas the highest specificity for urinary PGD-M. conclusions. In children with IgE-mediated SR to Hymenoptera stings, elevation of baseline values of PGD2 metabolites in blood is accompanied by decreased excretion of its urinary metabolites. Assessment of stable PGD[sub]2 [/sub] metabolites might serve as an independent MC marker to identify allergic children. There is an association between urinary PGD[sub]2[/sub] metabolites and severity of the SR to Hymenoptera stings.

  10. Understanding the influence of surface chemical states on the dielectric tunability of sputtered Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkata Saravanan, K; James Raju, K C

    2014-01-01

    The surface chemical states of RF-magnetron sputtered Ba 0.5 Sr 0.5 TiO 3 (BST5) thin films deposited at different oxygen mixing percentage (OMP) was examined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The O1s XPS spectra indicate the existence of three kinds of oxygen species (dissociated oxygen ion O 2 − , adsorbed oxide ion O − and lattice oxide ion O 2− ) on the films’ surface, which strongly depends on OMP. The presence of oxygen species other than lattice oxygen ion makes the films’ surface highly reactivity to atmospheric gases, resulting in the formation of undesired surface layers. The XPS results confirm the formation of surface nitrates for the films deposited under oxygen deficient atmosphere (OMP not ≦ 25%), whereas the films deposited in oxygen rich atmosphere (OMP not ≧ 75%) show the presence of metal-hydroxide. The influence of a surface dead layer on the tunable dielectric properties of BST5 films have been studied in detail and are reported. Furthermore, our observations indicate that an optimum ratio of Ar:O 2 is essential for achieving desired material and dielectric properties in BST5 thin films. The films deposited at 50% OMP have the highest dielectric tunability of ∼65% (@280 kV cm −1 ), with good ϵ r -E curve symmetry of 98% and low tan δ of 0.018. The figure of merit for these films is about 35, which is promising for frequency agile device applications. (papers)

  11. Acoustic Radiation Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, John H.

    2018-01-01

    The theoretical foundation of acoustic radiation pressure in plane wave beams is reexamined. It is shown from finite deformation theory and the Boltzmann-Ehrenfest Adiabatic Principle that the Brillouin stress tensor (BST) is the radiation stress in Lagrangian coordinates (not Eulerian coordinates) and that the terms in the BST are not the momentum flux density and mean excess Eulerian stress but are simply contributions to the variation in the wave oscillation period resulting from changes in path length and true wave velocity, respectively, from virtual variations in the strain. It is shown that the radiation stress in Eulerian coordinates is the mean Cauchy stress (not the momentum flux density, as commonly assumed) and that Langevin's second relation does not yield an assessment of the mean Eulerian pressure, since the enthalpy used in the traditional derivations is a function of the thermodynamic tensions - not the Eulerian pressure. It is shown that the transformation between Lagrangian and Eulerian quantities cannot be obtained from the commonly-used expansion of one of the quantities in terms of the particle displacement, since the expansion provides only the difference between the value of the quantity at two different points in Cartesian space separated by the displacement. The proper transformation is obtained only by employing the transformation coefficients of finite deformation theory, which are defined in terms of the displacement gradients. Finite deformation theory leads to the result that for laterally unconfined, plane waves the Lagrangian and Eulerian radiation pressures are equal with the value (1/4)(2K) along the direction of wave propagation, where (K) is the mean kinetic energy density, and zero in directions normal to the propagation direction. This is contrary to the Langevin result that the Lagrangian radiation pressure in the propagation direction is equal to (2K) and the BST result that the Eulerian radiation pressure in that direction

  12. Differential efferent projections of the anterior, posteroventral and posterodorsal subdivisions of the medial amygdala in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília ePardo-Bellver

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The medial amygdaloid nucleus (Me is a key structure in the control of sociosexual behaviour in mice. It receives direct projections from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, as well as an important hormonal input. To better understand its behavioural role, in this work we investigate the structures receiving information from the Me, by analysing the efferent projections from its anterior (MeA, posterodorsal (MePD and posteroventral (MePV subdivisions, using anterograde neuronal tracing with biotinylated and tetrametylrhodamine-conjugated dextranamines.The Me is strongly interconnected with the rest of the chemosensory amygdala, but shows only moderate projections to the central nucleus and light projections to the associative nuclei of the basolateral amygdaloid complex. In addition, the MeA originates a strong feedback projection to the deep mitral cell layer of the accessory olfactory bulb, whereas the MePV projects to its granule cell layer. The medial amygdaloid nucleus (especially the MeA has also moderate projections to different olfactory structures, including the piriform cortex. The densest outputs of the Me target the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST and the hypothalamus. The MeA and MePV project to key structures of the circuit involved in the defensive response against predators (medial posterointermediate BST, anterior hypothalamic area, dorsomedial aspect of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, although less dense projections also innervate reproductive-related nuclei. In contrast, the MePD projects mainly to structures that control reproductive behaviours (medial posteromedial BST, medial preoptic nucleus, and ventrolateral aspect of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, although less dense projections to defensive-related nuclei also exist. These results confirm and extend previous results in other rodents and suggest that the medial amygdala is anatomically and functionally compartmentalized.

  13. Synthesis and dielectric characterization of Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 ferroelectric ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedelcu, L.; Ioachim, A.; Toacsan, M.; Banciu, M.G.; Pasuk, I.; Berbecaru, C.; Alexandru, H.V.

    2011-01-01

    Ferroelectric ceramics Ba 0.6 Sr 0.4 TiO 3 (BST 40) were prepared, by solid-state reaction in the temperature range 1210-1450 deg. C. Maximum values of the ceramic densities were around 94% of their theoretical value. X-ray diffraction techniques (XRD) and scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM) were used to analyze the structure and the surface morphology of ceramics. Rounded, well defined or abnormal granular growth was observed in the SEM images, vs. sintering conditions and purity of the raw materials. In all samples, BST 40 ceramic is the major phase, but there are also present small amounts of secondary phases, as revealed in XRD diffraction patterns. Permittivity and dielectric loss measurements were performed in the temperature range - 150 to + 150 deg. C, and 150 Hz-5 MHz frequency values. Permittivity values rising from 1200 to 12,500, with increasing sintering temperatures, were recorded. Narrow and well defined transition peaks were noticed at higher sintering temperatures. Curie temperature was around 2 deg. C, for samples with the mentioned composition. Permittivity and losses vs. frequency show different behavior whether BST ceramics are in polar or non-polar state and with the distance toward phase transition. Microwave measurements performed at room temperature have shown lower values of permittivity, compared with similar data at low frequency, and dielectric losses lower than 1% at 0.7 GHz. The sintering conditions (temperatures, sintering time, etc.) and purity of the raw materials lead to important changes of transition temperatures in the polymorphic diagram, which we have built-for the other Ba1-xSrxTiO3 compositions (x = 0.25-0.90) sintered at 1260 deg. C for 2 h.

  14. Factors influencing career choice after initial training in surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, Seamus

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Irish general surgery faces a recruitment crisis with only 87 of 145 (60%) basic surgical training (BST) places filled in 2009. We assessed basic surgical trainees to identify objective, and potentially modifiable, factors that influence ultimate recruitment into a general surgical career. METHODS: Candidates commencing BST training during a 5-year period between 2004 and 2008 were included in a quantitative study. In addition a total of 2,536 candidates, representing all those who commenced surgical training in Ireland since 1960 were identified through the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) database and invited to complete an online survey. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 15, with p < 0.05 considered significant. RESULTS: During the 5-year quantitative study period there were 381 BST trainees. Gender was a significant predictor of career choice with women more likely to ultimately choose a nonsurgical career after initial surgical training (p = 0.049). Passing surgical membership examinations (MRCS) also was predictive of remaining in surgery (p = 0.005). Training region was not a significant predictor of ultimate career choice. There were 418 survey respondents. The influence of role models was most commonly cited as influencing candidates in choosing to commence surgical training. Candidates who rated "academic opportunity" (p = 0.023) and "intellectual challenge" (p = 0.047) as factors that influenced their decision to commence surgical training were more likely to ultimately continue their careers in a surgical speciality. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the career pathway of surgical trainees and confirms the importance of academic achievement in discriminating between candidates applying for surgical training schemes.

  15. Magnetodielectric effect in relaxor/ferrimagnetic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naveed Ul-Haq, M., E-mail: naveedulhaq07@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Institute for Materials Sciences and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen 45141 (Germany); Yunus, Tayyaba; Mumtaz, Arif [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Shvartsman, V.V.; Lupascu, Doru C. [Institute for Materials Sciences and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen 45141 (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Single phase ferroelectric (relaxor)/ferrimagnetic composites are synthesized. • The composite shows magnetodielectric effect. • Effect of interface strain is discussed. • MD is explained via defining a local order parameter q(T). - Abstract: We report on the effect of an applied static magnetic field on the dielectric properties of ferroelectric relaxor/ferrimagnetic composites consisting of [Ba(Sn{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 0.7})O{sub 3}]{sub 0.8}–[CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}]{sub 0.2} (BST{sub 0.8}–CFO{sub 0.2}). The pure Ba(Sn{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 0.7})O{sub 3} (BST30) as well as the composites, were synthesized by solid state reaction method. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that BST30 and CFO coexist in the composite without any secondary phase. The real and the imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity were studied as a function of temperature, with and without static magnetic field, respectively. Relaxor characteristics such as dielectric permittivity and its peak temperature are observed to vary with the magnetic field. This is explained in the context that the applied magnetic field creates magnetostriction in the ferrite phase which is transferred to the relaxor phase via the interface coupling. The strain in the relaxor phase results in the reorientation of local polarization entities, polar nano regions (PNRs), which alters the dielectric characteristics of the sample. This effect is explained in relation to local order parameter q(T) which is found to increase in a certain temperature range above the typical ferroelectric temperature regime with the application of magnetic field.

  16. Pattern of distribution of serotonergic fibers to the amygdala and extended amygdala in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linley, Stephanie B; Olucha-Bordonau, Francisco; Vertes, Robert P

    2017-01-01

    As is well recognized, serotonergic (5-HT) fibers distribute widely throughout the forebrain, including the amygdala. Although a few reports have examined the 5-HT innervation of select nuclei of the amygdala in the rat, no previous report has described overall 5-HT projections to the amygdala in the rat. Using immunostaining for the serotonin transporter, SERT, we describe the complete pattern of distribution of 5-HT fibers to the amygdala (proper) and to the extended amygdala in the rat. Based on its ontogenetic origins, the amygdala was subdivided into two major parts, pallial and subpallial components, with the pallial component further divided into superficial and deep nuclei (Olucha-Bordonau et al. 2015). SERT + fibers were shown to distributed moderately to densely to the deep and cortical pallial nuclei, but, by contrast, lightly to the subpallial nuclei. Specifically, 1) of the deep pallial nuclei, the lateral, basolateral, and basomedial nuclei contained a very dense concentration of 5-HT fibers; 2) of the cortical pallial nuclei, the anterior cortical and amygdala-cortical transition zone rostrally and the posteromedial and posterolateral nuclei caudally contained a moderate concentration of 5-HT fibers; and 3) of the subpallial nuclei, the anterior nuclei and the rostral part of the medial (Me) nuclei contained a moderate concentration of 5-HT fibers, whereas caudal regions of Me as well as the central nuclei and the intercalated nuclei contained a sparse/light concentration of 5-HT fibers. With regard to the extended amygdala (primarily the bed nucleus of stria terminalis; BST), on the whole, the BST contained moderate numbers of 5-HT fibers, spread fairly uniformly throughout BST. The findings are discussed with respect to a critical serotonergic influence on the amygdala, particularly on the basal complex, and on the extended amygdala in the control of states of fear and anxiety. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:116-139, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Characterization of BoHV-5 field strains circulation and report of transient specific subtype of bovine herpesvirus 5 in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiry Julien

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5 is a member of the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae responsible for meningo-encephalitis in young cattle. The first case of bovine meningo-encephalitis associated with a herpesvirus infection was reported in Australia. The current geographical distribution of BoHV-5 infection is mainly restricted to South America, especially Brazil and Argentina. Outbreaks of BoHV-5 are regularly observed in Argentina suggesting the circulation of the virus in the bovine population. Results Seventeen field strains of BoHV-5 isolated from 1984 to now were confirmed by differential PCR and subjected to restriction endonuclease analysis (REA. Viral DNA was cleaved with BstEII which allows the differentiation among subtypes a, b and non a, non b. According to the REA with BstEII, only one field strain showed a pattern similar to the Argentinean A663 strain (prototype of BoHV-5b. All other isolates showed a clear pattern similar to the Australian N569 strain (prototype of BoHV-5a consistent with the subtypes observed in Brazil, the other South-American country where BoHV-5 is known to be prevalent. The genomic region of subtype b responsible for the distinct pattern was determined and amplified by PCR; specifically a point mutation was identified in glycoprotein B gene, on the BstEII restriction site, which generates the profile specific of BoHV-5b. Conclusions This is the first report of circulation of BoHV-5a in Argentina as the prevailing subtype. Therefore the circulation of BoHV-5b was restricted to a few years in Argentina, speculating that this subtype was not able to be maintained in the bovine population. The mutation in the gB gene is associated with the difference in the restriction patterns between subtypes "a" and "b".

  18. A novel barium strontium titanate/nickel/titanium nitride/silicon structure for gigabit-scale DRAM capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritums, Dwight Lenards

    A materials system has been developed for advanced oxide high permittivity capacitors for use in Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) applications. A capacitor test structure has been fabricated, demonstrating the integration of this materials system onto Si. It is a 3-D stacked electrode structure which uses the high-K dielectric material Ba1- xSrxTiO 3 (BST) and a novel Ni/TiN bottom electrode system. The structure was grown using pulsed laser deposition (PLD), photo-assisted metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (PhA-MOCVD), and electron beam deposition, and resulted in thin film capacitors with dielectric constants over 500. Other advanced oxides, principally SrVO3, were also investigated for use as electrode materials. The fabricated test structure is 3 μgm wide and 1 μm thick. RIE was used to generate the 3-D structure, and an etch gas recipe was developed to pattern the 3-D electrode structure onto the TiN. The Ni was deposited by electron beam deposition, and the BST was grown by PLD and PhA-MOCVD. Conformal coating of the electrode by the BST was achieved. The film structure was analyzed with XRD, SEM, EDS, XPS, AES, and AFM, and the electronic properties of the devices were characterized. Permittivites of up to 500 were seen in the PLD-grown films, and values up to 700 were seen in the MOCVD- deposited films. The proof of concept of a high permittivity material directly integrated onto Si has been demonstrated for this capacitor materials system. With further lithographic developments, this system can be applied toward gigabit device fabrication.

  19. Differential efferent projections of the anterior, posteroventral, and posterodorsal subdivisions of the medial amygdala in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Bellver, Cecília; Cádiz-Moretti, Bernardita; Novejarque, Amparo; Martínez-García, Fernando; Lanuza, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    The medial amygdaloid nucleus (Me) is a key structure in the control of sociosexual behavior in mice. It receives direct projections from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs (AOB), as well as an important hormonal input. To better understand its behavioral role, in this work we investigate the structures receiving information from the Me, by analysing the efferent projections from its anterior (MeA), posterodorsal (MePD) and posteroventral (MePV) subdivisions, using anterograde neuronal tracing with biotinylated and tetrametylrhodamine-conjugated dextranamines. The Me is strongly interconnected with the rest of the chemosensory amygdala, but shows only moderate projections to the central nucleus and light projections to the associative nuclei of the basolateral amygdaloid complex. In addition, the MeA originates a strong feedback projection to the deep mitral cell layer of the AOB, whereas the MePV projects to its granule cell layer. The Me (especially the MeA) has also moderate projections to different olfactory structures, including the piriform cortex (Pir). The densest outputs of the Me target the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the hypothalamus. The MeA and MePV project to key structures of the circuit involved in the defensive response against predators (medial posterointermediate BST, anterior hypothalamic area, dorsomedial aspect of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus), although less dense projections also innervate reproductive-related nuclei. In contrast, the MePD projects mainly to structures that control reproductive behaviors [medial posteromedial BST, medial preoptic nucleus, and ventrolateral aspect of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus], although less dense projections to defensive-related nuclei also exist. These results confirm and extend previous results in other rodents and suggest that the medial amygdala is anatomically and functionally compartmentalized.

  20. The high-grade interpolator: a means for enhancing the resolution of helical computed tomography images of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Santos, J. M.; Torres del rio, S.; Blanco, A.; Rodriguez, R.; Parlorio, E.; Garcia, A.; Girela, E.; Hernandez, M. D.; Canteras, M.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that the use of a high-grade interpolator in the reconstruction of images of the chest increases the resolution, independently of the high-resolution filter. Eight independent observers in two groups (experts and non experts) assessed (two readings separated by a time interval) the same section of the chest reconstructed four times (st-st, st-xs, b-st, b-xs), combining standard (st) and high-resolution (b) filters and standard (st) and high-grade (xs) interpolators. The images were classified from greater to lesser in terms of the resolution perceived. The results were used to compare the degree of resolution introduced by the interpolator and the filter and to determine whether or not there existed variability between observers and between the observations of each, and whether experience played a role in the findings. Six of the eight observers assigned the b-xs images the highest degree of resolution in the majority of cases, followed by the b-st image, the st-xs image and, finally, the st-st image). The other tow observers (one expert and one nonexpert) different only with respect to the order of the st-xs and b-st images, which they assigned the second and third places, respectively. The expert group showed no intra observer variability, while two of the nonexpert observers did. The high-grade interpolator enhances the resolution of images of the chest regardless of who evaluates them, while it does not substantially increase image noise. Thus, its use is recommended in helical computed tomography imaging of the lung. (Author) 10 refs

  1. Effect of rare-earth additions on the structure and dielectric energy storage properties of Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}TiO{sub 3}-based barium boronaluminosilicate glass-ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiu, Shaomei; Xiao, Shi; Zhang, Wenqin; Xue, Shuangxi; Shen, Bo, E-mail: shenbo@tongji.edu.cn; Zhai, Jiwei, E-mail: apzhai@tongji.edu.cn

    2016-06-15

    Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}TiO{sub 3}-based barium boroaluminosilicate (BST-BBAS) glass-ceramics added with La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} were fabricated through the melting method followed by controlled crystallization, respectively. The X-ray diffraction and the field emission scanning electron microscopy were investigated the phase composition and microstructure for the BST-BBAS glass-ceramics added with rare-earth additions, then the temperature-dependent dielectric properties and the voltage-withstand measurements were applied to study the effect of rare-earth additions on the dielectric energy storage density. These results show that the certain content of rare-earth additions can optimize the microstructure and phase structure effectively. And with the decrease of ionic radiuses of rare-earth elements, the microstructure of the glass-ceramics become more uniform. When added with 0.5 mol% Yb{sup 3+}, the theoretical energy storage density of the BST-BBAS glass-ceramics gets the largest value of 3.5 J/cm{sup 3} which is about 1.8 times compared to the undoped one. - Highlights: • A certain content of Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} can restrain the formation of BaSi{sub 2}O{sub 5}and SiO{sub 2} phases. • The addition of rare earth can optimize the microstructure. • With 0.5 mol% Yb{sup 3+}, the dielectric energy storage density got the largest value of 3.5 J/cm{sup 3}.

  2. 318 Identification moléculaire des souches de mycobactéries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Computer

    2-4. Digestion, clonage et séquençage des fragments amplifiés. Les enzymes de restriction BstEII, HaeIII et Rsal ont été utilisées . Le clonage et la transformation ont été réalisés en utilisant les kits Invitrogen. La purification des plasmides a été réalisée en utilisant le kit. Genomed et le séquençage des fragments effectués ...

  3. Somatotropina bovina recombinante en sincronización de estros y prolificidad de ovejas Pelibuey

    OpenAIRE

    Sosa-Pérez, G; Pérez-Hernández, P.; Vaquera-Huerta, H.; Salazar-Ortiz, J.; Sánchez-del-Real, C.; Cadena-Villegas, S.; Gallegos-Sánchez, J.

    2014-01-01

    Con la finalidad de estudiar si la administración de la Somatotropina Bovina Recombinante (bST) dos días antes del retiro del progestágeno, tiene efecto en la sincronización de estros, inicio del estro, fertilidad, prolificidad y tipo de parto en ovejas Pelibuey, a 180 ovejas de 4,0 ± 0,32 años de edad, se les inserto un dispositivo intravaginal impregnado con progesterona (CIDR P4 0,3 g), por nueve días. Dos días antes del retiro del dispositivo, las ovejas se asignaron aleatoriamente a uno ...

  4. Four main virotypes among extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing isolates of Escherichia coli O25b:H4-B2-ST131: bacterial, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Jorge; Mora, Azucena; Mamani, Rosalia; López, Cecilia; Blanco, Miguel; Dahbi, Ghizlane; Herrera, Alexandra; Marzoa, Juan; Fernández, Val; de la Cruz, Fernando; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Alonso, María Pilar; Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Hélène; Johnson, James R; Johnston, Brian; López-Cerero, Lorena; Pascual, Alvaro; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús

    2013-10-01

    A total of 1,021 extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBLEC) isolates obtained in 2006 during a Spanish national survey conducted in 44 hospitals were analyzed for the presence of the O25b:H4-B2-ST131 (sequence type 131) clonal group. Overall, 195 (19%) O25b-ST131 isolates were detected, with prevalence rates ranging from 0% to 52% per hospital. Molecular characterization of 130 representative O25b-ST131 isolates showed that 96 (74%) were positive for CTX-M-15, 15 (12%) for CTX-M-14, 9 (7%) for SHV-12, 6 (5%) for CTX-M-9, 5 (4%) for CTX-M-32, and 1 (0.7%) each for CTX-M-3 and the new ESBL enzyme CTX-M-103. The 130 O25b-ST131 isolates exhibited relatively high virulence scores (mean, 14.4 virulence genes). Although the virulence profiles of the O25b-ST131 isolates were fairly homogeneous, they could be classified into four main virotypes based on the presence or absence of four distinctive virulence genes: virotypes A (22%) (afa FM955459 positive, iroN negative, ibeA negative, sat positive or negative), B (31%) (afa FM955459 negative, iroN positive, ibeA negative, sat positive or negative), C (32%) (afa FM955459 negative, iroN negative, ibeA negative, sat positive), and D (13%) (afa FM955459 negative, iroN positive or negative, ibeA positive, sat positive or negative). The four virotypes were also identified in other countries, with virotype C being overrepresented internationally. Correspondingly, an analysis of XbaI macrorestriction profiles revealed four major clusters, which were largely virotype specific. Certain epidemiological and clinical features corresponded with the virotype. Statistically significant virotype-specific associations included, for virotype B, older age and a lower frequency of infection (versus colonization), for virotype C, a higher frequency of infection, and for virotype D, younger age and community-acquired infections. In isolates of the O25b:H4-B2-ST131 clonal group, these findings uniquely define four main

  5. Human cellular restriction factors that target HIV-1 replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeang Kuan-Teh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent findings have highlighted roles played by innate cellular factors in restricting intracellular viral replication. In this review, we discuss in brief the activities of apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme 3G (APOBEC3G, bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST-2, cyclophilin A, tripartite motif protein 5 alpha (Trim5α, and cellular microRNAs as examples of host restriction factors that target HIV-1. We point to countermeasures encoded by HIV-1 for moderating the potency of these cellular restriction functions.

  6. Germany: Assessment of the efficiency of a passive safety system for prevention of severe accidents for SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubelis, E.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of severe transient behavior in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) and of the impact of newly conceived inherent mitigation measures (the use of ASD – additional shutdown device). The SFR design taken for the analysis was the SFR(v2b-ST) reactor design, and the system code to be used was selected to be the SIM-SFR code. The transients chosen for evaluation of the efficiency of mitigation measures were the unprotected loss-of-flow (ULOF) and the unprotected loss-of-heat-sink (ULOHS)

  7. Cytotoxic cardiac glycosides and other compounds from Asclepias syriaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Juan J; Kindscher, Kelly; Timmermann, Barbara N

    2012-03-23

    Phytochemical investigation of the dried biomass of Asclepias syriaca afforded five new compounds (1-5), along with 19 known structures. Overall, the secondary metabolites isolated and identified from this plant showed a wide structural diversity including pentacyclic triterpenes, cardiac glycosides, flavonoid glycosides, lignans, a phenylethanoid, and a glycosylated megastigmane. In addition, the isolates were tested against the cancer breast cell line Hs578T, and those showing IC(50) values lower than 50 μM (1 and 6-9) were further investigated in three additional breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, and Sk-Br-3) and the normal breast cell line Hs578Bst.

  8. Verticillosides A-M: Polyoxygenated pregnane glycosides from Asclepias verticillata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Juan J; Binns, Franklin; Kindscher, Kelly; Timmermann, Barbara N

    2012-06-01

    As part of our ongoing effort to explore the chemical diversity of plants of the United States Midwest region, the isolation and identification of 13 pregnane glycosides named verticillosides A-M from Asclepias verticillata L. are reported. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by various spectroscopic techniques, including 1D and 2D NMR, IR, UV, and HRMS. The cytotoxicity of the isolates was evaluated against paired breast cell lines Hs578T (cancer) and Hs578Bst (normal), however, no significant growth inhibition was observed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Processing/structure/property Relationships of Barium Strontium Titanate Thin Films for Dynamic Random Access Memory Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng-Jien

    The purpose of this study is to see the application feasibility of barium strontium titanate (BST) thin films on ultra large scale integration (ULSI) dynamic random access memory (DRAM) capacitors through the understanding of the relationships among processing, structure and electrical properties. Thin films of BST were deposited by multi-ion -beam reactive sputtering (MIBERS) technique and metallo -organic decomposition (MOD) method. The processing parameters such as Ba/Sr ratio, substrate temperature, annealing temperature and time, film thickness and doping concentration were correlated with the structure and electric properties of the films. Some effects of secondary low-energy oxygen ion bombardment were also examined. Microstructures of BST thin films could be classified into two types: (a) Type I structures, with multi-grains through the film thickness, for amorphous as-grown films after high temperature annealing, and (b) columnar structure (Type II) which remained even after high temperature annealing, for well-crystallized films deposited at high substrate temperatures. Type I films showed Curie-von Schweidler response, while Type II films showed Debted type behavior. Type I behavior may be attributed to the presence of a high density of disordered grain boundaries. Two types of current -voltage characteristics could be seen in non-bombarded films depending on the chemistry of the films (doped or undoped) and substrate temperature during deposition. Only the MIBERS films doped with high donor concentration and deposited at high substrate temperature showed space-charge -limited conduction (SCLC) with discrete shallow traps embedded in trap-distributed background at high electric field. All other non-bombarded films, including MOD films, showed trap-distributed SCLC behavior with a slope of {~}7.5-10 due to the presence of grain boundaries through film thickness or traps induced by unavoidable acceptor impurities in the films. Donor-doping could

  10. Balance energético y capacidad gluconeogénica de vacas lecheras a pastoreo tratadas con una baja dosis de somatotropina recombinante bovina en el período de transición

    OpenAIRE

    JL Sánchez; CA Wagemann; C Strieder-Barboza; M Noro

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo del estudio fue determinar el efecto de la dosis baja (250 mg/vaca) de somatotropina recombinante bovina (rbST) en vacas lecheras a pastoreo en período de transición sobre los indicadores energético-proteínicos y capacidad gluconeogénica. Se realizaron 3 ensayos: Preparto, se utilizaron 10 vacas preparto, grupo bST (n = 5): dosis única de rbST el día (d) 26 preparto, y control (n = 5); se obtuvieron muestras de sangre y se registró la condición corporal (CC) cada 3 d desde el 26 d...

  11. Tunable Microwave Component Technologies for SatCom-Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maune, Holger; Jost, Matthias; Wiens, Alex; Weickhmann, Christian; Reese, Roland; Nikfalazar, Mohammad; Schuster, Christian; Franke, Tobias; Hu, Wenjuan; Nickel, Matthias; Kienemund, Daniel; Prasetiadi, Ananto Eka; Jakoby, Rolf

    2017-03-01

    Modern communication platforms require a huge amount of switched RF component banks especially made of different filters and antennas to cover all operating frequencies and bandwidth for the targeted services and application scenarios. In contrast, reconfigurable devices made of tunable components lead to a considerable reduction in complexity, size, weight, power consumption, and cost. This paper gives an overview of suitable technologies for tunable microwave components especially for SatCom applications. Special attention is given to tunable components based on functional materials such as barium strontium titanate (BST) and liquid crystal (LC).

  12. Materials science, integration, and performance characterization of high-dielectric constant thin film based devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei

    To overcome the oxidation and diffusion problems encountered during Copper integration with oxide thin film-based devices, TiAl/Cu/Ta heterostructure has been first developed in this study. Investigation on the oxidation and diffusion resistance of the laminate structure showed high electrical conductance and excellent thermal stability in oxygen environment. Two amorphous oxide layers that were formed on both sides of the TiAl barrier after heating in oxygen have been revealed as the structure that effectively prevents oxygen penetration and protects the integrity of underlying Cu layer. Polycrystalline (BaxSr1-x)TiO3 (BST) thin films were subsequently deposited on the Cu-based bottom electrode by RF magnetron sputtering to investigate the interaction between the oxide and Cu layers. The thickness of the interfacial layer and interface roughness play critical roles in the optimization of the electrical performance of the BST capacitors using Cu-based electrode. It was determined that BST deposition at moderate temperature followed by rapid thermal annealing in pure oxygen yields BST/Cu capacitors with good electrical properties for application to high frequency devices. The knowledge obtained on the study of barrier properties of TiAl inspired a continuous research on the materials science issues related to the application of the hybrid TiAlOx, as high-k gate dielectric in MOSFET devices. Novel fabrication process such as deposition of ultra-thin TiAl alloy layer followed by oxidation with atomic oxygen has been established in this study. Stoichiometric amorphous TiAlOx layers, exhibiting only Ti4+ and Al3+ states, were produced with a large variation of oxidation temperature (700°C to room temperature). The interfacial SiOx formation between TiAlOx and Si was substantially inhibited by the use of the low temperature oxidation process. Electrical characterization revealed a large permittivity of 30 and an improved band structure for the produced TiAlOx layers

  13. Extending the amygdala in theories of threat processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Andrew S.; Oler, Jonathan A.; Tromp, Do P.M.; Fudge, Julie L.; Kalin, Ned H.

    2015-01-01

    The central extended amygdala is an evolutionarily conserved set of interconnected brain regions that play an important role in threat processing to promote survival. Two core components of the central extended amygdala, the central nucleus of the amygdala (Ce) and the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) are highly similar regions that serve complimentary roles by integrating fear- and anxiety-relevant information. Survival depends on the central extended amygdala's ability to rapidly integrate and respond to threats that vary in their immediacy, proximity, and characteristics. Future studies will benefit from understanding alterations in central extended amygdala function in relation to stress-related psychopathology. PMID:25851307

  14. COMPOSICIÓN VEGETAL, PREFERENCIAS ALIMENTICIAS Y ABUNDANCIA DE BIBLIDINAE (LEPIDOPTERA: NYMPHALIDAE) EN UN FRAGMENTO DE BOSQUE SECO TROPICAL EN EL DEPARTAMENTO DEL ATLÁNTICO, COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    María Angélica VARGAS- ZAPATA; Carlos José BOOM- URUETA; Leidys Isabel SEÑA-RAMOS; Alba Lucia ECHEVERRY-IGLESIAS; Neis José MARTÍNEZ HERNÁNDEZ

    2015-01-01

    Se analizó la variación espacio-temporal de la abundancia de las mariposas de la subfamilia Biblidinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) en un fragmento de Bs-T en la Reserva Campesina La Montaña (RCM), Atlántico, Colombia; desde enero hasta agosto de 2011. Se marcaron cuatro puntos dentro del área de estudio, donde se ubicaron trampas Van Someren–Rydon cebadas con calamar en descomposición, fruta fermentada y con una mezcla de los anteriores cebos. Adicionalmente, se realizó una caracterización de ...

  15. Plant Composition, Feeding Preferences and Abundance of Biblidinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in a Tropical Dry Forest Fragment in the Department of Atlántico, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    María Angélica Vargas-Zapata; Carlos José Boom-Urueta; Leidys Isabel Seña-Ramos; Alba Lucia Echeverry-Iglesias; Neis José Martínez Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Se analizó la variación espacio-temporal de la abundancia de las mariposas de la subfamilia Biblidinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) en un fragmento de Bs-T en la Reserva Campesina La Montaña (RCM), Atlántico, Colombia; desde enero hasta agosto de 2011. Se marcaron cuatro puntos dentro del área de estudio, donde se ubicaron trampas Van Someren–Rydon cebadas con calamar en descomposición, fruta fermentada y con una mezcla de los anteriores cebos. Adicionalmente, se realizó una caracterización de ...

  16. Correlación entre bilirrubina serica y bilirrubinometría transcutánea en neonatos estratificados por edad gestacional

    OpenAIRE

    Furzán, Jaime A; Expósito, Mercedes; Luchón, Consuelo

    2007-01-01

    Introducción: La ictericia neonatal es un dilema diagnóstico y terapéutico muy común. Las decisiones basadas en mediciones seriadas de bilirrubina sérica se asocian con dolor en el niño, tiempo de espera y ansiedad por los resultados. La bilirrubinometría transcutánea puede ser una alternativa confiable si se demuestra su validez para poblaciones e instituciones particulares. Objetivos: Establecer el grado de correlación entre bilirrubina sérica total (BST) y bilirrubina transcutánea (BTC) en...

  17. The structure and piezoelectric properties of (Ca1-xSrx)Bi4Ti4O15 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Liaoying; Li Guorong; Zhang Wangzhong; Chen, Daren; Yin Qinrui

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the structure and piezoelectric properties of (Ca 1-x Sr x )Bi 4 Ti 4 O 15 ceramics (x=0-1.0) are investigated. The formation of single orthorhombic phase is verified by XRD. The dependence of dielectric and piezoelectric properties on x is also determined. The results show that the excellent properties could be found in the composition of x=0.4. In that composition, d 33 =14.9, T C =677 deg. C and the DC resistivity is decuplely higher than that of BST (SrBi 4 Ti 4 O 15 ) and CBT (CaBi 4 Ti 4 O 15 )

  18. MCG101-induced cancer anorexia-cachexia features altered expression of hypothalamic Nucb2 and Cartpt and increased plasma levels of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Jonathan R; Iresjö, Britt-Marie; Smedh, Ulrika

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore central and peripheral host responses to an anorexia-cachexia producing tumor. We focused on neuroendocrine anorexigenic signals in the hypothalamus, brainstem, pituitary and from the tumor per se. Expression of mRNA for corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), nesfatin-1, thyrotropin (TSH) and the TSH receptor were explored. In addition, we examined changes in plasma TSH, CART peptides (CARTp) and serum amyloid P component (SAP). C57BL/6 mice were implanted with MCG101 tumors or sham-treated. A sham-implanted, pair‑fed (PF) group was included to delineate between primary tumor and secondary effects from reduced feeding. Food intake and body weight were measured daily. mRNA levels from microdissected mouse brain samples were assayed using qPCR, and plasma levels were determined using ELISA. MCG101 tumors expectedly induced anorexia and loss of body weight. Tumor-bearing (TB) mice exhibited an increase in nesfatin-1 mRNA as well as a decrease in CART mRNA in the paraventricular area (PVN). The CART mRNA response was secondary to reduced caloric intake whereas nesfatin-1 mRNA appeared to be tumor-specifically induced. In the pituitary, CART and TSH mRNA were upregulated in the TB and PF animals compared to the freely fed controls. Plasma levels for CARTp were significantly elevated in TB but not PF mice whereas levels of TSH were unaffected. The plasma CARTp response was correlated to the degree of inflammation represented by SAP. The increase in nesfatin-1 mRNA in the PVN highlights nesfatin-1 as a plausible candidate for causing tumor-induced anorexia. CART mRNA expression in the PVN is likely an adaptation to reduced caloric intake secondary to a cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS)‑inducing tumor. The MCG101 tumor did not express CART mRNA, thus the elevation of plasma CARTp is host derived and likely driven by inflammation.

  19. Sympathetic activity induced by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal is blocked in genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF1 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Martínez-Laorden, Elena; Milanés, María-Victoria; Laorden, María-Luisa

    2015-01-01

    There is large body evidence indicating that stress can lead to cardiovascular disease. However, the exact brain areas and the mechanisms involved remain to be revealed. Here, we performed a series of experiments to characterize the role of CRF1 receptor (CRF1R) in the stress response induced by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. The experiments were performed in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) ventrolateral medulla (VLM), brain regions involved in the regulation of cardiovascular activity, and in the right ventricle by using genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF1R levels (KO). Mice were treated with increasing doses of morphine and withdrawal was precipitated by naloxone administration. Noradrenaline (NA) turnover, c-Fos, expression, PKA and TH phosphorylated at serine 40, was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. Morphine withdrawal induced an enhancement of NA turnover in PVN in parallel with an increase in TH neurons expressing c-Fos in VLM in wild-type mice. In addition we have demonstrated an increase in NA turnover, TH phosphorylated at serine 40 and PKA levels in heart. The main finding of the present study was that NA turnover, TH positive neurons that express c-Fos, TH phosphorylated at serine 40 and PKA expression observed during morphine withdrawal were significantly inhibited in CRF1R KO mice. Our results demonstrate that CRF/CRF1R activation may contribute to the adaptive changes induced by naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in the heart and in the brain areas which modulate the cardiac sympathetic function and suggest that CRF/CRF1R pathways could be contributing to cardiovascular disease associated to opioid addiction. - Highlights: • Naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal increases sympathetic activity in the PVN and heart. • Co-localization of TH phosphorylated at serine 40/c-Fos in the VLM after morphine withdrawal • Naloxone

  20. Fourth ventricle injection of ghrelin decreases angiotensin II-induced fluid intake and neuronal activation in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plyler, Kimberly S; Daniels, Derek

    2017-09-01

    Ghrelin acts in the CNS to decrease fluid intake under a variety of dipsogenic and natriorexigenic conditions. Previous studies on this topic, however, focused on the forebrain as a site of action for this effect of ghrelin. Because the hindbrain contains neural substrates that are capable of mediating the well-established orexigenic effects of ghrelin, the current study tested the hypothesis that ghrelin applied to the hindbrain also would affect fluid intake. To this end, water and saline intakes were stimulated by central injection of angiotensin II (AngII) in rats that also received injections of ghrelin (0.5μg/μl) into either the lateral or fourth ventricle. Ghrelin injected into either ventricle reduced both water and 1.8% NaCl intake that was stimulated by AngII. The nature of the intake effect revealed some differences between the injection sites. For example, forebrain application of ghrelin reduced saline intake by a reduction in both the number of licking bursts and the size of each licking burst, but hindbrain application of ghrelin had a more selective effect on burst number. In an attempt to elucidate a brain structure in which hindbrain-administered ghrelin and forebrain-administered AngII interact to cause the ingestive response, we used Fos-immunohistochemistry in rats given the treatments used in the behavioral experiments. Although several brain areas were found to respond to either ghrelin or AngII, of the sites examined, only the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) emerged as a potential site of interaction. Specifically, AngII treatment caused expression of Fos in the PVN that was attenuated by concomitant treatment with ghrelin. These experiments provide the novel finding that the hindbrain contains elements that can respond to ghrelin and cause decreases in AngII-induced fluid intake, and that direct actions by ghrelin on forebrain structures is not necessary. Moreover, these studies suggest that the PVN is an important site

  1. Sympathetic activity induced by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal is blocked in genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF1 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Martínez-Laorden, Elena; Milanés, María-Victoria; Laorden, María-Luisa

    2015-02-15

    There is large body evidence indicating that stress can lead to cardiovascular disease. However, the exact brain areas and the mechanisms involved remain to be revealed. Here, we performed a series of experiments to characterize the role of CRF1 receptor (CRF1R) in the stress response induced by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. The experiments were performed in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) ventrolateral medulla (VLM), brain regions involved in the regulation of cardiovascular activity, and in the right ventricle by using genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF1R levels (KO). Mice were treated with increasing doses of morphine and withdrawal was precipitated by naloxone administration. Noradrenaline (NA) turnover, c-Fos, expression, PKA and TH phosphorylated at serine 40, was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. Morphine withdrawal induced an enhancement of NA turnover in PVN in parallel with an increase in TH neurons expressing c-Fos in VLM in wild-type mice. In addition we have demonstrated an increase in NA turnover, TH phosphorylated at serine 40 and PKA levels in heart. The main finding of the present study was that NA turnover, TH positive neurons that express c-Fos, TH phosphorylated at serine 40 and PKA expression observed during morphine withdrawal were significantly inhibited in CRF1R KO mice. Our results demonstrate that CRF/CRF1R activation may contribute to the adaptive changes induced by naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in the heart and in the brain areas which modulate the cardiac sympathetic function and suggest that CRF/CRF1R pathways could be contributing to cardiovascular disease associated to opioid addiction. - Highlights: • Naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal increases sympathetic activity in the PVN and heart. • Co-localization of TH phosphorylated at serine 40/c-Fos in the VLM after morphine withdrawal • Naloxone

  2. Repeated exposure to two stressors in sequence demonstrates that corticosterone and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus interleukin-1β responses habituate independently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelock, D F; Deak, T

    2017-09-01

    A wide range of stress-related pathologies such as post-traumatic stress disorder are considered to arise from aberrant or maladaptive forms of stress adaptation. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis readily adapts to repeated stressor exposure, yet little is known about adaptation in neuroimmune responses to repeated or sequential stress challenges. In Experiment 1, rats were exposed to 10 days of restraint alone (60 minutes daily), forced swim alone (30 minutes daily) or daily sequential exposure to restraint (60 minutes) followed immediately by forced swim (30 minutes), termed sequential stress exposure. Habituation of the corticosterone (CORT) response occurred to restraint by 5 days and swim at 10 days, whereas rats exposed to sequential stress exposure failed to display habituation to the combined challenge. Experiment 2 compared 1 or 5 days of forced swim with sequential stress exposure and examined how each affected expression of several neuroimmune and cellular activation genes in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HPC). Sequential exposure to restraint and swim increased interleukin (IL)-1β in the PVN, an effect that was attenuated after 5 days. Sequential stress exposure also elicited IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α responses in the HPC and PFC, respectively, which did not habituate after 5 days. Experiment 3 tested whether prior habituation to restraint (5 days) would alter the IL-1β response evoked by swim exposure imposed immediately after the sixth day of restraint. Surprisingly, a history of repeated exposure to restraint attenuated the PVN IL-1β response after swim in comparison to acutely-exposed subjects despite an equivalent CORT response. Overall, these findings suggest that habituation of neuroimmune responses to stress proceeds: (i) independent of HPA axis habituation; (ii) likely requires more daily sessions of stress to develop; and (iii) IL-1β displays

  3. Faster gastric emptying of a liquid meal in rats after hypothalamic dorsomedial nucleus lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denofre-Carvalho S.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dorsomedial hypothalamic (DMH nucleus lesion on body weight, plasma glucose levels, and the gastric emptying of a liquid meal were investigated in male Wistar rats (170-250 g. DMH lesions were produced stereotaxically by delivering a 2.0-mA current for 20 s through nichrome electrodes (0.3-mm tip exposure. In a second set of experiments, the DMH and the ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH nucleus were lesioned with a 1.0-mA current for 10 s (0.1-mm tip exposure. The medial hypothalamus (MH was also lesioned separately using a nichrome electrode (0.3-mm tip exposure with a 2.0-mA current for 20 s. Gastric emptying was measured following the orogastric infusion of a liquid test meal consisting of physiological saline (0.9% NaCl, w/v plus phenol red dye (6 mg/dl as a marker. Plasma glucose levels were determined after an 18-h fast before the lesion and on the 7th and 15th postoperative day. Body weight was determined before lesioning and before sacrificing the rats. The DMH-lesioned rats showed a significantly faster (P<0.05 gastric emptying (24.7% gastric retention, N = 11 than control (33.0% gastric retention, N = 8 and sham-lesioned (33.5% gastric retention, N = 12 rats, with a transient hypoglycemia on the 7th postoperative day which returned to normal by the 15th postoperative day. In all cases, weight gain was slower among lesioned rats. Additional experiments using a smaller current to induce lesions confirmed that DMH-lesioned rats had a faster gastric emptying (25.1% gastric retention, N = 7 than control (33.4% gastric retention, N = 17 and VMH-lesioned (34.6% gastric retention, N = 7 rats. MH lesions resulted in an even slower gastric emptying (43.7% gastric retention, N = 7 than in the latter two groups. We conclude that although DMH lesions reduce weight gain, they do not produce consistent changes in plasma glucose levels. These lesions also promote faster gastric emptying of an inert liquid meal, thus suggesting a role for

  4. Spatiotemporal differences in the c-fos pathway between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice following flurothyl-induced seizures: A dissociation of hippocampal Fos from seizure activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiyala, Sridhar B; Papandrea, Dominick; Tuz, Karina; Anderson, Tara M; Jayakumar, Sachidhanand; Herron, Bruce J; Ferland, Russell J

    2015-01-01

    Significant differences in seizure characteristics between inbred mouse strains highlight the importance of genetic predisposition to epilepsy. Here, we examined the genetic differences between the seizure-resistant C57BL/6J (B6) mouse strain and the seizure-susceptible DBA/2J (D2) strain in the phospho-Erk and Fos pathways to examine seizure-induced neuronal activity to uncover potential mechanistic correlates to these disparate seizure responsivities. Expression of neural activity markers was examined following 1, 5, or 8 seizures, or after 8 seizures, a 28 day rest period, and a final flurothyl rechallenge. Two brain regions, the hippocampus and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH), had significantly different Fos expression profiles following seizures. Fos expression was highly robust in B6 hippocampus following one seizure and remained elevated following multiple seizures. Conversely, there was an absence of Fos (and phospho-Erk) expression in D2 hippocampus following one generalized seizure that increased with multiple seizures. This lack of Fos expression occurred despite intracranial electroencephalographic recordings indicating that the D2 hippocampus propagated ictal discharge during the first flurothyl seizure suggesting a dissociation of seizure discharge from Fos and phospho-Erk expression. Global transcriptional analysis confirmed a dysregulation of the c-fos pathway in D2 mice following 1 seizure. Moreover, global analysis of RNA expression differences between B6 and D2 hippocampus revealed a unique pattern of transcripts that were co-regulated with Fos in D2 hippocampus following 1 seizure. These expression differences could, in part, account for D2's seizure susceptibility phenotype. Following 8 seizures, a 28 day rest period, and a final flurothyl rechallenge, ∼85% of B6 mice develop a more complex seizure phenotype consisting of a clonic-forebrain seizure that uninterruptedly progresses into a brainstem seizure. This seizure phenotype

  5. Very weak solutions to the rotating Stokes, Oseen and Navier–Stokes problems in weighted spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kračmar, S.; Krbec, Miroslav; Nečasová, Šárka; Penel, P.; Schumacher, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 289, 11-12 (2016), s. 1466-1487 ISSN 0025-584X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/11/1304 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : viscous incompressible fluid * flow around rotating rigid body * very weak solution * weighted homogenous Sobolev spaces Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.742, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/mana.201400052/abstract?systemMessage=Wiley+Online+Library+will+be+unavailable+on+Saturday+3rd+ September +2016+at+08.30+BST%2F+03%3A30+EDT%2F+15%3A30+SGT+for+5+hours+ and +Sunday+4th+ September +at+10%3A00+BST%2F+05%3A00+EST%2F+17%3A00+SGT+for+1+hour++for+essential+maintenance.+Apologies+for+the+inconvenience

  6. Monitoring supports performance in a dual-task paradigm involving a risky decision-making task and a working memory task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina eGathmann

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Performing two cognitively demanding tasks at the same time is known to decrease performance. The current study investigates the underlying executive functions of a dual-tasking situation involving the simultaneous performance of decision making under explicit risk and a working memory task. It is suggested that making a decision and performing a working memory task at the same time should particularly require monitoring - an executive control process supervising behavior and the state of processing on two tasks. To test the role of a supervisory/monitoring function in such a dual-tasking situation we investigated 122 participants with the Game of Dice Task plus 2-back task (GDT plus 2-back task. This dual task requires participants to make decisions under risk and to perform a 2-back working memory task at the same time. Furthermore, a task measuring a set of several executive functions gathered in the term concept formation (Modified Card Sorting Test, MCST and the newly developed Balanced Switching Task (BST, measuring monitoring in particular, were used. The results demonstrate that concept formation and monitoring are involved in the simultaneous performance of decision making under risk and a working memory task. In particular, the mediation analysis revealed that BST performance partially mediates the influence of MCST performance on the GDT plus 2-back task. These findings suggest that monitoring is one important subfunction for superior performance in a dual-tasking situation including decision making under risk and a working memory task.

  7. Boat sampling technique for assessment of ageing of components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Kundan; Shyam, T.V.; Kayal, J.N.; Rupani, B.B.

    2006-01-01

    Boat sampling technique (BST) is a surface sampling technique, which has been developed for obtaining, in-situ, metal samples from the surface of an operating component without affecting its operating service life. The BST is non-destructive in nature and the sample is obtained without plastic deformation or without thermal degradation of the parent material. The shape and size of the sample depends upon the shape of the cutter and the surface geometry of the parent material. Miniature test specimens are