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Sample records for vm vastus lateralis

  1. Neural and morphological adaptations of vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles to isokinetic eccentric training

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    Rodrigo de Azevedo Franke

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vastus lateralis (VL and vastus medialis (VM are frequently targeted in conditioning/rehabilitation programs due to their role in patellar stabilization during knee extension. This study assessed neural and muscular adaptations in these two muscles after an isokinetic eccentric training program. Twenty healthy men underwent a four-week control period followed by a 12-week period of isokinetic eccentric training. Ultrasound evaluations of VL and VM muscle thickness at rest and electromyographic evaluations during maximal isometric tests were used to assess the morphological and neural properties, respectively. No morphological and neural changes were found throughout the control period, whereas both muscles showed significant increases in thickness (VL = 6.9%; p .05 post-training. Isokinetic eccentric training produces neural and greater morphological adaptations in VM compared to VL, which shows that synergistic muscles respond differently to an eccentric isokinetic strength training program

  2. Effect of shoe heel height on vastus medialis and vastus lateralis electromyographic activity during sit to stand

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    Hodgson David

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been proposed that high-heeled shoes may contribute to the development and progression of knee pain. However, surprisingly little research has been carried out on how shoe heel height affects muscle activity around the knee joint. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of differing heel height on the electromyographic (EMG activity in vastus medialis (VM and vastus lateralis (VL during a sit to stand activity. This was an exploratory study to inform future research. Methods A repeated measures design was used. Twenty five healthy females carried out a standardised sit to stand activity under 4 conditions; barefoot, and with heel wedges of 1, 3, and 5 cm in height. EMG activity was recorded from VM and VL during the activity. Data were analysed using 1 × 4 repeated measures ANOVA. Results Average rectified EMG activity differed with heel height in both VM (F2.2, 51.7 = 5.24, p 3, 72 = 5.32, p 3, 72 = 0.61, p = 0.609. Conclusion We found that as heel height increased, there was an increase in EMG activity in both VM and VL, but no change in the relative EMG intensity of VM and VL as measured by the VM: VL ratio. This showed that no VM: VL imbalance was elicited. This study provides information that will inform future research on how heel height affects muscle activity around the knee joint.

  3. Activation of the vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis muscles in asymptomatic subjects during the sit-to-stand procedure.

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    Choi, Boram

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the vastus medialis oblique to vastus lateralis ratio in two pelvic tilt positions while performing the sit-to-stand task. [Subjects and Methods] Activation of the vastus medialis oblique and the vastus lateralis muscles of 46 healthy subjects (25 males, 21 females) were recorded by surface electromyography during the STS task with anterior pelvic tilt (sit with thoracolumbar spine extended and pelvis in an anterior tilt) and neutral pelvic tilt (sit with thoracolumbar spine relaxed and pelvis in the neutral tilt position) positions. Changes in vastus medialis oblique, vastus lateralis activation and the vastus medialis oblique/vastus lateralis ratio were analyzed. [Results] Vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis muscle activation significantly increased in neutral pelvic tilt position, but the vastus medialis oblique/vastus lateralis ratio was not statistically different. [Conclusion] The sit-to-stand procedure with neutral pelvic tilt position increased activation of the vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis, usefully strengthening the quadriceps, but did not selectively activate the vastus medialis oblique muscle.

  4. Determining the Optimum Training Conditions for Selective Strengthening of Vastus Medialis Oblique Muscle over Vastus Lateralis through Using Musculoskeletal Modeling

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    Farzam Farahmand

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study is to find the optimum training conditions for selective strengthening of the vastus medialis oblique muscle over vastus lateralis. Methods: For this purpose, a musculoskeletal model of lower limb was developed by OpenSim software. Using a detailed tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joint modeling and six muscular branches for components of quadriceps femoris muscle on the other hand, training conditions were simulated in isometric, isokinetic and isotonic modes. For each training condition, the motion kinematic and external force was applied to the model. After analyzing the inverse dynamics, the force of each component of quadriceps femoris muscle was obtained through the statical optimization. Impact of knee angle, speed of movement, external loading level and axial tibial rotation on activity rate of vastus medialis oblique to vastus lateralis muscle was investigated based on the model. Results: The results showed that the knee angle affect on this ratio and the highest ratio could be obtained in angles close to full extension of knee. Speed of movement and external load level would not affect the ratio. Meanwhile axial tibial rotation could affect this ratio in a way that increasing tibial external rotation was associated with increasing the ratio. Conclusion: The results indicate that high-speed isokinetic training with highest levels of tibial external rotation in angles close to full extension of knee can resulte in increasing the maximum activity ratio of vastus medialis oblique to vastus lateralis muscle.

  5. The effect of hip abduction on the EMG activity of vastus medialis obliquus, vastus lateralis longus and vastus lateralis obliquus in healthy subjects

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    Arakaki Juliano

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Study design Controlled laboratory study. Objectives The purposes of this paper were to investigate (d whether vastus medialis obliquus (VMO, vastus lateralis longus (VLL and vastus lateralis obliquus (VLO EMG activity can be influenced by hip abduction performed by healthy subjects. Background Some clinicians contraindicate hip abduction for patellofemoral patients (with based on the premise that hip abduction could facilitate the VLL muscle activation leading to a VLL and VMO imbalance Methods and measures Twenty-one clinically healthy subjects were involved in the study, 10 women and 11 men (aged X = 23.3 ± 2.9. The EMG signals were collected using a computerized EMG VIKING II, with 8 channels and three pairs of surface electrodes. EMG activity was obtained from MVIC knee extension at 90° of flexion in a seated position and MVIC hip abduction at 0° and 30° with patients in side-lying position with the knee in full extension. The data were normalized in the MVIC knee extension at 50° of flexion in a seated position, and were submitted to ANOVA test with subsequent application of the Bonferroni multiple comparisons analysis test. The level of significance was defined as p ≤ 0.05. Results The VLO muscle demonstrated a similar pattern to the VMO muscle showing higher EMG activity in MVIC knee extension at 90° of flexion compared with MVIC hip abduction at 0° and 30° of abduction for male (p Conclusion The results showed that no selective EMG activation was observed when comparison was made between the VMO, VLL and VLO muscles while performing MVIC hip abduction at 0° and 30° of abduction and MVIC knee extension at 90° of flexion in both male and female subjects. Our findings demonstrate that hip abduction do not facilitated VLL and VLO activity in relation to the VMO, however, this study included only healthy subjects performing maximum voluntary isometric contraction contractions, therefore much remains to be discovered by

  6. Oxygenation and EMG in the proximal and distal vastus lateralis during submaximal isometric knee extension

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    Crenshaw, Albert G.; Bronee, Lars; Krag, Ida

    2010-01-01

    /or (2) fatigue development. Nine males performed 2-min sustained isometric knee extensions at 15% and 30% maximum voluntary contraction during which oxygenation and EMG were recorded simultaneously from proximal and distal locations of the vastus lateralis muscle. Near infrared spectroscopy variables...

  7. Characteristic of changes in the structure and metabolism of the vastus lateralis muscles in monkeys after space flight.

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    Belozerova, I N; Nemirovskaya, T L; Shenkman, B S; Kozlovskaya, I B

    2003-09-01

    Monkeys subjected to space flight were found to have significant decreases in the sizes of slow and rapid fibers in the vastus lateralis muscle, due not only to weightlessness but also, to some extent, to restriction of movement activity within the capsule. The quantity of total protein in muscle fibers did not decrease. The respiratory peak in the pool of vastus lateralis muscle fibers decreased after space flight, as did the activity of oxidative enzymes (particularly in rapid fibers of the vastus lateralis muscle).

  8. Immunohistochemical changes in the expression of HSP27 in exercised human vastus lateralis muscle

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    Folkesson, M; Mackey, Abigail; Holm, L;

    2008-01-01

    . METHODS: Two different exercise protocols were used: (1) one-leg ergometer cycling (EC, n = 6) consisting of two 30-min bouts at 40% and 75% of peak oxygen uptake, respectively, and (2) leg extension resistance exercise (RE, n = 9) including 10 sets of eight repetitions at a load corresponding to 70......AIM: The role of HSP27 in the adaptive process of skeletal muscle to exercise, especially in humans, is not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate immunohistochemical changes in HSP27 expression in human vastus lateralis muscle following resistance and endurance exercises......% of one maximal repetition (1RM). Immunohistochemistry using specific monoclonal antibodies was used to determine the location of HSP27 protein in muscle biopsies from human vastus lateralis. RESULTS: Our results show that RE, but not EC, induced a significant appearance of scattered accumulations of HSP...

  9. THE EFFECT OF WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION FREQUENCY AND AMPLITUDE ON THE MYOELECTRIC ACTIVITY OF VASTUS MEDIALIS AND VASTUS LATERALIS

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    Piotr Krol

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of training protocols for whole body vibration (WBV training through the modulation of the frequency and amplitude of vibration. Despite the large number of studies regarding effects of such training, there is still lack of knowledge regarding optimum training protocols. The study analyzed the influence of whole-body vibration parameters (i.e., the frequency and amplitude on the myoelectric activity of vastus lateralis and vastus medialis in 29 females with the use of electromyography (EMG. The first and second of the eight consecutive trials were performed without vibrations; the remaining six trials were performed in a randomized order on a platform vibrating at different amplitude (2mm and 4mm and frequency (20 Hz, 40 Hz and 60 Hz combinations. The results revealed significantly higher EMG amplitude of both muscles during the vibration as compared with the non- vibrated trials (trial 1 and 2. Furthermore, the EMG activity significantly increased both with the amplitude and frequency, being the highest when the frequency and amplitude of reached 60 Hz and 4 mm, respectively. The study aims to determine the optimal vibration parameters in the aspect of purposeful stimulation of chosen leg muscles. Based on the results of the presented investigation, sports trainers and physiotherapists may be able to optimize training programs involving vibration platforms.

  10. Analysis of vastus lateralis and vastus medialis oblique muscle activation during squat exercise with and without a variety of tools in normal adults

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    Lee, Tae-kyung; Park, So-mi; Yun, Sae-bom; Lee, Ae-ran; Lee, Yun-seob; Yong, Min-sik

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated the effects of squat exercises with and without a variety of tools including a gym ball, wedge, and elastic band on the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis oblique muscles. [Subjects and Methods] A total of twenty healthy subjects with no history of neurological, musculoskeletal injury, or pain in the lower extremities were recruited. All subjects performed four types of exercise (conventional squat exercise, squat exercise with a gym ball, squat exercise with a wedge, squat exercise with an elastic band). [Results] There were no significant differences between exercises in comparison of the vastus lateralis muscle activity. In the squat exercise with a wedge, significantly higher activity of the vastus medialis oblique muscle was found compared with in the squat exercise with an elastic band. [Conclusion] The present study suggests that the conventional squat exercise can be one of the useful interventions for patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. PMID:27134414

  11. Differences in onset time between the vastus medialis and lateralis during stair stepping in individuals with genu varum or valgum.

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    Park, Seol; Chung, Jun-Sub; Kong, Yong-Soo; Ko, Yu-Min; Park, Ji-Won

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] We investigated the difference in onset time between the vastus medialis and lateralis according to knee alignment during stair ascent and descent to examine the effects of knee alignment on the quadriceps during stair stepping. [Subjects] Fifty-two adults (20 with genu varum, 12 with genu valgum, and 20 controls) were enrolled. Subjects with > 4 cm between the medial epicondyles of the knees were placed in the genu varum group, whereas subjects with > 4 cm between the medial malleolus of the ankle were placed in the genu valgum group. [Methods] Surface electromyography was used to measure the onset times of the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis during stair ascent and descent. [Results] The vastus lateralis showed more delayed firing than the vastus medialis in the genu varum group, whereas vastus medialis firing was more delayed than vastus lateralis firing in the genu valgum group. Significant differences in onset time were detected between stair ascent and descent in the genu varum and valgum groups. [Conclusion] Genu varum and valgum affect quadriceps firing during stair stepping. Therefore, selective rehabilitation training of the quadriceps femoris should be considered to prevent pain or knee malalignment deformities.

  12. Lower Extremity Reconstruction Using Vastus Lateralis Myocutaneous Flap versus Anterolateral Thigh Fasciocutaneous Flap

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    Min Jae Lee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe anterolateral thigh (ALT perforator flap has become a popular option for treating soft tissue defects of lower extremity reconstruction and can be combined with a segment of the vastus lateralis muscle. We present a comparison of the use of the ALT fasciocutaneous (ALT-FC and myocutaneous flaps.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed patients in whom free-tissue transfer was performed between 2005 and 2011 for the reconstruction of lower extremity soft-tissue defects. Twenty-four patients were divided into two groups: reconstruction using an ALT-FC flap (12 cases and reconstruction using a vastus lateralis myocutaneous (VL-MC flap (12 cases. Postoperative complications, functional results, cosmetic results, and donor-site morbidities were studied.ResultsComplete flap survival was 100% in both groups. A flap complication was noted in one case (marginal dehiscence of the ALT-FC group, and no complications were noted in the VL-MC group. In both groups, one case of partial skin graft loss occurred at the donor site, and debulking surgeries were needed for two cases. There were no significant differences in the mean scores for either functional or cosmetic outcomes in either group.ConclusionsThe VL-MC flap is able to fill occasional dead space and has comparable survival rates to ALT-FC with minimal donor-site morbidity. Additionally, the VL-MC flap is easily elevated without myocutaneous perforator injury.

  13. Lower Extremity Reconstruction Using Vastus Lateralis Myocutaneous Flap versus Anterolateral Thigh Fasciocutaneous Flap

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    Min Jae Lee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The anterolateral thigh (ALT perforator flap has become a popular option fortreating soft tissue defects of lower extremity reconstruction and can be combined witha segment of the vastus lateralis muscle. We present a comparison of the use of the ALTfasciocutaneous (ALT-FC and myocutaneous flaps.Methods We retrospectively reviewed patients in whom free-tissue transfer was performedbetween 2005 and 2011 for the reconstruction of lower extremity soft-tissue defects. Twentyfourpatients were divided into two groups: reconstruction using an ALT-FC flap (12 cases andreconstruction using a vastus lateralis myocutaneous (VL-MC flap (12 cases. Postoperativecomplications, functional results, cosmetic results, and donor-site morbidities were studied.Results Complete flap survival was 100% in both groups. A flap complication was noted inone case (marginal dehiscence of the ALT-FC group, and no complications were noted in theVL-MC group. In both groups, one case of partial skin graft loss occurred at the donor site,and debulking surgeries were needed for two cases. There were no significant differences inthe mean scores for either functional or cosmetic outcomes in either group.Conclusions The VL-MC flap is able to fill occasional dead space and has comparable survivalrates to ALT-FC with minimal donor-site morbidity. Additionally, the VL-MC flap is easily elevatedwithout myocutaneous perforator injury.

  14. Symmetric corticospinal excitability and representation of vastus lateralis muscle in right-handed healthy subjects.

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    Al Sawah, Mohomad; Rimawi, Mohammad; Concerto, Carmen; Amer, Bahaa; Cao, Yisheng; D'Antoni, Anthony V; Chusid, Eileen; Battaglia, Fortunato

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the size and location of the representations of the anterior thigh muscles on the human motor cortex in the dominant and non-dominant hemispheres. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation were recorded from the right and left vastus lateralis (rVL, lVL) muscles. A total of ten right-handed healthy volunteers participated in the study. In a single session experiment, we investigated VL muscle corticospinal excitability (motor threshold, MEP size, short interval intracortical inhibition, intracortical facilitation) and cortical representation (map area, volume, and location) in the dominant and non-dominant hemispheres. The motor threshold, MEPs, and intracortical excitability did not differ significantly between the hemispheres (P > 0.05). Furthermore, no difference between sides was found in the location of VL motor representation (mediolateral and anteroposterior axis) or in map area and volume (P > 0.05). Vastus lateralis muscle corticospinal excitability and cortical map were symmetrical in right-handed subjects. Future studies on patients with unilateral lower extremity injuries could examine side-to-side plastic reorganization in corticomotor output and map location in both hemispheres.

  15. Protein intake does not increase vastus lateralis muscle protein synthesis during cycling

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    Hulston, CJ; Wolsk, Emil; Grøndahl, Thomas Sahl

    2011-01-01

    by 51% ± 22% (0.070%·h(-1), ± 0.003%·h(-1), and 0.105%·h(-1), ± 0.013%·h(-1), in CHO and CHO+P, respectively; P protein net balance was negative during recovery with CHO intake, whereas positive leg protein net balance was achieved with CHO+P intake. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude...... that consuming protein during prolonged bicycle exercise does not increase protein synthesis within highly active leg muscles. However, protein intake may have stimulated protein synthesis within less active leg muscles and/or other nonmuscle leg tissue. Finally, protein supplementation, during exercise......PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of protein ingestion on leg protein turnover and vastus lateralis muscle protein synthesis during bicycle exercise and recovery. METHODS: Eight healthy males participated in two experiments in which they ingested either a carbohydrate solution...

  16. Organization of metabolic pathways in vastus lateralis of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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    Green, Howard J; Bombardier, Eric; Burnett, Margaret; Iqbal, Sobia; D'Arsigny, Christine L; O'Donnell, Dennis E; Ouyang, Jing; Webb, Katherine A

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) display differences in organization of the metabolic pathways and segments involved in energy supply compared with healthy control subjects. Metabolic pathway potential, based on the measurement of the maximal activity (V(max)) of representative enzymes, was assessed in tissue extracted from the vastus lateralis in seven patients with COPD (age 67 +/- 4 yr; FEV(1)/FVC = 44 +/- 3%, where FEV(1) is forced expiratory volume in 1 s and FVC is forced vital capacity; means +/- SE) and nine healthy age-matched controls (age 68 +/- 2 yr; FEV(1)/FVC = 75 +/- 2%). Compared with control, the COPD patients displayed lower (P chain and glycogenolysis and glycolysis relative to beta-oxidation.

  17. Characteristics of myosin profile in human vastus lateralis muscle in relation to training background.

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    J A Zoladz

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four male volunteers (mean +/- SD: age 25.4+/-5.8 years, height 178.6+/-5.5 cm, body mass 72.1+/-7.7 kg of different training background were investigated and classified into three groups according to their physical activity and sport discipline: untrained students (group A, national and sub-national level endurance athletes (group B, 7.8+/-2.9 years of specialised training and sprint-power athletes (group C, 12.8+/-8.7 years of specialised training. Muscle biopsies of vastus lateralis were analysed histochemically for mATPase and SDH activities, immunohistochemically for fast and slow myosin, and electrophoretically followed by Western immunoblotting for myosin heavy chain (MyHC composition. Significant differences (P<0.05 regarding composition of muscle fibre types and myosin heavy chains were found only between groups A (41.7+/-1.6% of MyHCI, 40.8+/-4.0% of MyHCIIA and 17.5+/-4.0% of MyHCIIX and B (64.3+/-0.8% of MyHCI, 34.0+/-1.4% of MyHCIIA and 1.7+/-1.4% of MyHCIIX and groups A and C (59.6+/-1.6% of MyHCI, 37.2+/-1.3% of MyHCIIA and 3.2+/-1.3% of MyHCIIX. Unexpectedly, endurance athletes (group B such as long-distance runners, cyclists and cross country skiers, did not differ from the athletes representing short term, high power output sports (group C such as ice hockey, karate, ski-jumping, volleyball, soccer and modern dance. Furthermore, the relative amount of the fastest MyHCIIX isoform in vastus lateralis muscle was significantly lower in the athletes from group C than in students (group A. We conclude that the myosin profile in the athletes belonging to group C was unfavourable for their sport disciplines. This could be the reason why those athletes did not reach international level despite of several years of training.

  18. COMPARISON OF OSCILLATIONS OF SKIN BLOOD FLOW AND DEOXYGENATION IN VASTUS LATERALIS IN LIGHT EXERCISE

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    T. Yano

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare oscillation of skin blood flow with that of deoxygenation in muscle during light exercise in order to determine the physiological significance of oscillations in deoxygenation. Prolonged exercise with 50% of peak oxygen uptake was performed for 60 min. Skin blood flow (SBF was measured using a laser blood flow meter on the right vastus lateralis muscle. Deoxygenated haemoglobin/myoglobin (DHb/Mb concentration in the left vastus lateralis were measured using a near-infrared spectroscopy system. SBF and DHb/Mb during exercise were analysed by fast Fourier transform. We classified frequency bands according to previous studies (Kvernmo et al. 1999, Kvandal et al. 2006 into phase I (0.005-0.0095 and 0.0095-0.02 Hz, phase II (0.02-0.06 Hz: phase II and phase III (0.06-0.16 Hz. The first peak of power spectra density (PSD in SBF appeared at 0.0078 Hz in phase I. The second peak of PSD in SBF appeared at 0.035 Hz. The third peak of PSD in SBF appeared at 0.078 Hz. The first peak of PSD in DHb/Mb appeared at 0.0039 Hz, which was out of phase I. The second peak of PSD in DHb/Mb appeared at 0.016 Hz. The third peak of PSD in DHb/Mb appeared at 0.035 Hz. The coefficient of cross correlation was very low. Cross power spectra density showed peaks of 0.0039, 0.016 and 0.035 Hz. It is concluded that a peak of 0.016 Hz in oscillations of DHb/Mb observed in muscle during exercise is associated with endothelium-dependent vasodilation (phase I and that a peak of 0.035 Hz in DHb/Mb is associated with sympathetic nerve activity (phase II. It is also confirmed that each peak of SBF oscillations is observed in each phase.

  19. Effect of eccentric contraction on satellite cell activation in human vastus lateralis muscle.

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    Imaoka, Yoko; Kawai, Minako; Mori, Futoshi; Miyata, Hirofumi

    2015-09-01

    We compared the time-course of satellite cell (SC) activation between eccentric and concentric contractions in the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle after step exercise. Young adults participated in a 30-min step up/down exercise which mainly involved concentric contractions with the right VL muscle and eccentric contractions with the left VL muscle. The concentric and eccentric contraction phases of the VL muscles were identified by changes in the electromyogram (EMG) and knee joint angle. Biopsy samples were taken from both VL muscles at three time periods: before the exercise and 2 and 5 days after the exercise. We found that the numbers of SCs were significantly increased in the type IIa fibers of the left VL at 2 and 5 days after the exercise. The expression of both hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and myogenic differentiation 1 (MyoD) mRNA had significantly increased in the left VL at 2 and 5 days after the exercise and in the right VL at 5 days after the exercise. The expression of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) 1 mRNA also increased in the left VL at 2 days after exercise. These results indicate that eccentric contraction can effectively activate SC proliferation for up to 5 days after exercise. Similar changes in HGF, MyoD and TRPC1 mRNA expression suggest that HGF/c-Met signal activation through cation influx has a major impact on skeletal muscle SC activation in response to eccentric exercise.

  20. Reconstruction of large maxillary defect with the use of vastus lateralis (VL free flap. Case report

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    Nikolaos Papadogeorgakis, Vlasios Oktseloglou, Eleni Pappa, Petros Spyriounis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Large defects of the maxilla, following ablative surgery, significantly affect functions such as chewing, swallowing, speech and also the aesthetics. Reconstruction of soft tissues and bone defects can be achieved, either with the use of an obturator, or with free flaps. In the literature there is no sufficient evidence on the primacy of the one or the other method. The choice depends on the judgment, the experience and the ability of the surgical team. In recent years, the use of anterolateral thigh (ALTfree flap for reconstruction of large defects of the maxillary region, has gained a lot of popularity. The vastuslateralis free flap (VL is a variation of ALT. VL’s advantages include long pedicle, easier harvesting, and fewer anatomical variations. We present a case of a 75 year old male with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the medial canthal region, invading the maxillary bone, the medial wall and the floor of the orbit. The patient underwent a total maxillectomy, orbital exenteration, and reconstruction with vastus lateralis free flap.

  1. Estimation of active force-length characteristics of human vastus lateralis muscle.

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    Ichinose, Y; Kawakami, Y; Ito, M; Fukunaga, T

    1997-01-01

    The length and angles of fascicles were determined for the vastus lateralis muscle (VL) using ultrasonography in 6 subjects performing ramp isometric knee extension. The subject increased torque from zero (relax) to maximum (MVC) with the knee positioned every 15 degrees, from 10 degrees to 100 degrees flexion (0 degrees = full extension). As the knee was positioned closer to extension, fascicle length was shorter [116 +/- 4.7 (mean +/- SEM) mm at 100 degrees vs. 88 +/- 4.1 mm at 10 degrees (relax)]. The fascicle length of the VL decreased with increasing torque at each knee position [116 +/- 4.7 (relax) to 92 +/- 4.3 mm (MVC) at 100 degrees]. On the other hand, fascicle angles increased with an increase in torque. These changes reflected the compliance of the muscle-tendon complex which increased as the knee reached a straight position. The estimated muscle force of the VL was maximal (2,052 +/- 125 N) for a fascicle length of 78 +/- 2.7 mm (i.e. optimum length) with the knee positioned at 70 degrees of flexion. The relationship between muscle force and fascicle length indicated that the VL uses the ascending (knee 70 degrees) of the force-length curve.

  2. Vastus lateralis muscle architecture to estimate knee extension moment of older individuals

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    Guilherme Auler Brodt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the knee extension moment of older individuals with the muscle moment estimated through a biomechanical model. This was accomplished by using (1 the specific muscle architecture data of individuals, and (2 the generic muscle architecture available in the literature. The muscle force estimate was determined using a model with the muscle architecture from cadavers and the individual vastus lateralis muscle architecture of sixteen older volunteers. For the muscle moment comparison, all of the volunteers performed maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC in five different knee extension position angles. The architectural data was acquired using both resonance and ultrasound imaging. Both estimated muscle moments (generic and individual were higher than the experimental. The architecture of the other vastii may be necessary to make the model more accurate for the older population. Although other factors inherent to ageing, such as co-contractions, fiber type percentage, and passive forces are not considered in the model, they could be responsible for the differences between moments in older people.

  3. Treatment of peroneal paralysis with transposition of vastus lateralis muscle in calves.

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    Kilic, E; Yayla, S; Aksoy, O; Ozaydin, I; Ermutlu, C Ş

    2014-07-19

    This study aimed to clinically evaluate the results achieved by using tendon transposition to treat postinjection peroneal paralysis in calves. The study material consisted of 23 calves in all of which the clinical history indicated the problem had occurred within 1-3 days of intramuscular injection. Each patient was administered medical treatment for three weeks. After that, a decision was made to perform tendon transposition in all the subjects because their prognosis was estimated to be poor. The owners of five of the calves did not agree to the operation, and so, medical treatment was continued. Following intrathecal anaesthesia, the vastus lateralis muscle was dissected at the insertion, and the musculus (m) extensor (ext) digitalis (dig) longus and m fibularis tertius were dissected at the origin in 18 calves. The tendon ends were joined by using the locking loop suture technique in the 18 calves. Follow-up after two to three months revealed hind limb use in all surgically treated calves, while the medically treated calves had to be slaughtered because of lameness and decubitus. The results of the present study suggest that the peroneal paralysis of calves can be successfully treated by a tendon transposition technique.

  4. Differences in onset timing between the vastus medialis and lateralis during concentric knee contraction in individuals with genu varum or valgum.

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    Park, Seol; Kong, Yong-Soo; Ko, Yu-Min; Jang, Gwon-Uk; Park, Ji-Won

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in onset timing between the vastus medialis and lateralis among the different knee alignments, as well as the best isokinetic angular velocity for an isokinetic concentric contraction. [Subjects] Fifty-two adults (20 with genu varum, 12 genu valgum, and 20 controls) were enrolled in this study. Subjects with > 4 cm between the medial epicondyles of the knee were placed in the genu varum group, whereas subjects with > 4 cm between the medial malleolus of the ankle were placed in the genu valgum group. [Methods] Surface electromyography was used to measure the onset times of the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis during concentric contractions at 30, 60, and 90°/sec. [Results] The vastus lateralis showed more delayed firing than the vastus medialis in the genu varum group, whereas vastus medialis firing was delayed more than that of the vastus lateralis in the genu valgum group. No differences in onset timing were observed between the vastus medialis and lateralis according the different angular velocities during concentric contractions in all three groups. [Conclusion] Genu varum and valgum affect quadriceps firing. Therefore, selective rehabilitation training of the quadriceps femoris should be considered to prevent pain or knee malalignment deformities.

  5. Age-related changes in motor unit firing pattern of vastus lateralis muscle during low-moderate contraction.

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    Watanabe, Kohei; Holobar, Aleš; Kouzaki, Motoki; Ogawa, Madoka; Akima, Hiroshi; Moritani, Toshio

    2016-06-01

    Age-related changes in motor unit activation properties remain unclear for locomotor muscles such as quadriceps muscles, although these muscles are preferentially atrophied with aging and play important roles in daily living movements. The present study investigated and compared detailed motor unit firing characteristics for the vastus lateralis muscle during isometric contraction at low to moderate force levels in the elderly and young. Fourteen healthy elderly men and 15 healthy young men performed isometric ramp-up contraction to 70 % of the maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) during knee extension. Multichannel surface electromyograms were recorded from the vastus lateralis muscle using a two-dimensional grid of 64 electrodes and decomposed with the convolution kernel compensation technique to extract individual motor units. Motor unit firing rates in the young were significantly higher (~+29.7 %) than in the elderly (p  0.05). Firing rates at 60 % of the MVC force level for the motor units recruited at MVC were significantly correlated with MVC force in the elderly (r = 0.885, p  0.05). These results suggest that the motor unit firing rate in the vastus lateralis muscle is affected by aging and muscle strength in the elderly and/or age-related strength loss is related to motor unit firing/recruitment properties.

  6. Reconstruction of the tongue and mouth floor with the myofascial vastus lateralis free flap after cancer ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Liu, K; Shao, Z; Shang, Z-J

    2016-08-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate a novel approach to tongue and mouth floor reconstruction using the myofascial vastus lateralis free flap (MVLF). The surgical techniques, benefits, complication rate, and the aesthetic and functional results are described. A series of six patients underwent functional tongue reconstruction between July 2013 and November 2014. The myofascial vastus lateralis flap was obtained as follows: the vastus lateralis muscle was exposed, the neurovascular pedicle was identified, and the myofascial flap was raised. Postoperatively, the neotongue appeared plump and was able to maintain palatal contact. Moreover, no obvious decrease in flap volume was observed during the follow-up period. Most patients experienced good tongue mobility. Further use of the MVLF should confirm whether the mucous membrane on the surface of the flap becomes part of the tongue mucosa in the true sense, whether and how well the patients will recover their sense of taste, and the degree to which quality of life is improved after nerve anastomosis. So far, it appears to be a suitable approach to tongue and mouth floor reconstruction.

  7. Ablation of advanced tongue cancer and mobile tongue reconstruction by using a sensitive anterolateral thigh and vastus lateralis muscle free flap

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tuhar; Zamfirescu, D; Gheorghiță, C; Slăvescu, D; Frunză, A; Lascăr, I

    2015-01-01

    .... The anterior lateral thigh flap sensitive myocutaneous (ALTF) with vastus lateralis muscle was used to reconstruct the oral defect in a patient undergoing total glossectomy with laryngeal preservation for T4 tongue cancer...

  8. The combined free partial vastus lateralis with anterolateral thigh perforator flap reconstruction of extensive composite defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posch, N A S; Mureau, M A M; Flood, S J; Hofer, S O P

    2005-12-01

    Myocutaneous (MC) free flaps are useful for many reconstructive indications. Perforator flaps have become standard of care. The anterolateral thigh flap (ALT) donor site is popular. With the ALT flap varying sizes of vastus lateralis (VL) muscle can be harvested as a MC flap. The skin islands of these flaps have a great range of freedom when dissected on their perforator. It was hypothesised that the VL-ALT perforator flap would offer adequate tissue volume combining maximal freedom in planning with minimal donor site morbidity. From November 2001 to February 2003 a free partial VL with ALT perforator flap was used in 11 patients to reconstruct large defects. Indications for adding a muscular component were exposed bone, skull base, (artificial) dura, or osteosynthesis material, open sinuses, and lack of muscular bulk. Flaps were planned as standard ALT flaps, after which three types of dissection were performed: I. true MC flap; II. muscle flap with a skin island on one perforator, which could be rotated up to 180 degrees ; III. chimera skin perforator flap with muscle being harvested on a separate branch from the source vessel or on a side branch of the skin perforator. Mean skin size of the MC-ALT flaps was 131 cm2. Mean muscle part size of the MC-ALT flaps was 268 cm3. Muscular parts were custom designed for all defects. No total or partial flap failures were seen. Colour mismatch was seen in 6 of 8 patients, when skin was used in the facial area in this all white population. Excessive flap bulk was found in 8 of 11 patients at 6 weeks, however, only in 2 of 11 patients after 6 months. Patients were satisfied with the functional result (8 of 11 patients) as well as the cosmetic result of their reconstruction (7 of 11 patients). All less satisfied patients had received their flap for external facial skin reconstruction. Donor site morbidity was minimal. The combined free partial VL with ALT perforator flap proved valuable as a (chimera type) MC flap with maximal

  9. Increase in vastus lateralis aponeurosis width induced by resistance training: implications for a hypertrophic model of pennate muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakahara, Taku; Ema, Ryoichi; Miyamoto, Naokazu; Kawakami, Yasuo

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to ascertain whether training-induced muscle hypertrophy is accompanied by an increase in the aponeurosis width, and to infer its impact on the training-induced increase in the pennation angle. Eleven young men completed a resistance training program of unilateral knee extensions for 12 weeks. Before and after training, anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA) of the vastus lateralis and its distal aponeurosis width in the transverse plane were measured with magnetic resonance imaging. The pennation angle and fascicle length were also determined with ultrasonography at the midbelly of the muscle. The effect of change in aponeurosis width on the magnitude of training-induced increase in pennation angle was estimated by using a parallelepipedon model. After the training, there were significant increases in ACSA (10.7 ± 7.6 %), pennation angle (10.8 ± 7.3 %) and aponeurosis width (1.9 ± 3.1 %), whereas no significant change was found in the fascicle length. The model simulation shows that the increase in aponeurosis width by 1.9 % reduces the magnitude of increase in pennation angle by only 0.4°. These results indicate that (1) the aponeurosis width of the vastus lateralis increases after 12 weeks of resistance training and (2) the increase in the aponeurosis width accompanying muscle hypertrophy by the amount of ~10 % does not substantially affect the increase in pennation angle.

  10. ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC ACTIVITY OF THE VASTUS MEDIALIS OBLIQUE AND VASTUS LATERALIS DURING MAXIMUM VOLUNTARY ISOMETRICS IN DIFFERENT WEIGHT BEARING POSITIONS OF THE FOOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreekar Kumar Reddy.R

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patellofemoral pain syndrome is a very common disorder. 90% of the general population has some degree of pathologic changes of the patellofemoral joint. Knowledge regarding the cause and prevention of patellofemoral pain syndrome is essential. Therefore the purpose of this study is intended to know whether different foot positions alter Vastus Medialis Oblique and Vastus Lateralis that leads to dysfunctions of knee joint. Method: 30 subjects are included in study and investigated foot in different foot positions are in neutral, pronated and supinated foot positions and performed maximum voluntary isometric contractions are recorded with electromyography. Results: EMG amplitudes (microvolts of VL and VMO at three different weight bearing positions of foot during maximum voluntary contraction analysis by using one-way Analysis of Variance. Mean amplitudes of foot positions in pronation shown significant difference while comparing with neutral and supination. Conclusion: The VMO and VL activity shows significant difference in the pronated foot weight bearing position compared to the neutral and supinated foot. Performing the maximum voluntary isometric contractions of VMO and VL with pronated foot elicited significantly higher EMG activity compared to Neutral or supinated weight bearing positions of foot. The results of this study also suggested that for patellofemoral pain which is caused by pronated foot can be treat with by using the soft foot orthoses

  11. Muscle Activation of Vastus Medialis Oblique and Vastus Lateralis in Sling-Based Exercises in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: A Cross-Over Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Dien Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To examine what changes are caused in the activity of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO and vastus lateralis (VL at the time of sling-based exercises in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS and compare the muscular activations in patients with PFPS among the sling-based exercises. Methods. This was a cross-over study. Sling-based open and closed kinetic knee extension and hip adduction exercises were designed for PFPS, and electromyography was applied to record maximal voluntary contraction during the exercises. The VMO and VL activations and VMO : VL ratios for the three exercises were analyzed and compared. Results. Thirty male (age = 21.19 ± 0.68 y and 30 female (age = 21.12 ± 0.74 y patients with PFPS were recruited. VMO activations during the sling-based open and closed kinetic knee extension exercises were significantly higher (P=0.04 and P=0.001 than those during hip adduction exercises and VMO : VL ratio for the sling-based closed kinetic knee extension and hip adduction exercises approximated to 1. Conclusions. The sling-based closed kinetic knee extension exercise produced the highest VMO activation. It also had an appropriate VMO : VL ratio similar to sling-based hip adduction exercise and had beneficial effects on PFPS.

  12. Collagen content in the vastus lateralis and the soleus muscle following a 90-day bed rest period with or without resistance exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Schjerling, Peter; Tesch, Per;

    2016-01-01

    training serves as a proxy for the conditions in space. Therefore, ground-based studies may improve the understanding of the consequences of long-term inactivity. PURPOSE: the purpose is to compare the change in collagen protein in the vastus lateralis (VL) and the soleus (SOL) muscle amongst persons...... inactive during follow-up. Muscle biopsies from vastus lateralis and soleus were taken at baseline (pre) and after 90-days' follow-up (post). Muscle collagen (μg collagen/mg protein) was quantified. Two-way repeated measurements ANOVA was used to compare the interaction between the intervention (BRE...

  13. Neuromuscular partitioning, architectural design, and myosin fiber types of the M. vastus lateralis of the llama (Lama glama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziotti, Guillermo H; Palencia, Pablo; Delhon, Gustavo; Rivero, José-Luis L

    2004-11-01

    The llama (Lama glama) is one of the few mammals of relatively large body size in which three fast myosin heavy chain isoforms (i.e., IIA, IIX, IIB) are extensively expressed in their locomotory muscles. This study was designed to gain insight into the morphological and functional organization of skeletal musculature in this peculiar animal model. The neuromuscular partitioning, architectural design, and myosin fiber types were systematically studied in the M. vastus lateralis of adult llamas (n = 15). Four nonoverlapping neuromuscular partitions or compartments were identified macroscopically (using a modified Sihler's technique for muscle depigmentation), although they did not conform strictly to the definitions of "neuromuscular compartments." Each neuromuscular partition was innervated by primary branches of the femoral nerve and was arranged within the muscle as paired partitions, two in parallel (deep-superficial compartmentalization) and the other two in-series (proximo-distal compartmentalization). These neuromuscular partitions of the muscle varied in their respective architectural designs (studied after partial digestion with diluted nitric acid) and myosin fiber type characteristics (identified immunohistochemically with specific anti-myosin monoclonal antibodies, then examined by quantitative histochemistry and image analysis). The deep partitions of the muscle had longer fibers, with lower angles of pinnation, and higher percentages of fast-glycolytic fibers than the superficial partitions of the muscle. These differences clearly suggest a division of labor in the whole M. vastus lateralis of llamas, with deep partitions exhibiting features well adapted for dynamic activities in the extension of stifle, whereas superficial portions seem to be related to the antigravitational role of the muscle in preserving the extension of the stifle during standing and stance phase of the stride. This peculiar structural and functional organization of the llama M

  14. Do epigenetic events take place in the vastus lateralis of patients with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Puig-Vilanova

    Full Text Available Muscle dysfunction is a major comorbidity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD. Several biological mechanisms including epigenetic events regulate muscle mass and function in models of muscle atrophy. Investigations conducted so far have focused on the elucidation of biological mechanisms involved in muscle dysfunction in advanced COPD. We assessed whether the epigenetic profile may be altered in the vastus lateralis of patients with mild COPD, normal body composition, and mildly impaired muscle function and exercise capacity. In vastus lateralis (VL of mild COPD patients with well-preserved body composition and in healthy age-matched controls, expression of DNA methylation, muscle-enriched microRNAs, histone acetyltransferases (HTAs and deacetylases (HDACs, protein acetylation, small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO ligases, and muscle structure were explored. All subjects were clinically evaluated. Compared to healthy controls, in the VL of mild COPD patients, muscle function and exercise capacity were moderately reduced, DNA methylation levels did not differ, miR-1 expression levels were increased and positively correlated with both forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 and quadriceps force, HDAC4 protein levels were increased, and muscle fiber types and sizes were not different. Moderate skeletal muscle dysfunction is a relevant feature in patients with mild COPD and preserved body composition. Several epigenetic events are differentially expressed in the limb muscles of these patients, probably as an attempt to counterbalance the underlying mechanisms that alter muscle function and mass. The study of patients at early stages of their disease is of interest as they are a target for timely therapeutic interventions that may slow down the course of the disease and prevent the deleterious effects of major comorbidities.

  15. Effects of barbell deadlift training on submaximal motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt S Stock

    Full Text Available Previous investigations that have studied motor unit firing rates following strength training have been limited to small muscles, isometric training, or interventions involving exercise machines. We examined the effects of ten weeks of supervised barbell deadlift training on motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris during a 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC assessment. Twenty-four previously untrained men (mean age  = 24 years were randomly assigned to training (n = 15 or control (n = 9 groups. Before and following the intervention, the subjects performed isometric testing of the right knee extensors while bipolar surface electromyographic signals were detected from the two muscles. The signals were decomposed into their constituent motor unit action potential trains, and motor units that demonstrated accuracy levels less than 92.0% were not considered for analysis. One thousand eight hundred ninety-two and 2,013 motor units were examined for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, respectively. Regression analyses were used to determine the linear slope coefficients (pulses per second [pps]/% MVC and y-intercepts (pps of the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. Deadlift training significantly improved knee extensor MVC force (Cohen's d = .70, but did not influence force steadiness. Training had no influence on the slopes and y-intercepts for the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. In agreement with previous cross-sectional comparisons and randomized control trials, our findings do not support the notion that strength training affects the submaximal control of motor units.

  16. Capillary density and capillary-to-fibre ratio in vastus lateralis muscle of untrained and trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. M. Kilarski

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Muscle fibre profile area (Af, volume density (Vv, capillary-to-fibre ratio (CF and number of capillaries per fibre square millimetre (CD were determined from needle biopsies of vastus lateralis of twenty-four male volunteers (mean ± SD: age 25.4±5.8 years, height 178.6±5.5 cm, body mass 72.1±7.7 kg of different training background. Seven subjects were untrained students (group A, nine were national and sub-national level endurance athletes (group B with the background of 7.8±2.9 years of specialised training, and eight subjects were sprint-power athletes (group C with 12.8±8.7 years of specialised training. Muscle biopsies of vastus lateralis were analysed histochemically for mATPase. Capillaries were visualized and counted using CD31 antibodies against endothelial cells. There were significant differences in the Vv of type I and type II muscle fibres in both trained groups, B (51.8%; 25.6% and C (50.5%; 26.4%. However, in untrained group A that was treated as a reference group, the difference between Vv of type I and type II fibres was less prominent, nevertheless statistically significant (42.1%; 35.1%. There was also a significant difference in CF: 1.9 in group A and 2.1 in groups B and C. The number of capillaries per mm2 (CD was 245 (group A, 308 (group B and 325 (group C. Significant differences (P<0.05 in CF and CD, were found only between group A (1.9; 245 and both groups of trained men, B and C (2.1; 308 and 325. However, endurance athletes (group B, such as long-distance runners, cyclists and cross country skiers, did not differ from the athletes representing short term, high power output sports (group C such as ice hockey, karate, ski-jumping, volleyball, soccer and modern dance.

  17. Collagen content in the vastus lateralis and the soleus muscle following a 90-day bed rest period with or without resistance exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Schjerling, Peter; Tesch, Per

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: spaceflight seems associated with deterioration of the function of the skeletal muscles. Since muscle collagen is critical for muscle function, an improved understanding of the content of the muscle collagen during long-term inactivity seems important. Bed-rest with in-bed resistance...... training serves as a proxy for the conditions in space. Therefore, ground-based studies may improve the understanding of the consequences of long-term inactivity. PURPOSE: the purpose is to compare the change in collagen protein in the vastus lateralis (VL) and the soleus (SOL) muscle amongst persons...... inactive during follow-up. Muscle biopsies from vastus lateralis and soleus were taken at baseline (pre) and after 90-days' follow-up (post). Muscle collagen (μg collagen/mg protein) was quantified. Two-way repeated measurements ANOVA was used to compare the interaction between the intervention (BRE...

  18. Effects of load magnitude, muscle length and velocity during eccentric chronic loading on the longitudinal growth of the vastus lateralis muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifnezhad, Ali; Marzilger, Robert; Arampatzis, Adamantios

    2014-08-01

    The present study investigated the longitudinal growth of the vastus lateralis muscle using four eccentric exercise protocols with different mechanical stimuli by modifying the load magnitude, lengthening velocity and muscle length at which the load was applied. Thirty-one participants voluntarily participated in this study in two experimental and one control group. The first experimental group (N=10) exercised the knee extensors of one leg at 65% (low load magnitude) of the maximum isometric voluntary contraction (MVC) and the second leg at 100% MVC (high load magnitude) with 90 deg s(-1) angular velocity, from 25 to 100 deg knee angle. The second experimental group (N=10) exercised one leg at 100% MVC, 90 deg s(-1), from 25 to 65 deg knee angle (short muscle length). The other leg was exercised at 100% MVC, 240 deg s(-1) angular velocity (high muscle lengthening velocity) from 25 to 100 deg. In the pre- and post-intervention measurements, we examined the fascicle length of the vastus lateralis at rest and the moment-angle relationship of the knee extensors. After 10 weeks of intervention, we found a significant increase (~14%) of vastus lateralis fascicle length compared with the control group, yet only in the leg that was exercised with high lengthening velocity. The findings provide evidence that not every eccentric loading causes an increase in fascicle length and that the lengthening velocity of the fascicles during the eccentric loading, particularly in the phase where the knee joint moment decreases (i.e. deactivation of the muscle), seems to be an important factor for longitudinal muscle growth. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. The Effect of High Intensity Interval Run Training on Cross-sectional Area of the Vastus Lateralis in Untrained College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESTES, REBEKAH R.; MALINOWSKI, AMY; PIACENTINI, MEREDITH; THRUSH, DAVID; SALLEY, ERIC; LOSEY, CASSIDY; HAYES, ERIK

    2017-01-01

    Aerobic cycling has been repeatedly shown to induce hypertrophy in skeletal muscle across a variety of populations, while there has been a lack of investigation into the impact of running upon hypertrophy. An increasingly popular model of aerobic exercise is high-intensity interval training (HIIT); in addition to its positive impact upon cardiovascular health, HIIT may be sufficient for inducing significant muscular hypertrophy. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of a high-intensity interval running protocol upon hypertrophy of the vastus lateralis in an untrained, young population. Twelve recreationally active university students (Male: 2; Female: 10; 19.9±0.5 yr.; 169.8±1.9 cm; 63.8±2.3 kg; VO2max: 42.1±1.6 ml•kg−1min−1) completed 24.5±0.6 sessions of high-intensity interval run training over 10 weeks. The protocol consisted of four sets of 4 minutes running at 90–95% HRmax followed by 3 minutes active rest at 70% HRmax. Relative and absolute aerobic capacity increased 5.2±2.2% and 6.0±2.3% respectively as a result of the intervention (p< 0.05). Cross-sectional area (CSA) of the vastus lateralis was measured via panoramic ultrasound imaging pre- and post-intervention. Following the protocol, CSA of the intervention group was 10.6±2.7% greater (p< 0.05), while that of the control group did not change. This is the first data to demonstrate hypertrophy of the vastus lateralis in a young population following a running protocol. These data support the existing body of evidence suggesting aerobic exercise to be an effective mode of improving cardiorespiratory fitness as well as increasing whole muscle size of the quadriceps. PMID:28479954

  20. A Comparison of Gluteus Maximus, Biceps Femoris, and Vastus Lateralis Electromyographic Activity in the Back Squat and Barbell Hip Thrust Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Bret; Vigotsky, Andrew D; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Beardsley, Chris; Cronin, John

    2015-12-01

    The back squat and barbell hip thrust are both popular exercises used to target the lower body musculature; however, these exercises have yet to be compared. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of the upper and lower gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, and vastus lateralis between the back squat and barbell hip thrust. Thirteen trained women (n = 13; age = 28.9 years; height = 164 cm; mass = 58.2 kg) performed estimated 10-repetition maximums (RM) in the back squat and barbell hip thrust. The barbell hip thrust elicited significantly greater mean (69.5% vs 29.4%) and peak (172% vs 84.9%) upper gluteus maximus, mean (86.8% vs 45.4%) and peak (216% vs 130%) lower gluteus maximus, and mean (40.8% vs 14.9%) and peak (86.9% vs 37.5%) biceps femoris EMG activity than the back squat. There were no significant differences in mean (99.5% vs 110%) or peak (216% vs 244%) vastus lateralis EMG activity. The barbell hip thrust activates the gluteus maximus and biceps femoris to a greater degree than the back squat when using estimated 10RM loads. Longitudinal training studies are needed to determine if this enhanced activation correlates with increased strength, hypertrophy, and performance.

  1. Increased Interstitial Concentrations of Glutamate and Pyruvate in Vastus Lateralis of Women with Fibromyalgia Syndrome Are Normalized after an Exercise Intervention – A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdle, Björn; Ernberg, Malin; Mannerkorpi, Kaisa; Larsson, Britt; Kosek, Eva; Christidis, Nikolaos; Ghafouri, Bijar

    2016-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is associated with central alterations, but controversies exist regarding the presence and role of peripheral factors. Microdialysis (MD) can be used in vivo to study muscle alterations in FMS. Furthermore for chronic pain conditions such as FMS, the mechanisms for the positive effects of exercise are unclear. This study investigates the interstitial concentrations of algesics and metabolites in the vastus lateralis muscle of 29 women with FMS and 28 healthy women before and after an exercise intervention. Methods All the participants went through a clinical examination and completed a questionnaire. In addition, their pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in their upper and lower extremities were determined. For both groups, MD was conducted in the vastus lateralis muscle before and after a 15-week exercise intervention of mainly resistance training of the lower limbs. Muscle blood flow and interstitial muscle concentrations of lactate, pyruvate, glutamate, glucose, and glycerol were determined. Results FMS was associated with significantly increased interstitial concentrations of glutamate, pyruvate, and lactate. After the exercise intervention, the FMS group exhibited significant decreases in pain intensity and in mean interstitial concentrations of glutamate, pyruvate, and glucose. The decrease in pain intensity in FMS correlated significantly with the decreases in pyruvate and glucose. In addition, the FMS group increased their strength and endurance. Conclusion This study supports the suggestion that peripheral metabolic and algesic muscle alterations are present in FMS patients and that these alterations contribute to pain. After an exercise intervention, alterations normalized, pain intensity decreased (but not abolished), and strength and endurance improved, all findings that suggest the effects of exercise are partially peripheral. PMID:27695113

  2. A Comparison of Gluteus Maximus, Biceps Femoris, and Vastus Lateralis Electromyography Amplitude for the Barbell, Band, and American Hip Thrust Variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Bret; Vigotsky, Andrew D; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Beardsley, Chris; Cronin, John

    2016-06-01

    Bridging exercise variations are well researched and commonly employed for both rehabilitation and sport performance. However, resisted bridge exercise variations have not yet been compared in a controlled experimental study. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the differences in upper and lower gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, and vastus lateralis electromyography (EMG) amplitude for the barbell, band, and American hip thrust variations. Thirteen healthy female subjects (age = 28.9 y; height = 164.3 cm; body mass = 58.2 kg) familiar with the hip thrust performed 10 repetitions of their 10-repetition maximum of each variation in a counterbalanced and randomized order. The barbell hip thrust variation elicited statistically greater mean gluteus maximus EMG amplitude than the American and band hip thrusts, and statistically greater peak gluteus maximus EMG amplitude than the band hip thrust (P ≤ .05), but no other statistical differences were observed. It is recommended that resisted bridging exercise be prescribed according to the individual's preferences and desired outcomes.

  3. A Comparison of Gluteus Maximus, Biceps Femoris, and Vastus Lateralis Electromyography Amplitude in the Parallel, Full, and Front Squat Variations in Resistance-Trained Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Bret; Vigotsky, Andrew D; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Beardsley, Chris; Cronin, John

    2016-02-01

    Front, full, and parallel squats are some of the most popular squat variations. The purpose of this investigation was to compare mean and peak electromyography (EMG) amplitude of the upper gluteus maximus, lower gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, and vastus lateralis of front, full, and parallel squats. Thirteen healthy women (age = 28.9 ± 5.1 y; height = 164 ± 6.3 cm; body mass = 58.2 ± 6.4 kg) performed 10 repetitions of their estimated 10-repetition maximum of each respective variation. There were no statistical (P ≤ .05) differences between full, front, and parallel squats in any of the tested muscles. Given these findings, it can be concluded that the front, full, or parallel squat can be performed for similar EMG amplitudes. However, given the results of previous research, it is recommended that individuals use a full range of motion when squatting, assuming full range can be safely achieved, to promote more favorable training adaptations. Furthermore, despite requiring lighter loads, the front squat may provide a similar training stimulus to the back squat.

  4. The Effect of Recovery Duration on Vastus Lateralis Oxygenation, Heart Rate, Perceived Exertion and Time Motion Descriptors during Small Sided Football Games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott McLean

    Full Text Available Small sided games (SSG of football are an effective and efficient format to simultaneously train the physiological, technical, and tactical components of football. The duration of the recovery period between bouts of SSG will affect the physiological response to subsequent bouts. It was hypothesised that decreasing the duration of recovery periods separating serial SSG bouts would increase physiological, and perceptual responses, and decrease high speed running, and distance during SSG bouts.Twelve experienced footballers (mean ± SD; age 21 ± 3 yrs; VO2peak 64 ± 7 ml·min·kg-1; playing experience 15 ± 3 yrs completed two SSG sessions. Each SSG consisted of 3 vs. 3 players and 6 bouts of 2 min duration, with bouts separated by either 30 s recovery (REC-30 or 120 s recovery (REC-120. Deoxygenated haemoglobin (HHb in the vastus lateralis (VL (using near infrared spectroscopy, heart rate (HR and time motion descriptors (TMD (speed and distance were measured continuously during the SSG sessions and perceived exertion (RPE was measured for each bout.During the recovery periods, in REC-30 compared to REC-120, there was a significant (p < 0.05 main effect of a higher HHb and HR. During the bouts, in REC-30 compared to REC-120, there were no significant differences in HHb, HR, RPE, or TMD, but within both REC-30 and REC-120 there were significant increases as a function of bout number in RPE.Although a four-fold increase in recovery period allowed a significant increase in the recovery of HHb and HR, this did not increase the physiological, and perceptual responses, or time motion descriptors during the bouts. These results could have been due to the regulation of effort (pacing, in these experienced players performing an exercise task to which they were well adapted.

  5. The Effect of Recovery Duration on Vastus Lateralis Oxygenation, Heart Rate, Perceived Exertion and Time Motion Descriptors during Small Sided Football Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Scott; Kerhervé, Hugo; Lovell, Geoff P; Gorman, Adam D; Solomon, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Small sided games (SSG) of football are an effective and efficient format to simultaneously train the physiological, technical, and tactical components of football. The duration of the recovery period between bouts of SSG will affect the physiological response to subsequent bouts. It was hypothesised that decreasing the duration of recovery periods separating serial SSG bouts would increase physiological, and perceptual responses, and decrease high speed running, and distance during SSG bouts. Twelve experienced footballers (mean ± SD; age 21 ± 3 yrs; VO2peak 64 ± 7 ml·min·kg-1; playing experience 15 ± 3 yrs) completed two SSG sessions. Each SSG consisted of 3 vs. 3 players and 6 bouts of 2 min duration, with bouts separated by either 30 s recovery (REC-30) or 120 s recovery (REC-120). Deoxygenated haemoglobin (HHb) in the vastus lateralis (VL) (using near infrared spectroscopy), heart rate (HR) and time motion descriptors (TMD) (speed and distance) were measured continuously during the SSG sessions and perceived exertion (RPE) was measured for each bout. During the recovery periods, in REC-30 compared to REC-120, there was a significant (p increases as a function of bout number in RPE. Although a four-fold increase in recovery period allowed a significant increase in the recovery of HHb and HR, this did not increase the physiological, and perceptual responses, or time motion descriptors during the bouts. These results could have been due to the regulation of effort (pacing), in these experienced players performing an exercise task to which they were well adapted.

  6. Phytophthora lateralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.M. Hansen

    2011-01-01

    Phytophthora lateralis was named by Tucker and Milbrath in 1942. There are no known synonyms. P. lateralis was classified in morphological group V by Stamps et al. (1990); the group includes homothallic species with paragynous antheridia and nonpapillate, proliferating sporangia.

  7. Atividade eletromiográfica do vasto medial oblíquo e vasto lateral durante atividades funcionais em sujeitos com síndrome da dor patelofemural Electromyographic activity of vastus medialis obliquus and vastus lateralis muscles during functional activities in subjects with patellofemoral pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EP Santos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O propósito deste estudo foi avaliar a amplitude e o tempo de ativação elétrica do vasto medial oblíquo (VMO, vasto lateral longo (VLL e vasto lateral oblíquo (VLO durante atividades funcionais em portadoras da síndrome da dor patelofemural (SDPF. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 20 mulheres, sendo dez do grupo controle e dez do grupo com SDPF. O sinal eletromiográfico do quadríceps foi detectado por eletrodos ativos diferenciais simples de superfície e um eletromiógrafo de quatro canais, durante atividades em cadeia cinética aberta (em um dinamômetro isocinético e fechada (através de um step e durante o agachamento. Na análise estatística foram utilizados o teste t de student e uma análise de variância (ANOVA, com método pos-hoc de Tukey, com nível de significância de pOBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the amplitude and onset of electrical activation of the vastus medialis obliquus (VMO, vastus lateralis longus (VLL and vastus lateralis obliquus (VLO during functional activities in individuals with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS. METHODS: Twenty women participated in the study: ten in a control group and ten in the group with PFPS. The electromyographic signal of the quadriceps muscle was detected using simple active differential surface electrodes and a four-channel electromyography system, during open kinetic chain activities (using an isokinetic dynamometer and closed kinetic chain activities (step and squat maneuvers. For the statistical analysis, Student's t test and ANOVA with Tukey's post-hoc method were used, with a significance level of p<0.05. RESULTS: The results suggested that the electrical activation of the VMO was less intense than in the VLO (p=0.04 and that there was greater delay in VMO onset (p=0.0023 in the group with PFPS, with regard to all of the functional activities evaluated. There was a significant difference between the VMO and VLO in relation to the activities

  8. A clinical case and anatomical study of the innervation supply of the vastus medialis muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, H; Tekdemir, I; Elhan, A; Turanli, S; Engebretsen, L

    2004-03-01

    The innervation supply to the vastus medialis (VM) muscle, a component of quadriceps femoris (QF), is provided by a branch of the femoral nerve (FN) running along the muscle. The course of the nerve from lumbar roots to the muscle has been described by many researchers. It is known to ride along the femoral vein, artery and saphenous nerve and enter the adductor canal (Hunter's canal), and then to divide into branches that supply vastus medialis and the knee joint. Femoral mononeuropathy is uncommon, and is usually due to compression in the spinal level. Hematoma in the psoas and iliacus muscles, drug abuse, lithotomy position and limb lengthening are the other associated reasons for a mononeuropathy of the femoral nerve. Isolated vastus lateralis (VL) atrophies have been reported by a few authors, suggesting that compression of the nerve and direct violation of the nerve with injections might be the reason for mononeuropathy. Isolated VM atrophy has not been previously reported. The purpose of the study was to identify the anatomical structures around the FN branch which innervates the VM muscle.

  9. The Hsp72 and Hsp90α mRNA Responses to Hot Downhill Running Are Reduced Following a Prior Bout of Hot Downhill Running, and Occur Concurrently within Leukocytes and the Vastus Lateralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Tuttle

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The leukocyte heat shock response (HSR is used to determine individual's thermotolerance. The HSR and thermotolerance are enhanced following interventions such as preconditioning and/or acclimation/acclimatization. However, it is unclear whether the leukocyte HSR is an appropriate surrogate for the HSR in other tissues implicated within the pathophysiology of exertional heat illnesses (e.g., skeletal muscle, and whether an acute preconditioning strategy (e.g., downhill running can improve subsequent thermotolerance. Physically active, non-heat acclimated participants were split into two groups to investigate the benefits of hot downhill running as preconditioning strategy. A hot preconditioning group (HPC; n = 6 completed two trials (HPC1HOTDOWN and HPC2HOTDOWN of 30 min running at lactate threshold (LT on −10% gradient in 30°C and 50% relative humidity (RH separated by 7 d. A temperate preconditioning group (TPC; n = 5 completed 30 min running at LT on a −1% gradient in 20°C and 50% (TPC1TEMPFLAT and 7 d later completed 30 min running at LT on −10% gradient in 30°C and 50% RH (TPC2HOTDOWN. Venous blood samples and muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis; VL were obtained before, immediately after, 3, 24, and 48 h after each trial. Leukocyte and VL Hsp72, Hsp90α, and Grp78 mRNA relative expression was determined via RT-QPCR. Attenuated leukocyte and VL Hsp72 (2.8 to 1.8 fold and 5.9 to 2.4 fold; p < 0.05 and Hsp90α mRNA (2.9 to 2.4 fold and 5.2 to 2.4 fold; p < 0.05 responses accompanied reductions (p < 0.05 in physiological strain [exercising rectal temperature (−0.3°C and perceived muscle soreness (~ −14%] during HPC2HOTDOWN compared to HPC1HOTDOWN (i.e., a preconditioning effect. Both VL and leukocyte Hsp72 and Hsp90α mRNA increased (p < 0.05 simultaneously following downhill runs and demonstrated a strong relationship (p < 0.01 of similar magnitudes with one another. Hot downhill running is an effective preconditioning strategy

  10. The Hsp72 and Hsp90α mRNA Responses to Hot Downhill Running Are Reduced Following a Prior Bout of Hot Downhill Running, and Occur Concurrently within Leukocytes and the Vastus Lateralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, James A; Chrismas, Bryna C R; Gibson, Oliver R; Barrington, James H; Hughes, David C; Castle, Paul C; Metcalfe, Alan J; Midgley, Adrian W; Pearce, Oliver; Kabir, Chindu; Rayanmarakar, Faizal; Al-Ali, Sami; Lewis, Mark P; Taylor, Lee

    2017-01-01

    The leukocyte heat shock response (HSR) is used to determine individual's thermotolerance. The HSR and thermotolerance are enhanced following interventions such as preconditioning and/or acclimation/acclimatization. However, it is unclear whether the leukocyte HSR is an appropriate surrogate for the HSR in other tissues implicated within the pathophysiology of exertional heat illnesses (e.g., skeletal muscle), and whether an acute preconditioning strategy (e.g., downhill running) can improve subsequent thermotolerance. Physically active, non-heat acclimated participants were split into two groups to investigate the benefits of hot downhill running as preconditioning strategy. A hot preconditioning group (HPC; n = 6) completed two trials (HPC1HOTDOWN and HPC2HOTDOWN) of 30 min running at lactate threshold (LT) on -10% gradient in 30°C and 50% relative humidity (RH) separated by 7 d. A temperate preconditioning group (TPC; n = 5) completed 30 min running at LT on a -1% gradient in 20°C and 50% (TPC1TEMPFLAT) and 7 d later completed 30 min running at LT on -10% gradient in 30°C and 50% RH (TPC2HOTDOWN). Venous blood samples and muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis; VL) were obtained before, immediately after, 3, 24, and 48 h after each trial. Leukocyte and VL Hsp72, Hsp90α, and Grp78 mRNA relative expression was determined via RT-QPCR. Attenuated leukocyte and VL Hsp72 (2.8 to 1.8 fold and 5.9 to 2.4 fold; p < 0.05) and Hsp90α mRNA (2.9 to 2.4 fold and 5.2 to 2.4 fold; p < 0.05) responses accompanied reductions (p < 0.05) in physiological strain [exercising rectal temperature (-0.3°C) and perceived muscle soreness (~ -14%)] during HPC2HOTDOWN compared to HPC1HOTDOWN (i.e., a preconditioning effect). Both VL and leukocyte Hsp72 and Hsp90α mRNA increased (p < 0.05) simultaneously following downhill runs and demonstrated a strong relationship (p < 0.01) of similar magnitudes with one another. Hot downhill running is an effective preconditioning strategy which

  11. A research on PPARα mRNA expression in vastus lateralis and serum levels of inflammatory cytokines in patients with COPD accompanied by skeletal muscle atrophy%COPD骨骼肌萎缩患者股外侧肌PPARα mRNA表达及血清炎症因子水平的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何大川; 傅炜萍; 龙翔宇; 方利洲; 戴路明

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)骨骼肌萎缩患者股外侧肌过氧化酶体增殖物激活受体α(PPARα)mRNA表达和血清炎症因子水平.方法 将COPD患者分为COPD萎缩组、COPD非萎缩组,10例健康体检者作为对照组.检查患者及对照组用力呼气肺活量(FVC)、第一秒用力呼气量占预计值的百分比(FEV1%PRE)及第一秒用力呼气量占用力肺活量百分比(FEV1%FVC).采用酶联免疫吸附测定(ELISA)试剂盒检测患者血清肿瘤坏死因子α(TNF-α)、白细胞介素-8(IL-8)水平,实时荧光定量PCR检测患者股外侧肌PPARα mRNA表达水平.结果 与COPD非萎缩组及对照组比较,COPD萎缩组患者股外侧肌PPARα mRNA表达下调(P<0.01),PPARα mRNA 表达与FEV1%PRE及FEV1%FVC呈正相关(r=0.574、r=0.613,P<0.01),与TNF-α及IL-8呈负相关(r=-0.618、r=-0.690,P<0.01).结论 PPARα mRNA表达的下调与COPD全身炎症反应及肺功能下降相关,在COPD骨骼肌萎缩中有着重要作用.%Objective To explore the expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) mRNA in vastus lateralis muscle and serum inflammatory factors of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) accompanied by skeletal muscle atrophy. Methods Patients with COPD were divided into COPD atrophy group and COPD non-atrophy group. 10 healthy people who had undergone physical examination served as control group. Forced vital capacity (FVC) , percentage of forced expiratory volume in first second to prediction (FEV1 %PRE) and percentage of forced expiratory volume in first second to forced vital capacity (FEV1 %FVC) of patients and healthy people were examined. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) kit was employed to assay serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin(IL)-8. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR was used to detect the expression level of PPARα mRNA in vastus lateralis muscle of patients. Results The mRNA expression of

  12. Relação eletromiográfica integrada dos músculos vasto medial oblíquo e vasto lateral longo na marcha em sujeitos com e sem síndrome de dor femoropatelar Relación electromiográfica integrada de los músculos vasto medial oblicuo y vasto lateral largo en marcha en individuos con y sin síndrome de dolor femoropatelar Integrated electromyographic ratio of the vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis longus muscles in gait in subjects with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Moraes Santos

    2007-02-01

    actividad eléctrica de los músculos VMO y VLL, en individuos con y sin SDFP es igual en el trote tanto en superficie plana como la que tiene inclinación de 5°.The aim of this study was to determine if there is difference between the vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis longus (VMO/VLL muscles activation during treadmill gait level and ascending to 5% degree between healthy subjects and others with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Electromyographic data from the VMO and VLL muscles were obtained in 15 subjects without and 12 with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS during treadmill gait with and without 5 degrees inclination. The value of the VMO/VLL ratio was determined from the mean of 8 strides, in each condition, during 12 s. The t-Student test did not show significant difference in the VMO/VLL ratio between the two groups, regardless the condition. Although there was not significant difference, the subjects of the control group showed higher values in the VMO/VLL ratio in the two tested conditions than the subject of the PFPS group. The findings suggest that the ratio of the electric activity of the VMO and VLL muscles in individuals with and without SDFP is equal in the gait on flat surface as well as slanted to 5 degrees.

  13. Functional and structural changes in m. vastus lateralis and m. vastus medialis in cases of meniscopathy and chondropathia patellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, K S; Bähr, B; Biskop, M; Paul, B; Gärtner, C; Förster, E

    1986-01-01

    The skeletal muscle undergoes selective cellular changes in the sense of the myopathic and neurogeneous tissue syndrome, in the case of degenerative joint diseases. The occurring FT-fibre atrophy is coupled with a decrease of the glycolytic activity and of the LDH isoenzyme pattern. A neurogeneous component is under discussion.

  14. Skeletal muscle atrophy in response to 14 days of weightlessness - Vastus medialis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, J. M.; Fell, R. D.; Dombrowski, M. J.; Oganov, V. W.; Il'ina-Kakueva, E. I.

    1992-01-01

    The vastus medialis (VM) response from rats after 14 days of microgravity on Cosmos 2044 (F) have been studied by comparing it with VM from tail-suspended hindlimb-unloaded rats (T) and ground controls. The experimental approaches encompassed a histochemical evaluation of microscopic morphology, including fibers and capillaries; an assessment of biochemical composition including protein, DNA, and RNA concentrations; and an estimation of metabolic capacity. It is concluded that some significant changes were observed in the VM in rats exposed to weightlessness for 14 days. There is a loss in weight compared with the vivarium controls but not in comparison with synchronous and basal controls. Although there were minimal muscle weight differences between groups, muscle weight may be a less sensitive measure of change or atrophy than fiber area measurements. It is suggested that the nonload-bearing muscles, including the VM, show measurable responses to weightless flight.

  15. Pedaling alters the excitability and modulation of vastus medialis H-reflexes after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Dana P; Sanghvi, Namita; Wieser, Jon; Schindler-Ivens, Sheila

    2011-10-01

    Individuals post-stroke display abnormal Group Ia reflex excitability. Pedaling has been shown to reduce Group Ia reflexes and to normalize the relationship between EMG and reflex amplitude in the paretic soleus (SO). The purpose of this study was to determine whether these changes extend to the paretic quadriceps. H-reflexes were used to examine Group Ia reflex excitability of the vastus medialis (VM). H-reflexes were elicited in paretic (n=13) and neurologically intact (n=13) individuals at 11 positions in the pedaling cycle and during static knee extension at comparable limb positions and levels of VM EMG. VM H-reflexes were abnormally elevated in the paretic limb of stroke survivors. During static muscle activation, H-reflex amplitude did not change with the level of background VM activity. Pedaling reduced the amplitude of paretic VM H-reflexes and restored the normal relationship between VM EMG and H-reflex amplitude. Pedaling-induced changes in Group Ia reflex excitability that have been reported for the paretic SO are evident in the paretic VM. Pedaling may have a generalized effect on lower extremity Group Ia reflexes post-stroke. Pedaling may be therapeutic for reducing Group Ia reflexes after stroke. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Vastus medialis fat infiltration - a modifiable determinant of knee cartilage loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichtahl, A J; Wluka, A E; Wang, Y; Wijethilake, P N; Strauss, B J; Proietto, J; Dixon, J B; Jones, G; Forbes, A; Cicuttini, F M

    2015-12-01

    There is growing interest in the role of intramuscular fat and how it may influence clinical outcomes. Vastus medialis (VM) is a functionally important quadriceps muscle that helps to stabilise the knee joint. This longitudinal study examined the determinants of VM fat infiltration and whether VM fat infiltration influenced knee cartilage volume. 250 participants without any diagnosed arthropathy were assessed at baseline between 2005 and 2008, and 197 participants at follow-up between 2008 and 2010. Ambulatory and sporting activity were assessed and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to determine knee cartilage volume and VM fat infiltration. Age, female gender, BMI and weight were positively associated with baseline VM fat infiltration (P ≤ 0.03), while ambulatory and sporting activity were negatively associated with VM fat infiltration (P ≤ 0.05). After adjusting for confounders, a reduction in VM fat infiltration was associated with a reduced annual loss of medial tibial (β = -10 mm(3); 95% CI -19 to 0 mm(3); P = 0.04) and patella (β = -18 mm(3); 95% CI -36 to 0 mm(3); P = 0.04) cartilage volume. This community-based study of healthy adults has shown that VM fat infiltration can be modified by lifestyle factors including weight loss and exercise, and reducing fat infiltration in VM has beneficial effect on knee cartilage preservation. The findings suggest that modifying VM fat infiltration via lifestyle interventions may have the potential to reduce the risk of knee OA. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Experiment K-6-08. Biochemical and histochemical observations of vastus medialis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, J. M.; Fell, R. D.; Oganov, V. S.

    1990-01-01

    Muscles of the hindlimb in the rat have been used to demonstrate the effects of unloading in weightlessness and in animal models used to mimic weightlessness. The vastus medialis (VM) is discussed here. Samples were obtained from rats exposed to weightlessness for 12 days in Cosmos 1887 (Experiment K-6-08, coordinated by Dr. V.S. Oganov). The principal objective of this study was to ascertain if the vastus medialis responded to 12 days of microgravity exposure. The loss in muscle mass is greatest, -43 percent, when comparing F vs B, and least, -13 percent, when comparing F vs. V. Taken at face value these differences may be misleading. Due to the variability of the muscle weight in the basal group, these muscle mass losses may be exaggerated. In terms of percent water, there were no differences between the flight and the control groups. In spite of the limited sample, researchers conclude that muscle mass changes in the VM are not significant. Although some of the morphological parameters suggest a small degree of atrophy in the vastus medialis, the biochemical analyses (protein, RNA and DNA) suggest that these may be minimal and functionally nonsignificant. The relatively similar CS and LDH activities of VM from F and various control groups, as well as the lack of difference in LPL activity between F and S rats, suggests that there is little or no effect on the oxidative or glycolytic function of this muscle. Since the VM is chiefly a mixed fast twitch muscle, these metabolic indices of energy production are relatively unchanged. The results of VM studies are in agreement with previous observations of another type II fast twitch muscle, the EDL, from SL-3 rats which did not respond markedly to weightlessness and whole body suspension.

  18. Clinical significance of the morphological distribution of the vastus medialis insertion for selection of subvastus approach in total knee arthroplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Baohua; Hou Zhiqi; Chen Yuanming; Qin Jian

    2015-01-01

    Objective To survey and analyze the relationship between the vastus medialis( VM) insertion on the patella and the body projection so as to provide an innovative path to the preoperative evaluation in selecting the subvastus approach in total knee arthroplasty( TKA) . Methods Body-surface projection of the VM patellar insertion was surveyed and the anatomic shape was observed in 20 sides of lower limb specimens. The body-surface projection of the VM patellar insertion was also measured on 80 sides of lower limbs in healthy adults. The distribution results of the VM patellar insertion in the three conditions were compared. Results The ratio of the vastus medialis body length to the patellar length was 40% to 60% in 55. 0% specimens (11 cases). The ratios were (47. 8 ± 15. 1)%, (48. 7 ± 15. 4)% and (46. 7 ± 14. 8)% in the cadaver-surface-observation group, autopsy group and in vivo surface group, respectively. There was no statistical difference (P>0. 05). Conclusions There was no statistical difference in the ratios of the VM patellar insertion length to the patellar length calculated by the observed body-surface-projection values and by the measurements after anatomy. Preoperative evaluation of the body-surface-projection of the VM patellar insertion may play a referential role in the selection of the TKA approach.

  19. Vastus medialis cross-sectional area is positively associated with patella cartilage and bone volumes in a pain-free community-based population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Patricia A; Teichtahl, Andrew J; Galevska-Dimitrovska, Ana; Hanna, Fahad S; Wluka, Anita E; Wang, Yuanyuan; Urquhart, Donna M; English, Dallas R; Giles, Graham G; Cicuttini, Flavia M

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Although vastus medialis and lateralis are important determinants of patellofemoral joint function, their relationship with patellofemoral joint structure is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine potential determinants of vastus medialis and lateralis cross-sectional areas and the relationship between the cross-sectional area and patella cartilage and bone volumes. Methods Two hundred ninety-seven healthy adult subjects had magnetic resonance imaging of their dominant knee. Vastus medialis and lateralis cross-sectional areas were measured 37.5 mm superior to the quadriceps tendon insertion at the proximal pole of the patella. Patella cartilage and bone volumes were measured from these images. Demographic data and participation in vigorous physical activity were assessed by questionnaire. Results The determinants of increased vastus medialis and lateralis cross-sectional areas were older age (P ≤ 0.002), male gender (P patella cartilage volume (beta 0.6; 95% CI 0.23, 0.94) (P = 0.001) and bone volume (beta 3.0; 95% CI 1.40, 4.68) (P patella cartilage and bone volumes may benefit patellofemoral joint health and reduce the long-term risk of patellofemoral pathology. PMID:19077298

  20. FREE VASTUS LATERALIS MUSCLE FLAP FOR CLOSURE OF RECURRENT ORONASAL FISTULA: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent oronasal fistulas after cleft palate repair present a difficult problem for the cleft surgeon. Repeated surgeries to close the fistula results in increased scar formation with associated soft tissue contracture and a resultant increase in fistula size. Although locally available flaps ha s been the standard procedure for closure of small fistulae, Large fistulas requires regional flaps like tongue flaps requiring multistage transfer, with resultant intra oral scarring, to avoid the problems associated with loco regional flaps and recent in crease in success rates of free tissue transfers make them a viable, one - stage means of closing these defects. In this case report we present our clinical experience with recurren t palatal fistula and highlight the effective use of the free vastuslateralis mus cle flap as a means of repair.

  1. Repeated-sprint performance and vastus lateralis oxygenation: effect of limited O₂ availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billaut, F; Buchheit, M

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the influence of muscle deoxygenation and reoxygenation on repeated-sprint performance via manipulation of O2 delivery. Fourteen team-sport players performed 10 10-s sprints (30-s recovery) under normoxic (NM: FI O2 0.21) and acute hypoxic (HY: FI O2 0.13) conditions in a randomized, single-blind fashion and crossover design. Mechanical work was calculated and arterial O2 saturation (Sp O2 ) was estimated via pulse oximetry for every sprint. Muscle deoxyhemoglobin concentration ([HHb]) was monitored continuously by near-infrared spectroscopy. Differences between NM and HY data were analyzed for practical significance using magnitude-based inferences. HY reduced Sp O2 (-10.7 ± 1.9%, with chances to observe a higher/similar/lower value in HY of 0/0/100%) and mechanical work (-8.2 ± 2.1%; 0/0/100%). Muscle deoxygenation increased during sprints in both environments, but was almost certainly higher in HY (12.5 ± 3.1%, 100/0/0%). Between-sprint muscle reoxygenation was likely more attenuated in HY (-11.1 ± 11.9%; 2/7/91%). The impairment in mechanical work in HY was very largely correlated with HY-induced attenuation in muscle reoxygenation (r = 0.78, 90% confidence limits: 0.49; 0.91). Repeated-sprint performance is related, in part, to muscle reoxygenation capacity during recovery periods. These results extend previous findings that muscle O2 availability is important for prolonged repeated-sprint performance, in particular when the exercise is taken in hypoxia.

  2. Regenerative defect in vastus lateralis muscle of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Thériault, Marie-Eve; Paré, Marie-Ève; Lemire, Bruno B; Maltais, François; Debigaré, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background Impaired skeletal muscle regeneration could contribute to the progression of muscle atrophy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods Satellite cells and myogenesis-related proteins were compared between healthy subjects and patients with COPD, with or without muscle atrophy. Satellite cells were isolated and cultured to assess their proliferative and differentiation aptitudes. Results Although satellite cell numbers in muscle samples were similar betwe...

  3. Lactate dehydrogenase is not a mitochondrial enzyme in human and mouse vastus lateralis muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Hans N; van Hall, Gerrit; Rasmussen, Ulla F

    2002-01-01

    procedure were assayed for marker enzymes and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The mitochondrial fraction contained no LDH activity (detection limit approximately 0.05 % of the tissue activity) and the distribution of LDH activity among the fractions paralleled that of pyruvate kinase, i.e. LDH was fractionated...... as a cytoplasmic enzyme. Respiratory experiments with the mitochondrial fraction also indicated the absence of LDH. Lactate did not cause respiration, nor did it affect the respiration of pyruvate + malate. The major part of the native cytochrome c was retained in the isolated mitochondria, which, furthermore......, showed high specific rates of state 3 respiration. This excluded artificial loss from the mitochondria of all activity of a possible LDH. It was concluded that skeletal muscle mitochondria are devoid of LDH and unable to metabolize lactate....

  4. Muscles within muscles: a tensiomyographic and histochemical analysis of the normal human vastus medialis longus and vastus medialis obliquus muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travnik, Ludvik; Djordjevič, Srdjan; Rozman, Sergej; Hribernik, Marija; Dahmane, Raja

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to show the connection between structure (anatomical and histochemical) and function (muscle contraction properties) of vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) and vastus medialis longus (VML). The non-invasive tensiomyography (TMG) method was used to determine the contractile properties (contraction time; T(c)) of VML and VMO muscle, as a reflection of the ratio between the slow and fast fibers in two groups of nine young men. VML and VMO significantly (P knee, and to the VMO, which maintains the stable position of the patella in the femoral groove. Our results obtained by TMG provided additional evidence that muscle fibers within the segments of VM muscle were not homogenous with regard to their contractile properties, thereby confirming the histochemical results. T(c) can be attributed to the higher percentage of slow-twitch fibers - type 1. The statistically shorter T(c) (P ≤ 0.001) of VMO (22.8 ± 4.0 ms) compared with VML (26.7 ± 4.0 ms) in our study is consistent with previously found differences in histochemical, morphological and electrophysiological data. In conclusion, the results of this study provide evidence that the VML and VMO muscles are not only anatomically and histochemically different muscles, but also functionally different biological structures.

  5. Android Virtual Machine (VM) Setup on Linux

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Machine (VM) Setup on Linux Ken F Yu Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL...Virtual Machine (VM) Setup on Linux 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Ken F Yu 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  6. Status and Roadmap of CernVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzano, D.; Blomer, J.; Buncic, P.; Charalampidis, I.; Ganis, G.; Meusel, R.

    2015-12-01

    Cloud resources nowadays contribute an essential share of resources for computing in high-energy physics. Such resources can be either provided by private or public IaaS clouds (e.g. OpenStack, Amazon EC2, Google Compute Engine) or by volunteers computers (e.g. LHC@Home 2.0). In any case, experiments need to prepare a virtual machine image that provides the execution environment for the physics application at hand. The CernVM virtual machine since version 3 is a minimal and versatile virtual machine image capable of booting different operating systems. The virtual machine image is less than 20 megabyte in size. The actual operating system is delivered on demand by the CernVM File System. CernVM 3 has matured from a prototype to a production environment. It is used, for instance, to run LHC applications in the cloud, to tune event generators using a network of volunteer computers, and as a container for the historic Scientific Linux 5 and Scientific Linux 4 based software environments in the course of long-term data preservation efforts of the ALICE, CMS, and ALEPH experiments. We present experience and lessons learned from the use of CernVM at scale. We also provide an outlook on the upcoming developments. These developments include adding support for Scientific Linux 7, the use of container virtualization, such as provided by Docker, and the streamlining of virtual machine contextualization towards the cloud-init industry standard.

  7. Distally based split vastus lateralis myocutaneous flap for reconstruction of post electrical injury defects around knee joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Zade

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: This new flap is a reliable option for extensive soft tissue defects around knee secondary to high voltage electric burns where free flap is challenging due to deeper location of recipient vessels and damage due to burn injury. Donor area in upper thigh remains hidden and is with no functional deficit. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(11.000: 4701-4704

  8. Creep Resistance of VM12 Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Zieliński A.; Golański G.; Dobrzański J.; Sroka M.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents selected material characteristics of VM12 steel used for elements of boilers with super- and ultra-critical steam parameters. In particular, abridged and long-term creep tests with and without elongation measurement during testing and investigations of microstructural changes due to long-term impact of temperature and stress were carried out. The practical aspect of the use of creep test results in forecasting the durability of materials operating under creep conditions ...

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Assessed Vastus Medialis Muscle Fat Content and Risk for Knee Osteoarthritis Progression: Relevance From a Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynauld, Jean-Pierre; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Roubille, Camille; Dorais, Marc; Abram, François; Li, Wei; Wang, Yuanyuan; Fairley, Jessica; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne

    2015-10-01

    Studies have proposed vastus medialis (VM) muscle cross-sectional area change as a variable associated with cartilage volume loss in knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, the VM also includes fat (%Fat), which may influence knee function. This study analyzed the VM area and %Fat data, separately and in combination, to predict symptoms, cartilage volume loss, and bone marrow lesion (BML) change in knee OA. This study included the according-to-protocol population (n = 143) of a 2-year knee OA randomized clinical trial having magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and 2 years. Correlations used multivariate analyses. Greater baseline value for VM area and %Fat were significantly associated with sex (male, area; female, %Fat), higher body mass index (BMI), and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index stiffness, function, and total scores (better, high area; worse, high %Fat). Moreover, a VM %Fat increase of 1% at 2 years was associated with worsening of cartilage volume loss in the global knee (P = 0.015) and some subregions (P ≤ 0.030), and with an increment of BML global score change (P Fat, and high BMI identified a subgroup of patients with greater cartilage volume loss in the medial femur (P = 0.028) than the rest of the cohort. These data demonstrated, for the first time, that VM fat content is a strong predictor of cartilage volume loss and the occurrence and progression of BML. Importantly, the combined data of VM area, VM %Fat, and BMI identified patients at higher risk for OA progression. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.

  10. Creep Resistance of VM12 Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zieliński A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents selected material characteristics of VM12 steel used for elements of boilers with super- and ultra-critical steam parameters. In particular, abridged and long-term creep tests with and without elongation measurement during testing and investigations of microstructural changes due to long-term impact of temperature and stress were carried out. The practical aspect of the use of creep test results in forecasting the durability of materials operating under creep conditions was presented. The characteristics of steels with regard to creep tests developed in this paper are used in assessment of changes in functional properties of the material of elements operating under creep conditions.

  11. Secure VM for Monitoring Industrial Process Controllers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Dipankar [ORNL; Ali, Mohammad Hassan [University of Memphis; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Schlicher, Bob G [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Carvalho, Marco [Institute of Human and Machine Cognition

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the biological immune system as an autonomic system for self-protection, which has evolved over millions of years probably through extensive redesigning, testing, tuning and optimization process. The powerful information processing capabilities of the immune system, such as feature extraction, pattern recognition, learning, memory, and its distributive nature provide rich metaphors for its artificial counterpart. Our study focuses on building an autonomic defense system, using some immunological metaphors for information gathering, analyzing, decision making and launching threat and attack responses. In order to detection Stuxnet like malware, we propose to include a secure VM (or dedicated host) to the SCADA Network to monitor behavior and all software updates. This on-going research effort is not to mimic the nature but to explore and learn valuable lessons useful for self-adaptive cyber defense systems.

  12. A rare knee extensor mechanism injury: Vastus intermedius tendon rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Cetinkaya

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: We report the first case of isolated rupture of the vastus intermedius tendon in the literature and we claim that disorder may be succesfully treated with conservative treatment and adequate physiotheraphy.

  13. Moving to a total VM environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, T.Y.

    1981-08-11

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is a single purpose laboratory operated by Stanford University for the Department of Energy. Its mission is to do research in High Energy (particle) physics. This research involves the use of large and complex electronic detectors. Each of these detectors is a multi-million dollar device. A part of each detector is a computer for process control and data logging. Most detectors at SLAC now use VAX 11/780s for this purpose. Most detectors record digital data via this process control computer. Consequently, physics today is not bounded by the cost of analog to digital conversion as it was in the past, and the physicist is able to run larger experiments than were feasible a decade ago. Today a medium sized experiment will produce several hundred full reels of 6250 BPI tape whereas a large experiment is a couple of thousand reels. The raw data must first be transformed into physics events using data transformation programs. The physicists then use subsets of the data to understand what went on. The subset may be anywhere from a few megabytes to 5 or 6 gigabytes of data (30 or 40 full reels of tape). This searching would be best solved interactively (if computers and I/0 devices were fast enough). Instead what we find are very dynamic batch programs that are generally changed every run. The result is that on any day there are probably around 50 to 100 physicists interacting with a half dozen different experiments who are causing us to mount around 750 to 1000 tapes a day. This has been the style of computing for the last decade. Our going to VM is part of our effort to change this style of computing and to make physics computing more effective.

  14. Local architecture of the vastus intermedius is a better predictor of knee extension force than that of the other quadriceps femoris muscle heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Ryosuke; Saito, Akira; Umemura, Yoshihisa; Akima, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the muscle architecture of each head of the quadriceps femoris (QF) at multiple regions can be used to predict knee extension force. Muscle thickness and pennation angle were measured using sonographic images from multiple regions on each muscle of the QF with the knee flexed to 90°. The fascicle lengths of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus intermedius (VI) muscles were estimated based on sonographic images taken along the length of the thigh. The muscle architecture of the vastus intermedius was determined in two separate locations using sonographic images of the anterior (ant-VI) and lateral portions (lat-VI). The maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) was measured during isometric knee extension at a knee joint angle of 90°. The relationship between MVC force and muscle architecture was examined using a stepwise linear regression analysis with MVC force as the dependent variable. The muscle thickness of the ant-VI was selected as an independent variable in the first step of the linear regression analysis (R(2) = 0.66, Parchitecture of the VI is the best predictor of knee extension force.

  15. Enabling μCernVM for the Interactive Use Case

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolaou, Vasilis

    2013-01-01

    The $\\mu$CernVM will be the successor of the CernVM as a new appliance to help with accessing LHC for data analysis and development. CernVM has a web appliance agent that facilitates user interaction with the virtual machine and reduces the need for executing shell commands or installing graphical applications for displaying basic information such as memory usage or performing simple tasks such as updating the operating system. The updates are done differently in the $\\mu$CernVM than mainstream Linux distributions. Its filesystem is a composition of a read-only layer that exists in the network and a read/write layer that is initilised on first boot and keeps the user changes afterwards. Thus, means are provided to avoid loss of user data and system instabilities when the operating system is updated by fetching a new read-only layer.

  16. CernVM: Minimal maintenance approach to virtualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buncic, Predrag; Aguado-Sanchez, Carlos; Blomer, Jakob; Harutyunyan, Artem

    2011-12-01

    CernVM is a virtual software appliance designed to support the development cycle and provide a runtime environment for the LHC experiments. It consists of three key components that differentiate it from more traditional virtual machines: a minimal Linux Operating System (OS), a specially tuned file system designed to deliver application software on demand, and contextualization tools that provide a means to easily customize and configure CernVM instances for different tasks and user communities. In this contribution we briefly describe the most important use cases for virtualization in High Energy Physics (HEP), CernVM key components and discuss how end-to-end systems corresponding to these use cases can be realized using CernVM.

  17. Workload-aware VM Scheduling on Multicore Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insoon Jo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In virtualized environments, performance interference between virtual machines (VMs is a key challenge. In order to mitigate resource contention, an efficient VM scheduling is positively necessary.In this paper, we propose a workload-aware VM scheduler on multi-core systems, which finds a systemwide mapping of VMs to physical cores. Our work aims not only at minimizing the number of used hosts,but at maximizing the system throughput. To achieve the first goal, our scheduler dynamically adjusts a set of used hosts. To achieve the second goal, it maps each VM on a physical core where the physical core and its host most sufficiently meet the resource requirements of the VM. Evaluation demonstrates that our scheduling ensures efficient use of data center resources.

  18. Savannah River VM--Intellect application support documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, L.S.

    1988-09-23

    This document details the underlying support programming and structures that support the INTELLECT and KBMS products at the Savannah River Facility. The target audience for this document includes INTELLECT System Administrators, INTELLECT programmers and developers, and VM Systems Programmers.

  19. Vastus härra Spectatorile / August Weizenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Weizenberg, August, 1837-1921

    2002-01-01

    Esmakordselt ilmunud: Isamaa, 21., 24., 26. Jul. 1906, nr. 59-61. Vastus Gustav Suitsu kirjutisele "August Weizenbergi rahumõtted" ajalehes "Isamaa", 1906, nr. 49-50. Vt. ka: Suits, Gustav. August Weizenbergi rahumõtted, Suits, G. Vabaduse väraval, lk. 14-20

  20. Porting of $\\mu$CernVM to AArch64

    CERN Document Server

    Scheffler, Felix

    2016-01-01

    $\\mu$CernVM is a virtual appliance that contains a stripped-down Linux OS connecting to a CernVM-Filesystem (CVMFS) repository that resides on a dedicated web server. In contrast to “usual” VMs, anything that is needed from this repository is only downloaded on demand, aggressively cached and eventually released again. Currently, $\\mu$CernVM is only distributed for x86-64. Recently, ARM (market leader in mobile computing) has started to enter the server market, which is still dominated by x86-64 infrastructure. However, in terms of performance/watt, AArch64 (latest ARM 64bit architecture) is a promising alternative. Facing millions of jobs to compute every day, it is thus desirable to have an HEP virtualisation solution for AArch64. In this project, $\\mu$CernVM was successfully ported to AArch64. Native and virtualised runtime performance was evaluated using ROOT6 and CMS benchmarks. It was found that VM performance is inferior to host performance across all tests. Respective numbers greatly vary between...

  1. Effect of a Short Time Concentric Versus Eccentric Training Program on Electromyography Activity and Peak Torque of Quadriceps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Alberto; Caserotti, Paolo; Carvalho, C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an 8-week concentric (CON) versus eccentric (ECC) isokinetic training program on the electromyography (EMG) signal amplitude of vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF). Also, the isometric (ISO) and dynamic maximum...

  2. Optimization of CernVM early boot process

    CERN Document Server

    Mazdin, Petra

    2015-01-01

    CernVM virtual machine is a Linux based virtual appliance optimized for High Energy Physics experiments. It is used for cloud computing, volunteer computing, and software development by the four large LHC experiments. The goal of this project is proling and optimizing the boot process of the CernVM. A key part was the development of a performance profiler for shell scripts as an extension to the popular BusyBox open source UNIX tool suite. Based on the measurements, costly shell code was replaced by more efficient, custom C programs. The results are compared to the original ones and successful optimization is proven.

  3. PEMILIHAN DAN MIGRASI VM MENGGUNAKAN MCDM UNTUK PENINGKATAN KINERJA LAYANAN PADA CLOUD COMPUTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Fadil

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Komputasi awan atau cloud computing merupakan lingkungan yang heterogen dan terdistribusi, tersusun atas gugusan jaringan server dengan berbagai kapasitas sumber daya komputasi yang berbeda-beda guna menopang model layanan yang ada di atasnya. Virtual machine (VM dijadikan sebagai representasi dari ketersediaan sumber daya komputasi dinamis yang dapat dialokasikan dan direalokasikan sesuai dengan permintaan. Mekanisme live migration VM di antara server fisik yang terdapat di dalam data center cloud digunakan untuk mencapai konsolidasi dan memaksimalkan utilisasi VM. Pada prosedur konsoidasi vm, pemilihan dan penempatan VM sering kali menggunakan kriteria tunggal dan statis. Dalam penelitian ini diusulkan pemilihan dan penempatan VM menggunakan multi-criteria decision making (MCDM pada prosedur konsolidasi VM dinamis di lingkungan cloud data center guna meningkatkan layanan cloud computing. Pendekatan praktis digunakan dalam mengembangkan lingkungan cloud computing berbasis OpenStack Cloud dengan mengintegrasikan VM selection dan VM Placement pada prosedur konsolidasi VM menggunakan OpenStack-Neat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa metode pemilihan dan penempatan VM melalui live migration mampu menggantikan kerugian yang disebabkan oleh down-times sebesar 11,994 detik dari waktu responnya. Peningkatan response times terjadi sebesar 6 ms ketika terjadi proses live migration VM dari host asal ke host tujuan. Response times rata-rata setiap vm yang tersebar pada compute node setelah terjadi proses live migration sebesar 67 ms yang menunjukkan keseimbangan beban pada sistem cloud computing.

  4. Cultured senescent myoblasts derived from human vastus lateralis exhibit normal mitochondrial ATP synthesis capacities with correlating concomitant ROS production while whole cell ATP production is decreased

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minet, Ariane D; Gaster, Michael

    2012-01-01

    , but the existent mitochondria express normal to increased functional capabilities. The present data suggest that the origin of aging lies outside the mitochondria and that a malfunction in the cell might be preceding and initiating the increase of mitochondrial ATP synthesis and concomitant ROS production...... satellite cells at early and late passage numbers. We show that cultured muscle satellite cells undergoing senescence express a reduced mitochondrial mass, decreased whole cell ATP level, normal to increased mitochondrial ATP production under ATP utilization, increased mitochondrial membrane potential...... in the single mitochondrion in response to decreased mitochondrial mass and reduced extra-mitochondrial energy supply. This then can lead to the increased damage of DNA, lipids and proteins of the mitochondria as postulated by the free radical theory of aging....

  5. Motor unit firing rates and synchronisation affect the fractal dimension of simulated surface electromyogram during isometric/isotonic contraction of vastus lateralis muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesin, Luca; Dardanello, Davide; Rainoldi, Alberto; Boccia, Gennaro

    2016-12-01

    During fatiguing contractions, many adjustments in motor units behaviour occur: decrease in muscle fibre conduction velocity; increase in motor units synchronisation; modulation of motor units firing rate; increase in variability of motor units inter-spike interval. We simulated the influence of all these adjustments on synthetic EMG signals in isometric/isotonic conditions. The fractal dimension of the EMG signal was found mainly influenced by motor units firing behaviour, being affected by both firing rate and synchronisation level, and least affected by muscle fibre conduction velocity. None of the calculated EMG indices was able to discriminate between firing rate and motor units synchronisation. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cultured senescent myoblasts derived from human vastus lateralis exhibit normal mitochondrial ATP synthesis capacities with correlating concomitant ROS production while whole cell ATP production is decreased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minet, Ariane D; Gaster, Michael

    2012-06-01

    The free radical theory of aging says that increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are associated with old age. In the present study we have investigated the effects of cellular senescence on muscle energetic by comparing mitochondrial content and function in cultured muscle satellite cells at early and late passage numbers. We show that cultured muscle satellite cells undergoing senescence express a reduced mitochondrial mass, decreased whole cell ATP level, normal to increased mitochondrial ATP production under ATP utilization, increased mitochondrial membrane potential and increased superoxide/mitochondrial mass and hydrogen peroxide/mitochondrial mass ratios. Moreover, the increased ROS production correlates with the corresponding mitochondrial ATP production. Thus, myotubes differentiated from human myoblasts undergoing senescence have a reduced mitochondrial content, but the existent mitochondria express normal to increased functional capabilities. The present data suggest that the origin of aging lies outside the mitochondria and that a malfunction in the cell might be preceding and initiating the increase of mitochondrial ATP synthesis and concomitant ROS production in the single mitochondrion in response to decreased mitochondrial mass and reduced extra-mitochondrial energy supply. This then can lead to the increased damage of DNA, lipids and proteins of the mitochondria as postulated by the free radical theory of aging.

  7. Acute non-contact anterior cruciate ligament tears are associated with relatively increased vastus medialis to semimembranosus cross-sectional area ratio: a case-control retrospective MR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieschhoff, Ged G; Mandell, Jacob C; Czuczman, Gregory J; Nikac, Violeta; Shah, Nehal; Smith, Stacy E

    2017-07-15

    Hamstring muscle deficiency is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the vastus medialis to semimembranosus cross-sectional area (VM:SM CSA) ratio on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with ACL tears compared to controls. One hundred knee MRIs of acute ACL tear patients and 100 age-, sex-, and side-matched controls were included. Mechanism of injury, contact versus non-contact, was determined for each ACL tear subject. The VM:SM CSA was measured on individual axial slices with a novel method using image-processing software. One reader measured all 200 knees and the second reader measured 50 knees at random to assess inter-reader variability. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to evaluate for correlation between readers. T-tests were performed to evaluate for differences in VM:SM CSA ratios between the ACL tear group and control group. The ICC for agreement between the two readers was 0.991 (95% confidence interval 0.984-0.995). Acute ACL tear patients have an increased VM:SM CSA ratio compared to controls (1.44 vs. 1.28; p = 0.005). Non-contact acute ACL tear patients have an increased VM:SM CSA ratio compared to controls (1.48 vs. 1.20; p = 0.003), whereas contact acute ACL tear patients do not (1.23 vs. 1.26; p = 0.762). Acute non-contact ACL tears are associated with increased VM:SM CSA ratios, which may imply a relative deficiency in hamstring strength. This study also demonstrates a novel method of measuring the relative CSA of muscles on MRI.

  8. Experimental results on V-M type pulse tube refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wei; Matsubara, Yoichi; Kobayashi, Hisayasu

    2002-06-01

    This article mainly introduces experimental results on a new type pulse tube refrigerator named as V-M type pulse tube refrigerator. The main difference from Stirling type or G-M type pulse tube refrigerator is that thermal compressor similar to that of a V-M cryocooler is used instead of mechanical compressor. By using temperature difference between room temperature and liquid nitrogen, pressure wave with high to low pressure ratio around 1.2 is obtained. This pressure wave is used to generate cooling effect at the cold end. With a 20 K pre-cooler, this machine reaches lowest temperature 5.25 K by using helium 4 at 0.77 Hz, 19 bar charge pressure. DC flow plays an important role in our system. It not only influences the final obtainable lowest temperature, but also is used to increase cold end cool-down speed. Total volume of the V-M type pulse tube refrigerator is around 3.3 l. However, dead volume inside rotor housing occupies about 2.8 l and can be much reduced.

  9. Vastus medialis motor unit properties in knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chess David G

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maximal isometric quadriceps strength deficits have been widely reported in studies of knee osteoarthritis (OA, however little is known about the effect of osteoarthritis knee pain on submaximal quadriceps neuromuscular function. The purpose of this study was to measure vastus medialis motor unit (MU properties in participants with knee OA, during submaximal isometric contractions. Methods Vastus medialis motor unit potential (MUP parameters were assessed in 8 patients with knee OA and 8 healthy, sex and age-matched controls during submaximal isometric contractions (20% of maximum isometric torque. Unpaired t-tests were used to compare groups for demographic and muscle parameters. Results Maximum knee extension torque was ~22% lower in the OA group, a difference that was not statistically significantly (p = 0.11. During submaximal contractions, size related parameters of the needle MUPs (e.g. negative peak duration and amplitude-to-area ratio were greater in the OA group (p Conclusions Changes in MU recruitment and rate coding strategies in OA may reflect a chronic reinnervation process or a compensatory strategy in the presence of chronic knee pain associated with OA.

  10. Four phenotypically and phylogenetically distinct lineages in Phytophthora lateralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasier, Clive M; Franceschini, Selma; Vettraino, Anna Maria; Hansen, Everett M; Green, Sarah; Robin, Cecile; Webber, Joan F; Vannini, Andrea

    2012-12-01

    Until recently Phytophthora lateralis was known only as the cause of dieback and mortality of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana in its native range in the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Since the 1990s however disease outbreaks have occurred increasingly on ornamental C. lawsoniana in Europe; and in 2007 the pathogen was discovered in soil around old growth Chamaecyparis obtusa in Taiwan, where it may be endemic. When the phenotypes of over 150 isolates of P. lateralis from Taiwan, across the PNW (British Columbia to California) and from France, the Netherlands and the UK were compared three growth rate groups were resolved: one slow growing from Taiwan, one fast growing from the PNW and Europe, and one of intermediate growth from a small area of the UK. Within these growth groups distinct subtypes were identified based on colony patterns and spore metrics and further discriminated in a multivariate analysis. The assumption that the three main growth groups represented phylogenetic units was tested by comparative sequencing of two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes. This assumption was confirmed. In addition two phenotype clusters within the Taiwan growth group were also shown to be phylogenetically distinct. These four phenotypically and genotypically unique populations are informally designated as the PNW lineage, the UK lineage, the Taiwan J lineage, and the Taiwan K lineage. Their characteristics and distribution are described and their evolution, taxonomic, and plant health significance is discussed.

  11. EFFICIENT VM LOAD BALANCING ALGORITHM FOR A CLOUD COMPUTING ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin James

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a fast growing area in computing research and industry today. With the advancement of the Cloud, there are new possibilities opening up on how applications can be built and how different services can be offered to the end user through Virtualization, on the internet. There are the cloud service providers who provide large scaled computing infrastructure defined on usage, and provide the infrastructure services in a very flexiblemanner which the users can scale up or down at will. The establishment of an effective load balancing algorithm and how to use Cloud computing resources efficiently for effective and efficient cloud computing is one of the Cloud computing service providers’ultimate goals. In this paper firstly analysis of different Virtual Machine (VM load balancing algorithms is done. Secondly, a new VM load balancing algorithm has been proposed and implemented for an IaaS framework in Simulated cloud computing environment; i.e. ‘Weighted Active Monitoring Load Balancing Algorithm’ using CloudSimtools, for the Datacenter to effectively load balance requests between the available virtual machines assigning a weight, in order to achieve better performance parameters such as response time and Data processing time.

  12. Toxicity and medical countermeasure studies on the organophosphorus nerve agents VM and VX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Helen; Dalton, Christopher H; Price, Matthew E; Graham, Stuart J; Green, A Christopher; Jenner, John; Groombridge, Helen J; Timperley, Christopher M

    2015-04-08

    To support the effort to eliminate the Syrian Arab Republic chemical weapons stockpile safely, there was a requirement to provide scientific advice based on experimentally derived information on both toxicity and medical countermeasures (MedCM) in the event of exposure to VM, VX or VM-VX mixtures. Complementary in vitro and in vivo studies were undertaken to inform that advice. The penetration rate of neat VM was not significantly different from that of neat VX, through either guinea pig or pig skin in vitro. The presence of VX did not affect the penetration rate of VM in mixtures of various proportions. A lethal dose of VM was approximately twice that of VX in guinea pigs poisoned via the percutaneous route. There was no interaction in mixed agent solutions which altered the in vivo toxicity of the agents. Percutaneous poisoning by VM responded to treatment with standard MedCM, although complete protection was not achieved.

  13. Experience on QA in the CernVM File System

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; MEUSEL, Rene

    2015-01-01

    The CernVM-File System (CVMFS) delivers experiment software installations to thousands of globally distributed nodes in the WLCG and beyond. In recent years it became a mission-critical component for offline data processing of the LHC experiments and many other collaborations. From a software engineering perspective, CVMFS is a medium-sized C++ system-level project. Following the growth of the project, we introduced a number of measures to improve the code quality, testability, and maintainability. In particular, we found very useful code reviews through github pull requests and automated unit- and integration testing. We are also transitioning to a test-driven development for new features and bug fixes. These processes are supported by a number of tools, such as Google Test, Jenkins, Docker, and others. We would like to share our experience on problems we encountered and on which processes and tools worked well for us.

  14. Performance Tests of CMSSW on the CernVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petek, Marko; Gowdy, Stephen

    2012-12-01

    The CERN Virtual Machine (CernVM) Software Appliance is a project developed in CERN with the goal of allowing the execution of the experiment's software on different operating systems in an easy way for the users. To achieve this it makes use of Virtual Machine images consisting of a JEOS (Just Enough Operating System) Linux image, bundled with CVMFS, a distributed file system for software. This image can then be run with a proper virtualizer on most of the platforms available. It also aggressively caches data on the local user's machine so that it can operate disconnected from the network. CMS wanted to compare the performance of the CMS Software running in the virtualized environment with the same software running on a native Linux box. To answer this wish, a series of tests were made on a controlled environment during 2010-2011. This work presents the results of those tests.

  15. 3-D-eChem VM: Cheminformatics Research Infrastructure in a Downloadable Virtual Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoeven, Stefan; Vass, Marton; de Esch, Iwan; Leurs, Rob; Lusher, Scott; Vriend, Gerrrit; Ritschel, Tina; de Graaf, Chris; McGuire, Ross

    2016-01-01

    3D-e-Chem VM is a freely available Virtual Machine (VM) encompassing tools, databases & workflows, including new resources developed for ligand binding site comparisons and GPCR research. The VM contains a fully functional cheminformatics infrastructure consisting of a chemistry enabled relational database system (PostgreSQL + RDKit) with a data analytics workflow tool (KNIME) and additional cheminformatics capabilities. Tools, workflows and reference data sets are made available. The wid...

  16. Investigating the role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC in the assessment of brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Paulo eSantos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC is believed to be important in everyday preference judgments, processing emotions during decision-making. However, there is still controversy in the literature regarding the participation of the vmPFC. To further elucidate the contribution of the vmPFC in brand preference, we designed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study where 18 subjects assessed positive, indifferent and fictitious brands. Also, both the period during and after the decision process were analyzed, hoping to unravel temporally the role of the vmPFC, using modeled and model-free fMRI analysis. Considering together the period before and after decision-making, there was activation of the vmPFC when comparing positive with indifferent or fictitious brands. However, when the decision-making period was separated from the moment after the response, and especially for positive brands, the vmPFC was more active after the choice than during the decision process itself, challenging some of the existing literature. The results of the present study support the notion that the vmPFC may be unimportant in the decision stage of brand preference, questioning theories that postulate that the vmPFC is in the origin of such a choice. Further studies are needed to investigate in detail why the vmPFC seems to be involved in brand preference only after the decision process.

  17. Immediate effect of selective neuromuscular electrical stimulation on the electromyographic activity of the vastus medialis oblique muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamilson Simões Brasileiro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS is described as an anterior or retropatellar knee pain in the absence of other associated diseases, and has often been associated with dysfunction of the vastus medialis oblique muscle (VMO. However, several studies have demonstrated the impossibility of selectively activating this muscle with exercises. The aim of the present study was to analyze the immediate effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation of VMO muscle by means of monitoring the electromyographic activity of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO and vastus lateralis (VL muscles. Eighteen healthy women with a mean age of 23.2 years and mean BMI of 20 Kg/m2 were evaluated. The study protocol included electromyographic analysis of VMO and VL muscles, before and immediately after neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the VMO muscle. During the electromyographic analysis, the volunteers performed maximal voluntary isometric contraction in a 60° knee extension on an isokinetic dynamometer. “Russian current” apparatus was used for electrical stimulation. Results: The data analysis demonstrated a signifi cant increase in VMO activation intensity immediately after it had been electrically stimulated (p=0.0125, whereas VL activation intensity exhibited no signifi cant increase (p=0.924. Moreover, a significant increase in the VMO/VL ratio was also detected (p=0.048. In this study it was observed that electrical stimulation modifiedthe VMO/VL ratio, which suggests electrical stimulation has a benefi cial effect on VMO muscle strength. Resumo A Síndrome da dor patelofemoral (SDPF é descrita como dor anterior ou retro-patelar do joelho na ausência de outras patologias associadas, sendo freqüentemente associada à disfunção do Vasto Medial Oblíquo (VMO. Entretanto, diversos estudos têm demonstrado a impossibilidade de ativar seletivamente este músculo através de exercícios. O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar o efeito imediato da

  18. Song convergence in multiple urban populations of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Dominique A; Parris, Kirsten M

    2012-08-01

    Recent studies have revealed differences between urban and rural vocalizations of numerous bird species. These differences include frequency shifts, amplitude shifts, altered song speed, and selective meme use. If particular memes sung by urban populations are adapted to the urban soundscape, "urban-typical" calls, memes, or repertoires should be consistently used in multiple urban populations of the same species, regardless of geographic location. We tested whether songs or contact calls of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) might be subject to such convergent cultural evolution by comparing syllable repertoires of geographically dispersed urban and rural population pairs throughout southeastern Australia. Despite frequency and tempo differences between urban and rural calls, call repertoires were similar between habitat types. However, certain song syllables were used more frequently by birds from urban than rural populations. Partial redundancy analysis revealed that both geographic location and habitat characteristics were important predictors of syllable repertoire composition. These findings suggest convergent cultural evolution: urban populations modify both song and call syllables from their local repertoire in response to noise.

  19. Isikliku sõiduauto kompensatsioon : RM vastus EML ettepanekule / Aivar Sõerd, Kalle Kukk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sõerd, Aivar, 1964-

    2006-01-01

    Rahandusministeeriumi vastus Eesti Maksumaksjate Liidu ettepanekule isikliku sõiduauto kompensatsiooni tõstmise osas. EML-i seisukoht Maksumaksjas nr 12 (2005), lk. 9. Lisatud: Huberg, Martin. Jah, härra rahandusminister!

  20. Toxicity and medical countermeasure studies on the organophosphorus nerve agents VM and VX

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Helen; Dalton, Christopher H.; Price, Matthew E.; Stuart J Graham; Green, A. Christopher; Jenner, John; Groombridge, Helen J.; Timperley, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    To support the effort to eliminate the Syrian Arab Republic chemical weapons stockpile safely, there was a requirement to provide scientific advice based on experimentally derived information on both toxicity and medical countermeasures (MedCM) in the event of exposure to VM, VX or VM–VX mixtures. Complementary in vitro and in vivo studies were undertaken to inform that advice. The penetration rate of neat VM was not significantly different from that of neat VX, through either guinea pig or p...

  1. [Selective training of the vastus medialis muscle using electrical stimulator for chondromalacia patella].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, K; Ye, Q; Lin, J; Shen, J; Yang, X

    1996-04-01

    Chondromalacia patella is closely related with subluxation and tilt of patella, as well as with muscular atrophy of quadriceps, especially in vastus medialis muscle. 364 cases of chondromalacia patella were treated with selective training of the vastus medialis muscle using electrical stimulator in our hospital. 211 cases were followed up after treatment from 6 months to 3 years. Among them excellent and good results were seen in 130 cases (62%), fair results were seen in 69 cases (33%) and no change was seen in 12 cases (5%). Significant reduction of CA (P chondromalacia patella.

  2. Methods for screening Port-Orford-cedar for resistance to Phytophthora lateralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett M. Hansen; Paul Reeser; Wendy Sutton; Richard A. Sniezko

    2012-01-01

    Port-Orford-cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murray) Parl.) (POC) is an economically and ecologically valuable tree in the forests of southwest Oregon and northern California and in the horticultural trade worldwide. Phytophthora lateralis, the aggressive, invasive cause of POC root disease, was introduced to the native...

  3. Root and aerial infections of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana by Phytophthora lateralis: a new threat for European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Robin; D. Piou; N. Feau; G. Douzon; N. Schenck; E. M. Hansen

    2010-01-01

    Phytophthora lateralis has been isolated from root and collar lesions in Port-Orford Cedar (POC) trees (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) in north-western France (Brittany). These trees, planted in hedgerows, displayed symptoms similar to the typical symptoms of POC root disease. Until now, the disease has been found outside of the...

  4. Urine production rate and water balance in the terrestrial crabs Gecarcinus lateralis and Cardisoma guanhumi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R R

    1977-06-01

    1. The rate of urine production in the terrestrial crabs Gecarcinus lateralis (Freminville) and Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille maintained on s.w.-moist sand was measured by inulin clearance. 2. The inulin U/B ratios in both species rose to about unity after 48 h, and remained at this level. It was concluded that neither species withdrew water from the primary urine. 3. The relatively high rate of inulin clearance in G. lateralis (10-69% body wt day-1) was considerably reduced when animals were transferred to dry sand (2-15% body wt day-1). 4. The rate of water loss on dry sand was measured in G. lateralis and changes in the haemolymph and urine osmolality recorded. 5. The prevention of possible reabsorption of water from voided urine did not appear to affect significantly the rate of water loss in conditions of water deprivation. 6. The maintenance of urine production rates measured on s.w.-moist sand would double the water loss of G. lateralis in dry conditions.

  5. Sub-sarcolemmal swelling of sarcoplasmic reticulum after isometric contractions in rat semimembranosus lateralis muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, M.E.T.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.; Friden, J.

    1999-01-01

    The decline in isometric force, swelling of sarcoplasmic reticulum and loss of desmin was measured in semimembranosus lateralis muscle of male Wistar rats immediately after a short series of brief (500 ms) maximal isometric contractions. For the active muscle, the series ended below (protocol A) and

  6. Properties and Microstructure of Laser Welded VM12-SHC Steel Pipes Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypczyk A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents results of microstructure and tests of welded joints of new generation VM12-SHC martensitic steel using high power CO2 laser (LBW method with bifocal welding head. VM12-SHC is dedicated to energetic installation material, designed to replace currently used. High content of chromium and others alloying elements improve its resistance and strength characteristic. Use of VM12-SHC steel for production of the superheaters, heating chambers and walls in steam boilers resulted in various weldability researches. In article are presented results of destructive and non-destructive tests. For destructive: static bending and Vickers hardness tests, and for non-destructive: VT, RT, UT, micro and macroscopic tests were performed.

  7. [National physician master Jin Shiyuan's dispensing technology of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata based on Li Shizhen's pharmaceutical academic thought].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yi-Ping; Zhai, Hua-Qiang; Guo, Zhao-Juan; Zhang, Tian; Kong, Li-Ting; Jia, Xiao-Yu; Tian, Wei-Lan; Li, Rui

    2016-05-01

    To collect Li Shizhen's experience in Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata identification and clinical application, compare and analyze national physician master Jin Shiyuan's practical operation and theoretical knowledge, which is beneficial for the inheritance and improvement of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata clinical dispensing technology. In the analysis process, CNKI, Wanfang and other databases were searched with "Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata", "Li Shizhen", "pharmacological method state theory" "Jin Shiyuan" and "Chinese medicine dispensing technology" as the key words. In addition, Treatise on Febrile Disease, Compendium of Materia Medica, Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2015 edition), Notes to Medical Professions(Yi Zong Shuo Yue), and other medicine books were accessed to summarize the processing methods and decoction dosage of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata in both ancient and modern medicine, and in consideration of technical research and practice operation, Li Shizhen's description of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata and Professor Jin Shiyuan's research on Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata dispensing technology were analyzed and collected. Li Shizhen recorded the nature identification and clinical application of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata by using pharmacological method state theory in Compendium of Materia Medica. National physician master Jin Shiyuan carries forward the essence of Li Shizhen's pharmaceutical academic thought with his own proficient knowledge structure in medicine, providing scientific pharmaceutical service for clinical application of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata Professor. Jin Shiyuan put forward the dispensing technology for the first time, including nature identification technology, clinical processing technology, clinical decocting technology, prescription coping technology, and class specifications of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata. In this paper, Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata was used as an example

  8. Pyomyositis of the vastus medialis muscle associated with Salmonella enteritidis in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, Koichi; Sakiyama, Michiyo; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Norishige [Department of Paediatrics, Wakayama Medical University School of Medicine, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    We describe a 23-month-old boy with pyomyositis of the vastus medialis muscle caused by Salmonella enteritidis. Such focal Salmonella infections are uncommon in soft tissue. It is noteworthy of this case that there were no antecedent signs of gastroenteritis and no underlying medical condition. MRI, in particular the fat-suppressed T2-weighted sequence, is helpful for establishing the diagnosis and differentiating pyomyositis from other pathological conditions. (orig.)

  9. Non-reducible knee dislocation with interposition of the vastus medialis muscle

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Irreducibility of the knee following complete dislocation is a rare event determined by the interposition of various capsulo-ligamentous structures in the joint space. Such cases often require urgent surgical treatment. We report the case of a healthy 70-year-old man with a sprain of the left knee that occurred after a sports trauma. The patient showed knee dislocation with multiple ligamentous injuries and articular block due to interposition of a portion of the vastus medialis muscle. After...

  10. The mitochondrial genome of the hexactinellid sponge Aphrocallistes vastus: Evidence for programmed translational frameshifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leys Sally P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA of numerous sponges have been sequenced as part of an ongoing effort to resolve the class-level phylogeny of the Porifera, as well as to place the various lower metazoan groups on the animal-kingdom tree. Most recently, the partial mtDNA of two glass sponges, class Hexactinellida, were reported. While previous phylogenetic estimations based on these data remain uncertain due to insufficient taxon sampling and accelerated rates of evolution, the mtDNA molecules themselves reveal interesting traits that may be unique to hexactinellids. Here we determined the first complete mitochondrial genome of a hexactinellid sponge, Aphrocallistes vastus, and compared it to published poriferan mtDNAs to further describe characteristics specific to hexactinellid and other sponge mitochondrial genomes. Results The A. vastus mtDNA consisted of a 17,427 base pair circular molecule containing thirteen protein-coding genes, divergent large and small subunit ribosomal RNAs, and a reduced set of 18 tRNAs. The A. vastus mtDNA showed a typical hexactinellid nucleotide composition and shared a large synteny with the other sequenced glass sponge mtDNAs. It also contained an unidentified open reading frame and large intergenic space region. Two frameshifts, in the cox3 and nad6 genes, were not corrected by RNA editing, but rather possessed identical shift sites marked by the extremely rare tryptophan codon (UGG followed by the common glycine codon (GGA in the +1 frame. Conclusion Hexactinellid mtDNAs have shown similar trends in gene content, nucleotide composition, and codon usage, and have retained a large gene syntenty. Analysis of the mtDNA of A. vastus has provided evidence diagnostic for +1 programmed translational frameshifting, a phenomenon disparately reported throughout the animal kingdom, but present in the hexactinellid mtDNAs that have been sequenced to date.

  11. Snake venomics and antivenomics of the arboreal neotropical pitvipers Bothriechis lateralis and Bothriechis schlegelii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonte, Bruno; Escolano, José; Fernández, Julián; Sanz, Libia; Angulo, Yamileth; Gutiérrez, José María; Calvete, Juan J

    2008-06-01

    We report the comparative proteomic characterization of the venoms of two related neotropical arboreal pitvipers from Costa Rica of the genus Bothriechis, B. lateralis (side-striped palm pit viper) and B. schlegelii (eyelash pit viper). The crude venoms were fractionated by reverse-phase HPLC, followed by analysis of each chromatographic fraction by SDS-PAGE, N-terminal sequencing, MALDI-TOF mass fingerprinting, and collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides. The venom proteomes of B. lateralis and B. schlegelii comprise similar number of distinct proteins belonging, respectively, to 8 and 7 protein families. The two Bothriechis venoms contain bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs), and proteins from the phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2), serine proteinase, l-amino acid oxidase (LAO), cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP), and Zn (2+)-dependent metalloproteinase (SVMP) families, albeit each species exhibit different relative abundances. Each venom also contains unique components, for example, snake venom vascular endothelial growth factor (svVEGF) and C-type lectin-like molecules in B. lateralis, and Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor-like proteins in B. schlegelii. Using a similarity coefficient, we estimate that the similarity of the venom proteins between the two Bothriechis taxa may be venom compositions, in spite of the fact that both species have evolved to adapt to arboreal habits. The major toxin families of B. lateralis and B. schlegelii are SVMP (55% of the total venom proteins) and PLA 2 (44%), respectively. Their different venom toxin compositions provide clues for rationalizing the distinct signs of envenomation caused by B. schlegelii and B. lateralis. An antivenomic study of the immunoreactivity of the Instituto Clodomiro Picado (ICP) polyvalent antivenom toward Bothriechis venoms revealed that l-amino acid oxidase and SVMPs represent the major antigenic protein species in both venoms. Our results provide a ground for

  12. Correlation of VEGF and COX-2 Expression with VM in Malignant Melanomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BaocunSun; ShiwuZhang; XiulanZhao; YanxueLiu; ChunshengNi; DanfangZhang; HongQi; ZhiyongLiu; XishanHao

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in melanomas and the expressive difference of VEGF and COX-2 between melanomas with and without vasculogenic mimicry(VM).METHODS Sixty cases of malignant melanomas emoeaaea In paraffin were studied. The tumors were divided into a high-grade malignant group and a low-grade malignant group based on their tumor type, atypia and survival time of the patient. Then tissue microarrays were produced from these paraffin-embedded tumor tissues which were stained for VEGF, COX-2 and PAS. The difference in expression between VEGF and COX-2 in the malignant melanomas was compared using a grid-count. In addition, the tumors were also divided into mimicry and non-mimicry groups based on their PAS staining. Then the differences between the PAS positive and negative areas of the 2 groups were compared.RESULTS In malignant melanomas with VM, VEGF and COX-2 expression was less in tumors in which VM was absent, but VEGF, COX-2 expression in high-grade malignant melanomas was higher than that in low-grade grade malignant melanomas. Expression of VEGF was correlated with COX-2 expression.CONCLUSION VM exists in some high-grade malignant melanomas. The differences and relations between VEGF and COX-2 showed that some high-grade malignant melanomas possess a unique molecular-mechanism of tumor metastasis and blood supply.

  13. HotpathVM: An Effective JIT for Resource-constrained Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Andreas; Franz, Michael; Probst, Christian

    2006-01-01

    We present a just-in-time compiler for a Java VM that is small enough to fit on resource-constrained devices, yet surprisingly effective. Our system dynamically identifies traces of frequently executed bytecode instructions (which may span several basic blocks across several methods) and compiles...... benchmarks show a speedup that in some cases rivals heavy-weight just-in-time compilers....

  14. 3D-e-Chem-VM: Structural Cheminformatics Research Infrastructure in a Freely Available Virtual Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Ross; Verhoeven, Stefan; Vass, Márton; Vriend, Gerrit; de Esch, Iwan J P; Lusher, Scott J; Leurs, Rob; Ridder, Lars; Kooistra, Albert J; Ritschel, Tina; de Graaf, Chris

    2017-02-14

    3D-e-Chem-VM is an open source, freely available Virtual Machine ( http://3d-e-chem.github.io/3D-e-Chem-VM/ ) that integrates cheminformatics and bioinformatics tools for the analysis of protein-ligand interaction data. 3D-e-Chem-VM consists of software libraries, and database and workflow tools that can analyze and combine small molecule and protein structural information in a graphical programming environment. New chemical and biological data analytics tools and workflows have been developed for the efficient exploitation of structural and pharmacological protein-ligand interaction data from proteomewide databases (e.g., ChEMBLdb and PDB), as well as customized information systems focused on, e.g., G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRdb) and protein kinases (KLIFS). The integrated structural cheminformatics research infrastructure compiled in the 3D-e-Chem-VM enables the design of new approaches in virtual ligand screening (Chemdb4VS), ligand-based metabolism prediction (SyGMa), and structure-based protein binding site comparison and bioisosteric replacement for ligand design (KRIPOdb).

  15. Overhead-Aware-Best-Fit (OABF) Resource Allocation Algorithm for Minimizing VM Launching Overhead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hao [IIT; Garzoglio, Gabriele [Fermilab; Ren, Shangping [IIT, Chicago; Timm, Steven [Fermilab; Noh, Seo Young [KISTI, Daejeon

    2014-11-11

    FermiCloud is a private cloud developed in Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory to provide elastic and on-demand resources for different scientific research experiments. The design goal of the FermiCloud is to automatically allocate resources for different scientific applications so that the QoS required by these applications is met and the operational cost of the FermiCloud is minimized. Our earlier research shows that VM launching overhead has large variations. If such variations are not taken into consideration when making resource allocation decisions, it may lead to poor performance and resource waste. In this paper, we show how we may use an VM launching overhead reference model to minimize VM launching overhead. In particular, we first present a training algorithm that automatically tunes a given refer- ence model to accurately reflect FermiCloud environment. Based on the tuned reference model for virtual machine launching overhead, we develop an overhead-aware-best-fit resource allocation algorithm that decides where and when to allocate resources so that the average virtual machine launching overhead is minimized. The experimental results indicate that the developed overhead-aware-best-fit resource allocation algorithm can significantly improved the VM launching time when large number of VMs are simultaneously launched.

  16. 3D-e-Chem-VM: Structural Cheminformatics Research Infrastructure in a Freely Available Virtual Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    3D-e-Chem-VM is an open source, freely available Virtual Machine (http://3d-e-chem.github.io/3D-e-Chem-VM/) that integrates cheminformatics and bioinformatics tools for the analysis of protein–ligand interaction data. 3D-e-Chem-VM consists of software libraries, and database and workflow tools that can analyze and combine small molecule and protein structural information in a graphical programming environment. New chemical and biological data analytics tools and workflows have been developed for the efficient exploitation of structural and pharmacological protein–ligand interaction data from proteomewide databases (e.g., ChEMBLdb and PDB), as well as customized information systems focused on, e.g., G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRdb) and protein kinases (KLIFS). The integrated structural cheminformatics research infrastructure compiled in the 3D-e-Chem-VM enables the design of new approaches in virtual ligand screening (Chemdb4VS), ligand-based metabolism prediction (SyGMa), and structure-based protein binding site comparison and bioisosteric replacement for ligand design (KRIPOdb). PMID:28125221

  17. Quantitative analysis of sulphated glycosaminoglycans content of Malaysian sea cucumber Stichopus hermanni and Stichopus vastus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masre, Siti Fathiah; Yip, George W; Sirajudeen, K N S; Ghazali, Farid Che

    2012-01-01

    Stichopus hermanni and Stichopus vastus are sea cucumber species from the Stichopodidae family within the coastal waters of Malaysia. The integument of these invertebrates is hypothesised to contain abundant glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). GAGs are divided into non-sulphated and sulphated GAGs. Sulphated GAGs have various chemico-biological functions that are beneficial to humans. This study quantitatively analysed N-, O-sulphated and total sulphated GAG content from three different anatomical regions (integument, internal organs and coelomic fluid) of S. hermanni and S. vastus. The integument revealed the highest content of total, O- and N-sulphated GAGs, followed by the internal organs and the coelomic fluid for both species of sea cucumbers. The percentage division of O- and N-sulphated GAGs suggested that anatomical parts of both species showed higher levels of O-sulphated GAGs compared to N-sulphated GAGs. In conclusion, these findings indicate that the integument body wall of S. hermanni and S. vastus is a rich source of sulphated GAGs.

  18. A STUDY TO DETERMINE THE ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC ACTIVITY OF VASTUS MEDIALIS OBLIQUE MUSCLE DURING SQUATS ON DIFFERENT SURFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunjal Parekh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to examine the effects of squat exercises performed on different surfaces on the activity of the Vastus Medialis Oblique (VMO muscle. Method: Forty healthy subjects performed squat exercises for five seconds each on three different support surfaces: concrete floor, foam, and rubber discs. As the subjects performed the squat exercises on each surface, data on the activity of the vastus medialis oblique was collected using electromyography. Results: The activity of the vastus medialis oblique and was found to be statistically significantly higher (p<0.05 on rubber discs than when the squats were performed on concrete floor or foam. Conclusion: The activation of vastus medialis obilique is more on unstable surfaces. Hence they are more suitable strengthening of VMO.

  19. [Vertical superposition on distance radiography in norma lateralis: normal or asymmetrical?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, A S; Durand, J; Deblock, L

    2003-12-01

    Cephalometric analysis, together with clinical examination and study of models, is an essential tool in practitioners' preparations of orthodontic diagnoses for their patients. However, despite the use of standardized techniques, cephalograms in norma lateralis still inescapably superimpose patients' right and left sides on each other. This study attempts to demonstrate the significance of these superimpositions particularly when serial cephalograms are themselves superimposed on each other to discern growth or treatment changes.

  20. Use of mid-vastus approach in less invasive primary total knee arthroplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Xue-song; YU Xue-zhong; WU Li-dong; HE Rong-xin; WANG Xiang-hua; YAN Shi-gui

    2008-01-01

    Background Total knee arthroplasties (TKR) combined with the concept of reduced trauma to tissue has been performed by many doctors. The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the early results of a group of TKR with a mid-vastus approach, which was characterized as no patellar eversion, no disruption of suprapatellar pouch and extensor mechanism, and to compare the outcome with conventional operative techniques.Methods A total of 59 patients (67 knees) were followed. All patients received the same prosthesis of Genesis Ⅱ posterior-stabilized total knees. Of them, 29 consecutive patients (34 knees) had a mid-vastus approach and were operated on with less invasive instruments and techniques. The mean follow-up duration was 11.6 months. Clinical evaluations were performed according to the Hospital for Special Surgery scores; radiographic assessment followed the guidelines of the Knee Society. Postoperative recovery of quadriceps strength and the extensor mechanism was also evaluated.Results No prosthetic loosening or anterior knee pain was found at the latest follow-up; 1 patient had a superficial infection and postoperative stiffness of the knee who undertook a debridement and manipulation several months later. The angulations of tibial osteotomy were within normal range. The average preoperative and postoperative Hospital for Special Surgery scores were 57.9 points and 86.1 points respectively. The mean postoperative range of motion was 113.5(°-). Most patients regained their quadriceps strength at the third or fourth month postoperatively.Conclusions The overall early results from using the mid-vastus approach were comparable with that of using a standard approach, and the exposure did not affect the accuracy of the tibial cut. The muscle maximal contraction strength recovered gradually after operation. The approach was safe and patients of this group obtained satisfactory outcomes.

  1. STUDIES OF SPONDYLOARTHRITIS IN RUSSIA: FROM V.M. BEKHTEREV TO OUR DAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. А. Godzenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper briefly describes the history of spondyloarthritis  studies from the works of the outstanding Russian neurologist V.M. Bekhterev up to the present time. Special emphasis is laid on the results of the representatives of the scientific school of Professor E.R. Agababova, an organizer of the first laboratory of spondyloarthritis  in Russia. The major areas of the investigations that are currently under way in Russia are shown.

  2. Atividade eletromiográfica do vasto medial oblíquo em portadoras da síndrome da dor patelofemoral Electromyographyc activity of the vastus medialis oblique muscle in female patients with patellofemoral syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sâmia Najara Freitas Bessa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome da dor patelofemoral (SDPF é uma das afecções que mais acometem a articulação do joelho. Embora sua etiologia não seja completamente conhecida, uma disfunção do músculo vasto medial oblíquo (VMO tem sido apontada como possível fator desencadeante. Este estudo visou avaliar, por meio de eletromiografia, se algum exercício, dentre dez exercícios resistidos usuais, produz ativação seletiva do VMO, com vistas a sua utilização clínica. Vinte voluntárias do sexo feminino, sendo dez com SDPF (24,7±4,35 anos e dez saudáveis, controle (22,5±1,58 anos, foram submetidas à avaliação eletromiográfica dos músculos VMO, vasto lateral longo e vasto lateral oblíquo (VLO durante a realização de 10 exercícios, incluindo cadeia cinética aberta e fechada, em diferentes angulações do joelho e posições do quadril. Os resultados mostram que nenhum dos exercícios se revelou seletivo para o VMO, tendo alguns mostrado ativação seletiva do VLO. No grupo com SDPF observou-se menor atividade eletromiográfica de todos os vastos em oito dos dez exercícios propostos, quando comparado ao controle; observou-se ainda, no grupo SDPF, menor relação VMO/VLO (0,63 do que no grupo controle (0,82, pThe patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS is among the most common knee pathologies. Although its etiology is not fully known, a dysfunction of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO muscle has been pointed out as a possible cause. This study aimed at assessing, by means of electromyography, whether one or more, among ten usual resisted exercises, might produce VMO selective activation, in view of its clinic application. Twenty female volunteers, ten with PFPS (aged 24.7±4.35 and ten healthy ones (aged 22.5±1.58 were submitted to electromyographic evaluation of VMO, vastus lateralis longus and vastus lateralis oblique (VLO muscles during ten exercises, including open and closed kinetic chain, at different degrees of knee flexion and of hip

  3. Experimental study of one-stage VM cryocooler operating below 8 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Changzhao; Zhang, Tong; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Junjie

    2015-12-01

    The Vuilleumier (VM) refrigerator, known as heat driven refrigerator, is one kind of closed-cycle Stirling type regenerative refrigerator. The VM refrigerator with power being supplied by liquid nitrogen was proposed by Hogen and developed by Zhou, which shows great potential for development below 10 K. This paper describes the experimental development of a VM cryocooler operating below 8 K, which was achieved by using liquid nitrogen as a heat sink of middle cavity. The regenerator was optimized by using a part of metallic magnetic regenerator material Er3Ni to replace the lead sphere and a no-load temperature of 7.8 K was obtained. Then all the lead spheres were replaced by Er0.6Pr0.4 material and a no-load temperature of 7.35 K was obtained, which is the lowest temperature for this kind of refrigerator reported so far. The cooling power at 10 K is about 500 mW with a pressure ratio near 1.6 and a charge pressure of 1.8 MPa. Especially, the magnetic material Er0.6Pr0.4 was found to be a potential substitution for the conventional lead.

  4. A novel coupled VM-PT cryocooler operating at liquid helium temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Changzhao; Zhang, Tong; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Junjie

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents experimental results on a novel two-stage gas-coupled VM-PT cryocooler, which is a one-stage VM cooler coupled a pulse tube cooler. In order to reach temperatures below the critical point of helium-4, a one-stage coaxial pulse tube cryocooler was gas-coupled on the cold end of the former VM cryocooler. The low temperature inertance tube and room temperature gas reservoir were used as phase shifters. The influence of room temperature double-inlet was first investigated, and the results showed that it added excessive heat loss. Then the inertance tube, regenerator and the length of the pulse tube were researched experimentally. Especially, the DC flow, whose function is similar to the double-orifice, was experimentally studied, and shown to contribute about 0.2 K for the no-load temperature. The minimum no-load temperature of 4.4 K was obtained with a pressure ratio near 1.5, working frequency of 2.2 Hz, and average pressure of 1.73 MPa.

  5. Energy Efficient Security Preserving VM Live Migration In Data Centers For Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korir Sammy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Virtualization is an innovation that has widely been utilized in modern data centers for cloud computing to realize energy-efficient operations of servers. Virtual machine (VM migration brings multiple benefits such as resource distribution and energy aware consolidation. Server consolidation achieves energy efficiency by enabling multiple instances of operating systems to run simultaneously on a single machine. With virtualization, it is possible to consolidate severs through VM live migration. However, migration of virtual machines brings extra energy consumption and serious security concerns that derail full adoption of this technology. In this paper, we propose a secure energy-aware provisioning of cloud computing resources on consolidated and virtualized platforms. Energy efficiency is achieved through just-right dynamic Round-Robin provisioning mechanism and the ability to power down sub-systems of a host system that are not required by VMs mapped to it. We further propose solutions to security challenges faced during VM live migration. We validate our approach by conducting a set of rigorous performance evaluation study using CloudSim toolkit. The experimental results show that our approach achieves reduced energy consumption in data centers while not compromising on security.

  6. Ambient echolalia in a patient with germinoma around the bilateral ventriculus lateralis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tadashi; Itoh, Shouichi; Arai, Noritoshi; Kouno, Masako; Noguchi, Makoto; Takatsu, Masami; Takeda, Katsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Ambient echolalia is a rare condition with few reported cases. We report the case of a 20-year-old man with a germinoma around the bilateral ventriculus lateralis who exhibited ambient echolalia. Clinical features included instinctive grasp reaction and compulsive manipulation of tools in his right hand. Speech or mental deterioration has been cited as a cause of ambient echolalia, but neither dementia nor aphasia was present. We propose that ambient echolalia in our case could be interpreted as a disinhibition of pre-existing essentially intact motor subroutines due to damage of the medial frontal lobe.

  7. Modiolarca lateralis (Pteryomorphia: Mytilidae: bivalve associated to six species of ascidians from Bocas del Toro, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan I Cañete

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe the presence of the bivalve Modiolarca lateralis (Say, 1822 in six tropical ascidians Ascidia curvata, A. sydneiensis, A. panamensis, A. interrupta, Herdmania pallida and Polycarpa spongiabilis collected at depths of 1-3 m on coral reefs, mangrove roots and dock supports in Almirante Bay, Bocas del Toro, Panama (9°18'N, 82°13'W during June-July 2011. Bivalve prevalence varied between 9-30% across species, but was mainly associated with A. panamensis, P. spongiabilis and A. interrupta. Prevalence seems to be influenced by tunic thickness rather than by the ascidian size. Bivalves varied in size (0.6-11 mm shell length, with the smallest individual found in A. sydneiensis. There were only one or two bivalves per ascidians, although a maximum of 18 was found in one A. panamensis. M. lateralis seems to behave similarly to its temperate counterparts: it has a variety of hosts, occurs mainly in the anterior region of the ascidians, and has a variable abundance per host.

  8. An assessment of the ICE6G_C(VM5a) glacial isostatic adjustment model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, A.; Tregoning, P.; Dehecq, A.

    2016-05-01

    The recent release of the next-generation global ice history model, ICE6G_C(VM5a), is likely to be of interest to a wide range of disciplines including oceanography (sea level studies), space gravity (mass balance studies), glaciology, and, of course, geodynamics (Earth rheology studies). In this paper we make an assessment of some aspects of the ICE6G_C(VM5a) model and show that the published present-day radial uplift rates are too high along the eastern side of the Antarctic Peninsula (by ˜8.6 mm/yr) and beneath the Ross Ice Shelf (by ˜5 mm/yr). Furthermore, the published spherical harmonic coefficients—which are meant to represent the dimensionless present-day changes due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA)—contain excessive power for degree ≥90, do not agree with physical expectations and do not represent accurately the ICE6G_C(VM5a) model. We show that the excessive power in the high-degree terms produces erroneous uplift rates when the empirical relationship of Purcell et al. (2011) is applied, but when correct Stokes coefficients are used, the empirical relationship produces excellent agreement with the fully rigorous computation of the radial velocity field, subject to the caveats first noted by Purcell et al. (2011). Using the Australian National University (ANU) groups CALSEA software package, we recompute the present-day GIA signal for the ice thickness history and Earth rheology used by Peltier et al. (2015) and provide dimensionless Stokes coefficients that can be used to correct satellite altimetry observations for GIA over oceans and by the space gravity community to separate GIA and present-day mass balance change signals. We denote the new data sets as ICE6G_ANU.

  9. 针刺对髌股关节疼痛综合征患者股内侧斜肌和股外侧肌肌电比率的影响%Effects of acupuncture on EMG ratio of vastus medialis obliquus to vastus lateralis in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏智钧; 欧阳颀; 侯艳丽; 李雪; 李华; 李自立

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察针刺对髌股关节疼痛综合征患者疼痛的直接效应,以及对股内侧斜肌和股外侧肌肌电比率的影响.方法 采用针刺治疗25例髌股疼痛综合征患者.所有患者在开始治疗前和治疗3周后进行阶梯任务实验,利用表面肌电仪对股内侧斜肌和股外侧肌的神经肌肉电活动进行评定,同时对膝关节疼痛程度进行评定.结果 治疗后患者疼痛明显减轻(P<0.01),向心性收缩与离心性收缩时股内侧斜肌和股外侧肌的神经肌电比率与治疗前比较有显著性差异(P均<0.01).结论 针灸可以明显减轻疼痛,改变股内斜、外侧肌的募集.%Objective It is to observe the eftecls of acupuncture on pain in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome ( PFPS ) , and Us influence on EMG ratio of vasLus medialis obliquus ( VMO ) Lo vasLus laLeralis ( VL ). Methods Twenty-five paLienLs with PFPS were received acupuncture treatment five Limes a week for 3 weeks, sLep Lask LesL was executed before and after treatment, and the surface EMG activity ratio of VMO and VL was determined with surface electrodes, then the intensity of knee pain was evaluated. Results After 3 weeks of acupuncture treatment, the knee pain was significant decreased ( P < 0. 01 ) , and there was significant difference in the VMO/VL EMG ratio of PFPS before and after treatment ( P < 0. 01 ). Conclusion Acupuncture can reduce the knee pain and improve the recruitment of VMO and VL of patients with PFPS.

  10. Using XRootD to provide caches for CernVM-FS

    CERN Document Server

    Domenighini, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    CernVM-FS recently added the possibility of using plugin for cache management. In order to investigate the capabilities and limits of such possibility, an XRootD plugin was written and benchmarked; as a byproduct, a POSIX plugin was also generated. The tests revealed that the plugin interface introduces no signicant performance over- head; moreover, the XRootD plugin performance was discovered to be worse than the ones of the built-in cache manager and the POSIX plugin. Further test of the XRootD component revealed that its per- formance is dependent on the server disk speed.

  11. Security in the CernVM File System and the Frontier Distributed Database Caching System

    CERN Document Server

    Dykstra, David

    2014-01-01

    Both the CernVM File System (CVMFS) and the Frontier Distributed Database Caching System (Frontier) distribute centrally updated data worldwide for LHC experiments using http proxy caches. Neither system provides privacy or access control on reading the data, but both control access to updates of the data and can guarantee the integrity of the data transferred to clients over the internet. CVMFS has since its early days required digital signatures and secure hashes on all distributed data, and recently both CVMFS and Frontier have added X509-based integrity checking. In this paper we detail and compare the security models of CVMFS and Frontier.

  12. Security in the CernVM File System and the Frontier Distributed Database Caching System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykstra, D.; Blomer, J. [CERN

    2014-01-01

    Both the CernVM File System (CVMFS) and the Frontier Distributed Database Caching System (Frontier) distribute centrally updated data worldwide for LHC experiments using http proxy caches. Neither system provides privacy or access control on reading the data, but both control access to updates of the data and can guarantee the authenticity and integrity of the data transferred to clients over the internet. CVMFS has since its early days required digital signatures and secure hashes on all distributed data, and recently Frontier has added X.509-based authenticity and integrity checking. In this paper we detail and compare the security models of CVMFS and Frontier.

  13. Dynamic virtual AliEn Grid sites on Nimbus with CernVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harutyunyan, A.; Buncic, P.; Freeman, T.; Keahey, K.

    2010-04-01

    We describe the work on enabling one click deployment of Grid sites of AliEn Grid framework on the Nimbus 'science cloud' at the University of Chicago. The integration of computing resources of the cloud with the resource pool of AliEn Grid is achieved by leveraging two mechanisms: the Nimbus Context Broker developed at Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago, and CernVM - a baseline virtual software appliance for LHC experiments developed at CERN. Two approaches of dynamic virtual AliEn Grid site deployment are presented.

  14. Dynamic virtual AliEn Grid sites on Nimbus with CernVM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harutyunyan, A [Armenian e-Science Foundation, Yerevan (Armenia); Buncic, P [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Freeman, T; Keahey, K, E-mail: hartem@mail.yerphi.a, E-mail: Predrag.Buncic@cern.c, E-mail: tfreeman@mcs.anl.go, E-mail: keahey@mcs.anl.go [University of Chicago, Chicago IL (United States)

    2010-04-01

    We describe the work on enabling one click deployment of Grid sites of AliEn Grid framework on the Nimbus 'science cloud' at the University of Chicago. The integration of computing resources of the cloud with the resource pool of AliEn Grid is achieved by leveraging two mechanisms: the Nimbus Context Broker developed at Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago, and CernVM - a baseline virtual software appliance for LHC experiments developed at CERN. Two approaches of dynamic virtual AliEn Grid site deployment are presented.

  15. Physical metallurgy: Scientific school of the Academician V.M. Schastlivtsev

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatchikova, T. I.

    2016-04-01

    This paper is to honor Academician Vadim Mikhailovich Schastlivtsev, a prominent scientist in the field of metal physics and materials science. The article comprises an analysis of the topical issues of the physical metallurgy of the early 21st century and of the contribution of V.M. Schastlivtsev and of his school to the science of phase and structural transformations in steels. In 2015, Vadim Mikhailovich celebrates his 80th birthday, and this paper is timed to this honorable date. The list of his main publications is given in it.

  16. Euroopal tuleb leida vastus Vene Monroe-doktriinile / Lennart Meri ; intervjueerinud Olaf Ihlan, Andreas Lorentz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meri, Lennart, 1929-2006

    1993-01-01

    Eesti Vabariigi president L. Meri Baltikumist ja suurvene šovinismist. Intervjuu ajakirjale "Der Spiegel", nr. 44, 1. nov. 1993, lk. 200, 202-203, 206, pealkiri: "Dann wird Europa verbluten" : Estlands Präsident Lennart Meri über das Baltikum und den grossrussischen Chauvinismus. Ilmunud ka: Õhtuleht, 8. nov., lk. 5, pealkiri: "Siis voolab Euroopas veri" : Eesti president Lennart Meri Baltikumist ja suurvene šovinismist ; Rahva Hääl, 9. nov., lk., 3 ; Eesti Rada (Köln, 1993) nr. 6, lk. 3, pealkiri: President Lennart Meri intervjuu "Spiegelile" / refereerinud ja tsiteerinud J. P ; Eesti Päevaleht (Stockholm), 24. nov., lk. 2 : ill., pealkiri: President Lennart Meri : "Venemaa laiendab oma huvisfääri" ; Vaba Eestlane (Toronto), 9. dets., lk. 3, 11, pealkiri: "Euroopal tuleb leida vastus Vene - Monroe doktriinile" ; Meie Kodu, 15. dets., lk. 6, pealkiri: Eesti Vabariigi President Lennart Meri Baltikumist ja suurvene šovinismist

  17. Euroopal tuleb leida vastus Vene Monroe-doktriinile / Lennart Meri ; intervjueerinud Olaf Ihlan, Andreas Lorentz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meri, Lennart, 1929-2006

    1993-01-01

    Eesti Vabariigi president L. Meri Baltikumist ja suurvene šovinismist. Intervjuu ajakirjale "Der Spiegel", nr. 44, 1. nov. 1993, lk. 200, 202-203, 206, pealkiri: "Dann wird Europa verbluten" : Estlands Präsident Lennart Meri über das Baltikum und den grossrussischen Chauvinismus. Ilmunud ka: Õhtuleht, 8. nov., lk. 5, pealkiri: "Siis voolab Euroopas veri" : Eesti president Lennart Meri Baltikumist ja suurvene šovinismist ; Rahva Hääl, 9. nov., lk., 3 ; Eesti Rada (Köln, 1993) nr. 6, lk. 3, pealkiri: President Lennart Meri intervjuu "Spiegelile" / refereerinud ja tsiteerinud J. P ; Eesti Päevaleht (Stockholm), 24. nov., lk. 2 : ill., pealkiri: President Lennart Meri : "Venemaa laiendab oma huvisfääri" ; Vaba Eestlane (Toronto), 9. dets., lk. 3, 11, pealkiri: "Euroopal tuleb leida vastus Vene - Monroe doktriinile" ; Meie Kodu, 15. dets., lk. 6, pealkiri: Eesti Vabariigi President Lennart Meri Baltikumist ja suurvene šovinismist

  18. Knee joint angle affects EMG-force relationship in the vastus intermedius muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Akira; Akima, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    It is not understood how the knee joint angle affects the relationship between electromyography (EMG) and force of four individual quadriceps femoris (QF) muscles. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the knee joint angle on the EMG-force relationship of the four individual QF muscles, particularly the vastus intermedius (VI), during isometric knee extensions. Eleven healthy men performed 20-100% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) at knee joint angles of 90°, 120° and 150°. Surface EMG of the four QF synergists was recorded and normalized by the root mean square during MVC. The normalized EMG of the four QF synergists at a knee joint angle of 150° was significantly lower than that at 90° and 120° (P knee joint angle of 150°. Furthermore, the neuromuscular activation of the VI was the most sensitive to change in muscle length among the four QF synergistic muscles.

  19. VMCast: A VM-Assisted Stability Enhancing Solution for Tree-Based Overlay Multicast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Weidong; Zhang, Xinchang; Gong, Bin; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Tree-based overlay multicast is an effective group communication method for media streaming applications. However, a group member's departure causes all of its descendants to be disconnected from the multicast tree for some time, which results in poor performance. The above problem is difficult to be addressed because overlay multicast tree is intrinsically instable. In this paper, we proposed a novel stability enhancing solution, VMCast, for tree-based overlay multicast. This solution uses two types of on-demand cloud virtual machines (VMs), i.e., multicast VMs (MVMs) and compensation VMs (CVMs). MVMs are used to disseminate the multicast data, whereas CVMs are used to offer streaming compensation. The used VMs in the same cloud datacenter constitute a VM cluster. Each VM cluster is responsible for a service domain (VMSD), and each group member belongs to a specific VMSD. The data source delivers the multicast data to MVMs through a reliable path, and MVMs further disseminate the data to group members along domain overlay multicast trees. The above approach structurally improves the stability of the overlay multicast tree. We further utilized CVM-based streaming compensation to enhance the stability of the data distribution in the VMSDs. VMCast can be used as an extension to existing tree-based overlay multicast solutions, to provide better services for media streaming applications. We applied VMCast to two application instances (i.e., HMTP and HCcast). The results show that it can obviously enhance the stability of the data distribution.

  20. CernVM WebAPI - Controlling Virtual Machines from the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampidis, I.; Berzano, D.; Blomer, J.; Buncic, P.; Ganis, G.; Meusel, R.; Segal, B.

    2015-12-01

    Lately, there is a trend in scientific projects to look for computing resources in the volunteering community. In addition, to reduce the development effort required to port the scientific software stack to all the known platforms, the use of Virtual Machines (VMs)u is becoming increasingly popular. Unfortunately their use further complicates the software installation and operation, restricting the volunteer audience to sufficiently expert people. CernVM WebAPI is a software solution addressing this specific case in a way that opens wide new application opportunities. It offers a very simple API for setting-up, controlling and interfacing with a VM instance in the users computer, while in the same time offloading the user from all the burden of downloading, installing and configuring the hypervisor. WebAPI comes with a lightweight javascript library that guides the user through the application installation process. Malicious usage is prohibited by offering a per-domain PKI validation mechanism. In this contribution we will overview this new technology, discuss its security features and examine some test cases where it is already in use.

  1. VMCast: A VM-Assisted Stability Enhancing Solution for Tree-Based Overlay Multicast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Gu

    Full Text Available Tree-based overlay multicast is an effective group communication method for media streaming applications. However, a group member's departure causes all of its descendants to be disconnected from the multicast tree for some time, which results in poor performance. The above problem is difficult to be addressed because overlay multicast tree is intrinsically instable. In this paper, we proposed a novel stability enhancing solution, VMCast, for tree-based overlay multicast. This solution uses two types of on-demand cloud virtual machines (VMs, i.e., multicast VMs (MVMs and compensation VMs (CVMs. MVMs are used to disseminate the multicast data, whereas CVMs are used to offer streaming compensation. The used VMs in the same cloud datacenter constitute a VM cluster. Each VM cluster is responsible for a service domain (VMSD, and each group member belongs to a specific VMSD. The data source delivers the multicast data to MVMs through a reliable path, and MVMs further disseminate the data to group members along domain overlay multicast trees. The above approach structurally improves the stability of the overlay multicast tree. We further utilized CVM-based streaming compensation to enhance the stability of the data distribution in the VMSDs. VMCast can be used as an extension to existing tree-based overlay multicast solutions, to provide better services for media streaming applications. We applied VMCast to two application instances (i.e., HMTP and HCcast. The results show that it can obviously enhance the stability of the data distribution.

  2. Workload-Aware and CPU Frequency Scaling for Optimal Energy Consumption in VM Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the problem of VMs consolidation for cloud energy saving, different workloads will ask for different resources. Thus, considering workload characteristic, the VM placement solution will be more reasonable. In the real world, different workload works in a varied CPU utilization during its work time according to its task characteristics. That means energy consumption related to both the CPU utilization and CPU frequency. Therefore, only using the model of CPU frequency to evaluate energy consumption is insufficient. This paper theoretically verified that there will be a CPU frequency best suit for a certain CPU utilization in order to obtain the minimum energy consumption. According to this deduction, we put forward a heuristic CPU frequency scaling algorithm VP-FS (virtual machine placement with frequency scaling. In order to carry the experiments, we realized three typical greedy algorithms for VMs placement and simulate three groups of VM tasks. Our efforts show that different workloads will affect VMs allocation results. Each group of workload has its most suitable algorithm when considering the minimum used physical machines. And because of the CPU frequency scaling, VP-FS has the best results on the total energy consumption compared with the other three algorithms under any of the three groups of workloads.

  3. Gait transition and oxygen consumption in swimming striped surfperch Embiotoca lateralis Agassiz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannas, M.; Schaefer, J.; Domenici, P.

    2006-01-01

    A flow-through respirometer and swim tunnel was used to estimate the gait transition speed (Up-c) of striped surfperch Embiotoca lateralis, a labriform swimmer, and to investigate metabolic costs associated with gait transition. The Up-c was defined as the lowest speed at which fish decrease...... the use of pectoral fins significantly. While the tail was first recruited for manoeuvring at relatively low swimming speeds, the use of the tail at these low speeds [as low as 0·75 body (fork) lengths s-1, LF s-1) was rare (..., either in addition to pectoral fins or during burst-and-coast mode. Oxygen consumption increased exponentially with swimming speeds up to gait transition, and then levelled off. Similarly, cost of transport (CT) decreased with increasing speed, and then levelled off near Up-c. When speeds =Up...

  4. Kinematics and energetic benefits of schooling in the labriform fish, striped surfperch Embiotoca lateralis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J. L.; Vaknin, R.; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2010-01-01

    significantly higher for schooling individuals swimming in the front of a school relative to those swimming in the back, with trailing individuals benefiting from a 14.9 +/- 3.2% reduction in fin beat frequency (mean +/- SE). Trailing fish were estimated to benefit from a 25.6% reduction in oxygen consumption......Schooling can provide fish with a number of behavioural and ecological advantages, including increased food supply and reduced predator risk. Previous work suggests that fish swimming using body and caudal fin locomotion may also experience energetic advantages when trailing behind neighbours....... However, little is known about the potential energetic advantages associated with schooling in fish that swim using their pectoral fins. Using the striped surfperch Embiotoca lateralis, a labriform fish that swims routinely with its pectoral fins, we found that pectoral fin beat frequencies were...

  5. Function of Nucleus Ventralis Posterior Lateralis Thalami in Acupoint Sensitization Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Jing Rong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA on nucleus ventralis posterior lateralis (VPL thalami activated by visceral noxious stimulation and to explore the impact of EA on the mechanism of acupoint sensitization under a pathological state of the viscera, EA was applied at bilateral “Zusanli-Shangjuxu” acupoints. The discharge of VPL neurons was response to EA increased after colorectal distension (CRD. The stimulation at “Zusanli-Shangjuxu” acupoints enhanced discharge activity of VPL neurons under CRD-induced visceral pain. The frequency of neuronal discharge was associated with the pressure gradient of CRD which showed that visceral noxious stimulation may intensify the body’s functional response to stimulation at acupoints.

  6. On Use of the Variable Zagreb vM2 Index in QSPR: Boiling Points of Benzenoid Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albin Jurić

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The variable Zagreb vM2 index is introduced and applied to the structure-boiling point modeling of benzenoid hydrocarbons. The linear model obtained (thestandard error of estimate for the fit model Sfit=6.8 oC is much better than thecorresponding model based on the original Zagreb M2 index (Sfit=16.4 oC. Surprisingly,the model based on the variable vertex-connectivity index (Sfit=6.8 oC is comparable tothe model based on vM2 index. A comparative study with models based on the vertex-connectivity index, edge-connectivity index and several distance indices favours modelsbased on the variable Zagreb vM2 index and variable vertex-connectivity index.However, the multivariate regression with two-, three- and four-descriptors givesimproved models, the best being the model with four-descriptors (but vM2 index is notamong them with Sfit=5 oC, though the four-descriptor model contaning vM2 index isonly slightly inferior (Sfit=5.3 oC.

  7. 国外名机VM-1448功放检证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐柏华

    2007-01-01

    美国的Voiceof Music Corporation(音乐之声)推出的VM-1448型多功能功率放大器,可供Phono、Toner、Tape与AOX多种音乐系统的信号进行高保真的放大。该功放由6AQ5组成双声道功率放大器,输出功率为10W×2。现经日本音响大师进行检证,表明该功放性能卓越,功能齐全,保真度高、声音动听悦耳,是一款专门用于室内播放音乐的优质功放。

  8. Composition, Shell Strength, and Metabolizable Energy of Mulinia lateralis and Ischadium recurvum as Food for Wintering Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia M Wells-Berlin

    Full Text Available Decline in surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata waterfowl populations wintering in the Chesapeake Bay has been associated with changes in the availability of benthic bivalves. The Bay has become more eutrophic, causing changes in the benthos available to surf scoters. The subsequent decline in oyster beds (Crassostrea virginica has reduced the hard substrate needed by the hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum, one of the primary prey items for surf scoters, causing the surf scoter to switch to a more opportune species, the dwarf surfclam (Mulinia lateralis. The composition (macronutrients, minerals, and amino acids, shell strength (N, and metabolizable energy (kJ of these prey items were quantified to determine the relative foraging values for wintering scoters. Pooled samples of each prey item were analyzed to determine composition. Shell strength (N was measured using a shell crack compression test. Total collection digestibility trials were conducted on eight captive surf scoters. For the prey size range commonly consumed by surf scoters (6-12 mm for M. lateralis and 18-24 mm for I. recurvum, I. recurvum contained higher ash, protein, lipid, and energy per individual organism than M. lateralis. I. recurvum required significantly greater force to crack the shell relative to M. lateralis. No difference in metabolized energy was observed for these prey items in wintering surf scoters, despite I. recurvum's higher ash content and harder shell than M. lateralis. Therefore, wintering surf scoters were able to obtain the same amount of energy from each prey item, implying that they can sustain themselves if forced to switch prey.

  9. Composition, shell strength, and metabolizable energy of Mulinia lateralis and Ischadium recurvum as food for wintering surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Alicia; Perry, Matthew; Kohn, R.A.; Paynter, K.T.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Decline in surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) waterfowl populations wintering in the Chesapeake Bay has been associated with changes in the availability of benthic bivalves. The Bay has become more eutrophic, causing changes in the benthos available to surf scoters. The subsequent decline in oyster beds (Crassostrea virginica) has reduced the hard substrate needed by the hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum), one of the primary prey items for surf scoters, causing the surf scoter to switch to a more opportune species, the dwarf surfclam (Mulinia lateralis). The composition (macronutrients, minerals, and amino acids), shell strength (N), and metabolizable energy (kJ) of these prey items were quantified to determine the relative foraging values for wintering scoters. Pooled samples of each prey item were analyzed to determine composition. Shell strength (N) was measured using a shell crack compression test. Total collection digestibility trials were conducted on eight captive surf scoters. For the prey size range commonly consumed by surf scoters (6-12 mm for M. lateralis and 18-24 mm for I. recurvum), I. recurvum contained higher ash, protein, lipid, and energy per individual organism than M. lateralis. I. recurvum required significantly greater force to crack the shell relative to M. lateralis. No difference in metabolized energy was observed for these prey items in wintering surf scoters, despite I. recurvum's higher ash content and harder shell than M. lateralis. Therefore, wintering surf scoters were able to obtain the same amount of energy from each prey item, implying that they can sustain themselves if forced to switch prey.

  10. Electromyographic investigation of unstable patella before and after its realignment operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D D Baksi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patellar dislocations are either due to superolateral contracture of the soft tissue or imbalance of the power between the vastus medialis (VM and the vastus lateralis (VL. The imbalance of muscle power as an etiology of patellar dislocation has not been studied. Hence, we studied the recurrent, habitual and permanent dislocations of the patella with an electromyogram (EMG of the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and pes anserinus, before and after realignment operations, to document the muscle imbalance and effectiveness of the realignment operation. Materials and Methods: An electromyographic investigation was carried out on the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis in nine recurrent, 20 habitual, and 13 permanent dislocations of the patella, before and after their realignment operations. Pes anserinus transposition, which acted as a medial stabilizer of the patella, was also investigated with an EMG study, to understand its role on patellar stability at 0΀, 30΀, 60΀, 90΀, 120΀, 150΀, and full flexion of the knee. The age of the patients varied from nine to 30 (mean 15 years. There were 24 males and 18 females. Twenty-six patellar dislocations were on the right and 16 were on the left side. Results: Electromyographic pictures reveal subnormal activity of the vastus medialis in all types of dislocations and similar activities of the vastus lateralis in permanent and habitual dislocations recorded pre operatively, which recovered to almost normal values postoperatively, at the mean one-year follow-up. Pes anserinus, which was used for medial stabilization of the patella after its realignment, maintained normal EMG activity before and after the operation. Conclusion: This study is significant for understanding the imbalance of muscle activities in patients with an unstable patella, which can be rectified without recurrence after pes anserinus transposition.

  11. Age and Sex Effects on the Active Stiffness of Vastus Intermedius under Isometric Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong-Zhi Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, a novel technique was proposed to quantify the relationship between the muscle stiffness and its nonfatigue contraction intensity. The method extended the measured range of isometric contraction to 100% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC using an ultrasonic shear wave measurement setup. Yet, it has not been revealed how this relationship could be affected by factors like age or sex. To clarify these questions, vastus intermedius (VI stiffness of 40 healthy subjects was assessed under 11 step levels of isometric contraction. The subjects were divided into four groups: young males, young females, elderly males, and elderly females (n=10 for each. In a relaxed state, no significant difference was observed between the male and female subjects (p=0.156 nor between the young and elderly subjects (p=0.221. However, when performing isometric contraction, the VI stiffness of males was found to be significantly higher than that of females at the same level (p<0.001, and that of the young was higher than the elderly (p<0.001. Meanwhile, for two knee joint angles used, the stiffness measured at a 90° knee joint angle was always significantly larger than that measured at 60° (p<0.001. Recognizing the active muscle stiffness of VI contributes to body stability, and these results may provide insight into the age and sex bias in musculoskeletal studies, such as those on fall risks.

  12. Validity of surface electromyography for vastus intermedius muscle assessed by needle electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kohei; Akima, Hiroshi

    2011-06-15

    Recently, a new recording technique for surface electromyography (EMG) of the deeper muscle component of the quadriceps femoris muscle group, i.e., vastus intermedius (VI) muscle, from the distal portion of the VI muscle has been developed; however, the effect of electrode location on EMG signal of the VI muscle remains unclear. The aim of this study is to compare neuromuscular activation detected at the middle and distal portions of the VI muscle, in order to clarify whether the surface EMG of the VI muscle can be used to assess the neuromuscular activation of the entire muscle. Six healthy men participated in this study. During incremental ramp contraction of isometric knee extension (~30% of maximal voluntary contraction), needle EMG was recorded from the middle and distal regions of the VI muscle and surface EMG was performed at the distal region of the VI muscle. Excellent correlation was observed between needle EMG at the middle and distal regions (r=0.897-0.984, pEMG detected at the distal versus needle EMG detected at the middle and that of surface EMG detected at distal versus needle EMG detected at distal (pEMG at the distal portion of the VI muscle, which is the only region available for surface EMG, can be used to evaluate global neuromuscular activation of the VI muscle during isometric contraction at a low force level.

  13. Heterogeneous recruitment of quadriceps muscle portions and fibre types during moderate intensity knee-extensor exercise: effect of thigh occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Söderlund, Karin; Relu, Mihai U.;

    2009-01-01

    The involvement of quadriceps femoris muscle portions and fibre type recruitment was studied during submaximal knee-extensor exercise without and with thigh occlusion (OCC) and compared with responses during intense exercise. Six healthy male subjects performed 90-s of moderate exercise without...... (MOD; 29+/-4 W) and with thigh OCC, and moderate exercise followed by 90-s of intense exercise (HI; 65+/-8 W). Temperatures were continuously measured in m. vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM) and rectus femoris (RF) and successive muscle biopsies were obtained from VL. During MOD, muscle...

  14. Perawatan Ulang Saluran Akar Insisivus Lateralis Kiri Maksila dengan Medikamen Kalsium Hidroksida-Chlorhexidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Gusti Ayu Ariani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Banyak faktor yang menyebabkan kegagalan terapi endodontik antara lain pembersihan dan membentuk saluran akar yang tidak sempurna dan obturasi tidak hermetis sehingga menyebabkan kurangnya kemampuan untuk menghilangkan mikroorganisme yang ada. Saluran akar yang terinfeksi membutuhkan suatu medikamen untuk menunjang keberhasilan dalam perawatan saluran akar.Kalsium hidroksida merupakan salah satu bahan medikamen yang efektif karena memiliki sifat antibakteri dengan spektrum luas, pH tinggi, biokompatibilitas baik, mampu menetralkan endotoksin bakteri, memiliki sifat toksik yang paling rendah, serta menstimulasi pembentukan jaringan keras. Tujuan laporan kasus untuk menunjukan keberhasilan perawatan ulang saluran akar gigi insisivus lateralis kiri maksila dengan lesi periapikal menggunakan medikamen kalsium hidroksida- chlorhexidine. Pasien wanita umur 53 tahun, gigi insisivus lateralis kiri maksila dengan lesi periapikal.Radiografi tampak obturasi kurang hermetis dan radiolusen daerah periapikal. Perawatan ulang saluran akar,diikuti pemasangan pasak fiber frefabricated dan restorasi porselin fuse metal.Keseimpulan setelah evaluasi setelah enam bulan pasca perawatan ulang saluran akar, radiografi menunjukan radiolusen mengecil dan gigi dapat berfungsi dengan normal. Re-Treatment of Root Canal of Maxillary Left Lateral Incisor with Calcium Hydroxide-Chlorhexidine Medicament. There are many factors that cause failure of endodontic therapy. For instances, incomplete cleaning and shaping of root canal and inadequate obturation that results in difficulty to remove the microorganisms. Infected root canal requires a medicament for the success of the root canal treatment. Calcium hydroxide is one of the effective ingredients as medicament because it has broad spectrum antibacterial properties, high pH, good biocompatibility, and it is able to neutralize bacterial endotoxins, decrease tissue toxicity, and stimulate the formation of hard tissue. The purpose

  15. Research and Implementation of Software Used for the Remote Control for VM700T Video Measuring Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the measurement software which can be used to realize remote control of the VM700T video measuring instrument is introduced. The authors can operate VM700T by a virtual panel on the client computer, select the results that the measuring equipment displayed to transmit it, and then display the image on the VM700T virtual panel in real time. The system does have some practical values and play an important role in distance learning. The functions that the system realized mainly includes four aspects: the real-time transmission of message based on the socket technology, the serial connection between server PC and VM700T measuring equipment, the image acquisition based on VFW technology and JPEG compression and decompression, and the network transmission of image files. The actual network transmission test is shown that the data acquisition method of this thesis is flexible and convenient, and the system is of extraordinary stability. It can display the measurement results in real time and basically realize the requirements of remote control. In the content, this paper includes a summary of principle, the detailed introduction of the system realization process and some related technology.

  16. The potential of value management (VM) to improve the consideration of energy efficiency within pre-construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Mohamad Zamhari; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Rajemi, Mohamad Farizal

    2016-08-01

    Energy demand and consumption in buildings will rise rapidly in the near future because of several social economics factors and this situation occurs not only in developed countries but also in developing countries such as Malaysia. There is demand towards building with energy efficiency features at this time, however most of the current buildings types are still being constructed with conventional designs, thus contribute to inefficient of energy consumption during the operation stage of the building. This paper presents the concept and the application of Value Management (VM) approach and its potential to improve consideration of energy efficiency within pre-construction process. Based on the relevant literatures, VM has provides an efficient and effective delivery system to fulfill the objectives and client's requirements. Generally in this paper, VM is discussed and scrutinized with reference to previous studies to see how these concepts contribute to better optimize the energy consumption in a building by seeking the best value energy efficiency through the design and construction process. This paper will not draw any conclusion but rather a preliminary research to propose the most energy efficiency measures to reliably accomplish a function that will meet the client's needs, desires and expectations. For further research in future, simple quantitative industry survey and VM workshops will be conducted to validate and further improve the research.

  17. VM-ADCP measured upper ocean currents in the southeastern Arabian Sea and Equatorial Indian Ocean during December, 2000

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, V.S.N.; Suryanarayana, A.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Raikar, V.; Tilvi, V.

    The Vessel-Mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (VM-ADCP) measured currents in the upper 200 m along the cruise track covering the southeastern Arabian Sea and the Eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean during northern winter monsoon (10-31 December...

  18. Rare Variant of Vastus Medialis Detected in vivo by Ultrasound and Confirmed by High-resolution MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjafield, Anastasia; Howe, Franklyn A; Killingback, Alban; Adds, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This report describes an unusual incidental finding during ultrasound investigation of the vastus medialis muscle. Volunteers underwent ultrasound scanning as part of an on-going investigation into the architecture of the vastus medialis muscle. [Subjects and Methods] The distal thighs of forty-one subjects were scanned using the Philips iU22 US system. An unusual muscle morphology was detected bilaterally in one subject, who then underwent a 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan in order to further investigate the muscle morphology. The subject in question was a 32 year-old female who suffers from recurrent bilateral patellar dislocations. [Results] The MRI scan confirmed the ultrasound findings, and indicated the presence of the vastus medialis in two layers, with the VML continuing deep, separate from the VMO. [Conclusion] Although this rare variant has been been reported in previous cadaveric studies, we believe this to be the first report in the literature of this morphology in vivo. The biomechanical implications of this muscle arrangement are unknown, but it may not be without significance that this individual suffers from recurrent patellar dislocations. PMID:24567699

  19. Leaf Barriers to Fungal Colonization and Shredders (Tipula lateralis) Consumption of Decomposing Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canhoto; Graça

    1999-04-01

    > Abstract Herein we assess the importance of leaf cuticle, polyphenolic, and essential oils contents of Eucalyptus globulus leaves to hyphomycete colonization and shredder consumption. Optical and electron microscopy revealed that, at least during the first 5 weeks of conditioning, the cuticle remains virtually intact. Stomata provide the main access for hyphae to internal leaf tissues and, eventually, for spore release. We suggest that in E. globulus leaves, fungal decomposition progresses predominantly in and from the eucalyptus leaf mesophyll to the outside. Malt extract agar media supplemented with either eucalyptus essential oils or tannic acid completely inhibited (Articulospora tetracladia, Lemonniera aquatica, and Tricladium gracile) or depressed (Heliscus lugdunensis, Lunulospora curvula, and Tricladium angulatum) aquatic hyphomycetes growth. The transference of both secondary compounds to alder leaves induced similar and significant reduction in Tipula lateralis larval consumption. Results consistently indicate that eucalyptus oils are stronger deterrents than polyphenols. The waxy cuticle of E. globulus appears to be a key physical factor delaying fungal colonization during decomposition. We hypothesize that the relative influence of leaf phenols and essential oils to aquatic hyphomycetes and shredders may be related to three main factors: (a) initial distribution of such compounds in the leaves; (b) possibility of their decrease through decomposition; and (c) consumption strategies of detritivores.

  20. Reliability of ultrasound texture measures of Biceps Brachialis and Gastrocnemius Lateralis muscles' images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Pereira Júnior, Newton; da Matta, Thiago Torres; Alvarenga, André Victor; de Albuquerque Pereira, Wagner Coelho; de Oliveira, Liliam Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) is an important tool for diagnosing of many musculoskeletal tissue conditions. Image texture analysis can be used to characterize this tissue. The complexity curve (CC) is a technique commonly used to characterize the number of grey-level transitions in an image. Variability and reliability of US texture measures in the muscle tissue are unavailable in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine the variability and reliability of five CC texture parameters from US images of healthy Biceps Brachialis and Gastrocnemius Lateralis (GL) muscles, with longitudinal and transversal orientations of the probe. Eight images per subject were obtained for 30 men in 2 days. Mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation and intraclass correlation coefficient for the five parameters were calculated for regions of interest. Results showed that the variability was similar for both muscles and most of the parameters showed satisfactory reliability (r > 0·7) for the Biceps Brachialis with the transverse scan and for the GL with the longitudinal scan. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. [The toxicity of massive dosis of VM26 (4-demethyl-epipodophyllotoxin-beta-D-thenylidene glucoside). A contribution to the therapy of advanced ovarian cancer (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, R P; Vahrson, H

    1977-12-09

    19 patients with advanced ovarian cancer (FIGO-stages IIb-IV) were treated by ultra-high doses of VM26 partly according to positive oncobiograms during Multiple-drug-stoss-therapy. The toxic reactions and the cytostatic effect were investigated. The range of 57,9% remissions and the moderate toxicity suggest a specific application of VM26 in advanced ovarian cancer.

  2. Advanced neuroblastoma: improved response rate using a multiagent regimen (OPEC) including sequential cisplatin and VM-26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafford, E A; Rogers, D W; Pritchard, J

    1984-07-01

    Forty-two children, all over one year of age, were given vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and sequentially timed cisplatin and VM-26 (OPEC) or OPEC and doxorubicin (OPEC-D) as initial treatment for newly diagnosed stage III or IV neuroblastoma. Good partial response was achieved in 31 patients (74%) overall and in 28 (78%) of 36 patients whose treatment adhered to the chemotherapy protocol, compared with a 65% response rate achieved in a previous series of children treated with pulsed cyclophosphamide and vincristine with or without doxorubicin. Only six patients, including two of the six children whose treatment did not adhere to protocol, failed to respond, but there were five early deaths from treatment-related complications. Tumor response to OPEC, which was the less toxic of the two regimens, was at least as good as tumor response to OPEC-D. Cisplatin-induced morbidity was clinically significant in only one patient and was avoided in others by careful monitoring of glomerular filtration rate and hearing. Other centers should test the efficacy of OPEC or equivalent regimens in the treatment of advanced neuroblastoma.

  3. Optimal bandwidth-aware VM allocation for Infrastructure-as-a-Service

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Debojyoti; Post, Ian; Shinde, Rajendra

    2012-01-01

    Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) providers need to offer richer services to be competitive while optimizing their resource usage to keep costs down. Richer service offerings include new resource request models involving bandwidth guarantees between virtual machines (VMs). Thus we consider the following problem: given a VM request graph (where nodes are VMs and edges represent virtual network connectivity between the VMs) and a real data center topology, find an allocation of VMs to servers that satisfies the bandwidth guarantees for every virtual network edge---which maps to a path in the physical network---and minimizes congestion of the network. Previous work has shown that for arbitrary networks and requests, finding the optimal embedding satisfying bandwidth requests is $\\mathcal{NP}$-hard. However, in most data center architectures, the routing protocols employed are based on a spanning tree of the physical network. In this paper, we prove that the problem remains $\\mathcal{NP}$-hard even when the phys...

  4. THE DEFORMATION EFFECT OF VM SLIDER MULTI COMPLEX MACHINE SERIES ON PRECISION MACHINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berezhnoy S. B.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of increasing the economic growth of the Russian Federation, the development of high-tech knowledge-intensive manufacturing industries on the basis of a fundamentally new technological order, new unmanned technologies. The measures to improve the accuracy of manufacturing of complex and large-sized parts. Currently, the technical level of many sectors of the economy is largely determined by the level of production of means of production. The basis of these means is the machine tool industry. On the basis of machine tool development we handle a comprehensive mechanization and automation of production processes in industry, construction, agriculture, transport and other industries. We completed a comprehensive analysis of the errors affecting the manufacturing precision parts. The activities for improving the accuracy of manufacture based on VM 32 multi-machine complex series were proposed. We made the analysis of the cutting forces influence and the cross-sectional shape of the slide on its deformation for various types of processing. We determined the optimal shape of the cross section of the slider to increase stiffness and reduce deformation of the slide in metal cutting

  5. Simultaneous quantification and pharmacokinetics of alkaloids in Herba Ephedrae-Radix Aconiti Lateralis extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuai; Tang, Qingfa; Huo, Huiling; Li, Hancheng; Xing, Xuefeng; Luo, Jiabo

    2015-01-01

    The combination of Herba Ephedrae (Mahuang in Chinese) and Radix Aconiti Lateralis (Fuzi in Chinese) is a classical preparation in traditional Chinese medicine and used for treating colds and rheumatic arthralgia. However, herbal medicines containing ephedrines and Aconitum alkaloids are strictly regulated because of the potential for adverse effects on the cardiovascular system and the central nervous system. We aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of 11 alkaloids in the Mahuang-Fuzi combination and single-herb extracts after oral administration in rats. The alkaloids were norephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, methylephedrine, aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, benzoylaconine, benzoylmesaconine and benzoylhypaconine. Simultaneous determination of the alkaloids, including two pairs of diastereomers, was achieved in 14.5 min by a simple, rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The separation was performed on a Zorbax SB-Aq column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 3.5 μm) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min using acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid aqueous solution as the mobile phase. The validated method demonstrated adequate sensitivity, selectivity and process efficiency for the quantitative analysis of complex herbal components. Compared with single-herb extracts, alkaloids in plasma (except methylephedrine, benzoylmesaconine and benzoylhypaconine) showed slower elimination (the mean residence time or half-life was longer), although the maximum plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration curve values decreased. Accumulation may occur with continuous drug intake. These results suggest that drug monitoring may be essential for the safe use of the Mahuang-Fuzi combination.

  6. [Expression of thermostable recombiant Luciola lateralis luciferase and development of heat-stable pyrosequencing system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shu; Zou, Bingjie; Wang, Jianping; Wu, Haiping; Zhou, Guohua

    2012-06-01

    Pyrosequencing is a tool based on bioluminescence reaction for real-time analyzing DNA sequences. The sensitivity of pyrosequencing mainly depends on luciferase in reaction mixture. However, the instability of pyrosequencing reagents caused by fragile wild Photinus pyralis luciferase (PpL) in conventional pyrosequencing usually leads to unsatisfied results, which limits the application of pyrosequencing. In order to improve the stability of pyrosequencing reagents, the coding sequences of mutant thermostable Luciola lateralis luciferase (rt-LlL) was synthesized, and inserted into the plasmid of pET28a(+) to express the thermostable rt-LlL with a 6 x His-tag in the N terminal. The purified rt-LlL with the molecular mass of 60 kDa was obtained by Ni-affinity chromatography. The specific activity of rt-LlL was determined as 4.29 x 10(10) RLU/mg. Moreover, the thermostability of rt-LlL was investigated, and the results showed that rt-LlL had activity at 50 degrees C, and remained 90% of activity after incubated at 40 degrees C for 25 min. Finally, rt-LlL was used to substitute commercial Photinus pyralis luciferase in conventional pyrosequencing reagent to get thermostable pyrosequencing reagent. Comparing with conventional pyrosequencing reagent, the thermostable pyrosequencing reagent is more stable, and it's activity would not lose when incubated at 37 degrees C for 1 h. This study laid foundation of establishing reliable and stable pyrosequencing system which would be applied in Point-of-Care Testing.

  7. Cranial vault shape in fossil hominids: Fourier descriptors in norma lateralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestrel, P E; Ohtsuki, F; Wolfe, C A

    2010-10-01

    Two major views of human evolution have elicited considerable controversy. These are: [1] the "out of Africa" hypothesis and [2] the "multiregional" hypothesis. This paper is an attempt to try to reconcile these two scenarios using hominid cranial vault data. Elliptical Fourier functions (EFFs) were used to describe, in visual and numerical terms, the shape of the human cranial vault in norma lateralis. Using jpeg images, contours of the cranial vault of a large sample of hominid specimens were pre-processed in Photoshop CS and rotated in 2D space (positional-orientation) so that a line drawn from nasion to porion was horizontal. The cranial vault image was then digitized with 72 closely-spaced points and submitted to a specially written routine that computed EFFs normalized by scaling (size-standardization). This ensured that the representation was invariant with respect to starting point, size and orientation. Statistically significant differences were found between the H. sapiens sample and both the H. erectus and H. neanderthalensis samples. In contrast, there were no statistically significant differences between the H. erectus and H. neanderthalensis groups, leading to three conclusions: [1] the similarity in cranial vault shape between H. erectus and H. neanderthalensis suggests a single gradually evolving lineage; [2] The taxon H. heidelbergensis can be embedded into the H. erectus→H. neanderthalensis line; and [3] H. sapiens seems to be a separate evolutionary development and is considered here either as a separate species or as a possible example of an allopatric semispecies (Grant, 1977). The results here suggest that human evolution over the last 2 Ma may turn out to be neither totally multiregional or simply out of Africa but rather represents a considerably more complicated picture.

  8. Space-geodetic and water level gauge constraints on continental uplift and tilting over North America: regional convergence of the ICE-6G_C (VM5a/VM6) models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Keven; Peltier, W. R.

    2017-08-01

    We present a series of analyses of the regional convergence of the iterative methodology that has been developed for use in the construction of global models of the glacial isostatic adjustment process. Our specific focus is upon the North American component of such models which embodied the largest concentration of grounded land ice at the Last Glacial Maximum. We show that, although the introduction of the VM6 viscosity structure helps the global ICE-6G_C (VM5a) model to improve the fit to relative sea level data from the region of forebulge collapse along the U.S. East coast, it also leads to a significant misfit to the totality of the available space-geodetic observations, which the original ICE-6G_C (VM5a) model was able to fit with high accuracy. This raises the issue of the convergence of the iterative methodology being employed in the process of model construction. We demonstrate through detailed further analysis that a fully converged solution which reconciles all available data from the continent, including additional data on the time dependent de-levelling of the Great Lakes region, is obtained through modest further modifications of both the viscosity structure of the model and the North American component of the surface mass loading history.

  9. Postglacial Rebound Model ICE-6G_C (VM5a) Constrained by Geodetic and Geologic Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, W. R.; Argus, D. F.; Drummond, R.

    2014-12-01

    We fit the revised global model of glacial isostatic adjustment ICE-6G_C (VM5a) to all available data, consisting of several hundred GPS uplift rates, a similar number of 14C dated relative sea level histories, and 62 geologic estimates of changes in Antarctic ice thickness. The mantle viscosity profile, VM5a is a simple multi-layer fit to prior model VM2 of Peltier (1996, Science). However, the revised deglaciation history, ICE-6G (VM5a), differs significantly from previous models in the Toronto series. (1) In North America, GPS observations of vertical uplift of Earth's surface from the Canadian Base Network require the thickness of the Laurentide ice sheet at Last Glacial Maximum to be significantly revised. At Last Glacial Maximum the new model ICE-6G_C in this region, relative to ICE-5G, roughly 50 percent thicker east of Hudson Bay (in and northern Quebec and Labrador region) and roughly 30 percent thinner west of Hudson Bay (in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and the Northwest Territories).the net change in mass, however, is small. We find that rates of gravity change determined by GRACE when corrected for the predictions of ICE-6G_C (VM5a) are significantly smaller than residuals determined on the basis of earlier models. (2) In Antarctica, we fit GPS uplift rates, geologic estimates of changes in ice thickness, and geologic constraints on the timing of ice loss. The resulting deglaciation history also differs significantly from prior models. The contribution of Antarctic ice loss to global sea level rise since Last Glacial Maximum in ICE-6G_C is 13.6 meters, less than in ICE-5G (17.5 m), but significantly larger than in both the W12A model of Whitehouse et al. [2012] (8 m) and the IJ05 R02 model of Ivins et al. [2013] (7.5 m). In ICE-6G_C rapid ice loss occurs in Antarctica from 11.5 to 8 thousands years ago, with a rapid onset at 11.5 ka thereby contributing significantly to Meltwater Pulse 1B. In ICE-6G_C (VM5a), viscous uplift of Antarctica is increasing

  10. Fast-Solving Quasi-Optimal LS-S$³$VM Based on an Extended Candidate Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuefeng; Liang, Xun; Kwok, James T; Li, Jianping; Zhou, Xiaoping; Zhang, Haiyan

    2017-02-14

    The semisupervised least squares support vector machine (LS-S³VM) is an important enhancement of least squares support vector machines in semisupervised learning. Given that most data collected from the real world are without labels, semisupervised approaches are more applicable than standard supervised approaches. Although a few training methods for LS-S³VM exist, the problem of deriving the optimal decision hyperplane efficiently and effectually has not been solved. In this paper, a fully weighted model of LS-S³VM is proposed, and a simple integer programming (IP) model is introduced through an equivalent transformation to solve the model. Based on the distances between the unlabeled data and the decision hyperplane, a new indicator is designed to represent the possibility that the label of an unlabeled datum should be reversed in each iteration during training. Using the indicator, we construct an extended candidate set consisting of the indices of unlabeled data with high possibilities, which integrates more information from unlabeled data. Our algorithm is degenerated into a special scenario of the previous algorithm when the extended candidate set is reduced into a set with only one element. Two strategies are utilized to determine the descent directions based on the extended candidate set. Furthermore, we developed a novel method for locating a good starting point based on the properties of the equivalent IP model. Combined with the extended candidate set and the carefully computed starting point, a fast algorithm to solve LS-S³VM quasi-optimally is proposed. The choice of quasi-optimal solutions results in low computational cost and avoidance of overfitting. Experiments show that our algorithm equipped with the two designed strategies is more effective than other algorithms in at least one of the following three aspects: 1) computational complexity; 2) generalization ability; and 3) flexibility. However, our algorithm and other algorithms have similar

  11. Isolation and cloning of a C-type lectin from the hexactinellid sponge Aphrocallistes vastus: a putative aggregation factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundacker, D; Leys, S P; Schröder, H C; Müller, I M; Müller, W E

    2001-01-01

    Among the sponges (Porifera), the oldest group of metazoans in phylogenetic terms, the Hexactinellida is considered to have diverged earliest from the two other sponge classes, the Demospongiae and Calcarea. The Hexactinellida are unusual among all Metazoa in possessing mostly syncytial rather than cellular tissues. Here we describe the purification of a cell adhesion molecule with a size of 34 kDa (in its native form; 24 kDa after deglycosylation) from the hexactinellid sponge Aphrocallistes vastus. This adhesion molecule was previously found to agglutinate preserved cells and membranes in a non-species-specific manner (Müller, W. E. G., Zahn, R. K, Conrad, J., Kurelec, B., and Uhlenbruck, G. [1984] Cell adhesion molecules in the haxactinellid Aphrocallistes vastus: species-unspecific aggregationfactor. Differentiation, 26, 30--35). The fact that the aggregation process required Ca(2+) and was inhibited by bird's nest glycoprotein and D-galactose but not by D-mannose or N-acetyl-D-galactosamine suggests that this cell adhesion molecule is a C-type lectin. To test this assumption, two highly similar C-type lectins were cloned from A.vastus. The deduced polypeptides of the two cDNA species isolated classified these molecules as C-type lectins. The calculated M(r) of the 191 aa long sequences were 22,022 and 22,064, respectively. The C-type lectins showed highest similarity to C-type lectins (type-II membrane proteins) from higher metazoan phyla; these molecules are absent in non-Metazoa. The two sponge C-type lectins contain the conserved domains known from other C-type lectins (e.g., disulfide bonds, the amino acids known to be involved in Ca(2+)-binding, as well as the amino acids involved in the specificity of binding to D-galactose) and a hydrophobic N-terminal region. The N-terminal part of the purified C-type lectin was identical with the corresponding region of the deduced polypeptide from the cDNA. It is proposed that the A.vastus lectins might bind to the

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of Vigna mungo processing enzyme 1 (VmPE-1), an asparaginyl endopeptidase possibly involved in post-translational processing of a vacuolar cysteine endopeptidase (SH-EP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, T; Minamikawa, T

    1999-01-01

    Asparaginyl endopeptidase is a cysteine endopeptidase that has strict substrate specificity toward the carboxy side of asparagine residues. Vigna mungo processing enzyme 1, termed VmPE-1, occurs in the cotyledons of germinated seeds of V. mungo, and is possibly involved in the post-translational processing of a vacuolar cysteine endopeptidase, designated SH-EP, which degrades seed storage protein. VmPE-1 also showed a substrate specificity to asparagine residues, and its enzymatic activity was inhibited by NEM but not E-64. In addition, purified VmPE-1 had a potential to process the recombinant SH-EP precursor to its intermediate in vitro. cDNA clones for VmPE-1 and its homologue, named VmPE-1A, were identified and sequenced, and their expressions in the cotyledons of V. mungo seedlings and other organs were investigated. VmPE-1 mRNA and SH-EP mRNA were expressed in germinated seeds at the same stage of germination although the enzymatic activity of VmPE-1 rose prior to that of SH-EP. The level of VmPE-1A mRNA continued increasing as germination proceeded. In roots, stems and leaves of fully grown plants, and in hypocotyls, VmPE-1 and VmPE-1A were little expressed. We discuss possible functions of VmPE-1 and VmPE-1A in the cotyledons of germinated seeds.

  13. Engineering the CernVM-Filesystem as a High Bandwidth Distributed Filesystem for Auxiliary Physics Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra, D.; Bockelman, B.; Blomer, J.; Herner, K.; Levshina, T.; Slyz, M.

    2015-12-01

    A common use pattern in the computing models of particle physics experiments is running many distributed applications that read from a shared set of data files. We refer to this data is auxiliary data, to distinguish it from (a) event data from the detector (which tends to be different for every job), and (b) conditions data about the detector (which tends to be the same for each job in a batch of jobs). Relatively speaking, conditions data also tends to be relatively small per job where both event data and auxiliary data are larger per job. Unlike event data, auxiliary data comes from a limited working set of shared files. Since there is spatial locality of the auxiliary data access, the use case appears to be identical to that of the CernVM- Filesystem (CVMFS). However, we show that distributing auxiliary data through CVMFS causes the existing CVMFS infrastructure to perform poorly. We utilize a CVMFS client feature called "alien cache" to cache data on existing local high-bandwidth data servers that were engineered for storing event data. This cache is shared between the worker nodes at a site and replaces caching CVMFS files on both the worker node local disks and on the site's local squids. We have tested this alien cache with the dCache NFSv4.1 interface, Lustre, and the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) FUSE interface, and measured performance. In addition, we use high-bandwidth data servers at central sites to perform the CVMFS Stratum 1 function instead of the low-bandwidth web servers deployed for the CVMFS software distribution function. We have tested this using the dCache HTTP interface. As a result, we have a design for an end-to-end high-bandwidth distributed caching read-only filesystem, using existing client software already widely deployed to grid worker nodes and existing file servers already widely installed at grid sites. Files are published in a central place and are soon available on demand throughout the grid and cached locally on the

  14. Engineering the CernVM-Filesystem as a High Bandwidth Distributed Filesystem for Auxiliary Physics Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykstra, D. [Fermilab; Bockelman, B. [Nebraska U.; Blomer, J. [CERN; Herner, K. [Fermilab; Levshina, T. [Fermilab; Slyz, M. [Fermilab

    2015-12-23

    A common use pattern in the computing models of particle physics experiments is running many distributed applications that read from a shared set of data files. We refer to this data is auxiliary data, to distinguish it from (a) event data from the detector (which tends to be different for every job), and (b) conditions data about the detector (which tends to be the same for each job in a batch of jobs). Relatively speaking, conditions data also tends to be relatively small per job where both event data and auxiliary data are larger per job. Unlike event data, auxiliary data comes from a limited working set of shared files. Since there is spatial locality of the auxiliary data access, the use case appears to be identical to that of the CernVM- Filesystem (CVMFS). However, we show that distributing auxiliary data through CVMFS causes the existing CVMFS infrastructure to perform poorly. We utilize a CVMFS client feature called 'alien cache' to cache data on existing local high-bandwidth data servers that were engineered for storing event data. This cache is shared between the worker nodes at a site and replaces caching CVMFS files on both the worker node local disks and on the site's local squids. We have tested this alien cache with the dCache NFSv4.1 interface, Lustre, and the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) FUSE interface, and measured performance. In addition, we use high-bandwidth data servers at central sites to perform the CVMFS Stratum 1 function instead of the low-bandwidth web servers deployed for the CVMFS software distribution function. We have tested this using the dCache HTTP interface. As a result, we have a design for an end-to-end high-bandwidth distributed caching read-only filesystem, using existing client software already widely deployed to grid worker nodes and existing file servers already widely installed at grid sites. Files are published in a central place and are soon available on demand throughout the grid and cached

  15. Detection and identification of Phytophthora lateralis Tucker et Mibrath%雪松疫霉根腐病菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    雪松疫霉根腐病菌(Phytophthora lateralis Tucker et Milbrath)是我国进境植物检疫性有害生物,可引起寄主植物严重的根腐病.鉴于该病原菌潜在的危险性,本文就其分布、寄主范围、传播方式、危害症状、形态特征以及检疫鉴定方法等进行了综述,供检疫鉴定参考.

  16. VM600汽轮机监视仪表的功能分析和应用%Functional Analysis and Application of the VM600 Turbine Supervisory Instrumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海燕

    2009-01-01

    分析了印度雅幕娜电厂汽轮机监视系统所采用的瑞士VM600仪表的功能和基本构成、组态与配置,并简单说明了使用情况.系统的配置是合适的,在机组运行期间,系统能正确反映汽轮机的运行参数,未出现信号异常.

  17. Antitumor activity of the two epipodophyllotoxin derivatives VP-16 and VM-26 in preclinical systems: a comparison of in vitro and in vivo drug evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P B; Roed, H; Skovsgaard, T

    1990-01-01

    The epipodophyllotoxines VP-16 and VM-26 are chemically closely related. VM-26 has been found to be considerably more potent than VP-16 in vitro in a number of investigations. Although the drugs have been known for greater than 20 years, they have not been compared at clearly defined equitoxic do......-resistance between the two drugs suggests that they have an identical antineoplastic spectrum. VM-26 was more potent than VP-16 in vitro; however, this was not correlated to a therapeutic advantage for VM-26 over VP-16 in vivo.......The epipodophyllotoxines VP-16 and VM-26 are chemically closely related. VM-26 has been found to be considerably more potent than VP-16 in vitro in a number of investigations. Although the drugs have been known for greater than 20 years, they have not been compared at clearly defined equitoxic...... doses on an optimal schedule in vivo and it has not been clarified as to whether a therapeutic difference exists between them. A prolonged schedule is optimal for both drugs; accordingly we determined the toxicity in mice using a 5-day schedule. The dose killing 10% of the mice (LD10) was 9.4 mg...

  18. [Russian oxygen generation system "Elektron-VM": hydrogen content in electrolytically produced oxygen for breathing by International Space Station crews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proshkin, V Yu; Kurmazenko, E A

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the particulars of hydrogen content in electrolysis oxygen produced aboard the ISS Russian segment by oxygen generator "Elektron-VM" (SGK) for crew breathing. Hydrogen content was estimated as in the course of SGK operation in the ISS RS, so during the ground life tests. According to the investigation of hydrogen sources, the primary path of H2 appearance in oxygen is its diffusion through the porous diaphragm separating the electrolytic-cell cathode and anode chambers. Effectiveness of hydrogen oxidation in the SGK reheating unit was evaluated.

  19. Pyrroloquinoline Quinone-Dependent Cytochrome Reduction in Polyvinyl Alcohol-Degrading Pseudomonas sp. Strain VM15C

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    A polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) oxidase-deficient mutant of Pseudomonas sp. strain VM15C, strain ND1, was shown to possess PVA dehydrogenase, in which pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) functions as a coenzyme. The mutant grew on PVA and required PQQ for utilization of PVA as an essential growth factor. Incubation of the membrane fraction of the mutant with PVA caused cytochrome reduction of the fraction. Furthermore, it was found that in spite of the presence of PVA oxidase, the membrane fraction of s...

  20. Optimizing VM allocation and data placement for data-intensive applications in cloud using ACO metaheuristic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.P. Shabeera

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays data-intensive applications for processing big data are being hosted in the cloud. Since the cloud environment provides virtualized resources for computation, and data-intensive applications require communication between the computing nodes, the placement of Virtual Machines (VMs and location of data affect the overall computation time. Majority of the research work reported in the current literature consider the selection of physical nodes for placing data and VMs as independent problems. This paper proposes an approach which considers VM placement and data placement hand in hand. The primary objective is to reduce cross network traffic and bandwidth usage, by placing required number of VMs and data in Physical Machines (PMs which are physically closer. The VM and data placement problem (referred as MinDistVMDataPlacement problem is defined in this paper and has been proved to be NP- Hard. This paper presents and evaluates a metaheuristic algorithm based on Ant Colony Optimization (ACO, which selects a set of adjacent PMs for placing data and VMs. Data is distributed in the physical storage devices of the selected PMs. According to the processing capacity of each PM, a set of VMs are placed on these PMs to process data stored in them. We use simulation to evaluate our algorithm. The results show that the proposed algorithm selects PMs in close proximity and the jobs executed in the VMs allocated by the proposed scheme outperforms other allocation schemes.

  1. Pectoral fin beat frequency predicts oxygen consumption during spontaneous activity in a labriform swimming fish (Embiotoca lateralis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tudorache, Christian; Jordan, Anders D.; Svendsen, Jon Christian

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify kinematic variables correlated with oxygen consumption during spontaneous labriform swimming. Kinematic variables (swimming speed, change of speed, turning angle, turning rate, turning radius and pectoral fin beat frequency) and oxygen consumption (MO2......) of spontaneous swimming in Embiotoca lateralis were measured in a circular arena using video tracking and respirometry, respectively. The main variable influencing MO2 was pectoral fin beat frequency (r (2) = 0.71). No significant relationship was found between swimming speed and pectoral fin beat frequency...... consumption patterns are likely to be quite different in field situation compared to a small lab tank. In addition, our methods could be useful to measure metabolic costs of growth and development, or bioassays for possible toxicological effects on fish....

  2. Alterations in in vivo knee joint kinematics following a femoral nerve branch block of the vastus medialis: Implications for patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Frances T; Borotikar, Bhushan S; Behnam, Abrahm J; Alter, Katharine E

    2012-07-01

    A potential source of patellofemoral pain, one of the most common problems of the knee, is believed to be altered patellofemoral kinematics due to a force imbalance around the knee. Although no definitive etiology for this imbalance has been found, a weak vastus medialis is considered a primary factor. Therefore, this study's purpose was to determine how the loss of vastus medialis obliquus force alters three-dimensional in vivo knee joint kinematics during a volitional extension task. Eighteen asymptomatic female subjects with no history of knee pain or pathology participated in this IRB approved study. Patellofemoral and tibiofemoral kinematics were derived from velocity data acquired using dynamic cine-phase contrast MRI. The same kinematics were then acquired immediately after administering a motor branch block to the vastus medialis obliquus using 3-5ml of 1% lidocaine. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to test the null hypothesis that the post- and pre-injection kinematics were no different. The null hypothesis was rejected for patellofemoral lateral shift (P=0.003, max change=1.8mm, standard deviation=1.7mm), tibiofemoral lateral shift (P<0.001, max change=2.1mm, standard deviation=2.9mm), and tibiofemoral external rotation (P<0.001, max change=3.7°, standard deviation=4.4°). The loss of vastus medialis obliquus function produced kinematic changes that mirrored the axial plane kinematics seen in individuals with patellofemoral pain, but could not account for the full extent of these changes. Thus, vastus medialis weakness is likely a major factor in, but not the sole source of, altered patellofemoral kinematics in such individuals. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Determination of loss of tension in old green line that joining the furnaces VM1 e Panela1; Determinacao da queda de tensao na antiga linha verde de alimentaco dos fornos VM1 e Panela1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panunzio, Paulo Armando; Magalhaes Sobrinho, Pedro [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Manfrin, Antonio Carlos [Villares Metals S.A., SP(Brazil). Unidade Sumare

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this work is to demonstrate the gains obtained with electrical energy, due to replacement of electric cables of air called 'power of the green line to arc furnaces VM1 and panel 1 of Villares Metals - Unit Sumare' by underground cables. We can mention other gains in safety, maintenance, environment and quality of power, but will not be measured. This substitution was motivated due to the existing line to the limit of its useful life, with restrictions to increase the load (expansion) and stops unwanted maintenance. It is emphasized that this determination is the only power loss due to ohmic resistance of bare aluminum conductor used in the old line (green). The economy demonstrated in this study is R$ 3,313.21 and 16.339752 MWh even if it is significantly reduced because there is a spare in MWh, which can be used within the company in which extensions are necessary. (author)

  4. Corticosteroïdinjecties, fysiotherapie of een afwachtend beleid voor patiënten met een epicondylitis lateralis? Een gerandomiseerd onderzoek in de eerste lijn.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smidt, N.; Windt, D. van der; Assendelft, P.; Devillé, W.; Bouter, L.

    2004-01-01

    Doel: Vergelijking van de effecten van corticosteroïdinjecties, fysiotherapie en een afwachtend beleid voor een epicondylitis lateralis. Methoden: Patiëntenselectie vond plaats in 65 deelnemende huisartsenpraktijken. De belangrijkste insluitcriteria waren: minimaal 6 weken pijn aan de laterale zijde

  5. Rediscovery of Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati) (Acari: Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae) parasitizing the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy) (Mammalia: Chiroptera), with a key to mites of bats in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negm, Mohamed W; Fakeer, Mahmoud M

    2014-04-01

    Faunistic information about bat mites in Egypt is scarce. Collection records of parasitic mites, Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati, 1856) (Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae), are reported from the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy, 1810) (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Seven species of bat mites are recognized from Egypt to date. A host-parasite checklist and an identification key to these species are presented.

  6. Glacial Isostatic Adjustment with ICE-6G{_}C (VM5a) and Laterally Heterogeneous Mantle Viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tanghua; Wu, Patrick; Steffen, Holger

    2017-04-01

    Recently, Peltier et al. (2015) introduced the ICE-6GC (VM5a) ice-earth model pair, which has successfully explained many observations of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) simultaneously. However, their earth model used (VM5a) to infer the ice history (ICE-6G_C) is laterally homogeneous with viscosity profile varying in the radial direction only. Since surface geology and seismic tomography clearly indicates that the Earth's material properties also vary in the lateral direction, laterally heterogeneity must be included in GIA models. This can be achieved by using the Coupled-Laplace-Finite-Element method (Wu 2004) to model GIA in a spherical, self-gravitating, compressible viscoelastic Earth with linear rheology and lateral heterogeneity. In fact, Wu et al (2013) have used such model with GIA observations (e.g. global relative sea level data, GRACE data with recent hydrology contributions removed and GPS crustal uplift rates) to study the thermal contribution to lateral heterogeneity in the mantle. Their lateral viscosity perturbations are inferred from the seismic shear wave tomography model S20A (Ekstrom & Dziewonski 1998) by applying a scaling law, which includes both the effect of anharmonicity and anelasticity. The thermal contribution to seismic tomography, which is represented by the beta factor in the scaling relationship, is searched in the upper and lower mantle, for the best combination that gives the best fit between GIA predictions and observations. However, their study is based on ICE-4G only, and the new ice-earth model pair may give other best beta value combinations in the upper and lower mantle. Here, we follow the work of Wu et al (2013) but use the new ICE-6GC ice model instead. The higher resolution seismic tomography model by Bunge & Grand (2000) substitutes S20A. Earth model VM5a is used as the reference background viscosity model. The full viscosity model is obtained by superposing the background model with the lateral viscosity

  7. Extracting time-frequency feature of single-channel vastus medialis EMG signals for knee exercise pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuyang; Su, Steven W.; Guo, Qing; Xu, Peng; Yao, Dezhong

    2017-01-01

    The EMG signal indicates the electrophysiological response to daily living of activities, particularly to lower-limb knee exercises. Literature reports have shown numerous benefits of the Wavelet analysis in EMG feature extraction for pattern recognition. However, its application to typical knee exercises when using only a single EMG channel is limited. In this study, three types of knee exercises, i.e., flexion of the leg up (standing), hip extension from a sitting position (sitting) and gait (walking) are investigated from 14 healthy untrained subjects, while EMG signals from the muscle group of vastus medialis and the goniometer on the knee joint of the detected leg are synchronously monitored and recorded. Four types of lower-limb motions including standing, sitting, stance phase of walking, and swing phase of walking, are segmented. The Wavelet Transform (WT) based Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) approach is proposed for the classification of four lower-limb motions using a single-channel EMG signal from the muscle group of vastus medialis. Based on lower-limb motions from all subjects, the combination of five-level wavelet decomposition and SVD is used to comprise the feature vector. The Support Vector Machine (SVM) is then configured to build a multiple-subject classifier for which the subject independent accuracy will be given across all subjects for the classification of four types of lower-limb motions. In order to effectively indicate the classification performance, EMG features from time-domain (e.g., Mean Absolute Value (MAV), Root-Mean-Square (RMS), integrated EMG (iEMG), Zero Crossing (ZC)) and frequency-domain (e.g., Mean Frequency (MNF) and Median Frequency (MDF)) are also used to classify lower-limb motions. The five-fold cross validation is performed and it repeats fifty times in order to acquire the robust subject independent accuracy. Results show that the proposed WT-based SVD approach has the classification accuracy of 91.85%±0.88% which

  8. Efficacy of quadriceps vastus medialis dry needling in a rehabilitation protocol after surgical reconstruction of complete anterior cruciate ligament rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Saornil, Jorge; Ruíz-Ruíz, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Sanz, David; Romero-Morales, Carlos; López-López, Daniel; Calvo-Lobo, Cesar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Several new rehabilitation modalities have been proposed after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Among these, trigger point dry needling (TrP-DN) might be useful in the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome associated with ACL reconstruction to reduce pain intensity, increase knee flexion range and modify the mechanical properties of the quadriceps muscle during late-stage rehabilitation. To date, this is the first randomized clinical trial to support the use of TrP-DN in the early rehabilitation process after ACL reconstruction. The aim of this study was to determine the pain intensity, range of motion (ROM), stability, and functionality improvements by adding quadriceps vastus medialis TrP-DN to the rehabilitation protocol (Rh) provided to subacute ACL reconstructed patients. Methods: This randomized, single-blinded, clinical trial (NCT02699411) included 44 subacute patients with surgical reconstruction of complete ACL rupture. The patients were randomized into 2 intervention groups: Rh (n = 22) or Rh + TrP-DN (n = 22). Pain intensity, ROM, stability, and functionality were measured at baseline (A0) and immediately (A1), 24 hours (A2), 1 week (A3), and 5 weeks (A4) after the first treatment. Results: Comparing statistically significant differences (P ≤ .001; Eta2 = 0.198–0.360) between both groups, pain intensity (at A1), ROM (at A1, A2, and A3), and functionality (at A2, A3, and A4) were increased. Nevertheless, the rest of measurements did not show significant differences (P > .05). Conclusion: Quadriceps vastus medialis TrP-DN in conjunction with a rehabilitation protocol in subacute patients with surgical reconstruction of complete ACL rupture increases ROM (short-term) and functionality (short- to mid-term). Although there was an increase in pain intensity with the addition of TrP-DN, this was not detected beyond immediately after the first treatment. Furthermore, stability does not seem to be

  9. Drosophila vitelline membrane assembly: A critical role for an evolutionarily conserved cysteine in the “VM domain” of sV23

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, T; Manogaran, A.L; Beauchamp, J.M.; Waring, G L

    2010-01-01

    The vitelline membrane (VM), the oocyte proximal layer of the Drosophila eggshell, contains four major proteins (VMPs) that possess a highly conserved “VM domain” which includes three precisely spaced, evolutionarily conserved, cysteines (CX7CX8C). Focusing on sV23, this study showed that the three cysteines are not functionally equivalent. While substitution mutations at the first (C123S) or third (C140S) cysteines were tolerated, females with a substitution at the second position (C131S) we...

  10. Radiological assessment of irreducible posterolateral knee subluxation after dislocation due to interposition of the vastus medialis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulin, Emilie; Boudabbous, Sana; Nicodème, Jean-Damien; Arditi, Daniel; Becker, Christoph

    2015-06-01

    Knee dislocation is a serious and relatively uncommon traumatism that every emergency room is supposed to diagnose and treat rapidly. Most of the time these dislocations reduce spontaneously or with closed reduction. If a subluxation persists, an incarceration of soft tissue in the joint must be suspected. Irreducible knee subluxations after dislocation are rare entities better described in the orthopaedic than in the radiological literature. However, the initial radiological assessment is an important tool to obtain the correct diagnosis, to detect neurovascular complications, and to plan the most suitable treatment. In cases of delayed diagnosis, the functional prognosis of the joint and even the limb may be seriously compromised primarily because of vascular lesions. Thereby, vascular imaging is essential in cases of dislocation of the knee, and we will discuss the role of angiography and the more recent use of computed tomography angiography or magnetic resonance angiography. Our patient presented with an irreducible knee subluxation due to interposition of the vastus medialis, and we will review the classical clinical presentation and 'do not miss' imaging findings on conventional radiography, computed tomography angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Finally, we will also report the classical imaging pathway indicated in knee dislocation, with a special emphasis on the irreducible form.

  11. Nature of the coupling between neural drive and force-generating capacity in the human quadriceps muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, François; Goupille, Clément; Baum, Daniel; Raiteri, Brent J; Hodges, Paul W; Tucker, Kylie

    2015-11-22

    The force produced by a muscle depends on both the neural drive it receives and several biomechanical factors. When multiple muscles act on a single joint, the nature of the relationship between the neural drive and force-generating capacity of the synergistic muscles is largely unknown. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the ratio of neural drive and the ratio of muscle force-generating capacity between two synergist muscles (vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis (VM)) in humans. Twenty-one participants performed isometric knee extensions at 20 and 50% of maximal voluntary contractions (MVC). Myoelectric activity (surface electromyography (EMG)) provided an index of neural drive. Physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) was estimated from measurements of muscle volume (magnetic resonance imaging) and muscle fascicle length (three-dimensional ultrasound imaging) to represent the muscles' force-generating capacities. Neither PCSA nor neural drive was balanced between VL and VM. There was a large (r = 0.68) and moderate (r = 0.43) correlation between the ratio of VL/VM EMG amplitude and the ratio of VL/VM PCSA at 20 and 50% of MVC, respectively. This study provides evidence that neural drive is biased by muscle force-generating capacity, the greater the force-generating capacity of VL compared with VM, the stronger bias of drive to the VL.

  12. ACTIVATION OF VASTUS MEDIALIS OBLIQUES AT DIFFERENT KNEE ANGLES IN CLOSED KINETIC CHAIN AND OPEN KINETIC CHAIN POSITION IN SUBJECTS WITH PATELLO FEMORAL PAIN SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujwal Bhattacharya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patello femoral pain syndrome is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders and is reported to affect 15% - 33% of an active adult population and 21%-45% of adolescents thereby decreasing the work capacity of an individual. Patello femoral pain syndrome as implicated is due to inappropriate neural control of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Since Vastus medialis muscle is regarded as the dynamic medial stabilizer of patella so it’s important to understand the activation of Vastus Medialis Oblique’s in patients with patello femoral pain syndrome The purpose of this study is to assess the activation of Vastus Medialis Oblique’s at different knee angles between closed kinetic chain position and open kinetic chain position and the information thus gained can be used to design training program aimed at controlling patello femoral joint dysfunction. Methods: Thirty subjects with patello femoral pain syndrome (assessed through history and examination were assigned to two groups. Group A was made to perform open kinetic chain activity(i.e. sitting on high plinth and Group B was made to perform a closed kinetic chain activity(i.e. standing The outcome measure were amplitude and duration. Analyses were performed using independent t-Test. Results: Significant difference was found between the groups for amplitude and duration at varying angles. Amplitude: 0 degree (p=0.004, 60 degrees (p=0.015, 90 degrees (p=0.004. Duration: 0 degree (p=0.007, 60 degrees (p=0.008,90 degrees (p=0.002 Conclusion: Based on the outcome of the study it’s concluded that there is greater activation of Vastus Medialis Oblique’s muscle while performing close kinetic chain activity than in open kinetic chain.

  13. Non-Toxic Metabolic Management of Metastatic Cancer in VM Mice: Novel Combination of Ketogenic Diet, Ketone Supplementation, and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poff, A M; Ward, N; Seyfried, T N; Arnold, P; D'Agostino, D P

    2015-01-01

    The Warburg effect and tumor hypoxia underlie a unique cancer metabolic phenotype characterized by glucose dependency and aerobic fermentation. We previously showed that two non-toxic metabolic therapies - the ketogenic diet with concurrent hyperbaric oxygen (KD+HBOT) and dietary ketone supplementation - could increase survival time in the VM-M3 mouse model of metastatic cancer. We hypothesized that combining these therapies could provide an even greater therapeutic benefit in this model. Mice receiving the combination therapy demonstrated a marked reduction in tumor growth rate and metastatic spread, and lived twice as long as control animals. To further understand the effects of these metabolic therapies, we characterized the effects of high glucose (control), low glucose (LG), ketone supplementation (βHB), hyperbaric oxygen (HBOT), or combination therapy (LG+βHB+HBOT) on VM-M3 cells. Individually and combined, these metabolic therapies significantly decreased VM-M3 cell proliferation and viability. HBOT, alone or in combination with LG and βHB, increased ROS production in VM-M3 cells. This study strongly supports further investigation into this metabolic therapy as a potential non-toxic treatment for late-stage metastatic cancers.

  14. Unique properties of the classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy strain and its emergence from H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy substantiated by VM transmission studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencsik, Anna; Leboidre, Mikael; Debeer, Sabine; Aufauvre, Claire; Baron, Thierry

    2013-03-01

    In addition to classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (C-BSE), which is recognized as being at the origin of the human variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, 2 rare phenotypes of BSE (H-type BSE [H-BSE] and L-type BSE [L-BSE]) were identified in 2004. H-type BSE and L-BSE are considered to be sporadic forms of prion disease in cattle because they differ from C-BSE with respect to incubation period, vacuolar pathology in the brain, and biochemical properties of the protease-resistant prion protein (PrP) in natural hosts and in some mouse models that have been tested. Recently, we showed that H-BSE transmitted to C57Bl/6 mice resulted in a dissociation of the phenotypic features, that is, some mice showed an H-BSE phenotype, whereas others had a C-BSE phenotype. Here, these 2 phenotypes were further studied in VM mice and compared with cattle C-BSE, H-BSE, and L-BSE. Serial passages from the C-BSE-like phenotype on VM mice retained similarities with C-BSE. Moreover, our results indicate that strains 301V and 301C derived from C-BSE transmitted to VM and C57Bl/6 mice, respectively, are fundamentally the same strain. These VM transmission studies confirm the unique properties of the C-BSE strain and support the emergence of a strain that resembles C-BSE from H-BSE.

  15. Non-Toxic Metabolic Management of Metastatic Cancer in VM Mice: Novel Combination of Ketogenic Diet, Ketone Supplementation, and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M Poff

    Full Text Available The Warburg effect and tumor hypoxia underlie a unique cancer metabolic phenotype characterized by glucose dependency and aerobic fermentation. We previously showed that two non-toxic metabolic therapies - the ketogenic diet with concurrent hyperbaric oxygen (KD+HBOT and dietary ketone supplementation - could increase survival time in the VM-M3 mouse model of metastatic cancer. We hypothesized that combining these therapies could provide an even greater therapeutic benefit in this model. Mice receiving the combination therapy demonstrated a marked reduction in tumor growth rate and metastatic spread, and lived twice as long as control animals. To further understand the effects of these metabolic therapies, we characterized the effects of high glucose (control, low glucose (LG, ketone supplementation (βHB, hyperbaric oxygen (HBOT, or combination therapy (LG+βHB+HBOT on VM-M3 cells. Individually and combined, these metabolic therapies significantly decreased VM-M3 cell proliferation and viability. HBOT, alone or in combination with LG and βHB, increased ROS production in VM-M3 cells. This study strongly supports further investigation into this metabolic therapy as a potential non-toxic treatment for late-stage metastatic cancers.

  16. NMDA antagonist, but not nNOS inhibitor, requires AMPA receptors in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) to induce antidepressant-like effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, V. S.; Wegener, Gregers; Joca, S. R.

    2013-01-01

    Depressed individuals and stressed animals show enhanced levels of glutamate and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity in limbic structures, including the vmPFC. Systemic administration of glutamatergic NMDA receptor antagonists or inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis induces antide...

  17. Augmented Repair of an Achilles Tendon Rupture Using the Flexor Digitorum Lateralis Tendon in a Toy Poodle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Masaaki

    2016-11-01

    To report appositional augmentation of Achilles tendon rupture in a toy breed dog with an intact flexor digitorum lateralis (FDL) muscle tendon. Clinical case report. Two-year-old spayed female Toy Poodle with Achilles tendon rupture. The Achilles tendon was accidentally ruptured by hair clippers during grooming. The dog demonstrated a plantigrade stance without digital flexion of the right hind limb. The ruptured gastrocnemius and superficial digital flexor tendons were sutured to their respective cut ends using a simple locking loop pattern under a surgical microscope. The repair site was appositionally augmented by the caudally retracted intact FDL. An aluminum splint was applied on the plantar aspect to immobilize the tarsal joint for the first 2 weeks, after which a soft bandage was applied for another 2 weeks. At the 7 month follow-up no lameness was detected during walking and no complications associated with decreased FDL function such as digital contracture were observed. The range of motion of the tarsal joint had improved and could be flexed to ∼60° and extended fully. Use of the FDL is feasible for augmenting Achilles tendon repair in toy breed dogs. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  18. Oral ingestion of collagen peptide causes change in width of the perimysium of the chicken iliotibialis lateralis muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takafumi; Nishimura, Kei; Takeuchi, Ryoko; Koyama, Yoh-ichi; Kusubata, Masashi; Takehana, Kazushige; Hiramatsu, Kohzy

    2015-11-01

    Skeletal muscle is mainly composed of myofibers and intramuscular connective tissue. Bundles composed of many myofibers, with each myofiber sheathed in connective tissue called the endomysium, are packed in the perimysium, which occupies the vast bulk of the intramuscular connective tissue. The perimysium is a major determination factor for muscle texture. Some studies have reported that collagen peptide (Col-Pep) ingestion improves the connective tissue architecture, such as the tendon and dermis. The present study evaluated the effects of Col-Pep ingestion on the chicken iliotibialis lateralis (ITL) muscle. Chicks were allocated to three groups: the 0.15% or 0.3% Col-Pep groups and a control group. Col-Pep was administered by mixing in with commercial food. On day 49, the ITL muscles were analyzed by morphological observation and the textural property test. The width of the perimysium in the 0.3% Col-Pep group was significantly larger than other two groups. Although scanning electron microscopic observations did not reveal any differences in the architecture of the endomysium, elastic improvement of the ITL muscle was observed as suggested by an increase of the width of perimysium and improved rheological properties. Our results indicate that ingestion of Col-Pep improves the textural property of ITL muscle of chickens by changing structure of the perimysium.

  19. The bacterial community in the gut of the Cockroach Shelfordella lateralis reflects the close evolutionary relatedness of cockroaches and termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Christine; Thompson, Claire L; Brune, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    Termites and cockroaches are closely related, with molecular phylogenetic analyses even placing termites within the radiation of cockroaches. The intestinal tract of wood-feeding termites harbors a remarkably diverse microbial community that is essential for the digestion of lignocellulose. However, surprisingly little is known about the gut microbiota of their closest relatives, the omnivorous cockroaches. Here, we present a combined characterization of physiological parameters, metabolic activities, and bacterial microbiota in the gut of Shelfordella lateralis, a representative of the cockroach family Blattidae, the sister group of termites. We compared the bacterial communities within each gut compartment using terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and made a 16S rRNA gene clone library of the microbiota in the colon-the dilated part of the hindgut with the highest density and diversity of bacteria. The colonic community was dominated by members of the Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes (mainly Clostridia), and some Deltaproteobacteria. Spirochaetes and Fibrobacteres, which are abundant members of termite gut communities, were conspicuously absent. Nevertheless, detailed phylogenetic analysis revealed that many of the clones from the cockroach colon clustered with sequences previously obtained from the termite gut, which indicated that the composition of the bacterial community reflects at least in part the phylogeny of the host.

  20. Isospora manchacensis n. sp., an intranuclear coccidian from the Louisiana ground skink, Scincella lateralis (Say, 1823) (Lacertilia: Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, C T; Ayala, S C

    1987-08-01

    Isospora manchacensis n. sp. is described from ground skinks, Scincella lateralis (Say, 1823) from Louisiana. Overall prevalence at 6 sites near Lake Ponchartrain was 43.1% (59/137) and ranged from 8% (1/13) to as high as 60% (6/10). Endogenous stages develop inside the nuclei of epithelial cells in the small intestine. Infected hypertrophic nuclei migrate from the basal lamina of the host cell to the luminal striated border. Oocysts in freshly passed fecal pellets usually contain a single contracted sporont that divides to form 2 sporoblasts. These undergo a brief pyramid stage followed by sporulation within 45-50 hr. Sporulated oocysts have a single-layered wall and measure 25.0 X 22.6 (20.0-28.9 X 18.6-26.0) micron. The lemon-shaped sporocysts measure 12.8 X 10.2 (11.1-15.2 X 9.0-11.0) micron and contain a Steida body, a spherical to oval substeida body, and a dispersed, granular sporocyst residuum. Prepatent periods in skinks fed 700 and 1,400 oocysts ranged from 24 to 32 days. Experimentally infected skinks produced large numbers of oocysts continuously during the 3-4 wk they were monitored after the onset of patency, but exhibited no signs of disease. Experimental doses of 200 oocysts failed to produce infections in skinks monitored for as long as 7 wk.

  1. Subdivisions of the auditory midbrain (n. mesencephalicus lateralis, pars dorsalis in zebra finches using calcium-binding protein immunocytochemistry.

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    Priscilla Logerot

    Full Text Available The midbrain nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis pars dorsalis (MLd is thought to be the avian homologue of the central nucleus of the mammalian inferior colliculus. As such, it is a major relay in the ascending auditory pathway of all birds and in songbirds mediates the auditory feedback necessary for the learning and maintenance of song. To clarify the organization of MLd, we applied three calcium binding protein antibodies to tissue sections from the brains of adult male and female zebra finches. The staining patterns resulting from the application of parvalbumin, calbindin and calretinin antibodies differed from each other and in different parts of the nucleus. Parvalbumin-like immunoreactivity was distributed throughout the whole nucleus, as defined by the totality of the terminations of brainstem auditory afferents; in other words parvalbumin-like immunoreactivity defines the boundaries of MLd. Staining patterns of parvalbumin, calbindin and calretinin defined two regions of MLd: inner (MLd.I and outer (MLd.O. MLd.O largely surrounds MLd.I and is distinct from the surrounding intercollicular nucleus. Unlike the case in some non-songbirds, however, the two MLd regions do not correspond to the terminal zones of the projections of the brainstem auditory nuclei angularis and laminaris, which have been found to overlap substantially throughout the nucleus in zebra finches.

  2. The combined effects of rivers and refugia generate extreme cryptic fragmentation within the common ground skink (scincella lateralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Nathan D; Austin, Christopher C

    2010-02-01

    Rivers can act as both islands of mesic refugia for terrestrial organisms during times of aridification and barriers to gene flow, though evidence for long-term isolation by rivers is mixed. Understanding the extent to which riverine barrier effects can be heightened for populations trapped in mesic refugia can help explain maintenance and generation of diversity in the face of Pleistocene climate change. Herein, we implement phylogenetic and population genetic approaches to investigate the phylogeographic structure and history of the ground skink, Scincella lateralis, using mtDNA and eight nuclear loci. We then test several predictions of a river-refugia model of diversification. We recover 14 well-resolved mtDNA lineages distributed east-west along the Gulf Coast with a subset of lineages extending northward. In contrast, ncDNA exhibits limited phylogenetic structure or congruence among loci. However, multilocus population structure is broadly congruent with mtDNA patterns and suggests that deep coalescence rather than differential gene flow is responsible for mtDNA-ncDNA discordance. The observed patterns suggest that most lineages originated from population vicariance due to riverine barriers strengthened during the Plio-Pleistocene by a climate-induced coastal distribution. Diversification due to rivers is likely a special case, contingent upon other environmental or biological factors that reinforce riverine barrier effects.

  3. Altered catalytic activity of and DNA cleavage by DNA topoisomerase II from human leukemic cells selected for resistance to VM-26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danks, M K; Schmidt, C A; Cirtain, M C; Suttle, D P; Beck, W T

    1988-11-29

    The simultaneous development of resistance to the cytotoxic effects of several classes of natural product anticancer drugs, after exposure to only one of these agents, is referred to as multiple drug resistance (MDR). At least two distinct mechanisms for MDR have been postulated: that associated with P-glycoprotein and that thought to be due to an alteration in DNA topoisomerase II activity (at-MDR). We describe studies with two sublines of human leukemic CCRF-CEM cells approximately 50-fold resistant (CEM/VM-1) and approximately 140-fold resistant (CEM/VM-1-5) to VM-26, a drug known to interfere with DNA topoisomerase II activity. Each of these lines is cross-resistant to other drugs known to affect topoisomerase II but not cross-resistant to vinblastine, an inhibitor of mitotic spindle formation. We found little difference in the amount of immunoreactive DNA topoisomerase II in 1.0 M NaCl nuclear extracts of the two resistant and parental cell lines. However, topoisomerase II in nuclear extracts of the resistant sublines is altered in both catalytic activity (unknotting) of and DNA cleavage by this enzyme. Also, the rate at which catenation occurs is 20-30-fold slower with the CEM/VM-1-5 preparations. The effect of VM-26 on both strand passing and DNA cleavage is inversely related to the degree of primary resistance of each cell line. Our data support the hypothesis that at-MDR is due to an alteration in topoisomerase II or in a factor modulating its activity.

  4. Laimre ja "mina" : Marco Laimre isiknäitus "Küsimused ja vastused" Rotermanni Soolalaos = Laimre and "me" : Marco Laimre solo exhibition "Questions and answers" at the Rotermann salt storage / Anders Härm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Härm, Anders, 1977-

    2009-01-01

    Marko Laimre unikaalsest ja isikupärasest maailmanägemise ning -käsitlemise viisist, tema raskesti defineeritavast ja irriteerivast loomingust ning isiknäitusest "Küsimused ja vastused" 2004. aastal

  5. Laimre ja "mina" : Marco Laimre isiknäitus "Küsimused ja vastused" Rotermanni Soolalaos = Laimre and "me" : Marco Laimre solo exhibition "Questions and answers" at the Rotermann salt storage / Anders Härm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Härm, Anders, 1977-

    2009-01-01

    Marko Laimre unikaalsest ja isikupärasest maailmanägemise ning -käsitlemise viisist, tema raskesti defineeritavast ja irriteerivast loomingust ning isiknäitusest "Küsimused ja vastused" 2004. aastal

  6. Shear Modulus Estimation on Vastus Intermedius of Elderly and Young Females over the Entire Range of Isometric Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong-Zhi; Li, Tian-Jie; Zheng, Yong-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Elderly people often suffer from sarcopenia in their lower extremities, which gives rise to the increased susceptibility of fall. Comparing the mechanical properties of the knee extensor/flexors on elderly and young subjects is helpful in understanding the underlying mechanisms of the muscle aging process. However, although the stiffness of skeletal muscle has been proved to be positively correlated to its non-fatiguing contraction intensity by some existing methods, this conclusion has not been verified above 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) due to the limitation of their measurement range. In this study, a vibro-ultrasound system was set up to achieve a considerably larger measurement range on muscle stiffness estimation. Its feasibility was verified on self-made silicone phantoms by comparing with the mechanical indentation method. The system was then used to assess the stiffness of vastus intermedius (VI), one of the knee extensors, on 10 healthy elderly female subjects (56.7±4.9 yr) and 10 healthy young female subjects (27.6±5.0 yr). The VI stiffness in its action direction was confirmed to be positively correlated to the % MVC level (R2 = 0.999) over the entire range of isometric contraction, i.e. from 0% MVC (relaxed state) to 100% MVC. Furthermore, it was shown that there was no significant difference between the mean VI shear modulus of the elderly and young subjects in a relaxed state (p>0.1). However, when performing step isometric contraction, the VI stiffness of young female subjects was found to be larger than that of elderly participants (pmuscle and its relationship with intensity of active contraction. Furthermore, the vibro-ultrasound system has a potential to become a powerful tool for investigating the elderly’s muscle diseases. PMID:24991890

  7. Surface Electromyography Assessments of the Vastus medialis and Rectus femoris Muscles and Creatine Kinase after Eccentric Contraction Following Glutamine Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani-Nia, Farhad; Farzaneh, Esmail; Damirchi, Arsalan; Majlan, Ali Shamsi; Tadibi, Vahid

    2014-03-01

    L-glutamine is the most abundant amino acid found in human muscle and plays an important role in protein synthesis and can reduce the levels of inflammation biomarkers and creatine kinase (CK) after training sessions. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) develops after intense exercise and is associated with an inflammatory response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of glutamine supplementation on surface electromyography activity of the vastus medialis muscle (VMM) and rectus femoris muscle (RFM) and levels of creatine kinase after an eccentric contraction. SEVENTEEN HEALTHY MEN (AGE: 22.35±2.27yr; body mass: 69.91± 9.78kg; height: 177.08±4.32cm) were randomly assigned to experimental (n=9) and control groups (n=8) in a double-blind manner. In both groups, subjects were given L-glutamine supplementation (0.1g.kg(-1)) or placebo three times a week for 4 weeks. Median frequency (MDF) and mean power frequency (MPF) for VMM and RFM muscles and also CK measurements were performed before, 24h and 48 h after a resistance training session. The resistance training included 6 sets of eccentric leg extensions to exhaustion with 75% of 1RM. There was no significant difference between groups for MDF or MPF in VMM and RFM. The difference of CK level between the groups was also not significant. The results of this study indicate that glutamine supplementation has no positive effect on muscle injury markers after a resistance training session.

  8. Shear modulus estimation on vastus intermedius of elderly and young females over the entire range of isometric contraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong-Zhi Wang

    Full Text Available Elderly people often suffer from sarcopenia in their lower extremities, which gives rise to the increased susceptibility of fall. Comparing the mechanical properties of the knee extensor/flexors on elderly and young subjects is helpful in understanding the underlying mechanisms of the muscle aging process. However, although the stiffness of skeletal muscle has been proved to be positively correlated to its non-fatiguing contraction intensity by some existing methods, this conclusion has not been verified above 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC due to the limitation of their measurement range. In this study, a vibro-ultrasound system was set up to achieve a considerably larger measurement range on muscle stiffness estimation. Its feasibility was verified on self-made silicone phantoms by comparing with the mechanical indentation method. The system was then used to assess the stiffness of vastus intermedius (VI, one of the knee extensors, on 10 healthy elderly female subjects (56.7 ± 4.9 yr and 10 healthy young female subjects (27.6 ± 5.0 yr. The VI stiffness in its action direction was confirmed to be positively correlated to the % MVC level (R2 = 0.999 over the entire range of isometric contraction, i.e. from 0% MVC (relaxed state to 100% MVC. Furthermore, it was shown that there was no significant difference between the mean VI shear modulus of the elderly and young subjects in a relaxed state (p > 0.1. However, when performing step isometric contraction, the VI stiffness of young female subjects was found to be larger than that of elderly participants (p < 0.001, especially at the relatively higher contraction levels. The results expanded our knowledge on the mechanical property of the elderly's skeletal muscle and its relationship with intensity of active contraction. Furthermore, the vibro-ultrasound system has a potential to become a powerful tool for investigating the elderly's muscle diseases.

  9. Pyrotag sequencing of the gut microbiota of the cockroach Shelfordella lateralis reveals a highly dynamic core but only limited effects of diet on community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Schauer

    Full Text Available Although blattid cockroaches and termites share a common ancestor, their diets are distinctly different. While termites consume a highly specialized diet of lignocellulose, cockroaches are omnivorous and opportunistic feeders. The role of the termite gut microbiota has been studied intensively, but little is known about the cockroach gut microbiota and its function in digestion and nutrition, particularly the adaptation to different diets. Our analyses of the bacterial gut microbiota of the blattid cockroach Shelfordella lateralis combining terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of their 16S rRNA genes with physiological parameters (microbial metabolites, hydrogen and methane emission indicated substantial variation between individuals but failed to identify any diet-related response. Subsequent deep-sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of the colonic gut microbiota of S. lateralis fed either a high- or a low-fiber diet confirmed the absence of bacterial taxa that responded to diet. Instead, we found a small number of abundant phylotypes that were consistently present in all samples and made up half of the community in both diet groups. They varied strongly in abundance between individual samples at the genus but not at the family level. The remaining phylotypes were inconsistently present among replicate batches. Our findings suggest that S. lateralis harbors a highly dynamic core gut microbiota that is maintained even after fundamental dietary shifts, and that any dietary effects on the gut community are likely to be masked by strong individual variations.

  10. A New Resources Provisioning Method Based on QoS Differentiation and VM Resizing in IaaS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongdong Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the host energy efficiency in IaaS, we proposed an adaptive host resource provisioning method, CoST, which is based on QoS differentiation and VM resizing. The control model can adaptively adjust control parameters according to real time application performance, in order to cope with changes in load. CoST takes advantage of the fact that different types of applications have different sensitivity degrees to performance and cost. It places two different types of VMs on the same host and dynamically adjusts their sizes based on the load forecasting and QoS feedback. It not only guarantees the performance defined in SLA, but also keeps the host running in energy-efficient state. Real Google cluster trace and host power data are used to evaluate the proposed method. Experimental results show that CoST can provide performance-sensitive application with a steady QoS and simultaneously speed up the overall processing of performance-tolerant application by 20~66%. The host energy efficiency is significantly improved by 7~23%.

  11. PROOF as a Service on the Cloud: a Virtual Analysis Facility based on the CernVM ecosystem

    CERN Document Server

    Berzano, Dario; Buncic, Predrag; Charalampidis, Ioannis; Ganis, Gerardo; Lestaris, Georgios; Meusel, René

    2014-01-01

    PROOF, the Parallel ROOT Facility, is a ROOT-based framework which enables interactive parallelism for event-based tasks on a cluster of computing nodes. Although PROOF can be used simply from within a ROOT session with no additional requirements, deploying and configuring a PROOF cluster used to be not as straightforward. Recently great efforts have been spent to make the provisioning of generic PROOF analysis facilities with zero configuration, with the added advantages of positively affecting both stability and scalability, making the deployment operations feasible even for the end user. Since a growing amount of large-scale computing resources are nowadays made available by Cloud providers in a virtualized form, we have developed the Virtual PROOF-based Analysis Facility: a cluster appliance combining the solid CernVM ecosystem and PoD (PROOF on Demand), ready to be deployed on the Cloud and leveraging some peculiar Cloud features such as elasticity. We will show how this approach is effective both for sy...

  12. DEPENDENCE OF THE SLIDER DEFORMATION AND MACHINING PRECISION ON THE MULTIPURPOSE MACHINE-TOOL COMPLEX OF VM SERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berezhnoy S. B.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the development of high-tech metal-working industry, as well as to the use of unmanned technology. We recommended measures to improve the accuracy and quality of manufacturing of complex and large workpieces weighing up to 100 tons. To date, the technical level of many economy sectors is largely determined by the level of the production means. Based on the engineering development there is an overall automation and mechanization of production and industry processes, construction, agriculture, transport and other industries. We analyzed forms of slide sections, of errors affecting the accuracy of the workpieces manufacturing. We made simulation of the cutting forces and sliders deformations. Solved measures increase manufacturing accuracy based on multi-purpose machine tool systems of VM series. We held the analysis of the dependence of cutting forces, a slider form on its strain in different types of processing. We obtained a graph of cutting force and precision manufacturing. We defined the optimal shape of the slider cross section to increase the rigidity and reduce the slide deformation in metal cutting

  13. Mapping of intramuscular tenderness and muscle fiber orientation of muscles in the beef round.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senaratne, L S; Calkins, C R; de Mello, A S; Pokharel, S; Hinkle, J B

    2010-09-01

    Intramuscular tenderness variation and muscle fiber orientation of beef M. adductor femoris (AF), M. biceps femoris (BF), M. gracilis (GL), M. pectineus (PT), M. sartorius (SR), M. semimembranosus (SM), M. semitendinosus (SO), M. vastus intermedius (VI), M. vastus medialis (VM), and M. vastus lateralis (VL) were investigated. The USDA Choice boxed beef subprimals were purchased and aged for 14 d from boxed date. The AF, BF, GL, PT, SR, SM, SO, VI, VM, and VL (n = 10 each) were fabricated from subprimals. Crust-frozen AF, BF, SO, SM, and VL were cut into 2.54-cm steaks perpendicular to the long axis and grilled (71 degrees C). The PT, SR, VI, and VM were grilled (71 degrees C) as whole muscles, whereas the GL was grilled after cutting into anterior and posterior regions. Grilled muscles were cut into equal size sections perpendicular to long axis of muscles. Location-specific cores were prepared from each steak/section, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) was measured. The muscle fiber orientations of BF, PT, and VI were bipennate, SR and SO were fusiform, and AD, SM, VL, GL, and VM were unipennate. The overall mean WBSF values for BF, SO, AF, SM, PT, SR, GL, VI, VM, and VL were 5.62, 4.86, 4.18, 4.90, 3.76, 4.44, 4.75, 4.78, 4.24, and 6.53 kg, respectively. Based on WBSF values, PT was tender, BF and VL were tough, and VM, VI, SM, GL SR, AF, and SO were intermediate. The first 2 proximal steaks of long head BF were more tender than the rest (P Dry or moist heat oven roasting, as compared with grilling, significantly tenderized SO (P = 0.002) and VL (P beef round.

  14. Effects of temperature and oxygen on growth and differentiation of embryos of the ground skink, Scincella lateralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flewelling, Sarena; Parker, Scott L

    2015-08-01

    Development of reptile embryos is dependent upon adequate oxygen availability to meet embryonic metabolic demand. Metabolic rate of embryos is temperature dependent, with oxygen consumption increasing exponentially as a function of temperature. Because metabolic rate is more temperature sensitive than diffusion, developmental processes are predicted to be oxygen-limited at high temperatures. We tested the hypothesis that the amount of development lizard embryos achieve in the oviduct is dependent upon both temperature and oxygen availability. We evaluated the effect of temperature (23, 33°C) and oxygen concentration (9%, 15%, 21% O2 ) on survival and development of embryos of the oviparous skink Scincella lateralis. We predicted that incubation at 33°C under hypoxic conditions would result in higher embryo mortality due to mismatch between embryo oxygen demand and oxygen supply compared to eggs incubated at 23°C under hypoxic conditions. Embryo mortality was highest at 33°C/9% O2 (86%) compared to 23°C/9% O2 (14%), however, mortality did not differ among any other oxygen-temperature treatment combination. Both temperature and oxygen affected differentiation, but the interaction between temperature and oxygen was not significant. Embryo growth in mass and hatchling mass were affected by oxygen concentration independent of temperature treatment. Differing responses of growth and differentiation to temperature and oxygen treatments suggests that somatic growth may be more sensitive to oxygen availability than differentiation. Results indicate that embryo mortality can occur both via the direct effect of high temperature on cellular function as well as indirectly through thermally induced oxygen diffusion limitation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Testing the role of meander cutoff in promoting gene flow across a riverine barrier in ground skinks (Scincella lateralis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan D Jackson

    Full Text Available Despite considerable attention, the long-term impact of rivers on species diversification remains uncertain. Meander loop cutoff (MLC is one river phenomenon that may compromise a river's diversifying effects by passively transferring organisms from one side of the river to the other. However, the ability of MLC to promote gene flow across rivers has not been demonstrated empirically. Here, we test several predictions of MLC-mediated gene flow in populations of North American ground skinks (Scincella lateralis separated by a well-established riverine barrier, the Mississippi River: 1 individuals collected from within meander cutoffs should be more closely related to individuals across the river than on the same side, 2 individuals within meander cutoffs should contain more immigrants than individuals away from meander cutoffs, 3 immigration rates estimated across the river should be highest in the direction of the cutoff event, and 4 the distribution of alleles native to one side of the river should be better predicted by the historical rather than current path of the river. To test these predictions we sampled 13 microsatellite loci and mitochondrial DNA from ground skinks collected near three ancient meander loops. These predictions were generally supported by genetic data, although support was stronger for mtDNA than for microsatellite data. Partial support for genetic divergence of samples within ancient meander loops also provides evidence for the MLC hypothesis. Although a role for MLC-mediated gene flow was supported here for ground skinks, the transient nature of river channels and morphologies may limit the long-term importance of MLC in stemming population divergence across major rivers.

  16. Study on Hot Property of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata and Its Compatibility with Zingiberis Rhizoma Based on Animal Temperature Tropism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zhi-yong; ZHAO Yan-ling; WANG Jia-bo; LI Rui-sheng; WEI Si-si; JIANG Feng-juan; XIAO Xiao-he

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish an objective method for evaluating the intrinsic characteristics between hot and cold properties of herbal drugs and to study the hot property of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata(ALRP)and its compatibility with Zingiberis Rhizoma(ZR)on animal temperature tropism.Methods The equipment with cold/hot pads was used to investigate the variety of temperature tropism among mice treated by ALRP and its compatibility with ZR.Meanwhile,the activities of adenosine triphosphatase(ATPase),total anti-oxidant capability(T-AOC),and total superoxide dismutase(T-SOD)were measured.Results Compared with the homologous ALRP group,the compatibility between ALRP and ZR(AZ)had a stronger action against the decreasing of remaining rate on hot pad(P<0.05),suggesting an enhancement of cold tropism.Meanwhile,the internal indexes of Na+-K+-ATPase activity,Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase activity,and oxygen consuming volume increased significantly(P<0.05),suggesting an enhancement of energy metabolism.The changes of T-AOC and T-SOD activity suggested that AZ reinforced the anti-oxidative capability of mice.In addition,it could be inferred from cluster analysis that the activity of AZ was concretely stronger than that of homologous ALRP.Conclusion ALRP and ZR are both herbs with hot property,but AZ has an enhanced trend of hot property.This extemal behavior of cold tropism and the internal activity of energy metabolism and anti-oxidant might reflect the internal hot property in an intuitive and objective way.The changes of ATPase activity of liver tissue might be the mechanism of drug action.

  17. Historical habitat barriers prevent ring-like genetic continuity throughout the distribution of threatened Alameda Striped Racers (Coluber lateralis euryxanthus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Wood, Dustin A.; Swaim, Karen; Fisher, Robert N.; Vandergast, Amy

    2016-01-01

    We used microsatellites and mtDNA sequences to examine the mixed effects of geophysical, habitat, and contemporary urban barriers on the genetics of threatened Alameda Striped Racers (Coluber lateralis euryxanthus), a species with close ties to declining coastal scrub and chaparral habitat in the eastern San Francisco Bay area of California. We used cluster assignments to characterize population genetic structuring with respect to land management units and approximate Bayesian analysis to rank the ability of five alternative evolutionary hypotheses to explain the inferred structure. Then, we estimated rates of contemporary and historical migration among the major clusters and measured the fit of different historical migration models to better understand the formation of the current population structure. Our results reveal a ring-like pattern of historical connectivity around the Tri-Valley area of the East Bay (i.e., San Ramon, Amador, and Livermore valleys), with clusters largely corresponding to different management units. We found no evidence of continuous gene flow throughout the ring, however, and that the main gap in continuity is centered across the Livermore Valley. Historical migration models support higher rates of gene flow away from the terminal ends of the ring on the north and south sides of the Valley, compared with rates into those areas from western sites that border the interior San Francisco Bay. We attribute the break in ring-like connectivity to the presence of unsuitable habitat within the Livermore Valley that has been reinforced by 20th century urbanization, and the asymmetry in gene flow rates to spatial constraints on movement and east–west environmental gradients influenced by the proximity of the San Francisco Bay.

  18. Küsimused-vastused

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Siim Kiisler, Taavi Veskimägi ja Tiit Matsulevitsh vastavad küsimustele: millised on Res Publica fraktsiooni põhimõtted Riigikogu liikmete kulude hüvitamisel; kas tänavu ei arvestatud opositsiooni ettepanekuid riigieelarve eelnõu kohta; millised on Eesti seisukohad ja huvid Iraagis järgmisel missioonil

  19. Interference of Quorum Sensing by Delftia sp. VM4 Depends on the Activity of a Novel N-Acylhomoserine Lactone-Acylase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimal B Maisuria

    Full Text Available Turf soil bacterial isolate Delftia sp. VM4 can degrade exogenous N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL, hence it effectively attenuates the virulence of bacterial soft rot pathogen Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum strain BR1 (Pcc BR1 as a consequence of quorum sensing inhibition.Isolated Delftia sp. VM4 can grow in minimal medium supplemented with AHL as a sole source of carbon and energy. It also possesses the ability to degrade various AHL molecules in a short time interval. Delftia sp. VM4 suppresses AHL accumulation and the production of virulence determinant enzymes by Pcc BR1 without interference of the growth during co-culture cultivation. The quorum quenching activity was lost after the treatment with trypsin and proteinase K. The protein with quorum quenching activity was purified by three step process. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF and Mass spectrometry (MS/MS analysis revealed that the AHL degrading enzyme (82 kDa demonstrates homology with the NCBI database hypothetical protein (Daci_4366 of D. acidovorans SPH-1. The purified AHL acylase of Delftia sp. VM4 demonstrated optimum activity at 20-40°C and pH 6.2 as well as AHL acylase type mode of action. It possesses similarity with an α/β-hydrolase fold protein, which makes it unique among the known AHL acylases with domains of the N-terminal nucleophile (Ntn-hydrolase superfamily. In addition, the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for hydrolysis of the different AHL substrates by purified AHL-acylase were estimated. Here we present the studies that investigate the mode of action and kinetics of AHL-degradation by purified AHL acylase from Delftia sp. VM4.We characterized an AHL-inactivating enzyme from Delftia sp. VM4, identified as AHL acylase showing distinctive similarity with α/β-hydrolase fold protein, described its biochemical and thermodynamic properties for the first time and revealed its potential application as an anti

  20. Non-Toxic Metabolic Management of Metastatic Cancer in VM Mice: Novel Combination of Ketogenic Diet, Ketone Supplementation, and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Warburg effect and tumor hypoxia underlie a unique cancer metabolic phenotype characterized by glucose dependency and aerobic fermentation. We previously showed that two non-toxic metabolic therapies - the ketogenic diet with concurrent hyperbaric oxygen (KD+HBOT) and dietary ketone supplementation - could increase survival time in the VM-M3 mouse model of metastatic cancer. We hypothesized that combining these therapies could provide an even greater therapeutic benefit in this model. Mic...

  1. The purpose of this study is to determine the clinical usefulness of Valsalva maneuver (VM) to evaluate piriform-fossae lesions on helical CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Shoji; Yasuda, Shigeo; Kimura, Shinjiro; Ito, Hisao [Chiba Univ. (Japan). Hospital; Fujimoto, Hajime; Nasu, Katsuhiro; Motoori, Ken

    1997-07-01

    Forty-four patients who were suspected hypopharyngeal carcinoma underwent both conventional CT under quiet breath holding and helical CT under Valsalva maneuver (VMCT). All patients successfully performed Valsalva maneuver during image acquisition. Normal piriform fossae were dilated well under VM. Five fossae involved by hypopharyngeal carcinoma were poorly dilated on VMCT. In conclusion VMCT is a supportive method to evaluate piriform fossae. If piriform fossae lesions were suspected on conventional CT, VMCT should be performed. (author)

  2. Ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) as a target of the dorsolateral prefrontal modulation by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura-Palacios, Ester Miyuki; Lopes, Isabela Bittencourt Coutinho; Souza, Rodolpho Albuquerque; Klauss, Jaisa; Batista, Edson Kruger; Conti, Catarine Lima; Moscon, Janine Andrade; de Souza, Rodrigo Stênio Moll

    2016-10-01

    Here, we report some electrophysiologic and imaging effects of the transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in drug addiction, notably in alcohol and crack-cocaine dependence. The low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) analysis obtained through event-related potentials (ERPs) under drug-related cues, more specifically in its P3 segment (300-500 ms) in both, alcoholics and crack-cocaine users, showed that the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) was the brain area with the largest change towards increasing activation under drug-related cues in those subjects that kept abstinence during and after the treatment with bilateral tDCS (2 mA, 35 cm(2), cathodal left and anodal right) over dlPFC, applied repetitively (five daily sessions). In an additional study in crack-cocaine, which showed craving decreases after repetitive bilateral tDCS, we examined data originating from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and we found increased DTI parameters in the left connection between vmPFC and nucleus accumbens (NAcc), such as the number of voxels, fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), in tDCS-treated crack-cocaine users when compared to the sham-tDCS group. This increasing of DTI parameters was significantly correlated with craving decreasing after the repetitive tDCS. The vmPFC relates to the control of drug seeking, possibly by extinguishing this behavior. In our studies, the bilateral dlPFC tDCS reduced relapses and craving to the drug use, and increased the vmPFC activation under drug cues, which may be of a great importance in the control of drug use in drug addiction.

  3. A wavelet-based analysis of surface mechanomyographic signals from the quadriceps femoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Travis W; Housh, Terry J; Fry, Andrew C; Cramer, Joel T; Weir, Joseph P; Schilling, Brian K; Falvo, Michael J; Moore, Christopher A

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a wavelet analysis designed specifically for surface mechanomyographic (MMG) signals to examine the MMG responses of the vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), and vastus medialis (VM) muscles. Fifteen healthy men [age (mean +/- SD): 26.4 +/- 6.1 years] volunteered to perform isometric muscle actions of the dominant leg extensors at 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% of the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). During each muscle action, surface MMG signals were detected from the VL, RF, and VM and processed with the MMG wavelet analysis. The results show that, for the VL and VM muscles, there was compression of the total MMG intensity spectra toward low frequencies for most force levels above 20% MVC. For the RF, however, the peak of the total MMG intensity spectrum occurred at approximately 30-40 HZ for all force levels. Because the VL, RF, and VM are all innervated by the femoral nerve, the discrepancies among the three muscles for total MMG intensity in each wavelet band may have been due to differences in architecture, muscle stiffness, and/or intramuscular pressure.

  4. Synergists activation pattern of the quadriceps muscle differs when performing sustained isometric contractions with different EMG biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Nicolas; Matkowski, Boris; Martin, Alain; Lepers, Romuald

    2006-10-01

    The aims of the present study were to examine (1) endurance time and (2) activation pattern of vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles during fatiguing isometric knee extensions performed with different EMG biofeedbacks. Thirteen men (27 +/- 5 year) volunteered to participate in three experimental sessions. Each session involved a submaximal isometric contraction held until failure at an EMG level corresponding to 40% maximal voluntary contraction torque (MVC), with visual EMG biofeedback provided for either (1) RF muscle (RF task), (2) VL and VM muscles (Vasti task) or (3) the sum of the VL, VM and RF muscles (Quadriceps task). EMG activity of VL, VM and RF muscles was recorded during each of the three tasks and further analyzed. Time to task failures and MVC loss (P 0.05) between the three sessions (182 s and approximately 28%, respectively) (P > 0.05). Moreover, the magnitude of central and peripheral fatigue was not different at failure of the three tasks. Activation pattern was similar for knee extensors at the beginning of each task (P > 0.05). However, RF EMG activity decreased (P pattern for the bi-articular RF muscle compared to the mono-articular vasti muscles during fatigue.

  5. Differences in age-related fiber atrophy between vastii muscles of active subjects: a multichannel surface EMG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Gennaro; Dardanello, Davide; Coratella, Giuseppe; Rinaldo, Nicoletta; Schena, Federico; Rainoldi, Alberto

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to non-invasively determine if vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis obliquus (VM) muscles are equally affected by age-related fiber atrophy. Multichannel surface electromyography was used since it allows to estimate muscle fiber conduction velocity (CV), which has been demonstrated to be related to the size of recruited muscle fibers. Twelve active elderly men (age 69   ±   4 years) and 12 active young men (age 23   ±   2 years) performed isometric knee extension at 30%, 50%, and 70% of maximal voluntary contraction. Electromyographic signals were recorded from VL and VM muscles of the dominant limb using arrays with eight electrodes and CVs were estimated for each contraction. CV estimates showed a different behavior in the two muscles: in VL at 50% and 70% of maximum voluntary contraction they were greater in young than in elderly; whereas such a difference was not observed in VM. This finding suggest that in active elderly VM seems to be less affected by the age-related fibers atrophy than VL. Hence, the common choice of studying VL as a muscle representative of the whole quadriceps could generate misleading findings. Indeed, it seemed that the sarcopenic ageing effects might be heterogeneous within quadriceps muscle.

  6. Constraining models of postglacial rebound using space geodesy: a detailed assessment of model ICE-5G (VM2) and its relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, Donald F.; Peltier, W. Richard

    2010-05-01

    Using global positioning system, very long baseline interferometry, satellite laser ranging and Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite observations, including the Canadian Base Network and Fennoscandian BIFROST array, we constrain, in models of postglacial rebound, the thickness of the ice sheets as a function of position and time and the viscosity of the mantle as a function of depth. We test model ICE-5G VM2 T90 Rot, which well fits many hundred Holocene relative sea level histories in North America, Europe and worldwide. ICE-5G is the deglaciation history having more ice in western Canada than ICE-4G; VM2 is the mantle viscosity profile having a mean upper mantle viscosity of 0.5 × 1021Pas and a mean uppermost-lower mantle viscosity of 1.6 × 1021Pas T90 is an elastic lithosphere thickness of 90 km; and Rot designates that the model includes (rotational feedback) Earth's response to the wander of the North Pole of Earth's spin axis towards Canada at a speed of ~1° Myr-1. The vertical observations in North America show that, relative to ICE-5G, the Laurentide ice sheet at last glacial maximum (LGM) at ~26 ka was (1) much thinner in southern Manitoba, (2) thinner near Yellowknife (Northwest Territories), (3) thicker in eastern and southern Quebec and (4) thicker along the northern British Columbia-Alberta border, or that ice was unloaded from these areas later (thicker) or earlier (thinner) than in ICE-5G. The data indicate that the western Laurentide ice sheet was intermediate in mass between ICE-5G and ICE-4G. The vertical observations and GRACE gravity data together suggest that the western Laurentide ice sheet was nearly as massive as that in ICE-5G but distributed more broadly across northwestern Canada. VM2 poorly fits the horizontal observations in North America, predicting places along the margins of the Laurentide ice sheet to be moving laterally away from the ice centre at 2 mm yr-1 in ICE-4G and 3 mm yr-1 in ICE-5G, in

  7. Performance evaluation of the General Electric eXplore CT 120 micro-CT using the vmCT phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahri, M.A., E-mail: M.Bahri@ulg.ac.be [ULg-Liege University, Cyclotron Research Centre, Liege, Bat. 30, Allee du 6 aout, 8 (Belgium); Warnock, G.; Plenevaux, A. [ULg-Liege University, Cyclotron Research Centre, Liege, Bat. 30, Allee du 6 aout, 8 (Belgium); Choquet, P.; Constantinesco, A. [Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Hopitaux universitaires de Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France); Salmon, E.; Luxen, A. [ULg-Liege University, Cyclotron Research Centre, Liege, Bat. 30, Allee du 6 aout, 8 (Belgium); Seret, A. [ULg-Liege University, Cyclotron Research Centre, Liege, Bat. 30, Allee du 6 aout, 8 (Belgium); ULg-Liege University, Experimental Medical Imaging, Liege (Belgium)

    2011-08-21

    The eXplore CT 120 is the latest generation micro-CT from General Electric. It is equipped with a high-power tube and a flat-panel detector. It allows high resolution and high contrast fast CT scanning of small animals. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the eXplore CT 120 with that of the eXplore Ultra, its predecessor for which the methodology using the vmCT phantom has already been described . The phantom was imaged using typical a rat (fast scan or F) or mouse (in vivo bone scan or H) scanning protocols. With the slanted edge method, a 10% modulation transfer function (MTF) was observed at 4.4 (F) and 3.9-4.4 (H) mm{sup -1} corresponding to 114 {mu}m resolution. A fairly larger MTF was obtained by the coil method with the MTF for the thinnest coil (3.3 mm{sup -1}) equal to 0.32 (F) and 0.34 (H). The geometric accuracy was better than 0.3%. There was a highly linear (R{sup 2}>0.999) relationship between measured and expected CT numbers for both the CT number accuracy and linearity sections of the phantom. A cupping effect was clearly seen on the uniform slices and the uniformity-to-noise ratio ranged from 0.52 (F) to 0.89 (H). The air CT number depended on the amount of polycarbonate surrounding the area where it was measured; a difference as high as approximately 200 HU was observed. This hindered the calibration of this scanner in HU. This is likely due to the absence of corrections for beam hardening and scatter in the reconstruction software. However in view of the high linearity of the system, the implementation of these corrections would allow a good quality calibration of the scanner in HU. In conclusion, the eXplore CT 120 achieved a better spatial resolution than the eXplore Ultra (based on previously reported specifications) and future software developments will include beam hardening and scatter corrections that will make the new generation CT scanner even more promising.

  8. ARC-VM: An architecture real options complexity-based valuation methodology for military systems-of-systems acquisitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domercant, Jean Charles

    The combination of today's national security environment and mandated acquisition policies makes it necessary for military systems to interoperate with each other to greater degrees. This growing interdependency results in complex Systems-of-Systems (SoS) that only continue to grow in complexity to meet evolving capability needs. Thus, timely and affordable acquisition becomes more difficult, especially in the face of mounting budgetary pressures. To counter this, architecting principles must be applied to SoS design. The research objective is to develop an Architecture Real Options Complexity-Based Valuation Methodology (ARC-VM) suitable for acquisition-level decision making, where there is a stated desire for more informed tradeoffs between cost, schedule, and performance during the early phases of design. First, a framework is introduced to measure architecture complexity as it directly relates to military SoS. Development of the framework draws upon a diverse set of disciplines, including Complexity Science, software architecting, measurement theory, and utility theory. Next, a Real Options based valuation strategy is developed using techniques established for financial stock options that have recently been adapted for use in business and engineering decisions. The derived complexity measure provides architects with an objective measure of complexity that focuses on relevant complex system attributes. These attributes are related to the organization and distribution of SoS functionality and the sharing and processing of resources. The use of Real Options provides the necessary conceptual and visual framework to quantifiably and traceably combine measured architecture complexity, time-valued performance levels, as well as programmatic risks and uncertainties. An example suppression of enemy air defenses (SEAD) capability demonstrates the development and usefulness of the resulting architecture complexity & Real Options based valuation methodology. Different

  9. Efeitos da eletroestimulação do músculo vasto medial oblíquo em portadores de síndrome da dor patelofemoral: uma análise eletromiográfica Effects of electrical stimulation of vastus medialis obliquus muscle in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome: an electromyographic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana R. Garcia

    2010-12-01

    study. They performed the functional test of stair stepping to capture the electromyographic (EMG activity of the VMO and vastus lateralis (VL muscles, before and after a program of electrical stimulation of the VMO muscle. The electrical stimulation was performed three times per week for six weeks. For analysis between the VMO and VL muscles, we considered the variables: ratio of time of onset to peak of activation, ratio of the integrals of the signals (t-test for dependent samples, and difference between onsets of activation (Wilcoxon test, with significance level of p<0.05. RESULTS: The results only showed change in behavior in the EMG signal for the ratio of the integrals of the signals, indicating that changes occurred in the force-generating capacity of the muscle after the training. CONCLUSION: The use of electrical stimulation should be considered to complement the conservative therapeutic approach in patients with PFPS, and the analysis of the ratio of the integrals of the SEMG signals should be considered as an instrument of evaluation. Article registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR under number ACTRN 12609000079246.

  10. Effect of double-leg semi-squats with hip adduction on the vastus medialis oblique of patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome%双足半蹲伴髋内收对髌股疼痛综合征股内斜肌的强化作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪萍; 王楚怀; 潘翠环

    2014-01-01

    目的 采用表面肌电图(sEMG)评估髌股疼痛综合征(PFPS)患者的股四头肌失衡程度,观察PFPS患者各种表面肌电的特征及变化规律,并探讨髋内收对股内斜肌的针对性强化作用机制.方法 将PFPS患者60例按随机数字表法分为病例组和对照组,每组患者30例,分别在双足半蹲伴或不伴髋内收动作时检测股外侧肌(VL)及股内斜肌(VMO)表面肌电图,分析股内、外侧肌时域指标,比较其平衡关系.结果 双足半蹲不伴髋内收动作时,病例组VL的均方根振幅(RMS)和积分肌电值(IEMG)分别为(103.31±44.54) μV和(8.02±3.45) μVs,分别与组内VMO RMS的(85.02 ±41.19) μV和IEMG的(6.72±3.20) μVs比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).病例组不伴髋内收时VMO的RMS、IEMG与组内伴髋内收时VMO的RMS、IEMG比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 双足半蹲伴髋内收的动作可以优先强化VMO,使VL与VMO之间达到更好的平衡状态.%Objective To investigate the possible effect of performing double-leg semi-squats with hip adduction on the imbalance between vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis oblique (VMO) muscles of patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS).Methods Thirty patients with PFPS were selected to be in the study group,matched with 30 healthy subjects who were enrolled as the control group.Electromyography was used to record VL and VMO activities while the subjects performed double-leg semi-squats (DSs) and double-leg semi-squats with hip adduction (DSs-HA).Results In the study group,when performing DSs,the average RMS was (103.31 ± 44.54) μV and the IEMG was (8.02 ±3.45) μVs for VL.For VMO the RMS was (85.02 ±41.19) μV and the IEMG was (6.72 ±3.20) μVs.The differences in the time domain indexes (RMS,IEMG) between VL and VMO were both significant during DSs (P < 0.05).There was no significant differences during DSs-HA (P > 0.05).The time domain indexes (RMS,IEMG) of VMO were significantly

  11. Muscle activity during knee-extension strengthening exercise performed with elastic tubing and isotonic resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2012-01-01

    tubing induces similar high (>70% nEMG) quadriceps muscle activity during the concentric contraction phase, but slightly lower during the eccentric contraction phase, as knee extensions performed using an isotonic training machine. During the concentric contraction phase the two different conditions...... muscle during 10-RM knee-extensions performed with elastic tubing and an isotonic strength training machine. METHODS: 7 women and 9 men aged 28-67 years (mean age 44 and 41 years, respectively) participated. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in 10 muscles during the concentric and eccentric...... the machine and elastic resistance exercises there were no significant differences in peak EMG of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM) during the concentric contraction phase. However, during the eccentric phase, peak EMG was significantly higher (p

  12. Nearly complete mitogenome of hairy sawfly, Corynis lateralis (Brullé, 1832) (Hymenoptera: Cimbicidae): rearrangements in the IQM and ARNS1EF gene clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Özgül; Korkmaz, E Mahir

    2017-05-31

    The Cimbicidae is a small family of the primitive and relatively less diverse suborder Symphyta (Hymenoptera). Here, nearly complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of hairy sawfly, Corynis lateralis (Hymenoptera: Cimbicidae) was sequenced using next generation sequencing and comparatively analysed with the mitogenome of Trichiosoma anthracinum. The sequenced length of C. lateralis mitogenome was 14,899 bp with an A+T content of 80.60%. All protein coding genes (PCGs) are initiated by ATN codons and all are terminated with TAR or T- stop codon. All tRNA genes preferred usual anticodons. Compared with the inferred insect ancestral mitogenome, two tRNA rearrangements were observed in the IQM and ARNS1EF gene clusters, representing a new event not previously reported in Symphyta. An illicit priming of replication and/or intra/inter-mitochondrial recombination and TDRL seem to be responsible mechanisms for the rearrangement events in these gene clusters. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the position of Corynis within Cimbicidae and recovered a relationship of Tenthredinoidea + (Cephoidea + Orussoidea) in Symphyta.

  13. Simultaneous measurement of tabun, sarin, soman, cyclosarin, VR, VX, and VM adducts to tyrosine in blood products by isotope dilution UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Brian S; Pantazides, Brooke G; Quiñones-González, Jennifer; Garton, Joshua W; Carter, Melissa D; Perez, Jonas W; Watson, Caroline M; Tomcik, Dennis J; Crenshaw, Michael D; Brewer, Bobby N; Riches, James R; Stubbs, Sarah J; Read, Robert W; Evans, Ronald A; Thomas, Jerry D; Blake, Thomas A; Johnson, Rudolph C

    2014-10-21

    This work describes a new specific, sensitive, and rapid stable isotope dilution method for the simultaneous detection of the organophosphorus nerve agents (OPNAs) tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), cyclosarin (GF), VR, VX, and VM adducts to tyrosine (Tyr). Serum, plasma, and lysed whole blood samples (50 μL) were prepared by protein precipitation followed by digestion with Pronase. Specific Tyr adducts were isolated from the digest by a single solid phase extraction (SPE) step, and the analytes were separated by reversed-phase ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) gradient elution in less than 2 min. Detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer using time-triggered selected reaction monitoring (SRM) in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. The calibration range was characterized from 0.100-50.0 ng/mL for GB- and VR-Tyr and 0.250-50.0 ng/mL for GA-, GD-, GF-, and VX/VM-Tyr (R(2) ≥ 0.995). Inter- and intra-assay precision had coefficients of variation of ≤17 and ≤10%, respectively, and the measured concentration accuracies of spiked samples were within 15% of the targeted value for multiple spiking levels. The limit of detection was calculated to be 0.097, 0.027, 0.018, 0.074, 0.023, and 0.083 ng/mL for GA-, GB-, GD-, GF-, VR-, and VX/VM-Tyr, respectively. A convenience set of 96 serum samples with no known nerve agent exposure was screened and revealed no baseline values or potential interferences. This method provides a simple and highly specific diagnostic tool that may extend the time postevent that a confirmation of nerve agent exposure can be made with confidence.

  14. Intramural optical mapping of V(m) and Ca(i)2+ during long-duration ventricular fibrillation in canine hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wei; Ideker, Raymond E; Fast, Vladimir G

    2012-03-15

    Intramural gradients of intracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(i)(2+)) Ca(i)(2+) handling, Ca(i)(2+) oscillations, and Ca(i)(2+) transient (CaT) alternans may be important in long-duration ventricular fibrillation (LDVF). However, previous studies of Ca(i)(2+) handling have been limited to recordings from the heart surface during short-duration ventricular fibrillation. To examine whether abnormalities of intramural Ca(i)(2+) handling contribute to LDVF, we measured membrane voltage (V(m)) and Ca(i)(2+) during pacing and LDVF in six perfused canine hearts using five eight-fiber optrodes. Measurements were grouped into epicardial, midwall, and endocardial layers. We found that during pacing at 350-ms cycle length, CaT duration was slightly longer (by ≃10%) in endocardial layers than in epicardial layers, whereas action potential duration (APD) exhibited no difference. Rapid pacing at 150-ms cycle length caused alternans in both APD (APD-ALT) and CaT amplitude (CaA-ALT) without significant transmural differences. For 93% of optrode recordings, CaA-ALT was transmurally concordant, whereas APD-ALT was either concordant (36%) or discordant (54%), suggesting that APD-ALT was not caused by CaA-ALT. During LDVF, V(m) and Ca(i)(2+) progressively desynchronized when not every action potential was followed by a CaT. Such desynchronization developed faster in the epicardium than in the other layers. In addition, CaT duration strongly increased (by ∼240% at 5 min of LDVF), whereas APD shortened (by ∼17%). CaT rises always followed V(m) upstrokes during pacing and LDVF. In conclusion, the fact that V(m) upstrokes always preceded CaTs indicates that spontaneous Ca(i)(2+) oscillations in the working myocardium were not likely the reason for LDVF maintenance. Strong V(m)-Ca(i)(2+) desynchronization and the occurrence of long CaTs during LDVF indicate severely impaired Ca(i)(2+) handling and may potentially contribute to LDVF maintenance.

  15. Effects of electrostimulation on the vastus medialis in the deoxygenation and the blood volume signals obtained by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdaguer-Codina, Joan

    1996-12-01

    The electrotherapy field has been generated as a technique to improve the muscles of people affected by various pathologies. For this reason the electrotherapy is increasing its use as part of a treatment in muscle therapy. However there are not studies related to electrostimulation and near-IR spectroscopy. This work was designed to assess by near-IR spectroscopy the effects of electrostimulation in the vastus medialis, applying a tetanic contraction in this muscle with a compensated rectangular impulse at 100Hz, tolerating the subject 10mA of current. In the results obtained, we have not observed significant variations in the deoxygenation and blood volume signals, whereas as light change was observed comparing the calibration signals before and after to apply electrostimulation. It is postulated that electrostimulation only increases the diameter of the vessels, because the muscle doesn't do a metabolic work, and the heart rate frequency of the subject has not increased.

  16. Externally applied electric fields up to 1.6 × 10(5) V/m do not affect the homogeneous nucleation of ice in supercooled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Claudiu A; Tang, Sindy K Y; Bishop, Kyle J M; Whitesides, George M

    2011-02-10

    The freezing of water can initiate at electrically conducting electrodes kept at a high electric potential or at charged electrically insulating surfaces. The microscopic mechanisms of these phenomena are unknown, but they must involve interactions between water molecules and electric fields. This paper investigates the effect of uniform electric fields on the homogeneous nucleation of ice in supercooled water. Electric fields were applied across drops of water immersed in a perfluorinated liquid using a parallel-plate capacitor; the drops traveled in a microchannel and were supercooled until they froze due to the homogeneous nucleation of ice. The distribution of freezing temperatures of drops depended on the rate of nucleation of ice, and the sensitivity of measurements allowed detection of changes by a factor of 1.5 in the rate of nucleation. Sinusoidal alternation of the electric field at frequencies from 3 to 100 kHz prevented free ions present in water from screening the electric field in the bulk of drops. Uniform electric fields in water with amplitudes up to (1.6 ± 0.4) × 10(5) V/m neither enhanced nor suppressed the homogeneous nucleation of ice. Estimations based on thermodynamic models suggest that fields in the range of 10(7)-10(8) V/m might cause an observable increase in the rate of nucleation.

  17. Inhibition of BCL-2 leads to increased apoptosis and delayed neuronal differentiation in human ReNcell VM cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Michael; Jaeger, Alexandra; Weiss, Dieter G; Kriehuber, Ralf

    2016-02-01

    BCL-2 is a multifunctional protein involved in the regulation of apoptosis, cell cycle progression and neural developmental processes. Its function in the latter process is not well understood and needs further elucidation. Therefore, we characterized the protein expression kinetics of BCL-2 and associated regulatory proteins of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway during the process of neuronal differentiation in ReNcell VM cells with and without functional inhibition of BCL-2 by its competitive ligand HA14-1. Inhibition of BCL-2 caused a diminished BCL-2 expression and higher levels of cleaved BAX, activated Caspase-3 and cleaved PARP, all pro-apoptotic markers, when compared with untreated differentiating cells. In parallel, flow cytometric analysis of HA14-1-treated cells revealed a delayed differentiation into HuC/D+ neuronal cells when compared to untreated differentiating cells. In conclusion, BCL-2 possess a protective function in fully differentiated ReNcell VM cells. We propose that the pro-survival signaling of BCL-2 is closely connected with its stimulatory effects on neurogenesis of human neural progenitor cells.

  18. Evaluations of the Antimicrobial Activities and Chemical Compositions of Body Fat from the Amphibians Leptodactylus macrosternum Miranda-Ribeiro (1926 and Leptodactylus vastus Adolf Lutz (1930 in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Eduardo Santos Cabral

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptodactylus macrosternum and L. vastus (family: Leptodactylidae are commonly encountered in the “Caatinga” biome in northern Brazil. The body fat of L. vastus is used as a zootherapeutic for treating a number of human maladies. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of the body fats of L. macrosternum and L. vastus and to evaluate their antimicrobial activities as well as the ecological implications of their use in traditional folk medicine. Oils were extracted from body fat located in the ventral region of L. macrosternum (OLM and L. vastus (OLV using hexane as a solvent. The fatty acids were identified by GC-MS. The antimicrobial activities of the oils, either alone or in combination with antibiotics and antifungal drugs, were tested on standard strains of microorganisms as well as on multiresistant strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus. OLM contained 40% saturated and 60% unsaturated fatty acids, while OLV contained 58.33% saturated and 41.67% unsaturated fatty acids. Our results indicated that both OLM and OLV demonstrated relevant antimicrobial activities (with MIC 256 μg/mL for both against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida krusei. However, no antimicrobial effects were observed when these oils were combined with antibiotics or antifungal drugs.

  19. Biomecânica do movimento isométrico de pedalada antes e após aplicação de acupuntura: Um estudo preliminar/Biomechanical analysis of isometric motion in ride before and after application of acupuncture: A preliminary study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    C L Malveira; F C S Souza; T B X Rocha

    2012-01-01

    ... ST32 for 10 minutes in one volunteer. It was evaluated the activity of vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and rectus femoris, using suface electromyography and the force applied in pedal by a force transducer before and after acupunture...

  20. Comparative pharmacokinetics studies of benzoylhypaconine, benzoylmesaconine, benzoylaconine and hypaconitine in rats by LC-MS method after administration of Radix Aconiti Lateralis Praeparata extract and Dahuang Fuzi Decoction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Li, Huan; Song, Xiaoqing; Qin, Kunming; Guo, Hui; Wu, Li; Cai, Hao; Cai, Baochang

    2014-07-01

    A rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (HPLC-MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of benzoylhypaconine (BHA), benzoylmesaconine (BMA), benzoylaconine (BAC) and hypaconitine (HA) in rat plasma for the first time. The analytes were separated on a Kromasil C₁₈ column with a total running time of 11 min. The validation data demonstrated a sound feasibility for the newly developed method and it was then applied to the pharmacokinetic study of these analytes in rats. Pharmacokinetic behaviors of BHA, BMA, BAC and HA in rats were studied after oral administration of Radix Aconiti Lateralis Praeparata extract (FZ) and Dahuang Fuzi Decoction (DFD). The main parameters for the two groups of subjects were compared, and significant differences between Radix Aconiti Lateralis Praeparata extract group and Dahuang Fuzi Decoction group in calculated parameters, such as the area under the plasma concentration-time from zero to the last quantifiable time-point (AUC(₀-t)), the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC(₀-∞)), peak plasma concentration (C(max)), half-life of elimination (T₁/₂), mean retention time (MRT(₀-t)), plasma clearance (CL), volume of distribution (V(d)) and time to reach Cmax (T(max)), were found. After oral administration of DFD, the AUC(₀-t), AUC(₀-∞) and C(max) of BHA, BMA, BAC and HA decreased remarkably (p extract group. Vd and CL values of BHA, BMA, BAC and HA increased, two of which showed significant difference (p extract group. Only the T(max) of HA, the toxic ingredient in FZ, delayed significantly in DFD group compared with the value of FZ group. All these pharmacokinetic parameters were statistically compared, and the rationality of the combination for DFD was clearly demonstrated.

  1. Assessment of magnetic resonance techniques to measure muscle damage 24 h after eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, J; Eston, R G; Rowlands, A V; Davies, R C

    2015-02-01

    The study examined which of a number of different magnetic resonance (MR) methods were sensitive to detecting muscle damage induced by eccentric exercise. Seventeen healthy, physically active participants, with muscle damage confirmed by non-MR methods were tested 24 h after performing eccentric exercise. Techniques investigated whether damage could be detected within the quadriceps muscle as a whole, and individually within the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), and vastus intermedius (VI). Relative to baseline values, significant changes were seen in leg and muscle cross-sectional areas and volumes and the resting inorganic phosphate concentration. Significant time effects over all muscles were also seen in the transverse relaxation time (T2) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, with individually significant changes seen in the VL, VM, and VI for T2 and in the VI for ADC. A significant correlation was found between muscle volume and the average T2 change (r = 0.59) but not between T2 and ADC or Pi alterations. There were no significant time effects over all muscles for magnetization transfer contrast images, for baseline pH, phosphocreatine (PCr), phosphodiester, or ATP metabolite concentrations or the time constant describing the rate of PCr recovery following exercise.

  2. MIPAS temperature from the stratosphere to the lower thermosphere: comparison of version vM21 with ACE-FTS, MLS, OSIRIS, SABER, SOFIE and lidar measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. García-Comas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We present vM21 MIPAS temperatures from the lower stratosphere to the lower thermosphere, which cover all optimized resolution measurements performed by MIPAS in the Middle Atmosphere, Upper Atmosphere and NoctiLucent Cloud modes during its lifetime. i.e., from January 2005 to March 2012. The main upgrades with respect to the previous version of MIPAS temperatures (vM11 are the update of the spectroscopic database, the use of a different climatology of atomic oxygen and carbon dioxide, and the improvement of important technical aspects of the retrieval setup (temperature gradient along the line of sight and offset regularizations, apodization accuracy. Additionally, an updated version of ESA calibrated L1b spectra (5.02/5.06 is used. The vM21 temperatures correct the main systematic errors of the previous version because they on average provide a 1–2 K warmer stratopause and middle mesosphere, and a 6–10 K colder mesopause (except in high latitude summers and lower thermosphere. These lead to a remarkable improvement of MIPAS comparisons with ACE-FTS, MLS, OSIRIS, SABER, SOFIE and the two Rayleigh lidars at Mauna Loa and Table Mountain, that, with few specific exceptions, typically exhibit differences smaller than 1 K below 50 km and than 2 K at 50–80 km in spring, autumn, winter at all latitudes, and summer at low to mid-latitudes. Differences in the high latitude summers are typically smaller than 1 K below 50 km, smaller than 2 K at 50–65 km and 5 K at 65–80 km. Differences with the other instruments in the mid-mesosphere are generally negative. MIPAS mesopause is within 4 K of the other instruments measurements, except in the high latitude summers, where it is within 5–10 K of the other instruments, being warmer than SABER, MLS and OSIRIS and colder than ACE-FTS and SOFIE. The agreement in the lower thermosphere is typically better than 5 K, except for high latitudes during spring and summer, where MIPAS usually exhibits larger

  3. An examination of the frequency-specific behavior of the mechanomyographic amplitude versus isometric torque relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, T W

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the patterns of responses for mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude versus isometric torque in different frequency bands for the vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), and vastus medialis (VM) muscles. Eleven men (mean +/- SD age = 20.1 +/- 1.1 yrs) performed submaximal to maximal isometric step muscle actions of the dominant leg extensors from 10% to 100% of the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). During each muscle action, three separate surface mechanomyographic (MMG) signals were detected from the VL, RF and VM. Each MMG signal was decomposed into 9 different frequency bands (5-15, 15-25, 25-35, 35-45, 45-55, 55-65, 65-75, 75-85, and 85-95 Hz), and the root-mean-square amplitude of the signal in each frequency band was calculated. The results showed that for the VL and RF muscles, MMG amplitude plateaued from 80-100% MVC in the 15-25 and 25-35 Hz frequency bands. For the VM, however, the plateau in MMG amplitude from 80-100% MVC occurred in the 5-15 and 15-25 Hz bands. These findings indicated that there were both muscle- and frequency-specific discrepancies in the MMG amplitude versus isometric torque relationship that could be due to differences in muscle architecture and/or fiber type composition.

  4. The impact of foot position on electromyographical activity of the superficial quadriceps muscles during leg extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoutenberg, Mark; Pluchino, Alessandra P; Ma, Fangchao; Hoctor, Jennifer E; Signorile, Joseph F

    2005-11-01

    This study investigated variations in electromyographic (EMG) responses of the vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), and vastus medialis (VM) due to foot position during leg extension. Twenty-four men and women (23.67 +/= 4.02 years) performed 8 repetitions at 70% of 8 repetition maximum with their leg medially rotated, laterally rotated, and neutral. Repeated-measures analyses of variance indicated that the highest normalized root mean square (NrmsEMG) for the VM and VL occurred with medial rotation, and the highest NrmsEMG for the RF occurred with lateral rotation. Significant NrmsEMG increases and median power frequency decreases occurred across repetitions regardless of foot position. Therefore, medial rotation produced the greatest muscle activation for the VL and VM, whereas lateral rotation produced the greatest activation in the RF. These findings are applicable to athletes or bodybuilders who are seeking to selectively increase either the size or performance of a specific muscle of the quadriceps group.

  5. Acute effects of contract-relax PNF and static stretching on flexibility, jump performance and EMG activities: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KERIM SOZBIR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this case study was to describe the acute effects of contract-relax proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (cRPNF and static stretching (SS on hamstring flexibility, vertical jump performance and electromyography (EMG of vastus lateralis (VL, vastus medialis (VM and gastrocnemius (GAS in two sedentary males. Each participant completed 8 activities: warm-up, pre-stretching range of motion (ROM of hip, pre-stretching countermovement jump (cMJ, pre-stretching EMG recording, cRPNF or SS procedure, post-stretching ROM of hip, post-stretching cMJ and post-stretching EMG recording. The results of this study revealed that there were no significant increases in ROM of hip (25,34% and 24,19% and no significant decreases in cMJ (-8,67% and -8,17%, EMG activities of VL (-12,52% and -29,34%, VM (-13,02% and -32,80% and GAS (-20,63% and -24,81% following cRPNF and SS. There were no significant differences were found between both experimental groups for all variables (p > 0,05. It was concluded that cRPNF ans SS resulted in similar changes of ROM of the hip joint, cMJ and EMG activities of VL, VM and GAS muscles in sedentary males.

  6. Applying VM to Evaluate the City Buildings of China%用VM的观点看中国的城市建筑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岩; 李素蕾

    2006-01-01

    改革开放以来,中国的各大城市与若干年前相比发生了天翻地覆的变化.贪大、求洋、求新、超越实际经济承受能力的城市建筑正在中国大张旗鼓的上演.目前,我国是一个资源浪费大国,面临严重的能源危机.但还有很多城市在超越经济承受能力的情况下大搞城镇建设.本文用VM(Value Management)的观点分析这一现象.

  7. The Kv1.3 channel blocker Vm24 enhances muscle glucose transporter 4 mobilization but does not reduce body-weight gain in diet-induced obese male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimes-Hoy, Lorraine; Gurrola, Georgina B; Cisneros, Miguel; Joseph-Bravo, Patricia; Possani, Lourival D; Charli, Jean-Louis

    2017-07-15

    Voltage-gated potassium channels 1.3 (Kv1.3) can be targeted to reduce diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice. Since species-specific differences in Kv1.3 expression and pharmacology have been observed, we tested the effect of Vm24, a high-affinity specific blocker of Kv1.3 channels from Vaejovis mexicanus smithi, on body weight (BW), glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in diet-induced obese rats. Young adult male Wistar rats were switched to a high-fat/high-fructose (HFF) diet. Eighteen days later animals were divided in two groups: vehicle and Vm24 group. Subcutaneous injections were applied every other day until sacrifice 2months later. An additional cohort was maintained on standard chow. The HFF diet promoted obesity. Treatment with Vm24 did not alter various metabolic parameters such as food intake, BW gain, visceral white adipose tissue mass, adipocyte diameter, serum glucose, leptin and thyroid hormone concentrations, brown adipose tissue mass or uncoupling protein-1 expression, and insulin tolerance. Vm24 did reduce basal and glucose-stimulated serum insulin concentrations, serum C-peptide concentration, increased QUICKI, and tended to lower HOMA-IR. Vm24 treatment did not change the activation of insulin receptor substrate-1, but enhanced protein-kinase B activation and membrane glucose-transporter 4 (GLUT4) protein levels in skeletal muscle. In conclusion, in male rats, long-term blockade of Kv1.3 channels with Vm24 does not reduce weight gain and visceral adiposity induced by HFF diet; instead, it reduces serum insulin concentration, and enhances GLUT4 mobilization in skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 附子总生物碱的提取工艺研究%Extraction Technology of Total Alkaloids from RADIX ACONITI LATERALIS PRAEPARATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卓; 晏星; 徐春霞; 袁小红

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究附子总生物碱的提取工艺,优选最佳提取条件.[方法]以提取率、总生物碱收率和总生物碱纯度为指标,采用单因素试验法,考察提取溶剂、提取方法、提取温度、粉碎度、料液比、提取时间和提取次数对附子中总生物碱提取率的影响,并优选出最佳提取工艺条件.[结果]最佳提取工艺条件为:在15℃条件下,将附子粉按1∶10(g/ml)加入无水乙醇,冷浸3次,每次1d;在此条件下,浸膏得率、总生物碱收率和总生物碱纯度分别为3.15%、0.64%和20.32%.[结论]该方法高效、低毒、经济、操作方便、工艺可控,较适合附子总生物碱的提取和工业化生产.%[ Objective ] To determine the optimal extraction technology of alkaloids from the roots of RADIX ACONITI LATERALIS PRA-EPARATA. [ Method ] Taking extraction rate, and the purity and yield of total alkaloid as the indices, effects of extraction solvent, extraction method, extraction temperature, extraction time ,comminution degree, solid-liquid ratio and extraction times on the extraction rate of total alka-loids were studied. And the optimal extraction technology was selected. [ Conclusion ] The optimal extraction technology was as follows : RADIXACONITI LATERALIS PRAEPARATA powder was added into anhydrous alcohol with the ratio of 1:10 (g/mt)under 15 ℃. After cold leaching for 3 times with each time for 1 d, the dry extract rate, extraction rate of total alkaloid, and purity of total alkaloid were 3.15% ,0.64% and 20. 32% ,respectively. [ Conclusion] This method was efficient,low toxic, economical,convenient and can be used for industrial production.

  9. An optimized high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method for benzoylmesaconine determination in Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata (Fuzi, aconite roots and its products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Hongxi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benzoylmesaconine (BMA is the main Aconitum alkaloid in Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata (Fuzi, aconite roots with potent pharmacological activities, such as analgesia and anti-inflammation. The present study developed a simple and reliable method using BMA as a marker compound for the quality control of processed aconite roots and their products. Methods After extraction, a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC determination of BMA was conducted on a RP-C18 column by gradient elution with acetonitrile and aqueous phase, containing 0.1% phosphoric acid adjusted with triethylamine to pH 3.0. Results A distinct peak profile was obtained and separation of BMA was achieved. Method validation showed that the relative standard deviations (RSDs of the precision of BMA in all intra-day and inter-day assays were less than 1.36%, and that the average recovery rate was 96.95%. Quantitative analysis of BMA showed that the content of BMA varied significantly in processed aconite roots and their products. Conclusion This HPLC method using BMA as a marker compound is applicable to the quality control of processed aconite roots and their products.

  10. Understanding structural and functional aspects of PII snake venom metalloproteinases: characterization of BlatH1, a hemorrhagic dimeric enzyme from the venom of Bothriechis lateralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Erika; Villalobos, Eva; Sanz, Libia; Pérez, Alicia; Escalante, Teresa; Lomonte, Bruno; Calvete, Juan J; Gutiérrez, José María; Rucavado, Alexandra

    2014-06-01

    A new homodimeric PII metalloproteinase, named BlatH1, was purified from the venom of the Central American arboreal viperid snake Bothriechis lateralis by a combination of anion-exchange chromatography, hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and gel filtration. BlatH1 is a glycoprotein of 84 kDa. The mature protein contains a metalloproteinase domain, with the characteristic zinc-binding motif (HEXXHXXGXXH) followed by the sequence CIM at the Met-turn. In the disintegrin domain, the tripeptide sequence TDN substitutes the characteristic RGD motif found in many disintegrins. BlatH1 hydrolyzed azocasein, gelatin and fibrinogen, and exerts a potent local and systemic hemorrhagic activity in mice. The hemorrhagic activity of BlatH1 is not inhibited by the plasma proteinase inhibitor α2-macroglobulin, although the SVMP is able to cleave this plasma inhibitor, generating a 90 kDa product. BlatH1 inhibits ADP- and collagen-induced human platelet aggregation (IC50 = 0.3 μM and 0.7 μM for ADP and collagen, respectively). This activity is abrogated when the enzyme is preincubated with the metalloproteinase inhibitor Batimastat, implying that it depends on proteolysis. In agreement, a synthetic peptide containing the sequence TDN of the disintegrin domain is unable to inhibit platelet aggregation. BlatH1 is a valuable tool to understand the structural determinants of toxicity in PII SVMPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. MicroRNA-181b提高U87细胞对VM-26的敏感性研究%miR-181b Enhances Sensitivity to Teniposide in Glioma Cell Line U87

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙衍昶; 郭琤琤; 赛克; 王翦; 王洁; 陈芙蓉; 张宗平; 陈忠平

    2013-01-01

    背景与目的:MicroRNA(miRNA)参与肿瘤发生发展的诸多过程,并参与调节多种抗肿瘤药物的敏感性.本研究探讨恶性胶质瘤中miR-181b对VM-26(teniposide)化疗敏感性的影响.方法:以荧光定量PCR法检测miR-181b在高级别胶质瘤中的表达,并利用CCK-8细胞毒性实验检测高级别胶质瘤患者细胞对VM-26的化疗敏感性;并通过慢病毒感染构建稳定高表达miR-181b的U87/181b细胞及其对照组U87/nc,在荧光显微镜下观察其转染率及荧光定量PCR法检测其中miR-181b的表达;进而利用CCK-8细胞毒性实验检测U87/181b和U87/nc细胞对VM-26的敏感性,利用流式细胞仪检测VM-26作用72小时后U87/181b和U87/nc的凋亡情况.结果:在高级别胶质瘤中,miR-181b的表达与VM-26的敏感性呈正相关(r=-0.691,P< 0.01),也就是miR-181b高表达肿瘤对VM-26的敏感性高.qPCR检测miR-181b在U87/181b (0.699±0.023)的表达显著高于U87/nc(0.019±0.001) (P< 0.05).CCK-8检测结果显示U87/181b [IC50:(1.25±0.12)μg/mL]对VM-26的敏感性显著高于U87/nc[IC50:(6.24±0.88) μg/mL] (P< 0.05).经VM-26处理后U87/181b凋亡率(69.41±0.77)明显高于U87/nc(37.93±2.90)(P< 0.05).结论:在高级别胶质瘤高表达miR-181b的肿瘤对VM-26的敏感性高;在胶质瘤细胞U87中增加miR-181b表达可以提高对VM-26的敏感性.

  12. Primary exploration of the efficiency of VM26 combined with MeCCNU therapy for the low-grade gliomas%VM26联合MeCCNU在人脑低级别胶质瘤治疗中应用的初步探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹广辉; 谭卫国; 冯鸣; 申昊; 王君祥; 黄煜伦; 周幽心

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficiency of VM26 combined with MeCCNU therapy for the low-grade gliomas of MCMT-positive after tumor resection and radiotherapy. Methods The clinical data of 22 patients with MCMT-positive who underwent total removal of tumors with enhanced MRI imaging showing no residual tumors from Jan 2005 to Oct 2008 in our department were analyzed retrospectively. Of 22 patients . 10 were diffuse astrocytomas; 3 were oligodendrogliomas;5 were are mixed oligo-astrocytomas and 4 ependymomas. These patients received three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy 2 -4 weeks after surgery with radiation and exposure dose being ( 50~ 55 ) Gy( 6 ~ 7 )weeks. 2 weeks after the end of radiotherapy , these patients underwent VM26 comhined with MeCCNU therapy ( VM26 : 50mg/m2/day , intravenous dripping for 3 days , repeated after 8 weeks for 3 cycles.MeCCNU: 50mg/m2/day, taken orally for 3 days, repeated after 8 weeks for 4 cycles) with MRI scanning regularly. Results Of 22 MCMT-positive grade Ⅱ gliomas,6 cases were positive for both TopoⅡα and Pgp,10 and 2 were only positive for TopoⅡα and Pgp, respectively; and 4 were negative for both TopoⅡα and Pgp. The following up from 2 t0 5 years showed tumors recurred in 6 cases with average time of recurrence being 16. 6 months ,CT or MRI imaging showed no tumor recurrence in 13 ,3 underwent the second surgery due to MRI imaging showing possible tumor recurrence 2 vears after prior surgery. Pathological examination reported suspected recurring tumor was necrotic tissue. In these 22 patients , one vear survival rate of one vear was 100% and two vears was 88.9% . Conclusions VM26 combined with MeCCNU chemotherapy is able to efficaciously inhibit the growth of gliomas ,with little side-effects.safety. It's an therapeutic method for patients with low-grade MGMT-positive gliomas aftert tumor resection and radiotherapy.%目的 探讨人脑胶质瘤手术切除和放疗后O6-甲基鸟嘌呤DNA甲基转移酶(MGMT

  13. 炮制方法对附子生物碱类成分的影响%The impact on alkaloids constituents of Aconiti lateralis Radix in different processing methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶强; 郭一平; 彭成

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the alkaloids-types constituents content of Aconiti lateralis Radix processed in different methods.METHODS To detect the content of total alkaloid,ester alkaloids and diester alkaloids by UV,HPLC.RESULTS The total alkaloids,ester alkaloids and the diester alkaloids content of Aconiti lateralis Radix indeed decreased in different process,and the loss rates were rather high.CONCLUSION Process programme indeed exerts attenuation,but in the view of loss rate,the Aconiti lateralis Radix prepapata herbs are excessive concocted.%目的 通过对不同方法炮制的附子药材中生物碱类成分比较,研究附子在炮制过程中成分的变化.方法 采用UV、HPLC法分别测定附子及其炮制品中的总生物碱、酯型生物碱、双酯型生物碱.结果 在炮制时,附子中的总生物碱、酯型生物碱、双酯型生物碱的含量均有所降低,损失率均偏高.结论 炮制确有减毒作用;从损失率看,有过度炮制的问题.

  14. Blatta lateralis Walker (Blattodea: Blattidae Üzerine Ultrasonik Zararlı Kovucuların Performansının Ölçülmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansur ULUCA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışma, ev zararlıları başta olmak üzere bazı zararlılar üzerinde kaçırıcı etkisi olduğu iddiasıyla ticareti yapılan ultrasonik zararlı kovucuların etkinliğinin belirlenmesi amacıyla 2015-2016 yılları arasında Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi, Bitki Koruma Bölümü’nde yürütülmüştür. Bu amaçla farklı dalga boyları ve frekanslarda ultrasonik dalga yayan 30 adet cihaz, kapalı ortam zararlıları arasında öne çıkan Blatta lateralis Walker (Blattodea: Blattidae üzerine denemeye alınarak cihazların performansı söz konusu zararlı üzerinden değerlendirilmiştir. Araştırma sonunda, iki tanesi ticareti yapılan cihazlardan olmak üzere toplam 30 adet ultrasonik cihazın B. lateralis üzerinde kaçırıcı bir etkisinin olmadığı kanısına varılmıştır. Piyasada ticari olarak bulunan ultrasonik ses cihazlarının kaçırıcı etkisinin bulunmamasının yanı sıra üzerlerinde belirtilen teknik özelliklerin bazılarına sahip olmadığı, cihazlardan birinin ise ultrasonik ses ile ilgili hiçbir fonksiyonunun olmadığı saptanmıştır. Bu cihazların hamam böcekleri dışında karınca, güve, akrep, fare, kalorifer böceği, kene, yarasa, yılan ve sincap üzerinde de etkili olduğu iddiası da bu araştırma ile şüpheli hale gelmektedir. Sonuç olarak piyasada yaygın olarak bulunan, bazı özel veya tüzel kişiler referans gösterilerek ticareti yapılan bu ve benzeri ultrasonik zararlı kovucu cihazlara ait denetimlerin teknik ve resmi anlamda gözden geçirilmesi gerektiği açık bir şekilde görülmektedir.

  15. Analyse af VM-Husene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryborg Jørgensen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Bearbejdet uddrag fra 'Arkitektonisk kvalitet & industrielle byggesystemer' Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole 2007 (CINARK Forskning). Papiret er anvendt i forbindelse med adskillelige arkitekturteoretiske studiekredse....

  16. miR-27a-3p suppresses tumor metastasis and VM by down-regulating VE-cadherin expression and inhibiting EMT: an essential role for Twist-1 in HCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Sun, Huizhi; Sun, Baocun; Zhu, Dongwang; Zhao, Xiulan; Wang, Yong; Gu, Qiang; Dong, Xueyi; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Yanhui; Li, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Twist-1 and miRNAs have been reported to be associated with tumor metastasis and angiogenesis. However, the relationship between Twist-1 and miRNAs and the function of miRNAs remain largely undefined. We aimed to reveal the Twist-1-related miRNA expression profile and to determine whether Twist-1 functions in tumor metastasis and vasculogenic mimicry (VM) by regulating miRNA expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Results showed that the expression of miR-27a-3p was consistently down-regulated in HCC cell lines and tissue samples displaying high expression of Twist-1. Both loss- and gain-of-function assays revealed suppressive effects of miR-27a-3p. Low miR-27a-3p expression was significantly associated with early metastasis in HCC. Subsequent investigations revealed that miR-27a-3p mediated the inhibition of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). Additional experiments showed that VE-cadherin is a direct target of miR-27a-3p and further demonstrated the critical role of miR-27a-3p in suppressing tumor metastasis and VM. Conclusions: Twist-1 up-regulation in HepG2 cells resulted in the differential expression of 18 miRNAs. Among them, miR-27a-3p deregulation contributed to VM and metastasis. The miR-27a-3p-mediated down-regulation of VE-cadherin and inhibition of EMT may be essential for Twist-1 to induce tumor metastasis and VM. Our findings highlight the importance of miR-27a-3p and suggest a promising new strategy for anti-HCC therapy. PMID:26980408

  17. A Study on the Differences of Quadriceps Femoris Activities by Knee Alignment during Isometric Contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seol; Ko, Yu-Min; Jang, Gwon-Uk; Hwang, Yoon-Tae; Park, Ji-Won

    2014-11-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to identify how genu varum or valgum affects the electromyographic activities of the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris during knee isometric contraction. [Subjects] Fifty-two healthy young adults were enrolled in this study. They were enrolled and classified into three groups by knee alignment conditions: the genu varum, genu valgum, and control groups. [Methods] The electromyographic activity ratio of the vastus medialis to the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris were calculated using the percentage of maximum voluntary contraction. The participants contracted their quadriceps during isometric contraction at 30 and 60° of knee flexion. [Results] The genu varum group had more activity in the vastus medialis than in the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, whereas the genu valgum group had more activity in the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris than in the vastus medialis. There was a significant difference in the muscle activity ratio between the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis by angle of knee flexion degree only in the genu valgum. There were no significant differences in any of the three groups in terms of the muscle activity ratio of the vastus medialis to the rectus femoris by angle of knee flexion. [Conclusion] The quadriceps femoris was used for different strategies according to knee alignment during isometric contraction at 30 and 60°. This study suggests that rehabilitation training programs used to strengthen the quadriceps should consider the knee alignment conditions of the target subjects.

  18. Agonist muscle activity and antagonist muscle co-activity levels during standardized isotonic and isokinetic knee extensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remaud, Anthony; Cornu, Christophe; Guével, Arnaud

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of the contraction mode (isotonic vs. isokinetic concentric conditions), the joint angle and the investigated muscle on agonist muscle activity and antagonist muscle co-activity during standardized knee extensions. Twelve healthy adult subjects performed three sets of isotonic knee extensions at 40% of their maximal voluntary isometric torque followed by three sets of maximal isokinetic knee extensions on an isokinetic dynamometer. For each set, the mean angular velocity and the total external amount of work performed were standardized during the two contraction modes. Surface electromyographic activity of vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), semitendinosus (ST) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles was recorded. Root mean square values were then calculated for each 10 degrees between 85 degrees and 45 degrees of knee extension (0 degrees =horizontal position). Results show that agonist muscle activity and antagonist muscle co-activity levels are significantly greater in isotonic mode compared to isokinetic mode. Quadriceps activity and hamstrings co-activity are significantly lower at knee extended position in both contraction modes. Considering agonist muscles, VL reveals a specific pattern of activity compared to VM and RF; whereas considering hamstring muscles, BF shows a significantly higher co-activity than ST in both contraction modes. Results of this study confirmed our hypothesis that higher quadriceps activity is required during isotonic movements compared to isokinetic movements leading to a higher hamstrings co-activity.

  19. Analysis of the Response Speed of Musculature of the Knee in Professional Male and Female Volleyball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rodríguez-Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the normalized response speed (Vrn of the knee musculature (flexor and extensor in high competitive level volleyball players using tensiomyography (TMG and to analyze the muscular response of the vastus medialis (VM, rectus femoris (RF, vastus lateralis (VL, and biceps femoris (BF in accordance with the specific position they play in their teams. One hundred and sixty-six players (83 women and 83 men were evaluated. They belonged to eight teams in the Spanish women’s superleague and eight in the Spanish men’s superleague. The use of Vrn allows avoiding possible sample imbalances due to anatomical and functional differences and demands. We found differences between Vrn in each of the muscles responsible for extension (VM, RF, and VL and flexion (BF regardless of the sex. Normalized response speed differences seem to be larger in setters, liberos and outside players compared to middle blockers and larger in males when compared to females. These results of Vrn might respond to the differences in the physical and technical demands of each specific position, showing an improved balance response of the knee extensor and flexor musculature in male professional volleyball players.

  20. Analysis of the Response Speed of Musculature of the Knee in Professional Male and Female Volleyball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ruiz, D.; Diez-Vega, I.; Rodríguez-Matoso, D.; Fernandez-del-Valle, M.; Sagastume, R.; Molina, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the normalized response speed (Vrn) of the knee musculature (flexor and extensor) in high competitive level volleyball players using tensiomyography (TMG) and to analyze the muscular response of the vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps femoris (BF) in accordance with the specific position they play in their teams. One hundred and sixty-six players (83 women and 83 men) were evaluated. They belonged to eight teams in the Spanish women's superleague and eight in the Spanish men's superleague. The use of Vrn allows avoiding possible sample imbalances due to anatomical and functional differences and demands. We found differences between Vrn in each of the muscles responsible for extension (VM, RF, and VL) and flexion (BF) regardless of the sex. Normalized response speed differences seem to be larger in setters, liberos and outside players compared to middle blockers and larger in males when compared to females. These results of Vrn might respond to the differences in the physical and technical demands of each specific position, showing an improved balance response of the knee extensor and flexor musculature in male professional volleyball players. PMID:25003109

  1. The effects of a prolonged running exercise on strength characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepers, R; Pousson, M L; Maffiuletti, N A; Martin, A; Van Hoecke, J

    2000-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine concentric, isometric, and eccentric strength reductions in the quadriceps muscle following a prolonged running exercise. Before and after a 2 h run (28.4+/-1.4 km) peak torque (PT) of the knee extensors at angular velocities of -120, -90, -60, 0, 60, 120, 180, 240 degrees x s(-1) using an isokinetic dynamometer, electromyographic (EMG) activity of the vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis (VM) muscles and height of a counter movement jump were recorded in twelve well-trained triathletes. Counter movement jump performances decreased by 10% and PT values were all significantly lower (p run. The torque loss was significantly (p activity (RMS) was lower in both VL and VM muscles after the 2 h run but no difference existed in RMS losses between concentric and eccentric contractions. The present results demonstrate that 1) a prolonged running exercise more greatly affects eccentric force production in the quadriceps muscle, and 2) this specificity seems to be due to an impairment of the muscular contractile mechanism rather than a modification to the neural input.

  2. 成人松果体、侧脑室额角体表颞侧投影与外耳门的关系%SPATIAL RELATIONSHIP OF ADULT MEATUS ACUSTICUS EXTERNUS BETWEEN PINEAL GLAND AND CORNU FRONTALE VENTRICULI LATERALIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷学; 李滨; 蒋丽丹; 闫丽红; 王润辉; 范振增

    2014-01-01

    目的:使用坐标转换的数学方法处理颅脑影像数据,寻找成人颅内松果体、侧脑室额角体表颞侧投影点与同侧外耳门的空间关系。方法在CT后处理工作站记录30例影像正常人的外耳门、外眦、松果体、侧脑室额角的原始数据。经数学方法转化为平行大脑镰的头皮听眦线(OM线)为基础,外耳门为原点,听眦线和对侧外耳门为平面的新三维坐标系下的坐标数据,得出松果体和侧脑室额角体的新坐标数据,并将数据进行统计处理。结果松果体在 X、Y、Z轴上数值及侧脑室额角在 X轴上数值男女差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);Y、Z轴上侧脑室额角,男女差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论松果体和侧脑室额角距外耳门前后、内外及上下均有相对固定的区间值,二者在男女中 OM线的前后位置有明显差异,该数据可为临床手术相关定位提供参考。%Objective To investigate the spatial relationship between adult acusticus externus and the pineal gland,cornu frontale ventriculi lateralis by using the mathematical methods of coordinate transformation.Methods The original 3-dimensional coordinate data of 30 patients were obtained on thinner CT scan from CT workstation,including meatus acusticus externus,angulus oculi lateralis,the pineal gland,cornu frontale ventriculi lateralis.Then,the original cordinate values were transformed to those in the new cordinate system (line between angulus oculi lateralis and meatus acusticus externus,meatus acusticus externus as origin,OM line and contralaterally meatus acusticus externus as flat)and statistics data were processed. Results The values of the pineal gland on X,Y,Z axis and cornu frontale ventriculi lateralis on X axis had significant difference between male and female(P0.05). Conclusion In this new cordinate system,the pineal gland and cornu frontale ventriculi lateralis in male and female adults had

  3. Quadriceps femoris electromyogram during concentric, isometric and eccentric phases of fatiguing dynamic knee extensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincivero, Danny M; Gandhi, Varsha; Timmons, Mark K; Coelho, Alan J

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the superficial quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle electromyogram (EMG) during fatiguing knee extensions. Thirty young adults were evaluated for their one-repetition maximum (1RM) during a seated, right-leg, inertial knee extension. All subjects then completed a single set of repeated knee extensions at 50% 1RM, to failure. Subjects performed a knee extension (concentric phase), held the weight with the knee extended for 2s (isometric phase), and lowered the weight in a controlled manner (eccentric phase). Raw EMG of the vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles were full-wave rectified, integrated and normalized to the 1RM EMG, for each respective phase and repetition. The EMG median frequency (f(med)) was computed during the isometric phase. An increase in QF muscle EMG was observed during the concentric phase across the exercise duration. VL EMG was greater than the VM and RF muscles during the isometric phase, in which no significant changes occurred in any of the muscles across the exercise duration. A significant decrease in EMG across the exercise duration was observed during the eccentric phase, with the VL EMG greater than the VM and RF muscles. A greater decrease in VL and RF muscle f(med) during the isometric phase, than the VM muscle, was observed with no gender differences. The findings demonstrated differential recruitment of the superficial QF muscle, depending on the contraction mode during dynamic knee extension exercise, where VL muscle dominance appears to manifest across the concentric-isometric-eccentric transition.

  4. Dynamic in vivo 3-dimensional moment arms of the individual quadriceps components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nicole A; Sheehan, Frances T

    2009-08-25

    The purpose of this study was to provide the first in vivo 3-dimensional (3D) measures of knee extensor moment arms, measured during dynamic volitional activity. The hypothesis was that the vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis (VM) have significant off-axis moment arms compared to the central quadriceps components. After obtaining informed consent, three 3D dynamic cine phase contrast (PC) MRI sets (x,y,z velocity and anatomic images) were acquired from 22 subjects during active knee flexion and extension. Using a sagittal-oblique and two coronal-oblique imaging planes, the origins and insertions of each quadriceps muscle were identified and tracked through each time frame by integrating the cine-PC velocity data. The moment arm (MA) and relative moment (RM, defined as the cross product of the tendon line-of-action and a line connecting the line-of-action with the patellar center of mass) were calculated for each quadriceps component. The tendencies of the VM and VL to produce patellar tilt were evenly balanced. Interestingly, the magnitude of RM-P(Spin) for the VM and VL is approximately four times greater than the magnitude of RM-P(Tilt) for the same muscles suggesting that patellar spin may play a more important role in patellofemoral kinematics than previously thought. Thus, a force imbalance that leads to excessive lateral tilt, such as VM weakness in patellofemoral pain syndrome, would produce excessive negative spin (positive spin: superior patellar pole rotates laterally) and to a much greater degree. This would explain the increased negative spin found in recent studies of patellar maltracking. Assessing the contribution of each quadriceps component in three dimensions provides a more complete understanding of muscle functionality.

  5. Electromyographic comparison of conventional machine strength training versus bodyweight exercises in patients with chronic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinstrup, Jonas; Calatayud, Joaquin; Jakobsen, Markus D.;

    2017-01-01

    leg press. Vastus lateralis nEMG was higher during bilateral leg press compared with hip thrust (38% [95% CI 33-42] vs. 10% [95% CI 6-15], p Vastus medialis nEMG was higher during bilateral leg press compared with hip...... thrust (34% [95%CI 27-40] vs. 8% [95% CI 2-15], p vastus medialis (42...

  6. Static vs. Dynamic Acute Stretching Effect on Quadriceps Muscle Activity during Soccer Instep Kicking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri-Khorasani, Mohammadtaghi; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of static and dynamic stretching on quadriceps muscle activation during maximal soccer instep kicking. The kicking motion of twelve male college soccer players (body height: 174.66 ± 5.01 cm; body mass: 72.83 ± 4.83 kg; age: 18.83 ± 0.75 years) was captured using six synchronized high-speed infra-red cameras whilst electromyography (EMG) signals from vastus medialis (VM), lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) were recorded before and after static or dynamic stretching. Analysis of variance designs showed a higher increase in knee extension angular velocity (9.65% vs. −1.45%, p stretching exercises. Based on these results, it could be suggested that dynamic stretching is probably more effective in increasing quadriceps muscle activity and knee extension angular velocity during the final swing phase of a maximal soccer instep kick than static stretching. PMID:24511339

  7. The effect of patellar taping on EMG activity of vasti muscles during squatting in individuals with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostamand, Javid; Bader, Dan L; Hudson, Zöe

    2011-01-01

    Although patellar taping has been shown to reduce pain in participants with patellofemoral pain syndrome, the mechanisms of pain reduction have not completely been established following its application. The purpose of this study was to evaluate EMG activity of vastus medialis and vastus lateralis following the application of patellar taping during a functional single leg squat. Both vastus medialis obliquus-vastus lateralis onset and vastus medialis obliquus/vastus lateralis amplitude of 18 participants with patellofemoral pain syndrome and 18 healthy participants as controls were measured using an EMG unit. This procedure was performed on the affected knee of participants with patellofemoral pain syndrome, before, during, and after patellar taping during unilateral squatting. The same procedure was also performed on the unaffected knees of both groups. The mean values of vastus medialis obliquus-vastus lateralis onset prior to taping (2.54 ms, s = 4.35) were decreased significantly following an immediate application of tape (-3.22 ms, s = 3.45) and after a prolonged period of taping (-6.00 ms, s = 3.40 s) (P patellofemoral pain syndrome prior to taping (P patellofemoral pain syndrome and controls during different conditions of taping (P > 0.05). Decreased values of vastus medialis obliquus-vastus lateralis onset may contribute to patellar realignment and explain the mechanism of pain reduction following patellar taping in participants with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

  8. 附子白及同方配伍规律与应用条件探析%Study on Applicable Conditions and Compatibility Rules of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata and Bletillae Rhizoma in Same Prescription

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于大猛; 瞿融; 杨杰

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Study on applicable conditions and compatibility rules of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata and Bletillae Rhizoraa in the same prescription. Method: There were 84464 herbal prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine, among which twenty-seven herbal prescriptions contained aconite and salep. The author analyzed their functions and mechanisms and regularity of application. Result: By analyzing 27 prescriptions that contained Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata and Bletillae Rhizoma, we found that the pathogenesis of all the recipes were Yang deficiency, coagulated cold and blood stasis. Compatibility rules were as follows. Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata was used as a sovereign drug to warm Yang, dispel cold and clear the way. Bletillae Rhizoma and Ampelopsis Radix were commonly used for eliminating slough, promoting granulation and astringing sores. Radix Angelicae Dahuricae and Saposhnikoviae Radix were primarily applied to dispel pathogenic wind and resolve superficies. Angelicae Radix Sinensis and Rhizoma Ligustici were used to activate blood and dissolve stasis. Radix Aucklandiae and Semen Armeniacae Amarum were usually applied to harmonize and regulate the Qi activity. Radix et Rhizoma Rhei and Scutellariae Radix were used as a supplementary drug to clear heat and toxin. So we inferred wind-expelling and cold-removing drugs as well as blood-activating and stasis-dissolving drugs might attenuate toxicity originated from Aconiti Lateralis Preparata compounding with Bletillae Rhizoma. Angelicae Dahuricae Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix might be an' antidote' to Aconiti Lateralis Preparata compounding with Bletillae Rhizoma. Conclusion: It is not opposite absolutely because the aconite and salep can be used together under reasonable condition.%目的:附子、白及配伍规律与应用条件的研究.方法:在“中国中医药数据库”84 464首方剂中,共检索出含附子白及处方27首,对其主治、病机、配伍规律进行分析.

  9. Intra-session repeatability of lower limb muscles activation pattern during pedaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorel, Sylvain; Couturier, Antoine; Hug, François

    2008-10-01

    Assessment of intra-session repeatability of muscle activation pattern is of considerable relevance for research settings, especially when used to determine changes over time. However, the repeatability of lower limb muscles activation pattern during pedaling is not fully established. Thus, we tested the intra-session repeatability of the activation pattern of 10 lower limb muscles during a sub-maximal cycling exercise. Eleven triathletes participated to this study. The experimental session consisted in a reference sub-maximal cycling exercise (i.e. 150 W) performed before and after a 53-min simulated training session (mean power output=200+/-12 W). Repeatability of EMG patterns was assessed in terms of muscle activity level (i.e. RMS of the mean pedaling cycle and burst) and muscle activation timing (i.e. onset and offset of the EMG burst) for the 10 following lower limb muscles: gluteus maximus (GMax), semimembranosus (SM), Biceps femoris (BF), vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), gastrocnemius medianus (GM) and lateralis (GL), soleus (SOL) and tibialis anterior (TA). No significant differences concerning the muscle activation level were found between test and retest for all the muscles investigated. Only VM, SOL and TA showed significant differences in muscle activation timing parameters. Whereas ICC and SEM values confirmed this weak repeatability, cross-correlation coefficients suggest a good repeatability of the activation timing parameters for all the studied muscles. Overall, the main finding of this work is the good repeatability of the EMG pattern during pedaling both in term of muscle activity level and muscle activation timing.

  10. Germinación, microinjertación y cultivo de callos in vitro de Vasconcellea stipulata V.M. Badillo y Vasconcellea pubescens A.DC

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    En varias poblaciones rurales de regiones andinas y centroamericanas se utilizan con fines etnomédicos las hojas, el látex y el fruto de las plantas de la familia Caricaceae cuyo miembro más representativo es la papaya (Carica papaya L.), la cual produce la fuente comercial más importante de la enzima proteolítica papaína. El presente trabajo estudia las especies Vasconcellea stipulata V.M. Badillo y Vasconcellea pubescens A.DC que pertenecen al género Vasconcellea, miembros de la familia Car...

  11. Severe COPD Alters Muscle Fiber Conduction Velocity During Knee Extensors Fatiguing Contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Gennaro; Coratella, Giuseppe; Dardanello, Davide; Rinaldo, Nicoletta; Lanza, Massimo; Schena, Federico; Rainoldi, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the changes in muscle fiber conduction velocity (CV), as a sign of fatigue during knee extensor contraction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as compared with healthy controls. Eleven male patients (5 with severe and 6 with moderate COPD; age 67 ± 5 years) and 11 age-matched healthy male controls (age 65 ± 4 years) volunteered for the study. CV was obtained by multichannel surface electromyography (EMG) from the vastus lateralis (VL) and medialis (VM) of the quadriceps muscle during isometric, 30-second duration knee extension at 70% of maximal voluntary contraction. The decline in CV in both the VL and VM was steeper in the severe COPD patients than in healthy controls (for VL: severe COPD vs. controls -0.45 ± 0.07%/s; p < 0.001, and for VM: severe COPD vs. controls -0.54 ± 0.09%/s, p < 0.001). No difference in CV decline was found between the moderate COPD patients and the healthy controls. These findings suggest that severe COPD may impair muscle functions, leading to greater muscular fatigue, as expressed by CV changes. The results may be due to a greater involvement of anaerobic metabolism and a shift towards fatigable type II fibers in the muscle composition of the severe COPD patients.

  12. Retraction statement: Dynamics of Cytochrome C Oxidase Activity in Acute Ischemic Stroke' by Selaković, V.M., Jovanović, M.D., Mihajlović, R.R. and Radenović, L.L.J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The above article from Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, published online on 7 April 2005 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) and in Volume 111, pp. 329-332, has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, Professor Elinor Ben-Menachem, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The article has been retracted because a similar article had previously been published in the Jugoslovenska medicinska biohemija in 2003. The authors presumed that since the journal was no longer existing, they felt the need to re-publish their work in Acta Neuorologica Scandinavica. However, in the consideration of the Journal, this constitutes dual publication. References SelakovićVM, JovanovićMD, MihajlovićR, RadenovićLLJ. Cytochrome c oxidase in patients with acute ischaemic brain disease. Jugoslovenska medicinska biohemija. 2003;22:329-334. SelakovićVM, JovanovićMD, MihajlovićRR, RadenovićLLJ. Dynamics of cytochrome c oxidase activity in acute ischemic stroke. Acta Neurol Scand. 2005;111:329-332.

  13. Oxygenation, local muscle oxygen consumption and joint specific power in cycling: the effect of cadence at a constant external work rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovereng, Knut; Ettema, Gertjan; van Beekvelt, Mireille C P

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigates the effect of cadence on joint specific power and oxygenation and local muscle oxygen consumption in the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis in addition to the relationship between joint specific power and local muscle oxygen consumption (mVO2). Seventeen recreationally active cyclists performed 6 stages of constant load cycling using cadences of 60, 70, 80, 90, 100 and 110 rpm. Joint specific power was calculated using inverse dynamics and mVO2 and oxygenation were measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. Increasing cadence led to increased knee joint power and decreased hip joint power while the ankle joint was unaffected. Increasing cadence also led to an increased deoxygenation in both the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis. Vastus lateralis mVO2 increased when cadence was increased. No effect of cadence was found for vastus medialis mVO2. This study demonstrates a different effect of cadence on the mVO2 of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis. The combined mVO2 of the vastus lateralis and medialis showed a linear increase with increasing knee joint specific power, demonstrating that the muscles combined related to power generated over the joint.

  14. Testing decreasing variabililty of cockroach forewings through time using four Recent species: Blattella germanica,Polyphaga aegyptiaca, Shelfordella lateralis and Blaberus craniifer, with implications for the study of fossil cockroach forewings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew J. Ross

    2012-01-01

    Vr(s)ansk(y) (2000) considered there is decreasing variability in the forewings of cockroaches through time,based on a study of fossil and Recent species.This study tests his theory,based on a study of four Recent species of cockroaches:Blattella germanica (Blattellidae),Polyphaga aegyptiaca (Polyphagidae),Shelfordella lateralis (Blattidae) and Blaberus craniifer (Blaberidae).The new results,based on the coefficient of variation (CV) of the number of veins,indicate that Recent species can be more variable than fossil species and therefore do not support the theory.The results also show that at least 30 complete wings of the same species are required for a reliable CV value that is comparable between species.

  15. Functional imaging of muscle oxygenation and oxygen consumption in the knee extensor muscles during isometric contractions by spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kek, Khai Jun; Miyakawa, Takahiro; Kudo, Nobuki; Yamamoto, Katsuyuki

    2007-02-01

    In this study, we showed that exercise type- and intensity-dependent regional differences in muscle oxygenation and oxygen consumption rate (Vo II) of the knee extensor muscles could be imaged in real time with a multi-channel spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (SR-NIRS) imaging device. Healthy subjects performed isometric knee extension exercise for 30 s (without- or with-leg-press action) at different exercise intensities [10%, 40% and 70% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)]. "Separation-type" probes were attached to the skin over the major knee extensor muscles: vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF) and vastus medialis (VM). Placement of the probes enabled simultaneously measurement of 12 sites over a skin area of about 30 cm2 (temporal resolution = 0.25 s). Local Vo II of each muscle, resting Vo II (Vo II, rest) and recovery Vo II (Vo II, rec ), were determined with arterial occlusion before the start and after the end of contraction, respectively. There was no significant difference between the values of Vo II rest, in the muscles. However, during knee extension exercise without-leg-press action, Vo II rec, value of the RF was significantly greater than the values of the VL and VM at all exercise intensities. In contrast, during exercise with-leg-press action, Vo II rec, values of the RF and VM were greater than those of the VL, especially during exercise at 40% and 70% MVC. In summary, the regional differences in muscle oxygenation and Vo II of the knee extensor muscles, probably due to the differences in relative contributions of muscles to exercise and in muscle architecture, were imaged using SR-NIRS.

  16. Angle- and gender-specific quadriceps femoris muscle recruitment and knee extensor torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincivero, Danny M; Salfetnikov, Yuliya; Campy, Robert M; Coelho, Alan J

    2004-11-01

    The objectives were to examine knee angle-, and gender-specific knee extensor torque output and quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle recruitment during maximal effort, voluntary contractions. Fourteen young adult men and 15 young adult women performed three isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVC), in a random order, with the knee at 0 degrees (terminal extension), 10 degrees, 30 degrees, 50 degrees, 70 degrees, and 90 degrees flexion. Knee extensor peak torque (PT), and average torque (AT) were expressed in absolute (N m), relative (N m kg(-1)) and allometric-modeled (N m kg(-n)) units. Vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), and rectus femoris (RF) muscle EMG signals were full-wave rectified and integrated over the middle 3 s of each contraction, averaged over the three trials at each knee angle, and normalized to the activity recorded at 0 degrees. Muscle recruitment efficiency was calculated as the ratio of the normalized EMG of each muscle to the allometric-modeled average torque (normalized to the values at 0 degrees flexion), and expressed as a percent. Men generated significantly greater knee extensor PT and AT than women in absolute, relative and allometric-modeled units. Absolute and relative PT and AT were significantly highest at 70 degrees, while allometric-modeled values were observed to increase significantly across knee joint angles 10-90 degrees. VM EMG was significantly greater than the VL and RF muscles across all angles, and followed a similar pattern to absolute knee extensor torque. Recruitment efficiency improved across knee joint angles 10-90 degrees and was highest for the VL muscle. VM recruitment efficiency improved more than the VL and RF muscles across 70-90 degrees flexion. The findings demonstrate angle-, and gender-specific responses of knee extensor torque to maximal-effort contractions, while superficial QF muscle recruitment was most efficient at 90 degrees, and less dependent on gender.

  17. Kinesiology Taping does not Modify Electromyographic Activity or Muscle Flexibility of Quadriceps Femoris Muscle: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study in Healthy Volleyball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halski, Tomasz; Dymarek, Robert; Ptaszkowski, Kuba; Słupska, Lucyna; Rajfur, Katarzyna; Rajfur, Joanna; Pasternok, Małgorzata; Smykla, Agnieszka; Taradaj, Jakub

    2015-08-01

    Kinesiology taping (KT) is a popular method of supporting professional athletes during sports activities, traumatic injury prevention, and physiotherapeutic procedures after a wide range of musculoskeletal injuries. The effectiveness of KT in muscle strength and motor units recruitment is still uncertain. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of KT on surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity and muscle flexibility of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), and vastus medialis (VM) muscles in healthy volleyball players. Twenty-two healthy volleyball players (8 men and 14 women) were included in the study and randomly assigned to 2 comparative groups: "kinesiology taping" (KT; n=12; age: 22.30 ± 1.88 years; BMI: 22.19 ± 4.00 kg/m(2)) in which KT application over the RF muscle was used, and "placebo taping" (PT; n=10; age: 21.50 ± 2.07 years; BMI: 22.74 ± 2.67 kg/m(2)) in which adhesive nonelastic tape over the same muscle was used. All subjects were analyzed for resting sEMG activity of the VL and VM muscles, resting and functional sEMG activity of RF muscle, and muscle flexibility of RF muscle. No significant differences in muscle flexibility of the RF muscle and sEMG activity of the RF, VL, and VM muscles were registered before and after interventions in both groups, and between the KT and PT groups (p>0.05). The results show that application of the KT to the RF muscle is not useful to improve sEMG activity.

  18. 虚拟机宿主服务器及其性能收集方法研究%Research of VM-hosted servers and performance collecting methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛青; 张延园

    2009-01-01

    介绍了虚拟化技术的概念和研究范围,接着探讨计算平台虚拟化及高可用等特性,引入虚拟机宿主服务器的概念,指出为了发挥虚拟化技术的特性,对虚拟机宿主服务器进行性能数据收集的必要性,以EsxServer和Xen为性能收集对象,分别探讨性能收集方法.具体方法是针对不同虚拟化产品,相应使用了Linux命令查询解析、虚拟化监视器命令解析及数据管理对象访问.最后以虚拟化产品厂商提供的性能监视数据作为参照,指出了性能收集方法的优劣.%The virtualization technology is introduced including its conception and research range. The computing platform virtualization is discussed later, involving the term VM-hosted servers. Then the necessity is pointed out which emphasized to collect performance information from VM-hosted servers to take advantage of features of virtualization. After that the information gathering methods for Esx Server and Xen are discussed, such as query and analysis by Linux command, analysis by VMM command and data management objects access. According to the data from tools of virtualization products manufactures, the Pros and Cons of these implied methods are analyzed.

  19. Relative contributions of animal and muscle effects to variation in beef lean color stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef carcasses (n = 100) were selected from a commercial processing facility. Longissimus lumborum (LM), semimembranosus (SM), biceps femoris (BF), gluteus medius (GM), triceps brachii (TB), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), adductor (AD), semitendinosus (ST), infraspinatus (IS), teres ma...

  20. Medium-intensity, high-volume “hypertrophic” resistance training did not induce improvements in rapid force production in healthy older men

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, Simon; Peltonen, Heikki; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2015-01-01

    ... ms, and maximum concentric power tests were performed pre- and post-intervention. Muscle activity was assessed during these tests by surface electromyogram of the vastus lateralis and medialis muscles...

  1. Hyperglycaemia normalises insulin action on glucose metabolism but not the impaired activation of AKT and glycogen synthase in the skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, B F; Birk, Jesper Bratz; Vienberg, Sara Gry;

    2012-01-01

    patients underwent a second isoglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp maintaining fasting hyperglycaemia. Muscle biopsies from m. vastus lateralis were obtained before and after the clamp for examination of GS and relevant insulin signalling components. RESULTS: During euglycaemia, insulin-stimulated glucose...

  2. 紫杉醇联合替尼泊苷对胃癌BGC-823细胞增殖和凋亡的影响%Effects of taxol and VM-26 on proliferation and apoptosis of gastric cancer cell line BGC-823

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗执芬; 周云; 刘明月

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨紫杉醇(Taxol)和替尼泊苷(VM-26)联合应用对胃癌BGC-823细胞的体外抑制和诱导细胞凋亡的作用.方法:采用MTT法测定Taxol单药(0.75、1.50、3.00、6.00、12.00 mg/L),VM-26单药(1.25、2.50、5.00、10.00、20.00mg/L)及联合用药(0.75/1.25,1.5/2.50,3.00/5.00,6.00/10.00,12.00/20.00 mg/L)对BGC-823细胞的生长抑制率,应用流式细胞仪测定0.75 mg/L Taxol、1.25 mg/L VM-26单药及其联合用药作用0,12,24,48 h各时间点的细胞周期和凋亡率.结果:Taxol和VM-26单药及联合用药对BGC-823细胞的生长抑制率随药物的质量浓度的增加而增加.联合用药指数(CI)为1.43.经1.25 mg/L的VM-26和0.75 mg/L Taxol单药及联合用药均可诱导胃癌BGC-823细胞的凋亡,Taxol单药处理后24 h,使G2/M细胞显著增多,S期细胞显著减少;VM-26单药处理后48 h,G1/G0、S期细胞减少,G2/M期细胞显著增加.结论:Taxol与VM-26单药均可抑制胃癌BGC-823细胞的生长,诱导细胞凋亡,联合用药对胃癌BGC-823细胞的生长抑制有拮抗作用.

  3. Localization and quantification of intramuscular damage using statistical parametric mapping and skeletal muscle parcellation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouré, Alexandre; Le Troter, Arnaud; Guye, Maxime; Mattei, Jean-Pierre; Bendahan, David; Gondin, Julien

    2015-12-22

    In the present study, we proposed an original and robust methodology which combines the spatial normalization of skeletal muscle images, the statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis and the use of a specific parcellation in order to accurately localize and quantify the extent of skeletal muscle damage within the four heads of the quadriceps femoris. T2 maps of thigh muscles were characterized before, two (D2) and four (D4) days after 40 maximal isometric electrically-evoked contractions in 25 healthy young males. On the basis of SPM analysis of coregistrated T2 maps, the alterations were similarly detected at D2 and D4 in the superficial and distal regions of the vastus medialis (VM) whereas the proportion of altered muscle was higher in deep muscle regions of the vastus lateralis at D4 (deep: 35 ± 25%, superficial: 23 ± 15%) as compared to D2 (deep: 18 ± 13%, superficial: 17 ± 13%). The present methodology used for the first time on skeletal muscle would be of utmost interest to detect subtle intramuscular alterations not only for the diagnosis of muscular diseases but also for assessing the efficacy of potential therapeutic interventions and clinical treatment strategies.

  4. Effect of high-intensity intermittent cycling sprints on neuromuscular activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billaut, F; Basset, F A; Giacomoni, M; Lemaître, F; Tricot, V; Falgairette, G

    2006-01-01

    High-intensity intermittent sprints induce changes in metabolic and mechanical parameters. However, very few data are available about electrical manifestations of muscle fatigue following such sprints. In this study, quadriceps electromyographic (EMG) responses to repeated all-out exercise bouts of short duration were assessed from maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) performed before and after sprints. Twelve men performed ten 6-s maximal cycling sprints, separated by 30-s rest. The MVC were performed pre-sprints ( pre), post-sprints ( post), and 5 min post-sprints ( post5). Values of root-mean-square (RMS) and median frequency (MF) of vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis (VM) were recorded during each MVC. During sprints, PPO decreased significantly in sprints 8, 9, and 10, compared to sprint 1 (- 8 %, - 10 %, and - 11 %, respectively, p MVC post (- 13 %, p MVC post5 (- 10.5 %, p MVC pre. The RMS value of VL muscle increased significantly after sprints (RMS pre vs. RMS post: + 15 %, p pattern of muscle fiber recruitment, and a decrease in conduction velocity of active fibers.

  5. RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF THE OMNI-VIBRATION EXERCISE SCALE OF PERCEIVED EXERTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Marín

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined reliability and concurrent validity of the newly developed OMNI-vibration exercise scale (OMNI-VIBRO to measure Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE during vibration exercise in twenty recreationally active students (12 males and 8 females. The criterion variables were muscle activity of the Vastus Medialis (VM, Vastus Lateralis (VL, Biceps Femoris (BF, and Medial Gastrocnemius (MG muscles, as well as accelerations (12.5, 20.2, 30.9, 36.3, 60.1, and 88.4 m·s-2. RPE was registered during the final of each 30 s condition. Each participant attended two laboratory testing sessions. Positive linear regression coefficients (p < 0.001 were found between RPE (OMNI-VIBRO and acceleration (r = 0.976 and muscle activity of lower-body muscles (r = 0.942. Between session (test-retest, reliability of RPE (OMNI-VIBRO was good (ICC: 0.790. 95% CI: 0.699-0.854. Conclusions: findings provided concurrent validation of the OMNI-VIBRO to measure RPE for the active muscle and overall body in recreationally active students performing lower-body vibration exercise

  6. MUSCLE ACTIVITY DURING KNEE‐EXTENSION STRENGTHENING EXERCISE PERFORMED WITH ELASTIC TUBING AND ISOTONIC RESISTANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H.; Bandholm, Thomas; Thorborg, Kristian; Zebis, Mette K.; Andersen, Lars L.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Purpose: While elastic resistance training, targeting the upper body is effective for strength training, the effect of elastic resistance training on lower body muscle activity remains questionable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the EMG‐angle relationship of the quadriceps muscle during 10‐RM knee‐extensions performed with elastic tubing and an isotonic strength training machine. Methods: 7 women and 9 men aged 28‐67 years (mean age 44 and 41 years, respectively) participated. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in 10 muscles during the concentric and eccentric contraction phase of a knee extension exercise performed with elastic tubing and in training machine and normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) EMG (nEMG). Knee joint angle was measured during the exercises using electronic inclinometers (range of motion 0‐90°). Results: When comparing the machine and elastic resistance exercises there were no significant differences in peak EMG of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM) during the concentric contraction phase. However, during the eccentric phase, peak EMG was significantly higher (p70% nEMG) quadriceps muscle activity during the concentric contraction phase, but slightly lower during the eccentric contraction phase, as knee extensions performed using an isotonic training machine. During the concentric contraction phase the two different conditions displayed reciprocal EMG‐angle patterns during the range of motion. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:23316424

  7. Muscle activity during knee-extension strengthening exercise performed with elastic tubing and isotonic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H; Bandholm, Thomas; Thorborg, Kristian; Zebis, Mette K; Andersen, Lars L

    2012-12-01

    While elastic resistance training, targeting the upper body is effective for strength training, the effect of elastic resistance training on lower body muscle activity remains questionable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the EMG-angle relationship of the quadriceps muscle during 10-RM knee-extensions performed with elastic tubing and an isotonic strength training machine. 7 women and 9 men aged 28-67 years (mean age 44 and 41 years, respectively) participated. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in 10 muscles during the concentric and eccentric contraction phase of a knee extension exercise performed with elastic tubing and in training machine and normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) EMG (nEMG). Knee joint angle was measured during the exercises using electronic inclinometers (range of motion 0-90°). When comparing the machine and elastic resistance exercises there were no significant differences in peak EMG of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM) during the concentric contraction phase. However, during the eccentric phase, peak EMG was significantly higher (p70% nEMG) quadriceps muscle activity during the concentric contraction phase, but slightly lower during the eccentric contraction phase, as knee extensions performed using an isotonic training machine. During the concentric contraction phase the two different conditions displayed reciprocal EMG-angle patterns during the range of motion. 5.

  8. Mechanical response of knee muscles in high level bodyboarders during performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Rodríguez-Matoso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: bodyboarding is a kind of surfing that has been growing very rapidly over the last decade and has now developed into one of the fastest growing water sports in the world. OBJECTIVES: evaluate the effects of fatigue on rectus femoris RF, vastus lateralis VL and vastus medialis VM and biceps femoris BF and semitendinosus ST during a high-level bodyboard competition using tensiomyography TMG. METHODS: subjects were 11 highly experienced years of practice: 15, SD=4.65 male bodyboarders age: 28.17, SD=2.89, body weight: 74.83, SD=6.13kg; height: 179.25, SD=3.93cm; BMI: 23.29, SD=1.81 participating in the final of the 2010 Spanish championship. RESULTS: the fatigue is especially evident due to a decrease in the values of relaxation time Tr and sustain time Ts caused by the specific characteristics of waves, how the waves evolve and the type of manoeuvre executed in competition due to the wave characteristics. The maximum radial displacement Dm value increased slightly in all muscles analysed and normalised response speed Vrn was stable, with a tendency to improve as athletes adapted to the type of physical effort and the environmental conditions of the competition. CONCLUSIONS: the study shows that the fatigue in the extensor and flexor muscles of the knee occurs in response to the demands of competition.

  9. Muscle Activation Differs between Three Different Knee Joint-Angle Positions during a Maximal Isometric Back Squat Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Marchetti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare muscle activation of the lower limb muscles when performing a maximal isometric back squat exercise over three different positions. Fifteen young, healthy, resistance-trained men performed an isometric back squat at three knee joint angles (20°, 90°, and 140° in a randomized, counterbalanced fashion. Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activation of the vastus lateralis (VL, vastus medialis (VM, rectus femoris (RF, biceps femoris (BF, semitendinosus (ST, and gluteus maximus (GM. In general, muscle activity was the highest at 90° for the three quadriceps muscles, yet differences in muscle activation between knee angles were muscle specific. Activity of the GM was significantly greater at 20° and 90° compared to 140°. The BF and ST displayed similar activation at all joint angles. In conclusion, knee position alters muscles activation of the quadriceps and gluteus maximus muscles. An isometric back squat at 90° generates the highest overall muscle activation, yet an isometric back squat at 140° generates the lowest overall muscle activation of the VL and GM only.

  10. Acute effect of static stretching on rate of force development and maximal voluntary contraction in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurjão, André L D; Gonçalves, Raquel; de Moura, Rodrigo F; Gobbi, Sebastião

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, in older women, the acute effect of static stretching (SS) on both muscle activation and force output. Twenty-three older women (64.6 +/- 7.1 yr) participated in the study. The maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), rate of force development (RFD) (50, 100, 150, and 200 ms relative to onset of muscular contraction), and peak RFD (PRFD) (the steepest slope of the curve during the first 200 ms) were tested under 2 randomly separate conditions: SS and control (C). Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps femoris (BF) muscles also was assessed. The MVC was significantly lower (p force decreased after their performance of SS exercises. The mechanisms responsible for this effect do not appear to be related to muscle activation. Thus, if flexibility is to be trained, it is recommended that SS does not occur just before the performance of activities that require high levels of muscular force.

  11. Patellar bracing affects sEMG activity of leg and thigh muscles during stance phase in patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salarie Sker, Fatemeh; Anbarian, Mehrdad; Yazdani, Amir H; Hesari, Pouria; Babaei-Ghazani, Arash

    2017-06-29

    Decreases in patellofemoral pain symptoms with bracing treatment have been established; but, the mechanisms remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate and long-term effects of the patellar bracing on electromyography (EMG) activity of the Vastus Medialis (VM) and Lateralis (VL), Rectus Femoris, lateral Gastrocnemius, Biceps Femoris and Semitendinosus (ST) muscles during level walking. 12 eligible women aged 20-30 years with diagnosis of patellofemoral pain participated in the before and after study. Intervention consisted of 8 weeks of patellar bracing. First, patients were tested without brace, then with a brace, and finally eight weeks later without a brace. Surface EMG activation of the selected muscles during level walking was recorded. After eight weeks of patellar bracing, EMG activity of VM muscle was significantly higher when compared to first session without brace (p=0.011) at mid-stance sub-phase. Additionally, EMG activity of ST muscle during first session with brace was significantly lower when compared to first session without brace at mid-stance sub-phase (without brace) (p=0.012). EMG activity of VM muscle after eight weeks of patellar bracing was significantly higher than the first session without brace at late stance and preswing sub-phase (p=0.013). Long-term wearing of patellar bracing increases EMG activity of VM during mid-stance and late stance and preswing sub-phases of gait and immediate effect of patellar brace is decrease of EMG activity of ST muscle during mid-stance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Persistent improved results after adding vincristine and bleomycin to a cyclophosphamide/hydroxorubicin/Vm-26/prednisone combination (CHVmP) in stage III-IV intermediate- and high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The EORTC Lymphoma Cooperative Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerwaldt, J H; Carde, P; Somers, R; Thomas, J; Kluin-Nelemans, J C; Bron, D; Noordijk, E M; Cosset, J M; Bijnens, L; Teodorovic, I; Hagenbeek, A

    1997-01-01

    CHOP has been and still is regarded by many as the 'standard' treatment of advanced non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In 1980 the EORTC Lymphoma Cooperative Group started a study to evaluate the addition of vincristine and bleomycin to its standard four-drug combination chemotherapy, CHVmP (cyclophosphamide, hydroxorubicin, Vm-26, prednisone). Eligible patients were stage III or IV, intermediate- to high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (Working Formulation E-I). One-hundred-eighty-nine patients were entered, of whom 140 were eligible and evaluable. A previous report showed an improved response rate and failure-free survival (FFS) and overall survival for the combination CHVmP-VB. At ten years, the outcome still favors the addition of vincristine and bleomycin. The FFS was 34% vs. 23% and the overall survival 34% vs 22%. This difference was mainly due to a difference in CR rate (74% vs. 49%), Relapse-free survival for patients reaching a CR was the same in both arms. When the patients were grouped according to the International Prognostic Factor Index, no statistically significant difference could be observed in favor of one treatment within either group. This trial clearly demonstrates the benefit gained by the addition of vincristine and bleomycin to 'standard' chemotherapy for intermediate and high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  13. Rahvaliidu vastus oma koalitsioonipartneritele / Villu Reiljan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reiljan, Villu, 1953-

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezje, Pärnu Postimees 20. nov. lk. 2. Rahvaliit peab vajalikuks järjestada koalitsioonilepingu eesmärgid ühiskonnas esile kerkinud sotsiaalsete probleemide valulisuse järgi ja kujundada riigieelarve sellele vastavaks, rõhutatakse kirjas. Ajalehes Põhjarannik kirja autor ekslikult Janno Reiljan

  14. Asymmetry and Thigh Muscle Coactivity in Fatigued Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Reconstructed Elite Skiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Matthew J; Aagaard, Per; Herzog, Walter

    2017-01-01

    ). METHODS: Twenty-two elite ski racers (ACLR, n = 11; control, n = 11) performed an 80-s repeated squat jump test (jump test) on a dual force plate system with simultaneous EMG recordings in vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, semitendinosus, and biceps femoris. Asymmetry index (AI) and jump height of body...

  15. Effects of different rest intervals between antagonist paired sets on repetition performance and muscle activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Marianna F; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Paz, Gabriel A; Miranda, Humberto

    2014-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that exercising the antagonist musculature acutely enhances subsequent performance for the agonist musculature. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different rest intervals between sets for exercises that involve antagonistic muscle groups, a technique referred to as antagonist paired sets (APS). Fifteen recreationally trained men were tested for knee extension (KE) exercise performance, with or without previous knee flexion (KF) exercise for the antagonist musculature. The following protocols were performed in random order with 10 repetition maximum loads for the KF and KE exercises: (a) traditional protocol (TP)-1 set of KE only to repetition failure; (b) paired sets with minimal allowable rest (PMR)-1 set of KF followed immediately by a set of KE; (c) P30-30-second rest between paired sets of KF and KE; (d) P1-1-minute rest between paired sets; (e) P3-3-minute rest between paired sets; and (f) P5-5-minute rest between paired sets. The number of repetitions performed and electromyographic (EMG) activity of vastus lateralis, vastus medialis (VM), and rectus femoris (RF) muscles were recorded during the KE set in each protocol. It was demonstrated that significantly greater KE repetitions were completed during the PMR, P30, and P1 protocols vs. the TP protocol. Significantly greater EMG activity was demonstrated for the RF muscle during the KE exercise in the PMR and P30 vs. the TP, P3, and P5, respectively. In addition, significantly greater EMG activity was demonstrated for the VM muscle during the PMR vs. all other protocols. The results of this study indicate that no rest or relatively shorter rest intervals (30 seconds and 1 minute) between APS might be more effective to elicit greater agonist repetition enhancement and muscle activation.

  16. Foam Rolling of Quadriceps Decreases Biceps Femoris Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Mark Tyler; Aboodarda, Saied Jalal; Hodgson, Daniel; Behm, David George

    2016-09-06

    Foam rolling has been shown to increase range of motion without subsequent performance impairments of the rolled muscle, however, there are no studies examining rolling effects on antagonist muscles. The objective of this study was to determine whether foam rolling the hamstrings and/or quadriceps would affect hamstrings and quadriceps activation in men and women. Recreationally active men (n=10, 25 ± 4.6 years, 180.1 ± 4.4 cm, 86.5 ± 15.7 kg) and women (n=8, 21.75 ± 3.2 years, 166.4 ± 8.8 cm, 58.9 ± 7.9 kg) had surface electromyographic activity analyzed in the dominant vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), and biceps femoris (BF) muscles upon a single leg landing from a hurdle jump under four conditions. Conditions included rolling of the hamstrings, quadriceps, both muscle groups and a control session. BF activation significantly decreased following quadriceps foam rolling (F(1,16) = 7.45, p = 0.015, -8.9%). There were no significant changes in quadriceps activation following hamstrings foam rolling. This might be attributed to the significantly greater levels of perceived pain with quadriceps rolling applications (F(1,18) = 39.067, p foam rolling for VL (F(6,30) = 1.31, p = 0.283) VM (F(6,30) = 1.203, p = 0.332) or BF (F(6,36) = 1.703, p = 0.199). Antagonist muscle activation may be altered following agonist foam rolling, however, it can be suggested that any changes in activation are likely a result of reciprocal inhibition due to increased agonist pain perception.

  17. FOURNIER'S GANGRENE COMPLICATING VASECTOMY V.M. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-09-09

    Sep 9, 2003 ... The possible operational factors for the complications are explored and preventive ..... trauma, malignancy, malnutrition, renal failure, cortisone therapy, lupus ... second one depended on exogenous testosterone for "normal".

  18. Influencia del tiempo de tratamiento de superficie con ácido fluorhídrico de la porcelana VITA VM 13 en la resistencia de unión a cemento de resina frente a fuerzas de tracción: Estudio in vitro Influence of surface treatment time with hydrofluoric acid of VITA VM13 porcelain on tensile bond strength to a luting resin cement: In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JP Guzmán Thoms

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Los procedimientos restauradores indirectos son comunes en la clínica diaria actual. Se debe tener cuidado especial en la cementación, pues la gran mayoría de los fracasos ocurren en la interfase diente/restauración. Por esto es indispensable un adecuado tratamiento de superficie de la restauración para lograr una adhesión óptima a la superficie dentaria. Materiales y Métodos: Treinta cilindros de porcelana VITA VM 13 con dimensiones de 5 mm de altura y 7 mm de diámetro fueron separadas aleatoriamente en 3 grupos (n=10 de acuerdo con los tratamientos recibidos. Grupo I (control - sin acondicionamiento superficial; Grupo II - grabado con ácido fluorhídrico al 9.6% por 1 minuto; Grupo III - grabado con ácido fluorhídrico al 9.6% por 2 minutos. Estas fueron probadas en cuanto a su resistencia de unión a la tracción en una máquina universal para pruebas (INSTRON modelo 4411, 3M. Los valores, expresados en MPa, fueron analizados estadísticamente a un nivel de significación del 5%, usando el Análisis de la Varianza (ANOVA de un factor. Resultados: En relación con la prueba de resistencia de unión a la tracción, se encontraron los siguientes valores medios para cada grupo: Grupo I (control - x=3.35 MPa; Grupo II - x=4.64 MPa; Grupo III - x=3.80 MPa. Conclusiones: Según los resultados obtenidos, se puede concluir que el tratamiento de superficie con ácido fluorhídrico durante 1 minuto, promueve microrretenciones que aumentan significativamente los valores de resistencia a la tracción, que puede traducirse en un beneficio clínico mayor.Aim: Indirect restorative procedures are common in the current daily practice. Special care must be taken in the cement, as the vast majority of failures occurs at the interface tooth /restoration. Therefore a proper surface treatment of the restoration is essential to achieve optimum adhesion to the tooth surface. Materials and Methods: Thirty porcelain cylinders VITA VM 13 with

  19. GALVANIC CORROSION OF NICKEL ALLOY INCONEL 718 COUPLED WITH VM 80 SS STEEL IN A SIMULATED FORMATION WATER%镍基合金Inconel 718与抗硫油套管钢在模拟气田地层水中的电偶腐蚀

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏斌; 严密林; 白真权; 冯耀荣

    2007-01-01

    采用电化学方法研究了在模拟罗家寨气田地层水中镍基合金Inconel 718和抗硫管材VM80 SS之间的电偶腐蚀特征和电偶效应.结果表明,Inconel 718和VM80 SS的自腐蚀电位分别为-260 mV和-770 mV,当阴阳极面积比S=0.25,1,4,8时,电偶电位Eg处于-760 mV~-700 mV之间,随S增大,Eg正移,Ig/Aa的初始值、稳态值和平均值均增大;而Ig/Ac的初始值降低,稳态值变化不大.根据混合电位理论计算的VM80SS的电偶腐蚀效应γ随S增大而增大,γ=1.14~4.82.

  20. 附子不同炮制品灌胃Beagle犬的急性毒性研究%Acute Toxicity Study on Intragastric Administration of Different ProcessedRadix Aconiti Lateralis PraeparataProducts to Beagle Dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋玉琴; 张雪; 董艳红; 代良萍; 彭成; 谢晓芳

    2015-01-01

    This article was aimed to study the acute toxicities on intragastric administration of differentRadix Aconiti Lateralis Praeparataprocessed products to Beagle dogs. A total of 16 healthy and qualified Beagle dogs were randomly divided into the blank group,Pao-Fu-Pian(PFP) group,Pao-Tian-Xiong(PTX) group andHei-Shun-Pian(HSP) group according to the body weight. The intragastric administration of 4 g crude herb per kg was given. Before medication, 1 h, 24 h, and 3, 7, 14 days after medication, the body weight, food consumption, rectal temperature, electrocardiogram, blood routine and blood biochemistry were measured. The results showed that after medication, all dogs in three experimental groups were depressed. And there were significant differences in the electrolytes of blood. Among them, the HSP group was the most obvious one. The red blood cells, blood sugar and triglycerides of dogs in the PFP group had significant difference. The lymphocytes and blood sugar had significant difference of dogs in the PTX group. However, after the medication of HSP, the lymphocytes of the dogs were decreased significantly. It was concluded that the toxicity of three processed products followed the order of HSP > PFP > PTX.%目的:探讨附子不同炮制品灌胃Beagle犬的急性毒性。方法:取健康、合格Beagle犬16只,按体质量随机分为空白组、刨附片组、炮天雄组和黑顺片组。以4 g生药/kg灌胃给药,实验前及给药后1 h、24 h和第3、7、14天测定体质量、耗食量、肛温、心电图及血常规、血生化。结果:3个实验组Beagle犬在给药后均精神萎靡,血液电解质有显著性差异,其中黑顺片组最明显;刨附片组犬的红细胞、血糖和甘油三酯有显著性差异;炮天雄组犬的淋巴细胞和血糖有显著性差异,而黑顺片给药后犬的淋巴细胞显著降低。结论:3个炮制品毒性大小依次为黑顺片>刨附片>炮天雄。

  1. Hip abductors and thigh muscles strength ratios and their relation to electromyography amplitude during split squat and walking lunge exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Stastny

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hip abductors (HAB, quadriceps (Q and hamstrings (H reciprocal strength ratios are predictors of electromyography (EMG amplitude during load carrying walking at moderate intensity. Therefore, these strength ratios might predict also the EMG during the exercises as walking lunge (WL or split squat (SSq at submaximal intensity. Objective: To determine whether the EMG amplitude of vastus mediali (VM, vastus laterali (VL, biceps femoris (BF and gluteus medius (Gmed is associated with muscle strength ratio during SSqs and WLs. To determine whether the EMG amplitude differs between individuals with HAB/H ratio above and below one and between individuals with H/Q or HAB/Q ratio above and below 0.5 during SSqs and WLs. Methods: 17 resistance-trained men (age 29.6 ± 4.6 years with at least 3 years of strength training performed in cross-sectional design 5 s maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC on an isokinetic dynamometer for knee extension, knee flexion, and hip abduction. The MVIC was used to normalize the EMG signal and estimate the individual strength ratios. Than participants performed WL and SSq for a 5 repetition maximum, to find out muscle activity at submaximal intensity of exercise. Results: The H/Q ratio was associated by Kendall's tau (τ with VM (τ = .33 and BF (τ = -.71 amplitude, HAB/Q ratio was associated with BF (τ = -.43 and Gmed (τ = .38 amplitude, as well as HAB/H was associated with VM (τ = -.41 and Gmed (τ = .74 amplitude. ANOVA results showed significant differences between SSq and WL (F(4, 79 = 10, p < .001, ηp2 = .34 in Gmed amplitude, where WL resulted in higher Gmed amplitude compared to SSq. Other significant differences were found between H/Q groups (F(4, 29 = 3, p = .04, ηp2 = .28 in VM and Gmed amplitude, where group with H/Q > 0.5 showed higher VMO amplitude and lower Gmed amplitude. Furthermore, significant difference was found

  2. Antitumor effect of total alkaloids from Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata on breast cancer in mice%附子总生物碱对乳腺癌小鼠的抗肿瘤作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚平; 杜钢军; 孙婷; 李佳桓; 刘伟杰; 王莹莹

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察附子总生物碱对二甲基苯葸诱导的乳腺癌小鼠体征、部分血液学指标及肿瘤的影响.方法 小鼠分为对照组、模型组、附子总生物碱组.模型组小鼠每天sc二甲基苯蒽橄榄油溶液50 mg/kg,每周2次、连续5周,建立乳腺癌模型,给药组在每天给予二甲基苯蒽的同时,给予附子总生物碱2 mg/kg,观察实验期间各组小鼠乳腺肿瘤的潜伏期、发生率、外观、体温和外耳微循环变化,检测血清中雌二醇和孕酮水平、红细胞Na+,K+-ATP酶和Ca2+,Mg2+-ATP酶活性及血液流变学指标,综合评价附子总生物碱对小鼠乳腺癌的影响.结果 模型组小鼠随给药时间的延长逐渐出现畏寒喜暖、蜷缩少动、体温下降、外耳微循环受阻状况,同时血中雌二醇和孕酮水平升高,红细胞ATP酶活性降低,全血黏度及红细胞聚集指数增高;附子总生物碱可以显著改善上述指标变化,阻止肿瘤生长.结论 二甲基苯葸诱导的乳腺癌小鼠表现为体寒血瘀体征,附子总生物碱能改善这些症状,阻止肿瘤进展.%To investigate the effects of total alkaloids from Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata (TAALRP) on the manifestation of breast cancer induced by 7, 12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA), some hematological indexes, and tumor growth in mice. Methods The mice were divided into control, model, and TAALRP groups. Mice in the model group were sc injected with DMBA (50 mg/kg in olive oil) twice weekly for five weeks to establish a breast cancer model; Mice in TAALRP group were simultaneously ig administrated with TAALRP (2 mg/kg). The changes in tumorigenic latency, incidence, appearance, body temperature, and auricle microcirculation were observed in carcinogenic process; The levels of estradiol and progesterone in serum, the activities of erythrocytic Na+, K+-ATPase and Ca2,Mg2+-ATPase, and hemorrheologic indexes were detected. The effects of TAALRP on breast cancer in mice were

  3. The Direct Anterior Approach for Hip Revision: Accessing the Entire Femoral Diaphysis Without Endangering the Nerve Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogler, Michael M; Thaler, Martin R

    2017-02-01

    The direct anterior approach (DAA) to the hip has been criticized as an approach that is limited to primary arthroplasty only. Our study objective was to demonstrate, in a cadaveric setting, that an alternate extension of the DAA can be used to reach the femur at the posterior border of the lateral vastus muscle without endangering the nerve supply. The iliotibial tract is split anteriorly and pulled laterally, thereby opening the interval to the lateral-posterior aspect of the vastus muscle. The muscle fascia is incised at the posterior border to access the femoral diaphysis. The vastus mobilization is started distally and laterally to the greater trochanter, leaving a muscular bridge between the vastus and the medial gluteal muscle intact. If it is necessary to open the femoral cavity for implant retrieval, we perform an anterior wall osteotomy instead of an extended trochanteric osteotomy. It was possible to split the iliotibial band and pull it laterally, thereby exposing the entire vastus lateralis muscle. The junction of the vastus lateralis and vastus intermedius was not encountered in all cases, nor was the nerve supply with all nerve fibers in that interval. The alternate technique described here for accessing the femoral diaphysis allows for easy access to the lateral aspect of the vastus lateralis and the femoral diaphysis. Using this technique, it should also be possible to access the femur and perform all necessary reconstructive procedures on it without damaging the surrounding nerve structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression of thermostable recombiant Luciola lateralis luciferase and development of heat-stable pyrosequencing system%耐热荧光素酶的表达及热稳定焦磷酸测序体系的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐澍; 邹秉杰; 王建平; 武海萍; 周国华

    2012-01-01

    Pyrosequencing is a tool based on bioluminescence reaction for real-time analyzing DNA sequences. The sensitivity of pyrosequencing mainly depends on luciferase in reaction mixture. However, the instability of pyrosequencing reagents caused by fragile wild Photinus pyralis luciferase (PpL) in conventional pyrosequencing usually leads to unsatisfied results, which limits the application of pyrosequencing. In order to improve the stability of pyrosequencing reagents, the coding sequences of mutant thermostable Luciola lateralis luciferase (rt-LlL) was synthesized, and inserted into the plasmid of pET28a(+) to express the thermostable rt-LlL with a 6×His-tag in the N terminal. The purified rt-LlL with the molecular mass of 60 kDa was obtained by Ni-affinity chromatography. The specific activity of rt-LlL was determined as 4.29×1010 RLU/mg. Moreover, the thermostability of rt-LlL was investigated, and the results showed that rt-LlL had activity at 50 ℃, and remained 90% of activity after incubated at 40 ℃ for 25 min. Finally, rt-LlL was used to substitute commercial Photinus pyralis luciferase in conventional pyrosequencing reagent to get thermostable pyrosequencing reagent. Comparing with conventional pyrosequencing reagent, the thermostable pyrosequencing reagent is more stable, and it's activity would not lose when incubated at 37 ℃ for 1 h. This study laid foundation of establishing reliable and stable pyrosequencing system which would be applied in Point-of-Care Testing.%焦磷酸测序是一种基于生物发光反应的实时DNA序列测定技术,其反应体系中的荧光素酶决定测序反应的灵敏度.传统焦测序反应使用的是野生型北美荧光素酶Photinus pyralis luciferase (PpL),该酶热稳定性较差,因此由该酶配制的焦磷酸测序反应体系对热不稳定,影响焦磷酸测序的灵敏度.为了建立热稳定的焦磷酸测序反应体系,全合成了耐热突变日本萤火虫荧光素酶的编码序列,并将

  5. “扶正补土”针刺法配合股内侧肌训练治疗髌骨软化症的近期临床观察%Short-term effects of "Fuzheng-Butu (扶正补土)" acupuncture therapy combined with vastus medialis isometric training in the treatment of chondromalacia patella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴福春; 陈捷; 陈麟; 张冬梅; 徐维; 邵斌

    2016-01-01

    目的 观察“扶正补土”针刺法配合股内侧肌训练治疗髌骨软化症的近期疗效.方法 选择髌骨软化症患者63例,按照随机数字表法分为A组31例,B组32例.A组选择“扶正补土”针刺法配合股内侧肌等长收缩训练,B组采用超短波理疗配合股内侧肌等长收缩训练.两组治疗均为每日1次,每周治疗6d,连续2周.于治疗前、治疗第6日及第13日时,采用视觉模拟评分法(VAS)评定疼痛及Lysholm膝关节评分量表(LKSS)评定膝关节功能.结果 治疗第6日及第13日时,两组VAS和LKSS评分较治疗前显著改善,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗第6日时,两组VAS及LKSS评分比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);治疗第13日时,两组VAS评分比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),但两组LKSS评分比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 应用“扶正补土”针刺法配合股内侧肌的肌力训练,近期可有效减轻髌骨关节疼痛症状,并显著改善膝关节活动功能.%Objective To evaluate the efficacy of "Fuzheng-Butu (扶正补土)" acupuncture therapy combined with vastus medialis isometric training in the treatment of chondromalacia patella.Methods Sixty-three patients with chondromalacia patella were randomly divided into group A (31 cases) and group B (32 cases).Patients were received "Fuzheng-Butu" acupuncture therapy combined with vastus medialis isometric training in group A,while ultrashort physiotherapy combined with vastus medialis isometric training in group B,once per day,6 days per week,and 2 weeks for a course.The visual analogue scale (VAS) and Lysholm knee score scale (LKSS) were adopted to evaluate the analgesic effect and knee joint function before and at 6,13 days after the treatment.Results The VAS decreased and LKSS increased after the treatment as compared with those before the treatment in the two groups (P< 0.05).There was no statistical significance about VAS and LKSS at 6 days after the treatment

  6. Muscle - tendon unit mechanical and morphological properties and sprint performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafilidis, Savvas; Arampatzis, Adamantios

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether sprint performance is related to the mechanical (elongation - force relationship of the tendon and aponeurosis, muscle strength) and morphological (fascicle length, pennation angle, muscle thickness) properties of the quadriceps femoris and triceps surae muscle - tendon units. Two groups of sprinters (slow, n = 11; fast, n = 17) performed maximal isometric knee extension and plantar flexion contractions on a dynamometer at 11 different muscle - tendon unit lengths. Elongation of the tendon and aponeurosis of the gastrocnemius medialis and the vastus lateralis was measured using ultrasonography. We observed no significant differences in maximal joint moments at the ankle and knee joints or morphological properties of the gastrocnemius medialis and vastus lateralis between groups (P > 0.05). The fast group exhibited greater elongation of the vastus lateralis tendon and aponeurosis at a given tendon force, and greater maximal elongation of the vastus lateralis tendon and aponeurosis during maximum voluntary contraction (P aponeurosis showed a significant correlation with 100-m sprint times (r = -0.567, P = 0.003). For the elongation - force relationship at the gastrocnemius medialis tendon and aponeurosis, the two groups recorded similar values. It is suggested that the greater elongation of the vastus lateralis tendon and aponeurosis of the fast group benefits energy storage and return as well as the shortening velocity of the muscle - tendon unit.

  7. Association between walking ability and trunk and lower-limb muscle atrophy in institutionalized elderly women: a longitudinal pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezoe, Tome; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Shima, Hiroto; Asakawa, Yasuyoshi; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2015-08-28

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between walking ability and muscle atrophy in the trunk and lower limbs. Subjects in this longitudinal study were 21 elderly women who resided in nursing homes. The thicknesses of the following trunk and lower-limb muscles were measured using B-mode ultrasound: rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominis, erector spinae, lumbar multifidus, psoas major, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius, soleus, and tibialis anterior. Maximum walking speed was used to represent walking ability. Maximum walking speed and muscle thickness were assessed before and after a 12-month period. Of the 17 measured muscles of the trunk and lower limbs, age-related muscle atrophy in elderly women was greatest in the erector spinae, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, and tibialis anterior muscles. Correlation coefficient analyses showed that only the rate of thinning of the vastus lateralis was significantly associated with the rate of decline in maximum walking speed (r = 0.518, p muscle atrophy in the trunk and lower limbs, especially in the vastus lateralis muscle, among frail elderly women.

  8. Motor adaptations to local muscle pain during a bilateral cyclic task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brøchner Nielsen, Niels-Peter; Tucker, Kylie; Dorel, Sylvain; Guével, Arnaud; Hug, François

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how unilateral pain, induced in two knee extensor muscles, affects muscle coordination during a bilateral pedaling task. Fifteen participants performed a 4-min pedaling task at 130 W in two conditions (Baseline and Pain). Pain was induced by injection of hypertonic saline into the vastus medialis (VM) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles of one leg. Force applied throughout the pedaling cycle was measured using an instrumented pedal and used to calculate pedal power. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded bilaterally from eight muscles to assess changes in muscle activation strategies. Compared to Baseline, during the Pain condition, EMG amplitude of muscles of the painful leg (VL and VM-the painful muscles, and RF-another quadriceps muscle with no pain) was lower during the extension phase [(mean ± SD): VL: -22.5 ± 18.9%; P < 0.001; VM: -28.8 ± 19.9%; P < 0.001, RF: -20.2 ± 13.9%; P < 0.001]. Consistent with this, pedal power applied by the painful leg was also lower during the extension phase (-16.8 ± 14.2 W, P = 0.001) during Pain compared to Baseline. This decrease was compensated for by an 11.3 ± 8.1 W increase in pedal power applied by the non-painful leg during its extension phase (P = 0.04). These results support pain adaptation theories, which suggest that when there is a clear opportunity to compensate, motor adaptations to pain occur to decrease load within the painful tissue. Although the pedaling task offered numerous possibilities for compensation, only between-leg compensations were systematically observed. This finding is discussed in relation to the mechanical and neural constraints of the pedaling task.

  9. 附子、肉桂、仙茅对正常大鼠药物代谢酶CYP3A和GST活性的影响%Effects of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata、 Cinnamomi Cortex Cassiae、 Curculiginis Rhizoma on the activities of drug metabolizing enzymes CYP3A and GST in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛春苗; 张冰; 刘小青; 李连珍; 张倩

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨辛热药附子、肉桂、仙茅对正常大鼠药物代谢酶细胞色素P4503A( CYP3A)和谷胱甘肽-S转移酶(GST)活性的影响,为辛热药性的科学阐释及临床安全合理用药提供依据.方法:SD雄性大鼠随机分为4组,空白组灌服自来水,其他各组分别灌胃附子(12g· kg-1·d-1)、肉桂(30g· kg-1·d-1)、仙茅(20g·kg-1·d-1)水煎液,连续7d后,检测肝、小肠微粒体CYP3A活性及肝微粒体和血浆GST活性.结果:与正常组比,附子、肉桂、仙茅组大鼠肝微粒体CYP3A和GST活性显著升高(P<0.01),而小肠微粒体CYP3A活性变化不明显,血浆GST活性有下降趋势.结论:附子、肉桂、仙茅能明显升高大鼠肝脏CYP3A和GST活性,可能是其辛热药性表达的生物学基础之一.%Objective: To discuss the effects of pungent-hot medicine Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata, Cinnamomi Cortex Cassiae and Curculiginis Rhizoma on the activities of drug metabolizing enzymes CYP3A and GST in rats. This would provide the experimental evidences for the research of pungent-hot medicine and clinical rational use. Methods: Male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups. Drinking water was .given ig to normal group rats. Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata (12g-kg -1-d-1), Cinnamomi Cortex Cassiae (30g-kg-1-d-1) and Curculiginis Rhizoma (20g-kg-1-d-1) water extracts were given ig to the other three groups rats for 7 consecutive days. The activities of CYP3A in liver and small intestinal microsomes were measured. The activities of GST in liver microsomes and plasma were determinated. Results: The activities of liver microsomes CYP3A and GST were increased in the rats treated with Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata, Cinnamomi Cortex Cassiae and Curculiginis Rhizomafor 7 days (P<0.01), no significantly changes of small intestinal microsomes CYP3A and plasma GST activities. Conclusions: Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata, Cortex Cinnamomi Cassiae and Curculiginis Rhizoma increased

  10. Electromyographic Manifestations of Fatigue Correlate With Pulmonary Function, 6-Minute Walk Test, and Time to Exhaustion in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Gennaro; Dardanello, Davide; Rinaldo, Nicoletta; Coratella, Giuseppe; Schena, Federico; Rainoldi, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether electromyographic manifestations of fatigue and exercise tolerance were related to stage of disease in men with a COPD diagnosis. Fourteen men with COPD with a diagnosis of mild to severe air flow obstruction were involved in 2 separate testing sessions. The first one consisted of a pulmonary function (FEV1 and FEV1/FVC) and an exercise tolerance assessment using the 6-min walk test. During the second session, a multichannel surface electromyography was recorded from vastus medialis and vastus lateralis muscles during an isometric knee extension at 70% of maximum voluntary contraction. The slope of muscle fiber conduction velocity during the contraction was calculated as the index of fatigue. Conduction velocity slope significantly correlated with FEV1 (vastus medialis: r = 0.86, P < .001; vastus lateralis: r = 0.68, P = .01), FEV1/FVC (vastus medialis: r = 0.70, P = .006), and 6-min walk test (vastus medialis: r = 0.72, P = .005; vastus lateralis: r = 0.80, P = .001). The electromyographic manifestations of fatigue during sustained quadriceps contraction significantly correlated with disease severity and exercise tolerance in moderate to severe COPD. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  11. Reliability and Validity of the OMNI-Vibration Exercise Scale of Perceived Exertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Pedro J.; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Santin-Medeiros, Fernanda; Robertson, Robert J.; Garatachea, Nuria

    2012-01-01

    This study examined reliability and concurrent validity of the newly developed OMNI-vibration exercise scale (OMNI-VIBRO) to measure Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE) during vibration exercise in twenty recreationally active students (12 males and 8 females). The criterion variables were muscle activity of the Vastus Medialis (VM), Vastus Lateralis (VL), Biceps Femoris (BF), and Medial Gastrocnemius (MG) muscles, as well as accelerations (12.5, 20.2, 30.9, 36.3, 60.1, and 88.4 m·s-2). RPE was registered during the final of each 30 s condition. Each participant attended two laboratory testing sessions. Positive linear regression coefficients (p < 0.001) were found between RPE (OMNI-VIBRO) and acceleration (r = 0.976) and muscle activity of lower-body muscles (r = 0.942). Between session (test-retest), reliability of RPE (OMNI-VIBRO) was good (ICC: 0.790. 95% CI: 0.699-0.854). Conclusions: findings provided concurrent validation of the OMNI-VIBRO to measure RPE for the active muscle and overall body in recreationally active students performing lower-body vibration exercise. Key pointsThe pictorial-verbal category scale of perception of exertion (OMNI-VIBRO) during lower body vibration exercise on a vibration platform showed good concurrent validity.The OMNI-VIBRO method in conjunction with WBV exercise would allow coaches, fitness professionals, or health-care personnel to assess the intensity that corresponds to the level of the vibratory stimulus.The OMNI-VIBRO could be a useful tool of measuring the different intensities of a vibratory-training session and altering the vibratory stimulus in a periodized fashion. PMID:24149351

  12. The Gluteus Medius Vs. Thigh Muscles Strength Ratio and Their Relation to Electromyography Amplitude During a Farmer’s Walk Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stastny Petr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The strength ratio between hamstrings and quadriceps (H/Q is associated with knee injuries as well as hip abductor muscle (HAB weakness. Sixteen resistance trained men (age, 32.5 ± 4.2 years performed 5 s maximal isometric contractions at 75° of knee flexion/extension and 15° of hip abduction on a dynamometer. After this isometric test they performed a Farmer´s walk exercise to find out if the muscle strength ratio predicted the electromyography amplitude expressed as a percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC. The carried load represented a moderate intensity of 75% of the exercise six repetitions maximum (6RM. Electromyography data from the vastus medialis (VM, vastus lateralis (VL, biceps femoris (BF and gluteus medius (Gmed on each leg were collected during the procedure. The groups selected were participants with H/Q ≥ 0.5, HQ < 0.5, HAB/H ≥ 1, HAB/H < 1, HAB/Q ≥ 0.5 and HAB/Q < 0.5. One way ANOVA showed that Gmed activity was significantly greater in the group with HAB/H < 1 (42 ± 14 %MVIC as compared to HAB/H ≥ 1 (26 ± 10 %MVIC and HAB/Q < 0.5 (47 ± 19 %MVIC compared to HAB/Q ≥ 0.5 (26 ± 12 %MVIC. The individuals with HAB/H < 1 were found to have greater activation of their Gmed during the Farmer’s walk exercise. Individuals with HAB/Q < 0.5 had greater activation of the Gmed. Gmed strength ratios predict the muscle involvement when a moderate amount of the external load is used. The Farmer’s walk is recommended as an exercise which can strengthen the gluteus medius, especially for individuals with a HAB/H ratio < 1 and HAB/Q < 0.5.

  13. Static vs. Dynamic Acute Stretching Effect on Quadriceps Muscle Activity during Soccer Instep Kicking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri-Khorasani, Mohammadtaghi; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2013-12-18

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of static and dynamic stretching on quadriceps muscle activation during maximal soccer instep kicking. The kicking motion of twelve male college soccer players (body height: 174.66 ± 5.01 cm; body mass: 72.83 ± 4.83 kg; age: 18.83 ± 0.75 years) was captured using six synchronized high-speed infra-red cameras whilst electromyography (EMG) signals from vastus medialis (VM), lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) were recorded before and after static or dynamic stretching. Analysis of variance designs showed a higher increase in knee extension angular velocity (9.65% vs. -1.45%, p vs. -8.33%, p vs. -12%, p vs. -6.67%, p dynamic stretching exercises. Based on these results, it could be suggested that dynamic stretching is probably more effective in increasing quadriceps muscle activity and knee extension angular velocity during the final swing phase of a maximal soccer instep kick than static stretching.

  14. Quantitative ultrasound tissue characterization in shoulder and thigh muscles – a new approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.K.; Jensen, B.R.; Darvann, Tron Andre

    2006-01-01

    Background: The echogenicity patterns of ultrasound scans contain information of tissue composition in muscles. The aim was: ( 1) to develop a quantitative ultrasound image analysis to characterize tissue composition in terms of intensity and structure of the ultrasound images, and ( 2) to use...... the method for characterization of ultrasound images of the supraspinatus muscle, and the vastus lateralis muscle. Methods: Computerized texture analyses employing first-order and higher-order grey-scale statistics were developed to objectively characterize ultrasound images of m. supraspinatus and m. vastus...... lateralis from 9 healthy participants. Results: The mean grey-scale intensity was higher in the vastus lateralis muscle ( p muscle ( average value of middle measuring site 51.4 compared to 35.0). Furthermore, the number of spatially connected and homogeneous regions ( blobs...

  15. Influence of Lateral Muscle Loading in the Proximal Femur after Fracture Stabilization with a Trochanteric Gamma Nail (TGN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitthiseripratip, Kriskrai; Mahaisavariya, Banchong; Suwanprateeb, Jintamai; Bohez, Erik; Vander Sloten, Jos

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of lateral muscle loading on the stress/strain distributions of the trochanteric Gamma nail (TGN) fixation within the healed, trochanteric and subtrochanteric femoral fractures by means of a finite element method. The effect of three muscle groups, the abductors (ABD), the vastus lateralis (VL) and the iliotibial band (ITB), were investigated. The analytical results showed that addition of lateral muscle forces, iliotibial band and vastus lateralis, produced compensation of forces and reduction of bending moments in the bone and in the trochanteric Gamma nail especially in the lateral aspect. The iliotibial band produced a higher impact as compared to the vastus lateralis. Therefore in the finite element analysis of the proximal femur with the trochanteric Gamma nail fracture fixation should include the lateral muscle forces to simulate load condition with maximal physiological relevance to the closed nailing technique.

  16. Regulation of PDH in human arm and leg muscles at rest and during intense exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Kristian; Birk, Jesper Bratz; Damsgaard, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is differentially regulated in specific human muscles, regulation of PDH was examined in triceps, deltoid, and vastus lateralis at rest and during intense exercise. To elicit considerable glycogen use, subjects performed 30 min of exhaustive...... arm cycling on two occasions and leg cycling exercise on a third day. Muscle biopsies were obtained from deltoid or triceps on the arm exercise days and from vastus lateralis on the leg cycling day. Resting PDH protein content and phosphorylation on PDH-E1 alpha sites 1 and 2 were higher (P

  17. Muscle-specific expression of hypoxia-inducible factor in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mounier, Rémi; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Plomgaard, Peter

    2010-01-01

    from triceps brachii (characterized by a high proportion of type II fibres), from soleus (characterized by a high proportion of type I fibres) and from vastus lateralis (characterized by an equal proportion of type I and II fibres). The hypothesis was that type I muscle fibres would have lower HIF-1...... a significantly higher VEGF protein content than vastus lateralis and triceps muscle. In conclusion, we have shown that there are muscle-specific differences in HIF-1alpha and VEGF expression within human skeletal muscle at rest in normoxic conditions. Recent results, when combined with the findings described...

  18. Leptin receptor 170 kDa (OB-R170) protein expression is reduced in obese human skeletal muscle: a potential mechanism of leptin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuentes, T; Ara, I; Guadalupe-Grau, A

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether obesity-associated leptin resistance could be due to down-regulation of leptin receptors (OB-Rs) and/or up-regulation of suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3) and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) in skeletal muscle, which blunt janus kinase 2-dependent leptin...... had a greater amount of leptin receptors than the vastus lateralis, whilst SOCS3 protein expression was increased and basal STAT3, AMPKalpha and ACCbeta phosphorylation levels were reduced in the vastus lateralis compared with the deltoid muscle (all P leptin...... receptors and leptin signalling are reduced in obesity, particularly in the leg muscles....

  19. Fisioterapia em pacientes com síndrome fêmoro-patelar: comparação de exercícios em cadeia cinética aberta e fechada Physical therapy in patellofemoral syndrome patients: comparison of open and closed kinetic chain exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Nunes Cabral

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar a eficácia do fortalecimento muscular na recuperação funcional da síndrome fêmoro-patelar (SFP. Foram selecionadas 20 mulheres com SFP divididas em dois grupos: o Grupo 1 (G1 realizou fortalecimento do músculo quadríceps femoral em cadeia cinética aberta (CCA e o Grupo 2 (G2 em cadeia cinética fechada (CCF, durante oito semanas com freqüência de duas vezes semanais. Foi avaliada a dor, capacidade funcional, flexibilidade, encurtamento dos músculos isquiotibiais, ângulo Q e eletromiografia (EMG dos músculos vasto medial (VM e vasto lateral (VL durante extensão isométrica da perna. Antes e após o tratamento, as variáveis foram analisadas pelo teste de Wilcoxon, e entre os grupos pelo teste t para amostras independentes ou Anova de Friedman ou Manova (aThe aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of muscular strengthening in the functional recovery of patellofemoral syndrome (PFS patients. Twenty female patients with PFS were divided into two groups: Group 1 (G1 performing quadriceps femoris strengthening exercises in open kinetic chain (OKC and Group 2 (G2 in closed kinetic chain (CKC, twice a week for eight weeks. Pain, functional capacity, flexibility, hamstring tightness, Q angle and electromyography (EMG were measured for vastus medialis (VM and vastus lateralis (VL muscles during isometric leg extension. The data obtained before and after treatment were analyzed by Wilcoxon test, and the data between groups by t-test for independent samples or Friedman Anova or Manova (á<0.05. After treatment, the results showed a significant improvement in terms of functional capacity, hamstring tightness and flexibility. However, only G1 showed decreased pain and improved EMG activity of VL muscle, while both groups showed unchanged Q angles. These data suggest that treatments based on exercises for quadriceps femoris strengthening produced improvements on a number of PFS signals and symptoms

  20. Patellar tendon straps decrease pre-landing quadriceps activation in males with patellar tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Adam B; Ko, Jupil; Simpson, Kathy J; Brown, Cathleen N

    2017-03-01

    To determine if patellar tendon straps altered quadriceps' muscle activity during a drop-jump landing in males with and without patellar tendinopathy. Case-control. Biomechanics Research Laboratory. Twenty recreationally-active males participated: ten (age = 21.3 ± 2.4 years, height = 182.8 ± 5.3 cm, mass = 81.7 ± 8.6 kg) with patellar tendinopathy; ten (age = 22.0 ± 1.6 years, height = 185.7 ± 4.5 cm, mass = 82.2 ± 9.8 kg) were healthy with no history of tendinopathy. Electromyography (EMG) data for the vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles were collected. Five 2-legged 40 cm drop-jumps were performed wearing a patellar tendon strap and 5 with no-strap in a counterbalanced order. Root-mean square EMG (REMG) values of the VM, RF, and VL were averaged for a pre-landing and post-landing interval. Multiple mixed-model two-way ANOVAs were performed to determine the effect of tendinopathy and strapping condition on REMG values for each muscle. For the pre-landing interval, all participants displayed lesser VL EMG activation (0.44 ± 0.19%, 0.53 ± 0.27%, respectively; p = 0.007, d = 0.39) in the no-strap compared with the strap condition. When wearing a strap, all participants demonstrated lower VL activation prior to landing which may be helpful in reducing tensile stress at the tendon. These effects may be clinically important in modulating pain in those with patellar tendinopathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The mRNA expression profile of metabolic genes relative to MHC isoform pattern in human skeletal muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plomgaard, Peter; Penkowa, Milena; Leick, Lotte;

    2006-01-01

    was more than twofold higher in soleus and vastus than in triceps. Contrary, phosphofructokinase and total lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was approximately three- and twofold higher in triceps than in both soleus and vastus. Expression of metabolic genes was assessed by determining the mRNA content...... of a broad range of metabolic genes. The triceps muscle had two- to fivefold higher MHC IIa, phosphofructokinase, and LDH A mRNA content and two- to fourfold lower MHC I, lipoprotein lipase, CD36, hormone-sensitive lipase, and LDH B and hexokinase II mRNA than vastus lateralis or soleus. Interestingly...

  2. Effectiveness of femoral nerve selective block in patients with spasticity: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Thierry A; Yelnik, Alain; Bonan, Isabelle; Lebreton, Frederique; Bussel, Bernard

    2002-05-01

    To determine if the vastus intermedius nerve can be blocked by using surface coordinates and to measure the effects of selective nerve block on quadriceps spasticity and immediate gait. Case series. Physical medicine and rehabilitation department of a university hospital. Twelve patients with hemiplegia disabled by quadriceps overactivity. Anesthesic block of the vastus intermedius by using surface coordinates, femoral nerve stimulation before and after block, and surface electrodes recording of the amplitude of the maximum direct motor response of each head of the quadriceps. Assessment of spasticity, voluntary knee extension velocity, speed of gait, and knee flexion when walking. To be effective, the puncture point (.29 of thigh length and 2cm lateral) had to be slightly modified to 1cm laterally from a point situated at 0.2 of the thigh length. A selective block of the vastus intermedius could not be achieved, but a block of the vastus lateralis was always achieved, twice associated with a block of the vastus intermedius, resulting in decreased quadriceps spasticity, no changes in gait parameters, no decrease in voluntary knee extension velocity, and subjective improvement in gait for 3 patients. Selective block of the vastus lateralis with or without the vastus intermedius can be achieved by using surface coordinates without any dramatic effect on knee extension velocity, and it could be useful for phenol or alcohol block or surgical neurotomy. Copyright 2002 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  3. Ergonomic assessment of brake and accelerator mechanisms of MF285 and MF399 tractors using electromyography method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nikkhah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Too many people are working in the agricultural sector and therefore, pay more attention to the safety and health at work in the agricultural sector is important. This issue is more important in developing industrial countries where the level of the ergonomic working condition is less than that of developed countries. Attention to ergonomic condition of agricultural machinery drivers is one of the goals of agricultural mechanization. Therefore, in this study the ergonomic conditions of brake and accelerator mechanisms for MF285 and MF399 tractor's drivers were investigated using a new method. Materials and Methods: 25 people were selected for experiment. The electrical activity of Medialis gastrocnemius, Lateralis gastrocnemius, Vastus medialis, Vastus lateralis, Quadratus Lumborum and Trapezius muscles of drivers before and during pressing the pedal and after rest time were recorded using Biovision device. Measurements were performed for each person on each muscle 30 seconds before pressing the pedal, 60 seconds after pressing the pedal and after 60 seconds of rest. For all drivers, the muscles on the right side (brake and accelerator side have been selected and tested. The measurements were performed in compliance with appropriate time intervals between the measurements. Results and Discussion: Ergonomic assessment of brake pedal: The results showed that the RMS electrical activity of muscles of Vastus medialis and Medial gastrocnemius, during 60 seconds braking were 2.47 and 1.97. So, Vastus medialis and Medial gastrocnemius had the highest stress during pressing the MF399 tractor's brake pedal. Moreover, the Medial gastrocnemius and Lateral gastrocnemius with RMS electrical activity ratio of 2.47 and 1.74 had the highest RMS electrical activity ratio respectively, during 60 seconds braking compared to before braking of MF285 tractor. The comparison of results showed that the Vastus medialis and Trapezius had the higher stress

  4. Vastused küsimustele, mida ei esitata / Kaupo Meiel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meiel, Kaupo, 1975-

    2009-01-01

    Pärnu kirjastuse Jumalikud Ilmutused raamatutest: fs. Alasti ja elus (2008) ; Kaus, Jan. Miniatuurid (2009) ; Aru, Toomas F. Tahaks keppi Jääääre saatel, ehk, Georges Charles de Heeckeren d’Anthèsi pihtimus (2009)

  5. Vastused küsimustele, mida ei esitata / Kaupo Meiel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meiel, Kaupo, 1975-

    2014-01-01

    Pärnu kirjastuse Jumalikud Ilmutused raamatutest: fs. Alasti ja elus (2008) ; Kaus, Jan. Miniatuurid (2009) ; Aru, Toomas F. Tahaks keppi Jääääre saatel, ehk, Georges Charles de Heeckeren d’Anthèsi pihtimus (2009)

  6. Erakondade vastused küsimusele : kuidas defineeriksite maaelu?

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Vastavad erakondade esindajad: Helir-Valdor Seeder (IRL), Arvo Sarapuu (Keskerakond), Aleksei Lotman (Eestimaa Rohelised), Jaanus Marrandi (Sotsiaaldemokraatlik Erakond), Jaan Sõrra (Sotsiaaldemokraatlik Erakond), Rein Aidma (Reformierakond), Arvo Sirendi (Rahvaliit)

  7. Vikergallup : eesti kirjandus 2001 : [vastused Vikerkaare küsitlusele

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Aut.: Vahur Afanasjev, Veiko Belials, Piret Jaaks, Jan Kaus, Janek Kraavi, Priit Kruus, Leo Luks, Ilona Martson, Hedda Maurer, Anneli Mihkelev, Jürgen Rooste, Aarne Ruben, Mihkel Samarüütel, François Serpent, Ivar Sild, Karl Martin Sinijärv, Lauri Sommer, Jaak Urmet, Berk Vaher. 2001. a. parima uudisraamatu tiitlit jagasid Mehis Heinsaare "Härra Pauli kroonikad", Jan Kausi "Maailm ja mõni" ning Ene Mihkelsoni "Ahasveeruse uni"; parimaks esikraamatuks valiti Mehis Heinsaare "Vanameeste näppaja"

  8. [Erakondade esindajate vastused küsimustele kultuuripoliitikast

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Vastavad: Jaak Allik - ERL, Margus Allikmaa - Reformierakond, Enn Eesmaa - Keskerakond, Andres Herkel - Isamaaliit, Tarmo Leinatamm - Res Publica, Mart Meri - Rahvaerakond Mõõdukad. Kommenteerivad: Kadri Herkül, Immo Mihkelson, Tiit Tuumalu, Rein Veidemann, Neeme Korv

  9. Vastused küsimustele, mida ei esitata / Kaupo Meiel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meiel, Kaupo, 1975-

    2009-01-01

    Pärnu kirjastuse Jumalikud Ilmutused raamatutest: fs. Alasti ja elus (2008) ; Kaus, Jan. Miniatuurid (2009) ; Aru, Toomas F. Tahaks keppi Jääääre saatel, ehk, Georges Charles de Heeckeren d’Anthèsi pihtimus (2009)

  10. Vastused küsimustele, mida ei esitata / Kaupo Meiel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meiel, Kaupo, 1975-

    2014-01-01

    Pärnu kirjastuse Jumalikud Ilmutused raamatutest: fs. Alasti ja elus (2008) ; Kaus, Jan. Miniatuurid (2009) ; Aru, Toomas F. Tahaks keppi Jääääre saatel, ehk, Georges Charles de Heeckeren d’Anthèsi pihtimus (2009)

  11. Vikergallup : eesti kirjandus 2000 : [vastused Vikerkaare küsimustele

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Aut.: Epp Annus, Andres Aule, Veiko Belials, Jan Kaus, Andrus Kivirähk, Leo Luks, Hedda Maurer, Anneli Mihkelev, Marko Mägi, Aare Pilv, Jürgen Rooste, Aarne Ruben, Mihkel Samarüütel, François Serpent, Ivar Sild, Karl Martin Sinijärv, Jaak Urmet. 2000. a. parimaks uudisraamatuks tunnistati Andrus Kivirähu "Rehepapp ehk November" ja parimaks esikraamatuks Wimbergi [Jaak Urmet] "Maaaraamat"

  12. Vikergallup : eesti kirjandus 2001 : [vastused Vikerkaare küsitlusele

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Aut.: Vahur Afanasjev, Veiko Belials, Piret Jaaks, Jan Kaus, Janek Kraavi, Priit Kruus, Leo Luks, Ilona Martson, Hedda Maurer, Anneli Mihkelev, Jürgen Rooste, Aarne Ruben, Mihkel Samarüütel, François Serpent, Ivar Sild, Karl Martin Sinijärv, Lauri Sommer, Jaak Urmet, Berk Vaher. 2001. a. parima uudisraamatu tiitlit jagasid Mehis Heinsaare "Härra Pauli kroonikad", Jan Kausi "Maailm ja mõni" ning Ene Mihkelsoni "Ahasveeruse uni"; parimaks esikraamatuks valiti Mehis Heinsaare "Vanameeste näppaja"

  13. EI vastus referendumil pidurdab majanduse arengut / Michal Krejza

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krejza, Michal

    2003-01-01

    Euroopa Komisjoni Eesti Delegatsiooni poliitika- ja majandusosakonna juhataja Michal Krejza räägib, mida on Eesti majandusel võita Euroopa Liiduga ühinemisest - välisinvesteeringute kasv, intressimäärade langemine ja tööjõu vaba liikumine

  14. Mis on rituaalne aasta? Küsimus ja vastused

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Lyle

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The author asks the question concerning the nature and identity of the ritual year. Other supplementary questions that can be asked are whether it is actually possible to locate an underlying coherence at all and, if so, what historical and geographical contexts would embrace it most fully. The author also inquires why there is no recognised current theory about the ritual year. In her approach she emphasises analogical thinking and takes the human life cycle as a key to the understanding of the patterning of the year. In the analysis, four levels are considered: whole eras or time itself at the large scale and with seconds or less at the small scale are dealt with, and the basic series of analogies has the human life cycle as the largest in scale and works down through the year and the month to the 24-hour day as the smallest. Thus, a reference set is established in which two tasks have to be considered: the first is to become familiar with the patterning of examples of the overall cyclical sequence, and the second is to categorise the divisions the cycle. The author has developed Tolstoy’s observation concerning “the isomorphism of the periods after midnight in the diurnal circle and after Christmas in the year circle” and also the idea that Dumézil’s triad of functions of physical force, prosperity and the sacred relates more fundamentally to the life stages of young men, mature men and old men than to the social groups he mentions of warriors, cultivators and priests.

  15. Performance Evaluation of Power Aware VM Consolidation using Live Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaganpreet Kaur Sehdev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Power Efficiency is the efficient use of power and is a crucial come forth in cloud computing environment. Green Computing is nothing but is a cloud computing with efficient use of power and green refers to make the environment friendly to the user by saving heat and power. Data centre power efficiency in cloud environment will be reduced when virtualization is used as contrary to physical resource deployment to book adequate to grant all application requests. Nevertheless, in any case of the resource provisioning approximation, occasion remains in the way in which they are made attainable and workload is scheduled. The objective of this research work is therefore to pack workload into servers, selected as a function of their cost to operate, to achieve (or as close to the utmost endorsed employment in a cost-efficient manner, avoiding occurrences where devices are under-utilized and management cost is acquired inefficiently. This work has enhanced the existing work by introducing the dynamic wake up calls either to shut down the active servers or restart the passive server. The wakeup calls has been initiated dynamically. The overall objective is to decrease the response time of users which will be increased during wakeup time in existing research work.

  16. vm118_0503c -- Video mosaic segments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Canadian ROPOS remotely operated vehicle (ROV) outfitted with video equipment (and other devices) was deployed from the NOAA Ship McAurthurII during May-June...

  17. Performance Tests of CMSSW on the CernVM

    CERN Document Server

    Petek, Marko

    2012-01-01

    goal of allowing the execution of the experiment's software on different operating systems in an easy way for the users. To achieve this it makes use of Virtual Machine images consisting of a JEOS (Just Enough Operational System) Linux image, bundled with CVMFS, a distributed file system for software. This image can this be run with a proper virtualizer on most of the platforms available. It also aggressively caches data on the local user's machine so that it can operate disconnected from the network. CMS wanted to compare the performance of the CMS Software running in the virtualized environment with the same software running on a native Linux box. To answer this need a series of tests were made on a controlled environment during 2010-2011. This work presents the results of those tests.

  18. Getting started with Oracle VM VirtualBox

    CERN Document Server

    Dash, Pradyumna

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step guide that will show you how to install, configure, and manage VirtualBox.This book is for system administrators, technical architects, and virtualization enthusiasts who want to learn how to set up a virtual machine. Knowledge of the Linux environment is expected. Prior experience with VirtualBox or knowledge of virtualization is not required.

  19. vm119_0601b-- Video mosaic segments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Canadian ROPOS remotely operated vehicle (ROV) outfitted with video equipment (and other devices) was deployed from the NOAA Ship McAurthurII during May-June...

  20. Dynamic VM Provisioning for TORQUE in a Cloud Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Boland, L.; Coddington, P.; Sevior, M.

    2014-06-01

    Cloud computing, also known as an Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS), is attracting more interest from the commercial and educational sectors as a way to provide cost-effective computational infrastructure. It is an ideal platform for researchers who must share common resources but need to be able to scale up to massive computational requirements for specific periods of time. This paper presents the tools and techniques developed to allow the open source TORQUE distributed resource manager and Maui cluster scheduler to dynamically integrate OpenStack cloud resources into existing high throughput computing clusters.

  1. Treatment of venous malformations (VM): The cutting edge knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laurence M. Boon

    2005-01-01

    Venous malformations (VMs) are problematic common vascular malformations that are challenging even for experienced physicians. Several treatments are available including sclerotherapy, surgery, laser or combinations of these procedures. As none of these is specific, we still need therapies that would allow to cure these patients without complications. Hopefully, the unraveling of the causative defects of VMs will give us new tools for the management of this difficult condition.

  2. Muscle Damage following Maximal Eccentric Knee Extensions in Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, K M; Onambélé, G L; Winwood, K; Morse, C I

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether there is a sex difference in exercise induced muscle damage. Vastus Lateralis and patella tendon properties were measured in males and females using ultrasonography. During maximal voluntary eccentric knee extensions (12 reps x 6 sets), Vastus Lateralis fascicle lengthening and maximal voluntary eccentric knee extensions torque were recorded every 10° of knee joint angle (20-90°). Isometric torque, Creatine Kinase and muscle soreness were measured pre, post, 48, 96 and 168 hours post damage as markers of exercise induced muscle damage. Patella tendon stiffness and Vastus Lateralis fascicle lengthening were significantly higher in males compared to females (pexercise induced muscle damage (p>0.05). Creatine Kinase levels post exercise induced muscle damage were higher in males compared to females (peccentric knee extension torque, relative to estimated quadriceps anatomical cross sectional area, was taken as a covariate (pexercise induced muscle damage. The higher Creatine Kinase in males could not be explained by differences in maximal voluntary eccentric knee extension torque, Vastus Lateralis fascicle lengthening and patella tendon stiffness. Further research is required to understand the significant sex differences in Creatine Kinase levels following exercise induced muscle damage.

  3. Effect of lifelong football training on the expression of muscle molecular markers involved in healthy longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mancini, A; Vitucci, D; Labruna, G

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: We investigated whether lifelong football training affects the expression of healthy longevity-related muscle molecular markers. METHODS: Biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis muscle of 10 lifelong football-trained men (68.2 ± 3.0 years) and of 10 active untrained healthy men...

  4. The Associations between Pain Sensitivity and Knee Muscle Strength in Healthy Volunteers: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Henriksen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate associations between muscle strength and pain sensitivity among healthy volunteers and associations between different pain sensitivity measures. Methods. Twenty-eight healthy volunteers (21 females participated. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs were obtained from 1 computer-controlled pressure algometry on the vastus lateralis and deltoid muscles and on the infrapatellar fat pad and 2 computerized cuff pressure algometry applied on the lower leg. Deep-tissue pain sensitivity (intensity and duration was assessed by hypertonic saline injections into the vastus lateralis, deltoid, and infrapatellar fat pad. Quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength was assessed isometrically at 60-degree knee flexion using a dynamometer. Associations between pain sensitivity and muscle strength were investigated using multiple regressions including age, gender, and body mass index as covariates. Results. Knee extension strength was associated with computer-controlled PPT on the vastus lateralis muscle. Computer-controlled PPTs were significantly correlated between sites (r>0.72 and with cuff PPT (r>0.4. Saline induced pain intensity and duration were correlated between sites (r>0.39 and with all PPTs (r<-0.41. Conclusions. Pressure pain thresholds at the vastus lateralis are positively associated with knee extensor muscle strength. Different pain sensitivity assessment methods are generally correlated. The cuff PPT and evoked infrapatellar pain seem to reflect the general pain sensitivity. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01351558.

  5. Exercise-induced increase in maximal in vitro Na-K-ATPase activity in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Carsten; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Bangsbo, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the maximal in vitro Na,K-ATPase activity in human skeletal muscle is changed with exercise and whether it was altered by acute hypoxia. Needle biopsies from 14 subjects were obtained from vastus lateralis before and after 4 min of intense muscle activity...

  6. Muscle Damage following Maximal Eccentric Knee Extensions in Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate whether there is a sex difference in exercise induced muscle damage. Materials and Method Vastus Lateralis and patella tendon properties were measured in males and females using ultrasonography. During maximal voluntary eccentric knee extensions (12 reps x 6 sets), Vastus Lateralis fascicle lengthening and maximal voluntary eccentric knee extensions torque were recorded every 10° of knee joint angle (20–90°). Isometric torque, Creatine Kinase and muscle soreness were measured pre, post, 48, 96 and 168 hours post damage as markers of exercise induced muscle damage. Results Patella tendon stiffness and Vastus Lateralis fascicle lengthening were significantly higher in males compared to females (ptorque loss and muscle soreness post exercise induced muscle damage (p>0.05). Creatine Kinase levels post exercise induced muscle damage were higher in males compared to females (pknee extension torque, relative to estimated quadriceps anatomical cross sectional area, was taken as a covariate (ptorque loss, there is no sex difference in exercise induced muscle damage. The higher Creatine Kinase in males could not be explained by differences in maximal voluntary eccentric knee extension torque, Vastus Lateralis fascicle lengthening and patella tendon stiffness. Further research is required to understand the significant sex differences in Creatine Kinase levels following exercise induced muscle damage. PMID:26986066

  7. The temporal relationship of thresholds between muscle activity and ventilation during bicycle ramp exercise in community dwelling elderly males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kentaro; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Kojima, Satoshi; Higuchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To compare the appearance time of the ventilatory threshold point and the electromyographic threshold in the activity of the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris long head and gastrocnemius lateral head muscles during ramp cycling exercise in elderly males. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven community dwelling elderly males participated in this study. Subjects performed exercise testing with an expiratory gas analyzer and surface electromyography to evaluate the tested muscle activities during ramp exercise. [Results] The electromyographic threshold for rectus femoris was not valid because the slope after electromyographic threshold was not significant as compared to that before electromyographic threshold. The slope of the regression line for vastus lateralis was significantly decreased after electromyographic threshold while biceps femoris and gastrocnemius were increased. The electromyographic threshold appearance times for vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius were significantly earlier than ventilatory threshold point. There were no difference in electromyographic threshold appearance times among three muscles. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the increase in the slope of the regression line after electromyographic threshold for vastus lateralis was decreased, possibly indicating to postpone muscular fatigue resulting from the activation of biceps femoris and gastrocnemius as biarticular antagonists. This recruitment pattern might be an elderly-specific strategy. PMID:27942152

  8. Altered skeletal muscle fiber composition and size precede whole-body insulin resistance in young men with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Madsbad, Sten

    2007-01-01

    associated with LBW. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Vastus lateralis muscle was obtained by percutaneous biopsy from 20 healthy 19-yr-old men with birth weights at 10th percentile or lower for gestational age (LBW) and 20 normal birth weight controls, matched for body fat, physical fitness, and whole-body glucose...

  9. Delayed presentation of compartment syndrome of the thigh secondary to quadriceps trauma and vascular injury in a soccer athlete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo Ing How

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: A high index of suspicion for compartment syndrome is needed in all severe quadriceps contusion. Vascular injury can cause thigh compartment syndrome in sports trauma. MRI findings of deep thigh muscle swelling and “blow-out” tear of the vastus lateralis are strongly suggestive of severe quadriceps injury, and may be a harbinger of delayed thigh compartment syndrome.

  10. Exercise and training effects on ceramide metabolism in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Dobrzyn, Agnieszka; Saltin, Bengt

    2004-01-01

    was excised from the vastus lateralis. Ceramide and sphingomyelin were isolated using thin-layer chromatography. The content of individual ceramide fatty acids and sphingomyelin fatty acids was measured by means of gas-liquid chromatography. The activity of neutral, Mg(2+)-dependent sphingomyelinase...

  11. Long-term skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with hypermetabolism in severely burned children

    Science.gov (United States)

    The long-term impact of burn trauma on skeletal muscle bioenergetics remains unknown. Here, we determined respiratory capacity and function of skeletal muscle mitochondria in healthy individuals and in burn victims for up to two years post-injury. Biopsies were collected from the m. vastus lateralis...

  12. Effect of formoterol, a long-acting β2-adrenergic agonist, on muscle strength and power output, metabolism and fatigue during maximal sprinting in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalsen, Anders; Hostrup, Morten; Backer, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    L min(-1) kg(-1)) performed a 30-s cycle ergometer sprint after inhalation of either 54 µg formoterol (FOR) or placebo (PLA). Before and after the sprint, muscle biopsies were collected from vastus lateralis and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and contractile properties of quadriceps were measured...

  13. Human skeletal muscle perilipin 2 and 3 expression varies with insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Prats Gavalda, Clara; Ploug, Thorkil

    2013-01-01

    was obtained from vastus lateralis, and a two-step sequential euglycaemic-hy- perinsulinaemic clamp was performed. Muscle sam- ples were analyzed by Western blot for expression of perilipin 2, 3, 5, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), endothelial lipase (EL) and lipoprotein...

  14. Intramyocellular triglyceride content in man, influence of sex, obesity and glycaemic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Mu, Huiling; Vaag, Allan

    2009-01-01

    It remains unknown whether sex impacts on intramyocellular triglyceride (IMTG) in obesity. as has been shown in non-obese subjects, and if so, whether this may have implications on the association between IMTG and insulin sensitivity. Subject and methods: A Muscle biopsy from vastus lateralis...

  15. EMG-normalised kinase activation during exercise is higher in human gastrocnemius compared to soleus muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Elbenhardt; Leutert, Robin; Rasmussen, Søren T;

    2012-01-01

    to differential reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging ability or resting glycogen content. To evaluate these parameters in humans, biopsies from soleus, gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis muscles were taken before and after a 45 min inclined (15%) walking exercise bout at 69% VO2(max) aimed at simultaneously...

  16. Effects of ageing on single muscle fibre contractile function following short-term immobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars G; Ørtenblad, Niels; Aagaard, Per;

    2011-01-01

    properties of single muscle fibres (n=378) from vastus lateralis of 9 young (24 ± 1 years) and 8 old (67 ± 2 years) healthy men with comparable levels of physical activity. Prior to immobilisation, MHC IIa fibres produced higher maximum Ca2+-activated force (approx. 32%) and specific force (approx. 33...

  17. Impaired formation of vasodilators in peripheral tissue in essential hypertension is normalized by exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Jensen, Lasse Gliemann; Thaning, Pia;

    2012-01-01

    biopsies were obtained from muscle vastus lateralis. RESULTS:: Before training, leg vascular conductance in response to arterial adenosine infusion was similar in the hypertensive and normotensive groups and the individual vascular response was positively correlated to that of both acetylcholine infusion...

  18. Kinematic and electromyographic analysis in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome during single leg triple hop test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalytczak, Marcelo Martins; Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia; Dos Reis, Amir Curcio; Bley, André Serra; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida; Correa, João Carlos Ferrari; Politti, Fabiano

    2016-09-01

    Possible delays in pre-activation or deficiencies in the activity of the dynamic muscle stabilizers of the knee and hip joints are the most common causes of the patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). The aim of the study was to compare kinematic variables and electromyographic activity of the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus and gluteus medius muscles between patients with PFPS and health subjects during the single leg triple hop test (SLTHT). This study included 14 female with PFPS (PFPS group) and 14 female healthy with no history of knee pain (Healthy group). Kinematic and EMG data ware collected through participants performed a single session of the SLTHT. The PFPS group exhibited a significant increase (p<0.05) in the EMG activity of the biceps femoris and vastus lateralis muscles, when compared with the healthy group in pre-activity and during the stance phase. This same result was also found for the vastus lateralis muscle (p<0.05) when analyzing the EMG activity during the eccentric phase of the stance phase. In kinematic analysis, no significant differences were found between the groups. These results indicate that biceps femoris and vastus lateralis muscles mainly during the pre-activation phase and stance phases of the SLTHT are more active in PFPS group among healthy group.

  19. Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in skeletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Implications for insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, S.B.; Madsbad, S.; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2006-01-01

    . Design Muscle membrane FA profiles were determined in muscle (vastus lateralis) biopsies from 21 obese subjects before and after 6 months of dietary restriction. Diet instructions emphasized low intake of FA of marine origin by recommending lean fish and prohibiting fatty fish and fish oil supplements...

  20. Muscle Damage following Maximal Eccentric Knee Extensions in Males and Females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K M Hicks

    Full Text Available To investigate whether there is a sex difference in exercise induced muscle damage.Vastus Lateralis and patella tendon properties were measured in males and females using ultrasonography. During maximal voluntary eccentric knee extensions (12 reps x 6 sets, Vastus Lateralis fascicle lengthening and maximal voluntary eccentric knee extensions torque were recorded every 10° of knee joint angle (20-90°. Isometric torque, Creatine Kinase and muscle soreness were measured pre, post, 48, 96 and 168 hours post damage as markers of exercise induced muscle damage.Patella tendon stiffness and Vastus Lateralis fascicle lengthening were significantly higher in males compared to females (p0.05. Creatine Kinase levels post exercise induced muscle damage were higher in males compared to females (p<0.05, and remained higher when maximal voluntary eccentric knee extension torque, relative to estimated quadriceps anatomical cross sectional area, was taken as a covariate (p<0.05.Based on isometric torque loss, there is no sex difference in exercise induced muscle damage. The higher Creatine Kinase in males could not be explained by differences in maximal voluntary eccentric knee extension torque, Vastus Lateralis fascicle lengthening and patella tendon stiffness. Further research is required to understand the significant sex differences in Creatine Kinase levels following exercise induced muscle damage.

  1. Four days of muscle disuse impairs single fiber contractile function in young and old healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars G; Suetta, Charlotte; Aagaard, Per

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of 4days of disuse (knee brace) on contractile function of isolated vastus lateralis fibers (n=486) from 11 young (24.3±0.9yrs) and 11 old (67.2±1.0yrs) healthy men having comparable levels of physical activity. Prior to disuse single fiber ...

  2. Median power frequency of the surface electromyogram and blood lactate concentration in incremental cycle ergometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R; Ament, W; Verkerke, GJ; Hof, AL

    1997-01-01

    The electromyogram (EMG) median power frequency of the vastus lateralis and flexor digitorum superficialis muscles was measured in 12 subjects during cycle ergometry with step-wise increasing exercise intensities up to 100% of VO2max. Blood lactate concentration was measured to investigate the relat

  3. Increased PIO2 at exhaustion in hypoxia enhances muscle activation and swiftly relieves fatigue: a placebo or a PIO2 dependent effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Torres-Peralta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To determine the level of hypoxia from which muscle activation (MA is reduced during incremental exercise to exhaustion (IE, and the role played by PIO2 in this process, ten volunteers (21±2 years performed four IE in severe acute hypoxia (SAH (PIO2=73 mmHg. Upon exhaustion, subjects were asked to continue exercising while the breathing gas mixture was swiftly changed to a placebo (73 mmHg or to a higher PIO2 (82, 92, 99, 142 mmHg, and the IE continued until a new exhaustion. At the second exhaustion, the breathing gas was changed to room air (normoxia and the IE continued until the final exhaustion. MA, as reflected by the vastus medialis (VM and lateralis (VL EMG raw and normalized root mean square (RMSraw, RMSNz, respectively, normalized total activation index (TAINz, and burst duration were 8-20 % lower at exhaustion in SAH than in normoxia (P<0.05. The switch to a placebo or higher PIO2 allowed for the continuation of exercise in all instances. RMSraw, RMSNz and TAINz were increased by 5-11% when the PIO2 was raised from 73 to 92 or 99 mmHg, and VL and VM averaged RMSraw by 7% when the PIO2 was elevated from 73 to 142 mmHg (P<0.05. The increase of VM-VL average RMSraw was linearly related to the increase in PIO2, during the transition from SAH to higher PIO2 (R2=0.99, P<0.5. In conclusion, increased PIO2 at exhaustion reduces fatigue and allows for the continuation of exercise in moderate and SAH, regardless of the effects of PIO2 on MA. At task failure, MA is increased during the first 10 s of increased PIO2 when the IE is performed at a PIO2 close to 73 mmHg and the PIO2 is increased to 92 mmHg or higher. Overall, these findings indicate that one of the central mechanisms by which severe hypoxia may cause central fatigue and task failure is by reducing the capacity for reaching the appropriate level of muscle activation to sustain the task. The fact that at exhaustion in severe hypoxia the exercise was continued with the placebo

  4. A comparison of computer-assisted total knee arthroplasty through vastus medialis approach and conventional arthroplasty%股内侧肌入路计算机辅助设计全膝关节置换与传统方案的对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏; 刘平平

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND:In the treatment of primary knee osteoarthritis, total knee arthroplasty is a common treatment, but there are some shortcomings in the traditional operation, which maylead to early failure of the prosthesis. OBJECTIVE:To explore the difference of computer-assisted total knee arthroplasty by vastus medialis approach from the traditional total knee arthroplasty. METHODS:A total of 79 patients with primary knee osteoarthritis were randomly divided into control group (41 cases) and observation group (38 cases), which underwent conventional total knee arthroplasty and computer-assisted total knee arthroplasty by vastus medialis approach. Surgical incision, operation time, total blood loss and drainage volume were recorded and compared in both groups. In 12 months of folow-up, Hospital for Special Surgery knee score was evaluated, and the complications were recorded and compared between the two groups. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:(1) Operative incision was significantly less in the observation group than in the control group. Operation time was significantly shorter in the observation group than in the control group. Total blood loss and drainage volume were significantly lessin the observation group than in the control group (alP  目的:在人工全膝关节置换过程中选择股内侧肌入路,并使用计算机辅助设计,探讨与传统全膝关节置换的不同之处。  方法:纳入膝关节原发性骨关节炎患者79例,按照随机数字表法分为对照组(41例)和观察组(38例),分别给予传统全膝关节置换和股内侧肌入路计算机辅助设计人工全膝关节置换治疗。对比2组的手术切口、手术时间、总出血量和引流量;置换后随访12个月,评估2组患者的美国特种外科医院膝关节评分,记录并发症发生情况,并进行比较。  结果与结论:①观察组的手术切口显著小于对照组,手术时间显著短于对照组,总出血

  5. THE EFFECTS OF KNEE JOINT EFFUSION ON QUADRICEPS ELECTROMYOGRAPHY DURING JOGGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William I. Sterett

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate and describe the influence of intra-articular effusion on knee joint kinematics and electromyographic (EMG profiles during jogging. Thirteen individuals underwent a 20 cc 0.9% saline insufflation of the knee joint capsule and completed 8 jogging trials. Stance phase, sagittal plane knee joint kinematics and thigh muscular EMG profiles were compared pre- and post-insufflation utilizing a paired t-test (p = 0.05. Mild knee effusion caused a reduction in vastus medialis (p = 0.005 and lateralis (p = 0.006 EMG activity. The rectus femoris, biceps femoris and medial hamstring muscles did not exhibit changes due to this protocol. There were no changes in the sagittal plane knee joint kinematic pattern. Twenty cc effusion can cause quadriceps inhibition in the vastus medialis and the vastus lateralis in otherwise healthy individuals during jogging. This study provides baseline data for the effects of mild knee joint effusion on thigh musculature during jogging.

  6. Effects of wearing gumboots and leather lace-up boots on lower limb muscle activity when walking on simulated underground coal mine surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Jessica A; Riddiford-Harland, Diane L; Steele, Julie R

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of wearing two standard underground coal mining work boots (a gumboot and a leather lace-up boot) on lower limb muscle activity when participants walked across simulated underground coal mining surfaces. Quadriceps (rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis) and hamstring (biceps femoris, semitendinosus) muscle activity were recorded as twenty male participants walked at a self-selected pace around a circuit while wearing each boot type. The circuit consisted of level, inclined and declined surfaces composed of rocky gravel and hard dirt. Walking in a leather lace-up boot, compared to a gumboot, resulted in increased vastus lateralis and increased biceps femoris muscle activity when walking on sloped surfaces. Increased muscle activity appears to be acting as a slip and/or trip prevention strategy in response to challenging surfaces and changing boot features.

  7. Muscle-Tendon Unit Properties during Eccentric Exercise Correlate with the Creatine Kinase Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty M. Hicks

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this paper was to determine whether; (1 patella tendon stiffness, (2 the magnitude of vastus lateralis fascicle lengthening, and (3 eccentric torque correlate with markers of exercise induced muscle damage.Method: Combining dynamometry and ultrasonography, patella tendon properties and vastus lateralis architectural properties were measured pre and during the first of six sets of 12 maximal voluntary eccentric knee extensions. Maximal isometric torque loss and creatine kinase activity were measured pre-damage (−48 h, 48, 96, and 168 h post-damage as markers of exercise-induced muscle damage.Results: A significant increase in creatine kinase (883 ± 667 UL and a significant reduction in maximal isometric torque loss (21% was reported post-eccentric contractions. Change in creatine kinase from pre to peak significantly correlated with the relative change in vastus lateralis fascicle length during eccentric contractions (r = 0.53, p = 0.02 and with eccentric torque (r = 0.50, p = 0.02. Additionally, creatine kinase tended to correlate with estimated patella tendon lengthening during eccentric contractions (p < 0.10. However, creatine kinase did not correlate with resting measures of patella tendon properties or vastus lateralis properties. Similarly, torque loss did not correlate with any patella tendon or vastus lateralis properties at rest or during eccentric contractions.Conclusion: The current study demonstrates that the extent of fascicle strain during eccentric contractions correlates with the magnitude of the creatine kinase response. Although at rest, there is no relationship between patella tendon properties and markers of muscle damage; during eccentric contractions however, the patella tendon may play a role in the creatine kinase response following EIMD.

  8. The effects of knee joint effusion on quadriceps electromyography during jogging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torry, Michael R; Decker, Michael J; Millett, Peter J; Steadman, J Richard; Sterett, William I

    2005-03-01

    To investigate and describe the influence of intra-articular effusion on knee joint kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) profiles during jogging. Thirteen individuals underwent a 20 cc 0.9% saline insufflation of the knee joint capsule and completed 8 jogging trials. Stance phase, sagittal plane knee joint kinematics and thigh muscular EMG profiles were compared pre- and post-insufflation utilizing a paired t-test ( = 0.05). Mild knee effusion caused a reduction in vastus medialis (p = 0.005) and lateralis (p = 0.006) EMG activity. The rectus femoris, biceps femoris and medial hamstring muscles did not exhibit changes due to this protocol. There were no changes in the sagittal plane knee joint kinematic pattern. Twenty cc effusion can cause quadriceps inhibition in the vastus medialis and the vastus lateralis in otherwise healthy individuals during jogging. This study provides baseline data for the effects of mild knee joint effusion on thigh musculature during jogging. Key Points20 cc of knee effusion can cause vastus medialis and lateralis inhibition as noted by decreases in EMG amplitude.This effusion does not appear to alter sagittal plane knee joint kinematics during jogging.This finding if different from previous work investigating knee joint kinematic changes during a less dynamic activity (gait) with 20 cc of effusion.

  9. Features of Surface Electromyographic Signal of Thigh Muscle in Stroke Patients during Knee Maximum Isometric Extension and Flexion%恢复期脑卒中患者膝关节最大等长收缩时大腿肌群表面肌电信号特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜丽; 窦祖林; 温红梅; 胡昔权; 丘卫红; 兰月; 李奎

    2010-01-01

    目的:探讨脑卒中恢复期偏瘫患者膝屈伸最大等长收缩(maximum isometric voluntary contraction,MIVC)时部分大腿肌肉表面肌电(surface electromyography,sEMG)信号特征,为恢复期脑卒中患者的康复治疗提供客观依据.方法:28例脑卒中患者和20例年龄、性别相匹配的正常对照者.在膝关节屈伸MIVC时记录股内侧肌(vastus medialis,VM)、股直肌(rectus femoris,RF)、股外侧肌(vastus lateralis,VL)和股二头肌(biceps femoris,BF)sEMG信号,计算相应的积分肌电值(integrated EMG,iEMG)、协同收缩率(co-contraction ratio,CR).结果:伸膝时,患侧VM、RF及VL的iEMG值显著小于正常对照及健侧iEMG(P<0.05);健侧RF的iEMG显著小于正常对照iEMG(P<0.05);屈膝时,患侧BF、VL及RF的iEMG显著小于正常对照(P<0.05).患侧伸膝CR显著大于健侧及正常对照(P<0.05),患侧屈膝CR大于健侧及正常对照,但无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:恢复期脑卒中偏瘫患者双下肢肌肉收缩功能下降,患侧大腿伸肌存在轻度痉挛,肌力训练可作为患者康复训练的重点内容之一.

  10. Effects of Kinesio Taping on Muscle Strength of Knees in Female Students%肌内效贴对女性大学生膝关节肌力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁奇; 陈文华; 余波; 王惠芳; 宣青青; 王予彬

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of Kinesio taping on function of knees in girls. Methods 20 female students were tested the peak torque of centripedal and eccentric contraction of knee flexion and extension with Biodex isokinetic testing at 60°/s angular veloci-ty, with Kinesio taping, placebo taping and without taping. Their amplitude root of mean square (RMS) of surface electromyography of vas-tus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RM) and vastus lateralis (VL) were also recorded. Results For centripedal isokinetic contraction, the rela-tive extensors peak torque was the most as Kinesio taping (P0.05). Standardized RMS of VM and VL were the least as Kinesio taping (P0.05). For eccentric isokinetic contraction, the relative extensor peak torque of both extensors and flexors were the most as Kinesio taping (P0.05). Conclusion Kinesio taping may enhance the strength of centripedal, eccentric contractions of quadriceps and eccentric contractions of hamstring, and increase the muscle fibers recruitment of VM and VL.%目的:探讨肌内效贴扎对青年女性膝关节肌力的影响。方法20名健康女大学生,用等速测试仪,以60°/s角速度,测量无贴扎、肌内效贴扎、安慰贴扎3种状态下的膝关节屈伸向心性收缩及离心性收缩相对峰力矩;用表面肌电图测试股内侧肌、股直肌、股外侧肌的肌电振幅均方根值(RMS)。结果向心性收缩时,肌内效贴扎时伸肌相对峰力矩明显高于无贴扎、安慰贴扎时(P0.05);股内侧肌在肌内效贴扎时RMS标化值明显低于未贴扎时(P0.05)。离心性收缩时,肌内效贴扎时伸肌、屈肌相对峰力矩均明显高于无贴扎、安慰贴扎时(P0.05)。结论肌内效贴扎可以提高股四头肌向心性、离心性收缩肌力,增加腘绳肌离心性收缩肌力,提高股内侧肌及股外侧肌的肌纤维募集能力。

  11. Muscle activation and heart rate responses to a side-step interval exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebaud, Robert S; Abe, Takashi; Bravo, Jonathan C; Giovannitti, Nicolas; Sullivan, Avery P

    2017-02-16

    The side-step test is commonly used to assess agility. Side-step interval exercise may also be a potential way to improve cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness. However, the acute heart rate and muscle activation response to this type of exercise is not well established. In addition, different tempos can influence these responses. The purpose of this study was to determine the acute heart rate and muscle activation responses of a side-step interval exercise to different exercise tempos. Ten participants completed a V˙O2 max test and performed a side-step interval exercise for 4 × 1 min intervals separated by 1-min rest intervals at a slow (84 bpm) and fast (112 bpm) tempo. Muscle activation of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis and heart rate were measured during exercise. During the slow tempo, vastus lateralis muscle activation varied from 45% to 48% of maximum muscle activation (EMGmax ) while vastus medialis muscle activation varied from 51% to 54% EMGmax . During the fast tempo, vastus lateralis muscle activation varied from 53% to 65% EMGmax while vastus medialis muscle activation varied from 64% to 76% EMGmax . Heart rates varied from 80-84% HRmax from set 1 to set 4 for the fast tempo and varied from 67% to 72% HRmax from set 1 to set 4 for the slow speeds. Exercise intensity of a side-step interval exercise reached adequate levels to suggest that it may be possible to use this type of exercise to improve cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A study on muscle activity and ratio of the knee extensor depending on the types of squat exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Park, Joon-Su; Choi, Hyun; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Kwon, Hye-Min; Moon, Young-Jun

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] For preventing the patellofemoral pain syndrome, this study aims to suggest a proper squat method, which presents selective muscle activity of Vastus Medialis Oblique and muscle activity ratios of Vastus Medialis Oblique/Vastus Lateralis by applying squat that is a representative weight bearing exercise method in various ways depending on the surface conditions and knee bending angles. [Subjects and Methods] An isometric squat that was accompanied by hip adduction, depending on the surface condition and the knee joint flexion angle, was performed by 24 healthy students. The muscle activity and the ratio of muscle activity were measured. [Results] In a comparison of muscle activity depending on the knee joint flexion angle on a weight-bearing surface, the vastus medialis oblique showed a significant difference at 15° and 60°. Meanwhile, in a comparison of the muscle activity ratio between the vastus medialis oblique and the vastus lateralis depending on the knee joint flexion angle on a weight-bearing surface, significant differences were observed at 15° and 60°. [Conclusion] An efficient squat exercise posture for preventing the patellofemoral pain syndrome is to increase the knee joint bending angle on a stable surface. But it would be efficient for patients with difficulties in bending the knee joint to keep a knee joint bending angle of 15 degrees or less on an unstable surface. It is considered that in future, diverse studies on selective Vastus Medialis Oblique strengthening exercise methods would be needed after applying them to patients with the patellofemoral pain syndrome. PMID:28210036

  13. Myosin heavy-chain isoform distribution, fibre-type composition and fibre size in skeletal muscle of patients on haemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Eidemak, Inge; Sorensen, Helle Tauby;

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Chronic uraemia is associated with abnormalities in skeletal muscles, which can affect their working capacity. It is also well known that the fibre-type composition of skeletal muscles influences endurance, muscle strength and power. In this study we therefore determined the size...... and distribution of muscle fibres and the myosin heavy-chain (MHC) isoform composition in patiens on haemodialysis (HD) in order to establish any differences with values for untrained control subjects. Material and methods. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of 14 non-diabetic patients...... determined fibre-type composition of the vastus lateralis muscle. The mean fibre area of type 1 and 2 fibres was 3283±873 and 3594±1483 µm2, respectively. The MHC composition and the size of the type 1 fibres of the patients on HD were significantly different from those of the control subjects. Conclusions...

  14. A microcalorimetric study of the sodium-potassium-pump and thermogenesis in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagher, B; Sjögren, A; Monti, M

    1987-11-01

    Thermogenesis in human skeletal muscle was monitored by measurement of heat production using perfusion microcalorimetry. Heat production significantly correlated with relative body weight. The energy expenditure of the Na-K-pump (delta P), assessed after inhibition by ouabain in Krebs-Ringer phosphate buffer containing glucose and insulin, amounted to 6% of the total heat production in vastus lateralis muscle. Muscle potassium positively correlated with delta P (r = 0.84, P less than 0.005). For rectus abdominis muscle delta P was 8-15%; 95% confidence interval for the difference was 3-5% when comparison was made with vastus lateralis. The finding of a positive relationship between delta P and muscle magnesium (r = 0.68, P less than 0.04) is possibly explained by the dependence of ATP hydrolysis on internal magnesium. Our data on resting thermogenesis in small muscle samples agree to previous estimates of O2 consumption in human skeletal muscle in vivo.

  15. Leptin signaling in skeletal muscle after bed rest in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Borja; Ponce-Gonzalez, Jesus Gustavo; Morales-Alamo, David

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed at determining the effects of bed rest on the skeletal muscle leptin signaling system. METHODS: Deltoid and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies and blood samples were obtained from 12 healthy young men (mean ± SD, BMI 22.8 ± 2.7 kg/m(2)) before and after 7 days of bed rest....... Leptin receptor isoforms (OB-Rs), suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) protein expression and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation were analyzed by Western blot. RESULTS: After bed rest basal insulin concentration.......4-fold after bed rest (P rest, as PTP1B in the deltoid. PTP1B was increased by 90% with bed rest in the vastus lateralis (P

  16. Hypoxia affects tissue oxygenation differently in the thigh and calf muscles during incremental running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Takuya; Arimitsu, Takuma; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2017-08-17

    The present study was performed to determine the impact of hypoxia on working muscle oxygenation during incremental running, and to compare tissue oxygenation between the thigh and calf muscles. Nine distance runners and triathletes performed incremental running tests to exhaustion under normoxic and hypoxic conditions (fraction of inspired oxygen = 0.15). Peak pulmonary oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) and tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) were measured simultaneously in both the vastus lateralis and medial gastrocnemius. Hypoxia significantly decreased peak running speed and [Formula: see text] (p incremental running, StO2 in the vastus lateralis decreased almost linearly, and the rate of decrease from warm-up (180 m min(-1)) to [Formula: see text] was significantly greater than in the medial gastrocnemius under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions (p incremental running.

  17. Muscle Strength, Power, and Morphologic Adaptations After 6 Weeks of Compound vs. Complex Training in Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasinaki, Angeliki-Nikoletta; Gloumis, Giorgos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Blazevich, Anthony J; Zaras, Nikolaos; Georgiadis, Giorgos; Karampatsos, Giorgos; Terzis, Gerasimos

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of compound vs. complex resistance training on strength, high-speed movement performance, and muscle composition. Eighteen young men completed compound (strength and power sessions on alternate days) or complex training (strength and power sets within a single session) 3 times per week for 6 weeks using bench press, leg press, Smith machine box squat, and jumping exercises. Pre- and posttraining, jumping and throwing performance and maximum bench press, leg press, and Smith machine box squat strength were evaluated. The architecture of vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius muscle was assessed using ultrasound imaging. Vastus lateralis morphology was assessed from muscle biopsies. Jumping (4 ± 3%) and throwing (9 ± 8%) performance increased only with compound training (p power training on alternate days is more effective for enhancing lower-limb and whole-body power, whereas training on the same day may induce greater increases in strength and fiber hypertrophy.

  18. Co-expression of SERCA isoforms, phospholamban and sarcolipin in human skeletal muscle fibers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Val A Fajardo

    Full Text Available Sarcolipin (SLN and phospholamban (PLN inhibit the activity of sarco(endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+-ATPases (SERCAs by reducing their apparent affinity for Ca(2+. A ternary complex between SLN, PLN, and SERCAs results in super-inhibition of SERCA activity. Analysis of skeletal muscle homogenate has limited our current understanding of whether SLN and PLN regulate SERCA1a, SERCA2a, or both in skeletal muscle and whether SLN and PLN are co-expressed in skeletal muscle fibers. Biopsies from human vastus lateralis were analyzed through single fiber Western blotting and immunohisto/fluorescence staining to circumvent this limitation. With a newly generated SLN antibody, we report for the first time that SLN protein is present in human skeletal muscle. Addition of the SLN antibody (50 µg to vastus lateralis homogenates increased the apparent Ca(2+ affinity of SERCA (K Ca, pCa units (-Ab, 5.85 ± 0.02 vs. +Ab, 5.95 ± 0.02 and maximal SERCA activity (μmol/g protein/min (-Ab, 122 ± 6.4 vs. +Ab, 159 ± 11 demonstrating a functional interaction between SLN and SERCAs in human vastus lateralis. Specifically, our results suggest that although SLN and PLN may preferentially regulate SERCA1a, and SERCA2a, respectively, physiologically they both may regulate either SERCA isoform. Furthermore, we show that SLN and PLN co-immunoprecipitate in human vastus lateralis homogenate and are simultaneously expressed in 81% of the fibers analyzed with Western blotting which implies that super-inhibition of SERCA may exist in human skeletal muscle. Finally, we demonstrate unequivocally that mouse soleus contains PLN protein suggesting that super-inhibition of SERCA may also be important physiologically in rodent skeletal muscle.

  19. Studies on physiological and intracellular effects of moxonidine in human skeletal muscle cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rønning, Camilla

    2006-01-01

    The sympatholytic antihypertensive agent moxonidine, a centrally-acting I1-imidazoline receptor agonist, has in clinical studies shown a beneficial effect on insulin resistance in hypertensive patients. Since skeletal muscle is the major organ involved in glucose disposal, experiments were performed to investigate whether moxonidine have direct effects on skeletal muscle cells in vitro. Satellite cells from skeletal muscle biopsies (musculus vastus lateralis and musculus transversus abdo...

  20. Resistance training and testosterone levels in male patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing dialysis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated serum testosterone and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels' associations with muscle fibre size and resistance training in male dialysis patients.METHODS: Male patients were included in a 16-week control period followed by 16 weeks of resistance training thrice weekly. Blood samples were obtained to analyse testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), IGF-1, and IGF-binding protein 3. Muscle fibres' size was analysed in biopsies from m. vastus lateralis.RESULTS:...

  1. Alpha adrenergic receptor blockade increases capillarisation and fractional O2 extraction and lowers blood flow in contracting human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Egginton, Stuart; Madsen, Mads

    2017-01-01

    ) in 10 healthy untrained young men before and after 4 weeks treatment with an α1 receptor-antagonist (Terazosin, 1-2 mg day(-1) ). Corresponding biopsies were taken from the m. vastus lateralis. RESULTS: Resting leg blood flow was increased by 57% 6 hours following Terazosin treatment (P... basal capillary-to-fibre ratio was 1.69±0.08 and increased to 1.90±0.08 after treatment (PTerazosin treatment...

  2. Adenosine concentrations in the interstitium of resting and contracting human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Maclean, D.; Rådegran, G.

    1998-01-01

    effect remain unanswered. METHODS AND RESULTS: The interstitial adenosine concentration was determined in the vastus lateralis muscle of healthy humans via dialysis probes inserted in the muscle. The probes were perfused with buffer, and the dialysate samples were collected at rest and during graded knee...... and demonstrates that adenosine and its precursors increase in the exercising muscle interstitium, at a rate associated with intensity of muscle contraction and the magnitude of muscle blood flow....

  3. Intramuscular fiber conduction velocity, isometric force and explosive performance

    OpenAIRE

    Methenitis Spyridon; Terzis Gerasimos; Zaras Nikolaos; Stasinaki Angeliki-Nikoletta; Karandreas Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Conduction of electrical signals along the surface of muscle fibers is acknowledged as an essential neuromuscular component which is linked with muscle force production. However, it remains unclear whether muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) is also linked with explosive performance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between vastus lateralis MFCV and countermovement jumping performance, the rate of force development and maximum isometric force. Fifteen moder...

  4. Intramuscular fiber conduction velocity, isometric force and explosive performance

    OpenAIRE

    Methenitis, Spyridon; Terzis, Gerasimos; Zaras, Nikolaos; Stasinaki, Angeliki-Nikoletta; Karandreas, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Conduction of electrical signals along the surface of muscle fibers is acknowledged as an essential neuromuscular component which is linked with muscle force production. However, it remains unclear whether muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) is also linked with explosive performance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between vastus lateralis MFCV and countermovement jumping performance, the rate of force development and maximum isometric force. Fift...

  5. Muscle morphology and metabolism in hypothyroid myopathy: effects of treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    Needle biopsies from vastus lateralis in untreated hypothyroid patients with muscle weakness confirmed by quadriceps force measurements (n = 11) were repeated when the patients had taken L-thyroxine for a mean period of 9.2 months (range 5.3-13.3 months, n = 8) and had been continuously biochemically euthyroid for a mean period of 4.9 months (range 2-11 months). Biopsies were analysed biochemically for mitochondrial function. On light microscopy, histochemical examination, mean fibre areas an...

  6. Skeletal muscle myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein synthesis rates are affected differently by altitude-induced hypoxia in native lowlanders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Haslund, Mads Lyhne; Robach, Paul;

    2010-01-01

    and expired breath samples were collected hourly during the 4 hour trial and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies obtained at 1 and 4 hours after tracer priming in the overnight fasted state. Myofibrillar protein synthesis rate was doubled; 0.041±0.018 at sea-level to 0.080±0.018%·hr(-1) (p0.05). Trends...

  7. Neuromuscular Responses of Elite Skaters During Different Roller Figure Skating Jumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantoja Patrícia Dias

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the neuromuscular activity of elite athletes who performed various roller figure skating jumps, to determine whether the muscle activation is greater during jumps with more rotations and in which phase the muscles are more active. This study also aimed to analyze if there is any difference in the muscle activity pattern between female and male skaters. Four elite skaters were evaluated, and each participated in two experimental sessions. During the first session, anthropometric data were collected, and the consent forms were signed. For the second session, neuromuscular data were collected during jumps, which were performed with skates at a rink. The following four roller figure skating jumps were evaluated: single Axel, double Axel, double Mapes and triple Mapes. The neuromuscular activity of the following seven muscles was obtained with an electromyograph which was fixed to the waist of each skater with a strap: biceps femoris, lateral gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and gluteus maximus. The signal was transmitted wirelessly to a laptop. During the roller figure skating jumps, the lateral gastrocnemius, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and gluteus maximus, showed more activation during the jumps with more rotations, and the activation mainly occurred during the propulsion and flight phases. Female skaters demonstrated higher muscle activities in tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and gluteus maximus during the landing phase of the triple Mapes, when compared to their male counterparts. The results obtained in this study should be considered when planning training programs with specific exercises that closely resemble the roller figure skating jumps. This may be important for the success of elite skaters in competitions.

  8. Effect of training and detraining on skeletal muscle glucose transporter (GLUT4) content in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufer, P D; Shinebarger, M H; Dohm, G L

    1992-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of treadmill exercise training and detraining on the skeletal muscle fiber type specific expression of the insulin-regulated glucose transporter protein (GLUT4) in rats. GLUT4 protein content was determined by Western and dot-blot analysis, using a polyclonal antibody raised against the carboxy-terminal peptide. Rats were sacrificed 24 h after the last training session. There were no significant changes in muscle GLUT4 after 1 day or 1 week of training. Six weeks of training increased GLUT4 protein content 1.4- to 1.7-fold (p < 0.05) over controls in the soleus and red vastus lateralis, whereas no significant change was evident in the white vastus lateralis muscle. GLUT4 protein content in both soleus and red vastus lateralis muscle returned to near control values after 7 days of detraining. Similar to GLUT4, citrate synthase activity showed no change after 1 day or 1 week of training, increased 1.8-fold over controls after 6 weeks of training, but returned to control values after 7 days detraining. These findings demonstrate that muscle GLUT4 protein is increased in rats with as little as 6 weeks of treadmill exercise training but that the adaptation is lost within 1 week of detraining. It is suggested that expression of the GLUT4 protein is coordinated with the well-documented adaptations in oxidative enzyme activity with endurance training and detraining.

  9. Relationship between skin temperature and muscle activation during incremental cycle exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priego Quesada, Jose I; Carpes, Felipe P; Bini, Rodrigo R; Salvador Palmer, Rosario; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro; Cibrián Ortiz de Anda, Rosa M

    2015-02-01

    While different studies showed that better fitness level adds to the efficiency of the thermoregulatory system, the relationship between muscular effort and skin temperature is still unknown. Therefore, the present study assessed the relationship between neuromuscular activation and skin temperature during cycle exercise. Ten physically active participants performed an incremental workload cycling test to exhaustion while neuromuscular activations were recorded (via surface electromyography - EMG) from rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius medialis. Thermographic images were recorded before, immediately after and 10 min after finishing the cycling test, at four body regions of interest corresponding to the muscles where neuromuscular activations were monitored. Frequency band analysis was conducted to assess spectral properties of EMG signals in order to infer on priority in recruitment of motor units. Significant inverse relationship between changes in skin temperature and changes in overall neuromuscular activation for vastus lateralis was observed (r0.7 and p<0.01). Participants with larger overall activation and reduced low frequency component for vastus lateralis activation presented a better adaptive response of their thermoregulatory system by showing fewer changes in skin temperature after incremental cycling test.

  10. Comparative analysis of speed's impact on muscle demands during partial body weight support motor-assisted elliptical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnfield, Judith M; Irons, Sonya L; Buster, Thad W; Taylor, Adam P; Hildner, Gretchen A; Shu, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with walking limitations often experience challenges engaging in functionally relevant exercise. An adapted elliptical trainer (motor to assist pedal movement, integrated body weight harness, ramps/stairs, and grab rails) has been developed to help individuals with physical disabilities and chronic conditions regain/retain walking capacity and fitness. However, limited published studies are available to guide therapeutic interventions. This repeated measures study examined the influence of motor-assisted elliptical training speed on lower extremity muscle demands at four body weight support (BWS) levels commonly used therapeutically for walking. Electromyography (EMG) and pedal trajectory data were recorded as ten individuals without known disability used the motor-assisted elliptical trainer at three speeds [20,40, 60 revolutions per minute (RPM)] during each BWS level (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%). Overall, the EMG activity (peak, mean, duration) in key stabilizer muscles (i.e., gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, vastus lateralis, medial gastrocnemius and soleus) recorded at 60 RPM exceeded those at 40 RPM, which were higher than values at 20 RPM in all but three situations (gluteus medius mean at 0% BWS, vastus lateralis mean at 20% BWS, soleus duration at 40% BWS); however, these differences did not always achieve statistical significance. Slower motor-assisted speeds can be used to accommodate weakness of gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, vastus lateralis, medial gastrocnemius and soleus. As strength improves, training at faster motor-assisted speeds may provide a means to progressively challenge key lower extremity stabilizers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evidence of muscular adaptations within four weeks of barbell training in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Matt S; Olinghouse, Kendra D; Drusch, Alexander S; Mota, Jacob A; Hernandez, Jennah M; Akalonu, Chibuzo C; Thompson, Brennan J

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the time course of neuromuscular and hypertrophic adaptations associated with only four weeks of barbell squat and deadlift training. Forty-seven previously untrained women (mean±SD, age=21±3years) were randomly assigned to low volume training (n=15), moderate volume training (n=16), and control (n=16) groups. The low and moderate volume training groups performed two and four sets, respectively, of five repetitions per exercise, twice a week. Testing was performed weekly, and included dual X-ray absorptiometry and vastus lateralis and rectus femoris B-mode ultrasonography. Bipolar surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were detected from the vastus lateralis and biceps femoris during isometric maximal voluntary contractions of the leg extensors. Significant increases in lean mass for the combined gynoid and leg regions for the low (+0.68kg) and moderate volume (+0.47kg) groups were demonstrated within three weeks. Small-to-moderate effect sizes were shown for leg lean mass, vastus lateralis thickness and pennation angle, and peak torque, but EMG amplitude was unaffected. These findings demonstrated rapid muscular adaptations in response to only eight sessions of back squat and deadlift training in women despite the absence of changes in agonist-antagonist EMG amplitude.

  12. Medium-intensity, high-volume "hypertrophic" resistance training did not induce improvements in rapid force production in healthy older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Simon; Peltonen, Heikki; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether it is possible to improve both maximum and rapid force production using resistance training that is typically used to induce muscle hypertrophy in previously untrained older men. Subjects (60-72 years) performed 20 weeks of "hypertrophic" resistance training twice weekly (n = 27) or control (n = 11). Maximum dynamic and isometric leg press, as well as isometric force over 0-100 ms, and maximum concentric power tests were performed pre- and post-intervention. Muscle activity was assessed during these tests by surface electromyogram of the vastus lateralis and medialis muscles. Muscle hypertrophy was assessed by panoramic ultrasound of the vastus lateralis. The intervention group increased their maximum isometric (from 2268 ± 544 to 2538 ± 701 N) and dynamic force production (from 137 ± 24 to 165 ± 29 kg), and these changes were significantly different to control (isometric 12 ± 16 vs. 1 ± 9 %; dynamic 21 ± 12 vs. 2 ± 4 %). No within- or between-group differences were observed in rapid isometric force or concentric power. Relative increases in vastus lateralis cross-sectional area trended to be statistically greater in the intervention group (10 ± 8 vs. 3 ± 6 %, P = 0.061). It is recommendable that resistance training programs for older individuals integrate protocols emphasizing maximum force/muscle hypertrophy and rapid force production in order to induce comprehensive health-related and functionally important improvements in this population.

  13. Skeletal muscle histology and biochemistry of an elite sprinter, the African cheetah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T M; Dobson, G P; Mathieu-Costello, O; Morsbach, D; Worley, M B; Phillips, J A

    1997-11-01

    To establish a skeletal muscle profile for elite sprinters, we obtained muscle biopsy samples from the vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius and soleus of African cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). Muscle ultrastructure was characterized by the fiber type composition and mitochondrial volume density of each sample. Maximum enzyme activity, myoglobin content and mixed fiber metabolite content were used to assess the major biochemical pathways. The results demonstrate a preponderance of fast-twitch fibers in the locomotor muscles of cheetahs; 83% of the total number of fibers examined in the vastus lateralis and nearly 61% of the gastrocnemius were comprised of fast-twitch fibers. The total mitochondrial volume density of the limb muscles ranged from 2.0 to 3.9% for two wild cheetahs. Enzyme activities reflected the sprinting capability of the cheetah. Maximum activities for pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase in the vastus lateralis were 1519.00 +/- 203.60 and 1929.25 +/- 482.35 mumol min-1.g wet wt-1, respectively, and indicated a high capacity for glycolysis. This study demonstrates that the locomotor muscles of cheetahs are poised for anaerobically based exercise. Fiber type composition, mitochondrial content and glycolytic enzyme capacities in the locomotor muscles of these sprinting cats are at the extreme range of values for other sprinters bred or trained for this activity including greyhounds, thoroughbred horses and elite human athletes.

  14. Fatigue during dynamic muscle contractions in male sprinters and marathon runners: relationships between performance, electromyographic activity, muscle cross-sectional area and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentzon, R; Johansson, C; Sjöström, M; Fagerlund, M; Fugl-Meyer, A R

    1988-04-01

    Knee extensor fatigue and endurance during repeated maximum isokinetic manoeuvres were studied in five sprinters and five marathon runners, all males. Fatigue and endurance were expressed in terms of output (contractional work, CW) and input (integrated electromyograms, iEMG), and was related to muscle fibre composition of m. vastus lateralis and to cross-sectional area (CSA) of m. quadriceps. The initially performed contractional work was positively related to the calculated absolute type II fibre area of m. vastus lateralis, but not to the cross-sectional area of m. quadriceps. During the first 25 contractions, sprinters fatigued, with a slope of decline in contractional work that was correlated to the absolute type II fibre area, also after correction of performed work for CSA of m. quadriceps. As the electromyographic activity decreased less than the contractional work, a drastic fall in the CW/iEMG ratio was found in the sprinter group. Three out of five sprinters could perform less than 50 knee extensions, due to subjective discomfort in tested thighs. In contrast, all marathon runners could, after a minor similar decline in electromyographic activity and contractional work during the first part of the experiment, maintain a steady-state endurance level of CW and iEMG throughout the test (200 knee extensions). In conclusion, fatigue during isokinetic maximal knee extensions is closely related to the muscle structure of m. vastus lateralis.

  15. Differential glucose uptake in quadriceps and other leg muscles during one-legged dynamic submaximal knee-extension exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Kari K; Boushel, Robert; Langberg, Henning;

    2011-01-01

    One-legged dynamic knee-extension exercise (DKE) is a widely used model to study the local cardiovascular and metabolic responses to exercise of the quadriceps muscles. In this study, we explored the extent to which different muscles of the quadriceps are activated during exercise using positron...... in the vastus intermedius (VI) and lowest in the vastus lateralis (VL; VI vs VL, p muscles in the exercising leg was 35 ± 9%. Compared...... to mean GU in QF (=100%), GU was on average 73% in VL, 84% in rectus femoris, 115% in vastus medialis, and 142% in VI. Variable activation of hamstring muscles and muscles of the lower leg was also observed. These results show that GU of different muscles of quadriceps muscle group as well as between...

  16. The Effect of Local Anesthetic Volume Within the Adductor Canal on Quadriceps Femoris Function Evaluated by Electromyography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grevstad, Ulrik; Jæger, Pia; Sørensen, Johan Kløvgaard;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Single-injection adductor canal block (ACB) provides analgesia after knee surgery. Which nerves that are blocked by an ACB and what influence-if any-local anesthetic volume has on the effects remain undetermined. We hypothesized that effects on the nerve to the vastus medialis muscle...... (which besides being a motor nerve innervates portions of the knee) are volume-dependent. METHODS: In this assessor- and subject-blinded randomized trial, 20 volunteers were included. On 3 separate days, subjects received an ACB with different volumes (10, 20, and 30 mL) of lidocaine 1%. In addition......L was used (P = 0.0001). No statistically significant differences were found between volume and effect on the vastus lateralis (P = 0.81) or in muscle strength (P = 0.15). CONCLUSIONS: For ACB, there is a positive correlation between local anesthetic volume and effect on the vastus medialis muscle. Despite...

  17. The immediate intervention effects of robotic training in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chunying; Huang, Qiuchen; Yu, Lili; Ye, Miao

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the immediate effects of robot-assisted therapy on functional activity level after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] Participants included 10 patients (8 males and 2 females) following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The subjects participated in robot-assisted therapy and treadmill exercise on different days. The Timed Up-and-Go test, Functional Reach Test, surface electromyography of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis, and maximal extensor strength of isokinetic movement of the knee joint were evaluated in both groups before and after the experiment. [Results] The results for the Timed Up-and-Go Test and the 10-Meter Walk Test improved in the robot-assisted rehabilitation group. Surface electromyography of the vastus medialis muscle showed significant increases in maximum and average discharge after the intervention. [Conclusion] The results suggest that walking ability and muscle strength can be improved by robotic training. PMID:27512258

  18. Effects of High-Intensity Blood Flow Restriction Exercise on Muscle Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neto Gabriel R.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Strength training combined with blood flow restriction (BFR have been used to improve the levels of muscle adaptation. The aim of this paper was to investigate the acute effect of high intensity squats with and without blood flow restriction on muscular fatigue levels. Twelve athletes (aged 25.95 ± 0.84 years were randomized into two groups: without Blood Flow Restriction (NFR, n = 6 and With Blood Flow Restriction (WFR, n = 6 that performed a series of free weight squats with 80% 1-RM until concentric failure. The strength of the quadriceps extensors was assessed in a maximum voluntary isometric contraction integrated to signals from the surface electromyogram. The average frequency showed significant reductions in the WFR group for the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles, and intergroup only for the vastus medialis. In conclusion, a set of squats at high intensity with BFR could compromise muscle strength immediately after exercise, however, differences were not significant between groups.

  19. Immediate effects of neuromuscular joint facilitation intervention after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the immediate effects of neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) on the functional activity level after rehabilitation of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] Ten young subjects (8 males and 2 females) who underwent ACL reconstruction were included in the study. The subjects were divided into two groups, namely, knee joint extension muscle strength training (MST) group and knee joint extension outside rotation pattern of NJF group. Extension strength was measured in both groups before and after the experiment. Surface electromyography (sEMG) of the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis muscles and joint position error (JPE) test of the knee joint were also conducted. [Results] JPE test results and extension strength measurements in the NJF group were improved compared with those in the MST group. Moreover, the average discharge of the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis muscles on sEMG in the NJF group was significantly increased after MST and NJF treatments. [Conclusion] The obtained results suggest that NJF training in patients with ACL reconstruction can improve knee proprioception ability and muscle strength. PMID:27512270

  20. An examination of cross-talk among surface mechanomyographic signals from the superficial quadriceps femoris muscles during isometric muscle actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Travis W; DeFreitas, Jason M; Stock, Matt S

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine cross-talk among the mechanomyographic (MMG) signals from the superficial quadriceps femoris muscles during submaximal to maximal isometric muscle actions of the leg extensors. Eleven healthy men (age=20.1+/-1.1yr, mean+/-SD) volunteered to randomly perform isometric muscle actions in 10% increments from 10% to 90% of the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). During each muscle action, MMG signals were detected from the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, and vastus medialis with three separate accelerometers. Cross-correlation was used to quantify cross-talk among the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, and vastus medialis during each muscle action. The results showed cross-correlation coefficients that ranged from R(x,y)=.124-.714, but generally speaking, the coefficients were between .1 and .3. In addition, there were no consistent differences among the cross-talk levels for the three muscles, and the cross-correlation coefficients generally did not increase with isometric torque. Thus, MMG can be used to examine muscle function from each of the superficial quadriceps femoris muscles during isometric muscle actions.

  1. Using EMGs and kinematics data to study the take-off technique of experts and novices for a pole vaulting short run-up educational exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassement, Maud; Garnier, Cyril; Goss-Sampson, Mark; Watelain, Eric; Lepoutre, François-Xavier

    2010-09-01

    This study attempts to characterise the electromyographic activity and kinematics exhibited during the performance of take-off for a pole vaulting short run-up educational exercise, for different expertise levels. Two groups (experts and novices) participated in this study. Both groups were asked to execute their take-off technique for that specific exercise. Among the kinematics variables studied, the knee, hip and ankle angles and the hip and knee angular velocities were significantly different. There were also significant differences in the EMG variables, especially in terms of (i) biceps femoris and gastrocnemius lateralis activity at touchdown and (ii) vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius lateralis activity during take-off. During touchdown, the experts tended to increase the stiffness of the take-off leg to decrease braking. Novices exhibited less stiffness in the take-off leg due to their tendency to maintain a tighter knee angle. Novices also transferred less energy forward during take-off due to lack of contraction in the vastus lateralis, which is known to contribute to forward energy transfers. This study highlights the differences in both groups in terms of muscular and angular control according to the studied variables. Such studies of pole vaulting could be useful to help novices to learn expert's technique.

  2. Changes in transverse relaxation time of quadriceps femoris muscles after active recovery exercises with different intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaimoto, Takahiro; Semba, Syun; Inoue, Yosuke; Ohno, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in the metabolic state of quadriceps femoris muscles using transverse relaxation time (T2), measured by muscle functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, after inactive or active recovery exercises with different intensities following high-intensity knee-extension exercise. Eight healthy men performed recovery sessions with four different conditions for 20 min after high-intensity knee-extension exercise on separate days. During the recovery session, the participants conducted a light cycle exercise for 20 min using a cycle (50%, 70% and 100% of the lactate threshold (LT), respectively: active recovery), and inactive recovery. The MR images of quadriceps femoris muscles were taken before the trial and after the recovery session every 30 min for 120 min. The percentage changes in T2 for the rectus femoris and vastus medialis muscles after the recovery session in 50% LT and 70% LT were significantly lower than those in either inactive recovery or 100% LT. There were no significant differences in those for vastus lateralis and vastus intermedius muscles among the four trials. The percentage changes in T2 of rectus femoris and vastus medialis muscles after the recovery session in 50% LT and 70% LT decreased to the values before the trial faster than those in either inactive recovery or 100% LT. Those of vastus lateralis and vastus intermedius muscles after the recovery session in 50% LT and 70% LT decreased to the values before the trial faster than those in 100% LT. Although the changes in T2 after active recovery exercises were not uniform in exercised muscles, the results of this study suggest that active recovery exercise with the intensities below LT are more effective to recover the metabolic state of quadriceps femoris muscles after intense exercise than with either intensity at LT or inactive recovery.

  3. Erakondade vastused küsimusele : kes peab vastutama Eestimaa ääremaastumise eest?

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Vastavad erakondade esindajad: Helir-Valdor Seeder (IRL), Ester Tuiksoo (Keskerakond), Arvo Sarapuu (Keskerakond), Aleksei Lotman (Eestimaa Rohelised), Jaanus Marrandi (Sotsiaaldemokraatlik Erakond), Jaan Sõrra (Sotsiaaldemokraatlik Erakond), Rein Aidma (Reformierakond), Arvo Sirendi (Rahvaliit)

  4. Paltsu vastus Unicomi rünnakule : linn on saanud 10 miljonit kahju / Jaanus Piirsalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Piirsalu, Jaanus, 1973-

    2005-01-01

    Vaidlus suurima välireklaamifirma Unicom lepingute üle Tallinna linnaosades muutub aktiivsemaks. Vt. samas lühiintervjuusid Unicomi presidendi Lorraine Stevenini ja Tallinna abilinnapea Kaupo Reedega. Kommenteerib Tõnis Palts. Lisad: Unicom: keegi pole võistelnud; Pentus: ajalehes seda ei klaari

  5. Kinkaleri : teater peab tekitama küsimuse, mitte andma vastuse / Marco Mazzoni ; interv. Andres Keil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mazzoni, Marco

    2008-01-01

    1995. a. Itaalias asutatud kuuest kunstnikust - Matteo Bambi, Luca Camilletti, Massimo Conti, Marco Mazzoni, Gina Monaco ja Cristina Rizzo - koosnevast eksperimentaalteatrist Kinkaleri ja Kanuti Gildi saalis 7. ja 8. nov. esiettekandele tulevast lavastusest "Yes, Sir!"

  6. Kinkaleri : teater peab tekitama küsimuse, mitte andma vastuse / Marco Mazzoni ; interv. Andres Keil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mazzoni, Marco

    2008-01-01

    1995. a. Itaalias asutatud kuuest kunstnikust - Matteo Bambi, Luca Camilletti, Massimo Conti, Marco Mazzoni, Gina Monaco ja Cristina Rizzo - koosnevast eksperimentaalteatrist Kinkaleri ja Kanuti Gildi saalis 7. ja 8. nov. esiettekandele tulevast lavastusest "Yes, Sir!"

  7. Küsimus ja vastus / Kalmer Hütt, Mercedes Merimaa, Igor Jallai, Toomas Takkis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Kandideerite riigikokku. Miks? Vastavad: Kalmer Hütt (Häädemeeste Keskkooli matemaatikaõpetaja), Mercedes Merimaa (Audru Keskkooli arvuti- ja bioloogiaõpetaja), Igor Jallai (Valga Vene Gümnaasiumi arvutiõpetaja), Toomas Takkis (Kuressaare Gümnaasiumi direktor)

  8. VM-based infrastructure for simulating different cluster and storage solutions in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    KUTOUSKI, M; The ATLAS collaboration; PETROSYAN, A; KADOCHNIKOV, I; BELOV, S; KORENKOV, V

    2012-01-01

    The current ATLAS Tier3 infrastructure consists of a variety of sites of different sizes and with a mix of local resource management systems (LRMS) and mass storage system (MSS) implementations. The Tier3 monitoring suite, having been developed in order to satisfy the needs of Tier3 site administrators and to aggregate Tier3 monitoring information on the global VO level, needs to be validated for various combinations of LRMS and MSS solutions along with the corresponding Ganglia and/or Nagios plugins. For this purpose the Testbed infrastructure, which allows simulation of various computational cluster and storage solutions, had been set up at JINR (Dubna). This infrastructure provides the ability to run testbeds with various LRMS and MSS implementations, and with the capability to quickly redeploy particular testbeds or their components. Performance of specific components is not a critical issue for development and validation, whereas easy management and deployment are crucial. Therefore virtual machines were...

  9. SAFETY OF DAYCARE HERNIA REPAIR IN JOS, NIGERIA V.M. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-06-06

    Jun 6, 2000 ... postoperatively for any complaints or wound complications. Only wounds that ... becomes significant if it retards a patient's recovery more than if the patient had ... personal social services in England. HM Stationary Office 1976 ...

  10. Methodology for Rewetting Drained Tropical Peatlands. Approved Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) Methodology VM0027

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffer, S.; Laer, Y.; Navrátil, R.; Wosten, J.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    The first methodology to address the rewetting of drained peatlands "Methodology for rewetting Drained Tropical Peatlands" has been approved by the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) Program. As the methodology is the first of its kind, it will provide unique guidance for other projects that aim at rewe

  11. A three phase optimization method for precopy based VM live migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sangeeta; Chawla, Meenu

    2016-01-01

    Virtual machine live migration is a method of moving virtual machine across hosts within a virtualized datacenter. It provides significant benefits for administrator to manage datacenter efficiently. It reduces service interruption by transferring the virtual machine without stopping at source. Transfer of large number of virtual machine memory pages results in long migration time as well as downtime, which also affects the overall system performance. This situation becomes unbearable when migration takes place over slower network or a long distance migration within a cloud. In this paper, precopy based virtual machine live migration method is thoroughly analyzed to trace out the issues responsible for its performance drops. In order to address these issues, this paper proposes three phase optimization (TPO) method. It works in three phases as follows: (i) reduce the transfer of memory pages in first phase, (ii) reduce the transfer of duplicate pages by classifying frequently and non-frequently updated pages, and (iii) reduce the data sent in last iteration of migration by applying the simple RLE compression technique. As a result, each phase significantly reduces total pages transferred, total migration time and downtime respectively. The proposed TPO method is evaluated using different representative workloads on a Xen virtualized environment. Experimental results show that TPO method reduces total pages transferred by 71 %, total migration time by 70 %, downtime by 3 % for higher workload, and it does not impose significant overhead as compared to traditional precopy method. Comparison of TPO method with other methods is also done for supporting and showing its effectiveness. TPO method and precopy methods are also tested at different number of iterations. The TPO method gives better performance even with less number of iterations.

  12. Development of a Temperature Controller for a Vuilleumier (VM) Cycle Power Cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-10-01

    i 106 ■ ■ 111 ^lnl ,m ’*■ - ~- >mr>™>|i«’(iiJ’M,ip(W>IIW« IPil !»»il’<pi».li’HI*-»^!’«iiH»M>J’U«""i. mu-it—».. IM.»».«»., ,,»|.W,WIII1.,,UUI,IWI

  13. The virtual machine (VM) scaler: an infrastructure manager supporting environmental modeling on IaaS clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS) clouds provide a new medium for deployment of environmental modeling applications. Harnessing advancements in virtualization, IaaS clouds can provide dynamic scalable infrastructure to better support scientific modeling computational demands. Providing scientific m...

  14. A performance study of live VM migration technologies: VMotion vs XenMotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiujie; Tang, Jianxiong; Luo, Xuan; Jin, Yaohui

    2011-12-01

    Due to the growing demand of flexible resource management for cloud computing services, researches on live virtual machine migration have attained more and more attention. Live migration of virtual machine across different hosts has been a powerful tool to facilitate system maintenance, load balancing, fault tolerance and so on. In this paper, we use a measurement-based approach to compare the performance of two major live migration technologies under certain network conditions, i.e., VMotion and XenMotion. The results show that VMotion generates much less data transferred than XenMotion when migrating identical VMs. However, in network with moderate packet loss and delay, which are typical in a VPN (virtual private network) scenario used to connect the data centers, XenMotion outperforms VMotion in total migration time. We hope that this study can be helpful in choosing suitable virtualization environments for data center administrators and optimizing existing live migration mechanisms.

  15. Utilizing ICN/CCN for service and VM migration support in virtualized LTE systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karimzadeh, Morteza; Satria, Triadimas; Karagiannis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important concepts used in mobile networks, like LTE (Long Term Evolution) is service continuity. A mobile user moving from one network to another network should not lose an on-going service. In cloud-based (virtualized) LTE systems, services are hosted on Virtual Machines (VMs) that

  16. Runtime Performance and Virtual Network Control Alternatives in VM-Based High-Fidelity Network Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    described in detail in (Yoginath, Perumalla and Henz 2012). The MPI benchmarks comprise two scenarios, namely, Constant Network Delay ( CND ) and...Varying Network Delay (VND). With CND , we evaluate the performance of NSX and CSX scheduler support for time-ordered event execution when the...identifier of the jth message in the ith run. CND Benchmark Performance Figure 2: CND benchmark error plots (left); CND benchmark runtime plots

  17. Vapor Pressure Determination of VM Using the Denunder-Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    obtained using a mass flow controller (MFC), rotameter, or critical orifice , with a vacuum source. The vacuum source, which is external to the...The generator was then integrated into the vapor pressure test system. The airstream entered the side arm of the generator and passed through the

  18. VM Capacity-Aware Scheduling within Budget Constraints in IaaS Clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanasias, Vasileios; Lee, Choonhwa; Hanif, Muhammad; Kim, Eunsam; Helal, Sumi

    2016-01-01

    Recently, cloud computing has drawn significant attention from both industry and academia, bringing unprecedented changes to computing and information technology. The infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) model offers new abilities such as the elastic provisioning and relinquishing of computing resources in response to workload fluctuations. However, because the demand for resources dynamically changes over time, the provisioning of resources in a way that a given budget is efficiently utilized while maintaining a sufficing performance remains a key challenge. This paper addresses the problem of task scheduling and resource provisioning for a set of tasks running on IaaS clouds; it presents novel provisioning and scheduling algorithms capable of executing tasks within a given budget, while minimizing the slowdown due to the budget constraint. Our simulation study demonstrates a substantial reduction up to 70% in the overall task slowdown rate by the proposed algorithms.

  19. Anterior knee pain: an update of physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Suzanne

    2014-10-01

    Anterior knee pain is one of the most common knee problems in physically active individuals. The reason for anterior knee pain has been suggested to be multifactorial with patella abnormalities or extensor mechanism disorder leading to patellar malalignment during flexion and extension of the knee joint. Some patients complain mostly of non-specific knee pain, while others report patellar instability problems. The patients present with a variety of symptoms and clinical findings, meaning that a thorough clinical examination is the key for optimal treatment. Weakness of the quadriceps muscle, especially during eccentric contractions, is usually present in the majority of anterior knee pain patients. However, irrespective of whether pain or instability is the major problem, hypotrophy and reduced activity of the vastus medialis are often found, which result in an imbalance between vastus medialis and vastus lateralis. This imbalance needs to be corrected before quadriceps exercises are started. The non-operative rehabilitation protocol should be divided into different phases based on the patient's progress. The goal of the first phase is to reduce pain and swelling, improve the balance between vastus medialis and vastus lateralis, restore normal gait, and decrease loading of the patello-femoral joint. The second phase should include improvement of postural control and coordination of the lower extremity, increase of quadriceps strength and when needed hip muscle strength, and restore good knee function. The patient should be encouraged to return to or to start with a suitable regular physical exercise. Therefore, the third phase should include functional exercises. Towards the end of the treatment, single-leg functional tests and functional knee scores should be used for evaluating clinical outcome. A non-operative treatment of patients with anterior knee pain should be tried for at least 3 months before considering other treatment options.

  20. Kadar Laktat Darah sebagai Prediktor Kontaminasi Bakteri pada Hernia Inguinalis Lateralis Strangulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pratama

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Strangulated groin hernia is one of the acute abdomen and have to be treated immediately. Strangulated hernia will cause damage of cell integrity and barrier of intestinal mucous, which make bacterial contamination occur. Strangulated intestinal cells will have anaerobic metabolism which make the blood lactate level increased. Therefore study was conducted to know the correlation between blood lactate level and bacterial contamination in strangulated groin hernia. The study method was cross-sectional with prospective data, patients with strangulated groin hernia who came to Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung during May 2011–April 2012. Blood lactate level was measured when the patient came to hospital and the peritoneal fluid which came from the hernial sac was taken intraoperatively. The data were analyzed with regression logistic test. There were 30 subjects in this study, 28 males and 2 females. The average age was 58.5±12.86 years old. The average blood lactate level was 1.76±0.36 mmol/L. The most found bacterial culture was Escherichia coli. There was strong and very significance correlation between blood lactate level and bacterial contamination, r=0.817 and p=0.007 (p<0.01. In conclusion, blood lactate level can be a predictor for bacterial contamination occurrence in patient with strangulated groin hernia.

  1. Campylorrhinus lateralis, Bilateral microphthalmia and odontoma temporalis in an Oldenburg Foal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteleyn, C; Cornillie, P; Tüllmann, V; Van Cruchten, S; Van Ginneken, C

    2016-04-01

    An Oldenburg colt with wry nose was autopsied after having lived for only 30 min. It presented cyanotic oral mucosae, underdeveloped eyes and a right-sided temporal osseous mass. The applicable nomenclature for the defects is discussed, and the potential etiopathogenesis is explored by describing the normal embryonic development of the affected body parts.

  2. Mandibular shape analysis in fossil hominins: Fourier descriptors in norma lateralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestrel, P E; Wolfe, C A; Bodt, A

    2013-08-01

    Biological shape can be defined as the boundary of a form in 2-space (R(2)). An earlier study (Lestrel et al., 2010, HOMO-J. Comp. Hum. Biol.) of the cranial vault found that there were statistically significant differences between each of the three groups: H. erectus, H. heidelbergensis, and H. neanderthalensis compared with H. sapiens. In contrast, there was no statistically significant difference among the first three groups. These results suggest that these three groups may have formed single evolving lineage while H. sapiens represents a separate evolutionary development. The purpose of the current research was to discern if the mandible reflected a similar pattern as the cranial vault data. This study used lateral jpeg images of the mandible. Five fossil samples were used: A. robustus (n=7), H. erectus (n=12), H. heidelbergensis (n=4), H. neanderthalensis (n=22) and H. sapiens (n=61). Each mandible image was pre-processed with Photoshop Elements. Each image was then submitted to a specially written routine that digitized the 84 points along the mandible boundary. Each mandible was fitted with elliptical Fourier functions (EFFs). Procrustes superimposition was imposed to insure minimum shape differences. The mandible results largely mirrored the earlier cranial vault study with one exception. Statistically significant results were obtained for the mandible between the H. erectus and H. neanderthalensis samples in contrast to the earlier cranial vault data. F-tests disclosed that the statistical significance was limited to the anterior symphysis of the mandible. This mosaic pattern may be explained by the reduction in prognathism with the concomitant if rudimentary development of the chin as seen in H. neanderthalensis compared to H. erectus.

  3. RAPID KNEE-EXTENSIONS TO INCREASE QUADRICEPS MUSCLE ACTIVITY IN PATIENTS WITH TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY: A RANDOMIZED CROSS-OVER STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilquin, Lousia; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders; Bandholm, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background Inhibition of the quadriceps muscle and reduced knee-extension strength is common shortly following total knee arthroplasty (weeks to months), due to reduced voluntary activation of the quadriceps muscle. In healthy subjects, strength training with heavy loads is known to increase agonist muscle activity, especially if the exercise is conducted using rapid muscle contractions. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine if patients with total knee arthroplasty could perform rapid knee-extensions using a 10 RM load four to eight weeks after surgery, and the degree to which rapid knee-extensions were associated with greater voluntary quadriceps muscle activity during an experimental strength training session, compared to that elicited using slow knee-extensions. Study Design A randomized cross-over study. Methods Twenty-four patients (age 66.5) 4-8 weeks post total knee arthroplasty randomly performed one set of five rapid, and one set of five slow knee-extensions with the operated leg, using a load of their 10 repetition maximum, while surface electromyography recordings were obtained from the vastus medialis and lateralis of the quadriceps muscle. Results Data from 23 of the 24 included patients were analyzed. Muscle activity was significantly higher during rapid knee-extensions (120.2% [10th-90th percentile: 98.3-149.1]) compared to slow knee-extensions (106.0% [88.8-140.8]) for the vastus lateralis (pknee-extensions were performed at a median angular velocity of 19.7 degrees/sec (13.7-24.4) and 51.4 degrees/sec (28.9-63.1), respectively Conclusion Four to eight weeks after their total knee arthroplasty, the patients in the present study were able to conduct rapid knee-extensions according to the experimental protocol with an approximately doubled angular velocity compared to slow knee-extensions. This was associated with increased muscle activity in the vastus lateralis when compared to slow knee-extensions, but not in the vastus medialis. Whether

  4. Comparison of the electrophysiological pattern of fatigue between athletes required to perform explosive and endurance sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatine, J J; Blank, A; Shochina, M; Swissa, A; Mahler, Y; Gonen, B; Magora, A

    1990-01-01

    The electrophysiological behavior of an isometric contraction sustained to fatigue, was examined in 6 long distance runners and 9 athletes involved in explosive (burst) sports, by on line computer analysis of the electrical activity of vastus medialis, rectus femoris and vastus lateralis. The experiments were carried out with a counterload of 50% of the maximal strength of the muscle. The duration of spike increased and the frequency decreased in the 3 examined muscles, in both types of sport. In the burst sports the changes of value of both parameters were statistically significant in the 3 muscles. In endurance sports the variations of duration were not significant and the changes of frequency were statistically significant only in the vastus lateralis. These results could be explained by the gradual activation of motor units of more strikingly different sizes in burst sports. Thus it may be speculated that prolonged training in burst sports may result in the automatic mobilization of higher number of small motor units, for the initiation of contraction while in endurance sports the onset of contraction is more gradual and carried out by large motor units.

  5. ACL repair might induce further abnormality of gamma loop in the intact side of the quadriceps femoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Y U

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of surgery on the gamma-loop in the quadriceps of patients with ACL injuries. We compared the response to vibration stimulation in subjects with ACL repair, subjects with ACL rupture, and normal subjects, by measuring the maximal strength and integrated electromyography (I-EMG) of the quadriceps. Pre-vibration data were obtained from each subject by measuring the MVC of the knee extension and the I-EMG from the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris. Vibration stimulation was applied to the infrapatellar tendon, followed immediately by repeating maximal strength and I-EMG recording. The results of this study indicated that alpha motor neuron activity of the intact side of the vastus lateralis in response to prolonged vibration stimulation was altered by surgery, but no effect was detected in the injured side. The results could suggest that abnormality of the gamma-loop existed even in the quadriceps of patients with ACL rupture since the vibration stimulus failed to elicit changes in ACL-rupture group as compared with those of normal subjects. In comparison, abnormality of the gamma-loop in the intact side of the QF was probably induced by the rupture, and further abnormality of gamma-loop was induced by surgery.

  6. Effect of Quadriceps Exercise Training on Muscle Fiber Angle in Patients With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honarpishe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Imbalance between the vastus medialis oblique (VMO muscle and the vastus lateralis oblique (VTO Vastus lateralis has been thought to be a primary cause of abnormal patellar tracking, possibly leading to patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of quadriceps muscle strengthening exercises on the ratio of VMO to VL oblique and longus muscle fiber angles. Patients and Methods Thirty-five subjects (23 females and 12 males, mean age 26.6 years ± 1.1 SD with PFPS were randomized into an exercise group or a control group. The exercise group performed knee extension exercises for four weeks based on the Kaya exercise program (three times per week, while the control group received no treatment. Measurements included knee extensor concentric and eccentric muscle torque using a Biodex isokinetic machine and the fiber angle of the VMO, VL oblique and longus muscles using ultrasonography, all of which were evaluated at the time of the initial examination and at the end of the four-week period. Results There were no significant differences in the muscle strength and fiber angle of the VMO, VL oblique and longus muscles after training between the control and experimental groups (P > 0.05. Conclusions The study findings indicate that short-term exercises had no significant effect on the ratio of VMO to VL muscle fiber angles in patients with PFPS.

  7. The Role of Botulinum Toxin Type A in the Clinical Management of Refractory Anterior Knee Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Barbara J; Silbert, Benjamin I; Silbert, Peter L; Singer, Kevin P

    2015-08-25

    Anterior knee pain is a highly prevalent condition affecting largely young to middle aged adults. Symptoms can recur in more than two thirds of cases, often resulting in activity limitation and reduced participation in employment and recreational pursuits. Persistent anterior knee pain is difficult to treat and many individuals eventually consider a surgical intervention. Evidence for long term benefit of most conservative treatments or surgical approaches is currently lacking. Injection of Botulinum toxin type A to the distal region of vastus lateralis muscle causes a short term functional "denervation" which moderates the influence of vastus lateralis muscle on the knee extensor mechanism and increases the relative contribution of the vastus medialis muscle. Initial data suggest that, compared with other interventions for anterior knee pain, Botulinum toxin type A injection, in combination with an active exercise programme, can lead to sustained relief of symptoms, reduced health care utilisation and increased activity participation. The procedure is less invasive than surgical intervention, relatively easy to perform, and is time- and cost-effective. Further studies, including larger randomized placebo-controlled trials, are required to confirm the effectiveness of Botulinum toxin type A injection for anterior knee pain and to elaborate the possible mechanisms underpinning pain and symptom relief.

  8. Lower extremity muscles activity in standing and sitting position with use of sEMG in patients suffering from Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuciel, Natalia Maria; Konieczny, Grzegorz Krzysztof; Oleksy, Łukasz; Wrzosek, Zdzisława

    2016-01-01

    There is very limited, evidenced data about movement possibilities in patients with high level of lower limb muscles atrophy and fatigue in patients suffering from Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome. Patient (age 46) suffering from Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease for 30 years with multiple movement restrictions and muscles atrophy above knees took part into the study. Tests were performed for 8 muscles of the lower limb and pelvis. Muscles electrical activity was tested in sitting and standing position (for knees extended and hyperextended). In the right leg rectus femoris, vastus lateralis obliquus, gluteus medius and semitendinosus muscles activated at first and were working the longest time. The highest activity was observed in standing position with knees extended. In the left leg rectus femoris and biceps femoris muscles activated at first and biceps femoris was working the longest time. Activity level in left lower limb is much lower than in the right one. Muscles weakness is asymmetric. Left leg is much weaker and engages antagonists and synergists muscles to compensate weaker rectus femoris, vastus medialis obliquus and vastus lateralis obliquus.

  9. Delayed presentation of compartment syndrome of the thigh secondary to quadriceps trauma and vascular injury in a soccer athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    How, Moo Ing; Lee, Puah Ken; Wei, Tan See; Chong, Chua Tai

    2015-01-01

    Compartment syndrome isolated to the anterior thigh is a rare complication of soccer injury. Previous reports in the English literature on sports trauma-related compartment syndrome of the thigh are vague in their description of the response of thigh musculature to blunt trauma, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of high-risk features of compartment syndrome, vascular injury in quadriceps trauma, and the role of vascular study in blunt thigh injury. We present herein the rare case of a 30-year-old man who developed thigh compartment syndrome 8 days after soccer injury due to severe edema of vastus intermedius and large thigh hematoma secondary to rupture of the profunda femoris vein. MRI revealed "blow-out" rupture of the vastus lateralis. Decompressive fasciotomy and vein repair performed with subsequent split-skin grafting of the wound defect resulted in a good functional outcome at 2-years follow-up. A high index of suspicion for compartment syndrome is needed in all severe quadriceps contusion. Vascular injury can cause thigh compartment syndrome in sports trauma. MRI findings of deep thigh muscle swelling and "blow-out" tear of the vastus lateralis are strongly suggestive of severe quadriceps injury, and may be a harbinger of delayed thigh compartment syndrome. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Kinematic, kinetic and EMG patterns during downward squatting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Valdeci Carlos; Almeida, Gil Lúcio; Duarte, Marcos; Hirata, Rogério Pessoto

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic pattern before, during and after downward squatting when the trunk movement is restricted in the sagittal plane. Eight healthy subjects performed downward squatting at two different positions, semisquatting (40 degrees knee flexion) and half squatting (70 degrees knee flexion). Electromyographic responses of the vastus medialis oblique, vastus medialis longus, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, semitendineous, gastrocnemius lateralis, and tibialis anterior were recorded. The kinematics of the major joints were reconstructed using an optoelectronic system. The center of pressure (COP) was obtained using data collected from one force plate, and the ankle and knee joint torques were calculated using inverse dynamics. In the upright position there were small changes in the COP and in the knee and ankle joint torques. The tibialis anterior provoked the disruption of this upright position initiating the squat. During the acceleration phase of the squat the COP moved posteriorly, the knee joint torque remained in flexion and there was no measurable muscle activation. As the body went into the deceleration phase, the knee joint torque increased towards extension with major muscle activities being observed in the four heads of the quadriceps. Understanding these kinematic, kinetic and EMG strategies before, during and after the squat is expected to be beneficial to practitioners for utilizing squatting as a task for improving motor function.

  11. Resistance training alters the sensorimotor control of vasti muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y M; Ng, Gabriel

    2010-02-01

    The present study examined and compared two modes of weight training (bodybuilding and power-lifting) on the surface EMG of vasti muscles, knee joint position sense and isometric knee extension force in 48 able-bodied subjects. Subjects were randomly allocated into either a moderate loading and repetitions (bodybuilding) training or a high loading and low repetitions (power-lifting) training, or a no training control group. Training was conducted on alternate days with individual supervision. After 8 weeks of training, subjects from both training groups showed significantly earlier EMG onset timing and higher amplitude of vastus medialis obliquus relative to vastus lateralis (p=0.005 or 0.05) between the two training groups. The findings suggested that the neuromotor control of the vasti muscles could be altered by regular weight training.

  12. Perceived exertion is related to muscle activity during leg extension exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Scurr, Joanna

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between ratings of perceived exertion and muscle activity during dynamic leg extension exercise using a resistance exercise specific OMNI-RPE scale. Twenty volunteers (10 males, 10 females, age 22.2 +/- 3.1 yr) performed one set of leg extension exercise at 30%, 60%, and 90% of their one-repetition maximum (1-RM). OMNI-RPE responses were assessed for both the active muscle (OMNI-AM) and the overall body (OMNI-O) following each intensity. Electromyography (EMG) data were collected from the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis muscles. A two-factor repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant OMNI-RPE (region) X intensity interaction (p muscle groups (all p Muscle activity was significantly and positively related to OMNI-RPE in both the active muscle and overall body (all p < 0.01). The OMNI-Res RPE scale may be a promising technique for regulating resistance training intensity.

  13. Muscle reflexes during gait elicited by electrical stimulation of the posterior cruciate ligament in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer-Rasmussen, T; Krogsgaard, M R; Jensen, D B

    2002-01-01

    muscle activity in both the quadriceps and the hamstrings. The latency of the inhibition ranged between 78 and 148 ms in the quadriceps, between 88 and 110 ms in the hamstrings and between 189 and 258 ms in m. gastrocnemius. Stimulation of the fat pad of the knee did not influence the thigh and calf......We investigated the influence of electrical stimulation of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) on the motoneuron pool of the thigh and calf muscle during gait. The study group comprised eight young men without any history of injury to the knee joints. Multistranded teflon-insulated stainless...... over the vastus medialis, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris caput longum, and semitendinosus muscles. The stimuli consisted of four pulses delivered at 200 Hz; the stimulus amplitude was two to three times the sensory threshold. The electrical stimulation of the PCL inhibited the ongoing...

  14. A rare case of aberrant quadriceps muscle anatomy preventing anterolateral thigh flap harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Omakobia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The anterolateral thigh (ALT flap is now widely established as a versatile flap which can provide ample amounts of skin, muscle and fascia to construct a variety of defects following major head and neck surgery. However, its use remains cautious due to well documented variations in its vascular anatomy for which this flap is notorious. What is less well known is the effect of variations in quadriceps muscle anatomy on the success of flap harvest. Here, we report a unique case in which fusion of the vastus intermedius (V.I and vastus lateralis (V.L muscles precluded ALT flap harvest. We also advise on appropriate management should similar cases be encountered. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of its kind in the English language literature.

  15. Spatiotemporal characteristics of 5-HT and dopamine-induced rhythmic hindlimb activity in the in vitro neonatal rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiehn, O; Kjaerulff, O

    1996-01-01

    of muscular activity was similar for hip flexors and hip adductors, for semimembranosus (hip extensor), and for muscles controlling the ankle and the foot. 4. In contrast, notable differences in the phase in the pattern induced by 5-HT compared with that induced by dopamine were found in the biceps femoris......, semitendinosus, and quadriceps muscles. Biceps femoris and semitendinosus (functional hip extensors and knee flexors) were always extensor-like during 5-HT-induced activity, whereas in dopamine, these muscles displayed flexor-like bursts and double bursts as well as extensor-like bursts. Lack of EMG activity...... in biceps femoris and semitendinosus was encountered also in dopamine. In rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis (main function: knee extension), the activity was dominated by flexor-like bursts in 5-HT, whereas in dopamine the activity was shifted to a predominantly extensor-like pattern. 5...

  16. Fiber type specific expression of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-18 in human skeletal muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plomgaard, Peter; Penkowa, Milena; Pedersen, Bente K

    2005-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is now recognized as an endocrine organ with the capacity to produce signal peptides in response to muscle contractions. Here we demonstrate that resting healthy human muscles express cytokines in a fiber type specific manner. Human muscle biopsies from seven healthy young males...... were obtained from m. triceps, m. quadriceps vastus lateralis and m. soleus. Type I fibers contributed (mean +/- SE) 24.0 +/- 2.5% in triceps of total fibers, 51.3 +/- 2.4% in vastus and 84.9 +/- 22% in soleus. As expected, differences in the fiber type composition were accompanied by marked...... differences between the three muscles with regard to MHC I and MHC IIa mRNA expression. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-18 were solely expressed by type II fibers, whereas the expression of IL-6 was more prominent in type I compared to type II...

  17. The effect of turbo trainer cycling on pedalling technique and cycling efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkesteijn, M; Hopker, J; Jobson, S A; Passfield, L

    2013-06-01

    Cycling can be performed on the road or indoors on stationary ergometers. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in cycling efficiency, muscle activity and pedal forces during cycling on a stationary turbo trainer compared with a treadmill. 19 male cyclists cycled on a stationary turbo trainer and on a treadmill at 150, 200 and 250 W. Cycling efficiency was determined using the Douglas bags, muscle activity patterns were determined using surface electromyography and pedal forces were recorded with instrumented pedals. Treadmill cycling induced a larger muscular contribution from Gastrocnemius Lateralis, Biceps Femoris and Gluteus Maximus of respectively 14%, 19% and 10% compared with turbo trainer cycling (pcycling induced larger muscular contribution from Vastus Lateralis, Rectus Femoris and Tibialis Anterior of respectively 7%, 17% and 14% compared with treadmill cycling (pcycling was observed. These results suggest that cycling technique and type of ergometer can be altered without affecting cycling efficiency.

  18. Myoelectric fatigue profiles of three knee extensor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botter, A; Lanfranco, F; Merletti, R; Minetto, M A

    2009-06-01

    Aims of the present study were to: 1) investigate the differences between the myoelectric fatigue profiles of the vasti muscles of the quadriceps during electrically evoked contractions; 2) compare the myoelectric fatigue profiles of the vasti muscles between sedentary subjects and rowers; 3) analyze motor unit activation order during stimulation of the vasti muscles. In nine sedentary subjects and nine rowers surface EMG signals were detected during electrically elicited contractions of the following three muscles: vastus medialis obliquus (VMO), vastus lateralis (VL), and vastus medialis longus (VML). M-waves were recorded as the muscles were stimulated with both variable (increasing-decreasing) and constant stimulation intensities. Changes in M-wave conduction velocity (CV) during trains with non-constant current were adopted for the study of the motor unit recruitment order. Rates of change of myoelectric signal variables were adopted to assess myoelectric manifestations of fatigue during stimulation trains with constant current. We found that: 1) VL muscle was more fatigable than vastus medialis muscles; 2) VL and VML muscles of rowers resulted less fatigable than sedentary subjects; and 3) in the three muscles, motor units tended to be recruited in order of increasing CV and derecruited in order of decreasing CV with increasing/decreasing stimulation current.

  19. Diet and exercise reduce low-grade inflammation and macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue but not in skeletal muscle in severely obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jens M; Helge, Jørn W; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the effect of a 15-wk lifestyle intervention (hypocaloric diet and daily exercise) on inflammatory markers in plasma, adipose tissue (AT), and skeletal muscle...... (SM) in 27 severely obese subjects (mean body mass index: 45.8 kg/m2). Plasma samples, subcutaneous abdominal AT biopsies, and vastus lateralis SM biopsies were obtained before and after the intervention and analyzed by ELISA and RT-PCR. The intervention reduced body weight (P

  20. Enhanced sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release following intermittent sprint training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørtenblad, Niels; Lunde, Per; Levin, Kasper

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of intermittent sprint training on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function, nine young men performed a 5 wk high-intensity intermittent bicycle training, and six served as controls. SR function was evaluated from resting vastus lateralis muscle biopsies, before and after...... the training period. Intermittent sprint performance (ten 8-s all-out periods alternating with 32-s recovery) was enhanced 12% (P training. The 5-wk sprint training induced a significantly higher (P ...-977) arbitrary units Ca(2+). g protein(-1). min(-1) (after). The relative SR density of functional ryanodine receptors (RyR) remained unchanged after training; there was, however, a 48% (P

  1. The fiber-type specific response of skeletal muscle satellite cells to high-intensity resistance training in dialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Harrison, Adrian Paul;

    2015-01-01

    weekly. SC and myonuclear number were determined by immunohistochemistry of vastus lateralis muscle biopsy cross-sections. Knee extension torque was tested in a dynamometer. Results. During training SCs/type I fibers increased by 15%, whereas SCs/type II fibers remained unchanged. Myonuclear content...... of type II, but not type I, fibers increased with training. Before the control period, the SC content of type II fibers was lower than type I fibers, whereas contents were comparable when normalized to fiber area. Torque increased after training. Discussion. Increased myonuclear content of type II muscle...

  2. Enhanced sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release following intermittent sprint training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørtenblad, Niels; Lunde, Per; Levin, Kasper

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of intermittent sprint training on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function, nine young men performed a 5 wk high-intensity intermittent bicycle training, and six served as controls. SR function was evaluated from resting vastus lateralis muscle biopsies, before and after...... the training period. Intermittent sprint performance (ten 8-s all-out periods alternating with 32-s recovery) was enhanced 12% (P training. The 5-wk sprint training induced a significantly higher (P ...-977) arbitrary units Ca(2+). g protein(-1). min(-1) (after). The relative SR density of functional ryanodine receptors (RyR) remained unchanged after training; there was, however, a 48% (P

  3. Activation of satellite cells and the regeneration of human skeletal muscle are expedited by ingestion of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail L; Rasmussen, Lotte K; Kadi, Fawzi;

    2016-01-01

    muscles of one leg. Muscle biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis muscles before and after stimulation (2.5 h and 2, 7, and 30 d) and were assessed for satellite cells and regeneration by immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR, and we also measured telomere length. After injury, and compared...... proportion of embryonic myosin(+) fibers and a residual ∼2-fold increase in mRNA levels of matrix proteins (all P telomere length shortening was not observed. In conclusion, ingestion of NSAID has a potentiating effect on Notch...

  4. Interleukin-6 directly increases glucose metabolism in resting human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glund, Stephan; Deshmukh, Atul; Long, Yun Chau

    2007-01-01

    suggested to promote insulin-mediated glucose utilization. In this study, we determined the direct effects of IL-6 on glucose transport and signal transduction in human skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle strips were prepared from vastus lateralis biopsies obtained from 22 healthy men. Muscle strips were...... incubated with or without IL-6 (120 ng/ml). We found that IL-6 increased glucose transport in human skeletal muscle 1.3-fold (P ... exposure increases glucose metabolism in resting human skeletal muscle. Insulin-stimulated glucose transport and insulin signaling were unchanged after IL-6 exposure....

  5. Exercise Does Not Influence Myostatin and Follistatin mRNA expression in Young Women

    OpenAIRE

    Jensky, Nicole E.; Sims, Jennifer K.; Dieli-Conwright, Christina M.; Sattler, Fred R.; Rice, Judd C.; Schroeder, E. Todd

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated changes in myostatin, follistatin and MyoD mRNA gene expression using eccentric exercise (EE) and concentric exercise (CE) as probes to better understand the mechanisms of muscle hypertrophy in young women. Twelve women performed single-leg maximal eccentric (n=6, 25±1yr, 59±7kg) or concentric (n=6, 24±1 yr, 65±7kg) isokinetic knee extension exercise for 7 sessions. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis at baseline, 8hrs after the first exercise session, and 8hrs a...

  6. The associations between pain sensitivity and knee muscle strength in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Klokker, Louise; Bartholdy, Cecilie

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate associations between muscle strength and pain sensitivity among healthy volunteers and associations between different pain sensitivity measures. Methods. Twenty-eight healthy volunteers (21 females) participated. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were obtained from 1...... as covariates. Results. Knee extension strength was associated with computer-controlled PPT on the vastus lateralis muscle. Computer-controlled PPTs were significantly correlated between sites (r > 0.72) and with cuff PPT (r > 0.4). Saline induced pain intensity and duration were correlated between sites (r > 0.......39) and with all PPTs (r...

  7. Intra-articular analgesia and steroid reduce pain sensitivity in knee OA patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tanja Schjødt; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Ellegaard, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the effects of intra-articular therapy on pain sensitivity in the knee and surrounding tissues in knee OA patients. Methods. Twenty-five knee OA patients with symptomatic knee OA were included in this interventional cohort study. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were recorded...... before, immediately after, and two weeks after ultrasound guided intra-articular injection of lidocaine combined with glucocorticosteroid. Computer-controlled and manual pressure algometers were used to assess PPT on the knee, vastus lateralis, tibialis anterior, and the extensor carpi radialis longus...... muscles (control site). Results. Significantly increased PPTs were found following intra-articular injection, at both the knee (P 

  8. Effect of insulin on human skeletal muscle mitochondrial ATP production, protein synthesis, and mRNA transcripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stump, Craig S.; Short, Kevin R.; Bigelow, Maureen L.; Schimke, Jill M.; Sreekumaran Nair, K.

    2003-06-01

    Mitochondria are the primary site of skeletal muscle fuel metabolism and ATP production. Although insulin is a major regulator of fuel metabolism, its effect on mitochondrial ATP production is not known. Here we report increases in vastus lateralis muscle mitochondrial ATP production capacity (32-42%) in healthy humans (P oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle along with synthesis of gene transcripts and mitochondrial protein in human subjects. Skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic patients has a reduced capacity to increase ATP production with high insulin levels. cytochrome c oxidase | NADH dehydrogenase subunit IV | amino acids | citrate synthase

  9. The Clinical Application of Anterolateral Thigh Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Chou Lee

    2011-01-01

    Furthermore, several modifications widen its clinical applications: the fascia lata can be included for sling or tendon reconstruction, the bulkiness could be created by including vastus lateralis muscle or deepithelization of skin flap, the pliability could be increased by suprafascial dissection or primary thinning, the pedicle length could be lengthening by proximally eccentric placement of the perforator, and so forth. Combined with these technical and conceptual advancements, the anterolateral thigh flap has become the workhorse flap for soft-tissue reconstructions from head to toe.

  10. Physical Exercise and Multiple Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Ulrik

    af knæekstensorernes muskel styrke (KE MVC), funktionel kapacitet (FS), træthed (FSS), humør (MDI) og helbredsrelateret livskvalitet (SF-36). Muskelbiopsier fra vastus lateralis blev kun udtaget ved Pre og Post testen. Resultater: KE MVC, FS, FSS, MDI, SF-36 (den fysisk komponent) og muskelfiber...... tværsnitsareal blev signifikant forbedret efter 12 ugers styrketræning i træningsgruppen, og forbedringerne var signifikant bedre end Kontrol gruppens (pFSS, MDI and SF-36 var fortsat til stede i træningsgruppen ved opfølgningstesten 12 uger senere. Konklusion: Tolv ugers...

  11. Alterations in molecular muscle mass regulators after 8 days immobilizing Special Forces mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, J G; Mikkelsen, U R; Nedergaard, A

    2015-01-01

    In military operations, declined physical capacity can endanger the life of soldiers. During special support and reconnaissance (SSR) missions, Special Forces soldiers sustain 1-2 weeks full-body horizontal immobilization, which impairs muscle strength and performance. Adequate muscle mass...... and strength are necessary in combat or evacuation situations, which prompt for improved understanding of muscle mass modulation during SSR missions. To explore the molecular regulation of myofiber size during a simulated SSR operation, nine male Special Forces soldiers were biopsied in m. vastus lateralis pre...

  12. Effect of diabetic neuropathy severity classified by a fuzzy model in muscle dynamics during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watari, Ricky; Sartor, Cristina D; Picon, Andreja P; Butugan, Marco K; Amorim, Cesar F; Ortega, Neli R S; Sacco, Isabel C N

    2014-02-08

    Electromyography (EMG) alterations during gait, supposedly caused by diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy, are subtle and still inconsistent, due to difficulties in defining homogeneous experimental groups with a clear definition of disease stages. Since evaluating these patients involve many uncertainties, the use of a fuzzy model could enable a better discrimination among different stages of diabetic polyneuropathy and lead to a clarification of when changes in muscle activation start occurring. The aim of this study was to investigate EMG patterns during gait in diabetic individuals with different stages of DSP severity, classified by a fuzzy system. 147 subjects were divided into a control group (n = 30) and four diabetic groups: absent (n = 43), mild (n = 30), moderate (n = 16), and severe (n = 28) neuropathy, classified by a fuzzy model. The EMG activity of the vastus lateralis, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius medialis were measured during gait. Temporal and relative magnitude variables were compared among groups using ANOVA tests. Muscle activity changes are present even before an established neural involvement, with delay in vastus lateralis peak and lower tibialis anterior relative magnitude. These alterations suggest an impaired ankle shock absorption mechanism, with compensation at the knee. This condition seems to be more pronounced in higher degrees of neuropathy, as there is an increased vastus lateralis activity in the mild and severe neuropathy groups. Tibialis anterior onset at terminal stance was anticipated in all diabetic groups; at higher degrees of neuropathy, the gastrocnemius medialis exhibited activity reduction and peak delay. EMG alterations in the vastus lateralis and tibialis anterior occur even in the absence of diabetic neuropathy and in mild neuropathic subjects, seemingly causing changes in the shock absorption mechanisms at the heel strike. These changes increase with the onset of neural impairments, and the gastrocnemius

  13. [Chondropathia patellae--a sequel of a primary neurogenic lesion?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüther, W; Vogel, P; Tackmann, W

    1987-01-01

    In twenty patients with a patellar pain syndrome (Chondropathia patellae) the quadriceps muscles were examined electromyographically. The study aimed for detection of neural lesions in the respective segments. According to Weh and Eickhoff (1983) nerve root lesions are the common cause for patellar pain syndrome. In their opinion malinnervation of the quadriceps leads to a muscular disbalance of the vastus medialis and lateralis and in consequence to an unphysiological traction of their patellar insertions that induces pain. Neither clinical data nor electromyographical findings gave any indication to believe that primary nerve root disturbances are a common cause for patellar pain syndrome.

  14. Effect of change in blood volume in skin plus active muscle on heart rate drift during submaximal exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Yano,T.; T Yunoki; Matsuura, R.; Arimitsu, T.; Kimura, T.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of change in blood volume in skin plus active muscle on heart rate drift during moderate exercise and heavy exercise for 30 min. Total hemoglobin concentration (Total Hb) in the vastus lateralis muscle plus its skin was determined by near-infrared spectroscopy. Total Hb significantly increased and remained stable from 20 min in moderate exercise and from 10 min in heavy exercise. Heart rate (HR) rapidly increased until 3 min and showe...

  15. Human skeletal muscle perilipin 2 and 3 expression varies with insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Prats Gavalda, Clara; Ploug, Thorkil;

    2013-01-01

    was obtained from vastus lateralis, and a two-step sequential euglycaemic-hy- perinsulinaemic clamp was performed. Muscle sam- ples were analyzed by Western blot for expression of perilipin 2, 3, 5, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), endothelial lipase (EL) and lipoprotein...... lipase (LPL). Results: Perilipin 3 expression was higher in T2D compared to CON. Perilipin 2 expression was higher in CON than T2D. We observed no difference in expression of perilipin 5, ATGL, HSL, EL or LPL between the groups. Con- clusions: In the present study the muscle perilipin 3 expression...

  16. MRI findings of benign monomelic amyotrophy of lower limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano, T; Mutoh, T; Hirayama, M; Ito, K; Kimura, M; Aita, T; Kiyosawa, K; Ohtaki, T; Kuriyama, M

    1999-06-01

    We report here magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of two patients with benign monomelic amyotrophy of lower limb. Both subjects showed unilateral amyotrophy of the lower limb with a benign clinical course, and the affected muscles demonstrated neurogenic changes. On T1- and T2-weighted MRI, marked atrophy and increased signal intensity were found mainly in gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Moreover, MRI examination also revealed that thigh muscles including semitendinosus, semimembranosus, and vastus intermedius and lateralis muscles were involved in one of the patients. We concluded that muscle MRI is very useful for detecting affected muscles, especially deep skeletal muscles in patients with benign monomelic amyotrophy of lower limb.

  17. Human muscle fiber type-specific insulin signaling: Impact of obesity and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albers, Peter Hjorth; Pedersen, Andreas J T; Birk, Jesper Bratz

    2015-01-01

    /or metabolic enzymes. Pools of type I and II fibers were prepared from biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscles from lean, obese and type 2 diabetic subjects before and after a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Type I fibers compared to type II fibers have higher protein levels of the insulin receptor, GLUT4......-responses to insulin adjusted for protein level were not different between fiber types. Independently of fiber type, insulin signaling was similar (TBC1D1, GS and PDH-E1α) or decreased (Akt and TBC1D4) in muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes compared to lean and obese subjects. We conclude that human type I...

  18. Real-time noninvasive optical imaging of exercising muscle and brain upon cognitive stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaresima, Valentina; van der Sluijs, Marco C.; Menssen, Jan; Grillotti, Lucia; Ferrari, Marco; Colier, Willy N.

    2001-06-01

    The monitoring of a single muscle location does not reflect the heterogeneity of the muscle groups activation during exercise. In the past, measurements of oxygen consumption (VO2) at single muscle locations could be carried out non-invasively by near-infrared continuous wave spectroscopy (NIRCWS) at rest or during isometric contractions. In the present study, human regional quadriceps (vastus lateralis and rectus femoris) VO2 was investigated at rest and during maximal voluntary contractions using a 12- channel NIRCWS system with an acquisition time of 0.1 s.

  19. Maximal voluntary contraction force, SR function and glycogen resynthesis during the first 72 h after a high-level competitive soccer game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Ortenblad, Niels; Nielsen, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine maximal voluntary knee-extensor contraction force (MVC force), sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function and muscle glycogen levels in the days after a high-level soccer game when players ingested an optimised diet. Seven high-level male soccer players had a vastus...... lateralis muscle biopsy and a blood sample collected in a control situation and at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h after a competitive soccer game. MVC force, SR function, muscle glycogen, muscle soreness and plasma myoglobin were measured. MVC force sustained over 1 s was 11 and 10% lower (P ...

  20. Carbon monoxide, skeletal muscle oxidative stress, and mitochondrial biogenesis in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, Michael A.; Carraway, Martha Sue; Piantadosi, Claude A.; Reynolds, Crystal M; Cherry, Anne D.; Wester, T. E.; Natoli, Michael J.; Massey, E. Wayne; Moon, Richard E.; Suliman, Hagir B.

    2009-01-01

    Given that the physiology of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) encompasses mitochondrial biogenesis, we tested the hypothesis that the HO-1 product, carbon monoxide (CO), activates mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle and enhances maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2max) in humans. In 10 healthy subjects, we biopsied the vastus lateralis and performed V̇o2max tests followed by blinded randomization to air or CO breathing (1 h/day at 100 parts/million for 5 days), a contralateral muscle biopsy on day 5, a...

  1. Human muscle fibre type-specific regulation of AMPK and downstream targets by exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Dorte Enggaard; Albers, Peter Hjorth; Prats, Clara

    2015-01-01

    are expressed in a fibre type-dependent manner and that fibre type-specific activation of AMPK and downstream targets is dependent on exercise intensity. Pools of type I and II fibres were prepared from biopsies of m. vastus lateralis from healthy men before and after two exercise trials; A) continuous cycling......AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a regulator of energy homeostasis during exercise. Studies suggest muscle fibre type-specific AMPK expression. However, fibre type-specific regulation of AMPK and downstream targets during exercise has not been proven. We hypothesized that AMPK subunits...

  2. The effect of exercise and beta2-adrenergic stimulation on glutathionylation and function of the Na,K-ATPase in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Carsten; Hostrup, Morten; Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Potassium and sodium displacements across the skeletal muscle membrane during exercise may cause fatigue and are in part controlled by the Na,K-ATPase. Regulation of the Na,K-ATPase is therefore important for muscle functioning. We investigated the effect of oxidative stress (glutathionylation......) on Na,K-ATPase activity. Ten male subjects performed three bouts of 4-min submaximal exercise followed by intense exercise to exhaustion with and without beta2-adrenergic stimulation with terbutaline. Muscle biopsies were obtained from m. vastus lateralis at rest (Control samples) and at exhaustion....... In vitro glutathionylation reduced (P beta...

  3. Glucose metabolism and metabolic flexibility in cultured skeletal muscle cells is related to exercise status in young male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jenny; S Tangen, Daniel; Wiig, Håvard

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesised that skeletal muscles of healthy young people have a large variation in oxidative capacity and fibre-type composition, and aimed therefore to investigate glucose metabolism in biopsies and myotubes isolated from musculus vastus lateralis from healthy males with varying degrees...... deoxyglucose accumulation and fractional glucose oxidation (glucose oxidation relative to glucose uptake), and were also more sensitive to the suppressive action of acutely added oleic acid to the cells. Despite lack of correlation of fibre types between skeletal muscle biopsies and cultured cells, myotubes...

  4. Increased rate of force development and neuromuscular activity after high-load resistance training in patients undergoing dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Andersen, Jesper L.; Eidemak, Inge

    2013-01-01

    AimThe aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-load resistance training on the rate of force development and neuromuscular function in patients undergoing dialysis. MethodsTwenty-nine patients were tested before and after 16 weeks of resistance training. The rate of force...... development was tested using the Good Strength dynamometer chair. Muscle strength and neuromuscular function in the m. Vastus lateralis was estimated using electromyography in a one repetition maximum test during dynamic knee extension and during a 20s isometric knee extension with 50% of the one repetition...

  5. Acute fatigue-induced changes in muscle mechanical properties and neuromuscular activity in elite handball players following a handball match

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Michalsik, L B; Madsen, Klavs

    2008-01-01

    [maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)] and rate of force development (RFD) with synchronous electromyography (EMG) recording, while maximal vertical jump parameters were assessed using force plate analysis. Quadriceps and hamstrings MVC and RFD decreased significantly post-match (approximately 10%, P ....05 and approximately 16-21%, P MVC mean EMG amplitude [mean average voltage (MAV)] decreased for the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) (21-42%, P ... hamstring MVC, MAV was reduced in BF (31%, P MVC was reduced for the VL (28%, P MVC, maximum EMG was reduced for BF (21%, P

  6. Exercise training normalizes skeletal muscle vascular endothelial growth factor levels in patients with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ane Håkansson; Nielsen, Jens Jung; Saltin, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    METHODS: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein and capillarization were determined in muscle vastus lateralis biopsy samples in individuals with essential hypertension (n = 10) and normotensive controls (n = 10). The hypertensive individuals performed exercise training for 16 weeks....... Muscle samples as well as muscle microdialysis fluid samples were obtained at rest, during and after an acute exercise bout, performed prior to and after the training period, for the determination of muscle VEGF levels, VEGF release, endothelial cell proliferative effect and capillarization. RESULTS......: Prior to training, the hypertensive individuals had 36% lower levels of VEGF protein and 22% lower capillary density in the muscle compared to controls. Training in the hypertensive group reduced (P

  7. Changes in the human muscle force-velocity relationship in response to resistance training and subsequent detraining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Jesper L; Magnusson, S Peter

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies show that cessation of resistance training, commonly known as "detraining," is associated with strength loss, decreased neural drive, and muscular atrophy. Detraining may also increase the expression of fast muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. The present study examined...... the effect of detraining subsequent to resistance training on contractile performance during slow-to-medium velocity isokinetic muscle contraction vs. performance of maximal velocity "unloaded" limb movement (i.e., no external loading of the limb). Maximal knee extensor strength was measured in an isokinetic...... contractions were evoked in the passive vastus lateralis muscle. MHC isoform composition was determined with SDS-PAGE. Isokinetic muscle strength increased 18% (P

  8. Elevated muscle interstitial levels of pain-inducing substances in symptomatic muscles in patients with polymyalgia rheumatica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Frederik; Galbo, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    with newly diagnosed PMR and 20 controls were examined before and after 14days of prednisolone (20mg/day). Concentrations of glutamate, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), bradykinin, serotonin, adenosine triphosphate, lactate, pyruvate, and potassium as well as extraction of (3)H(2)O were measured in symptomatic...... vastus lateralis and trapezius muscles using microdialysis. Plasma levels were measured simultaneously. To be considered potentially pain inducing, interstitial concentrations of candidates should be higher in patients vs. controls, be normalized by prednisolone, and be higher in muscle vs. plasma...

  9. Impaired insulin-induced site-specific phosphorylation of TBC1 domain family, member 4 (TBC1D4) in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetes patients is restored by endurance exercise-training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, B. F.; Pehmøller, Christian; Treebak, Jonas Thue

    2011-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Insulin-mediated glucose disposal rates (R (d)) are reduced in type 2 diabetic patients, a process in which intrinsic signalling defects are thought to be involved. Phosphorylation of TBC1 domain family, member 4 (TBC1D4) is at present the most distal insulin receptor signalling...... mU min(-1) m(-2)) clamp, we obtained M. vastus lateralis biopsies from 13 obese type 2 diabetic and 13 obese, non-diabetic control individuals before and after 10 weeks of endurance exercise-training. RESULTS: Before training, reductions in insulin-stimulated R (d), together with impaired insulin...

  10. Effect of 3 Different Applications of Kinesio Taping Denko® on Electromyographic Activity: Inhibition or Facilitation of the Quadriceps of Males During Squat Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio C. Serrão, Bruno Mezêncio, João G. Claudino, Rafael Soncin, Pedro L. Sampaio Miyashiro, Eric P. Sousa, Eduardo Borges, Vinícius Zanetti, Igor Phillip, Luiz Mochizuki, Alberto C. Amadio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Kinesio taping consists of a technique which uses the application of an elastic adhesive tape. It has become a widely used rehabilitation modality for the prevention and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of the application of Kinesio Taping Denko® in three conditions (facilitation, inhibition, and placebo on the electromyographic activity of the quadriceps and hamstrings muscles on facilitating or inhibiting the muscle function and on the perceived exertion during the barbell back squat exercise in healthy male subjects. Methods: It was a randomized, single-blinded and controlled study in which 18 males (28.0 ± 6.7 years old; 85.8 ± 8.2 kg mass; 1.80 ± 0.07 m tall; 0.97 ± 0.04 m lower limb length performed barbell back squat exercise with different conditions of Kinesio Taping Denko® applications: Facilitation, inhibition and placebo. Previous to the mentioned conditions, all individuals were assessed without applying kinesio Taping Denko® during the exercise. OMNI scale was used after each set for perceived exertion evaluation. No differences (p < 0.05 in the electromyographic activity of the biceps femoris, vastus lateralis and vastus medialis or OMNI scale were recorded under any conditions. Conclusion: The results show that the kinesio taping denko®may not alter the magnitude of the electromyography activity of vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and biceps femoris during the squat exercise. Furthermore, the perceived exertion was not affected by the kinesio taping denko® application.

  11. The mRNA expression profile of metabolic genes relative to MHC isoform pattern in human skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomgaard, Peter; Penkowa, Milena; Leick, Lotte; Pedersen, Bente K; Saltin, Bengt; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2006-09-01

    The metabolic profile of rodent muscle is generally reflected in the myosin heavy chain (MHC) fiber-type composition. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that metabolic gene expression is not tightly coupled with MHC fiber-type composition for all genes in human skeletal muscle. Triceps brachii, vastus lateralis quadriceps, and soleus muscle biopsies were obtained from normally physically active, healthy, young male volunteers, because these muscles are characterized by different fiber-type compositions. As expected, citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl dehydrogenase activity was more than twofold higher in soleus and vastus than in triceps. Contrary, phosphofructokinase and total lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was approximately three- and twofold higher in triceps than in both soleus and vastus. Expression of metabolic genes was assessed by determining the mRNA content of a broad range of metabolic genes. The triceps muscle had two- to fivefold higher MHC IIa, phosphofructokinase, and LDH A mRNA content and two- to fourfold lower MHC I, lipoprotein lipase, CD36, hormone-sensitive lipase, and LDH B and hexokinase II mRNA than vastus lateralis or soleus. Interestingly, such mRNA differences were not evident for any of the genes encoding mitochondrial oxidative proteins, 3-hydroxyacyl dehydrogenase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase I, citrate synthase, alpha-ketogluterate dehydrogenase, and cytochrome c, nor for the transcriptional regulators peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha, forkhead box O1, or peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-alpha. Thus the mRNA expression of genes encoding mitochondrial proteins and transcriptional regulators does not seem to be fiber type specific as the genes encoding glycolytic and lipid metabolism genes, which suggests that basal mRNA regulation of genes encoding mitochondrial proteins does not match the wide differences in mitochondrial content of these muscles.

  12. 基于价值管理(VM)思想的民营上市企业的绩效管理%On the Performance Management of Private Listed Enterprises Based on Value Management (VM)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱美芳

    2011-01-01

    企业价值是衡量企业绩效的最全面标准,只有基于价值的绩效管理才能彻底完善我国民营上市企业现有的绩效管理体系.文章从价值管理的高度构建了我国民营上市企业绩效管理框架,并针对我国民营上市企业的现有瓶颈提出了相应建议与对策.%The enterprises' value is the most comprehensive measure of corporate performance standards, but only the value-based performance management could improve the existing performance management system of China's private listed companies completely. This article has built the private listed performance management' framework from the view of value management, and listed some suggestions and countermeasures for the existing China's private companies with bottlenecks.

  13. Role of thermal factors on aerobic capacity improvements with endurance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, A J; Sawka, M N; Quigley, M D; Cadarette, B S; Neufer, P D; Dennis, R C; Valeri, C R

    1993-07-01

    This investigation studied the importance of the rise in body temperature during exercise for aerobic capacity adaptations produced by endurance training. The approach used was to compare training effects produced by subjects exercising in hot (35 degrees C) water vs. cold (20 degrees C) water. Hot water was used to potentiate, and cold water to blunt, the rise in body temperature during exercise. Eighteen young men trained by cycle-ergometer exercise at 60% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) while immersed to the neck in either hot (HWT, n = 9) or cold (CWT, n = 9) water for 60 min, 5 days/wk, for 8 wk. Before and after training, VO2max, erythrocyte volume, plasma volume, and vastus lateralis citrate synthase activity were measured. Training increased (P < 0.01) VO2max by 13%, with no difference between HWT and CWT in the magnitude of the effect. Erythrocyte volume increased 4% (P < 0.01) with training, with no difference between HWT and CWT in the magnitude of the effect. Plasma volume remained unchanged by training in both the HWT and CWT groups. Last, vastus lateralis citrate synthase activity increased by 38% with training, but there was no difference between HWT and CWT in the training effect. Thus, exercise-induced body temperature elevations are not an important stimulus for the aerobic adaptations to moderate-intensity endurance training.

  14. Responses of knee extensor muscles to leg press training of various types in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netreba, A; Popov, D; Bravyy, Ya; Lyubaeva, E; Terada, M; Ohira, T; Okabe, H; Vinogradova, O; Ohira, Y

    2013-03-01

    Responses of m. vastus lateralis to 8-week resistive training of various types at leg press mashine were investigated in 30 male subjects. Training loads were 25, 65 and 85% of one repetition maximum for low (LI), medium (MI), and high intensity (HI) training groups respectively, while angular velocities of contraction differed considerably between groups. The total work done during training session was identical. The maximum strengths during isokinetic knee extension in LI and HI groups were increased at most angular velocities. In group MI increments were obtained only during concentric contractions. Significant improvement of fatigue resistance and maximum oxygen consumption (V(O2max)) was seen only in group MI and LI, respectively. The training-related increase of cross-sectional area in type II fibers in m. vastus lateralis was in the order of HI > MI > LI group, and that of type I fibers was opposite. The increased myonuclear number was found for HI group. The data suggest that fiber hypertrophy, fatigue resistance and V(O2max) changes were related to the type of training.

  15. Effects of inactivity on human muscle glutathione synthesis by a double-tracer and single-biopsy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Francesco; Libera, Luciano Dalla; Rittweger, Jörn; Mazzucco, Sara; Jurdana, Mihaela; Mekjavic, Igor B; Pišot, Rado; Gorza, Luisa; Narici, Marco; Biolo, Gianni

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress is often associated to inactivity-mediated skeletal muscle atrophy. Glutathione is one of the major antioxidant systems stimulated, both at muscular and systemic level, by activation of oxidative processes. We measured changes in glutathione availability, oxidative stress induction and the extent of atrophy mediated by 35 days of experimental bed rest in vastus lateralis muscle of healthy human volunteers. To assess muscle glutathione synthesis, we applied a novel single-biopsy and double-tracer ([2H2]glycine and [15N]glycine) approach based on evaluation of steady-state precursor incorporation in product. The correlations between the traditional (multiple-samples, one-tracer) and new (one-sample, double-tracer infusion) methods were analysed in erythrocytes by Passing–Bablok and Altman–Bland tests. Muscle glutathione absolute synthesis rate increased following bed rest from 5.5 ± 1.1 to 11.0 ± 1.5 mmol (kg wet tissue)−1 day−1 (mean ±s.e.m.; n= 9; P= 0.02) while glutathione concentration failed to change significantly. Bed rest induced vastus lateralis muscle atrophy, as assessed by pennation angle changes measured by ultrasonography (from 18.6 ± 1.0 to 15.3 ± 0.9 deg; P= 0.01) and thickness changes (from 2.3 ± 0.2 to 1.9 ± 0.1 cm; P glutathione system. PMID:20962001

  16. The Impact of Hypotensive Epidural Anesthesia on Distal and Proximal Tissue Perfusion in Patients Undergoing Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danninger, Thomas; Stundner, Ottokar; Ma, Yan; Bae, James J; Memtsoudis, Stavros G

    2014-01-01

    Little data exists to detail the effect of hypotensive epidural anesthesia on differential tissue oxygenation changes above and below the level of neuraxial blockade. This study was designed to investigate tissue oxygenation in a clinical setting, using non-invasive near-infrared spectroscopy. Methods Patients aged 18 to 85 years scheduled to undergo primary total hip arthroplasty were enrolled. Muscle oxygenation saturation was measured above and below the level of neuraxial blockade (deltoid and vastus lateralis muscles). Other continuously recorded parameters included cardiac output, stroke volume, heart rate, invasive mean arterial blood pressure and arterial oxygen saturation. Recordings of muscle oxygenation were compared over time separately for upper and lower extremity. Results 10 patients were enrolled. We found an intermittent and significant unadjusted decline of mean muscle oxygenation saturation in the vastus lateralis muscle during first part of the surgery (nadir 2nd quintile: 71.0% vs. 63.3%, p<0.0001). This decline was followed by a return to baseline towards the end of the surgery (71.0% vs. 69.1%, p=0.3429). Mean muscle oxygenation saturation did not change for the same period of time in the deltoid muscle. When adjusting for covariates, the changes in muscle tissue oxygenation remained significant. Conclusion These results indicate that muscle oxygenation saturation, a surrogate parameter for tissue perfusion, is decreased by hypotensive epidural anesthesia, but only within the functional limits of the neuraxial blockade. The etiology of these findings remains to be elucidated. PMID:24563810

  17. Gender differences in fascicular lengthening during eccentric contractions: the role of the patella tendon stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, K M; Onambele-Pearson, G L; Winwood, K; Morse, C I

    2013-11-01

    Elastic tendons have been suggested to attenuate fascicle lengthening during eccentric contractions; however, there is no in vivo evidence to support this hypothesis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether patella tendon stiffness modulates vastus lateralis (VL) fascicle lengthening during eccentric contractions in males and females. Vastus lateralis and patella tendon properties were measured in males and females owing to previously reported intrinsic gender differences in tendon properties. During maximal voluntary eccentric knee extensions, VL fascicle lengthening and torque were recorded at every 10° (range of motion 20-90°). A significant correlation between maximal patella tendon stiffness and change in fascicle length (r=0.476, P=0.023) was observed. Similarly, there was a significant correlation between maximal Young's modulus and change in fascicle length (r=0.470, P=0.049). As expected, patella tendon stiffness and Young's modulus were significantly higher in males compared with females (Pmuscle-tendon unit elongation was estimated to be significantly greater in males compared with females (5.24 and 4.84 cm respectively). The significant difference in fascicle lengthening during eccentric contractions may be partly explained by the significantly higher patella tendon moment arm, patella tendon stiffness and Young's modulus found in males compared with females. The current study provides in vivo evidence to support the hypothesis that the tendon acts as a 'mechanical buffer' during eccentric contractions. © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Muscle stiffness estimation using a system identification technique applied to evoked mechanomyogram during cycling exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Takanori; Saito, Kaito; Shinjo, Katsuya

    2015-12-01

    The aims of this study were to develop a method to extract the evoked mechanomyogram (MMG) during cycling exercise and to clarify muscle stiffness at various cadences, workloads, and power. Ten young healthy male participants were instructed to pedal a cycle ergometer at cadences of 40 and 60 rpm. The loads were 4.9, 9.8, 14.7, and 19.6 N, respectively. One electrical stimulus per two pedal rotations was applied to the vastus lateralis muscle at a knee angle of 80° in the down phase. MMGs were measured using a capacitor microphone, and the MMGs were divided into stimulated and non-stimulated sequences. Each sequence was synchronously averaged. The synchronously averaged non-stimulated MMG was subtracted from the synchronously averaged stimulated MMG to extract an evoked MMG. The evoked MMG system was identified and the poles of the transfer function were calculated. The poles and mass of the vastus lateralis muscle were used to estimate muscle stiffness. Results showed that muscle stiffness was 186-626 N /m and proportional to the workloads and power. In conclusion, our method can be used to assess muscle stiffness proportional to the workload and power.

  19. An Acute Bout of Barefoot Running Alters Lower-limb Muscle Activation for Minimalist Shoe Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, N J; Basset, F A; Byrne, J

    2016-05-01

    Despite the abundance of barefoot running-related research, there have been no electromyography studies evaluating the effects of this mode of exercise on habitual users of minimalist footwear. The present study investigated differences in muscle activation during acute bouts of barefoot and shod running, in minimalist shoe users. 8 male participants ran on a motorized treadmill for 10 min under both conditions, at 70% maximal aerobic speed. Electromyographic data were sampled from the biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, gastrocnemius medialis, tibialis anterior, and vastus lateralis during both swing and stance. Root-mean-square analysis of electromyographic data was conducted to compare muscle activation between conditions. During stance, barefoot running resulted in greater muscle activity in gastrocnemius medialis and gluteus maximus, and lower muscle activity in tibialis anterior. During swing, barefoot running resulted in increased muscle activity in vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius medialus. These results indicate that, for minimalist shoe users, an acute bout of barefoot running results in significantly different lower-limb muscle activity. Increased activation in the above muscles presents a possible mechanism for injury, which should be considered during exercise prescription.

  20. Effect of vibration on forward split flexibility and pain perception in young male gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, William A; McNeal, Jeni R; Stone, Michael H; Haff, G Gregory; Kinser, Ann M

    2008-12-01

    Serious stretching in many sports involves discomfort and is often an early ceiling on improvements. To continue investigation of the use of vibration to enhance acute range of motion while assessing the influence of vibration and stretching on pressure-to-pain threshold perception. Ten young male gymnasts were assessed for split range of motion. One side split was randomly assigned as the experimental condition, and the other side split was assigned as the control. Both side splits were performed on a vibration device; the experimental condition had the device turned on and the control condition was performed with the device turned off. In addition, the athletes were assessed for pressure-to-pain transition using an algometer on the biceps femoris (stretched muscle) and vastus lateralis (nonstretched muscle) bilaterally. Pre-post difference scores between the vibrated split (most improved) and the nonvibrated split were statistically different (P=.001, 95% confidence interval of the difference 2.3 to 5.8 cm). Following the stretching protocol, the force values for the pressure-to-pain threshold comparing the vibrated and nonvibrated biceps femoris muscle were not statistically different. The nonstretched vastus lateralis muscle also showed no statistical difference in pressure-to-pain threshold between the vibration and nonvibration conditions. This study showed that vibration improved split range of motion over stretching alone, but did not show a difference in pressure-to-pain perception in either the stretched or nonstretched muscles.

  1. Creation of a contusion injury in rabbit skeletal muscle using a drop-mass technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret N. Deane

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study reports our experience in developing a simple, minor injury. After reviewing the literature, a ‘drop-mass’ method was selected where a 201 g, elongated oval-shaped weight was dropped up to 15 times through a 1 m tube onto the left vastus lateralis of New Zealand white rabbits. To determine the extent of injury and degree of healing, biopsies were obtained six days after injury from the healing vastus lateralis of each animal. The tissue was fixed in formal saline, embedded in wax, cut and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E and phosphotungstic acid haematoxylin (PTAH and examined by light microscopy (LM. The ‘optimal’ injury was created after seven drops, where quite severe, mild and moderately severe trauma was caused to muscle in the juxta-bone, mid and sub-dermal regions respectively. In each region, the muscle exhibited features of healing six days after injury. The ‘drop-mass’ technique appears to cause a contusion within a single muscle of at least three degrees of severity. This previously unreported observation is of particular importance to other researchers wishing to investigate contusion injury in other animal models.

  2. Role of Muscle Morphology in Jumping, Sprinting, and Throwing Performance in Participants With Different Power Training Duration Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methenitis, Spyridon K; Zaras, Nikolaos D; Spengos, Konstantinos M; Stasinaki, Angeliki-Nikoletta E; Karampatsos, Giorgos P; Georgiadis, Giorgos V; Terzis, Gerasimos D

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the correlation between muscle morphology and jumping, sprinting, and throwing performance in participants with different power training duration experience. Thirty-six power-trained young men were assigned to 3 groups according to the length of their power training: less experienced (muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) with anthropometry. The vastus lateralis architecture and fiber type composition were evaluated with ultrasonography and muscle biopsies, respectively. When all subjects were considered as 1 group (n = 36), jumping performance was correlated with LBM, fascicle length, and type II fiber CSA; sprinting performance was correlated with estimated thigh muscle CSA alone; and shot throwing was correlated with LBM and type I, IIA fiber CSA. In the least experienced group, the LBM of the lower extremities was the most significant contributor for power performance, whereas in the moderately experienced group, the LBM, architectural properties, and type II fiber percentage CSA were the most significant contributors. For the experienced group, fascicle length and type II fiber percentage CSA were the most significant factors for power performance. These data suggest that jumping performance is linked with muscle morphology, regardless of strength or power training. The vastus lateralis muscle morphology could only partially explain throwing performance, whereas it cannot predict sprinting performance. Power performance in experienced participants rely more on the quality of the muscle tissue rather than the quantity.

  3. Muscle Fiber Conduction Velocity, Muscle Fiber Composition, and Power Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methenitis, Spyridon; Karandreas, Nikolaos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Zaras, Nikolaos; Stasinaki, Angeliki-Nikoletta; Terzis, Gerasimos

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV), fiber type composition, and power performance in participants with different training background. Thirty-eight young males with different training background participated: sedentary (n = 10), endurance runners (n = 9), power trained (n = 10), and strength trained (n = 9). They performed maximal countermovement jumps (CMJ) and maximal isometric leg press for the measurement of the rate of force development (RFD). Resting vastus lateralis MFCV was measured with intramuscular microelectrodes on a different occasion, whereas muscle fiber type and cross-sectional area (CSA) of vastus lateralis were evaluated through muscle biopsies 1wk later. MFCV, CMJ power, RFD, and % CSA of type II and type IIx fibers were higher for the power-trained group (P power participants. Close correlations were found between MFCV and fiber CSA as well as the % CSA of all fiber types as well as with RFD and CMJ power (r = 0.712-0.943, P power performance. Significant models for the prediction of the % CSA of type IIa and type II as well as the CSA of all muscle fibers based upon MFCV, RFD, and CMJ were revealed (P = 0.000). MFCV is closely associated with muscle fiber % CSA. RFD and jumping power are associated with the propagation of the action potentials along the muscle fibers. This link is regulated by the size and the distribution of type II, and especially type IIx muscle fibers.

  4. Pantoea agglomerans infection behaving like a tumor after plant thorn injury: An unusual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Jain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pantoea agglomerans infections in humans are uncommon. Most common infections reported are septic arthritis or synovitis. We report the case of a 25-year-old, healthy male, who presented with indurated swelling over the posterolateral aspect of his right thigh, associated with pain for one month. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed muscle edema with cystic areas in the posterior-most part of the vastus lateralis of the right thigh. The condition was clinically diagnosed as a right-sided benign tumor of the vastus lateralis muscle. However, Pantoea agglomerans was isolated on a culture of the excised muscle tissue. On the basis of the awareness of the common association of Pantoea with penetrating trauma by vegetation, the patient was asked to recollect any prior such injury. He then gave a history of a fall in the field and a plant thorn prick in the thigh four years back, when he was an agricultural worker. We emphasize the importance of Pantoea agglomerans infection of the soft tissues that can have an atypical presentation as a non-suppurative, indurated, muscle cyst in our case. Thorn injuries are usually ignored as trivial incidents, however, Pantoea infections should always be borne in mind when encountering soft tissue lesions, as antibiotic treatment is required for complete resolution of the lesion.

  5. Altered expression of cyclin A 1 in muscle of patients with facioscapulohumeral muscle dystrophy (FSHD-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pakula

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Cyclin A1 regulates cell cycle activity and proliferation in somatic and germ-line cells. Its expression increases in G1/S phase and reaches a maximum in G2 and M phases. Altered cyclin A1 expression might contribute to clinical symptoms in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD. METHODS: Muscle biopsies were taken from the Vastus lateralis muscle for cDNA microarray, RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses to assess RNA and protein expression of cyclin A1 in human muscle cell lines and muscle tissue. Muscle fibers diameter was calculated on cryosections to test for hypertrophy. RESULTS: cDNA microarray data showed specifically elevated cyclin A1 levels in FSHD vs. other muscular disorders such as caveolinopathy, dysferlinopathy, four and a half LIM domains protein 1 deficiency and healthy controls. Data could be confirmed with RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showing up-regulated cyclin A1 levels also at protein level. We found also clear signs of hypertrophy within the Vastus lateralis muscle in FSHD-1 patients. CONCLUSIONS: In most somatic human cell lines, cyclin A1 levels are low. Overexpression of cyclin A1 in FSHD indicates cell cycle dysregulation in FSHD and might contribute to clinical symptoms of this disease.

  6. Alveolar gas exchange and tissue oxygenation during incremental treadmill exercise, and their associations with blood O(2) carrying capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissanen, Antti-Pekka E; Tikkanen, Heikki O; Koponen, Anne S; Aho, Jyrki M; Hägglund, Harriet; Lindholm, Harri; Peltonen, Juha E

    2012-01-01

    The magnitude and timing of oxygenation responses in highly active leg muscle, less active arm muscle, and cerebral tissue, have not been studied with simultaneous alveolar gas exchange measurement during incremental treadmill exercise. Nor is it known, if blood O(2) carrying capacity affects the tissue-specific oxygenation responses. Thus, we investigated alveolar gas exchange and tissue (m. vastus lateralis, m. biceps brachii, cerebral cortex) oxygenation during incremental treadmill exercise until volitional fatigue, and their associations with blood O(2) carrying capacity in 22 healthy men. Alveolar gas exchange was measured, and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to monitor relative concentration changes in oxy- (Δ[O(2)Hb]), deoxy- (Δ[HHb]) and total hemoglobin (Δ[tHb]), and tissue saturation index (TSI). NIRS inflection points (NIP), reflecting changes in tissue-specific oxygenation, were determined and their coincidence with ventilatory thresholds [anaerobic threshold (AT), respiratory compensation point (RC); V-slope method] was examined. Blood O(2) carrying capacity [total hemoglobin mass (tHb-mass)] was determined with the CO-rebreathing method. In all tissues, NIPs coincided with AT, whereas RC was followed by NIPs. High tHb-mass associated with leg muscle deoxygenation at peak exercise (e.g., Δ[HHb] from baseline walking to peak exercise vs. tHb-mass: r = 0.64, p capacity for blood O(2) carrying was associated with a high level of m. vastus lateralis deoxygenation at peak exercise.

  7. Decrease of muscle fiber conduction velocity correlates with strength loss after an endurance run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Gennaro; Dardanello, Davide; Tarperi, Cantor; Rosso, Valeria; Festa, Luca; La Torre, Antonio; Pellegrini, Barbara; Schena, Federico; Rainoldi, Alberto

    2017-02-01

    Monitoring surface electromyographic (EMG) signals can provide useful insights for characterizing muscle fatigue, which is defined as an exercise-induced strength loss. This experiment investigated the muscle fiber conduction velocity (CV) changes induced by an endurance run. The day before and immediately after a half-marathon run (21.097 km) 11 amateur runners performed maximum voluntary contractions (MVCs) of knee extensor muscles. During the MVC, multichannel EMG was recorded from the vastus lateralis and EMG amplitude and CV were calculated. After the run, knee extensors showed a decreased strength (-13  ±  9%, p  =  0.001) together with a reduction in EMG amplitude (-13  ±  10%, p  =  0.003) and in CV (-6  ±  8%, p  =  0.032). Knee extensor strength loss positively correlated with vastus lateralis CV differences (r  =  0.76, p  =  0.006). Thus, the exercises-induced muscle fatigue was associated not only with a decrease in EMG amplitude, but also with a reduction in CV. This finding suggests that muscle fibers with higher CV (i.e. those with greater fiber size) were the most impaired during strength production after an endurance run.

  8. Neuromuscular Coordination Deficit Persists 12 Months after ACL Reconstruction But Can Be Modulated by 6 Weeks of Kettlebell Training: A Case Study in Women’s Elite Soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette K. Zebis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present single-case study was to investigate the effect of 6 weeks’ kettlebell training on the neuromuscular risk profile for ACL injury in a high-risk athlete returning to sport after ACL reconstruction. A female elite soccer player (age 21 years with no previous history of ACL injury went through neuromuscular screening as measured by EMG preactivity of vastus lateralis and semitendinosus during a standardized sidecutting maneuver. Subsequently, the player experienced a noncontact ACL injury. The player was screened again following postreconstruction rehabilitation, then underwent 6-week kettlebell training, and was subsequently screened again at 6-week follow-up. Prior to and after postreconstruction rehabilitation the player demonstrated a neuromuscular profile during sidecutting known to increase the risk for noncontact ACL injury, that is, reduced EMG preactivity for semitendinosus and elevated EMG preactivity for vastus lateralis. Subsequently, the 6-week kettlebell training increased semitendinosus muscle preactivity during sidecutting by 38 percentage points to a level equivalent to a neuromuscular low-risk profile. An ACL rehabilitated female athlete with a high-risk neuromuscular profile changed to low-risk in response to 6 weeks of kettlebell training. Thus, short-term kettlebell exercise with documented high levels of medial hamstring activation was found to transfer into high medial hamstring preactivation during a sidecutting maneuver.

  9. Adaptations during the stance phase of gait for simulated flexion contractures at the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerny, K; Perry, J; Walker, J M

    1994-06-01

    Adaptations in the stance phase of gait to knee flexion contractures simulated by a knee-ankle-foot orthosis were studied in 20 healthy women (mean age: 25 +/- 3.6 years). Stride characteristics, joint postures, floor reactions, and indwelling electromyographic activity of the lower gluteus maximus, vastus lateralis, long head of the biceps femoris, and soleus muscles were measured during walking with the orthosis, with and without contracture simulation. Simulated knee flexion contracture resulted in decreased stride length and velocity and increased forefoot weight bearing and flexion posture in stance. Increases were also seen in magnitude and/or duration of flexion floor reaction torques and gluteus maximus, vastus lateralis, and soleus muscle activity. The addition of a restriction of plantar flexion resulted in a further decrease in velocity and stride length and a small increase in hip extension posture. These results show that knee flexion contractures, simulated in healthy subjects, cause a decrease in gait function with a simultaneous increase in muscular demand.

  10. Rising from a chair. Influence of age and chair design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, J; Woodward, C; Ucovich, R L; Perry, J; Walker, J M

    1985-01-01

    We studied the effect of age on the act of rising from a standard armchair in a younger (means = 24 years) and an older (means = 75 years) group of healthy adult women. Rising from a standard armchair and an armchair specially designed for comfort in sitting of the elderly was studied in the older group to determine the influence of the special chair. We used electrogoniometry, EMG, and videotape analysis to record the activity for both groups. The older group placed their feet farther back and showed greater vastus lateralis muscle activity than did the younger group to rise from the standard chair. These results suggest that rising from the standard chair was more difficult for the older than for the younger group. In the special chair, the older subjects showed even more vastus lateralis muscle activity, greater knee flexion, and greater trunk forward lean. Rising from the special chair, therefore, appeared to be more difficult than rising from a standard chair; this finding suggests that both comfort and function must be considered in chair selection for certain groups.

  11. Examination of Subcutaneous Tissue Thickness in the Thigh Site for Intramuscular Injection in Obese Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaybak, Ayten; İsmailoğlu, Elif Günay; İsmailoğlu, Eren

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the thickness of subcutaneous (SC) tissue in the dorsogluteal and thigh sites in obese adults and its suitability for intramuscular injection using a standard-length needle. The sample for this prospective study consisted of 54 obese adults who presented to the ultrasound unit of the radiology clinic of a university hospital in the province of İzmir, Turkey, between June 2012 and August 2013. The study received Institutional Review Board approval, and informed written consent was obtained from all participants. The thickness of the SC tissue in the dorsogluteal and thigh sites was measured by sonography. The sonographic measurements were performed by a radiology specialist. The mean thicknesses of the SC tissue were 61.70 ± 15.73 mm in the dorsogluteal site, 27.05 ± 8.52 mm in the rectus femoris site, and 23.23 ± 8.44 mm in vastus lateralis site. The SC tissue was thicker in the dorsogluteal than the thigh site (P njections to the thigh site would be effective in reaching the muscle in the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis sites in all men and in 77.8% of women, although it is not usually adequate for gluteal injection. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  12. Intramuscular fiber conduction velocity, isometric force and explosive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methenitis, Spyridon; Terzis, Gerasimos; Zaras, Nikolaos; Stasinaki, Angeliki-Nikoletta; Karandreas, Nikolaos

    2016-06-01

    Conduction of electrical signals along the surface of muscle fibers is acknowledged as an essential neuromuscular component which is linked with muscle force production. However, it remains unclear whether muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) is also linked with explosive performance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between vastus lateralis MFCV and countermovement jumping performance, the rate of force development and maximum isometric force. Fifteen moderately-trained young females performed countermovement jumps as well as an isometric leg press test in order to determine the rate of force development and maximum isometric force. Vastus lateralis MFCV was measured with intramuscular microelectrodes at rest on a different occasion. Maximum MFCV was significantly correlated with maximum isometric force (r = 0.66, p rate of force development at 100 ms, 150 ms, 200 ms, and 250 ms (r = 0.85, r = 0.89, r = 0.91, r = 0.92, respectively, p rate of force development than with maximum isometric leg press force. Lower, but significant correlations were found between mean MFCV and countermovement jump power (r = 0.65, p rate of force development than with isometric force, perhaps because conduction velocity is higher in the larger and fastest muscle fibers which are recognized to contribute to explosive actions.

  13. The hypobaric hypoxia affects the oxidant balance in skeletal muscle regeneration of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Mancinelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether a 14-day trekking expeditions, in high altitude hypoxic environment, triggers redox disturbance at the level of satellite cells (adult stem cells in young women.Methods: We collected muscle biopsies from Vastus Lateralis muscle for both single fiber analysis and satellite cells isolation. The samples collected before (PRE-Hypoxia and after (POST-Hypoxia the trekking in the Himalayas were compared. Satellite cells were investigated for oxidative stress (oxidant production, antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid damage, mitochondrial potential variation, gene profile of HIF and myogenic transcription factors (Pax7, MyoD, myogenin and miRNA expression (miR-1, miR-133, miR-206.Results: The nuclear domain analysis showed a significant fusion and consequent reduction of the Pax7+ satellite cells in the single mature fibers. The POST-Hypoxia myoblasts obtained by two out of six volunteers showed high superoxide anion production and lipid peroxidation along with impaired dismutase and catalase and mitochondrial potential. The transcription profile and miRNA expression were different for oxidized and non oxidized cells.Conclusions: The present study supports the phenomenon of hypobaric-hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and its role in the impairment of the regenerative capacity of satellite cells derived from the Vastus Lateralis muscle of young adult female subjects.

  14. Tensiomygraphic Measurement of Atrophy Related Processes During Bed Rest and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunic, B. ostjan; Degens, Hans; Rittweger, Jorn; Narici, Marcco; Pisot, Venceslav; Mekjavic, Igor B.; Pisot, Rado

    2013-02-01

    Tensiomyographic (TMG) parameters were recently proposed for a non-invasive estimation of MHC distribution in human vastus lateralis muscle. However, TMG potential is even higher, offers additional insight into the skeletal muscle physiology, especially in the field of atrophy and hypertrophy. The purpose of this study is in developing time dynamics of TMG-measured contraction time (Tc) and maximal response amplitude (Dm), together with muscle belly thickness, measure thoroughly during 35-day bed rest and followed in 30-day recovery (N = 10 males; age 24.3 ± 2.6 years). Measurements were performed in two postural muscles (vastus medialis and lateralis) and one non-postural muscle (biceps femoris). During bed rest period we found different dynamics of muscle thickness decrease and Dm increase. Tc was unchanged in postural muscles, but in non-postural muscle increased significantly and stayed as such even at the end of recovery. We could conclude that TMG related parameters are more sensitive in measuring muscle atrophic and hypertrophic processes than biomedical imaging technique. However, a mechanism that regulates Dm still needs to be identified.

  15. Neuromuscular Coordination Deficit Persists 12 Months after ACL Reconstruction But Can Be Modulated by 6 Weeks of Kettlebell Training: A Case Study in Women's Elite Soccer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Christoffer H.; Bencke, Jesper; Ørntoft, Christina; Linnebjerg, Connie; Hölmich, Per

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present single-case study was to investigate the effect of 6 weeks' kettlebell training on the neuromuscular risk profile for ACL injury in a high-risk athlete returning to sport after ACL reconstruction. A female elite soccer player (age 21 years) with no previous history of ACL injury went through neuromuscular screening as measured by EMG preactivity of vastus lateralis and semitendinosus during a standardized sidecutting maneuver. Subsequently, the player experienced a noncontact ACL injury. The player was screened again following postreconstruction rehabilitation, then underwent 6-week kettlebell training, and was subsequently screened again at 6-week follow-up. Prior to and after postreconstruction rehabilitation the player demonstrated a neuromuscular profile during sidecutting known to increase the risk for noncontact ACL injury, that is, reduced EMG preactivity for semitendinosus and elevated EMG preactivity for vastus lateralis. Subsequently, the 6-week kettlebell training increased semitendinosus muscle preactivity during sidecutting by 38 percentage points to a level equivalent to a neuromuscular low-risk profile. An ACL rehabilitated female athlete with a high-risk neuromuscular profile changed to low-risk in response to 6 weeks of kettlebell training. Thus, short-term kettlebell exercise with documented high levels of medial hamstring activation was found to transfer into high medial hamstring preactivation during a sidecutting maneuver. PMID:28197354

  16. Pantoea agglomerans infection behaving like a tumor after plant thorn injury: an unusual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sarika; Bohra, Ishwar; Mahajan, Rakesh; Jain, Sonal; Chugh, T D

    2012-01-01

    Pantoea agglomerans infections in humans are uncommon. Most common infections reported are septic arthritis or synovitis. We report the case of a 25-year-old, healthy male, who presented with indurated swelling over the posterolateral aspect of his right thigh, associated with pain for one month. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed muscle edema with cystic areas in the posterior-most part of the vastus lateralis of the right thigh. The condition was clinically diagnosed as a right-sided benign tumor of the vastus lateralis muscle. However, Pantoea agglomerans was isolated on a culture of the excised muscle tissue. On the basis of the awareness of the common association of Pantoea with penetrating trauma by vegetation, the patient was asked to recollect any prior such injury. He then gave a history of a fall in the field and a plant thorn prick in the thigh four years back, when he was an agricultural worker. We emphasize the importance of Pantoea agglomerans infection of the soft tissues that can have an atypical presentation as a non-suppurative, indurated, muscle cyst in our case. Thorn injuries are usually ignored as trivial incidents, however, Pantoea infections should always be borne in mind when encountering soft tissue lesions, as antibiotic treatment is required for complete resolution of the lesion.

  17. Effects of menopause and high-intensity training on insulin sensitivity and muscle metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Camilla Maria; Egelund, Jon; Nyberg, Michael Permin

    2017-01-01

    was observed in body composition. Training increased lean body mass (estimate [95% confidence interval] 0.5 [0.2-0.9] kg, P muscle mass (0.2 [-0.1 to 0.6] kg, P decreased fat percentage (1.0 [0.5-1.5]%, P ...MR in vastus lateralis muscle than the premenopausal women (-14.0 [-26.0 to -2.0] μmol/min/kg, P = 0.02), and tended to have lower eMR in femoral muscles (-11.2 [-22.7 to 0.4] μmol/min/kg, P = 0.06), and also GDR (-59.3 [-124.8 to 6.3] mg/min, P = 0.08), but increased similarly in both groups with training (e......MR vastus lateralis muscle: 27.8 [19.6-36.0] μmol/min/kg, P muscle: 20.0 [13.1-26.7] μmol/min/kg, P increases in insulin sensitivity included increased expression...

  18. High-intensity knee extensor training restores skeletal muscle function in COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brønstad, Eivind; Rognmo, Oivind; Tjonna, Arnt Erik; Dedichen, Hans Henrich; Kirkeby-Garstad, Idar; Håberg, Asta K; Bjørk Ingul, Charlotte; Wisløff, Ulrik; Steinshamn, Sigurd

    2012-11-01

    Improving reduced skeletal muscle function is important for optimising exercise tolerance and quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. By applying high-intensity training to a small muscle group, we hypothesised a normalisation of muscle function. Seven patients with COPD performed 6 weeks (3 days·week(-1)) of high-intensity interval aerobic knee extensor exercise training. Five age-matched healthy individuals served as a reference group. Muscle oxygen uptake and mitochondrial respiration of the vastus lateralis muscle were measured before and after the 6-week training programme. Initial peak work and maximal mitochondrial respiration were reduced in COPD patients and improved significantly after the training programme. Peak power and maximal mitochondrial respiration in vastus lateralis muscle increased to the level of the control subjects and were mainly mediated via improved complex I respiration. Furthermore, when normalised to citrate synthase activity, no difference in maximal respiration was found either after the intervention or compared to controls, suggesting normal functioning mitochondrial complexes. The present study shows that high-intensity training of a restricted muscle group is highly effective in restoring skeletal muscle function in COPD patients.

  19. Muscle activation and knee biomechanics during squatting and lunging after lower extremity fatigue in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longpré, Heather S; Acker, Stacey M; Maly, Monica R

    2015-02-01

    Muscle activations and knee joint loads were compared during squatting and lunging before and after lower extremity neuromuscular fatigue. Electromyographic activations of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis and biceps femoris, and the external knee adduction and flexion moments were collected on 25 healthy women (mean age 23.5 years, BMI of 23.7 kg/m(2)) during squatting and lunging. Participants were fatigued through sets of 50 isotonic knee extensions and flexions, with resistance set at 50% of the peak torque achieved during a maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Fatigue was defined as a decrease in peak isometric knee extension or flexion torque ≥25% from baseline. Co-activation indices were calculated between rectus femoris and biceps femoris; and between vastus lateralis and biceps femoris. Fatigue decreased peak isometric extension and flexion torques (pknee adduction and flexion moments during lunging (p<0.05). Quadriceps activations were greater during lunging than squatting (p<0.05). Thus, fatigue altered the recruitment strategy of the quadriceps during squatting and lunging. Lunging challenges quadriceps activation more than squatting in healthy, young women.

  20. The anconeus, an active lateral ligament of the elbow: new anatomical arguments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinier, François; Laffosse, Jean-Michel; Bouali, Ourdia; Tricoire, Jean-Louis; Moscovici, Jacques

    2011-09-01

    As there are a few detailed anatomical studies of the active function of anconeus muscle in stabilizing the elbow, we aimed to look for anatomical features confirming its role as an active stabilizer of the humero-ulnar joint. Thirty fresh unembalmed elbows from 15 cadavers were dissected. We examined the anatomy, insertions, relationships and orientation of the muscle fibres of the anconeus. The anconeus lies in a separate compartment from the other forearm muscles, but in continuity with the extensor (triceps) compartment of the arm. In all the cases, at its proximal extremity we observed continuity of muscle and tendon with the vastus lateralis of the triceps brachii. The muscle fibres run downward and backward, parallel to the fibres of vastus lateralis of the triceps, when the elbow is in extension. Its deep aspect adheres closely to the lateral joint capsule of the humero-ulnar joint. The new anatomical characteristics of the anconeus revealed in this study make this muscle a digastric head of triceps brachii that coapts the ulna to the humerus and so reduces varus instability. The close relationships between triceps brachii and the anconeus on one hand and between the joint capsule and the anconeus on the other make the latter muscle an active lateral stabilizer of the elbow.