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Sample records for vme bus interface

  1. Design & Development of FPGA Based VME Bus Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Himali Patel; Poornima Talwai

    2015-01-01

    The VME bus interface Controller (VIC068A) is used to interface Local CPU bus and VME bus. VME Bus Controller is used in wide application areas where high reliability, good accuracy and high speed are desired to withstand industrial environment like nuclear power plant and process industries. VME Bus controller can configure as Master, Slave, Interrupt Handler, arbiter as well as power monitor. Commercial VME Bus interface controller chips are available from a few vend...

  2. An object-oriented software interface to VME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Timothy L; Gottlieb, Eric; Gold, Michael

    1996-01-01

    In the next millennium, data acquisition tasks for high energy physics will increasingly rely on distributed processing and the VME bus. To provide transparent, general-purpose access to VME hardware modules through a VME-embedded processor, we have created a simple, portable, easily configured object-oriented interface to the VME bus. This software is particularly well-suited for hardware development, providing rapid engineering level access to the VME interface of prototype modules. (author)

  3. High speed UNIBUS-VME interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmos, P.

    1987-01-01

    An interface between VME an the UNIBUS of PDP or VAX computer is presented. The system supports high speed parallel communication (up to 1MB/S) and is composed of two modules. One of these is a commercial DR11M board which performs DMA transfers between UNIBUS and the external word. The other is a VME module specifically developed for this application. The interface has been tested under VMS operating system in VAX and VALET-PLUS system for the VME Bus. We describe in detail the VME module and its connection with the DR11M. Software, both in WMS and VALET, is also described. (Author) 7 refs

  4. High speed UNIBUS-VME interface; Interface de alta velocidad VME-UNIBUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmos, P

    1987-07-01

    An interface between VME an the UNIBUS of PDP or VAX computer is presented. The system supports high speed parallel communication (up to 1MB/S) and is composed of two modules. One of these is a commercial DR11M board which performs DMA transfers between UNIBUS and the external word. The other is a VME module specifically developed for this application. The interface has been tested under VMS operating system in VAX and VALET-PLUS system for the VME Bus. We describe in detail the VME module and its connection with the DR11M. Software, both in WMS and VALET, is also described. (Author) 7 refs.

  5. VME bus based microcomputer system boards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, A.K.; Ganesh, G.; Mayya, Anuradha; Chachondia, A.S.; Premraj, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    Several operator information systems for nuclear plants has been developed in the Division and these have involved extensive use of microcomputer boards for achieving various functions. Standard VME bus based boards have been developed to provide the most used functions. These boards have been fabricated and tested and used in several systems including Channel Temperature Monitoring systems, Disturbance Recording Systems etc. and are also proposed to be used in additional systems under developement. The use of standard bus and boards provides considerable savings in engineering time, prototyping, testing and evaluation costs, and maintenance support. This report desribes the various boards developed and the functions available on each. (author). 4 refs., 11 figs., 3 appendixes

  6. Assessment of VME-PCI Interfaces with Linux Drivers

    CERN Document Server

    Schossmater, K; CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    Abstract This report summarises the performance measurements and experiences recorded by testing three commercial VME-PCI interfaces with their Linux drivers. These interfaces are manufactured by Wiener, National Instruments and SBS Bit 3. The developed C programs are reading/writing a VME memory in different transfer modes via these interfaces. A dual processor HP Kayak XA-s workstation was used with the CERN certified Red Hat Linux 6.1 running on it.

  7. Design of a VME bus controller based on ARM7 with embedded system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yanyu; Qiao Weimin; Guo Yuhui; Li Xiaoqiang; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the solution of a VME-like bus Controller briefly. Samsung's S3C4510B 16/32-bit RISC microcontroller with ARM7 core is a high-performance microcontroller support Ethernet-based systems. The authors use S3C4510B, VIC-068A and CPLD devices built a high speed data route from VME-like Bus to network, the fast link between background computer data-base and front-end target module is achieved over network. (authors)

  8. Development of a new discharge control system utilizing UNIX workstations and VME-bus systems for JT-60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akasaka, Hiromi; Sueoka, Michiharu; Takano, Shoji; Totsuka, Toshiyuki; Yonekawa, Izuru; Kurihara, Kenichi; Kimura, Toyoaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2002-01-01

    The JT-60 discharge control system, which had used HIDIC-80E 16 bit mini-computers and CAMAC systems since the start of JT-60 experiment in 1985, was renewed in March, 2001. The new system consists of a UNIX workstation and a VME-bus system, and features a distributed control system. The workstation performs message communication with a VME-bus system and controllers of JT-60 sub-systems and processing for discharge control because of its flexibility to construction of a new network and modifications of software. The VME-bus system performs discharge sequence control because it is suitable for fast real time control and flexible to the hardware extension. The replacement has improved the control function and reliability of the discharge control system and also has provided sufficient performance necessary for future modifications of JT-60. The new system has been running successfully since April 2001. The data acquisition speed was confirmed to be twice faster than the previous one. This report describes major functions of the discharge control system, technical ideas for developing the system and results of the initial operation in detail. (author)

  9. Interfacing the septa movement (DC motors) equipment to the PS control system and the MIL1553 bus

    CERN Document Server

    Dehavay, Claude

    1995-01-01

    Continuing the rejuvenation of the PS Control system , this application replaces the Single Transceiver Hybrid used to interface the Septa Movement Fquipment by a G64 system connected to the VME crate via the MIL1553 bus. This note explains the G64 hardware interface and details the standard message as defined in the Control Protocole for Power Converter, RF and Stepping Motor equipment.

  10. Interfacing the septa movement (DC motor) equipment to the PS control system and the MIL1553 bus

    CERN Document Server

    Dehavay, Claude

    1993-01-01

    Continuing the rejuvenation of the PS Control system , it is planned to replace the Single Transceiver Hybrid used to interface the Septa Movement Equipment by a G64 system connected to the VME crate via the MIL1553 bus. This note explains the G64 hardware interface and details the standard message as defined in the Control Protocole for Power Converter, RF and Stepping Motor equipment.

  11. TMS communications software. Volume 2: Bus interface unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregor, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    A data bus communication system to support the space shuttle's Trend Monitoring System (TMS) and to provide a basis for evaluation of the bus concept is described. Installation of the system included developing both hardware and software interfaces between the bus and the specific TMS computers and terminals. The software written for the microprocessor-based bus interface units is described. The software implements both the general bus communications protocol and also the specific interface protocols for the TMS computers and terminals.

  12. MacVEE - the intimate Macintosh-VME system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, B.G.

    1986-01-01

    The marriage of a mass-produced personal computer with the versatile VMEbus and CAMAC systems creates a cost-effective solution to many laboratory small system requirements. This paper describes MacVEE (Microcomputer Applied to the Control of VME Electronic Equipment), a novel system in which an Apple Macintosh computer is equipped with a special interface which allows it direct memory-mapped access to single or multiple VME and CAMAC crates interconnected by a ribbon cable bus. The bus is driven by an electronics plinth called MacPlinth, which attaches to the computer and becomes an integral part of it. (Auth.)

  13. VME Data Acquisition Modules for MINERvA Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldin, B.; /fermilab

    2010-01-01

    This document describes two VME modules developed for MINERvA experiment at Fermilab. The Chain ReadOut Controller (CROC) module has four serial data channels and can interface with up to 48 front-ends using standard CAT5e networking cable. The data transmission rate of each channel is 160 Mbit/s. The maximum data transmission rate via VME bus is {approx}18 MB/s. The Chain Readout Interface Module (CRIM) is designed to provide various interface functions for the CROC module. It is compatible with MINOS MTM timing module and can be used to distribute timing signals to four CROC modules. The CRIM module also has a data port compatible with the CROC serial data interface. The data port can be used for diagnostic purpose and can generate triggers from front-end events. The CRIM module is a standard D08(O) interrupter module.

  14. A two-Transputer VME module for data acquisition and on-line event selection in ZEUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boterenbrood, H.; Goble, S.; Jong, S.J. de; Kieft, G.; Lugt, H.J. van der; Uijterwaal, H.A.J.R.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Waard, A. de; Wiggers, L.W.

    1993-01-01

    For the ZEUS experiment at the HERA e-p collider in Hamburg a versatile and fast VME-based processor module has been developed at NIKHEF-H. The single-slot wide VME module contains two INMOS T800 Transputers, each with private memory, and a triple-port memory (TPM), accessible to both Transputers. Both Transputers have access to the VME bus, while an external master can also access the TPM directly. The VME accesses proceed typically with 10 Mbyte/s. Three application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) handle the internal and external Transputer interfacing. The module combines the VME environment with the parallel processing and link-oriented environment of the Transputer. Over 200 modules are used in the data acquisition and event selection systems of ZEUS. (orig.)

  15. VME system monitor board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Much of the machinery throughout the APS will be controlled by VME based computers. In order to increase the reliability of the system, it is necessary to be able to monitor the status of each VME crate. In order to do this, a VME System Monitor was created. In addition to being able to monitor and report the status (watchdog timer, temperature, CPU (Motorola MVME 167) state (status, run, fail), and the power supply), it includes provisions to remotely reset the CPU and VME crate, digital I/O, and parts of the transition module (serial port and ethernet connector) so that the Motorla MVME 712 is not needed. The standard VME interface was modified on the System Monitor so that in conjunction with the Motorola MVME 167 a message based VXI interrupt handler could is implemented. The System Monitor is a single VME card (6U). It utilizes both the front panel and the P2 connector for I/O. The front panel contains a temperature monitor, watchdog status LED, 4 general status LEDs, input for a TTL interrupt, 8 binary inputs (24 volt, 5 volt, and dry contact sense), 4 binary outputs (dry contact, TTL, and 100 mA), serial port (electrical RS-232 or fiber optic), ethernet transceiver (10 BASE-FO or AUI), and a status link to neighbor crates. The P2 connector is used to provide the serial port and ethernet to the processor. In order to abort and read the status of the CPU, a jumper cable must be connected between the CPU and the System Monitor.

  16. Spectrometric storage device in VME standard; Spektrometricheskoe zapominayushchee ustrojstvo v standarte VME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaev, V E

    1996-12-31

    Paper describes module of histogram Memory Module designed to implement hardware way of accumulation of spectrometric data in systems based on VME standard equipment. Application of HMM module enables to increase throughput of the system for data acquisition and processing as in this case VME bus trunk is not occupied and may be used to control experiment course. 2 figs.

  17. MIL-STD-1553 dynamic bus controller/remote terminal hybrid set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, S. N.

    This paper describes the performance, physical and electrical requirements of a Dual Redundant BUS Interface Unit (BIU) acting as a BUS Controller Interface Unit (BCIU) or Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) between a Motorola 68000 VME BUS and MIL-STD-1553B Multiplex Data Bus. A discussion of how the BIU Hybrid set is programmed, and operates as a BCIU or RTU, will be included. This paper will review Dynamic Bus Control and other Mode Code capabilities. The BIU Hybrid Set interfaces to a 68000 Microprocessor with a VME Bus using programmed I/O transfers. This special interface will be discussed along with the internal Dual Access Memory (4K x 16) used to support the data exchanges between the CPU and the BIU Hybrid Set. The hybrid set's physical size and power requirements will be covered. This includes the present Double Eurocard the BIU function is presently being offered on.

  18. A VME based health monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yiming; Wang Chunhong

    2011-01-01

    It introduces a VME based health system for monitoring the working status of VME crates in the BEPCⅡ. It consists of a PC and a VME crate where a CMM (Classic Monitor System) is installed. The CMM module is responsible for collecting data from the power supply and temperature as well as fan speed inside the VME crate and send these data to the PC via the serial port. The author developed EPICS asynchronous driver by using a character-based device protocol StreamDevice. The data is saved into EPICS IOC database in character. Man-machine interface which is designed by BOY displays the running status of the VME crate including the power supply and temperature as well as fan speed. If the value of records display unusual, the color of the value will be changed into red. This can facilitate the maintenance of the VME crates. (authors)

  19. VME data acquisition system. Interactive software for the acquisition, display and storage of one or two dimensional spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petremann, E.

    1989-01-01

    The development and construction of a complete data acquisition system for nuclear physics applications, are described. The system is based on the VME bus and the 16/32 bits microprocessor. The data acquisition system enables the obtention of line spectra, involving one or two parameters, and the simultaneous storage of events in a magnetic tape. The analysis and the description of the data acquisition software, the experimental spectra display and saving on magnetic systems are given. Pascal and Assembler are used. The development of cards, for the standard VME and electronic equipment interfaces, is performed [fr

  20. Research on application of VME based embedded linux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Xiaolu; Ye Mei; Zhu Kejun; Li Xiaonan; Wang Yifang

    2010-01-01

    It describes the feasibility and realization of using embedded Linux in DAQ readout system of high energy physics experiment. The first part, the hardware and software framework is introduced. And then emphasis is placed on the key technologies during the system realization. The development is based on the VME bus and vme u niverse driver. Finally, the test result is presented: the readout system can work well in Embedded Linux OS. (authors)

  1. Testing of Environmental Satellite Bus-Instrument Interfaces Using Engineering Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnier, Donald; Hayner, Rick; Nosek, Thomas; Roza, Michael; Hendershot, James E.; Razzaghi, Andrea I.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the formulation and execution of a laboratory test of the electrical interfaces between multiple atmospheric scientific instruments and the spacecraft bus that carries them. The testing, performed in 2002, used engineering models of the instruments and the Aura spacecraft bus electronics. Aura is one of NASA s Earth Observatory System missions. The test was designed to evaluate the complex interfaces in the command and data handling subsystems prior to integration of the complete flight instruments on the spacecraft. A problem discovered during the flight integration phase of the observatory can cause significant cost and schedule impacts. The tests successfully revealed problems and led to their resolution before the full-up integration phase, saving significant cost and schedule. This approach could be beneficial for future environmental satellite programs involving the integration of multiple, complex scientific instruments onto a spacecraft bus.

  2. A new VME timing module: TG8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beetham, C.G.; Daems, G.; Lewis, J.; Puccio, B.

    1992-01-01

    The two accelerator divisions of CERN, namely PS and SL, are defining a new common control system based on PC, VME and Workstations. This has provided an opportunity to review both central timing systems and to come up with common solutions. The result was, amongst others, the design of a unique timing module, called TG8. The TG8 is a multipurpose VME module, which receives messages distributed over a timing network. These messages include timing information, clock plus calendar and telegrams instructing the CERN accelerators on the characteristics of the next beam to be produced. The TG8 compares incoming messages with up to 256 programmed actions. An action consists of two parts, a trigger which matches an incoming message and what to do when the match occurs. The latter part may optionally create an output pulse on one of the eight output channels and/or a bus interrupt, both with programmable delay and telegram conditioning. (author)

  3. Bus.py: A GridLAB-D Communication Interface for Smart Distribution Grid Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Timothy M.; Palmintier, Bryan; Suryanarayanan, Siddharth; Maciejewski, Anthony A.; Siegel, Howard Jay

    2015-07-03

    As more Smart Grid technologies (e.g., distributed photovoltaic, spatially distributed electric vehicle charging) are integrated into distribution grids, static distribution simulations are no longer sufficient for performing modeling and analysis. GridLAB-D is an agent-based distribution system simulation environment that allows fine-grained end-user models, including geospatial and network topology detail. A problem exists in that, without outside intervention, once the GridLAB-D simulation begins execution, it will run to completion without allowing the real-time interaction of Smart Grid controls, such as home energy management systems and aggregator control. We address this lack of runtime interaction by designing a flexible communication interface, Bus.py (pronounced bus-dot-pie), that uses Python to pass messages between one or more GridLAB-D instances and a Smart Grid simulator. This work describes the design and implementation of Bus.py, discusses its usefulness in terms of some Smart Grid scenarios, and provides an example of an aggregator-based residential demand response system interacting with GridLAB-D through Bus.py. The small scale example demonstrates the validity of the interface and shows that an aggregator using said interface is able to control residential loads in GridLAB-D during runtime to cause a reduction in the peak load on the distribution system in (a) peak reduction and (b) time-of-use pricing cases.

  4. Method for Backplane Data Communication with the VME Rear Transition Modules Developed for the ATLAS FTK Project

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdan, M; The ATLAS collaboration; Piendibene, M; Shochet, M; Tompkins, L

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method to achieve backplane data transfer capabilities to and from a VME Rear Transition Module (RTM), while being in full compliance with the VME64/VIPA Specification. The VMEbus is specified for data transfers only with boards plugged on the front side of the subrack. The RTMs receive power from the crate, but are not part of the actual data transfer bus. They do not plug into the J1 connector, and have no access to backplane interface logic. In this implementation, the RTM uses the feed-through pins located in the J2 connector to communicate with the corresponding front module. The front module's internal data, address, and control buses are extended to the rear. This allows the front module's interface block to control data transfers for logic devices on both sides of the same slot. All usual VME protocols to logic devices on the RTM become possible without any software adaptation. This method was implemented on several prototype modules developed for the ATLAS FTK Project. The full ...

  5. Interface of the transport systems research vehicle monochrome display system to the digital autonomous terminal access communication data bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, W. C.; Tanguy, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    An upgrade of the transport systems research vehicle (TSRV) experimental flight system retained the original monochrome display system. The original host computer was replaced with a Norden 11/70, a new digital autonomous terminal access communication (DATAC) data bus was installed for data transfer between display system and host, while a new data interface method was required. The new display data interface uses four split phase bipolar (SPBP) serial busses. The DATAC bus uses a shared interface ram (SIR) for intermediate storage of its data transfer. A display interface unit (DIU) was designed and configured to read from and write to the SIR to properly convert the data from parallel to SPBP serial and vice versa. It is found that separation of data for use by each SPBP bus and synchronization of data tranfer throughout the entire experimental flight system are major problems which require solution in DIU design. The techniques used to accomplish these new data interface requirements are described.

  6. A Camac-VME-MacIntosh data acquisition system for nuclear experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzalone, A.; Giustolisi, F.

    1989-01-01

    A multiprocessor system for data acquisition and analysis in low energy nuclear physics has been realized at the Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud. the system is built around Camac, VME-bus and MacIntosh PC. A multiprocessor software has been developed, using RTF, Macsys and Cern cross-software. The execution of several programs which run on several VME-CPU's and on an external PC, is coordinated by a mail box protocol. No operating system is used on the VME-CPU's

  7. New control system: solutions for CAMAC and VME integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, L.; Lecorche, E.

    1991-01-01

    Three solutions for a new control system are presented. This system must integrate the whole existing CAMAC park with its LTR software, the VME modules for new interfaces and new processes, user interfaces integrating workstations for best graphic visualizations of setting tasks, the use of ETHERNET net and of the programming language ADA. (A.B.). 3 figs

  8. A 64 Mbyte VME histogramming memory card for the GA.SP gamma spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavedini, Z.; DePoli, M.; Maron, G.; Vedovato, G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a 64 Mbyte VME histogramming memory card designed and built to cover the on-line and off-line data analysis needs of the GA.SP spectrometer (a 40 HpGe gamma detector array in development at LNL). The card combines the standard features of the VME/VSB bus with some special built-in functions: single cycle fast histogramming operations (typical channel increment time of 550 ns including the bus arbitration), fast clear of the whole memory (∼1 second to erase 64 Mbyte) and data broadcasting

  9. Multi-processor network implementations in Multibus II and VME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briegel, C.

    1992-01-01

    ACNET (Fermilab Accelerator Controls Network), a proprietary network protocol, is implemented in a multi-processor configuration for both Multibus II and VME. The implementations are contrasted by the bus protocol and software design goals. The Multibus II implementation provides for multiple processors running a duplicate set of tasks on each processor. For a network connected task, messages are distributed by a network round-robin scheduler. Further, messages can be stopped, continued, or re-routed for each task by user-callable commands. The VME implementation provides for multiple processors running one task across all processors. The process can either be fixed to a particular processor or dynamically allocated to an available processor depending on the scheduling algorithm of the multi-processing operating system. (author)

  10. Comparison and status of 32 bit backplane bus architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    With the introduction of 32 bit microprocessors several new 32 bit backplane bus architectures have been developed and are in the process for standardization. Among these are Future Bus (IEEE P896.1), VME-Bus (IEEE 1014), MULTIBUS II, Nu-Bus and Fastbus (IEEE 960). The paper describes and compares the main features of these bus architectures and mentions the status of national and international standardization efforts

  11. A Dual Digital Signal Processor VME Board for Instrumentation and Control Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. Dong; R. Flood; C. Hovater; J. Musson

    2001-01-01

    A Dual Digital Signal Processing VME Board is being developed for the CEBAF Beam Current Monitor system at Jefferson Lab. It is a versatile general-purpose digital signal processing board using an open architecture, which allows for adaptation to various applications. The base design uses two independent Texas Instrument (TI) TMS320C6711, which are 900 MFLOPS floating-point digital signal processors (DSP). Applications that require a fixed point DSP can be implemented by replacing the baseline DSP with the pin-for-pin compatible TMS320C6211. Both parallel and serial protocols have been implemented for communicating with off board devices. The initial implementation makes use of TI Multi-channel Serial protocol and VME bus protocol. Other communication protocols can be implemented by reprogramming the FPGA. Each DSP is equipped with FLASH PROM and SDRAM for program and data storage. Additionally, each DSP has 16 bits of digital I/O, two digital analog converters, and two analog to digital converters. Dual 160 pins mezzanine connectors provide expansion capability without design modifications. The mezzanine interface conforms to the TI Expansion Daughter Card Interface standard. The design can be manufactured with a reduced chip set without redesigning the printed circuit board. For example, it can be implemented as a single-channel DSP with no analog I/O. The board supports JTAG 1149 boundary scan to facilitate testing, debugging, and programming. It is fully programmable using software development tools such as TI Code Composer Studio and a JTAG emulator such as Spectrum Digital DS510PP-PLUS. Using these tools allows one program the flash memory and FPGA through the JTAG ports, thus eliminating the need for a separate ROM/FPGA programmer. This work supported by U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-84ER40150

  12. Development of a VME multi-processor system for plasma control at the JT-60 Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, M.; Kurihara, K.; Kawamata, Y.; Akasaka, H.; Kimura, T.

    1992-01-01

    Design and initial operation results are reported of a VME multi-processor system [1] for plasma control at a large fusion device named 'the JT-60 Upgrade' utilizing three 32-bit MC88100 based RISC computers and VME components. Development of the system was stimulated by faster and more accurate computation requirements for the plasma position and current control. The RISC computers operate at 25 MHz along with two cashe memories named MC88200. We newly developed VME bus modules of up/down counter, analog-to-digital converter and clock pulse generator for measuring magnetic field and coil current and for synchronizing the processing in the three RISCs and direct digital controllers (DDCs) of magnet power supplies. We also evaluated that the speed of the data transfer between the VME bus system and the DDCs through CAMAC highways satisfies the above requirements. In the initial operation of the JT-60 upgrade, it has been proved that the VME multi-processor system well controls the plasma position and current with a sampling period of 250 μsec and a delay of 500 μsec. (author)

  13. GPLS VME Module: A Diagnostic and Display Tool for NSLS Micro Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamoorthy, S.; Smith, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    The General Purpose Light Source VME module is an integral part of every front-end micro in the NSLS control system. The board incorporates features such as a video character generator, clock signals, time-of-day clock, a VME bus interrupter and general-purpose digital inputs and outputs. This module serves as a valuable diagnostic and real-time display tool for the micro development as well as for the find operational systems. This paper describes the functions provided by the board for the NSLS micro control monitor software

  14. A new VME-based high voltage power supply for large photomultiplier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumaier, S.; Hubbeling, T.; Kolb, B.W.; Purschke, M.L.; Ippolitov, M.; Blume, C.; Bohne, E.M.; Bucher, D.; Claussen, A.; Peitzmann, T.; Schepers, G.; Schlagheck, H.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a new high voltage power supply, developed for the leadglass calorimeter of the WA98 experiment at CERN. The high voltage is produced for each of the 10,080 photomultiplier tubes of the detector individually, by the same number of active bases with on-board Greinacher voltage multipliers. The full VME-based HV controller system, which addresses each base via bus cables once per second, is miniaturized and fits into a single VME crate. The main advantages of this approach are the low heat dissipation, the considerably reduced amount of cabling and cost, as well as the high stability and low noise of the system. (orig.)

  15. A data acquisition system based on general VME system in WinXP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Zhe; Qian Sen; Wang Yifang; Heng Yuekun; Zhang Jiawei; Fu Zaiwei; Qi Ming; Zheng Yangheng

    2010-01-01

    The compilation and encapsulation of a general data acquisition system based on VME board in WinXP environment was developed using LabVIEW with graphics interface. By integrating the emulational instrument panel of LabVIEW and calling the Dynamic Link Libraries (DLLs) of crate controller, the VME modules were encapsulated into function modules independently, for convenience of use. The BLT, MBLT and CBLT readout modes for different VME boards were studied. The modules can be selected and modified easily according to the requirements of different tests. Finally, successful applications of the high resolution data acquisition software (DAQ) in several experiment environments are reported.(authors)

  16. A VME-based accumulation, control and supervising system for neutron texture measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirilov, A.S.; Heinitz, J.; Korobchenko, M.L.; Rezaev, V.E.; Sirotin, A.P.

    1997-01-01

    Nowadays VME-based systems to control neutron measurement instruments are forcing out those built with PC and CAMAC. One of several alternative solutions is presented here. Its main feature is the implementation of the entire system on the VME site. Both the hardware and the software parts are considered. The instrument can be controlled locally or remotely via local network (even from PCs) with a modern-styled graphical user interface

  17. A tailored 200 parameter VME based data acquisition system for IBA at the Lund Ion Beam Analysis Facility – Hardware and software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfman, Mikael; Ros, Linus; Kristiansson, Per; Nilsson, E.J. Charlotta; Pallon, Jan

    2016-01-01

    With the recent advances towards modern Ion Beam Analysis (IBA), going from one- or few-parameter detector systems to multi-parameter systems, it has been necessary to expand and replace the more than twenty years old CAMAC based system. A new VME multi-parameter (presently up to 200 channels) data acquisition and control system has been developed and implemented at the Lund Ion Beam Analysis Facility (LIBAF). The system is based on the VX-511 Single Board Computer (SBC), acting as master with arbiter functionality and consists of standard VME modules like Analog to Digital Converters (ADC’s), Charge to Digital Converters (QDC’s), Time to Digital Converters (TDC’s), scaler’s, IO-cards, high voltage and waveform units. The modules have been specially selected to support all of the present detector systems in the laboratory, with the option of future expansion. Typically, the detector systems consist of silicon strip detectors, silicon drift detectors and scintillator detectors, for detection of charged particles, X-rays and γ-rays. The data flow of the raw data buffers out from the VME bus to the final storage place on a 16 terabyte network attached storage disc (NAS-disc) is described. The acquisition process, remotely controlled over one of the SBCs ethernet channels, is also discussed. The user interface is written in the Kmax software package, and is used to control the acquisition process as well as for advanced online and offline data analysis through a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI). In this work the system implementation, layout and performance are presented. The user interface and possibilities for advanced offline analysis are also discussed and illustrated.

  18. A tailored 200 parameter VME based data acquisition system for IBA at the Lund Ion Beam Analysis Facility – Hardware and software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elfman, Mikael, E-mail: Mikael.Elfman@nuclear.lu.se; Ros, Linus; Kristiansson, Per; Nilsson, E.J. Charlotta; Pallon, Jan

    2016-03-15

    With the recent advances towards modern Ion Beam Analysis (IBA), going from one- or few-parameter detector systems to multi-parameter systems, it has been necessary to expand and replace the more than twenty years old CAMAC based system. A new VME multi-parameter (presently up to 200 channels) data acquisition and control system has been developed and implemented at the Lund Ion Beam Analysis Facility (LIBAF). The system is based on the VX-511 Single Board Computer (SBC), acting as master with arbiter functionality and consists of standard VME modules like Analog to Digital Converters (ADC’s), Charge to Digital Converters (QDC’s), Time to Digital Converters (TDC’s), scaler’s, IO-cards, high voltage and waveform units. The modules have been specially selected to support all of the present detector systems in the laboratory, with the option of future expansion. Typically, the detector systems consist of silicon strip detectors, silicon drift detectors and scintillator detectors, for detection of charged particles, X-rays and γ-rays. The data flow of the raw data buffers out from the VME bus to the final storage place on a 16 terabyte network attached storage disc (NAS-disc) is described. The acquisition process, remotely controlled over one of the SBCs ethernet channels, is also discussed. The user interface is written in the Kmax software package, and is used to control the acquisition process as well as for advanced online and offline data analysis through a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI). In this work the system implementation, layout and performance are presented. The user interface and possibilities for advanced offline analysis are also discussed and illustrated.

  19. VME as a front-end electronics system in high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohska, T.K.

    1990-01-01

    It is only a few years since the VME became a standard system, yet the VME system is already so much more popular than other systems. The VME system was developed for industrial applications and not for the scientific research, and high energy physics field is a tiny market when compared with the industrial market. Considerations made here indicate that the VME system would be a good one for a rear-end system, but would not be a good candidate for front-end electronics in physics experiments. Furthermore, there is a fear that the VXI bus could become popular in this field of instrumentation since the VXI system is backed up by major suppliers of instrumentation in the high energy physics field. VXI would not be an adequate system for front-end electronics, yet advertised to be one. It would be worse to see the VXI system to become a standard system for high energy physics instrumentation than the VME system to be one. The VXI system would do a mediocre job so that people might be misled to think that the VXI system can be used as front-end system. (N.K.)

  20. A flexible VME-based multiparametric apparatus for coincidence spectroscopy and investigation of parameters of detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubek, J.

    2000-01-01

    The methodology of Coincidence Instrumental Activation Analysis (CIAA) based on a three-parameter gamma-gamma coincidence spectrometer with two high-purity Ge detectors is presented. A flexible coincidence system was built on standard NIM spectrometric modules connected to a VME or CAMAC data acquisition system. The detailed setup of the system optimized for the maximum energy resolution, maximum data throughput (dead time correction, pile-up rejection) and maximum flexibility is described. The use of different data acquisition platforms is discussed (VME bus with several different controllers, CAMAC bus). The software developed for reading and basic processing of measured data is also described. The possibilities of off-line data evaluation are discussed. The system was tested with respect to its compliance with the criteria of the CIAA method. Some results of measurement by this method are also presented. The flexibility of the system is demonstrated on its ability to measure the time characteristics of different detectors. (author)

  1. Simple and Robust Multipoint Data Acquisition Bus Built on Top of the Standard RS232 Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey PAVLUCHENKO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A small-scale wired sensor network architecture built on top of the standard RS232 serial link with the minimum additional non-standard hardware components is described. The presented network structure and associated protocol can be used to form a general purpose distributed data acquisition bus. Basic methods of data flow control and failure recovery suitable for the described architecture are proposed.

  2. Efficient use of VME modules in TCABR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagundes, A.N.; Carvalho, B.B.; Correia, M.; Sousa, J.

    2006-01-01

    The fast development of electronics and computer associated devices relegated the VME (versa module eurocard) standard to a secondary place in data acquisition systems. Recent software written for the TCABR, medium size tokamak installed at the Physics Institute of University of Sao Paulo, show that VME standard is still useful, even in presence of relatively slow processors. We describe the improvements on the speed optimization of TCABR pulse data collection and system protection, and propose a solution for real-time plasma control. Our conclusion is that VME systems are well behaved, well known and may still have a long life ahead in control and data acquisition environments

  3. Data acquisition on a VME/68000 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoun, Walid

    1990-01-01

    A data acquisition system for correlated or independent events handling has been designed. This system is based on VME boards and 68000 processors. The software include data taking, on line sort and storage on magnetic tape. A driver has been written under the UNIX operating system for a high graphic resolution VME board, this implementation was provided as an off-line facility. (author) [fr

  4. Bluetooth wireless monitoring, diagnosis and calibration interface for control system of fuel cell bus in Olympic demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Jianfeng; Lin, Xinfan; Xu, Liangfei; Li, Jianqiu; Ouyang, Minggao [Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Beijing100084 (China)

    2009-01-15

    With the worldwide deterioration of the natural environment and the fossil fuel crisis, the possible commercialization of fuel cell vehicles has become a hot topic. In July 2008, Beijing started a clean public transportation plan for the 29th Olympic games. Three fuel cell city buses and 497 other low-emission vehicles are now serving the Olympic core area and Beijing urban areas. The fuel cell buses will operate along a fixed bus line for 1 year as a public demonstration of green energy vehicles. Due to the specialized nature of fuel cell engines and electrified power-train systems, measurement, monitoring and calibration devices are indispensable. Based on the latest Bluetooth wireless technology, a novel Bluetooth universal data interface was developed for the control system of the fuel cell city bus. On this platform, a series of wireless portable control auxiliary systems have been implemented, including wireless calibration, a monitoring system and an in-system programming platform, all of which are ensuring normal operation of the fuel cell buses used in the demonstration. (author)

  5. Versatile Data Acquisition and Controls for EPICS using VME-based FPGAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trent Allison; Roger Flood

    2001-01-01

    Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) have provided versatile VME based data acquisition and control systems with minimal development times for the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab). FPGAs have been used to interface with VME controllers using both standard A16 and A24 address modes. VME vector-interrupt capability has also been implemented for timing issues in some applications. FPGA designs have additionally been used to provide controls for various systems by interfacing with Analog to Digital Converters (DAC), interlocks, and other drive signals. These controls can be molded to the individual needs of each system and can provide operators with indicators and controls in EPICS via a VME interface. This allows the developer to choose components and make specifications that are not available commercially. Jefferson Lab has begun developing standard FPGA libraries that result in quick turnaround times and inexpensive designs. There have been approximately eight VME based FPGA designs implanted in one department at Jefferson Lab and they are becoming more widespread. FPGAs continue to become larger and faster enabling systems to be incorporated on one integrated circuit. Inherently, FPGAs can process data faster than many microprocessors due to the small processing overhead associated with a custom FPGA design. The ability to modify FPGA code enables the developer to easily implement future additions to a system, making the design flexible and expandable. This work supported by the U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-84ER40150

  6. Implementation of data acquisition interface using on-board field-programmable gate array (FPGA) universal serial bus (USB) link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolida Yussup; Maslina Mohd Ibrahim; Lojius Lombigit; Nur Aira Abdul Rahman; Muhammad Rawi Mohamed Zin

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: Typically a system consists of hardware as the controller and software which is installed in the personal computer (PC). In the effective nuclear detection, the hardware involves the detection setup and the electronics used, with the software consisting of analysis tools and graphical display on PC. A data acquisition interface is necessary to enable the communication between the controller hardware and PC. Nowadays, Universal Serial Bus (USB) has become a standard connection method for computer peripherals and has replaced many varieties of serial and parallel ports. However the implementation of USB is complex. This paper describes the implementation of data acquisition interface between a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) board and a PC by exploiting the USB link of the FPGA board. The USB link is based on an FTDI chip which allows direct access of input and output to the Joint Test Action Group (JTAG) signals from a USB host and a complex programmable logic device (CPLD) with a 24 MHz clock input to the USB link. The implementation and results of using the USB link of FPGA board as the data interfacing are discussed. (author)

  7. Implementation of data acquisition interface using on-board field-programmable gate array (FPGA) universal serial bus (USB) link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yussup, N.; Ibrahim, M. M.; Lombigit, L.; Rahman, N. A. A.; Zin, M. R. M.

    2014-01-01

    Typically a system consists of hardware as the controller and software which is installed in the personal computer (PC). In the effective nuclear detection, the hardware involves the detection setup and the electronics used, with the software consisting of analysis tools and graphical display on PC. A data acquisition interface is necessary to enable the communication between the controller hardware and PC. Nowadays, Universal Serial Bus (USB) has become a standard connection method for computer peripherals and has replaced many varieties of serial and parallel ports. However the implementation of USB is complex. This paper describes the implementation of data acquisition interface between a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) board and a PC by exploiting the USB link of the FPGA board. The USB link is based on an FTDI chip which allows direct access of input and output to the Joint Test Action Group (JTAG) signals from a USB host and a complex programmable logic device (CPLD) with a 24 MHz clock input to the USB link. The implementation and results of using the USB link of FPGA board as the data interfacing are discussed

  8. Magnet measurement interfacing to the G-64 Euro standard bus and testing G-64 modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogrefe, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Magnet Measurement system utilizes various modules with a G-64 Euro (Gespac) Standard Interface. All modules are designed to be software controlled, normally under the constraints of the OS-9 operating system with all data transfers to a host computer accomplished by a serial link

  9. A system level boundary scan controller board for VME applications [to CERN experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, N; Da Silva, J C

    2000-01-01

    This work is the result of a collaboration between INESC and LIP in the CMS experiment being conducted at CERN. The collaboration addresses the application of boundary scan test at system level namely the development of a VME boundary scan controller (BSC) board prototype and the corresponding software. This prototype uses the MTM bus existing in the VME64* backplane to apply the 1149.1 test vectors to a system composed of nineteen boards, called here units under test (UUTs). A top-down approach is used to describe our work. The paper begins with some insights about the experiment being conducted at CERN, proceed with system level considerations concerning our work and with some details about the BSC board. The results obtained so far and the proposed work is reviewed in the end of this contribution. (11 refs).

  10. A program development tool for KEK VME-MAP control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, H.; Katoh, T.; Kadokura, E.; Akiyama, A.; Nigorikawa, K.; Ishii, K.

    1992-01-01

    The control system for KEK 12 GeV Proton Synchrotron has been replaced with a distributed VME-bus based microcomputer system and a MAP local area network. In order to simplify programming for network application tasks, a set of a preprocessor for a PASCAL compiler and a network communication server has been developed. Application programs for accelerator control system have blocks with similar codes; sending, waiting for, receiving, analyzing messages, etc. The preprocessor called 'OBJP' incorporates such common codes into the source code written by an application programmer. In case of a simple program, the size of the source code is reduced by one tenth of a full coding. (author)

  11. The UA1 VME data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cittolin, S.

    1988-01-01

    The data acquisition system of a large-scale experiment such as UA1, running at the CERN proton-antiproton collider, has to cope with very high data rates and to perform sophisticated triggering and filtering in order to analyze interesting events. These functions are performed by a variety of programmable units organized in a parallel multiprocessor system whose central architecture is based on the industry-standard VME/VMXbus. (orig.)

  12. Channel access: A software bus for the LAACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.O.

    1990-01-01

    The host processor for a code running within a distributed process control system is often predetermined by constraints built into the software architecture of the control system. Input/output (I/O) channels directly connected to the host processors are usually easier to access in software than channels on remote processors. It is often difficult to modernize selective parts of a control system's software while leaving the other parts unchanged. Likewise, software developed at one laboratory is often difficult to integrate into a control system developed at another laboratory. Software that runs in one machine or operating-system architecture is often unable to communicate with control-system software running on a different platform. For the Los Alamos Accelerator Control System (LAACS) we have attempted to address the above difficulties with a software communication facility which we call Channel Access. Channel Access provides a 'software bus' that allows programs to be connected through a network to I/O channels on real-time processors in a manner similar to the way in which hardware modules are integrated within a standardized hardware bus such as CAMAC or VME. We have already placed an operator interface on Channel Access and we are currently designing alarm, archiving and sequencing tools as well. Numerous application-specific programs use Channel Access. This paper describes the unique feature of this approach and its performance as an integral part of the Los Alamos Accelerator Control System. (orig.)

  13. Development of data acquisition software for VME based system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Mahata, K.; Ramachandran, K.

    2012-01-01

    A data acquisition system for VME has been developed for use in accelerator based experiments. The development was motivated by the growing demand for higher throughput in view of the increasing size of experiments. VME based data acquisition system provides a powerful alternative to CAMAC standards on account of higher readout speeds (100 ns/word) resulting in reduced dead time. Further, high density VME modules are capable of providing up to 640 channels in a single VME crate with 21 slots. The software system LAMPS, earlier developed for CAMAC based system and used extensively in our laboratory and elsewhere has been modified for the present VME based system. The system makes use of the VME library to implement Chain Block Transfer Readout (CBLT) and gives the option of both Polling and Interrupt mode to acquire data. Practical throughput of ∼ 250 ns/word in zero suppressed mode has been achieved. (author)

  14. The erigone bus study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durieu, L.; Vignes, M.; Wolstenholme, P.

    1982-01-01

    A study has been made of some factors determining the performance and cost-effectiveness of microcomputer bus systems implemented in Europa crates. An experimental system has been specified and a number of modules constructed in accordance with the specification, in order to test the validity of some of the ideas proposed. It has been demonstrated that the bus interfacing logic can be simple and inexpensive, while maintaining a high degree of processor independence and also a high degree of transparency in operation. The number of pins required by the bus is minimized by multiplexing address and data. A series termination for the drive of the multiplexed lines permits cross-talk to be reduced to insignificant levels: this technique is recommended for wider application. The experimental bus is proposed as a basis for the construction of simple microcomputer-based instrumentation systems. (orig.)

  15. The NERA-PR instrument control software: experience of using the VME-PCI adapter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirilov, A.S.; Astakhova, N.V.; Murashkevich, S.M.; Petukhova, T.B.; Yudin, V.E.

    2003-01-01

    The intermediate results for modernization of the control system for the NERA-PR instrument on the base of a VME-PCI adapter are considered. The article is mostly devoted to the software of the new system. The structure, the new user interface and the method for remote control are described. A half-year testing showed that the new system is reliable and is attractive for users. (author)

  16. Designing fault-tolerant real-time computer systems with diversified bus architecture for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behera, Rajendra Prasad; Murali, N.; Satya Murty, S.A.V.

    2014-01-01

    Fault-tolerant real-time computer (FT-RTC) systems are widely used to perform safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPP) and safe shutdown in the event of any untoward situation. Design requirements for such systems need high reliability, availability, computational ability for measurement via sensors, control action via actuators, data communication and human interface via keyboard or display. All these attributes of FT-RTC systems are required to be implemented using best known methods such as redundant system design using diversified bus architecture to avoid common cause failure, fail-safe design to avoid unsafe failure and diagnostic features to validate system operation. In this context, the system designer must select efficient as well as highly reliable diversified bus architecture in order to realize fault-tolerant system design. This paper presents a comparative study between CompactPCI bus and Versa Module Eurocard (VME) bus architecture for designing FT-RTC systems with switch over logic system (SOLS) for NPP. (author)

  17. Application of field-bus to interface field instrumentation in hazardous areas of TRANSPETRO pipelines and terminals, Sao Paulo region; Aplicacao de barramento de campo (fieldbus) em areas classificadas nos dutos e terminais da TRANSPETRO, regiao de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcioli, Mario Sergio [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The following presentation focuses on the experiences that we have been adopting with success during the past seven (7) years at the TRANSPETRO Pipelines and Terminals, in the State of Sao Paulo region, to integrate the field instruments (switches, actuators, solenoid valves, motor starter and switchgear panels, and so on) installed in the hazardous areas, to Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) connected to Remote Input and Output Modules (I/O) in the hazardous area, designated to interface the field signals and condition them to communicate via a bus in the field (field bus), making use of a standard open type industrial communication bus - PROFIBUS DP V1, under which the independent manufacturers follow the industrial Standards EN50170 and EN50254, pointing out the advantages of the application of this instrumentation philosophy, that among other philosophies, allows the use of engineering tools for the asset management and to assist the maintenance and operation of industrial plants. (author)

  18. Final Report and Documentation for the PLD11 Multipurpose Programmable Logic VME Board Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.; Robertson, Perry J.; Tarman, Thomas D.; Witzke, Edward L.

    1999-01-01

    The PLD11 board is a 9U VME board containing 11 Altera 10K100 Programmable Logic Devices, controlled impedance clock tree, VME interface, programming inteface, 0C3 (155 Mbps) interface and serial port. The 11 Altera 10K100 Programmable Logic Devices arranged to provide four 96 bit wide buses for a total of 384 parallel digital data lines in and out of the board that can operate up to 100 Mhz for a aggrigate throughput of 38.4 Gpbs. The 14.44'' X 15.75'' board has over 1.1 million programmable gates that can be programmed through a serial interace. The board contains a clock reference and 50 ohm clock distribution tree that can drive each of the eleven 10K100 devices with two critically timed clock references. Five external clock references can be used to drive five additional PLD 11 boards for a total of six boards operating all from the same synchronous clock reference. A system of six boards provides just under 7 million programmable gates

  19. Bus basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobinson, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    The aims of this course are: 1. To introduce the general concepts of buses used to interconnect processors, perpherals, and instrumentation. 2. To classify, albeit crudely, different types of bus systems. 3. To give some examples of past, present, and future buses as applied to the field of high-energy physics, including some details of software. 4. To provide references for further study. (orig.)

  20. VME applications to the Daresbury SRS control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martlew, B.G.; McCarthy, M.; Rawlinson, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    The control system for the Daresbury SRS has recently been extended with a VME based alarm system which is operational. A further development is a steering system to provide servo control of the electron beam orbit position in the storage ring. (author)

  1. VME multiprocessor system for plasma control at the JT-60 Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, T.; Kurihara, K.; Takahashi, M.; Kawamata, Y.; Akasaka, H.; Matsukawa, M.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper design and preliminary tests are reported of a VME multiprocessor system for the JT-60 Upgrade plasma control utilizing three MC88100 based RISC computers and VME buses. The design of the VME system was stimulated by faster and more accurate computation requirements for the plasma position and shape control

  2. VME online system of the Bonn polarized nucleon targets and polarization measurements on NH3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiel, W.

    1991-02-01

    The measurement of spin observables is the main purpose of the PHOENICS detector at the Bonn Electron Accelerator ELSA. Therefore a new frosen spin target was built allowing any spin orientation by means of two perpendicular holding fields and the use of a polarizing field up to 7 Tesla. With a vertical dilution refrigerator the polarization can be frozen at a temperature of 70 mK. This thesis describe a VME based control and monitor system for the various parts of this target. It mainly consists of a VIP processor together with different kinds of I/O and interface boards. Caused by its modular structure in hard- and software it can be easyly set up to control and monitor different hardware environments. A menu and command oriented user interface running on an ATARI computer allows a comfortable operation. Secondly the new NMR system is described in detail. It is based on the Liferpool module allowing a dispersion user interface running on an ATARI computer allows a comfortable operation. Secondly the new NMR system is described in detail. It is based on the Liverpool module allowing a dispersion free detection and a simple adjustment to different magnetic fields. A similar VME system takes care of all the necessary task for the polarization measurements. Fast optodecoupled analog I/O modules a e used as an interface to the NMR hardware. Finally the first measurements with this target are presented. Using NH 3 as target material and a polarizing field of 3.5 Tesla a proton polarization of +94% and -100% could be achieved. By lowering the magnetic field to 0.35 Tesla a superradiance effect was observed. (orig.)

  3. The Scalable Coherent Interface and related standards projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavson, D.B.

    1991-09-01

    The Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI) project (IEEE P1596) found a way to avoid the limits that are inherent in bus technology. SCI provides bus-like services by transmitting packets on a collection of point-to-point unidirectional links. The SCI protocols support cache coherence in a distributed-shared-memory multiprocessor model, message passing, I/O, and local-area-network-like communication over fiber optic or wire links. VLSI circuits that operate parallel links at 1000 MByte/s and serial links at 1000 Mbit/s will be available early in 1992. Several ongoing SCI-related projects are applying the SCI technology to new areas or extending it to more difficult problems. P1596.1 defines the architecture of a bridge between SCI and VME; P1596.2 compatibly extends the cache coherence mechanism for efficient operation with kiloprocessor systems; P1596.3 defines new low-voltage (about 0.25 V) differential signals suitable for low power interfaces for CMOS or GaAs VLSI implementations of SCI; P1596.4 defines a high performance memory chip interface using these signals; P1596.5 defines data transfer formats for efficient interprocessor communication in heterogeneous multiprocessor systems. This paper reports the current status of SCI, related standards, and new projects. 16 refs

  4. THE SOFTWARE OF THE ADVANCED MIL-STD-1553B MULTIPLEX DATA BUS TESTER AND INTERFACE MODULE: FEATURES AND IMPLEMENTATION DETAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry E. Gouriev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The UEM-MK is a new module of universal device and parametric tester of multiplex data bus, which meets all requirements for testing equipment for use in validation of devices against requirements of GOST R 52070-2003 (the same as MIL-STD-1553B Notice 4. The module can handle work of bus controller, up to 32 remote terminals and bus monitor/analyser simultaneously, can inject errors of all necessary types. In the article the software of the module is described. The software consist of: the driver, the control panel, the self-test program, the program for validation testing of remote terminals (PTOU, the extended function library, integrated environment (program BPOUEM. The latter three components are top-level components for users and software developments. The driver provides a connection with the module. Control panel provides module identification, self-testing and simplest actions on the bus in interactive mode. The PTOU program provides validation testing of remote terminals in accordance with the GOST R 51765-2001 test plan. The BPOUEM program lets users to create their own scenarios for testing and network environment imitation in interactive mode, whereas the extended function library lets the same in a form of application programs. Both these components also let to record and analyse bus traffic. The purpose, features and implementation details of all mentioned software components are described in the article, however, especial attention is paid to extended function library and the BPOUEM program.

  5. Integrated FASTBUS, VME and CAMAC diagnostic software at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.; Forster, R.; Franzen, J.; Wilcer, N.

    1992-10-01

    A fully integrated system for the diagnosis and repair of data acquisition hardware in FASTBUS, VME and CAMAC is described. A short cost/benefit analysis of using a distributed network of personal computers for diagnosis is presented. The SPUDS (Single Platform Uniting Diagnostic Software) software package developed at Fermilab by the authors is introduced. Examples of how SPUDS is currently used in the Fermilab equipment repair facility, as an evaluation tool and for field diagnostics are given

  6. VME Switch for CERN's PS Analog Video System

    CERN Document Server

    Acebes, I; Heinze, W; Lewis, J; Serrano, J

    2003-01-01

    Analog video signal switching is used in CERN's Proton Synchrotron (PS) complex to route the video signals coming from Beam Diagnostics systems to the Meyrin Control Room (MCR). Traditionally, this has been done with custom electromechanical relay-based cards controlled serially via CAMAC crates. In order to improve the robustness and maintainability of the system, while keeping it analog to preserve the low latency, a VME card based on Analog Devices' AD8116 analog matrix chip has been developed. Video signals go into the front panel and exit the switch through the P2 connector of the VME backplane. The module is a 16 input, 32 output matrix. Larger matrices can be built using more modules and bussing their outputs together, thanks to the high impedance feature of the AD8116. Another VME module takes the selected signals from the P2 connector and performs automatic gain to send them at nominal output level through its front panel. This paper discusses both designs and presents experimental test results.

  7. Prototype VME data acquisition card for the ZEUS calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.W.; Berg, J.S.; Schlereth, J.L.; Stanek, R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the design of a prototype data acquisition (DAQ) card for the ZEUS calorimeter. The card accepts two multiplexes analog data streams at a 1 MHz rate, and digitizes and stores the data for subsequent transfer through VME to a host computer. The data is buffered by a high-speed asynchronous FIFO following the A/D converters, and written into Data Memory on the card, either directly or after processing by an on-board digital signal processor (DSP). Each card has a 16-bit control-status register (CSR), the bits of which configure the hardware and define the hardware options. The 1/4 Mbyte of high speed CMOS static RAM appears either as a FIFO, or mapped memory depending upon a bit in the CSR. The card is designed to make use of the 32-bit data and address buses supported by VME, and accordingly can be most efficiently utilized in conjunction with a processor in the VME environment such as the 68020, which supports longword transfers in a 32-bit address space. The card is constructed on a ten layer printed circuit, with almost all components being surface-mount devices. All logic is implemented in PLD's. 5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  8. A Modular VME Data Acquisition System for Counter Applications at the GSI Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Liakin, D A

    2003-01-01

    Particle counters perform the control of beam loss and slowly extracted currents at the heavy ion synchrotron (SIS) at GSI. A new VME/Lynx - PC/Linux based data acquisition system has been developed to combine the operating purposes beam loss measurement, spill analysis, spill structure measurement and matrix switching functionality in one single assembly. In this paper a detailed PC-side software description is presented. To achieve best system stability, the software has been divided into time critical networking and data deploying threads and low or normal priority interface tasks. Some new abilities in the fields of data computation and presentation are reported. A hardware description is presented, in detail a programmable GSI-EVENT controller, which is based on an ordinary 8 bit RISC microprocessor and which has been integrated into the system, to synchronize the data acquisition with the sophisticated “virtual accelerator” timing at GSI. First experiences gained while the commission...

  9. A working, VME-based, 106MHz FADC data acquisition system for the tracking detectors at D0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angstadt, R.G.; Chase, B.E.; Fellenz, B.J.; Johnson, M.E.; Martin, M.I.; Matulik, M.S.; Saewert, G.W.; Utes, M.J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); DeGroot, D.C. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

    1991-12-01

    A data acquisition system for the tracking detectors of the D0 Colliding Detector has been built and is operational, taking cosmic ray data. It is composed of 8200 channels of 106MHz 8-bit Flash Analog to Digital Converters(FADC). These are configured as sixteen channels per FADC Module, up to sixteen FADC Modules per crate, and a total of thirty-six 9U VME crates. A crate controller module, the control system interface, and a high speed data buffer/driver complete the FADC crate. Design and operation details are described. 6 refs.

  10. Soft Real-Time PID Control on a VME Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayan, Vahag; Sander, Stanley; Cageao, Richard

    2007-01-01

    microPID (uPID) is a computer program for real-time proportional + integral + derivative (PID) control of a translation stage in a Fourier-transform ultraviolet spectrometer. microPID implements a PID control loop over a position profile at sampling rate of 8 kHz (sampling period 125microseconds). The software runs in a strippeddown Linux operating system on a VersaModule Eurocard (VME) computer operating in real-time priority queue using an embedded controller, a 16-bit digital-to-analog converter (D/A) board, and a laser-positioning board (LPB). microPID consists of three main parts: (1) VME device-driver routines, (2) software that administers a custom protocol for serial communication with a control computer, and (3) a loop section that obtains the current position from an LPB-driver routine, calculates the ideal position from the profile, and calculates a new voltage command by use of an embedded PID routine all within each sampling period. The voltage command is sent to the D/A board to control the stage. microPID uses special kernel headers to obtain microsecond timing resolution. Inasmuch as microPID implements a single-threaded process and all other processes are disabled, the Linux operating system acts as a soft real-time system.

  11. VME-based remote instrument control without ground loops

    CERN Document Server

    Belleman, J; González, J L

    1997-01-01

    New electronics has been developed for the remote control of the pick-up electrodes at the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS). Communication between VME-based control computers and remote equipment is via full duplex point-to-point digital data links. Data are sent and received in serial format over simple twisted pairs at a rate of 1 Mbit/s, for distances of up to 300 m. Coupling transformers are used to avoid ground loops. The link hardware consists of a general-purpose VME-module, the 'TRX' (transceiver), containing four FIFO-buffered communication channels, and a dedicated control card for each remote station. Remote transceiver electronics is simple enough not to require micro-controllers or processors. Currently, some sixty pick-up stations of various types, all over the PS Complex (accelerators and associated beam transfer lines) are equipped with the new system. Even though the TRX was designed primarily for communication with pick-up electronics, it could also be used for other purposes, for example to for...

  12. FPGA based VME boards for Indus-2 timing control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lulani, Nitin; Barpande, K.; Fatnani, P.; Sheth, Y.

    2009-01-01

    FPGA based two VME boards are developed and deployed recently for Indus-2 timing control system at RRCAT Indore. New FPGA based 5-channel programmable (Coarse-Fine) delay generator board has replaced three 2-channel coarse and one 4-channel fine existing delay generator boards. Introduction of this board has improved the fine delay resolution (to 0.5ns) as well as channel to channel jitter (to 0.8ns) of the system. It has also improved the coarse delay resolution from previous 33ns to 8ns with the possibility to work at divided Indus-2 RF clock. These improved parameters have resulted in better injection rate of beam. Old coincidence generator board is also replaced with FPGA based newly developed Coincidence clock generator VME board, which has resulted in successful controlled filling of beam (single, multi and 3-symmetrical bucket filling) in Indus-2. Three more existing boards will be replaced by single FPGA based delay generator card in near future. This paper presents the design, test results and features of new boards. (author)

  13. GO Bus impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    NJ TRANSIT launched two relatively new enhanced bus services: GO 25 serving the : Springfield Avenue corridor in 2008 and GO 28 serving the Bloomfield Avenue corridor in 2009. : As an enhanced but not full Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) service, GO Bus feat...

  14. Development of a VME and CAMAC based data acquisition and transfer system for JT-60 control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totsuka, Toshiyuki

    1993-08-01

    Development of a VME and CAMAC based data acquisition and transfer system for JT-60 Control is reported. The present data acquisition and transfer system in JT-60 control is basically composed of CAMAC devices. Since the system equipped with 16-bit microcomputers was manufactured more than ten years ago, the performance and program development environment of the system are apparently worse than those of modern 32-bit microcomputers. To improve these disadvantages, a new data acquisition and transfer system using VME-based 32-bit microcomputers and CAMAC drivers is under design. Corresponding to this design, a CAMAC handler, which runs on the microcomputer, for the VME based CAMAC driver was newly developed. Moreover, the functions of the driver and data transfer performance of the VME and CAMAC complex system were tested. The test results shown that the VME based microcomputer and CAMAC serial driver can be applied for the fast and reliable acquisition and transfer system for JT-60 control. (author)

  15. Intelligent Bus Stops in the Flexible Bus Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Razi Iqbal; Muhammad Usman Ghani

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss Intelligent Bus Stops in a special Demand Responsive Transit (DRT), the Flexible Bus System. These Intelligent Bus Stops are more efficient and information rich than Traditional Bus Stops. The real time synchronization of the Flexible Bus System makes it unique as compared to Traditional Bus Systems. The Main concern is to make Bus Stops intelligent and information rich. Buses are informed about the no. of passengers waiting at the upcoming ...

  16. The Software Bus, an Object-Oriented Data Exchange System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerbaek, T.; Louka, M.

    1996-01-01

    This document describes the Software Bus System, developed for object-oriented task to task communication in a TCP/IP based network. The Software Bus is a set of library functions, developed to be used for the Picasso-3 UIMS, and as a general purpose tool for dynamically interfacing programs at run-time. The Software Bus offers a high level object-oriented data exchange mechanism that relieves the application programmer of the low level TCP/IP-programming and communication protocol handling. The Software Bus is currently available under several UNIX platforms and a version for Windows NT is planned for late 1996. (author)

  17. Estimating bus passenger waiting times from incomplete bus arrivals data

    OpenAIRE

    McLeod, F.N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of estimating bus passenger waiting times at bus stops using incomplete bus arrivals data. This is of importance to bus operators and regulators as passenger waiting time is a key performance measure. Average waiting times are usually estimated from bus headways, that is, time gaps between buses. It is both time-consuming and expensive to measure bus arrival times manually so methods using automatic vehicle location systems are attractive; however, these syste...

  18. Intelligent Bus Stops in the Flexible Bus Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razi Iqbal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss Intelligent Bus Stops in a special Demand Responsive Transit (DRT, the Flexible Bus System. These Intelligent Bus Stops are more efficient and information rich than Traditional Bus Stops. The real time synchronization of the Flexible Bus System makes it unique as compared to Traditional Bus Systems. The Main concern is to make Bus Stops intelligent and information rich. Buses are informed about the no. of passengers waiting at the upcoming Bus Stops. If there are no passengers to ride or get off on upcoming Bus Stop, the Bus can skip that Bus Stop and head towards the next Bus Stop where passenger is waiting, which will decrease the ride time of the passengers on the Bus and also the wait time of the passengers waiting on the upcoming Bus Stops. Providing more information at Bus Stops about the Destination (Time to Destination, Distance to Destination etc. and Buses (Bus Location, Arrival Time of Bus etc. makes it easier for the passengers to decide whether to ride a particular Bus or not.

  19. Adaptive Signal Processing Testbed: VME-based DSP board market survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Rick E.

    1992-04-01

    The Adaptive Signal Processing Testbed (ASPT) is a real-time multiprocessor system utilizing digital signal processor technology on VMEbus based printed circuit boards installed on a Sun workstation. The ASPT has specific requirements, particularly as regards to the signal excision application, with respect to interfacing with current and planned data generation equipment, processing of the data, storage to disk of final and intermediate results, and the development tools for applications development and integration into the overall EW/COM computing environment. A prototype ASPT was implemented using three VME-C-30 boards from Applied Silicon. Experience gained during the prototype development led to the conclusions that interprocessor communications capability is the most significant contributor to overall ASPT performance. In addition, the host involvement should be minimized. Boards using different processors were evaluated with respect to the ASPT system requirements, pricing, and availability. Specific recommendations based on various priorities are made as well as recommendations concerning the integration and interaction of various tools developed during the prototype implementation.

  20. D-Zero detector electronics Run IIb upgrade project: VME LVDS SERDES buff (VLSB) module specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapisarda, Stefano M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Rubinov, Paul M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Wilcer, Neal G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2011-03-09

    The D0 VME64 LVDS SERDES Buffer (D0 VLSB) is a VME64 [Ref. ] single wide 6U module used for testing the Analog Front-End boards system [Ref. ]. The module is a custom LVDS SERDES Buffer with 4 LVDS inputs channels and can be operated stand-alone with minimal additional hardware. The current testing needs require only a 4 channel D0 VLSB module but the design allows system expansion to multiple modules. A D0 VLSB module can receive/generate trigger signals over two Lemo© [Ref. ] connectors on the module front panel. A normal test system configuration consist of a VME 64 subrack were slot 1 is occupied by a VME subrack controller and the D0 VLSB cards will occupy one or more of the remaining slots.

  1. Improved design of HIRFL-CSR EVME bus controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Long; Liu Wufeng; Qiao Weimin; Jing Lan

    2009-01-01

    The EVME bus controller which is a key component of the HIRFL-CSR control system was improved. Besides reconfiguring the embedded Linux, a utility program was developed for data exchange between the controller and the database. The bus controller is based on ARM920T(ARM9) micro processor which is BGA packaged. The bus controller has the universal interface of VGA display, keyboard, and mouse. The backboard interface logic is programmed in an in-system configurable FPGA device. The bus can drive high current up to 64 mA, with the flexibility of the programmable signal definitions. All the improved performance helped the EVME bus controller play a crucial role in HIRFL-CSR control system. (authors)

  2. TPG bus passes

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Staff Association will stop selling TPG bus passes. All active and retired members of the CERN personnel will be able to purchase Unireso bus passes from the CERN Hostel - Building 39 (Meyrin site) from 1st February 2013. For more information: https://cds.cern.ch/journal/CERNBulletin/2013/04/Announcements/1505279?ln=en

  3. Changing of the ELAN data acquisition to an integrated system with VME frontend acquisition and VAX work station analysis; Umruestung der ELAN-Datenerfassung auf ein integriertes System mit VME-Frontend-Erfassung und VAX-Workstation-Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerster, W.

    1991-07-01

    A new data acquisition system for the experiment ELAN at the electron stretcher accelerator ELSA had become necessary due to changes in the experimental setup. The data acquisition and analysis which formerly both were performed by a single computer system are now separately done by a VMEbus-Computer and a VAX-Workstation. Based on the software components MECDAS (Mainz Experiment Control and Data Acquisition System) and GOOSY (GSI Online Offline System) a powerfull tool for data acquisition and analysis has been adapted to the requirements of the ELAN experiment. (orig.). [Deutsch] Ziel dieser Arbeit war die Bereitstellung eines neuen Datenerfassungssystems fuer das ELAN-Experiment am Physikalischen Institut der Universitaet Bonn. Als Grundlage hierzu dienten das an der Universitaet Mainz entwickelte System MECDAS und das von der Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt stammende Softwarepaket GOOSY. Die Auslese der vom Experiment kommenden Daten wird ueber ein CAMAC-System von MECDAS auf einem VME-Rechner vorgenommen. Dazu wurden in MECDAS neue Auslesealgorithmen eingebettet, die sich teilweise aus experimentellen Notwendigkeiten ergaben und zum anderen den vollen 24-bit Zugriff auf den CAMAC-Bus ermoeglichten. Die gepufferten Daten werden zu einer VAX-Workstation weitergeleitet, auf der sie von GOOSY-Prozessen gesichert und anaylsiert werden. (orig.).

  4. A study on the front-end VME system of BEPC II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chunhong

    2004-01-01

    The front-end VME system is not only the heart of the control system, but also a real-time system. This paper describes the component of the front-end VME (Versa Module Eurocard) system including control computer and some related I/O modules. Particularly, the authors present a best solution for the problems about Vx-Works kernel and BSP running on MVME5100. This is a fundamental setup of the BEPC II control system. (author)

  5. A CAMAC-VME-Macintosh data acquisition system for nuclear experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzalone, A.; Giustolisi, F.

    1989-10-01

    A multiprocessor system for data acquisition and analysis in low-energy nuclear physics has been realized. The system is built around CAMAC, the VMEbus, and the Macintosh PC. Multiprocessor software has been developed, using RTF, MACsys, and CERN cross-software. The execution of several programs that run on several VME CPUs and on an external PC is coordinated by a mailbox protocol. No operating system is used on the VME CPUs. The hardware, software, and system performance are described.

  6. A 16 channel discriminator VME board with enhanced triggering capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsato, E; Garfagnini, A; Menon, G

    2012-01-01

    Electronics and data acquisition systems used in small and large scale laboratories often have to handle analog signals with varying polarity, amplitude and duration which have to be digitized to be used as trigger signals to validate the acquired data. In the specific case of experiments dealing with ionizing radiation, ancillary particle detectors (for instance plastic scintillators or Resistive Plate Chambers) are used to trigger and select the impinging particles for the experiment. A novel approach using commercial LVDS line receivers as discriminator devices is presented. Such devices, with a proper calibration, can handle positive and negative analog signals in a wide dynamic range (from 20 mV to 800 mV signal amplitude). The clear advantages, with respect to conventional discriminator devices, are reduced costs, high reliability of a mature technology and the possibility of high integration scale. Moreover, commercial discriminator boards with positive input signal and a wide threshold swing are not available on the market. The present paper describes the design and characterization of a VME board capable to handle 16 differential or single-ended input channels. The output digital signals, available independently for each input, can be combined in the board into three independent trigger logic units which provide additional outputs for the end user.

  7. A 16 channel discriminator VME board with enhanced triggering capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsato, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Menon, G.

    2012-08-01

    Electronics and data acquisition systems used in small and large scale laboratories often have to handle analog signals with varying polarity, amplitude and duration which have to be digitized to be used as trigger signals to validate the acquired data. In the specific case of experiments dealing with ionizing radiation, ancillary particle detectors (for instance plastic scintillators or Resistive Plate Chambers) are used to trigger and select the impinging particles for the experiment. A novel approach using commercial LVDS line receivers as discriminator devices is presented. Such devices, with a proper calibration, can handle positive and negative analog signals in a wide dynamic range (from 20 mV to 800 mV signal amplitude). The clear advantages, with respect to conventional discriminator devices, are reduced costs, high reliability of a mature technology and the possibility of high integration scale. Moreover, commercial discriminator boards with positive input signal and a wide threshold swing are not available on the market. The present paper describes the design and characterization of a VME board capable to handle 16 differential or single-ended input channels. The output digital signals, available independently for each input, can be combined in the board into three independent trigger logic units which provide additional outputs for the end user.

  8. CIT diagnostic computer interface studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, W.; Hayes, S.; Lowrance, J.; Oliaro, G.; Sauthoff, N.; Sichta, P.; Stark, W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the on-going work performed in proposing instrumentation equipment and communications networks for the Diagnostic Data Acquisition and Diagnostic Instrumentation and Control System for the Compact Ignition Torus (CIT), which will begin operation in 1993. Consideration is given to the system criteria and requirements and their influence on the appropriate application of instrumentation and communication technologies to the system. This paper concentrates on the investigation of the bus communication technologies as they apply to the CIT data acquisition system. It compares CAMAC, VME, and FASTBUS as standards for data acquisition. The paper describes the connectivity between VAX equipment and CAMAC and VME instrumentation systems. Instrumentation and communication functionality and performance levels are presented as factors important to the overall data acquisition system performance

  9. VICbus: A standard inter-crate bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkman, C.F.

    1990-01-01

    VICbus is a standard inter-crate cable bus being developed by a working group of the ISO/IEC. Derived from an initiative of the VMEbus Working Group of ESONE, VICbus aims to provide users of multi-crate VMEbus and other backplane bus systems with a standard inter-crate connection. Multi-drop operation is provided for up to 31 devices on a cable of maximum 100 metres in length. Two data transfer protocols are specified, compelled (asynchronous) transfers for transparent interconnection of backplane bus systems (VMEbus in the first instance), and high-speed, non-compelled (synchronous) transfers between VICbus interfaces. A limited interrupt mechanism is specified, as well as simple, but efficient arbitration technique. Conventional technology is employed: copper cables, existing transcievers, and differential signal transmission, together with proven low-level protocols. Data transfer rates in excess of 30 Mbyte/s will be possible on a cable length of 30 metres

  10. Creative Bus Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Wade

    1982-01-01

    Alternative ways of financing school bus purchases include financing privately through contractors or commercial banks, financing through sources such as insurance companies and pension funds, leasing the buses, or contracting for transportation services. (Author/MLF)

  11. SPFC bus design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, L.; Reinkingh, J.

    1999-07-01

    This report presents the results of a study assessing the design options for a solid polymer fuel cell bus. Commercial and operation requirements, environmental and market drivers, and fuel processor modeling are examined. Power train specifications and detailed system design are investigated covering fuel cell system dynamic response, hybrid system size, fuel cell system start-up time, system specifications, and hybrid bus component dimensions and costs. (UK)

  12. Savannah River bus project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, W.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The H2Fuel Bus is the world`s first hybrid hydrogen electric transit bus. It was developed through a public/private partnership involving several leading technology and industrial organizations in the Southeast, with primary funding and program management provided by the Department of Energy. The primary goals of the project are to gain valuable information on the technical readiness and economic viability of hydrogen buses and to enhance the public awareness and acceptance of emerging hydrogen technologies. The bus has been operated by the transit agency in Augusta, Georgia since April, 1997. It employs a hybrid IC engine/battery/electric drive system, with onboard hydrogen fuel storage based on the use of metal hydrides. Initial operating results have demonstrated an overall energy efficiency (miles per Btu) of twice that of a similar diesel-fueled bus and an operating range twice that of an all-battery powered electric bus. Tailpipe emissions are negligible, with NOx less than 0.2 ppm. Permitting, liability and insurance issues were addressed on the basis of extensive risk assessment and safety analyses, with the inherent safety characteristic of metal hydride storage playing a major role in minimizing these concerns. Future plans for the bus include continued transit operation and use as a national testbed, with potential modifications to demonstrate other hydrogen technologies, including fuel cells.

  13. LHC on the bus

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    On 15 December, an airport bus will be transformed in the image of CERN. The bus will be seen by the thousands of travellers arriving in Geneva, informing them of the possibility to visit CERN.   Sketch of the bus. The good relationship between Geneva International Airport and CERN started several years ago. In 2004 the airport put advertising space in the arrivals area at CERN's disposal free of charge. Now, starting on 15 December, a 40-foot long bus will display a giant sticker advertisement depicting CERN as it takes passengers over the airport tarmac to their planes. This is no ordinary sticker, and it was no mean task to attach it to the bus. The task of producing and attaching it was entrusted to Geneva-based specialists Mathys SA. With the ski season opening on 15 December, there will be many travellers arriving at the airport, and the bus will be ready to receive them. When one thinks of CERN, the subjects that naturally come to mind are the LHC, the mysteries of the Universe...

  14. TMS communications software. Volume 1: Computer interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J. S.; Lenker, M. D.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype bus communications system, which is being used to support the Trend Monitoring System (TMS) as well as for evaluation of the bus concept is considered. Hardware and software interfaces to the MODCOMP and NOVA minicomputers are included. The system software required to drive the interfaces in each TMS computer is described. Documentation of other software for bus statistics monitoring and for transferring files across the bus is also included.

  15. PyBus -- A Python Software Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Lavrijsen, W

    2005-01-01

    A software bus, just like its hardware equivalent, allows for the discovery, installation, configuration, loading, unloading, and run-time replacement of software components, as well as channeling of inter-component communication. Python, a popular open-source programming language, encourages a modular design on software written in it, but it offers little or no component functionality. However, the language and its interpreter provide sufficient hooks to implement a thin, integral layer...

  16. Using VME to leverage legacy CAMAC electronics into a high speed data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, P.L.

    1997-06-01

    The authors report on the first full scale implementation of a VME based Data Acquisition (DAQ) system at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). This system was designed for use in the End Station A (ESA) fixed target program. It was designed to handle interrupts at rates up to 120 Hz and event sizes up to 10,000 bytes per interrupt. One of the driving considerations behind the design of this system was to make use of existing CAMAC based electronics and yet deliver a high performance DAQ system. This was achieved by basing the DAQ system in a VME backplane allowing parallel control and readout of CAMAC branches and VME DAQ modules. This system was successfully used in the Spin Physics research program at SLAC (E154 and E155)

  17. Bus fuel consumption model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zargari, S.A. [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khan, A.M. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2000-07-01

    The interest in rapid bus transit has increased sharply with the realization that modern metropolitan areas rely on public transit to provide for strong economies and communities. As a prevention tool against traffic congestion, deteriorating air quality and rising greenhouse gas emissions, this study of bus fuel consumption was designed to assist in the planning and management of rapid bus transit. The Australian Road Research Board's (ARRB) Road Fuel Consumption Model was used as a starting point. The estimations required were realized with the help of Newtonian Mechanics. The four states of vehicular traffic were examined: acceleration, cruise, deceleration, and idle. The estimated total power required from the engine to overcome resistance forces, to run vehicle accessories and overcome internal engine friction was calculated. The data for the standard and articulated bus was obtained from OC Transpo in Ottawa. The study permitted the authors to conclude that the estimations for the parameters for power requirements and fuel consumption for heavy duty vehicles are appropriate. The methodology for the estimation of fuel consumption on the Transitway, which is part of the rapid bus transit system, proved adequate. In addition, the methodology was useful to estimate fuel savings resulting from demand management strategies with potential for modal shift. 9 refs., 6 tabs.

  18. Common bus multinode sensor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, T.F.; Naviasky, E.H.; Evans, W.P.; Jefferies, D.W.; Smith, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear power plant including a common bus multinode sensor system for sensors in the nuclear power plant, each sensor producing a sensor signal. The system consists of: a power supply providing power; a communication cable coupled to the power supply; plural remote sensor units coupled between the cable and one or more sensors, and comprising: a direct current power supply, connected to the cable and converting the power on the cable into direct current; an analog-to-digital converter connected to the direct current power supply; an oscillator reference; a filter; and an integrated circuit sensor interface connected to the direct current power supply, the analog-to-digital converter, the oscillator crystal and the filter, the interface comprising: a counter receiving a frequency designation word from external to the interface; a phase-frequency comparator connected to the counter; an oscillator connected to the oscillator reference; a timing counter connected to the oscillator, the phase/frequency comparator and the analog-to-digital converter; an analog multiplexer connectable to the sensors and the analog-to-digital converter, and connected to the timing counter; a shift register operatively connected to the timing counter and the analog-to-digital converter; an encoder connected to the shift register and connectable to the filter; and a voltage controlled oscillator connected to the filter and the cable

  19. An Experimental Platform for Autonomous Bus Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Montes

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, with highly developed instrumentation, sensing and actuation technologies, it is possible to foresee an important advance in the field of autonomous and/or semi-autonomous transportation systems. Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS have been subjected to very active research for many years, and Bus Rapid Transit (BRT is one area of major interest. Among the most promising transport infrastructures, the articulated bus is an interesting, low cost, high occupancy capacity and friendly option. In this paper, an experimental platform for research on the automatic control of an articulated bus is presented. The aim of the platform is to allow full experimentation in real conditions for testing technological developments and control algorithms. The experimental platform consists of a mobile component (a commercial articulated bus fully instrumented and a ground test area composed of asphalt roads inside the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC premises. This paper focuses also on the development of a human machine interface to ease progress in control system evaluation. Some experimental results are presented in order to show the potential of the proposed platform.

  20. Learning NServiceBus

    CERN Document Server

    Boike, David

    2013-01-01

    This is a practical tutorial containing hands-on examples for creating a messaging and SOA based service bus.This book is for .NET developers who are looking for ways to overcome problems related to buggy third party web service integrations, codebases that have grown into a big ball of mud, and batch jobs failure.

  1. The design and test of VME clock distribution module of the Daya Bay RPC readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Heng; Liang Hao; Zhou Yongzhao

    2011-01-01

    It describes the design of the VME Clock Distribution module of the Daya Bay RPC readout system, including the function and the hardware structure of the module and the logic design of the FPGA on the module. After the building and debugging of the module, a series of tests have been made to check its function and stability. (authors)

  2. Modelling Field Bus Communications in Mixed-Signal Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alassir Mohamad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a modelling platform using the SystemC-AMS language to simulate field bus communications for embedded systems. Our platform includes the model of an I/O controller IP (in this specific case an C controller that interfaces a master microprocessor with its peripherals on the field bus. Our platform shows the execution of the embedded software and its analog response on the lines of the bus. Moreover, it also takes into account the influence of the circuits's I/O by including their IBIS models in the SystemC-AMS description, as well as the bus lines imperfections. Finally, we present simulation results to validate our platform and measure the overhead introduced by SystemC-AMS over a pure digital SystemC simulation.

  3. Modelling Field Bus Communications in Mixed-Signal Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Garda

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a modelling platform using the SystemC-AMS language to simulate field bus communications for embedded systems. Our platform includes the model of an I/O controller IP (in this specific case an I2C controller that interfaces a master microprocessor with its peripherals on the field bus. Our platform shows the execution of the embedded software and its analog response on the lines of the bus. Moreover, it also takes into account the influence of the circuits's I/O by including their IBIS models in the SystemC-AMS description, as well as the bus lines imperfections. Finally, we present simulation results to validate our platform and measure the overhead introduced by SystemC-AMS over a pure digital SystemC simulation.

  4. Circuit breaker and bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.F.

    1978-01-01

    Two close-open operations are required each pulse cycle at approximately 3 MA with the breaker in series with the burn supply, both forming a leg in parallel with the E-coil and the homopolar. To conduct the 3-MA current, approximately 30 breaker units are connected in parallel. Each unit is equipped with a counterpulse capacitor bank, and the bus for the 30 units is provided with a common saturable reactor core made of strip steel wound around the bus. Oil breakers of a special design are chosen because of their high arc resistance facilitating the current transfer to the homopolar machine and for obtaining precision timing in opening and closing of the contacts. The precision timing is achieved by a shock wave method with the oil serving as hydraulic medium. Each of the parallel breaker units possesses two sets of contacts, a stationary and a transient one. A 1-mΩ resistor in series with the transient contacts of each breaker unit is to improve the current sharing. The bus consists of room temperature copper, stranded and transposed to help provide current equalization under transient conditions

  5. A VME based cryogenic data acquisition and control system (CRYO-DACS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antony, Joby; Rajkumar; Datta, T.S.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes a newly developed VME based data acquisition and control system named CRYO-DACS for acquiring and controlling various analog and digital cryogenic parameters from equipment's like beam-line cryostats, Helium compressors, liquefier, cryogenic distribution line etc. A new central control room has been set-up for the remote controls and monitoring. The system monitors various analog parameters like temperature, pressure, vacuum and cryogenic fluid levels inside the cryostats and performs closed loop controls of cryogen valves. The hardware architecture of CRYO-DACS is multi-crate distributed VME, all linked by workstation clients in 100 Mb/s LAN for distributed logging, historical trending, analysis, alarm management and control GUIs. (author)

  6. RS-485 Bus Design of a Missile Simulation Training System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Fang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In a missile simulation training system with one-master and multi-slaves distributed system structure, a universal controller is necessary due to the system composed with several controllers. In this research, the designed controllers communicate with each other and upper control computer through RS-485 field bus. RS-485 bus including interface circuits, transmission protocol, Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC method and upper control test software is designed and proposed. The universal controller adopting the designed RS-485 interface circuits is connected through twisted-pair and makes the simulation system, then the controller is tested in line. The results show that the RS-485 bus communicates effectively using the protocol and CRC method, data transmission rates reaches 115.2 kbps, and has a good stability.

  7. Miniature JPL Universal Instrument Bus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop a Universal Digital Processor Bus architecture using state of the art commercial packaging technologies. This work will transition commercial advanced- yet...

  8. A real time integrated environment for Motorola 680xx-based VME and FASTBUS modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, D.; Heinicke, P.; MacKinnon, B.; Nicinski, T.; Oleynik, G.

    1989-05-01

    The Software Components Group pSOS operating system kernel and pROBE debugger have been extended to support the Fermilab PAN-DA system for a variety of Motorola 680xx-based VME and FASTBUS modules. These extensions include: a multi-tasking, reentrant implementation of Microtec C/Pascal; a serial port driver for terminal I/O and data transfer; a message reporting facility; and enhanced debugging tools. 5 refs., 1 fig

  9. A real time integrated environment for Motorola 680chichi-based VME and FASTBUS modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, D.; Heinicke, P.; MacKinnon, B.; Nicinski, T.; Oleynik, G.

    1989-01-01

    The Software Components Group rhoSOS operating system kernel and rhoROBE debugger have been extended to support the Fermilab PAN-DA system for a variety of Motorola 680chichi-based VME and FASTBUS modules. These extensions include: a multi-tasking, reentrant implementation of Microtec (2) C/Pascal; a serial port driver for terminal I/O and data transfer; a message reporting facility; and enhanced debugging tools

  10. Comparative VME Performance Tests for MEN A20 Intel-L865 and RIO-3 PPC-LynxOS platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, M; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    This benchmark note presents test results from reading values over VME using different methods and different sizes of data registers, running on two different platforms Intel-L865 and PPC-LynxOS. We find that the PowerPC is a factor 3 faster in accessing an array of contiguous VME memory locations. Block transfer and DMA read accesses are also tested and compared with conventional single access reads.

  11. Learning NServiceBus Sagas

    CERN Document Server

    Helton, Rich

    2015-01-01

    If you are an Enterprise C# developer who wishes to extend your knowledge of NServiceBus and Enterprise Service Bus in C#, this is the book for you. This book is designed to enhance the education of ESBs and their messaging, whether you are a beginner or a seasoned expert in Enterprise C#, Apex, and Visualforce pages.

  12. Natural gas powered bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambuehl, D.; Fernandez, J.

    2003-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of a project carried out by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich to evaluate the performance of a natural-gas-powered bus in comparison with two diesel buses. The report provides details on the vehicles, their routes and the results of interviews made with both passengers and drivers. Details of measurements made on fuel consumption and pollutant emissions are presented in tabular and graphical form, as are those made on noise emissions inside and outside the vehicles. The conclusions of the project are presented including economic aspects of using gas as a motor fuel. Also, the views of passengers, who were more concerned with comfort aspects, and drivers, who were more interested in technical aspects, are quoted

  13. Hybrid Electric Transit Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    A government, industry, and university cooperative is developing an advanced hybrid electric city transit bus. Goals of this effort include doubling the fuel economy compared to current buses and reducing emissions to one-tenth of current EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors as an energy storage system, and a planned natural gas fueled turbogenerator developed from a small jet engine. Power from both the generator and energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear axle. At over 15000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using ultra-capacitor energy storage. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and its performance over industry standard drive cycles.

  14. 76 FR 37184 - Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... transporting bicycles on public transportation vehicles. The FY 2011 Appropriations Act allows a 90 percent Federal share for the total cost of a biodiesel bus. The Act also allows a 90 percent Federal share for...

  15. Air-pollution and economics: diesel bus versus electric bus

    OpenAIRE

    Adheesh, SR; Vasisht, Shravanth M; Ramasesha, Sheela K

    2016-01-01

    The Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation (BMTC) took an initiative to check the overall benefits of introducing electric buses as a suitable replacement for the diesel buses to tackle the burgeoning pollution in the city of Bengaluru, India. For a trial run of three months, an electric bus was procured from a Chinese company `Build Your Dreams' (BYD). Data were collected by BMTC on the operation and maintenance of the bus. This new initiative, if rightly guided, could have a direct im...

  16. PC-based input/output controllers from a VME perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.O.

    1999-01-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has been widely adopted in the accelerator community. Although EPICS is available on many platforms, the majority of sites have deployed VME- or VXI-based input output controllers running the vxWorks real time operating system. Recently, a hybrid approach using vxWorks on both PC and traditional platforms is being implemented at LANL. To illustrate these developments the author compares his recent experience deploying PC-based EPICS input output controllers with experience deploying similar systems based on traditional EPICS platforms

  17. A new VME based high voltage power supply for large experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, S.C.; Angstadt, R.D.; Droege, T.F.; Johnson, M.E.; MacKinnon, B.A.; McNulty, S.E.; Shea, M.F.; Thompson, R.N.; Watson, M.M.; Franzini, P.; Jones, A.A.; Lopez, M.L.; Wimpenny, S.J.; Yang, M.J.

    1991-11-01

    A new VME based high voltage power supply has been developed for the D OE experiment at Fermilab. There are three types of supplies delivering up to ±5.6 kV at 1.0 mA or +2.0 kV at 3.0 mA with a set accuracy of 1.5 V and extremely low voltage ripples. Complete computer control has allowed many special features to be developed for the supply, including user-defined control land monitor groups, variable ramp rates, and advanced histogram and graphic functions. 3 refs

  18. A new VME based high voltage power supply for large experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, S.C.; Angstadt, R.D.; Droege, T.F.; Johnson, M.E.; MacKinnon, B.A.; McNulty, S.E.; Shea, M.F.; Thompson, R.N.; Watson, M.M. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)); Franzini, P. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)); Jones, A.A. (Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States)); Lopez, M.L. (La Plata Univ. Nacional (Argentina)); Wimpenny, S.J.; Yang, M.J

    1991-11-01

    A new VME based high voltage power supply has been developed for the D{O} experiment at Fermilab. There are three types of supplies delivering up to {plus minus}5.6 kV at 1.0 mA or +2.0 kV at 3.0 mA with a set accuracy of 1.5 V and extremely low voltage ripples. Complete computer control has allowed many special features to be developed for the supply, including user-defined control land monitor groups, variable ramp rates, and advanced histogram and graphic functions. 3 refs.

  19. Portable software for distributed readout controllers and event builders in FASTBUS and VME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, R.; Berg, D.; Berman, E.; Bernett, M.; Brown, D.; Constanta-Fanourakis, P.; Dorries, T.; Haire, M.; Joshi, U.; Kaczar, K.; Mackinnon, B.; Moore, C.; Nicinski, T.; Oleynik, G.; Petravick, D.; Sergey, G.; Slimmer, D.; Streets, J.; Votava, M.; White, V.

    1989-12-01

    We report on software developed as part of the PAN-DA system to support the functions of front end readout controllers and event builders in multiprocessor, multilevel, distributed data acquisition systems. For the next generation data acquisition system we have undertaken to design and implement software tools that are easily transportable to new modules. The first implementation of this software is for Motorola 68K series processor boards in FASTBUS and VME and will be used in the Fermilab accelerator run at the beginning of 1990. We use a Real Time Kernel Operating System. The software provides general connectivity tools for control, diagnosis and monitoring. 17 refs., 7 figs

  20. A High-Performance VME-Based Acquisition System for Positron Emission Mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, D.J.; Weisenberger, A.; Majewski, S.; Kieper, D.; Kross, B.; Popov, V.; Wojcik, R.; Raylman, R.R.

    2001-01-01

    A prototype for a practical and economical breast imaging system for cancer detection is currently under development at Jefferson Lab. The latest advances in bright, fast, crystal scintillators, compact position-sensitive photomultipliers (PSPMT), and high-performance digitizing and readout electronics are being used to develop a compact imager based on Positron Emission Tomography (PET). To facilitate the performance demands of the detector as well as the high number of readout channels, the data acquisition system is built around an intelligent, self-contained, VME form-factor

  1. IMPACTS OF BUS STOP IMPROVEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-23

    Improving bus stops by providing shelters, seating, signage, and sidewalks is relatively inexpensive and popular among riders and local officials. Making such improvements, however, is not often a priority for U.S. transit providers because of compet...

  2. Scaling Laws in Chennai Bus Network

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Ramadurai, Gitakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the structural properties of the complex bus network of Chennai. We formulate this extensive network structure by identifying each bus stop as a node, and a bus which stops at any two adjacent bus stops as an edge connecting the nodes. Rigorous statistical analysis of this data shows that the Chennai bus network displays small-world properties and a scale-free degree distribution with the power-law exponent, $\\gamma > 3$.

  3. Software for Data Acquisition AMC Module with PCI Express Interface

    CERN Document Server

    Szachowalow, S; Makowski, D; Butkowski, L

    2010-01-01

    Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) and XRay Free Electron Laser (XFEL) are linear accelerators that require a complex and accurate Low Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) control system. Currently working systems are based on aged Versa Module Eurocard (VME) architecture. One of the alternatives for the VME bus is the Advanced Telecommunications and Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard. The ATCA based LLRF controller mainly consists of a few ATCA carrier boards and several Advanced Mezzanine Cards (AMC). AMC modules are available in variety of functions such as: ADC, DAC, data storage, data links and even CPU cards. This paper focuses on the software that allows user to collect and plot the data from commercially available TAMC900 board.

  4. Universal computer interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dheere, RFBM

    1988-01-01

    Presents a survey of the latest developments in the field of the universal computer interface, resulting from a study of the world patent literature. Illustrating the state of the art today, the book ranges from basic interface structure, through parameters and common characteristics, to the most important industrial bus realizations. Recent technical enhancements are also included, with special emphasis devoted to the universal interface adapter circuit. Comprehensively indexed.

  5. A VME-based readout system for the CMS Preshower sub-detector

    CERN Document Server

    Antchev, G; Bialas, W; Da Silva, J C; Kokkas, P; Manthos, N; Reynaud, S; Sidiropoulos, G; Snoeys, W; Vichoudis, P

    2007-01-01

    The CMS preshower is a fine grain detector that comprises 4288 silicon sensors, each containing 32 strips. The raw data are transferred from the detector to the counting room via 1208 optical fibres. Each fibre carries a 600-byte data packet per event. The maximum average level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz results in a total data flow of ~72 GB/s from the preshower. For the readout of the preshower, 56 links to the CMS DAQ have been reserved, each having a bandwidth of 200 MB/s (2 kB/event). The total available downstream bandwidth of GB/s necessitates a reduction in the data volume by a factor of at least 7. A modular VME-based system is currently under development. The main objective of each VME board in this system is to acquire on-detector data from at least 22 optical links, perform on-line data reduction and pass the concentrated data to the CMS DAQ. The principle modules that the system is based on are being developed in collaboration with the TOTEM experiment.

  6. CAMAC to GPIB interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naivar, F.J.

    1978-01-01

    A CAMAC module developed at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory allows any device conforming to the GPIB standard to be connected to a CAMAC system. This module incorporates a microprocessor to control up to 14 GPIB-compatible instruments using a restricted set of CAMAC F-N-A commands. The marriage of a device-independent bus (IEEE Standard 488-1975) to a computer-independent bus (IEEE Standard 583-1975) provides a general method for interfacing a system of programmable instruments to any computer. This module is being used to interface a variety of interactive devices on a control console to a control computer

  7. Bus systems in motor vehicles; Bussysteme im Kfz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schule, Roland

    2008-07-01

    There is hardly any modern vehicle without a bus system. This interactive learning software explains why electric and electronic systems in motor vehicles should be linked and uses various bus types to illustrate the various alternatives, bus structures, and data types. The physical side of bus systems is gone into, the data structure is explained, and the various bus typologies are outlined. From the fundamentals of bus systems, the software proceeds to present the most important bus systems and their main properties. Subjects: Diagnosis bus, LIN bus, CAN bus, MOST bus, Bluetooth. The bus systems EIA-485, LVDS, D{sup 2}B, byteflight, and Flexray are briefly characterised. (orig.)

  8. Fuel cell bus operation, system investigation H2 bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The WP covers two tasks: - Prepartion of Technical Catalogue: In cooperation with ICIL, AR have compiled a technical catalogue, providing the impartial descriptions, both of existing technology and regulations, and the likely future developments of these, as to remedy the first problem faced by a potential hydrogen bus fleet operator viz the absence of an impartial description of the available vehicle and fuels systems together with the absence of a description of regulatory and safety factors which need consideration. - Fuel Cell Bus Operation - System Investigation H 2 Bus: The application of fuel cell electric generation systems to hybrid electrical buses or electrical busses without any storage system on board is considered. The task will cover safety and environmental aspects, a cost estimate and a market evaluation. (orig.)

  9. Simplified extension of the LSI-11 Q-Bus for a high energy laser control application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burczyk, L.

    1981-01-01

    Antares, a large, experimental laser fusion facility under construction at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, is controlled by a network of PDP-11 minicomputers and microprocessors. The remote nodes of the Antares control network are based on an LSI-11/2 microcomputer interfaced to an STD Bus. This machine interface or MI forms the intelligent process controller located directly adjacent to the many diverse laser subsystem devices. The STD Bus, linked to the LSI-11/2 microcomputer, offers a standardized, cost effective means for the development of the specialized interface functions required for the high energy laser environment

  10. Discharging a DC bus capacitor of an electrical converter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajouke, Lateef A; Perisic, Milun; Ransom, Ray M

    2014-10-14

    A system and method of discharging a bus capacitor of a bidirectional matrix converter of a vehicle are presented here. The method begins by electrically shorting the AC interface of the converter after an AC energy source is disconnected from the AC interface. The method continues by arranging a plurality of switching elements of a second energy conversion module into a discharge configuration to establish an electrical current path from a first terminal of an isolation module, through an inductive element, and to a second terminal of the isolation module. The method also modulates a plurality of switching elements of a first energy conversion module, while maintaining the discharge configuration of the second energy conversion module, to at least partially discharge a DC bus capacitor.

  11. PCI-VME bridge device driver design of a high-performance data acquisition and control system on LINUX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yan; Ye Mei; Zhang Nan; Zhao Jingwei

    2000-01-01

    Data Acquisition and Control is an important part of Nuclear Electronic and Nuclear Detection application in HEP. The key methods are introduced for designing LINUX Device Driver of PCI-VME Bridge Device based on the realized Data Acquisition and Control System

  12. PCI-VME bridge device driver design of a high-performance data acquisition and control system on LINUX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yan; Ye Mei; Zhang Nan; Zhao Jingwei

    2001-01-01

    Data acquisition and control is an important part of nuclear electronic and nuclear detection application in HEP. The key method has been introduced for designing LINUX device driver of PCI-VME bridge device based on realized by authors' data acquisition and control system

  13. Parallel data grabbing card based on PCI bus RS422

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhenghui; Shen Ji; Wei Dongshan; Chen Ziyu

    2005-01-01

    This article briefly introduces the developments of the parallel data grabbing card based on RS422 and PCI bus. It could be applied for grabbing the 14 bits parallel data in high speed, coming from the devices with RS422 interface. The methods of data acquisition which bases on the PCI protocol, the functions and their usages of the chips employed, the ideas and principles of the hardware and software designing are presented. (authors)

  14. VME computer monitoring system of KEK-PS fast pulsed magnet currents and beam intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakubo, T.; Akiyama, A.; Kadokura, E.; Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    For beam transfer from the KEK-PS Linac to the Booster synchrotron ring and from the Booster to the Main ring, many pulse magnets have been installed. It is very important for the machine operation to monitor the firing time, rising time and peak value of the pulsed magnet currents. It is also very important for magnet tuning to obtain good injection efficiency of the Booster and the Main ring, and to observe the last circulating bunched beam in the Booster as well as the first circulating in the Main. These magnet currents and beam intensity signals are digitized by a digital oscilloscope with signal multiplexers, and then shown on a graphic display screen of the console via a VME computer. (author)

  15. Report on a field-portable VME-based distributed data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drigert, M.W.; Cole, J.D.; Reber, E.L.; Young, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    A development effort was started two years ago to develop a portable data acquisition system which could be used for performing arms control verification and environmental monitoring measurements with complex multi-detector systems in the field. A field portable data acquisition system has been developed around a VMEbus based micro-processor and standard TCP/IP network protocols. The hardware consists of a compact VME crate and a single CAMAC crate containing the signal processing electronics. The component processes of the data acquisition system transfer control and event data over a set of TCP/IP socket connections. The use of network sockets for the interprocess communications allows the data acquisition system to be operated transparently on one workstation or on a number of workstations distributed around a local network

  16. VME-Real-Time Data Acquisition for the Ultracryogenic Gravitational Antenna of the Third Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzitelli, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Nazionale di Frascati

    1996-05-01

    It is described a new design of the front-end electronics for the data acquisition of NAUTILUS, the first ultra cryogenic resonant gravitational wave detector, operating in the INFN National Laboratories of Frascati. The improved sensitivity of this kind of detector poses new requirements on the data acquisition, as more speed, amplitude and timing accuracy are needed. In this work it is discussed the result obtained with a new front-end configuration based on VME standard for a data acquisition rate of 5kHz (present rate 220 Hz). Is it also described the data acquisition system for the cosmic ray telescope assembled around NAUTILUS and the timing system of both the components.

  17. San Antonio's 1983 Bus Passenger Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    Many transit operators routinely collect ridership data in order to provide a : basis for the planning of bus services. Often a survey is conducted of bus : riders to determine their riding habits, their views about the quality of : current service, ...

  18. School Bus Accidents and Driver Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Judith

    The study examines the rates and types of school bus accidents according to the age of the school bus driver. Accident rates in North Carolina for the school year 1971-72 were analyzed using three sources of data: accident reports, driver and mileage data, and questionnaires administered to a sample of school bus drivers. Data were obtained on…

  19. Optimizing Tailored Bus Bridging Paths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Wei; Yu, Jie; Ji, Yuxiong; van der Gun, J.P.T.; Pel, A.J.; Zhang, H. Michael; van Arem, B.

    2017-01-01

    Metro disruptions due to unexpected events reduce transit system reliability, resulting in significant productivity loss and long passenger delays. Bus bridging strategy is often used to connect stations affected by metro disruptions such that passengers could continue their journey. The literature

  20. Bus transport in Greater Manchester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    component regards the organisation of public bus transport at the local level. This involves the deregulation and privatisation reforms introduced by the Conservative Government from 1986 onwards, as well as the ‘partnerships’ and other new instruments introduced by the Labour Government in the Transport...

  1. Pybus - A Python Software Bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrijsen, Wim T.L.P.

    2004-01-01

    A software bus, just like its hardware equivalent, allows for the discovery, installation, configuration, loading, unloading, and run-time replacement of software components, as well as channeling of inter-component communication. Python, a popular open-source programming language, encourages a modular design on software written in it, but it offers little or no component functionality. However, the language and its interpreter provide sufficient hooks to implement a thin, integral layer of component support. This functionality can be presented to the developer in the form of a module, making it very easy to use. This paper describes a Pythonmodule, PyBus, with which the concept of a ''software bus'' can be realized in Python. It demonstrates, within the context of the ATLAS software framework Athena, how PyBus can be used for the installation and (run-time) configuration of software, not necessarily Python modules, from a Python application in a way that is transparent to the end-user

  2. Analysis of robustness of urban bus network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ren; Yi-Fan, Wang; Miao-Miao, Liu; Yan-Jie, Xu

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the invulnerability and cascade failures are discussed for the urban bus network. Firstly, three static models(bus stop network, bus transfer network, and bus line network) are used to analyse the structure and invulnerability of urban bus network in order to understand the features of bus network comprehensively. Secondly, a new way is proposed to study the invulnerability of urban bus network by modelling two layered networks, i.e., the bus stop-line network and the bus line-transfer network and then the interactions between different models are analysed. Finally, by modelling a new layered network which can reflect the dynamic passenger flows, the cascade failures are discussed. Then a new load redistribution method is proposed to study the robustness of dynamic traffic. In this paper, the bus network of Shenyang City which is one of the biggest cities in China, is taken as a simulation example. In addition, some suggestions are given to improve the urban bus network and provide emergency strategies when traffic congestion occurs according to the numerical simulation results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61473073, 61374178, 61104074, and 61203329), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant Nos. N130417006, L1517004), and the Program for Liaoning Excellent Talents in University (Grant No. LJQ2014028).

  3. Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian Douglas [East Peoria, IL; Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL

    2011-03-22

    An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

  4. Avionic Data Bus Integration Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    address the hardware-software interaction between a digital data bus and an avionic system. Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) ICs and multiversion ...the SCP. In 1984, the Sperry Corporation developed a fault tolerant system which employed multiversion programming, voting, and monitoring for error... MULTIVERSION PROGRAMMING. N-version programming. 226 N-VERSION PROGRAMMING. The independent coding of a number, N, of redundant computer programs that

  5. New TPG bus route 28

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Geneva's Public Transport services (TPG) have recently inaugurated a new bus line 28, connecting the La Tour Hospital in Meyrin to the international organisations in Geneva, via the airport. All signs associated with this route will be yellow in colour. Timetables and route details can be found at http://www.tpg.ch. Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ Tel. 72848

  6. Replacing PS controls front end minicomputers by VME based 32-bit processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnaire, A.; Metz Noblat, N. de; Serre, Ch.; Sicard, Cl.H.

    1992-01-01

    The PS controls have started the first phase of system rejuvenation, targeted towards the LEP Preinjector Controls. The main impact of this phase is in the architectural change, as both the front-end minicomputers and the CAMAC embedded microprocessors are replaced by microprocessor based VME crates called Device Stub Controllers (DSC). This paper discusses the different steps planned for this first phase, i.e: (1) implementing the basic set of CERN Accelerator common facilities for DSCs (error handling, system surveillance, remote boot and network access); (2) porting the equipment access software layer; (3) applying the Real-time tasks to the LynxOS operating system and I/O architecture, conforming to the real-time constraints for control and acquisition; (4) defining the number and contents of the different DSC needed, according to geographical and cpu-load constraints; (5) providing the general services outside the DSC crates (file servers, data-base services); (6) emulating the current Console programs onto the new workstations. (author)

  7. Use of VME computers for the data acquisition system of the PHOENICS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucht, B.

    1989-10-01

    The data acquisition program PHON (PHOENICS ONLINE) for the PHOENICS-experiment at the stretcher ring ELSA in Bonn is described. PHON is based on a fast parallel CAMAC readout with special VME-front-end-processors (VIP) and a VAX computer, allowing comfortable control and programming. Special tools have been developed to facilitate the implementation of user programs. The PHON-compiler allows to specify the arrangement of the CAMAC-modules to be read out for each event (camaclist) using a simple language. The camaclist is translated in 68000 Assembly and runs on the front-end-processors, making high data rates possible. User programs for monitoring and control of the experiment normally require low data rates and therefore run on the VAX computer. CAMAC operations are supported by the PHON CAMAC-Library. For graphic representation of the data the CERN standard program libraries HBOOK and PAW are used. The data acquisition system is very flexible and can be easily adapted to different experiments. (orig.)

  8. Up gradation of VME based data acquisition for SST-1 superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varmora, Pankaj; Parghi, Bhadresh; Banaudha, Moni; Prasad, Upendra

    2017-01-01

    SST-1 magnet system consists of sixteen Toroidal Field (TF) coils and nine Poloidal Field (PF) superconducting coils along with a pair of vertical field coils and air core ohmic transformer. These magnets are instrumented with various cryogenic compatible sensors and voltage taps for its monitoring, operation, protection, and control during different machine operational scenarios like cryogenic cool down, current charging cycles including ramp up, flat top, plasma breakdown, dumping/ramp down and warm up. A VME hardware based data acquisition system has been developed for data monitoring, acquisition and control of magnet operation. A java platform based client and server utility has been developed for this data acquisition system. Upgradation of this java software utility has been carried out with enhance features, fast operating performance and new tools additions. Upgradation features includes larger data file sizes, highlights of critical data indicators, new file generation, online mass flow calculations etc. This poster describes basis hardware details, upgradation of previous software utility, testing and troubleshooting during software development. (author)

  9. National fuel cell bus program : proterra fuel cell hybrid bus report, Columbia demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from a fuel cell bus demonstration funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program. A team led by the Center for Transportation and the Environment an...

  10. IEEE 1394/firewire a low cost, high speed, digital serial bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaunt, R.

    1997-05-01

    Does the world need yet another 1/0 bus standard? If you need fast and cheap serial video communication, then the answer is yes. As technology advances, so too must data transport mechanisms advance. You can`t expect RS-232 to support real-time digital video, and if you can`t afford expensive professional serial video interfaces, (such as Sony`s Serial Digital Interface), Firewire may be a good solution. IEEE 1394, or commonly known as Firewire, is a general purpose serial bus that meets many of the 1/0 needs of today`s video and multimedia developers. For those of you who only read the first paragraph, here`s Firewire in a nutshell: It provides a guaranteed transfer rate of 10OMbps or 20OMbps of digital data (such as video direct from camera to computer), over an inexpensive, non-proprietary serial bus. Here is a list of its features.

  11. Bus Route Design with a Bayesian Network Analysis of Bus Service Revenues

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yi; Jia, Yuanhua; Feng, Xuesong; Wu, Jiang

    2018-01-01

    A Bayesian network is used to estimate revenues of bus services in consideration of the effect of bus travel demands, passenger transport distances, and so on. In this research, the area X in Beijing has been selected as the study area because of its relatively high bus travel demand and, on the contrary, unsatisfactory bus services. It is suggested that the proposed Bayesian network approach is able to rationally predict the probabilities of different revenues of various route services, from...

  12. EtherBone - A Network Layer for the Wishbone SoC Bus

    CERN Document Server

    Kreider, M; Lewis, J; Włostowski, T; Serrano, J

    2011-01-01

    Today, there are several System on a Chip (SoC) bus systems. Typically, these buses are confined on-chip and rely on higher level components to communicate with the outside world. Taking these systems a step further, we see the possibility of extending the reach of the SoC bus to remote FPGAs or processors. This leads to the idea of the EtherBone (EB) core, which connects a Wishbone (WB) Ver. 4 Bus via a Gigabit Ethernet based network link to remote peripheral devices. EB acts as a transparent interconnect module towards attached WB Bus devices. Address information and data from one or more WB bus cycles is preceded with a descriptive header and encapsulated in a UDP/IP packet. Because of this standard compliance, EB is able to traverse Wide Area Networks and is therefore not bound to a geographic location. Due to the low level nature of the WB bus, EB provides a sound basis for remote hardware tools like a JTAG debugger, In-System-Programmer (ISP), boundary scan interface or logic analyser module. EB was de...

  13. ETHERBONE - a network layer for the wishbone SoC bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreider, M.; Terpstra, W.; Lewis, J.; Serrano, J.; Wlostowski, T.

    2012-01-01

    Today, there are several System on a Chip (SoC) bus systems. Typically, these buses are confined on-chip and rely on higher level components to communicate with the outside world. Taking these systems a step further, we see the possibility of extending the reach of the SoC bus to remote FPGAs or processors. This leads to the idea of the EtherBone (EB) core, which connects a Wishbone (WB) Ver. 4 Bus via a Gigabit Ethernet based network link to remote peripheral devices. EB acts as a transparent interconnect module towards attached WB Bus devices. Address information and data from one or more WB bus cycles is preceded with a descriptive header and encapsulated in a UDP/IP packet. Because of this standard compliance, EB is able to traverse Wide Area Networks and is therefore not bound to a geographic location. Due to the low level nature of the WB bus, EB provides a sound basis for remote hardware tools like a JTAG debugger, In-System-Programmer (ISP), boundary scan interface or logic analyser module. EB was developed in the scope of the White-Rabbit Timing Project (WR) at CERN and GSI/FAIR, which employs GigaBit Ethernet technology to communicate with memory mapped slave devices. WR will make use of EB as means to issue commands to its timing nodes and control connected accelerator hardware. (authors)

  14. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  15. American fuel cell bus project : first analysis report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from the American Fuel Cell Bus Project, a fuel cell electric bus demonstration : funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program. A team led by CALST...

  16. Fuel Cell Electric Bus Evaluations | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus Evaluations Fuel Cell Electric Bus Evaluations NREL's technology validation team evaluates fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs) to provide comprehensive, unbiased evaluation results of fuel cell bus early transportation applications for fuel cell technology. Buses operate in congested areas where

  17. Mastering NServiceBus and persistence

    CERN Document Server

    Helton, Rich

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended for developers, designers, and architects alike who wish to build C# NServiceBus enterprise architectures and learn how ESB persists data and messages to help them attain their goals. No prior knowledge of persistence in NServiceBus is required.

  18. Digital processing data communication systems (bus systems)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleck, K.

    1980-01-01

    After an introduction to the technology of digital processing data communication systems there are the following chapters: digital communication of processing data in automation technology, the technology of biserial communication, the implementaiton of a bus system, the data transmission of the TDC-2000 system of Honeywell's and the process bus CS 275 in the automation system TELEPERM M of Siemens AG. (WB) [de

  19. Interface control scheme for computer high-speed interface unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, B. K.

    1975-01-01

    Control scheme is general and performs for multiplexed and dedicated channels as well as for data-bus interfaces. Control comprises two 64-pin, dual in-line packages, each of which holds custom large-scale integrated array built with silicon-on-sapphire complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology.

  20. System Interconnect Bus (SIB) compatible multi crate CAMAC Controller (CC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, K.; Borkar, S.P.; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.; D'Costa, C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes design of SIB compatible crate controller with PC interface. SIB is a general-purpose parallel 1/O interface bus used for connecting multi crate system with single PC-interface. The crate controller comprises of a dedicated PC-AT add-on SIB interface card and two width CAMAC module designed to work at station 24 and station 25 of CAMAC crate. PC Interface card (SIBINT) is used for communication between PC/AT host computer and CAMAC Crates. The controller module incorporates a set of registers, logic to generate CAMAC data way timing. Transmission protocol used is RS485 standard. This controller is used for multiple CAMAC crates system, interfaced to PC, using a 60 core twisted pair flat ribbon cable. The crate controller is developed for use in process control, general-purpose data acquisition and control system and laboratory automation. Sustained data transfer rate achieved by controller is 115 Kword/sec each word being 32 bits in length. (author)

  1. Reusable Rack Interface Controller Common Software for Various Science Research Racks on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, George C.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the EXPRESS (Expedite the PRocessing of Experiments to Space Station) rack project is to provide a set of predefined interfaces for scientific payloads which allow rapid integration into a payload rack on International Space Station (ISS). VxWorks' was selected as the operating system for the rack and payload resource controller, primarily based on the proliferation of VME (Versa Module Eurocard) products. These products provide needed flexibility for future hardware upgrades to meet everchanging science research rack configuration requirements. On the International Space Station, there are multiple science research rack configurations, including: 1) Human Research Facility (HRF); 2) EXPRESS ARIS (Active Rack Isolation System); 3) WORF (Window Observational Research Facility); and 4) HHR (Habitat Holding Rack). The RIC (Rack Interface Controller) connects payloads to the ISS bus architecture for data transfer between the payload and ground control. The RIC is a general purpose embedded computer which supports multiple communication protocols, including fiber optic communication buses, Ethernet buses, EIA-422, Mil-Std-1553 buses, SMPTE (Society Motion Picture Television Engineers)-170M video, and audio interfaces to payloads and the ISS. As a cost saving and software reliability strategy, the Boeing Payload Software Organization developed reusable common software where appropriate. These reusable modules included a set of low-level driver software interfaces to 1553B. RS232, RS422, Ethernet buses, HRDL (High Rate Data Link), video switch functionality, telemetry processing, and executive software hosted on the FUC computer. These drivers formed the basis for software development of the HRF, EXPRESS, EXPRESS ARIS, WORF, and HHR RIC executable modules. The reusable RIC common software has provided extensive benefits, including: 1) Significant reduction in development flow time; 2) Minimal rework and maintenance; 3) Improved reliability; and 4) Overall

  2. Bus Route Design with a Bayesian Network Analysis of Bus Service Revenues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A Bayesian network is used to estimate revenues of bus services in consideration of the effect of bus travel demands, passenger transport distances, and so on. In this research, the area X in Beijing has been selected as the study area because of its relatively high bus travel demand and, on the contrary, unsatisfactory bus services. It is suggested that the proposed Bayesian network approach is able to rationally predict the probabilities of different revenues of various route services, from the perspectives of both satisfying passenger demand and decreasing bus operation cost. This way, the existing bus routes in the studied area can be optimized for their most probable high revenues.

  3. Bus and Tag Terminators for IBM system/360

    CERN Multimedia

    Control units were connected to the channels with "Bus and Tag" cable pairs. The bus cables carried the address and data information and the tag cables identified what data was on the bus. There were three general types of bus-and-tag cables produced by IBM.

  4. PCISIM - A Simulation Tool for PCI Bus Based Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    1999-01-01

    This document describes a PCI bus simulator for use in evaluating the feasibility of system designs based on this bus.......This document describes a PCI bus simulator for use in evaluating the feasibility of system designs based on this bus....

  5. Research and implementation of intelligent gateway driver layer based on Linux bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Jian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently,in the field of smart home,there is no relevant organization that yet has proposed an unified protocol standard.It increases the complexity and limitations of heterogeneous gateway software framework design that different vendor′s devices have different communication mode and protocol standards.In this paper,a serial of interfaces are provided by Linux kernel,and a virtual bus is registered under Linux.The physical device drivers are able to connect to the virtual bus.The detailed designs of the communication protocol are placed in the underlying adapters,making the integration of heterogeneous networks more natural.At the same time,designing the intelligent gateway system driver layer based on Linux bus can let the application layer be more unified and clear logical.And it also let the hardware access network become more convenient and distinct.

  6. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2010. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  7. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2012. Selected crash statistics on passenger vehicles are also presented ...

  8. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2013. Selected crash statistics on passenger vehicles are also presented ...

  9. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2009. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  10. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2011. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  11. Passenger bus industry weather information application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    Adverse weather significantly affects the United States national transportation system, including commercial companies : that rely on highways to support their enterprises. The Passenger Bus (Motorcoach) Industry (PBI) is one such affected : user who...

  12. Understanding & modeling bus transit driver availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Bus transit agencies are required to hire extraboard (i.e. back-up) operators to account for unexpected absences. Incorrect sizing of extra driver workforce is problematic for a number of reasons. Overestimating the appropriate number of extraboard o...

  13. Bicycle-bus conflict area study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Increasing bicycle use and bus ridership are both desirable policy goals : from a sustainability standpoint, but on city streets these two modes of : transport are often in conflict. While occupying opposite ends of the size : and weight spectrum, th...

  14. Application of the Scalable Coherent Interface to Data Acquisition at LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    RD24 : The RD24 activities in 1996 were dominated by test and integration of PCI-SCI bridges for VME-bus and for PC's for the 1996 milestones. In spite of the dispersion of RD24 membership into the ATLAS, ALICE and the proposed LHC-B experiments, collaboration and sharing of resources of SCI laboratories and equipment continued with excellent results and several doctoral theses. The availability of cheap PCI-SCI adapters has allowed construction of VME multicrate testbenches based on a variety of VME processors and work-stations. Transparent memory-to-memory accesses between remote PCI buses over SCI have been established under the Linux, Lynx-OS and Windows-NT operating systems as a proof that scalable multicrate systems are ready to be implemented with off-the-shelf products. Commercial SCI-PCI adapters are based on a PCI-SCI ASIC from Dolphin. The FPGA based PCI-SCI adapter, designed by CERN and LBL for data acquisition at LHC and STAR allows addition of DAQ functions. The step from multicrate systems towa...

  15. The seated bus passenger--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, J A

    1978-09-01

    The paper describes the inter-relationship of anthropometry, rig studies and dynamic testing of aspects related to problems of the seated bus passenger. It seeks to draw together sub-sections of a very large study sponsored by the government through the Transport and Road Research Laboratory and undertaken by the Human Factors Group of Leyland Truck and Bus. It is relevant to all those designing passenger carrying transport systems.

  16. The Gozo discovery bus : a successful experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Vella, Maryrose

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of a tourist discovery bus in Gozo came about as a result of an EU Project which is part of the Interreg III B Archimed programmes in which the Islands and Small States Institute of the University of Malta participated. Other countries participating in this programme besides Malta, represented by the Islands and Small States Institute, are Italy, Cyprus and Greece. The discovery bus service was aimed at encouraging more tourists to come to Gozo and enabling them to visit stra...

  17. NOC AND BUS ARCHITECTURE: A COMPARISON

    OpenAIRE

    RAJEEV KAMAL; NEERAJ YADAV

    2012-01-01

    Network-on-chip designs promise to offer considerable advantages over the traditional bus-based architecture. As continuing scaling of Moore’s law enables ever greater transistor densities, design complexity, power limitations and application convergence networks have started to replace busses in much smaller systems and the enhancement of NoC. This paper summarizes the advantages of the NoC and the limitations of traditional bus based architecture. In this paper we discuss a detailed compari...

  18. Bus line classification using neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Alonso, Felipe; Serradilla García, Francisco; Román de Andrés, Alfonso; Naranjo Hernandez, Jose Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    Grouping urban bus routes is necessary when there are evidences of significant differences among them. In Jiménez et al. (2013), a reduced sample of routes was grouped into clusters utilizing kinematic measured data. As a further step, in this paper, the remaining urban bus routes of a city, for which no kinematic measurements are available, are classified. For such purpose we use macroscopic geographical and functional variables to describe each route, while the clustering process is perform...

  19. Scalable coherent interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alnaes, K.; Kristiansen, E.H.; Gustavson, D.B.; James, D.V.

    1990-01-01

    The Scalable Coherent Interface (IEEE P1596) is establishing an interface standard for very high performance multiprocessors, supporting a cache-coherent-memory model scalable to systems with up to 64K nodes. This Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI) will supply a peak bandwidth per node of 1 GigaByte/second. The SCI standard should facilitate assembly of processor, memory, I/O and bus bridge cards from multiple vendors into massively parallel systems with throughput far above what is possible today. The SCI standard encompasses two levels of interface, a physical level and a logical level. The physical level specifies electrical, mechanical and thermal characteristics of connectors and cards that meet the standard. The logical level describes the address space, data transfer protocols, cache coherence mechanisms, synchronization primitives and error recovery. In this paper we address logical level issues such as packet formats, packet transmission, transaction handshake, flow control, and cache coherence. 11 refs., 10 figs

  20. Physics Bus: An Innovative Model for Public Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Claire

    The Physics Bus is about doing science for fun. It is an innovative model for science outreach whose mission is to awaken joy and excitement in physics for all ages and walks of life - especially those underserved by science enrichment. It is a mobile exhibition of upcycled appliances-reimagined by kids-that showcase captivating physics phenomena. Inside our spaceship-themed school bus, visitors will find: a microwave ionized-gas disco-party, fog rings that shoot from a wheelbarrow tire, a tv whose electron beam is controlled by a toy keyboard, and over 20 other themed exhibits. The Physics Bus serves a wide range of public in diverse locations from local neighborhoods, urban parks and rural schools, to cross-country destinations. Its approachable, friendly and relaxed environment allows for self-paced and self-directed interactions, providing a positive and engaging experience with science. We believe that this environment enriches lives and inspires people. In this presentation we will talk about the nuts and bolts that make this model work, how the project got started, and the resources that keep it going. We will talk about the advantages of being a grassroots and community-based organization, and how programs like this can best interface with universities. We will explain the benefits of focusing on direct interactions and why our model avoids ``teaching'' physics content with words. Situating our approach within a body of research on the value of informal science we will discuss our success in capturing and engaging our audience. By the end of this presentation we hope to broaden your perception of what makes a successful outreach program and encourage you to value and support alternative outreach models such as this one. In Collaboration with: Eva Luna, Cornell University; Erik Herman, Cornell University; Christopher Bell, Ithaca City School District.

  1. Security awareness for public bus transportation : case studies of attacks against the Israeli public bus system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report presents 16 case studies of attacks planned or carried out against Israeli bus targets, along with statistical data on the number, frequency, and lethality of attacks against bus targets that have taken place in Israel since 1970 and duri...

  2. 77 FR 6178 - FY 2012 Discretionary Funding Opportunities: Bus and Bus Facilities Programs (State of Good...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... not limited to: Rail, ferry, intercity bus and private transportation providers. In order to be..., intercity bus, and private transportation providers. In order to be eligible for funding, intermodal... automobile travel, improving the pedestrian environment of a community or, use of environmental design...

  3. Digital processing data communication systems (bus systems). Digitale Prozessdaten-Kommunikations-Systeme (Bus Systeme)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleck, K

    1980-01-01

    After an introduction to the technology of digital processing data communication systems there are the following chapters: digital communication of processing data in automation technology, the technology of biserial communication, the implementaiton of a bus system, the data transmission of the TDC-2000 system of Honeywell's and the process bus CS 275 in the automation system TELEPERM M of Siemens AG.

  4. Dynamic Bus Travel Time Prediction Models on Road with Multiple Bus Routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Cong; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Lu, Qing-Chang; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and real-time travel time information for buses can help passengers better plan their trips and minimize waiting times. A dynamic travel time prediction model for buses addressing the cases on road with multiple bus routes is proposed in this paper, based on support vector machines (SVMs) and Kalman filtering-based algorithm. In the proposed model, the well-trained SVM model predicts the baseline bus travel times from the historical bus trip data; the Kalman filtering-based dynamic algorithm can adjust bus travel times with the latest bus operation information and the estimated baseline travel times. The performance of the proposed dynamic model is validated with the real-world data on road with multiple bus routes in Shenzhen, China. The results show that the proposed dynamic model is feasible and applicable for bus travel time prediction and has the best prediction performance among all the five models proposed in the study in terms of prediction accuracy on road with multiple bus routes. PMID:26294903

  5. Dynamic Bus Travel Time Prediction Models on Road with Multiple Bus Routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Cong; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Lu, Qing-Chang; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and real-time travel time information for buses can help passengers better plan their trips and minimize waiting times. A dynamic travel time prediction model for buses addressing the cases on road with multiple bus routes is proposed in this paper, based on support vector machines (SVMs) and Kalman filtering-based algorithm. In the proposed model, the well-trained SVM model predicts the baseline bus travel times from the historical bus trip data; the Kalman filtering-based dynamic algorithm can adjust bus travel times with the latest bus operation information and the estimated baseline travel times. The performance of the proposed dynamic model is validated with the real-world data on road with multiple bus routes in Shenzhen, China. The results show that the proposed dynamic model is feasible and applicable for bus travel time prediction and has the best prediction performance among all the five models proposed in the study in terms of prediction accuracy on road with multiple bus routes.

  6. Classifying the Diversity of Bus Mapping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Mohd Shahmy Mohd; Forrest, David

    2018-05-01

    This study represents the first stage of an investigation into understanding the nature of different approaches to mapping bus routes and bus network, and how they may best be applied in different public transport situations. In many cities, bus services represent an important facet of easing traffic congestion and reducing pollution. However, with the entrenched car culture in many countries, persuading people to change their mode of transport is a major challenge. To promote this modal shift, people need to know what services are available and where (and when) they go. Bus service maps provide an invaluable element of providing suitable public transport information, but are often overlooked by transport planners, and are under-researched by cartographers. The method here consists of the creation of a map evaluation form and performing assessment of published bus networks maps. The analyses were completed by a combination of quantitative and qualitative data analysis of various aspects of cartographic design and classification. This paper focuses on the resulting classification, which is illustrated by a series of examples. This classification will facilitate more in depth investigations into the details of cartographic design for such maps and help direct areas for user evaluation.

  7. Risk factors affecting fatal bus accident severity: Their impact on different types of bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Ci, Yusheng; Zhang, Guohui

    2016-01-01

    While the bus is generally considered to be a relatively safe means of transportation, the property losses and casualties caused by bus accidents, especially fatal ones, are far from negligible. The reasons for a driver to incur fatalities are different in each case, and it is essential to discover the underlying risk factors of bus fatality severity for different types of drivers in order to improve bus safety. The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of fatal bus accident severity to different types of drivers in the U.S. by estimating an ordered logistic model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) database from the USA for the years 2006-2010. Accidents are divided into three levels by counting their equivalent fatalities, and the drivers are classified into three clusters by the K-means cluster analysis. The analysis shows that some risk factors have the same impact on different types of drivers, they are: (a) season; (b) day of week; (c) time period; (d) number of vehicles involved; (e) land use; (f) manner of collision; (g) speed limit; (h) snow or ice surface condition; (i) school bus; (j) bus type and seating capacity; (k) driver's age; (l) driver's gender; (m) risky behaviors; and (n) restraint system. Results also show that some risk factors only have impact on the "young and elder drivers with history of traffic violations", they are: (a) section type; (b) number of lanes per direction; (c) roadway profile; (d) wet road surface; and (e) cyclist-bus accident. Notably, history of traffic violations has different impact on different types of bus drivers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Bus Station Spacing Optimization Based on Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiang Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of city, the problem of traffic is becoming more and more serious. Developing public transportation has become the key to solving this problem in all countries. Based on the existing public transit network, how to improve the bus operation efficiency, and reduce the residents transit trip cost has become a simple and effective way to develop the public transportation. Bus stop spacing is an important factor affecting passengers’ travel time. How to set up bus stop spacing has become the key to reducing passengers’ travel time. According to comprehensive traffic survey, theoretical analysis, and summary of urban public transport characteristics, this paper analyzes the impact of bus stop spacing on passenger in-bus time cost and out-bus time cost and establishes in-bus time and out-bus time model. Finally, the paper gets the balance best station spacing by introducing the game theory.

  9. Bus accident severity and passenger injury: evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Bus safety is a concern not only in developing countries, but also in the U.S. and Europe. In Denmark, disentangling risk factors that are positively or negatively related to bus accident severity and injury occurrence to bus passengers can contribute to promote safety as an essential...... principle of sustainable transit and advance the vision “every accident is one too many”. Methods Bus accident data were retrieved from the national accident database for the period 2002–2011. A generalized ordered logit model allows analyzing bus accident severity and a logistic regression enables...... examining occurrence of injury to bus passengers. Results Bus accident severity is positively related to (i) the involvement of vulnerable road users, (ii) high speed limits, (iii) night hours, (iv) elderly drivers of the third party involved, and (v) bus drivers and other drivers crossing in yellow or red...

  10. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-16

    This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. The report discusses the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment us...

  11. Request-Centric Wireless Bus Information Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chih Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This invention relates to a wireless bus information management system, which includes bus stop and vehicle management subsystems. The management signals are transmittable between bus stops and the vehicle. Based on vehicle management signals, the bus stop management subsystem can obtain information about the bus route identification, the number of unoccupied seats, the intention to stop or not, etc. Similarly, with the bus stop management signals, the vehicle management subsystem can make the decision of stopping. Accordingly, when a passenger wants to get off the vehicle or there are unoccupied seats, the vehicle management subsystem will inform the bus stop management subsystem such that the passengers waiting at the bus stop may flexibly schedule their travel plan. The proposed distributed wireless system is detailed by a prototype implementation and a simulation analysis, which is shown to be feasible and scalable.

  12. One-way data transfer for PLC to VME status reporting at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Personnel Safety System for the experimental beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source will use a large number of Allen Bradley Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) to replace conventional relay logic. PLCs allow for the design of a very advanced safety system that can handle a large number of I/O points. Certain situations Require monitoring of the safety system from various locations around the storage ring via EPICS OPI (operator interface)consoles. This presentation covers the method of choice for transferring data from the Personnel Safety System into an EPICS database. Specifics on PLC ladder design, EPICS database design, and hardware selection are also discussed

  13. Analysis of a diesel-electric hybrid urban bus system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, W. W.; Sekar, R. R.; Ahlheim, M. C.

    A hybrid bus powered by a diesel engine and a battery pack was analyzed over an idealized bus-driving cycle in Chicago. Three hybrid configurations, two parallel and one series, were evaluated. The results indicate that the fuel economy of a hybrid bus, taking into account the regenerative braking, is comparable with that of a conventional diesel bus. Life-cycle costs are slightly higher because of the added weight and cost of the battery.

  14. Security awareness for public bus transportation : case studies of attacks against the Israeli public bus system [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Government regulators and transportation operators of public bus systems are concerned about terrorist attacks. Bus attacks in Israel between late September 2000 and the end of 2006, a period known as the Second Intifada, are particularly well known....

  15. 76 FR 68819 - State of Good Repair Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Availability on June 24, 2011. The SGR Initiative makes funds available to public transit providers to finance capital projects to replace, rehabilitate, and purchase buses and related equipment and to construct bus...

  16. 76 FR 37393 - FY 2011 Discretionary Livability Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... 90 percent Federal share for the total cost of a biodiesel bus. The Act also allows a 90 percent... transit systems or roadways. iv. Will improve accessibility and transport services for economically...

  17. Advanced Competencies for School Bus Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    Four units are provided for formal classroom instruction in advanced competencies for school bus drivers in Illinois. Units cover passenger control, accidents and emergencies, detecting hazards, and first aid. Each unit contains some or all of the following components: table of contents; a list of objectives; informative material, including an…

  18. Functional Bus Driver-Pupil Passenger Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Ernest

    1987-01-01

    Successful school bus drivers bring much more than mechanical know-how to the job. They develop good rapport with students while acting to bring undesirable student behavior under control. Drivers must also show an interest in students' welfare and have a good sense of humor. (MLH)

  19. School Bus Accidents: Reducing Incidents and Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The number of children injured in nonfatal school bus accidents annually is more than double the number previously estimated. In Ohio alone, approximately 20,800 children younger than 18 were occupants of school buses that were involved in crashes in 2003 and 2004 (McGeehan 2007). Among those children, most had minor or no injuries. However, there…

  20. Bus safety study : a report to Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Section 20021(b) of the Moving Ahead for Progress for the 21st Century (MAP-21) legislation requires the Secretary of Transportation : to submit a report of the results of a Bus Safety Study to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affai...

  1. Technology Validation: Fuel Cell Bus Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-02

    This presentation describing the FY 2016 accomplishments for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fuel Cell Bus Evaluations project was presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7, 2016.

  2. Repeater For A Digital-Communication Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Guzman, Esteban; Olson, Stephen; Heaps, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Digital repeater circuit designed to extend range of communication on MIL-STD-1553 bus beyond original maximum allowable length of 300 ft. Circuit provides two-way communication, one way at time, and conforms to specifications of MIL-STD-1553. Crosstalk and instability eliminated.

  3. Energy DataBus (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-07-01

    NREL has developed the Energy DataBus, an open-sourced software that collects massive amounts of energy-related data at second-to-second intervals; stores it in a massive, scalable database; and turns it into useful information.

  4. Stochastic Bus Dispatching Model untuk Optimalisasi Jumlah Bus Transjakarta Koridor 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi Zahedi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of road user causing traffic jam finds out a way, busway. However, in its implementation, the number of fleet available does not enough to take the passengers. It results in the an amassed of passengers at several bus stops. This leads to passenger dissatisfaction satisfaction which eventually causes Transjakarta users to reuse private cars. Definitely this situation may builds up traffic jams. Stochastic Bus Dispatching Model is used to simulate public transportation that operates regularly. 

  5. The ATLAS FTK Auxiliary Card: A Highly Functional VME Rear Transition Module for a Hardware Track Finding Processing Unit

    CERN Document Server

    Alison, John; The ATLAS collaboration; Bogdan, Mircea; Bryant, Patrick; Cheng, Yangyang; Krizka, Karol; Shochet, Mel; Tompkins, Lauren; Webster, Jordan S

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Fast TracKer is a hardware-based charged particle track finder for the High Level Trigger system of the ATLAS Experiment at the LHC. Using a multi-component system, it finds charged particle trajectories of 1 GeV/c and greater using data from the full ATLAS silicon tracking detectors at a rate of 100 kHz. Pattern recognition and preliminary track fitting are performed by VME Processing Units consisting of an Associative Memory Board containing custom associative memory chips for pattern recognition, and the Auxiliary Card (AUX), a powerful rear transition module which formats the data for pattern recognition and performs linearized fits on track candidates. We report on the design and testing of the AUX, which utilizes six FPGAs to process up to 32 Gbps of hit data, as well as fit the helical trajectory of one track candidate per nanosecond through a highly parallel track fitting architecture. Both the board and firmware design will be discussed, as well as the performance observed in tests at CERN ...

  6. Shuttle bus services quality assessment Tangerang Selatan toward smart city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassa, Ferdinand; Sitorus, Fredy Jhon Philip; Adikesuma, Tri Nugraha

    2017-11-01

    Around the world, shuttle bus operation played the significant role to accommodate transportation for commuting bus passengers. Shuttle Bus services in cities are provided by various bus agencies with kinds of own specific purposes. For instance, at Tangerang Selatan, Indonesia, it was said that shuttle bus In Trans Bintaro is run and operated by private bus companies hire by Bintaro developer. The aim of this research is to identify factors of satisfaction of shuttle bus service in Kota Tangerang Selatan, Indonesia. Several factors are used to analyze sums of 20 parameters performance indicators of Shuttle Bus. A face to face interview using a questionnaire (N=200) was used to collect data on October and March 2017. Likert and diagram Cartesian were used to model the all the parameters. This research succeeded in finding some categories of Shuttle bus service attributes such as accessibility, comfort, and safety. Users agreed that eight indicators in shuttle bus have the excellent achievement, while three indicators on performance remain low and should receive more attention especially punctuality of the bus.

  7. Hierarchical Control of Parallel AC-DC Converter Interfaces for Hybrid Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Guerrero, Josep M.; Sun, Kai

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a hierarchical control system for parallel power electronics interfaces between ac bus and dc bus in a hybrid microgrid is presented. Both standalone and grid-connected operation modes in the dc side of the microgrid are analyzed. Concretely, a three-level hierarchical control system...... equal or proportional dc load current sharing. The common secondary control level is designed to eliminate the dc bus voltage deviation produced by the droop control, with dc bus voltage in the hybrid microgrid boosted to an acceptable range. After guaranteeing the performance of the dc side standalone...

  8. Design and implementation of STD32-BUS based reactor protection trip unit on FPGA imbaby

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, I.; Elnokity, O.A.; Refai, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a way to design and implement the Trip Unit of a Reactor Protection System (RPS) using a Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA). Instead of the traditional embedded Microprocessor based interface design method, a proposed tailor made FPGA based circuit is built to substitute the Trip Unit (TL1) existing in Egypt's 2' ' Research reactor ETRR-2. The existing embedded system is built around the STD32 field Computer Bus which used in industrial and process control applications. It is modular, rugged, reliable, and easy-to-use and is able to support a large mix of I/O cards and to easily change its configuration in the future. Therefore, the state machine of this bus is extracted from its timing diagrams and implemented in VHDL to interface the designed TU circuit. The proposed designed circuit implemented using ALTERA EPF10K10LC84-3 chip replaces the Single Board Computer which have the embedded SAY program of the TU providing the same integrated HAV and SAV functions implemented in FPGA Chip housed in an printed circuit board, which uses the same shape and specifications of STD32 boards. H/W implementation of both TU and STD32 Bus in VHDL addresses the issues of safety and reusability

  9. Command Interface ASIC - Analog Interface ASIC Chip Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Baldes; Jaffe, Burton; Burke, Gary; Lung, Gerald; Pixler, Gregory; Plummer, Joe; Katanyoutanant,, Sunant; Whitaker, William

    2003-01-01

    A command interface application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and an analog interface ASIC have been developed as a chip set for remote actuation and monitoring of a collection of switches, which can be used to control generic loads, pyrotechnic devices, and valves in a high-radiation environment. The command interface ASIC (CIA) can be used alone or in combination with the analog interface ASIC (AIA). Designed primarily for incorporation into spacecraft control systems, they are also suitable for use in high-radiation terrestrial environments (e.g., in nuclear power plants and facilities that process radioactive materials). The primary role of the CIA within a spacecraft or other power system is to provide a reconfigurable means of regulating the power bus, actuating all valves, firing all pyrotechnic devices, and controlling the switching of power to all switchable loads. The CIA is a mixed-signal (analog and digital) ASIC that includes an embedded microcontroller with supporting fault-tolerant switch control and monitoring circuitry that is capable of connecting to a redundant set of interintegrated circuit (I(sup 2)C) buses. Commands and telemetry requests are communicated to the CIA. Adherence to the I(sup 2)C bus standard helps to reduce development costs by facilitating the use of previously developed, commercially available components. The AIA is a mixed-signal ASIC that includes the analog circuitry needed to connect the CIA to a custom higher powered version of the I(sup 2)C bus. The higher-powered version is designed to enable operation with bus cables longer than those contemplated in the I(sup 2)C standard. If there are multiple higher-power I(sup 2)C-like buses, then there must an AIA between the CIA and each such bus. The AIA includes two identical interface blocks: one for the side-A I(sup 2)C clock and data buses and the other for the side B buses. All the AIAs on each side are powered from a common power converter module (PCM). Sides A and B

  10. Adaptive UIX Layer for University Information SOA-BUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian DOSPINESCU

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The user interface (UI layer is considered one of the key components of software applications since it connects their end-users to functionalities. Well-engineered and robust software applications could eventually fail to be adopted due to a weak UI layer. In the current market, when creating sites, UI designers have to determine how to plan the best interface according to the devices of the users, namely desktops, laptops, tablets or smartphones. Having this in mind, the current paper aims to present the adaptive UIX Layer for a University Information SOA-Bus (UISB – a topic discussed in previous works [1], [2]. In this respect, we reviewed the literature on responsive and adaptive web design in order to identify the best front-end approach to the UISB. According to our findings, there is a strong debate in the academic field as well in the IT business in what concerns UI design. Recent interests have shown that the new trend in drafting the front-end layer is choosing between a responsive and an adaptive design. While arguments provided by both sides have failed to ease the decision makers’ choices on what type of design to choose, we aim to bring some light on the subject by proposing different layers for the UISB.

  11. Preliminary Specifications for the PS Transverse Damper Control Interface

    CERN Document Server

    Blas, A

    2003-01-01

    The transverse feedback system foreseen for the PS in 2004 is composed of different units to be remotely controlled and monitored: the pick-up amplifiers, the DSPU, the fine delay, the driver and power amplifiers. A special VME unit being dedicated to the pick-up amplifier ("The VMOD-TRX: a device for communication with remote instrumentation", A. Barreira Sevillano, J. Belleman, PS/BD/Note 96-02), the new interface will have to deal with the remaining parts of the loop.

  12. Exposure Assessment of Diesel Bus Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Hofmann

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to measure ultrafine particle concentrations with diameters less than 1 μm emitted by diesel buses and to assess resulting human exposure levels. The study was conducted at the Woolloongabba Busway station in Brisbane, Australia in the winter months of 2002 during which temperature inversions frequently occurred. Most buses that utilize the station are fuelled by diesel, the exhaust of which contains a significant quantity of particle matter. Passengers waiting at the station are exposed to these particles emitted from the buses. During the course of this study, passenger census was conducted, based on video surveillance, yielding person-by-person waiting time data. Furthermore, a bus census revealed accurate information about the total number of diesel versus Compressed Natural Gas (CNG powered buses. Background (outside of the bus station and platform measurements of ultrafine particulate number size distributions were made to determine ambient aerosol concentrations. Particle number exposure concentration ranges from 10 and 40 to 60% of bus related exhaust fumes. This changes dramatically when considering the particle mass exposure concentration, where most passengers are exposed to about 50 to 80% of exhaust fumes. The obtained data can be very significant for comparison with similar work of this type because it is shown in previous studies that exhaust emissions causes cancer in laboratory animals. It was assumed that significant differences between platform and background distributions were due to bus emissions which, combined with passenger waiting times, yielded an estimate of passenger exposure to ultrafine particles from diesel buses. From an exposure point of view, the Busway station analyzed resembles a street canyon. Although the detected exhaust particle concentration at the outbound platform is found to be in the picogram range, exposure increases with the time passengers spend on the platform

  13. Terminals for Suburb Bus Transport in Bratislava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Tibor; Schlosser, Peter; Cápayová, Silvia; Hodáková, Dominika

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of this article is to describe the strategy for development of the public transport terminals in the city of Bratislava, Capital of Slovak Republic. The reason goes from the private operator Slovak Lines, who operates the suburb bus transport in the agglomeration of the city. For this operator was created a transport model, while placing emphasis on optimizing the compliance of suburban public transport with urban public transport in the city of Bratislava and evaluating the significance of the new Bus Station to be constructed at Mlynské Nivy - in a new down town centre of the city. The main issue is to ensure the best available offer of public transport (PT) to passengers in the Bratislava agglomeration. The subject of the study was oriented to specify and propose changes in the transport infrastructure and integrated public transport organisation on the area of the city in terms of the significant position of the new Mlynské Nivy Bus Station (MN BS), which is under preparation with realization in the year 2017.

  14. Brazilian hybrid electric fuel cell bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.E.V.; Carreira, E.S. [Coppe-Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Hydrogen Lab.

    2010-07-01

    The first prototype of a hybrid electric fuel cell bus developed with Brazilian technology is unveiled. It is a 12 m urban-type, low-floor, air-conditioned bus that possesses three doors, air suspension, 29 seats and reversible wheelchair site. The bus body was built based on a double-deck type monoblock vehicle that is able to sustain important load on its roof. This allowed positioning of the type 3 hydrogen tanks and the low weight traction batteries on the roof of the vehicles without dynamic stabilization problems. A novel hybrid energy configuration was designed in such a way that the low-power (77 kWe) fuel cell works on steady-state operation mode, not responding directly to the traction motor load demand. The rate of kinetic energy regeneration upon breaking was optimized by the use of an electric hybrid system with predominance of batteries and also by utilizing supercapacitors. The electric-electronic devices and the security control softwares for the auxiliary and traction systems were developed in-house. The innovative hybrid-electric traction system configuration led to the possibility to decrease the fuel cell power, with positive impact on weight and system volume reduction, as well as to significantly decrease the hydrogen consumption. (orig.)

  15. Incongruent genetic connectivity patterns for VME indicator taxa: implications for the management of New Zealand's vulnerable marine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M. R.; Gardner, J.; Holland, L.; Zeng, C.; Hamilton, J. S.; Rowden, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    In the New Zealand region vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs) are at risk from commercial fishing activity and future seabed mining. Understanding connectivity among VMEs is important for the design of effective spatial management strategies, i.e. a network of protected areas. To date however, genetic connectivity in the New Zealand region has rarely been documented. As part of a project developing habitat suitability models and spatial management options for VMEs we used DNA sequence data and microsatellite genotyping to assess genetic connectivity for a range of VME indicator taxa, including the coral Desmophyllum dianthus, and the sponges Poecilastra laminaris and Penares palmatoclada. Overall, patterns of connectivity were inconsistent amonst taxa. Nonetheless, genetic data from each taxon were relevant to inform management at a variety of spatial scales. D. dianthus populations in the Kermadec volcanic arc and the Louisville Seamount Chain were indistinguishable, highlighting the importance of considering source-sink dynamics between populations beyond the EEZ in conservation planning. Poecilastra laminaris populations showed significant divergence across the Chatham Rise, in contrast to P. palmatoclada, which had a uniform haplotypic distribution. However, both sponge species exhibited the highest genetic diversity on the Chatham Rise, suggesting that this area is a genetic hotspot. The spatial heterogeneity of genetic patterns of structure suggest that inclusion of several taxa is necessary to facilitate understanding of regional connectivity patterns, variation in which may be attributed to alternate life history strategies, local hydrodynamic regimes, or in some cases, suboptimal sample sizes. Our findings provide important information for use by environmental managers, including summary maps of genetic diversity and barriers to gene flow, which will be used in spatial management decision-support tools.

  16. Peptic ulcer among urban bus drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Juel, K

    1990-01-01

    As part of a survey on the work environment of bus drivers, 2045 (83%) of 2465 male bus drivers in the three major cities in Denmark in 1978 answered a postal questionnaire on health and working conditions. In order to evaluate the relative occurrence of peptic ulcer among the bus drivers, a follow......-up study was also conducted. All hospital discharges with a peptic ulcer diagnosis among the bus drivers were registered from the Danish National Patient Register. All Danish men were used as reference group. On the basis of the 1978-questionnaire association between occupational and psychosocial factors...... and subsequent hospital discharge with a peptic ulcer diagnosis was studied. The prevalence of abdominal pain alleviated by food intake was 12% among bus drivers and 6% in the reference group. The incidence of hospital discharge with duodenal ulcer among younger bus drivers was twice the incidence among Danish...

  17. Network device interface for digitally interfacing data channels to a controller via a network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerbrock, Philip J. (Inventor); Grant, Robert L. (Inventor); Konz, Daniel W. (Inventor); Winkelmann, Joseph P. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A communications system and method are provided for digitally connecting a plurality of data channels, such as sensors, actuators, and subsystems, to a controller using a network bus. The network device interface interprets commands and data received from the controller and polls the data channels in accordance with these commands. Specifically, the network device interface receives digital commands and data from the controller, and based on these commands and data, communicates with the data channels to either retrieve data in the case of a sensor or send data to activate an actuator. Data retrieved from the sensor is converted into digital signals and transmitted to the controller. Network device interfaces associated with different data channels can coordinate communications with the other interfaces based on either a transition in a command message sent by the bus controller or a synchronous clock signal.

  18. Aspek Hukum Perlindungan terhadap Penumpang Bus dalam Mewujudkan Perlindungan Konsumen

    OpenAIRE

    Harahap, Rabiah Z

    2016-01-01

    Bus is the one of transportation which is often used by society. Society as passenger of bus righteously gains protection. Many of accident happens in public transportation especially bus that rises a question the important of protection for people as the accicent victim. This question is worthy to be solved because many of public transportation company ignores the passenger's right. Based on this, government shall take control with presentation of new regulation that aims protection people ...

  19. Emission inventory estimation of an intercity bus terminal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhaowen; Li, Xiaoxia; Hao, Yanzhao; Deng, Shunxi; Gao, H Oliver

    2016-06-01

    Intercity bus terminals are hotspots of air pollution due to concentrated activities of diesel buses. In order to evaluate the bus terminals' impact on air quality, it is necessary to estimate the associated mobile emission inventories. Since the vehicles' operating condition at the bus terminal varies significantly, conventional calculation of the emissions based on average emission factors suffers the loss of accuracy. In this study, we examined a typical intercity bus terminal-the Southern City Bus Station of Xi'an, China-using a multi-scale emission model-(US EPA's MOVES model)-to quantity the vehicle emission inventory. A representative operating cycle for buses within the station is constructed. The emission inventory was then estimated using detailed inputs including vehicle ages, operating speeds, operating schedules, and operating mode distribution, as well as meteorological data (temperature and humidity). Five functional areas (bus yard, platforms, disembarking area, bus travel routes within the station, and bus entrance/exit routes) at the terminal were identified, and the bus operation cycle was established using the micro-trip cycle construction method. Results of our case study showed that switching to compressed natural gas (CNG) from diesel fuel could reduce PM2.5 and CO emissions by 85.64 and 6.21 %, respectively, in the microenvironment of the bus terminal. When CNG is used, tail pipe exhaust PM2.5 emission is significantly reduced, even less than brake wear PM2.5. The estimated bus operating cycles can also offer researchers and policy makers important information for emission evaluation in the planning and design of any typical intercity bus terminals of a similar scale.

  20. Design Report for Isolated RS-485 Bus Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    TERMS Android , RS-485, isolated, USB, smartphone 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER...controlled wired RS-485 network. The Android -based smartphone or tablet is used in conjunction with a USB to serial bridge to operate as the bus master in...the system. The Android device operates in USB Host mode and communicates to the RS-485 bus as if a single peripheral on the USB bus. 15. SUBJECT

  1. Network Analysis of Urban Traffic with Big Bus Data

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Urban traffic analysis is crucial for traffic forecasting systems, urban planning and, more recently, various mobile and network applications. In this paper, we analyse urban traffic with network and statistical methods. Our analysis is based on one big bus dataset containing 45 million bus arrival samples in Helsinki. We mainly address following questions: 1. How can we identify the areas that cause most of the traffic in the city? 2. Why there is a urban traffic? Is bus traffic a key cause ...

  2. Countermeasures for Developing New Energy Bus Standards in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xin

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid development of new energy vehicle technology, new energy bus has become more and more popular in China, and the relevant standards and policy are urgently needed to guide the market. According to the assessment of the development situation on new energy vehicle technology and new energy bus, combing with traffic policy guidance and the development trend of new energy vehicles, this paper aims to put forward the countermeasures of the new energy bus standard in China, including standard system, key standards and relevant recommendations. Research result is expected to provide decision support for the wide application of new energy bus in China.

  3. Status of the IEEE P896 Future Backplane Bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavson, D.B.

    1983-10-01

    The IEEE P896 Future Backplane Bus project has been influenced by and has influenced FASTBUS and several other contemporary bus designs. This paper summarizes the current status of that project, which is directed toward the needs of modern 32-bit microprocessor systems with multiple processors. Some of the technology developed for P896 will be important for future non-ECL implementations of FASTBUS and other buses. In particular, new bus drivers and receivers should greatly improve the performance and reliability of backplane buses and cable buses. The current status of the P896 serial bus is also summarized

  4. Extracting potential bus lines of Customized City Bus Service based on public transport big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yibin; Chen, Ge; Han, Yong; Zheng, Huangcheng

    2016-11-01

    Customized City Bus Service (CCBS) can reduce the traffic congestion and environmental pollution that caused by the increasing in private cars, effectively. This study aims to extract the potential bus lines and each line's passenger density of CCBS by mining the public transport big data. The datasets used in this study are mainly Smart Card Data (SCD) and bus GPS data of Qingdao, China, from October 11th and November 7th 2015. Firstly, we compute the temporal-origin-destination (TOD) of passengers by mining SCD and bus GPS data. Compared with the traditional OD, TOD not only has the spatial location, but also contains the trip's boarding time. Secondly, based on the traditional DBSCAN algorithm, we put forwards an algorithm, named TOD-DBSCAN, combined with the spatial-temporal features of TOD.TOD-DBSCAN is used to cluster the TOD trajectories in peak hours of all working days. Then, we define two variables P and N to describe the possibility and passenger destiny of a potential CCBS line. P is the probability of the CCBS line. And N represents the potential passenger destiny of the line. Lastly, we visualize the potential CCBS lines extracted by our procedure on the map and analyse relationship between potential CCBS lines and the urban spatial structure.

  5. Bus Rapid Transit and Socioeconomic Condition of Bus Commuters in Lagos State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owolabi L. Kuye

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Road transport is one of the most common means of transportation across the world. Bus transportation in Nigeria had witnessed many problems for the past decades considering the growing population with the attendant loss of lives and properties in most cities like Lagos in Nigeria. This paper focuses on the adequacy of services provided by Bus Rapid Transit (BRT in Lagos State with respect to the extent to which it influences the socioeconomic conditions of bus commuters. It examines the effect of services rendered by BRT on cost reduction potential, income and safety. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 20 samples each from all respondents in all local government area in Lagos State to reach a total of three hundred and thirty (330 samples. The data collection instrument was the questionnaire which was validated. Data collected were analysed with the use of descriptive statistics such as means, percentages and standard deviation and inferential statistics such as regression and analysis of variance techniques. Findings showed that BRT services has reduced the cost of bus commuters and also increased safety and security thereby increasing the socioeconomic condition of Lagosians. The study recommends improvements in BRT services through the deployment of technology as it had been used in developed countries.

  6. The driving and controlling techniques of compactPCI bus in VxWorks real-time operating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Anzong; Ju Xiaodong; Qiao Wenxiao

    2005-01-01

    CompactPCI bus and interface featuring, the content and function of PCI configuration register are introduced herein. The driving and controlling techniques of CompactPCI bus in VxWorks real-time operating system are detailed. Hardware interrupt handling is one of key significance in real-time systems, because it is usually through interrupts that the system is informed of external events. VxWorks allows C functions to be connected to any interrupt. A routine connected to an interrupt in this way is called an interrupt service routine (ISR). For response of interrupt, interrupt control/status register of PCI 9054 interface chip needs to be set. The general-purpose binary semaphore used in ISR is capable of addressing the requirements of both forms of task coordination: mutual exclusion and synchronization. Therefore, the system runs stably and reliably. (authors)

  7. Oracle Service Bus 11g Development Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Schmutz, Guido; van Zoggel, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This cookbook is full of immediately useable recipes showing you how to develop service and message-oriented (integration) applications on the Oracle Service Bus. In addition to its cookbook style, which ensures the solutions are presented in a clear step-by-step manner, the explanations go into great detail, which makes it good learning material for everyone who has experience in OSB and wants to improve. Most of the recipes are designed in such a way that each recipe is presented as a separate, standalone entity and reading of prior recipes is not required. The finished solution of each reci

  8. Bus bar joints stability and protection

    CERN Document Server

    Verweij, A

    2009-01-01

    A defective bus connection between two dipole magnets was the primary cause of the incident in sector 34 on September 19th. I will show how this could have happened, i.e. how a highly resistive joint has caused a thermal runaway and burned (or opened) before the QPS threshold was reached. In the second part of the talk I will present the new detection limits for the QPS upgrade of the RB and RQ circuits, required to avoid similar thermal runaways in the future.

  9. Redesign of Transjakarta Bus Driver's Cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardi Safitri, Dian; Azmi, Nora; Singh, Gurbinder; Astuti, Pudji

    2016-02-01

    Ergonomic risk at work stations with type Seated Work Control was one of the problems faced by Transjakarta bus driver. Currently “Trisakti” type bus, one type of bus that is used by Transjakarta in corridor 9, serving route Pinang Ranti - Pluit, gained many complaints from drivers. From the results of Nordic Body Map questionnaires given to 30 drivers, it was known that drivers feel pain in the neck, arms, hips, and buttocks. Allegedly this was due to the seat position and the button/panel bus has a considerable distance range (1 meter) to be achieved by drivers. In addition, preliminary results of the questionnaire using Workstation Checklist identified their complaints about uncomfortable cushion, driver's seat backrest, and the exact position of the AC is above the driver head. To reduce the risk level of ergonomics, then did research to design the cabin by using a generic approach to designing products. The risk analysis driver posture before the design was done by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC), while the calculation of the moment the body is done by using software Mannequin Pro V10.2. Furthermore, the design of generic products was done through the stages: need metric-matrix, house of quality, anthropometric data collection, classification tree concept, concept screening, scoring concept, design and manufacture of products in the form of two-dimensional. While the design after design risk analysis driver posture was done by using RULA, REBA, and calculation of moments body as well as the design visualized using software 3DMax. From the results of analysis before the draft design improvements cabin RULA obtained scores of 6, REBA 9, and the result amounted to 57.38% QEC and moment forces on the back is 247.3 LbF.inch and on the right hip is 72.9 LbF.in. While the results of the proposed improvements cabin design RULA obtained scores of 3, REBA 4, and the moment of force on

  10. Design and research of safety monitor and control system based on CAN BUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Xinling; Chen Yu; Zhang Zhen; Zhao Yubin

    2007-01-01

    In Order to protect machine operator under danger work area in producing-manufacturing industry, we present a distributed safety monitor and control system based on CAN BUS technology. The detection signal is collected based on the photo-voltage characteristics of the infrared sensor and it was processed with the core of AT89C51. The microprocessor controls the CAN BUS controller SJA1000/transceiver PCA82C250 to structure CAN BUS communication system to transmit the data. Through the serial interface MAX232 connected main controller with each control node, PC can monitor and control each machine in real time and renew control scheme. This paper introduces composition principle and the methods of hardware design in detail. Experiments shown that the system has yield control precision of 0.1 mm, defend distance more than 15 m and the measurement accuracy of 100%. Moreover, it can realize to reform FA431 and monitor cotton-breaking, yarn-breaking and product quality. Productivity is improved about 25%-35%. (authors)

  11. Research and implementation of geography service bus in spatial data sharing platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhiqiang; Nan, Jiang; Lin, Tao; Bai, Mingbai; He, Xingfu

    2006-10-01

    Geographic Information Systems, GIS, software has wide applications in business; however, implementation of the interoperability among the GIS has also become a challenge. This paper presents a solution based on Geography Service Bus that uses web services to achieve the interoperability among these heterogeneous GIS to allow users share the Geosciences data as well as access service. Referring to the abstract specification of OWS (OGC Web Services), the proposed solution adopts the SOA (Service-Oriented Architecture) when implementing SDSP (Spatial Data Sharing Platform). To accomplish this, a new abstract layer, GSB (Geography Service Bus), is created to provide standard interface. GSB extends ESB (Enterprise Service Bus) proposed by IBM and SUN, and combines the application in geography. GSB inherits the general features of ESB, such as interoperability, heterogeneity and service-oriented while offering unique functions like the high volume geo-data access and better management in geographic services. GSB includes the following JAVA implemented components: the management component of the geography registry service, the route component of the geography request service and the geographical business process component, etc. GSB plays an important role in SDSP and has been developed and successfully applied in the Data Center for Resources & Environmental Sciences in East China as a key project of Chinese Academy of Sciences. It has been observed that the introduction of GSB has tremendously improved both performance and interoperability of SDSP among heterogeneous GIS than traditional methods.

  12. Multi-Output Power Converter, Operated from a Regulated Input Bus, for the Sireus Rate Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrecilla Marcos Compadre

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a DC to DC converter designed to meet the power supply requirements of the SiREUS Coarse Rate Sensor (CRS which is a 3-axis MEMS Rate Sensor (MRS that uses a resonating ring gyro and will be used in different ESA missions. The converter supplies +5V, −5V, 3.3V, 1.8V and 40V and it has been designed and prototyped by Clyde Space Ltd with the EQM and FM units being manufactured by Selex ES. The first model was designed for a 28V un-regulated bus and the second model presented here has been designed for a 50V regulated bus. PWM voltage regulation was not used because of the noise requirements and the regulated input bus allowed an unregulated power stage approach. There are also stringent volume and interface constraints, which also affected the design. For such reasons, a fixed dutycycle, quasi-resonant single-ended topology with output linear regulators has been implemented; having the advantages of providing low switching losses, low radiated and conducted noise and no over-voltage failure mode. This paper highlights the techniques used to satisfy stringent noise and protection requirements of the load.

  13. Fault Detection Variants of the CloudBus Protocol for IoT Distributed Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARKALOV, A.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Distributed embedded systems have become larger, more complex and complicated. More often, such systems operate accordingly to the IoT or Industry 4.0 concept. However, large number of end modules operating in the system leads to a significant load and consequently, to an overload of the communication interfaces. The CloudBus protocol is one of the methods which is used for data exchange and concurrent process synchronization in the distributed systems. It allows the significant savings in the amount of transmitted data between end modules, especially when compared with the other protocols used in the industry. Nevertheless, basic version of the protocol does not protect against the system failure in the event of failure of one of the nodes. This paper proposes four novel variants of the CloudBus protocol, which allow the fault detection. The comparison and performance analysis was executed for all proposed CloudBus variants. The verification and behavior analysis of the distributed systems were performed on SoC hardware research platform. Furthermore, a simple test application was proposed.

  14. A Conceptual Approach for Optimising Bus Stop Spacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johar, Amita; Jain, S. S.; Garg, P. k.

    2017-06-01

    An efficient public transportation system is essential of any country. The growth, development and shape of the urban areas are mainly due to availability of good transportation (Shah et al. in Inst Town Plan India J 5(3):50-59, 1). In developing countries, like India, travel by local bus in a city is very common. The accidents, congestion, pollution and appropriate location of bus stops are the major problems arising in metropolitan cities. Among all the metropolitan cities in India, Delhi has highest percentage of growth of population and vehicles. Therefore, it is important to adopt efficient and effective ways to improve mobility in different metropolitan cities in order to overcome the problem and to reduce the number of private vehicles on the road. The primary objective of this paper is to present a methodology for developing a model for optimum bus stop spacing (OBSS). It describes the evaluation of existing urban bus route, data collection, development of model for optimizing urban bus route and application of model. In this work, the bus passenger generalized cost method is used to optimize the spacing between bus stops. For the development of model, a computer program is required to be written. The applicability of the model has been evaluated by taking the data of urban bus route of Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) in Excel sheet in first phase. Later on, it is proposed to develop a programming in C++ language. The developed model is expected to be useful to transport planner for rational design of the spacing of bus stops to save travel time and to generalize operating cost. After analysis it is found that spacing between the bus stop comes out to be between 250 and 500 m. The Proposed Spacing of bus stops is done considering the points that they don't come nearer to metro/rail station, entry or exit of flyover and near traffic signal.

  15. ''FASTBUS'': status of development of a standard high speed data acquisition bus for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.S.

    1977-11-01

    In late 1975 the US NIM Committee initiated a study group, known as the Advanced System Study Group, to review the future data acquisition modular interface requirements for high-energy physics. The final report of this group recommended the development of a new standard system, now known as ''FASTBUS,'' which would have as principal features improved speed by a factor of 10 over CAMAC, more generalized architecture to accommodate distributed parallel processing and fast preprocessing, special scan modes of particular use in high-energy particle detection systems, and standardized bus structures and mechanics. A brief summary of current activity is given. 7 figures, 3 tables

  16. Schedule and complex motion of shuttle bus induced by periodic inflow of passengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi; Naito, Yuichi

    2011-09-01

    We have studied the dynamic behavior of a bus in the shuttle bus transportation with a periodic inflow. A bus schedule is closely related to the dynamics. We present the modified circle map model for the dynamics of the shuttle bus. The motion of the shuttle bus depends on the loading parameter and the inflow period. The shuttle bus displays the periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic motions with varying both loading parameter and inflow rate.

  17. Illinois School Bus Driver Instructional Program. Trainee Guide. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This trainee guide contains six units of materials for use by those studying to become school bus drivers in the State of Illinois. Covered in the units are the following topics: school bus driver role and responsibility, passenger control, first aid, driving fundamentals, accidents and emergencies, and detecting hazards. Each unit contains a…

  18. Connecticut nutmeg fuel cell bus project : first analysis report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from a fuel cell bus demonstration funded by the Federal Transit Administra-tion (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program (NFCBP). A team led by the Northeast Advanced Vehicle Consortium a...

  19. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-10-01

    This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

  20. 3D reconstructions of a controlled bus bombing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara; Hansen, Nikolaj Friis; Hansen, Kamilla Maria

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: to demonstrate the usefulness of 3D reconstructions to better understand the dynamic of a controlled bus bombing. Materials and methods: 3D models of the victims (pigs) were created from post-mortem CT scanning using Mimic software; 3D models of the crime scene (bus) were generated by...

  1. Review of bus drivers' occupational stress and stress prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompier, M.A.J.; Di Martino, V.

    1995-01-01

    Although heterogeneous in methodology and content, 32 studies from 13 countries on bus drivers' work and health are similar in their conclusions. Bus-driving–characterized by high demands, low control and low support – can be regarded as a classic example of high-strain occupation, with high risks

  2. 32 CFR 935.138 - Motor bus operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor bus operation. 935.138 Section 935.138 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.138 Motor bus operation. Each person operating a motor...

  3. Bus Lifecycle Cost Model for Federal Land Management Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    The Bus Lifecycle Cost Model is a spreadsheet-based planning tool that estimates capital, operating, and maintenance costs for various bus types over the full lifecycle of the vehicle. The model is based on a number of operating characteristics, incl...

  4. Sustainable transport and the organisation of bus services in Manchester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2008-01-01

    alternative modes of transport to private cars, such as public transport. In this paper we focus only on the potential of bus transport services in cities for attracting travellers from cars. It is a basic assumption behind this paper that the ability of public bus transport to attract travellers from cars...... depends on how the bus sector is organised. By organisation we adopt an institutional point of view and consider basic modes of governance. Basic modes of governance include the forms “market”, “hierarchy” and “network” (Powell 1990). So-called New Public Management (NPM) reforms have changed the modes...... of governance of bus transport in several countries, including Denmark and the United Kingdom. Our focus is on how New Public Mangement Reforms have changed the mix of governance modes and thus may have influenced the ability of urban bus transport to attract travellers from cars. We focus on a particular case...

  5. SISTEM RESERVASI TIKET BUS DI TERMINAL ARJOSARI MALANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Wirawan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bus Ticket Reservation System is an application that can be used to help booking bus tickets and the buyer will get a report via SMS Gateway. The reservation system is made by conducting field studies in Arjosari Bus Station Malang. This system uses SMS Gateway to send the report to the buyer after booking bus tickets online. SMS Gateway on this application serves as a liaison which delays sms between External Short Message entitiy (ESME and Short Message Service Center (SMSC and so does in reserve.The reservation system made is developed with the PHP programming language and has a prototype system pattern. System functions were tested using the validation testing, performance testing, and usability testing. The results percentage of responses usability testing is 67.7%. This shows that Ticket Reservation System at Arjosari Bus Station can be used well enough.

  6. Research on the Coordinated Design of Bus and Taxi Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Xi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rises in the number of transit buses, bus routes, and overall traffic volume in China’s cities, coupled with interference from other transport modes, such as taxis loading and unloading passengers nearby, have led to increasing traffic delays at bus stops, which is considered one of the factors degrading service levels and traffic operations on urban roadways. This paper studies traffic characteristics at bus stops, investigates variations in delay from different types or designs of bus stops, and analyzes the impact of it on traffic capacity, the purpose of which is to propose a solution to predicting the feasibility of an integrated design of bus stops and taxi stands with the help of mathematical models and based on the objectives of optimal traffic operations and passenger transfer.

  7. Work fatigue in urban bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Makowiec-Dąbrowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bus drivers are a special group of professional drivers who are at a very high risk of fatigue. The aim of the study was to examine whether the driver’s subjective assessment of fatigue allows for the determination of its level and identification of its causes. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 45 randomly selected bus drivers (mean age – 43.7±7.9 years, period of employment as drivers – 14.7±8.6 years. Examinations were performed in all subjects four times – before and after work on the “easy” route (outside the city center, small traffic intensity and before and after work on the “difficult” route (city center, heavy traffic. The fatigue test questionnaire, based on the list of symptoms of fatigue prepared by the Japan Research Committee of Fatigue, was used in the study. Results: The rating of fatigue after the work was significantly higher than that before the work. The profile of fatigue after work was not influenced by the type of route, but the assessment of most symptoms of fatigue reached a higher level after the “difficult” routes and the differences were statistically significant for 7 symptoms. Only the ratings of leg fatigue, feeling of heaviness, and the necessity to squint eyes and gaze with effort reached the higher levels after driving the “easy” routes. It has been found that the level of fatigue was significantly correlated with the job characteristics (driving time, the length of the route, number of stops, etc. and with the abundance of food ingested and type of beverage (coffee vs. others drunk prior to driving. Conclusions: The questionnaire used in our study to assess the subjective feeling of fatigue has proved to be a sensitive and useful tool for indicating the level and causes of fatigue. The relationship between the symptoms of fatigue and the characteristics of job and lifestyle shows that actions must be taken by both the employers and employees to prevent fatigue

  8. The Wheels on the Bus Go “Buy Buy Buy”: School Bus Advertising Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    School buses, a practical necessity for millions of children, are at the center of new efforts to raise revenue. School bus advertising laws bring public health and commercialization concerns to the school setting. In doing so, they potentially expose school districts to First Amendment lawsuits. I examined various school bus advertising bills and laws. I reviewed First Amendment “forum analysis” as applied in the transit and school settings to clarify how this legal test may affect school districts subject to such laws. I have made recommendations for school districts to enact appropriate policies to ensure that such advertising does not undermine public health and to enable the districts to maintain control over their property. PMID:22742065

  9. The wheels on the bus go "buy buy buy": school bus advertising laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2012-09-01

    School buses, a practical necessity for millions of children, are at the center of new efforts to raise revenue. School bus advertising laws bring public health and commercialization concerns to the school setting. In doing so, they potentially expose school districts to First Amendment lawsuits. I examined various school bus advertising bills and laws. I reviewed First Amendment "forum analysis" as applied in the transit and school settings to clarify how this legal test may affect school districts subject to such laws. I have made recommendations for school districts to enact appropriate policies to ensure that such advertising does not undermine public health and to enable the districts to maintain control over their property.

  10. Assessing Bus Performance Rating in Kajang, Selangor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhisham, S.; Ismail, A.; Sidek, L. M.; Borhan, M. N.; Zaini, N.; Yen, A. T. G.

    2018-04-01

    The Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual (TCQSM) was chosen based on the review with four manuals and guidelines for the method will be applied. Six (6) attributes, namely Hours of Service, Passenger Load, Transit Auto Travel Time, Service Frequency, Punctuality Performance and Service Coverage were chosen for evaluation.[6][7][8]. A total of three (3) operators with seven (7) routes were identified in Kajang. Based on the final results, the Quality of Service (QOS) findings was rated as D, which was regarded as minimum or satisfactory. Most stakeholders’ recommendations were: for the operators to provide information on bus scheduling and have accurate information for the passengers. It was suggested that in future this study can be extended to all routes and could be repeated after the opening of the Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) stations in Kajang, so as to provide a comparison and better evaluation of the public buses in Kajang.

  11. Bus bar electrical feedthrough for electrorefiner system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2013-12-03

    A bus bar electrical feedthrough for an electrorefiner system may include a retaining plate, electrical isolator, and/or contact block. The retaining plate may include a central opening. The electrical isolator may include a top portion, a base portion, and a slot extending through the top and base portions. The top portion of the electrical isolator may be configured to extend through the central opening of the retaining plate. The contact block may include an upper section, a lower section, and a ridge separating the upper and lower sections. The upper section of the contact block may be configured to extend through the slot of the electrical isolator and the central opening of the retaining plate. Accordingly, relatively high electrical currents may be transferred into a glovebox or hot-cell facility at a relatively low cost and higher amperage capacity without sacrificing atmosphere integrity.

  12. Field bus technology in accelerator control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Shuming

    1999-01-01

    Since eighties to now, the computer technology, network communication and ULSI technology have been developing rapidly. The level of control for industries and scientific experiments has been upgraded accordingly, so as to meet the increasing requirements for automation. The control systems become more complicated; the devices in control systems become more and more intelligent. However the cost of DCS (Distributed Control System) is quite expensive and the period of system integration is very long. More than ten measurement results for two methods defined in the world, in order to get inter operability of intelligent devices and reduce the costs. The author presents the development trend of fieldbuses briefly and describes the main performances of CAN, LONWORKS, WOLDFIP and PROFIBUS which are mainly used in the world today. The author proposes that the field bus technology will be introduced into the accelerator control systems in the country

  13. Status of the FASTBUS standard data bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.S.

    1980-11-01

    FASTBUS is a new laboratory standard data bus intended for use in experimental data acquisition and control. The development of FASTBUS began with a feasibility study in 1976, and is presently at the development prototyping stage. The principal aims of the standard are to provide a factor of ten or more improvement in speed of data transfers over present systems, as well as to provide an architecture for systems containing multiple processors. Developmental prototypes now in progress include crates, backplanes, cooling devices, power supplies, test and diagnostic modules, and user modules. A sizeable software development effort is also underway. Several experiments have made commitments to use FASTBUS. A review of current work and potential applications is given. 10 figures

  14. Interface Circuit For Printer Port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jerry H.; Yadlowsky, Ann B.

    1991-01-01

    Electronic circuit, called printer-port interface circuit (PPI) developed to overcome certain disadvantages of previous methods for connecting IBM PC or PC-compatible computer to other equipment. Has both reading and writing modes of operation. Very simple, requiring only six integrated circuits. Provides for moderately fast rates of transfer of data and uses existing unmodified circuit card in IBM PC. When used with appropriate software, circuit converts printer port on IBM PC, XT, AT, or compatible personal computer to general purpose, 8-bit-data, 16-bit address bus that connects to multitude of devices.

  15. Project survey for trolley-bus transport; Johdinautoliikenteen hankeselvitys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anttila, T.; Eklund, P.; Airaksinen, S.; Maettoe, R.; Laehdetie, A.

    2011-04-15

    To investigate the feasibility and rationality of the revival of trolley bus traffic in Helsinki a full size project plan was conducted for a variety of alternatives. This included a survey on the latest developments of the trolley bus technology, three optional plans for route network, a budgetary level design for a fully functional depot in Koskela bus depot, examination of urban landscape structures, a study on organisational options, particular technical specifications applicable on suitable trolley buses and an examination of the impacts on the environment and on the future development of public transport. The basic concept of a trolley bus as a means of electric public transport vehicle has found its form over the years, but all the components of the system undergo at present intensive development. In context of this survey also the option of a fully autonomous electric bus powered by accumulators or fuel cells and the like was investigated. However, such technology is still totally inadequate for a heavy duty bus. There are no economically competitive and effective systems available as yet. The trolley bu is the far most reliable system and gives the best life cycle economy for a foreseeable future. Earliest estimates for alternative electric technologies in regular bus service are viable just after one investment cycle some time beyond 2030. Then it should be possible to run without the support of a comprehensive overhead line. The latest achievements in the development of trolley bus are auxiliary engine and accumulator systems allowing for more autonomous propulsion. Nowadays, trolley buses are equipped with an auxiliary power unit that alleviates the traditional restrictions of the overhead line. The modern trolley bus may run short distances without the trolley lines. Recuperation of the kinetic energy at deceleration (braking) either into the overhead line network or by storing it in the vehicle is one of the characteristics of modern trolley buses

  16. Task Analysis Assessment on Intrastate Bus Traffic Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen Bin, Teo; Azlis-Sani, Jalil; Nur Annuar Mohd Yunos, Muhammad; Ismail, S. M. Sabri S. M.; Tajedi, Noor Aqilah Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Public transportation acts as social mobility and caters the daily needs of the society for passengers to travel from one place to another. This is true for a country like Malaysia where international trade has been growing significantly over the past few decades. Task analysis assessment was conducted with the consideration of cognitive ergonomic view towards problem related to human factors. Conducting research regarding the task analysis on bus traffic controllers had allowed a better understanding regarding the nature of work and the overall monitoring activities of the bus services. This paper served to study the task analysis assessment on intrastate bus traffic controllers and the objectives of this study include to conduct task analysis assessment on the bus traffic controllers. Task analysis assessment for the bus traffic controllers was developed via Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA). There are a total of five subsidiary tasks on level one and only two were able to be further broken down in level two. Development of HTA allowed a better understanding regarding the work and this could further ease the evaluation of the tasks conducted by the bus traffic controllers. Thus, human error could be reduced for the safety of all passengers and increase the overall efficiency of the system. Besides, it could assist in improving the operation of the bus traffic controllers by modelling or synthesizing the existing tasks if necessary.

  17. Kinetic Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A kinetic interface for orientation detection in a video training system is disclosed. The interface includes a balance platform instrumented with inertial motion sensors. The interface engages a participant's sense of balance in training exercises.......A kinetic interface for orientation detection in a video training system is disclosed. The interface includes a balance platform instrumented with inertial motion sensors. The interface engages a participant's sense of balance in training exercises....

  18. Swisstrolley 3 - An articulated trolley bus; SWISSTROLLEY 3. Gelenktrolleybus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gisler, H.-J.

    2006-07-01

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the Swisstrolley 3 low-floor, articulated trolley bus developed in Switzerland by the Hess AG company. Various features of the variants of the trolley bus, including single vehicle, single and double-articulated buses and bus trailers, are discussed. The reductions achieved in energy consumption, weight and noise are discussed. Typical values for power consumption are presented in graphical form. Economic viability and passenger-friendliness are examined, as are possibilities for further improvement.

  19. DWPF Melter No.2 Prototype Bus Bar Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, J.

    2003-01-01

    Characterization and performance testing of a prototype DWPF Melter No.2 Dome Heater Bus Bar are described. The prototype bus bar was designed to address the design features of the existing system which may have contributed to water leaks on Melter No.1. Performance testing of the prototype revealed significant improvement over the existing design in reduction of both bus bar and heater connection maximum temperature, while characterization revealed a few minor design and manufacturing flaws in the bar. The prototype is recommended as an improvement over the existing design. Recommendations are also made in the area of quality control to ensure that critical design requirements are met

  20. Using microcomputers for lighting appliance control using a DALI bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sysala Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Article concerns the DALI bus theoretical and practical aspects. The DALI bus is a modern technology developed especially for illumination systems control. Authors are outlining communication basic principles related to the physical layer and going up to more complex data transactions among particular devices. The article main topic is aimed at two device models development based on microcontroller and exploiting that technology. The first of those two devices is a DALI slave unit enabling the light source or multi switch with light indication components control via DALI bus. The second device measures the ambient illumination intensity and it also detects errors in the load.

  1. What’s going on at the bus stop? The impact of Auckland’s real time passenger information system on patrons timespace perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillipa Mitchell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Transport innovations have predominantly been recognised for their power to alter geographic space through time space compression. The emergence of Intelligent Transport Systems provides an interesting new lens through which to investigate individuals’ perceptions and constitution of time and space. This paper focuses on one of these systems, the Real Time Passenger Information Signal Pre-emption System (RTPISP System currently being installed in Auckland, New Zealand. It explores how individuals’ travel experiences are being shaped by interface the RTPISP System provides between the ubiquitous computing background and individuals’ everyday lives. This paper proposes that such technologies are causing more than just the compression of space by time. By embedding the mundane activity of catching the bus in the coded spaces of the RTPISP System new conditions of possibility are emerging allowing these bus patrons to constitute alternative timespaces while waiting for the bus, timespaces which they previously were unable or unwilling to access.

  2. Applying of USB interface technique in nuclear spectrum acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jianbin; Huang Jinhua

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces applying of USB technique and constructing nuclear spectrum acquisition system via PC's USB interface. The authors choose the USB component USB100 module and the W77E58μc to do the key work. It's easy to apply USB interface technique, when USB100 module is used. USB100 module can be treated as a common I/O component for the μc controller, and can be treated as a communication interface (COM) when connected to PC' USB interface. It's easy to modify the PC's program for the new system with USB100 module. The authors can smoothly change from ISA, RS232 bus to USB bus. (authors)

  3. Optimization Model for Headway of a Suburban Bus Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to relatively low passenger demand, headways of suburban bus route are usually longer than those of urban bus route. Actually it is also difficult to balance the benefits between passengers and operators, subject to the service standards from the government. Hence the headway of a suburban bus route is usually determined on the empirical experience of transport planners. To cope with this problem, this paper proposes an optimization model for designing the headways of suburban bus routes by minimizing the operating and user costs. The user costs take into account both the waiting time cost and the crowding cost. The feasibility and validity of the proposed model are shown by applying it to the Route 206 in Jiangning district, Nanjing city of China. Weightages of passengers’ cost and operating cost are further discussed, considering different passenger flows. It is found that the headway and objective function are affected by the weightages largely.

  4. Global Optimization for Bus Line Timetable Setting Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines bus timetables setting problem during each time period divided in terms of passenger flow intensity; it is supposed that passengers evenly arrive and bus runs are set evenly; the problem is to determine bus runs assignment in each time period to minimize the total waiting time of passengers on platforms if the number of the total runs is known. For such a multistage decision problem, this paper designed a dynamic programming algorithm to solve it. Global optimization procedures using dynamic programming are developed. A numerical example about bus runs assignment optimization of a single line is given to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methodology, showing that optimizing buses’ departure time using dynamic programming can save computational time and find the global optimal solution.

  5. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2008. 

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2008. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  6. CFD Investigation on Long-Haul Passenger Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, C. F.; Tee, B. T.; Law, H. C.; Lim, T. L.

    2015-09-01

    Air flow distribution is one of the important factors that will influence the bus passenger comfort during long haul travel. Poor air flow distribution not only cause discomfort to the bus passenger but also influence their travel mode as well. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the air flow performance of the bus air-conditioning system through CFD simulation approach. A 3D CAD model of air ducts was drawn and hence analysed by using CFD software, namely ANSYS Fluent, to determine the airflow rate for every outlets of the air-conditioning system. The simulated result was then validated with experimental data obtained from prototype model of air duct. Based on the findings, new design concepts is proposed with the aim to meet the industry requirement as well as to improve the bus passenger comfort during long haul travel.

  7. Transit bus applications of lithium ion batteries : progress and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    This report provides an overview of diverse transit bus applications of advanced Lithium Ion Batteries (LIBs). The report highlights and illustrates several FTA programs that fostered the successful development, demonstration, and deployment of fuel-...

  8. Analysis of movable bus stop boarding and alighting areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This study explored the feasibility of using movable and reusable boarding and alighting (B&A) pads at bus stops. : Potential design alternatives in terms of materials and structural support for these pads were evaluated. The review : focused on the ...

  9. How to Reduce Those Costly School Bus Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Ernest

    1985-01-01

    The deterrent to school bus accidents is preparedness. Training programs for drivers and mechanics, equipment specifications, and a community support base are some of the ways to prevent tragedy. (MLF)

  10. Southwest Direct Express Bus Demonstration in Orlando, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    In August 1983, the Orange-Seminole-Osceola Transit Authority (OSOTA) initiated six express bus routes in the southwest corridor of Orlando (known collectively as the Southwest Direct) as an UMTA-funded demonstration project. While one objective of t...

  11. Black silicon solar cells with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by maskless reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Four different methods to obtain blackened bus-bar strings were compared with respect to reflectance, and two of these methods (i.e., oxidized copper and etched solder) were used to fabricate functional allblack solar 9-cell panels. The black bus-bars (e.......g., by oxidized copper) have a reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of black silicon cells and blackened bus-bars results in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells without compromising efficiency....

  12. Understanding Factors of Distraction among Intrastate Bus Driver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunos Muhammad Nur Annuar Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in number of the world population have affected the demand for public transport especially in larger cities. Intrastate buses are chosen as the main public transport by many people due to its affordable fares. Therefore, a better performance of the intrastate bus drivers would be significant to cater the high demand. Nevertheless, distraction among the intrastate bus drivers have been found as one of the major factors that could affect the performance of the drivers. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to provide a better understanding on the factors of distraction among intrastate bus drivers. This paper refers to findings from previous researches which are related to this field of study. In conclusion, this paper will provide a list of factors of distraction among the intrastate bus drivers which may degrade their performance.

  13. FTA fuel cell bus program : research accomplishments through 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Prepared by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Office of Research, Demonstration, and Innovation (TRI), this report summarizes the accomplishments of fuel-cell-transit-bus-related research and demonstrations projects supported by FTA through 20...

  14. STRATEGI PENGEMBANGAN TRANSPORTASI WISATA KURA-KURA BUS DI BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Kusuma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Kura-Kura Bus is one of tourist transportation companies in Bali with public shuttle bus service in tourism route. Data analysis in this research were using SWOT and AHP analysis, with participants who have position minimal as a supervisor. Participants selected based on their expertise and relevance with this article. Based on the results of SWOT and AHP analysis to develop tourist transportation is Kura-Kura Bus, which is considered the most realistic scenario is an optimistic scenario, with the goal to be a safe and comfortable transportation. To achieve the goal, based on priority strategies that could be done by management of Kura-Kura Bus are developing unique products, finding new markets, favoring public transport services, enchance brand reputation, developing smartphone application, and cross promotion with supplier.

  15. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethylether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operation in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on the bus, operation on the campus shuttle route began in early June 2002. However, the

  16. Scenario-based electric bus operation: A case study of Putrajaya, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Lay Eng Teoh; Hooi Ling Khoo; Siew Yoke Goh; Lai Mun Chong

    2018-01-01

    Globally, transportation sector has emerged as one of the major sources of air pollution. Correspondingly, green mobility (with electric bus) is gaining increasing attention as an essential step to mitigate emission concern. As such, a proper electric bus network design and fleet planning is important especially for bus operator to acquire an adequate number of electric bus, right on time, in order to operate electric bus system viably. Thus, this paper aims to examine the possibility to oper...

  17. Regenerative Braking System for Series Hybrid Electric City Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Junzhi; Lu, Xin; Xue, Junliang; Li, Bos

    2008-01-01

    Regenerative Braking Systems (RBS) provide an efficient method to assist hybrid electric buses achieve better fuel economy while lowering exhaust emissions. This paper describes the design and testing of three regenerative braking systems, one of which is a series regenerative braking system and two of which are parallel regenerative braking systems. The existing friction based Adjustable Braking System (ABS) on the bus is integrated with each of the new braking systems in order to ensure bus...

  18. Digital bus technology in new coal-fired plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaney, J.; Murray, J. [Emerson Process Management (United States)

    2007-10-15

    The main issues associated with including digital bus technology such as Foundation fieldbus, Profibus-DP or DeviceNet, in a coal-fired power plant are deciding which systems to install and determining how to implement it. Although still new, digital bus experiences to date have shown that the technology performs solidly and when wiring best practices are followed a significantly shorted commissioning cycle can be achieved. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  19. VHDL resolved function based inner communication bus for FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T.

    2017-08-01

    This article discusses a method of building an internal, universal and parametric bus. The solution was designed for a variety of FPGA families and popular VHDL compilers. The algorithm of automatic configuration of address space and methods of receiving and sending addressed data are discussed. The basic solution realized in VHDL language in a behavioral form and chosen examples of practical use of the internal bus are presented in detail.

  20. Analysing passenger arrivals rates and waiting time at bus stops

    OpenAIRE

    Kaparias, I.; Rossetti, C.; Trozzi, V.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the rather under-explored topic of passenger waiting times at public transport facilities. Using data collected from part of London’s bus network by means of physical counts, measurements and observations, and complemented by on-site passenger interviews, the waiting behaviour is analysed for a number of bus stops served by different numbers of lines. The analysis employs a wide range of statistical methods and tools, and concentrates on three aspects: passenger...

  1. FASTBUS readout system for the CDF DAQ upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, J.; Areti, H.; Black, D.

    1993-11-01

    The Data Acquisition System (DAQ) at the Collider Detector at Fermilab is currently being upgraded to handle a minimum of 100 events/sec for an aggregate bandwidth that is at least 25 Mbytes/sec. The DAQ System is based on a commercial switching network that has interfaces to VME bus. The modules that readout the front end crates (FASTBUS and RABBIT) have to deliver the data to the VME bus based host adapters of the switch. This paper describes a readout system that has the required bandwidth while keeping the experiment dead time due to the readout to a minimum

  2. Effect of passenger position on fear of danger experienced during sudden bus stops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Takeo; Uetake, Teruo; Shimoda, Masahiro

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of bus passengers' positions on their fear of danger when a bus stopped suddenly. A temporary bus running course with one bus stop was set up on the campus of the Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (TUAT). The bus ran the course 14 times with the bus stopping twice during the course, once at the bus stop and again just after re-starting from the bus stop. The driver was asked to brake more strongly than usual when stopping. Sixteen students (15 males and 1 female) between the ages of 18 and 21 years participated. In turn, all participants were asked to take 14 different postures in the bus. Participants were also asked to report their level of fear on a rating scale each time the bus stopped. The study showed that (1) passengers' fear of danger at the first sudden stop was typically higher than that at the second stop, (2) standing passengers who held hand straps experienced more fear than those who held fixed safety devices, (3) bus passengers sitting on the centre of the rear seat had a great risk of injury if the bus stopped suddenly, and (4) when passengers faced the window and stood transversely with respect to from the moving direction of the bus and the bus stopped suddenly, passengers' fear of danger was affected by the side of the bus on which they stood as well as which hand they used to grasp a safety device.

  3. An integrated high performance fastbus slave interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, J.; Ljuslin, C.

    1992-01-01

    A high performance Fastbus slave interface ASIC is presented. The Fastbus slave integrated circuit (FASIC) is a programmable device, enabling its direct use in many different applications. The FASIC acts as an interface between Fastbus and a 'standard' processor/memory bus. It can work stand-alone or together with a microprocessor. A set of address mapping windows can map Fastbus addresses to convenient memory addresses and at the same time act as address decoding logic. Data rates of 100 MBytes/s to Fastbus can be obtained using an internal FIFO buffer in the FASIC. (orig.)

  4. CROSS-FRONTIER PUBLIC TRANSPORT: Y BUS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Housing Service

    2002-01-01

    'Y' buses cover the journey between Val Thoiry in France (shopping centre including'Migros' and other stores) and Blandonnet in Switzerland, where they stop outside the 'Jumbo' shop, now renamed 'Carrefour'. In France, the buses connect up Thoiry, Sergy and St. Genis, then cross the border to stop outside CERN, Meyrin, before continuing towards Geneva along the 'Route de Meyrin', stopping outside the 'La Tour' hospital, then at the terminus Blandonnet. The normal fare on French territory with a slight incursion into Switzerland for this purpose as far as CERN, Meyrin, is 1.20 Euros per single journey (ticket valid for one hour). The same amount is charged for any single journey in Switzerland. For example, the cost of a single journey between St. Genis and the 'La Tour' hospital would be 2.40 Euros. The season ticket ('Abonnement de Travail') opens the right to purchase a ticket valid over any period of seven days which entitles the holder to as many journeys as required between the bus stop nearest to the pl...

  5. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Their strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis (FMEA, referred to by Air Products as a ''HAZOP'' analysis) with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operational in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on

  6. Brookhaven fastbus/unibus interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benenson, G.; Bauernfeind, J.; Larsen, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    A typical high energy physics experiment requires both a high speed data acquisition and processing system, for data collection and reduction; and a general purpose computer to handle further reduction, bookkeeping and mass storage. Broad differences in architecture, format or technology, will often exist between these two systems, and interface design can become a formidable task. The PDP-11 series minicomputer is widely used in physics research, and the Brookhaven FASTBUS is the only standard high speed data acquisition system which is fully implemented in a current high energy physics experiment. This paper will describe the design and operation of an interface between these two systems. The major issues are elucidated by a preliminary discussion on the basic principles of Bus Systems, and their application to Brookhaven FASTBUS and UNIBUS

  7. Environmental Assessment of Bus Transport in the Trondheim Region - Evaluation of Relevant Bus and Fuel Technologies and their Potential for Mitigating Emissions from Passenger Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Buø, Tonje

    2015-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis is to assess the carbon footprint of transport by bus in the Trondheim region. Bus transportation is promoted as a strategy both to combat local pollution problems in urban areas and to mitigate global greenhouse gas emissions from passenger transport. Still, the environmental impacts of bus transport have received fairly limited attention in research. The environmental impacts of bus transport are calculated through life cycle assessment. A model is develo...

  8. An evaluation of a lane support system for bus rapid transit on narrow shoulders and the relation to bus driver mental workload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ward, Nicholas J.; Shankwitz, Craig; Gorgestani, Alec; Donath, Max; De Waard, Dick; Boer, Erwin R.

    2006-01-01

    The use of dedicated bus shoulders is a key method for implementing bus rapid transit (BRT) in areas that do not have the space for additional infrastructure. However, the narrow width of the bus shoulder and the need to anticipate traffic hazards in the adjacent lane can both be significant

  9. An Improved Model for Headway-Based Bus Service Unreliability Prevention with Vehicle Load Capacity Constraint at Bus Stops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiya Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved model for improving headway-based bus route service reliability at bus stops using real-time preventive operation control, taking into account dynamic interaction among random passenger demand, stochastic driving conditions of route segments, and vehicle load capacity constraint. In this model, the real-time information of passenger demand and vehicle operation is involved to predict the imminent unacceptable headway deviation, in the case of which some in-time preventive control strategies are deployed according to the given control rules. As a case study, a single fixed bus route with high-frequency services was simulated and different scenarios of real-time preventive operation control were performed. Headway adherence and average passenger wait time were used to measure bus service reliability. The results show that the improved model is closer to the real bus route service, and using real-time information to predict potential service unreliability and trigger in-time preventive control can reduce bus bunching and avoid big gap.

  10. ANALISIS SARANA ANGKUTAN UMUM BUS DAMRI DI KOTA SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhan Rizal Amin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the availability and use of public transportation by taking a case study of the Damri bus which has Ngaliyan-Pucanggading route. The availability of public transport is not comparable to the demand for public transportation services so that the problems of transportation emerge. Additionally, the use of public transport becomes an important factor to develop the transportation. The study is conducted by surveying the Damri passengers of B.04 lane and logistic regression is used for the analysis. The method of determining the needs of transportation is issued by Departemen Perhubungan. It is used to calculate and determine whether the public transportation should be added or reduced. Then, the factors used as the independent variables in the analysis are the Damri’s safety, effectiveness, efficiency, service and reliability. The results show that Perum Damri does not need to add more Damri bus for B.04 because the results’ calculation is 0.6. and the factors that significantly influence the use Damri bus is the variable of safety, effectiveness and efficiency. However, the variables of service and reliability do not significantly influence the use of B.04 Damri bus.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis ketersediaan dan penggunaan angkutan sarana angkutan umum penumpang dengan mengambil studi kasus pada bus Damri jalur dengan trayek Ngaliyan-Pucanggading. Ketersediaan sarana angkutan umum yang tersedia tidak sebanding dengan besarnya permintaan akan jasa angkutan umum oleh masyarakat umum sehingga muncul permasalahan transportasi. Di samping itu, penggunaan angkutan umum yang beroperasi menjadi faktor penting dalam upaya pengembangan sarana transportasi. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode survey terhadap para penumpang bus Damri jalur B.04 dan dianalisis dengan Regresi Logistik. Metode penentuan kebutuhan armada dikeluarkan oleh Departemen Perhubungan yang digunakan untuk menghitung apakah suatu

  11. Iterated Local Search Algorithm with Strategic Oscillation for School Bus Routing Problem with Bus Stop Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saied Fallah Niasar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available he school bus routing problem (SBRP represents a variant of the well-known vehicle routing problem. The main goal of this study is to pick up students allocated to some bus stops and generate routes, including the selected stops, in order to carry students to school. In this paper, we have proposed a simple but effective metaheuristic approach that employs two features: first, it utilizes large neighborhood structures for a deeper exploration of the search space; second, the proposed heuristic executes an efficient transition between the feasible and infeasible portions of the search space. Exploration of the infeasible area is controlled by a dynamic penalty function to convert the unfeasible solution into a feasible one. Two metaheuristics, called N-ILS (a variant of the Nearest Neighbourhood with Iterated Local Search algorithm and I-ILS (a variant of Insertion with Iterated Local Search algorithm are proposed to solve SBRP. Our experimental procedure is based on the two data sets. The results show that N-ILS is able to obtain better solutions in shorter computing times. Additionally, N-ILS appears to be very competitive in comparison with the best existing metaheuristics suggested for SBRP

  12. Schedule and complex motion of shuttle bus induced by periodic inflow of passengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatani, Takashi; Naito, Yuichi

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the dynamic behavior of a bus in the shuttle bus transportation with a periodic inflow. A bus schedule is closely related to the dynamics. We present the modified circle map model for the dynamics of the shuttle bus. The motion of the shuttle bus depends on the loading parameter and the inflow period. The shuttle bus displays the periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic motions with varying both loading parameter and inflow rate. -- Highlights: → We studied the dynamic behavior of a bus in the shuttle bus transportation. → We presented the modified circle map model for the bus schedule. → We clarified the dependence of the tour time on both loading parameter and inflow period.

  13. Improvement of multiprocessing performance by using optical centralized shared bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuliang; Chen, Ray T.

    2004-06-01

    With the ever-increasing need to solve larger and more complex problems, multiprocessing is attracting more and more research efforts. One of the challenges facing the multiprocessor designers is to fulfill in an effective manner the communications among the processes running in parallel on multiple multiprocessors. The conventional electrical backplane bus provides narrow bandwidth as restricted by the physical limitations of electrical interconnects. In the electrical domain, in order to operate at high frequency, the backplane topology has been changed from the simple shared bus to the complicated switched medium. However, the switched medium is an indirect network. It cannot support multicast/broadcast as effectively as the shared bus. Besides the additional latency of going through the intermediate switching nodes, signal routing introduces substantial delay and considerable system complexity. Alternatively, optics has been well known for its interconnect capability. Therefore, it has become imperative to investigate how to improve multiprocessing performance by utilizing optical interconnects. From the implementation standpoint, the existing optical technologies still cannot fulfill the intelligent functions that a switch fabric should provide as effectively as their electronic counterparts. Thus, an innovative optical technology that can provide sufficient bandwidth capacity, while at the same time, retaining the essential merits of the shared bus topology, is highly desirable for the multiprocessing performance improvement. In this paper, the optical centralized shared bus is proposed for use in the multiprocessing systems. This novel optical interconnect architecture not only utilizes the beneficial characteristics of optics, but also retains the desirable properties of the shared bus topology. Meanwhile, from the architecture standpoint, it fits well in the centralized shared-memory multiprocessing scheme. Therefore, a smooth migration with substantial

  14. Scenario-based electric bus operation: A case study of Putrajaya, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lay Eng Teoh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Globally, transportation sector has emerged as one of the major sources of air pollution. Correspondingly, green mobility (with electric bus is gaining increasing attention as an essential step to mitigate emission concern. As such, a proper electric bus network design and fleet planning is important especially for bus operator to acquire an adequate number of electric bus, right on time, in order to operate electric bus system viably. Thus, this paper aims to examine the possibility to operate electric bus as a replacement for the conventional bus operation (with natural gas buses for the study area in Putrajaya, Malaysia. In order to determine a proper-designed electric bus operating system in terms of electric bus route, service frequency and quantity, the proposed methodology is developed with the aid of a traffic modeling software to cater various scenarios. Based on the existing (conventional traffic and transit system in Putrajaya, the developed electric bus operating model is calibrated accordingly by considering various operational concerns including battery capacity and charging facility. The resultant findings revealed that the developed electric bus operating system in Putrajaya outperforms the conventional bus operation, not only in generating a higher profit margin for the bus operator, but also satisfying the passengers in a better manner (by carrying more passengers per unit of bus with a lower energy consumption.

  15. Interface Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes that Interface Consistency is an important issue for the development of modular designs. Byproviding a precise specification of component interfaces it becomes possible to check that separately developedcomponents use a common interface in a coherent matter thus avoiding a very...... significant source of design errors. Awide range of interface specifications are possible, the simplest form is a syntactical check of parameter types.However, today it is possible to do more sophisticated forms involving semantic checks....

  16. Interface models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders P.; Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for specifying interfaces between concurrently executing modules of a computing system. The model does not prescribe a particular type of communication protocol and is aimed at describing interfaces between both software and hardware modules or a combination of the two....... The model describes both functional and timing properties of an interface...

  17. Potential Influence of Metro on Bus: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, M.; Abishek Reddy, M.; Sathish, V.; Venkatesh, R.

    2018-06-01

    A modal shift occurs when one mode of transport has a comparative advantage in a similar market over another. The present work concerns with the development of modal shift model for urban travel in Chennai, India. The modal shift model was calibrated using binary logit technique and validated using hold-out sample method. The validated model was used to predict the probability of shift in selected corridor. The recent introduction of metro rail in Chennai has lead to an increasing competition among public transport modes. To study the influence of metro on bus transport, a Stated Preference (SP) survey was conducted among express bus travellers. Using the SP survey data, a modal shift model was calibrated to estimate the plausible shift from bus to metro. Results indicate that variables like fare- difference, age, and income play an important role in the shift behaviour. When metro fare increases with respect to express bus fare, bus passengers are less willing to use metro and vice-versa.

  18. 1393 Ring Bus at JPL: Description and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocky, Terry R.

    2007-01-01

    Completed Ring Bus IC V&V Phase - Ring Bus Test Plan Completed for SIM Project - Applicable to Other Projects Implemented a Avionics Bus Based upon the IEEE 1393 Standard - Excellent Starting Point for a General Purpose High-Speed Spacecraft Bus - Designed to Meet SIM Requirements for - Real-time deterministic, distributed systems. - Control system requirements - Fault detection and recovery Other JPL Projects Considering Implementation F'light Software Ring Bus Driver Module Began in 2006, Continues Participating in Standard Revision. Search for Earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars and measure the masses and orbits of the planets it finds. Survey 2000 nearby stars for planetary systems to learn whether our Solar System is unusual, or typical. Make a new catalog of star position 100 times more accurate than current measurements. Learn how our galaxy formed and will evolve by studying the dynamics of its stars. Critically test models of exactly how stars shine, including exotic objects like black holes, neutron stars and white dwarfs.

  19. A new MV bus transfer scheme for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.K.

    2015-01-01

    The auxiliary power system of many generating stations consists of offsite power supply system and onsite power supply system, including emergency diesel generators (EDG) to provide secure power to auxiliary loads. If a normal power supply fails to supply power, then the power source is transferred to a standby power supply. In the case of nuclear power plants (NPP), the unit auxiliary transformer (UAT) and standby auxiliary transformer (SAT) - or station service transformer - are installed and powered from 2 offsite power circuits to meet regulatory requirements. The transfer methods of a motor bus from a normal source to a standby source used in power generating stations are fast bus transfer, in-phase transfer, or residual transfer. Fast bus transfer method is the most popular and residual voltage transfer method that is used as a backup in medium voltage buses in general. The use of the advanced technology like open circuit voltage prediction and digital signal processing algorithms can improve the reliability of fast transfer scheme. However, according to the survey results of the recent operation records in nuclear power plants, there were many instances where the fast transfer scheme has failed. To assure bus transfer in any conditions and circumstances, un-interruptible bus transfer scheme utilizing the state of the art medium voltage UPS (Un-interruptible Power Supply) is discussed and elaborated

  20. Bus network redesign for inner southeast suburbs of Melbourne, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandangwati, S. T.; Milyanab, N. A.

    2017-06-01

    Public transport is the most effective mode of transport in the era of climate change and oil depletion. It can address climate change issues by reducing urban greenhouse gas emission and oil consumption while at the same time improving mobility. However, many public transport networks are not effective and instead create high operating costs with low frequencies and occupancy. Melbourne is one example of a metropolitan area that faces this problem. Even though the city has well-integrated train and tram networks, Melbourne’s bus network still needs to be improved. This study used network planning approach to redesign the bus network in the City of Glen Eira, a Local Government Area (LGA) in the southeastern part of Metropolitan Melbourne. The study area is the area between Gardenvale North and Oakleigh Station, as well as between Caulfield and Patterson Stations. This area needs network improvement mainly because of the meandering bus routes that run within it. This study aims to provide recommendations for improving the performance of bus services by reducing meandering routes, improving transfer point design and implementing coordinated timetables. The recommendations were formulated based on a ‘ready-made’ concept to increase bus occupancy. This approach can be implemented in other cities with similar problems and characteristics including those in Indonesia.

  1. Potential Influence of Metro on Bus: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, M.; Abishek Reddy, M.; Sathish, V.; Venkatesh, R.

    2018-03-01

    A modal shift occurs when one mode of transport has a comparative advantage in a similar market over another. The present work concerns with the development of modal shift model for urban travel in Chennai, India. The modal shift model was calibrated using binary logit technique and validated using hold-out sample method. The validated model was used to predict the probability of shift in selected corridor. The recent introduction of metro rail in Chennai has lead to an increasing competition among public transport modes. To study the influence of metro on bus transport, a Stated Preference (SP) survey was conducted among express bus travellers. Using the SP survey data, a modal shift model was calibrated to estimate the plausible shift from bus to metro. Results indicate that variables like fare-difference, age, and income play an important role in the shift behaviour. When metro fare increases with respect to express bus fare, bus passengers are less willing to use metro and vice-versa.

  2. Driving a Bus in India: A Study of Indore Bus Rapid Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha K. RASTOGI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Indore is a typical tier-2 town in the central province of India, fast becoming a regional commercial hub in an economically booming state. The city has a population of over 2 million with no significant public transport. Among the multiple options available, the city started implementing a dedicated corridor based Bus Rapid Transport System (BRTS. The project was jointly mooted by the central, state, and city authorities. However, the system encountered a range of problems, including conflicts and pulls between multiple implementing agencies, delays in delivery of hardware and constructions, land acquisition and compensation, vested interests, public interest litigations, and court orders. The paper analyses the BRTS, introduced in Indore in the midst of 2013, from multiple party perspectives with an underlying search for public policy and public management insights. The broad results indicate feasibility and desirability of the project; however, real problems emerge in public and public perception management.

  3. Optimal Locations of Bus Stops Connecting Subways near Urban Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsuitable locations of bus stops which provide feeder transportation connecting subways near urban intersections usually lead to the low efficiency of public transport and level of passenger service. A multiobjective optimization model to distribute such stop locations is proposed to attain the shortest total walk distance of passengers and minimum delay time of cars through intersections and travel time of buses. The Pareto frontier and optimal solutions for the proposed model are given by the distance-based and enumerative methods. The Xizhimen bus stop is selected to implement case studies for verifying the validity of the proposed model. The analysis of sensitivity on possible solutions is also carried out in the case studies. The results show that the proposed model is capable of optimizing the locations of bus stops connecting subways near intersections and helpful to improve the level of passengers service and operational efficiency of public transportation.

  4. American Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation. Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report presents results of the American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project, a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses operating in the Coachella Valley area of California. The prototype AFCB was developed as part of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA's) National Fuel Cell Bus Program. Through the non-profit consortia CALSTART, a team led by SunLine Transit Agency and BAE Systems developed a new fuel cell electric bus for demonstration. SunLine added two more AFCBs to its fleet in 2014 and another in 2015. FTA and the AFCB project team are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This report summarizes the performance results for the buses through June 2015.

  5. Rethinking passive transport: bus fare exemptions and young people's wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alasdair; Steinbach, Rebecca; Roberts, Helen; Goodman, Anna; Green, Judith

    2012-05-01

    Much recent public health research has emphasised the health impacts for young people of 'active travel' modes, typically defined as walking and cycling. Less research has focused on public transport modes. Drawing on qualitative data, we examine the links between bus travel and wellbeing in London, where young people currently have free bus travel. Our findings indicate that bus travel can be both a physically and socially active experience for young people. We suggest a more nuanced understanding of 'active travel' is now needed, alongside greater attention to urban public transport networks as key sites that impact on important determinants of wellbeing such as independent mobility and social inclusion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. DESIGN OF CITY BUS LIFT FOR THE HANDICAPPEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Turgut GÜRSEL

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the technological developments, the handicappeds do not take part sufficiently in the social and economic life, because buildings, road construction features and means of the transport are not suitable for them. In this study, a lift for handicappeds was designed, that is supposed to be installed to the middle door of city buses. The lift, whose installation should require a few changes at the bus, is driven by a hydraulic system from the street to the level of the bus floor and vice-versa. In the work, at first a construction was developed in accordance with the dimensions of the middle door of a city bus. After determining of dimensions of all elements, a hydraulic mechanism was constructed, that raises the handicapped, its wheelchair and the platform. Furthermore the construction of the elements of the system were determined, and its proofs of strength analysis were indicated

  7. RICA: a reliable and image configurable arena for cyborg bumblebee based on CAN bus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fan; Zheng, Nenggan; Xue, Lei; Xu, Kedi; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we designed a reliable and image configurable flight arena, RICA, for developing cyborg bumblebees. To meet the spatial and temporal requirements of bumblebees, the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus is adopted to interconnect the LED display modules to ensure the reliability and real-time performance of the arena system. Easily-configurable interfaces on a desktop computer implemented by python scripts are provided to transmit the visual patterns to the LED distributor online and configure RICA dynamically. The new arena system will be a power tool to investigate the quantitative relationship between the visual inputs and induced flight behaviors and also will be helpful to the visual-motor research in other related fields.

  8. Spatial analysis of bus transport networks using network theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmukhappa, Tanuja; Ho, Ivan Wang-Hei; Tse, Chi Kong

    2018-07-01

    In this paper, we analyze the bus transport network (BTN) structure considering the spatial embedding of the network for three cities, namely, Hong Kong (HK), London (LD), and Bengaluru (BL). We propose a novel approach called supernode graph structuring for modeling the bus transport network. A static demand estimation procedure is proposed to assign the node weights by considering the points of interests (POIs) and the population distribution in the city over various localized zones. In addition, the end-to-end delay is proposed as a parameter to measure the topological efficiency of the bus networks instead of the shortest distance measure used in previous works. With the aid of supernode graph representation, important network parameters are analyzed for the directed, weighted and geo-referenced bus transport networks. It is observed that the supernode concept has significant advantage in analyzing the inherent topological behavior. For instance, the scale-free and small-world behavior becomes evident with supernode representation as compared to conventional or regular graph representation for the Hong Kong network. Significant improvement in clustering, reduction in path length, and increase in centrality values are observed in all the three networks with supernode representation. The correlation between topologically central nodes and the geographically central nodes reveals the interesting fact that the proposed static demand estimation method for assigning node weights aids in better identifying the geographically significant nodes in the network. The impact of these geographically significant nodes on the local traffic behavior is demonstrated by simulation using the SUMO (Simulation of Urban Mobility) tool which is also supported by real-world empirical data, and our results indicate that the traffic speed around a particular bus stop can reach a jammed state from a free flow state due to the presence of these geographically important nodes. A comparison

  9. Lightweight power bus for a baseload nuclear reactor in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberly, C.E.; Massie, L.D.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    Space environmental interactions with the power distribution/power processing subsystem can become a serious problem for power systems rated at 10's to 100's of kilowatts. Utilization of ceramic superconductors at 1000 A/cm/sup 2/, which has already been demonstrated at 77 K in a conductor configuration may eliminate both bus mass and distribution voltage problems in a high power satellite. The analytical results presented here demonstrate that a superconducting coaxial power transmission bus offers significant benefits in reduced distribution voltage and mass

  10. Quantum bus of metal nanoring with surface plasmon polaritons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Zhirong; Guo Guoping; Tu Tao; Li Haiou; Zou Changling; Ren Xifeng; Guo Guangcan; Chen Junxue; Lu Yonghua

    2010-01-01

    We develop an architecture for distributed quantum computation using quantum bus of plasmonic circuits and spin qubits in self-assembled quantum dots. Deterministic quantum gates between two distant spin qubits can be reached by using an adiabatic approach in which quantum dots couple with highly detuned plasmon modes in a metallic nanoring. Plasmonic quantum bus offers a robust and scalable platform for quantum optics experiments and the development of on-chip quantum networks composed of various quantum nodes, such as quantum dots, molecules, and nanoparticles.

  11. Overview of Multi-DC-Bus Solutions for DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricchiuto, D.; Mastromauro, R.A.; Liserre, Marco

    2013-01-01

    DC Microgrids have recently received a lot of attention in the last years due to high penetration of renewable energy sources as well as distributed energy storage systems. In the future DC microgrids could be preferable respect to AC microgrids in terms of redundancy since multi-DC-Bus solutions...... could provide a continuative power supply to the loads. An overview of Multi-DC-Bus solutions is presented in this paper. The performances are compared on the basis of possible DC microgrid configurations, redundancy, different DC voltage levels....

  12. Bus bays inventory using a terrestrial laser scanning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobkowska Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the use of laser scanning technology for the assessment of bus bay geo-location. Ground laser scanning is an effective tool for collecting three-dimensional data. Moreover, the analysis of a point cloud dataset can be a source of a lot of information. The authors have outlined an innovative use of data collection and analysis using the TLS regarding information on the flatness of bus bays. The results were finalized in the form of colour three-dimensional maps of deviations and pavement type.

  13. Black silicon with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by mask-less reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Black bus-bars were realized by oxidized copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of these two technologies may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells...

  14. Design of temperature monitoring system based on CAN bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li

    2017-10-01

    The remote temperature monitoring system based on the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus is designed to collect the multi-node remote temperature. By using the STM32F103 as main controller and multiple DS18B20s as temperature sensors, the system achieves a master-slave node data acquisition and transmission based on the CAN bus protocol. And making use of the serial port communication technology to communicate with the host computer, the system achieves the function of remote temperature storage, historical data show and the temperature waveform display.

  15. Evaluation of Urban Bus Transport Failure in Gujranwala City of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    MUHAMMAD WAQAR ASLAM; ZAHARA BATOOL

    2017-01-01

    This research work has evaluated the performance of urban public bus transport service operating in Gujranwala city of Pakistan. The assessment has been made in terms of financial viability, bus condition, operational performance and user perception. Based on the data requirements, various traffic/transport surveys were conducted including Passenger Boarding and Alighting Survey, Bus Count Survey, Bus Inspection Survey, Illegal Operations Survey and Public Transport User Interview Survey in c...

  16. Active Power Filter DC Bus Voltage Piecewise Reaching Law Variable Structure Control

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Baolian; Ding, Zujun; Zhao, Huanyu; Jin, Defei

    2014-01-01

    The DC bus voltage stability control is one key technology to ensure that Active Power Filter (APF) operates stably. The external disturbances such as power grid and load fluctuation and the system parameters changing may affect the stability of APF DC bus voltage and the normal operation of APF. The mathematical model of DC bus voltage is established according to power balance principle and a DC bus voltage piecewise reaching law variable structure control algorithm is proposed to solve the ...

  17. Kajian Keamanan Pengoperasian Public Transport Tinjauan Terhadap Kekuatan Rangka Body Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Sudiro, B. M

    2010-01-01

    In order to meet the safety and security of the public transportation, design specification of construction body bus or bus frame structures should have an appropriate structural strength and comply with standard design including the safety factor and selection of material besides static and dynamic testing of the part of body bus. It is also realized that a bus carrying passengers have to give secure to the passengers also driver.The fact that a technology concerning with metal works indus...

  18. Developing a viable electric bus service: the Milton Keynes demonstration project

    OpenAIRE

    Miles, John; Potter, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Buses can be a serious source of city centre air pollution. Electric buses deliver zero emissions but, because of the time required to recharge, more buses are needed for a given timetable than diesel counterparts, so making mainstream electric bus operations prohibitively expensive.\\ud \\ud Early 2014 saw the implementation in Milton Keynes of an electric bus service designed to overcome this problem. An entire bus route has been converted to electric operation with inductive charging at bus ...

  19. DETERMINATION OF THE DELAY DEPARTURE TIME OF THE BUS FROM STOPPING POINT INTO THE CAR FLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gorbachov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model for estimation of the bus departure delax from the bus stopping point after passenger loading is presented. The model allows to take into account the traffic density on a particular road section of the transport network, as well as the bus parameters.

  20. Computer-Based Video Instruction to Teach Students with Intellectual Disabilities to Use Public Bus Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechling, Linda; O'Brien, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of computer-based video instruction (CBVI) to teach three young adults with moderate intellectual disabilities to push a "request to stop bus signal" and exit a city bus in response to target landmarks. A multiple probe design across three students and one bus route was used to evaluate effectiveness of…

  1. 49 CFR 383.123 - Requirements for a school bus endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... devices required for school buses by State or Federal law or regulation. (ii) Emergency exits and... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for a school bus endorsement. 383.123... Requirements for a school bus endorsement. (a) An applicant for a school bus endorsement must satisfy the...

  2. The Role of the Coroner in School Bus Accident Prevention: Some Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Following the deaths of two elementary school students in bus-related accidents in 1992, the Coroner of Quebec held extensive hearings investigating school bus safety and accident prevention. A subsequent report addressed responsibilities of government and school board officials to correct deficiencies in school bus services and provided…

  3. School Bus Safety: What Can Our Schools Do to Protect Our Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargan, Thomas J.; Silverstone, Adam H.

    2014-01-01

    School districts and school bus contractors are entrusted with the most important of all road users--our nation's children. In the wake of recent newsworthy accidents and attention grabbing headlines regarding unfit bus drivers, claims premised upon school bus accidents have become increasingly tangential and, in turn, personal injury attorneys…

  4. Interfacing external sensors with Android smartphones through near field communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leikanger, Tore; Häkkinen, Juha; Schuss, Christian

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present and evaluate a new approach to communicate with inter-integrated circuit (I2C) enabled circuits such as sensors over near field communication (NFC). The NFC-to-I2C interface was designed using a non-standard NFC command to control the I2C bus directly from a smartphone, which was controlling both, the read and write operations on the I2C bus. The NFC-to-I2C interface was reporting back the data bytes on the bus to the smartphone when the transaction was completed successfully. The proposed system was tested experimentally, both, with write and read requests to a commercial microcontroller featuring a hardware I2C port, as well as reading a commercial I2C enabled humidity and temperature sensor. We present experimental results of the system which show that our approach enables an easy interface between smartphones and external sensors. Interfacing external sensors is useful and beneficial for smartphone users, especially, if certain types of sensors are not available on smartphones. (paper)

  5. Old-Fashioned Bus Trips: New Age Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldhues, Katherine; Epley, Hannah K.

    2018-01-01

    Two 4-H Camp-related bus tours offered new nontraditional professional development (PD) experiences that better align Extension's PD opportunities with the organization's experiential education pedagogy. Creating quality PD opportunities for employees is important because such experiences can affect overall work performance, community connections,…

  6. Analyzing injury severity of bus passengers with different movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Duo; Zhao, Yifei; Bai, Qiang; Zhou, Bei; Ling, Hongbiao

    2017-07-04

    Though public transport vehicles are rarely involved in mass casualty accidents, when they are, the number of injuries and fatalities is usually high due to the high passenger capacity. Of the few studies that have been conducted on bus safety, the majority focused on vehicle safety features, road environmental factors, as well as driver characteristics. Nevertheless, few studies have attempted to investigate the underlying risk factors related to bus occupants. This article presents an investigation aimed at identifying the risk factors affecting injury severity of bus passengers with different movements. Three different passenger movement types including standing, seated, and boarding/alighting were analyzed individually using classification and regression tree (CART) method based on publicly available accident database of Great Britain. According to the results of exploratory analyses, passenger age and vehicle maneuver are associated with passenger injury severity in all 3 types of accidents. Moreover, the variable "skidding and overturning" is associated with injury severity of seated passengers and driver age is correlated with injury severity of standing and boarding/alighting passengers. The CART method shows its ability to identify and easily explain the complicated patterns affecting passenger injury severity. Several countermeasures to reduce bus passenger injury severity are recommended.

  7. 49 CFR 374.317 - Identification-bus and driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Identification-bus and driver. 374.317 Section 374... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PASSENGER CARRIER REGULATIONS Adequacy of Intercity Motor Common Carrier Passenger Service § 374.317 Identification...

  8. A Quantitative Economics Of Seasonality In Bus Patronage In Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal variation is a well-known phenomenon, in many endeavrous and enterprises. Passenger of patronage of road transportation by bus is generally implicated as exhibiting excessive seasonality. The study thus set out to empirically investigate the myth or reality of the thesis that trip generation and trip attraction can ...

  9. Aerodynamic study of state transport bus using computational fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekar, Siddhesh; Thakre, Prashant; Rajkumar, E.

    2017-11-01

    The main purpose of this study was to develop the aerodynamic study of a Maharashtra state road transport bus. The rising fuel price and strict government regulations makes the road transport uneconomical now days. With the objective of increasing fuel efficiency and reducing the emission of harmful exhaust gases. It has been proven experimentally that vehicle consumes almost 40% of the available useful engine power to overcome the drag resistance. This provides us a huge scope to study the influence of aerodynamic drag. The initial of the project was to identify the drag coefficient of the existing ordinary type model called “Parivartan” from ANSYS fluent. After preliminary analysis of the existing model corresponding changes are made in such a way that their implementation should be possible at workshop level. The simulation of the air flow over the bus was performed in two steps: design on SolidWorks CAD and ANSYS (FLUENT) is used as a virtual analysis tool to estimate the drag coefficient of the bus. We have used the turbulence models k-ε Realizable having a better approximation of the actual result. Around 28% improvement in the drag coefficient is achieved by CFD driven changes in the bus design. Coefficient of drag is improved by 28% and fuel efficiency increased by 20% by CFD driven changes.

  10. Staying Safe in the Car and on the Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a booster! Get in the Back Here's another important safety rule: Sit in the back seat. Kids 12 ... or band concerts once in a while, it's important to follow these rules. When you see the bus driving up, everyone waiting should get into a line. ...

  11. Bus-oriented digital control techniques in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salm, M.

    1987-01-01

    The author states the conservative principles which govern the authorization procedures for nuclear reactor control systems. Using the example of a feedwater supply regulator, employing a digital, bus-oriented control system, he describes how the stigma attached to the word nuclear can be alleviated. (G.T.H.)

  12. Energy efficient motion control of the electric bus on route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotiev, G. O.; Butarovich, D. O.; Kositsyn, B. B.

    2018-02-01

    At present, the urgent problem is the reduction of energy costs of urban motor transport. The article proposes a method of solving this problem by developing an energy-efficient law governing the movement of an electric bus along a city route. To solve this problem, an algorithm is developed based on the dynamic programming method. The proposed method allows you to take into account the constraints imposed on the phase coordinates, control action, as well as on the time of the route. In the course of solving the problem, the model of rectilinear motion of an electric bus on a horizontal reference surface is considered, taking into account the assumptions that allow it to be adapted for the implementation of the method. For the formation of a control action in the equations of motion dynamics, an algorithm for changing the traction / braking torque on the wheels of an electric bus is considered, depending on the magnitude of the control parameter and the speed of motion. An optimal phase trajectory was obtained on a selected section of the road for the prototype of an electric bus. The article presents the comparison of simulation results obtained with the optimal energy efficient control law with the results obtained by a test driver. The comparison proved feasibility of the energy efficient control law for the automobile city electric transport.

  13. Economic impacts of bus rapid transit in southeast Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) has generated great interest across the United States. There are more than 20 BRT : systems in existence, and more are in the planning stage (including in Detroit). Within the next few years, BRT will be plann...

  14. Improving School Bus Safety. Transportation Research Board Special Report 222.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Transportation Research Board.

    While school buses transport more passengers per trip, the rate of occupant fatalities per mile driven for school buses is one-quarter that for passenger cars. Nevertheless, the public expects school districts and other school bus operators to take all reasonable precautions to protect children as they travel to and from school. Although a variety…

  15. Implementation of a Walking School Bus: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Alberta S.; Sussman, Andrew L.; Negrete, Sylvia; Patterson, Nissa; Mittleman, Rachel; Hough, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity is rapidly becoming the most common chronic medical condition affecting children. To address this crisis, an Albuquerque, New Mexico, elementary school partnered with University of New Mexico researchers and conducted a Walking School Bus (WSB). The purpose of this article is to examine the feasibility of implementing a WSB.…

  16. Optical bus of centralized relay protection and automation system of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article deals with the system of information collection and transfer from a centralized relay protection and automation system for medium voltage electrical units based on a passive optical bus. The issues of electromagnetic compatibility of technical devices are also considered, and the intensity of electromagnetic ...

  17. A Novel Time Synchronization Method for Dynamic Reconfigurable Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Weigong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available UM-BUS is a novel dynamically reconfigurable high-speed serial bus for embedded systems. It can achieve fault tolerance by detecting the channel status in real time and reconfigure dynamically at run-time. The bus supports direct interconnections between up to eight master nodes and multiple slave nodes. In order to solve the time synchronization problem among master nodes, this paper proposes a novel time synchronization method, which can meet the requirement of time precision in UM-BUS. In this proposed method, time is firstly broadcasted through time broadcast packets. Then, the transmission delay and time deviations via three handshakes during link self-checking and channel detection can be worked out referring to the IEEE 1588 protocol. Thereby, each node calibrates its own time according to the broadcasted time. The proposed method has been proved to meet the requirement of real-time time synchronization. The experimental results show that the synchronous precision can achieve a bias less than 20 ns.

  18. Bussikontsern Go Bus ihaldab Harjumaa turgu / Signe Kalberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalberg, Signe, 1959-

    2005-01-01

    AS-i Tarbus ja kaheksa bussiettevõtte ühinemisel moodustati AS Go Bus, ettevõte plaanib veel mitme bussifirma liitmist. Atko Grupi juhatuse esimehe Margo Tomingase, AS Sebe nõukogu esimehe Hugo Osula arvamus. Lisa: Konkurentsiamet hoiab silma peal

  19. Spanish version of Bus Drivers' Job Demands Scale (BDJD-24).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada-Grau, Joan; Prizmic-Kuzmica, Aldo-Javier; González-Fernández, Marcos-David; Vigil-Colet, Andreu

    2013-01-01

    Karasek and Theorell's Job Demands-Control Model argues that adverse health-related outcomes, both psychological and physiological, arise from a combination of high job demand and a low level of job control. The objective was to adapt Meijman and Kompier's Bus Drivers' Job Demands Scale (BDJD-24), which enables us to assess the job demands of bus drivers, to Spanish. The final version of the Spanish adaptation was applied to a sample made up of 287 bus drivers living in Spain (80.1% men and 19.9% women), whose average age was 40.44 (SD= 11.78). The results yielded a three-factor structure for the scale used: Time Pressure, Safety, and Passengers. These findings confirm that the Spanish version replicates the factor structure of the original English scale. The reliability of the three subscales was acceptable, ranging from .75 to .84. Furthermore, the subscales were also related to different external correlates and to other scales and showed good convergent and criterion validity. The present instrument can be used to evaluate job demands of bus drivers, as its psychometrics are substantially sound.

  20. High-Tech School Bus Teaches Students on the Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katims, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Last year, kindergarten through high school students in the rural Hector, Arkansas, School District barely had the technology resources that keep kids interested in math and science. This year, they potentially have the most advanced resources in the country--before they even step into the classroom. One school bus in Arkansas' Pope County has…

  1. Measuring Bus Drivers' Occupational Stress Under Changing Working Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hlotova, Y.; Cats, O.; Meijer, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is an immense problem in modern society; approximately half of all occupational illnesses are directly or indirectly related to stress. The work of a bus driver is typically associated with high stress levels that negatively influence individual well-being as well as workforce management. The

  2. Steering characteristic of an articulated bus under quasi steady maneuvering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaidillah, Setiawan, Budi Agus; Aridharma, Airlangga Putra; Lenggana, Bhre Wangsa; Caesar, Bernardus Placenta Previo

    2018-02-01

    Articulated buses have been being preferred as public transportation modes due to their operational capacity. Therefore, passenger safety must be the priority of this public service vehicle. This research focused on the analytical approach of steering characteristics of an articulated bus when it maneuvered steadily. Such turning condition could be referred as a stability parameter of the bus for preliminary handling assessment. The analytical approach employed kinematics relationship between front and rear bodies as well as steering capabilities. The quasi steady model was developed to determine steering parameters such as turning radius, oversteer, and understeer. The mathematical model was useful for determining both coefficients of understeer and oversteer. The dimension of articulated bus followed a commonly used bus as utilized in Trans Jakarta busses. Based on the simulation, for one minimum center of the body, the turning radius was calculated about 8.8 m and 7.6 m at steady turning speed of 10 km/h. In neutral condition, the minimum road radius should be 6.5 m at 10 km/h and 6.9 m at 40 km/h. For two centers of the body and oversteer condition, the front body has the turning radius of 8.8 m, while, the rear body has the turning radius of 9.8 m at both turning speeds of 40 km/h. The other steering parameters were discussed accordingly.

  3. GeoBus: sharing science research with schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Kathryn; Robinson, Ruth; Moorhouse, Ben

    2016-04-01

    GeoBus (www.geobus.org.uk) is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, and it is currently sponsored by industry, NERC, The Crown Estate, and the Scottish Government. The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary (middle and high) schools by providing teaching support to schools that have little or no experience in teaching this subject. This is, in part, done through the sharing of new science research outcomes and the experiences of young researchers with school pupils to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. Since its launch, over 40,000 pupils will have been involved in experiential Earth science learning activities in 190 different schools (over 400 separate visits) across the length and breadth of Scotland: many of these schools are in remote and disadvantaged regions. A new GeoBus project is under development within the Department of Earth Sciences at UCL in London. A key aim of GeoBus is to incorporate new research into our workshops with the main challenge being the development of appropriate resources that incorporate the key learning aims and requirements of the science and geography curricula. GeoBus works closely with researchers, teachers and educational practitioners to tailor the research outcomes to the curricula as much as possible. Over the past four years, GeoBus has developed 17 workshops, 5 challenge events and extensive field trips and each of these activities are trialled and evaluated within the university, and adjustments are made before the activities are delivered in schools. Activities are continually reviewed and further developments are made in response to both teacher and pupil feedback. This critical reflection of the project's success and impact is important to insure a positive and significant contribution to the science learning in

  4. Real life testing of a Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkesson, Anders; Andersson, Christian; Alvfors, Per; Alaküla, Mats; Overgaard, Lars

    Fuel cells produce low quantities of local emissions, if any, and are therefore one of the most promising alternatives to internal combustion engines as the main power source in future vehicles. It is likely that urban buses will be among the first commercial applications for fuel cells in vehicles. This is due to the fact that urban buses are highly visible for the public, they contribute significantly to air pollution in urban areas, they have small limitations in weight and volume and fuelling is handled via a centralised infrastructure. Results and experiences from real life measurements of energy flows in a Scania Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Concept Bus are presented in this paper. The tests consist of measurements during several standard duty cycles. The efficiency of the fuel cell system and of the complete vehicle are presented and discussed. The net efficiency of the fuel cell system was approximately 40% and the fuel consumption of the concept bus is between 42 and 48% lower compared to a standard Scania bus. Energy recovery by regenerative braking saves up 28% energy. Bus subsystems such as the pneumatic system for door opening, suspension and brakes, the hydraulic power steering, the 24 V grid, the water pump and the cooling fans consume approximately 7% of the energy in the fuel input or 17% of the net power output from the fuel cell system. The bus was built by a number of companies in a project partly financed by the European Commission's Joule programme. The comprehensive testing is partly financed by the Swedish programme "Den Gröna Bilen" (The Green Car). A 50 kW el fuel cell system is the power source and a high voltage battery pack works as an energy buffer and power booster. The fuel, compressed hydrogen, is stored in two high-pressure stainless steel vessels mounted on the roof of the bus. The bus has a series hybrid electric driveline with wheel hub motors with a maximum power of 100 kW. Hybrid Fuel Cell Buses have a big potential, but there are

  5. Characterisation of an urban bus network for environmental purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Michel; Villanova, André

    2004-12-01

    Since pollutant emissions are closely related to the operating conditions of vehicles, their evaluation usually involves studying these operating conditions (through bus instrumentation and monitoring under actual operation), the design of representative driving or engine test cycles and the measurement of pollutant emissions. A preliminary characterisation of the routes on a bus network should make it possible to identify typical routes, the driving conditions and pollutant emissions of which are then studied. Two approaches are envisaged and applied to the Paris area, for which a wealth of information is available, which should be transferable to other bus networks. Both approaches are based on factorial analysis and automatic clustering, to allow optimum description and the identification of a pertinent typology of the bus routes in several classes. The first attempt at characterisation is based on statistics relating to bus operations: route characteristics (length, dedicated bus lanes, number of stops, location of stops: schools, tourist sites, hospitals, railways or underground stations), travel time, commercial speed, annual statistics (number of passengers, number of vehicles per hour, total kilometres), the irregularity of travel (variation of travel times, injuries, congestion.), as well as information on the problems encountered (congestion, distribution of the passenger load, junctions, bends). A second approach is based on the analysis of the "urban context" in which buses are driven. Population, employment, housing, road network, traffic and places that generate or disturb traffic (schools, railway stations, shopping areas, etc.) are calculated for the Ile de France region, by cells of 100 x 100 m, and collected in a geographical information system (GIS). Statistical analyses enable a typology of these urban cells to be established, the main parameters being density, type of housing, road types and traffic levels. The bus routes are then analysed

  6. Organic interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, W.A.; Tempelman, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the consequences for product designers resulting from the replacement of traditional interfaces by responsive materials. Part 1 presents a theoretical framework regarding a new paradigm for man-machine interfacing. Part 2 provides an analysis of the opportunities offered by new

  7. Interface Realisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pold, Søren

    2005-01-01

    This article argues for seeing the interface as an important representational and aesthetic form with implications for postmodern culture and digital aesthetics. The interface emphasizes realism due in part to the desire for transparency in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and partly...

  8. THE PREVALENCE OF MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS AMONG BUS DRIVERS IN TRICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal disorders are widespread in many countries around the world. It has been reported that about 58 percent of the world's population over the age of 10 years spent one third of their life span at work. The population at a high risk include nursing facilities, transportation, mining, food processing, leather tanning, heavy and light manufacturing. Transport workers have been found to be at high risk of developing work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs. There has been literature evidence regarding the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in bus drivers of various cities of different countries. But no study has been done so far in Tricity (Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali for the same. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs among bus drivers of Tricity. Methods: 300 bus drivers were included in the study according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The standardized Nordic questionnaire for musculoskeletal disorder and a self administered questionnaire were filled by therapist after the personal interview of each driver. Results: Unpaired t test was used to measure the difference in variable of two groups and Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation between two entities. In the present study, the subjects were in the age group of 25 to 50 years. Out of the total sample of 300 male bus drivers in Tricity, 159 reported that they had WRMSDs. The prevalence of WRMSDs among bus drivers in Tricity was 53%. In present study, the prevalence of low back pain was highest among the bus drivers that are 30.3%, then neck pain 17.3%, knee pain 14.7%, shoulder 6.3%, ankle and feet 5.7%, upper back 4%, hip and thigh 4%, elbow 1.3% and wrist and hand 1.3%. Thus low back pain, neck pain and knee pain are the most prevalent WRMSDs amongst bus drivers. Conclusions: Work-related biomechanical

  9. A graphical user-interface control system at SRRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.S.; Wang, C.J.; Chen, S.J.; Jan, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    A graphical user interface control system of 1.3 GeV synchrotron radiation light source was designed and implemented for the beam transport line (BTL) and storage ring (SR). A modern control technique has been used to implement and control the third generation synchrotron light source. Two level computer hardware configuration, that includes process and console computers as a top level and VME based intelligent local controller as a bottom level, was setup and tested. Both level computers are linked by high speed Ethernet data communication network. A database includes static and dynamic databases as well as access routines were developed. In order to commission and operate the machine friendly, the graphical man machine interface was designed and coded. The graphical user interface (GUI) software was installed on VAX workstations for the BTL and SR at the Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (SRRC). The over all performance has been evaluated at 10Hz update rate. The results showed that the graphical operator interface control system is versatile system and can be implemented into the control system of the accelerator. It will provide the tool to control and monitor the equipments of the radiation light source especially for machine commissioning and operation

  10. Optimal bus temperature for thermal comfort during a cool day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velt, K B; Daanen, H A M

    2017-07-01

    A challenge for electric buses is to minimize heating and cooling power to maximally extend the driving range, but still provide sufficient thermal comfort for the driver and passengers. Therefore, we investigated the thermal sensation (TS) and thermal comfort (TC) of passengers in buses during a cool day (temperature 13.4 ± 0.5 °C, relative humidity (RH) 60 ± 5.8%) typical for the Dutch temperate maritime climate. 28 Males and 72 females rated TS and TC and gave information on age, stature, body weight and worn garments. The temperature in the bus of 22.5 ± 1.1 °C and RH of 59.9 ± 5.8% corresponded to a slightly warm feeling (TS = 0.85 ± 1.06) and TC of 0.39 ± 0.65. TS related significantly to bus temperature, clothing insulation and age. Linear regression based on these parameters showed that the temperature in the bus corresponding to TC = 0 and TS = 0 would have been 20.9 ± 0.6 °C. In conclusion, a 1.6 °C lower bus temperature during the investigated cool day probably would have led to less thermal discomfort and energy savings of electrical busses. The methodology to relate climatic measurements to subjective assessments is currently employed in a wider climatic range and may prove to be useful to find a better balance between thermal comfort and energy savings of the bus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Generation of multiple analog pulses with different duty cycles within VME control system for ICRH Aditya system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Ramesh; Singh, Manoj; Jadav, H M; Misra, Kishor; Kulkarni, S V, E-mail: rjoshi@ipr.res.i [Institute for plasma research, Bhat, Gandhinagar- 382428 (India)

    2010-02-01

    Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) is a promising heating method for a fusion device due to its localized power deposition profile, a direct ion heating at high density, and established technology for high RF power generation and transmission at low cost. Multiple analog pulse with different duty cycle in master of digital pulse for Data acquisition and Control system for steady state RF ICRH System(RF ICRH DAC) to be used for operating of RF Generator in Aditya to produce pre ionization and second analog pulse will produce heating. The control system software is based upon single digital pulse operation for RF source. It is planned to integrate multiple analog pulses with different duty cycle in master of digital pulse for Data acquisition and Control system for RF ICRH System(RF ICRH DAC) to be used for operating of RF Generator in Aditya tokamak. The task of RF ICRH DAC is to control and acquisition of all ICRH system operation with all control loop and acquisition for post analysis of data with java based tool. For pre ionization startup as well as heating experiments using multiple RF Power of different powers and duration. The experiment based upon the idea of using single RF generator to energize antenna inside the tokamak to radiate power twice, out of which first analog pulse will produce pre ionization and second analog pulse will produce heating. The whole system is based on standard client server technology using tcp/ip protocol. DAC Software is based on linux operating system for highly reliable, secure and stable system operation in failsafe manner. Client system is based on tcl/tk like toolkit for user interface with c/c++ like environment which is reliable programming languages widely used on stand alone system operation with server as vxWorks real time operating system like environment. The paper is focused on the Data acquisition and monitoring system software on Aditya RF ICRH System with analog pulses in slave mode with digital pulse in

  12. Generation of multiple analog pulses with different duty cycles within VME control system for ICRH Aditya system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Ramesh; Singh, Manoj; Jadav, H M; Misra, Kishor; Kulkarni, S V

    2010-01-01

    Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) is a promising heating method for a fusion device due to its localized power deposition profile, a direct ion heating at high density, and established technology for high RF power generation and transmission at low cost. Multiple analog pulse with different duty cycle in master of digital pulse for Data acquisition and Control system for steady state RF ICRH System(RF ICRH DAC) to be used for operating of RF Generator in Aditya to produce pre ionization and second analog pulse will produce heating. The control system software is based upon single digital pulse operation for RF source. It is planned to integrate multiple analog pulses with different duty cycle in master of digital pulse for Data acquisition and Control system for RF ICRH System(RF ICRH DAC) to be used for operating of RF Generator in Aditya tokamak. The task of RF ICRH DAC is to control and acquisition of all ICRH system operation with all control loop and acquisition for post analysis of data with java based tool. For pre ionization startup as well as heating experiments using multiple RF Power of different powers and duration. The experiment based upon the idea of using single RF generator to energize antenna inside the tokamak to radiate power twice, out of which first analog pulse will produce pre ionization and second analog pulse will produce heating. The whole system is based on standard client server technology using tcp/ip protocol. DAC Software is based on linux operating system for highly reliable, secure and stable system operation in failsafe manner. Client system is based on tcl/tk like toolkit for user interface with c/c++ like environment which is reliable programming languages widely used on stand alone system operation with server as vxWorks real time operating system like environment. The paper is focused on the Data acquisition and monitoring system software on Aditya RF ICRH System with analog pulses in slave mode with digital pulse in

  13. Generation of multiple analog pulses with different duty cycles within VME control system for ICRH Aditya system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ramesh; Singh, Manoj; Jadav, H. M.; Misra, Kishor; Kulkarni, S. V.; ICRH-RF Group

    2010-02-01

    Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) is a promising heating method for a fusion device due to its localized power deposition profile, a direct ion heating at high density, and established technology for high RF power generation and transmission at low cost. Multiple analog pulse with different duty cycle in master of digital pulse for Data acquisition and Control system for steady state RF ICRH System(RF ICRH DAC) to be used for operating of RF Generator in Aditya to produce pre ionization and second analog pulse will produce heating. The control system software is based upon single digital pulse operation for RF source. It is planned to integrate multiple analog pulses with different duty cycle in master of digital pulse for Data acquisition and Control system for RF ICRH System(RF ICRH DAC) to be used for operating of RF Generator in Aditya tokamak. The task of RF ICRH DAC is to control and acquisition of all ICRH system operation with all control loop and acquisition for post analysis of data with java based tool. For pre ionization startup as well as heating experiments using multiple RF Power of different powers and duration. The experiment based upon the idea of using single RF generator to energize antenna inside the tokamak to radiate power twise, out of which first analog pulse will produce pre ionization and second analog pulse will produce heating. The whole system is based on standard client server technology using tcp/ip protocol. DAC Software is based on linux operating system for highly reliable, secure and stable system operation in failsafe manner. Client system is based on tcl/tk like toolkit for user interface with c/c++ like environment which is reliable programming languages widely used on stand alone system operation with server as vxWorks real time operating system like environment. The paper is focused on the Data acquisition and monitoring system software on Aditya RF ICRH System with analog pulses in slave mode with digital pulse in

  14. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: First Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This report provides the early data results and implementation experience of the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service.

  15. Expert system for COSY-Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongers, N.; Dahmen, B.; Danzglock, R.; Hacker, H.U.; Hardt, A.; Henkel, C.; Henn, K.; Launer, J.; Martin, S.A.; Nau, K.; Ollech, O.; Peischard, S.; Richert, A.K.; Singer, H.; Sobotta, K.; Schug, G.; Spiess, W.; Weinert, A.; Weynen, D.; Rohling, C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is an overview of the COSY- Control-System. It is based on several layers with different tasks. The first layer is necessary for the interaction between man and machine, the database and the modelling of experiments. The second layer serves the different components of the COSY-MACHINE such as watch-dog function, power- converters, diagnostic, instrumentation, cooling, vacuum, beam-line and injection. The third layer is for direct process controlling. The connection between the layers are made by a Local Area Network based on an IEEE 802.3 protocol. The first step in the realization of this Control-System is to use HP-9000 workstations in connection with HP-9000 minicomputers as workcells. The integration to the peripherie-controller such as power-converters and diagnostic-elements are made by VME-Bus-Crates which are also wired to a LAN based on IEEE 802.3. A possible hardware solution as far as the VME-Bus integration is concerned is the link between Hewlett Packard Precision Architecture computers (HP-PA) and a VME-Bus interface board named IBAM which is able to drive an IEEE 802.3 protocol. For the interfacing to the process are several VME-Bus boards with computing-power, memory, digital I/O and function-generators responsible

  16. Rancang Bangun Sistem Pemesanan Tiket Bus Kupang-Atambua Berbasis SMS Gateway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerensiana Ngaga

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bus merupakan alat transportasi yang paling banyak digunakan masyarakat karena harga yang murah dan masih terjangkau untuk masyarakat kalangan ekonomi menengah ke bawah.  Umumnya pemesanan tiket bus dilakukan dengan mendatangi langsung tempat penjualan tiket bus atau dengan cara menelepon ke kantor agen. Proses pemesanan seperti ini  memiliki kekurangan dimana pegawai kerepotan dalam mencatat dan seringkali terjadi kesalahan dalam mencatat pemesanan tiket. Sedangkan untuk waktu pemesanan, umumnya calon penumpang melakukan pemesanan tiket, satu atau dua hari sebelum keberangkatan dan ada juga yang tidak sempat memesan tiket beberapa hari sebelumnya dan melakukan pembelian tiket pada hari keberangkatan sehingga sering kali tidak mendapatkan tiket. Penelitian ini bertujuan merancang bangun sistem pemesanan tiket bus berbasis SMS Gateway yang memberikan kemudahan layanan pemesanan tiket bus bagi masyarakat secara jarak jauh serta kemudahan mengetahui informasi penjadwalan bus dengan cepat. Aplikasi dibangun menggunakan metode Unified Process, dengan bahasa pemrograman Java NetBeansIDE 7.3.1, MySQL sebagai database dan Gammu sebagai software untuk membantu pembangunan aplikasi SMS Gateway. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah sebuah sistem pemesanan tiket bus yang memberikan alternatif baru proses pemesanan tiket bus secara baik tanpa ada permasalahan jarak dan waktu. Selain itu masyarakat juga dapat mengetahui informasi jadwal bus, harga tiket dan juga informasi bila terjadi perubahan jadwal keberangkatan bus.   Kata kunci— Bus, Tiket, SMS Gateway, Unified Process

  17. Microprocessor interfacing

    CERN Document Server

    Vears, R E

    2014-01-01

    Microprocessor Interfacing provides the coverage of the Business and Technician Education Council level NIII unit in Microprocessor Interfacing (syllabus U86/335). Composed of seven chapters, the book explains the foundation in microprocessor interfacing techniques in hardware and software that can be used for problem identification and solving. The book focuses on the 6502, Z80, and 6800/02 microprocessor families. The technique starts with signal conditioning, filtering, and cleaning before the signal can be processed. The signal conversion, from analog to digital or vice versa, is expl

  18. Interface Anywhere

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current paradigms for crew interfaces to the systems that require control are constrained by decades old technologies which require the crew to be physically near an...

  19. DEBUGGER: Developing a graphical user interface to debug FPGAs

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)773309

    2015-01-01

    As part of the summer student projects, an FPGA debugger was designed using Qt- framework. The aim of this project is to help Data Acquisition System (DAQ) experts of COMPASS experiment to easily monitor the state of each FPGA being used. It is needful to continually monitor their state. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) has then been designed to aid experts to do so. Via IP-Bus, the content of the FPGA under investigation is displayed to the user.

  20. Design and Implementation of Hitl Simulator Coupleing Communications Payload and Software Spacecraft Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Jun Kim

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Engineering qualification model payload for a communications and broadcasting satellite(CBS was developed by ETRI from May, 2000 to April, 2003. For the purpose of functional test and verification of the payload, a real-time hardware-in-the-loop(HITL CBS simulator(CBSSIM was also developed. We assumed that the spacecraft platform for the CBSSIM is a geostationary communication satellite using momentum bias three-axis stabilization control technique based on Koreasat. The payload hardware is combined with CBSSIM via Power, Command and Telemetry System(PCTS of Electrical Ground Support Equipment(EGSE. CBSSIM is connected with PCTS by TCP/IP and the payload is combined with PCTS by MIL-STD-1553B protocol and DC harness. This simulator runs under the PC-based simulation environment with Windows 2000 operating system. The satellite commands from the operators are transferred to the payload or bus subsystem models through the real-time process block in the simulator. Design requirements of the CBSSIM are to operate in real-time and generate telemetry. CBSSIM provides various graphic monitoring interfaces and control functions and supports both pre-launch and after-launch of a communication satellite system. In this paper, the HITL simulator system including CBSSIM, communications payload and PCTS as the medium of interface between CBSSIM and communications payload will be described in aspects of the system architecture, spacecraft models, and simulator operation environment.

  1. American Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation: Third Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This report presents results of the American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project, a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses operating in the Coachella Valley area of California. The prototype AFCB, which was developed as part of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) National Fuel Cell Bus Program, was delivered to SunLine in November 2011 and was put in revenue service in mid-December 2011. Two new AFCBs with an upgraded design were delivered in June/July of 2014 and a third new AFCB was delivered in February 2015. FTA and the AFCB project team are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This report covers the performance of the AFCBs from July 2015 through December 2016.

  2. Distributed cooperative synchronization strategy for multi-bus microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yao; Zhong, Chaolu; Hou, Xiaochao

    2017-01-01

    Microgrids can operate in both grid-connected mode and islanded mode. In order to smooth transfer from islanded mode to grid-connected mode, it is necessary to synchronize the point of common coupling (PCC) with main utility grid (UG) in voltage frequency, phase and amplitude. Conventional...... synchronization methods based on centralized communication are very costly and not suitable for multi-bus microgrids that have a large number of distributed generators (DGs). To address this concern, this study presents an active synchronization control strategy based on distributed cooperation technology...... for multi-bus microgrids. The proposed method can reconnect the microgrid in island to UG seamlessly with sparse communication channels. Synchronization correction signals are generated by a voltage controller, which are only transmitted to the leader DGs. Meanwhile, each DG exchanges information with its...

  3. Foundation field bus in the Spanish nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez de Montagut Revenga, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the modification made in power plants nuclear ASCO 1 and 2 in which scans is the level Control system of Heaters to implementing an Ovation system, as well as the standard Foundation Field bus for field communications. This digitalisation has required a detailed study of the implications on security that could have the centralization of control loops in main feedwater system.

  4. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project: Evaluation Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report evaluates a fuel cell electric bus demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This evaluation report covers two years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2013.

  5. The Designing Bus for Nuclear Safety Class Controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dongil; Lee, Myeongkyun; Yun, Donghwa; Ryoo, Kwangki

    2013-01-01

    EtherCAT (Ethernet for Control Automation Technology) is based on the IEEE 802.3 standard as one of the communication which is the I/O (Input/Output), sensors and communication function of PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) in industry and factory environment use is increasing. The Nuclear Safety Class Controller implemented by the EtherCAT applied bus can be shown the improving performance of data transmission in the controller

  6. Deregulation and Intercity Bus Operations in Florida: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-02

    revenues have been consistent recently, but expenses have risen. The three areas most frequently served by Rabbit Bus Lines are Disney World, Sea World...Manager, Shoreline Stages had annual revenues of roughly $890,000 in 1980. In terms of trips, about ninety percent of this carrier’s traffic is interstate...this traffic constitutes the bulk of Shoreline Stage’s business by revenue , volume of traffic, and number of passengers. Charter trips to Disney

  7. The Designing Bus for Nuclear Safety Class Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dongil; Lee, Myeongkyun; Yun, Donghwa [PONUTech Co,. Ltd., Research Institute, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Ryoo, Kwangki [Hanbat National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    EtherCAT (Ethernet for Control Automation Technology) is based on the IEEE 802.3 standard as one of the communication which is the I/O (Input/Output), sensors and communication function of PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) in industry and factory environment use is increasing. The Nuclear Safety Class Controller implemented by the EtherCAT applied bus can be shown the improving performance of data transmission in the controller.

  8. Low back trouble among urban bus drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Juel, K

    1989-01-01

    herniation was 137 compared to all Danish men. These differences were statistically significant. Of psychosocial factors only "the feeling of being mentally unbalanced" was found to be statistically significantly related to subsequent hospital discharge with a LBT-diagnosis. Long seniority as bus driver...... of those discharged from hospital with LBT makes it probable that LBT has etiologic factors in the work environment. The sedentary position and whole-body vibrations may be contributory causes....

  9. A counting-card circuit based on PCI bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jing; Li Yong; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou; Su Hong; Dong Chengfu; Li Xiaogang; Ma Xiaoli

    2004-01-01

    A counting-card circuit based on PCI bus that we developed recently used for advanced personal computer will be introduced in this paper briefly. The maximum count capacity of this counting-card is 10 9 -1, ranging from 0 to 999 999 999, the maximum counting time range, 1 x 10 6 s, can be set in 1 cycle, the maximum counting rate is 20 MHz for positive input. (authors)

  10. Oxidative and nitrosative stress markers in bus drivers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössner ml., Pavel; Švecová, Vlasta; Milcová, Alena; Lněničková, Zdena; Solanský, I.; Santella, R. M.; Šrám, Radim

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 617, - (2007), s. 23-32 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/5/160/05; GA AV ČR 1QS500390506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : oxidative stress * bus drivers * air pollution Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.159, year: 2007

  11. Multi drop bus controller for IBM PC/AT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardik, Yu.I.; Kalistratov, E.N.; Matyushin, A.A.; Obukhov, G.A.; Trofimov, N.N.

    1993-01-01

    The module PC-AT-PBC gives a possibility to create a working place based on the computer IBM PC/AT for testing of hardware which is compatible with the multi drop bus. The KP1830BE31 micro program change turns the module into timing generator for power supply controllers of the UNK correction system. The structure of the module, functional parts, library functions and two application programs have been described. 4 refs., 9 figs

  12. Definition and Evaluation of Bus and Truck Automation Operations Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Tsao, H.-S. Jacob; Botha, Jan L.

    2002-01-01

    Traffic congestion will continue to worsen and likely worsen at a faster rate than ever. People throughput and freight throughput have become critical issues for California and the rest of the nation. PATH has been funding a one-year research project entitled "Definition and Evaluation of Bus and Truck Automation Operations Concepts," proposed by the authors. This report summarizes the results of the research project achieved during the first six months. During those six months, we reviewed l...

  13. MULTI - multifunctional interface of the IBM XT and AT type personal computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, T.; Kalavski, D.; Rubin, D.; Tulaev, A.B.; Tumanov, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    MULTI multifunctional interface which enables to solve problems of personal computer connestion with physical equipment without application of intermediate buses is described. Parallel 32-digit bidirectional 1/10 register and buffered bus of personal computer represent MULTI base. Ways of MULTI application are described

  14. Evaluation of Bus Vibration Comfort Based on Passenger Crowdsourcing Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration comfort is an important factor affecting the quality of service (QoS of bus. In order to make people involved in supervising bus’s vibration comfort and improve passengers’ riding experience, a novel mode of passenger crowdsourcing is introduced. In this paper, comfort degree of bus vibration is calculated from bus’s vibration signals collected by passengers’ smartphones and sent through WiFi to the Boa web server which shows the vibration comfort on the LCD deployed in bus and maybe trigger alarm lamp when the vibration is beyond the threshold. Three challenges here have been overcome: firstly, space coordinate transformation algorithm is used to solve the constant drift of signals collected; secondly, a low-pass filter is designed to isolate gravity from signals real-timely via limited computing resources; thirdly, an embedded evaluation system is developed according to the calculation procedure specified by criterion ISO 2631-1997. Meanwhile, the model proposed is tested in a practical running environment, the vibration data in whole travel are recorded and analyzed offline. The results show that comfort degree of vibration obtained from the experimental system is identical with the truth, and this mode is proved to be effective.

  15. HEV Test Bench Based on CAN Bus Sensor Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shupeng ZHAO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The HEV test bench based on Controller Area Network bus was studied and developed. Control system of HEV power test bench used the CAN bus technology. The application of CAN bus technology on control system development has opened up a new research direction for domestic automobile experimental platform. The HEV power control system development work was completed, including power master controller, electric throttle controller, driving simulation platform, CAN2.0 B communication protocol procedures for formulation, CAN communication monitoring system, the simulation model based on MATLAB code automatic generation technology research, etc. Maximum absorption power of the test bench is 90 kW, the test bench top speed is 6000 r/min, the CAN communication data baud rate is 10~500 k, the conventional electric measurement parameter part precision satisfies the requirement of development of HEV. On the HEV test bench the result of regenerative braking experiment shows that the result got by the test bench was closer to the results got by outdoor road test. And the fuel consumption experiment test results show that the HEV fuel consumption and the charge-discharge character are in linear relationship. The establishment of the test platform for the evaluation of the development of hybrid electric vehicle and power provides physical simulation and test platform.

  16. Electric bus migration in Bengaluru with dynamic charging technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Kumar Begwani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid but unplanned urban development coupled with economic growth has resulted in congestion and pollution concerns in Indian cities. This forced India consider taking concrete steps towards design policies that would help stir the nation towards a more sustainable future. India, along with other bigger Asian economies like China, needs to address the growing global concerns over climate change and design their framework and policies to help cut down the greenhouse gas emissions. Transportation is a major source of pollution. A shift towards a pro-public transport policy would solve the traffic congestion problems and address the emission concerns. India has a significantly higher modal share of public transportation in its major cities. Public bus transport system acts as a lifeline to the India’s poor and middle class citizens. The following study focuses on the need for a replacement of conventional fossil fuel dependent buses with Electric buses in the existing public transport bus fleet in the city of Bengaluru. A design has been developed to utilize wireless charging technologies to realize electric bus migration in Bengaluru.

  17. Pilot survey of subway and bus stop noise levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Robyn R M; Neitzel, Richard; Barrera, Marissa A; Akram, Muhammad

    2006-09-01

    Excessive noise exposure is a serious global urban health problem, adversely affecting millions of people. One often cited source of urban noise is mass transit, particularly subway systems. As a first step in determining risk within this context, we recently conducted an environmental survey of noise levels of the New York City transit system. Over 90 noise measurements were made using a sound level meter. Average and maximum noise levels were measured on subway platforms, and maximum levels were measured inside subway cars and at several bus stops for comparison purposes. The average noise level measured on the subway platforms was 86 +/- 4 dBA (decibel-A weighting). Maximum levels of 106, 112, and 89 dBA were measured on subway platforms, inside subway cars, and at bus stops, respectively. These results indicate that noise levels in subway and bus stop environments have the potential to exceed recommended exposure guidelines from the World Health Organization (WHO) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), given sufficient exposure duration. Risk reduction strategies following the standard hierarchy of control measures should be applied, where feasible, to reduce subway noise exposure.

  18. Replacement model of city bus: A dynamic programming approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin, Dadang; Yusuf, Edhi

    2017-06-01

    This paper aims to develop a replacement model of city bus vehicles operated in Bandung City. This study is driven from real cases encountered by the Damri Company in the efforts to improve services to the public. The replacement model propounds two policy alternatives: First, to maintain or keep the vehicles, and second is to replace them with new ones taking into account operating costs, revenue, salvage value, and acquisition cost of a new vehicle. A deterministic dynamic programming approach is used to solve the model. The optimization process was heuristically executed using empirical data of Perum Damri. The output of the model is to determine the replacement schedule and the best policy if the vehicle has passed the economic life. Based on the results, the technical life of the bus is approximately 20 years old, while the economic life is an average of 9 (nine) years. It means that after the bus is operated for 9 (nine) years, managers should consider the policy of rejuvenation.

  19. Safety evaluation of a hydrogen fueled transit bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutts, D.A.; Thomas, J.K.; Hovis, G.L.; Wu, T.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Hydrogen fueled vehicle demonstration projects must satisfy management and regulator safety expectations. This is often accomplished using hazard and safety analyses. Such an analysis has been completed to evaluate the safety of the H2Fuel bus to be operated in Augusta, Georgia. The evaluation methods and criteria used reflect the Department of Energy`s graded approach for qualifying and documenting nuclear and chemical facility safety. The work focused on the storage and distribution of hydrogen as the bus motor fuel with emphases on the technical and operational aspects of using metal hydride beds to store hydrogen. The safety evaluation demonstrated that the operation of the H2Fuel bus represents a moderate risk. This is the same risk level determined for operation of conventionally powered transit buses in the United States. By the same criteria, private passenger automobile travel in the United States is considered a high risk. The evaluation also identified several design and operational modifications that resulted in improved safety, operability, and reliability. The hazard assessment methodology used in this project has widespread applicability to other innovative operations and systems, and the techniques can serve as a template for other similar projects.

  20. Violence against metropolitan bus drivers and fare collectors in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Ávila Assunção

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the correlation between sociodemographic factors and working conditions of bus workers in a metropolitan area and violence against them. METHODS This cross-sectional study used a nonprobabilistic sample estimated according to the number of workers employed in bus companies located in three cities in the Belo Horizonte metropolitan region in 2012 (N = 17,470. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a digital questionnaire. The factors associated with violence were analyzed in two stages using Poisson regression, according to each level. The magnitude of the association was evaluated using prevalence ratios with robust variance and a statistical significance of 5%, and 95% confidence intervals were obtained. RESULTS The study sample comprised 782 drivers and 691 fare collectors; 45.0% participants reported at least one act of violence in the workplace in the last 12 months, with passengers being predominantly responsible. The age of the bus workers was inversely associated with violence. Chronic diseases, sickness absenteeism, and working conditions were also associated with violence. CONCLUSIONS The findings on the correlation between violence and working conditions are essential for implementing prevention strategies by transportation service managers.

  1. An Optimization Model for the Selection of Bus-Only Lanes in a City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qun

    2015-01-01

    The planning of urban bus-only lane networks is an important measure to improve bus service and bus priority. To determine the effective arrangement of bus-only lanes, a bi-level programming model for urban bus lane layout is developed in this study that considers accessibility and budget constraints. The goal of the upper-level model is to minimize the total travel time, and the lower-level model is a capacity-constrained traffic assignment model that describes the passenger flow assignment on bus lines, in which the priority sequence of the transfer times is reflected in the passengers' route-choice behaviors. Using the proposed bi-level programming model, optimal bus lines are selected from a set of candidate bus lines; thus, the corresponding bus lane network on which the selected bus lines run is determined. The solution method using a genetic algorithm in the bi-level programming model is developed, and two numerical examples are investigated to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed model.

  2. An Optimization Model for the Selection of Bus-Only Lanes in a City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Chen

    Full Text Available The planning of urban bus-only lane networks is an important measure to improve bus service and bus priority. To determine the effective arrangement of bus-only lanes, a bi-level programming model for urban bus lane layout is developed in this study that considers accessibility and budget constraints. The goal of the upper-level model is to minimize the total travel time, and the lower-level model is a capacity-constrained traffic assignment model that describes the passenger flow assignment on bus lines, in which the priority sequence of the transfer times is reflected in the passengers' route-choice behaviors. Using the proposed bi-level programming model, optimal bus lines are selected from a set of candidate bus lines; thus, the corresponding bus lane network on which the selected bus lines run is determined. The solution method using a genetic algorithm in the bi-level programming model is developed, and two numerical examples are investigated to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed model.

  3. Cellular Automata Based Modeling for Evaluating Different Bus Stop Designs in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyang Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A cellular automaton model is proposed to simulate mixed traffic flow composed of motor vehicles and bicycles near bus stops. Three typical types of bus stops which are common in China are considered in the model, including two types of curbside bus stops and one type of bus bay stops. Passenger transport capacity of three types of bus stops, which is applied to evaluate the bus stop design, is calculated based on the corresponding traffic flow rate. According to the simulation results, the flow rates of both motor vehicles and bicycles exhibit phase transition from free flow to the saturation one at the critical point. The results also show that the larger the interaction between motor vehicle and bicycle flow is near curbside bus stops, the more the value of saturated flows drops. Curbside bus stops are more suitable when the conflicts between two flows are small and the inflow rate of motor vehicles is low. On the contrary, bus bay stops should be applied due to their ability to reduce traffic conflicts. Findings of this study can provide useful suggestions on bus stop selection considering different inflow rate of motor vehicles and bicycles simultaneously.

  4. Design of the Bus Interface Unit for the Distributed Processor/Memory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    microroutine flowchart developed. Once this had been done , a high-speed, flexible microprocessor that would be adapt- able to a hardware...routine) was translated Into microcode and provide the mnemonic code and flowchart , Chapter V summarizes and discusses actual system construction...Fig. 11. This diagram shows that the BIU is driven by Interrupt stimuli which select the beginn ing address of the appropriate microroutine rather

  5. The third level trigger and output event unit of the UA1 data-acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cittolin, S.; Demoulin, M.; Fucci, A.; Haynes, W.; Martin, B.; Porte, J.P.; Sphicas, P.

    1989-01-01

    The upgraded UA1 experiment utilizes twelve 3081/E emulators for its third-level trigger system. The system is interfaced to VME, and is controlled by 68000 microprocessor VME boards on the input and output. The output controller communicates with an IBM 9375 mainframe via the CERN-IBM developed VICI interface. The events selected by the emulators are output on IBM-3480 cassettes. The usder interface to this system is based on a series of Macintosh personal computers connected to the VME bus. These Macs are also used for developing software for the emulators and for monitoring the entire system. The same configuration has also been used for offline event reconstruction. A description of the system, together with details of both the online and offline modes of operation and an evaluation of its performance are presented. (orig.)

  6. The third level trigger and output event unit of the UA1 data-acquisition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cittolin, S.; Demoulin, M.; Fucci, A.; Haynes, W.; Martin, B.; Porte, J. P.; Sphicas, P.

    1989-12-01

    The upgraded UA1 experiment utilizes twelve 3081/E emulators for its third-level trigger system. The system is interfaced to VME, and is controlled by 68000 microprocessor VME boards on the input and output. The output controller communicates with an IBM 9375 mainframe via the CERN-IBM developed VICI interface. The events selected by the emulators are output on IBM-3480 cassettes. The user interface to this system is based on a series of Macintosh personal computer connected to the VME bus. These Macs are also used for developing software for the emulators and for monitoring the entire system. The same configuration has also been used for offline event reconstruction. A description of the system, together with details of both the online and offline modes of operation and an eveluation of its performance are presented.

  7. Working conditions of bus drivers in the private sector and bus crashes in Kandy district, Sri Lanka: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatilleke, A U; Nakahara, S; Dharmaratne, S D; Jayatilleke, A C; Poudel, K C; Jimba, M

    2009-04-01

    To explore the effects of working conditions of private-bus drivers on bus crashes in Kandy district, Sri Lanka. A case-control study was carried out from August to September 2006. All private-bus drivers registered in Kandy district and involved in crashes reported to the police between November 2005 and April 2006 (n = 63) were selected as cases. Two control groups were included: private-bus drivers working on the same routes as the case drivers (n = 90) and private-bus drivers selected randomly from other routes of the district (n = 111). Data were collected using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Associations between working conditions and crashes were analysed using logistic regression. A strong association was observed between drivers' disagreements about working hours and bus crashes (matched controls, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 5.98, 95% CI 1.02 to 34.90; unmatched controls, AOR 18.74, 95% CI 2.00 to 175.84). A significant association was also observed between low salaries (US$100) and private-bus crashes (matched controls, AOR 1.01, 95% CI 0.40 to 2.54; unmatched controls, AOR 3.09, 95% CI 1.26 to 7.57). Drivers' disagreements about working hours and low salaries were significant risk factors for private-bus crashes in Kandy district, Sri Lanka. Therefore, new legislation for private-bus owners on the working hours and salaries of their drivers to prevent private-bus crashes is recommended.

  8. Designing Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Tidwell, Jenifer

    2010-01-01

    Despite all of the UI toolkits available today, it's still not easy to design good application interfaces. This bestselling book is one of the few reliable sources to help you navigate through the maze of design options. By capturing UI best practices and reusable ideas as design patterns, Designing Interfaces provides solutions to common design problems that you can tailor to the situation at hand. This updated edition includes patterns for mobile apps and social media, as well as web applications and desktop software. Each pattern contains full-color examples and practical design advice th

  9. Life cycle cost analysis of a car, a city bus and an intercity bus powertrain for year 2005 and 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellgren, Jonas

    2007-01-01

    The international economy, in the beginning of the 20th century, is characterized by uncertainty about the supply and the price of oil. Together with the fast decrease of electrical propulsion component prices, it becomes more and more cost effective to develop vehicles with alternative powertrains. This paper focuses on two questions: Are alternative powertrains especially cost effective for specific applications?; How does an increased fossil fuel price influences the choose of powertrain? To assess these questions, a computer tool named THEPS, developed in a Ph.D. project, is used. Three applications and three scenarios are analysed. The applications, a car, a city bus and an intercity bus, are vehicles all assumed to operate in Sweden. One scenario represents year 2005, the other two year 2020. The two future scenarios are characterized by different fossil fuel prices. The study, presented in the paper, indicates that alternative powertrains can be competitive from a cost perspective, in some applications, already in year 2005. It is for example cost effective to equip a city bus, running in countries with a high fuel price, with a hybrid powertrain. The study also indicates that pure electric, hybrid and/or fuel cell cars will probably be a more cost effective choice than conventional cars in year 2020. Another indication is that it will not be clear which powertrain concept to choose. The reason is that many cost effective powertrain concepts will be offered. The best choice will depend on the application

  10. A PRACTICAL STUDY ON APPLICABILITY OF THE INCENTIVE SUBSIDY TO BUS NETWORK IN KUMAMOTO CITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizokami, Shoshi; Fujimi, Toshio; Hirano, Toshihiko

    Recently, the number of passenger of public bus services in Japan tends to decrease due to the motorization. This condition leads to a severe management situation, including in Kumamoto City. Since 1984, the deficit of bus companies operation in provision of bus services in Kumamoto has been covered by Kumamoto City Government on the basis of lines subsidy, and the city allocated a number of subsidy of about 200 million yen in 2007. Currently, The Kumamoto city government plans to reduce the amount of subsidy to bus companies by introducing the giving of incentive to bus companies in order to trim bus company deficit. This study aims to construct the mathematical model of the incentive reward and apply the model to realignment of buses lines networks in Kumamoto Metropolitan Area.

  11. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Third Results Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2012-05-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. NREL has previously published two reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from July 2011 through January 2012.

  12. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Fourth Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2013-01-01

    SunLine Transit Agency, which provides public transit services to the Coachella Valley area of California, has demonstrated hydrogen and fuel cell bus technologies for more than 10 years. In May 2010, SunLine began demonstrating the advanced technology (AT) fuel cell bus with a hybrid electric propulsion system, fuel cell power system, and lithium-based hybrid batteries. This report describes operations at SunLine for the AT fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas buses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with SunLine to evaluate the bus in real-world service to document the results and help determine the progress toward technology readiness. NREL has previously published three reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from February 2012 through November 2012.

  13. Identification of voltage stability condition of a power system using measurements of bus variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durlav Hazarika

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several online methods were proposed for investigating the voltage stability condition of an interconnected power system using the measurements of voltage and current phasors at a bus. For this purpose, phasor measurement units (PMUs are used. A PMU is a device which measures the electrical waves on an electrical network, using a common time source (reference bus for synchronisation. This study proposes a method for online monitoring of voltage stability condition of a power system using measurements of bus variables namely – (i real power, (ii reactive power and (iii bus voltage magnitude at a bus. The measurements of real power, reactive power and bus voltage magnitude could be extracted/captured from a smart energy meter. The financial involvement for implementation of the proposed method would significantly lower compared with the PMU-based method.

  14. Bitmap-Wise Wireless M-Bus Coordination for Sustainable Real Time Energy Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-il Hwang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Even though WM-Bus is being considered to be the most promising network protocol for smart metering, it is not suitable for a sustainable real-time home energy management system (HEMS, which requires higher reliability and longer lifetime despite real time bi-directional communications. Therefore, in this paper we propose a Bitmap-wise WM-Bus (BWM-Bus, coping well with sustainable real-time HEMS. In particular, the proposed scheme addresses the several problems in WM-Bus for HEMS by introducing novel functions: asynchronous meter trigger, adaptive slot scheduling, and bitmap-wise retransmission request. Through experiments, we demonstrate that BWM-Bus guarantees higher data success ratio with lower data aggregation time, as well as longer lifetime than WM-Bus standard.

  15. CAMAPPLE: CAMAC interface to the Apple computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxoby, G.J.; Trang, Q.H.; Williams, S.H.

    1981-04-01

    The advent of the personal microcomputer provides a new tool for the debugging, calibration and monitoring of small scale physics apparatus, e.g., a single detector being developed for a larger physics apparatus. With an appropriate interface these microcomputer systems provide a low cost (1/3 the cost of a comparable minicomputer system), convenient, dedicated, portable system which can be used in a fashion similar to that of portable oscilloscopes. Here, an interface between the Apple computer and CAMAC which is now being used to study the detector for a Cerenkov ring-imaging device is described. The Apple is particularly well-suited to this application because of its ease of use, hi-resolution graphics, peripheral bus and documentation support

  16. Camapple: CAMAC interface to the Apple computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxoby, G.J.; Trang, Q.H.; Williams, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    The advent of the 'personal' microcomputer provides a new tool for the debugging, calibration and monitoring of small scale physics apparatus, e.g., a single detector being developed for a larger physics apparatus. With an appropriate interface these microcomputer systems provide a low cost (1/3 the cost of a comparable minicomputer system), convenient, dedicated, portable system which can be used in a fashion similar to that of portable oscilliscopes. Here we describe an interface between the Apple computer and CAMAC which is now being used to study the detector for a Cerenkov ring-imaging device. The Apple is particularly well-suited to this application because of its ease of use, hi-resolution graphics, peripheral bus and documentation support. (orig.)

  17. The scalable coherent interface, IEEE P1596

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavson, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    IEEE P1596, the scalable coherent interface (formerly known as SuperBus) is based on experience gained while developing Fastbus (ANSI/IEEE 960--1986, IEC 935), Futurebus (IEEE P896.x) and other modern 32-bit buses. SCI goals include a minimum bandwidth of 1 GByte/sec per processor in multiprocessor systems with thousands of processors; efficient support of a coherent distributed-cache image of distributed shared memory; support for repeaters which interface to existing or future buses; and support for inexpensive small rings as well as for general switched interconnections like Banyan, Omega, or crossbar networks. This paper presents a summary of current directions, reports the status of the work in progress, and suggests some applications in data acquisition and physics

  18. Interface unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyson, D.V.; Freudenthal, A.; De Hoogh, M.P.A.; Dekoven, E.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates to an interface unit comprising at least a display unit for communication with a user, which is designed for being coupled with a control unit for at least one or more parameters in a living or working environment, such as the temperature setting in a house, which control unit

  19. A Model of Bus Bunching under Reliability-based Passenger Arrival Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Fonzone, Achille; Schmöcker, Jan-Dirk; Liu, Ronghui

    2015-01-01

    If bus service departure times are not completely unknown to the passengers, non-uniform passenger arrival patterns can be expected. We propose that passengers decide their arrival time at stops based on a continuous logit model that considers the risk of missing services. Expected passenger waiting times are derived in a bus system that allows also for overtaking between bus services. We then propose an algorithm to derive the dwell time of subsequent buses serving a stop in order to illustr...

  20. The Bus Extension Module Design and Verification of POSAFE-Q Using LVDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Sang; Song, Seung Whan; No, Young Hun; Yoo, Kwan Woo

    2012-01-01

    This paper described the Bus Extension Module using Low Voltage Differential Signal (LVDS). A Bus Extension Module use Safety-Related PLC (Programmable Logic Controller), called POSAFE-Q (made by POSCO ICT), for handling many data (I/O) extension rack. A processor module of POSAFE-Q can control I/O Module installed another rack. This paper explains Bus Extension Module and Data transfer technology using LVDS. (author)

  1. Small Explorer Data System MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanegan, Mark; Label, Ken

    1992-01-01

    The MIL-STD-1773 Fiber Optic Data Bus as implemented in the GSFC Small Explorer Data System (SEDS) for the Small Explorer Program is described. It provides an overview of the SEDS MIL-STD-1773 bus components system design considerations, reliability figures, acceptance and qualification testing requirements, radiation requirements and tests, error handling considerations, and component heritage. The first mission using the bus will be launched in June of 1992.

  2. Evaluation of Urban Bus Transport Failure in Gujranwala City of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD WAQAR ASLAM

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research work has evaluated the performance of urban public bus transport service operating in Gujranwala city of Pakistan. The assessment has been made in terms of financial viability, bus condition, operational performance and user perception. Based on the data requirements, various traffic/transport surveys were conducted including Passenger Boarding and Alighting Survey, Bus Count Survey, Bus Inspection Survey, Illegal Operations Survey and Public Transport User Interview Survey in consultation with concerned department/agencies. Field surveys were also conducted to get input from passengers and local people. Initial investigation informed that out of four operational bus routes, only two routes are profitable. The overall bus operation is running in loss (only 0.3% net profit. It has barely any profit for the bus operator against its investment thereby making the urban bus operation financially non-viable. The whole revenue flow is dependent on passenger ticketing revenue only. Around 35% of the buses are in poor condition with major issues of quality of tyres, no speedometer, worse condition of seats, floor and ceiling, and display of route. Illegal operation of Qingqis/Rickshaws (as para-transit mode along the bus routes is also decreasing the revenue by capturing the passenger volume. According to passenger opinion analysis, around 55% of the passenger are not satisfied with the service quality and prefer other modes of transport. Their major concerns are absence of facilities for disables and bus stops, bus seating and standing capacity, poor bus condition and pick pocketing. Collectively, these factors are contributing

  3. The impact of bus drivers ’ lifestyle on the occurrence of health problems and absenteeism

    OpenAIRE

    Andrej Jerman; Maja Meško

    2016-01-01

    Research Question: Do bus drivers’ lifestyles affect the occurrence of health problems and absenteeism? Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether the lifestyle of professional bus drivers affects the occurrence of health problems and the phenomenon of absenteeism. Method: A quantitative research method was used in the research. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, on a sample of 230 professional bus drivers from differ...

  4. Best Operational and Maintenance Practices for City Bus Fleets to Maximize Fuel Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Energy Sector Management Assistance Program

    2011-01-01

    In most large cities in developing countries, buses continue to be the public transport option of choice, carrying a large share of urban travelers. However, transit bus companies in these countries are often cash-strapped. In many cases, the operating cost per bus kilometer exceeds revenues and bus fares are often kept low irrespective of the cost of providing service. Many cities are dom...

  5. Interface superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gariglio, S., E-mail: stefano.gariglio@unige.ch [DQMP, Université de Genève, 24 Quai E.-Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève (Switzerland); Gabay, M. [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Bat 510, Université Paris-Sud 11, Centre d’Orsay, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Mannhart, J. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Triscone, J.-M. [DQMP, Université de Genève, 24 Quai E.-Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • We discuss interfacial superconductivity, a field boosted by the discovery of the superconducting interface between LaAlO. • This system allows the electric field control and the on/off switching of the superconducting state. • We compare superconductivity at the interface and in bulk doped SrTiO. • We discuss the role of the interfacially induced Rashba type spin–orbit. • We briefly discuss superconductivity in cuprates, in electrical double layer transistor field effect experiments. • Recent observations of a high T{sub c} in a monolayer of FeSe deposited on SrTiO{sub 3} are presented. - Abstract: Low dimensional superconducting systems have been the subject of numerous studies for many years. In this article, we focus our attention on interfacial superconductivity, a field that has been boosted by the discovery of superconductivity at the interface between the two band insulators LaAlO{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3}. We explore the properties of this amazing system that allows the electric field control and on/off switching of superconductivity. We discuss the similarities and differences between bulk doped SrTiO{sub 3} and the interface system and the possible role of the interfacially induced Rashba type spin–orbit. We also, more briefly, discuss interface superconductivity in cuprates, in electrical double layer transistor field effect experiments, and the recent observation of a high T{sub c} in a monolayer of FeSe deposited on SrTiO{sub 3}.

  6. Analysis of bus passenger comfort perception based on passenger load factor and in-vehicle time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xianghao; Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Hu, Baoyu

    2016-01-01

    Although bus comfort is a crucial indicator of service quality, existing studies tend to focus on passenger load and ignore in-vehicle time, which can also affect passengers' comfort perception. Therefore, by conducting surveys, this study examines passengers' comfort perception while accounting for both factors. Then, using the survey data, it performs a two-way analysis of variance and shows that both in-vehicle time and passenger load significantly affect passenger comfort. Then, a bus comfort model is proposed to evaluate comfort level, followed by a sensitivity analysis. The method introduced in this study has theoretical implications for bus operators attempting to improve bus service quality.

  7. ARCNET as a field bus in the Fermilab linac control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, M.F.; Goodwin, R.W.; Kucera, M.J.; Shtirbu, S.

    1992-01-01

    Data acquisition hardware in accelerator control systems is connected by a field bus to networked computers that supply data to consoles. Industry attempts to standardize on a low level field bus have not succeeded in providing a single well-supported bus. This paper describes a data acquisition chassis that connects to VMEbus computers using ARCNET, a full featured token-passing local area network, as the field bus. The performance of this technique as implemented in the control system for the Fermilab Linac is given. (author)

  8. Superconducting link bus design for the accelerator project for upgrade of LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobrega, F.; Brandt, J.; Cheban, S.; Feher, S.; Kaducak, M.; Kashikhin, V.; Peterson, T.

    2011-01-01

    The Accelerator Project for Upgrade of LHC (APUL) is a U.S. project participating in and contributing to CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) upgrade program. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory was developing sub-systems for the upgrade of the LHC final focus magnet systems. Part of the upgrade called for various lengths of superconducting power transmission lines known as SC Links which were up to 100 m long. The SC Link electrically connects the current leads in the Distribution Feed Boxes to the interaction region magnets. The SC Link is an extension of the magnet bus housed within a cryostat. The present concept for the bus consists of 22 power cables, 4 x 13 kA, 2 x 7 kA, 8 x 2.5 kA and 8 x 0.6 kA bundled into one bus. Different cable and strand possibilities were considered for the bus design including Rutherford cable. The Rutherford cable bus design potentially would have required splices at each sharp elbow in the SC Link. The advantage of the round bus design is that splices are only required at each end of the bus during installation at CERN. The round bus is very flexible and is suitable for pulling through the cryostat. Development of the round bus prototype and of 2 splice designs is described in this paper. Magnetic analysis and mechanical test results of the 13 kA cable and splices are presented.

  9. Hierarchical Delay-Dependent Distributed Coordinated Control for DC Ring-Bus Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Chunxia; Yue, Dong; Zhang, Zhanqiang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a hierarchical distributed coordinated control method is proposed based on the multi-agent system for dc ring-bus microgrids to improve the bus voltage performance. First, a two-level multi-agent system is built, where each first-level unit control agent is associated with a distri......In this paper, a hierarchical distributed coordinated control method is proposed based on the multi-agent system for dc ring-bus microgrids to improve the bus voltage performance. First, a two-level multi-agent system is built, where each first-level unit control agent is associated...

  10. Analyzing the Relationship Between Bus Pollution Policies and Morbidity Using a Quasi-Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Nicole S

    2015-09-01

    Transit buses are used by millions of commuters every day, but they emit toxic diesel fumes. In 1988, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency implemented emission standards for transit buses, which have been continually updated. Yet there is no quantitative evidence of the health benefits from these bus pollution policies due to data constraints and confounding variables. In this study, a quasi-experiment is used to exploit the geographic and temporal variation in emission standards by using bus vintage as a proxy for bus emissions. This is accomplished using a unique, rich panel data set, which includes daily information on bus vintage and route for the New York City Transit bus fleet between 2006 and 2009. This information is merged with daily data on emergency department (ED) visits for respiratory illnesses, which include patients' residences at the census block level and exact admission date. Economic benefits resulting from these bus pollution policies are then estimated. Results show that stricter transit bus emission standards by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for particulate matter are associated with reduced ED visits for respiratory diseases for patients living within a few hundred feet of a bus route. These findings demonstrate that bus pollution policies have made critical improvements to public health.

  11. Concentrations and risk assessment of selected monoaromatic hydrocarbons in buses and bus stations of Hangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Chen, Shuguang; Zhu, Lizhong; Chen, Xiasheng; Yao, Chaoying; Shen, Xueyou

    2009-03-01

    Air pollution surveys of ten selected monoaromatic hydrocarbons (MAHCs) were conducted in buses and bus stations in Hangzhou, China. The mean concentrations of MAHCs in the air of buses and bus stations were 95.9 and 36.5 microg/m(3), respectively, of which toluene was the highest in all the sampling sites. Mean concentrations of all MAHCs in buses were statistically higher than those nearby bus stations (pbus drivers were 1.11x10(-5) and 4.00x10(-5), respectively, which were way above the limit set by USEPA. The health risk caused by MAHCs in bus microenvironment should be cautioned.

  12. A Realization of Temperature Monitoring System Based on Real-Time Kernel μC/OS and 1-wire Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmei Qi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional temperature monitoring system generally adopt some analog sensors for collecting data and a microcontroller for processing data for the purpose of temperature monitoring. However, this back-fore ground system has the disadvantages that the system has poor real-time property and single function, the amount of sensors is not easy to expand, and the software system has a difficulty in upgrading. Aiming at these disadvantages, the system designed in this paper adopts brand-new hardware and software structures: a digitaltemperature sensor array is connected to 1-wire bus and communicated with a control core through 1-wire bus protocol, thus a great convenience is provided for the expansion of the sensor; a real-time operating system is introduced into the software, an application program capable of realizing various functions runs on the real-time kernel μC/OS-II platform. The application of the real-time kernel also provides a good lower layer interface for the late-stage software upgrading.

  13. Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus Project: Demonstrating a Total Transit Solution for Fuel Cell Electric Buses in Boston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-22

    The Federal Transit Administration's National Fuel Cell Bus Program focuses on developing commercially viable fuel cell bus technologies. Nuvera is leading the Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus project to demonstrate a complete transit solution for fuel cell electric buses that includes one bus and an on-site hydrogen generation station for the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA). A team consisting of ElDorado National, BAE Systems, and Ballard Power Systems built the fuel cell electric bus, and Nuvera is providing its PowerTap on-site hydrogen generator to provide fuel for the bus.

  14. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Andre L. Boehman; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The laboratory studies have included work with a Navistar V-8 turbodiesel engine, demonstration of engine operation on DME-diesel blends and instrumentation for evaluating fuel properties. The field studies have involved performance, efficiency and emissions measurements with the Champion Motorcoach ''Defender'' shuttle bus which will be converted to DME-fueling. The results include baseline emissions, performance and combustion measurements on the Navistar engine for operation on a federal low sulfur diesel fuel (300 ppm S). Most recently, they have completed engine combustion studies on DME-diesel blends up to 30 wt% DME addition.

  15. Interface learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Sally

    2014-01-01

    "Interface learning - New goals for museum and upper secondary school collaboration" investigates and analyzes the learning that takes place when museums and upper secondary schools in Denmark work together in local partnerships to develop and carry out school-related, museum-based coursework...... for students. The research focuses on the learning that the students experience in the interface of the two learning environments: The formal learning environment of the upper secondary school and the informal learning environment of the museum. Focus is also on the learning that the teachers and museum...... professionals experience as a result of their collaboration. The dissertation demonstrates how a given partnership’s collaboration affects the students’ learning experiences when they are doing the coursework. The dissertation presents findings that museum-school partnerships can use in order to develop...

  16. Scheduling with Bus Access Optimization for Distributed Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eles, Petru; Doboli, Alex; Pop, Paul

    2000-01-01

    of control. Our goal is to derive a worst case delay by which the system completes execution, such that this delay is as small as possible; to generate a logically and temporally deterministic schedule; and to optimize parameters of the communication protocol such that this delay is guaranteed. We have......In this paper, we concentrate on aspects related to the synthesis of distributed embedded systems consisting of programmable processors and application-specific hardware components. The approach is based on an abstract graph representation that captures, at process level, both dataflow and the flow......, generates an efficient bus access scheme as well as the schedule tables for activation of processes and communications....

  17. Development of bus duct inspection robot at nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Mamoru; Hoshi, Teruaki; Komura, Yoshinari

    2017-01-01

    Under the present situation, nuclear power plant has some places which are inspected with difficulty or not inspected due to narrowness or physical restriction, when carrying out periodical inspection. The subject of our research and development is to improve the accuracy of inspection and also to save labor (liberation from distress work of the worker) by applying a robot technology to the periodical inspection of the nuclear power plant. As a specific example, we report that developed robot can inspect inside the narrow space of Isolated Phase Bus ducts, which connect between a turbine generator and the main transformer. (author)

  18. Multifactor-Driven Hierarchical Routing on Enterprise Service Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Xueqiang; Tang, Xinhuai; Yuan, Xiaozhou; Chen, Delai; Luo, Xiangfeng

    Message Routing is the foremost functionality on Enterprise Service Bus (ESB), but current ESB products don't provide an expected solution for it, especially in the aspects of runtime route change mechanism and service orchestration model. In order to solve the above drawbacks, this paper proposes a multifactor-driven hierarchical routing (MDHR) model. MDHR defines three layers for message routing on ESB. Message layer gives the original support for message delivery. Application layer can integration or encapsulate some legacy applications or un-standard services. Business layer introduces business model to supplies developers with a business rule configuration, which supports enterprise integration patterns and simplifies the service orchestration on ESB.

  19. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation Results: Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-09-01

    Second report evaluating a fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL published its first report on the demonstration in February 2014. This report is an update to the previous report; it covers 3 full years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2014 and focuses on the final experiences and lessons learned.

  20. Economic Optimization Analysis of Chengdu Electric Community Bus Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yidong, Wang; Yun, Cai; Zhengping, Tan; Xiong, Wan

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, the government has strongly supported and promoted electric vehicles and has given priority to demonstration and popularization in the field of public transport. The economy of public transport operations has drawn increasing attention. In this paper, Chengdu wireless charging pure electric community bus is used as the research object, the battery, air conditioning, driver’s driving behavior and other economic influence factors were analyzed, and optimizing the operation plan through case data analysis, through the reasonable battery matching and mode of operation to help businesses effectively save operating costs and enhance economic efficiency.

  1. Fuel options for public bus fleets in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Xylia, Maria; Silveira, Semida

    2015-01-01

    The Swedish public transport sector has defined two major targets, i.e., to run 90% of the total vehicle kilometers of the fleet on non-fossil fuels and double the volume of travel via public transport by 2020, increasing the share of public transport in relation to the total personal transport in the country . The f3 report Fuel options for public bus fleets in Sweden highlights the challenges and solutions encountered, particularly when it comes to the adoption of renewable fuels in the reg...

  2. Sliding-Mode Control of a Charger/Discharger DC/DC Converter for DC-Bus Regulation in Renewable Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ignacio Serna-Garcés

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Stand-alone power systems based on renewable energy sources are used to replace generators based on fossil fuels. Those renewable power systems also require Energy Storage Devices (ESD interfaced by a charger/discharger power converter, which consist of a bidirectional DC/DC converter, and a DC bus. This paper proposes a single sliding-mode controller (SMC for the charger/discharger DC/DC converter to provide a stable DC bus voltage in any operation condition: charging or discharging the ESD, or even without any power exchange between the ESD and the DC bus. Due to the non-linear nature of the power converter, the SMC parameters are adapted on-line to ensure global stability in any operation condition. Such stability of the adaptive SMC is mathematically demonstrated using analytical expressions for the transversality, reachability and equivalent control conditions. Moreover, a design procedure for the adaptive SMC parameters is provided in order to ensure the dynamic response required for the correct operation of the load. Finally, simulations and experimental tests validate the proposed controller and design procedure.

  3. A real time data acquisition system using the MIL-STD-1553B bus. [for transmission of data to host computer for control law processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peri, Frank, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A flight digital data acquisition system that uses the MIL-STD-1553B bus for transmission of data to a host computer for control law processing is described. The instrument, the Remote Interface Unit (RIU), can accommodate up to 16 input channels and eight output channels. The RIU employs a digital signal processor to perform local digital filtering before sending data to the host. The system allows flexible sensor and actuator data organization to facilitate quick control law computations on the host computer. The instrument can also run simple control laws autonomously without host intervention. The RIU and host computer together have replaced a similar larger, ground minicomputer system with favorable results.

  4. The IHE-Bus: a practical tool to instrument and simulate IHE deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shani, Uri; Carmeli, Boaz; Kol, Tomer; Ram, Roni; Shabo, Amnon

    2005-04-01

    The IHE (Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise) initiative provides essential guidelines for the deployment of a digital health information management environment. IHE, while not inventing new standards, creates a system-level and component-level design, based on the products of the leading standards, HL7, DICOM, and more. As such, IHE can be viewed as the "Standard of Standards". The most significant value of IHE is that vendors can work on specific components of the enterprise solution, playing one or more of the IHE actor roles. IHE defines, for each actor, its external interface to the other actors in the system. Yet, the integrator of an entire IHE solution may find this job extremely difficult. The larger the number of vendors involved in the solution, the tougher the job. The complexity of coordinating all the components to work as one coherent solution multiplies and may become intractable. IHE defines very well "what" should be done, but not "how." IHE-Bus offers a practical solution for the "how" question, with many advantages. This solution is borrowed from the business integration sphere. IHE becomes a platform, and each actor can be "plugged" into it in a simple step. New actors are independent of other actors already in the system. Missing actors can be simulated (by a "stub") until replaced with the real product in the future. Moreover, the entire IHE network is managed as a single coherent system with powerful tools encapsulating the enormous amount of knowledge and expertise deemed necessary to uphold this job.

  5. CFD analysis of flow in engine compartment of large urban bus; Ogata bus no engine room nai nagare kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, H; Otake, M; Iioka, K [Nissan Diesel Motor Co. Ltd., Saitama (Japan); Sato, K [Subaru Research Center Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A CFD simulation was performed to analyze the air flow in the engine compartment of a large urban bus. The conventional simulation technique takes a long time to perform the parameter study of a complex engine compartment shape. In this study, the use of orthogonal grids made modeling the engine compartment easy, so parameter study on modification of the engine compartment structure could be conducted in a short time. Thus this simulation enables engineers to more clearly understand the air flow patterns in the engine compartment, and to get guidlines for modifying the compartment structure to improve the cooling performance. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  6. Overview of the Scalable Coherent Interface, IEEE STD 1596 (SCI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavson, D.B.; James, D.V.; Wiggers, H.A.

    1992-10-01

    The Scalable Coherent Interface standard defines a new generation of interconnection that spans the full range from supercomputer memory 'bus' to campus-wide network. SCI provides bus-like services and a shared-memory software model while using an underlying, packet protocol on many independent communication links. Initially these links are 1 GByte/s (wires) and 1 GBit/s (fiber), but the protocol scales well to future faster or lower-cost technologies. The interconnect may use switches, meshes, and rings. The SCI distributed-shared-memory model is simple and versatile, enabling for the first time a smooth integration of highly parallel multiprocessors, workstations, personal computers, I/O, networking and data acquisition

  7. King County Metro Battery Electric Bus Demonstration: Preliminary Project Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-22

    The U.S. Federal Transit Administration (FTA) funds a variety of research projects that support the commercialization of zero-emission bus technology. To evaluate projects funded through these programs, FTA has enlisted the help of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct third-party evaluations of the technologies deployed under the FTA programs. NREL works with the selected agencies to evaluate the performance of the zero-emission buses compared to baseline conventional buses in similar service. The evaluation effort will advance the knowledge base of zero-emission technologies in transit bus applications and provide 'lessons learned' to aid other fleets in incrementally introducing next generation zero-emission buses into their operations. This report provides preliminary performance evaluation results from a demonstration of three zero-emission battery electric buses at King County Metro in King County, Washington. NREL developed this preliminary results report to quickly disseminate evaluation results to stakeholders. Detailed evaluation results will be published in future reports.

  8. Operational efficiency of the lighting system of bus salons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brytkovskyi V.M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the problem of safety of people is studied primarily in aspects of natural and man-made disasters, fire, health and safety in the workplace. A problem connected with the way of life of the people, in particular with the use of bus transport remains almost out of sight. In addition to the foregoing, there is another side to the issue: modern development of industry and transport is characterized by large-scale introduction of technical measures aimed at saving energy In the specified aspect theoretical dependences for evaluation of technological economic efficiency of light sources in indoor lighting system buses are grounded. This theoretical dependency will make analytical framework justification applying the respective sources of light, taking into account the hygiene requirements to illumination. The methodology of calculation of economic efficiency of lighting of bus salons is offered. Estimating parameter is justified relative objective function value costs per unit of time or distance. The greatest costs are typical for lamps with incandescent bulbs. The least is common to lamps with fluorescent lamps. Led bulbs have no significant advantage even over incandescent lamps. The reason for this is the relatively high color temperature radiation of LED lamps that requires more light levels and, consequently, the high cost of energy, as well as relatively large initial cost of these lamps.

  9. Design of a steering stabilizer based on CAN bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Zhaomin; Yan, Yibin

    2018-04-01

    This design realizes a posture correction device of griping steering wheel based on CAN bus, which is embedded in the steering wheel of vehicles. The system aims to detect the drivers' abnormal griping postures and provides drivers with classification alerts, by combining the recorded griping postures data and the vehicle speed data that are obtained via the CAN bus. The warning information are automatically stored and retained in the device for 12 months. To enhance the alerting effect, the count of this warning message for both the latest month and the last 12 months are displayed on the dashboard panel. In addition to prevent itself from being blocked and self-detect any faults in advance, the appliance also provide a self-test function, which will communicate with the integrated instrument system in vehicle and do simulation test right after the vehicle power on. This appliance can help to urge and ensure drivers to operate the steering wheel correctly, effectively, and timely; prevent some typical incorrect behaviors which commonly happen along with the change of griping postures, such as the using cellphone, and ultimately, reduce the incidence of traffic accidents.

  10. A programmable systolic trigger processor for FERA bus data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, G.; Hovander, B.; Sellden, B.; Bohm, C.

    1992-09-01

    A generic CAMAC based trigger processor module for fast processing of large amounts of ADC data, has been designed. This module has been realised using complex programmable gate arrays (LCAs from XILINX). The gate arrays have been connected to memories and multipliers in such a way that different gate array configurations can cover a wide range of module applications. Using this module, it is possible to construct complex trigger processors. The module uses both the fast ECL FERA bus and the CAMAC bus for inputs and outputs. The latter, however, is primarily used for set-up and control but may also be used for data output. Large numbers of ADCs can be served by a hierarchical arrangement of trigger processor modules, processing ADC data with pipe-line arithmetics producing the final result at the apex of the pyramid. The trigger decision will be transmitted to the data acquisition system via a logic signal while numeric results may be extracted by the CAMAC controller. The trigger processor was originally developed for the proposed neutral particle search experiment at CERN, NUMASS. There it was designed to serve as a second level trigger processor. It was required to correct all ADC raw data for efficiency and pedestal, calculate the total calorimeter energy, obtain the optimal time of flight data and calculate the particle mass. A suitable mass cut would then deliver the trigger decision. More complex triggers were also considered. (au)

  11. Development of a multi-mode hybrid electric bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemmans, M.J. [Overland Custom Coach, Thorndale, ON (Canada); Bland, C. [BET Services Inc., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2004-04-01

    This paper describes the development of an energy efficient, low floor, 28 foot hybrid electric bus for use as an airport shuttle bus or other specialized transit operations. A multi-mode concept was also adopted to include the capability of operating in battery-only drive, engine-only drive or a range of hybrid electric drive modes. The electric drivetrain was powered by a battery pack or a combination of a battery pack and an internal combustion engine-powered electric generator. The participating companies in this project include Overland Custom Coach, BET Services Inc., Siemens and Transport Canada. The technical feasibility study was described with reference to duty cycles, performance issues, vehicle weight, mechanical drive issues, brakes, suspension, powertrain cooling, heating, ventilation, electrical system, batteries and control system. The commercial feasibility was also described in terms of capital and operating costs. Results of the prototype tests validate the possibilities of zero or reduced emission transit in real world applications. 25 tabs., 32 figs.

  12. Studying customer loyalty at Daewoo express bus service, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Yousaf

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Meeting service quality standards and striving for loyalty are two critical areas which have until now been overlooked by both the passenger transport industry and academia in Pakistan therefore the study sheds useful light on an issue hitherto untouched. Therefore increased sample size will help in increasing generalizability of study. Methods: This paper is designed to study the level of loyalty at Daewoo Express Bus Service in Sargodha by measuring customer satisfaction. Researchers used a small sample of only 96 respondents (passengers and only studies customer's behavior in the service quality of Daewoo Express Bus Service however it may differ in other passenger transport services. Results and conclusions: This paper reveals that there is a positive and significant relationship between loyalty (dependant variable and price perceptions, reliability, retrieving and smoothing (independent variables. However, the study found that reliability of services is the most important dimension among other independent variables (price perceptions, smoothing, reliability, retrieving effecting customers loyalty at Daewoo Express. Paper under consideration would surely assist Daewoo`s management team to take care of the loopholes existing in the current service level and likely threats which Daewoo might face.

  13. CERPEN FARUK “BUS KOTA” DALAM SEMIOTIK ROLAND BARTHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Widyatwati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Literature called beautiful if it contains the mandate, message, ideas and meanings that are useful for the readers. Short story “Bus Kota” (City Bus containing the mandate, message, ideas and meanings that are useful to the reader. The mandate will be revealed by Roland Barthes' semiotic theory in the book S/Z. Literature has its own allure and text have accrued but not due to independence because of the difference in quality. Texts merge into a unity, or restore any text not as an individual but as a form of plurality. Literature as part of a social system is an expression of the author's sense of the outpouring of public life. Literary works can express themselves in the author's view the social and cultural changes in society because of the development of information technology and rapid. Technological developments and socio-cultural information can change in society so as to affect the psychology of the people. Society must have a thickness of faith not only for themselves, but to be able to maintain equanimity in the life of a pluralistic society

  14. A fuel cell city bus with three drivetrain configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Junping [Key Laboratory of Education Ministry for Modern Design and Rotor-Bearing System, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Chen, Yong [School of Automobile and Transporting Engineering, Liaoning Institute of Technology, Jinzhou, Liaoning 121001 (China); Chen, Quanshi [State Key Laboratory of Automobile Safety and Energy Conservation, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2006-09-22

    Three fuel cell city buses of the energy hybrid- and power hybrid-type were re-engineered with three types of drivetrain configuration to optimize the structure and improve the performance. The energy distribution, hydrogen consumption, state of charge (SOC) and the power variation rate were analyzed when different drivetrain configurations and parameters were used. When powered only by a fuel cell, the bus cannot recover the energy through regenerative braking. The variation of the fuel cell power is large and frequent, which is not good for the fuel cell. When the fuel cell is linked to a battery pack in parallel, the bus can recover the energy through regenerative braking. The energy distribution is determined by the parameters of the fuel cell and the battery pack in the design stage to reduce the power variation rate of the fuel cell. When the fuel cell and DC/DC converter connected in series links the battery pack in parallel, energy can be recovered and the energy distribution can be adjusted online. The power variation rate of both the fuel cell and the battery pack are reduced. (author)

  15. Particulate air pollution and vascular reactivity: the bus stop study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dales, Robert; Liu, Ling; Szyszkowicz, Mietek; Dalipaj, Mary; Willey, Jeff; Kulka, Ryan; Ruddy, Terrence D

    2007-11-01

    Particulate air pollution is associated with cardiovascular morbidity but mechanisms are not well understood. We tested the effects on vascular reactivity of exposure to fine particulates matter mass (PM(2.5)), number of particles bus stops. Flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) of the brachial artery was then measured by ultrasound and expressed as: (maximum artery diameter after release of a blood pressure cuff inflated above systolic pressure-baseline resting diameter)/baseline resting diameter. A 30 microg/m(3) increase in PM(2.5) exposure corresponded to a 0.48% reduction in FMD, P=0.05 representing a 5% relative change in the maximum ability to dilate. Results were consistent between the two bus stops and not sensitive to type of analysis. No significant association was found between FMD and NO(2), PM(1.0) or traffic density. PM(2.5) may reduce the capacity to vasodilate, a potential explanation for the documented association with cardiovascular morbidity.

  16. Diesel bus emissions measured in a tunnel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamriska, Milan; Morawska, Lidia; Thomas, Steven; He, Congrong

    2004-12-15

    The emission factors of a bus fleet consisting of approximately 300 diesel-powered buses were measured in a tunnel study under well-controlled conditions during a 2-d monitoring campaign in Brisbane. Particle number and mass concentration levels of submicrometer particles and PM2.5 were monitored by SMPS and DustTrak instruments at the tunnel's entrance and exit, respectively. Correlation between DustTrak and TEOM response to diesel emissions was assessed, and the DustTrak results were recalculated into TEOM equivalent data. The mean value of the number and mass emission factors was (3.11+/-2.41) x 10(14) particles km(-1) for submicrometer particles and 583+/-451 mg km(-1) for PM2.5 (DustTrak), respectively. TEOM PM2.5 equivalent emission factor was 267+/-207 mg km(-1). The results are in good agreement with the emission factors determined from steady-state dynamometer testing of 12 buses from the same Brisbane City bus fleet. The results indicate that when carefully designed, both approaches, the dynamometer and on-road studies, can provide comparable results, applicable for the assessment of the effect of traffic emissions on airborne particle pollution. A brief overview of emission factors determined from other on-road and dynamometer studies reported in the literature as well as with the regulatory values used for the vehicle emission inventory assessment is presented and compared with the results obtained in this study.

  17. Bus Implementation Using New Low Power PFSCL Tristate Buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Pandey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes new positive feedback source coupled logic (PFSCL tristate buffers suited to bus applications. The proposed buffers use switch to attain high impedance state and modify the load or the current source section. An interesting consequence of this is overall reduction in the power consumption. The proposed tristate buffers consume half the power compared to the available switch based counterpart. The issues with available PFSCL tristate buffers based bus implementation are identified and benefits of employing the proposed tristate buffer topologies are put forward. SPICE simulation results using TSMC 180 nm CMOS technology parameters are included to support the theoretical formulations. The performance of proposed tristate buffer topologies is examined on the basis of propagation delay, output enable time, and power consumption. It is found that one of the proposed tristate buffer topology outperforms the others in terms of all the performance parameters. An examination of behavior of available and the proposed PFSCL tristate buffer topologies under parameter variations and mismatch shows a maximum variation of 14%.

  18. School Bus Transportation of Children With Special Health Care Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Joseph; Hoffman, Benjamin D

    2018-05-01

    School systems are responsible for ensuring that children with special needs are safely transported on all forms of federally approved transportation provided by the school system. A plan to provide the most current and proper support to children with special transportation needs should be developed by the Individualized Education Program team, including the parent, school transportation director, and school nurse, in conjunction with physician orders and recommendations. With this statement, we provide current guidance for the protection of child passengers with specific health care needs. Guidance that applies to general school transportation should be followed, inclusive of staff training, provision of nurses or aides if needed, and establishment of a written emergency evacuation plan as well as a comprehensive infection control program. Researchers provide the basis for recommendations concerning occupant securement for children in wheelchairs and children with other special needs who are transported on a school bus. Pediatricians can help their patients by being aware of guidance for restraint systems for children with special needs and by remaining informed of new resources. Pediatricians can also play an important role at the state and local level in the development of school bus specifications. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Soft Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strzalkowski, Ireneusz

    1997-01-01

    This book presents an extended form of the 1994 Dirac Memorial Lecture delivered by Pierre Gilles de Gennes at Cambridge University. The main task of the presentation is to show the beauty and richness of structural forms and phenomena which are observed at soft interfaces between two media. They are much more complex than forms and phenomena existing in each phase separately. Problems are discussed including both traditional, classical techniques, such as the contact angle in static and dynamic partial wetting, as well as the latest research methodology, like 'environmental' scanning electron microscopes. The book is not a systematic lecture on phenomena but it can be considered as a compact set of essays on topics which particularly fascinate the author. The continuum theory widely used in the book is based on a deep molecular approach. The author is particularly interested in a broad-minded rheology of liquid systems at interfaces with specific emphasis on polymer melts. To study this, the author has developed a special methodology called anemometry near walls. The second main topic presented in the book is the problem of adhesion. Molecular processes, energy transformations and electrostatic interaction are included in an interesting discussion of the many aspects of the principles of adhesion. The third topic concerns welding between two polymer surfaces, such as A/A and A/B interfaces. Of great worth is the presentation of various unsolved, open problems. The kind of topics and brevity of description indicate that this book is intended for a well prepared reader. However, for any reader it will present an interesting picture of how many mysterious processes are acting in the surrounding world and how these phenomena are perceived by a Nobel Laureate, who won that prize mainly for his investigations in this field. (book review)

  20. Interface Screenings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2015-01-01

    In Wim Wenders' film Until the End of the World (1991), three different diagrams for the visual integration of bodies are presented: 1) GPS tracking and mapping in a landscape, 2) video recordings layered with the memory perception of these recordings, and 3) data-created images from dreams...... and memories. From a transvisual perspective, the question is whether or not these (by now realized) diagrammatic modes involving the body in ubiquitous global media can be analysed in terms of the affects and events created in concrete interfaces. The examples used are filmic as felt sensations...

  1. Activities of four bus terminals of Semarang City gateway and the related GHG emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huboyo, H. S.; Wardhana, I. W.; Sutrisno, E.; Wangi, L. S.; Lina, R. A.

    2018-01-01

    The activities of the bus terminal, including loading-unloading passengers, bus idling, and bus movements at the terminal, will emit GHG’s emission. This research analyzes GHG emission from four terminals, i.e., Mangkang, Terboyo, Penggaron, and Sukun in Semarang City. The emission was estimated by observing detail activities of public transport means, especially for moving and idling time. The emission was calculated by Tier 2 method based on the vehicle type as well as fuel consumption. The highest CO2e during vehicle movements at Sukun area was contributed by large bus about 2.08 tons/year, while at Terboyo terminal was contributed by medium bus about 347.97 tons/year. At Mangkang terminals, the highest emission for vehicle movements was attributed by medium bus as well of about 53.18 tons/year. At last, Penggaron terminal’s highest GHG emission was attributed by BRT about 26.47 tons/year. During idling time, the highest contributor to CO2e was the large bus at the three terminals, i.e., Sukun of 43.53 tons/year, Terboyo of 196.56 tons/year, and Mangkang of 84.26 tons/year, while at Penggaron, BRT dominated with CO2e of 26.47 tons/year. The management of public transport in terminals is crucial to mitigate the emission related to bus terminals activities.

  2. Acute subdural hemorrhage while traveling by bus: a risk factor in the elderly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soysal, Suna; Topacoglu, Hakan; Acarbay, Sabiha; Ozbas, Kerem

    2005-01-01

    A 71-year-old man was delivered to our emergency department by an intercity bus. About 4 hours into a journey, he had complained of a headache to his wife. After one more hour, she noted a change in his level of alertness and notified the bus driver. A computed tomography scan of the head showed a subdural hemorrhage.

  3. 77 FR 74452 - Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... require FTA to work with bus manufacturers and transit agencies to establish a new pass/ fail standard for... buses from the current value of 150 pounds to a new value of 175 pounds. This increase was proposed to... new pass/fail standards that require a more comprehensive review of its overall bus testing program...

  4. Successfulness of bus rapid transit systems in Asia. Ex-post evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kogdenko, Nadja

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) can be defined as “a bus-based mass transit system that delivers fast, comfortable, and cost-effective urban mobility”. It offers the opportunity to create a high-quality mass transit system at affordable costs, which is p

  5. For Safety and Sanity's Sake, Help Bus Drivers Keep Peace on the Ride to School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Andrew

    1987-01-01

    Outlines common-sense tips for disciplining student bus riders that are recommended by several driver-training programs. Themes include the following: (1) Set a few clear rules for proper bus behavior; (2) be positive; and (3) establish amiable communication with the children and with the principal as well. (CJH)

  6. Converter Power Density Increase using Low Inductive Integrated DC-link Capacitor/Bus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Franke, Toke; Rannested, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    The power losses in switching devices have a direct effect on the maximum converter power. For a voltage source converter, the DC-link bus has a major influence on the power loss and safe operating area of the power devices. The Power Ring Film CapacitorTM integrated with an optimized bus structu...

  7. Evoking Emotions and Unpacking Layered Histories through Young Children's Illustrations of Racial Bus Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuby, Candace R.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on theories of multi-modality and critical visual literacy, this article focuses on images that five-and six year-olds painted in a class-made book, Voice on the Bus, about racial segregation. The article discusses how children used illustrations to convey their understandings of Rosa Parks' bus arrest in Alabama. A post-structural view…

  8. Bus Operation Monitoring Oriented Public Transit Travel Index System and Calculation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Weng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed a two-dimensional index system which is concerned essentially with urban travel based on travel modes and user satisfaction. First, the public transit was taken as an example to describe the index system establishing process. In consideration of convenience, rapid, reliability, comfort, and safety, a bus service evaluation index system was established. The indicators include the N-minute coverage of bus stops, average travel speed, and fluctuation of travel time between stops and bus load factor which could intuitively describe the characteristics of public transport selected to calculate bus travel indexes. Then, combined with the basic indicators, the calculation models of Convenience Index (CI, Rapid Index (RI, Reliability Index (RBI, and Comfort Index (CTI were established based on the multisource data of public transit including the real-time bus GPS data and passenger IC card data. Finally, a case study of Beijing bus operation evaluation and analysis was conducted by taking real bus operation data including GPS data and passenger transaction recorder (IC card data. The results showed that the operation condition of the public transit was well reflected and scientifically classified by the bus travel index models.

  9. Air flow through a non-airconditioned bus with open windows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thus, bus travel which is the backbone of public transport in India will continue ... was not possible to replicate the same Reynolds number as in a real bus. With the .... The Kolmogorov time scale, τη can be estimated to be 6 × 10. −3 s. Thus ...

  10. Operating Time Division for a Bus Route Based on the Recovery of GPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus travel time is an important source of data for time of day partition of the bus route. However, in practice, a bus driver may deliberately speed up or slow down on route so as to follow the predetermined timetable. The raw GPS data collected by the GPS device equipped on the bus, as a result, cannot reflect its real operating conditions. To address this concern, this study first develops a method to identify whether there is deliberate speed-up or slow-down movement of a bus. Building upon the relationships between the intersection delay, link travel time, and traffic flow, a recovery method is established for calculating the real bus travel time. Using the dwell time at each stop and the recovered travel time between each of them as the division indexes, a sequential clustering-based time of day partition method is proposed. The effectiveness of the developed method is demonstrated using the data of bus route 63 in Harbin, China. Results show that the partition method can help bus enterprises to design reasonable time of day intervals and significantly improve their level of service.

  11. Study on the optimum design of bus window pillar join40t; Bus window pillar ketsugo buzai no saiteki sekkei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomioka, N [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan); Lim, S; Kim, M; Lee, H; Kang, S; Bae, D

    1997-10-01

    Automobile body structure is generally assembled using various spot welded box sectional members. Especially, in the case of the bus, the shape of window pillar joint is assembled m T-type. This T-type member has some problem such as high stress concentration, low fatigue strength and structural rigidity. Therefore, in this report, performed a study on the optimum design of the bus window pillar joint for such problem by FEM analysis and experiments. 1 ref., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. A Study of BUS Architecture Design for Controller of Nuclear Power Plant Using FPGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dongil; Yun, Donghwa; Hwang, Sungjae; Kim, Myeongyun; Lee, Dongyun [PONUTech Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    CPU (Central Processing Unit) operating speed and communication rate have been more technically improved than before. However, whole system is been a degradation of performance by electronic and structural limitation of parallel bus. Transmission quantity and speed have a limit and need arbiter in order to do arbitration because several boards shared parallel bus. Arbiter is a high complexity in implementing so it increases component per chip. If a parallel bus uses, it will occurs some problems what are reflection noise, power/ground noise (or ground bounce) as SSN (Simultaneous Switching Noise) and crosstalk noise like magnetic coupling. In this paper, in order to solve a problem of parallel bus in controller of NPP (Nuclear Power Plant), proposes the bus architecture design using FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) based on LVDS (Low Voltage Differential Signaling)

  13. A Study of BUS Architecture Design for Controller of Nuclear Power Plant Using FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dongil; Yun, Donghwa; Hwang, Sungjae; Kim, Myeongyun; Lee, Dongyun

    2014-01-01

    CPU (Central Processing Unit) operating speed and communication rate have been more technically improved than before. However, whole system is been a degradation of performance by electronic and structural limitation of parallel bus. Transmission quantity and speed have a limit and need arbiter in order to do arbitration because several boards shared parallel bus. Arbiter is a high complexity in implementing so it increases component per chip. If a parallel bus uses, it will occurs some problems what are reflection noise, power/ground noise (or ground bounce) as SSN (Simultaneous Switching Noise) and crosstalk noise like magnetic coupling. In this paper, in order to solve a problem of parallel bus in controller of NPP (Nuclear Power Plant), proposes the bus architecture design using FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) based on LVDS (Low Voltage Differential Signaling)

  14. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Second Results Report and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-10-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This is the second results report for the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service, and it focuses on the newest data analysis and lessons learned since the previous report. The appendices, referenced in the main report, provide the full background for the evaluation. They will be updated as new information is collected but will contain the original background material from the first report.

  15. Active Power Filter DC Bus Voltage Piecewise Reaching Law Variable Structure Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baolian Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The DC bus voltage stability control is one key technology to ensure that Active Power Filter (APF operates stably. The external disturbances such as power grid and load fluctuation and the system parameters changing may affect the stability of APF DC bus voltage and the normal operation of APF. The mathematical model of DC bus voltage is established according to power balance principle and a DC bus voltage piecewise reaching law variable structure control algorithm is proposed to solve the above problem, and the design method is given. The simulation and experiment results proved that the proposed variable structure control algorithm can eliminate the chattering problem existing in traditional variable structure control effectively, is insensitive to system disturbance, and has good robustness and fast dynamic response speed and stable DC bus voltage with small fluctuation. The above advantages ensure the compensation effect of APF.

  16. Bus driving assistance system for town area by using ATmega328P microcontroller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Mohamad Fauzi; Soon, Tan Jiah; Rohani, Munzilah Md

    2017-09-01

    Recently, several bus accidents happened because of bus driver's behavior. In fact, there is no dedicated tool for assisting them to drive safely. This project gives solutions to this by assisting the driver, according to the speed and acceleration of the bus. These data are collected by using a motion processing unit (MPU-6050) and a global positioning system (GPS) and then indicate the driving mode status on the LEDs. All data and status are recorded in a secure digital (SD) card for the authority or the bus company to analyze the driving behavior of a bus driver. This system has been successfully developed and tested in two different areas which includes the UTHM main campus and the road from Parit Raja to Batu Pahat.

  17. Assessment of Passenger Satisfaction with Public Bus Transport Services: A Case Study of Lucknow City (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sanjay

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is threefold. First, it tries to assess the passenger satisfaction with public bus transport services in the city of Lucknow in India. Second, it tries to examine the service quality attributes that influence the passenger satisfaction. Third, it tries to evaluate the relative importance of service quality attributes to find out the priority for service quality improvements to enhance passenger satisfaction. The study is based on a survey of objective as well as subjective questions conducted between May and July 2014. Five major bus stops of Lucknow were selected for the survey. Total 148 respondents were randomly selected to elicit their overall satisfaction and factors that influence their satisfaction in the use of public bus transport services in Lucknow using a self-rated questionnaire. The collected sample of responses is subjected to principal component analysis, a statistical technique for dimensionality reduction of the dataset, and descriptive analysis. The result of theses analyses shows that passengers are mostly dissatisfied with public bus transport services in Lucknow. Using principal component analysis, five underlying factors were extracted that influenced passenger satisfaction with public bus transport services in the city. Out of these five factors, comfort and safety has the greatest impact on overall satisfaction, followed by the adequacy of capacity of public bus transport services, orderly and clean environment inside buses, elegant design of buses and bus stops, and accessibility to public bus transport services in the city. The study thus provides a direction for public bus transport administration in the city to understand the gaps that exist and try to fill them to improve its services so that passenger satisfaction can be enhanced and consequently more people can be attracted towards public bus transport.

  18. 49 CFR 37.169 - Interim requirements for over-the-road bus service operated by private entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of such devices, shall be permitted in the passenger compartment. When the bus is at rest at a stop... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim requirements for over-the-road bus service... Interim requirements for over-the-road bus service operated by private entities. (a) Private entities...

  19. Tinjauan Yuridis Perjanjian Kerjasama Pengadaan Armada Kendaraan Bus Wisata Antara PT. Lingga Jati Al Manshurin Dengan P.O. Karona

    OpenAIRE

    Sinabang, Rajamin P.

    2010-01-01

    Perkembangan masyarakat telah dipengaruhi oleh kemajuan teknologi. Hal ini yang memperbaharui penggunaan berbagai aturan hukum untuk bentuk-bentuk tertentu, hingga sampai pada bentuk pelayanan (service) tertentu dari pengusaha dalam bidang teknologi, khususnya dalam usaha pengangkutan darat. Sehingga dibutuhkan bus dari perusahaan penyedia armada kendaraan bus untuk pengangkutan tersebut, yaitu melalui perjanjian kerjasama pengadaan armada bus, yang dilakukan oleh PT. Lingga Jati Al Manshurin...

  20. 40 CFR 85.1404 - Maintenance of records for urban bus operators; submittal of information; right of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of records for urban bus... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1404 Maintenance of records for urban bus operators; submittal...

  1. Oxidative and nitrosative stress markers in bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossner, Pavel; Svecova, Vlasta; Milcova, Alena; Lnenickova, Zdena; Solansky, Ivo; Santella, Regina M; Sram, Radim J

    2007-04-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with many diseases. Oxidative and nitrosative stress are believed to be two of the major sources of particulate matter (PM)-mediated adverse health effects. PM in ambient air arises from industry, local heating, and vehicle emissions and poses a serious problem mainly in large cities. In the present study we analyzed the level of oxidative and nitrosative stress among 50 bus drivers from Prague, Czech Republic, and 50 matching controls. We assessed simultaneously the levels of 15-F(2t)-isoprostane (15-F(2t)-IsoP) and 8-oxodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in urine and protein carbonyl groups and 3-nitrotyrosine (NT) in blood plasma. For the analysis of all four markers we used ELISA techniques. We observed significantly increased levels of oxidative and nitrosative stress markers in bus drivers. The median levels (min, max) of individual markers in bus drivers versus controls were as follows: 8-oxodG: 7.79 (2.64-12.34)nmol/mmol versus 6.12 (0.70-11.38)nmol/mmol creatinine (p<0.01); 15-F(2t)-IsoP: 0.81 (0.38-1.55)nmol/mmol versus 0.68 (0.39-1.79)nmol/mmol creatinine (p<0.01); carbonyl levels: 14.1 (11.8-19.0)nmol/ml versus 12.9 (9.8-16.6)nmol/ml plasma (p<0.001); NT: 694 (471-3228)nmol/l versus 537 (268-13833)nmol/l plasma (p<0.001). 15-F(2t)-IsoP levels correlated with vitamin E (R=0.23, p<0.05), vitamin C (R=-0.33, p<0.01) and cotinine (R=0.47, p<0.001) levels. Vitamin E levels also positively correlated with 8-oxodG (R=0.27, p=0.01) and protein carbonyl levels (R=0.32, p<0.001). Both oxidative and nitrosative stress markers positively correlated with PM2.5 and PM10 exposure. In conclusion, our study indicates that exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 results in increased oxidative and nitrosative stress.

  2. Museets interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pold, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Søren Pold gør sig overvejelser med udgangspunkt i museumsprojekterne Kongedragter.dk og Stigombord.dk. Han argumenterer for, at udviklingen af internettets interfaces skaber nye måder at se, forstå og interagere med kulturen på. Brugerne får nye medievaner og perceptionsmønstre, der må medtænkes i...... tilrettelæggelsen af den fremtidige formidling. Samtidig får museets genstande en ny status som flygtige ikoner i det digitale rum, og alt i alt inviterer det til, at museerne kan forholde sig mere åbent og eksperimenterende til egen praksis og rolle som kulturinstitution....

  3. Integration of refrigerators into facility automation with the aid of bus systems; Integration der Kaeltetechnik in die Gebaeudeautomation mit Bus-Systemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgarth, S.; Heiser, M. [Fachhochschule Braunschweig-Wolfenbuettel, Wolfenbuettel (DE). Inst. fuer Verbrennungstechnik und Prozessautomation (IVP)

    2000-07-01

    The integration of refrigeration systems in building automation is illustrated by the example of a ventilation system and a cooling ceiling. Cold is supplied by a coldwater unit. This necessitates supply of consumption data to the central refrigeration system. So far, technical facilities are commonly controlled by DDC systems and in-house bus systems. The demand for open communication between different systems resulted in the development of neutral systems like FND and Profibus, which were followed by a multitude of other, less generally accepted systems. In the field of electrical installations, the European Installation Bus EIB was generally accepted as a certified, open bus system which can be combined with DDC technology and integrated in in-house control systems. Another technology developed in the USA is the Local Operating Network, LON, whic has a hither transmission rate and higher information content for the various bus members. The contribution compares the two bus systems. [German] Die Einbindung der Kaeltetechnik in die Gebaeudeautomation wird an den Beispielen Lueftungsanlage und Kuehldecke vorgestellt. Die erforderliche Kaelte soll durch einen Kaltwasserersatz energieoptimiert bereitgestellt werden. Dazu muessen Informationen aus dem Verbraucherbereich in der Kaeltezentrale zur Verfuegung stehen. RTL-Anlagen wurden bisher mittels DDC-Technik und firmenspezifischen Bus-Systemen geregelt und gesteuert. Wenn verschiedene Anlagen durch DDC-Systeme unterschiedlicher Hersteller betrieben wurden, so war anfaenglich eine gemeinsame Ueberwachung auf einer zentralen Leitwarte nur ueber Gateways moeglich. Aus der Forderung nach offener Kommunikation unterschiedlicher Systeme entstanden die ersten firmenneutralen Entwicklungen FND und Profibus. Es folgten eine Vielzahl weiterer Netz- und Busdefinitionen und deren Kommunikationsprotokolle, denen jedoch weitgehend eine allgemeine Anerkennung versagt blieb. Im Bereich der Elektroinstallation profilierte sich der

  4. LabVIEW Interface for PCI-SpaceWire Interface Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, James; Loya, Frank; Bachmann, Alex

    2005-01-01

    This software provides a LabView interface to the NT drivers for the PCISpaceWire card, which is a peripheral component interface (PCI) bus interface that conforms to the IEEE-1355/ SpaceWire standard. As SpaceWire grows in popularity, the ability to use SpaceWire links within LabVIEW will be important to electronic ground support equipment vendors. In addition, there is a need for a high-level LabVIEW interface to the low-level device- driver software supplied with the card. The LabVIEW virtual instrument (VI) provides graphical interfaces to support all (1) SpaceWire link functions, including message handling and routing; (2) monitoring as a passive tap using specialized hardware; and (3) low-level access to satellite mission-control subsystem functions. The software is supplied in a zip file that contains LabVIEW VI files, which provide various functions of the PCI-SpaceWire card, as well as higher-link-level functions. The VIs are suitably named according to the matching function names in the driver manual. A number of test programs also are provided to exercise various functions.

  5. Air quality inside the passenger compartment of a bus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, E Z; Silva, M C; Viegas, D X

    1997-01-01

    The indoor air quality in the passenger compartment of an intercity bus is studied. A system used for the remotion of the contaminants from the compartment, based on an extraction duct, was projected using a simple, unidimensional flow model with capability to predict the air exchange rate as a function of the vehicle velocity. Some tests using tracer gan methods were performed in a real vehicle with the contaminant remotion system mounted, in order to validate the calculation model and evaluate the performances of the system. A good agreement between the predicted and the experimental results was verified and the obtained air exchange rate was quite reasonable when compared with the former situation, without extraction duct.

  6. Research on a Scania 11 liter ethanol fueled bus engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egebaeck, K E; Pettersson, E

    1996-05-01

    This report presents research carried out on an alcohol fueled bus engine. The engine used was a six cylinder 11 liter compression ignition turbo-charged engine with an inter cooler. The research program included studies of the impact on the emissions when changing different engine components and different settings of the engine. A study of the impact on the engine performance and emissions when using different fuel compositions was also carried out. During the course of the work, the engine was equipped with oxidation catalysts of two different types, one of which was more efficient than the other concerning the oxidation of unburnt fuel related components. One of the main purposes of the research was to improve the emission characteristics of the engine by an optimization of the engine and its setting. The exhaust emissions were thoroughly characterized with respect to both regulated and unregulated emissions. 13 refs, figs, tabs

  7. Optimum power quality service in multi-bus microgrid systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    Power quality requirements for different consumers and electric equipment are distinguished. Conventionally a common power quality standard is applied to the whole power grid inducing debate between several sides, including consumers, generation sites and technical commissions. Customized power...... quality standard settings for different consumers become a widely accepted solution. The main challenge is on the proper regulation of power quality in different areas. This paper considers a multi-bus microgrid system where the power quality in each has flexible and individual standard. Distributed...... generators are utilized to provide power quality regulation functions. An optimization method based strategy is proposed and implemented with the power converter control system. A general mathematical model is established which can be used in the optimization problem for evaluating the objective function...

  8. Multi Bus DC-DC Converter in Electric Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krithika, V.; Subramaniam, C.; Sridharan, R.; Geetha, A.

    2018-04-01

    This paper is cotncerned with the design, simulation and fabrication of the prototype of a Multi bus DC- DC converter operating from 42V DC and delivering 14V DC and 260V DC. As a result, three DC buses are interconnected through a single power electronic circuitry. Such a requirement is energized in the development of a hybrid electric automobile which uses the technology of fuel cell. This is implemented by using a Bidirectional DC-DC converter configuration which is ideally suitable for multiple outputs with mutual electrical isolation. For the sake of reduced size and cost of step-up transformer, selection of a high frequency switching cycle at 10 KHz was done.

  9. A fast ECL bus memory: dual input memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesaroni, F.; Pascale, G.; Gentile, S.; Gao, Z.

    1992-01-01

    A fast and flexible dual input memory (DIM) has been constructed as single CAMAC unit. The device has been designed to receive via front panel two 16-bit data words, which can be stored in sequential mode into a memory and, at the same time, presented on the output. The design implemented also the possibility to connect 16-bit differential ECL outputs of many DIMs modules on the same bus. Its timing characteristics for writing and reading into and from memory is only 20 ns. This makes the module a useful element for all kinds of fast acquisition systems, as tempory storage of data, or data source or spy module. It will be, for example, used in the new energy tripper of the L3 experiment, designed for 8x8 bunch mode operation of LEP in 1992. (orig.)

  10. FAIR: A new fast trigger and readout bus system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordine, A.; Boiano, A.; Zaghi, A.

    1998-01-01

    FAIR (FAst Intercrate Readout) is a synchronous ECL bus system dedicated to readout. It is based on a new trigger and readout hardware level protocol and on a new control system that learns how to setup and control modules. The hardware protocol along with the data structure allow both readout and event building at the same time at the rate of 22 ns/longword (1.44 Gbit/s) without the need of CPUs. It performs trigger management and full pipelining by using a multilevel FIFO structure. FAIR provides for a multi-crate front-end environment and uses an embedded serial network to accomplish front-end control and setup. The data transfer measured performances and the control system are presented in some detail

  11. FAKTOR PENYEBAB KERUSAKAN SISTEM MESIN PADA BUS APTB PPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laela Chairani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Comfort and safety of public transportation, particularly APTB PPD buses, becomes high expectations for its customers. Those expectations must be supported by the application of a good engine maintenance system. By using the method of Reliability Centered Maintenance may be determined appropriate actions to mitigate damage. From the analysis known the failures of the APTB PPD bus are malfunctions of the fuel engine, power transfer systems, difficulty to move the gear lever, and lubricating system for the rough engine noise. The cause of engine malfunction is dirty diesel filter, vehicle acceleration malfunction is due to the clutch plate wear out. Difficulty to move the gear lever indicates that the clutch slips. Rough engine noise caused by the flow of oil to the engine stalled as the result of dirty oil filter. The results of the logic tree analysis show that for each failure requires scheduling of time directed task.

  12. Kajian Implementasi Graph Database pada Rute Bus Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panji Wisnu Wirawan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bus Rapid Transit (BRT merupakan salah satu sarana transportasi publik yang memiliki rute perjalanan tertentu atau disebut sebagai koridor. Satu koridor BRT dengan koridor yang lain bukanlah koridor yang terpisah, melainkan saling terhubung. Dalam melakukan perjalanan, penumpang BRT boleh jadi melakukan perpindahan koridor melalui shelter. Informasi tersebut perlu didapatkan seorang calon penumpang sebelum melakukan perjalanan supaya tidak terjadi perpindahan koridor yang salah. Teknologi informasi memungkinkan representasi informasi pencarian koridor yang tepat ketika penumpang akan melakukan sebuah perjalanan, terlebih dengan hadirnya graph database. Graph Database memungkinkan representasi BRT yang baik karena sifat graph yang secara standar telah menunjukkan node dan relationship. Artikel ini mengkaji penerapan graph database untuk data pada BRT. Selain itu, artikel ini mendesain sebuah algoritma pencarian koridor BRT. Harapannya, algoritma tersebut dapat digunakan untuk membangun aplikasi yang memanfaatkan data pada graph database. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahwa graph database dapat diterapkan untuk data BRT dan algoritma yang dibangun dapat digunakan untuk menyajikan informasi rute sekaligus menyampaikan informasi perpindahan koridor.

  13. Using a Control System Ethernet Network as a Field Bus

    CERN Document Server

    De Van, William R; Lawson, Gregory S; Wagner, William H; Wantland, David M; Williams, Ernest

    2005-01-01

    A major component of a typical accelerator distributed control system (DCS) is a dedicated, large-scale local area communications network (LAN). The SNS EPICS-based control system uses a LAN based on the popular IEEE-802.3 set of standards (Ethernet). Since the control system network infrastructure is available throughout the facility, and since Ethernet-based controllers are readily available, it is tempting to use the control system LAN for "fieldbus" communications to low-level control devices (e.g. vacuum controllers; remote I/O). These devices may or may not be compatible with the high-level DCS protocols. This paper presents some of the benefits and risks of combining high-level DCS communications with low-level "field bus" communications on the same network, and describes measures taken at SNS to promote compatibility between devices connected to the control system network.

  14. Research on Community Structure in Bus Transport Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xuhua; Wang Bo; Sun Youxian

    2009-01-01

    We abstract the bus transport networks (BTNs) to two kinds of complex networks with space L and space P methods respectively. Using improved community detecting algorithm (PKM agglomerative algorithm), we analyze the community property of two kinds of BTNs graphs. The results show that the BTNs graph described with space L method have obvious community property, but the other kind of BTNs graph described with space P method have not. The reason is that the BTNs graph described with space P method have the intense overlapping community property and general community division algorithms can not identify this kind of community structure. To overcome this problem, we propose a novel community structure called N-depth community and present a corresponding community detecting algorithm, which can detect overlapping community. Applying the novel community structure and detecting algorithm to a BTN evolution model described with space P, whose network property agrees well with real BTNs', we get obvious community property. (general)

  15. Foothill Transit Battery Electric Bus Demonstration Results: Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-28

    This report summarizes results of a battery electric bus (BEB) evaluation at Foothill Transit, located in the San Gabriel and Pomona Valley region of Los Angeles County, California. Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate its fleet of Proterra BEBs in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare performance of the BEBs to that of conventional technology and to track progress over time toward meeting performance targets. This project has also provided an opportunity for DOE to conduct a detailed evaluation of the BEBs and charging infrastructure. This is the second report summarizing the results of the BEB demonstration at Foothill Transit and it provides data on the buses from August 2015 through December 2016. Data are provided on a selection of compressed natural gas buses as a baseline comparison.

  16. Autonomous Navigation and Obstacle Avoidance of a Micro-Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernández

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, the topic of automated vehicles is one of the most promising research areas in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS. The use of automated vehicles for public transportation also contributes to reductions in congestion levels and to improvements in traffic flow. Moreover, electrical public autonomous vehicles are environmentally friendly, provide better air quality and contribute to energy conservation. The driverless public transportation systems, which are at present operating in some airports and train stations, are restricted to dedicated roads and exhibit serious trouble dynamically avoiding obstacles in the trajectory. In this paper, an electric autonomous mini-bus is presented. All datasets used in this article were collected during the experiments carried out in the demonstration event of the 2012 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium that took place in Alcalá de Henares (Spain. The demonstration consisted of a route 725 metres long containing a list of latitude-longitude points (waypoints. The mini-bus was capable of driving autonomously from one waypoint to another using a GPS sensor. Furthermore, the vehicle is provided with a multi-beam Laser Imaging Detection and Ranging (LIDAR sensor for surrounding reconstruction and obstacle detection. When an obstacle is detected in the planned path, the planned route is modified in order to avoid the obstacle and continue its way to the end of the mission. On the demonstration day, a total of 196 attendees had the opportunity to get a ride on the vehicles. A total of 28 laps were successfully completed in full autonomous mode in a private circuit located in the National Institute for Aerospace Research (INTA, Spain. In other words, the system completed 20.3 km of driverless navigation and obstacle avoidance.

  17. Indonesian commercial bus drum brake system temperature model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wibowo, D. B.; Haryanto, I.; Laksono, N. P.

    2016-01-01

    Brake system is the most significant aspect of an automobile safety. It must be able to slow the vehicle, quickly intervening and reliable under varying conditions. Commercial bus in Indonesia, which often stops suddenly and has a high initial velocity, will raise the temperature of braking significantly. From the thermal analysis it is observed that for the bus with the vehicle laden mass of 15 tons and initial velocity of 80 km/h the temperature is increasing with time and reaches the highest temperature of 270.1 °C when stops on a flat road and reaches 311.2 °C on a declination road angle, ø, 20°. These temperatures exceeded evaporation temperature of brake oil DOT 3 and DOT 4. Besides that, the magnitude of the braking temperature also potentially lowers the friction coefficient of more than 30%. The brakes are pressed repeatedly and high-g decelerations also causes brake lining wear out quickly and must be replaced every 1 month as well as the emergence of a large thermal stress which can lead to thermal cracking or thermal fatigue crack. Brake fade phenomenon that could be the cause of many buses accident in Indonesia because of the failure of the braking function. The chances of accidents will be even greater when the brake is worn and not immediately replaced which could cause hot spots as rivets attached to the brake drum and brake oil is not changed for more than 2 years that could potentially lower the evaporation temperature because of the effect hygroscopic.

  18. Indonesian commercial bus drum brake system temperature model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, D. B.; Haryanto, I.; Laksono, N. P.

    2016-03-01

    Brake system is the most significant aspect of an automobile safety. It must be able to slow the vehicle, quickly intervening and reliable under varying conditions. Commercial bus in Indonesia, which often stops suddenly and has a high initial velocity, will raise the temperature of braking significantly. From the thermal analysis it is observed that for the bus with the vehicle laden mass of 15 tons and initial velocity of 80 km/h the temperature is increasing with time and reaches the highest temperature of 270.1 °C when stops on a flat road and reaches 311.2 °C on a declination road angle, ø, 20°. These temperatures exceeded evaporation temperature of brake oil DOT 3 and DOT 4. Besides that, the magnitude of the braking temperature also potentially lowers the friction coefficient of more than 30%. The brakes are pressed repeatedly and high-g decelerations also causes brake lining wear out quickly and must be replaced every 1 month as well as the emergence of a large thermal stress which can lead to thermal cracking or thermal fatigue crack. Brake fade phenomenon that could be the cause of many buses accident in Indonesia because of the failure of the braking function. The chances of accidents will be even greater when the brake is worn and not immediately replaced which could cause hot spots as rivets attached to the brake drum and brake oil is not changed for more than 2 years that could potentially lower the evaporation temperature because of the effect hygroscopic.

  19. Real-time bus location monitoring using Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohammad Y. M.; Audah, Lukman

    2017-09-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of objects, such as a vehicles, mobile devices, and buildings that have electronic components, software, and network connectivity that enable them to collect data, run commands, and be controlled through the Internet. Controlling physical items from the Internet will increase efficiency and save time. The growing number of devices used by people increases the practicality of having IoT devices on the market. The IoT is also an opportunity to develop products that can save money and time and increase work efficiency. Initially, they need more efficiency for real-time bus location systems, especially in university campuses. This system can easily find the accurate locations of and distances between each bus stop and the estimated time to reach a new location. This system has been separated into two parts, which are the hardware and the software. The hardware parts are the Arduino Uno and the Global Positioning System (GPS), while Google Earth and GpsGate are the software parts. The GPS continuously takes input data from the satellite and stores the latitude and longitude values in the Arduino Uno. If we want to track the vehicle, we need to send the longitude and latitude as a message to the Google Earth software to convert these into maps for navigation. Once the Arduino Uno is activated, it takes the last received latitude and longitude positions' values from GpsGate and sends a message to Google Earth. Once the message has been sent to Google Earth, the current location will be shown, and navigation will be activated automatically. Then it will be broadcast using ManyCam, Google+ Hangouts, and YouTube, as well as Facebook, and appear to users. The additional features use Google Forms for determining problems faced by students, who can also take immediate action against the responsible department. Then after several successful simulations, the results will be shown in real time on a map.

  20. Indonesian commercial bus drum brake system temperature model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wibowo, D. B., E-mail: rmt.bowo@gmail.com; Haryanto, I., E-mail: ismoyo2001@yahoo.de; Laksono, N. P., E-mail: priyolaksono89@gmail.com [Mechanical Engineering Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    Brake system is the most significant aspect of an automobile safety. It must be able to slow the vehicle, quickly intervening and reliable under varying conditions. Commercial bus in Indonesia, which often stops suddenly and has a high initial velocity, will raise the temperature of braking significantly. From the thermal analysis it is observed that for the bus with the vehicle laden mass of 15 tons and initial velocity of 80 km/h the temperature is increasing with time and reaches the highest temperature of 270.1 °C when stops on a flat road and reaches 311.2 °C on a declination road angle, ø, 20°. These temperatures exceeded evaporation temperature of brake oil DOT 3 and DOT 4. Besides that, the magnitude of the braking temperature also potentially lowers the friction coefficient of more than 30%. The brakes are pressed repeatedly and high-g decelerations also causes brake lining wear out quickly and must be replaced every 1 month as well as the emergence of a large thermal stress which can lead to thermal cracking or thermal fatigue crack. Brake fade phenomenon that could be the cause of many buses accident in Indonesia because of the failure of the braking function. The chances of accidents will be even greater when the brake is worn and not immediately replaced which could cause hot spots as rivets attached to the brake drum and brake oil is not changed for more than 2 years that could potentially lower the evaporation temperature because of the effect hygroscopic.

  1. Study on emission characteristics of hybrid bus under driving cycles in typical Chinese city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yongdong; Xu, Guangju

    2017-09-01

    In this study, hybrid city bus was taken as the research object, through the vehicle drum test, the vehicle emissions of hybrid bus, the transient emissions of gas pollutants, as well as the particle size and number distribution were surveyed. The results of the studies are listed as follows: First, compared to traditional fuel bus, hybrid bus could reduce about 44% of the NOx emissions, 33% of the total hydrocarbon emissions, and 51% of the particles emissions. Furthermore, the distribution of particles number concentration of test vehicle became high in middle and low in both sides. More specifically, the particle number concentration was mainly concentrated in the range from 0.021 to 0.755μm, the maximum was 0.2μm, and particle size of particulate matter (PM) less than 1.2μm accounted for 95% of the total number concentration. Particulate mass concentration was increased with increment of particle size, and the maximum of particulate mass (PM) concentration was 6.2μm. On average, whether traditional fuel bus or hybrid bus, the particle size of particulate matter(PM) less than 2.5μm accounted for more than 98% in the particles emission. It is found that the particles are more likely to deposit to the lung, respiratory bronchioles and alveoli, causing respiratory and lung diseases. Therefore, how to control the PM emissions of hybrid bus is the key factor of the study.

  2. COMPARISON OF PARALLEL AND SERIES HYBRID POWERTRAINS FOR TRANSIT BUS APPLICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL; Jones, Perry T [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    The fuel economy and emissions of both conventional and hybrid buses equipped with emissions aftertreatment were evaluated via computational simulation for six representative city bus drive cycles. Both series and parallel configurations for the hybrid case were studied. The simulation results indicate that series hybrid buses have the greatest overall advantage in fuel economy. The series and parallel hybrid buses were predicted to produce similar CO and HC tailpipe emissions but were also predicted to have reduced NOx tailpipe emissions compared to the conventional bus in higher speed cycles. For the New York bus cycle (NYBC), which has the lowest average speed among the cycles evaluated, the series bus tailpipe emissions were somewhat higher than they were for the conventional bus, while the parallel hybrid bus had significantly lower tailpipe emissions. All three bus powertrains were found to require periodic active DPF regeneration to maintain PM control. Plug-in operation of series hybrid buses appears to offer significant fuel economy benefits and is easily employed due to the relatively large battery capacity that is typical of the series hybrid configuration.

  3. Performance Analysis of Trans-Jakarta Bus Suburban Service Move-Across Greater Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangkudung, ESW; Widyadayinta, C.

    2018-03-01

    Trans-Jakarta have developed their services scope as Suburban Service or Feeder move-across service that operate from greater Jakarta into Jakarta central vice versa. One of the route is Ciputat – Bundaran Hotel Indonesia (Tosari) and integrated with corridor 1 (one) and 8 (eight). This service is not travel on the exclusive lane or bus-way. Objective of Government Jakarta to provide this service is to decrease private car to enter the central of Jakarta. The objective of this study is to find the performance of the service. Survey have conducted static and dynamic on work day to get variable of travel time and delay, waiting time of passenger at the bus stop, headway and ridership of the bus. Service Standard Minimum of Trans-Jakarta have compared with the result of variable headway, travel speed, and waiting time at bus stop as concern of all the passengers. Analysis use correlation test method and linear regression model have done. The performance of Trans-Jakarta bus suburban service, based on travel speed indicator is fairly bad, only 8.1% of trip could comply with Minimum Service Standard. Bus performance based on the indicator of density in the bus is good, where all points are below the maximum limit i.e. 8 people/m2 at peak hour and 5 people/m2 at off-peak hour.

  4. Cloud computing-based energy optimization control framework for plug-in hybrid electric bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chao; Li, Liang; You, Sixiong; Yan, Bingjie; Du, Xian

    2017-01-01

    Considering the complicated characteristics of traffic flow in city bus route and the nonlinear vehicle dynamics, optimal energy management integrated with clustering and recognition of driving conditions in plug-in hybrid electric bus is still a challenging problem. Motivated by this issue, this paper presents an innovative energy optimization control framework based on the cloud computing for plug-in hybrid electric bus. This framework, which includes offline part and online part, can realize the driving conditions clustering in offline part, and the energy management in online part. In offline part, utilizing the operating data transferred from a bus to the remote monitoring center, K-means algorithm is adopted to cluster the driving conditions, and then Markov probability transfer matrixes are generated to predict the possible operating demand of the bus driver. Next in online part, the current driving condition is real-time identified by a well-trained support vector machine, and Markov chains-based driving behaviors are accordingly selected. With the stochastic inputs, stochastic receding horizon control method is adopted to obtain the optimized energy management of hybrid powertrain. Simulations and hardware-in-loop test are carried out with the real-world city bus route, and the results show that the presented strategy could greatly improve the vehicle fuel economy, and as the traffic flow data feedback increases, the fuel consumption of every plug-in hybrid electric bus running in a specific bus route tends to be a stable minimum. - Highlights: • Cloud computing-based energy optimization control framework is proposed. • Driving cycles are clustered into 6 types by K-means algorithm. • Support vector machine is employed to realize the online recognition of driving condition. • Stochastic receding horizon control-based energy management strategy is designed for plug-in hybrid electric bus. • The proposed framework is verified by simulation and hard

  5. Optimization of transit bus fleet's life cycle assessment impacts with alternative fuel options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ercan, Tolga; Zhao, Yang; Tatari, Omer; Pazour, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Public transportation is one of the most promising transportation modes to reduce the environmental emissions of the transportation sector in the U.S. In order to mitigate the environmental impacts brought by the transit bus system, new energy buses are introduced into the vehicle market. The goal of this study is to find an optimal bus fleet combination for different driving conditions to minimize life cycle cost, greenhouse gas emissions, and conventional air pollutant emission impacts. For this purpose, a Multi-Objective Linear Programming approach is used to select the optimum bus fleet combinations. Given different weight scenarios, this method could effectively provide solutions for decision makers with various budget constraints or emission reduction requirements. The results indicate that in heavily congested driving cycles such as the Manhattan area, the battery electric bus is the dominant vehicle type, while the hybrid bus has more balanced performances in most scenarios because of its lower initial investment comparing to battery electric buses. Petroleum powered buses have seldom been selected by the model. The trade-off analysis shows that the overall greenhouse gas impact performance is sensitive to the life cycle cost after certain points, which could provide valuable information for the bus fleet combination planning. - Highlights: • Hybrid-Life Cycle Assessment analysis approach for transit bus operations. • Optimizing the economic and sustainability impacts of transit bus fleet operation. • CO 2 emissions and other air pollutants related health and environmental damage cost. • Trade-offs between CO 2 emissions and cost of transit bus fleet operation.

  6. PROFIBUS-DP to G-64 configurable interface

    CERN Document Server

    Carlier, E; Rochez, J; Serrano, J; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LHC Division

    2001-01-01

    Since many years, the SL/BT group has developed specific G-64 hardware modules for the control of the fast pulsed magnets. Up to now, the integration of these modules into the accelerator control system has been done using a MIL1553 fieldbus in command/response mode connected to a LynxOS front-end. In 1996 and 1998, recommendations for the use of industrial fieldbuses and programmable logic controllers were issued at CERN. In order to integrate the existing G-64 hardware into this environment based on industrial components, an interface between the G-64 bus and the PROFIBUS-DP fieldbus has been developed. This interface is based on a modular and open hardware architecture with on one side an off-the-shelf industrial, fieldbus independent, interface and on the other side a FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). Required functionality has been implemented within the FPGA with VHDL (Very high-speed integrated circuit Hardware Description Language).

  7. Interfaces habladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Soto Sanfiel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe y piensa al fenómeno de las Interfaces habladas (IH desde variados puntos de vista y niveles de análisis. El texto se ha concebido con los objetivos específicos de: 1.- procurar una visión panorámica de aspectos de la producción y consumo comunicativo de las IH; 2.- ofrecer recomendaciones para su creación y uso eficaz, y 3.- llamar la atención sobre su proliferación e inspirar su estudio desde la comunicación. A pesar de la creciente presencia de las IF en nues-tras vidas cotidianas, hay ausencia de textos que las caractericen y analicen por sus aspectos comunicativos. El trabajo es pertinente porque el fenómeno significa un cambio respecto a estadios comunica-tivos precedentes con consecuencias en las concepciones intelectuales y emocionales de los usuarios. La proliferación de IH nos abre a nue-vas realidades comunicativas: hablamos con máquinas.

  8. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Third Evaluation Report and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. The prototype fuel cell bus was manufactured by Van Hool and ISE Corp. and features an electric hybrid drive system with a UTC Power PureMotion 120 Fuel Cell Power System and ZEBRA batteries for energy storage. The fuel cell bus started operation in April 2007, and evaluation results through October 2009 are provided in this report.

  9. Characterizing the range of children's air pollutant exposure during school bus commutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, Lisa D; Behrentz, Eduardo; Winer, Arthur M; Jeong, Seong; Fitz, Dennis R; Pankratz, David V; Colome, Steven D; Fruin, Scott A

    2005-09-01

    Real-time and integrated measurements of gaseous and particulate pollutants were conducted inside five conventional diesel school buses, a diesel bus with a particulate trap, and a bus powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) to determine the range of children's exposures during school bus commutes and conditions leading to high exposures. Measurements were made during 24 morning and afternoon commutes on two Los Angeles Unified School District bus routes from South to West Los Angeles, with seven additional runs on a rural/suburban route, and three runs to test the effect of window position. For these commutes, the mean concentrations of diesel vehicle-related pollutants ranged from 0.9 to 19 microg/m(3) for black carbon, 23 to 400 ng/m(3) for particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PB-PAH), and 64 to 220 microg/m(3) for NO(2). Concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde ranged from 0.1 to 11 microg/m(3) and 0.3 to 5 microg/m(3), respectively. The highest real-time concentrations of black carbon, PB-PAH and NO(2) inside the buses were 52 microg/m(3), 2000 ng/m(3), and 370 microg/m(3), respectively. These pollutants were significantly higher inside conventional diesel buses compared to the CNG bus, although formaldehyde concentrations were higher inside the CNG bus. Mean black carbon, PB-PAH, benzene and formaldehyde concentrations were higher when the windows were closed, compared with partially open, in part, due to intrusion of the bus's own exhaust into the bus cabin, as demonstrated through the use of a tracer gas added to each bus's exhaust. These same pollutants tended to be higher on urban routes compared to the rural/suburban route, and substantially higher inside the bus cabins compared to ambient measurements. Mean concentrations of pollutants with substantial secondary formation, such as PM(2.5), showed smaller differences between open and closed window conditions and between bus routes. Type of bus, traffic congestion levels, and encounters with

  10. A descriptive study on public transport user behaviour from Live Bus Arrivals

    OpenAIRE

    Dell’Amico, M.; Hadjidimitriou, S.; Kaparias, I.

    2014-01-01

    In order to offer public transport that meet citizens’ needs for transport and further increase the use of bus services, Public Authorities need to analyse and understand travellers behaviour. Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) data provide information on the observed time of arrival and departure of a bus at each stop. These data are fed into an algorithm to provide information to users on the expected time of arrival at the bus stop by an on-line service. In the city of London this service is...

  11. On the road : non-fossil fuel deployment for the public bus fleet of Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Xylia, Maria; Silveira, Semida

    2015-01-01

    The public transport sector in Sweden has set a target to run 90% of its total vehicle-kilometers on renewable fuels by 2020, and double its market share in the long term. The focus of this paper is the adoption of renewable fuels in public bus fleets. Data for all 21 Swedish counties were gathered and analyzed, mapping the bus fleets’ condition in relation to renewable fuel deployment, CO2 emissions and energy efficiency. The main factors affecting fuel choices in the bus fleets were investi...

  12. Level of Bus Performance Based On the Relationship Between Distance and Travel Time of Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM Bus Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasetijo Joewono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available UTHM bus service is an important transport mode for most students at Universiti Tun Hussein Onn because it such primary public vehicle to support students movements around the campus, within and outside student apartments. This service is often associated with the quality of service in terms of time, stops and comforts. Therefore, this following study is focused on investigation on several UTHM bas routes which was based on bas operations such as distance and travel time/travel distance that would determine the level of service provided. Primary data were collected mainly to obtain information relate to speed, bas position, time movement/circulations of bus and time headway. These were obtained by installing GPS-Slute Gear i-trail along bus travels. In addition, additional data were collected by exploring previous studies regarding to the bus services such as Highway Capacity Manual (HCM 2010. The approach used was based on assessment of progress used to determine the level of quest service and such obstacle frequently occurs with results on bus delays, volume of unequal that can be overcome according to the assessments that have been provided.

  13. A Rule-Based Energy Management Strategy for a Plug-in Hybrid School Bus Based on a Controller Area Network Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankun Peng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rule-based energy management strategy for a plug-in hybrid school bus (PHSB. In order to verify the effectiveness and rationality of the proposed energy management strategy, the powertrain and control models were built with MATLAB/Simulink. The PHSB powertrain model includes an engine model, ISG (integrated started and generator model, drive motor model, power battery packs model, driver model, and vehicle longitudinal dynamics model. To evaluate the controller area network (CAN bus performance features such as the bus load, signal hysteresis, and to verify the reliability and real-time performance of the CAN bus multi-node control method, a co-simulation platform was built with CANoe and MATLAB/Simulink. The co-simulation results show that the control strategy can meet the requirements of the PHSB’s dynamic performance. Meanwhile, the charge-depleting mode (CD and charge-sustaining mode (CS can switch between each other and maintain a state-of-charge (SoC of around 30%, indicating that the energy management strategy effectively extends the working period of the CD mode and improves the fuel economy further. The energy consumption per 100 km includes 13.7 L diesel and 10.5 kW·h electricity with an initial SoC of 75%. The CANoe simulation results show that the bus communication performs well without error frames.

  14. The tsunami service bus, an integration platform for heterogeneous sensor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haener, R.; Waechter, J.; Kriegel, U.; Fleischer, J.; Mueller, S.

    2009-04-01

    components remain unchanged, components can be maintained and evolved independently on each other and service functionality as a whole can be reused. In GITEWS the functional integration pattern was adopted by applying the principles of an Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) as a backbone. Four services provided by the so called Tsunami Service Bus (TSB) which are essential for early warning systems are realized compliant to services specified within the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) initiative of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). 3. ARCHITECTURE The integration platform was developed to access proprietary, heterogeneous sensor data and to provide them in a uniform manner for further use. Its core, the TSB provides both a messaging-backbone and -interfaces on the basis of a Java Messaging Service (JMS). The logical architecture of GITEWS consists of four independent layers: • A resource layer where physical or virtual sensors as well as data or model storages provide relevant measurement-, event- and analysis-data: Utilizable for the TSB are any kind of data. In addition to sensors databases, model data and processing applications are adopted. SWE specifies encoding both to access and to describe these data in a comprehensive way: 1. Sensor Model Language (SensorML): Standardized description of sensors and sensor data 2. Observations and Measurements (O&M): Model and encoding of sensor measurements • A service layer to collect and conduct data from heterogeneous and proprietary resources and provide them via standardized interfaces: The TSB enables interaction with sensors via the following services: 1. Sensor Observation Service (SOS): Standardized access to sensor data 2. Sensor Planning Service (SPS): Controlling of sensors and sensor networks 3. Sensor Alert Service (SAS): Active sending of data if defined events occur 4. Web Notification Service (WNS): Conduction of asynchronous dialogues between services • An orchestration layer where atomic services are composed and

  15. An integrated high performance Fastbus slave interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, J.; Ljuslin, C.

    1993-01-01

    A high performance CMOS Fastbus slave interface ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) supporting all addressing and data transfer modes defined in the IEEE 960 - 1986 standard is presented. The FAstbus Slave Integrated Circuit (FASIC) is an interface between the asynchronous Fastbus and a clock synchronous processor/memory bus. It can work stand-alone or together with a 32 bit microprocessor. The FASIC is a programmable device enabling its direct use in many different applications. A set of programmable address mapping windows can map Fastbus addresses to convenient memory addresses and at the same time act as address decoding logic. Data rates of 100 MBytes/sec to Fastbus can be obtained using an internal FIFO in the FASIC to buffer data between the two buses during block transfers. Message passing from Fastbus to a microprocessor on the slave module is supported. A compact (70 mm x 170 mm) Fastbus slave piggy back sub-card interface including level conversion between ECL and TTL signal levels has been implemented using surface mount components and the 208 pin FASIC chip

  16. The SSC field bus: A high-performance control system front end concentrator for 'slow' accelerator controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haenni, D.R.; Saltmarsh, C.G.; Lue, H.C.; Hunt, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    The SSC control system must support a large number of 'slow' or industrial type control points. A front-end system is described which could serve as both a data concentrator and a distributed process controller for these points. Unlike many distributed control systems, this front end is designed to provide strong support for centralized controls. The live parameter data base in the central system can be updated at a rate which is fast compared to that usually needed for process control loops. Portions of this data base can be optionally replicated in regional computers to provide both local control stations and distributed control loops. In addition to the global and regional levels the system also allows the distribution of loops to the local I/O crate level. A possible implementation of this system is under development which is based on industrial standard STD-Bus for accelerator hardware interfacing, time domain multiplexing (TDM) for communications transport, and a form of reflective memory for the back-end interface to the rest of the control system

  17. The ATLAS Level-1 Muon to Central Trigger Processor Interface

    CERN Document Server

    Berge, D; Farthouat, P; Haas, S; Klofver, P; Krasznahorkay, A; Messina, A; Pauly, T; Schuler, G; Spiwoks, R; Wengler, T; PH-EP

    2007-01-01

    The Muon to Central Trigger Processor Interface (MUCTPI) is part of the ATLAS Level-1 trigger system and connects the output of muon trigger system to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP). At every bunch crossing (BC), the MUCTPI receives information on muon candidates from each of the 208 muon trigger sectors and calculates the total multiplicity for each of six transverse momentum (pT) thresholds. This multiplicity value is then sent to the CTP, where it is used together with the input from the Calorimeter trigger to make the final Level-1 Accept (L1A) decision. In addition the MUCTPI provides summary information to the Level-2 trigger and to the data acquisition (DAQ) system for events selected at Level-1. This information is used to define the regions of interest (RoIs) that drive the Level-2 muontrigger processing. The MUCTPI system consists of a 9U VME chassis with a dedicated active backplane and 18 custom designed modules. The design of the modules is based on state-of-the-art FPGA devices and special ...

  18. Risk factors associated with bus accident severity in the United States: A generalized ordered logit model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    of 2011. Method: The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of bus accident severity in the United States by estimating a generalized ordered logit model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the General Estimates System (GES) database for the years 2005–2009. Results: Results show...... that accident severity increases: (i) for young bus drivers under the age of 25; (ii) for drivers beyond the age of 55, and most prominently for drivers over 65 years old; (iii) for female drivers; (iv) for very high (over 65 mph) and very low (under 20 mph) speed limits; (v) at intersections; (vi) because......Introduction: Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in improving bus safety operations worldwide. While in the United States buses are considered relatively safe, the number of bus accidents is far from being negligible, triggering the introduction of the Motor-coach Enhanced Safety Act...

  19. Analysis of Journey to Work Travel Behavior by Car and Bus in the Sydney Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthanaya P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Car dependence is a fundamental problem in the sustainability of cities with low-density suburban sprawl. Increasing the use of public transport is one of the policy objectives commonly adopted to overcome this problem. It is essential to study journey to work travel behavior by car and bus. This paper applied preference function to analyze travel behavior and Moran’s I spatial statistic to evaluate the spatial association. The results indicated that the commuting preferences of residents have moved towards distance maximization. In general, bus was preferred for shorter distance trips whilst car was preferred for longer distance trips. Unlike car, by increasing distances from the Central Business District, residents tended to use bus for shorter distance trip. A significant positive spatial association was identified for both the slope preferences by car and bus where zones with a preference towards longer or shorter trips tended to travel to zones with similar preferences.

  20. Exploring public bus service quality in South Africa: A structural equation modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayanda M. Vilakazi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study, which is a deviation from the usual practice of using SERVQUAL or an adaptedversion thereof, uses McKnight, Pagano and Paaswell’s (1986 service quality dimensions,namely reliability; extent of service; comfort; safety; and affordability (RECSA and structuralequation modelling to determine commuters’ perception of public bus service quality in amajor city in South Africa. The RECSA model was adapted and fitted to the data collectedfrom a convenience sample of bus commuters in Johannesburg, using structural equationmodelling. It was ascertained that reliability, service, comfort and safety influenced thepublic bus commuters’ perception of the overall service quality. The implications of theaforementioned findings for providers of public bus services are explained.